WorldWideScience

Sample records for chocolate liquor

  1. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor... ingredients. The following safe and suitable ingredients may be used: (1) Cacao fat and cocoas (breakfast cocoa, cocoa, or lowfat cocoa); (2) Alkali ingredients. Ammonium, potassium, or sodium bicarbonate...

  2. Impact of chocolate liquor on vascular lesions in apoE-knockout mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yazdekhasti, Narges; Brandsch, Corinna; Hirche, Frank; Kühn, Julia; Schloesser, Anke; Esatbeyoglu, Tuba; Huebbe, Patricia; Wolffram, Siegfried; Rimbach, Gerald; Stangl, Gabriele I

    2017-10-15

    Cocoa polyphenols are thought to reduce the risk of cardiovascular diseases. Thus, cocoa-containing foods may have significant health benefits. Here, we studied the impact of chocolate liquor on vascular lesion development and plaque composition in a mouse model of atherosclerosis. Apolipoprotein E (apoE)-knockout mice were assigned to two groups and fed a Western diet that contained 250 g/kg of either chocolate liquor or a polyphenol-free isoenergetic control paste for 16 weeks. In addition to fat, protein, and fibers, the chocolate liquor contained 2 g/kg of polyphenols. Compared with the control group, mice fed the chocolate liquor had larger plaque areas in the descending aorta and aortic root, which were attributed to a higher mass of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs) and collagen. Vascular lipid deposits and calcification areas did not differ between the two groups. The aortic tissue level of interleukin-6 (IL-6) mRNA was 5-fold higher in the mice fed chocolate liquor than in the control mice. Chocolate-fed mice exhibited an increased hepatic saturated to polyunsaturated fatty acid ratio than the controls. Although the chocolate liquor contained 14 µg/kg of vitamin D 2 , the chocolate liquor-fed mice did not have measurable 25-hydroxyvitamin D 2 in the serum. These mice even showed a 25% reduction in the level of 25-hydroxyvitamin D 3 compared with the control mice. Overall, present data may contribute to our understanding how chocolate constituents can impact vascular lesion development. © 2017 The Author(s). Published by Portland Press Limited on behalf of the Biochemical Society.

  3. Flavanol and procyanidin content (by degree of polymerization 1-10) of chocolate, cocoa liquors, cocoa powders, and cocoa extracts: first action 2012.24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rebecca J; Leonczak, Jadwiga; Li, Julia; Johnson, J Christopher; Collins, Tom; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Schmitz, Harold H

    2013-01-01

    An international collaborative study was conducted on an HPLC method with fluorescent detection for the determination of flavanols and procyanidins in chocolate and cocoa-containing materials. The sum of the oligomeric fractions with degree of polymerization 1-10 was the determined content value. Sample materials included dark and milk chocolates, cocoa powder, cocoa liquors, and cocoa extracts. The content ranged from approximately 2 to 500 mg/g (defatted basis). Thirteen laboratories--representing commercial, industrial, and academic institutions in six countries--participated in this interlaboratory study. Fourteen samples were sent as blind duplicates to the collaborators. Results for 12 laboratories yielded repeatability RSD (RSDr) values below 10% for all materials analyzed, ranging from 4.17 to 9.61%. Reproducibility RSD (RSDR) values ranged from 5.03 to 12.9% for samples containing 8.07 to 484.7 mg/g material analyzed. In one sample containing a low content of flavanols and procyanidins (approximately 2 mg/g), the RSDR was 17.68%.

  4. Determination of flavanol and procyanidin (by degree of polymerization 1-10) content of chocolate, cocoa liquors, powder(s), and cocoa flavanol extracts by normal phase high-performance liquid chromatography: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Robbins, Rebecca J; Leonczak, Jadwiga; Li, Julia; Johnson, J Christopher; Collins, Tom; Kwik-Uribe, Catherine; Schmitz, Harold H

    2012-01-01

    An international collaborative study was conducted on an HPLC method with fluorescent detection (FLD) for the determination of flavanols and procyanidins in materials containing chocolate and cocoa. The sum of the oligomeric fractions with degree of polymerization 1-10 was the determined content value. Sample materials included dark and milk chocolates, cocoa powder, cocoa liquors, and cocoa extracts. The content ranged from approximately 2 to 500 mg/g (defatted basis). Thirteen laboratories representing commercial, industrial, and academic institutions in six countries participated in the study. Fourteen samples were sent as blind duplicates to the collaborators. Results from 12 laboratories yielded repeatability relative standard deviation (RSDr) values that were below 10% for all materials analyzed, ranging from 4.17 to 9.61%. The reproducibility relative standard deviation (RSD(R)) values ranged from 5.03 to 12.9% for samples containing 8.07 to 484.7 mg/g. In one sample containing a low content of flavanols and procyanidins (approximately 2 mg/g), the RSD(R) was 17.68%. Based on these results, the method is recommended for Official First Action for the determination of flavanols and procyanidins in chocolate, cocoa liquors, powder(s), and cocoa extracts.

  5. Influence of Starter Cultures, Fermentation Techniques, and Acetic Acid on the Volatile Aroma and Sensory Profile of Cocoa Liquor and Chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael

    The majority of the World’s cocoa production originates from the West African countries of Ivory Coast, Ghana and Nigeria. In these countries, cocoa is a crop of great socio-economic importance as it is often the main source of income for families in the rural cocoa growing regions. Being...... the principal raw material for chocolate production, good quality cocoa beans are in high demand on the World market as a prerequisite for the production of high quality chocolates and other confectionary products. To produce good quality cocoa suitable for chocolate production, it is essential that the beans...... undergo fermentation and drying processes, during which biochemical reactions lead to the formation of cocoa specific flavour precursors. During subsequent roasting, these precursors are transformed into a wide array of aroma compounds as a result of complex Maillard and Strecker degradation reactions...

  6. Making chocolate from beans: what’s involved?

    OpenAIRE

    Sundara, Ramana; Manez, Angel; Coutel, Fabien

    2015-01-01

    Industry differentiates between cocoa processing and chocolate manufacturing. Cocoa processing covers the activity of converting the beans into nib, liquor, butter, cake and powder. Chocolate manufacturing covers the blending and refining of cocoa liquor, cocoa butter and various optional ingredients, such as milk and sugar.

  7. High cocoa polyphenol rich chocolate may reduce the burden of the symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome

    OpenAIRE

    Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Beckett, Stephen; Rigby, Alan S; Mellor, Duane D; Atkin, Stephen L

    2010-01-01

    Abstract Background Chocolate is rich in flavonoids that have been shown to be of benefit in disparate conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The effect of polyphenol rich chocolate in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has not been studied previously. Methods We conducted a double blinded, randomised, clinical pilot crossover study comparing high cocoa liquor/polyphenol rich chocolate (HCL/PR) in comparison to simulated iso-calorific chocolate (cocoa liquor free/lo...

  8. Chocolate Maths!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Margaret; Underwood, Val

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a varied day of stimulating mathematics with key stage 2 learners--all revolving around chocolate. They used a variety of stimuli organized around the chocolate theme. A whole day was spent on using and applying mathematics, and the exercise proved to be enjoyable for both staff and pupils. The children…

  9. Chocolate Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Caleb; Khovanova, Tanya; Park, Robin; Song, Angela

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a game played on a rectangular $m \\times n$ gridded chocolate bar. Each move, a player breaks the bar along a grid line. Each move after that consists of taking any piece of chocolate and breaking it again along existing grid lines, until just $mn$ individual squares remain. This paper enumerates the number of ways to break an $m \\times n$ bar, which we call chocolate numbers, and introduces four new sequences related to these numbers. Using various techniques, we p...

  10. Chocolate rheology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Vidal Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheology is the science that studies the deformation and flow of solids and fluids under the influence of mechanical forces. The rheological measures of a product in the stage of manufacture can be useful in quality control. The microstructure of a product can also be correlated with its rheological behavior allowing for the development of new materials. Rheometry permits attainment of rheological equations applied in process engineering, particularly unit operations that involve heat and mass transfer. Consumer demands make it possible to obtain a product that complies with these requirements. Chocolate industries work with products in a liquid phase in conching, tempering, and also during pumping operations. A good design of each type of equipment is essential for optimum processing. In the design of every process, it is necessary to know the physical characteristics of the product. The rheological behavior of chocolate can help to know the characteristics of application of the product and its consumers. Foods are generally in a metastable state. Their texture depends on the structural changes that occur during processing. Molten chocolate is a suspension with properties that are strongly affected by particle characteristics including not only the dispersed particles but also the fat crystals formed during chocolate cooling and solidification. Chocolate rheology is extensively studied, and it is known that chocolate texture and stability is strongly affected by the presence of specific crystals

  11. Chocolate active

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Anon.

    1987-01-01

    There is a table of current radioactivity values for various foods and mushrooms. A special accent is on milk and chocolate. Chocolate sorts with more powdered milk are more active. Finally there is a chapter on radionucleides contained in the Chernobyl fallout, other than cesium 137, cesium 134 and strontium 90. The amounts of ruthenium 106, antimony 125, cerium 144, silver 110 m, cesium 134, strontium 90 and plutonium 239 relative to cesium 137 in soil samples in autumn 1987 are given. Special emphasis is on ruthenium 'hot particles' and on plutonium. (qui)

  12. Conching Chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary L.; Chaikin, Paul; Blanco, Elena; Poon, Wilson

    2014-03-01

    ``Conching'' is an intermediate step in the processing of chocolate where hydrophilic solid particles, such as sugar and milk proteins, are aggressively mixed into a fatty, fluid phase containing emulsifier, e.g. molten cocoa butter with lecithin. During conching, the system evolves from a fine powder to a coarser granulated material and ultimately into a thick cohesive paste. Our goal is to better understand the evolution of chocolate during conching and the transition from an effectively dry to a wet or immersed granular material. In particular, we focus on how mixing times change in response to variations in solid particle volume fractions and emulsifier concentration. As a function of volume fraction, mixing times are well-described by a conventional form that diverges at a finite volume fraction. Furthermore, mixing times can be collapsed onto a universal curve as a function of mixing speed and emulsifier concentration.

  13. Mycobiota of cocoa: From farm to chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Copetti, Marina V.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Frisvad, Jens Christian

    2011-01-01

    , liquor, butter, cake and powder) and (iii) the final chocolate product (dark, milk, white and powdered) collected from retail outlets. Direct plating or dilution plating on Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar were used for cocoa beans and processed product analyses, respectively. Fungi were isolated...... was found at the drying and storage stages. The industrial processing reduced the fungal contamination in all fractions and no fungi were found in the final chocolate products. The knowledge of which fungi are dominant at each processing stage of cocoa provides important data about their ecology......The present work was carried out to study the mycobiota of cocoa beans from farm to chocolate. Four hundred and ninety-four samples were analyzed at various stages of cocoa processing: (i) primary stage at the farm (fermentation, drying, and storage), (ii) secondary stage at processing (testa, nibs...

  14. Chocolate: food for moods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wong, S Y; Lua, P L

    2011-08-01

    Chocolate is a popular food and its consumption has long been associated with enjoyment and pleasure. The effect of chocolate on mood too has long been recognised. Chocolate is thought to have interactions with neurotransmitters which contribute to mood modulation and appetite regulation. However, the evidence in chocolate and mood studies remains highly controversial. As more is known about the influence of chocolate on mood, the reasons for these effects appear increasingly complex and inter-related. We reviewed chocolate's properties and the principal hypotheses addressing its mood altering propensities. The relationship between chocolate and mood are highly complex, combining psychopharmacological components, nutritional and sensory characteristics of the food. Individual and situational differences on chocolate consumption may also exert influence on mood and the mixed results in previous research indicate that the direction of the association remains unclear. The association between chocolate consumption and emotions warrants further multi-prong investigations to substantiate chocolate's mood alterating propensity.

  15. Toxic waste liquor disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Burton, W.R.

    1985-01-01

    Toxic waste liquors, especially radio active liquors, are disposed in a sub-zone by feeding down a bore hole a first liquid, then a buffer liquid (e.g. water), then the toxic liquors. Pressure variations are applied to the sub-zone to mix the first liquid and liquors to form gels or solids which inhibit further mixing and form a barrier between the sub-zone and the natural waters in the environment of the sub-zone. In another example the location of the sub-zone is selected so that the environement reacts with the liquors to produce a barrier around the zone. Blind bore holes are used to monitor the sub-zone profile. Materials may be added to the liquor to enhance barrier formation. (author)

  16. Chocolate: food or drug?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bruinsma, K; Taren, D L

    1999-10-01

    Although addictive behavior is generally associated with drug and alcohol abuse or compulsive sexual activity, chocolate may evoke similar psychopharmacologic and behavioral reactions in susceptible persons. A review of the literature on chocolate cravings indicates that the hedonic appeal of chocolate (fat, sugar, texture, and aroma) is likely to be a predominant factor in such cravings. Other characteristics of chocolate, however, may be equally as important contributors to the phenomena of chocolate cravings. Chocolate may be used by some as a form of self-medication for dietary deficiencies (eg, magnesium) or to balance low levels of neurotransmitters involved in the regulation of mood, food intake, and compulsive behaviors (eg, serotonin and dopamine). Chocolate cravings are often episodic and fluctuate with hormonal changes just before and during the menses, which suggests a hormonal link and confirms the assumed gender-specific nature of chocolate cravings. Chocolate contains several biologically active constituents (methylxanthines, biogenic amines, and cannabinoid-like fatty acids), all of which potentially cause abnormal behaviors and psychological sensations that parallel those of other addictive substances. Most likely, a combination of chocolate's sensory characteristics, nutrient composition, and psychoactive ingredients, compounded with monthly hormonal fluctuations and mood swings among women, will ultimately form the model of chocolate cravings. Dietetics professionals must be aware that chocolate cravings are real. The psychopharmacologic and chemosensory effects of chocolate must be considered when formulating recommendations for overall healthful eating and for treatment of nutritionally related health issues.

  17. Shocking chocolate into shape

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ornes, Stephen

    2016-11-01

    Wouldn't you love chocolate to have less fat but all the taste? Stephen Ornes discovers how the study of electrorheological fluids has led one physicist to a develop a new way to trim the fat from chocolate

  18. Spent sulfite liquor developments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Black, H H

    1958-01-01

    A review of methods of utilizing spent sulfite liquor, including evaporation and burning, fermentation to produce yeast or alcohol, production of vanillin and lignosulfonates, and use as a roadbinder.

  19. Estudo do liquor de cupuaçu Study of cupuassu liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelly de Oliveira Cohen

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available O cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum, que é um fruto amazônico, vem conquistando a cada ano mais espaço no mercado nacional e internacional com a comercialização de sua polpa. Suas sementes, consideradas como subproduto, vem despertando interesse não só no mundo científico como pelas indústrias. Sabe-se que, a partir das sementes, pode-se obter produtos análogos aos oriundos das sementes de cacau, seguindo as mesmas etapas de processamento. Dentre esses produtos tem-se o liquor de cupuaçu, semelhante ao liquor de cacau que é um dos ingredientes da formulação do chocolate. Este trabalho teve como objetivo o estudo da obtenção e caracterização física, química e físico-química do liquor de cupuaçu. Obteve-se três amostras de liquor de cupuaçu, cada qual partindo de lotes diferentes de fermentação. Foram avaliados a composição centesimal e o comportamento reológico. O liquor de cupuaçu apresentou alto teor de lipídios (63,93 a 66,51% e alto valor calórico (677,35 a 691,17kcal/100g. O teor de proteínas variou de 8,95 a 10,31%. A viscosidade plástica de Casson diminuiu com o aumento de temperatura. A distribuição do tamanho das partículas influenciou nas diferenças de viscosidades entre as amostras, havendo maior redução de viscosidade plástica com o aumento da temperatura nas amostras que apresentaram maior diâmetro de partículas. A gordura de cupuaçu apresentou comportamento newtoniano à 40ºC.Cupuassu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum is an amazon fruit, that each year is conquering more space in national and international market with the commercialization of its pulp. Its seeds, considered as subproducts, are arousing interest not only in the scientific world but also in the industry. It's known that from those seeds, it can be obtained analogous products as those cocoa seeds, following the same stages of processing. Among those products there is the cupuassu liquor, similar to cocoa liquor that is one

  20. Plasma antioxidants from chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, M.; Bugianesi, R.; Maiani, G.; Valtuena, S.; De Santis, S.; Crozier, A.

    2003-01-01

    There is some speculation that dietary flavonoids from chocolate, in particular (-)epicatechin, may promote cardiovascular health as a result of direct antioxidant effects or through antithrombotic mechanisms. Here we show that consumption of plain, dark chocolate results in an increase in both the total antioxidant capacity and the (-)epicatechin content of blood plasma, but that these effects are markedly reduced when the chocolate is consumed with milk or if milk is incorporated as milk ch...

  1. Removal of sulfite liquor from digesters with partially diluted liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leshchenko, I G; Sykol, V P

    1957-01-01

    The yield of reducing sugars was raised from 189 to 224 kg/ton of pulp by displacing the cooking liquor with diluted liquor. As the pressure during blow-off dropped to 3.5-3.0 atmosphere, weak sulfite liquor was added at the rate 120 cu m/hr. After 5-10 minutes the liquor was pumped from the digester to the ethanol plant.

  2. Mycobiota of cocoa: from farm to chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Frisvad, Jens C; Pereira, José L; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2011-12-01

    The present work was carried out to study the mycobiota of cocoa beans from farm to chocolate. Four hundred and ninety-four samples were analyzed at various stages of cocoa processing: (i) primary stage at the farm (fermentation, drying, and storage), (ii) secondary stage at processing (testa, nibs, liquor, butter, cake and powder) and (iii) the final chocolate product (dark, milk, white and powdered) collected from retail outlets. Direct plating or dilution plating on Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar were used for cocoa beans and processed product analyses, respectively. Fungi were isolated and identified using different keys of identification. The largest numbers and diversity of fungi were observed in the samples collected at the farm, especially during drying and storage. The species with the highest occurrence among samples were: Absidia corymbifera, Aspergillus sp. nov., A. flavus, Penicillium paneum and yeasts. A total of 1132 potentially toxigenic fungi were isolated from the following species or species groups: A. flavus, Aspergillus parasiticus, Aspergillus nomius, Aspergillus niger group, Aspergillus carbonarius and Aspergillus ochraceus group. The highest percentage of toxigenic fungi was found at the drying and storage stages. The industrial processing reduced the fungal contamination in all fractions and no fungi were found in the final chocolate products. The knowledge of which fungi are dominant at each processing stage of cocoa provides important data about their ecology. This understanding leads to a reduction in fungal spoilage and mycotoxin production in this product. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. Better chocolate through genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobroma cacao, the cacao or chocolate tree, is a tropical understory tree whose seeds are used to make chocolate. And like any important crop, cacao is the subject of much research. On September 15, 2010, scientists publicly released a preliminary sequence of the cacao genome--which contains all o...

  4. High cocoa polyphenol rich chocolate may reduce the burden of the symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Beckett, Stephen; Rigby, Alan S; Mellor, Duane D; Atkin, Stephen L

    2010-11-22

    Chocolate is rich in flavonoids that have been shown to be of benefit in disparate conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The effect of polyphenol rich chocolate in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS) has not been studied previously. We conducted a double blinded, randomised, clinical pilot crossover study comparing high cocoa liquor/polyphenol rich chocolate (HCL/PR) in comparison to simulated iso-calorific chocolate (cocoa liquor free/low polyphenols(CLF/LP)) on fatigue and residual function in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome. Subjects with CFS having severe fatigue of at least 10 out of 11 on the Chalder Fatigue Scale were enrolled. Subjects had either 8 weeks of intervention in the form of HCL/PR or CLF/LP, with a 2 week wash out period followed by 8 weeks of intervention with the other chocolate. Ten subjects were enrolled in the study. The Chalder Fatigue Scale score improved significantly after 8 weeks of the HCL/PR chocolate arm [median (range) Exact Sig. (2-tailed)] [33 (25 - 38) vs. 21.5 (6 - 35) 0.01], but that deteriorated significantly when subjects were given simulated iso-calorific chocolate (CLF/CP) [ 28.5 (17 - 20) vs. 34.5 (13-26) 0.03]. The residual function, as assessed by the London Handicap scale, also improved significantly after the HCL/PR arm [0.49 (0.33 - 0.62) vs. 0.64 (0.44 - 0.83) 0.01] and deteriorated after iso-calorific chocolate [00.44 (0.43 - 0.68) vs. 0.36 (0.33 - 0.62)0.03]. Likewise the Hospital Anxiety and Depression score also improved after the HCL/PR arm, but deteriorated after CLF/CP. Mean weight remained unchanged throughout the trial. This study suggests that HCL/PR chocolate may improve symptoms in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome.

  5. PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Kusumaningrum*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME, followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF method. A total of 28 aroma active compounds in the cocoa liquors were identified, where in 21, 19, 22 and 18 compounds were detected in East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and Ghana liquors, respectively. The profiles of these three liquors were not only different from one another but were also different from the reference. East Java liquor had a specific aroma of strong chocolate, enriched with creamy, caramel and coffee bean aroma, whileBali liquor was dominated by creamy, caramel and sweet, and South Sulawesi liquor was specified by its sweet green aroma. The aroma sensory characteristic was evaluated by descriptive test, presenting the aroma of nutty, acid, caramel, earthy and chocolate, while the taste sensory attributes included astringency, bitterness and acidity. The sensory profile analysis was carried out by applying a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA method. Accompired with preference and ranking tests were also conducted. Among the three cocoa liquors, the sensory profile of South Sulawesi was the most similar to that of Ghanaian cocoa liquor. However, the cocoa liquor from Bali and East Java cocoa were more preferred comparing to the liquor from South Sulawesi.

  6. Dark chocolate exacerbates acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongraviopap, Saivaree; Asawanonda, Pravit

    2016-05-01

    The effects of chocolate on acne exacerbations have recently been reevaluated. For so many years, it was thought that it had no role in worsening acne. To investigate whether 99% dark chocolate, when consumed in regular daily amounts, would cause acne to worsen in acne-prone male subjects, twenty-five acne prone male subjects were asked to consume 25 g of 99% dark chocolate daily for 4 weeks. Assessments which included Leeds revised acne scores as well as lesion counts took place weekly. Food frequency questionnaire was used, and daily activities were recorded. Statistically significant changes of acne scores and numbers of comedones and inflammatory papules were detected as early as 2 weeks into the study. At 4 weeks, the changes remained statistically significant compared to baseline. Dark chocolate when consumed in normal amounts for 4 weeks can exacerbate acne in male subjects with acne-prone skin. © 2015 The International Society of Dermatology.

  7. Procyanidin and catechin contents and antioxidant capacity of cocoa and chocolate products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gu, Liwei; House, Suzanne E; Wu, Xianli; Ou, Boxin; Prior, Ronald L

    2006-05-31

    Cocoa and chocolate products from major brands were analyzed blind for total antioxidant capacity (AOC) (lipophilic and hydrophilic ORAC(FL)), catechins, and procyanidins (monomer through polymers). Accuracy of analyses was ascertained by comparing analyses on a NIST standard reference chocolate with NIST certified values. Procyanidin (PC) content was related to the nonfat cocoa solid (NFCS) content. The natural cocoa powders (average 87% of NFCS) contained the highest levels of AOC (826 +/- 103 micromol of TE/g) and PCs (40.8 +/- 8.3 mg/g). Alkalized cocoa (Dutched powders, average 80% NFCS) contained lower AOC (402 +/- 6 micromol of TE /g) and PCs (8.9 +/- 2.7 mg/g). Unsweetened chocolates or chocolate liquor (50% NFCS) contained 496 +/- 40 micromol of TE /g of AOC and 22.3 +/- 2.9 mg/g of PCs. Milk chocolates, which contain the least amount of NFCS (7.1%), had the lowest concentrations of AOC (80 +/- 10 micromol of TE /g) and PCs (2.7 +/- 0.5 mg/g). One serving of cocoa (5 g) or chocolate (15 or 40 g, depending upon the type of chocolate) provides 2000-9100 micromol of TE of AOC and 45-517 mg of PCs, amounts that exceed the amount in a serving of the majority of foods consumed in America. The monomers through trimers, which are thought to be directly bioavailable, contributed 30% of the total PCs in chocolates. Hydrophilic antioxidant capacity contributed >90% of AOC in all products. The correlation coefficient between AOC and PCs in chocolates was 0.92, suggesting that PCs are the dominant antioxidants in cocoa and chocolates. These results indicate that NFCS is correlated with AOC and PC in cocoa and chocolate products. Alkalizing dramatically decreased both the procyanidin content and antioxidant capacity, although not to the same extent.

  8. Impartial Triangular Chocolate Bar Games

    OpenAIRE

    Miyadera, Ryohei; Nakamura, Shunsuke; Fukui, Masanori

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate bar games are variants of the game of Nim in which the goal is to leave your opponent with the single bitter part of the chocolate bar. The rectangular chocolate bar game is a thinly disguised form of classical multi-heap Nim. In this work, we investigate the mathematical structure of triangular chocolate bar games in which the triangular chocolate bar can be cut in three directions. In the triangular chocolate bar game, a position is a $\\mathcal{P}$-position if and only if $x \\oplu...

  9. Study of cupuassu liquor

    OpenAIRE

    Cohen, Kelly de Oliveira; Jackix, Marisa de Nazaré Hoelz

    2005-01-01

    O cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum Schum), que é um fruto amazônico, vem conquistando a cada ano mais espaço no mercado nacional e internacional com a comercialização de sua polpa. Suas sementes, consideradas como subproduto, vem despertando interesse não só no mundo científico como pelas indústrias. Sabe-se que, a partir das sementes, pode-se obter produtos análogos aos oriundos das sementes de cacau, seguindo as mesmas etapas de processamento. Dentre esses produtos tem-se o liquor de cupuaçu...

  10. Ovarian chocolate cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimura, Kazuro; Ishida, Tetsuya; Takemori, Masayuki; Kitagaki, Hajime; Tanaka, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Katsuhito; Shimizu, Tadafumi; Kono, Michio.

    1988-01-01

    Accurate preoperative staging of ovarian chocolate cysts is very important because recent hormonal therapy has been effective in low stage patients. However, it has been difficult to assess the preoperative stage of ovarian chocolate cysts. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of MRI in preoperative staging of 15 overian chocolate cysts. It was well known that the older the ovarian chocolate cyst was the more iron content it had. We examined the iron contents effect on T1 and T2 relaxation times in surgically confirmed chocolate cysts (stage II: 3 cases, stage III: 3 cases and stage IV: 9 cases by AFS classification, 1985) employing the 0.15-T MR system and 200 MHz spectrometer. There was a positive linear relation between T1 of the lesion using the MR system (T1) and T1 of the resected contents using the spectrometer (sp-T1); r = 0.93. The same relation was revealed between T2 and sp-T2; r = 0.87. It was indicated that T1 and T2 using the MR system was accurate. There was a negative linear relation between T1 and the iron contents ( r = -0.81) but no relation between T2 and the iron contents. T1 was 412 ± 91 msec for stage II, 356 ± 126 msec for stage III and 208 ± 30 msec for stage IV. T1 for stage IV was shorter than that for stage II and III, statistically significant differences were noted (p < 0.05). Thus, T1 was useful in differentiating a fresh from an old ovarian chocolate cyst. We concluded that T1 relaxation time using the MR system was useful for the staging of an ovarian chocolate cyst without surgery. (author)

  11. Chocolate--A Sweet Conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Stephen

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a brief history of manufacturing chocolate and an outline of production methods. Describes laboratory techniques used to monitor liquid chocolate viscosity. Discusses a simple experiment which can be performed in the classroom. (Author/CW)

  12. Chocolate as a Revolutionary Beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Moats, Jean; Freeman, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    In terms of chocolate revolutionary can mean many things, from the cultural aspect to the change in the way chocolate is prepared. In this paper revolutionary stands for the idea of change, specifically the change in chocolate beverages over time. This change can be seen especially in the variety of flavours that have been and are currently being added to chocolate. Why has there been such a change in this popular drink? What makes it revolutionary in terms of flavours. This interdisciplinary...

  13. How dark chocolate is processed

    Science.gov (United States)

    This month’s column will continue the theme of “How Is It Processed?” The column will focus on dark chocolate. The botanical name for the cacao tree is Theobroma cacao, which literally means “food of the Gods.” Dark chocolate is both delicious and nutritious. Production of dark chocolate will be des...

  14. Learning to Dislike Chocolate: Conditioning Negative Attitudes toward Chocolate and Its Effect on Chocolate Consumption

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Guosen; Zhang, Dingyuan; Wang, Lei; Cui, Xianghua; Zhu, Jinglei; Fang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) procedures can be used to form and change attitudes toward a wide variety of objects. The current study examined the effects of a negative EC procedure on attitudes toward chocolate, and whether it influenced chocolate evaluation and consumption. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental condition in which chocolate images were paired with negative stimuli, or the control condition in which chocolate images were randomly paired with positive stimuli ...

  15. Replacement of cocoa butter with cocoa butter - like fat from modified palm oil in coating chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitbunjerdkul, S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a confectionery product, mainly containing cocoa mass or liquor, cocoa butter (CB and sugar. Nowadays vegetable fats and modified oil are used instead of CB in chocolate products to lower the cost and to obtain the varieties of products with different characteristics and textures. Cocoa butter-like fat from modified palm oil (CBFMPO at different levels of CB replacement (60,80 and 100% were used to develop a formulation of coating chocolate. When physical and sensory properties were evaluated, the viscosity and coating ability on biscuit sticks were remarkedly decreased with increasing CBFMPO content. Hedonic mean scores of mouthfeel and coating ability of the chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO were greater than those of chocolate containing 60 and 80% CBFMPO (p<0.05. During storage of biscuit sticks dipped in the chocolate coating (chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO at room temperature (27-29oC and low temperature (20-22oC for 30 days, blooming (as shown by whiteness index occurred to a greater extent at higher temperature. At both storage temperatures, the intensity scores of glossiness and hedonic mean scores of overall liking of samples decreased but intensity scores of off-odor increased during the first 6 of days storage (p<0.05.

  16. Mood state effects of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parker, Gordon; Parker, Isabella; Brotchie, Heather

    2006-06-01

    Chocolate consumption has long been associated with enjoyment and pleasure. Popular claims confer on chocolate the properties of being a stimulant, relaxant, euphoriant, aphrodisiac, tonic and antidepressant. The last claim stimulated this review. We review chocolate's properties and the principal hypotheses addressing its claimed mood altering propensities. We distinguish between food craving and emotional eating, consider their psycho-physiological underpinnings, and examine the likely 'positioning' of any effect of chocolate to each concept. Chocolate can provide its own hedonistic reward by satisfying cravings but, when consumed as a comfort eating or emotional eating strategy, is more likely to be associated with prolongation rather than cessation of a dysphoric mood. This review focuses primarily on clarifying the possibility that, for some people, chocolate consumption may act as an antidepressant self-medication strategy and the processes by which this may occur. Any mood benefits of chocolate consumption are ephemeral.

  17. The Sweetest Chocolate Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Kristie J.

    2010-01-01

    Using a nonroutine problem can be an effective way to encourage students to draw on prior knowledge, work together, and reach important conclusions about the mathematics they are learning. This article discusses a problem on the mathematical preparation of chocolate milk which was adapted from an old book of puzzles (Linn 1969) and has been used…

  18. Chocolate equals stop. Chocolate-specific inhibition training reduces chocolate intake and go associations with chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houben, Katrijn; Jansen, Anita

    2015-04-01

    Earlier research has demonstrated that food-specific inhibition training wherein food cues are repeatedly and consistently mapped onto stop signals decreases food intake and bodyweight. The mechanisms underlying these training effects, however, remain unclear. It has been suggested that consistently pairing stimuli with stop signals induces automatic stop associations with those stimuli, thereby facilitating automatic, bottom-up inhibition. This study examined this hypothesis with respect to food-inhibition training. Participants performed a training that consistently paired chocolate with no go cues (chocolate/no-go) or with go cues (chocolate/go). Following training, we measured automatic associations between chocolate and stop versus go, as well as food intake and desire to eat. As expected, food that was consistently mapped onto stopping was indeed more associated with stopping versus going afterwards. In replication of previous results, participants in the no-go condition also showed less desire to eat and reduced food intake relative to the go condition. Together these findings support the idea that food-specific inhibition training prompts the development of automatic inhibition associations, which subsequently facilitate inhibitory control over unwanted food-related urges. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Learning to Dislike Chocolate: Conditioning Negative Attitudes toward Chocolate and Its Effect on Chocolate Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yan Wang

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available Evaluative conditioning (EC procedures can be used to form and change attitudes toward a wide variety of objects. The current study examined the effects of a negative EC procedure on attitudes toward chocolate, and whether it influenced chocolate evaluation and consumption. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental condition in which chocolate images were paired with negative stimuli, or the control condition in which chocolate images were randomly paired with positive stimuli (50% and negative stimuli (50%. Explicit and implicit attitudes toward chocolate images were collected. During an ostensible taste test, chocolate evaluation and consumption were assessed. Results revealed that compared to participants in the control condition, participants in the experimental condition showed more negative explicit and implicit attitudes toward chocolate images and evaluated chocolate more negatively during the taste test. However, chocolate consumption did not differ between experimental and control conditions. These findings suggest that pairing chocolate with negative stimuli can influence attitudes toward chocolate, though behavioral effects are absent. Intervention applications of EC provide avenues for future research and practices.

  20. Learning to Dislike Chocolate: Conditioning Negative Attitudes toward Chocolate and Its Effect on Chocolate Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Yan; Wang, Guosen; Zhang, Dingyuan; Wang, Lei; Cui, Xianghua; Zhu, Jinglei; Fang, Yuan

    2017-01-01

    Evaluative conditioning (EC) procedures can be used to form and change attitudes toward a wide variety of objects. The current study examined the effects of a negative EC procedure on attitudes toward chocolate, and whether it influenced chocolate evaluation and consumption. Participants were randomly assigned to the experimental condition in which chocolate images were paired with negative stimuli, or the control condition in which chocolate images were randomly paired with positive stimuli (50%) and negative stimuli (50%). Explicit and implicit attitudes toward chocolate images were collected. During an ostensible taste test, chocolate evaluation and consumption were assessed. Results revealed that compared to participants in the control condition, participants in the experimental condition showed more negative explicit and implicit attitudes toward chocolate images and evaluated chocolate more negatively during the taste test. However, chocolate consumption did not differ between experimental and control conditions. These findings suggest that pairing chocolate with negative stimuli can influence attitudes toward chocolate, though behavioral effects are absent. Intervention applications of EC provide avenues for future research and practices.

  1. Potentialities of spinal liquor scanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Vlakhov, N.; Vylkanov, P.

    1986-01-01

    It is shown that spinal liquor scanography is a harmless and informative method for the examination of patients, permitting to detect injury foci for spinal cord tumours in 90% cases, for acute injuries of the vertebral column and spinal cord in 89.5% cases, for herniation of nucleus pulposus in 81% cases. The method of spinal liquor scanography can be used in neurology and neurosurgery to select the method of treatment and to evaluate its efficiency

  2. Mystery behind Chinese liquor fermentation

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Guangyuan; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Background Chinese liquor, a very popular fermented alcoholic beverage with thousands of years’ history in China, though its flavour formation and microbial process have only been partly explored, is facing the industrial challenge of modernisation and standardisation for food quality and safety as well as sustainability. Meanwhile, the hidden knowledge behind the complicated and somehow empirical solid-state fermentation process of Chinese liquor can enrich the food sector to improve our qua...

  3. A comparative study of aroma-active compounds between dark and milk chocolate: relationship to sensory perception.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianbin; Liu, Mengya; He, Congcong; Song, Huanlu; Guo, Jia; Wang, Ye; Yang, Haiying; Su, Xiaoxia

    2015-04-01

    The most important aroma-active compounds of two types of chocolate and cocoa liquor used for their production were analysed by gas chromatography-olfactometry-mass spectrometry (GC-O-MS) and aroma extract dilution analysis (AEDA). Furthermore, the relationship between odorants and sensory perception of chocolate was measured by quantitative analysis, sensory evaluation and correlation analysis. In addition, some chemicals were added to the original dark or milk chocolate to validate their roles in the aroma property of chocolate. A total of 32 major aroma-active compounds were identified in the chocolate with the flavour dilution factors of 27-729 by AEDA, including seven aldehydes, six pyrazines, three pyrroles, four carboxylic acids, four lactones, two alcohols, two ketones, one ester, one pyrone, one furan and one sulfur-containing compound. Further quantitative analysis showed that dark chocolate had higher contents of pyrazine, pyrrole, carboxylic acids, alcohols and Strecker aldehydes, whereas the concentration of lactones, esters, long chain aldehydes and ketones were higher in the milk type. Differences in volatile composition and descriptive flavour attributes between the dark and milk chocolate were observed. The relationship between aroma-active compounds and sensory perception in the chocolate was verified. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  4. [Sexuality, heart and chocolate].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchi-Demicheli, F; Sekoranja, L; Pechère-Bertschi, A

    2013-03-20

    All along the history, many kinds of magic and aphrodisiac properties were attributed to the chocolate. Because of the presence of certain active substances, cacao and chocolate are supposed to have some potentially beneficial effects on human health, particularly on cardiovascular system. Containing flavoniods, cacao and its products have antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-atherogenic, anti-thrombotic, antihypertensive and neuroprotective effects, as well as influence on insulin sensitivity, vascular endothelial function, and activation of nitric oxide. Other molecules, like methyxantin, biogenic amines and cannabinoid-like fatty acids, may have a psychoactive action. Synergic effect of all these substances could have a positive direct and indirect influence on sexual health and function. Nevertheless, randomized studies are needed to confirm these hypotheses and to elaborate recommendations about cacao consumption.

  5. Psychoactive effects of tasting chocolate and desire for more chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasser, Jennifer A; Bradley, Lauren E; Leitzsch, Jessica B; Chohan, Omar; Fasulo, Kristy; Haller, Josie; Jaeger, Kristin; Szulanczyk, Benjamin; Del Parigi, Angelo

    2011-07-25

    The purpose of this study was to characterize the psychoactive effects of tasting chocolate and to evaluate the contribution of the main chocolate components to the desire to consume more of it. A total of 280 participants, (F-155; M=125) ranging in age from 18-65, completed the study. Participants were randomly assigned to taste 12.5 g of either white chocolate ("control") or one of four chocolate ("cocoa") samples varying in sugar, fat and percent cocoa content, then answered the question: "Do you want more of this chocolate?" and "If yes, how many more pieces of this chocolate would you like to eat?" They completed pre- and post-consumption surveys, consisting of 30 questions derived from the Addiction Research Center Inventory (ARCI) subscales, Morphine-Benzedrine Group (MBG), Morphine (M) and Excitement (E). Significant decreases in post-pre consumption changes in MBG subscale were observed between the control sample and the 70% cocoa (p=0.046) or the 85% cocoa sample (p=0.0194). Proportionally more men than women wanted more of the tasted chocolate (p=0.035). Participants were more likely to want more of the tasted chocolate if they displayed a greater change in the MBG scale, and if their chocolate sample had high sugar and cocoa content, as assessed by multiple logistic regression. Our results suggest that multiple characteristics of chocolate, including sugar, cocoa and the drug-like effects experienced, play a role in the desire to consume chocolate. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael; Keul, Hanna; Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae

    2014-01-01

    cultures on the formation of flavour precursors, composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory profile was investigated in cocoa inoculated with cultures encompassing a highly aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, and compared to commercially...... fermented heap and tray cocoa. Although only minor differences in the concentration of free amino acids and reducing sugars was measured, identification and quantification by dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (HS/GC-MS) revealed pronounced differences in the composition of volatiles...... in roasted cocoa liquors and finished chocolates. 19 of the 56 volatile compounds identified in the chocolates were found in significantly higher amounts in the tray fermented sample, whilst significantly higher amounts of 2-methoxyphenol was measured in the two inoculated chocolates. The P. kluyveri...

  7. Learning Biochemistry by Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C Guedes

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available Both sensations and biochemical reactions taken place or promoted during ingestion of chocolate were the motivation for  investigating  the  organic  compounds  present  in  this  source.  Cocoa  and  chocolate  are  composed  by  several substances , among them, aminoacids and alkaloids.The objective of this investigation was to purpose a contextured approach  of  biochemistry  through  the  sensations  and  reactions  involving  aminoacids,  theobromine  and  hormones. Methodology: 1. Theoretical part:  constituted  by theoretical  and tutorial classes  about aminoacids, theobromine and hormones  involved  at  the  metabolism;  2.  Questionary:  ten  questions  based  upon  theoretical  classes,  personal sensations  and  general  aspects  of chocolate;  3.Lecture:  Cientific  articles  searched  in  periodics  by  own  students  as well  as  newspaper  reports;  4.  Experimental:  Laboratory  experiments  including  extraction,  characterization, spectrometric quantification  after  specific reactions  and identification by  Rf  comparison with  standards  on TLC  from cocoa  almonds  and  both  powder  cocoa  and  chocolate.  The  study  was  applied  in  30  students  from  a  chemistry college. Results: The results pointed out to a higher frequency of the students and to a increased interest  from them by   biochemistry  issues  and  cientific  lectures,  as  well  as  a  satisfactory  acquirement  of  theoretical  and  practice knowledge of aminoacids and hormones, spectrometry and chromatography. Conclusion: A contextured approach is quite positive for learning biochemistry to chemists.

  8. Mystery behind Chinese liquor fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jin, Guangyuan; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Background Chinese liquor, a very popular fermented alcoholic beverage with thousands of years’ history in China, though its flavour formation and microbial process have only been partly explored, is facing the industrial challenge of modernisation and standardisation for food quality and safety as

  9. 21 CFR 163.135 - Buttermilk chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Buttermilk chocolate. 163.135 Section 163.135 Food... Buttermilk chocolate. (a) Description. Buttermilk chocolate is the food that conforms to the standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in...

  10. High cocoa polyphenol rich chocolate may reduce the burden of the symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellor Duane D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chocolate is rich in flavonoids that have been shown to be of benefit in disparate conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The effect of polyphenol rich chocolate in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS has not been studied previously. Methods We conducted a double blinded, randomised, clinical pilot crossover study comparing high cocoa liquor/polyphenol rich chocolate (HCL/PR in comparison to simulated iso-calorific chocolate (cocoa liquor free/low polyphenols(CLF/LP on fatigue and residual function in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome. Subjects with CFS having severe fatigue of at least 10 out of 11 on the Chalder Fatigue Scale were enrolled. Subjects had either 8 weeks of intervention in the form of HCL/PR or CLF/LP, with a 2 week wash out period followed by 8 weeks of intervention with the other chocolate. Results Ten subjects were enrolled in the study. The Chalder Fatigue Scale score improved significantly after 8 weeks of the HCL/PR chocolate arm [median (range Exact Sig. (2-tailed] [33 (25 - 38 vs. 21.5 (6 - 35 0.01], but that deteriorated significantly when subjects were given simulated iso-calorific chocolate (CLF/CP [ 28.5 (17 - 20 vs. 34.5 (13-26 0.03]. The residual function, as assessed by the London Handicap scale, also improved significantly after the HCL/PR arm [0.49 (0.33 - 0.62 vs. 0.64 (0.44 - 0.83 0.01] and deteriorated after iso-calorific chocolate [00.44 (0.43 - 0.68 vs. 0.36 (0.33 - 0.620.03]. Likewise the Hospital Anxiety and Depression score also improved after the HCL/PR arm, but deteriorated after CLF/CP. Mean weight remained unchanged throughout the trial. Conclusion This study suggests that HCL/PR chocolate may improve symptoms in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome.

  11. Sulphate removal from uraniferous liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Berger, B.

    1983-01-01

    A process for the recovery of uranium from liquor resulting from the attack of sulphur containing uraniferous ores by an alkaline solution of sodium carbonate and/or sodium bicarbonate is claimed. An ion exchange resin is used to separate the uranium from the solution of sodium carbonate and/or bicarbonate and sodium sulphate. The ion exchange resin is then eluted with a solution of ammonium carbonate and/or bicarbonate to provide an eluate containing ammonium uranyl tricarbonate, ammonium carbonate and/or bicarbonate and ammonium sulphate. The eluate is heated to boiling to convert the ammonium uranyl tricarbonate to ammonium uranate and/or diuranate. Ammonia, carbon dioxide and water vapor are released. The precipitated ammonium uranate and/or diuranate is separated from the remaining liquor and calcined to give uranium trioxide

  12. Hot chocolate effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crawford, F.S.

    1982-01-01

    The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments

  13. The hot chocolate effect

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1982-05-01

    The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments.

  14. Cardiovascular Benefits of Dark Chocolate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Higginbotham, Erin; Taub, Pam R

    2015-12-01

    The use of cacao for health benefits dates back at least 3000 years. Our understanding of cacao has evolved with modern science. It is now felt based on extensive research the main health benefits of cacao stem from epicatechin, a flavanol found in cacao. The process of manufacturing dark chocolate retains epicatechin, whereas milk chocolate does not contain significant amounts of epicatechin. Thus, most of the current research studies are focused on dark chocolate. Both epidemiological and clinical studies suggest a beneficial effect of dark chocolate on blood pressure, lipids, and inflammation. Proposed mechanisms underlying these benefits include enhanced nitric oxide bioavailability and improved mitochondrial structure/function. Ultimately, further studies of this promising compound are needed to elucidate its potential for prevention and treatment of cardiovascular and metabolic diseases as well as other diseases that have underlying mechanisms of mitochondrial dysfunction and nitric oxide deficiency.

  15. Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

    2009-01-07

    The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

  16. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in cocoa by-products and determination of its reduction during chocolate manufacture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Nester, Melanie A; Efraim, Priscilla; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2013-01-01

    This work reports an investigation carried out to assess the natural occurrence of ochratoxin A in 168 samples from different fractions obtained during the technological processing of cocoa (shell, nibs, liquor, butter, cake and cocoa powder) and the reduction of ochratoxin A during chocolate manufacture. Ochratoxin A analyses were performed with immunoaffinity columns and detection by high performance liquid chromatography. Concerning the natural ochratoxin A contamination in cocoa by-products, the highest levels of ochratoxin A were found in the shell, cocoa powder and cocoa cake. The cocoa butter was the least contaminated, showing that ochratoxin A seems to remain in the defatted cocoa solids. Under the technological conditions applied during the manufacture of chocolate in this study and the level of contamination present in the cocoa beans, this experiment demonstrated that 93.6% of ochratoxin A present in the beans was reduced during the chocolate producing. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-03-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  18. Hysteresis in the phase transition of chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ruilong; Lu, Qunfeng; Lin, Sihua; Dong, Xiaoyan; Fu, Hao; Wu, Shaoyi; Wu, Minghe; Teng, Baohua

    2016-01-01

    We designed an experiment to reproduce the hysteresis phenomenon of chocolate appearing in the heating and cooling process, and then established a model to relate the solidification degree to the order parameter. Based on the Landau-Devonshire theory, our model gave a description of the hysteresis phenomenon in chocolate, which lays the foundations for the study of the phase transition behavior of chocolate.

  19. 21 CFR 163.124 - White chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White chocolate. 163.124 Section 163.124 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.124 White chocolate. (a) Description. (1) White chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and grinding...

  20. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  1. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie

    2003-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LFHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  2. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  3. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  4. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick; Musa Karakus; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-03-30

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  5. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  6. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  7. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-01-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  8. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  9. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  10. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  11. Attention bias for chocolate increases chocolate consumption--an attention bias modification study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werthmann, Jessica; Field, Matt; Roefs, Anne; Nederkoorn, Chantal; Jansen, Anita

    2014-03-01

    The current study examined experimentally whether a manipulated attention bias for food cues increases craving, chocolate intake and motivation to search for hidden chocolates. To test the effect of attention for food on subsequent chocolate intake, attention for chocolate was experimentally modified by instructing participants to look at chocolate stimuli ("attend chocolate" group) or at non-food stimuli ("attend shoes" group) during a novel attention bias modification task (antisaccade task). Chocolate consumption, changes in craving and search time for hidden chocolates were assessed. Eye-movement recordings were used to monitor the accuracy during the experimental attention modification task as possible moderator of effects. Regression analyses were conducted to test the effect of attention modification and modification accuracy on chocolate intake, craving and motivation to search for hidden chocolates. Results showed that participants with higher accuracy (+1 SD), ate more chocolate when they had to attend to chocolate and ate less chocolate when they had to attend to non-food stimuli. In contrast, for participants with lower accuracy (-1 SD), the results were exactly reversed. No effects of the experimental attention modification on craving or search time for hidden chocolates were found. We used chocolate as food stimuli so it remains unclear how our findings generalize to other types of food. These findings demonstrate further evidence for a link between attention for food and food intake, and provide an indication about the direction of this relationship. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. Tuning Chocolate Flavor through Development of Thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae Starter Cultures with Increased Acetate Ester Production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meersman, Esther; Steensels, Jan; Struyf, Nore; Paulus, Tinneke; Saels, Veerle; Mathawan, Melissa; Allegaert, Leen; Vrancken, Gino

    2015-01-01

    Microbial starter cultures have extensively been used to enhance the consistency and efficiency of industrial fermentations. Despite the advantages of such controlled fermentations, the fermentation involved in the production of chocolate is still a spontaneous process that relies on the natural microbiota at cocoa farms. However, recent studies indicate that certain thermotolerant Saccharomyces cerevisiae cultures can be used as starter cultures for cocoa pulp fermentation. In this study, we investigate the potential of specifically developed starter cultures to modulate chocolate aroma. Specifically, we developed several new S. cerevisiae hybrids that combine thermotolerance and efficient cocoa pulp fermentation with a high production of volatile flavor-active esters. In addition, we investigated the potential of two strains of two non-Saccharomyces species that produce very large amounts of fruity esters (Pichia kluyveri and Cyberlindnera fabianii) to modulate chocolate aroma. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis of the cocoa liquor revealed an increased concentration of various flavor-active esters and a decrease in spoilage-related off-flavors in batches inoculated with S. cerevisiae starter cultures and, to a lesser extent, in batches inoculated with P. kluyveri and Cyb. fabianii. Additionally, GC-MS analysis of chocolate samples revealed that while most short-chain esters evaporated during conching, longer and more-fat-soluble ethyl and acetate esters, such as ethyl octanoate, phenylethyl acetate, ethyl phenylacetate, ethyl decanoate, and ethyl dodecanoate, remained almost unaffected. Sensory analysis by an expert panel confirmed significant differences in the aromas of chocolates produced with different starter cultures. Together, these results show that the selection of different yeast cultures opens novel avenues for modulating chocolate flavor. PMID:26590272

  13. Design of special facility for liquor irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Yao Shibin; Chen Zigen

    1989-01-01

    The design principle, physical scheme, technological process, construction and safety features of a special facility used for irradiating liquors is briefly described. 0.925 x 10 15 Bq cobalt source is used and the irradiation capacity for liquors approaches 10 t per day. The facility bears advantages of simple in construction, easy to operate, safe, reliable and efficient in source utilization

  14. Liquor circulation disturbance after subarachnoid haemorrhages - comparative pneumoencephalography and liquor scintigraphic investigations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Menzel, J.; Georgi, P.; Krastel, A.; Deutsches Krebsforschungszentrum, Heidelberg

    1976-01-01

    Haemorrhages into the subarachnoid space often lead to instant blocking of the liquor circulation pathways with an acute increase of the intracranial pressure and acute venticular enlargement. These liquor circulation disturbances may be diagnosed by liquor scintiscanning as well as by pneumoencephalography. 165 patients were examined by both methods. The following results were obtained: liquor circulation disturbances after subarachnoid bleeding are frequent, they should be expected in 33% of all cases after spontaneous subarachnoid haemorrhages and in 68% of the cases after traumatic subarachnoid haemorrhages. The most severe form of liquor circulation distrubance may also be diagnosed by liquor scintiscanning as well as by pneumoencephalography. Liquor scintiscanning is the more exact method in cases with transitory ventricular reflux, while lumbar pneumoencephalography, in this series, is the method of choice when it comes to documenting the extent of the hydrocephalus. (GSE) [de

  15. EL CHOCOLATE, UN PLACER SALUDABLE

    OpenAIRE

    Valenzuela B, Alfonso

    2007-01-01

    El cacao, que se obtiene de la almendra del árbol del cacao, fue utilizado durante cientos de años por los indígenas sudamericanos en la preparación de una bebida amarga, que los europeos modificaron en su preparación y composición, hasta originar lo que hoy se conoce como el chocolate, en sus variedades negro (u oscuro), con leche, y blanco. De ellos el más interesante es el chocolate negro, debido a su alto contenido de los flavanoles epicatequina, catequina y procianidinas. Se ha demostrad...

  16. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  17. Analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kozelová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At food purchase consumer is affected by several factors. In this work analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase was performed involving 277 respondents. Statistical testing of results was performed by Chi - Square statistic, correlations have been tested with use of the Cramer's coefficient. It was found, that 86% of respondents consume chocolate. Factors affecting respondents at purchase were recommendations of friends, acquaintances (32%, brand of chocolate (24%, price (16%, personal experience (12%, health restrictions and allergies (11%. Less important factors when choosing chocolates are flavor (4%, nutritional quality (3%, country of origin (2% and chocolate packaging (1%. In the consumption of chocolate moderate correlation among various categories of economic activity of respondents was confirmed. Chocolate was consumed mainly by respondents whose monthly income ranges from 801 to 1001 €. We found that consumers prefer milk chocolate followed by dark and white at the end. In terms of gender the most commonly was chocolate consumed by women, once to three times a week. The same frequency of chocolate consumption dominates at the categories of students and employee. Expenses frequently spent to buy chocolates were from 1-3 € per week by young people (18-23 years and middle age generation of people (46-55 years. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  18. [Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gómez-Juaristi, M; González-Torres, L; Bravo, L; Vaquero, M P; Bastida, S; Sánchez-Muniz, F J

    2011-01-01

    Since ancient times, numerous health beneficial effects have been attributed to chocolate, closing up its consumption to a therapeutic use. The present study reviews some relevant studies about chocolate (and its bioactive compounds) on some cardiovascular risk factors and stresses the need of future studies. The consumption of cocoa/ chocolate (i) increases plasma antioxidant capacity, (ii) diminishes platelet function and inflammation, and (iii) decreases diastolic and systolic arterial pressures. Data currently available indicate that daily consumption of cocoa-rich chocolate (rich in polyphenols) may at least partially lower cardiovascular disease risk. Further studies are required in order to establish the bioavailability and mechanisms of action of bioactive compounds in chocolate. The study of the interaction of chocolate and its components with candidate genes will also supply necessary information regarding the individuals best suited to benefit from a potential cardiovascular disease treatment with chocolate.

  19. Dark chocolate: consumption for pleasure or therapy?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Franchini, Massimo; Montagnana, Martina; Favaloro, Emmanuel J; Guidi, Gian Cesare; Targher, Giovanni

    2009-11-01

    Traditional chocolate is derived from the cocoa bean, which is one of the most concentrated sources of flavanols, a subgroup of the natural antioxidant plant compounds called flavonoids. Accumulating evidence from the past 10 years demonstrates that moderate consumption of chocolate, especially dark chocolate, may exert protective effects against the development of cardiovascular disease. Several mechanisms have been proposed to explain this positive influence, including metabolic, antihypertensive, anti-inflammatory, and anti-thrombotic effects, as well as effects on insulin sensitivity and vascular endothelial function. Should these results be confirmed in randomised, controlled, cross-over, multi-dose trials, then the pleasure associated with chocolate consumption might also be justified from health and psychological perspectives. However, since dark chocolate has substantially higher levels of flavonoids than milk chocolate, and milk proteins may inhibit absorption of flavonoids, it might be preferable to consume dark chocolate than the white (milk) variety.

  20. Chocolate and medicine: dangerous liaisons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Donatella

    2009-01-01

    According to ancient Mayan texts, cocoa is of divine origin and is considered a gift from the gods. In the Classic period of Mayan civilization (250-900 a.d.), ground cocoa seeds were mixed with seasonings to make a bitter, spicy drink that was believed to be a health-promoting elixir. The Aztecs believed that cocoa pods symbolized life and fertility, and that eating the fruit of the cocoa tree allowed them to acquire wisdom and power. Cocoa was said to have nourishing, fortifying, and aphrodisiac qualities. Pre-Columbian societies were known to use chocolate as medicine, too. The appreciation and popularity of chocolate fluctuated over the centuries since its introduction to Europe from the New World. Now, recent evidence has begun to erase the poor reputation that chocolate had acquired in the past few decades and is restoring its former status. Chocolate is no longer deemed a guilty pleasure, and it may have positive health benefits when eaten in moderation as part of a balanced diet.

  1. The true Price of Chocolate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.; Chocoloney, T.

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate prices generally do not incorporate many of the environmental and social externalities, costs which are incurred as the main ingredients such as cocoa and sugar move from farms, to factories to consumers. Nor do prices reflect the benefits of non-conventional production and alternative

  2. Pressurized pyrolysis and gasification behaviour of black liquor and biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project is to obtain basic experimental data on pyrolysis and gasification of various black liquors and biofuels at elevated pressures, and to model these processes. Liquor-to-liquor differences in conversion behavior of single liquor droplets during gasification at atmospheric pressure were investigated. The applicability of a rate equation developed for catalyzed gasification of carbon was investigated with regard to pressurized black liquor gasification. A neural network was developed to simulate the progression of char conversion during pressurized black liquor gasification. Pyrolysis of black liquor in a pressurized drop-tube furnace was investigated in collaboration with KTH in Stockholm. (author)

  3. Utilization of spent sulfite liquor carbohydrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiley, A J; Whitmore, L M; Boggs, Jr, L A

    1959-01-01

    Possible utilization of the sugars in spent sulfite liquor in the manufacture of ethanol, torula food yeast, and other fermentation products, and in the production of sugar derivatives, such as the diacetone derivatives, is discussed.

  4. Refractive Index of Black and Green Liquors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. A. Avramenko

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Lack of reliable data on the optical properties of black and green liquors complicates control of their composition in technological process of sulphate cellulose production. In this regard the paper presents measurement results of refraction index of black liquors n (k,t at concentration in solutions of bone-dry solids up to k = 70% and at temperatures t = 10-90 °C, as well as in green liquors n(C,t at the total alkalinity of C = 0-250 g/l and in the same temperature range. All samples of solutions of black and green liquors were provided by Segezha Pulp and Paper Mill and certified in factory laboratory. Measurements were taken by means of the laboratory Abbe refractometer (URL-1, digital refractometer "Expert pro", goniometer spectrometer GS-5, and ultra-violet spectrophotometer as well. The work also presents optical D density spectra in the ultra-violet region of the wavelengths for the samples of a green liquor and main mineral component to form it, i.e. Na2S (sodium sulphide. To calculate dispersion of n (λ in the visible spectral range, here a Lorentz single-oscillator model was used. The paper discusses study results of dispersive dependence of refraction index in green liquors with various concentration and chemical components of n (λ, C forming them at t = 20°C. Computing and experimental dependences of n (λ had not only good qualitative, but also quite satisfactory quantitative compliance. The work also describes main mineral components defining optical properties in these liquors. Given here data on concentration and temperature dependences of a refraction index in black n(k,t and green n(C,t liquors have been never published before. These data are of essential interest to control soda recovery technologies in manufacturing sulphate cellulose. The received results can be also used to tune and calibrate modern domestic and foreign industrial refractometers.

  5. Improving chocolate flavor in poor-quality cocoa almonds by enzymatic treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Hilana Salete Silva; Mamede, Maria Eugênia Oliveira; Góes-Neto, Aristóteles; Koblitz, Maria Gabriela Bello

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a method to enzymatically treat poor-quality cocoa almonds (known as "slate") to ensure the formation of chocolate flavor precursors. The production of flavor precursors improves the quality of these almonds, which are usually responsible for the low quality of the liquor produced. Proteases and carboxypeptidases from different sources were tested under various conditions. The different treatments were evaluated by chemical analysis (hydrolysis efficiency) and sensory analysis of the treated material compared to good-quality cocoa almonds. The results show that it is possible, through the use of microbial enzymes, to generate the mixture of compounds that will release, after roasting, the characteristic chocolate flavor in poor-quality almonds. However, it is necessary to optimize the conditions of enzymatic treatment to obtain better results and thus establish a process that can be used for industrial purposes for manufacturing cocoa and chocolate. The basidiomycete Moniliophtora perniciosa is the causative agent of witches' broom disease (WBD) of the cocoa tree, whose seeds are the source of chocolate. It is the most important phytopathological problem of cocoa-producing areas of the American continent, and has decimated the Brazilian cocoa industry. In Bahia (Brazil), M. perniciosa was identified in 1989 and, as a consequence of its spreading, the annual production of cocoa almonds dropped from 450,000 to 90,000 tons within 12 y, reducing export values from an all-time high of about US$ 1 billion to 110 million. The high incidence of WBD incapacitates Brazil to produce enough cocoa almonds even for the internal market, leading the country to import low-quality cocoa almonds mainly from African countries. Our work proposes an enzymatic treatment to increase the quality of that cocoa almonds and, consequently, to improve the quality of the chocolate produced and consumed in the country. © 2011 Institute of Food Technologists®

  6. Understanding the structure of chocolate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schenk, H. E-mail: schenk@science.uva.nl; Peschar, R

    2004-11-01

    Crystallization of cocoa-butter in the {beta} phase from the melt under static conditions is only possible using the memory effect of cocoa-butter. Under all other conditions polymorphs with lower melting temperatures develop, whereas the {beta} phase is the preferred one in chocolate. SAXS experiments proved 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol seeds with triple chain-length packing initiate the {beta}-crystallization. Models for the different phases may be based on the crystal structure determinations of triacylglycerols. A new, patented, way of chocolate making is in development in which the traditional tempering process is replaced by another pre-crystallization process. The process is based on the use of seed crystals in the liquid phase and driven by a feedback system.

  7. Understanding the structure of chocolate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schenk, H.; Peschar, R.

    2004-01-01

    Crystallization of cocoa-butter in the β phase from the melt under static conditions is only possible using the memory effect of cocoa-butter. Under all other conditions polymorphs with lower melting temperatures develop, whereas the β phase is the preferred one in chocolate. SAXS experiments proved 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol seeds with triple chain-length packing initiate the β-crystallization. Models for the different phases may be based on the crystal structure determinations of triacylglycerols. A new, patented, way of chocolate making is in development in which the traditional tempering process is replaced by another pre-crystallization process. The process is based on the use of seed crystals in the liquid phase and driven by a feedback system

  8. Understanding the structure of chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schenk, H.; Peschar, R.

    2004-10-01

    Crystallization of cocoa-butter in the β phase from the melt under static conditions is only possible using the memory effect of cocoa-butter. Under all other conditions polymorphs with lower melting temperatures develop, whereas the β phase is the preferred one in chocolate. SAXS experiments proved 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol seeds with triple chain-length packing initiate the β-crystallization. Models for the different phases may be based on the crystal structure determinations of triacylglycerols. A new, patented, way of chocolate making is in development in which the traditional tempering process is replaced by another pre-crystallization process. The process is based on the use of seed crystals in the liquid phase and driven by a feedback system.

  9. Resisting chocolate temptation using a brief mindfulness strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, K. T.; Tapper, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We examined the effects of two mindfulness-based strategies on chocolate consumption amongst individuals who were trying to reduce the amount of chocolate they consumed.\\ud \\ud Methods: Participants (n = 137) were allocated to one of three conditions and employed either cognitive defusion, acceptance, or relaxation (control) techniques to help them resist chocolate over 5 days. During this period, they carried a bag of chocolates with them and recorded any chocolate or chocolate-r...

  10. Chocolate: A Marvelous Natural Product of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Ginger

    2004-08-01

    Chocolate is a natural product as ubiquitous as television. Of course, it is eaten, but it is also found in air fresheners, marking pens, flavoring in a multitude of products including soda pop, and as an aroma in "chocolate-dyed" T-shirts. However, most of us are completely unaware of the complex chemical reactions that take place to produce chocolate and the necessary technology that has evolved to produce chocolate and all its byproducts. Processing results in a mixture of many components, an interesting contrast to most of the simple, one-step reactions introduced at the high school level. This article is a survey of chocolate from tree to table. After a brief introduction to the history of chocolate and how and where it is grown, the manufacturing process is examined, and the chemistry is explored. A bit of the jargon used in the industry is mentioned. Cocoa butter is a significant ingredient in chocolate, and an investigation of it introduces triglycerides, fatty acids, polymorphic behavior, and molecular packing of the fats in chocolate and how they affect the tempering process. There is a brief discussion of chocolate's non-Newtonian behavior and the resulting challenges presented in the manufacturing process. See Featured Molecules Featured on the Cover

  11. The impact of chocolate on cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Murga, L; Tarín, J J; García-Perez, M A; Cano, A

    2011-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is the leading determinant of mortality and morbidity in women. Functional foods are attracting interest as potential regulators of the susceptibility to disease. Supported by epidemiological evidence, chocolate has emerged as a possible modulator of cardiovascular risk. Chocolate, or cocoa as the natural source, contains flavanols, a subclass of flavonoids. The latter years have witnessed an increasing number of experimental and clinical studies that suggest a protective effect of chocolate against atherogenesis. Oxidative stress, inflammation, and endothelial function define three biological mechanisms that have shown sensitivity to chocolate. Moreover, the consumption of chocolate has been involved in the protective modulation of blood pressure, the lipid profile, the activation of platelets, and the sensitivity to insulin. Dark chocolate seems more protective than milk or white chocolate. Despite this array of benefits, there is a lack of well designed clinical studies demonstrating cardiovascular benefit of chocolate. The high caloric content of chocolate, particularly of some less pure forms, imposes caution before recommending uncontrolled consumption. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  12. The mysterious light of dark chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Şentürk, Tunay; Günay, Şeyda

    2015-03-01

    A healthy diet plays a key role in the prevention and management of cardiovascular diseases. Dark chocolate in particular has been shown to improve endothelial functions and lipid profile and to have cardiovascular protective effects via an inhibitory action on platelet functions. Recently, several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of chocolate, primarily on hypertension and other conditions such as coronary artery disease and hyperlipidemia. The present review provides a summary of the ingredients, bioavailability and cardiovascular protective effects of chocolate / cocoa and the published effects of chocolate on a number of cardiovascular diseases.

  13. Cocoa, chocolate, and cardiovascular disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galleano, Monica; Oteiza, Patricia I; Fraga, Cesar G

    2009-12-01

    A significant body of evidence demonstrates that diets rich in fruits and vegetables promote health and attenuate, or delay, the onset of various diseases, including cardiovascular disease, diabetes, certain cancers, and several other age-related degenerative disorders. The concept that moderate chocolate consumption could be part of a healthy diet has gained acceptance in past years based on the health benefits ascribed to selected cocoa components. Specifically, cocoa as a plant and chocolate as food contain a series of chemicals that can interact with cell and tissue components, providing protection against the development and amelioration of pathological conditions. The most relevant effects of cocoa and chocolate have been related to cardiovascular disease. The mechanisms behind these effects are still under investigation. However, the maintenance or restoration of vascular NO production and bioavailability and the antioxidant effects are the mechanisms most consistently supported by experimental data. This review will summarize the most recent research on the cardiovascular effects of cocoa flavanols and related compounds.

  14. Effects of intentionally enhanced chocolate on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radin, Dean; Hayssen, Gail; Walsh, James

    2007-01-01

    A double-blind, randomized, placebo-controlled experiment investigated whether chocolate exposed to "good intentions" would enhance mood more than unexposed chocolate. Individuals were assigned to one of four groups and asked to record their mood each day for a week by using the Profile of Mood States. For days three, four and five, each person consumed a half ounce of dark chocolate twice a day at prescribed times. Three groups blindly received chocolate that had been intentionally treated by three different techniques. The intention in each case was that people who ate the chocolate would experience an enhanced sense of energy, vigor, and well-being. The fourth group blindly received untreated chocolate as a placebo control. The hypothesis was that mood reported during the three days of eating chocolate would improve more in the intentional groups than in the control group. Stratified random sampling was used to distribute 62 participants among the four groups, matched for age, gender, and amount of chocolate consumed on average per week. Most participants lived in the same geographic region to reduce mood variations due to changes in weather, and the experiment was conducted during one week to reduce effects of current events on mood fluctuations. On the third day of eating chocolate, mood had improved significantly more in the intention conditions than in the control condition (P = .04). Analysis of a planned subset of individuals who habitually consumed less than the grand mean of 3.2 ounces of chocolate per week showed a stronger improvement in mood (P = .0001). Primary contributors to the mood changes were the factors of declining fatigue (P = .01) and increasing vigor (P = .002). All three intentional techniques contributed to the observed results. The mood-elevating properties of chocolate can be enhanced with intention.

  15. 33 CFR 117.959 - Chocolate Bayou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chocolate Bayou. 117.959 Section 117.959 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.959 Chocolate Bayou. The draw of the Union...

  16. Teaching Quality Control with Chocolate Chip Cookies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ardith

    2014-01-01

    Chocolate chip cookies are used to illustrate the importance and effectiveness of control charts in Statistical Process Control. By counting the number of chocolate chips, creating the spreadsheet, calculating the control limits and graphing the control charts, the student becomes actively engaged in the learning process. In addition, examining…

  17. Chocolate as a source of tea flavonoids

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Arts, I.C.W.; Hollman, P.C.H.; Kromhout, D.

    1999-01-01

    The antioxidant catechin content of chocolate is four times that of tea. Chocolate contributed 20% of the catechin intake in a representative sample of the Dutch population, and tea contributes 55%. Epidemiological assessments of health effects of tea should include other foods that are sources of

  18. Chocolate: A Marvelous Natural Product of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Ginger

    2004-01-01

    The study of chocolate, a natural product, can be beneficial for the chemistry students as they ask frequently about the relevancy of their chemistry classes. The history of chocolate, its chemical and physical changes during processing, its composition, different crystalline forms, tempering and its viscosity are discussed.

  19. Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FROILAN G. DESTREZA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is for the BSHRM Students of Batangas State University (BatStateU ARASOF for the researchers believe that the Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer would be helpful in their degree program especially on making creative, artistic, personalized and decorative chocolate designs. The researchers used the Prototyping model as procedural method for the successful development and implementation of the hardware and software. This method has five phases which are the following: quick plan, quick design, prototype construction, delivery and feedback and communication. This study was evaluated by the BSHRM Students and the assessment of the respondents regarding the software and hardware application are all excellent in terms of Accuracy, Effecitveness, Efficiency, Maintainability, Reliability and User-friendliness. Also, the overall level of acceptability of the design project as evaluated by the respondents is excellent. With regard to the observation about the best raw material to use in 3D printing, the chocolate is good to use as the printed material is slightly distorted,durable and very easy to prepare; the icing is also good to use as the printed material is not distorted and is very durable but consumes time to prepare; the flour is not good as the printed material is distorted, not durable but it is easy to prepare. The computation of the economic viability level of 3d printer with reference to ROI is 37.14%. The recommendation of the researchers in the design project are as follows: adding a cooling system so that the raw material will be more durable, development of a more simplified version and improving the extrusion process wherein the user do not need to stop the printing process just to replace the empty syringe with a new one.

  20. High-performance composite chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Julian; Thomson, Katrin; Hollands, Lisa; Bates, Joanna; Carter, Melvyn; Freeman, Colin; Kapranos, Plato; Goodall, Russell

    2013-07-01

    The performance of any engineering component depends on and is limited by the properties of the material from which it is fabricated. It is crucial for engineering students to understand these material properties, interpret them and select the right material for the right application. In this paper we present a new method to engage students with the material selection process. In a competition-based practical, first-year undergraduate students design, cost and cast composite chocolate samples to maximize a particular performance criterion. The same activity could be adapted for any level of education to introduce the subject of materials properties and their effects on the material chosen for specific applications.

  1. 21 CFR 163.140 - Skim milk chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skim milk chocolate. 163.140 Section 163.140 Food... milk chocolate. (a) Description. Skim milk chocolate is the food that conforms to the standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in...

  2. 21 CFR 163.145 - Mixed dairy product chocolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixed dairy product chocolates. 163.145 Section... § 163.145 Mixed dairy product chocolates. (a) Description. Mixed dairy product chocolates are the foods...; or (iv) Malted milk; and (2) The finished mixed dairy product chocolates shall contain not less than...

  3. Single particle studies of black liquor gasification under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K; Backman, R; Hupa, M; Backman, P; Ek, P; Hulden, S T; Kullberg, M; Sorvari, V

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide experimental data relevant to pressurized black liquor gasification concepts. Specifically, the following two goals will be achieved: Data on swelling, char yields and component release during pressurized pyrolysis of small samples of black liquor will be obtained. The reactivity and physical behavior of single black liquor droplets during simultaneous pyrolysis and gasification will be investigated. The structure and composition of black liquor char during formation and conversion will be studied. (orig.)

  4. Ingredientes usados na indústria de chocolates Ingredients used in chocolate industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marissol Richter

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate é um produto comumente consumido, sendo que sua produção tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Produzir chocolates requer um entendimento do consumidor. Os tipos preferidos de chocolate variam em cada país. Os diferentes sabores e usos para o chocolate refletem a história da indústria dos diferentes lugares. O sabor do chocolate é parcialmente determinado pela química do produto. O sabor depende da liberação dos compostos aromáticos, enquanto que a textura é uma função da maneira como o material se funde e quebra na boca. Muitos chocolates disponíveis no mercado são elaborados com ingredientes similares, porém apresentam diferentes sabores. Alguns produtores têm aromas específicos, sendo que existem trocas freqüentes nestes devido a variações no processo, acidez e temperatura, ocasionando variações de aroma e sabor no produto final. Por esta razão, as condições de produção do chocolate são mantidas freqüentemente em segredo. Os ingredientes utilizados na produção de chocolates e de seus produtos têm importante papel na aceitação pelo consumidor e na apresentação do produto.Chocolate is a product widely consumed throughout the world that has seen generally increasing production trends over the last years. Making chocolate requires an understanding of how the consumer perceives it. The preferred type of chocolate varies from country to country. The different tastes and uses for chocolate reflect the histories of the industry in different places. The taste of chocolate is partially determined by the chemistry of the product. Taste depends on the release of flavor compounds in the mouth and nose, while perceived texture is a function of the way in which the material melts and breaks up in the mouth. Most chocolates that are available on the market throughout the world are made from very similar ingredients, yet have very different flavors. Some manufacturers have specific house flavors, and very often this

  5. Electrorheology leads to healthier and tastier chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Rongjia; Tang, Hong; Tawhid-Al-Islam, Kazi; Du, Enpeng; Kim, Jeongyoo

    2016-07-05

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. Although this issue was called into attention decades ago, no actual solution was found. To bypass this critical outstanding problem, two manufacturers introduced some low-calorie fats to substitute for cocoa butter. Somehow, their products are not allowed in most countries. Here we show that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matter, especially to the viscosity of liquid suspension and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density. When the concentration of cocoa solid is high, close to the MRJ density, removing a small amount of fat will jam the chocolate flow. Applying unconventional electrorheology to liquid chocolate with applied field in the flow direction, we aggregate the cocoa particles into prolate spheroids in micrometers. This microstructure change breaks the rotational symmetry, reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction, and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are expecting a new class of healthier and tastier chocolate soon.

  6. Effects of olfactory sense on chocolate craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W; Gillette, Aubrey L; Hobbs, Taylor E; Wu, Di

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effect of the olfactory sense on chocolate craving in college females. Building on previous research by Kemps and Tiggemann (2013), we hypothesized that a fresh scent would decrease one's craving level for chocolate food. While the precursor study only addressed the decrease of chocolate craving, we also hypothesized that a sweet scent would increase one's craving level for chocolate foods. In the present experiment, participants rated their craving levels after viewing images of chocolate foods and inhaling essential oils: one fresh (Slique™ essence), and one sweet (vanilla). Results supported both of the hypotheses: inhaling a fresh scent reduced females' craving levels; similarly, when a sweet scent was inhaled, the participants' craving levels for chocolate food increased. These findings are particularly beneficial for women seeking weight loss and the findings can be applied in contexts such as weight loss programs, therapy, and maintenance programs, even beyond college settings. The results are particularly useful for helping women regarding stimuli that might serve as triggers for chocolate cravings. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. The history and science of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verna, R

    2013-12-01

    This article gives an account of the origins, evolution and properties of chocolate. Chocolate is processed from the pod or cabosside of the cacao plant, grown in the tropical belt. The origins of chocolate are traced back to the Maya people who were probably the first to cultivate the cacao plant. The early chocolate drink, considered a "drink of the Gods" was mixed with cinnamon and pepper, tasting bitter and strong, and was most appreciated for its invigorating and stimulating effects than for its taste. Imported from the Americas, the softened version soon spread in Europe. From the 1800s to the 20th Century, it evolved from a drink to its current pleasurable varieties (such as fondant, Gianduja, milky and white chocolate), gaining much momentum in industry and also made great impact as a romantic item and art form. Important components in chocolate are flavonoids (antioxidants), cocoa butter, caffeine, theobromine and phenylethylamine, whereas the presence of psychoactive substances account for its pleasurable effects. Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine constitutes the methylxanthines, known to enhance the action of cAMP, which plays an important role in the transmission of intracellular signals. Chocolate is noted to have anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects, and improves the bioavailability of nitric oxide, which action improves the pressure, platelet function and fluidity of blood.

  8. Liquor licences issued to Australian schools.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ward, Bernadette M; Kippen, Rebecca; Munro, Geoffrey; Buykx, Penny; McBride, Nyanda; Wiggers, John; Clark, Madeline

    2017-08-01

    Children's positive socialisation to alcohol is associated with early initiation of drinking and alcohol-related harm in adult life. Internationally, there have been reports of adults' alcohol consumption at school events in the presence of children. The aim of this research was to identify the conditions under which Australian schools are required to apply for a liquor licence and the associated prevalence of liquor licences for these events where children were likely to be present. A document review was conducted to examine temporary liquor licensing legislation. Quantitative analysis was used to examine relevant licensing data. Coding criteria was developed to determine school type, student year levels and the likely presence of children. Four jurisdictions provided data on 1817 relevant licences. The average annual licences/100 schools was highest amongst Independent schools followed by Catholic and public (government) schools. The rates were highest in Queensland and Victoria where children were present at 61% and 32% of events respectively. While there are legislative differences across jurisdictions, the prevalence of adults' alcohol use at school events in the presence of children may reflect the various education department policies and principals' and school communities' beliefs and attitudes. Licences are not required for all events where liquor is consumed so the prevalence of adults' use of alcohol at school events is likely to be higher than our analyses imply. Such practices may undermine teaching about alcohol use in the school curriculum and health promotion efforts to develop alcohol-free events when children are present.

  9. Clear Liquor Scrubbing with Anhydrite Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hargrove, O. W.; Carey, T. R.; Lowell, P. S.; Meserole, F. B.; Rhudy, R. G.; Feeley, Thomas J.

    1997-01-01

    The objective of this project to develop an advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process that has decreased capital and operating costs, higher SO 2 removal efficiency, and better by-product solids quality than existing, commercially available technology. A clear liquor process (which uses a scrubbing liquid with no solids) will be used to accomplish this objective rather than a slurry liquor process (which contains solids). This clear liquor scrubbing (CLS) project is focused on three research areas: (1) Development of a clear liquor scrubbing process that uses a clear solution to remove SO 2 from flue gas and can be operated under inhibited-oxidation conditions; (2) Development of an anhydrite process that converts precipitated calcium sulfite to anhydrous calcium sulfate (anhydrite); and (3) Development of an alkali/humidification process to remove HCl from flue gas upstream of the FGD system. The anhydrite process also can be retrofit into existing FGD systems to produce a valuable by-product as an alternative to gypsum. This fits well into another of FETC's PRDA objectives of developing an advanced byproduct recovery subsystem capable of transforming SO 2 into a useable byproduct or high-volume valuable commodities of interest. This paper describes the proposed processes, outlines the test approach, and preliminary Phase I test results

  10. Daqu - a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Rezaei Tabrizi, M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Han, B.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the world's oldest distilled alcoholic beverages, and it is typically obtained with the use of Daqufermentation starters. Daqu is a saccharifying and fermenting agent, having a significant impact on the flavour of the product. Daqucan be categorized according to maximum

  11. 21 CFR 163.130 - Milk chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.130 Milk chocolate. (a..., flavorings, or seasonings specified in paragraph (b)(3) of this section are used in the breakfast cocoa, the...

  12. 21 CFR 163.123 - Sweet chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.123 Sweet chocolate. (a... specified in paragraph (b)(3) of this section are used in the breakfast cocoa, the label shall bear an...

  13. Attentional bias for craving-related (chocolate) food cues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2009-12-01

    In this study, we investigated attentional biases for craving-related food cues. A pictorial dot probe task was used to assess selective attentional processing of one particular highly desired food, namely chocolate, relative to that of other highly desired foods. In Experiment 1, we examined biased processing of chocolate cues in habitual (trait) chocolate cravers, whereas in Experiment 2 we investigated the effect of experimentally induced (state) chocolate cravings on such processing. As predicted, habitual chocolate cravers (Experiment 1) and individuals in whom a craving for chocolate was temporarily induced (Experiment 2) showed speeded detection of probes replacing chocolate-related pictures, demonstrating an attentional bias for chocolate cues. Subsequent examination indicated that in both experiments the observed attentional biases stemmed from difficulty in disengaging attention from chocolate cues rather than from a shift of attention toward such cues. The findings have important theoretical and practical implications.

  14. Chocolate Bars Based on Human Nutritional Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Robson , Anthony ,

    2013-01-01

    International audience; Key Points * The nutritional value of chocolate bars should be based on the nutritional value of the low energy dense late Paleolithic human diet to help reduce mental ill health, obesity, and other postprandial insults. * Current chocolate bars have a high energy density (>2 kcal/g). * Cocoa can be sweetened by the addition of calorie-free Purefruit™ (Tate & Lyle) monk fruit ( Siraitia grosvenorii ) extract. PUREFRUIT™ is approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar and...

  15. Time to B. cereus about hot chocolate.

    OpenAIRE

    Nelms, P K; Larson, O; Barnes-Josiah, D

    1997-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To determine the cause of illnesses experienced by employees of a Minneapolis manufacturing plant after drinking hot chocolate bought from a vending machine and to explore the prevalence of similar vending machine-related illnesses. METHODS: The authors inspected the vending machines at the manufacturing plant where employees reported illnesses and at other locations in the city where hot chocolate beverages were sold in machines. Tests were performed on dry mix, water, and beverag...

  16. CACAO TO COCOA TO CHOCOLATE: HEALTHY FOOD?

    OpenAIRE

    ROYA KELISHADI

    2010-01-01

    ABSTRACT Chocolate is derived from cocoa beans - the fruit of the cacao tree or Theobroma cacao (the latin term: food of the gods). Recent published articles demonstrate that the quality and quantity of the antioxidants in cocoa and chocolate are very high and their flavonoids are believed to reduce the number of free radicals in the body that contribute to medical problems, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer and also to offer some anti-aging health benefits. Cocoa can lower the leukot...

  17. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Loquasto, Joseph R.; Roberts, Robert F.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2016-01-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  18. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L; Loquasto, Joseph R; Roberts, Robert F; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  19. Effects of Chocolate Deprivation on Implicit and Explicit Evaluation of Chocolate in High and Low Trait Chocolate Cravers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Richard, Anna; Meule, Adrian; Friese, Malte; Blechert, Jens

    2017-01-01

    Diet failures are often attributed to an increase in cravings for attractive foods. However, accumulating evidence shows that food cravings actually decrease during energy-restricting weight-loss interventions. The current study aimed at elucidating possible mechanisms that may explain how and under which circumstances food cravings in- or decrease during dieting. Specifically, decreases in food cravings during weight-loss diets may be due to effects of energy restriction (homeostatic changes) and to effects of avoiding specific foods (hedonic changes). Thus, we used a selective, hedonic deprivation (i.e., restricting intake of a specific food in the absence of an energy deficit) that precludes homeostatic changes due to energy restriction. Furthermore, interindividual differences in food craving experiences might affect why some individuals are more prone to experience cravings during dieting than others. Thus, we investigated whether a selective deprivation of chocolate would in- or decrease craving and implicit preference for chocolate as a function of trait-level differences in chocolate craving. Participants with high and low trait chocolate craving (HC, LC) refrained from consuming chocolate for 2 weeks but otherwise maintained their usual food intake. Both groups underwent laboratory assessments before and after deprivation, each including explicit (i.e., state chocolate craving) and implicit measures (i.e., Single Category Implicit Association Test, SC-IAT; Affect Misattribution Procedure, AMP). Results showed that hedonic deprivation increased state chocolate craving in HCs only. HCs also showed more positive implicit attitudes toward chocolate than LCs on the SC-IAT and the AMP irrespective of deprivation. Results help to disambiguate previous studies on the effects of dieting on food cravings. Specifically, while previous studies showed that energy-restricting diets appear to decrease food cravings, the current study showed that a selective, hedonic

  20. Effects of Chocolate Deprivation on Implicit and Explicit Evaluation of Chocolate in High and Low Trait Chocolate Cravers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anna Richard

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Diet failures are often attributed to an increase in cravings for attractive foods. However, accumulating evidence shows that food cravings actually decrease during energy-restricting weight-loss interventions. The current study aimed at elucidating possible mechanisms that may explain how and under which circumstances food cravings in- or decrease during dieting. Specifically, decreases in food cravings during weight-loss diets may be due to effects of energy restriction (homeostatic changes and to effects of avoiding specific foods (hedonic changes. Thus, we used a selective, hedonic deprivation (i.e., restricting intake of a specific food in the absence of an energy deficit that precludes homeostatic changes due to energy restriction. Furthermore, interindividual differences in food craving experiences might affect why some individuals are more prone to experience cravings during dieting than others. Thus, we investigated whether a selective deprivation of chocolate would in- or decrease craving and implicit preference for chocolate as a function of trait-level differences in chocolate craving. Participants with high and low trait chocolate craving (HC, LC refrained from consuming chocolate for 2 weeks but otherwise maintained their usual food intake. Both groups underwent laboratory assessments before and after deprivation, each including explicit (i.e., state chocolate craving and implicit measures (i.e., Single Category Implicit Association Test, SC-IAT; Affect Misattribution Procedure, AMP. Results showed that hedonic deprivation increased state chocolate craving in HCs only. HCs also showed more positive implicit attitudes toward chocolate than LCs on the SC-IAT and the AMP irrespective of deprivation. Results help to disambiguate previous studies on the effects of dieting on food cravings. Specifically, while previous studies showed that energy-restricting diets appear to decrease food cravings, the current study showed that a selective

  1. Electrorheology leads to healthier and tastier chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Rongjia; Tang, Hong; Tawhid-Al-Islam, Kazi; Du, Enpeng; Kim, Jeongyoo

    2016-01-01

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. Although this issue was called into attention decades ago, no actual solution was found. To bypass this critical outstanding problem, two manufacturers introduced some low-calorie fats to substitute for cocoa butter. Somehow, their products are not allowed in most countries. Here we show that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matter, especially to the viscosity of liquid suspension and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density. When the concentration of cocoa solid is high, close to the MRJ density, removing a small amount of fat will jam the chocolate flow. Applying unconventional electrorheology to liquid chocolate with applied field in the flow direction, we aggregate the cocoa particles into prolate spheroids in micrometers. This microstructure change breaks the rotational symmetry, reduces liquid chocolate’s viscosity along the flow direction, and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are expecting a new class of healthier and tastier chocolate soon. PMID:27325758

  2. Dark chocolate inhibits platelet aggregation in healthy volunteers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Innes, Andrew J; Kennedy, Gwen; McLaren, Margaret; Bancroft, Anne J; Belch, Jill J F

    2003-08-01

    Cardiovascular disease is a leading cause of death in the UK. The flavonoids found in cocoa may produce a cardio-protective role for chocolate with a high cocoa content. Thirty healthy volunteers were randomised to receive 100 g of white, milk or dark chocolate, and assessments of platelet function were undertaken on venous blood samples before and after chocolate consumption. White and milk chocolate had no significant effect on platelets. However dark chocolate inhibited collagen-induced platelet aggregation in platelet rich plasma. In the future dark chocolate may have a role in prevention of cardiovascular and thromboembolic diseases.

  3. Eyelid liquoric fistula secondary to orbital meningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Antunes Schiave Germano

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Liquoric fistula (LF is defined as the communication of the subarachnoid space with the external environment, which main complication is the development of infection in the central nervous system. We reported the case of a patient with non-traumatic eyelid liquoric fistula secondary to orbital meningocele (congenital lesion, which main clinical manifestation was unilateral eyelid edema. Her symptoms and clinical signs appeared in adulthood, which is uncommon. The patient received surgical treatment, with complete resolution of the eyelid swelling. In conclusion, eyelid cerebrospinal fluid (CSF fistula is a rare condition but with great potential deleterious to the patient. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unilateral eyelid edema, and surgical treatment is almost always mandatory.

  4. Suppressing images of desire: Neural correlates of chocolate-related thoughts in high and low trait chocolate cravers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miedl, Stephan F; Blechert, Jens; Meule, Adrian; Richard, Anna; Wilhelm, Frank H

    2018-03-05

    Chocolate is the most often craved food in Western societies and many individuals try to resist its temptation due to weight concerns. Suppressing chocolate-related thoughts might, however, lead to paradoxical enhancements of these thoughts and this effect might be more pronounced in individuals with frequent chocolate cravings. In the current study, neural and cognitive correlates of chocolate thought suppression were investigated as a function of trait chocolate craving. Specifically, 20 high and 20 low trait chocolate cravers followed suppression vs. free thinking instructions after being exposed to chocolate and neutral images. Enhanced cue reactivity was evident in high trait chocolate cravers in that they reported more chocolate-related thoughts selectively after chocolate images compared to their low trait craving counterparts. This cue reactivity was mirrored neurally by higher activation in the ventral and dorsal striatum, demonstrating enhanced reward system activity. Unexpectedly, high trait chocolate cravers successfully reduced their elevated chocolate thoughts in the suppression condition. This lends support for the use of thought suppression as a means of regulating unwanted thoughts, cravings and imagery. Whether this thought manipulation is able to curb the elevated cue reactivity and the underlying reward sensitivity in chocolate cravers in applied settings remains to be shown. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Experimental effects of chocolate deprivation on cravings, mood, and consumption in high and low chocolate-cravers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Dominguez, Silvia; Rodríguez-Ruiz, Sonia; Martín, María; Warren, Cortney S

    2012-02-01

    This study examined how deprivation of chocolate affects state-level chocolate cravings, mood, and chocolate consumption in high and low trait-level chocolate-cravers. After identifying high and low chocolate cravers (N=58), half of the participants were instructed not to eat any chocolate for 2weeks. This created four experimental groups: deprived high-cravers (n=14), deprived low-cravers (n=14), non-deprived high-cravers (n=15), and non-deprived low-cravers (n=15). Following 2-week deprivation, state-level food cravings, mood, and chocolate intake were measured in a laboratory setting and compared across groups. Analyses revealed that anxiety increased over time for high-cravers (both deprived and non-deprived); state-level chocolate- and food-craving increased over time for both deprived groups and non-deprived high-cravers; non-deprived high-cravers ate the most chocolate; and, high-cravers were more joyful and guilty than low-cravers after eating chocolate in the laboratory. Theoretically, these results suggest that chocolate consumption may be better explained by trait-level of chocolate craving than by deprivation and highlighted significant differences in mood, state-level cravings, and chocolate intake between cravers and non-cravers following deprivation. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Clinical benefit and preservation of flavonols in dark chocolate manufacturing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McShea, Andrew; Ramiro-Puig, Emma; Munro, Sandra B; Casadesus, Gemma; Castell, Margarida; Smith, Mark A

    2008-11-01

    The consumption of high-cacao-content chocolate has been associated with positive health benefits ascribed to flavanol [corrected] antioxidants derived from the ground, fermented cocoa seeds of Theobroma cacao. However, flavanols [corrected] impart a bitter, astringent flavor to foodstuffs, frequently masked in chocolates and confections by aggressive processing and adulteration with other flavors. Recent reports have implied that not all varieties of dark chocolate are created equally, and significant caveats exist regarding its potential health benefits. It is perhaps not surprising that extensive processing, dilution, and the addition of flavor modifiers may improve the palatability of chocolate, but could have negative nutritional and clinical benefits. This article examines the chemical composition of chocolate and the clinical data associated with the consumption of flavonoid-rich cocoa. We review the steps in chocolate manufacturing that directly affect the antioxidant levels in chocolate products, and the caveats associated with claims of health benefits from the consumption of dark chocolate.

  7. Claims about Cocoa: Can Chocolate Really Be Good for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... effects. These compounds are also found in tea, wine, fruits and vegetables. Different chocolates can vary greatly ... chocolate. You won’t get any of the benefit. It’s just going to be unneeded calories.” But ...

  8. Chocolate protects a heart and vessels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Chudzińska

    2017-08-01

    Full Text Available A healthy diet plays a key role in the prevention and management of cardiovascular diseases. Atherosclerosis and its complications are nowadays one of the leading causes of death in the western population. Among numerous factors known for slowing down the progression of the disease is the consumption of vegetables, fruits and chocolate rich in multiring compounds called polyphenols. Chocolate is a source of catechins, epicatechins and procyanidins. Recently, several studies have demonstrated the beneficial effects of dark chocolate in management of hypertension  by hypotensive effect associated with vasorelaxation mediated most likely by the stimulation of nitric oxide production in the vascular wall. Cocoa and its derivatives have also strong antioxidative properties resulting in enhancement of the  total antioxidant potential and inhibition of lipid peroxidation. It was also demonstrated that cocoa polyphenols have a favourable antithrombotic effect connected with the inhibition of platelet activation. Chocolate may diminish insulin resistance and inhibit inflammatory process. Cocoa improves also psychical well being. This pleiotropic activity of cocoa results in slowing down the progression and limiting the complications of atherosclerosis in regular chocolate consumers.

  9. The health benefits of chocolate enrichment with dried fruits

    OpenAIRE

    Özlem Ça&#&#nd&#; Semih Ötleş

    2009-01-01

    One of the most popular food all over the world is chocolate and it has highly nutritious energy, fast metabolism and good digestibility. Nowadays, most important trend is healthy foods. Develop a chocolate product that will be be nutritional for many more people. It is well known that dried fruits has high nutritious values and health benefits. Dried fruits are good sources to developed chocolates. This paper aims to review health importance and usage of dried fruits in chocolate.

  10. Environmental impacts of chocolate production and consumption in the UK.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Konstantas, Antonios; Jeswani, Harish K; Stamford, Laurence; Azapagic, Adisa

    2018-04-01

    This study evaluates life cycle environmental impacts associated with chocolate products made and consumed in the UK. The paper focuses on three representative chocolate products occupying 90% of the market: 'moulded chocolate', 'chocolate countlines' and 'chocolates in bag'. The impacts were estimated using life cycle assessment (LCA) as a tool and following the ReCiPe impact assessment method. The water footprint was also considered. For example, the global warming potential ranges between 2.91 and 4.15 kg CO 2 eq., primary energy demand from 30 to 41 MJ and the water footprint, including water stress, from 31 to 63 l per kilogram of chocolate. The raw materials are the major hotspot across all impact categories for all three product types, followed by the chocolate production process and packaging. The raw material impacts are mainly due to milk powder, cocoa derivatives, sugar and palm oil. The sensitivity analysis shows that the results for global warming potential are sensitive to land-use change (LUC) associated with cocoa production, increasing the impact of the chocolate products by three to four times if LUC is involved. The improvement opportunities targeting the key contributing stages suggest that GWP of chocolates could be reduced by 14%-19%. Chocolate countlines have the highest contribution to the total impacts at the UK level (37%-43%), followed by chocolates in bag (28%-33%). Moulded chocolates and other chocolate confectionary make up the rest of the impacts, with a roughly equal share each. Chocolate consumption in the UK contributes 4.7% to the primary energy consumption and 2.4% to the GHG emissions from the whole food and drink sector. The results of this work will be of interest to policy makers, chocolate producers and consumers, helping them to make more informed decisions towards sustainable production and consumption of chocolate products. Copyright © 2018 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  11. From pralines to multinationals: The economic history of Belgian chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Garrone, Maria; Pieters, Hannah; Swinnen, Johan F. M.

    2016-01-01

    Belgium is associated with high-quality chocolate products and Belgian companies play an important role in cocoa processing. However, in historical perspective the global success and reputation of Belgian chocolate is a relatively recent phenomenon. Especially since the 1980s exports of "Belgian chocolates" have grown exponentially. We document the growth of the sector and discuss its determinants. Today, the very concept of "Belgian chocolate" faces challenges, as successful companies have b...

  12. Combustion properties of kraft black liquors; Mustalipeaen koostumuksen vaikutus lipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Siistonen, H.; Heikkinen, T.; Malkavaara, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this work is to study the combustion properties of kraft black liquors from modified cooking. Both the industrial and laboratory-made black liquors are included. In addition, changes in the combustion properties of the spent liquors obtained by mixing prior to combustion different chlorine-free bleach liquors with black liquor are studied. (author)

  13. Supraventricular tachycardia induced by chocolate: is chocolate too sweet for the heart?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parasramka, Saurabh; Dufresne, Alix

    2012-09-01

    Conflicting studies have been published concerning the association between chocolate and cardiovascular diseases. Fewer articles have described the potential arrhythmogenic risk related to chocolate intake. We present a case of paroxysmal supraventricular tachycardia in a woman after consumption of large quantity of chocolate. A 53-year-old woman with no significant medical history presented to us with complaints of palpitations and shortness of breath after consuming large amounts of chocolate. Electrocardiogram showed supraventricular tachycardia at 165 beats per minute, which was restored to sinus rhythm after adenosine bolus injection. Electrophysiology studies showed atrioventricular nodal reentry tachycardia, which was treated with radiofrequency ablation. Chocolate contains caffeine and theobromine, which are methylxanthines and are competitive antagonists of adenosine and can have arrhythmogenic potential. Our case very well describes an episode of tachycardia precipitated by large amount of chocolate consumption in a patient with underlying substrate. There are occasional case reports describing association between chocolate, caffeine, and arrhythmias. A large Danish study, however, did not find any association between amount of daily caffeine consumption and risk of arrhythmia.

  14. Efectos beneficiosos del chocolate en la salud cardiovascular Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health

    OpenAIRE

    M. Gómez-Juaristi; L. González-Torres; L. Bravo; M. P. Vaquero; S. Bastida; F. J. Sánchez-Muniz

    2011-01-01

    Desde la antigüedad se ha atribuido al chocolate propiedades saludables que lo han aproximado más hacia un uso terapéutico que alimentario. El presente trabajo revisa algunos estudios relevantes de los efectos del chocolate (y sus componentes activos) sobre diferentes factores de riesgo cardiovascular y señala la necesidad de futuros estudios. El consumo de cacao/chocolate (i) incrementa la actividad antioxidante, (ii) modula la función plaquetaria e inflamación y (iii) disminuye la presión a...

  15. Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health | Efectos beneficiosos del chocolate en la salud cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Juaristi, Miren; González-Torres, L.; Bravo, Laura; Vaquero, M. Pilar; Bastida, Sara; Sánchez-Muniz, F. J.

    2011-01-01

    Desde la antigüedad se ha atribuido al chocolate propiedades saludables que lo han aproximado más hacia un uso terapéutico que alimentario. El presente trabajo revisa algunos estudios relevantes de los efectos del chocolate (y sus componentes activos) sobre diferentes factores de riesgo cardiovascular y señala la necesidad de futuros estudios. El consumo de cacao/chocolate (i) incrementa la actividad antioxidante, (ii) modula la función plaquetaria e inflamación y (iii...

  16. [How does chocolate impact vascular function?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, Andreas J; Sudano, Isabella

    2014-11-12

    For thousands of years, cocoa have been a very popular food and has been linked to various beneficial health effects. Observational and epidemiological studies point towards a beneficial effect of dark chocolate on cardiovascular morbidity. Several small, albeit controlled studies indeed demonstrate an amelioration of endothelial dysfunction - the dysfunction of the inner layer of the vessels - after intake of dark, flavanol-rich chocolate. This is important, as endothelial dysfunction is an important marker of the development of atherosclerosis and an important prognosticator of future cardiovascular events. This article summarizes the actual literature in this respect.

  17. Calorie reduction of chocolate ganache through substitution of whipped cream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu Jin Kim

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate has been around for 3,000 years and is loved by many people for as long as its history. However, chocolate is classified as a high calorie food due to the high fat and sugar contents. These contents have negative effects on health, such as obesity, so some people have concerns about chocolate. Nevertheless, it has attracted more attention recently due to functional ingredients such as polyphenols and flavonoids of cacao, which is a main component of chocolate. This study was conducted to reduce the fat content in chocolate, which is the biggest disadvantage of chocolate. We investigated the physicochemical properties of different kinds of chocolate ganache made of whipped cream, milk, vegetable cream, and coconut milk. The whipped cream chocolate ganache was considered as the control group. The added ingredients affected moisture, crude fat, sugar contents, hardness, and influenced every result of the tests performed. The whipped cream chocolate ganache with the lowest moisture and highest fat contents showed the same result (the lowest moisture contents and highest fat contents; p < 0.05 and resulted in average hardness. The vegetable cream chocolate ganache showed similar results to that of the whipped cream’s result above, except in the category of hardness. The vegetable cream chocolate ganache showed a high circumference, height, and hardness. Milk chocolate, with the highest moisture and lowest fat content, showed identical results with the whipped cream’s result. In circumference, height and hardness, milk chocolate ganache showed the highest circumference (p < 0.05, a low height, and a similar value to whipped cream, but coconut milk also showed low values of circumferences and hardness. Overall, the whipped cream chocolate ganache was the most preferred chocolate in the sensory test, but the coconut milk chocolate ganache was the softest chocolate among the cream replacements. Because of its low caloric content and

  18. Influence of label information on dark chocolate acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Moreno, M; Tarrega, A; Torrescasana, E; Blanch, C

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to study how the information on product labels influences consumer expectations and their acceptance and purchase intention of dark chocolate. Six samples of dark chocolate, varying in brand (premium and store brand) and in type of product (regular dark chocolate, single cocoa origin dark chocolate and high percentage of cocoa dark chocolate), were evaluated by 109 consumers who scored their liking and purchase intention under three conditions: blind (only tasting the products), expected (observing product label information) and informed (tasting the products together with provision of the label information). In the expected condition, consumer liking was mainly affected by the brand. In the blind condition, differences in liking were due to the type of product; the samples with a high percentage of cocoa were those less preferred by consumers. Under the informed condition, liking of dark chocolates varied depending on both brand and type of product. Premium brand chocolates generated high consumer expectations of chocolate acceptability, which were fulfilled by the sensory characteristics of the products. Store brand chocolates created lower expectations, but when they were tasted they were as acceptable as premium chocolates. Claims of a high percentage of cocoa and single cocoa origin on labels did not generate higher expectations than regular dark chocolates. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. The medicinal use of chocolate in early North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pucciarelli, Deanna L; Grivetti, Louis E

    2008-10-01

    The medicinal use of chocolate has a long history in North America dating back to the 16th century. From Mesoamerican Codices and European Treatises scholars have determined that for hundreds of years the beverage called chocolate was administered to the sick and prescribed homeopathically to prevent illness. Yet, little scholarship exists that focuses on medicinal chocolate usage in early North America (18th-19th century). This paper examines medical practices during this era and associated medicinal norms with special attention given to chocolate/cocoa usage. Given the current scientific attention on the relationship between dark chocolate consumption and heart disease attenuation it is timely to investigate and chronicle America's medical forebears' understanding of, and practices related to, the medicinal use of chocolate. Indeed, there is a significant amount of literature to suggest that chocolate was used for wellness and to treat illness.

  20. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Loquasto, Joseph R.; Roberts, Robert F.; Ziegler, Gregory R.; Hayes, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes det...

  1. How different chocolate brands influence our chocolate perception and buying behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrovic, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Master in Marketing This master dissertation is based on a research conducted in order to answer the question ‘How different chocolate brands influence our chocolate perception and buying behavior?’. This research was conducted with a sample of 101 respondents through a structured questionnaire. All data acquired were analyzed in the SPSS software, due to its huge potential to compare different variables, that is, different aspects of data. The main aim of this research is to compare...

  2. 27 CFR 31.42 - Restaurants serving liquors with meals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Restaurants serving... Part Certain Organizations, Agencies, and Persons § 31.42 Restaurants serving liquors with meals. Proprietors of restaurants and other persons who serve liquors with meals to paying customers, even if no...

  3. Influence of probiotics on rumen liquor characteristics and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Probiotics has been noted to work synergistically with rumen microbes and improved rumen liquor characteristics. In this study, we investigated the effect of probiotics inclusion on rumen liquor characteristics (physical, chemical and fermentative qualities) and microbiology in WAD goats. In a completely randomised design, ...

  4. Chocolate milk consequences: a pilot study evaluating the consequences of banning chocolate milk in school cafeterias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Hanks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk. If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? METHODS: In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk-which will be referred to as chocolate milk-was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP were compared year to date. RESULTS: Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (p<0.01. Although white milk increased by 161.2 cartons per day (p<0.001, 29.4% of this milk was thrown away. Eliminating chocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. CONCLUSIONS: Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose.

  5. Resisting chocolate temptation using a brief mindfulness strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jenkins, Kim T; Tapper, Katy

    2014-09-01

    We examined the effects of two mindfulness-based strategies on chocolate consumption amongst individuals who were trying to reduce the amount of chocolate they consumed. Participants (n = 137) were allocated to one of three conditions and employed either cognitive defusion, acceptance, or relaxation (control) techniques to help them resist chocolate over 5 days. During this period, they carried a bag of chocolates with them and recorded any chocolate or chocolate-related products they consumed. They also completed a questionnaire measure of the extent to which chocolate consumption was automatic, both before and after the 5-day period. Results showed that compared to controls, those in the cognitive defusion group ate significantly less chocolate from the bag (p = .046) and less chocolate according to the diary measure (p = .053). There was evidence that these changes were brought about by reductions in the extent to which chocolate consumption was automatic. There were no differences in chocolate consumption between the acceptance and control groups. Our results point to a promising brief intervention strategy and highlight the importance of disentangling the effects of different mindfulness-based techniques. What is already known on this subject? Multicomponent mindfulness interventions have been successfully applied to a range of health behaviours. Low levels of self-control are associated with weight gain and a higher BMI. What does this study add? The results show that a brief mindfulness strategy (defusion) helps individuals resist chocolate over 5 days. The results suggest this may be brought about by reductions in the extent to which eating chocolate is automatic. A second brief mindfulness strategy (acceptance) failed to help individuals resist chocolate. © 2013 The British Psychological Society.

  6. Uranium complex recycling method of purifying uranium liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Elikan, L.; Lyon, W.L.; Sundar, P.S.

    1976-01-01

    Uranium is separated from contaminating cations in an aqueous liquor containing uranyl ions. The liquor is mixed with sufficient recycled uranium complex to raise the weight ratio of uranium to said cations preferably to at least about three. The liquor is then extracted with at least enough non-interfering, water-immiscible, organic solvent to theoretically extract about all of the uranium in the liquor. The organic solvent contains a reagent which reacts with the uranyl ions to form a complex soluble in the solvent. If the aqueous liquor is acidic, the organic solvent is then scrubbed with water. The organic solvent is stripped with a solution containing at least enough ammonium carbonate to precipitate the uranium complex. A portion of the uranium complex is recycled and the remainder can be collected and calcined to produce U 3 O 8 or UO 2

  7. Testing the Fracture Behaviour of Chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, L. B.; Goodall, R.

    2011-01-01

    In teaching the materials science aspects of physics, mechanical behaviour is important due to its relevance to many practical applications. This article presents a method for experimentally examining the toughness of chocolate, including a design for a simple test rig, and a number of experiments that can be performed in the classroom. Typical…

  8. Measuring and modelling the structure of chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Révérend, Benjamin J. D.; Fryer, Peter J.; Smart, Ian; Bakalis, Serafim

    2015-01-01

    The cocoa butter present in chocolate exists as six different polymorphs. To achieve the desired crystal form (βV), traditional chocolate manufacturers use relatively slow cooling (chocolate products during processing as well as the crystal structure of cocoa butter throughout the process. A set of ordinary differential equations describes the kinetics of fat crystallisation. The parameters were obtained by fitting the model to a set of DSC curves. The heat transfer equations were coupled to the kinetic model and solved using commercially available CFD software. A method using single crystal XRD was developed using a novel subtraction method to quantify the cocoa butter structure in chocolate directly and results were compared to the ones predicted from the model. The model was proven to predict phase change temperature during processing accurately (±1°C). Furthermore, it was possible to correctly predict phase changes and polymorphous transitions. The good agreement between the model and experimental data on the model geometry allows a better design and control of industrial processes.

  9. Time to B. cereus about hot chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelms, P K; Larson, O; Barnes-Josiah, D

    1997-01-01

    To determine the cause of illnesses experienced by employees of a Minneapolis manufacturing plant after drinking hot chocolate bought from a vending machine and to explore the prevalence of similar vending machine-related illnesses. The authors inspected the vending machines at the manufacturing plant where employees reported illnesses and at other locations in the city where hot chocolate beverages were sold in machines. Tests were performed on dry mix, water, and beverage samples and on machine parts. Laboratory analyses confirmed the presence of B. cereus in dispensed beverages at a concentration capable of causing illness (170,000 count/gm). In citywide testing of vending machines dispensing hot chocolate, 7 of the 39 licensed machines were found to be contaminated, with two contaminated machines having B. cereus levels capable of causing illness. Hot chocolate sold in vending machines may contain organisms capable of producing toxins that under favorable conditions, can induce illness. Such illnesses are likely to be underreported. Even low concentrations of B. cereus may be dangerous for vulnerable populations such as the aged or immunosuppressed. Periodic testing of vending machines is thus warranted. The relationship between cleaning practices and B. cereus contamination is an issue for further study.

  10. CACAO TO COCOA TO CHOCOLATE: HEALTHY FOOD?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROYA KELISHADI

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Chocolate is derived from cocoa beans - the fruit of the cacao tree or Theobroma cacao (the latin term: food of the gods. Recent published articles demonstrate that the quality and quantity of the antioxidants in cocoa and chocolate are very high and their flavonoids are believed to reduce the number of free radicals in the body that contribute to medical problems, such as cardiovascular disease and cancer and also to offer some anti-aging health benefits. Cocoa can lower the leukotriene/ prostacyclin ratio and is shown to have beneficial effects on platelets and possibly inflammation and vessel dilation. They inhibit low-density lipoprotein (LDL oxidation, raise the high-density lipoprotein (HDL level and reduce the thrombotic tendency. Their antioxidant catechin content is four times that of tea. They help the body process nitric oxide. Their flavanols and procyanidins have inhibitory effects on hemolysis, they can also attribute as a defense against reactive oxygen species (ROS and can inhibit their carcinogenic processes. Also they are shown to inhibit growth and polyamine biosynthesis of human colonic cancer cells. They contain tryptophan and anandamide, which lessen anxiety, promote relaxation and trigger the production of endorphins. Cocoa can prevent dental caries and may play a regulating role in the function of the immune system and prevent infectious and autoimmune diseases. It stimulates lactase enzyme activity. Although caffeine may be harmful in large dose, chocolate contains it in small amount in comparison to coffee and tea. Negative effects of chocolate on childhood hyperactivity and migraine  as well as tension headaches are controversial. Since the theobromine content of chocolate relaxes the esophageal sphincter, patients suffering from heartburn should avoid it. Cocoa can trigger some allergic reactions such as atopic dermatitis. This article reviews the potential health benefits and disadvantages of cocoa

  11. 21 CFR 163.155 - Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.155... § 163.155 Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Milk chocolate and vegetable fat... label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate in § 163.130 or skim milk chocolate in § 163.140...

  12. Methylated liquor treatment process in caffeine production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Junbo; Yang, Mingyang; Huang, Wenjia; Cui, Shenglu; Gao, Liping

    2018-02-01

    The caffeine production process produces a large amount of sodium methyl sulphate in the methylated mother liquor. In order to recycle this part of ingredient, we use the mother liquid of Shijiazhuang Xin Nuowei Pharmaceutical Co., Ltd. as the object of study, the use of “nanofiltration (NF) - Dish Type Reverse Osmosis (DTRO) “combination of membrane technology for desalination and concentration. The experimental results show that the concentration of sodium sulfate in the nanofiltration solution is 0.37 g • L -1, the rejection rate is 98%, and the concentration of sodium methyl sulfate in DTRO concentrated solution is 453.80 g • L -1, which meets the requirements of the enterprise.

  13. Catalytic mechanism of sodium compounds in black liquor during gasification of coal black liquor slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Kuang Jianping; Zhou Junhu; Zhou Zhijun; Liu Jianzhong; Cen Kefa

    2008-01-01

    The coal black liquor slurry (CBLS) was composed of coal and black pulping liquor, which has plenty of sodium compounds, lignin and cellulose. The sodium compounds have a catalytic effect on the gasification process of coal black liquor slurry, while lignin and cellulose enhance the heat value. Alkali-catalyzed gasification experiments of CBLS and CWS (coal water slurry) are investigated on the thermobalance and fixed bed reactor. The residues of the gasification of CBLS and CWS are analyzed by XRD, SEM and FT-IR. It is found that many micro- and mesopores and zigzag faces exist in the surface of the CBLS coke, which play a key role in the catalytic gasification. Sodium can enhance the reaction potential, weaken the bond of C-O and improve the gasification reaction rate. XRD results show that sodium aluminum silicate and nepheline are the main crystal components of the CBLS and CWS. The C-O stretching vibration peak in the 1060 cm -1 band in the CBLS shifts to 995.65 cm -1 in the CBLS coke after partial gasification. This means that the energy of the C-O stretching vibration in the CBLS carbon matrix decreases, so the structure of the carbon matrix is more liable to react with an oxygen ion or hydroxide ion. The amplitude of the C-O stretching vibration peak is augmented step by step due to the ground-excited level jump of the C-O band

  14. Bias modification training can alter approach bias and chocolate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Sophie E; Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika

    2016-01-01

    Recent evidence has demonstrated that bias modification training has potential to reduce cognitive biases for attractive targets and affect health behaviours. The present study investigated whether cognitive bias modification training could be applied to reduce approach bias for chocolate and affect subsequent chocolate consumption. A sample of 120 women (18-27 years) were randomly assigned to an approach-chocolate condition or avoid-chocolate condition, in which they were trained to approach or avoid pictorial chocolate stimuli, respectively. Training had the predicted effect on approach bias, such that participants trained to approach chocolate demonstrated an increased approach bias to chocolate stimuli whereas participants trained to avoid such stimuli showed a reduced bias. Further, participants trained to avoid chocolate ate significantly less of a chocolate muffin in a subsequent taste test than participants trained to approach chocolate. Theoretically, results provide support for the dual process model's conceptualisation of consumption as being driven by implicit processes such as approach bias. In practice, approach bias modification may be a useful component of interventions designed to curb the consumption of unhealthy foods. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. Consumption of dark chocolate attenuates subsequent food intake compared with milk and white chocolate in postmenopausal women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marsh, Channa E; Green, Daniel J; Naylor, Louise H; Guelfi, Kym J

    2017-09-01

    Chocolate has a reputation for contributing to weight gain due to its high fat, sugar and calorie content. However, the effect of varying concentrations of cocoa in chocolate on energy intake and appetite is not clear. To compare the acute effect of consuming an isocaloric dose of dark, milk and white chocolate on subsequent energy intake, appetite and mood in postmenopausal women. Fourteen healthy postmenopausal women (57.6 ± 4.8yr) attended an introductory session followed by three experimental trials performed in a counterbalanced order at a standardised time of day, each separated by one week. Ad libitum energy intake, perceived appetite, mood and appetite-related peptides were assessed in response to consumption of 80% cocoa [dark chocolate], 35% cocoa [milk chocolate] and cocoa butter [white chocolate] (2099 kJ), prepared from a single-origin cacao bean. Ad libitum energy intake was significantly lower following dark (1355 ± 750 kJ) compared with both milk (1693 ± 969 kJ; P = 0.008) and white (1842 ± 756 kJ; P = 0.001) chocolate consumption. Blood glucose and insulin concentrations were transiently elevated in response to white and milk chocolate consumption compared with the dark chocolate (P cocoa content chocolate (dark and milk) compared with white chocolate (P  0.05). Dark chocolate attenuates subsequent food intake in postmenopausal women, compared to the impact of milk and white chocolate consumption. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Chocolate Milk Consequences: A Pilot Study Evaluating the Consequences of Banning Chocolate Milk in School Cafeterias

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanks, Andrew S.; Just, David R.; Wansink, Brian

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk). If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? Methods In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk–which will be referred to as chocolate milk–was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP) were compared year to date. Results Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (pchocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. Conclusions Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more) of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose. PMID:24740451

  17. Chocolate/cocoa and human health: a review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, R

    2013-03-01

    Chocolate/cocoa has been known for its good taste and proposed health effects for centuries. Earlier, chocolate used to be criticised for its fat content and its consumption was a sin rather than a remedy, associated with acne, caries, obesity, high blood pressure, coronary artery disease and diabetes. Therefore, many physicians tended to warn patients about the potential health hazards of consuming large amounts of chocolate. However, the recent discovery of biologically active phenolic compounds in cocoa has changed this perception and stimulated research on its effects in ageing, oxidative stress, blood pressure regulation, and atherosclerosis. Today, chocolate is lauded for its tremendous antioxidant potential. However, in many studies, contradictory results and concerns about methodological issues have made it hard for health professionals and the public to understand the available evidence on chocolate's effects on health. The purpose of this review is to interpret research done in the last decade on the benefits and risks of chocolate consumption.

  18. Sin and pleasure: the history of chocolate in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Donatella

    2015-11-18

    In ancient Mayan texts cocoa is considered a gift of the gods: Pre-Columbian populations used chocolate as medicine, too. After the discovery of America, chocolate was introduced in Europe, but Christian Europe looked to this new exhilarating drink with extreme suspiciousness and criticism. From this reaction, the necessity derived to appeal to the reasons of health, with which doctors and scientists committed themselves to explain that chocolate was good for the body. However, during the Enlightment, the road of therapy separated from that of taste, and chocolate mainly maintained its leading role of excipient, bearing the burden, over time, of a negative valence, being associated with obesity, dental problems, unhealthy lifestyle, and so forth. The rehabilitation of chocolate has arisen only in recent times, re-establishing that value that Linnaeus himself credited to chocolate, calling the generous plant Theobroma cacao, food of the gods.

  19. Chocolate in History: Food, Medicine, Medi-Food

    OpenAIRE

    Lippi, Donatella

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, chocolate has been used to treat a wide variety of ailments, and in recent years, multiple studies have found that chocolate can have positive health effects, providing evidence to a centuries-long established use; this acknowledgement, however, did not have a straight course, having been involved in religious, medical and cultural controversies. Christian Europe, in fact, feared the exhilarating effects of new drinks, such as chocolate, coffee and tea. Therefore, these be...

  20. Entrepreneurial Master Project; Svenska Guldkusten Organic Chocolate.

    OpenAIRE

    Essuman, Paa Kwesi

    2012-01-01

    Svenska Guldkusten aims to provide value for money in the confectionary industry. Its objective is to provide customers with rich organic chocolate that can be eaten as a source of health and wellbeing. This product will reach markets in South of Sweden, specifically, Blekinge and Skåne.   The business’ purpose is to offer customers 100% certified organic cocoa chocolate. Reaching the customer with the product will be through established chocolate shops, supermarkets, internet, schools (unive...

  1. Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

    OpenAIRE

    Ding, Eric L; Hutfless, Susan M; Ding, Xin; Girotra, Saket

    2006-01-01

    Abstract Background Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. Methods We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, choco...

  2. Methylxanthines are the psycho-pharmacologically active constituents of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Hendrik J; Gaffan, Elizabeth A; Rogers, Peter J

    2004-11-01

    Liking, cravings and addiction for chocolate ("chocoholism") are often explained through the presence of pharmacologically active compounds. However, mere "presence" does not guarantee psycho-activity. Two double-blind, placebo-controlled studies measured the effects on cognitive performance and mood of the amounts of cocoa powder and methylxanthines found in a 50 g bar of dark chocolate. In study 1, participants ( n=20) completed a test battery once before and twice after treatment administration. Treatments included 11.6 g cocoa powder and a caffeine and theobromine combination (19 and 250 mg, respectively). Study 2 ( n=22) comprised three post-treatment test batteries and investigated the effects of "milk" and "dark" chocolate levels of these methylxanthines. The test battery consisted of a long duration simple reaction time task, a rapid visual information processing task, and a mood questionnaire. Identical improvements on the mood construct "energetic arousal" and cognitive function were found for cocoa powder and the caffeine+theobromine combination versus placebo. In chocolate, both "milk chocolate" and "dark chocolate" methylxanthine doses improved cognitive function compared with "white chocolate". The effects of white chocolate did not differ significantly from those of water. A normal portion of chocolate exhibits psychopharmacological activity. The identical profile of effects exerted by cocoa powder and its methylxanthine constituents shows this activity to be confined to the combination of caffeine and theobromine. Methylxanthines may contribute to the popularity of chocolate; however, other attributes are probably much more important in determining chocolate's special appeal and in explaining related self-reports of chocolate cravings and "chocoholism".

  3. A clinical trial gone awry: the Chocolate Happiness Undergoing More Pleasantness (CHUMP) study

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The randomized controlled trial is the “gold standard” for evaluating the benefits and harms of interventions. The Chocolate Happiness Undergoing More Pleasantness (CHUMP) study was designed to compare the effects of dark chocolate, milk chocolate and normal chocolate consumption on happiness. Although the intention-to-treat analysis showed that participants who received either dark or milk chocolate were happier than those who received no additional chocolate, the actual-consumption analysis...

  4. Calorie reduction of chocolate ganache through substitution of whipped cream

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Jin Kim; Suna Kang; Da Hee Kim; Yeo Jin Kim; Woo Ri Kim; Yoo Min Kim; Sunmin Park

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate has been around for 3,000 years and is loved by many people for as long as its history. However, chocolate is classified as a high calorie food due to the high fat and sugar contents. These contents have negative effects on health, such as obesity, so some people have concerns about chocolate. Nevertheless, it has attracted more attention recently due to functional ingredients such as polyphenols and flavonoids of cacao, which is a main component of chocolate. This study was conduct...

  5. Immediate effects of chocolate on experimentally induced mood states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Michael; Mueller, Jochen

    2007-11-01

    In this work two hypotheses were tested: (1) that eating a piece of chocolate immediately affects negative, but not positive or neutral mood, and (2) that this effect is due to palatability. Experiment 1 (48 normal-weight and healthy women and men) examined the effects of eating a piece of chocolate and drinking water on negative, positive and neutral mood states induced by film clips. Eating chocolate reduced negative mood compared to drinking water, whereas no or only marginal effects were found on neutral and positive moods. Experiment 2 (113 normal-weight and healthy women and men) compared effects of eating palatable and unpalatable chocolate on negative mood, and examined the duration of chocolate-induced mood change. Negative mood was improved after eating palatable chocolate as compared to unpalatable chocolate or nothing. This effect was short lived, i.e., it disappeared after 3 min. In both experiments, chocolate-induced mood improvement was associated with emotional eating. The present studies demonstrate that eating a small amount of sweet food improves an experimentally induced negative mood state immediately and selectively and that this effect of chocolate is due to palatability. It is hypothesized that immediate mood effects of palatable food contribute to the habit of eating to cope with stress.

  6. The cardiovascular benefits of dark chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kerimi, Asimina; Williamson, Gary

    2015-08-01

    Dark chocolate contains many biologically active components, such as catechins, procyanidins and theobromine from cocoa, together with added sucrose and lipids. All of these can directly or indirectly affect the cardiovascular system by multiple mechanisms. Intervention studies on healthy and metabolically-dysfunctional volunteers have suggested that cocoa improves blood pressure, platelet aggregation and endothelial function. The effect of chocolate is more convoluted since the sucrose and lipid may transiently and negatively impact on endothelial function, partly through insulin signalling and nitric oxide bioavailability. However, few studies have attempted to dissect out the role of the individual components and have not explored their possible interactions. For intervention studies, the situation is complex since suitable placebos are often not available, and some benefits may only be observed in individuals showing mild metabolic dysfunction. For chocolate, the effects of some of the components, such as sugar and epicatechin on FMD, may oppose each other, or alternatively in some cases may act together, such as theobromine and epicatechin. Although clearly cocoa provides some cardiovascular benefits according to many human intervention studies, the exact components, their interactions and molecular mechanisms are still under debate. Copyright © 2015 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  7. Lignin derivatives from desilicated rice straw soda black liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    El-Taraboulsi, M A; Nasser, M M

    1979-01-01

    Carboxymethyl lignin, cyanoethyl lignin, carboxyethyl lignin, and aminopropyl lignin were prepared from alkali lignin of rice straw black liquor (after disilication by storage for 1 wk to 1 yr) and used as sizes for paper, drilling fluid additives and flocculants.

  8. 27 CFR 5.46 - Standard liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Standards of Fill for... appeal procedures, see part 13 of this chapter. (Sec. 5, 49 Stat. 981, as amended (27 U.S.C. 205); 26 U.S...

  9. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior of black liquor under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study has been to enhance the understanding of the processes involved in pressurized black liquor gasification. Gasification is known to occur in three stages: drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. The work presented here focuses on the pyrolysis and gasification stages. Experiments were carried out primarily in two laboratory-scale reactors. A pressurized grid heater was used to study black liquor pyrolysis under pressurized conditions. Char yields and the fate of elements in the liquor, as well as the degree of liquor swelling, were measured in this device. A pressurized thermogravimetric reactor was used to measure the rate of the char gasification process under different temperatures and pressures and in various gas atmospheres. Pyrolysis experiments were also carried out in this device, and data on swelling behavior, char yields and component release were obtained 317 refs.

  10. Chemical by-products from spent sulfite liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitmore, Jr, L M; Wiley, A J

    1958-01-01

    Current practices for recovering sugars, lignosulfonates, ethanol and feed yeast and product uses are reviewed. A process for separating sugars is described in which the sulfite liquor is spray dried and refluxed with acetone containing a concentrated H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ catalyst, and the di-acetone sugar derivatives are filtered or centrifuged from the acetone insolubles. Recovery of guaiacyl and syringyl derivatives from the lignosulfonate portion of the liquor is discussed.

  11. Vanillin: Synthetic Flavoring from Spent Sulfite Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Martin B.

    1997-09-01

    Separation of the lignin component of wood from the cellulose presents an opportunity to access various interesting products from the lignin fragments. The lignin represents availability of a sizable renewable resource. Vanillin, or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, is one of a series of related substituted aromatic flavor constituents, and represents one of the potentially profitable possibilities. Vanillin production from the lignin-containing waste liquor obtained from acid sulfite pulping of wood began in North America in the mid 1930's. By 1981 one plant at Thorold, Ontario produced 60% of the contemporary world supply of vanillin. The process also simultaneously decreased the organic loading of the aqueous waste streams of the pulping process. Today, however, whilst vanillin production from lignin is still practiced in Norway and a few other areas, all North American facilities using this process have closed, primarily for environmental reasons. New North American vanillin plants use petrochemical raw materials. An innovation is needed to help overcome the environmental problems of this process before vanillin production from lignin is likely to resume here. Current interest in the promotion of chemicals production from renewable raw materials reinforces the incentive to do this.

  12. Research on combustion of black-liquor drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Macek, A.

    1999-01-01

    Black liquor, the major by-product of the kraft process for production of pulp, is one of the most important industrial fuels. It is burned in recovery boilers in the form of large spray drops (mm), with the objective of simultaneous recovery of heat and chemicals (sodium and sulfur). Even though black-liquor combustion in boilers has been practised for over half a century, research efforts toward improvement of combustion efficiency and abatement of environmental emissions are much more recent. The present paper addresses a specific aspect of that research, namely, elucidation of processes which occur during combustion of black-liquor drops in boiler-gas streams. The paper (a) gives a brief description of the kraft process, (b) reviews the experimental and theoretical (modeling) research advances on combustion of kraft-liquor drops during the 1980s and 1990s, (c) re-examines the results of an earlier combustion study in which black-liquor drops were observed in free flight at temperatures near those in recovery boilers, and (d) recommends input for the modeling of in-flight combustion of kraft-liquor drops in recovery boilers. (author)

  13. Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fifth meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    On June 14--17, 1988 the participants and invited guests of the Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery gathered in Charleston, South Carolina, to review progress on four major black liquor research programs being executed at the Institute of Paper Chemistry, the University of Maine, the National Bureau of Standards, and the University of Florida. These programs include: (1) Black Liquor Properties; (2) Black Liquor Droplet Formation; (3) Black Liquor Nozzle Evaluation; and (4) Black Liquor Combustion. In addition to the objectives of previous meetings, this meeting made a direct attempt to gather ideas on how to improve our ability to move from new technology concepts to commercial implementation. Also attached is the agenda for the Charleston meeting. The first two days were involved with updates and reviews of the four major black liquor programs. A half day was spent discussing pathways to implementation and developing thoughts on what industry, DOE and academia could do to facilitate commercial implementation of the research results. This publication is a summary of the presentations made in Charleston and the industry responses to the research work. Readers are cautioned that the contents are in-progress updates on the status of the research and do not represent referred technical papers. Any questions regarding the content should be referred to the principal investigators of the project.

  14. Studies on inhibition characteristics of corn steep liquor and black sulphite liquor on corrosion of mild steel in acid media

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deb, P C; Mukherjea, R N

    1968-06-01

    The purpose of this study was to economically reduce the attack by acid on the parent metal, during the process of removing mill scale by acid pickling. Two inhibitors, by-products of the starch industry and pulp industry, were studied due to their cheapness and availability in India. The inhibition efficiency of the corn steep liquor and black sulfite liquor was found to be below that of thiourea. For example, in 6.2% (w/w) H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ (at 50/sup 0/C), an inhibition efficiency of 90.5% and 84.5% is reached for inhibitor concentrations of 10 g per liter in the case of corn steep liquor and black sulfite liquor, respectively, while a concentration of 0.25 g per liter of thiourea was required to reach an inhibition efficiency of 98.6%.

  15. Influence of packaging information on consumer liking of chocolate milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M K; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate milk varies widely in flavor, color, and viscosity, and liking is influenced by these properties. Additionally, package labels (declared fat content) and brand are some of the extrinsic factors that may influence consumer perception. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of packaging labels and brand name on consumer liking and purchase intent of chocolate milk. A consumer acceptance test, conjoint analysis survey, and Kano analysis were conducted. One hundred eight consumers evaluated 7 chocolate milks with and without brand or package information in a 2-d crossover design. A conjoint analysis survey and Kano analysis were conducted after the consumer acceptance test. Results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Declared fat content and brand influenced overall liking and purchase intent for chocolate milks to differing degrees. A subsequent conjoint analysis (n=250) revealed that fat content was a driver of choice for purchasing chocolate milk followed by sugar content and brand. Brand name was less important for purchase intent of chocolate milk than fat or sugar content. Among fat content of chocolate milk, 2 and 1% fat level were most appealing to consumers, and reduced sugar and regular sugar were equally important for purchase intent. Kano analysis confirmed that fat content (whole milk, 1, or 2% fat chocolate milk) was an attractive attribute for consumer satisfaction, more so than brand. Organic labeling did not affect the purchase decision of chocolate milk; however, Kano results revealed that having an organic label on a package positively influenced consumer satisfaction. Findings from this study can help chocolate milk producers as well as food marketers better target their product labels with attributes that drive consumer choice of chocolate milk. Copyright © 2013 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. The dopamine β-hydroxylase inhibitor, nepicastat, suppresses chocolate self-administration and reinstatement of chocolate seeking in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaru, Alessandro; Maccioni, Paola; Colombo, Giancarlo; Gessa, Gian Luigi

    2013-10-01

    Craving for chocolate is a common phenomenon, which may evolve to an addictive-like behaviour and contribute to obesity. Nepicastat is a selective dopamine β-hydroxylase (DBH) inhibitor that suppresses cocaine-primed reinstatement of cocaine seeking in rats. We verified whether nepicastat was able to modify the reinforcing and motivational properties of a chocolate solution and to prevent the reinstatement of chocolate seeking in rats. Nepicastat (25, 50 and 100 mg/kg, intraperitoneal) produced a dose-related inhibition of operant self-administration of the chocolate solution in rats under fixed-ratio 10 (FR10) and progressive-ratio schedules of reinforcement, measures of the reinforcing and motivational properties of the chocolate solution, respectively. The effect of nepicastat on the reinstatement of chocolate seeking was studied in rats in which lever-responding had been extinguished by removing the chocolate solution for approximately 8 d. Nepicastat dose-dependently suppressed the reinstatement of lever-responding triggered by a 'priming' of the chocolate solution together with cues previously associated with the availability of the reward. In a separate group of food-restricted rats trained to lever-respond for regular food pellets, nepicastat reduced FR10 lever-responding with the same potency as for the chocolate solution. Spontaneous locomotor activity was not modified by nepicastat doses that reduced self-administration of the chocolate solution and regular food pellets and suppressed the reinstatement of chocolate seeking. The results indicate that nepicastat reduces motivation to food consumption sustained by appetite or palatability. Moreover, the results suggest that DBH inhibitors may be a new class of pharmacological agents potentially useful in the prevention of relapse to food seeking in human dieters.

  17. Using Cocoa and Chocolate to Teach Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Heike C.

    2010-01-01

    Food topics are uniquely suited to increase students' interest in human geography. A highly processed food like chocolate can be studied in a variety of different ways, making it possible to include chocolate examples and activities at various points in a human geography class. The goals of this article are to provide sufficient background…

  18. Chocolate: A Heart-healthy Food? Show Me the Science!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hannum, Sandra M.; Schmitz, Harold H.; Keen, Carl L.

    2002-01-01

    Cocoa and chocolate foods produced by appropriate methods can contribute significant amounts of heart-healthy flavanols to the diet. These flavanols may enhance cardiovascular health by delaying blood clotting, improving vascular endothelial function, and helping to moderate inflammation. The benefits of chocolate can be enjoyed without guilt as part of a healthful balanced diet.

  19. Trace elements in cocoa solids and chocolate: an ICPMS study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yanus, Rinat Levi; Sela, Hagit; Borojovich, Eitan J C; Zakon, Yevgeni; Saphier, Magal; Nikolski, Andrey; Gutflais, Efi; Lorber, Avraham; Karpas, Zeev

    2014-02-01

    The concentrations of eight trace elements: lead (Pb), cadmium (Cd), chromium (Cr), manganese (Mn), cobalt (Co), arsenic (As), bismuth (Bi) and molybdenum (Mo), in chocolate, cocoa beans and products were studied by ICPMS. The study examined chocolate samples from different brands and countries with different concentrations of cocoa solids from each brand. The samples were digested and filtered to remove lipids and indium was used as an internal standard to correct matrix effects. A linear correlation was found between the level of several trace elements in chocolate and the cocoa solids content. Significant levels of Bi and As were found in the cocoa bean shells but not in the cocoa bean and chocolate. This may be attributed to environmental contamination. The presence of other elements was attributed to the manufacturing processes of cocoa and chocolate products. Children, who are big consumers of chocolates, may be at risk of exceeding the daily limit of lead; whereas one 10 g cube of dark chocolate may contain as much as 20% of the daily lead oral limit. Moreover chocolate may not be the only source of lead in their nutrition. For adults there is almost no risk of exceeding daily limits for trace metals ingestion because their digestive absorption of metals is very poor. © 2013 Published by Elsevier B.V.

  20. 7 CFR 58.935 - Chocolate and cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... Materials § 58.935 Chocolate and cocoa. Such products used as flavor ingredients shall meet the requirements of the Food and Drug Administration, “Definitions and Standards of Identity for Cocoa Products... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chocolate and cocoa. 58.935 Section 58.935 Agriculture...

  1. Dark chocolate acceptability: influence of cocoa origin and processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Moreno, Miriam; Tarrega, Amparo; Costell, Elvira; Blanch, Consol

    2012-01-30

    Chocolate properties can vary depending on cocoa origin, composition and manufacturing procedure, which affect consumer acceptability. The aim of this work was to study the effect of two cocoa origins (Ghana and Ecuador) and two processing conditions (roasting time and conching time) on dark chocolate acceptability. Overall acceptability and acceptability for different attributes (colour, flavour, odour and texture) were evaluated by 95 consumers. Differences in acceptability among dark chocolates were mainly related to differences in flavour acceptability. The use of a long roasting time lowered chocolate acceptability in Ghanaian samples while it had no effect on acceptability of Ecuadorian chocolates. This response was observed for most consumers (two subgroups with different frequency consumption of dark chocolate). However, for a third group of consumers identified as distinguishers, the most acceptable dark chocolate samples were those produced with specific combinations of roasting time and conching time for each of the cocoa geographical origin considered. To produce dark chocolates from a single origin it is important to know the target market preferences and to select the appropriate roasting and conching conditions. Copyright © 2011 Society of Chemical Industry.

  2. Chocolate consumption modulates cytokine production in healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, S.A.; Janssen, S.A.; Jaeger, M.; Jansen, T.J.; Jacobs, L.; Miller-Tomaszewska, G.; Plantinga, T.S.; Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that chocolate increases the incidence and severity of acne. Here we demonstrate that chocolate consumption primes human blood mononuclear cells from volunteers to release more interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-10 upon stimulation with Propionibacterium acne or

  3. Czekolada jako źródło związków bioaktywnych oddziałujących na organizm = Chocolate as a source of bioactive compounds acting on the organism

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marta Skrajda

    2015-09-01

        Streszczenie Czekolada jest jednym z najbardziej lubianych smakołyków wszech czasów. Jej historia sięga czasów Olmeków, czyli około 3 tysięcy lat. Początkowo spożywana jako napój, dopiero w XVII wieku przyjęła obecną formę. Na rynku dostępnych jest wiele rodzajów czekolad. W zależności od zawartości miazgi kakaowej wyróżnia się czekoladę gorzką (tzw. naturalną, 35-70% miazgi, deserową (do 50% miazgi, mleczną (nie mniej niż 25% miazgi i białą (nie mniej niż 20% tłuszczu kakaowego. Ponadto każdy z tych rodzajów może występować w postaci nadziewanej czy z dodatkiem orzechów, owoców, nasion, itp. Czekolada krytykowana jest za zawartość nasyconych kwasów tłuszczowych i wysoką kaloryczność, ale jest doceniana za zawartość związków biologicznie aktywnych. Wśród tych związków wyróżnia się: polifenole (głównie flawonoidy, aminy biogenne (fenyloetyloamina, alkaloidy (teobromina, kofeina oraz składniki mineralne (np. magnez, potas. Należy jednak pamiętać, że zawartość tych związków w czekoladzie jest determinowana: rodzajem czekolady (zawartość miazgi kakaowej, rodzaj dodatków, rodzajem i pochodzeniem ziarna, sposobem obróbki ziarna. Słowa kluczowe: czekolada, aktywność antyoksydacyjna, związki biologicznie aktywne.   Abstract Chocolate is one of the most popular sweets of all time. Its history dates back to about 3,000 years, the times of Olmec people. It was originally used as a drink and took its present form in seventeenth century. On the market there are many types of chocolate. Depending on the content of cocoa liquor stand out dark (35-70% of cocoa liquor, dessert (50% cocoa liquor, milk (not less than 25% cocoa liquor and white (no less than 20% cocoa butter chocolate. Moreover, each of these kinds may be either filled or with addition of nuts, fruits, seeds, and exc. Chocolate is criticized for its saturated fatty acid content and a high caloric value, but is appreciated for its

  4. Influence of the chemical composition on the combustion properties of kraft black liquor; Mustalipeaen koostumuksen vaikutus lipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R; Siistonen, H; Malkavaara, P [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Inst. of Chemistry

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this work is to study the combustion properties of kraft black liquors from modified cooking. Both the industrial and laboratory-made black liquors are included. In addition, changes in the combustion properties of the spent liquors obtained by mixing prior to combustion different chlorine-free bleach liquors with black liquor are studied. (orig.)

  5. The fluid dynamics of the chocolate fountain

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Townsend, Adam K; Wilson, Helen J

    2016-01-01

    We consider the fluid dynamics of the chocolate fountain. Molten chocolate is a mildly shear-thinning non-Newtonian fluid. Dividing the flow into three main domains—the pumped flow up the centre, the film flow over each dome, and the freely falling curtain flow between the domes—we generate a wide-ranging study of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid mechanics. The central pumped flow is a benchmark to elucidate the effects of shear-thinning. The dome flow can be modelled as a thin-film flow with the leading-order effects being a simple balance of gravity and viscosity. Finally, the curtain flow is analytically intractable but is related to the existing theory of water bells (both inviscid and viscous). In pipe flow, Newtonian fluids exhibit a parabolic velocity profile; shear-thinning makes the profile more blunted. In thin-film flow over the dome, gravitational and viscous effects balance and the dome shape is not important beyond the local slope. We find that the chocolate thins and slows down as it travels down the dome. Finally, in the curtain flow, we predict the shape of the falling sheet for an inviscid fluid, and compare this with the literature to predict the shape for a viscous fluid, having shown that viscous forces are too great to ignore. We also find that the primary effect driving the shape of the curtain (which falls inwards towards the axis of the fountain) is surface tension. We find that the three domains provide excellent introductions to non-Newtonian mechanics, the important mathematical technique of scaling, and how to manipulate existing data to make our own predictions. We also find that the topic generates interest among the public in our engagement work. (paper)

  6. The fluid dynamics of the chocolate fountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Adam K.; Wilson, Helen J.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the fluid dynamics of the chocolate fountain. Molten chocolate is a mildly shear-thinning non-Newtonian fluid. Dividing the flow into three main domains—the pumped flow up the centre, the film flow over each dome, and the freely falling curtain flow between the domes—we generate a wide-ranging study of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid mechanics. The central pumped flow is a benchmark to elucidate the effects of shear-thinning. The dome flow can be modelled as a thin-film flow with the leading-order effects being a simple balance of gravity and viscosity. Finally, the curtain flow is analytically intractable but is related to the existing theory of water bells (both inviscid and viscous). In pipe flow, Newtonian fluids exhibit a parabolic velocity profile; shear-thinning makes the profile more blunted. In thin-film flow over the dome, gravitational and viscous effects balance and the dome shape is not important beyond the local slope. We find that the chocolate thins and slows down as it travels down the dome. Finally, in the curtain flow, we predict the shape of the falling sheet for an inviscid fluid, and compare this with the literature to predict the shape for a viscous fluid, having shown that viscous forces are too great to ignore. We also find that the primary effect driving the shape of the curtain (which falls inwards towards the axis of the fountain) is surface tension. We find that the three domains provide excellent introductions to non-Newtonian mechanics, the important mathematical technique of scaling, and how to manipulate existing data to make our own predictions. We also find that the topic generates interest among the public in our engagement work.

  7. 21 CFR 163.153 - Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.153... § 163.153 Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat... requirements for label declaration of ingredients for sweet chocolate in § 163.123, except that one or more...

  8. Drop formation of black liquor spraying; Mustalipeaen pisaroituminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogelholm, C J; Kankkunen, A; Nieminen, K; Laine, J; Miikkulainen, P [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland): Lab. of Energy Technology and Environmental Protection

    1997-10-01

    Black liquor is a spent liquor of the pulp and paper industry. It is burned in kraft recovery boilers for chemical and energy recovery. The high dry solids content and viscosity of black liquor require a high spraying temperature. This affects the performance of the boiler. Kraft recovery boiler deposit formation, emissions and chemical recovery are strongly affected by the drop size and the velocity of the black liquor spray formed by a splashplate nozzle. The sheet breakup mechanism is studied with a system based on a video and image-analysis. The drop size of mill-scale nozzles was measured also with an image-analysis-system. Measurements were carried out in a spray test chamber. The sheet breakup mechanism and drop size tests were carried out both below and over the boiling point of black liquor. Special attention was paid to the effect of flashing on drop formation. Temperature increase normally decreases drop size. In the temperature where the wavy-sheet disintegration changes to perforated-sheet disintegration the drop size increases. Spray velocity rises when the temperature is increased above the boiling point. (orig.)

  9. Chocolate--guilty pleasure or healthy supplement?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latham, Laura S; Hensen, Zeb K; Minor, Deborah S

    2014-02-01

    Dark chocolate and other cocoa products are popular in the population as a whole, but their overall health benefit remains controversial. Observations from the Kuna Indian population have shown an impressive cardiovascular health benefit from cocoa. For various reasons, this benefit has not been as robust as in other populations. Additionally, several mechanisms have been proposed that might confer cocoa's possible health benefit, but no consensus has been reached on cocoa's physiologic role in promoting cardiovascular health. Flavanols, as well as theobromine, may contribute to enhancements in endothelial function and subsequent improvements in various contributors to cardiovascular disease (CVD) including hypertension, platelet aggregation and adhesion, insulin resistance, and hypercholesterolemia. While the benefits of cocoa may be altered at the various stages of growth, development, and production, it appears that for many people "healthy" dark chocolate may, indeed, provide a pleasurable role in CVD risk reduction. The objectives of this review are to discuss the associations of cocoa with decreased blood pressure and improved CVD risk, to describe the possible mechanisms for these potential benefits, and to highlight considerations for the use of cocoa as a dietary supplement.

  10. Sulfate reduction in an entrained-flow black liquor gasifier

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kymaelaeinen, M.; Janka, K. [Tampella Power, Tampere (Finland); Frederick, W.J.; Littau, M.; Sricharoenchaikul, V.; Jivakanun, N.; Waag, K. [Oregon State Univ., Corvallis, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Sulfate reduction and carbon conversion during pyrolysis and gasification of black liquor particles were experimentally studied in a laminar entrained-flow reactor. A model was also developed to simulate an entrained-flow black liquor gasifier. Experimental results were then compared to model calculations. Results indicated that carbon must be present to get a high degree of sulfate reduction during gasification. It is therefore important to balance the rates of carbon conversion and sulfate reduction. High local temperatures in the reactor should be avoided so that carbon does not convert too rapidly, but temperatures of nearly 1000 degrees C are required to achieve good sulfate reduction. It was suggested that a new equation was needed to adequately predict sulfate reduction in an entrained-flow black liquor gasifier. 12 refs., 8 figs., 5 tabs.

  11. Formation of fuel NOx during black-liquor combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nichols, K.M.; Lien, S.J.

    1993-01-01

    Fuel NOx and thermal NOx were measured in combustion gases from black liquors in two laboratory furnaces. Combustion at 950 C in air (8% O 2 ) produced NOx concentrations of 40-80ppm. Combustion at 950 C in synthetic air containing no nitrogen (21% 0 2 in Ar) produced the same result, demonstrating that all of the NOx produced during combustion at 950 C was fuel NOx. Formation of fuel NOx increased moderately with increasing temperature in the range of 800-1,000 C, but temperature sensitivity of fuel NOx was much less than that of thermal NOx. The results imply that the major source of NOx in recovery furnace emissions is the fuel NOx in recovery furnace formed by conversion of liquor-bound nitrogen during combustion. This is consistent with thermal NOx theory, which postulates that black-liquor combustion temperatures are too low to generate significant amounts of thermal NOx

  12. Influence of pressure on pyrolysis of black liquor: 1. Swelling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whitty, Kevin; Backman, Rainer; Hupa, Mikko

    2008-02-01

    This is the first of two papers concerning the behavior of black liquor during pyrolysis under pressurized conditions. Two industrial kraft liquors were pyrolyzed in a laboratory-scale pressurized single particle reactor and a pressurized grid heater at temperatures ranging from 650 to 1100 degrees C and at pressures between 1 and 20 bar. The dimensions of the chars produced were measured and the specific swollen volume was calculated. Swelling decreased roughly logarithmically over the pressure range 1-20 r. An expression is developed to predict the specific swollen volume at elevated pressure when the volume at 1 bar is known. The bulk density of the char increased with pressure, indicating that liquors will be entrained less easily at higher pressures.

  13. Engineering study: disposition of terminal liquors for interim storage

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1975-02-01

    Eight alternative processes were chosen as being technologically feasible within the time frame dictated by budgeting procedures and terminal liquor availability. Solidified waste products acceptable for single-shell tank storage were assumed to be placed in available single-shell tanks. Double-shell tanks were used only for the more mobile terminal liquors or semi-solid mush products. The mush, chemical neutralization, and clay in-tank processes offer potential savings of tens of millions of dollars over double-shell tank storage of terminal liquors. In order to achieve this cost savings, the process development and demonstration must be completed prior to the beginning of double-shell tank construction (Dec. 1976) expected to be funded from a fiscal year 1977 line item. Budgeting for these additional double-shell tanks must proceed since the processing options discussed here are not yet available and may not prove to be available at the required time. This study indicates the following topics for additional study: Process technology development to achieve interim storage of terminal liquor products receives the greatest emphasis as a means of reducing capital expenditures. Interim storage product criteria, waste inventory, and conversion to final form require definition to allow comparison of the alternatives for disposition of terminal liquors. The pseudotechnical nature of product acceptability criteria is important to the evaluation of the partial neutralization and aluminum removal alternatives. More accurate estimates of terminal liquor quantity and composition are required to give a sound technical basis for choosing the appropriate processing alternative. Retrieval and reprocessing operations may affect the comparisons presented by this study

  14. Chocolate in history: food, medicine, medi-food.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Donatella

    2013-05-14

    Throughout history, chocolate has been used to treat a wide variety of ailments, and in recent years, multiple studies have found that chocolate can have positive health effects, providing evidence to a centuries-long established use; this acknowledgement, however, did not have a straight course, having been involved in religious, medical and cultural controversies. Christian Europe, in fact, feared the exhilarating effects of new drinks, such as chocolate, coffee and tea. Therefore, these beverages would have been banished, had not doctors and scientists explained that they were good for the body. The scientific debate, which reached its peak in Florence in the 18th century, regarded the therapeutic effectiveness of the various chocolate components: it was necessary to know their properties first, in order to prepare the best cacao concoction for every patient. When Dietetics separated from Medicine, however, chocolate acquired the role of vehicle for easing the administration of bitter medicines, being associated to different health problems. The recent rediscovery of the beneficial use of cacao and chocolate focuses upon its value as supplemental nutrition. Building a bridge to the past may be helpful to detect the areas where the potential health benefits of chocolate are likely to be further explored.

  15. Chocolate and migraine: the history of an ambiguous association.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Giuseppe; Mattiuzzi, Camilla; Cervellin, Gianfranco

    2014-12-17

    Migraine is a highly prevalent condition and an important cause of disability. Although the pathogenesis of this condition is complex and multifaceted, several environmental factors have been associated with development and aggravation of headache attacks. Among the various foods that have been implicated in migraine, chocolate has been regarded as detrimental on the basis of old and mostly anecdotal evidence. Therefore, this article is aimed to provide an overview on the current scientific evidence about the relationship between chocolate and migraine. Taken together, the information gathered from epidemiological and provocative studies attests that the potential causal association between chocolate and migraine remains largely enigmatic. The analysis of epidemiological surveys reveals a highly heterogeneous picture, with frequency of migraine episodes attributable to chocolate ranging from 0 to 22.5%. Even in those studies reporting a more convincing association, the risk of migraine after chocolate ingestion was found to be 2- to 3-fold lower than that reported for exposure to other conventional triggers such as stress, fasting, lack of sleep and alcohol beverages. The results of the double-blind studies are instead unequivocal, and clearly demonstrate that the risk of developing a headache attack after ingestion of chocolate is as likely as administering placebo in patients with migraine. It can hence be concluded that the widespread belief that chocolate and cocoacontaining foods should be absolutely avoided by migraine patients lacks of a reliable scientific basis.

  16. Chocolate consumption in pregnancy and reduced likelihood of preeclampsia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Triche, Elizabeth W; Grosso, Laura M; Belanger, Kathleen; Darefsky, Amy S; Benowitz, Neal L; Bracken, Michael B

    2008-05-01

    Preeclampsia is a major pregnancy complication with cardiovascular manifestations. Recent studies suggest that chocolate consumption may benefit cardiovascular health. We studied the association of chocolate consumption with risk of preeclampsia in a prospective cohort study of 2291 pregnant women who delivered a singleton livebirth between September 1996 and January 2000. Chocolate consumption was measured by self report in the first and third trimesters, and by umbilical cord serum concentrations of theobromine, the major methylxanthine component of chocolate. Preeclampsia was assessed by detailed medical record review for 1943 of the women. We derived adjusted odds ratios (aOR) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) from logistic regression models controlling for potential confounders. Preeclampsia developed in 3.7% (n = 63) of 1681 women. Cord serum theobromine concentrations were negatively associated with preeclampsia (aOR = 0.31; CI = 0.11-0.87 for highest compared with lowest quartile). Self-reported chocolate consumption estimates also were inversely associated with preeclampsia. Compared with women consuming under 1 serving of chocolate weekly, women consuming 5+ servings per week had decreased risk: aOR = 0.81 with consumption in the first 3 months of pregnancy (CI = 0.37-1.79) and 0.60 in the last 3 months (0.30-1.24). Our results suggest that chocolate consumption during pregnancy may lower risk of preeclampsia. However, reverse causality may also contribute to these findings.

  17. Chocolate in History: Food, Medicine, Medi-Food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Donatella

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, chocolate has been used to treat a wide variety of ailments, and in recent years, multiple studies have found that chocolate can have positive health effects, providing evidence to a centuries-long established use; this acknowledgement, however, did not have a straight course, having been involved in religious, medical and cultural controversies. Christian Europe, in fact, feared the exhilarating effects of new drinks, such as chocolate, coffee and tea. Therefore, these beverages would have been banished, had not doctors and scientists explained that they were good for the body. The scientific debate, which reached its peak in Florence in the 18th century, regarded the therapeutic effectiveness of the various chocolate components: it was necessary to know their properties first, in order to prepare the best cacao concoction for every patient. When Dietetics separated from Medicine, however, chocolate acquired the role of vehicle for easing the administration of bitter medicines, being associated to different health problems. The recent rediscovery of the beneficial use of cacao and chocolate focuses upon its value as supplemental nutrition. Building a bridge to the past may be helpful to detect the areas where the potential health benefits of chocolate are likely to be further explored. PMID:23673608

  18. Chocolate in History: Food, Medicine, Medi-Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Lippi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, chocolate has been used to treat a wide variety of ailments, and in recent years, multiple studies have found that chocolate can have positive health effects, providing evidence to a centuries-long established use; this acknowledgement, however, did not have a straight course, having been involved in religious, medical and cultural controversies. Christian Europe, in fact, feared the exhilarating effects of new drinks, such as chocolate, coffee and tea. Therefore, these beverages would have been banished, had not doctors and scientists explained that they were good for the body. The scientific debate, which reached its peak in Florence in the 18th century, regarded the therapeutic effectiveness of the various chocolate components: it was necessary to know their properties first, in order to prepare the best cacao concoction for every patient. When Dietetics separated from Medicine, however, chocolate acquired the role of vehicle for easing the administration of bitter medicines, being associated to different health problems. The recent rediscovery of the beneficial use of cacao and chocolate focuses upon its value as supplemental nutrition. Building a bridge to the past may be helpful to detect the areas where the potential health benefits of chocolate are likely to be further explored.

  19. Release model for black liquor droplet; Mustalipeaepisaran vapautumismalli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The release of sodium, potassium, chlorine and sulphur from black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion and gasification is studied by modelling work. A model for drying, pyrolysis and swelling of black liquor has been developed earlier. A submodel for the release of sulphur, which takes place at temperatures below 500 deg C has been incorporated to this model. A previous model for the combustion and gasification of char particles has been further developed to account for the effect of sodium, potassium and chlorine. A model for the release of these components as function of time has been developed. (orig.)

  20. Electrocoagulation treatment of black liquor from paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaied, M; Bellakhal, N

    2009-04-30

    The procedure of electrocoagulation is an effective, fast and economic technique for treatment of black liquor resulting from paper industry. The effect of electrolysis time, current density, type of electrode material and initial pH were studied in an attempt to achieve a higher removal capacity. Under the optimal experimental conditions (initial pH 7, t=50 min and J=14 mA cm(-2)), the treatment of black liquor by electrocoagulation has led to a removal capacity of 98% of COD, 92% of polyphenols and 99% of color intensity with a good repeatability (R.S.D.industrial interest of this electrochemical process.

  1. Plastic Optical Fiber Sensing of Alcohol Concentration in Liquors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masayuki Morisawa

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A simple optical fiber sensing system of alcohol concentration in liquors has been studied. In this sensor head, a mixture polymer of novolac resin and polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF with a ratio of 9 : 1 was coated as a sensitive cladding layer on the plastic fiber core made of polystyrene-(PS-coated polycarbonate (PC. Using this sensor head and a green LED light source, it was confirmed that alcohol concentration in several kinds of liquors from beer to whisky can easily be measured with a fast response time less than 1 minute.

  2. Plastic Optical Fiber Sensing of Alcohol Concentration in Liquors

    OpenAIRE

    Masayuki Morisawa; Shinzo Muto

    2012-01-01

    A simple optical fiber sensing system of alcohol concentration in liquors has been studied. In this sensor head, a mixture polymer of novolac resin and polyvinylidenefluoride (PVDF) with a ratio of 9 : 1 was coated as a sensitive cladding layer on the plastic fiber core made of polystyrene-(PS-)coated polycarbonate (PC). Using this sensor head and a green LED light source, it was confirmed that alcohol concentration in several kinds of liquors from beer to whisky can easily be measured with a...

  3. Determination of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA) concentrations in milk chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, W J; Tarka, S M; Dobson, G; Reid, C M

    2001-03-01

    The fatty acids from a series of milk-chocolate-based confectionery samples were analyzed as methyl esters by GC to determine the presence and amount of conjugated linoleic acid (CLA). A single peak corresponding to the 9-cis,11-trans isomer and ranging from less than 0.1% to nearly 0.2% of the total fatty acids, corresponding to up to 0.3 mg per g of chocolate, was observed. One of the chocolate extracts and a milk extract were subjected to silver ion HPLC and GC-MS in order to confirm the identity of the major isomer and tentatively identity minor isomers.

  4. Unintentional eating. What determines goal-incongruent chocolate consumption?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allan, Julia L; Johnston, Marie; Campbell, Neil

    2010-04-01

    Overeating can be automatically triggered by the presence of palatable food. When presented with an opportunity to consume unlimited chocolate under the guise of a consumer study, chocolate consumption in individuals (n=62) with healthy dietary intentions could be predicted from a psychological measure of cognitive inhibition. Individuals who were less able to suppress goal-incongruent responses in an established inhibitory task: (a) ate more chocolate and (b) had a higher body mass index than others suggesting that these individuals were less able to exert dietary control in the presence of palatable but intention-incongruent foods. Copyright 2010 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the

  6. Characterization of Chinese liquor aroma components during aging process and liquor age discrimination using gas chromatography combined with multivariable statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, M. L.; Yu, Y.; Ramaswamy, H. S.; Zhu, S. M.

    2017-01-01

    Chinese liquor aroma components were characterized during the aging process using gas chromatography (GC). Principal component and cluster analysis (PCA, CA) were used to discriminate the Chinese liquor age which has a great economic value. Of a total of 21 major aroma components identified and quantified, 13 components which included several acids, alcohols, esters, aldehydes and furans decreased significantly in the first year of aging, maintained the same levels (p > 0.05) for next three years and decreased again (p counterfeit and defective products.

  7. Utilization of black liquor as concrete admixture and set retarder aid

    OpenAIRE

    El-Mekkawi, Samar A.; Ismail, Ibrahim M.; El-Attar, Mohammed M.; Fahmy, Alaa A.; Mohammed, Samia S.

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of black liquor, produced by the pulp and paper industry in Egypt, as a workability aid and set retarder admixture has been investigated. This approach may help eliminate the environmentally polluting black liquor waste. It also provides a low cost by-product, which can be widely used in the construction industry. The properties of black liquor and its performance on concrete at two different ratios of water to cement have been studied. The results revealed that black liquor f...

  8. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. 122.135 Section 122.135 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. (a) Restocking. Liquor...

  9. 77 FR 10547 - Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas-First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ... Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the amendment to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax... adopted this amendment to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance by...

  10. Utilization of Brewery Spent Grain Liquor by Aspergillus niger1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hang, Y. D.; Splittstoesser, D. F.; Woodams, E. E.

    1975-01-01

    Aspergillus niger was found capable of rapidly converting about 97% of the sugar from brewery spent grain liquor to fungal mass. The yield of dry mycelium, based on the sugar consumed, was approximately 57%. This fungus produced 1.10% titratable acid calculated as citric acid and reduced the biochemical oxygen demand by 96%. PMID:1200633

  11. Context and consequences of liquor sachets use among young ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    This article presents a relatively new phenomenon regarding alcohol related problems in Malawi; the context and consequences of the consumption of liquor sachets among young people. The results presented are part of a larger study looking at the prevalence and social norms related to alcohol use, as well as people's ...

  12. Chemical composition and utilization of Hungarian spent sulfite liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Toth, B

    1968-01-01

    A review on the composition of Hungarian spent sulfite liquor and on its possible utilization, e.g., for the manufacturing of vanillin, yeast protein, or ethanol, as well as its direct utilization as a plasticizer for cement, additive for insecticides, or in adhesives.

  13. Selective removal of chromium from sulphuric acid leach liquor of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ... removed in multiple batch extractions from the leach liquor and titanium losses were minimal (< 1%). The chromium content of extracted solutions was reduced to less than 1 ppm and thermal hydrolysis of these solutions yielded white titanium(IV) oxide pigments that are suitable for use in the coatings pigment industry.

  14. Feasibility of wood pulping black liquor for treatment of soybean ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    use

    2011-11-23

    Nov 23, 2011 ... This study was carried out to determine the effects of neutral black liquor and moisture heating treatments ... The most commonly used methods of protecting protein include ..... Induced non-enzymatic browning of soybean meal for enhancing efficiency of ... ammonia relase of soluble soybean meal proterin.

  15. Evaluation of ogi liquor from different grains for antibacterial ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Administrator

    2007-05-02

    May 2, 2007 ... Antibiotic sensitivity pattern of the test organisms. This was done as above except that instead of making wells on the already seeded plates and pouring in the prepared liquors, standard commercial antibiotics disc was placed on the seeded agar plates before the plates were incubated at 37○C for 24 h.

  16. Tolerance for High Flavanol Cocoa Powder in Semisweet Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Hayes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder.

  17. Tolerance for high flavanol cocoa powder in semisweet chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-06-21

    Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting) that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder.

  18. Increasing the maximally random jammed density with electric field to reduce the fat level in chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R.; Tang, H.

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. For example, a typical molding chocolate has various fat up to 40% in total and chocolate for covering ice cream has fat 50 -60%. Especially, as children are the leading chocolate consumers, reducing the fat level in chocolate products to make them healthier is important and urgent. While this issue was called into attention and elaborated in articles and books decades ago and led to some patent applications, no actual solution was found unfortunately. Why is reducing fat in chocolate so difficult? What is the underlying physical mechanism? We have found that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matters, especially to their viscosity and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density φx. All chocolate productions are handling liquid chocolate, a suspension with cocoa solid particles in melted fat, mainly cocoa butter. The fat level cannot be lower than 1-φxin order to have liquid chocolate to flow. Here we show that that with application of an electric field to liquid chocolate, we can aggregate the suspended particles into prolate spheroids. This microstructure change reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are looking forward to a new class of healthier and tasteful chocolate coming to the market soon. Dept. of Physics, Temple Univ, Philadelphia, PA 19122.

  19. Cocoa and Dark Chocolate Polyphenols: From Biology to Clinical Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Thea Magrone; Matteo Antonio Russo; Emilio Jirillo; Emilio Jirillo

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that cocoa and dark chocolate possess polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated to beneficial effects. In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB/signal transducer and activator of transcription. In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO) through activation of endothe...

  20. Cocoa and chocolate flavonoids: implications for cardiovascular health.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinberg, Francene M; Bearden, Monica M; Keen, Carl L

    2003-02-01

    This paper offers a review of current scientific research regarding the potential cardiovascular health benefits of flavonoids found in cocoa and chocolate. Recent reports indicate that the main flavonoids found in cocoa, flavan-3-ols and their oligomeric derivatives, procyanidins, have a variety of beneficial actions, including antioxidant protection and modulation of vascular homeostasis. These findings are supported by similar research on other flavonoid-rich foods. Other constituents in cocoa and chocolate that may also influence cardiovascular health are briefly reviewed. The lipid content of chocolate is relatively high; however, one third of the lipid in cocoa butter is composed of the fat stearic acid, which exerts a neutral cholesterolemic response in humans. Cocoa and chocolate contribute to trace mineral intake, which is necessary for optimum functioning of all biologic systems and for vascular tone. Thus, multiple components in chocolate, particularly flavonoids, can contribute to the complex interplay of nutrition and health. Applications of this knowledge include recommendations by health professionals to encourage individuals to consume a wide range of phytochemical-rich foods, which can include dark chocolate in moderate amounts.

  1. Effect of dark chocolate on arterial function in healthy individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vlachopoulos, Charalambos; Aznaouridis, Konstantinos; Alexopoulos, Nikolaos; Economou, Emmanuel; Andreadou, Ioanna; Stefanadis, Christodoulos

    2005-06-01

    Epidemiologic studies suggest that high flavonoid intake confers a benefit on cardiovascular outcome. Endothelial function, arterial stiffness, and wave reflections are important determinants of cardiovascular performance and are predictors of cardiovascular risk. The effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (100 g) on endothelial function, aortic stiffness, wave reflections, and oxidant status were studied for 3 h in 17 young healthy volunteers according to a randomized, single-blind, sham procedure-controlled, cross-over protocol. Flow-mediated dilation (FMD) of the brachial artery, aortic augmentation index (AIx), and carotid-femoral pulse wave velocity (PWV) were used as measures of endothelial function, wave reflections, and aortic stiffness, respectively. Plasma oxidant status was evaluated with measurement of plasma malondialdehyde (MDA) and total antioxidant capacity (TAC). Chocolate led to a significant increase in resting and hyperemic brachial artery diameter throughout the study (maximum increase by 0.15 mm and 0.18 mm, respectively, P chocolate throughout the study (maximum absolute decrease 7.8%, P chocolate, indicating no alterations in plasma oxidant status. Our study shows for the first time that consumption of dark chocolate acutely decreases wave reflections, that it does not affect aortic stiffness, and that it may exert a beneficial effect on endothelial function in healthy adults. Chocolate consumption may exert a protective effect on the cardiovascular system; further studies are warranted to assess any long-term effects.

  2. Dark chocolate and blood pressure: a novel study from Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Safi, Saafan A; Ayoub, Nehad M; Al-Doghim, Imad; Aboul-Enein, Faisal H

    2011-11-01

    The goal of this study was to assess the effect of dark chocolate intake on cardiovascular parameters like blood pressure and heart rate values in a normotensive population. This is a randomized cross-sectional study involving a total of 14,310 adults that were selected from various regions of Jordan. Well-trained pharmacy students interviewed participants in the outpatient settings. Participants reported their weekly intake of dark chocolate that has been further classified into mild (1-2 bars/week), moderate (3-4 bars/week), and high intake ( > 4 bars/week). For each participant, the systolic blood pressure (SBP), diastolic blood pressure (DBP), and heart rate were measured three times with (10-15) minute intervals in the sitting position and the resting state. The arterial blood pressure (ABP) was calculated from the measured SBP and DBP values. All measured blood pressure values were significantly decreased for participants who reported higher dark chocolate consumption. Our results showed that heart rate values were not affected by variable intake of dark chocolate. In addition, increasing dark chocolate intake was associated with a significant decrease of blood pressure values in participants irrespective of the family history of hypertension or the age of the individual. However, heart rate values were unaffected. Higher intake of dark chocolate can be associated with lower values of blood pressure, while its effect on heart rate values was not consistent.

  3. The survival time of chocolates on hospital wards: covert observational study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gajendragadkar, Parag R; Moualed, Daniel J; Nicolson, Phillip L R; Adjei, Felicia D; Cakebread, Holly E; Duehmke, Rudolf M; Martin, Claire A

    2013-12-14

    To quantify the consumption of chocolates in a hospital ward environment. Multicentre, prospective, covert observational study. Four wards at three hospitals (where the authors worked) within the United Kingdom. Boxes of Quality Street (Nestlé) and Roses (Cadbury) on the ward and anyone eating these chocolates. Observers covertly placed two 350 g boxes of Quality Street and Roses chocolates on each ward (eight boxes were used in the study containing a total of 258 individual chocolates). These boxes were kept under continuous covert surveillance, with the time recorded when each chocolate was eaten. Median survival time of a chocolate. 191 out of 258 (74%) chocolates were observed being eaten. The mean total observation period was 254 minutes (95% confidence interval 179 to 329). The median survival time of a chocolate was 51 minutes (39 to 63). The model of chocolate consumption was non-linear, with an initial rapid rate of consumption that slowed with time. An exponential decay model best fitted these findings (model R(2)=0.844, P<0.001), with a survival half life (time taken for 50% of the chocolates to be eaten) of 99 minutes. The mean time taken to open a box of chocolates from first appearance on the ward was 12 minutes (95% confidence interval 0 to 24). Quality Street chocolates survived longer than Roses chocolates (hazard ratio for survival of Roses v Quality Street 0.70, 95% confidence interval 0.53 to 0.93, P=0.014). The highest percentages of chocolates were consumed by healthcare assistants (28%) and nurses (28%), followed by doctors (15%). From our observational study, chocolate survival in a hospital ward was relatively short, and was modelled well by an exponential decay model. Roses chocolates were preferentially consumed to Quality Street chocolates in a ward setting. Chocolates were consumed primarily by healthcare assistants and nurses, followed by doctors. Further practical studies are needed.

  4. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.

    1998-05-01

    The overall objective of the program was to develop correlations to predict physical properties within requirements of engineering precision from a knowledge of pulping conditions and of kraft black liquor composition, if possible. These correlations were to include those relating thermodynamic properties to pulping conditions and liquor composition. The basic premise upon which the research was based is the premise that black liquor behaves as a polymer solution. This premise has proven to be true, and has been used successfully in developing data reduction methods and in interpreting results. A three phase effort involving pulping, analysis of liquor composition, and measurement of liquor properties was conducted.

  5. Authentication of Chinese vintage liquors using bomb-pulse 14C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Peng; Zhou, Weijian; Burr, G. S.; Fu, Yunchong; Fan, Yukun; Wu, Shugang

    2016-12-01

    The older a bottle of Chinese vintage liquor is, the higher the price it commands. Driven by the potential for higher profits, some newly-founded distilleries openly sell liquor whose storage ages are exaggerated. In China, the market for vintage liquor has become fraught with uncertainty and a pressing need has arisen to establish an effective method to authenticate the age of vintage liquors. A radiocarbon (14C) dating method is described here that can verify cellar-stored years of Chinese liquors distilled within the last fifty years. Two different flavored Chinese liquors produced in “the golden triangular region” in the Upper Yangtze River region in southwest China, with known cellar-stored years, were analyzed to benchmark the technique. Strong flavored liquors are found to be consistent with local atmospheric Δ14C values. A small offset of 2-3 years between predicted vintage years of soy-sauce flavored liquors and strong flavored liquors is found to be associated with the fermentation cycle of certain varieties. The technique can measure cellar-stored years of a wide range of liquors including those with fundamentally different aromas. This demonstrates the strength of our method in identifying suspect Chinese vintage liquors.

  6. Rejection thresholds in solid chocolate-flavored compound coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2012-10-01

    Classical detection thresholds do not predict liking, as they focus on the presence or absence of a sensation. Recently however, Prescott and colleagues described a new method, the rejection threshold, where a series of forced choice preference tasks are used to generate a dose-response function to determine hedonically acceptable concentrations. That is, how much is too much? To date, this approach has been used exclusively in liquid foods. Here, we determined group rejection thresholds in solid chocolate-flavored compound coating for bitterness. The influences of self-identified preferences for milk or dark chocolate, as well as eating style (chewers compared to melters) on rejection thresholds were investigated. Stimuli included milk chocolate-flavored compound coating spiked with increasing amounts of sucrose octaacetate, a bitter and generally recognized as safe additive. Paired preference tests (blank compared to spike) were used to determine the proportion of the group that preferred the blank. Across pairs, spiked samples were presented in ascending concentration. We were able to quantify and compare differences between 2 self-identified market segments. The rejection threshold for the dark chocolate preferring group was significantly higher than the milk chocolate preferring group (P= 0.01). Conversely, eating style did not affect group rejection thresholds (P= 0.14), although this may reflect the amount of chocolate given to participants. Additionally, there was no association between chocolate preference and eating style (P= 0.36). Present work supports the contention that this method can be used to examine preferences within specific market segments and potentially individual differences as they relate to ingestive behavior. This work makes use of the rejection threshold method to study market segmentation, extending its use to solid foods. We believe this method has broad applicability to the sensory specialist and product developer by providing a

  7. International outbreak of Salmonella Oranienburg due to German chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weise Ekkehard

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This report describes a large international chocolate-associated Salmonella outbreak originating from Germany. Methods We conducted epidemiologic investigations including a case-control study, and food safety investigations. Salmonella (S. Oranienburg isolates were subtyped by the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Results From 1 October 2001 through 24 March 2002, an estimated excess of 439 S. Oranienburg notifications was registered in Germany. Simultaneously, an increase in S. Oranienburg infections was noted in other European countries in the Enter-net surveillance network. In a multistate matched case-control study in Germany, daily consumption of chocolate (matched odds ratio [MOR]: 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3–26.5, having shopped at a large chain of discount grocery stores (MOR: 4.2; CI: 1.2–23.0, and consumption of chocolate purchased there (MOR: 5.0; CI: 1.1–47.0 were associated with illness. Subsequently, two brands from the same company, one exclusively produced for that chain, tested positive for S. Oranienburg. In two other European countries and in Canada chocolate from company A was ascertained that also contained S. Oranienburg. Isolates from humans and from chocolates had indistinguishable PFGE profiles. No source or point of contamination was identified. Epidemiological identification of chocolate as a vehicle of infections required two months, and was facilitated by proxy measures. Conclusions Despite the use of improved production technologies, the chocolate industry continues to carry a small risk of manufacturing Salmonella-containing products. Particularly in diffuse outbreak-settings, clear associations with surrogates of exposure should suffice to trigger public health action. Networks such as Enter-net have become invaluable for facilitating rapid and appropriate management of international outbreaks.

  8. Chocolate and prevention of cardiovascular disease: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Eric L; Hutfless, Susan M; Ding, Xin; Girotra, Saket

    2006-01-03

    Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD) due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, chocolate, stearic acid, flavonoids (including flavonols, flavanols, catechins, epicatechins, and procynadins) and the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease (CHD), stroke). A total of 136 publications were selected based on relevance, and quality of design and methods. An updated meta-analysis of flavonoid intake and CHD mortality was also conducted. The body of short-term randomized feeding trials suggests cocoa and chocolate may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk via effects on lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet function, higher HDL, decreased LDL oxidation. Additionally, a large body of trials of stearic acid suggests it is indeed cholesterol-neutral. However, epidemiologic studies of serum and dietary stearic acid are inconclusive due to many methodologic limitations. Meanwhile, the large body of prospective studies of flavonoids suggests the flavonoid content of chocolate may reduce risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our updated meta-analysis indicates that intake of flavonoids may lower risk of CHD mortality, RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71-0.92) comparing highest and lowest tertiles. Multiple lines of evidence from laboratory experiments and randomized trials suggest stearic acid may be neutral, while flavonoids are likely protective against CHD mortality. The highest priority now is to conduct larger randomized trials to definitively investigate the impact of chocolate consumption on long-term cardiovascular outcomes.

  9. Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Xin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. Methods We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, chocolate, stearic acid, flavonoids (including flavonols, flavanols, catechins, epicatechins, and procynadins and the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke. A total of 136 publications were selected based on relevance, and quality of design and methods. An updated meta-analysis of flavonoid intake and CHD mortality was also conducted. Results The body of short-term randomized feeding trials suggests cocoa and chocolate may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk via effects on lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet function, higher HDL, decreased LDL oxidation. Additionally, a large body of trials of stearic acid suggests it is indeed cholesterol-neutral. However, epidemiologic studies of serum and dietary stearic acid are inconclusive due to many methodologic limitations. Meanwhile, the large body of prospective studies of flavonoids suggests the flavonoid content of chocolate may reduce risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our updated meta-analysis indicates that intake of flavonoids may lower risk of CHD mortality, RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71–0.92 comparing highest and lowest tertiles. Conclusion Multiple lines of evidence from laboratory experiments and randomized trials suggest stearic acid may be neutral, while flavonoids are likely protective against CHD mortality. The highest priority now is to conduct larger randomized trials to definitively investigate the impact of chocolate consumption on long

  10. Ovarian chocolate cysts. Staging with relaxation time in MR imaging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimura, Kazuro; Ishida, Tetsuya; Takemori, Masayuki; Kitagaki, Hajime; Tanaka, Yutaka; Yamasaki, Katsuhito; Shimizu, Tadafumi; Kono, Michio

    1988-10-01

    Accurate preoperative staging of ovarian chocolate cysts is very important because recent hormonal therapy has been effective in low stage patients. However, it has been difficult to assess the preoperative stage of ovarian chocolate cysts. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of MRI in preoperative staging of 15 overian chocolate cysts. It was well known that the older the ovarian chocolate cyst was the more iron content it had. We examined the iron contents effect on T1 and T2 relaxation times in surgically confirmed chocolate cysts (stage II: 3 cases, stage III: 3 cases and stage IV: 9 cases by AFS classification, 1985) employing the 0.15-T MR system and 200 MHz spectrometer. There was a positive linear relation between T1 of the lesion using the MR system (T1) and T1 of the resected contents using the spectrometer (sp-T1); r = 0.93. The same relation was revealed between T2 and sp-T2; r = 0.87. It was indicated that T1 and T2 using the MR system was accurate. There was a negative linear relation between T1 and the iron contents ( r = -0.81) but no relation between T2 and the iron contents. T1 was 412 +- 91 msec for stage II, 356 +- 126 msec for stage III and 208 +- 30 msec for stage IV. T1 for stage IV was shorter than that for stage II and III, statistically significant differences were noted (p < 0.05). Thus, T1 was useful in differentiating a fresh from an old ovarian chocolate cyst. We concluded that T1 relaxation time using the MR system was useful for the staging of an ovarian chocolate cyst without surgery.

  11. Physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.

    1983-12-01

    Methods were selected, equipment installed, and procedures developed for determining rheological properties; for determining thermal properties (stability, density, thermal expansion, and heat capacity); for purification and characterization of lignin (glass transition, stability, weight average molecular weight, and number average molecular weight); and for performing chemical analyses (negative inorganic ions, positive inorganic ions, acid organic salts, lignin, and total solids). A strategy for pulping to supply test liquors was developed, and a statistically designed pulping experiment was specified for a Southern softwood species. Arrangements were made for performing initial pulping work in an industrial pilot plant, and a preliminary set of pulping experiments were conducted. Liquors from the preliminary pulping experiments were used to test procedures and to determine reproducibility of the experiment. Literature was also surveyed and preliminary selection of designs for a pilot digester, and for equipment to determine surface tension were made.

  12. [Cacoa and dark chocolate in cardiovascular prevention?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belz, G G; Mohr-Kahaly, S

    2011-12-01

    It has been shown that the consumption of cocoa has a positive influence on a number of cardiovascular surrogate parameters such as arterial vasodilatation and a moderate decrease in blood pressure in humans. In the blood, a decrease in platelet aggregation and an increase in angiogenetic progenitor cells was noted. Furthermore, anti-inflammatory effects, an amelioration of the lipid profile and glucose metabolism was described. An increase of endothelial NO production following the ingestion of the antioxidant cocoa flavanols catechin and epicatechin seems to be the leading mechanism causing these effects. In animal studies of myocardial reperfusion, a decrease in infarct size was noted. In several prospective cohort studies from Europe and the United States, a 50 % reduction of mortality mostly due to a reduction of myocardial infarction was published. Consumption up to about 25 g daily of a flavanol rich dark chocolate (ca. 85 % cocoa content) can be recommended for cardiovascular prevention. In this moderate dosage, the potentially harmful effects due to weight gain and cadmium intake will be minimal. However, controlled randomized trials with well defined clinical endpoints are needed to prove the positive effects described so far. At this point, in time based on the information described in this article, a moderate consumption of flavanol rich cocoa products seems to be effective in the prevention of coronary artery disease and myocardial infarction. © Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  13. Stability of fruit bases and chocolate fillings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joice Natali Miquelim

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Syrups with high sugar content and dehydrated fruits in its composition can be added to chocolate fillings to reduce the need of artificial flavor and dyes attributing a natural appeal to the product. Fruit bases were produced with lyophilized strawberry, passion fruit, and sliced orange peel. Rheological dynamic oscillatory tests were applied to determine the products stability and tendency of shelf life. Values of G´ G´´ were found for orange flavor during the 90 days of storage. It was observed that shear stress values did not vary significantly suggesting product stability during the studied period. For all fillings, it was found a behavior similar to the fruit base indicating that it has great influence on the filling behavior and its stability. The use of a sugar matrix in fillings provided good shelf life for the fruit base, which could be kept under room temperature conditions for a period as long as one year. The good stability and storage conditions allow the use of fruit base for handmade products as well as for industrialized products.

  14. Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of alkaline black liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Changqing; Guo, Liejin; Chen, Yunan; Lu, Youjun [Xi' an Jiatong Univ. (China)

    2010-07-01

    Black liquor was gasified continuously in supercritical water successfully and the main gaseous products were H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} with little amount of CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. The increase of the temperature and the decrease of the flow rate and black liquor concentration enhanced SCWG of black liquor. The change of the system pressure had limited influence on the gasification effect. The maximal COD removal efficiency of 88.69 % was obtained at the temperature of 600 C. The pH values of the aqueous residue were all decreased to the range of 6.4{proportional_to}8 while the pH value of cooling effluence below 360 C increased to about 11 and the sodium content was much higher than that in the aqueous residue. The reaction rate for COD degradation in supercritical water was obtained by assuming pseudo first order reaction. And the activation energy and pre-exponential for COD removal in SCWG were 74.38kJ/mol and 1.11 x 10{sup 4} s{sup -1} respectively. (orig.)

  15. Cocoa and Dark Chocolate Polyphenols: From Biology to Clinical Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrone, Thea; Russo, Matteo Antonio; Jirillo, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that cocoa and dark chocolate possess polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated to beneficial effects. In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB/signal transducer and activator of transcription. In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO) through activation of endothelial NO synthase which, in turn, accounts for vasodilation and cardioprotective effects. In the light of the above described properties, a number of clinical trials based on the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate have been conducted in healthy subjects as well as in different categories of patients, such as those affected by cardiovascular, neurological, intestinal, and metabolic pathologies. Even if data are not always concordant, modifications of biomarkers of disease are frequently associated to improvement of clinical manifestations. Quite interestingly, following cocoa and dark chocolate ingestion, cocoa polyphenols also modulate intestinal microbiota, thus leading to the growth of bacteria that trigger a tolerogenic anti-inflammatory pathway in the host. Finally, many evidences encourage the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate by aged people for the recovery of the neurovascular unit.

  16. Chocolate intake and diabetes risk in postmenopausal American women.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, J A; Manson, J E; Tinker, L; Neuhouser, M L; Garcia, L; Vitolins, M Z; Phillips, L S

    2017-09-01

    Recent long-term prospective cohort studies found inverse associations between chocolate consumption and the risk of type 2 diabetes, but provided conflicting evidence on the nature of the association among women. To assess this association in a large cohort of American women. Multivariable Cox regression was used with the data from 92 678 postmenopausal women in the prospective Women's Health Initiative study. Chocolate intake was assessed by food frequency questionnaire. Incidence of type 2 diabetes was determined by self-report of the first treatment with oral medication or insulin. Among women free of diabetes at baseline, there were 10 804 cases, representing an incidence rate of 11.7% during 13.1 years and 1 164 498 person-years of follow-up. There was no significant linear association between long-term chocolate intake and type 2 diabetes risk, but there was significantly reduced risk at moderate levels of intake. Compared to women who ate 1 oz. of chocolate chocolate consumption and type 2 diabetes at moderate levels of consumption in two subgroups of postmenopausal women in the Women's Health initiative cohort.

  17. Mood Components in Cocoa and Chocolate: The Mood Pyramid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tuenter, Emmy; Foubert, Kenn; Pieters, Luc

    2018-03-14

    Cocoa and chocolate, prepared from cocoa beans that originate from the fruits of the cocoa tree Theobroma cacao , have a long-standing reputation as healthy food, including mood-enhancing effects. In spite of many clinical trials with chocolate, cocoa, or its constituents, the mechanisms of action on mood and cognition remain unclear. More in particular, it is still controversial which constituents may contribute to the psychopharmacological activities, ranging from the major cacao flavanols and methylxanthines to the minor amines, amides, and alkaloids. In this review a critical appraisal is made of recent studies on mood and cognition, with a special emphasis on analytical characterization of the test samples. It is concluded that the mood and cognition-enhancing effects of cocoa and chocolate can be ranked from more general activities associated with flavanols and methylxanthines, to more specific activities related to minor constituents such as salsolinol, with on top the orosensory properties of chocolate. Therefore, the "mood pyramid" of cocoa and chocolate is proposed as a new concept. To understand the role and interactions of the different major and minor constituents of cocoa, it is recommended that all test samples used in future in vitro, in vivo , or human studies should be phytochemically characterized in much more detail than is common practice today. Georg Thieme Verlag KG Stuttgart · New York.

  18. Cocoa and Dark Chocolate Polyphenols: From Biology to Clinical Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thea Magrone

    2017-06-01

    Full Text Available It is well known that cocoa and dark chocolate possess polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated to beneficial effects. In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB/signal transducer and activator of transcription. In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO through activation of endothelial NO synthase which, in turn, accounts for vasodilation and cardioprotective effects. In the light of the above described properties, a number of clinical trials based on the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate have been conducted in healthy subjects as well as in different categories of patients, such as those affected by cardiovascular, neurological, intestinal, and metabolic pathologies. Even if data are not always concordant, modifications of biomarkers of disease are frequently associated to improvement of clinical manifestations. Quite interestingly, following cocoa and dark chocolate ingestion, cocoa polyphenols also modulate intestinal microbiota, thus leading to the growth of bacteria that trigger a tolerogenic anti-inflammatory pathway in the host. Finally, many evidences encourage the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate by aged people for the recovery of the neurovascular unit.

  19. Cocoa and Dark Chocolate Polyphenols: From Biology to Clinical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magrone, Thea; Russo, Matteo Antonio; Jirillo, Emilio

    2017-01-01

    It is well known that cocoa and dark chocolate possess polyphenols as major constituents whose dietary consumption has been associated to beneficial effects. In fact, cocoa and dark chocolate polyphenols exert antioxidant and anti-inflammatory activities switching on some important signaling pathways such as toll-like receptor 4/nuclear factor κB/signal transducer and activator of transcription. In particular, cocoa polyphenols induce release of nitric oxide (NO) through activation of endothelial NO synthase which, in turn, accounts for vasodilation and cardioprotective effects. In the light of the above described properties, a number of clinical trials based on the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate have been conducted in healthy subjects as well as in different categories of patients, such as those affected by cardiovascular, neurological, intestinal, and metabolic pathologies. Even if data are not always concordant, modifications of biomarkers of disease are frequently associated to improvement of clinical manifestations. Quite interestingly, following cocoa and dark chocolate ingestion, cocoa polyphenols also modulate intestinal microbiota, thus leading to the growth of bacteria that trigger a tolerogenic anti-inflammatory pathway in the host. Finally, many evidences encourage the consumption of cocoa and dark chocolate by aged people for the recovery of the neurovascular unit. PMID:28649251

  20. Fatty acid and sodium contents of commercial milk chocolate – analytical aspects and nutritional information

    OpenAIRE

    Renato Cesar Susin; Renata Mior; Vera Maria da Costa Dias

    2015-01-01

    SummaryChocolate consumption is usually associated with enjoyment, milk chocolate desserts being a very popular choice. Besides, the literature provides data suggesting health benefits for chocolate products as compared to non-chocolate candies. However, the lipid composition of cocoa and its commercial products has yet to be completely elucidated and understood, although much research has been carried out with this objective. Contributions to this objective frequently face difficulties in th...

  1. Repeated cue exposure effects on subjective and physiological indices of chocolate craving

    OpenAIRE

    Van Gucht, Dinska; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Beckers, Tom; Hermans, Dirk; Baeyens, Frank; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of repeated unreinforced exposure to chocolate cues in persons reporting chocolate craving. Participants in the experimental group (n=40) received 10 consecutive brief exposures to chocolate cues in each of two sessions, separated by 1-3 days. Control participants (n=18) received two exposures at the start and end of each session. Chocolate craving was measured (alternately) through subjective report and the amount of saliva secretion to cho...

  2. Fenton process combined with coagulation for the treatment of black liquor from bioethanol wastewater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muryanto, Muryanto; Hanifah, Ummu; Amriani, Feni; Ibadurrahman, Ahmad Faiz; Sari, Ajeng Arum

    2017-11-01

    High amounts of black liquor are generated from bioethanol production by using oil palm empty fruit bunches. The black liquor is waste from alkaline pretreatment, it contains high amount of an alkaline solution (NaOH). The black liquor wastewater was highly contaminated with organic materials, and quite toxic for aquatic ecosystems if discharged directly into waters. This study aimed to determine ability of Fenton process combined with coagulation to treat black liquor. The addition 5% of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) could decolorized black liquor, degraded lignin, and produced sludge 70.64%, 68.28%, and 2.76 gram, respectively. Decolorization of black liquor was in line with degradation of black liquor because lignin is the main compound in black liquor. SEM images after addition of PAC of 5% indicated fragmentation of structure. Fenton reagent consist of 0.7 M FeSO4+ 3M H2O2 has able to decolorize black liquor, degrade lignin, and produce sludge 51.67% and 25.44%, and 0.44 gram, respectively. It was concluded that black liquor wastewater from bioethanol can be treated by using Fenton process combined with coagulation. However, these methods still need improvement to obtain the higher degradation rate, and coagulation sludge needs further consideration.

  3. Disturbances of the liquor circulation: differential diagnosis of the hydrocephalus by radionuclide scintigraphy, pneumoencephalography and determination of the liquor pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuhrmeister, U.; Boerner, W.; Wuerzburg Univ.

    1976-01-01

    Normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a special case of communicating hydrocephalus with disturbed resorption of cerebrospinal fluid. Because of the therapeutic consequences, NPH must be clearly differentiated from cerebral atrophy with compensatory increase of the liquor and from hydrocephalus with well-balanced cerebrospinal fluid. NPH is indicated by: excessive pressure rise after artificial volume load on the liquor space in spinal infusion tests; in the X-ray picture, an internal hydrocephalus; an acute-angled corpus callosum, and a progressive ventricular enlargement following in the pneumoencephalography; ventricular reflux with stasis in radionuclide cisternography. In some limiting cases, the diagnosis can be facilitated by a quantitative functional study of the dynamics of the cerebrospinal fluid with the aid of radionuclides. The biological half-life of 131 I albumin is doubled when the resorption of the cerebrospinal fluid is disturbed. (orig.) [de

  4. Disturbances of the liquor circulation: differential diagnosis of the hydrocephalus by radionuclide scintigraphy, pneumoencephalography and determination of the liquor pressure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fuhrmeister, U; Boerner, W [Wuerzburg Univ. (F.R. Germany). Neurologische Klinik; Wuerzburg Univ. (F.R. Germany). Nuklearmedizinische Abt.)

    1976-06-01

    Normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a special case of communicating hydrocephalus with disturbed resorption of cerebrospinal fluid. Because of the therapeutic consequences, NPH must be clearly differentiated from cerebral atrophy with compensatory increase of the liquor and from hydrocephalus with well-balanced cerebrospinal fluid. NPH is indicated by: excessive pressure rise after artificial volume load on the liquor space in spinal infusion tests; in the x-ray picture, an internal hydrocephalus; an acute-angled corpus callosum, and a progressive ventricular enlargement following in the pneumoencephalography; ventricular reflux with stasis in radionuclide cisternography. In some limiting cases, the diagnosis can be facilitated by a quantitative functional study of the dynamics of the cerebrospinal fluid with the aid of radionuclides. The biological half-life of /sup 131/I albumin is doubled when the resorption of the cerebrospinal fluid is disturbed.

  5. 76 FR 38680 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the West Chocolate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy...) for the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy Evaluation Area. By this notice, the BLM is...: You may submit comments related to the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy Evaluation Area by...

  6. Repeated cue exposure effects on subjective and physiological indices of chocolate craving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Gucht, D.; Vansteenwegen, D.; Beckers, T.; Hermans, D.; Baeyens, F.; Van den Bergh, O.

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of repeated unreinforced exposure to chocolate cues in persons reporting chocolate craving. Participants in the experimental group (n ¼ 40) received 10 consecutive brief exposures to chocolate cues in each of two sessions, separated by 1-3 days.

  7. Acute dark chocolate ingestion is beneficial for hemodynamics via enhancement of erythrocyte deformability in healthy humans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radosinska, Jana; Horvathova, Martina; Frimmel, Karel; Muchova, Jana; Vidosovicova, Maria; Vazan, Rastislav; Bernatova, Iveta

    2017-03-01

    Erythrocyte deformability is an important property of erythrocytes that considerably affects blood flow and hemodynamics. The high content of polyphenols present in dark chocolate has been reported to play a protective role in functionality of erythrocytes. We hypothesized that chocolate might influence erythrocytes not only after repeated chronic intake, but also immediately after its ingestion. Thus, we determined the acute effect of dark chocolate and milk (with lower content of biologically active substances) chocolate intake on erythrocyte deformability. We also focused on selected factors that may affect erythrocyte deformability, specifically nitric oxide production in erythrocytes and total antioxidant capacity of plasma. We determined posttreatment changes in the mentioned parameters 2hours after consumption of chocolate compared with their levels before consumption of chocolate. In contrast to milk chocolate intake, the dark chocolate led to a significantly higher increase in erythrocyte deformability. Nitric oxide production in erythrocytes was not changed after dark chocolate intake, but significantly decreased after milk chocolate. The plasma total antioxidant capacity remained unaffected after ingestion of both chocolates. We conclude that our hypothesis was confirmed. Single ingestion of dark chocolate improved erythrocyte deformability despite unchanged nitric oxide production and antioxidant capacity of plasma. Increased deformability of erythrocytes may considerably improve rheological properties of blood and thus hemodynamics in humans, resulting in better tissue oxygenation. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. Quality and Sensorial Characteristics of Chocolate Bar with Natural Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia Salanţă

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the latest period of time the people’s interest for natural products without synthetic dyes, with benefits to the human body has significantly increased. Chocolate is widely consumed all over the world. The pleasure derived from the consumption of chocolate is accompanied by a whole range of effects on the human health, which may explain their its attractiveness. One of the objectives of this reaserch was to extract dyes from various plants (fruits and vegetables and incorporating them in white chocolate. In order to characterize the new product, several physicochemical analyses were conducted (moisture, dry matter, ash content, total extract and acidity. Also the consumer perception was followed by conducting a sensory analysis. The new product can be placed in the free synthetic dyes category

  9. Ochratoxin A in cocoa and chocolate sampled in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, A-M; Scott, P M

    2011-06-01

    In order to determine the levels of ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa and cocoa products available in Canada, a previously published analytical method, with minor modifications to the extraction and immunoaffinity clean-up and inclusion of an evaporation step, was initially used (Method I). To improve the low method recoveries (46-61%), 40% methanol was then included in the aqueous sodium bicarbonate extraction solvent (pH 7.8) (Method II). Clean-up was on an Ochratest™ immunoaffinity column and OTA was determined by liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection. Recoveries of OTA from spiked cocoa powder (0.5 and 5 ng g(-1)) were 75-84%; while recoveries from chocolate were 93-94%. The optimized method was sensitive (limit of quantification (LOQ) = 0.07-0.08 ng g(-1)), accurate (recovery = 75-94%) and precise (coefficient of variation (CV) cocoa and chocolate. Analysis of 32 samples of cocoa powder (16 alkalized and 16 natural) for OTA showed an incidence of 100%, with concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 7.8 ng g(-1); in six samples the OTA level exceeded 2 ng g(-1), the previously considered European Union limit for cocoa. The frequency of detection of OTA in 28 chocolate samples (21 dark or baking chocolate and seven milk chocolate) was also 100% with concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 1.4 ng g(-1); one sample had a level higher than the previously considered European Union limit for chocolate (1 ng g(-1)).

  10. THE EFFECT OF 'ORGANIC' LABELS ON CONSUMER PERCEPTION OF CHOCOLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Kiss

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important success factors in the organic food industry is the positive image that a significant number of customers attach to organic products in many countries, which includes the perception of healthiness and also sensory characteristics such as smell, texture or taste. Several papers have examined the effect of organic certification on consumer perceptions for many types of products from a number of perspectives. The present study aims to reveal the effect of organic (‘bio’ labels on customers’ evaluation of chocolates regarding five product attributes: fragrance, taste, healthiness, calorie content and price. The two research questions are: (1 ‘How do consumers modify their perceptions about a given chocolate after receiving information as to whether the given chocolate is an organic or a non-organic product?’ and (2 ‘How do consumers’ evaluations of organic and non-organic chocolates relative to each other change after it is revealed which ones have an organic certificate?’ To find the answers an experiment was conducted on a sample of 32 second year bachelor university students from the ‘Commerce and Marketing’ major. During the experiment the students tasted 4 dark (2 regular and 2 organic and 3 milk (2 regular and 1 organic chocolates in two phases. In the first phase they had no information as to whether organic products were involved in the experiment, but in the second the organic products were labelled. The students had to evaluate fragrance, taste, healthiness, and calorie content, and estimate the price in both phases. The results show that ‘organic’ labels can significantly modify consumers’ perception and evaluation of chocolates with every attribute for one or more of the chocolates. Labelling can also widen the perceived gap between organic and regular chocolates according to fragrance, healthiness, calorie content and price. However, changes were identified only in the case of

  11. Performance of Ceriporiopsis sp. in the Treatment of Black Liquor Wastewater

    OpenAIRE

    Sari, Ajeng Arum

    2016-01-01

    High amounts of black liquor wastewater are generated from bioethanol production by using oil palm empty fruit bunches. It contains an alkaline solution (NaOH), so it is quite toxic for aquatic ecosystems if discharged directly into waters. Black liquor has been treated by coagulation method, and it still needs additional treatment. This study aimed to determine degradation of black liquor wastewater by selected white-rot fungi (WRF). Five different strains of WRF have been tested for their a...

  12. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom. 122.134 Section 122.134 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom. (a...

  13. Everyday mood and emotions after eating a chocolate bar or an apple.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macht, Michael; Dettmer, Dorothee

    2006-05-01

    Emotional changes after eating chocolate were examined in everyday life. Thirty-seven healthy, normal-weight women ate a chocolate bar, an apple or nothing and rated their subjective state 5, 30, 60 and 90min after eating. Both chocolate and the apple reduced hunger, elevated mood and increased activation, but the effects of the chocolate were stronger. Eating chocolate was also followed by joy and, in some women, by guilt. Guilt responders experienced less intense positive emotions. Whereas positive emotional responses appear to be due to sensory pleasure and it's anticipation and may also be related to reduced hunger, guilt responses are probably induced by negative food-related cognitions.

  14. Yeast community associated with the solid state fermentation of traditional Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Qun; Chen, Liangqiang; Xu, Yan

    2013-09-02

    Yeasts are the most important group of microorganisms contributing to liquor quality in the solid-state fermentation process of Chinese Maotai-flavor liquor. There occurred a complex yeast community structure during this process, including stages of Daqu (the starter) making, stacking fermentation on the ground and liquor fermentation in the pits. In the Daqu making stage, few yeast strains accumulated. However, the stacking fermentation stage accumulated nine yeast species with different physio-biochemical characteristics. But only four species kept dominant until liquor fermentation, which were Zygosaccharomyces bailii, Saccharomyces cerevisiae, Pichia membranifaciens, and Schizosaccharomyces pombe, implying their important functions in liquor making. The four species tended to inhabit in different locations of the stack and pits during stacking and liquor fermentation, due to the condition heterogeneity of the solid-state fermentation, including the different fermentation temperature profiles and oxygen density in different locations. Moreover, yeast population was much larger in the upper layer than that in the middle and bottom layers in liquor fermentation, which was in accordance with the profile of reducing sugar consumption and ethanol production. This was a systematical investigation of yeast community structure dynamics in the Maotai-flavor liquor fermentation process. It would be of help to understand the fermentative mechanism in solid-state fermentation for Maotai-flavor liquor. © 2013.

  15. Treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry by acidification and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Bo; Mu, Huan-Zhen; Huang, Yan-Chu

    2003-09-01

    Two different kinds of black liquor from the papermaking industry were treated by acidification and reuse. The experimental parameters and conditions were discussed in detail. The experimental results indicated that the treatment process mentioned in this article is an effective process for the treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry. By the treatment, the solid materials in black liquor are transferred into two by-products and the other components are reused or evaporated. Thus, no wastewater except some condensation water would be discharged in pulping process and the problem of pollution of black liquor would be effectively solved.

  16. Antioxidant capacity of Kraft black liquor from the pulp and paper industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez-Perez, Elizabeth; Rodríguez-Malaver, Antonio J

    2005-07-01

    The effect of Kraft black liquor on the lipid peroxidation of rat homogenates was examined. The lipid peroxidation of homogenates from different organs (kidney, brain, lung, and liver) was induced by Fenton's reagent. The products of lipid peroxidation, lipid hydroperoxides and TBARS were measured by FOX method and TBA assay, respectively. It was found that black liquor significantly reduced the concentration of TBARS, but not the concentration of lipid hydroperoxides. This inhibition was directly proportional to the concentration of Kraft black liquor and the incubation temperature. Conclusively, the black liquor from pulp and paper industry exhibited an antioxidant activity.

  17. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.; Stoy, M.O.; Schmidl, G.W.; Dong, D.J.; Speck, B.

    1998-04-01

    A wide variety of experimental techniques have been used in this work, and many of these have been developed completely or improved significantly in the course of the research done during this program. Therefore, it is appropriate to describe these techniques in detail as a reference for future workers so that the techniques can be used in future work with little additional effort or so that the results reported from this program can be compared better with future results from other work. In many cases, the techniques described are for specific analytical instruments. It is recognized that these may be superseded by future developments and improvements in instrumentation if a complete description of techniques used successfully in the past on other instrumentation is available. The total pulping and liquor preparation research work performed included chip and white liquor preparation, digestion, pulp washing, liquor and wash recovery, liquor sampling, weak liquor concentration in two steps to about 45--50% solids with an intermediate soap skimming at about 140F and 27--30% solids, determination of pulp yield and Kappa number, determination of total liquor solids, and a check on the total material balance for pulping. All other research was performed either on a sample of the weak black liquor (the combined black liquor and washes from the digester) or on the skimmed liquor that had been concentrated.

  18. Sensory profiles of chocolates produced from cocoa cultivars resistant to Moniliophtora Perniciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bacelar Leite

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the sensory quality of chocolates obtained from two cocoa cultivars (PH16 and SR162 resistant to Moniliophtora perniciosa mould comparing to a conventional cocoa that is not resistant to the disease. The acceptability of the chocolates was assessed and the promising cultivars with relevant sensory and commercial attributes could be indicated to cocoa producers and chocolate manufacturers. The descriptive terminology and the sensory profile of chocolates were developed by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. Ten panelists, selected on the basis of their discriminatory capacity and reproducibility, defined eleven sensory descriptors, their respective reference materials and the descriptive evaluation ballot. The data were analyzed using ANOVA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Tukey's test to compare the means. The results revealed significant differences among the sensory profiles of the chocolates. Chocolates from the PH16 cultivar were characterized by a darker brown color, more intense flavor and odor of chocolate, bitterness and a firmer texture, which are important sensory and commercial attributes. Chocolates from the SR162 cultivar were characterized by a greater sweetness and melting quality and chocolates from the conventional treatment presented intermediate sensory characteristics between those of the other two chocolates. All samples indicated high acceptance, but chocolates from the PH16 and conventional cultivars obtained higher purchase intention scores.

  19. Effects of dark chocolate on azoxymethane-induced colonic aberrant crypt foci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hong, Mee Young; Nulton, Emily; Shelechi, Mahshid; Hernández, Lisa M; Nemoseck, Tricia

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiologic evidence supports that diets rich in polyphenols promote health and may delay the onset of colon cancer. Cocoa and chocolate products have some of the highest polyphenolic concentrations compared to other polyphenolic food sources. This study tested the hypothesis that a diet including dark chocolate can protect against colon cancer by inhibiting aberrant crypt foci (ACF) formation, downregulating gene expression of inflammatory mediators, and favorably altering cell kinetics. We also investigated whether bloomed dark chocolate retains the antioxidant capacity and protects against colon cancer. Forty-eight rats received either a diet containing control (no chocolate), regular dark chocolate, or bloomed dark chocolate and were injected subcutaneously with saline or azoxymethane. Relative to control, both regular and bloomed dark chocolate diets lowered the total number of ACF (P = 0.022). Chocolate diet-fed animals downregulated transcription levels of COX-2 (P = 0.035) and RelA (P = 0.045). Both chocolate diets lowered the proliferation index (P = 0.001). These results suggest that a diet including dark chocolate can reduce cell proliferation and some gene expression involving inflammation, which may explain the lower number of early preneoplastic lesions. These results provide new insight on polyphenol-rich chocolate foods and colon cancer prevention.

  20. Efficient exfoliation of layered materials by waste liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Jiheng; Zhao, Hongran; Zheng, Yan; Wang, Qiaolei; Chen, Hao; Dou, Huimin; Yu, Haibin

    2018-03-01

    Based on their unique material properties, two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials such as graphene, molybdenum disulfide (MoS2), and boron nitride (BN) have been attracting increased research interest. The potential of 2D materials, in the form of nanoplatelets that are used as new materials, will be important to both nanomaterials and advanced materials. Water is usually considered to be the ideal dispersed medium, and the essential hydrophobicity and limitations to mass production of 2D nanoplatelets have become quite serious obstacles to their usage in various fields. In this paper, pulping black liquor was used as dispersant, with high concentration of lignin to get single- and few-layered nanoplatelets. The whole process required only the high-shear mixing of 2D layered materials and pulping waste liquor. This method was not only simple and efficient but also environmentally friendly and resource-recycling. Moreover, the fabricated single- or few-layered nanoplatelets possessed good solubility in aqueous solution due to their edge functionalization, and could be well dispersed in water at concentrations (10 mg ml-1 for graphene, 6.3 mg ml-1 for MoS2, and 6.0 mg ml-1 for BN) which were much higher than that of other methods. The dispersions of graphene, MoS2, and BN nanosheets were highly stable over several months, which allowed us to easily prepare graphene, MoS2, and BN films through simple vacuum filtration or spraying. These results indicated that pulping black liquor can be used as a material or reagent, and the mass production of 2D material is possible in a simple and fast method.

  1. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Simone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids, whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP. Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m2·h·bar, coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m2·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively.

  2. Uranium recovery from acid leach liquors: Ix or Sx?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Van Tonder, D.; Kotze, M.

    2007-01-01

    Various technologies for uranium recovery from sulphuric acid leach solutions were compared. Although the main consideration was the economics (Capex, recovery and Opex) of the various technologies and associated unit operations, other factors, such as flexibility, reliability, ease of operation, fire risk, stability with regards to feed flow variations, and feed solids content, would also need to be considered in the overall analysis. The design basis used for the comparison was a production rate or 200 kg/h U 3 O8 over a solution concentration range of 40 to 1500 mg/L U 3 O8. The technologies to be compared included Resin-in-pulp (RIP), Fixed-bed Ion Exchange (FBIX), Continuous Countercurrent Ion Exchange (CCIX, e.g. NIMCIX), and Solvent Extraction (Sx) using Bateman Pulsed Columns (BPC) and Bateman Settlers. Countercurrent Decantation (CCD) and clarification would be required for the Sx and FBIX technologies. The preliminary economic evaluation indicated that a flowsheet, comprising RIP for bulk uranium extraction and upgrade, followed by Sx, employing the BPC for purification of the RIP eluate stream, was the most economic option at leach liquor concentrations below 900 mg/L. Above 900 mg/L the economic evaluation suggested that CCDs followed by Sx in the BPC was the most economical processing option. For applications where the ore is abrasive and not amenable to RIP, due to the rate of resin consumption, Paste Thickeners to remove the bulk of the solids, followed by RIP, was found to be the most economic processing option at leach liquor concentrations below 200 mg/L. However, for leach liquor concentrations above 200 mg/L, a CCD-circuit followed by Sx using BPC was again the most economic favourable route

  3. Generation of PHB from Spent Sulfite Liquor Using Halophilic Microorganisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weissgram, Michaela; Gstöttner, Janina; Lorantfy, Bettina; Tenhaken, Raimund; Herwig, Christoph; Weber, Hedda K

    2015-06-08

    Halophilic microorganisms thrive at elevated concentrations of sodium chloride up to saturation and are capable of growing on a wide variety of carbon sources like various organic acids, hexose and also pentose sugars. Hence, the biotechnological application of these microorganisms can cover many aspects, such as the treatment of hypersaline waste streams of different origin. Due to the fact that the high osmotic pressure of hypersaline environments reduces the risk of contamination, the capacity for cost-effective non-sterile cultivation can make extreme halophilic microorganisms potentially valuable organisms for biotechnological applications. In this contribution, the stepwise use of screening approaches, employing design of experiment (DoE) on model media and subsequently using industrial waste as substrate have been implemented to investigate the applicability of halophiles to generate PHB from the industrial waste stream spent sulfite liquor (SSL). The production of PHB on model media as well as dilutions of industrial substrate in a complex medium has been screened for by fluorescence microscopy using Nile Blue staining. Screening was used to investigate the ability of halophilic microorganisms to withstand the inhibiting substances of the waste stream without negatively affecting PHB production. It could be shown that neither single inhibiting substances nor a mixture thereof inhibited growth in the investigated range, hence, leaving the question on the inhibiting mechanisms open. However, it could be demonstrated that some haloarchaea and halophilic bacteria are able to produce PHB when cultivated on 3.3% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor, whereas H. halophila was even able to thrive on 6.6% w/w dry matter spent sulfite liquor and still produce PHB.

  4. Investigations of Physical-Chemical and Microbiological Deterioration of Chocolate Pralines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Cecilie Lykke Marvig

    Chocolate pralines, defined as soft fruit, sugar or fat based fillings covered with a chocolate shell, are multidomain, complex food products. The chocolate shell consists of a continuous fat phase in which sugar and cocoa particles are dispersed. The fillings can vary in composition and texture...... of the sugar and cocoa particles plays a role in the sensorial assessment of the chocolate. Fillings for chocolate pralines varies a lot and no common quality parameters can be set for these, but needs to be defined for the individual filling. The shelf life of chocolate pralines is determined by numerous...... and complex interactions between intrinsic and external parameters, and spoilage can be of either microbial or physical-chemical character or a combination of the two. Chocolate belong to the group of low moisture food products and is only susceptible to physical-chemical spoilage, while the fillings has...

  5. The impact of the manufacturing process on the hardness and sensory properties of milk chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarić Danica B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine the impact of the manufacturing process on the textural characteristics and sensory properties of milk chocolate. The research was conducted on the samples of chocolate produced in a ball mill during 30, 60 and 90 minutes of refining, each of them being pre-crystallized at 26, 28 and 30°C. A chocolate mass of identical ingredient composition was also produced using a standard manufacturing process at the same pre-crystallization temperatures. Chocolate hardness was examined using a piece of equipment called Texture Analyser, measuring the stress intensity which leads to chocolate crushing. Sensory analysis was performed using the point scoring method. The new manufacturing process, i.e. the manufacturing of chocolate in a ball mill improves sensory properties and hardness of milk chocolate. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31014

  6. A clinical trial gone awry: the Chocolate Happiness Undergoing More Pleasantness (CHUMP) study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Kevin

    2007-12-04

    The randomized controlled trial is the "gold standard" for evaluating the benefits and harms of interventions. The Chocolate Happiness Undergoing More Pleasantness (CHUMP) study was designed to compare the effects of dark chocolate, milk chocolate and normal chocolate consumption on happiness. Although the intention-to-treat analysis showed that participants who received either dark or milk chocolate were happier than those who received no additional chocolate, the actual-consumption analysis showed that there were no differences between any of the groups. The reason for this result is that many participants switched groups mid-study because of their personal chocolate preferences. Although the CHUMP study was pleasurable, it demonstrated the difficulties associated with performing a truly blinded clinical trial.

  7. Mood modulation by food: an exploration of affect and cravings in 'chocolate addicts'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macdiarmid, J I; Hetherington, M M

    1995-02-01

    To test the hypothesis that some foods are eaten to alter mood, the relationship between mood and intake of chocolate was investigated in 40 women. Twenty self-identified chocolate 'addicts' and 20 controls rated hunger, mood, intensity of craving and amount of chocolate eaten in a diary for seven consecutive days. The 'addicts' reported a significantly greater number of eating episodes and consumed a larger amount of chocolate than controls. 'Addicts' also rated depression, guilt and craving higher and feeling content and relaxed as lower before eating than controls. However, eating chocolate resulted in increased feelings of guilt in the 'addicts' and no significant changes in feeling depressed or relaxed. On indices of disordered eating and depression, 'addicts' scored significantly higher than controls; however, eating chocolate did not improve mood. Although chocolate is a food which provides pleasure, for those who consider intake of this food to be excessive, any pleasure experienced is short lived and accompanied by feelings of guilt.

  8. Exploring consumer perception about the different types of chocolate Explorando a percepção do consumidor sobre diferentes tipos de chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gámbaro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Word Association technique was used to analyze the perception of 120 Uruguayan consumers concerning the different types of chocolate. Similarly, it was estimated how healthy consumers perceived dark, white and milk chocolate to be. As a generic product, chocolate was associated with good taste, positive feelings, sweetness, feelings of warmth and calories/energy. White, dark and milk chocolate were significantly associated with other concepts (creaminess, bitterness, intense taste, etc.. A cluster analysis was performed on the scores regarding the perceived healthiness as reported by the consumers. 3 clusters were identified: Cluster 1 did not perceive any of the three types of chocolate to be very healthy, Cluster 2 considered dark chocolate to be very healthy but white chocolate to be less healthy and Cluster 3 perceived the three types of chocolate as very healthy. The Word Association technique enabled us to identify the differences between the associations made by each cluster.A técnica de Associação de Palavras foi utilizada para analisar a percepção que 120 consumidores uruguaios tinham em relação a diferentes tipos de chocolate. Da mesma forma, estimou-se o quão saudável os consumidores percebiam cada tipo de chocolate: escuro, branco e ao leite. Como um produto genérico, o chocolate foi associado com bom gosto, sentimentos positivos, doçura, sensação de calor e calorias/energia. Chocolates dos tipos branco, escuro e ao leite foram significativamente associados com outros conceitos (cremosidade, amargura, sabor intenso, etc.. Uma análise de agrupamento foi realizada na pontuação em relação à saudabilidade percebida, reportada pelos consumidores. Três grupos foram identificados: Grupo 1 - não percebem qualquer um dos três tipos de chocolate como sendo muito saudável; Grupo 2 - consideram o chocolate escuro como muito saudável e o chocolate branco foi considerado como menos saudável; Grupo 3 - percebem os tr

  9. The denitration of simulated fast reactor highly active liquor waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Saum, C.J.; Ford, L.H.; Blatts, N.

    1981-01-01

    A short series of tests have been made with simulated HAL containing representative concentrations of palladium and phosphate ion. The information obtained has been confirmed in a small scale continuous denitration plant. These cases of four stirred pot reactors arranged in cascade. One possible advantage of this plant would be the low mean acidity in the first stage compared to the feed material which would limit to some extent the violence of the reaction. This would lead to a lower rate of gas evolution and may permit operation even with liquors where foaming is a problem. (DG)

  10. Oxidizing attack process of uranium ore by a carbonated liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Maurel, Pierre; Nicolas, Francois.

    1981-01-01

    A continuous process for digesting a uraniferous ore by oxidation with a recycling aqueous liquor containing alkaline carbonates and bicarbonates in solution as well as uranium in a concentration close to its solubility limit at digestion temperature, and of recuperation of the precipitated uranium within the solid phase remaining after digestion. The digestion is carried out by spraying oxygen into the hot reactional medium in order not only to permit oxidation of the uranium and its solubilization but also to ensure that the sulphides of impurities and organic substances present in the ore are oxidized [fr

  11. Investigation into the Microstructure, Texture and Rheological Properties of Chocolate Ganache.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGill, Jade; Hartel, Rich W

    2018-03-01

    Ganache is a mixture of chocolate and dairy. Although a popular confection, little is known about how it functions as a system. Objectives were to (1) determine if dairy fats and cocoa butter mix in ganache, (2) characterize ganache microstructure, and how structure affects texture and rheology, and (3) identify how changes in chocolate composition alter ganache. Textural analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, stress sweep tests, and microscopy were used to examine ganache formulations that varied in dairy source (cream or butter) or in solid fat content (SFC), composition or type of chocolate. Melting temperatures for all ganache formulations were lower than for chocolate, indicating that cream milk fat globules rupture during processing, and mix with cocoa butter. Altering the SFC of chocolate affected ganache hardness, spreadability, melting enthalpy, and resistance to deformation. Chocolate systems made with constant fat content and greater amounts of defatted cocoa powder relative to sugar or nonfat milk powder yielded ganache that was harder, less spreadable, and more resistant to deformation. Ganache made with commercially produced dark, milk, and white chocolates behaved similarly to model chocolate systems. Ganache attributes are affected by chocolate crystalline fat content in addition to particle phase volume-greater levels of cocoa powder, which is mostly insoluble, strengthens ganache structure, producing a firmer product, whereas greater levels of milk powder and sugar, which dissolve in the aqueous cream component, produce a softer ganache. Understanding how ganache functions as a system and how differences in chocolate composition affect its textural and rheological properties may allow for greater control over the desired characteristics of the final product. For example, this research shows how changing cocoa content of the chocolate affects ganache, which is useful when developing formulations involving chocolates with different cocoa

  12. A Study on Chocolate Consumption in Prospective Teachers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ozgen, Leyla

    2016-01-01

    This study was planned and conducted to determine the chocolate consumption habits of prospective teachers. The study population was comprised of students attending the Faculty of Education at Gazi University in Ankara and the sample consisted of 251 prospective teachers selected with simple random sampling. 96.4% and 3.6% of the prospective…

  13. Can airborne ultrasound monitor bubble size in chocolate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, N; Hazlehurst, T; Povey, M; Vieira, J; Sundara, R; Sandoz, J-P

    2014-01-01

    Aerated chocolate products consist of solid chocolate with the inclusion of bubbles and are a popular consumer product in many countries. The volume fraction and size distribution of the bubbles has an effect on their sensory properties and manufacturing cost. For these reasons it is important to have an online real time process monitoring system capable of measuring their bubble size distribution. As these products are eaten by consumers it is desirable that the monitoring system is non contact to avoid food contaminations. In this work we assess the feasibility of using an airborne ultrasound system to monitor the bubble size distribution in aerated chocolate bars. The experimental results from the airborne acoustic experiments were compared with theoretical results for known bubble size distributions using COMSOL Multiphysics. This combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to develop a greater understanding of how ultrasound propagates through aerated chocolate and to assess the feasibility of using airborne ultrasound to monitor bubble size distribution in these systems. The results indicated that a smaller bubble size distribution would result in an increase in attenuation through the product

  14. EDULCORANTES NATURALES UTILIZADOS EN LA ELABORACIÓN DE CHOCOLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ESTEBAN PALACIO VÁSQUEZ

    2017-12-01

    Full Text Available The demand of confectionery products and their massive consumption, leads to the agri-food industry include in its transformation processes inputs that improve the nutritional quality of the final products. Considering that chocolate has a high percentage of sugar (sucrose content of 30-60%, it is necessary to use alternative sweeteners for its elaboration, that promote a healthy diet. The objective of the present review is to characterize some natural sweeteners such as erythritol, stevia (stevioside and rebaudioside-A, thaumatin and bulking agents such as inulin and polydextrose with structural and rheological functions; highlighting aspects such as its origin, caloric intake, sweetening power, ADI (Admissible Daily Intake and its influence on chocolate quality parameters. Although they may affect their sensory properties, these sweeteners have wide advantages because of their low caloric content and high potency in sweetness compared to sucrose. This shows the need to perform studies to determine the sweetener and the bulking agent that best substitute sucrose in the manufacture of chocolates. Finally, it is evident that the use of natural sweeteners, generates health benefits and impact on the sensorial and rheological quality of chocolate.

  15. Influence of dark chocolate administration on uric acid, liver ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Objective. To assess the influence of dark chocolate administration on uric acid, liver enzymes, glucose and lactate responses to summaximal exercise test in male swimmers. Subjects. Eleven competitive swimmers from the athletic club Academic, Sofia volunteered for the study. Design. A randomised study of two periods ...

  16. Dark chocolate administration improves working memory in students

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawanto Agung Prastowo

    2016-04-01

    Dark chocolate as a single dose is capable of improving verbal working memory in students, 3 hours after its consumption. Since cocoa contains multiple bioactive compounds, one approach might be to examine the neurocognitive effects of combinations of potential functional ingredients.

  17. Reinforcing effects of caffeine and theobromine as found in chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smit, Hendrik J; Blackburn, Rachel J

    2005-08-01

    Although in a previous study we showed that caffeine and theobromine were the main psychopharmacologically active constituents in a 50-g bar of chocolate, mere activity does not guarantee a role in our liking for the food. Our aim was to see if liking for a drink repeatedly paired with these amounts of caffeine and theobromine would increase compared to a placebo-paired drink. Participants (n=64) consumed a 'novel' drink + treatment capsule on six non-consecutive mornings using a double-blind, placebo-controlled independent-sample design. Aspects of liking and intensity of various sensory descriptors for these drinks were measured at every drink collection. Treatment capsules contained either an ecologically relevant dose combination of 19-mg caffeine and 250-mg theobromine or a placebo. Liking for the drink paired with the methylxanthine-containing capsules increased over time compared to the placebo-paired drink. This highly significant effect was confirmed by subjective, retrospective changes in liking for the drink. Methylxanthines in amounts found in 50-g chocolate may well contribute to our liking for chocolate, especially to the more acquired taste for dark chocolate.

  18. Can airborne ultrasound monitor bubble size in chocolate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, N.; Hazlehurst, T.; Povey, M.; Vieira, J.; Sundara, R.; Sandoz, J.-P.

    2014-04-01

    Aerated chocolate products consist of solid chocolate with the inclusion of bubbles and are a popular consumer product in many countries. The volume fraction and size distribution of the bubbles has an effect on their sensory properties and manufacturing cost. For these reasons it is important to have an online real time process monitoring system capable of measuring their bubble size distribution. As these products are eaten by consumers it is desirable that the monitoring system is non contact to avoid food contaminations. In this work we assess the feasibility of using an airborne ultrasound system to monitor the bubble size distribution in aerated chocolate bars. The experimental results from the airborne acoustic experiments were compared with theoretical results for known bubble size distributions using COMSOL Multiphysics. This combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to develop a greater understanding of how ultrasound propagates through aerated chocolate and to assess the feasibility of using airborne ultrasound to monitor bubble size distribution in these systems. The results indicated that a smaller bubble size distribution would result in an increase in attenuation through the product.

  19. Chocolate, well-being and health among elderly men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strandberg, T E; Strandberg, A Y; Pitkälä, K; Salomaa, V V; Tilvis, R S; Miettinen, T A

    2008-02-01

    We hypothesized that chocolate preference would be related to health and psychological well-being in old men. We have followed up a socio-economically homogenous group of men, born in 1919-1934, since the 1960s. In 2002-2003, a mailed questionnaire was used to assess the health and well-being (including questions related to positive life orientation, visual analogue scales and the Zung depression score) of survivors. In addition, candy preference was inquired. Those men who reported no candy consumption (n=108) were excluded from the analyses. Psychological well-being in old age. The response rate was 69% (1367 of 1991). Of the respondents, 860 and 399 preferred chocolate and other type of candy, respectively. The average age in both candy groups was 76 years. Of the respondents, 99% were home-dwelling, 96% were retired and 87% were presently married, without differences between the candy groups. Men preferring chocolate had lower body mass index and waist circumference, and they also reported more exercise and better subjective health (P=0.008) than other candy consumers. Variables related to psychological well-being were consistently better in those preferring chocolate. The differences were statistically significant in feeling of loneliness (P=0.01), feeling of happiness (P=0.01), having plans for the future (P=0.0002) and the Zung depression score (P=0.02). In this socioeconomically homogenous male cohort, chocolate preference in old age was associated with better health, optimism and better psychological well-being. The Academy of Finland, the Päivikki and Sakari Sohlberg Foundation, the Helsinki University Central Hospital and the Finnish Foundation for Cardiovascular Research.

  20. Physical properties of highly active liquor containing molybdate solids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dunnett, B.; Ward, T.; Roberts, R.; Cheeseright, J.

    2016-01-01

    The reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at Sellafield produces a nitric acid based Highly Active Liquor (HAL) waste. The liquor, containing fission products and process additives, is concentrated in an evaporator in order to reduce the volume and is then stored in Highly Active Storage Tanks (HASTs) prior to vitrification. Caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) is precipitated during the evaporation process and can convert to zirconium molybdate (ZM) during storage. During Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the HASTs, it is expected that their highly active content will be reduced by repeated cycles of washing using nitric acid and other reagents. Initial washings are likely to have a chemical composition comparable to concentrated HAL, becoming more dilute during the wash-out process. It is expected that the wash-out process will also recover significant quantities of molybdate solids (ZM, CPM or a mixture) from the HASTs. In order to determine the processing challenges from such washings during POCO, the physical properties of varying concentrations of non-active HAL simulants containing molybdate solids have recently been measured by the UK's National Nuclear Laboratory. The following measurements are presented and discussed: Particle size distribution; Density; Settling behaviour of solids; Voidage of settled sediment beds; Viscosity; Yield stress; And influence of ZM morphology on physical properties. (authors)

  1. D-Xylose from waste liquors of a viscose process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, T; Mimura, M

    1977-12-14

    D-Xylose was prepared in good yields by neutralizing alkali waste liquors containing hemicellulose (I) with inorganic acids, dialyzing to remove salts hydrolyzing with acids, fermenting to decompose hexose, decolorizing, concentrating to < 15% sugars, treating with alcohols to precipitate oligosugars, removing the precipitate, and crystalizing. Thus, 1 kg waste liquor containing 27 g I was neutralized with 5% HCl, dialyzed at 15/sup 0/ for 48 h with parchment paper, concentrated at 40/sup 0/ to give a 500 g solution containing 7% H/sub 2/SO/sub 4/, boiled for 3 h, neutralized with BaCO/sub 3/, mixed with 10 g yeast at pH 5.4 to 5.8 (filtrate) fermented at 35/sup 0/ for 12 h, filtered, decolorized, concentrated at 40/sup 0/ to > 80 g mixed with EtOH to give a precipitate, filtered, concentrated to 17 g syrup, and mixed with AcOH to obtain 7.2 g D-Xylose.

  2. Physical properties of highly active liquor containing molybdate solids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dunnett, B.; Ward, T.; Roberts, R. [National Nuclear Laboratory, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom); Cheeseright, J. [Sellafield Ltd, Sellafield, Seascale, Cumbria, CA20 1PG (United Kingdom)

    2016-07-01

    The reprocessing of irradiated nuclear fuel at Sellafield produces a nitric acid based Highly Active Liquor (HAL) waste. The liquor, containing fission products and process additives, is concentrated in an evaporator in order to reduce the volume and is then stored in Highly Active Storage Tanks (HASTs) prior to vitrification. Caesium phosphomolybdate (CPM) is precipitated during the evaporation process and can convert to zirconium molybdate (ZM) during storage. During Post Operational Clean Out (POCO) of the HASTs, it is expected that their highly active content will be reduced by repeated cycles of washing using nitric acid and other reagents. Initial washings are likely to have a chemical composition comparable to concentrated HAL, becoming more dilute during the wash-out process. It is expected that the wash-out process will also recover significant quantities of molybdate solids (ZM, CPM or a mixture) from the HASTs. In order to determine the processing challenges from such washings during POCO, the physical properties of varying concentrations of non-active HAL simulants containing molybdate solids have recently been measured by the UK's National Nuclear Laboratory. The following measurements are presented and discussed: Particle size distribution; Density; Settling behaviour of solids; Voidage of settled sediment beds; Viscosity; Yield stress; And influence of ZM morphology on physical properties. (authors)

  3. De kristallisatie-methode bij het onderzoek van de liquor cerebro-spinalis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wittermans, Aafko Willinge

    1941-01-01

    Ongeveer twaalfhonderd liquores zijn volgens een in de kliniek nog weinig bekende zeer eenvoudige methode van onderzoek van den Roemeenschen Hoogleraar TOMESCO onderzocht. Deze methode berust op het beoordeelen van het kristalbeeld dat ontstaat bij het indampen van druppels sterk verdunde liquor

  4. Rapid identification of Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions with FT-IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Changwen; Wei, Jiping; Zhou, Qun; Sun, Suqin

    2008-07-01

    FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation spectroscopy (2D-IR) technology were applied to discriminate Chinese Sauce liquor from different fermentation positions (top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar) for the first time. The liquors at top, middle and bottom of fermentation cellar, possessed the characteristic peaks at 1731 cm -1, 1733 cm -1 and 1602 cm -1, respectively. In the 2D correlation infrared spectra, the differences were amplified. A strong auto-peak at 1725 cm -1 showed in the 2D spectra of the Top Liquor, which indicated that the liquor might contain some ester compounds. Different from Top Liquor, three auto-peaks at 1695, 1590 and 1480 cm -1 were identified in 2D spectra of Middle Liquor, which were the characteristic absorption of acid, lactate. In 2D spectra of Bottom Liquor, two auto-peaks at 1570 and 1485 cm -1 indicated that lactate was the major component. As a result, FT-IR and 2D-IR correlation spectra technology provided a rapid and effective method for the quality analysis of the Sauce liquor.

  5. Discrimination between authentic and adulterated liquors by near-infrared spectroscopy and ensemble classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Tan, Chao; Wu, Tong; Wang, Li; Zhu, Wanping

    2014-09-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the famous distilled spirits and counterfeit liquor is becoming a serious problem in the market. Especially, age liquor is facing the crisis of confidence because it is difficult for consumer to identify the marked age, which prompts unscrupulous traders to pose off low-grade liquors as high-grade liquors. An ideal method for authenticity confirmation of liquors should be non-invasive, non-destructive and timely. The combination of near-infrared spectroscopy with chemometrics proves to be a good way to reach these premises. A new strategy is proposed for classification and verification of the adulteration of liquors by using NIR spectroscopy and chemometric classification, i.e., ensemble support vector machines (SVM). Three measures, i.e., accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were used for performance evaluation. The results confirmed that the strategy can serve as a screening tool applied to verify adulteration of the liquor, that is, a prior step used to condition the sample to a deeper analysis only when a positive result for adulteration is obtained by the proposed methodology.

  6. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Y.; Bao, Y.B.; Cai, X.L.; Chen, C.H. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Ye, X.C., E-mail: yexuchu@njtech.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • The waste neutralization liquor was injected directly into the kiln system. • No obvious effect on the quality of cement clinker. • The disposing method was a zero-discharge process. • The waste liquor can be used as an alternative fuel to reduce the coal consumption. - Abstract: The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production.

  7. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Bai, Y.; Bao, Y.B.; Cai, X.L.; Chen, C.H.; Ye, X.C.

    2014-01-01

    Highlights: • The waste neutralization liquor was injected directly into the kiln system. • No obvious effect on the quality of cement clinker. • The disposing method was a zero-discharge process. • The waste liquor can be used as an alternative fuel to reduce the coal consumption. - Abstract: The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production

  8. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines... conveying imported distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors, in accordance with 19 U.S.C. 467. (b) Marks...

  9. 77 FR 74025 - Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria-Liquor Control Statute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... Statute reads as follows: Chapter One--Introduction Section: 1.1 Authority. This Statute is enacted... viability of tribal enterprises. 1.3 Short Title. This Statute shall be known and cited as the ``Liquor..., currently prohibits the introduction of liquor into Indian country, except in accordance with State law and...

  10. 76 FR 77549 - Colorado River Indian Tribes-Amendment to Health & Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Health & Safety Code, Article 2. Liquor AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the amendment to the Colorado River Tribal Health and Safety Code, Article... Code, Article 2, Liquor by Ordinance No. 10-03 on December 13, 2010. This notice is published in...

  11. Discrimination of Chinese Sauce liquor using FT-IR and two-dimensional correlation IR spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Su-Qin; Li, Chang-Wen; Wei, Ji-Ping; Zhou, Qun; Noda, Isao

    2006-11-01

    We applied the three-step IR macro-fingerprint identification method to obtain the IR characteristic fingerprints of so-called Chinese Sauce liquor (Moutai liquor and Kinsly liquor) and a counterfeit Moutai. These fingerprints can be used for the identification and discrimination of similar liquor products. The comparison of their conventional IR spectra, as the first step of identification, shows that the primary difference in Sauce liquor is the intensity of characteristic peaks at 1592 and 1225 cm -1. The comparison of the second derivative IR spectra, as the second step of identification, shows that the characteristic absorption in 1400-1800 cm -1 is substantially different. The comparison of 2D-IR correlation spectra, as the third and final step of identification, can discriminate the liquors from another direction. Furthermore, the method was successfully applied to the discrimination of a counterfeit Moutai from the genuine Sauce liquor. The success of the three-step IR macro-fingerprint identification to provide a rapid and effective method for the identification of Chinese liquor suggests the potential extension of this technique to the identification and discrimination of other wine and spirits, as well.

  12. A process for producing lignin and volatile compounds from hydrolysis liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khazraie, Tooran; Zhang, Yiqian; Tarasov, Dmitry; Gao, Weijue; Price, Jacquelyn; DeMartini, Nikolai; Hupa, Leena; Fatehi, Pedram

    2017-01-01

    Hot water hydrolysis process is commercially applied for treating wood chips prior to pulping or wood pellet production, while it produces hydrolysis liquor as a by-product. Since the hydrolysis liquor is dilute, the production of value-added materials from it would be challenging. In this study, acidification was proposed as a viable method to extract (1) furfural and acetic acid from hot water hydrolysis liquor and (2) lignin compounds from the liquor. The thermal properties of the precipitates made from the acidification of hydrolysis liquor confirmed the volatile characteristics of precipitates. Membrane dialysis was effective in removing inorganic salts associated with lignin compounds. The purified lignin compounds had a glass transition temperature (Tg) of 180-190 °C, and were thermally stable. The results confirmed that lignin compounds present in hot water hydrolysis liquor had different characteristics. The acidification of hydrolysis liquor primarily removed the volatile compounds from hydrolysis liquor. Based on these results, a process for producing purified lignin and precipitates of volatile compounds was proposed.

  13. Studies on the antimicrobial effect of corn steep liquor on some ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ROFIAT

    2014-01-08

    Jan 8, 2014 ... The antimicrobial effect of Corn Steep Liquor (CSL) was investigated over a five day period. The pH and titrable acidity of the liquor were determined, while the antimicrobial effect on some diarrhoea causing organisms such as Escherichia coli, Salmonella enteriditis, Staphylococcus aureus and Vibrio.

  14. Maternal and fetal effects of chocolate consumption during pregnancy: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Latif, Rabia

    2018-03-13

    The purpose of this review is to explore the effects of chocolate consumption during pregnancy on fetus and mother herself. Randomized controlled trials/quasi-experimental/observational/controlled before and after studies involving chocolate/cocoa/cacao consumption (irrespective of type or dose, composition, exposure period, and method of administration) among pregnant women/animals; and measuring any outcome (beneficial or harmful) related to fetus or mother after chocolate exposure were included. Databases searched were PubMed, Web of Science and Scopus; between April and May 2017. Risk of bias within each human randomized controlled trial (RCT) and animals' experimental studies was evaluated by "The Cochrane Collaboration's tool" and SYRCLE's tool respectively. Fourteen human studies including a total of 6639 participants and nine animal studies were selected. Outcome variables investigated in human studies were maternal blood pressure, fetal heart rate, and striae gravidarum. Animal studies explored chocolate-induced teratogenicity and fetal metabolic derangements. Ten out of these 23 studies reported chocolate to be "beneficial"; five studies reported adverse effects, whereas eight studies declared chocolate as "neutral". Maternal chocolate intake has acute stimulatory effects on fetal reactivity and chronic blood pressure reducing effect in mothers. Chocolate is nonteratogenic and does not affect reproductive indices. Metabolic derangements in offsprings born to chocolate fed dams have been reported. Pregnant females must be careful about consumption of cocoa and chocolate. Future studies should be planned, keeping in view heterogeneities identified across the selected studies in this review.

  15. Phenolic and Theobromine Contents of Commercial Dark, Milk and White Chocolates on the Malaysian Market

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cheng Chia Meng

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate contains a wide range of antioxidants that includes soluble phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, catechin, epicatechin, and proanthocyanidins, insoluble polymeric phenolics and methylxanthines. The objective of this study was to determine phenolic and theobromine contents in dark (DC, milk (MC, and white (WC chocolates commonly found in the Malaysian marketplace. Total phenolic and flavonoids were determined by means of a spectrometric assay, while catechin, epicatechin and theobromine were quantified using a reverse-phase HPLC method. Dark chocolates exhibited the highest phenolics and flavonoids contents, followed by milk and white chocolates. Catechin and epicatechin were major flavonoids detected in dark chocolates. Theobromine was detected in dark and milk chocolates, but not in white chocolates. A high correlation (r= 0.93 between total phenolic and flavonoid contents, indicating that the major phenolic compounds in dark chocolates belong to the flavonoid class. When nutrition and health promotion are of concern, dark chocolates would be recommended over milk and white chocolates owing to their higher contents of antioxidant phenolic compounds.

  16. Phenolic and theobromine contents of commercial dark, milk and white chocolates on the Malaysian market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meng, Cheng Chia; Jalil, Abbe Maleyki Mhd; Ismail, Amin

    2009-01-05

    Chocolate contains a wide range of antioxidants that includes soluble phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, catechin, epicatechin, and proanthocyanidins), insoluble polymeric phenolics and methylxanthines. The objective of this study was to determine phenolic and theobromine contents in dark (DC), milk (MC), and white (WC) chocolates commonly found in the Malaysian marketplace. Total phenolic and flavonoids were determined by means of a spectrometric assay, while catechin, epicatechin and theobromine were quantified using a reverse-phase HPLC method. Dark chocolates exhibited the highest phenolics and flavonoids contents, followed by milk and white chocolates. Catechin and epicatechin were major flavonoids detected in dark chocolates. Theobromine was detected in dark and milk chocolates, but not in white chocolates. A high correlation (r= 0.93) between total phenolic and flavonoid contents, indicating that the major phenolic compounds in dark chocolates belong to the flavonoid class. When nutrition and health promotion are of concern, dark chocolates would be recommended over milk and white chocolates owing to their higher contents of antioxidant phenolic compounds.

  17. Dark chocolate consumption improves leukocyte adhesion factors and vascular function in overweight men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esser, Diederik; Mars, Monica; Oosterink, Els; Stalmach, Angelique; Müller, Michael; Afman, Lydia A

    2014-03-01

    Flavanol-enriched chocolate consumption increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Most research so far has focused on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) only; the effects on other factors relevant to endothelial health, such as inflammation and leukocyte adhesion, have hardly been addressed. We investigated whether consumption of regular dark chocolate also affects other markers of endothelial health, and whether chocolate enrichment with flavanols has additional benefits. In a randomized double-blind crossover study, the effects of acute and of 4 wk daily consumption of high flavanol chocolate (HFC) and normal flavanol chocolate (NFC) on FMD, augmentation index (AIX), leukocyte count, plasma cytokines, and leukocyte cell surface molecules in overweight men (age 45-70 yr) were investigated. Sensory profiles and motivation scores to eat chocolate were also collected. Findings showed that a 4 wk chocolate intake increased FMD by 1%, which was paralleled by a decreased AIX of 1%, decreased leukocyte cell count, decreased plasma sICAM1 and sICAM3, and decreased leukocyte adhesion marker expression (Peffect), with no difference between HFC and NFC consumption. Flavanol enrichment did affect taste and negatively affected motivation to consume chocolate. This study provides new insights on how chocolate affects endothelial health by demonstrating that chocolate consumption, besides improving vascular function, also lowers the adherence capacity of leukocytes in the circulation.

  18. [Influence of habitual chocolate consumption over the Mini-Mental State Examination in Spanish older adults].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orozco Arbelaez, Edilbeto; Banegas, José Ramón; Rodríguez Artalejo, Fernando; López García, Esther

    2017-07-28

    There are associations described between dementia, mild cognitive impairment (MCI) and foods with a high content of polyphenols. To assess the infl uence of habitual chocolate consumption over the MMSE in Spanish older adults. Cross-sectional study, using data of the follow-up of the Seniors-Study on Nutrition and Cardiovascular Risk in Spain (ENRICA) cohort. Habitual chocolate consumption in the last year was assessed with a computerized dietary history; differences between dark chocolate and milk chocolate were recorded. Chocolate intake was classified into the following categories: no consumption, chocolate consumption of ≥ 10 g/d had a better MMSE score (adjusted beta coefficient and 95% confidence interval: 0.26 (0.02-0.50; p trend = 0.05); for dark chocolate, the results were also statistically significant (0.48 [0.18-0.78]; p trend chocolate consumption was not associated with higher likelihood of having MCI. However, dark chocolate consumption was associated with less likelihood of MCI (OR and 95%CI for MMSE ≤ 25: 0.39 [0.20-0.77]; for MMSE ≤ 24: 0.26 [0.10-0.67]; and for MMSE ≤ 23: 0.25 [0.07-0.82]). Our results suggest that habitual dark chocolate consumption might improve cognitive function among the older population.

  19. Study on the changes of physical and chemical properties for the black liquor of straw plug induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Zhu Guanghua; Lan Liqiao

    1994-12-01

    The black liquor of straw plug was treated by electron beam or γ-ray radiation. The relationship between the viscosity of the black liquor of straw plug and the radiation beam type, the irradiated dose, the temperature of the black liquor at irradiation time and the concentration of the solid state matter in the black liquor was investigated. The result shows that the radiation treatment makes the organic big molecular of the black liquor decomposed, the environmental loading factor of the black liquor reduced; after an irradiation of 20 kGy, the viscosity of the black liquor of straw plug with 30% solid state matter is reduced by 50%, the property of vaporization is obviously improved, but the calorific value of the black liquor has almost no change

  20. Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. Subjects/methods: A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ad libitum meal was served 2 h after the test meal had been consumed. Results: The participants felt more satiated, less hungry, and had lower ratings of prospective food consumption after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, fatty or savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate. Energy intake at the ad libitum meal was 17% lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate (P=0.002). If the energy provided by the chocolate is included in the calculation, the energy intake after consumption of the dark chocolate was still 8% lower than after the milk chocolate (P=0.01). The dark chocolate load resulted in an overall energy difference of −584 kJ (95% confidence interval (−1027;−141)) during the test period. Conclusion: In the present study, dark chocolate promotes satiety, lowers the desire to eat something sweet, and suppresses energy intake compared with milk chocolate. PMID:23455041

  1. Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A

    2011-12-05

    To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ad libitum meal was served 2 h after the test meal had been consumed. The participants felt more satiated, less hungry, and had lower ratings of prospective food consumption after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate. Ratings of the desire to eat something sweet, fatty or savoury were all lower after consumption of the dark chocolate. Energy intake at the ad libitum meal was 17% lower after consumption of the dark chocolate than after the milk chocolate (P=0.002). If the energy provided by the chocolate is included in the calculation, the energy intake after consumption of the dark chocolate was still 8% lower than after the milk chocolate (P=0.01). The dark chocolate load resulted in an overall energy difference of -584 kJ (95% confidence interval (-1027;-141)) during the test period. In the present study, dark chocolate promotes satiety, lowers the desire to eat something sweet, and suppresses energy intake compared with milk chocolate.

  2. Kinetics and compensation effects during steam gasification of Fujian anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Ju; Zhang Ji-yu; Zhong Xue-qing [Fuzhou University, Fuzhou (China). Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2009-08-15

    Catalytic steam gasification kinetics of Fujian Youxi anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst was investigated in an isothermal thermo-gravimetric analyzer under ambient pressure. Coal conversions versus reaction time with different viscose liquor concentrations (0-12% NaOH) were measured at the temperature range from 850 to 950{sup o}C. The research shows that the viscose liquor can greatly improve the gasification rate and carbon conversion. The Loading Saturation Level (LSL) of the viscose liquor within the experimental conditions was also determined. The catalytic steam gasification reaction can be well fitted by a shrinking-core model (SCM) and the reaction rate constants are obtained. The kinetic analysis indicates that the catalytic gasification exhibits a prominent compensation effect between the activation energy and the pre-exponential factor. The kinetic equation including the compensation effects for the catalytic steam gasification of Fujian Youxi anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst is presented. 23 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  3. Effects of ancestral populations on entrepreneurial founding and failure: private liquor stores in Alberta, 1994--2003

    OpenAIRE

    Glen Dowell; Robert J. David

    2011-01-01

    Until 1993, all liquor stores in the Canadian province of Alberta were government owned and run. In the fall of 1993, the provincial government exited liquor retailing, all government stores were shut down, and entrepreneurs were allowed to open private liquor stores. In this article, we take advantage of this abrupt regulatory change in the Alberta liquor-retailing industry to address two related issues that have received little empirical attention. First, we investigate how an ancestral pop...

  4. Physical, bioactive and sensory quality parameters of reduced sugar chocolates formulated with natural sweeteners as sucrose alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Komes, Draženka; Dujmović, Marko; Karlović, Sven; Biškić, Matija; Brnčić, Mladen; Ježek, Damir

    2015-01-15

    In this study, sugar alcohols, dietary fibers, syrups and natural sweeteners were used as sucrose alternatives in the production of reduced sugar chocolates (50% of cocoa parts) with enhanced bioactive profile. Formulated chocolates were evaluated for their physical (particle size distribution, texture) and sensory properties, sugar composition, polyphenolic compounds content and antioxidant capacity. All produced reduced sugar chocolates ensured >20% lower calorific value than conventional chocolate (prepared with sucrose). Formulated chocolates containing stevia leaves and peppermint exhibited the best sensory properties (especially with regard to mouthfeel, sweetness and herbal aroma), as well as the highest polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Particle size and hardness of chocolates increased in comparison to conventional chocolate, in particular when the combination of fructose and isomalt or lactitol was used. The bioactive profile of produced chocolates was enriched with phenolic acids, flavone (luteolin and apigenin) and flavonol (quercetin) derivatives, which were not identified in control chocolate. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  5. Blooming reduces the antioxidant capacity of dark chocolate in rats without lowering its capacity to improve lipid profiles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shadwell, Naomi; Villalobos, Fatima; Kern, Mark; Hong, Mee Young

    2013-05-01

    Dark chocolate contains high levels of antioxidants which are linked to a reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Chocolate blooming occurs after exposure to high temperatures. Although bloomed chocolate is safe for human consumption, it is not known whether or not the biological function of bloomed chocolate is affected. We hypothesized that bloomed chocolate would reduce the antioxidant potential and lipid-lowering properties of chocolate through altered expression of related genes. Thirty Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into 3 groups and fed either the control (CON), regular dark chocolate (RDC), or bloomed dark chocolate (BDC) diet. After 3 weeks, serum lipid levels and antioxidant capacity were measured. Hepatic expression of key genes was determined by real time polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Sensory characteristics of bloomed versus regular chocolate were assessed in 28 semi-trained panelists. Rats fed RDC exhibited greater serum antioxidant capacities compared to the CON (P chocolate compared to bloomed chocolate (P chocolate, these results suggest that bloomed dark chocolate yields similarly beneficial effects on most blood lipid parameters or biomarkers. However, regular dark chocolate may be more beneficial for the improvement of antioxidant status and modulation of gene expression involved in lipid metabolism and promoted greater sensory ratings. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Experimentally induced chocolate craving leads to an attentional bias in increased distraction but not in speeded detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smeets, Elke; Roefs, Anne; Jansen, Anita

    2009-12-01

    In the present study, the causal influence of chocolate craving on attentional bias for chocolate-related information was examined by experimentally inducing chocolate craving in a sample of high trait chocolate cravers vs. low trait chocolate cravers. A sample of 35 high trait chocoholics and 33 low trait chocolate cravers were randomly assigned to either the exposure condition in which craving was manipulated or the non-exposure condition. To measure attentional bias, a pictorial version of the visual search paradigm [Smeets, E., Roefs, A., van Furth, E., & Jansen, A. (2008). Attentional bias for body and food in eating disorders: increased distraction, speeded detection, or both? Behaviour Research and Therapy, 46, 229-238] was used, assessing two components: distraction and detection. It was found that experimentally induced chocolate craving led to increased distraction by chocolate pictures in the high trait chocolate cravers, in comparison to the low trait chocolate cravers. Moreover, this measure of distraction correlated strongly with self-reported craving, but only in the chocoholics and in the exposure condition. In the non-exposure condition, high trait chocolate cravers showed speeded detection of chocolate pictures relative to non-chocoholics, but this component did not correlate with self-reported craving. It is concluded that experimentally induced craving for chocolate causes a bias in, specifically the increased distraction component of attention in high trait chocolate cravers.

  7. From Cocoa to Chocolate: The Impact of Processing on In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and the Effects of Chocolate on Antioxidant Markers In Vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla D. Di Mattia

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a product processed from cocoa rich in flavonoids, antioxidant compounds, and bioactive ingredients that have been associated with both its healthy and sensory properties. Chocolate production consists of a multistep process which, starting from cocoa beans, involves fermentation, drying, roasting, nib grinding and refining, conching, and tempering. During cocoa processing, the naturally occurring antioxidants (flavonoids are lost, while others, such as Maillard reaction products, are formed. The final content of antioxidant compounds and the antioxidant activity of chocolate is a function of several variables, some related to the raw material and others related to processing and formulation. The aim of this mini-review is to revise the literature on the impact of full processing on the in vitro antioxidant activity of chocolate, providing a critical analysis of the implications of processing on the evaluation of the antioxidant effect of chocolate in in vivo studies in humans.

  8. From Cocoa to Chocolate: The Impact of Processing on In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and the Effects of Chocolate on Antioxidant Markers In Vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Mattia, Carla D; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Mastrocola, Dino; Serafini, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate is a product processed from cocoa rich in flavonoids, antioxidant compounds, and bioactive ingredients that have been associated with both its healthy and sensory properties. Chocolate production consists of a multistep process which, starting from cocoa beans, involves fermentation, drying, roasting, nib grinding and refining, conching, and tempering. During cocoa processing, the naturally occurring antioxidants (flavonoids) are lost, while others, such as Maillard reaction products, are formed. The final content of antioxidant compounds and the antioxidant activity of chocolate is a function of several variables, some related to the raw material and others related to processing and formulation. The aim of this mini-review is to revise the literature on the impact of full processing on the in vitro antioxidant activity of chocolate, providing a critical analysis of the implications of processing on the evaluation of the antioxidant effect of chocolate in in vivo studies in humans.

  9. Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ried, Karin; Sullivan, Thomas; Fakler, Peter; Frank, Oliver R; Stocks, Nigel P

    2010-06-28

    Dark chocolate and flavanol-rich cocoa products have attracted interest as an alternative treatment option for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous meta-analyses concluded that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Recently, several additional trials have been conducted with conflicting results. Our study summarises current evidence on the effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products on blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive individuals. We searched Medline, Cochrane and international trial registries between 1955 and 2009 for randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of cocoa as food or drink compared with placebo on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) for a minimum duration of 2 weeks. We conducted random effects meta-analysis of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, as well as subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive). Meta-regression analysis explored the association between type of treatment, dosage, duration or baseline blood pressure and blood pressure outcome. Statistical significance was set at P chocolate compared with control (mean BP change +/- SE: SBP: -3.2 +/- 1.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; DBP: -2.0 +/- 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.003). However, subgroup meta-analysis was significant only for the hypertensive or prehypertensive subgroups (SBP: -5.0 +/- 3.0 mmHg; P = 0.0009; DBP: -2.7 +/- 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.01), while BP was not significantly reduced in the normotensive subgroups (SBP: -1.6 +/- 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.17; DBP: -1.3 +/- 1.6 mmHg, P = 0.12). Nine trials used chocolate containing 50% to 70% cocoa compared with white chocolate or other cocoa-free controls, while six trials compared high- with low-flavanol cocoa products. Daily flavanol dosages ranged from 30 mg to 1000 mg in the active treatment groups, and interventions ran for 2 to 18 weeks. Meta-regression analysis found study design and type of control to be borderline significant but possibly indirect predictors

  10. Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried Karin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dark chocolate and flavanol-rich cocoa products have attracted interest as an alternative treatment option for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous meta-analyses concluded that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Recently, several additional trials have been conducted with conflicting results. Our study summarises current evidence on the effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products on blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive individuals. Methods We searched Medline, Cochrane and international trial registries between 1955 and 2009 for randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of cocoa as food or drink compared with placebo on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP for a minimum duration of 2 weeks. We conducted random effects meta-analysis of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, as well as subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive. Meta-regression analysis explored the association between type of treatment, dosage, duration or baseline blood pressure and blood pressure outcome. Statistical significance was set at P Results Fifteen trial arms of 13 assessed studies met the inclusion criteria. Pooled meta-analysis of all trials revealed a significant blood pressure-reducing effect of cocoa-chocolate compared with control (mean BP change ± SE: SBP: -3.2 ± 1.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; DBP: -2.0 ± 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.003. However, subgroup meta-analysis was significant only for the hypertensive or prehypertensive subgroups (SBP: -5.0 ± 3.0 mmHg; P = 0.0009; DBP: -2.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.01, while BP was not significantly reduced in the normotensive subgroups (SBP: -1.6 ± 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.17; DBP: -1.3 ± 1.6 mmHg, P = 0.12. Nine trials used chocolate containing 50% to 70% cocoa compared with white chocolate or other cocoa-free controls, while six trials compared high- with low-flavanol cocoa products. Daily flavanol dosages ranged from 30

  11. 27 CFR 31.52 - Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers. 31.52 Section 31.52 Alcohol... § 31.52 Wholesale dealers in liquors consummating sales of wines or beer at premises of other dealers... wholesale dealer on account of those sales. (b) Sales of beer. Any wholesale dealer in liquors who has...

  12. Cocoa Polyphenols: Can We Consider Cocoa and Chocolate as Potential Functional Food?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djurdjica Ackar

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate has been consumed as confection, aphrodisiac, and folk medicine for many years before science proved its potential health benefiting effects. Main compounds of cocoa and chocolate which contribute to human health are polyphenols that act as antioxidants and have potential anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, antiallergenic, and anticarcinogenic properties. This paper gives a short overview of scientific literature regarding cocoa polyphenols and influence of cocoa and chocolate on human health. Although research on health benefits of dark chocolate and cocoa is quite extensive nowadays and shows potentially beneficial effects of dark chocolate and cocoa, there are still lots of unknowns and some controversies. This is obviously an area that needs more research in order to determine factual influence of chocolate on health.

  13. Differentiation of chocolates according to the cocoa's geographical origin using chemometrics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cambrai, Amandine; Marcic, Christophe; Morville, Stéphane; Sae Houer, Pierre; Bindler, Françoise; Marchioni, Eric

    2010-02-10

    The determination of the geographical origin of cocoa used to produce chocolate has been assessed through the analysis of the volatile compounds of chocolate samples. The analysis of the volatile content and their statistical processing by multivariate analyses tended to form independent groups for both Africa and Madagascar, even if some of the chocolate samples analyzed appeared in a mixed zone together with those from America. This analysis also allowed a clear separation between Caribbean chocolates and those from other origins. Height compounds (such as linalool or (E,E)-2,4-decadienal) characteristic of chocolate's different geographical origins were also identified. The method described in this work (hydrodistillation, GC analysis, and statistic treatment) may improve the control of the geographical origin of chocolate during its long production process.

  14. The sweet life: The effect of mindful chocolate consumption on mood.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meier, Brian P; Noll, Sabrina W; Molokwu, Oluwatobi J

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate consumption is anecdotally associated with an increase in happiness, but little experimental work has examined this effect. We combined a food type manipulation (chocolate vs. crackers) with a mindfulness manipulation (mindful consumption vs. non-mindful consumption) and examined the impact on positive mood. Participants (N = 258) were randomly assigned to eat a small portion (75 calories) of chocolate or a control food (crackers) in a mindful or non-mindful way. Participants who were instructed to mindfully eat chocolate had a greater increase in positive mood compared to participants who were instructed to eat chocolate non-mindfully or crackers either mindfully or non-mindfully. Additional analyses revealed that self-reported liking of the food partially mediated this effect. Chocolate appears to increase positive mood, but particularly when it is eaten mindfully. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  15. The kinetics of the gasification of black liquor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Tobias; Theliander, Hans; Wintoko, Joko [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Forest Products and Chemical Engineering

    2004-05-01

    Within the project, a special equipment has been manufactured in order to perform gasification experiments on single black liquor droplets. There are possibilities with the equipment to dynamically measure the weight of the droplet as well as its center temperature. Furthermore, some key gases (CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}S, CH{sub 4} and SO{sub 2}) are continuously measured. It is also possible to follow the gasification stages visually through a glass window. Parallel with this, a mathematical model has been developed to describe the gasification. It consists of both reaction kinetics and transport phenomenon. As a first step, the temperature profile was modeled and after that the model has been expanded to describe the swelling.

  16. Fixation Of Mo In Uranium Leach Liquor By Activated Carbon

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mainar, S.; Guswita, A.; Erni, R.A.; Susilaningtyas

    1996-01-01

    The use of activated carbon for Mo fixation by bulk system is reported. Several factors influencing the fixation process were examined, including contact time, carbon particle size, carbon porosity and the effect of other elements present in Mo containing solutions. Experimental data showed that an adsorption equilibrium of Mo on of activated carbon and 0,85 to 1,18 mm of carbon particle size under forced-convection mass transfer in 100 ml solution that contains + 0,56 m mol of Mo and +. 0,25 m mol Of U was reached after 6 hours period. Under those conditions, about 0,50 m mol of Mo and 0,026 m mol of U were adsorbed into carbon. High concentration of rare earth elements decreased Mo adsorption, hence, the use of activated carbon was not effective to separate Mo from the digestion liquor of Rirang are where Mo was adsorbed, into the carbon + 34,5 %

  17. Electrowinning of lead powder from chloride leach liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owais, Ashour [Suez Canal Univ., Suez (Egypt). Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Dept.

    2012-11-15

    Electrowinning of lead powder from chloride leach liquor obtained from secondary lead slag leached in hydrochloric acid is the main aim of this work. The resulted lead chloride solution (leachate) containing 2.2 wt.-% Pb and 1.24 wt.-% HCl was electrowon in an electrolytic cell containing one graphite plate as inert anode and two lead sheets as starting permanent cathodes. Different electrolysis parameters such as current density, electrolyte temperature and electrolyte stirring rate were studied. As indicated by SEM, EDX and XRD analyses, fine and pure (100 % Pb) powders with a dispersed and needle-like shape were formed with cathodic current efficiency up to 67.9 % and electrical energy demand ranges from 0.809 to 4.998 kWh/kg Pb with productivity up to 2.63 g/Ah. (orig.)

  18. Anaerobic biodegradation of spent sulphite liquor in a UASB reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantsch, T.G.; Angelidaki, Irini; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye

    2002-01-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation of fermented spent sulphite liquor, SSL, which is produced during the manufacture of sulphite pulp, was investigated. SSL contains a high concentration of lignin products in addition to hemicellulose and has a very high COD load (173 g COD l1). Batch experiments...... ðl dÞ1 and hydraulic retention time from 3.7 to 1.5 days. The biogas productivity was 3 l ðlreactor dÞ1, with a yield of 0.05 l gas ðg VSÞ1. These results suggest that anaerobic digestion in UASB reactors may provide a new alternative for the treatment of SSL to other treatment strategies...... such as incineration. Although the total COD reduction achieved is limited, bioenergy is produced and readily biodegradable matter is removed causing less load on post-treatment installations. 2002 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  19. Study of the rheological behavior of chocolate and margarine [abstract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Debaste, F.

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available In the food industry, the production process is often established in an empirical way, according to rules of good practice. These methods present gaps, in particular at the level of the production regularity. To model and optimize the processes, it is highly useful to determine the physico-chemical properties of the product. In this work, chocolate and margarine are studied, both aiming direct industrial application but also aiming a general enhancement of rheological mechanism understanding. Indeed, the chocolate is a suspension of solid particles in cocoa butter and the margarine is a water-in-oil emulsion. Rheological behavior of those fluids is therefore relying on different key phenomena. In this work the flow behavior of both products is characterized and a mathematical model describing the rheological behavior of chocolate is developed. For chocolate, the goal is to model the tempering process. To establish the rheological behavior of chocolate, viscosity measurements were realized in a SEARLE VT550 viscometer using a bob and cup geometry. To build the mathematical law, general tests following the International Office of Cocoa, Chocolate and Sugar Confectionery (IOCCC recommended method (Servais et al., 2004 were performed. The obtained rheogram shows that the chocolate has a slightly thixotropic behavior. More focus is set on a smaller range of shear rate important for the industrial application (Debaste et al., 2008. Measures for various temperatures and various quantities of cocoa butter were realized. The results show a classical shear-thinning behavior. Further, a statistical analysis of the results was made to determine the parameters of a power-law describing this behavior. It appears that temperature and cocoa butter fraction have no influence on the exponent but well on the consistency parameter. For margarine, the goal is to model the flow in resting tubes, the last step in the industrial production (Herman et al., 2008. To

  20. Marketing research of the chocolate market in Macedonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanov-Marjanova Tamara

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumer market in Macedonia and the chocolate market in particular, are overtaken from many foreign brands. The domestic companies, disregarding their size, are losing market share to the competitors with stronger strategies. This paper shows the existing weaknesses in the current strategies of the domestic companies through case study of the 2 largest confectionery producers in Macedonia on one side, and discovers the consumer behavior and preferences toward FMCG and chocolate through market research and analysis of a purposive statistical sample of 300 consumers on the other. The applied research techniques for the need of the consumer research were questionnaires and in depth interviews with the firms' managers. The analysis clearly indicates that with the adequate market research, i.e. implementation of the market research models and techniques a basis for competitive and successful marketing strategy can be created, not only by large corporations, but by individuals/owners of small and medium sized companies as well.

  1. Development of Synbiotic Milk Chocolate Enriched with Lactobacillus paracasei, D-tagatose and Galactooligosaccharide

    OpenAIRE

    Aziz Homayouni Rad; Aslan Azizi; Roghayeh Darghahi; Omid Bakhtiari; Mina Javadi; Maryam Jafarzadeh Moghaddam; Hamideh Homayouni Rad; Seyed Bagher Mirtajeddini; Noushin Mobaraki Asl; Maryam Tayebali; Haniyeh Rasouli Pirouzian

    2018-01-01

    Background and Objective: Prebiotics are food ingredients that induce the growth or activity of beneficial bacteria (Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli). Galactooligosaccharide and tagatose are two main prebiotic compounds which are used in the food industry. Chocolate is widely consumed all over the world and could be used as an excellent vehicle for delivery of prebiotics. Furthermore, the incorporation of probiotics into chocolate, allows broadening the health claims of chocolate. The aim of ...

  2. Habitual chocolate consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease among healthy men and women

    OpenAIRE

    Kwok, Chun Shing; Boekholdt, S Matthijs; Lentjes, Marleen A H; Loke, Yoon K; Luben, Robert N; Yeong, Jessica K; Wareham, Nicholas J; Myint, Phyo K; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To examine the association between chocolate intake and the risk of future cardiovascular events. Methods: We conducted a prospective study using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort. Habitual chocolate intake was quantified using the baseline food frequency questionnaire (1993–1997) and cardiovascular end points were ascertained up to March 2008. A systematic review was performed to evaluate chocolate consumption and cardiovascular out...

  3. Visualization of the hot chocolate sound effect by spectrograms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trávníček, Zdeněk; Fedorchenko, Alexander I.; Pavelka, Miroslav; Hrubý, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 331, č. 25 (2012), s. 5387-5392 ISSN 0022-460X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760801; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : hot chocolate effect * gas-liquid mixture * speed of sound Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.613, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022460X12005640

  4. Determinants of Brand Equity: Offering a Model to Chocolate Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Emari Hossien

    2011-01-01

    This study examined the underlying dimensions of brand equity in the chocolate industry. For this purpose, researchers developed a model to identify which factors are influential in building brand equity. The second purpose was to assess brand loyalty and brand images mediating effect between brand attitude, brand personality, brand association with brand equity. The study employed structural equation modeling to investigate the causal relationships between the dimensions...

  5. TWO FACES OF MASCULINITY IN AXE CHOCOLATE ADVERTISEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Bernadeta Ririn; Lulu Laela Amalia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: An advertisement has never been departed from an ideology. Although it occurs implicitly, an ideology in an advertisement is able to make someone believe in particular value of life. This study tries to reveal the ideology both in positive meaning as a belief system which marks certain group and in negative meaning as a false consciousness. Besides that, this study also tries to reveal the way of illustrating the ideology that lies within the Axe Chocolate advertisement. In order to...

  6. Combustion properties of kraft black liquors; Ligniinifraktion vaikutus mustalipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Rantanen, K.; Ekman, J.; Malkavaara, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find relationships between the structure of the dissolved lignin and the combustion properties (pyrolysis time, char burning time, and swelling) of softwood and hardwood kraft black liquors. In this conjunction, pine and birch chips, as well as their two mixtures (the mass ratios of pine chips to birch chips were 80:20 and 60:40), were delignified by conventional kraft pulping. In each cook series, a liquor sample was withdrawn at certain time intervals to obtain liquor samples with different chemical composition. The black liquors obtained were analyzed with respect to the content of lignin and `lignin monomers`, but also the molecular-mass distribution and the mass average molecular mass of lignin were made. In addition, the dissolved lignin was characterized by NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Further data on the chemical structures of lignin in black liquors were obtained by identifying various degradation products formed from this material during oxidative (CuO oxidation) and pyrolytic treatments. Several correlations between the `structural parameters` of the dissolved lignin and the combustion properties of black liquor were found. These correlations were significant especially in the case of pine cook. The results revealed many findings which are, together with the earlier data, useful for a better understanding of the thermochemical behavior of different kraft black liquors during combustion in a recovery furnace. (author)

  7. New microbial resource: microbial diversity, function and dynamics in Chinese liquor starter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Yuhong; Yi, Zhuolin; Jin, Yanling; Zhao, Yonggui; He, Kaize; Liu, Dayu; Zhao, Dong; He, Hui; Luo, Huibo; Zhang, Wenxue; Fang, Yang; Zhao, Hai

    2017-11-06

    Traditional Chinese liquor (Baijiu) solid state fermentation technology has lasted for several thousand years. The microbial communities that enrich in liquor starter are important for fermentation. However, the microbial communities are still under-characterized. In this study, 454 pyrosequencing technology was applied to comprehensively analyze the microbial diversity, function and dynamics of two most-consumed liquor starters (Jiang- and Nong-flavor) during production. In total, 315 and 83 bacterial genera and 72 and 47 fungal genera were identified in Jiang- and Nong-flavor liquor starter, respectively. The relatively high diversity was observed when the temperature increased to 70 and 62 °C for Jiang- and Nong-flavor liquor starter, respectively. Some thermophilic fungi have already been isolated. Microbial communities that might contribute to ethanol fermentation, saccharification and flavor development were identified and shown to be core communities in correlation-based network analysis. The predictively functional profile of bacterial communities showed significant difference in energy, carbohydrate and amino acid metabolism and the degradation of aromatic compounds between the two kinds of liquor starters. Here we report these liquor starters as a new functionally microbial resource, which can be used for discovering thermophilic and aerobic enzymes and for food and feed preservation.

  8. Relation of Habitual Chocolate Consumption to Arterial Stiffness in a Community-Based Sample: Preliminary Findings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E.; Elias, Merrill F.; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Stranges, Saverio; Abhayaratna, Walter P.

    2016-01-01

    Background The consumption of chocolate and cocoa has established cardiovascular benefits. Less is known about the effects of chocolate on arterial stiffness, a marker of subclinical cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chocolate intakes are independently associated with pulse wave velocity (PWV), after adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Methods Prospective analyses were undertaken on 508 community-dwelling participants (mean age 61 years, 60% women) from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intakes, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, were related to PWV, measured approximately 5 years later. Results Chocolate intake was significantly associated with PWV in a non-linear fashion with the highest levels of PWV in those who never or rarely ate chocolate and lowest levels in those who consumed chocolate once a week. This pattern of results remained and was not attenuated after multivariate adjustment for diabetes, cardiovascular risk factors and dietary variables (p = 0.002). Conclusions Weekly chocolate intake may be of benefit to arterial stiffness. Further studies are needed to explore the underlying mechanisms that may mediate the observed effects of habitual chocolate consumption on arterial stiffness. PMID:27493901

  9. Minimizing the Negative Flavor Attributes and Evaluating Consumer Acceptance of Chocolate Fortified with Peanut Skin Extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, L L; Klevorn, C M; Hess, B J

    2016-10-13

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in antioxidant-rich products by consumers wanting to enhance the health benefits of their diet. Chocolate has been identified as a natural source of antioxidant compounds, which resulted in the development of polyphenol-enriched chocolate products that are now available commercially. This study investigated the use of phenolic compounds extracted from peanut skins as a novel antioxidant source for the enrichment of milk chocolate. The extracts were encapsulated with maltodextrin to lessen their bitterness. Antioxidant potential of the encapsulated peanut skin extracts was evaluated by the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazl radical quenching assay. Encapsulated peanut skins were found to have a corrected Trolox equivalency of 31.1 μmol/g of chocolate up to 0.8% (w/w). To produce a product with an antioxidant content similar to that of dark chocolate yet which maintained the milder flavor of milk chocolate, the best estimate threshold of encapsulated peanut skin extract in chocolate was 0.9 % (w/w) based on the standard method (American Society of Testing Materials; ASTM E-679). Consumer liking of milk chocolate enhanced by adding subthreshold (0.8 % (w/w)) inclusion levels of encapsulated peanut skin extract was found to be at parity with milk chocolate as a control. © 2016 Institute of Food Technologists®.

  10. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massolt, Elske T; van Haard, Paul M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa......, 12.5 g of sugar per 100g product). Twelve female residents (BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m(2)) all participated in two 60-minute study sessions. In the first session, all 12 women ate chocolate; for the second session, they were randomized either to smell chocolate (n=6) or to serve as a control (no...

  11. Physical Characteristics of Cocoa Butter and Palm Stearin Mixture in Milk Chocolate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Jati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate products for consumption in tropical areas frequently become soft and tend to bloom due to melting and migration of fat contained, the product becomes dully and less interesting. Fat fraction determines chocolate texture, appearance and its handling. Objective of this research is to study the characteristic of mixed fat of cocoa butter, milk fat and stearin; in which the latest was added into a chocolate formula expected to increase its physical characteristic. Response Surface Methodology design was used for the study at stearin concentration of 10–60 g kg-1 and lecithin of 1–7 g kg-1. Parameters of the study were fat melting point, chocolate hardness and preference on chocolate texture and overall acceptance. Result of the study showed that the stearin concentration significantly altered chocolate physical characteristic, where the lecithin concentration did not influence. The presence of stearin in milk chocolate system showed fat eutectic phenomenon. Substitution of cocoa butter with stearin up to concentration of 35 g kg-1 in the formulation showed a clear eutectic; however, at higher concentrations the phenomenon was compensated by the increase in stearin crystal seed which raised melting point and hardness. This result also clearly indicated that cocoa butter substitution with palm stearin to obtain resistant chocolate should be designed in a range of 43–60 g kg-1 in its formulation, equal to 15–18% from cocoa butter added.Key words : chocolate, cocoa butter, stearin, eutectic, solidifier, emulsifier, melting point, texture.

  12. Development of the composition of chocolate mass that resistant to bloom

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. E. Tkeshelashvili

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate or used as a coating on the surface of the sweets chocolate mass when exposed to a temperature drop and/or a drop in the humidity of the environment, change color, lose gloss and acquire an unwanted grayish-white surface. The loss of the appearance of chocolate – the effect of bloom is the reason for the return of products from the trading network causing highly tangible the economic damage to the producers. In this connection, experimental researches devoted to the problem of preventing bloom and developing consist of chocolate masses preclusion to bloom appear to be an urgent task. The purpose of the research is develop consist of chocolate and covering chocolate resistant to bloom. The work is performed at the Scientific research institute of «Applied research of innovative technologies and food quality» of Plekhanov Russian University of Economics. For an investigation, samples of chocolate and covering chocolate based on cocoa butter were made in the formulation of which an additive including milk fat/isomalt/polydextrose. The control samples were dark chocolate and covering chocolate prepared according to a unified formula. For the formation of blooming, the samples were exposed to temperature fluctuations and relative humidity. The measurement of the color of chocolate is implementation by an instrumental method based on the analysis of the optical characteristics of the product. The coefficients of reflection spectra of samples of chocolate were converted into color coordinates of space CIEL ? a ? b* 1976. The emergence of a bloom of chocolate by changing the parameter lightness L ? (CIEL ? a ? b* was diagnosed. The effect of introducing an additive, including milk fat/isomalt/polydextrose on fat and sugar bloom, was determined in the formulation of chocolate masses. Based on research the consist of the chocolate mass has been developed which practically does not change the taste of the finished chocolate products

  13. Relation of Habitual Chocolate Consumption to Arterial Stiffness in a Community-Based Sample: Preliminary Findings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Alkerwi, Ala'a; Stranges, Saverio; Abhayaratna, Walter P

    2016-07-01

    The consumption of chocolate and cocoa has established cardiovascular benefits. Less is known about the effects of chocolate on arterial stiffness, a marker of subclinical cardiovascular disease. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chocolate intakes are independently associated with pulse wave velocity (PWV), after adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Prospective analyses were undertaken on 508 community-dwelling participants (mean age 61 years, 60% women) from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intakes, measured using a food frequency questionnaire, were related to PWV, measured approximately 5 years later. Chocolate intake was significantly associated with PWV in a non-linear fashion with the highest levels of PWV in those who never or rarely ate chocolate and lowest levels in those who consumed chocolate once a week. This pattern of results remained and was not attenuated after multivariate adjustment for diabetes, cardiovascular risk factors and dietary variables (p = 0.002). Weekly chocolate intake may be of benefit to arterial stiffness. Further studies are needed to explore the underlying mechanisms that may mediate the observed effects of habitual chocolate consumption on arterial stiffness.

  14. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massolt, Elske T; van Haard, Paul M; Rehfeld, Jens F

    2010-01-01

    eating or smelling; n=6). At the start of the sessions, levels of insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK), but not glucose, correlated with appetite scored on a visual analogue scale (VAS). In contrast, ghrelin levels correlated inversely with scored appetite. Chocolate eating...... and smelling both induced a similar appetite suppression with a disappearance of correlations between VAS scores and insulin, GLP-1 and CCK levels. However, while the correlation between VAS score and ghrelin disappeared completely after chocolate eating, it reversed after chocolate smelling, that is......, olfactory stimulation with dark chocolate (85%) resulted in a satiation response that correlated inversely with ghrelin levels....

  15. An empirical study on the relationship of purchasing a chocolate based on its packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Giyahi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is one of popular gifts among people in many societies. Packaging of such product plays an important role on marketing this item and the primary question of this survey is to determine the impact of packaging on better introducing a product. The inference statistical tests show that packaging is an important item in selection of chocolate as a gift. Percentage of chocolate is the most important information on packaging and color of packaging is of paramount significance when customers purchase chocolate for individuals with official relationship. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the effects of chocolates' packaging on purchasing them. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes them among different people. The results are analyzed using some non-parametric tests and they are discussed. The preliminary results indicate that the number of purchased packages within a year, cost of purchasing chocolate within a year, type of relationship of recipients of chocolate as gift, gender of recipient of chocolate as gift, age group of recipient of gift, type of store, nationality of chocolate, significance of packaging in various price ranges, type of packaging, insertion of information on package and color of packaging, are important factors influencing people to buy more.

  16. Impact of a Microbial Cocktail Used as a Starter Culture on Cocoa Fermentation and Chocolate Flavor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Magalhães da Veiga Moreira

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate production suffered a vast impact with the emergence of the “witches’ broom” disease in cocoa plants. To recover cocoa production, many disease-resistant hybrid plants have been developed. However, some different cocoa hybrids produce cocoa beans that generate chocolate with variable quality. Fermentation of cocoa beans is a microbiological process that can be applied for the production of chocolate flavor precursors, leading to overcoming the problem of variable chocolate quality. The aim of this work was to use a cocktail of microorganisms as a starter culture on the fermentation of the ripe cocoa pods from PH15 cocoa hybrid, and evaluate its influence on the microbial communities present on the fermentative process on the compounds involved during the fermentation, and to perform the chocolate sensorial characterization. According to the results obtained, different volatile compounds were identified in fermented beans and in the chocolate produced. Bitterness was the dominant taste found in non-inoculated chocolate, while chocolate made with inoculated beans showed bitter, sweet, and cocoa tastes. 2,3-Butanediol and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine were considered as volatile compounds making the difference on the flavor of both chocolates. Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA CCMA 0200, Lactobacillus plantarum CCMA 0238, and Acetobacter pasteurianus CCMA 0241 are proposed as starter cultures for cocoa fermentation.

  17. Development of chocolate technology for dietary purposes based on natural sweeteners

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. A. Nikitin

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate it’s popular confectionery product for children and adults. However, excessive consumption of chocolate adversely affects to human health due to high content of simple carbohydrates, especially sucrose. At Department of Technologies grain processing, bakery, confectionery and pasta production in Moscow State University of Technology and Management. K.G. Razumovsky developed a recipe for chocolate with natural sweeteners, such as stevioside and erythritol. Stevioside is a glycoside extracted from a stevia plant. Thanks to thermal stability (destruction occurs at 190–200 °C it can be used in the traditional technology of chocolate production. Erythritol (erythritol is a polyhydric sugar alcohol, produced from corn. Main difficulty of chocolate production with natural sweeteners on traditional way is - replacing sucrose with stevioside and erythritol in finished chocolate, a specific bitterness appeared, elimination of which became the main task of research. The obtained sample is characterized by maximum approximation to traditional taste, it does not have a side effect of using sweeteners - bitterness and a specific aftertaste. According to organoleptic and physicochemical parameters, it is close to classical dark chocolate, and also exceeds by more than two times average value of antioxidant capacity by lipophilic fraction, compare with well-known chocolate producers in Russia. This may be a consequence of increased content cocoa products in prototype recipe of chocolate sample, in comparison with traditional brands, with exclusion of sugar from recipe and replacement with natural sugar substitutes.

  18. Impact of a Microbial Cocktail Used as a Starter Culture on Cocoa Fermentation and Chocolate Flavor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Magalhães da Veiga Moreira, Igor; de Figueiredo Vilela, Leonardo; da Cruz Pedroso Miguel, Maria Gabriela; Santos, Cledir; Lima, Nelson; Freitas Schwan, Rosane

    2017-05-09

    Chocolate production suffered a vast impact with the emergence of the "witches' broom" disease in cocoa plants. To recover cocoa production, many disease-resistant hybrid plants have been developed. However, some different cocoa hybrids produce cocoa beans that generate chocolate with variable quality. Fermentation of cocoa beans is a microbiological process that can be applied for the production of chocolate flavor precursors, leading to overcoming the problem of variable chocolate quality. The aim of this work was to use a cocktail of microorganisms as a starter culture on the fermentation of the ripe cocoa pods from PH15 cocoa hybrid, and evaluate its influence on the microbial communities present on the fermentative process on the compounds involved during the fermentation, and to perform the chocolate sensorial characterization. According to the results obtained, different volatile compounds were identified in fermented beans and in the chocolate produced. Bitterness was the dominant taste found in non-inoculated chocolate, while chocolate made with inoculated beans showed bitter, sweet, and cocoa tastes. 2,3-Butanediol and 2,3-dimethylpyrazine were considered as volatile compounds making the difference on the flavor of both chocolates. Saccharomyces cerevisiae UFLA CCMA 0200, Lactobacillus plantarum CCMA 0238, and Acetobacter pasteurianus CCMA 0241 are proposed as starter cultures for cocoa fermentation.

  19. Acute Consumption of Flavan-3-ol-Enriched Dark Chocolate Affects Human Endogenous Metabolism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ostertag, Luisa M; Philo, Mark; Colquhoun, Ian J; Tapp, Henri S; Saha, Shikha; Duthie, Garry G; Kemsley, E Kate; de Roos, Baukje; Kroon, Paul A; Le Gall, Gwénaëlle

    2017-07-07

    Flavan-3-ols and methylxanthines have potential beneficial effects on human health including reducing cardiovascular risk. We performed a randomized controlled crossover intervention trial to assess the acute effects of consumption of flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate, compared with standard dark chocolate and white chocolate, on the human metabolome. We assessed the metabolome in urine and blood plasma samples collected before and at 2 and 6 h after consumption of chocolates in 42 healthy volunteers using a nontargeted metabolomics approach. Plasma samples were assessed and showed differentiation between time points with no further separation among the three chocolate treatments. Multivariate statistics applied to urine samples could readily separate the postprandial time points and distinguish between the treatments. Most of the markers responsible for the multivariate discrimination between the chocolates were of dietary origin. Interestingly, small but significant level changes were also observed for a subset of endogenous metabolites. 1 H NMR revealed that flavan-3-ol-enriched dark chocolate and standard dark chocolate reduced urinary levels of creatinine, lactate, some amino acids, and related degradation products and increased the levels of pyruvate and 4-hydroxyphenylacetate, a phenolic compound of bacterial origin. This study demonstrates that an acute chocolate intervention can significantly affect human metabolism.

  20. Mood food: chocolate and depressive symptoms in a cross-sectional analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, Natalie; Koperski, Sabrina; Golomb, Beatrice A

    2010-04-26

    Much lore but few studies describe a relation of chocolate to mood. We examined the cross-sectional relationship of chocolate consumption with depressed mood in adult men and women. A sample of 1018 adults (694 men and 324 women) from San Diego, California, without diabetes or known coronary artery disease was studied in a cross-sectional analysis. The 931 subjects who were not using antidepressant medications and provided chocolate consumption information were the focus of the analysis. Mood was assessed using the Center for Epidemiologic Studies Depression Scale (CES-D). Cut points signaling a positive depression screen result (CES-D score, >or=16) and probable major depression (CES-D score, >or=22) were used. Chocolate servings per week were provided by 1009 subjects. Chocolate consumption frequency and rate data from the Fred Hutchinson Food Frequency Questionnaire were also available for 839 subjects. Chocolate consumption was compared for those with lower vs higher CES-D scores. In addition, a test of trend was performed. Those screening positive for possible depression (CES-D score >or=16) had higher chocolate consumption (8.4 servings per month) than those not screening positive (5.4 servings per month) (P = .004); those with still higher CES-D scores (>or=22) had still higher chocolate consumption (11.8 servings per month) (P value for trend, chocolate consumption. Whether there is a causal connection, and if so in which direction, is a matter for future prospective study.

  1. Chocolate para el imperio: la interiorización europea de estética mesoamericana.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcy Norton.

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available This article offers a new interpretation of how and why Europeans developed a taste for chocolate. While previous studies have suggested that Europeans transformed chocolate materially and ideologically in order to make it fit their existing set of tastes and prejudices, it is demonstrated that Europeans learned to like chocolate on Indian terms as a result of their status as cultural minorities in colonial Mesoamerica. In addition this article uses the historical case study of chocolate's transcultural migration to revise current models of taste used in historical and anthropological literature. It rejects biologicalessentialism and culturalfunctionalism and instead shows that taste is an independent historical variable affected by social circumstances.

  2. Chocolate packaging cues and first moment of truth: An exploratory study on young consumers’ mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Kushe Shekhar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Packaging is often called as the fifth P of the marketing mix. Chocolate is a product which is loved to be consumed irrespective of any age group. Consumers were asked to imagine that a new chocolate bar has been launched in the market and were yet to sense (sight or taste it or a chocolate bar which was already launched in the market and were yet to sense (sight or taste it .The present study explored different chocolate packaging cues that could possibly influence the purchase decision of young consumers in such a scenario. Descriptive research with convenient sampling elicited 240 responses across the age group lying between 11 to 27 years. Results showed that an attractive package design was of paramount significance in first purchase of chocolate bars. The important factors which affected the buying decision were ‘Information’ and ‘Visual aesthetics’. However it was found that chocolate packaging had less influence on subsequent purchase of chocolate bars. It was also inferred that an attractive package along with a strong advertising campaign could bring prospective sales for a newly launched chocolate bar. The study also discussed the influence of chocolate packaging for national and international brands across various demographic variables.

  3. Fungi and mycotoxins in cocoa: from farm to chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Copetti, Marina V; Iamanaka, Beatriz T; Pitt, John I; Taniwaki, Marta H

    2014-05-16

    Cocoa is an important crop, as it is the raw material from which chocolate is manufactured. It is grown mainly in West Africa although significant quantities also come from Asia and Central and South America. Primary processing is carried out on the farm, and the flavour of chocolate starts to develop at that time. Freshly harvested pods are opened, the beans, piled in heaps or wooden boxes, are fermented naturally by yeasts and bacteria, then dried in the sun on wooden platforms or sometimes on cement or on the ground, where a gradual reduction in moisture content inhibits microbial growth. Beans are then bagged and marketed. In processing plants, the dried fermented beans are roasted, shelled and ground, then two distinct processes are used, to produce powdered cocoa or chocolate. Filamentous fungi may contaminate many stages in cocoa processing, and poor practices may have a strong influence on the quality of the beans. Apart from causing spoilage, filamentous fungi may also produce aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. This review deals with the growth of fungal species and formation of mycotoxins during the various steps in cocoa processing, as well as reduction of these contaminants by good processing practices. Methodologies for fungal and mycotoxin detection and quantification are discussed while current data about dietary exposure and regulation are also presented. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  4. Health benefits of methylxanthines in cacao and chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rafael; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva

    2013-10-18

    One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption.

  5. Health Benefits of Methylxanthines in Cacao and Chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franco, Rafael; Oñatibia-Astibia, Ainhoa; Martínez-Pinilla, Eva

    2013-01-01

    One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption. PMID:24145871

  6. Health Benefits of Methylxanthines in Cacao and Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Franco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption.

  7. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J

    2016-10-11

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people's attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties-namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased-but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception.

  8. Swiss identity smells like chocolate: Social identity shapes olfactory judgments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coppin, Géraldine; Pool, Eva; Delplanque, Sylvain; Oud, Bastiaan; Margot, Christian; Sander, David; Van Bavel, Jay J.

    2016-01-01

    There is extensive evidence that social identities can shape people’s attitudes and behavior, but what about sensory judgments? We examined the possibility that social identity concerns may also shape the judgment of non-social properties—namely, olfactory judgment. In two experiments, we presented Swiss and non-Swiss participants with the odor of chocolate, for which Switzerland is world-famous, and a control odor (popcorn). Swiss participants primed with Swiss identity reported the odor of chocolate (but not popcorn) as more intense than non-Swiss participants (Experiments 1 and 2) and than Swiss participants primed with individual identity or not primed (Experiment 2). The self-reported intensity of chocolate smell tended to increase as identity accessibility increased—but only among Swiss participants (Experiment 1). These results suggest that identity priming can counter-act classic sensory habituation effects, allowing identity-relevant smells to maintain their intensity after repeated presentations. This suggests that social identity dynamically influences sensory judgment. We discuss the potential implications for models of social identity and chemosensory perception. PMID:27725715

  9. Ultrasound-guided interventional therapy for recurrent ovarian chocolate cysts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lu-Lu; Dong, Xiao-Qiu; Shao, Xiao-Hui; Wang, Si-Ming

    2011-10-01

    The aim of this study was to determine the effectiveness of ultrasound-guided interventional therapy in the treatment of postoperative recurrent chocolate cysts. The 198 patients enrolled in this study were divided into three groups. In group 1, the saline washing group, the cavity of the cyst was washed thoroughly with warm saline. In group 2, the ethanol short-time retention group, after washing with saline, the cyst was injected with 95% ethanol with a volume of half of the fluid aspirated from the cyst. Ten minutes later, the rest of the ethanol was aspirated. In group 3, the ethanol retention group, the procedures were the same as with the ethanol short-time retention group, except that 95% of the ethanol was retained in the cyst. An ultrasound examination was performed in the third, sixth and 12th months after therapy. The chocolate cyst cure rate was significantly higher in the ethanol retention group (96%, 66/69) than in the ethanol short-time retention group (82%, 56/68) and no case was cured in the first group (saline washing). We conclude that ultrasound-guided injection and 95% ethanol retention are an effective therapy for the treatment of postoperative recurrent chocolate cysts. Copyright © 2011 World Federation for Ultrasound in Medicine & Biology. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  10. Aroma characteristics of Moutai-flavour liquor produced with Bacillus licheniformis by solid-state fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, R; Wu, Q; Xu, Y

    2013-07-01

    The potential of Bacillus licheniformis as a starter culture for aroma concentration improvement in the fermentation of Chinese Moutai-flavour liquor was elucidated. The volatile compounds produced by B. licheniformis were identified by GC-MS, in which C4 compounds, pyrazines, volatile acids, aromatic and phenolic compounds were the main ingredients. The strains B. licheniformis (MT-6 and MT-15) produced more volatile compound concentrations, mainly C4 compounds, than the type strain of B. licheniformis (ATCC 14580) at the fermentation temperature of 55°C. Meanwhile, more volatile compound concentrations were produced by B. licheniformis in solid-state fermentation than in submerged state fermentation. Thus, the strains MT-6 and MT-15 were used as the Bacillus starter culture for investigating Moutai-flavour liquor production. The distilled liquor inoculated with Bacillus starter culture was significantly different from the liquor without inoculum. This was particularly evident in the fore-run part of the distilled sample which was inoculated with Bacillus starter culture, where volatile compounds greatly increased compared to the control. Furthermore, the distilled liquor with Bacillus starter culture showed improved results in sensory appraisals. These results indicated that B. licheniformis was one of the main species influencing the aroma characteristics of Moutai-flavour liquor. This is the first report of an investigation into the effect of Bacillus starter cultures on the flavour features of Moutai-flavour liquor, which verified that Bacillus licheniformis can enhance aroma concentration in Moutai-flavour liquor. Bacillus starter culture brought C4 compounds, pyrazines, volatile acids, aromatic and phenolic compounds to the liquor, which gave a better result in sensory appraisals. © 2013 The Society for Applied Microbiology.

  11. Use of sulfide-containing liquors for removing mercury from flue gases

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nolan, Paul S.; Downs, William; Bailey, Ralph T.; Vecci, Stanley J.

    2006-05-02

    A method and apparatus for reducing and removing mercury in industrial gases, such as a flue gas, produced by the combustion of fossil fuels, such as coal, adds sulfide ions to the flue gas as it passes through a scrubber. Ideally, the source of these sulfide ions may include at least one of: sulfidic waste water, kraft caustic liquor, kraft carbonate liquor, potassium sulfide, sodium sulfide, and thioacetamide. The sulfide ion source is introduced into the scrubbing liquor as an aqueous sulfide species. The scrubber may be either a wet or dry scrubber for flue gas desulfurization systems.

  12. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  13. Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Whitty

    2007-06-30

    University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

  14. Rapid determination of methanol in black liquors by full evaporation headspace gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hailong; Zhan, Huaiyu; Fu, Shiyu; Liu, Mengru; Chai, Xin-Sheng

    2007-12-14

    This paper reported a full evaporation headspace gas chromatographic (GC) technique for determination of methanol content in black liquors (pulping spent liquor). In this method, a very small volume (10-20 microL) of liquor sample is introduced into a headspace sample vial (20 mL) and heated up to a temperature of 105 degrees C. A near-complete mass transfer of methanol from the liquid phase to vapor phase (headspace), i.e., a full evaporation, can be achieved within 3 min. The methanol in the headspace of the vial is then measured by GC. The present method is simple, rapid and accurate.

  15. Comparison of chocolate to cacao-free white chocolate in Parkinson's disease: a single-dose, investigator-blinded, placebo-controlled, crossover trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolz, Martin; Schleiffer, Christine; Klingelhöfer, Lisa; Schneider, Christine; Proft, Florian; Schwanebeck, Uta; Reichmann, Heinz; Riederer, Peter; Storch, Alexander

    2012-11-01

    A previous questionnaire study suggests an increased chocolate consumption in Parkinson's disease (PD). The cacao ingredient contains caffeine analogues and biogenic amines, such as β-phenylethylamine, with assumed antiparkinsonian effects. We thus tested the effects of 200 g of chocolate containing 80 % of cacao on UPDRS motor score after 1 and 3 h in 26 subjects with moderate non-fluctuating PD in a mono-center, single-dose, investigator-blinded crossover study using cacao-free white chocolate as placebo comparator. At 1 h after chocolate intake, mean UPDRS motor scores were mildly decreased compared to baseline in both treatments with significant results only for dark chocolate [-1.3 (95 % CI 0.18-2.52, RMANOVA F = 4.783, p = 0.013¸ Bonferroni p = 0.021 for 1 h values)]. A 2 × 2-cross-over analysis revealed no significant differences between both treatments [-0.54 ± 0.47 (95 % CI -1.50 to 0.42), p = 0.258]. Similar results were obtained at 3 h after intake. β-phenylethylamine blood levels were unaltered. Together, chocolate did not show significant improvement over white cacao-free chocolate in PD motor function.

  16. Everyday Eating Experiences of Chocolate and Non-Chocolate Snacks Impact Postprandial Anxiety, Energy and Emotional States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Pierre J. Martin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Social and psychological stressors are both a part of daily life and are increasingly recognized as contributors to individual susceptibility to develop diseases and metabolic disorders. The present study investigated how snacks differing in sensory properties and presentation can influence ratings of affect in consumers with different levels of dispositional anxiety. This study examines the relationships between a pre-disposition to anxiety and food using a repeated exposures design with three interspersed test days over a period of two weeks. The study was conducted on ninety free-living male (n = 28 and female (n = 62 Dutch participants aged between 18 and 35 years old, with a BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m2 and different anxiety trait levels assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory tests. The study was randomized by age, gender, anxiety trait score, and followed a parallel open design. Three test products: dark chocolate, a milk chocolate snack and crackers with cheese spread (control, which differed in composition, sensory properties and presentation, were evaluated. Changes in self-reported anxiety, emotion, and energetic states were assessed as a function of eating the snacks just after consumption and up to one hour. The repeated exposure design over a period of two weeks enabled the investigations of potential cumulative effects of regular consumption of the food products. The milk chocolate snack resulted in the decrease of anxiety in high anxiety trait subjects, whereas dark chocolate and cheese and crackers respectively improved the anxiety level and the energetic state of low anxiety trait participants. The mood effects were not altered with repeated exposure, and the magnitude of changes was similar on each test day, which illustrates the repeatability of the effects of the food on subjective measures of postprandial wellness.

  17. Everyday eating experiences of chocolate and non-chocolate snacks impact postprandial anxiety, energy and emotional states.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martin, François-Pierre J; Antille, Nicolas; Rezzi, Serge; Kochhar, Sunil

    2012-06-01

    Social and psychological stressors are both a part of daily life and are increasingly recognized as contributors to individual susceptibility to develop diseases and metabolic disorders. The present study investigated how snacks differing in sensory properties and presentation can influence ratings of affect in consumers with different levels of dispositional anxiety. This study examines the relationships between a pre-disposition to anxiety and food using a repeated exposures design with three interspersed test days over a period of two weeks. The study was conducted on ninety free-living male (n = 28) and female (n = 62) Dutch participants aged between 18 and 35 years old, with a BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m(2) and different anxiety trait levels assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory tests. The study was randomized by age, gender, anxiety trait score, and followed a parallel open design. Three test products: dark chocolate, a milk chocolate snack and crackers with cheese spread (control), which differed in composition, sensory properties and presentation, were evaluated. Changes in self-reported anxiety, emotion, and energetic states were assessed as a function of eating the snacks just after consumption and up to one hour. The repeated exposure design over a period of two weeks enabled the investigations of potential cumulative effects of regular consumption of the food products. The milk chocolate snack resulted in the decrease of anxiety in high anxiety trait subjects, whereas dark chocolate and cheese and crackers respectively improved the anxiety level and the energetic state of low anxiety trait participants. The mood effects were not altered with repeated exposure, and the magnitude of changes was similar on each test day, which illustrates the repeatability of the effects of the food on subjective measures of postprandial wellness.

  18. A prospective, multi-center study of the chocolate balloon in femoropopliteal peripheral artery disease: The Chocolate BAR registry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mustapha, Jihad A; Lansky, Alexandra; Shishehbor, Mehdi; Miles McClure, John; Johnson, Sarah; Davis, Thomas; Makam, Prakash; Crowder, William; Konstantino, Eitan; Attaran, Robert R

    2018-05-01

    The Chocolate BAR study is a prospective multicenter post-market registry designed to evaluate the safety and performance of the Chocolate percutaneous transluminal angioplasty balloon catheter in a broad population with symptomatic peripheral arterial disease. The primary endpoint is acute procedural success (defined as ≤30% residual stenosis without flow-limiting dissection); secondary long-term outcomes include freedom from target lesion revascularization (TLR), major unplanned amputation, survival, and patency. A total of 262 patients (290 femoropopliteal lesions) were enrolled at 30 US centers between 2012 and 2014. The primary endpoint of procedure success was achieved in 85.1% of cases, and freedom from stenting occurred in 93.1%. Bail out stenting by independent adjudication occurred in 1.6% of cases and there were no flow limiting dissections. There was mean improvement of 2.1 Rutherford classes (±1.5) at 12-months, with 78.5% freedom from TLR, 97.2% freedom from major amputation, and 93.3% freedom from all-cause mortality. Core Lab adjudicated patency was 64.1% at 12 months. Use of the Chocolate balloon in an "all-comers" population achieved excellent procedural outcomes with low dissection rates and bailout stent use. © 2018 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. WITHDRAWN: Amnioinfusion for meconium-stained liquor in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G Justus

    2009-01-21

    Amnioinfusion aims to prevent or relieve umbilical cord compression during labour by infusing a solution into the uterine cavity. It is also thought to dilute meconium when present in the amniotic fluid and so reduce the risk of meconium aspiration. However, it may be that the mechanism of effect is that it corrects oligohydramnios (reduced amniotic fluid), for which thick meconium staining is a marker. The objective of this review was to assess the effects of amnioinfusion for meconium-stained liquor on perinatal outcome. The Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group trials register (October 2001) and the Cochrane Controlled Trials Register (Issue 3, 2001) were searched. Randomised trials comparing amnioinfusion with no amnioinfusion for women in labour with moderate or thick meconium-staining of the amniotic fluid. Eligibility and trial quality were assessed by one reviewer. Twelve studies, most involving small numbers of participants, were included. Under standard perinatal surveillance, amnioinfusion was associated with a reduction in the following: heavy meconium staining of the liquor (relative risk 0.03, 95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.15); variable fetal heart rate deceleration (relative risk 0.65, 95% confidence interval 0.49 to 0.88); and reduced caesarean section overall (relative risk 0.82, 95% confidence interval 0.69 to 1.97). No perinatal deaths were reported. Under limited perinatal surveillance, amnioinfusion was associated with a reduction in the following: meconium aspiration syndrome (relative risk 0.24, 95% confidence interval 0.12 to 0.48); neonatal hypoxic ischaemic encephalopathy (relative risk 0.07, 95% confidence interval 0.01 to 0.56) and neonatal ventilation or intensive care unit admission (relative risk 0.56, 95% confidence interval 0.39 to 0.79); there was a trend towards reduced perinatal mortality (relative risk 0.34, 95% confidence interval 0.11 to 1.06). Amnioinfusion is associated with improvements in perinatal outcome

  20. Efficiency of 72h- fermented corn waste liquor as a potential source for

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    okafor

    tests. Equal concentrations of the LAB isolates at their determined peak ... Key Words: Probiotics, Lactic acid bacteria, Fermentation, Corn waste-liquor. ... diary products, decaying plants, intestinal tract and mucous membranes of animals and ...

  1. Evaluating the Intoxicating Degree of Liquor Products with Combinations of Fusel Alcohols, Acids, and Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jia Xie

    2018-05-01

    Full Text Available To investigate the effects of fusel alcohols on the intoxicating degree of liquor products, formulated liquors (FLs were prepared by blending 1-propanol, isobutanol, and isoamyl alcohol with ethanol, organic acids, and corresponding ethyl esters to simulate the formula of traditional Chinese liquors. The prepared FLs were submitted for evaluation of their intoxicating degree (ID. The results showed that the fusel alcohols had a biphasic effect on the IDs of the FLs, depending on the comprehensive coordination of the characteristic minor components. The importance of the suitable ratio of alcohols/acids/esters (RAAE on the IDs was also revealed. Under an optimal ratio level, the fusel alcohols exhibited negligible effects on the IDs of the FLs. Moreover, the ratio of isoamyl alcohol to isobutanol (IA/IB showed a strong positive correlation to the IDs of the FLs. This study lays a foundation for the potential application in producing low-ID liquor.

  2. Evaluating the Intoxicating Degree of Liquor Products with Combinations of Fusel Alcohols, Acids, and Esters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xie, Jia; Tian, Xiao-Fei; He, Song-Gui; Wei, Yun-Lu; Peng, Bin; Wu, Zhen-Qiang

    2018-05-23

    To investigate the effects of fusel alcohols on the intoxicating degree of liquor products, formulated liquors (FLs) were prepared by blending 1-propanol, isobutanol, and isoamyl alcohol with ethanol, organic acids, and corresponding ethyl esters to simulate the formula of traditional Chinese liquors. The prepared FLs were submitted for evaluation of their intoxicating degree (ID). The results showed that the fusel alcohols had a biphasic effect on the IDs of the FLs, depending on the comprehensive coordination of the characteristic minor components. The importance of the suitable ratio of alcohols/acids/esters (RAAE) on the IDs was also revealed. Under an optimal ratio level, the fusel alcohols exhibited negligible effects on the IDs of the FLs. Moreover, the ratio of isoamyl alcohol to isobutanol (IA/IB) showed a strong positive correlation to the IDs of the FLs. This study lays a foundation for the potential application in producing low-ID liquor.

  3. A review of liquor transfer systems for use in nuclear reprocessing plants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Singh, J.

    1982-01-01

    Liquor pumping systems for use in nuclear fuel reprocessing plants are described. Comparison of the operating characteristics and system constants are made between the air lift/Vacuum Operated Slug Lift, power fluidics and ejector pump systems. (author)

  4. Utilization of black liquor as concrete admixture and set retarder aid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samar A. El-Mekkawi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of black liquor, produced by the pulp and paper industry in Egypt, as a workability aid and set retarder admixture has been investigated. This approach may help eliminate the environmentally polluting black liquor waste. It also provides a low cost by-product, which can be widely used in the construction industry. The properties of black liquor and its performance on concrete at two different ratios of water to cement have been studied. The results revealed that black liquor from rice straw pulp increases concrete workability, improves compaction, and reduces honeycombing. Moreover, it retards the initial and final set time and enhances uniform compaction. The effect of incorporating small portions of silica fume has been investigated. The ageing effect of this material over a period of one year, to determine its safe storage period, has been studied. Finally, this admixture was found to comply with the relevant Egyptian standards.

  5. Treatment of soak liquor and bioelectricity generation in dual chamber microbial fuel cell.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sathishkumar, Kuppusamy; Narenkumar, Jayaraman; Selvi, Adikesavan; Murugan, Kadarkarai; Babujanarthanam, Ranganathan; Rajasekar, Aruliah

    2018-02-08

    The discharge of untreated soak liquor from tannery industry causes severe environmental pollution. This study is characterizing the soak liquor as a substrate in the microbial fuel cell (MFC) for remediation along with electricity generation. The dual chamber MFC was constructed and operated. Potassium permanganate was used as cathode solution and carbon felt electrode as anodic and cathodic material, respectively. The soak liquor was characterized by electrochemical studies viz., cyclic voltammetry (CV), electrochemical impedance spectroscopy (EIS), and polarization studies, respectively. The removal percentage of protein, lipid, and chemical oxygen demand (COD) were measured before and after treatment with MFC. The results of MFC showed a highest current density of 300 mA/cm 2 and a power density of 92 mW/m 2 . The removal of COD, protein, and lipid were noted as 96, 81, and 97% respectively during MFC process. This MFC can be used in tannery industries for treating soak liquor and simultaneous electricity generation.

  6. Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian [Marietta, GA; Chai, Xin Sheng [Atlanta, GA; Zhu, Junyoung [Marietta, GA

    2008-06-24

    The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

  7. 77 FR 34981 - Stillaguamish Tribe of Indians-Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-06-12

    ... person who resides, conducts business, engages in a business transaction, receives benefits from the... liquor, wine, and beer, at a rate determined to be fair and equitable by the Board through independent...

  8. Stirred cell ultrafiltration of lignin from black liquor generated from South African kraft mills

    CSIR Research Space (South Africa)

    Kekana, Paul

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Ultrafiltration of lignin from black liquor was carried out in a stirred batch cell using polyethersulfone membranes. Parameters such as operating pressure, feed concentration, stirring rate and membrane cut-off size were varied and their effects...

  9. Elimination of Phenol and Color from Pulping Black Liquor Using Electrocoagulation Process

    OpenAIRE

    Nahid Rastegarfar; Rabi Behrouz; Nader Bahramifar

    2013-01-01

    There are many non-wood lignocelluloses resources such as wheat, rice straw and other agriculture by- products with appropriate feature for pulp production in Iran. The most major deterrent to their use is presence of pulping black liquor that due to lignin of lignocelluloses solution contains significant amounts of color and phenol compounds. The aim of this paper was investigation of the ability to remove phenol and color as the most important organic pollutants from back liquor of agri-bas...

  10. New black liquor combustion characteristics III; Mustalipeaen uudet poltto-ominaisuudet III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Forssen, M.; Backman, R.; Enestam, S.; Lauren, T.; Skrifvars, B.J. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    The main purposes in this work is to: 1. Compare black liquor combustion characterization results to recovery boiler experiences. 2. Study the mechanisms of sodium release in black liquor combustion In the first part results from black liquor combustion characterization tests developed by Aabo Akademi University will be compared to experiences at four Finnish kraft recovery boilers. When comparing the laboratory data to the compiled field data emphasis will be put on the behavior of the black liquor during burning, the release of sodium and potassium, the melting behavior of the deposits and the NO and SO{sub 2} emissions. The main purpose in the second part of the work is to study the release mechanisms of sodium from black liquor char during combustion. Sodium is mainly released from the char by the mechanism where the molten sodiumcarbonate reacts with the char carbon. The study is divided into four subtasks and is performed mainly by conducting experiments in laboratory scale devices: (1) Sodium release during char reactions is studied for different liquors by analyzing the amount of sodium remaining in char after different holding times in a hot inert atmosphere. (2) A DTA/TGA apparatus is used to study in isothermal conditions the char reactions on prepyrolyzed char. (3) The effect of the form of sodium on the sodium release during char reactions. Black liquors added with different sodium salts (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}S sekae NaCl) are used in experiments as in subtask 1. (4) Sodium release during combustion (2-5 % O{sub 2}) of single black liquor particles

  11. Pubs in Public Life: A Place for Liquor Spaces in the City of Vancouver

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Vancouver liquor licensing bylaws has been described by members of the media, industry, government and general public as overly restrictive, especially in the areas of hours ofservice, geographical distribution and the cultural diversity ofpublic liquor spaces. According to the City of Vancouver, the objective of city stewardship is to provide for the social, economic and physical well-being of citizens. A consultation of both academic research and the Vancouver community suggests that public...

  12. Cocoa content influences chocolate molecular profile investigated by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonatto, Cínthia C; Silva, Luciano P

    2015-06-01

    Chocolate authentication is a key aspect of quality control and safety. Matrix-assisted laser desorption ionization time-of flight (MALDI-TOF) mass spectrometry (MS) has been demonstrated to be useful for molecular profiling of cells, tissues, and even food. The present study evaluated if MALDI-TOF MS analysis on low molecular mass profile may classify chocolate samples according to the cocoa content. The molecular profiles of seven processed commercial chocolate samples were compared by using MALDI-TOF MS. Some ions detected exclusively in chocolate samples corresponded to the metabolites of cocoa or other constituents. This method showed the presence of three distinct clusters according to confectionery and sensorial features of the chocolates and was used to establish a mass spectra database. Also, novel chocolate samples were evaluated in order to check the validity of the method and to challenge the database created with the mass spectra of the primary samples. Thus, the method was shown to be reliable for clustering unknown samples into the main chocolate categories. Simple sample preparation of the MALDI-TOF MS approach described will allow the surveillance and monitoring of constituents during the molecular profiling of chocolates. © 2014 Society of Chemical Industry.

  13. The Science of Chocolate: Interactive Activities on Phase Transitions, Emulsification, and Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowat, Amy C.; Hollar, Kathryn A.; Stone, Howard A.; Rosenberg, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Nearly everyone loves chocolate, which makes this an excellent topic for communicating scientific concepts to the general public and to students in the classroom. Here we present the outline and activities for an interactive presentation on the science of chocolate for nonspecialists and their children ages 6 and up. We design the presentation…

  14. Predictive relationship between polyphenol and nonfat cocoa solids content of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooper, Karen A; Campos-Giménez, Esther; Jiménez Alvarez, Diego; Rytz, Andreas; Nagy, Kornél; Williamson, Gary

    2008-01-09

    Chocolate is often labeled with percent cocoa solids content. It is assumed that higher cocoa solids contents are indicative of higher polyphenol concentrations, which have potential health benefits. However, cocoa solids include polyphenol-free cocoa butter and polyphenol-rich nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS). In this study the strength of the relationship between NFCS content (estimated by theobromine as a proxy) and polyphenol content was tested in chocolate samples with labeled cocoa solids contents in the range of 20-100%, grouped as dark (n = 46), milk (n = 8), and those chocolates containing inclusions such as wafers or nuts (n = 15). The relationship was calculated with regard to both total polyphenol content and individual polyphenols. In dark chocolates, NFCS is linearly related to total polyphenols (r2 = 0.73). Total polyphenol content appears to be systematically slightly higher for milk chocolates than estimated by the dark chocolate model, whereas for chocolates containing other ingredients, the estimates fall close to or slightly below the model results. This shows that extra components such as milk, wafers, or nuts might influence the measurements of both theobromine and polyphenol contents. For each of the six main polyphenols (as well as their sum), the relationship with the estimated NFCS was much lower than for total polyphenols (r2 chocolate type, indicating that they might still have some predictive capabilities.

  15. Cocoa Polyphenols: Can We Consider Cocoa and Chocolate as Potential Functional Food?

    OpenAIRE

    Ackar, Djurdjica; Valek Lendić, Kristina; Valek, Marina; Šubarić, Drago; Miličević, Borislav; Babić, Jurislav; Nedić, Ilija

    2013-01-01

    Chocolate has been consumed as confection, aphrodisiac, and folk medicine for many years before science proved its potential health benefiting effects. Main compounds of cocoa and chocolate which contribute to human health are polyphenols that act as antioxidants and have potential anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, antiallergenic, and anticarcinogenic properties. This paper gives a short overview of scientific literature regarding cocoa polyph...

  16. Minimizing the negative flavor attributes and evaluating consumer acceptance of chocolate fortified with peanut skin extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years, there has been increased interest in antioxidant-rich products by consumers wanting to enhance the health benefits of their diet. This has resulted in an increased focus on chocolate as a natural source of antioxidant compounds and the development of polyphenol-enriched chocolate p...

  17. Habitual chocolate consumption and risk of cardiovascular disease among healthy men and women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kwok, Chun Shing; Boekholdt, S. Matthijs; Lentjes, Marleen A. H.; Loke, Yoon K.; Luben, Robert N.; Yeong, Jessica K.; Wareham, Nicholas J.; Myint, Phyo K.; Khaw, Kay-Tee

    2015-01-01

    To examine the association between chocolate intake and the risk of future cardiovascular events. We conducted a prospective study using data from the European Prospective Investigation into Cancer (EPIC)-Norfolk cohort. Habitual chocolate intake was quantified using the baseline food frequency

  18. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massolt, Elske T.; van Haard, Paul M.; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Posthuma, Eduardus F.; van der Veer, Eveline; Schweitzer, Dave H.

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa,

  19. Incidence of Mycotoxins in Local and Branded Samples of Chocolates Marketed in Pakistan

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narjis Naz

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available The present overview was intended to evaluate the degree of total aflatoxins and ochratoxin A contamination in different samples of bitter, dark, milk, and white chocolates marketed in Pakistan. For that exploration, two hundred (n=200 samples of chocolates, 100 branded and 100 local, were analyzed for mycotoxins profile by HPLC-FLD. The outcomes firmly sustained that the majority of the samples were contaminated with aflatoxins and ochratoxin A. The incidence of total aflatoxins and ochratoxin A in branded samples was 83% and 90%, whereas the local samples showed 91% and 97% contamination, respectively. The highest amount of total aflatoxins was found in branded dark chocolates, that is, 2.27 μg/kg, and maximum ochratoxin A level was detected white chocolates (2.06 μg/kg. On average, the local white chocolates and dark chocolates faced the highest level of total aflatoxins (3.35 μg/kg and ochratoxin A (3.48 μg/kg, respectively. The local samples of chocolates were more contaminated with mycotoxins as compared to branded ones accredited to the lack of quality control and quality assurance during the manufacturing as well as packing processes. In recent years, consumption of chocolate is rapidly increasing especially by young generation, so monitoring of mycotoxin occurrence in them is a matter of great concern and more studies are required to comprehend the production of mycotoxins in these products.

  20. Dark chocolate reduces endothelial dysfunction after successive breath-hold dives in cool water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theunissen, Sigrid; Schumacker, Julie; Guerrero, François; Tillmans, Frauke; Boutros, Antoine; Lambrechts, Kate; Mazur, Aleksandra; Pieri, Massimo; Germonpré, Peter; Balestra, Costantino

    2013-12-01

    The aim of this study is to observe the effects of dark chocolate on endothelial function after a series of successive apnea dives in non-thermoneutral water. Twenty breath-hold divers were divided into two groups: a control group (8 males and 2 females) and a chocolate group (9 males and 1 female). The control group was asked to perform a series of dives to 20 m adding up to 20 min in the quiet diving pool of Conflans-Ste-Honorine (Paris, France), water temperature was 27 °C. The chocolate group performed the dives 1 h after ingestion of 30 g of dark chocolate. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), digital photoplethysmography, nitric oxide (NO), and peroxynitrite ONOO−) levels were measured before and after each series of breath-hold dives. A significant decrease in FMD was observed in the control group after the dives (95.28 ± 2.9 % of pre-dive values, p chocolate group (104.1 ± 2.9 % of pre-dive values, p chocolate group (98.44 ± 31.86 %, p > 0.05). No differences in digital photoplethysmography and peroxynitrites were observed between before and after the dives. Antioxidants contained in dark chocolate scavenge free radicals produced during breath-hold diving. Ingestion of 30 g of dark chocolate 1 h before the dive can thus prevent endothelial dysfunction which can be observed after a series of breath-hold dives.

  1. Does epicatechin contribute to the acute vascular function effects of dark chocolate? A randomized, crossover study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dower, James I; Geleijnse, Johanna M; Kroon, Paul A; Philo, Mark; Mensink, Marco; Kromhout, Daan; Hollman, Peter C H

    2016-11-01

    Cocoa, rich in flavan-3-ols, improves vascular function, but the contribution of specific flavan-3-ols is unknown. We compared the effects of pure epicatechin, a major cocoa flavan-3-ol, and chocolate. In a randomized crossover study, twenty healthy men (40-80 years) were supplemented with: (1) 70g dark chocolate (150 mg epicatechin) with placebo capsules; (2) pure epicatechin capsules (2 × 50 mg epicatechin) with 75g white chocolate; and (3) placebo capsules with 75 g white chocolate (0 mg epicatechin). Vascular function (flow-mediated dilation (FMD) and augmentation index (AIx)) were measured before and 2 hours after interventions. Epicatechin metabolites time-profiles were measured in blood to calculate the bioavailability. Pure epicatechin did not significantly improve FMD (+0.75%; p = 0.10) or AIx (-2.2%; p = 0.23) compared to placebo. Dark chocolate significantly improved FMD (+0.96%; p = 0.04) and AIx (-4.6%; p = 0.02). Differences in improvements in FMD (+ 0.21%; p = 0.65) or Aix (-2.4%; p = 0.20) between pure epicatechin and dark chocolate were not significant. The bioavailability of epicatechin did not differ between pure epicatechin and dark chocolate (p = 0.14). Despite differences in epicatechin dose, improvements in vascular function after pure epicatechin and chocolate were similar and the bioavailability did not differ, suggesting a role for epicatechin. © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  2. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehwan; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Nichols, Nancy N; Cao, Guangli; Frazer, Sarah E; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Elimination of microbial and enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases, and other soluble inhibitors were eliminated by biological detoxification. Corn stover at 20% (w/v) solids was LHW pretreated LHW (severity factor: 4.3). The 20% solids (w/v) pretreated corn stover derived liquor was recovered and biologically detoxified using the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616. After maleic acid treatment, and using 5 filter paper units of cellulase/g glucan (8.3mg protein/g glucan), 73% higher cellulose conversion from corn stover was obtained for biodetoxified samples compared to undetoxified samples. This corresponded to 87% cellulose to glucose conversion. Ethanol production by yeast of pretreated corn stover solids hydrolysate was 1.4 times higher than undetoxified samples, with a reduction of 3h in the fermentation lag phase. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  3. The evaporation of viscose process liquors: Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thornton, R

    1984-01-01

    A program of work aimed at producing designs for an energy efficient process for the evaporation of water from viscose process liquors has been completed. The process uses mechanical vapor recompression in conjunction with a thin plastic heat transfer surface. A bench laboratory evaporation rig was built to prove the technical viability of the process. This was followed by the construction of a research plant at a viscose production site. The capacity of this plant was 100 to 150 kg/h of water evaporated. The construction and operation of a plastic heat exchanger with thin walled plastic tubes was achieved with considerable success. The lining of the concrete containment vessel proved more difficult, and the technique employed may not be the best for commercial units. Heat transfer coefficients of up to 550 Wm/sup -2/ K/sup -1/ were measured on the research plant. These agreed well with results obtained from a mathematical model developed for the process. An optimum design for a commercial unit has been costed and the financial parameters determined. Courtaulds considers that the construction of a demonstration plant is justified. 3 refs., 8 figs.

  4. The transport of plutonium nitrate liquor in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Barrett, T.R.; Wilson, D.; Bancroft, M.; Higson, J.

    1994-01-01

    The PFR fuel cycle reasons for plutonium nitrate liquor transport are discussed, identifying the pre 1980 'one litre' bottle associated with nuclear R and D activities and then the 250 litre PUNIT transport container to support the PFR fuel cycle. The PUNIT vessel design is discussed, addressing, in particular, the need for clean filling and criticality design features together with the identification of the IAEA transport regulations criteria and the late 1970s testing programme -the full scale drop tests and the model fire tests. Radiolysis is discussed together with the need for inert gas padding. The filling facility and operation are then outlined together with the fissile material accountancy requirements. The shipments and emergency arrangements are then described drawing attention to time and weather constraints. The risk assessment is discussed, together with reference to the Competent Authority (DoT) 'authorisation' and any constraints. A history of the amount of material transferred is then given - relating that to the reprocessing plant operations since 1980. The most satisfactory performance over 12 years is noted. (author)

  5. Recovery of Flavonoids from Orange Press Liquor by an Integrated Membrane Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Cassano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Orange press liquor is a by-product generated by the citrus processing industry containing huge amounts of natural phenolic compounds with recognized antioxidant activity. In this work, an integrated membrane process for the recovery of flavonoids from orange press liquors was investigated on a laboratory scale. The liquor was previously clarified by ultrafiltration (UF in selected operating conditions by using hollow fiber polysulfone membranes. Then, the clarified liquor with a total soluble solids (TSS content of 10 g·100 g−1 was pre-concentrated by nanofiltration (NF up to 32 g TSS 100 g−1 by using a polyethersulfone spiral-wound membrane. A final concentration step, up to 47 g TSS 100 g−1, was performed by using an osmotic distillation (OD apparatus equipped with polypropylene hollow fiber membranes. Suspended solids were completely removed in the UF step producing a clarified liquor containing most part of the flavonoids of the original press liquor due to the low rejection of the UF membrane towards these compounds. Flavanones and anthocyanins were highly rejected by the NF membrane, producing a permeate stream with a TSS content of 4.5 g·100 g−1. An increasing of both the flavanones and anthocyanins concentration was observed in the NF retentate by increasing the volume reduction factor (VRF. The final concentration of flavonoids by OD produced a concentrated solution of interest for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications.

  6. Recovery of flavonoids from orange press liquor by an integrated membrane process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassano, Alfredo; Conidi, Carmela; Ruby-Figueroa, René

    2014-08-11

    Orange press liquor is a by-product generated by the citrus processing industry containing huge amounts of natural phenolic compounds with recognized antioxidant activity. In this work, an integrated membrane process for the recovery of flavonoids from orange press liquors was investigated on a laboratory scale. The liquor was previously clarified by ultrafiltration (UF) in selected operating conditions by using hollow fiber polysulfone membranes. Then, the clarified liquor with a total soluble solids (TSS) content of 10 g·100 g-1 was pre-concentrated by nanofiltration (NF) up to 32 g TSS 100 g-1 by using a polyethersulfone spiral-wound membrane. A final concentration step, up to 47 g TSS 100 g-1, was performed by using an osmotic distillation (OD) apparatus equipped with polypropylene hollow fiber membranes. Suspended solids were completely removed in the UF step producing a clarified liquor containing most part of the flavonoids of the original press liquor due to the low rejection of the UF membrane towards these compounds. Flavanones and anthocyanins were highly rejected by the NF membrane, producing a permeate stream with a TSS content of 4.5 g·100 g-1. An increasing of both the flavanones and anthocyanins concentration was observed in the NF retentate by increasing the volume reduction factor (VRF). The final concentration of flavonoids by OD produced a concentrated solution of interest for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications.

  7. Computed tomographic volumetry of cerebral liquor by semiautomatic contour recognition and gray value histogram analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tschammler, A.; Middendorf, C.; Luedinghausen, M. v.; Wittenberg, G.; Krahe, T.

    1996-01-01

    A program (VAC, Siemens) using selfmade, anthropomorphous phantomas to measure semiautomatically the volume of the cerebral liquor in CT scans of the whole skull was tested. Cerebral tissue was simulated by ellipsoid bodies made from Agar and Nal which were placed in a human skull. Volumes of the ventricular and subarachnoidal liquor could be defined arbitrarily. A correlation coefficient of r>=0.9 using a slice thickness of 1-5 mm was found (thickness 8 mm: r=0.75). The volume of the cerebral liquor was underestimated by 25-68%. Separate measurements of the ventricular and subarachnoidal liquor spaces showed a high accuracy of the measurements done in the ventricles (r=0.997, y=0.996x-1). The volume of the subarachnoidal liquor was not detected completely due to partial volume effects which were seen especially in the basal and apical scans. The program VAC is useful for the semiautomatic measurement of the volume of the ventricles. The assessment of the subarachnoidal liquor is limited to semiquantitative results. (orig./MG) [de

  8. Generation of Hydrogen, Lignin and Sodium Hydroxide from Pulping Black Liquor by Electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzai Nong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Black liquor is generated in Kraft pulping of wood or non-wood raw material in pulp mills, and regarded as a renewable resource. The objective of this paper was to develop an effective means to remove the water pollutants by recovery of both lignin and sodium hydroxide from black liquor, based on electrolysis. The treatment of a 1000 mL of black liquor (122 g/L solid contents consumed 345.6 kJ of electric energy, and led to the generation of 30.7 g of sodium hydroxide, 0.82 g of hydrogen gas and 52.1 g of biomass solids. Therefore, the recovery ratios of elemental sodium and biomass solids are 80.4% and 76%, respectively. Treating black liquor by electrolysis is an environmentally friendly technology that can, in particular, be an alternative process in addressing the environmental issues of pulping waste liquor to the small-scale mills without black liquor recovery.

  9. Extrinsic attributes that influence parents' purchase of chocolate milk for their children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiaomeng E; Lopetcharat, Kannapon; Drake, MaryAnne

    2014-07-01

    The consumption of milk is essential for children's heath; and flavored milk, especially chocolate milk, is often purchased to increase children's milk consumption. However, the sugar content of chocolate milk has raised health concerns. As such, it is important to understand chocolate milk extrinsic attributes that influence parents' purchase decisions when they are purchasing chocolate milk for their children. The objective of this study was to determine the key extrinsic attributes for parents when they purchase chocolate milk for their children. An online survey with a conjoint analysis design, emotions questions, and Kano questionnaire that focused on chocolate milk was conducted targeting parents. Three hundred and twelve parents participated in the survey. Parents reported positive emotions including good, good natured, happy, loving, and satisfied when purchasing chocolate milk for their kids. Three segments of parents were identified with subtle but distinct differences in their key preferences for chocolate milk attributes for their children. Type of sweetener was the primary driver of choice for purchasing chocolate milk for children followed by fat content. Among sweetener types, natural noncaloric/nonnutritive sweeteners or sucrose were preferred over artificial sweeteners, and reduced fat was preferred over full fat or skim milk. Kano results revealed that reduced fat and sugar with an all natural label and added vitamins, minerals, and protein were attractive to the majority of parents when purchasing chocolate milk for their kids. Understanding the driving extrinsic attributes for parents when they purchase chocolate milk for their children will assist manufacturers to target extrinsic attributes that are attractive to parents for chocolate milk. This study established that sweetener type and fat content are the primary extrinsic attributes affecting parents purchase decisions when choosing chocolate milk for their children. Different segments of

  10. Chocolate-candy consumption and three-year weight gain among postmenopausal U.S. women

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greenberg, James A.; Manson, JoAnn E.; Buijsse, Brian; Wang, Lu; Allison, Matthew A.; Neuhouser, Marian L.; Tinker, Lesley; Waring, Molly E.; Isasi, Carmen R.; Martin, Lisa W.; Thomson, Cynthia A.

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVE To test the hypothesis that greater chocolate-candy intake is associated with more weight gain in postmenopausal women. DESIGN AND METHODS Prospective cohort study involving 107,243 post-menopausal American women aged 50–79 years (mean=60.7) at enrolment in the Women’s Health Initiative (WHI), with three-year follow up. Chocolate-candy consumption was assessed by food frequency questionnaire and body weight was measured. Linear mixed models, adjusted for demographic, socio-economic, anthropomorphic and behavioral variables, were used to test our main hypotheses. RESULTS Compared to women who ate a 1 oz (~28 g) serving of chocolate candy chocolate-candy intake level increased as BMI increased above the normal range (18.5–25 kg/m2), and as age decreased. CONCLUSIONS Greater chocolate-candy intake was associated with greater prospective weight gain in this cohort of post-menopausal women. PMID:25644711

  11. Cadmium and lead in cocoa powder and chocolate products in the US Market.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abt, Eileen; Fong Sam, Jennifer; Gray, Patrick; Robin, Lauren Posnick

    2018-06-01

    Cocoa powder and chocolate products are known to sometimes contain cadmium (Cd) and lead (Pb) from environmental origins. A convenience sample of cocoa powder, dark chocolate, milk chocolate, and cocoa nib products was purchased at retail in the US and analysed using inductively coupled plasma mass spectrometry to assess Cd and Pb concentrations. Cd and Pb were evaluated in relation to the percent cocoa solids and to the reported origin of the cocoa powder and chocolate products. Cd ranged from 0.004 to 3.15 mg/kg and Pb ranged from cocoa, with correlations varying by product type and geographic origin. Geographic variation was observed for Cd, with higher Cd concentrations found in products reported as originating from Latin America than from Africa. The influence of percent cocoa solids and cocoa origin on Cd levels are relevant to international standards for Cd in chocolate products.

  12. Acceptability and nutritional value of dark chocolate enriched with baru almonds, flaxseed and quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jullyana Borges de Freitas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to formulate dark chocolate enriched with baru almonds, flaxseed and quinoa (9% in replacement of chocolate, as well as assess the acceptability (global acceptance, appearance and purchase intent and the nutritional value of the formulations. The various chocolate samples were considered accepted and showed good levels of purchase intent, except for the variation enriched with flaxseed. The chocolate samples showed high content of fiber (27 to 40 g/100g, and lower energy value (385 to 413 kcal/100g compared to conventional dark chocolates with almonds (7 to 11 g of dietary fiber/100g and 500 to 550 kcal/100g, thus providing a healthier alternative for consumers.

  13. From Cocoa to Chocolate: The Impact of Processing on In Vitro Antioxidant Activity and the Effects of Chocolate on Antioxidant Markers In Vivo

    OpenAIRE

    Di Mattia, Carla D.; Sacchetti, Giampiero; Mastrocola, Dino; Serafini, Mauro

    2017-01-01

    Chocolate is a product processed from cocoa rich in flavonoids, antioxidant compounds, and bioactive ingredients that have been associated with both its healthy and sensory properties. Chocolate production consists of a multistep process which, starting from cocoa beans, involves fermentation, drying, roasting, nib grinding and refining, conching, and tempering. During cocoa processing, the naturally occurring antioxidants (flavonoids) are lost, while others, such as Maillard reaction product...

  14. Inactivation of Salmonella during cocoa roasting and chocolate conching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nascimento, Maristela da Silva do; Brum, Daniela Merlo; Pena, Pamela Oliveira; Berto, Maria Isabel; Efraim, Priscilla

    2012-10-15

    The high heat resistance of Salmonella in foods with low water activity raises particular issues for food safety, especially chocolate, where outbreak investigations indicate that few colony-forming units are necessary to cause salmonellosis. This study evaluated the efficiency of cocoa roasting and milk chocolate conching in the inactivation of Salmonella 5-strain suspension. Thermal resistance of Salmonella was greater in nibs compared to cocoa beans upon exposure at 110 to 130°C. The D-values in nibs were 1.8, 2.2 and 1.5-fold higher than those calculated for cocoa beans at 110, 120 and 130°C. There was no significant difference (p>0.05) between the matrices only at 140°C. Since in the conching of milk chocolate the inactivation curves showed rapid death in the first 180 min followed by a lower inactivation rate, and two D-values were calculated. For the first time interval (0-180 min) the D-values were 216.87, 102.27 and 50.99 min at 50, 60 and 70°C, respectively. The other D-values were determined from the second time interval (180-1440 min), 1076.76 min at 50°C, 481.94 min at 60°C and 702.23 min at 70°C. The results demonstrated that the type of matrix, the process temperature and the initial count influenced the Salmonella resistance. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  15. Occurrence of ochratoxin A in cocoa products and chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serra Bonvehí, Josep

    2004-10-06

    In this work, the occurrence of ochratoxin A (OTA) in 170 samples of cocoa products of different geographical origins was studied. An immunoaffinity column with HPLC separation was developed to quantify low levels of OTA in cocoa bean, cocoa cake, cocoa mass, cocoa nib, cocoa powder, cocoa shell, cocoa butter, chocolate, and chocolate cream with >80% recoveries. The method was validated by performing replicate analyses of uncontaminated cocoa material spiked at three different levels of OTA (1, 2, and 5 microg/kg). The data obtained were related on the acceptable safe daily exposure for OTA. The highest levels of OTA were detected in roasted cocoa shell and cocoa cake (0.1-23.1 microg/kg) and only at minor levels in the other cocoa products. Twenty-six cocoa and chocolate samples were free from detectable OTA (cocoa powder 38.7% of the samples analyzed contained OTA at levels ranging from 0.1 to 2 microg/kg, and 54.8% was contaminated at >2 microg/kg (and 12 samples at >3 microg/kg). Ochratoxin A was detected in cocoa bean at levels from 0.1 to 3.5 microg/kg, the mean concentration being 0.45 microg/kg; only one sample exceeded 2 microg/kg (4.7%). In contrast, 51.2% of cocoa cake samples contained OTA at levels > or =2 microg/kg, among which 16 exceeded 5 microg/kg (range of 5-9 microg/kg). These results indicate that roasted cocoa powder is not a major source of OTA in the diet.

  16. Sustained effects of attentional re-training on chocolate consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemps, Eva; Tiggemann, Marika; Elford, Joanna

    2015-12-01

    Accumulating evidence shows that cognitive bias modification produces immediate changes in attentional bias for, and consumption of, rewarding substances including food. This study examined the longevity of these attentional bias modification effects. A modified dot probe paradigm was used to determine whether alterations in biased attentional processing of food cues, and subsequent effects on consumption, were maintained at 24-h and one-week follow-up. One hundred and forty-nine undergraduate women were trained to direct their attention toward ('attend') or away from ('avoid') food cues (i.e., pictures of chocolate). Within each group, half received a single training session, the other half completed 5 weekly training sessions. Attentional bias for chocolate cues increased in the 'attend' group, and decreased in the 'avoid' group immediately post training. Participants in the 'avoid' group also ate disproportionately less of a chocolate food product in a so-called taste test than did those in the 'attend' group. Importantly, the observed re-training effects were maintained 24 h later and also one week later, but only following multiple training sessions. There are a number of limitations that could be addressed in future research: (a) the inclusion of a no-training control group, (b) the inclusion of a suspicion probe to detect awareness of the purpose of the taste test, and (c) the use of different tasks to assess and re-train attentional bias. The results showed sustained effects of attentional re-training on attentional bias and consumption. They further demonstrate the importance of administering multiple re-training sessions in attentional bias modification protocols. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  17. Visualization of the hot chocolate sound effect by spectrograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trávníček, Z.; Fedorchenko, A. I.; Pavelka, M.; Hrubý, J.

    2012-12-01

    We present an experimental and a theoretical analysis of the hot chocolate effect. The sound effect is evaluated using time-frequency signal processing, resulting in a quantitative visualization by spectrograms. This method allows us to capture the whole phenomenon, namely to quantify the dynamics of the rising pitch. A general form of the time dependence volume fraction of the bubbles is proposed. We show that the effect occurs due to the nonlinear dependence of the speed of sound in the gas/liquid mixture on the volume fraction of the bubbles and the nonlinear time dependence of the volume fraction of the bubbles.

  18. A brisk walk, compared with being sedentary, reduces attentional bias and chocolate cravings among regular chocolate eaters with different body mass.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwajung; Taylor, Adrian H

    2013-12-01

    Poor self-regulation of high energy snacking has been linked to weight gain. Physical activity can acutely reduce chocolate consumption and cravings but the effects on attentional bias (AB) are unknown. The study aimed to test the effects of exercise among normal and overweight/obese individuals during temporary and longer abstinence. Participants were 20 normal and 21 overweight regular female chocolate eaters (after 24 h abstinence), and 17 females (after ≥1 week abstinence during Lent). They were randomly assigned to engage in 15 min brisk walking or rest, on separate days. AB was assessed using an adapted dot probe task pre and post-treatment at each session, with chocolate/neutral paired images presented for 200 ms (initial AB; IAB) or 1000 ms (maintained AB; MAB). Chocolate craving was assessed pre, during, immediately after, and 5 min and 10 min after treatment, using a 0-100 visual analogue score. Three-way mixed ANOVAs revealed that there was no significant interaction effect between group (i.e., BMI status, or abstinence status) and condition × time for craving and AB to chocolate cues. Fully repeated 2-way ANOVAS revealed a significant condition × time interaction for IAB (F(1,57)=6.39) and chocolate craving (F(2.34,133.19)=14.44). After exercise IAB (t(57)=2.78, pchocolate cues, relative to control, irrespective of BMI or abstinence period. Crown Copyright © 2013. Published by Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  19. Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriaan van Heiningen

    2007-06-30

    MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and

  20. The comparison of biological activity of chocolates made by different technological procedures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucia Godočiková

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available 12.00 Chocolate is one of the most consumed delicacies in the world. Nowadays, raw chocolates without vanilla or allergens are getting more attention. The aim of this study was to evaluate and compare the biological activity of different types of chocolate - cold processed chocolate and chocolate made by traditional way. Total content of fat, crude fibre, polyphenols, flavonoids, phenolic acids and metylxantines - theobromine and caffeine was evaluated. The antioxidant activity was determined by a method using DPPH radical, reducing power method and phosphomolybdenum method. Both evaluated chocolates had similar content of fat and crude fibre, but sample of chocolate made by traditional way probably due to the higher content of cocoa mass had almost two times higher content of total polyphenols, flavonoids and phenolic acids as cold processed chocolate. Also the content of theobromine and caffeine was slightly higher in chocolate made by traditional way. This sample had the highest antioxidant activity - 93.68 mg TEAC.g-1 determined by phosphomolybdenum method, while in the sample of chocolate made by cold processed way was measeured value 50.82 mg TEAC.g-1. Similarly, reducing power of chocolate made by traditional way was almost two times higher, but antioxidant activity determined with DPPH method was similar in both samples (3.58 and 3.62 mg TEAC.g-1. The antioxidants and metylxantines in chocolates determine its potential to be a significant source of biologicaly active compounds with favorable effects to human health. It can be concluded in this study, that chocolate produced by conventional production technology can have more health-promoting ingredients reserved, but more extensive researches are still needed.  12.00 Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE Normal 0 21 false false false SK X-NONE X-NONE

  1. Synthetic gas production from dry black liquor gasification process using direct causticization with CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Naqvi, Muhammad; Yan, Jinyue; Dahlquist, Erik

    2012-01-01

    Highlights: ► We study synthetic gas production from dry black liquor gasification system. ► Direct causticization eliminates energy intensive lime kiln reducing biomass use. ► Results show large SNG production potential at significant energy efficiency (58%). ► Substantial CO 2 capture potential plus CO 2 reductions from natural gas replacement. ► Significant transport fuel replacement especially in Sweden and Europe. -- Abstract: Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from dry black liquor gasification (DBLG) system is an attractive option to reduce CO 2 emissions replacing natural gas. This article evaluates the energy conversion performance of SNG production from oxygen blown circulating fluidized bed (CFB) black liquor gasification process with direct causticization by investigating system integration with a reference pulp mill producing 1000 air dried tonnes (ADt) of pulp per day. The direct causticization process eliminates use of energy intensive lime kiln that is a main component required in the conventional black liquor recovery cycle with the recovery boiler. The paper has estimated SNG production potential, the process energy ratio of black liquor (BL) conversion to SNG, and quantified the potential CO 2 abatement. Based on reference pulp mill capacity, the results indicate a large potential of SNG production (about 162 MW) from black liquor but at a cost of additional biomass import (36.7 MW) to compensate the total energy deficit. The process shows cold gas energy efficiency of about 58% considering black liquor and biomass import as major energy inputs. About 700 ktonnes per year of CO 2 abatement i.e. both possible CO 2 capture and CO 2 offset from bio-fuel use replacing natural gas, is estimated. Moreover, the SNG production offers a significant fuel replacement in transport sector especially in countries with large pulp and paper industry e.g. in Sweden, about 72% of motor gasoline and 40% of total motor fuel could be replaced.

  2. Degradation of black liquor from bioethanol process using coagulation and Fenton-like methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muryanto, Muryanto; Sari, Ajeng Arum; Abimanyu, Haznan

    2017-01-01

    Black liquor is one of the main by-products of the pretreatment process in bioethanol production from oil palm empty fruit bunches. Black liquor wastewater releases black coloured effluent with high chemical oxygen demand (COD) and low dissolved oxygen (DO). It had a distinctive dark coloration, high alkalinity (pH=13), high organic content (COD > 50,000 ppm) and a high solid content (TSS > 5,000 ppm). Lignin destruction can be done by using high oxidation from OH radical system such as advanced oxidation processes (AOPs). Thereafter, the high concentration of COD, color, and TSS can be removed. The general aim of the present investigation was to determine degradation of black liquor wastewater by using a combined coagulation and Fenton-like methods. In this research, we use Poly Aluminum Chloride (PAC) as a coagulant and FeCl3.6H2O and H2O2 for Fenton-like's reagent. The process was conducted in jar test at 200 rpm for 30 minutes and after that slowly mixed for 2 hours and left for sedimentation 24 hours. 50 ml black liquor was added with variation dose of 1-5% PAC, and 10 % Fenton-like reagent. Hydroxyl radical was generated by the Fenton-like's reagent (ratio FeCl3.6H2O : H2O2 was varied). The highest decolorization of black liquor 70 % was obtained under 5% PAC coagulant. The pH of the wastewater was reduced from 13.00 to 8.07 after the addition of the coagulant. The decolorization of original black liquor was approximately 58% through the Fenton-like process. The combination of PAC and Fenton-like reagent has able to enhance the decolorization of black liquor up to 97%.

  3. Social capital, the miniaturisation of community and consumption of homemade liquor and smuggled liquor during the past year. A population-based study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lindström, Martin

    2005-12-01

    To study the impact of social participation, trust and the miniaturisation of community, i.e. high social participation/low trust, on consumption of homemade liquor and smuggled liquor during the past year. The Scania 2000 public health survey is a cross-sectional, postal questionnaire study. A total of 13,604 persons aged 18-80 years were included. A logistic regression model was used to investigate the association between the social capital variables and illegal alcohol consumption. The multivariate analyses analysed the importance of confounders (age, country of origin, education and economic stress) on the differences in consumption of homemade and smuggled liquor according to the social capital variables. A 28.2% proportion of all men and 14.9% of all women had consumed homemade liquor during the past year. The proportions who had consumed smuggled liquor during the past year were even higher, 40.1% among men and 21.4% among women. Both forms of illegal alcohol consumption were significantly positively associated with social participation and negatively associated with trust. The miniaturisation of community category, i.e. high social participation/low trust, had significantly higher risks of consumption during the past year of the consumption of both forms of illegally provided alcohol compared to the high social capital (high social participation/high trust) category, while the low social participation/high trust category had significantly lower risks. High social participation combined with low trust is positively associated with consumption of illegally provided alcohol. The results have implications for alcohol prevention programs, because structural/social factors that may hinder information and norms concerning illegal alcohol have been identified in this study.

  4. Cocoa and Chocolate in Human Health and Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doughty, Kim; Ali, Ather

    2011-01-01

    Abstract Cocoa contains more phenolic antioxidants than most foods. Flavonoids, including catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidins predominate in antioxidant activity. The tricyclic structure of the flavonoids determines antioxidant effects that scavenge reactive oxygen species, chelate Fe2+ and Cu+, inhibit enzymes, and upregulate antioxidant defenses. The epicatechin content of cocoa is primarily responsible for its favorable impact on vascular endothelium via its effect on both acute and chronic upregulation of nitric oxide production. Other cardiovascular effects are mediated through anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols, and modulated through the activity of NF-κB. Antioxidant effects of cocoa may directly influence insulin resistance and, in turn, reduce risk for diabetes. Further, cocoa consumption may stimulate changes in redox-sensitive signaling pathways involved in gene expression and the immune response. Cocoa can protect nerves from injury and inflammation, protect the skin from oxidative damage from UV radiation in topical preparations, and have beneficial effects on satiety, cognitive function, and mood. As cocoa is predominantly consumed as energy-dense chocolate, potential detrimental effects of overconsumption exist, including increased risk of weight gain. Overall, research to date suggests that the benefits of moderate cocoa or dark chocolate consumption likely outweigh the risks. Antioxid. Redox Signal. 15, 2779–2811. PMID:21470061

  5. TWO FACES OF MASCULINITY IN AXE CHOCOLATE ADVERTISEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadeta Ririn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An advertisement has never been departed from an ideology. Although it occurs implicitly, an ideology in an advertisement is able to make someone believe in particular value of life. This study tries to reveal the ideology both in positive meaning as a belief system which marks certain group and in negative meaning as a false consciousness. Besides that, this study also tries to reveal the way of illustrating the ideology that lies within the Axe Chocolate advertisement. In order to obtain the ideology, each scene in the Axe Chocolate advertisement is analyzed based on Barthes’ model of sign. Then, to find the way of illustrating the ideology, the connotative meaning of mass media codes applied in the advertisement, i.e. fashion codes, color codes, non-verbal codes and technical codes is analyzed. The result of this study shows that masculinity appears as the negative and positive ideology because masculinity is not contradictory with Indonesian culture. However, the value of masculinity shown by the advertiser is narrowed down into the area of sexuality only. In addition to this, the way of illustrating the ideology of masculinity in sexuality area also gives negative stereotype to women, for instance by showing women as figures who like to advertise their body through wearing fashion which exposes women’s body.

  6. TWO FACES OF MASCULINITY IN AXE CHOCOLATE ADVERTISEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadeta Ririn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: An advertisement has never been departed from an ideology. Although it occurs implicitly, an ideology in an advertisement is able to make someone believe in particular value of life. This study tries to reveal the ideology both in positive meaning as a belief system which marks certain group and in negative meaning as a false consciousness. Besides that, this study also tries to reveal the way of illustrating the ideology that lies within the Axe Chocolate advertisement. In order to obtain the ideology, each scene in the Axe Chocolate advertisement is analyzed based on Barthes’ model of sign. Then, to find the way of illustrating the ideology, the connotative meaning of mass media codes applied in the advertisement, i.e. fashion codes, color codes, non-verbal codes and technical codes is analyzed. The result of this study shows that masculinity appears as the negative and positive ideology because masculinity is not contradictory with Indonesian culture. However, the value of masculinity shown by the advertiser is narrowed down into the area of sexuality only. In addition to this, the way of illustrating the ideology of masculinity in sexuality area also gives negative stereotype to women, for instance by showing women as figures who like to advertise their body through wearing fashion which exposes women’s body.   Keywords: ideology, advertisement, semiotics, mass media codes

  7. Cocoa and chocolate in human health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Katz, David L; Doughty, Kim; Ali, Ather

    2011-11-15

    Cocoa contains more phenolic antioxidants than most foods. Flavonoids, including catechin, epicatechin, and procyanidins predominate in antioxidant activity. The tricyclic structure of the flavonoids determines antioxidant effects that scavenge reactive oxygen species, chelate Fe2+ and Cu+, inhibit enzymes, and upregulate antioxidant defenses. The epicatechin content of cocoa is primarily responsible for its favorable impact on vascular endothelium via its effect on both acute and chronic upregulation of nitric oxide production. Other cardiovascular effects are mediated through anti-inflammatory effects of cocoa polyphenols, and modulated through the activity of NF-κB. Antioxidant effects of cocoa may directly influence insulin resistance and, in turn, reduce risk for diabetes. Further, cocoa consumption may stimulate changes in redox-sensitive signaling pathways involved in gene expression and the immune response. Cocoa can protect nerves from injury and inflammation, protect the skin from oxidative damage from UV radiation in topical preparations, and have beneficial effects on satiety, cognitive function, and mood. As cocoa is predominantly consumed as energy-dense chocolate, potential detrimental effects of overconsumption exist, including increased risk of weight gain. Overall, research to date suggests that the benefits of moderate cocoa or dark chocolate consumption likely outweigh the risks.

  8. A comparison of two low-calorie sweeteners and sugar in dark chocolate on sensory attributes and emotional conceptualisations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lagast, Sofie; De Steur, Hans; Schouteten, Joachim J; Gellynck, Xavier

    2018-05-01

    Reducing sugar consumption is an important aspect in the prevention of and fight against obesity. A broader understanding of consumers' perceptions of low-calorie sweeteners is needed. This study examined two low-calorie sweeteners, tagatose and stevia, in comparison to sugar in dark chocolate. A total of 219 consumers participated in this study and rated overall liking and sensory attributes. Participants also listed their emotional conceptualisations upon consumption and were assessed on emotional eating behaviour and health and taste attitudes. The chocolate with tagatose was perceived as more similar to the chocolate with sugar than with stevia on overall liking, texture, bitterness, duration of aftertaste and intensity of aftertaste. Furthermore, chocolate with sugar and chocolate with tagatose both elicited positive emotional conceptualisations whereas chocolate with stevia elicited negative emotional conceptualisations. In conclusion, dark chocolate with tagatose did not significantly differ from sugar in overall liking, most sensory attributes and emotional conceptualisation.

  9. Mixed selection. Effects of body images, dietary restraint, and persuasive messages on females' orientations towards chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Hendry, Alana; Stritzke, Werner G K

    2013-01-01

    Many women experience ambivalent reactions to chocolate: craving it but also wary of its impact on weight and health. Chocolate advertisements often use thin ideal models and previous research indicates that this exacerbates ambivalence. This experiment compared attitudes to, and consumption of, chocolate following exposure to images containing thin or overweight models together with written messages that were either positive or negative about eating chocolate. Participants (all female) were categorised as either low- or high-restraint. Approach, avoidance and guilt motives towards chocolate were measured and the participants had an opportunity to consume chocolate. Exposure to thin ideal models led to higher approach motives and this effect was most marked among the high restraint participants. Avoidance and guilt scores did not vary as a function of model size or message, but there were clear differences between the restraint groups, with the high restraint participants scoring substantially higher than low restraint participants on both of these measures. When the participants were provided with an opportunity to eat some chocolate, those with high restraint who had been exposed to the thin models consumed the most. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  10. Dark Chocolate Acutely Improves Walking Autonomy in Patients With Peripheral Artery Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loffredo, Lorenzo; Perri, Ludovica; Catasca, Elisa; Pignatelli, Pasquale; Brancorsini, Monica; Nocella, Cristina; De Falco, Elena; Bartimoccia, Simona; Frati, Giacomo; Carnevale, Roberto; Violi, Francesco

    2014-01-01

    Background NOX‐2, the catalytic subunit of NADPH oxidase, has a key role in the formation of reactive oxidant species and is implicated in impairing flow‐mediated dilation (FMD). Dark chocolate exerts artery dilatation via down‐regulating NOX2‐mediated oxidative stress. The aim of this study was to investigate whether dark chocolate improves walking autonomy in peripheral artery disease (PAD) patients via an oxidative stress‐mediated mechanism. Methods and Results FMD, serum levels of isoprostanes, nitrite/nitrate (NOx) and sNOX2‐dp, a marker of blood NOX2 activity, maximal walking distance (MWD) and maximal walking time (MWT) were studied in 20 PAD patients (14 males and 6 females, mean age: 69±9 years) randomly allocated to 40 g of dark chocolate (>85% cocoa) or 40 g of milk chocolate (≤35% cocoa) in a single blind, cross‐over design. The above variables were assessed at baseline and 2 hours after chocolate ingestion. Dark chocolate intake significantly increased MWD (+11%; Pchocolate intake. Serum epicatechin and its methylated metabolite significantly increased only after dark chocolate ingestion. Multiple linear regression analysis showed that Δ of MWD was independently associated with Δ of MWT (Pchocolate acutely improves walking autonomy with a mechanism possibly related to an oxidative stress‐mediated mechanism involving NOX2 regulation. Clinical Trial Registration URL: http://www.clinicaltrials.gov. Unique identifier: NCT01947712. PMID:24990275

  11. Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Heart Failure: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fei; Yao, Shuyuan; Wan, Jing; Gan, Xuedong

    2017-04-20

    Epidemiological studies have shown inconsistent findings on the association between chocolate consumption and risk of heart failure (HF). We, therefore, performed a meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the role of chocolate intake in the prevention of HF. We searched databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus through December 2016 and scrutinized the reference lists of relevant literatures to identify eligible studies. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were aggregated using random effect models. The dose-response relationship between chocolate consumption and incident HF was also assessed. This meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42017054230. Five prospective studies with 106,109 participants were finally included. Compared to no consumption of chocolate, the pooled HRs (95% CIs) of HF were 0.86 (0.82-0.91) for low-to-moderate consumption (chocolate consumption and risk of HF ( p for nonlinearity = 0.005). Compared with non-consumption, the HRs (95% CIs) of HF across chocolate consumption levels were 0.92 (0.88-0.97), 0.86 (0.78-0.94), 0.93 (0.85-1.03), and 1.07 (0.92-1.23) for 1, 3, 7, and 10 servings/week, respectively. In conclusion, chocolate consumption in moderation may be associated with a decreased risk of HF.

  12. Comparative gastrointestinal tolerance of sucrose, lactitol, or D-tagatose in chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, A; Storey, D M

    1999-04-01

    D-tagatose is a potential new sugar substitute. Ingested D-tagatose is incompletely absorbed from the small intestine; unabsorbed D-tagatose reaches the colon where it is completely fermented. In a double-blind, controlled crossover study, the gastrointestinal effects were compared following acute consumption of 40 g plain chocolates containing 20 g of sucrose, lactitol, or D-tagatose by 50 healthy adults ages 18 to 24 years. Consumption of D-tagatose was not associated with a significant increase in the frequency of passing feces, or in the number of subjects passing watery feces. However, lactitol consumption was associated with an increase in both of these occurrences. Consumption of chocolate containing D-tagatose and lactitol resulted in significant increases in colic, flatulence, borborygmi, and bloating compared to consumption of the sucrose-containing chocolate, but the majority of symptoms were described as only "slightly more than usual." D-tagatose-containing chocolate did not provoke significantly more of these symptoms than lactitol-containing chocolate. A significant number of subjects reported nausea following consumption of D-tagatose chocolate compared to the sucrose chocolate control, and multiple symptoms occurred in some subjects. Overall, these results demonstrate that a 20-g dose of D-tagatose is tolerated well in comparison to lactitol. Copyright 1999 Academic Press.

  13. Chocolate intake is associated with better cognitive function: The Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2016-05-01

    Chocolate and cocoa flavanols have been associated with improvements in a range of health complaints dating from ancient times, and has established cardiovascular benefits. Less is known about the effects of chocolate on neurocognition and behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chocolate intake was associated with cognitive function, with adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on 968 community-dwelling participants, aged 23-98 years, from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intake was related to cognitive performance, measured with an extensive battery of neuropsychological tests. More frequent chocolate consumption was significantly associated with better performance on the Global Composite score, Visual-Spatial Memory and Organization, Working Memory, Scanning and Tracking, Abstract Reasoning, and the Mini-Mental State Examination. With the exception of Working Memory, these relations were not attenuated with statistical control for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Prospective analyses revealed no association between cognitive function and chocolate intake measured up to 18 years later. Further intervention trials and longitudinal studies are needed to explore relations between chocolate, cocoa flavanols and cognition, and the underlying causal mechanisms. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  14. The cardiometabolic benefits of flavonoids and dark chocolate intake in patients at risk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andra-Iulia Suceveanu

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Scientific research proves that the cardiac and the metabolic functions are improved by the consumption of flavonoids, natural elements found in cocoa. The dark chocolate is the main alimentary compound rich in flavonoids, and for this reason it can be used to prevent some cardiometabolic disorders. This study aims to demonstrate the relationship between chocolate consumption and the cardiometabolic disorders risk in 85 patients hospitalized in Internal Medicine Unit of Emergency Hospital “St. Apostle Andrew” of Constanta. Patients were split according to the quantity of the dark chocolate consumption into 2 groups. The study groups were matched by the demographic parameters, the BMI, the physical activity and other risk factors (fats, saturated lipids, etc. We found that the daily consumption of dark chocolate, with content of cocoa > 35% according to European recommendations, had cardiometabolic benefits. The risk of coronary heart disease was reduced with 23% by the daily dark chocolate intake. The cardiovascular disease mortality and the risk of any cardiovascular disease were decreased with 19%, respectively with 38%. The risk of incident diabetes decreased with 28% after daily dark chocolate consumption, regardless the gender of patients. The number of ischemic cerebral events was reduced with 32%. In summary, the daily consumption of dark chocolate rich in flavonoids decreases the cardiometabolic disorders in patients at risk [1].

  15. Chocolate bar as an incentive did not increase response rate among physiotherapists: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dahm Kristin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The aim of this study was to assess the effect of a small incentive, a bar of dark chocolate, on response rate in a study of physiotherapy performance in patients with knee osteoarthritis. Findings Norwegian physiotherapists from private practice were randomised in blocks to an intervention group (n = 1027 receiving a bar of dark chocolate together with a data-collection form, and a control group (n = 1027 that received the data-collection form only. The physiotherapists were asked to prospectively complete the data-collection form by reporting treatments provided to one patient with knee osteoarthritis through 12 treatment sessions. The outcome measure was response rate of completed forms. Out of the 510 physiotherapists that responded, 280 had completed the data-collection form by the end of the study period. There was no difference between the chocolate and no-chocolate group in response rate of those who sent in completed forms. In the chocolate group, 142 (13.8% returned completed forms compared to 138 (13.4% in the control group, ARR = 0.4 (95% CI: -3.44 to 2.6. Conclusion A bar of dark chocolate did not increase response rate in a prospective study of physiotherapy performance. Stronger incentives than chocolate seem to be necessary to increase the response rate among professionals who are asked to report about their practice. Trial Registration Current Controlled Trials register: ISRCTN02397855

  16. Chocolate consumption and risk of atrial fibrillation: Two cohort studies and a meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Larsson, Susanna C; Drca, Nikola; Jensen-Urstad, Mats; Wolk, Alicja

    2018-01-01

    Chocolate consumption has been inconsistently associated with risk of atrial fibrillation (AF). We investigated the association between chocolate consumption and risk of AF in Swedish adults from two cohort studies and conducted a meta-analysis to summarize available evidence from cohort studies on this topic. Our study population comprised 40,009 men from the Cohort of Swedish Men and 32,486 women from the Swedish Mammography Cohort. Incident AF cases were ascertained through linkage with the Swedish National Patient Register. Published cohort studies of chocolate consumption in relation to risk of AF were identified by a PubMed search through September 14, 2017. During a mean follow-up of 14.6 years, AF was diagnosed in 9978 Swedish men and women. Compared with non-consumers, the multivariable hazard ratio of AF for those in the highest category of chocolate consumption (≥3-4 servings/week) was 0.96 (95% CI 0.88-1.04). In a random-effects meta-analysis of 5 cohort studies, including 180,454 participants and 16,356 AF cases, the hazard ratios of AF were 0.97 (95% CI 0.94-1.01) per 2 servings/week increase in chocolate consumption and 0.96 (95% CI 0.90-1.03) for the highest versus lowest category of chocolate consumption. Available data provide no evidence of an association of chocolate consumption with risk of AF. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  17. Chocolate Consumption and Risk of Heart Failure: A Meta-Analysis of Prospective Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gong, Fei; Yao, Shuyuan; Wan, Jing; Gan, Xuedong

    2017-01-01

    Epidemiological studies have shown inconsistent findings on the association between chocolate consumption and risk of heart failure (HF). We, therefore, performed a meta-analysis of prospective studies to determine the role of chocolate intake in the prevention of HF. We searched databases of PubMed, Web of Science, and Scopus through December 2016 and scrutinized the reference lists of relevant literatures to identify eligible studies. Study-specific hazard ratios (HRs) and 95% confidence intervals (CIs) were aggregated using random effect models. The dose–response relationship between chocolate consumption and incident HF was also assessed. This meta-analysis is registered with PROSPERO, number CRD42017054230. Five prospective studies with 106,109 participants were finally included. Compared to no consumption of chocolate, the pooled HRs (95% CIs) of HF were 0.86 (0.82–0.91) for low-to-moderate consumption (chocolate consumption and risk of HF (p for nonlinearity = 0.005). Compared with non-consumption, the HRs (95% CIs) of HF across chocolate consumption levels were 0.92 (0.88–0.97), 0.86 (0.78–0.94), 0.93 (0.85–1.03), and 1.07 (0.92–1.23) for 1, 3, 7, and 10 servings/week, respectively. In conclusion, chocolate consumption in moderation may be associated with a decreased risk of HF. PMID:28425931

  18. The addition effect of Tunisian date seed fibers on the quality of chocolate spreads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bouaziz, Mohamed Ali; Abbes, Fatma; Mokni, Abir; Blecker, Christophe; Attia, Hamadi; Besbes, Souhail

    2017-04-01

    Novel chocolate spreads were enriched by soluble and insoluble dietary fibers from Tunisian Deglet Nour date seeds at 1, 2, 3, 4, and 5% levels in the conventional chocolate spread. Defatted Deglet Nour date seeds, date seed soluble fiber concentrate (DSSFC) and date seed insoluble fiber concentrate (DSIFC) were characterized by high levels of dietary fibers (80-90%). Chocolate spread enriched with 5% of DSSFC presented the highest oil binding capacity (304.62%) compared to the control (102%). Whatever the DSIFC and DSSFC incorporation levels, no significant difference was recorded between the firmness, chewiness, and adhesiveness of prepared chocolate spreads compared to the control (p chocolate spreads enriched by DSIFC and DSSFC were accepted by panelists. These results indicated the value of date seeds as new source of dietary fibers to develop chocolate spread and could also improve health benefits and functional properties. Tunisia is considered to be one of the dates-producing countries. The mean annual yield of date fruits is about 200,000 tons. From this, around 20,000 tons of date seeds could be collected. This by-product of date processing industries could be regarded as an excellent source of dietary fiber with interesting technological functionality and many beneficial effects on human health. Then, date seeds could present a value addition by extraction and use of date seed fiber concentrate in chocolate spread formulation. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

  19. Startling sweet temptations: hedonic chocolate deprivation modulates experience, eating behavior, and eyeblink startle.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blechert, Jens; Naumann, Eva; Schmitz, Julian; Herbert, Beate M; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2014-01-01

    Many individuals restrict their food intake to prevent weight gain. This restriction has both homeostatic and hedonic effects but their relative contribution is currently unclear. To isolate hedonic effects of food restriction, we exposed regular chocolate eaters to one week of chocolate deprivation but otherwise regular eating. Before and after this hedonic deprivation, participants viewed images of chocolate and images of high-calorie but non-chocolate containing foods, while experiential, behavioral and eyeblink startle responses were measured. Compared to satiety, hedonic deprivation triggered increased chocolate wanting, liking, and chocolate consumption but also feelings of frustration and startle potentiation during the intertrial intervals. Deprivation was further characterized by startle inhibition during both chocolate and food images relative to the intertrial intervals. Individuals who responded with frustration to the manipulation and those who scored high on a questionnaire of impulsivity showed more relative startle inhibition. The results reveal the profound effects of hedonic deprivation on experiential, behavioral and attentional/appetitive response systems and underscore the role of individual differences and state variables for startle modulation. Implications for dieting research and practice as well as for eating and weight disorders are discussed.

  20. Sensory Attributes and Preliminary Characterization of Milk Chocolate Bar Enriched with Cinnamon Essential Oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ilmi, A.; Praseptiangga, D.; Muhammad, D. R. A.

    2017-04-01

    Cocoa (Theobroma cacao) is one of Indonesia's main commodities with annually increasing production. Chocolates are semi-solid suspensions of fine solid particles in a continuous fat phase. Primary chocolate categories are dark, milk, and white that differs in content of cocoa solid, milk fat, and cocoa butter. Milk chocolate bar is one of the most popular processed cocoa products in Indonesia. Widely cultivated in Indonesia, cinnamon is potential to be developed and is expected to add flavor and taste as well as enhance functional properties of milk chocolate, since it is well-known of its high antioxidant properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of cinnamon essential oil addition on the sensory attributes and physicochemical properties of milk chocolate bar. Three formulas of milk chocolate bar with an addition of cinnamon essential oil (0.1%, 0.3%, and 0.5%) were evaluated in this study. Panelists acceptance level decreased with increasing concentrations of cinnamon essential oil added, while moisture content and color analysis results did not show any significantly different for each formula, suggesting that milk chocolate bar with the addition of 0.1% of cinnamon essential oil had the highest level of acceptance and preferences for some of properties evaluated.

  1. Effects of chocolate on cognitive function and mood: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scholey, Andrew; Owen, Lauren

    2013-10-01

    A systematic review was conducted to evaluate whether chocolate or its constituents were capable of influencing cognitive function and/or mood. Studies investigating potentially psychoactive fractions of chocolate were also included. Eight studies (in six articles) met the inclusion criteria for assessment of chocolate or its components on mood, of which five showed either an improvement in mood state or an attenuation of negative mood. Regarding cognitive function, eight studies (in six articles) met the criteria for inclusion, of which three revealed clear evidence of cognitive enhancement (following cocoa flavanols and methylxanthine). Two studies failed to demonstrate behavioral benefits but did identify significant alterations in brain activation patterns. It is unclear whether the effects of chocolate on mood are due to the orosensory characteristics of chocolate or to the pharmacological actions of chocolate constituents. Two studies have reported acute cognitive effects of supplementation with cocoa polyphenols. Further exploration of the effect of chocolate on cognitive facilitation is recommended, along with substantiation of functional brain changes associated with the components of cocoa.

  2. pH modulation and salivary sugar clearance of different chocolates in children: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SVSG Nirmala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sugars that occur naturally in foods and those added in processed foods may act as the source for fermentable carbohydrates and may initiate caries process. Among all the foods consumed by children, chocolates form an important constituent. A wide variety of chocolates are available in the Indian market and very few studies have compared their acidogenicity and salivary sugar clearance. Objectives: To compare the acidogenicity and salivary sugar clearance of 6 different commercially available chocolates in the Indian market. Materials and Methods: Thirty subjects aged 10-15 years were selected randomly from one of the available public schools in Nellore city. Six commercially available chocolates in the Indian market were divided into three groups, unfilled (dark and milk chocolate, filled (wafer and fruit and nuts chocolate, and candy (hard milk and mango-flavored candy groups. Plaque pH values and salivary sugar clearance rates are assessed at baseline, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min after consumption. All the data obtained were statistically evaluated using independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA for multiple group comparisons. Results: Mango-flavored candy had maximum fall in plaque pH and least fall in plaque pH was recorded with milk chocolate. Fruit and nuts chocolate had a maximum clearance of salivary sugar and least fall in the salivary sugar clearance was recorded with dark chocolate. When the plaque pH and salivary sugar clearance of all the chocolates were assessed, it was seen that the values were statistically significant at all the time intervals (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Dark chocolate had a high fall in pH and milk chocolate had low salivary sugar clearance which signifies that unfilled chocolates are more cariogenic than other chocolates. Even though mango-flavored candy had maximum fall in plaque pH, its salivary sugar clearance was high.

  3. Survey of the trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid content of cocoa-containing and chocolate products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, W Jeffrey; Glinski, Jan A; Miller, Kenneth B; Apgar, Joan; Davey, Matthew H; Stuart, David A

    2008-09-24

    Dietary resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) has been implicated in the health benefits associated with grapes and red wine, more specifically with potential benefits for metabolic syndrome, energy use, and increased endurance. Levels of trans-resveratrol and its glucoside, trans-piceid, were determined in 19 top selling commercially available cocoa-containing and chocolate products from the U.S. market. Amounts of trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were closely correlated with the amount of nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) in the cocoa-containing products. Among these products, trans-resveratrol levels were highest in cocoa powders (1.85 +/- 0.43 microg/g), followed by unsweetened baking chocolates (1.24 +/- 0.22), semisweet chocolate baking chips (0.52 +/- 0.14), dark chocolates (0.35 +/- 0.08), milk chocolates (0.10 +/- 0.05), and chocolate syrups (0.09 +/- 0.02). These cocoa-containing and chocolate products have about 3-5 times more trans-piceid than trans-resveratrol. Levels of trans-piceid were highest in the cocoa powders (7.14 +/- 0.80 microg/g), followed by unsweetened baking chocolates (4.04 +/- 0.14), semisweet chocolate baking chips (2.01 +/- 0.18), dark chocolates (1.82 +/- 0.36), milk chocolates (0.44 +/- 0.06), and chocolate syrups (0.35 +/- 0.06). On an equal weight basis, cocoa powder had about half as much trans-resveratrol as the average California red wine. On a per serving basis, cocoa-containing and chocolate products had less trans-resveratrol than red wine and grape juice but more than roasted peanuts. Overall, these cocoa-containing and chocolate products rank second after red wines and grape juice in foods with the highest levels of total trans-resveratrol in the diet.

  4. Effect of soya milk on nutritive, antioxidative, reological and textural properties of chocolate produced in a ball mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarić Danica B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a complex rheological system in which non-fat cocoa particles and sugar particles are enveloped by crystal matrix of cocoa butter. Physical properties of chocolate depend on ingredient composition, method of production and properly performed pre-crystallization phase. In this work, chocolate was produced in an unconventional way, i.e. in a ball mill applying variable refining time (30, 60 and 90 min and pre-crystallization temperature in chocolate masses (26, 28 and 30⁰C. Two types of chocolate were produced: chocolate with 20% of powdered cow’s milk (R1 and chocolate with 20% of soya milk powder (R2. The quality of chocolate was followed by comparing nutritive composition, 23 polyphenol content, hardness of chocolate, solid triglyceride content (SFC and rheological parameters (Casson yield flow (Pa, Casson viscosity (Pas, the area of the thixotropic loop, elastic modulus and creep curves. The aim of this paper is determining changes caused by replacing cow’s milk with soya milk powder in respect of nutritive, rheological and sensory properties, as well as defining optimal parameters: precrystallization temperature and refining time of soya milk chocolate in order to obtain suitable sensory and physical properties identical to those of milk chocolate mass. The results show that replacing powdered cow’s milk with soya milk powder affects the increase in nutritive value of soya milk chocolate. R2 chocolate mass showed the increase in essential amino acids and fatty acids. This chocolate mass also showed the increase in total polyphenols by 28.1% comparing to R1 chocolate mass. By comparing viscosity, yield stress, shear stress and the area of the thixotropic loop, it can be observed that R1 chocolate mass represents a more organized and simpler system than the mass with soya milk (R2, as it shows lower values for all the above mentioned parameters, regardless of the refining time and pre-crystallization temperature

  5. Sugar reduction of skim chocolate milk and viability of alternative sweetening through lactose hydrolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X E; Lopetcharat, K; Qiu, Y; Drake, M A

    2015-03-01

    Milk consumption by Americans has not met the standards of the Dietary Guidelines for Americans. Chocolate milk can improve milk consumption, especially by children, due to its color and taste. However, the high sugar content of chocolate milk is a cause for concern about its healthfulness, resulting in its removal from some school lunch programs. It is important to reduce the sugar content of chocolate milk and still maintain acceptability among consumers. It is also important to investigate other natural alternatives to sweetening. The objectives of this study were to identify the different sweetness intensity perceptions of sucrose in water and various dairy matrices, to identify the acceptable reduction in sweet taste for chocolate milk for both young adults (19-35 yr) and children (5-13 yr), and to determine if lactose hydrolysis is a viable alternative. Threshold and power function studies were used to determine the benchmark concentration of sucrose in chocolate milk. The acceptability of sugar reduction from the benchmark concentration for both young adults and children and the acceptability of lactose hydrolyzed chocolate milk (4°C for 24 h) with added lactose for young adults were evaluated. Acceptability results demonstrated that sugar reduction in chocolate milk is possible for both young adults and children as long as it does not exceed a 30% reduction (from 205 mM). Lactose hydrolysis of added lactose was used to achieve the sweetness of sucrose in chocolate milk but required >7.5% (wt/vol) added lactose, which contributed undesirable calories, indicating that lactose hydrolysis may be more suitable for other dairy beverages that require less added sugar. The findings of this study demonstrate consumer acceptance of reduced-sugar chocolate milk and a possible way to use lactose hydrolysis in dairy beverages. Copyright © 2015 American Dairy Science Association. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  6. Effects of dark chocolate consumption on the prothrombotic response to acute psychosocial stress in healthy men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    von Känel, R; Meister, R E; Stutz, M; Kummer, P; Arpagaus, A; Huber, S; Ehlert, U; Wirtz, P H

    2014-12-01

    Flavanoid-rich dark chocolate consumption benefits cardiovascular health, but underlying mechanisms are elusive. We investigated the acute effect of dark chocolate on the reactivity of prothrombotic measures to psychosocial stress. Healthy men aged 20-50 years (mean ± SD: 35.7 ± 8.8) were assigned to a single serving of either 50 g of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate (n=31) or 50 g of optically identical flavonoid-free placebo chocolate (n=34). Two hours after chocolate consumption, both groups underwent an acute standardised psychosocial stress task combining public speaking and mental arithmetic. We determined plasma levels of four stress-responsive prothrombotic measures (i. e., fibrinogen, clotting factor VIII activity, von Willebrand Factor antigen, fibrin D-dimer) prior to chocolate consumption, immediately before and after stress, and at 10 minutes and 20 minutes after stress cessation. We also measured the flavonoid epicatechin, and the catecholamines epinephrine and norepinephrine in plasma. The dark chocolate group showed a significantly attenuated stress reactivity of the hypercoagulability marker D-dimer (F=3.87, p=0.017) relative to the placebo chocolate group. Moreover, the blunted D-dimer stress reactivity related to higher plasma levels of the flavonoid epicatechin assessed before stress (F=3.32, p = 0.031) but not to stress-induced changes in catecholamines (p's=0.35). There were no significant group differences in the other coagulation measures (p's≥0.87). Adjustments for covariates did not alter these findings. In conclusion, our findings indicate that a single consumption of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate blunted the acute prothrombotic response to psychosocial stress, thereby perhaps mitigating the risk of acute coronary syndromes triggered by emotional stress.

  7. New black liquor combustion characteristics II; Mustalipeaen uudet poltto-ominaisuudet II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Backman, R.; Bostroem, S.; Forssen, M.; Uusikartano, T. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    In an earlier study (LIEKKI 2, Y 17), the combustion characteristics of 17 liquors of different origin were studied by four laboratory tests. These tests were (1) single droplet burning, (2) single droplet pyrolysis, (3) pressurized gasification, and (4) calculation of melting properties of inorganic carryover particles. The study showed that there are big differences between liquors of different origin. These differences strongly affect the combustion properties, i.e. pyrolysis and burning times, swelling, and fouling tendency of heat transfer surfaces. The objective for the present research project was to investigate the reasons why some properties affect the combustion behavior more than others. The project is partly complementary to the previous study, partly a more detailed study of some of the phenomena observed earlier. The work constitutes of the following studies: (1) further study of several more liquors by the same methods, (2) pyrolysis swelling in inert gas (N{sub 2}) at two temperatures, 700 deg C and 900 deg C, (3) effect of heat treatment black liquors, (4) effect of addition of sodium compounds to a virgin black liquor, (5) data treatment and correlations, (6) nitrogen oxide formation tendency. (author)

  8. Development of blueberry liquor: influence of distillate, sweetener and fruit quantity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Caldeira, Ilda; Lopes, Daniel; Delgado, Teresa; Canas, Sara; Anjos, Ofélia

    2018-02-01

    In this work different formulations of blueberry liquor were tested and characterised based on their physico-chemical and sensory characteristics. Three factors were evaluated: the distillate used to produce the liquor (wine spirit or grape marc spirit); the sweetener (white sugar or honey) and the fruit quantity (two doses). For each liquor, pH, total acidity, dry soluble solids content, dry extract, alcoholic strength, reducing sugars, colour intensity, methanol content, acetaldehyde and fusel alcohols were determined. Sensory tests were carried out with a trained panel. The three factors studied significantly influenced the physico-chemical features of the liquors, being the quantity of fruit the most discriminating factor, except for the volatile compounds which were mainly influenced by the distillate. As regards the sensory analysis, it was found that the most appreciated liquor was that prepared with wine spirit, sugar and a lower dose of blueberry, and the less appreciated formulation was the one made with grape marc spirit, honey and a lower quantity of blueberry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry. © 2017 Society of Chemical Industry.

  9. Desenvolvimento de um chocolate meio amargo com maior percentual de proteína

    OpenAIRE

    Andrea Bordin Schumacher

    2008-01-01

    O chocolate tem apresentado crescente consumo, boa digestibilidade devido a sua composição e tem sido amplamente estudado por suas propriedades antioxidantes. Por outro lado, este alimento possui altos percentuais de carboidratos e gordura e baixo conteúdo de proteínas. Neste contexto, foram desenvolvidas formulações de chocolate meio amargo com objetivo de aumentar o valor protéico deste produto. Para isto foi utilizado o pseudocereal quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Wild) como adição ao chocolate...

  10. Is there a need for “healthy” chocolate? Systematic literature review

    OpenAIRE

    Vintimilla Alvarez, María Cecilia

    2016-01-01

    Antecedentes: El chocolate tiene propiedades especiales que ayudan a proteger el cuerpo humano de enfermedades cardiovasculares, incrementa el colesterol HDL y reduce la presión sanguínea. El consumo de chocolate también ayuda a reducir el estrés, eleva el ´animo y reduce el cansancio. El propósito de esta revisión es identificar, seleccionar, organizar y resumir estudios que investiguen el chocolate en relación con la salud, las características sensoriales y las actitudes de l...

  11. Amnioinfusion for meconium-stained liquor in labour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hofmeyr, G Justus; Xu, Hairong; Eke, Ahizechukwu C

    2014-01-23

    Amnioinfusion is thought to dilute meconium present in the amniotic fluid and so reduce the risk of meconium aspiration. To assess the effects of amnioinfusion for meconium-stained liquor on perinatal outcome. We searched the Cochrane Pregnancy and Childbirth Group's Trials Register (1 December 2013). Randomised trials comparing amnioinfusion with no amnioinfusion for women in labour with moderate or thick meconium staining of the amniotic fluid. Three review authors independently assessed eligibility and trial quality, and extracted data. Fourteen studies of variable quality (4435 women) are included.Subgroup analysis was performed for studies from settings with limited facilities to monitor the baby's condition during labour and intervene effectively, and settings with standard peripartum surveillance.Settings with standard peripartum surveillance: there was considerable heterogeneity for several outcomes. There was no significant reduction in the primary outcomes meconium aspiration syndrome, perinatal death or severe morbidity, and maternal death or severe morbidity. There was a reduction in caesarean sections (CSs) for fetal distress but not overall. Meconium below the vocal cords diagnosed by laryngoscopy was reduced, as was neonatal ventilation or neonatal intensive care unit admission, but there was no significant reduction in perinatal deaths or other morbidity. Planned sensitivity analysis excluding trials with greater risk of bias resulted in an absence of benefits for any of the outcomes studied.Settings with limited peripartum surveillance: three studies were included. In the amnioinfusion group there was a reduction in CS for fetal distress and overall; meconium aspiration syndrome (three studies, 1144 women; risk ratio (RR) 0.17, 95% confidence interval (CI) 0.05 to 0.52); perinatal mortality (three studies, 1151 women; RR 0.24, 95% CI 0.11 to 0.53) and neonatal ventilation or neonatal intensive care unit admission. In one of the studies, meconium

  12. Technical Report Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Final Technical Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fornetti, Micheal [Escanaba Paper Company, MI (United States); Freeman, Douglas [Escanaba Paper Company, MI (United States)

    2012-10-31

    The Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant Project was developed to construct a black liquor to Methanol biorefinery in Escanaba, Michigan. The biorefinery was to be co-located at the existing pulp and paper mill, NewPage’s Escanaba Paper Mill and when in full operation would: • Generate renewable energy for Escanaba Paper Mill • Produce Methanol for transportation fuel of further refinement to Dimethyl Ether • Convert black liquor to white liquor for pulping. Black liquor is a byproduct of the pulping process and as such is generated from abundant and renewable lignocellulosic biomass. The biorefinery would serve to validate the thermochemical pathway and economic models for black liquor gasification. It was a project goal to create a compelling new business model for the pulp and paper industry, and support the nation’s goal for increasing renewable fuels production and reducing its dependence on foreign oil. NewPage Corporation planned to replicate this facility at other NewPage Corporation mills after this first demonstration scale plant was operational and had proven technical and economic feasibility. An overview of the process begins with black liquor being generated in a traditional Kraft pulping process. The black liquor would then be gasified to produce synthesis gas, sodium carbonate and hydrogen sulfide. The synthesis gas is then cleaned with hydrogen sulfide and carbon dioxide removed, and fed into a Methanol reactor where the liquid product is made. The hydrogen sulfide is converted into polysulfide for use in the Kraft pulping process. Polysulfide is a known additive to the Kraft process that increases pulp yield. The sodium carbonate salts are converted to caustic soda in a traditional recausticizing process. The caustic soda is then part of the white liquor that is used in the Kraft pulping process. Cellulosic Based Black Liquor Gasification and Fuels Plant project set out to prove that black liquor gasification could

  13. An acoustic technique for the determination of liquor level in tanks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Watson, J.; Jones, T.L.

    1980-02-01

    The design, development and application of a prototype suitable for the measurement of liquor levels in tanks is described. The technique involves directing an acoustic pulse down a constraining tube to the liquor surface and measuring the time of return of the reflected pulse. Using the equipment it is possible to determine the position of a solid surface with a total error of less than 1 mm. The prototype instrument was used to measure the volume of liquors contained in rectangular slab tanks used for accountancy purposes at Dounreay Nuclear Power Development Establishment. The total error obtained in an individual measurement of volume was less than 0.2 litres (95% confidence limits). The instrument may be used as a replacement for a Pneumercator system in existing installations. (author)

  14. Exploration on trickle leaching of uranium ore by refreshed liquor of bacterial oxidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chen Shian; Huang Xiangfu; Fan Baotuan

    1995-01-01

    The paper describes the adaptation of the domesticated thiobacillus ferroxidans to the trickle leaching conditions of uranium ore. When the bacterial leaching liquor through multiple cycles of oxidation and regeneration was used to return to the trickle leaching, the following results were obtained: the extraction rate was more than 95%, the acid consumption was saved by 30%, and the consumed 2.0% pyrolusite (MnO 2 40%) was eliminated. The following problems are discussed: the basic principle, process and some factors influencing the process of the trickle leaching of uranium ore using regenerated liquor of bacterial oxidation, counter-current trickle leaching mode, oxidation and regeneration techniques of bacterial leaching liquor and other technological problems on the process of uranium extraction by thiobacillus ferroxidans

  15. Dark chocolate and vascular function in patients with peripheral artery disease: a randomized, controlled cross-over trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammer, Alexandra; Koppensteiner, Renate; Steiner, Sabine; Niessner, Alexander; Goliasch, Georg; Gschwandtner, Michael; Hoke, Matthias

    2015-01-01

    Flavonoid-rich dark chocolate has positive effects on vascular function in healthy subjects and in patients at risk of atherosclerosis. The impact of dark chocolate on endothelial and microvascular function in patients with symptomatic peripheral artery disease (PAD) has not been investigated so far. In an investigator blinded, randomized, controlled, cross-over trial we assessed the effect of flavonoid-rich dark chocolate and cocoa-free control chocolate on flow-mediated dilatation (FMD) of the brachial artery and on microvascular function (assessed by Laser Doppler fluxmetry) in 21 patients with symptomatic (Fontaine stage II) PAD. Measurements were done in each patient on 2 single days, with an interval of 7 days, at baseline and at 2 hours after ingestion of 50 g dark chocolate or 50 g white chocolate, respectively. FMD remained unchanged after intake of dark chocolate (baseline and 2 hours after ingestion, %: 5.1 [IQR 4.4 to 7.3] and 5.5 [IQR 3.9 to 10.4]; p = 0.57, and after intake of white chocolate (baseline and 2 hours after ingestion, %: 6.4 [IQR 4.5 to 11.4] and 4.4 [IQR 2.6 to 8.7]; p = 0.14. Similarly, microcirculatory parameters were not significantly altered after intake of any chocolate compared with the respective baseline values. In conclusion, a single consumption of 50 g dark chocolate has no effect on endothelial and microvascular function in patients with symptomatic PAD.

  16. Precipitation of uranium peroxide from the leach liquor of uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gao Xizhen; Lin Sirong; Guo Erhua; Lu Shijie

    1995-06-01

    A chemical precipitation process of recovering uranium from the leach liquor of uranium ores was investigated. The process primarily includes the precipitation of iron with lime, the preprocessing of the slurry of iron hydroxides and the precipitation of uranium with H 2 O 2 . The leach liquor is neutralized by lime milk to pH 3.7 to precipitate the iron hydroxides which after flocculation and settle is separated out and preprocessed at 170 degree C in an autoclave. H 2 O 2 is then used to precipitate uranium in the leach liquor free of iron, and the pH of process for uranium precipitation adjusted by adding MgO slurry to 3.5. The barren solution can be used to wash the filter cakes of leach tailing. The precipitated slurry of iron hydroxides after being preprocessed is recycled to leaching processes for recovering uranium in it. This treatment can not only avoid the filtering of the slurry of iron hydroxides, but also prevent the iron precipitate from redissolving and consequently the increase of iron concentration in the leach liquor. The results of the investigation indicate that lime, H 2 O 2 and MgO are the main chemical reagents used to obtain the uranium peroxide product containing over 65% uranium from the leach liquor, and they also do not cause environmental pollution. In accordance with the uranium content in the liquor, the consumption of chemical reagent for H 2 O 2 (30%) and MgO are 0.95 kg/kgU and 0.169 kg/kgU, respectively. (1 fig., 8 tabs., 7 refs.)

  17. Engineering study: disposition of terminal liquors for interim storage. [Eight alternative processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Metz, W.P.; Ogren, W.E.

    1975-02-01

    Eight alternative processes were chosen as being technologically feasible within the time frame dictated by budgeting procedures and terminal liquor availability. Solidified waste products acceptable for single-shell tank storage were assumed to be placed in available single-shell tanks. Double-shell tanks were used only for the more mobile terminal liquors or semi-solid mush products. The mush, chemical neutralization, and clay in-tank processes offer potential savings of tens of millions of dollars over double-shell tank storage of terminal liquors. In order to achieve this cost savings, the process development and demonstration must be completed prior to the beginning of double-shell tank construction (Dec. 1976) expected to be funded from a fiscal year 1977 line item. Budgeting for these additional double-shell tanks must proceed since the processing options discussed here are not yet available and may not prove to be available at the required time. This study indicates the following topics for additional study: Process technology development to achieve interim storage of terminal liquor products receives the greatest emphasis as a means of reducing capital expenditures. Interim storage product criteria, waste inventory, and conversion to final form require definition to allow comparison of the alternatives for disposition of terminal liquors. The pseudotechnical nature of product acceptability criteria is important to the evaluation of the partial neutralization and aluminum removal alternatives. More accurate estimates of terminal liquor quantity and composition are required to give a sound technical basis for choosing the appropriate processing alternative. Retrieval and reprocessing operations may affect the comparisons presented by this study. (DLC)

  18. Toxicity to rainbow trout of spent still liquors from the distillation of coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herbert, D W.M.

    1962-01-01

    From a survey of the literature on the toxicity of ammonium salts, phenol, cyanide, and sulphide to rainbow trout, and from determinations of the toxicity of sodium thiocyanate and sodium thiosulphate, it is postulated that the toxicity of spent still liquors from the distillation of coal should be due mainly to their content of ammonia and monohydric phenols. This is confirmed by experiments showing that the toxicity of an equivalent mixture of ammonium chloride and phenol is nearly as great as that of a spent liquor from a gas works, and that phenol is almost as toxic as mixtures of the monohydric phenols known to be present in such liquors. Experiments on the effect of pH value, hardness, dissolved-oxygen concentration and temperature on the threshold concentration of monohydric phenols are described and compared with similar data for ammonia. Experiments with ammonia and phenols suggest that a mixture of these substances is at its threshold concentration when AS/AT/+PS/PT=I,AS and PS being the concentrations of un-ionized ammonia and monohydric phenols in solution and AT and PT being the threshold concentrations of these substances when tested individually in the same dilution water. A method based on these experiments for predicting the toxicity of ammonia-phenol mixtures from the chemical composition of their solutions is described, and evaluated against laboratory determinations of the toxicity of spent liquors from a coke oven, and against the death or survival of trout held captive in a stream polluted with spent liquor from a gas works. It is concluded that the correspondence between the predicted and observed toxicities is good enough for the method to be used as a basis for assessing whether trout could live in a stream to which a particular spent still liquor was discharged, or when deciding what treatment the effluent should receive to make it safe for such fish after discharge.

  19. pH modulation and salivary sugar clearance of different chocolates in children: A randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nirmala, Svsg; Quadar, Mohammed Akhil; Veluru, Sindhuri

    2016-01-01

    Sugars that occur naturally in foods and those added in processed foods may act as the source for fermentable carbohydrates and may initiate caries process. Among all the foods consumed by children, chocolates form an important constituent. A wide variety of chocolates are available in the Indian market and very few studies have compared their acidogenicity and salivary sugar clearance. To compare the acidogenicity and salivary sugar clearance of 6 different commercially available chocolates in the Indian market. Thirty subjects aged 10-15 years were selected randomly from one of the available public schools in Nellore city. Six commercially available chocolates in the Indian market were divided into three groups, unfilled (dark and milk chocolate), filled (wafer and fruit and nuts chocolate), and candy (hard milk and mango-flavored candy) groups. Plaque pH values and salivary sugar clearance rates are assessed at baseline, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min after consumption. All the data obtained were statistically evaluated using independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA for multiple group comparisons. Mango-flavored candy had maximum fall in plaque pH and least fall in plaque pH was recorded with milk chocolate. Fruit and nuts chocolate had a maximum clearance of salivary sugar and least fall in the salivary sugar clearance was recorded with dark chocolate. When the plaque pH and salivary sugar clearance of all the chocolates were assessed, it was seen that the values were statistically significant at all the time intervals (P pH and milk chocolate had low salivary sugar clearance which signifies that unfilled chocolates are more cariogenic than other chocolates. Even though mango-flavored candy had maximum fall in plaque pH, its salivary sugar clearance was high.

  20. [Dark or white chocolate? Cocoa and cardiovascular health].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Corti, Roberto; Perdrix, Jean; Flammer, Andreas J; Noll, Georg

    2010-03-10

    Epidemiological data show that a regular dietary intake of plant-derived foods reduces the risk of cardiovascular disease. Recent research indeed demonstrates interesting data about cocoa consumption, with high concentrations of polyphenols, and beneficial effects on blood pressure, insulin resistance and platelet function. Although still debated, a range of potential mechanisms through which cocoa might exert their benefits on cardiovascular health have been suggested: activation of nitric oxide, antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, anti-platelet effects, which might in turn improve endothelial function, lipid levels, blood pressure and insulin resistance. This article reviews available data about the effects of the consumption of cocoa and different types of chocolate on cardiovascular health, and outlines potential mechanisms involved on the basis of recent studies.

  1. A contractor's approach to engineering process plant for radioactive liquor processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braide, W.M.; Fletcher, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    Protection of personnel from damaging sources of radiation is the overriding consideration which influences the fundamental design of plant for processing active liquors in the Nuclear Industry. The conventional design procedures of the Chemical Plant Contractor have therefore to be modified to meet the specific technology and additional safety requirements. Ways in which the added factor of radiation influences the design philosophy for Nuclear Plant compared to conventional Chemical Plant are described. Design philosophy is demonstrated by design studies for active liquor storage and evaporation plant. (author)

  2. A contractors's approach to engineering process plant for radioactive liquor processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Braide, W.M.; Fletcher, P.D.

    1982-01-01

    Protection of personnel from damaging sources of radiation is the overriding consideration which influences the fundamental design of plant for processing active liquors in the Nuclear Industry. The conventional design procedures of the Chemical Plant Contractor have therefore to be modified to meet the specific technology and additional safety requirements. This paper describes ways in which the added factor of radiation influences the design philosophy for Nuclear Plant compared to conventional Chemical Plant. The design philosophy is demonstrated by design studies for active liquor storage and evaporation plant. (author)

  3. Ion-exchange preparation of high-purity vanadium acid from industrial liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sajdakhmedov, U.A.; Arslanov, Sh.S.; Vulikh, A.I.

    1994-01-01

    The results of investigations on production of special-purity vanadium acid and vanadium oxide directly from process solutions (technical grade liquors) using ionites are presented. Potentiality of thorough purification of vanadium(5) oxide, when producing vanadium acid on the KU-2 cationite with subsequent purification on anionite, is shown. On the basis of the results obtained a principle flowsheet of ion-exchange production of high-purity vanadium(5) oxide from industrial liquors has been developed. 2 refs.; 1 fig.; 4 tabs

  4. Investigation of boron extraction process with aid magnesium hydroxide from mother liquor of boron production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Balapanova, B.S.; Zhajmina, R.E.; Serazetdinov, D.Z.

    1988-01-01

    Conditions of boron - magnesium concentrate preparation from mother liquor by coprecipitation of borate - ions by magnesium hydroxide are investigated. It is shown that boron - magnesium concentrate and products of its heat treatment at 100 - 500 deg C in water are dissolved partially, and in ammonium citrate - practically completely. Suppositions are made on the composition of the product prepared, on the the structure of its crystal lattice and the processes taking place in it during heat treatment. The conclusion is made on the perspectiveness of processing of mother liquor of boron industry for boron - magnesium concentrate

  5. Radionuclides in coffee, cacao and chocolate in Serbia during 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mraovic, T.; Jankovic-Mandic, Lj; Mraovic, T.)

    2007-01-01

    The object of this work was monitoring radioactivity in 88 products of coffee, cacao and chocolate in Serbia during 2006-2007. The each product contained legal criterion for radionuclide safety. (author) [sr

  6. Determination of toxic metals in different brand of chocolates and candies, marketed in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jalbani, N.; Kazi, T.G.; Afridi, H.I.; Arain, M.B.

    2009-01-01

    In present study three toxic metals, cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) were determined in chocolates and candy samples available in local markets of Hyderabad, Pakistan. Concentrations of understudy toxic metals (TMs) were determined by electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. Validation of the methodology was performed by standard addition method and conventional acid digestion on electric hot plate to obtained TMs concentration, for comparative purpose to obtain results within the 95% confidence level. No significant differences were observed for TMs obtained from both methods (P 0.05). The concentration of Cd, Ni and Pb were observed in chocolates and candy samples is ranged as of 0.099 - 0.353, 1.45 - 4.33 and 1.11 - 2.48 mu g/g, respectively. The results indicated that cocoa-based chocolates have higher contents of TMs than milk- based chocolates and candies. (author)

  7. Chemical and sensory evaluation of dark chocolate with addition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schumacher, Andrea B; Brandelli, Adriano; Macedo, Fernanda C; Pieta, Luiza; Klug, Tâmmila V; de Jong, Erna V

    2010-03-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a good source of vitamin E containing high quality protein. A dark chocolate with the addition of 12, 16 or 20% quinoa was developed. The protein concentration of the products increased as the percentage of quinoa increased. The product containing 20% quinoa showed only 9% increase in vitamin E, while the quantity of polyphenols decreased from 23.5 to 18 μmol pirocatechin/g. The amount of essential amino acids was improved in samples containing quinoa. Cysteine, tyrosine and methionine increased by 104, 72, 70%, respectively in chocolate containing 20% quinoa. The amino acid pattern was as per WHO standards, which was adequate to human needs. The chocolate with quinoa was approved by 92% of the sensory panel. All the samples showed an index of acceptance above 70%. Quinoa could be used at the levels evaluated in this study adding its potential health benefit to the dark chocolate.

  8. Chocolate milk: a post-exercise recovery beverage for endurance sports.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pritchett, Kelly; Pritchett, Robert

    2012-01-01

    An optimal post-exercise nutrition regimen is fundamental for ensuring recovery. Therefore, research has aimed to examine post-exercise nutritional strategies for enhanced training stimuli. Chocolate milk has become an affordable recovery beverage for many athletes, taking the place of more expensive commercially available recovery beverages. Low-fat chocolate milk consists of a 4:1 carbohydrate:protein ratio (similar to many commercial recovery beverages) and provides fluids and sodium to aid in post-workout recovery. Consuming chocolate milk (1.0-1.5•g•kg(-1) h(-1)) immediately after exercise and again at 2 h post-exercise appears to be optimal for exercise recovery and may attenuate indices of muscle damage. Future research should examine the optimal amount, timing, and frequency of ingestion of chocolate milk on post-exercise recovery measures including performance, indices of muscle damage, and muscle glycogen resynthesis. Copyright © 2012 S. Karger AG, Basel.

  9. Usefulness of MRI in evaluation of hormonal therapy for the ovarian chocolate cysts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugimura, Kazuro; Ishida, Tetsuya; Takemori, Masayuki; Kono, Michio; Yamasaki, Katsuhito

    1988-09-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic capability of MRI in ovarian chocolate cysts treated by Danazol (analogue of testosterone). Both inversion recovery as T1-weighted image and long TE and TR spin echo as T2-weighted image were performed before and during hormonal therapy. Temporal change of signal intensity and size was evaluated in three ovarian chocolate cysts (stage II: 2 cases, stage III: 1 case by Beecham classification, 1966) using the 0.15-T MR system. The high intense signal from all of the cysts was seen on both T1 and T2 weighted images before treatment. There was marked decrease in size of the chocolate cysts during hormonal therapy, and they were of considerably lower signal intensity than initially on T2-weighted image. We concluded that MRI was useful to evaluate hormonal therapy for ovarian chocolate cysts.

  10. The usefulness of MRI in evaluation of hormonal therapy for the ovarian chocolate cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sugimura, Kazuro; Ishida, Tetsuya; Takemori, Masayuki; Kono, Michio; Yamasaki, Katsuhito.

    1988-01-01

    We evaluated the diagnostic capability of MRI in ovarian chocolate cysts treated by Danazol (analogue of testosterone). Both inversion recovery as T1-weighted image and long TE and TR spin echo as T2-weighted image were performed before and during hormonal therapy. Temporal change of signal intensity and size was evaluated in three ovarian chocolate cysts (stage II: 2 cases, stage III: 1 case by Beecham classification, 1966) using the 0.15-T MR system. The high intense signal from all of the cysts was seen on both T1 and T2 weighted images before treatment. There was marked decrease in size of the chocolate cysts during hormonal therapy, and they were of considerably lower signal intensity than initially on T2-weighted image. We concluded that MRI was useful to evaluate hormonal therapy for ovarian chocolate cysts. (author)

  11. Development of Synbiotic Milk Chocolate Enriched with Lactobacillus paracasei, D-tagatose and Galactooligosaccharide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aziz Homayouni Rad

    2018-03-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objective: Prebiotics are food ingredients that induce the growth or activity of beneficial bacteria (Bifidobacteria and Lactobacilli. Galactooligosaccharide and tagatose are two main prebiotic compounds which are used in the food industry. Chocolate is widely consumed all over the world and could be used as an excellent vehicle for delivery of prebiotics. Furthermore, the incorporation of probiotics into chocolate, allows broadening the health claims of chocolate. The aim of the current study was to investigate the effect of tagatose and galactooligosaccharide on the physicochemical and sensory properties of milk chocolate and the survivability of Lactobacillus paracasei in the optimized formulation. Material and Methods: Probiotic milk chocolate containing Lactobacillus paracasei were formulated by replacing a portion of the sucrose with the galactooligosaccharide powder and tagatose. For this purpose various concentrations of galactooligosaccharide and tagatose (2.5, 5 and 7.5% w w-1 along with stevia were used in chocolate formulation. Nine formulations were examined to determine some physicochemical, mechanical and sensory properties in order to find the optimum concentrations of these components. The lyophilized Lactobacillus paracasei were incorporated in the optimal formulation of prebiotic milk chocolate. The viability of probiotic bacteria in milk chocolate was carried out during storage at 22°C for up to 6 months.Results and Conclusion: In general, chocolate formulations with high levels of galactooligosaccharide, achieved the highest plastic viscosity and yield stress. The lowest viscosity and yield stress were observed for the samples containing high concentrations of tagatose and in control. In addition, galactooligosaccharide at higher ratios induced the least desirable sensorial effects, whereas tagatose improved the overall acceptability. It can be concluded that the overall acceptability of milk chocolate

  12. 78 FR 4431 - Santee Sioux Nation-Title XXI-Alcohol, Chapter 1.-Santee Sioux Nation Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... the sale and distribution of liquor and beer products on all properties within the limits of the... accommodations for the sale of liquor by the glass and for consumption on the premises. 3. ``Beer'' means any alcoholic beverage obtained by the alcoholic fermentation of an infusion or decoction of pure hops, or pure...

  13. Size effects on acid bisulfite pretreatment efficiency: multiple product yields in spent liquor and enzymatic digestibility of pretreated solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yalan Liu; Jinwu Wang; Michael P. Wolcott

    2017-01-01

    Currently, feedstock size effects on chemical pretreatment performance were not clear due to the complexity of the pretreatment process and multiple evaluation standards such as the sugar recovery in spent liquor or enzymatic digestibility. In this study, we evaluated the size effects by various ways: the sugar recovery and coproduct yields in spent liquor, the...

  14. Oh How Sweet It Is: The Heart's Love Affair With Chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Movassaghi, Mehran

    2002-01-01

    For many chocolate is not a health food. It has been linked to medical conditions including acne (1) and in most forms it is high in fat and sugar. Recent data, however, has shed light on chocolate's cardio-protective roles. Specifically, cocoa has been found to have flavonoids which are high in antioxidant activity (3). Cocoa's role in platelet activity has also been investigated10 and has been shown to inhibit platelet activity which can further prevent cardiovascular disease. Investigators...

  15. Optimisation of the post-harvest conditions to produce chocolate aroma from jackfruit seeds

    OpenAIRE

    Papa Spada, Fernanda; Masson Zerbeto, Lais; Cabreira Ragazi, Gabriel; Roel Gutierrez, Erika; Coelho Souza, Miriam; Parker, Jane K.; Canniatti-Brazaca, Solange

    2017-01-01

    Jackfruit seeds are an under-utilized waste in many tropical countries. In this work, we demonstrate the potential of roasted jackfruit seeds to develop chocolate aroma. Twenty-seven different roasted jackfruit seed flours were produced from local jackfruit by acidifying or fermenting the seeds prior to drying, and roasting under different time/temperature combinations. The chocolate aroma of groups of four flours were ranked by a sensory panel (n=162) and response surface methodology was use...

  16. Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Sanderson, Jean; Johnson, Laura; Warnakula, Samantha; Wood, Angela; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Franco, Oscar H

    2011-08-26

    To evaluate the association of chocolate consumption with the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders. Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, IPA, Web of Science, Scopus, Pascal, reference lists of relevant studies to October 2010, and email contact with authors. Randomised trials and cohort, case-control, and cross sectional studies carried out in human adults, in which the association between chocolate consumption and the risk of outcomes related to cardiometabolic disorders were reported. Data were extracted by two independent investigators, and a consensus was reached with the involvement of a third. The primary outcome was cardiometabolic disorders, including cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease and stroke), diabetes, and metabolic syndrome. A meta-analysis assessed the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders by comparing the highest and lowest level of chocolate consumption. From 4576 references seven studies met the inclusion criteria (including 114,009 participants). None of the studies was a randomised trial, six were cohort studies, and one a cross sectional study. Large variation was observed between these seven studies for measurement of chocolate consumption, methods, and outcomes evaluated. Five of the seven studies reported a beneficial association between higher levels of chocolate consumption and the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. The highest levels of chocolate consumption were associated with a 37% reduction in cardiovascular disease (relative risk 0.63 (95% confidence interval 0.44 to 0.90)) and a 29% reduction in stroke compared with the lowest levels. Based on observational evidence, levels of chocolate consumption seem to be associated with a substantial reduction in the risk of cardiometabolic disorders. Further experimental studies are required to confirm a potentially beneficial effect of chocolate consumption.

  17. The emerging role of flavonoid-rich cocoa and chocolate in cardiovascular health and disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Engler, Mary B; Engler, Marguerite M

    2006-03-01

    Cocoa and chocolate have recently been found to be rich plant-derived sources of antioxidant flavonoids with beneficial cardiovascular properties. These favorable physiological effects include: antioxidant activity, vasodilation and blood pressure reduction, inhibition of platelet activity, and decreased inflammation. Increasing evidence from experimental and clinical studies using cocoa-derived products and chocolate suggest an important role for these high-flavanol-containing foods in heart and vascular protection.

  18. Synchrotron x-ray microtomography of the interior microstructure of chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lügger, Svenja K.; Wilde, Fabian; Dülger, Nihan; Reinke, Lennart M.; Kozhar, Sergii; Beckmann, Felix; Greving, Imke; Vieira, Josélio; Heinrich, Stefan; Palzer, Stefan

    2016-10-01

    The structure of chocolate, a multicomponent food product, was analyzed using microtomography. Chocolate consists of a semi-solid cocoa butter matrix and a dense network of suspended particles. A detailed analysis of the microstructure is needed to understand mass transport phenomena. Transport of lipids from e.g. a filling or liquid cocoa butter is responsible for major problems in the confectionery industry such as formation of chocolate bloom, which is the formation of visible white spots or a grayish haze on the chocolate surface and leads to consumer rejections and thus large sales losses for the confectionery industry. In this study it was possible to visualize the inner structure of chocolate and clearly distinguish the particles from the continuous phase by taking advantage of the high density contrast of synchrotron radiation. Consequently, particle arrangement and cracks within the sample were made visible. The cracks are several micrometers thick and propagate throughout the entire sample. Images of pure cocoa butter, chocolate without any particles, did not show any cracks and thus confirmed that cracks are a result of embedded particles. They arise during the manufacturing process. Thus, the solidification process, a critical manufacturing step, was simulated with finite element methods in order to understand crack formation during this step. The simulation showed that cracks arise because of significant contraction of cocoa butter, the matrix phase, without any major change of volume of the suspended particles. Tempering of the chocolate mass prior to solidification is another critical step for a good product quality. We found that samples which solidified in an uncontrolled manner are less homogeneous than tempered samples. In summary, our study visualized for the first time the inner microstructure of tempered and untempered cocoa butter as well as chocolate without sample destruction and revealed cracks, which might act as transport pathways.

  19. Metals and cocoa products: a study on characterization of toxic and essential metals in chocolates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rahman, S.; Husnain, S.M.

    2012-01-01

    Metals (Pb, Cd, Ni, Fe, Cu, Zn and Mn) were assessed in 32 commonly consumed cocoa products (chocolates) prepared by different national and multinational companies. Significant differences were observed between the micro element contents of these varieties (P < 0.01). Frequent consumption of chocolates can enhance the intake of toxic metals in children. The concentration of Pb and Cd in cocoa powder is found to be highest 492 and 197 mu g/L followed by cocoa based chocolates 306 and 46.8 mu g/L, sugar based chocolates 209.8 and 40.3 mu g/L whereas it is least in milk based chocolates samples 88.3 and 33 mu g/L respectively. Weekly intake of toxic metals Pb, Cd and Ni was also calculated. Mean concentration of Pb and Cd was found below the provisional tolerable weekly intake defined by FAO/WHO. All essential elements were assessed for their weekly intake with the dietary reference intakes (DRI). Results were validated through the analysis of certified reference materials and determined metals concentrations were quite in good agreement with certified levels. Data was interpreted through cluster analysis and pattern recognition as depicted. The concentrations of Pb, Cd, Ni and Fe were found to be highest in the cocoa-based followed by milk-based and sugar-based chocolates. The daily intake of cocoa-based chocolates must be reduced as lead and cadmium intake can otherwise cross the limits set by Codex Alimentarius (FAO/WHO 2006). Raw materials should be checked before use for metal contents in order to decrease the concentrations of these metals in final chocolate products. (Orig./A.B.)

  20. Effects of chocolate intake on Perceived Stress; a Controlled Clinical Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al Sunni, Ahmed; Latif, Rabia

    2014-10-01

    Cocoa polyphenols have been shown to reduce stress in highly stressed, as well as normal healthy individuals, we wondered whether commercially available chocolate could reduce perceived stress in medical students or not, so we decided to conduct this study. Sixty students were divided into 3 groups (10 males + 10 females/group): i) Dark chocolate (DC) ii) Milk chocolate (MC) iii) White chocolate (WC). Subjects answered a PSS-10 (Perceived Stress Scale) questionnaire at baseline and after consumption of chocolate (40 g/day) for 2 weeks. Data were analyzed by using Microsoft Excel and SPSS version 20. Descriptive analyses were conducted. Means were compared across the study groups by One-Way ANOVA and within the same group by paired 't' test. Mean stress scores compared between the groups by ANOVA revealed statistically not significant differences before (F =0.505; P=0.606) and after chocolate consumption (F=0.188; P=0.829). Paired 't' test compared stress scores means before and after chocolate supplementation within the same group and exhibited statistically significant decrease in DC (t = 2.341; p value = 0.03) and MC (t = 3.302; p value = 0.004) groups. Mean stress scores decreased, on average, by approximately 2 and 3 points in DC and MC groups, respectively, at 95% Confidence Interval. The difference was more evident and statistically significant in female students as compared to the males. Consumption of 40 g of Dark and Milk chocolate daily during a period of 2 weeks appear to be an effective way to reduce perceived stress in females.

  1. Chocolate consumption and risk of diabetes mellitus in the Physicians’ Health Study1234

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrone, Andrew B; Sesso, Howard D; Gaziano, J Michael; Djoussé, Luc

    2015-01-01

    Background: Previous studies reported beneficial effects of cocoa or chocolate on insulin resistance, oxidative stress, and inflammation, which are important risk factors of type 2 diabetes mellitus (DM). However, it is unclear whether chocolate consumption is associated with risk of DM. Objective: We tested the hypothesis that chocolate consumption is inversely associated with incident DM in the Physicians’ Health Study (PHS). Design: We prospectively analyzed data on 18,235 PHS participants who were free of DM at baseline (1997–2001). Chocolate consumption was obtained from a baseline food-frequency questionnaire. Incident DM was ascertained via annual follow-up questionnaires and validated in a subsample by a review of medical records. We used Cox proportional hazards models to estimate HRs and 95% CIs of DM. Results: The mean (±SD) age at baseline was 66.3 ± 9.2 y. During a mean follow up of 9.2 y, 1123 men (6.2%) developed DM. For self-reported chocolate consumption of none, 1–3 servings/mo, 1 serving/wk, and ≥2 servings/wk, multivariable-adjusted HRs (95% CIs) of DM adjusted for lifestyle, clinical, and dietary risk factors including total energy intake were 1.00 (referent), 0.93 (0.79, 1.09), 0.86 (0.72, 1.04), and 0.83 (0.69, 0.99), respectively (P-trend = 0.047). In secondary analyses, the inverse association of chocolate consumption and risk of DM was slightly stronger in subjects without a history of cardiovascular disease or heart failure (P-trend = 0.023). In addition, both age and BMI modified the chocolate-DM relation (P chocolate intake with incident DM, which appears only to apply in younger and normal–body weight men after controlling for comprehensive life styles including total energy consumption. PMID:25646334

  2. Chocolate and Health-Related Quality of Life: A Prospective Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboa-Castillo, Teresa; López-García, Esther; León-Muñoz, Luz M.; Pérez-Tasigchana, Raúl F.; Banegas, José Ramón; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Background Chocolate consumption has been associated with a short-term reduction in blood pressure and cholesterol, and improvement of insulin sensitivity; however, participants could not be aware of presenting hypertension or hypercholesterolemia. Moreover, the effect of chocolate on mental health is uncertain. This study assessed the association of regular chocolate consumption with the physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) components of health-related quality of life (HRQL). Materials and methods We analyzed data from a cohort of 4599 individuals recruited in 2008–2010 and followed-up once prospectively to January 2013 (follow-up mean: 3.5 years). Regular chocolate consumption was assessed at baseline with a validated diet history. HRQL was assessed with the SF-12 v.2 at baseline and at follow-up. Analyses were performed with linear regression and adjusted for the main confounders, including HRQL at baseline. Results At baseline, 72% of the study participants did not consume chocolate, 11% consumed ≤10 g/day and 17% >10 g/day. Chocolate consumption at baseline did not show an association with PCS and MCS of the SF-12 measured three years later. Compared to those who did not consume chocolate, the PCS scores were similar in those who consumed ≤10g/day (beta: -0.07; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): -0.94 to 0.80) and in those who consumed >10g/day (beta: 0.02; 95% CI:-0.71 to 0.75); corresponding figures for the MCS were 0.29; 95% CI: -0.67 to 1.26, and -0.57; 95%CI: -1.37 to 0.23. Similar results were found for sex, regardless of obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes or depression. Conclusions No evidence was found of an association between chocolate intake and the physical or mental components of HRQL. PMID:25901348

  3. Effect of chocolate and Propolfenol on rabbit spermatogenesis and sperm quality following bacterial lipopolysaccharide treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collodel, Giulia; Moretti, Elena; Del Vecchio, Maria Teresa; Biagi, Marco; Cardinali, Raffaella; Mazzi, Lucia; Brecchia, Gabriele; Maranesi, Margherita; Manca, Daniela; Castellini, Cesare

    2014-08-01

    The aims of the study were to evaluate the effects of chocolate and propolis-enriched diets on rabbit spermatogenesis, sperm motility, and ultrastructure following bacterial lipopolysaccharide (LPS) treatment. Thirty-two New Zealand White rabbits were divided into four groups. The LPS-Propolfenol(®) group received propolis (500 mg/kg/day) in their diet for 15 days, while the LPS-chocolate group was fed 70% cacao chocolate (1 g/1 kg/day) for the same period. Following the diet treatments, rabbits in the LPS-Propolfenol(®) and LPS-chocolate groups, and an LPS group received a single intraperitoneal dose of 50 μg/kg LPS, and the control group received only saline. Kinematic sperm traits were evaluated with a computer assisted sperm analyzer (CASA) system, and ultrastructural characteristics were examined by transmission electron microscopy (TEM). Testicular and epididymal tissues were observed by light microscopy and TEM and multiplex real time reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR) assay was used to detect and quantify toll-like receptor-4 (TLR-4) gene expression. The values of the analyzed semen parameters of rabbits treated with LPS-Propolfenol(®) and LPS-chocolate did not show any variations compared with the control group, but they were lower in rabbits treated only with LPS. Alterations observed in the testicular tissue of LPS treated-rabbits were not detected in specimens from the LPS-chocolate and LPS-Propolfenol(®) groups, which showed normal spermatogenesis. The TLR-4 mRNA expression was similar in controls, in LPS treated, and in LPS-chocolate groups, but it was significantly (p chocolate and propolis-enriched diet showed a protective effect on the spermatogenetic process of buck rabbits following LPS treatment.

  4. Dark chocolate or tomato extract for prehypertension: a randomised controlled trial

    OpenAIRE

    Ried, Karin; Frank, Oliver R; Stocks, Nigel P

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Flavanol-rich chocolate and lycopene-rich tomato extract have attracted interest as potential alternative treatment options for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Treatment of prehypertension (SBP 120–139/DBP 80–89 mmHg) may forestall progression to hypertension. However, there has been only limited research into non-pharmacological treatment options for prehypertension. We investigated the effect of dark chocolate or tomato extra...

  5. The cardiometabolic benefits of flavonoids and dark chocolate intake in patients at risk

    OpenAIRE

    Andra-Iulia Suceveanu; Laura Mazilu; A. Suceveanu; Irinel Parepa; Doina Catrinoiu; S. Paris; F. Voinea

    2014-01-01

    Scientific research proves that the cardiac and the metabolic functions are improved by the consumption of flavonoids, natural elements found in cocoa. The dark chocolate is the main alimentary compound rich in flavonoids, and for this reason it can be used to prevent some cardiometabolic disorders. This study aims to demonstrate the relationship between chocolate consumption and the cardiometabolic disorders risk in 85 patients hospitalized in Internal Medicine Unit of Emergency Hospital “St...

  6. THE BENEFIT OF SOY BEAN- CHOCOLATE BEVERAGE ON BONE RESORPTION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH OSTEOPOROSIS

    OpenAIRE

    Ainun Rani, Nur; Astuti, Nurpudji; Rasyid, Haerani; Bahar, Burhanuddin

    2011-01-01

    THE BENEFIT OF SOY BEAN- CHOCOLATE BEVERAGE ON BONE RESORPTION IN POSTMENOPAUSAL WOMEN WITH OSTEOPOROSIS Nur Ainun Rani1, Nurpudji A. Taslim,1,2 Haerani Rasyid1,2, Burhanuddin Bahar3 Department of Clinical Nutrition Faculty of Medicine 1, Department of Nutrition2 Faculty of Medicine, Faculty of Public Health3, Hasanuddin University, Makassar ABSTRACT Background Soybeans and chocolate contain isoflavones, which is the active substance which is recommended as an hormone replacem...

  7. Chocolate and health-related quality of life: a prospective study.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresa Balboa-Castillo

    Full Text Available Chocolate consumption has been associated with a short-term reduction in blood pressure and cholesterol, and improvement of insulin sensitivity; however, participants could not be aware of presenting hypertension or hypercholesterolemia. Moreover, the effect of chocolate on mental health is uncertain. This study assessed the association of regular chocolate consumption with the physical (PCS and mental (MCS components of health-related quality of life (HRQL.We analyzed data from a cohort of 4599 individuals recruited in 2008-2010 and followed-up once prospectively to January 2013 (follow-up mean: 3.5 years. Regular chocolate consumption was assessed at baseline with a validated diet history. HRQL was assessed with the SF-12 v.2 at baseline and at follow-up. Analyses were performed with linear regression and adjusted for the main confounders, including HRQL at baseline.At baseline, 72% of the study participants did not consume chocolate, 11% consumed ≤10 g/day and 17% >10 g/day. Chocolate consumption at baseline did not show an association with PCS and MCS of the SF-12 measured three years later. Compared to those who did not consume chocolate, the PCS scores were similar in those who consumed ≤10 g/day (beta: -0.07; 95% confidence interval (95% CI: -0.94 to 0.80 and in those who consumed >10 g/day (beta: 0.02; 95% CI:-0.71 to 0.75; corresponding figures for the MCS were 0.29; 95% CI: -0.67 to 1.26, and -0.57; 95%CI: -1.37 to 0.23. Similar results were found for sex, regardless of obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes or depression.No evidence was found of an association between chocolate intake and the physical or mental components of HRQL.

  8. Chocolate and health-related quality of life: a prospective study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balboa-Castillo, Teresa; López-García, Esther; León-Muñoz, Luz M; Pérez-Tasigchana, Raúl F; Banegas, José Ramón; Rodríguez-Artalejo, Fernando; Guallar-Castillón, Pilar

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate consumption has been associated with a short-term reduction in blood pressure and cholesterol, and improvement of insulin sensitivity; however, participants could not be aware of presenting hypertension or hypercholesterolemia. Moreover, the effect of chocolate on mental health is uncertain. This study assessed the association of regular chocolate consumption with the physical (PCS) and mental (MCS) components of health-related quality of life (HRQL). We analyzed data from a cohort of 4599 individuals recruited in 2008-2010 and followed-up once prospectively to January 2013 (follow-up mean: 3.5 years). Regular chocolate consumption was assessed at baseline with a validated diet history. HRQL was assessed with the SF-12 v.2 at baseline and at follow-up. Analyses were performed with linear regression and adjusted for the main confounders, including HRQL at baseline. At baseline, 72% of the study participants did not consume chocolate, 11% consumed ≤10 g/day and 17% >10 g/day. Chocolate consumption at baseline did not show an association with PCS and MCS of the SF-12 measured three years later. Compared to those who did not consume chocolate, the PCS scores were similar in those who consumed ≤10 g/day (beta: -0.07; 95% confidence interval (95% CI): -0.94 to 0.80) and in those who consumed >10 g/day (beta: 0.02; 95% CI:-0.71 to 0.75); corresponding figures for the MCS were 0.29; 95% CI: -0.67 to 1.26, and -0.57; 95%CI: -1.37 to 0.23. Similar results were found for sex, regardless of obesity, hypertension, hypercholesterolemia, diabetes or depression. No evidence was found of an association between chocolate intake and the physical or mental components of HRQL.

  9. Easy Extraction Method To Evaluate δ13C Vanillin by Liquid Chromatography-Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry in Chocolate Bars and Chocolate Snack Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bononi, Monica; Quaglia, Giancarlo; Tateo, Fernando

    2015-05-20

    An easy extraction method that permits the use of a liquid chromatography-isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (LC-IRMS) system to evaluate δ(13)C of vanillin in chocolate products and industrial flavorings is presented. The method applies the determination of stable isotopes of carbon to discriminate between natural vanillin from vanilla beans and vanillin from other sources (mixtures from beans, synthesis, or biotechnology). A series of 13 chocolate bars and chocolate snack foods available on the Italian market and 8 vanilla flavorings derived from industrial quality control processes were analyzed. Only 30% of products considered in this work that declared "vanilla" on the label showed data that permitted the declaration "vanilla" according to European Union (EU) Regulation 1334/2008. All samples not citing "vanilla" or "natural flavoring" on the label gave the correct declaration. The extraction method is presented with data useful for statistical evaluation.

  10. Effect of Popping Chocolate and Candy on Enamel Microhardness of Primary and Permanent Teeth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tabari, Mitra; Alaghemand, Homayoon; Qujeq, Durdi; Mohammadi, Elahe

    2017-01-01

    Dental erosion is a common disease in children. Food diets, due to high amounts of juice, soft drinks, chewing gum, and acidic chocolate, are one of the most important risk factors in erosive processes among children. The aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of candy and chocolate on the microhardness of tooth enamel. Two types of popping candy and one type of popping chocolate were used in this study. Thirty-three healthy permanent premolar teeth and 33 primary incisor teeth (A or B) were selected. Five grams of each popping chocolate or candy was dissolved with 2 ml of artificial saliva. Subsequently, their pH and titrable acidity (TA) as well as microhardness and surface roughness of enamel were examined in the laboratory. Data were analyzed and evaluated Released 2011. IBM SPSS Statistics for Windows, Version 20.0. Armonk, NY through independent t -test, paired t -test, Tukey test, and ANOVA. The results of this study showed that only the pH of the candies was below the critical pH of the enamel (5.5) and their TA was B = 0.20 and C = 0.21. The most significant effect on the enamel microhardness of the permanent and primary teeth was by the following types of candy: orange flavor (C), strawberry flavor (B), and chocolate (A), respectively. This difference was significant ( P < 0.001) and the surface roughness increased after exposure. This study showed that popping chocolate and candy reduces microhardness of enamel.

  11. Does Chocolate Intake During Pregnancy Reduce the Risks of Preeclampsia and Gestational Hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saftlas, Audrey F.; Triche, Elizabeth W.; Beydoun, Hind; Bracken, Michael B.

    2010-01-01

    Purpose Chocolate consumption is associated with favorable levels of blood pressure and other cardiovascular disease risk markers. We analyzed a prospective cohort study to determine if regular chocolate intake during pregnancy is associated with reduced risks of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension (GH). Methods Subjects were recruited from 13 prenatal care practices in Connecticut (1988-1991). In-person interviews were administered at Chocolate consumption (servings/week) during the 1st and 3rd trimesters was ascertained at initial interview and immediately postpartum, respectively. Consumers of Chocolate intake was more frequent among normotensives (80.7%) than preeclamptics (62.5%) or GH women (75.8%), and associated with reduced odds of preeclampsia (1st trimester: aOR=0.55, 95% CI: 0.32-0.95; 3rd trimester: aOR=0.56, 95% CI: 0.32-0.97). Only 1st trimester intake was associated with reduced odds of GH (aOR=0.65, 95% CI: 0.45-0.87). Conclusions These findings provide additional evidence of the benefits of chocolate. Prospective studies are needed to confirm and delineate protective effects of chocolate intake on risk of preeclampsia. PMID:20609337

  12. The effects of low fat chocolate milk on postexercise recovery in collegiate athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spaccarotella, Kim J; Andzel, Walter D

    2011-12-01

    Spaccarotella, KJ and Andzel, WD. The effects of low fat chocolate milk on postexercise recovery in collegiate athletes. J Strength Cond Res 25(12): 3456-3460, 2011-Drinking chocolate milk between exercise sessions may improve recovery. The purpose of this study was to examine the effects of low fat chocolate milk vs. a carbohydrate-electrolyte beverage (CE) on recovery between preseason practice sessions among 5 male and 8 female Division III soccer players. The study used a randomized crossover design: between morning and afternoon practices, athletes received either an amount of chocolate milk that provided 1 g carbohydrate per kilogram body weight or an equal volume of CE (mean volume of 615 ± 101 ml). After their afternoon practice, they completed a shuttle run to fatigue. Data were analyzed using the Wilcoxon paired rank-sign test (for shuttle run time) and the paired samples t-test (for dietary intake). No significant differences in run time were reported for the group. For the men only, there was a trend of increased time to fatigue with chocolate milk compared with the CE (exact p = 0.03). Low fat chocolate milk may therefore be as good as a CE at promoting recovery between training sessions during preseason.

  13. Does chocolate intake during pregnancy reduce the risks of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saftlas, Audrey F; Triche, Elizabeth W; Beydoun, Hind; Bracken, Michael B

    2010-08-01

    Chocolate consumption is associated with favorable levels of blood pressure and other cardiovascular disease risk markers. We analyzed a prospective cohort study to determine whether regular chocolate intake during pregnancy is associated with reduced risks of preeclampsia and gestational hypertension (GH). Subjects were recruited from 13 prenatal care practices in Connecticut (1988-1991). In-person interviews were administered at Chocolate consumption (servings/week) during the first and third trimesters was ascertained at initial interview and immediately postpartum, respectively. Consumers of less than 1 serving/week comprised the referent group. Adjusted odds ratios (aORs) were estimated by the use of logistic regression. Chocolate intake was more frequent among normotensive (80.7%) than preeclamptic (62.5%) or GH women (75.8%), and associated with reduced odds of preeclampsia (first trimester: aOR, 0.55; 95% confidence interval [95% CI], 0.32-0.95; third trimester: aOR, 0.56; 95% CI, 0.32-0.97). Only first trimester intake was associated with reduced odds of GH (aOR,0.65; 95% CI, 0.45-0.87). These findings provide additional evidence of the benefits of chocolate. Prospective studies are needed to confirm and delineate protective effects of chocolate intake on risk of preeclampsia. 2010 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  14. Fatty acid and sodium contents of commercial milk chocolate – analytical aspects and nutritional information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cesar Susin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available SummaryChocolate consumption is usually associated with enjoyment, milk chocolate desserts being a very popular choice. Besides, the literature provides data suggesting health benefits for chocolate products as compared to non-chocolate candies. However, the lipid composition of cocoa and its commercial products has yet to be completely elucidated and understood, although much research has been carried out with this objective. Contributions to this objective frequently face difficulties in the field of Analytical Chemistry due to the complexity of the composition of such a food. On the other hand, the sodium content of foods is currently a major concern. Thus, this work aims to provide information concerning the composition of commercial milk chocolate in terms of its fatty acid profile and sodium content. To achieve this purpose, analytical adjustments and improvements to the methodology were made and described in this paper. Sodium (FAAS and a total of 50 fatty acids (GC-FID were determined in eight samples of milk chocolate bars from different manufacturers. The samples were purchased from retailers in Porto Alegre – Brazil. In the determination of the fatty acids, possible losses during methylation deserved special attention and were studied. Nevertheless, large differences were not found in comparison with the nutritional facts declared on the label. However, the results obtained for sodium demonstrated the importance of food inspection, considering the discrepancies found.

  15. High-cocoa polyphenol-rich chocolate improves HDL cholesterol in Type 2 diabetes patients.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, D D; Sathyapalan, T; Kilpatrick, E S; Beckett, S; Atkin, S L

    2010-11-01

    To examine the effects of chocolate on lipid profiles, weight and glycaemic control in individuals with Type 2 diabetes. Twelve individuals with Type 2 diabetes on stable medication were enrolled in a randomized, placebo-controlled double-blind crossover study. Subjects were randomized to 45 g chocolate with or without a high polyphenol content for 8 weeks and then crossed over after a 4-week washout period. Changes in weight, glycaemic control, lipid profile and high-sensitivity C-reactive protein were measured at the beginning and at the end of each intervention. HDL cholesterol increased significantly with high polyphenol chocolate (1.16 ± 0.08 vs. 1.26 ± 0.08 mmol/l, P = 0.05) with a decrease in the total cholesterol: HDL ratio (4.4 ± 0.4 vs. 4.1 ± 0.4 mmol/l, P = 0.04). No changes were seen with the low polyphenol chocolate in any parameters. Over the course of 16 weeks of daily chocolate consumption neither weight nor glycaemic control altered from baseline. High polyphenol chocolate is effective in improving the atherosclerotic cholesterol profile in patients with diabetes by increasing HDL cholesterol and improving the cholesterol:HDL ratio without affecting weight, inflammatory markers, insulin resistance or glycaemic control.

  16. Consumption of chocolate in pregnant women and risk of preeclampsia: a systematic review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogollon, Jaime Andres; Boivin, Catherine; Philippe, Kadhel; Turcotte, Stéphane; Lemieux, Simone; Blanchet, Claudine; Bujold, Emmanuel; Dodin, Sylvie

    2013-12-20

    Previous studies have been limited in reporting the association between chocolate consumption, measured by interviewer-administered questionnaire or serum theobromine, a biomarker for cocoa, and risk of preeclampsia, and have showed somewhat conflicting results. A systematic review of observational and experimental studies will be carried out. We will examine PubMed, Embase, and the entire Cochrane Library. Studies of chocolate consumption compared or not with placebo or low flavanol chocolate during pregnancy will be evaluated to investigate the effect of chocolate consumption in pregnant women on the risk of preeclampsia or pregnancy-induced hypertension. Screening for inclusion, data extraction, and quality assessment will be performed independently by two reviewers in consultation with a third reviewer. Validity of the studies will be ascertained by using the Cochrane Collaboration's tool. Relative risk of preeclampsia will be the primary measure of treatment effect. Heterogeneity will be explored by subgroup analysis according to confounding factors and bias. This systematic review will contribute to establish the current state of knowledge concerning the possible association between chocolate consumption and prevention of preeclampsia. Furthermore, it will justify if additional experimental trials are necessary to better evaluate the benefits of chocolate consumption on the risk of preeclampsia. This systematic review has been registered in the PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews. The registration number is: CRD42013005338.

  17. Consumption of chocolate in pregnant women and risk of preeclampsia: a systematic review

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous studies have been limited in reporting the association between chocolate consumption, measured by interviewer-administered questionnaire or serum theobromine, a biomarker for cocoa, and risk of preeclampsia, and have showed somewhat conflicting results. Methods/Design A systematic review of observational and experimental studies will be carried out. We will examine PubMed, Embase, and the entire Cochrane Library. Studies of chocolate consumption compared or not with placebo or low flavanol chocolate during pregnancy will be evaluated to investigate the effect of chocolate consumption in pregnant women on the risk of preeclampsia or pregnancy-induced hypertension. Screening for inclusion, data extraction, and quality assessment will be performed independently by two reviewers in consultation with a third reviewer. Validity of the studies will be ascertained by using the Cochrane Collaboration’s tool. Relative risk of preeclampsia will be the primary measure of treatment effect. Heterogeneity will be explored by subgroup analysis according to confounding factors and bias. Discussion This systematic review will contribute to establish the current state of knowledge concerning the possible association between chocolate consumption and prevention of preeclampsia. Furthermore, it will justify if additional experimental trials are necessary to better evaluate the benefits of chocolate consumption on the risk of preeclampsia. Trial registration This systematic review has been registered in the PROSPERO international prospective register of systematic reviews. The registration number is: CRD42013005338 PMID:24360219

  18. Safety Evaluation of 30 kGy Irradiated Chocolate Ice Cream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Jeon, Y.E.; Yin, X.F.; Chung, C.K.; Kang, I.J.

    2013-01-01

    This study was investigated the potential toxicity of gamma-irradiated chocolate ice cream for its future use in space. Chocolate ice cream was irradiated at a dose of 30 kGy at a temperature of -20°C. For the animal study, AIN-93G was used as a control diet and irradiated and non-irradiated chocolate ice cream diets were administered to male and female ICR mice (ten mice per group) for three months. During the experimental period, the group fed irradiated chocolate ice cream did not show any changes in appearance, behavior, mortality, body weight, organ weight, or food consumption compared to the control. Also, all biochemical parameters, including hematology profiles, erythrocyte counts, and serum biochemical values were in normal ranges. In histopathological examinations of liver and kidney tissues, there were no significant differences between the control group and the group fed irradiated chocolate ice cream. These results indicate that chocolate ice cream irradiated at 30 kGy did not cause any toxic effects and could be applied for the development of safe and hygienic space food

  19. Aceitabilidade e valor nutricional de chocolate amargo enriquecido com amêndoa de baru, linhaça e quinoa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jullyana Borges de Freitas

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve o objetivo de formular chocolate amargo enriquecido com amêndoa de baru, linhaça e quinoa (9% em substituição ao chocolate e avaliar a aceitabilidade (aceitação global, aparência e intenção de compra e o valor nutricional das formulações. Todos os chocolates, exceto o chocolate enriquecido com linhaça, foram considerados aceitos e apresentaram bons níveis de intenção de compra. Os chocolates apresentaram altos teores de fibras alimentares (27 a 40 g/100 g, e menor valor energético (385 a 413 kcal/100 g comparados a chocolates amargos convencionais contendo amêndoas (7 a 11 g de fibras alimentares /100 g e 500 a 550 kcal/100 g, constituindo uma alternativa mais saudável para os consumidores.

  20. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.

    1990-12-01

    Experimental effort for the program to evaluate physical properties of kraft black liquors is now proceeding well. Experimental work includes pulping, liquor analysis, lignin purification and characterization, vapor-liquid equilibria, heat capacity, heats of solution and combustion, and viscosity measurements. Measurement of thermal conductivity has not yet begun. Collection of the data necessary for development of generalized correlations is proceeding, but will require about two more years. The digester is operating very well. It is now possible to operate the digester as a closed, rotating reactor or as a batch reactor with liquor circulation. When operated with liquor circulation, temperatures within the chip bed can be monitored during cooking. Cooking is reproducible, and cooks are being performed to produce liquors for experimental studies. The digester could be further modified to permit us to conduct rapid exchange batch pulping or to permit us to simulate continuous pulping. Liquors to be used in experimental studies are concentrated in our large scale evaporator or in our small scale evaporator. The large scale evaporator is used to concentrate liquors to about 50% solids for storage and for use in studies requiring high solids liquors. The small scale evaporator is used for preparing final samples to as high as 85% solids and for measuring vapor-liquid equilibria. Liquors are now routinely analyzed to determine all components, except higher molecular weight organic acids and extractives. Lignin determination by uv-visible means has been improved. Lignin purification from black liquor has been improved and lignin molecular weights are determined routinely. Work on lignin molecular weight distribution is still not satisfactory, but recent developments holds promise.

  1. Second International Congress on Chocolate and Cocoa in Medicine Held in Barcelona, Spain, 25–26th September 2015

    OpenAIRE

    Margarida Castell; Sandra Saldaña-Ruíz; Maria José Rodríguez-Lagunas; Àngels Franch; Francisco J. Pérez-Cano

    2015-01-01

    In order to further our understanding of, and disseminate the latest findings on the healthy properties of cocoa and chocolate, the International Society of Chocolate and Cocoa in Medicine (ISCHOM) was founded in 2010 in Florence (http://ischom.com/ischom/). This Society aims to gather information and become a forum of discussion and debate on cocoa and chocolate, not only among researchers from around the world, but also to introduce the science involved and the latest findings to the public...

  2. Characterization of volatile compounds in Fen-Daqu - a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van-Diep, L.; Zheng, X.; Chen, J.Y.; Han, B.Z.

    2012-01-01

    Fen-Daqu is a saccharifying agent and fermentation starter for the production of Chinese liquor Fen (alcoholic spirit) and Fen traditional vinegar. The volatile compounds produced at seven incubation steps were analysed by HS-SPME-GC-MS. A total of 83 major volatile compounds were identified,

  3. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer... Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. Any person who registers as a wholesale dealer in beer or retail dealer in beer and who thereafter begins to sell distilled...

  4. Effect of Microbial Interaction on Urea Metabolism in Chinese Liquor Fermentation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wu, Qun; Lin, Jianchun; Cui, Kaixiang; Du, Rubin; Zhu, Yang; Xu, Yan

    2017-01-01

    Urea is the primary precursor of the carcinogen ethyl carbamate in fermented foods. Understanding urea metabolism is important for controlling ethyl carbamate production. Using Chinese liquor as a model system, we used metatranscriptome analysis to investigate urea metabolism in spontaneous food

  5. 76 FR 4366 - Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel Liquor Control Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ..., of liquor, as herein defined. Section 4.4. Beer. Any beverage obtained by the alcoholic fermentation..., which is commonly produced by the fermentation, or distillation of grain, starch, molasses or sugar, or... four percent (4%) of alcohol by weight shall be referred to as ``strong beer''. Section 4.5. Gaming...

  6. 75 FR 23289 - Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... defined in this Ordinance. (b) ``Beer'' means any beverage obtained by the alcoholic fermentation of an... percent of Alcohol by weight shall be referred to as ``strong Beer.'' (c) ``Gaming Facility'' means a... herein defined (Alcohol, Spirits, Wine and Beer), and all fermented spirituous, vinous, or malt liquor or...

  7. 75 FR 62853 - Reno-Sparks Indian Colony Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... ordinance. (iii) ``Beer'' shall mean any beverage obtained by the alcoholic fermentation of any infusion or... alcohol, hydrated oxide or ethyl, or spirit or wine, which is commonly produced by the fermentation or... under Section V. (vi) ``Licensee'' shall mean the person or entity authorized to sell Liquor, Beer or...

  8. Post-Digestion Liquor Treatment in the Method Combining Chemical Precipitation with Reverse Osmosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kuglarz Mariusz

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to develop an effective treatment of post-digestion liquors highly-loaded with biogenic and organic substances. The scope of the research project encompassed: mesophilic anaerobic digestion of waste activated sludge (WAS as well as the treatment of post-digestion liquors, coming from the most appropriate HRT value of 25 days, in the process of ammonium magnesium phosphate (struvite precipitation targeted at ammonia nitrogen binding and a subsequent reverse osmosis (RO process. It was established that the method combining chemical precipitation and high-pressure filtration ensures a high degree of contaminants removal allowing for a direct release of treated liquors into the natural reservoir. However, in order to decrease the residual NH4+ concentration (6.1 mg NH4+/dm3 in the purified post-digestion liquors below the level allowing for a direct release to the natural reservoir, it turned out to be necessary to apply increased molar ratio of magnesium and phosphates (Mg:NH4+: PO43-= 1.5:1:1.5.

  9. Effect of storage conditions on the shelf life of locally distilled liquor ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    The purpose of this research was to determine the presence and levels of certain contaminants in akpeteshie from the various sources and to determine effects of ambient temperature, refrigeration, pasteurization and pasteurization in combination with low temperature for the liquor stored for seven weeks. The contaminant ...

  10. Dynamic modelling of nitrous oxide emissions from three Swedish sludge liquor treatment systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lindblom, E.; Arnell, M.; Flores-Alsina, X.

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to model the dynamics and validate the results of nitrous oxide (N2O)emissions from three Swedish nitrifying/denitrifying, nitritation and anammox systems treating real anaerobic digester sludge liquor. The Activated Sludge Model No. 1 is extended to describe N2O...

  11. ROLE OF TRANSCERVICAL AMNIOINFUSION IN LABOUR COMPLICATED WITH THICK MECONIUM STAINED LIQUOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anuragamayi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: This is to evaluate the effectiveness of amnio infusion in cases of thick and particulate meconium stained liquor to reduce the incidence of fetal distress and meconium aspiration syndrome in neonates and compare neonatal outcome with control group . METHODS: A prospective comparative case control study was conducted in the Department of Obstetrics and gynecology, Government General Hospital, Kakinada. A total of 100 cases of labour complicated with thick meconium stained liquor were studied of which in 50 cases Transcervical Amnioinfusion was given and remaining 50 cases without amnioinfusion were taken as controls. The statistical analysis of neonatal outcome was done by Chi square test analysis of variance and paired t test. Liquor to reduce the incidence of fetal distress and meconium aspiration syndrome in neonates and compare neonatal. RESULTS: Operative interventions for fetal distress were significantly less in infusion group (p7 were observed in more cases of infusion group with significant difference in control group. Use of resuscitative measures for neonates were relatively more in control group with higher incidence of meconium at and below vocal cords (p <0.01. In amnioinfusion group, admissions in NICU were less (p <0.01 CONCLUSION : Transcervical amnioinfusion during labour is a safe, simple, inexpensive and effective procedure in improving the obstetric and perinatal outcome in patients labouring with thick meconium stained liquor

  12. Effects of Chinese Liquors on Cardiovascular Disease Risk Factors in Healthy Young Humans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ju-Sheng Zheng

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Objectives. To elucidate whether consumption of two Chinese liquors, tea-flavor liquor (TFL and traditional Chinese liquor (TCL have protective effects on cardiovascular disease (CVD risk factors in healthy human subjects. Methods. Forty-five healthy subjects (23 men, 22 women, aged 23–28, were recruited and randomized into two groups: TFL and TCL, and consumed 30 mL/day (45% (v/v alcohol of either liquor for 28 days. Results. Serum high-density lipoprotein cholesterol/low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C/LDL-C and apolipoprotein A1 were significantly increased, and total cholesterol (TC and TC/HDL-C were significantly decreased after the intervention in both groups (P<0.05. Serum uric acid (P=0.004 for TFL, P=0.001 for TCL, glucose (P<0.001 for TFL, P<0.001 for TCL and endothelial adhesion molecules (P<0.05 were significantly decreased after the intervention. ADP-induced whole blood platelet aggregation was also significantly decreased after the intervention in both TFL and TCL groups (P<0.05. Conclusions. TFL and TCL consumption had protective effects on CVD risk factors in young humans. However, the results were valid only for 28 days, and that the possibility of adverse effect (liver, kidney of chronic alcohol consumption should be considered.

  13. The Readership of Liquor Ads Employing Appeals to Affiliation, Achievement, and Product-Attributes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Leonard N.; And Others

    A study examined whether advertising appeals based on product affiliation, achievement, and attributes would account for differences in male readership of liquor advertisements. The investigation focused on the relationship between the content of alcholic beverage advertisements and attention engagement, the first state in consumer information…

  14. Application of a mechanism-based rate equation to black liquor gasification rate data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Overacker, N.L.; Waag, K.J.; Frederick, W.J. [Oregon State University, OR (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering; Whitty, K.J.

    1995-09-01

    There is growing interest worldwide to develop alternate chemical recovery processes for paper mills which are cheaper, safer, more efficient and more environmentally sound than traditional technology. Pressurized gasification of black liquor is the basis for many proposed schemes and offers the possibility to double the amount of electricity generated per unit of dry black liquor solids. Such technology also has capital, safety and environmental advantages. One of the most important considerations regarding this emerging technology is the kinetics of the gasification reaction. This has been studied empirically at Aabo Akademi University for the pressurized gasification with carbon dioxide and steam. For the purposes of reactor modeling and scale-up, however, a thorough understanding of the mechanism behind the reaction is desirable. This report discusses the applicability of a mechanism-based rate equation to gasification of black liquor. The mechanism considered was developed for alkali-catalyzed gasification of carbon and is tested using black liquor gasification data obtained during simultaneous reaction with H{sub 2}O and CO. Equilibrium considerations and the influence of the water-gas shift reaction are also discussed. The work presented here is a cooperative effort between Aabo Akademi University and Oregon State University. The experimental work and some of the data analysis was performed at Aabo Akademi University. Development of the models and consideration of their applicability was performed primarily at Oregon State University

  15. Elimination of Phenol and Color from Pulping Black Liquor Using Electrocoagulation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nahid Rastegarfar

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There are many non-wood lignocelluloses resources such as wheat, rice straw and other agriculture by- products with appropriate feature for pulp production in Iran. The most major deterrent to their use is presence of pulping black liquor that due to lignin of lignocelluloses solution contains significant amounts of color and phenol compounds. The aim of this paper was investigation of the ability to remove phenol and color as the most important organic pollutants from back liquor of agri-based pulping process using electrocoagulation method. In the electrocoagulation process aluminium electrode was used and cell potential and current intensity were adjusted on 16 V and 1700 mA respectively. The effect of various treatment time (10, 25, 40, 55, 70 min and initial pH (3, 5, 7, 9, 10/5 of black liquor were investigated.The results showed that maximum of decrease obtained at pH 5 that has led to a remove capacity 78% of phenol and 98% of color in treatment time 70 min. electrocoagulation method can be used for black liquor treatment because of simple, effective and its low investment cost compared to other technologies.

  16. 78 FR 15037 - Bishop Paiute Tribe-Liquor Control Ordinance No. 2012-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ..., purchase, gift, adjudication, executive order, Act of Congress, or other means of acquisition. .05 ``Tribal.../alcohol purchased on or off Tribal Lands is prohibited. Any person who is not licensed pursuant to this ordinance and who purchases liquor/alcoholic beverages on or off Tribal Lands and sells it on Tribal Lands...

  17. Price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer: findings from a US pilot study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    French, Michael Thomas; Browntaylor, Didra; Bluthenthal, Ricky Neville

    2006-05-01

    Our objective is to estimate the relative price elasticity of demand for malt liquor beer (MLB), regular beer, hard liquor, and a combined group of all other alcoholic beverages. Three hundred and twenty-nine alcohol consumers (mostly male) in South-Central Los Angeles answered a series of questions pertaining to expected consumption responses to hypothetical price increases. We found that based on a 10% price increase, the mean price elasticity of demand (% change in quantity demanded / % change in price) was -0.79 for MLB drinkers, -1.14 for regular beer drinkers, -1.11 for hard liquor drinkers, and -1.69 for the combined group of all other drinkers. Logistic regression analysis revealed that the personal characteristics significantly related to being a MLB drinker were older age, not working, being homeless, and a daily drinker. Daily (or nearly daily) drinkers were more likely to be married, earning lower incomes, and hard liquor drinkers. This study is the first to investigate the price elasticity of demand for MLB drinkers and other heavy alcohol consumers in poor urban neighborhoods of the US. Future research can use the methods from this pilot study to more rigorously examine and compare the price sensitivity among heavy drinking groups.

  18. Succinic acid production from xylose mother liquor by recombinant Escherichia coli strain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Honghui; Pan, Jiachuan; Wang, Jing; Wang, Nan; Zhang, Jie; Li, Qiang; Wang, Dan; Zhou, Xiaohua

    2014-11-02

    Succinic acid (1,4-butanedioic acid) is identified as one of important building-block chemicals. Xylose mother liquor is an abundant industrial residue in xylitol biorefining industry. In this study, xylose mother liquor was utilized to produce succinic acid by recombinant Escherichia coli strain SD121, and the response surface methodology was used to optimize the fermentation media. The optimal conditions of succinic acid fermentation were as follows: 82.62 g L -1 total initial sugars, 42.27 g L -1 MgCO 3 and 17.84 g L -1 yeast extract. The maximum production of succinic acid was 52.09 ± 0.21 g L -1 after 84 h with a yield of 0.63 ± 0.03 g g -1 total sugar, approaching the predicted value (53.18 g L -1 ). It was 1.78-fold of the production of that obtained with the basic medium. This was the first report on succinic acid production from xylose mother liquor by recombinant E. coli strains with media optimization using response surface methodology. This work suggested that the xylose mother liquor could be an alternative substrate for the economical production of succinic acid by recombinant E. coli strains.

  19. Adopting local alcohol policies: a case study of community efforts to regulate malt liquor sales.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McKee, Patricia A; Nelson, Toben F; Toomey, Traci L; Shimotsu, Scott T; Hannan, Peter J; Jones-Webb, Rhonda J

    2012-01-01

    To learn how the local context may affect a city's ability to regulate alcohol products such as high-alcohol-content malt liquor, a beverage associated with heavy drinking and a spectrum of nuisance crimes in urban areas. An exploratory, qualitative case study comparing cities that adopted policies to restrict malt liquor sales with cities that considered, but did not adopt policies. Nine large U.S. cities in seven states. City legislators and staff, alcohol enforcement personnel, police, neighborhood groups, business associations, alcohol retailers, and industry representatives. Qualitative data were obtained from key informant interviews (n = 56) and media articles (n = 360). The data were coded and categorized. Similarities and differences in major themes among and across Adopted and Considered cities were identified. Cities faced multiple barriers in addressing malt liquor-related problems, including a lack of enforcement tools, alcohol industry opposition, and a lack of public and political will for alcohol control. Compared to cities that did not adopt malt liquor sales restrictions, cities that adopted restrictions appeared to have a stronger public mandate for a policy and were less influenced by alcohol industry opposition and lack of legislative authority for alcohol control. Strategies common to successful policymaking efforts are discussed. Understanding the local context may be a critical step in winning support for local alcohol control policies.

  20. Mystery shopping and alcohol sales: do supermarkets and liquor stores sell alcohol to underage customers?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Gosselt, Jordi Franciscus; van Hoof, Joris Jasper; de Jong, Menno D.T.; Prinsen, Sander

    2007-01-01

    Purpose: The Dutch national policy regarding alcohol and youth relies on retailers’ willingness to refuse to sell alcohol to underage customers. This study examined unobtrusively whether supermarkets and liquor stores do indeed comply with the legal age restrictions for alcohol sales. - Methods: A