WorldWideScience

Sample records for chocolate liquor

  1. 21 CFR 163.111 - Chocolate liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chocolate liquor. 163.111 Section 163.111 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.111 Chocolate liquor. (a) Description. (1) Chocolate liquor is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by finely...

  2. Influence of Starter Cultures, Fermentation Techniques, and Acetic Acid on the Volatile Aroma and Sensory Profile of Cocoa Liquor and Chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael

    the principal raw material for chocolate production, good quality cocoa beans are in high demand on the World market as a prerequisite for the production of high quality chocolates and other confectionary products. To produce good quality cocoa suitable for chocolate production, it is essential that the beans......-independent molecular techniques, the growth and survival of the two yeast inoculation cultures was verified at strain level, whilst the bacterial inoculum was identified at species level. Aroma profiling was conducted using dynamic headspace gas chromatography-mass spectrometry for identification and relative...

  3. Chocolate Maths!

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jones, Margaret; Underwood, Val

    2007-01-01

    In this article, the authors describe a varied day of stimulating mathematics with key stage 2 learners--all revolving around chocolate. They used a variety of stimuli organized around the chocolate theme. A whole day was spent on using and applying mathematics, and the exercise proved to be enjoyable for both staff and pupils. The children…

  4. Chocolate Numbers

    OpenAIRE

    Ji, Caleb; Khovanova, Tanya; Park, Robin; Song, Angela

    2015-01-01

    In this paper, we consider a game played on a rectangular $m \\times n$ gridded chocolate bar. Each move, a player breaks the bar along a grid line. Each move after that consists of taking any piece of chocolate and breaking it again along existing grid lines, until just $mn$ individual squares remain. This paper enumerates the number of ways to break an $m \\times n$ bar, which we call chocolate numbers, and introduces four new sequences related to these numbers. Using various techniques, we p...

  5. Chocolate rheology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Estela Vidal Gonçalves

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Rheology is the science that studies the deformation and flow of solids and fluids under the influence of mechanical forces. The rheological measures of a product in the stage of manufacture can be useful in quality control. The microstructure of a product can also be correlated with its rheological behavior allowing for the development of new materials. Rheometry permits attainment of rheological equations applied in process engineering, particularly unit operations that involve heat and mass transfer. Consumer demands make it possible to obtain a product that complies with these requirements. Chocolate industries work with products in a liquid phase in conching, tempering, and also during pumping operations. A good design of each type of equipment is essential for optimum processing. In the design of every process, it is necessary to know the physical characteristics of the product. The rheological behavior of chocolate can help to know the characteristics of application of the product and its consumers. Foods are generally in a metastable state. Their texture depends on the structural changes that occur during processing. Molten chocolate is a suspension with properties that are strongly affected by particle characteristics including not only the dispersed particles but also the fat crystals formed during chocolate cooling and solidification. Chocolate rheology is extensively studied, and it is known that chocolate texture and stability is strongly affected by the presence of specific crystals

  6. Mycobiota of cocoa: From farm to chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Copetti, Marina V.; Iamanaka, Beatriz T.; Frisvad, Jens Christian;

    2011-01-01

    , liquor, butter, cake and powder) and (iii) the final chocolate product (dark, milk, white and powdered) collected from retail outlets. Direct plating or dilution plating on Dichloran 18% Glycerol agar were used for cocoa beans and processed product analyses, respectively. Fungi were isolated...

  7. Chocolate active

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There is a table of current radioactivity values for various foods and mushrooms. A special accent is on milk and chocolate. Chocolate sorts with more powdered milk are more active. Finally there is a chapter on radionucleides contained in the Chernobyl fallout, other than cesium 137, cesium 134 and strontium 90. The amounts of ruthenium 106, antimony 125, cerium 144, silver 110 m, cesium 134, strontium 90 and plutonium 239 relative to cesium 137 in soil samples in autumn 1987 are given. Special emphasis is on ruthenium 'hot particles' and on plutonium. (qui)

  8. The Science of Chocolate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McShea, Andy [COO and head Scientist, Theo Chocolate, Seattle, WA

    2011-04-19

    Explore the chemistry of chocolate and how the chemistry relates to the flavor and effects of chocolate on the human body and why, even after 3,400 years of cocoa consumption, chocolate remains somewhat of a mystery.

  9. Conching Chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, Gary L.; Chaikin, Paul; Blanco, Elena; Poon, Wilson

    2014-03-01

    ``Conching'' is an intermediate step in the processing of chocolate where hydrophilic solid particles, such as sugar and milk proteins, are aggressively mixed into a fatty, fluid phase containing emulsifier, e.g. molten cocoa butter with lecithin. During conching, the system evolves from a fine powder to a coarser granulated material and ultimately into a thick cohesive paste. Our goal is to better understand the evolution of chocolate during conching and the transition from an effectively dry to a wet or immersed granular material. In particular, we focus on how mixing times change in response to variations in solid particle volume fractions and emulsifier concentration. As a function of volume fraction, mixing times are well-described by a conventional form that diverges at a finite volume fraction. Furthermore, mixing times can be collapsed onto a universal curve as a function of mixing speed and emulsifier concentration.

  10. Replacement of cocoa butter with cocoa butter - like fat from modified palm oil in coating chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Jitbunjerdkul, S.; Kijroongrojana, K.; Chutong, T.

    2007-01-01

    Chocolate is a confectionery product, mainly containing cocoa mass or liquor, cocoa butter (CB) and sugar. Nowadays vegetable fats and modified oil are used instead of CB in chocolate products to lower the cost and to obtain the varieties of products with different characteristics and textures. Cocoa butter-like fat from modified palm oil (CBFMPO) at different levels of CB replacement (60,80 and 100%) were used to develop a formulation of coating chocolate. When physical and sensory propertie...

  11. Quality properties Of Vietnamese cocoa liquors

    OpenAIRE

    Tran, Diem Phuong; Van Durme, Jim; Van de Walle, Davy; Phan, Thi Thanh Que; Nguyen Phuc, Cat-Hanh; Phan, DN; Dewettinck, Koen

    2013-01-01

    Vietnam (VN) is an emerging country targeting cocoa as a potential industrial domain. It is however still unclear how the quality of VN cocoa liquors can be positioned in the world cocoa supply. Three VN cocoa liquors exhibiting high to intermediate acidity (pH: 4.7 – 5.2) were selected to produce dark chocolate (48.0% sugar, 17.6% cocoa solids, 34.0% cocoa butter and 0.4% lecithin). A comparison study was conducted to investigate the difference between VN and Ghanaian (GH; pH: 5.6) dark choc...

  12. Methylxanthine composition and consumption patterns of cocoa and chocolate products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shively, C A; Tarka, S M

    1984-01-01

    This chapter has compiled and evaluated the current information on the methylxanthine composition of cocoa and various chocolate foods and beverages, as well as the consumption pattern for these commodities. Although the earliest recorded reference to cacao was in 1502, it was not until 1876 that milk chocolate was invented, an event that formed the backbone of the chocolate industry today. The consumption of cocoa throughout the world has been influenced by a number of factors, and the period of peak consumption occurred during the early to mid-1960s when these factors were highly favorable. The greatest consumption of cocoa in metric tons over the past 10 yr has been in the United States, although the highest per capita consumer during this period was Switzerland. The African continent has been historically the primary producer of raw cocoa, with the Ivory Coast currently being the largest individual supplier. Limited marketing survey data is available for the consumption of methylxanthines in chocolate foods and beverages. In children and teenagers, the major dietary source of caffeine was found to be tea, followed by soft drinks and coffee, respectively. Although chocolate foods and beverages ranked the lowest of these dietary sources to provide caffeine, they do constitute the major source of dietary theobromine. Cacao is the major natural source of the xanthine base theobromine. Small amounts of caffeine are present in the bean along with trace amounts of theophylline. The methylxanthine content of beans varies with the varietal type, and is influenced by the fermentation process. Chocolate liquor is a semifinished product commonly called "baking" or "cooking" chocolate. The average theobromine and caffeine content of liquors has been reported at 1.2% and 0.21%, respectively. Cocoa powder, which is prepared after removal of the cocoa butter, contains about 1.9% theobromine and 0.21% caffeine. Chocolate beverages comprise the most widely studied category of

  13. The Story of Chocolate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王希玲

    2004-01-01

    American-made chocolates and cocoa products number in the hundreds1. There hides a fascinating2 story behind this wonderful product. To tell that story and provide a better understanding of the chocolate industry and its long-standing traditions is the purpose of this article. The Story of Chocolate is essentially a layman's3 introduction to the subject. It will provide readers an opportunity to view the industry as a whole4.

  14. Chocolate com simetrias

    OpenAIRE

    Teixeira, Ricardo Emanuel Cunha

    2015-01-01

    O chocolate é uma das delícias favoritas dos mais gulosos. (...) Mas existem outras formas de apreciar o chocolate, para além do recurso ao paladar. A exploração das simetrias que encontramos em muitos bombons de chocolate também pode constituir uma atividade altamente motivadora. Analisamos, de seguida, as simetrias de alguns bombons de uma conhecida marca regional. (...)

  15. Plasma antioxidants from chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Serafini, M.; Bugianesi, R.; Maiani, G; Valtuena, S.; De Santis, S.; Crozier, A.

    2003-01-01

    There is some speculation that dietary flavonoids from chocolate, in particular (-)epicatechin, may promote cardiovascular health as a result of direct antioxidant effects or through antithrombotic mechanisms. Here we show that consumption of plain, dark chocolate results in an increase in both the total antioxidant capacity and the (-)epicatechin content of blood plasma, but that these effects are markedly reduced when the chocolate is consumed with milk or if milk is incorporated as milk ch...

  16. Better chocolate through genomics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobroma cacao, the cacao or chocolate tree, is a tropical understory tree whose seeds are used to make chocolate. And like any important crop, cacao is the subject of much research. On September 15, 2010, scientists publicly released a preliminary sequence of the cacao genome--which contains all o...

  17. Dark chocolate exacerbates acne.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vongraviopap, Saivaree; Asawanonda, Pravit

    2016-05-01

    The effects of chocolate on acne exacerbations have recently been reevaluated. For so many years, it was thought that it had no role in worsening acne. To investigate whether 99% dark chocolate, when consumed in regular daily amounts, would cause acne to worsen in acne-prone male subjects, twenty-five acne prone male subjects were asked to consume 25 g of 99% dark chocolate daily for 4 weeks. Assessments which included Leeds revised acne scores as well as lesion counts took place weekly. Food frequency questionnaire was used, and daily activities were recorded. Statistically significant changes of acne scores and numbers of comedones and inflammatory papules were detected as early as 2 weeks into the study. At 4 weeks, the changes remained statistically significant compared to baseline. Dark chocolate when consumed in normal amounts for 4 weeks can exacerbate acne in male subjects with acne-prone skin. PMID:26711092

  18. Ovarian chocolate cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Accurate preoperative staging of ovarian chocolate cysts is very important because recent hormonal therapy has been effective in low stage patients. However, it has been difficult to assess the preoperative stage of ovarian chocolate cysts. We evaluated the diagnostic potential of MRI in preoperative staging of 15 overian chocolate cysts. It was well known that the older the ovarian chocolate cyst was the more iron content it had. We examined the iron contents effect on T1 and T2 relaxation times in surgically confirmed chocolate cysts (stage II: 3 cases, stage III: 3 cases and stage IV: 9 cases by AFS classification, 1985) employing the 0.15-T MR system and 200 MHz spectrometer. There was a positive linear relation between T1 of the lesion using the MR system (T1) and T1 of the resected contents using the spectrometer (sp-T1); r = 0.93. The same relation was revealed between T2 and sp-T2; r = 0.87. It was indicated that T1 and T2 using the MR system was accurate. There was a negative linear relation between T1 and the iron contents ( r = -0.81) but no relation between T2 and the iron contents. T1 was 412 ± 91 msec for stage II, 356 ± 126 msec for stage III and 208 ± 30 msec for stage IV. T1 for stage IV was shorter than that for stage II and III, statistically significant differences were noted (p < 0.05). Thus, T1 was useful in differentiating a fresh from an old ovarian chocolate cyst. We concluded that T1 relaxation time using the MR system was useful for the staging of an ovarian chocolate cyst without surgery. (author)

  19. Chocolate--A Sweet Conundrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beckett, Stephen

    1988-01-01

    Presented is a brief history of manufacturing chocolate and an outline of production methods. Describes laboratory techniques used to monitor liquid chocolate viscosity. Discusses a simple experiment which can be performed in the classroom. (Author/CW)

  20. Chocolate as a Revolutionary Beverage

    OpenAIRE

    Moats, Jean; Freeman, Rebecca

    2016-01-01

    In terms of chocolate revolutionary can mean many things, from the cultural aspect to the change in the way chocolate is prepared. In this paper revolutionary stands for the idea of change, specifically the change in chocolate beverages over time. This change can be seen especially in the variety of flavours that have been and are currently being added to chocolate. Why has there been such a change in this popular drink? What makes it revolutionary in terms of flavours. This interdisciplinary...

  1. The Sweetest Chocolate Milk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Newton, Kristie J.

    2010-01-01

    Using a nonroutine problem can be an effective way to encourage students to draw on prior knowledge, work together, and reach important conclusions about the mathematics they are learning. This article discusses a problem on the mathematical preparation of chocolate milk which was adapted from an old book of puzzles (Linn 1969) and has been used…

  2. Replacement of cocoa butter with cocoa butter - like fat from modified palm oil in coating chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jitbunjerdkul, S.

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a confectionery product, mainly containing cocoa mass or liquor, cocoa butter (CB and sugar. Nowadays vegetable fats and modified oil are used instead of CB in chocolate products to lower the cost and to obtain the varieties of products with different characteristics and textures. Cocoa butter-like fat from modified palm oil (CBFMPO at different levels of CB replacement (60,80 and 100% were used to develop a formulation of coating chocolate. When physical and sensory properties were evaluated, the viscosity and coating ability on biscuit sticks were remarkedly decreased with increasing CBFMPO content. Hedonic mean scores of mouthfeel and coating ability of the chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO were greater than those of chocolate containing 60 and 80% CBFMPO (p<0.05. During storage of biscuit sticks dipped in the chocolate coating (chocolate containing 100% CBFMPO at room temperature (27-29oC and low temperature (20-22oC for 30 days, blooming (as shown by whiteness index occurred to a greater extent at higher temperature. At both storage temperatures, the intensity scores of glossiness and hedonic mean scores of overall liking of samples decreased but intensity scores of off-odor increased during the first 6 of days storage (p<0.05.

  3. Detection of irradiated liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    D-2,3-butanediol is formed by irradiation processes in irradiated liquors. This radiolytic product is not formed in unirradiated liquors and its presence can therefore be used to identify whether a liquor has been irradiated or not. The relation meso/dl∼1 for 2,3-butanediol and the amount present in irradiated liquors may therefore be used as an indication of the dose used in the irradiation. (author)

  4. Toxic waste liquor disposal

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Toxic waste liquors, especially radio active liquors, are disposed in a sub-zone by feeding down a bore hole a first liquid, then a buffer liquid (e.g. water), then the toxic liquors. Pressure variations are applied to the sub-zone to mix the first liquid and liquors to form gels or solids which inhibit further mixing and form a barrier between the sub-zone and the natural waters in the environment of the sub-zone. In another example the location of the sub-zone is selected so that the environement reacts with the liquors to produce a barrier around the zone. Blind bore holes are used to monitor the sub-zone profile. Materials may be added to the liquor to enhance barrier formation. (author)

  5. 21 CFR 163.135 - Buttermilk chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Buttermilk chocolate. 163.135 Section 163.135 Food... Buttermilk chocolate. (a) Description. Buttermilk chocolate is the food that conforms to the standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate...

  6. Russian chocolate products market

    OpenAIRE

    Осина, Г.

    2012-01-01

    В статье дан обзор рынка шоколадных изделий, особенностей рынка. Факты, влияющие на конъюнктуру рынка. Перспективы развития сегмента шоколадной продукцииThere is a review of the market chocolate products. The main factors of influence to market demand and supply balance. Chocolate market segment develop perspectives

  7. Hot chocolate effect

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The ''hot chocolate effect'' was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one-quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the 10% accuracy of the experiments

  8. THE HOT CHOCOLATE EFFECT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crawford, Frank S.

    1980-12-01

    The "hot chocolate effect" was investigated quantitatively, using water. If a tall glass cylinder is filled nearly completely with water and tapped on the bottom with a softened mallet one can detect the lowest longitudinal mode of the water column, for which the height of the water column is one quarter wavelength. If the cylinder is rapidly filled with hot tap water containing dissolved air the pitch of that mode may descend by nearly three octaves during the first few seconds as the air comes out of solution and forms bubbles. Then the pitch gradually rises as the bubbles float to the top. A simple theoretical expression for the pitch ratio is derived and compared with experiment. The agreement is good to within the ten percent accuracy of the experiments.

  9. High cocoa polyphenol rich chocolate may reduce the burden of the symptoms in chronic fatigue syndrome

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mellor Duane D

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Chocolate is rich in flavonoids that have been shown to be of benefit in disparate conditions including cardiovascular disease and cancer. The effect of polyphenol rich chocolate in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome (CFS has not been studied previously. Methods We conducted a double blinded, randomised, clinical pilot crossover study comparing high cocoa liquor/polyphenol rich chocolate (HCL/PR in comparison to simulated iso-calorific chocolate (cocoa liquor free/low polyphenols(CLF/LP on fatigue and residual function in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome. Subjects with CFS having severe fatigue of at least 10 out of 11 on the Chalder Fatigue Scale were enrolled. Subjects had either 8 weeks of intervention in the form of HCL/PR or CLF/LP, with a 2 week wash out period followed by 8 weeks of intervention with the other chocolate. Results Ten subjects were enrolled in the study. The Chalder Fatigue Scale score improved significantly after 8 weeks of the HCL/PR chocolate arm [median (range Exact Sig. (2-tailed] [33 (25 - 38 vs. 21.5 (6 - 35 0.01], but that deteriorated significantly when subjects were given simulated iso-calorific chocolate (CLF/CP [ 28.5 (17 - 20 vs. 34.5 (13-26 0.03]. The residual function, as assessed by the London Handicap scale, also improved significantly after the HCL/PR arm [0.49 (0.33 - 0.62 vs. 0.64 (0.44 - 0.83 0.01] and deteriorated after iso-calorific chocolate [00.44 (0.43 - 0.68 vs. 0.36 (0.33 - 0.620.03]. Likewise the Hospital Anxiety and Depression score also improved after the HCL/PR arm, but deteriorated after CLF/CP. Mean weight remained unchanged throughout the trial. Conclusion This study suggests that HCL/PR chocolate may improve symptoms in subjects with chronic fatigue syndrome.

  10. Chemical treatment of liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A liquor, which may contain heavy metal species, e.g. U or Pu, is passed along a pipeline provided with a cascade of fluidic mixing devices for adding a reagent or reagents. Pipeline sections are disposed downstream of mixing devices dimensioned so that the liquor and reagent(s) are afforded a residence time for reaction as they flow through it. The mixed liquor/reagent(s) are then fed into a settling vessel from which part of the contents is fed to a centrifugal separator to effect liquid/solid separation. A proportion of the solid separated is recycled back to the cascaded mixing pipeline to provide nuclei to enhance precipitation and/or increase concentration of a constituent, such as a floc-forming agent, used in the treatment of the liquor. (author)

  11. Chocolate: (un)healthy source of polyphenols?

    OpenAIRE

    Rimbach, Gerald; Egert, Sarah; de Pascual-Teresa, Sonia

    2010-01-01

    There is recent epidemiological evidence that chocolate consumption may improve vascular health. Furthermore, several small-scale human intervention studies indicate that habitual chocolate intake enhances the production of vasodilative nitric oxide and may lower blood pressure. It is hypothesized that potential beneficial effects of chocolate on vascular health are at least partly mediated by cocoa polyphenols including procyanidins. Based on cell culture studies, molecular targets of chocol...

  12. Chocolate provides a unique sensory experience: uncovering the secret of the ‘chocolate craving’

    OpenAIRE

    Mara P. Squicciarini; Swinnen, Johan

    2016-01-01

    We are constantly being told that chocolate is bad for our health– but is it bad for our mind? Mara P. Squicciarini and Johan Swinnen share an excerpt from their book, The Economics of Chocolate, which provides an economic analysis, as well as an interdisciplinary overview on all things chocolate. Here they explore the benefits of chocolate consumption and the impact chocolate cravings have on our moods.

  13. 21 CFR 163.123 - Sweet chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweet chocolate. 163.123 Section 163.123 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.123 Sweet chocolate. (a) Description. (1) Sweet chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and...

  14. 21 CFR 163.124 - White chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false White chocolate. 163.124 Section 163.124 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.124 White chocolate. (a) Description. (1) White chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and...

  15. 21 CFR 163.130 - Milk chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk chocolate. 163.130 Section 163.130 Food and... CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.130 Milk chocolate. (a) Description. (1) Milk chocolate is the solid or semiplastic food prepared by intimately mixing and...

  16. Hysteresis in the phase transition of chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ren, Ruilong; Lu, Qunfeng; Lin, Sihua; Dong, Xiaoyan; Fu, Hao; Wu, Shaoyi; Wu, Minghe; Teng, Baohua

    2016-01-01

    We designed an experiment to reproduce the hysteresis phenomenon of chocolate appearing in the heating and cooling process, and then established a model to relate the solidification degree to the order parameter. Based on the Landau-Devonshire theory, our model gave a description of the hysteresis phenomenon in chocolate, which lays the foundations for the study of the phase transition behavior of chocolate.

  17. PROFIL AROMA DAN MUTU SENSORI CITARASA PASTA KAKAO UNGGULAN DARI BEBERAPA DAERAH DI INDONESIA [Aroma and Flavor Sensory Profiles of Superior Cocoa Liquors from Different Regions in Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Intan Kusumaningrum*

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this research was to compare the aroma profiles and flavor sensory qualities of three cocoa liquors obtained from different regions in Indonesia, namely East Java, South Sulawesi and Bali. The Ghanaian cocoa liquor was used as the reference. The aroma of cocoa liquors was extracted by using a Solid Phase Microextraction (SPME, followed by detection with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry/Olfactometry (GC-MS/O with the Nassal Impact Frequency (NIF method. A total of 28 aroma active compounds in the cocoa liquors were identified, where in 21, 19, 22 and 18 compounds were detected in East Java, Bali, South Sulawesi and Ghana liquors, respectively. The profiles of these three liquors were not only different from one another but were also different from the reference. East Java liquor had a specific aroma of strong chocolate, enriched with creamy, caramel and coffee bean aroma, whileBali liquor was dominated by creamy, caramel and sweet, and South Sulawesi liquor was specified by its sweet green aroma. The aroma sensory characteristic was evaluated by descriptive test, presenting the aroma of nutty, acid, caramel, earthy and chocolate, while the taste sensory attributes included astringency, bitterness and acidity. The sensory profile analysis was carried out by applying a Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA method. Accompired with preference and ranking tests were also conducted. Among the three cocoa liquors, the sensory profile of South Sulawesi was the most similar to that of Ghanaian cocoa liquor. However, the cocoa liquor from Bali and East Java cocoa were more preferred comparing to the liquor from South Sulawesi.

  18. Analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dagmar Kozelová

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available At food purchase consumer is affected by several factors. In this work analysis of consumer behavior at chocolate purchase was performed involving 277 respondents. Statistical testing of results was performed by Chi - Square statistic, correlations have been tested with use of the Cramer's coefficient. It was found, that 86% of respondents consume chocolate. Factors affecting respondents at purchase were recommendations of friends, acquaintances (32%, brand of chocolate (24%, price (16%, personal experience (12%, health restrictions and allergies (11%. Less important factors when choosing chocolates are flavor (4%, nutritional quality (3%, country of origin (2% and chocolate packaging (1%. In the consumption of chocolate moderate correlation among various categories of economic activity of respondents was confirmed. Chocolate was consumed mainly by respondents whose monthly income ranges from 801 to 1001 €. We found that consumers prefer milk chocolate followed by dark and white at the end. In terms of gender the most commonly was chocolate consumed by women, once to three times a week. The same frequency of chocolate consumption dominates at the categories of students and employee. Expenses frequently spent to buy chocolates were from 1-3 € per week by young people (18-23 years and middle age generation of people (46-55 years. Normal 0 21 false false false CS JA X-NONE

  19. Chocolate and medicine: dangerous liaisons?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Donatella

    2009-01-01

    According to ancient Mayan texts, cocoa is of divine origin and is considered a gift from the gods. In the Classic period of Mayan civilization (250-900 a.d.), ground cocoa seeds were mixed with seasonings to make a bitter, spicy drink that was believed to be a health-promoting elixir. The Aztecs believed that cocoa pods symbolized life and fertility, and that eating the fruit of the cocoa tree allowed them to acquire wisdom and power. Cocoa was said to have nourishing, fortifying, and aphrodisiac qualities. Pre-Columbian societies were known to use chocolate as medicine, too. The appreciation and popularity of chocolate fluctuated over the centuries since its introduction to Europe from the New World. Now, recent evidence has begun to erase the poor reputation that chocolate had acquired in the past few decades and is restoring its former status. Chocolate is no longer deemed a guilty pleasure, and it may have positive health benefits when eaten in moderation as part of a balanced diet. PMID:19818277

  20. The true Price of Chocolate?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ingram, V.J.; Chocoloney, T.

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate prices generally do not incorporate many of the environmental and social externalities, costs which are incurred as the main ingredients such as cocoa and sugar move from farms, to factories to consumers. Nor do prices reflect the benefits of non-conventional production and alternative mod

  1. Gasification of black liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohl, Arthur L.

    1987-07-28

    A concentrated aqueous black liquor containing carbonaceous material and alkali metal sulfur compounds is treated in a gasifier vessel containing a relatively shallow molten salt pool at its bottom to form a combustible gas and a sulfide-rich melt. The gasifier vessel, which is preferably pressurized, has a black liquor drying zone at its upper part, a black liquor solids gasification zone located below the drying zone, and a molten salt sulfur reduction zone which comprises the molten salt pool. A first portion of an oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the gas space in the gasification zone immediatley above the molten salt pool. The remainder of the oxygen-containing gas is introduced into the molten salt pool in an amount sufficient to cause gasification of carbonaceous material entering the pool from the gasification zone but not sufficient to create oxidizing conditions in the pool. The total amount of the oxygen-containing gas introduced both above the pool and into the pool constitutes between 25 and 55% of the amount required for complete combustion of the black liquor feed. A combustible gas is withdrawn from an upper portion of the drying zone, and a melt in which the sulfur content is predominantly in the form of alkali metal sulfide is withdrawn from the molten salt sulfur reduction zone.

  2. Claims about Cocoa: Can Chocolate Really Be Good for You?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... our exit disclaimer . Subscribe Claims About Cocoa Can Chocolate Really Be Good for You? Many of us ... Ringing in Your Ears? Wise Choices Links Eating Chocolate If you don’t eat chocolate now, the ...

  3. Understanding the structure of chocolate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Crystallization of cocoa-butter in the β phase from the melt under static conditions is only possible using the memory effect of cocoa-butter. Under all other conditions polymorphs with lower melting temperatures develop, whereas the β phase is the preferred one in chocolate. SAXS experiments proved 1,3-distearoyl-2-oleoylglycerol seeds with triple chain-length packing initiate the β-crystallization. Models for the different phases may be based on the crystal structure determinations of triacylglycerols. A new, patented, way of chocolate making is in development in which the traditional tempering process is replaced by another pre-crystallization process. The process is based on the use of seed crystals in the liquid phase and driven by a feedback system

  4. Resisting chocolate temptation using a brief mindfulness strategy

    OpenAIRE

    Jenkins, K. T.; Tapper, K.

    2014-01-01

    Objectives: We examined the effects of two mindfulness-based strategies on chocolate consumption amongst individuals who were trying to reduce the amount of chocolate they consumed. Methods: Participants (n = 137) were allocated to one of three conditions and employed either cognitive defusion, acceptance, or relaxation (control) techniques to help them resist chocolate over 5 days. During this period, they carried a bag of chocolates with them and recorded any chocolate or chocolate-rela...

  5. Coffee and chocolate in danger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gross, Michael

    2014-06-01

    As a rapidly growing global consumer base appreciates the pleasures of coffee and chocolate and health warnings are being replaced by more encouraging sounds from medical experts, their supply is under threat from climate change, pests and financial problems. Coffee farmers in Central America, in particular, are highly vulnerable to the impact of climate change, made worse by financial insecurity. Michael Gross reports. PMID:24944039

  6. Ingredientes usados na indústria de chocolates Ingredients used in chocolate industry

    OpenAIRE

    Marissol Richter; Suzana Caetano da Silva Lannes

    2007-01-01

    Chocolate é um produto comumente consumido, sendo que sua produção tem aumentado nos últimos anos. Produzir chocolates requer um entendimento do consumidor. Os tipos preferidos de chocolate variam em cada país. Os diferentes sabores e usos para o chocolate refletem a história da indústria dos diferentes lugares. O sabor do chocolate é parcialmente determinado pela química do produto. O sabor depende da liberação dos compostos aromáticos, enquanto que a textura é uma função da maneira como o m...

  7. Chocolate: A Marvelous Natural Product of Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tannenbaum, Ginger

    2004-01-01

    The study of chocolate, a natural product, can be beneficial for the chemistry students as they ask frequently about the relevancy of their chemistry classes. The history of chocolate, its chemical and physical changes during processing, its composition, different crystalline forms, tempering and its viscosity are discussed.

  8. 33 CFR 117.959 - Chocolate Bayou.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 1 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Chocolate Bayou. 117.959 Section 117.959 Navigation and Navigable Waters COAST GUARD, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY BRIDGES DRAWBRIDGE OPERATION REGULATIONS Specific Requirements Texas § 117.959 Chocolate Bayou. The draw of the...

  9. Teaching Quality Control with Chocolate Chip Cookies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Ardith

    2014-01-01

    Chocolate chip cookies are used to illustrate the importance and effectiveness of control charts in Statistical Process Control. By counting the number of chocolate chips, creating the spreadsheet, calculating the control limits and graphing the control charts, the student becomes actively engaged in the learning process. In addition, examining…

  10. Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FROILAN G. DESTREZA

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This study is for the BSHRM Students of Batangas State University (BatStateU ARASOF for the researchers believe that the Wireless 3D Chocolate Printer would be helpful in their degree program especially on making creative, artistic, personalized and decorative chocolate designs. The researchers used the Prototyping model as procedural method for the successful development and implementation of the hardware and software. This method has five phases which are the following: quick plan, quick design, prototype construction, delivery and feedback and communication. This study was evaluated by the BSHRM Students and the assessment of the respondents regarding the software and hardware application are all excellent in terms of Accuracy, Effecitveness, Efficiency, Maintainability, Reliability and User-friendliness. Also, the overall level of acceptability of the design project as evaluated by the respondents is excellent. With regard to the observation about the best raw material to use in 3D printing, the chocolate is good to use as the printed material is slightly distorted,durable and very easy to prepare; the icing is also good to use as the printed material is not distorted and is very durable but consumes time to prepare; the flour is not good as the printed material is distorted, not durable but it is easy to prepare. The computation of the economic viability level of 3d printer with reference to ROI is 37.14%. The recommendation of the researchers in the design project are as follows: adding a cooling system so that the raw material will be more durable, development of a more simplified version and improving the extrusion process wherein the user do not need to stop the printing process just to replace the empty syringe with a new one.

  11. High-performance composite chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dean, Julian; Thomson, Katrin; Hollands, Lisa; Bates, Joanna; Carter, Melvyn; Freeman, Colin; Kapranos, Plato; Goodall, Russell

    2013-07-01

    The performance of any engineering component depends on and is limited by the properties of the material from which it is fabricated. It is crucial for engineering students to understand these material properties, interpret them and select the right material for the right application. In this paper we present a new method to engage students with the material selection process. In a competition-based practical, first-year undergraduate students design, cost and cast composite chocolate samples to maximize a particular performance criterion. The same activity could be adapted for any level of education to introduce the subject of materials properties and their effects on the material chosen for specific applications.

  12. 21 CFR 163.140 - Skim milk chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Skim milk chocolate. 163.140 Section 163.140 Food... milk chocolate. (a) Description. Skim milk chocolate is the food that conforms to the standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements for label declaration of ingredients for milk chocolate...

  13. Effects of olfactory sense on chocolate craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firmin, Michael W; Gillette, Aubrey L; Hobbs, Taylor E; Wu, Di

    2016-10-01

    In the present study, we assessed the effect of the olfactory sense on chocolate craving in college females. Building on previous research by Kemps and Tiggemann (2013), we hypothesized that a fresh scent would decrease one's craving level for chocolate food. While the precursor study only addressed the decrease of chocolate craving, we also hypothesized that a sweet scent would increase one's craving level for chocolate foods. In the present experiment, participants rated their craving levels after viewing images of chocolate foods and inhaling essential oils: one fresh (Slique™ essence), and one sweet (vanilla). Results supported both of the hypotheses: inhaling a fresh scent reduced females' craving levels; similarly, when a sweet scent was inhaled, the participants' craving levels for chocolate food increased. These findings are particularly beneficial for women seeking weight loss and the findings can be applied in contexts such as weight loss programs, therapy, and maintenance programs, even beyond college settings. The results are particularly useful for helping women regarding stimuli that might serve as triggers for chocolate cravings. PMID:27395410

  14. Electrorheology leads to healthier and tastier chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Rongjia; Tang, Hong; Tawhid-Al-Islam, Kazi; Du, Enpeng; Kim, Jeongyoo

    2016-07-01

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. Although this issue was called into attention decades ago, no actual solution was found. To bypass this critical outstanding problem, two manufacturers introduced some low-calorie fats to substitute for cocoa butter. Somehow, their products are not allowed in most countries. Here we show that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matter, especially to the viscosity of liquid suspension and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density. When the concentration of cocoa solid is high, close to the MRJ density, removing a small amount of fat will jam the chocolate flow. Applying unconventional electrorheology to liquid chocolate with applied field in the flow direction, we aggregate the cocoa particles into prolate spheroids in micrometers. This microstructure change breaks the rotational symmetry, reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction, and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are expecting a new class of healthier and tastier chocolate soon. PMID:27325758

  15. The history and science of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verna, R

    2013-12-01

    This article gives an account of the origins, evolution and properties of chocolate. Chocolate is processed from the pod or cabosside of the cacao plant, grown in the tropical belt. The origins of chocolate are traced back to the Maya people who were probably the first to cultivate the cacao plant. The early chocolate drink, considered a "drink of the Gods" was mixed with cinnamon and pepper, tasting bitter and strong, and was most appreciated for its invigorating and stimulating effects than for its taste. Imported from the Americas, the softened version soon spread in Europe. From the 1800s to the 20th Century, it evolved from a drink to its current pleasurable varieties (such as fondant, Gianduja, milky and white chocolate), gaining much momentum in industry and also made great impact as a romantic item and art form. Important components in chocolate are flavonoids (antioxidants), cocoa butter, caffeine, theobromine and phenylethylamine, whereas the presence of psychoactive substances account for its pleasurable effects. Caffeine, theophylline and theobromine constitutes the methylxanthines, known to enhance the action of cAMP, which plays an important role in the transmission of intracellular signals. Chocolate is noted to have anti-inflammatory, neuroprotective and cardioprotective effects, and improves the bioavailability of nitric oxide, which action improves the pressure, platelet function and fluidity of blood. PMID:24362474

  16. Changes in procyanidins and tannin concentration as affected by cocoa liquor roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Jati

    2009-08-01

    Full Text Available Changes in cocoa procyanidins and tannin concentration as affected by cocoa liquor roasting were studied by heating up cocoa liquor of fermented beans containing 58 g kg-1 of polyphenols and the same liquor which was enriched with crude polyphenols, extracted from freeze-dried unfermented cocoa beans to a final concentration of 170 g kg-1. The liquors were roasted at 120 OC for 15, 25, 35 and 45 min with three replications. Result of the study showed that cocoa bean polyphenol was resistant against high temperature during heating of cocoa liquor 120 OC for up to 45 min. The resistance was stronger with the unfermented cocoa bean polyphenol than with fermented cocoa. High temperature promoted a small quantity of monomers up to pentamers of the fermented cocoa bean polyphenol to polymerize into higher oligomers, but did not with unfermented cocoa bean polyphenol. These results imply that the problem of lack in cocoa flavor in terms high astringency and bitterness due to high polyphenol content cannot be overcome by the application of high temperature during chocolate processing, meanwhile cocoa bean polyphenol could still give beneficial as an antioxidant even after high temperature application.Key words: Cocoa bean, polyphenol, procyanidin, tannin, roasting, antioxidant, flavor, astringency.

  17. Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health | Efectos beneficiosos del chocolate en la salud cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Juaristi, Miren; L. González-Torres; Bravo, Laura; Vaquero, M. Pilar; Bastida, Sara; Sánchez-Muniz, F. J.

    2011-01-01

    Since ancient times, numerous health beneficial effects have been attributed to chocolate, closing up its consumption to a therapeutic use. The present study reviews some relevant studies about chocolate (and its bioactive compounds) on some cardiovascular risk factors and stresses the need of future studies. The consumption of cocoa/ chocolate (i) increases plasma antioxidant capacity, (ii) diminishes platelet function and inflammation, and (iii) decreases diastolic and systolic arterial pre...

  18. Fluorine content of several brands of chocolate bars and chocolate cookies found in Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Buzalaf Marília Afonso Rabelo; Granjeiro José Mauro; Cardoso Vanessa Eid da Silva; Silva Thelma Lopes da; Olympio Kelly Polido Kaneshiro

    2003-01-01

    Chocolate bars and chocolate cookies are foodstuffs highly appreciated by children. The possibility of having fluorine (F) among their components, associated with an excessive consumption, may make them decisive contributors to the total daily F intake. Thus, they could participate in the establishment of dental fluorosis. The aim of this study was to analyze the fluorine concentration [F] of the chocolates bars (CB) Baton, Confeti, Garoto Ball, Kinder Ovo, M&M?s, Milkybar, Nescau, Nescau Bal...

  19. Staging quantum cryptography with chocolate balls

    OpenAIRE

    Svozil, Karl

    2005-01-01

    Moderated by a director, laymen and students are encouraged to assume the role of quanta and enact a quantum cryptographic protocol. The performance is based on a generalized urn model capable of reproducing complementarity even for classical chocolate balls.

  20. Staging quantum cryptography with chocolate balls

    CERN Document Server

    Svozil, K

    2006-01-01

    Moderated by a director, laymen and students are encouraged to assume the role of quanta and enact a quantum cryptographic protocol. The performance is based on a generalized urn model capable of reproducing complementarity even for classical chocolate balls.

  1. Chocolate Bars Based on Human Nutritional Requirements

    OpenAIRE

    Robson, Anthony

    2013-01-01

    International audience Key Points * The nutritional value of chocolate bars should be based on the nutritional value of the low energy dense late Paleolithic human diet to help reduce mental ill health, obesity, and other postprandial insults. * Current chocolate bars have a high energy density (>2 kcal/g). * Cocoa can be sweetened by the addition of calorie-free Purefruit™ (Tate & Lyle) monk fruit ( Siraitia grosvenorii ) extract. PUREFRUIT™ is approximately 200 times sweeter than sugar a...

  2. Garlic, Chocolate, or Tomatoes for (Pre-) Hypertension?

    OpenAIRE

    Ried K

    2011-01-01

    Aged garlic extract, dark chocolate, or lycopene-rich tomato products have been linked with blood pressure-lowering properties in hypertensive people. There is consistent evidence for garlic supplements, in particular in the form of Kyolic® aged garlic extract, to be effective in lowering blood pressure comparable to first-line standard antihypertensive medication. Dark chocolate appears to be beneficial for blood pressure reduction as well, albeit to a lesser extent than Kyolic®. L...

  3. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Harwood, Meriel L; Loquasto, Joseph R; Roberts, Robert F; Ziegler, Gregory R; Hayes, John E

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes determining whether that product will be acceptable to the consumer. Thus, the purpose of this research was to manipulate the bitterness of chocolate ice cream to examine how this influences consumer preferences. The main goal of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for bitterness in chocolate ice cream, and to see if solid chocolate preferences (dark vs. milk) generalized to ice cream. A food-safe bitter ingredient, sucrose octaacetate, was added to chocolate ice cream to alter bitterness without disturbing other the sensory qualities of the ice cream samples, including texture. Untrained chocolate ice cream consumers participated in a large-scale sensory test by indicating their preferences for blinded pairs of unspiked and spiked samples, where the spiked sample had increasing levels of the added bitterant. As anticipated, the group containing individuals who prefer milk chocolate had a much lower tolerance for bitterness in their chocolate ice cream compared with the group of individuals who prefer dark chocolate; indeed, the dark chocolate group tolerated almost twice as much added bitterant in the ice cream before indicating a significant preference for the unspiked (control) ice cream. This work demonstrates the successful application of the rejection threshold method to a complex dairy food. Estimating rejection thresholds could prove to be an effective tool for determining acceptable formulations or quality limits when considering attributes that become

  4. Influence of Fat Content on Chocolate Rheology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gabriele, D.; Migliori, M.; Baldino, N.; de Cindio, B.

    2008-07-01

    Molten chocolate is a suspension having properties strongly affected by particle characteristics including not only the dispersed particles but also the fat crystals formed during chocolate cooling and solidification. Even though chocolate rheology is extensively studied, mainly viscosity at high temperature was determined and no information on amount and type of fat crystals can be detected in these conditions. However chocolate texture and stability is strongly affected by the presence of specific crystals. In this work a different approach, based on creep test, was proposed to characterize chocolate samples at typical process temperatures (approximately 30 °C). The analysis of compliance, as time function, at short times enable to evaluate a material "elasticity" related to the solid-like behavior of the material and given by the differential area between the Newtonian and the experimental compliance. Moreover a specific time dependent elasticity was defined as the ratio between the differential area, in a time range, and total area. Chocolate samples having a different fat content were prepared and they were conditioned directly on rheometer plate by applying two different controlled cooling rate; therefore creep were performed by applying a low stress to ensure material linear behavior. Experimental data were analyzed by the proposed method and specific elasticity was related to single crystal properties. It was found that fat crystal amount and properties depend in different way on fat content and cooling rate; moreover creep proved to be able to detect even small differences among tested samples.

  5. Pomegranate liquor preparation and analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Galego, Ludovina; Leticia M. Estevinho; Silva, José Paulo

    2012-01-01

    The pomegranate (Punica granatum L.) liquor has been produced for several centuries in the south of Portugal, mainly in the mountain areas. The “Assaria” variety is the preferred cultivar due to its organoleptic properties and high arils to peel ratio. Wild pomegranates are also widely distributed but, despite the health benefits that have been associated to the fruits, they continue to be unappreciated for consumption. Liquor preparation is a very good alternative for wild pomegranate fruits...

  6. Kraft black liquor delivery systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, T.N.; Empie, H.L.; Obuskovic, N.; Spielbauer, T.M.

    1990-02-01

    Improvement of spray nozzles for black liquor injection into kraft recovery furnaces is expected to result from obtaining a controlled, well-defined droplet size distribution. Work this year has centered on defining the capabilities of commercial black liquor nozzles currently in use. Considerations of the observed mechanism of droplet formation suggest a major revision is needed in the theory of how droplets form from these nozzles. High resolution, high sensitivity video has been shown to be superior to flash x-ray as a technique for measuring the droplet size distribution as well as the formation history. An environmentally sound spray facility capable of spraying black liquor at temperatures up to normal firing conditions is being constructed before data acquisition continues. Preliminary correlations have been developed between liquor properties, nozzle design, and droplet size. Three aspects of nozzle design have been investigated: droplet size distribution, fluid sheet thickness, and flow and pressure drop characteristics. The standard deviation about the median droplet size for black liquor is nearly the same as the for a wide variety of other fluids and nozzle types. Preliminary correlation for fluid sheet thickness on the plate of a splashplate nozzle show the strong similarities of black liquor to other fluids. The flow and pressure drop characteristic of black liquor nozzle, follow a simple two-term relationship similar to other flow devices. This means that in routine mill operation of black liquor nozzles only the fluid acceleration in the nozzle is important, viscous losses are quiet small. 21 refs., 53 figs., 10 tabs.

  7. Potentialities of spinal liquor scanography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It is shown that spinal liquor scanography is a harmless and informative method for the examination of patients, permitting to detect injury foci for spinal cord tumours in 90% cases, for acute injuries of the vertebral column and spinal cord in 89.5% cases, for herniation of nucleus pulposus in 81% cases. The method of spinal liquor scanography can be used in neurology and neurosurgery to select the method of treatment and to evaluate its efficiency

  8. Efectos beneficiosos del chocolate en la salud cardiovascular Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Gómez-Juaristi

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Desde la antigüedad se ha atribuido al chocolate propiedades saludables que lo han aproximado más hacia un uso terapéutico que alimentario. El presente trabajo revisa algunos estudios relevantes de los efectos del chocolate (y sus componentes activos sobre diferentes factores de riesgo cardiovascular y señala la necesidad de futuros estudios. El consumo de cacao/chocolate (i incrementa la actividad antioxidante, (ii modula la función plaquetaria e inflamación y (iii disminuye la presión arterial sistólica y diastólica. Aunque no existe consenso sobre la cantidad óptima a consumir, puede sugerirse que el consumo diario de chocolate rico en cacao (y polifenoles es una buena elección para reducir, al menos parcialmente, el riesgo cardiovascular. No obstante, son necesarios más estudios que profundicen sobre la biodisponibilidad y mecanismos de acción de los componentes activos del chocolate. El estudio de la interacción del chocolate y sus componentes con genes candidatos aportará información fundamental de los individuos "diana" que podrían beneficiarse del potencial efecto saludable del chocolate en el tratamiento cardiovascular.Since ancient times, numerous health beneficial effects have been attributed to chocolate, closing up its consumption to a therapeutic use. The present study reviews some relevant studies about chocolate (and its bioactive compounds on some cardiovascular risk factors and stresses the need of future studies. The consumption of cocoa/ chocolate (i increases plasma antioxidant capacity, (ii diminishes platelet function and inflammation, and (iii decreases diastolic and systolic arterial pressures. Data currently available indicate that daily consumption of cocoa-rich chocolate (rich in polyphenols may at least partially lower cardiovascular disease risk. Further studies are required in order to establish the bioavailability and mechanisms of action of bioactive compounds in chocolate. The study of the

  9. From pralines to multinationals. The economic history of Belgian chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Garrone, Maria; Pieters, Hannah; Swinnen, Jo

    2015-01-01

    Belgium is associated with high-quality chocolate products and Belgian companies play an important role in cocoa processing. However, in historical perspective the global success and reputation of Belgian chocolate is a relatively recent phenomenon. Especially since the 1980s exports of "Belgian chocolates" have grown exponentially. We document the growth of the sector and discuss its determinants. Today, the very concept of "Belgian chocolate" faces challenges, as successful companies have b...

  10. Rejection Thresholds in Chocolate Milk: Evidence for Segmentation

    OpenAIRE

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Gregory R Ziegler; Hayes, John E.

    2012-01-01

    Bitterness is generally considered a negative attribute in food, yet many individuals enjoy some bitterness in products like coffee or chocolate. In chocolate, bitterness arises from naturally occurring alkaloids and phenolics found in cacao. Fermentation and roasting help develop typical chocolate flavor and reduce the intense bitterness of raw cacao by modifying these bitter compounds. As it becomes increasingly common to fortify chocolate with `raw' cacao to increase the amount of healthfu...

  11. Influence of label information on dark chocolate acceptability

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Moreno, Míriam; Tarrega, Amparo; Torrescasana, Eva; Blanch i Colat, Consol

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present work was to study how the information on product labels influences consumer expectations and their acceptance and purchase intention of dark chocolate. Six samples of dark choco- late, varying in brand (premium and store brand) and in type of product (regular dark chocolate, single cocoa origin dark chocolate and high percentage of cocoa dark chocolate), were evaluated by 109 con- sumers who scored their liking and purchase intention under three conditio...

  12. Chocolate Milk Consequences: A Pilot Study Evaluating the Consequences of Banning Chocolate Milk in School Cafeterias

    OpenAIRE

    Hanks, Andrew S.; Just, David R; Brian Wansink

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk). If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? METHODS: In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk-which will be referred to as chocolate milk-was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch P...

  13. Efectos beneficiosos del chocolate en la salud cardiovascular Beneficial effects of chocolate on cardiovascular health

    OpenAIRE

    M. Gómez-Juaristi; L. González-Torres; L. Bravo; M. P. Vaquero; Bastida, S.; Sánchez-Muniz, F. J.

    2011-01-01

    Desde la antigüedad se ha atribuido al chocolate propiedades saludables que lo han aproximado más hacia un uso terapéutico que alimentario. El presente trabajo revisa algunos estudios relevantes de los efectos del chocolate (y sus componentes activos) sobre diferentes factores de riesgo cardiovascular y señala la necesidad de futuros estudios. El consumo de cacao/chocolate (i) incrementa la actividad antioxidante, (ii) modula la función plaquetaria e inflamación y (iii) disminuye la presión a...

  14. Garlic, Chocolate, or Tomatoes for (Pre- Hypertension?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried K

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Aged garlic extract, dark chocolate, or lycopene-rich tomato products have been linked with blood pressure-lowering properties in hypertensive people. There is consistent evidence for garlic supplements, in particular in the form of Kyolic® aged garlic extract, to be effective in lowering blood pressure comparable to first-line standard antihypertensive medication. Dark chocolate appears to be beneficial for blood pressure reduction as well, albeit to a lesser extent than Kyolic®. Lycopene in tomato extract has a protective effect on serum cholesterol similar to low-dose statins, and may also be beneficial for lowering blood pressure in hypertensive people.

  15. 27 CFR 26.318 - Liquor bottles denied entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquor bottles denied... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 26.318 Liquor bottles denied entry. Filled liquor bottles not conforming...

  16. 25 CFR 140.18 - Intoxicating liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Intoxicating liquors. 140.18 Section 140.18 Indians....18 Intoxicating liquors. No trader shall use or permit to be used his premises for any unlawful... manufacture, sale, gift, transportation, drinking or storage of intoxicating liquors or beverages in...

  17. Influence of label information on dark chocolate acceptability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres-Moreno, M; Tarrega, A; Torrescasana, E; Blanch, C

    2012-04-01

    The aim of the present work was to study how the information on product labels influences consumer expectations and their acceptance and purchase intention of dark chocolate. Six samples of dark chocolate, varying in brand (premium and store brand) and in type of product (regular dark chocolate, single cocoa origin dark chocolate and high percentage of cocoa dark chocolate), were evaluated by 109 consumers who scored their liking and purchase intention under three conditions: blind (only tasting the products), expected (observing product label information) and informed (tasting the products together with provision of the label information). In the expected condition, consumer liking was mainly affected by the brand. In the blind condition, differences in liking were due to the type of product; the samples with a high percentage of cocoa were those less preferred by consumers. Under the informed condition, liking of dark chocolates varied depending on both brand and type of product. Premium brand chocolates generated high consumer expectations of chocolate acceptability, which were fulfilled by the sensory characteristics of the products. Store brand chocolates created lower expectations, but when they were tasted they were as acceptable as premium chocolates. Claims of a high percentage of cocoa and single cocoa origin on labels did not generate higher expectations than regular dark chocolates. PMID:22198318

  18. How different chocolate brands influence our chocolate perception and buying behavior?

    OpenAIRE

    Mitrovic, Jelena

    2014-01-01

    Master in Marketing This master dissertation is based on a research conducted in order to answer the question ‘How different chocolate brands influence our chocolate perception and buying behavior?’. This research was conducted with a sample of 101 respondents through a structured questionnaire. All data acquired were analyzed in the SPSS software, due to its huge potential to compare different variables, that is, different aspects of data. The main aim of this research is to compare...

  19. Explaining tolerance for bitterness in chocolate ice cream using solid chocolate preferences

    OpenAIRE

    Harwood, Meriel L.; Loquasto, Joseph R.; Roberts, Robert F.; Gregory R Ziegler; Hayes, John E.

    2013-01-01

    Chocolate ice cream is commonly formulated with higher sugar levels than nonchocolate flavors to compensate for the inherent bitterness of cocoa. Bitterness, however, is an integral part of the complex flavor of chocolate. In light of the global obesity epidemic, many consumers and health professionals are concerned about the levels of added sugars in foods. Once a strategy for balancing undesirable bitterness and health concerns regarding added sugars has been developed, the task becomes det...

  20. Chocolate milk consequences: a pilot study evaluating the consequences of banning chocolate milk in school cafeterias.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew S Hanks

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVES: Currently, 68.3% of the milk available in schools is flavored, with chocolate being the most popular (61.6% of all milk. If chocolate milk is removed from a school cafeteria, what will happen to overall milk selection and consumption? METHODS: In a before-after study in 11 Oregon elementary schools, flavored milk-which will be referred to as chocolate milk-was banned from the cafeteria. Milk sales, school enrollment, and data for daily participation in the National School Lunch Program (NSLP were compared year to date. RESULTS: Total daily milk sales declined by 9.9% (p<0.01. Although white milk increased by 161.2 cartons per day (p<0.001, 29.4% of this milk was thrown away. Eliminating chocolate milk was also associated with 6.8% fewer students eating school lunches, and although other factors were also involved, this is consistent with the notion of psychological reactance. CONCLUSIONS: Removing chocolate milk from school cafeterias may reduce calorie and sugar consumption, but it may also lead students to take less milk overall, drink less (waste more of the white milk they do take, and no longer purchase school lunch. Food service managers need to carefully weigh the costs and benefits of eliminating chocolate milk and should consider alternative options that make white milk more convenient, attractive, and normal to choose.

  1. Miss Chocolate and Messrs Ice-eream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Aroti was an Indian girl. She went to school in England. She was put in a class where all the children were white, and she suddenly found herself surrounded by a gang of boys all shouting,“Miss Chocolate! Miss Chocolate!” They expectedher to hurst into tears.

  2. Chocolate: Reading across the Five C's

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schneider, Jody

    2007-01-01

    The reading and literacy focus of a unit that centers on chocolate can provide a context for using the interpretive mode of the communication standard from the "National Standards in Foreign Language Education." This article presents a thematic unit that is applicable to all languages and adaptable to any level. Inspired by Woodlands' all-school…

  3. Measuring and modelling the structure of chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Le Révérend, Benjamin J. D.; Fryer, Peter J.; Smart, Ian; Bakalis, Serafim

    2015-01-01

    The cocoa butter present in chocolate exists as six different polymorphs. To achieve the desired crystal form (βV), traditional chocolate manufacturers use relatively slow cooling (chocolate products during processing as well as the crystal structure of cocoa butter throughout the process. A set of ordinary differential equations describes the kinetics of fat crystallisation. The parameters were obtained by fitting the model to a set of DSC curves. The heat transfer equations were coupled to the kinetic model and solved using commercially available CFD software. A method using single crystal XRD was developed using a novel subtraction method to quantify the cocoa butter structure in chocolate directly and results were compared to the ones predicted from the model. The model was proven to predict phase change temperature during processing accurately (±1°C). Furthermore, it was possible to correctly predict phase changes and polymorphous transitions. The good agreement between the model and experimental data on the model geometry allows a better design and control of industrial processes.

  4. Testing the Fracture Behaviour of Chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parsons, L. B.; Goodall, R.

    2011-01-01

    In teaching the materials science aspects of physics, mechanical behaviour is important due to its relevance to many practical applications. This article presents a method for experimentally examining the toughness of chocolate, including a design for a simple test rig, and a number of experiments that can be performed in the classroom. Typical…

  5. Diabetes and chocolate: friend or foe?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellor, Duane D; Sathyapalan, Thozhukat; Kilpatrick, Eric S; Atkin, Stephen L

    2015-11-18

    Polyphenols and other compounds found in cocoa and chocolate have therapeutic potential in the management of diabetes in humans. Polyphenol benefits have been proposed supported by in vitro studies, animal work, and clinical trials, which have been conducted mostly in healthy volunteers. The energy-dense formulations of many cocoa and chocolate products, which can be up to 50% sugar by weight, have given the perception that chocolate may be harmful through its contribution to obesity. A review of both clinical trial databases and published literature yielded 15 registered trials and 7 published studies. The published data interventions reported are diverse and vary widely in quality, including poor selection of control products or inadequate blinding procedures. There are also inconsistencies in reporting of data with limited information on the effect of cocoa and chocolate supplementation on weight and glycemic control despite the potential benefits reported with respect to the cardiovascular risk factors of endothelial function and lipids. More studies are required powered for primary clinical outcomes together with the development of standardized product formulations that optimize the dose of polyphenols within a palatable and energy-restricted product. PMID:25775252

  6. Dental fracture and chocolate candies: case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melani, Rodolfo Francisco Haltenhoff; Turbino, Miriam Lacalle; Ramos, Dalton Luiz de Paula; Bombana, Antônio Carlos; Dias, Paulo Eduardo Miamoto

    2013-05-01

    A complaint by a customer to a food company claimed that the consumption of a chocolate candy fractured his anterior teeth, due to its hard consistency. Fragments of the fractured teeth and the chocolate candy that supposedly caused it were collected, examined and photographed. Fragments presented caries, large restorations, and suggested previous endodontic treatment. To evaluate causation, the food company requested a laboratory analysis, which simulated the human bite on chocolate candies of the same brand. Human teeth were assembled in a simulating device of masticatory functions of apprehension and incision. Teeth used were either sound or with non-restored endodontic accesses, to simulate previous conditions of the collected fragments. Twenty chocolate candies, cooled in a freezer to 0 °C for 2 h were used as test foods, and were positioned between the teeth of the device at the moment of the test. The set was put in a dynamometer, programmed to apply increasing forces (rate of advance of 5 mm/min), until rupture (either of the specimen or of the teeth). The applied force, in N, at the time of fracture was recorded and analyzed. The average force to fracture the test food was 233.23 N. No tooth was fractured in the experiment. Forces ranging from 191.3 to 275.2 N, applied to chocolate candies were not sufficient to neither fracture human teeth nor cause any structural damage. It was concluded that the dental fracture occurred because of previous oral health conditions of the customer. PMID:23622490

  7. MANAGEMENT OF CHOCOLATE MASS STRUCTURE CREATION

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chernykh I. A.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available In the article the processes of chocolate masses, which are determined by the kinetics of the interaction of the dispersed phase through the layer of the dispersion medium, i.e., determined by surface phenomena at the interface, were examined. The results of the study of surface-active properties of sunflower activated phospholipids and dietary supplements "Vitol", which were performed on the model of structured systems. A theoretical and experimental study of the development of practical recommendations for the use of surface-active substances in the production of chocolate masses is given. The ability of dietary supplements "Vitol" and PAF to control the properties of structured disperse systems, which include chocolate mass, was found out. It is shown that the input of sunflower activated phospholipid and dietary supplements "Vitol" to chocolate masses in certain quantities leads to a significant change in the nature of the deformation behavior of chocolate masses. The behavior of thin layers of cocoa butter, PAF and BAA "Vitol" on various liquid surfaces was introduced. The study was carried out by monolayers. The obtained results showed that increasing the pH of the substrate a surface pressure increases, and the film stretches and tends to spread. It has been shown that the injection of surfactant to cocoa butter film facilitates the spreading of water on cocoa butter. It is found that PAF and especially BAA "Vitol" pose the greatest surface pressure, and the most stable and dense layers comparing to other surfactants. Study of the properties of thin layers of cocoa butter and BAA "Vitol" liquid surfaces showed that dietary supplements "Vitol" significantly increases the ability to spread cocoa butter films on the surface of the water

  8. Sulphate removal from uraniferous liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for the recovery of uranium from liquor resulting from the attack of sulphur containing uraniferous ores by an alkaline solution of sodium carbonate and/or sodium bicarbonate is claimed. An ion exchange resin is used to separate the uranium from the solution of sodium carbonate and/or bicarbonate and sodium sulphate. The ion exchange resin is then eluted with a solution of ammonium carbonate and/or bicarbonate to provide an eluate containing ammonium uranyl tricarbonate, ammonium carbonate and/or bicarbonate and ammonium sulphate. The eluate is heated to boiling to convert the ammonium uranyl tricarbonate to ammonium uranate and/or diuranate. Ammonia, carbon dioxide and water vapor are released. The precipitated ammonium uranate and/or diuranate is separated from the remaining liquor and calcined to give uranium trioxide

  9. Automatic sampling of radioactive liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the latest techniques in sampling radioactive liquors in an Irradiated Fuel Reprocessing Plant. Previously to obtain a sample from these liquors operators were involved at the point of sampling, the transport of samples in shielded containers to the laboratories and at the offloading of the samples at the laboratory. Penetration of the radioactive containments occurred at the sampling point and again in the laboratory, these operations could lead to possible radioactive contamination. The latest design consists of a Sample Bottle Despatch Facility Autosampler units, Pneumatic Transfer System and Receipt Facility which reduces considerably operator involvement, provides a safe rapid transport system and minimises any possibility of radioactive contamination. The system can be made fully automatic and ease of maintenance has been ensured by the design

  10. Automatic sampling of radioactive liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes the latest techniques in sampling radioactive liquors in an Irradiated Fuel Reprocessing Plant. Previously to obtain a sample from these liquors operators were involved at the point of sampling, the transport of samples in shielded containers to the laboratories and at the offloading of the samples at the laboratory. Penetration of the radioactive containments occurred at the sampling point and again in the laboratory, these operations could lead to possible radioactive contamination. The latest design consists of a Sample Bottle Despatch Facility Autosampler units, Pneumatic Transfer System and Receipt Facility which reduces considerably operator involvement, provides a safe rapid transport system and minimises any possibility of radioactive contamination. The system can be made fully automatic and ease of maintenance has been ensured by the design. (author)

  11. Automatic sampling of radioactive liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The latest techniques in sampling radioactive liquors in an Irradiated Fuel Reprocessing Plant are described. Previously to obtain a sample from these liquors operators were involved at the point of sampling, the transport of samples in shielded containers to the laboratories and at the offloading of the samples at the laboratory. Penetration of the radioactive containments occurred at the sampling point and again in the laboratory; these operations could lead to possible radioactive contamination. The latest design consists of a Sample Bottle Despatch Facility Autosampler units, Pneumatic Transfer System and Receipt Facility which reduces considerably operator involvement, provides a safe rapid transport system and minimises any possibility of radioactive contamination. The system can be made fully automatic and ease of maintenance has been ensured by the design. (author)

  12. Radiation chemistry of liquors: Pt.2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, the yield and distribution of 2, 3-butanediol isomers formed during the irradiation of liquors have been investigated and compared with that of the isomers in some ordinary liquors. It has been found that some commercial liquors also contain 2, 3-butanediol, but there is difference in the distribution of their optical isomers. 2, 3-butanediol is in the forms of meso and dl for irradiated liquor and its ratio (meso/dl) = 1. In commercial liquors, 2, 3-butanediol is in the forms of meso and 1 and its ratio (meso/l) ≤ 0.5. G(2, 3-butanediol) values have been determined in various systems. For liquid ethanol saturated with N2 G(2, 3-butanediol) = 2.23, 1.46 for the irradiated liquor sample-1 without oxygen and 0.35 for the liquor specimen-1 irradiated under the condition of limited air supply. The results show that (1) the soluble oxygen in liquor can inhibit the formation of 2, 3-butanediol; (2) the other compositions in the liquor can compete with ethanol molecules in reacting with active species(H, e2q- OH etc.) and form some unknowns. Therefore, the attention must be paid to the hygienic satefy of those unknowns in the irradiated liquor

  13. Sin and pleasure: the history of chocolate in medicine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lippi, Donatella

    2015-11-18

    In ancient Mayan texts cocoa is considered a gift of the gods: Pre-Columbian populations used chocolate as medicine, too. After the discovery of America, chocolate was introduced in Europe, but Christian Europe looked to this new exhilarating drink with extreme suspiciousness and criticism. From this reaction, the necessity derived to appeal to the reasons of health, with which doctors and scientists committed themselves to explain that chocolate was good for the body. However, during the Enlightment, the road of therapy separated from that of taste, and chocolate mainly maintained its leading role of excipient, bearing the burden, over time, of a negative valence, being associated with obesity, dental problems, unhealthy lifestyle, and so forth. The rehabilitation of chocolate has arisen only in recent times, re-establishing that value that Linnaeus himself credited to chocolate, calling the generous plant Theobroma cacao, food of the gods. PMID:25989318

  14. Chocolate in History: Food, Medicine, Medi-Food

    OpenAIRE

    Donatella Lippi

    2013-01-01

    Throughout history, chocolate has been used to treat a wide variety of ailments, and in recent years, multiple studies have found that chocolate can have positive health effects, providing evidence to a centuries-long established use; this acknowledgement, however, did not have a straight course, having been involved in religious, medical and cultural controversies. Christian Europe, in fact, feared the exhilarating effects of new drinks, such as chocolate, coffee and tea. Therefore, these be...

  15. Chocolate agar, a differential medium for gram-positive cocci.

    OpenAIRE

    Gunn, B. A.

    1984-01-01

    Reactions incurred on chocolate agar by gram-positive cocci were correlated with species identity. Darkening and clearing of the medium was usually associated with the species Staphylococcus epidermidis, Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus simulans, and Streptococcus faecalis. Yellowing of chocolate agar was associated with alpha-hemolytic species of Streptococcus. The study demonstrated that reactions occurring on chocolate agar are useful in identifying gram-positive cocci.

  16. Fluorine content of several brands of chocolate bars and chocolate cookies found in Brazil Conteúdo de flúor em diversas marcas de chocolate e bolachas de chocolate encontradas no Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Marília Afonso Rabelo Buzalaf; José Mauro Granjeiro; Vanessa Eid da Silva Cardoso; Thelma Lopes da Silva; Kelly Polido Kaneshiro Olympio

    2003-01-01

    Chocolate bars and chocolate cookies are foodstuffs highly appreciated by children. The possibility of having fluorine (F) among their components, associated with an excessive consumption, may make them decisive contributors to the total daily F intake. Thus, they could participate in the establishment of dental fluorosis. The aim of this study was to analyze the fluorine concentration [F] of the chocolates bars (CB) Baton, Confeti, Garoto Ball, Kinder Ovo, M&M’s, Milkybar, Nescau, Nescau Bal...

  17. A clinical trial gone awry: the Chocolate Happiness Undergoing More Pleasantness (CHUMP) study

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, Kevin

    2007-01-01

    The randomized controlled trial is the “gold standard” for evaluating the benefits and harms of interventions. The Chocolate Happiness Undergoing More Pleasantness (CHUMP) study was designed to compare the effects of dark chocolate, milk chocolate and normal chocolate consumption on happiness. Although the intention-to-treat analysis showed that participants who received either dark or milk chocolate were happier than those who received no additional chocolate, the actual-consumption analysis...

  18. MANAGEMENT OF CHOCOLATE MASS STRUCTURE CREATION

    OpenAIRE

    Chernykh I. A.; Biboletova A. B.; Krasina I. B.; Kalmanovich S. A.; Krasin P. S.

    2015-01-01

    In the article the processes of chocolate masses, which are determined by the kinetics of the interaction of the dispersed phase through the layer of the dispersion medium, i.e., determined by surface phenomena at the interface, were examined. The results of the study of surface-active properties of sunflower activated phospholipids and dietary supplements "Vitol", which were performed on the model of structured systems. A theoretical and experimental study of the development of practical rec...

  19. 27 CFR 26.319 - Used liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Used liquor bottles. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 26.319 Used liquor bottles. The appropriate TTB officer may pursuant...

  20. 27 CFR 31.203 - Possession of used liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Possession of used liquor... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.203 Possession of used liquor bottles. The possession of used liquor bottles by any...

  1. 27 CFR 26.44 - Liquor dealer registration and recordkeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquor dealer registration... AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE... Recordkeeping § 26.44 Liquor dealer registration and recordkeeping. Every person bringing liquors into...

  2. 27 CFR 26.210 - Liquor dealer registration and recordkeeping.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquor dealer registration... TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE... Recordkeeping § 26.210 Liquor dealer registration and recordkeeping. Every person bringing liquors into...

  3. 27 CFR 26.110 - Release of articles or liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liquors. 26.110 Section 26.110 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Taxpayment of Liquors and Articles in Puerto Rico Articles § 26.110 Release of articles or liquors....

  4. 27 CFR 27.208 - Liquor bottles denied entry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Liquor bottles denied... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 27.208 Liquor bottles denied entry. Filled liquor bottles, not conforming to...

  5. Combustion properties of Kraft Black Liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, W.J. Jr.; Hupa, M. (Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland))

    1993-04-01

    In a previous study of the phenomena involved in the combustion of black liquor droplets a numerical model was developed. The model required certain black liquor specific combustion information which was then not currently available, and additional data were needed for evaluating the model. The overall objectives of the project reported here was to provide experimental data on key aspects of black liquor combustion, to interpret the data, and to put it into a form which would be useful for computational models for recovery boilers. The specific topics to be investigated were the volatiles and char carbon yields from pyrolysis of single black liquor droplets; a criterion for the onset of devolatilization and the accompanying rapid swelling; and the surface temperature of black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion, and gasification. Additional information on the swelling characteristics of black liquor droplets was also obtained as part of the experiments conducted.

  6. Chocolate tablet aspects of cytherean Meshkenet Tessera

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raitala, J.

    1993-01-01

    Meshkenet Tessera structures were mapped from Magellan data and several resemblances to chocolate tablet boudinage were found. The complex fault sets display polyphase tectonic sequences of a few main deformation phases. Shear and tension have contributed to the areal deformation. Main faults cut the 1600-km long Meshkenet Tessera highland into bar-like blocks which have ridge and groove pattern oriented along or at high angles to the faults. The first approach to the surface block deformation is an assumption of initial parallel shear faulting followed by a chocolate tablet boudinage. Major faults which cut Meshkenet Tessera into rectangular blocks have been active repetitively while two progressive or superposed boudinage set formations have taken place at high angles during the relaxational or flattening type deformation of the area. Chocolate tablet boudinage is caused by a layer-parallel two-dimensional extension resulting in fracturing of the competent layer. Such structures, defined by two sets of boudin neck lines at right angles to each other, have been described by a number of authors. They develop in a flattening type of bulk deformation or during superposed deformation where the rock is elongated in two dimensions parallel to the surface. This is an attempt to describe and understand the formation and development of structures of Meshkenet Tessera which has complicated fault structures.

  7. Influence of packaging information on consumer liking of chocolate milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, M K; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2013-08-01

    Chocolate milk varies widely in flavor, color, and viscosity, and liking is influenced by these properties. Additionally, package labels (declared fat content) and brand are some of the extrinsic factors that may influence consumer perception. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effects of packaging labels and brand name on consumer liking and purchase intent of chocolate milk. A consumer acceptance test, conjoint analysis survey, and Kano analysis were conducted. One hundred eight consumers evaluated 7 chocolate milks with and without brand or package information in a 2-d crossover design. A conjoint analysis survey and Kano analysis were conducted after the consumer acceptance test. Results were evaluated by 2-way ANOVA and multivariate analyses. Declared fat content and brand influenced overall liking and purchase intent for chocolate milks to differing degrees. A subsequent conjoint analysis (n=250) revealed that fat content was a driver of choice for purchasing chocolate milk followed by sugar content and brand. Brand name was less important for purchase intent of chocolate milk than fat or sugar content. Among fat content of chocolate milk, 2 and 1% fat level were most appealing to consumers, and reduced sugar and regular sugar were equally important for purchase intent. Kano analysis confirmed that fat content (whole milk, 1, or 2% fat chocolate milk) was an attractive attribute for consumer satisfaction, more so than brand. Organic labeling did not affect the purchase decision of chocolate milk; however, Kano results revealed that having an organic label on a package positively influenced consumer satisfaction. Findings from this study can help chocolate milk producers as well as food marketers better target their product labels with attributes that drive consumer choice of chocolate milk. PMID:23706490

  8. Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Sinquefeld; James Cantrell; Xiaoyan Zeng; Alan Ball; Jeff Empie

    2009-01-07

    The cost-benefit outlook of black liquor gasification (BLG) could be greatly improved if the smelt causticization step could be achieved in situ during the gasification step. Or, at a minimum, the increase in causticizing load associated with BLG could be mitigated. A number of chemistries have been proven successful during black liquor combustion. In this project, three in situ causticizing processes (titanate, manganate, and borate) were evaluated under conditions suitable for high temperature entrained flow BLG, and low temperature steam reforming of black liquor. The evaluation included both thermodynamic modeling and lab experimentation. Titanate and manganate were tested for complete direct causticizing (to thus eliminate the lime cycle), and borates were evaluated for partial causticizing (to mitigate the load increase associated with BLG). Criteria included high carbonate conversion, corresponding hydroxide recovery upon hydrolysis, non process element (NPE) removal, and economics. Of the six cases (three chemistries at two BLG conditions), only two were found to be industrially viable: titanates for complete causticizing during high temperature BLG, and borates for partial causticizing during high temperature BLG. These two cases were evaluated for integration into a gasification-based recovery island. The Larsen [28] BLG cost-benefit study was used as a reference case for economic forecasting (i.e. a 1500 tpd pulp mill using BLG and upgrading the lime cycle). By comparison, using the titanate direct causticizing process yielded a net present value (NPV) of $25M over the NPV of BLG with conventional lime cycle. Using the existing lime cycle plus borate autocausticizing for extra capacity yielded a NPV of $16M.

  9. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-03-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  10. Using Cocoa and Chocolate to Teach Human Geography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alberts, Heike C.

    2010-01-01

    Food topics are uniquely suited to increase students' interest in human geography. A highly processed food like chocolate can be studied in a variety of different ways, making it possible to include chocolate examples and activities at various points in a human geography class. The goals of this article are to provide sufficient background…

  11. 7 CFR 58.935 - Chocolate and cocoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 7 Agriculture 3 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Chocolate and cocoa. 58.935 Section 58.935 Agriculture Regulations of the Department of Agriculture (Continued) AGRICULTURAL MARKETING SERVICE (Standards... Materials § 58.935 Chocolate and cocoa. Such products used as flavor ingredients shall meet the...

  12. 21 CFR 163.145 - Mixed dairy product chocolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Mixed dairy product chocolates. 163.145 Section 163.145 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION CACAO PRODUCTS Requirements for Specific Standardized Cacao Products § 163.145 Mixed dairy product chocolates....

  13. Chocolate consumption modulates cytokine production in healthy individuals

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Netea, S.A.; Janssen, S.A.; Jaeger, M.; Jansen, T.; Jacobs, L.; Miller-Tomaszewska, G.; Plantinga, T.S.; Netea, M.G.; Joosten, L.A.B.

    2013-01-01

    Epidemiological studies suggest that chocolate increases the incidence and severity of acne. Here we demonstrate that chocolate consumption primes human blood mononuclear cells from volunteers to release more interleukin-1beta (IL-1beta) and IL-10 upon stimulation with Propionibacterium acne or Stap

  14. Design of special facility for liquor irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The design principle, physical scheme, technological process, construction and safety features of a special facility used for irradiating liquors is briefly described. 0.925 x 1015 Bq cobalt source is used and the irradiation capacity for liquors approaches 10 t per day. The facility bears advantages of simple in construction, easy to operate, safe, reliable and efficient in source utilization

  15. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr.; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the materials problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  16. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Alireza Rezaie; Xiaoting Liang; Musa Karakus; Jun Wei

    2005-12-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected or developed that reacted with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  17. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  18. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-07-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  19. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla identified materials that permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project was to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study attempted to define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials were selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective surfaces in

  20. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-01-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  1. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  2. REFRACTORY FOR BLACK LIQUOR GASIFIERS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Liang; Jun Wei

    2005-04-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  3. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick; Musa Karakus; Alireza Rezaie

    2004-03-30

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  4. The fluid dynamics of the chocolate fountain

    Science.gov (United States)

    Townsend, Adam K.; Wilson, Helen J.

    2016-01-01

    We consider the fluid dynamics of the chocolate fountain. Molten chocolate is a mildly shear-thinning non-Newtonian fluid. Dividing the flow into three main domains—the pumped flow up the centre, the film flow over each dome, and the freely falling curtain flow between the domes—we generate a wide-ranging study of Newtonian and non-Newtonian fluid mechanics. The central pumped flow is a benchmark to elucidate the effects of shear-thinning. The dome flow can be modelled as a thin-film flow with the leading-order effects being a simple balance of gravity and viscosity. Finally, the curtain flow is analytically intractable but is related to the existing theory of water bells (both inviscid and viscous). In pipe flow, Newtonian fluids exhibit a parabolic velocity profile; shear-thinning makes the profile more blunted. In thin-film flow over the dome, gravitational and viscous effects balance and the dome shape is not important beyond the local slope. We find that the chocolate thins and slows down as it travels down the dome. Finally, in the curtain flow, we predict the shape of the falling sheet for an inviscid fluid, and compare this with the literature to predict the shape for a viscous fluid, having shown that viscous forces are too great to ignore. We also find that the primary effect driving the shape of the curtain (which falls inwards towards the axis of the fountain) is surface tension. We find that the three domains provide excellent introductions to non-Newtonian mechanics, the important mathematical technique of scaling, and how to manipulate existing data to make our own predictions. We also find that the topic generates interest among the public in our engagement work.

  5. 巧克力的妙处%Chocolate is Good For You

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kesta Allen

    2007-01-01

    @@ Can chocolate help you to live longer?巧克力能帮助你长寿吗? My mother would never allow me to eat sweets and chocolate. She said that chocolates were bad for me and that they would damage my teeth. What would she say about the new research which says that chocolate is good for you?

  6. Evolution of the Chocolate Bar: A Creative Approach to Teaching Phylogenetic Relationships within Evolutionary Biology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burks, Romi L.; Boles, Larry C.

    2007-01-01

    Chocolate calms the mind, yet excites the senses. Chocolate also unites cultures. "Chocolat" (2000), a movie about a small town French chocolate shop, made millions internationally. Starring actors contributed partly to the film's success, but the film also drew salivating viewers worldwide to the multiple applications of chocolate. With its…

  7. Refractory for Black Liquor Gasifiers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    William L. Headrick Jr; Musa Karakus; Xiaoting Laing

    2005-10-01

    The University of Missouri-Rolla will identify materials that will permit the safe, reliable and economical operation of combined cycle gasifiers by the pulp and paper industry. The primary emphasis of this project will be to resolve the material problems encountered during the operation of low-pressure high-temperature (LPHT) and low-pressure low-temperature (LPLT) gasifiers while simultaneously understanding the materials barriers to the successful demonstration of high-pressure high-temperature (HPHT) black liquor gasifiers. This study will define the chemical, thermal and physical conditions in current and proposed gasifier designs and then modify existing materials and develop new materials to successfully meet the formidable material challenges. Resolving the material challenges of black liquor gasification combined cycle technology will provide energy, environmental, and economic benefits that include higher thermal efficiencies, up to three times greater electrical output per unit of fuel, and lower emissions. In the near term, adoption of this technology will allow the pulp and paper industry greater capital effectiveness and flexibility, as gasifiers are added to increase mill capacity. In the long term, combined-cycle gasification will lessen the industry's environmental impact while increasing its potential for energy production, allowing the production of all the mill's heat and power needs along with surplus electricity being returned to the grid. An added benefit will be the potential elimination of the possibility of smelt-water explosions, which constitute an important safety concern wherever conventional Tomlinson recovery boilers are operated. Developing cost-effective materials with improved performance in gasifier environments may be the best answer to the material challenges presented by black liquor gasification. Refractory materials may be selected/developed that either react with the gasifier environment to form protective

  8. Chocolate: a sex-linked recessive plumage colour mutant of the domestic fowl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carefoot, W C

    1996-09-01

    1. A mating between Black Orpington bantams produced, in addition to blacks, a single female in which the black colouration was replaced by dark chocolate. 2. A mating of the chocolate-coloured female with a black male, F2 and backcross matings demonstrated that the chocolate phenotype is caused by a recessive sex-linked gene to which I assign the symbol *CHOC. 3. A mating of "chocolates' inter se yielded all chocolate offspring. PMID:8894230

  9. A SURVEY RESEARCH ON THE YOUNG CONSUMERS' PREFERENCES FOR CHOCOLATE CONSUMPTION

    OpenAIRE

    ONDOGAN, Ece Nüket

    2008-01-01

    In this research, Turkish Chocolate Industry is discussed. The distributions of production and consumption ratios of the chocolate's products by the years are examined especially during the globalization. The routine of chocolate consumption of young consumer is investigated as well as its' profile, while the factors affecting the convenient and chocolate's products consumption are being analyzed. While protecting the chocolate's products sector, the market share and competitive strength of t...

  10. Chocolate in History: Food, Medicine, Medi-Food

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Donatella Lippi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Throughout history, chocolate has been used to treat a wide variety of ailments, and in recent years, multiple studies have found that chocolate can have positive health effects, providing evidence to a centuries-long established use; this acknowledgement, however, did not have a straight course, having been involved in religious, medical and cultural controversies. Christian Europe, in fact, feared the exhilarating effects of new drinks, such as chocolate, coffee and tea. Therefore, these beverages would have been banished, had not doctors and scientists explained that they were good for the body. The scientific debate, which reached its peak in Florence in the 18th century, regarded the therapeutic effectiveness of the various chocolate components: it was necessary to know their properties first, in order to prepare the best cacao concoction for every patient. When Dietetics separated from Medicine, however, chocolate acquired the role of vehicle for easing the administration of bitter medicines, being associated to different health problems. The recent rediscovery of the beneficial use of cacao and chocolate focuses upon its value as supplemental nutrition. Building a bridge to the past may be helpful to detect the areas where the potential health benefits of chocolate are likely to be further explored.

  11. 27 CFR 31.201 - Refilling of liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Refilling of liquor... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.201 Refilling of liquor bottles. No person who sells, or offers for sale, distilled...

  12. 27 CFR 31.202 - Possession of refilled liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liquor bottles. 31.202 Section 31.202 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Reuse and Possession of Used Liquor Bottles § 31.202 Possession of refilled liquor bottles. No person who sells, or offers for...

  13. 27 CFR 27.209 - Used liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Used liquor bottles. 27..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Requirements for Liquor Bottles § 27.209 Used liquor bottles. The appropriate TTB officer may pursuant to letterhead...

  14. 19 CFR 122.132 - Sealing of aircraft liquor kits.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. 122.132 Section... OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.132 Sealing of aircraft liquor kits. (a) Sealing required. Aircraft liquor kits shall be sealed on board the aircraft by...

  15. 27 CFR 26.220 - Formulas for liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formulas for liquors. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas for Products From the Virgin Islands § 26.220 Formulas for liquors. (a) Distilled spirits products. Persons...

  16. Pressurized pyrolysis and gasification behaviour of black liquor and biofuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The objective of this project is to obtain basic experimental data on pyrolysis and gasification of various black liquors and biofuels at elevated pressures, and to model these processes. Liquor-to-liquor differences in conversion behavior of single liquor droplets during gasification at atmospheric pressure were investigated. The applicability of a rate equation developed for catalyzed gasification of carbon was investigated with regard to pressurized black liquor gasification. A neural network was developed to simulate the progression of char conversion during pressurized black liquor gasification. Pyrolysis of black liquor in a pressurized drop-tube furnace was investigated in collaboration with KTH in Stockholm. (author)

  17. Efectos beneficiosos del chocolate en la salud cardiovascular

    OpenAIRE

    Gómez Juaristi, Miren; L. González-Torres; Bravo, Laura; Bastida, Sara; F. J. Sánchez-Muniz

    2011-01-01

    Desde la antigüedad se ha atribuido al chocolate propiedades saludables que lo han aproximado más hacia un uso terapéutico que alimentario. El presente trabajo revisa algunos estudios relevantes de los efectos del chocolate (y sus componentes activos) sobre diferentes factores de riesgo cardiovascular y señala la necesidad de futuros estudios. El consumo de cacao/chocolate (i) incrementa la actividad antioxidante, (ii) modula la función plaquetaria e inflamación y (iii...

  18. Fluorine content of several brands of chocolate bars and chocolate cookies found in Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Buzalaf Marília Afonso Rabelo

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate bars and chocolate cookies are foodstuffs highly appreciated by children. The possibility of having fluorine (F among their components, associated with an excessive consumption, may make them decisive contributors to the total daily F intake. Thus, they could participate in the establishment of dental fluorosis. The aim of this study was to analyze the fluorine concentration [F] of the chocolates bars (CB Baton, Confeti, Garoto Ball, Kinder Ovo, M&M?s, Milkybar, Nescau, Nescau Ball, Surpresa, Surpresa Bichos, Tortuguita; and of the chocolate cookies (CC Danyt?s, Hipopó, Nescau, Passatempo, Pokémon, Sítio do Pica-Pau Amarelo and Trakinas. Samples were purchased in Bauru, São Paulo, Brazil. Three grams of each product were previously ashed at 525°C (CB and cookies fillings and at 550°C (cookies dough, during 4 hours. Fluorine was separated from the ash by hexamethyldisiloxane (HMDS-facilitated diffusion. Fluorine analysis was carried out with the specific electrode. Mean [F]s ± SD and amplitude (unit mg/g were: CB = 0.30 ± 0.45 (0.07 - 1.60, n = 12 and CC = 1.08 ± 2.64 (0.04 - 7.10, n = 7. It was concluded that some of the analyzed foods may be important contributors to the total daily F intake. As for the product that had the highest [F] (Danyt?s, when only 3 units are consumed just once a day, they may supply up to 40% of the maximum recommended daily F intake (0.07 mg/kg body weight for a 2-year-old child (12 kg. The [F] in these products should be informed on their labels.

  19. Radiation chemistry of liquor: Pt. 4

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of the concentrate of liquor made from dried sweet potato on the proliferation of tetrahymena pyriformis has been studied. The toxicity of d-2,3-butanediol and ethanol have also been investigated by the tetrahymena pyriformis and it has been found that they did not produce the effect on the propagation of the cell up to 250 and 1000 ppm, separately. The unirradiated concentrate of the different batch liquors all appear more or less inhibition on the proliferation of tetrahymena pyriformis. The effect is more remarkable for the concentrate of the irradiated liquors and is strengthened as increase of adsorbed dose. It shows that the toxicity of the concentrate of the irradiated liquor to tetrahymena pyriformis may be related to the quality of the dried sweet potato used and the formation of radiolytic products with higher boiling point

  20. Radiation chemistry of liquors: Pt. 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The formation of peroxide has been studied in the liquors and the model systems of ethanol aqueous solution under gamma irradiatioin. The G values of peroxide in irradiated liqour and ethanol systems have been gotten from the initial linear part of the curve. They are 1.0-3.6 for the different liquors and 3.6 for 60% ethanol aqueous solution respectively. It has been shown that oxygen plays an important role in the formation of peroxide. It has also been found that peroxide is rather stable in some liquors and its content remains higher up to 6-7 ppm after storage of 20 days. So, it is a urgent task to provide a H2O2 safety limit in the irradiated liquors

  1. Exploring consumer perception about the different types of chocolate Explorando a percepção do consumidor sobre diferentes tipos de chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Adriana Gámbaro; Ana Claudia Ellis

    2012-01-01

    The Word Association technique was used to analyze the perception of 120 Uruguayan consumers concerning the different types of chocolate. Similarly, it was estimated how healthy consumers perceived dark, white and milk chocolate to be. As a generic product, chocolate was associated with good taste, positive feelings, sweetness, feelings of warmth and calories/energy. White, dark and milk chocolate were significantly associated with other concepts (creaminess, bitterness, intense taste, etc.)....

  2. THERMODYNAMIC ANALYSIS OF BLACK LIQUOR STEAM GASIFICATION

    OpenAIRE

    Shri Ramaswamy Mail; Hua-Jiang Huang

    2011-01-01

    Pulp and paper mills represent a major platform for the use of abundant, renewable forest-based biomass as raw material. The pulping processes produce a large amount of black liquor solids, which is currently burnt in a conventional Tomlinson recovery boiler for recovery of energy and inorganic chemicals. This combustion technology can recover chemicals with good efficiency, and steam and power can be produced for the mills. However, Black Liquor Gasification (BLG) can be used to substitute f...

  3. Chocolate Bay/Halls Lake 1987-1988

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — During May 1987, and May-June and September 1988, a total of 80 inner and outer marsh samples were collected in the Alligator Point salt marsh of Chocolate Bay...

  4. Tolerance for High Flavanol Cocoa Powder in Semisweet Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John E. Hayes

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increased content of cocoa powder produced from under-fermented cocoa beans in a semisweet chocolate-type confection. The group rejection threshold was equivalent to 80.7% of the non-fat cocoa solids coming from the under-fermented cocoa powder. Contrary to expectations, there were no differences in rejection thresholds when participants were grouped based on their self-reported preference for milk or dark chocolate, indicating that these groups react similarly to an increase in high cocoa flavanol containing cocoa powder.

  5. Plant polyphenols to enhance the nutritional and sensory properties of chocolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sim, Shaun Y J; Ng, Jun Wei; Ng, Wai Kiong; Forde, Ciarán G; Henry, Christiani Jeyakumar

    2016-06-01

    A relatively unexplored method to enhance the sensory and nutritional properties of chocolate is to use plant polyphenols. In this study, a low cost agricultural waste product - mangosteen (Garcinia mangostana Linn.) pericarp - was added as powder in graded amounts (1%, 2% and 3%w/w) to dark and compound chocolates during the mixing stage and evaluated. The particle size distributions of the chocolates were mostly within 30 μm and the chocolates displayed a homogeneous morphology. The polyphenols (procyanidins and xanthones) in mangosteen pericarp powder were also stable to simulated chocolate processing. The 3% pericarp powder concentration significantly expanded the bioactive profile and total phenolic content (13% in dark chocolates and 50% in compound chocolates) compared to their plain counterparts without affecting sensory qualities. Such low cost plant polyphenols could enhance the bioactive and flavor profile of chocolates, especially in low cocoa content compound chocolates. PMID:26830559

  6. Increasing the maximally random jammed density with electric field to reduce the fat level in chocolate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, R.; Tang, H.

    Chocolate is one of the most popular food types and flavors in the world. Unfortunately, at present, chocolate products contain too much fat, leading to obesity. For example, a typical molding chocolate has various fat up to 40% in total and chocolate for covering ice cream has fat 50 -60%. Especially, as children are the leading chocolate consumers, reducing the fat level in chocolate products to make them healthier is important and urgent. While this issue was called into attention and elaborated in articles and books decades ago and led to some patent applications, no actual solution was found unfortunately. Why is reducing fat in chocolate so difficult? What is the underlying physical mechanism? We have found that this issue is deeply related to the basic science of soft matters, especially to their viscosity and maximally random jammed (MRJ) density φx. All chocolate productions are handling liquid chocolate, a suspension with cocoa solid particles in melted fat, mainly cocoa butter. The fat level cannot be lower than 1-φxin order to have liquid chocolate to flow. Here we show that that with application of an electric field to liquid chocolate, we can aggregate the suspended particles into prolate spheroids. This microstructure change reduces liquid chocolate's viscosity along the flow direction and increases its MRJ density significantly. Hence the fat level in chocolate can be effectively reduced. We are looking forward to a new class of healthier and tasteful chocolate coming to the market soon. Dept. of Physics, Temple Univ, Philadelphia, PA 19122.

  7. Contribution to the modelling of chocolate tempering process.

    OpenAIRE

    Debaste, Frédéric; Kegelaers, Yves; Ben Amor, Hatem; Halloin, Véronique

    2007-01-01

    The tempering of chocolate, i.e. the process of crystallization of the desired morph; is a key step in its manufacturing by professional chocolatiers. In this work, a model of a tempering process based on seeding with solid chocolate grains is developed to enhance understanding and control of the system. The model aims to predict temperature field during melting and crystallization of the product. Therefore a mechanical stirrer is designed to simulate the manual mixing. Resulting flow field i...

  8. Tolerance for High Flavanol Cocoa Powder in Semisweet Chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, John E.; Harwood, Meriel L.; Gregory R Ziegler

    2013-01-01

    Endogenous polyphenolic compounds in cacao impart both bitter and astringent characteristics to chocolate confections. While an increase in these compounds may be desirable from a health perspective, they are generally incongruent with consumer expectations. Traditionally, chocolate products undergo several processing steps (e.g., fermentation and roasting) that decrease polyphenol content, and thus bitterness. The objective of this study was to estimate group rejection thresholds for increas...

  9. Dark chocolate acceptability: influence of cocoa origin and processing conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Torres Moreno, Míriam; Tarrega, Amparo; Costell Ibáñez, Elvira; Blanch i Colat, Consol

    2011-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Chocolate properties can vary depending on cocoa origin, composition and manufacturing procedure, which affect consumer acceptability. The aim of this work was to study the effect of two cocoa origins (Ghana and Ecuador) and two processing conditions (roasting time and conching time) on dark chocolate acceptability. RESULTS: Overall acceptability and acceptability for different attributes (colour, flavour, odour and texture) were evaluated by 95 consumers. Differences ...

  10. Development of Probiotic and Synbiotic Chocolate Mousse: A Functional Food

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, P.; Parekh, T; R. Subhash

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to develop a chocolate mousse having probiotic and prebiotic ingredients added and verify the perspectives of the product with regard to potential for consumer health benefits and sensory acceptance. Probiotic and synbiotic chocolate mousse supplemented with Lactobacillus paracasei subsp. paracasei (P) or together with the prebiotic ingredient inulin (S), were prepared, as well as control mousse (C). L. paracasei count and total count were carried out duri...

  11. Pulsed combustion process for black liquor gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Durai-Swamy, K.; Mansour, M.N.; Warren, D.W.

    1991-02-01

    The objective of this project is to test an energy efficient, innovative black liquor recovery system on an industrial scale. In the MTCI recovery process, black liquor is sprayed directly onto a bed of sodium carbonate solids which is fluidized by steam. Direct contact of the black liquor with hot bed solids promotes high rates of heating and pyrolysis. Residual carbon, which forms as a deposit on the particle surface, is then gasified by reaction with steam. Heat is supplied from pulse combustor resonance tubes which are immersed within the fluid bed. A portion of the gasifier product gas is returned to the pulse combustors to provide the energy requirements of the reactor. Oxidized sulfur species are partially reduced by reaction with the gasifier products, principally carbon monoxide and hydrogen. The reduced sulfur decomposed to solid sodium carbonate and gaseous hydrogen sulfide (H{sub 2}S). Sodium values are recovered by discharging a dry sodium carbonate product from the gasifier. MTCI's indirectly heated gasification technology for black liquor recovery also relies on the scrubbing of H{sub 2}S for product gases to regenerate green liquor for reuse in the mill circuit. Due to concerns relative to the efficiency of sulfur recovery in the MTCI integrated process, an experimental investigation was undertaken to establish performance and design data for this portion of the system.

  12. International outbreak of Salmonella Oranienburg due to German chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weise Ekkehard

    2005-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This report describes a large international chocolate-associated Salmonella outbreak originating from Germany. Methods We conducted epidemiologic investigations including a case-control study, and food safety investigations. Salmonella (S. Oranienburg isolates were subtyped by the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE. Results From 1 October 2001 through 24 March 2002, an estimated excess of 439 S. Oranienburg notifications was registered in Germany. Simultaneously, an increase in S. Oranienburg infections was noted in other European countries in the Enter-net surveillance network. In a multistate matched case-control study in Germany, daily consumption of chocolate (matched odds ratio [MOR]: 4.8; 95% confidence interval [CI]: 1.3–26.5, having shopped at a large chain of discount grocery stores (MOR: 4.2; CI: 1.2–23.0, and consumption of chocolate purchased there (MOR: 5.0; CI: 1.1–47.0 were associated with illness. Subsequently, two brands from the same company, one exclusively produced for that chain, tested positive for S. Oranienburg. In two other European countries and in Canada chocolate from company A was ascertained that also contained S. Oranienburg. Isolates from humans and from chocolates had indistinguishable PFGE profiles. No source or point of contamination was identified. Epidemiological identification of chocolate as a vehicle of infections required two months, and was facilitated by proxy measures. Conclusions Despite the use of improved production technologies, the chocolate industry continues to carry a small risk of manufacturing Salmonella-containing products. Particularly in diffuse outbreak-settings, clear associations with surrogates of exposure should suffice to trigger public health action. Networks such as Enter-net have become invaluable for facilitating rapid and appropriate management of international outbreaks.

  13. Chocolate and Prevention of Cardiovascular Disease: A Systematic Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ding Xin

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Consumption of chocolate has been often hypothesized to reduce the risk of cardiovascular disease (CVD due to chocolate's high levels of stearic acid and antioxidant flavonoids. However, debate still lingers regarding the true long term beneficial cardiovascular effects of chocolate overall. Methods We reviewed English-language MEDLINE publications from 1966 through January 2005 for experimental, observational, and clinical studies of relations between cocoa, cacao, chocolate, stearic acid, flavonoids (including flavonols, flavanols, catechins, epicatechins, and procynadins and the risk of cardiovascular disease (coronary heart disease (CHD, stroke. A total of 136 publications were selected based on relevance, and quality of design and methods. An updated meta-analysis of flavonoid intake and CHD mortality was also conducted. Results The body of short-term randomized feeding trials suggests cocoa and chocolate may exert beneficial effects on cardiovascular risk via effects on lowering blood pressure, anti-inflammation, anti-platelet function, higher HDL, decreased LDL oxidation. Additionally, a large body of trials of stearic acid suggests it is indeed cholesterol-neutral. However, epidemiologic studies of serum and dietary stearic acid are inconclusive due to many methodologic limitations. Meanwhile, the large body of prospective studies of flavonoids suggests the flavonoid content of chocolate may reduce risk of cardiovascular mortality. Our updated meta-analysis indicates that intake of flavonoids may lower risk of CHD mortality, RR = 0.81 (95% CI: 0.71–0.92 comparing highest and lowest tertiles. Conclusion Multiple lines of evidence from laboratory experiments and randomized trials suggest stearic acid may be neutral, while flavonoids are likely protective against CHD mortality. The highest priority now is to conduct larger randomized trials to definitively investigate the impact of chocolate consumption on long

  14. PROCYANIDIN AND CATECHIN CONTENT AND ANTIOXIDANT CAPACITY OF COCOA AND CHOCOLATE PRODUCTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa and chocolate products from major brands were analyzed blinded for total antioxidant capacity (AOC) (lipophilic and hydrophilic ORACFL), catechins, and procyanidins (monomer through polymers). Accuracy of analyses was ascertained by comparing analyses on a NIST standard reference chocolate wit...

  15. Teaching Cases in Management - O Chocolate Importado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dusan Schreiber

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available International trade plays a special role in all countries due the influence exerted in the economic and social field. At the same time, subjects such as planning and implementing the operation of export and import becomes very important, with particular relevance among entrepreneurs and academics. When it comes to this issue, the aim of this teaching case is to provide discussions about the subjects of entrepreneurship, business planning and the learning of strategists. It describes the experience of company SK, started in July of 1997, which began its businesses through exporting and importing leather and its artifacts. Later, the enterprise redirected its focus and began importing chocolates for the Brazilian market. The entrepreneur found, during the process of the business construction, a series of challenges that obliged him to make decisions and make choices. Having an amount of capital and willingness to undertake, he had to decide which path to follow and how to decide. Were there right and wrong choices? How would he plan and operationalize a start-up business? How would he evaluate opportunities and estimate the risk of an enterprise? These are some of many questions that the reader will be challenged to answer after analyzing this case.

  16. Alcohol Sales Dropped After Maryland Raised Liquor Tax

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... 158297.html Alcohol Sales Dropped After Maryland Raised Liquor Tax Study finding suggests the tactic could help ... 6 percent to 9 percent in 2011, and liquor sales subsequently fell 5 percent, the study found. ...

  17. When is meconium stained liquor actually bile stained vomit?

    OpenAIRE

    Griffiths, D.M.; Burge, D M

    1988-01-01

    Three babies said to have had 'meconium stained liquor' were subsequently found never to have passed meconium. The green discoloured liquor was the result of bilious vomiting in utero secondary to intestinal obstruction.

  18. Startling Sweet Temptations: Hedonic Chocolate Deprivation Modulates Experience, Eating Behavior, and Eyeblink Startle

    OpenAIRE

    Blechert, Jens; Naumann, Eva; Schmitz, Julian; Herbert, Beate M.; Tuschen-Caffier, Brunna

    2014-01-01

    Many individuals restrict their food intake to prevent weight gain. This restriction has both homeostatic and hedonic effects but their relative contribution is currently unclear. To isolate hedonic effects of food restriction, we exposed regular chocolate eaters to one week of chocolate deprivation but otherwise regular eating. Before and after this hedonic deprivation, participants viewed images of chocolate and images of high-calorie but non-chocolate containing foods, while experiential, ...

  19. Chocolate para el imperio: la interiorización europea de estética mesoamericana.

    OpenAIRE

    Marcy Norton.

    2008-01-01

    This article offers a new interpretation of how and why Europeans developed a taste for chocolate. While previous studies have suggested that Europeans transformed chocolate materially and ideologically in order to make it fit their existing set of tastes and prejudices, it is demonstrated that Europeans learned to like chocolate on Indian terms as a result of their status as cultural minorities in colonial Mesoamerica. In addition this article uses the historical case study of chocolate's tr...

  20. Repeated cue exposure effects on subjective and physiological indices of chocolate craving

    OpenAIRE

    Gucht, Dinska Van; Vansteenwegen, Debora; Beckers, Tom; Hermans, Dirk; Baeyens, Frank; Van den Bergh, Omer

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of repeated unreinforced exposure to chocolate cues in persons reporting chocolate craving. Participants in the experimental group (n=40) received 10 consecutive brief exposures to chocolate cues in each of two sessions, separated by 1-3 days. Control participants (n=18) received two exposures at the start and end of each session. Chocolate craving was measured (alternately) through subjective report and the amount of saliva secretion to cho...

  1. Single particle studies of black liquor gasification under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.; Backman, R.; Hupa, M.; Backman, P.; Ek, P.; Hulden, S.T.; Kullberg, M.; Sorvari, V.

    1997-10-01

    The purpose of this project is to provide experimental data relevant to pressurized black liquor gasification concepts. Specifically, the following two goals will be achieved: Data on swelling, char yields and component release during pressurized pyrolysis of small samples of black liquor will be obtained. The reactivity and physical behavior of single black liquor droplets during simultaneous pyrolysis and gasification will be investigated. The structure and composition of black liquor char during formation and conversion will be studied. (orig.)

  2. 77 FR 71446 - Notice of Availability of the Final Environmental Impact Statement for the West Chocolate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-11-30

    ... Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy Evaluation Area, Imperial County, CA, and the Proposed California... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy Evaluation Area (REEA... of the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy Evaluation Area Final EIS/Proposed Plan...

  3. 76 FR 38680 - Notice of Availability of the Draft Environmental Impact Statement for the West Chocolate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-07-01

    ... Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy Evaluation Area, Imperial Valley, California, and the Draft California... Environmental Impact Statement (EIS) for the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy Evaluation Area. By this... mailings. ADDRESSES: You may submit comments related to the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable...

  4. Repeated cue exposure effects on subjective and physiological indices of chocolate craving

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Gucht; D. Vansteenwegen; T. Beckers; D. Hermans; F. Baeyens; O. Van den Bergh

    2008-01-01

    The aim of this study is to investigate the effects of repeated unreinforced exposure to chocolate cues in persons reporting chocolate craving. Participants in the experimental group (n ¼ 40) received 10 consecutive brief exposures to chocolate cues in each of two sessions, separated by 1-3 days. Co

  5. 21 CFR 163.155 - Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.155... § 163.155 Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Milk chocolate and vegetable fat coating is the food that conforms to the standard of identity, and is subject to the requirements...

  6. 21 CFR 163.153 - Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. 163.153... § 163.153 Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating. (a) Description. Sweet chocolate and vegetable fat coating is the food that conforms to the definition and standard of identity, and is subject to...

  7. 27 CFR 19.633 - Distinctive liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... TTB officer if the bottles are found to— (1) Meet the requirements of 27 CFR part 5; (2) Be... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distinctive liquor bottles..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle and Label Requirements...

  8. 27 CFR 31.32 - Wholesale dealer in liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liquors. 31.32 Section 31.32 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Activities Subject to This Part Dealers Classified § 31.32 Wholesale dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided...

  9. 27 CFR 31.31 - Retail dealer in liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Retail dealer in liquors..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Activities Subject to This Part Dealers Classified § 31.31 Retail dealer in liquors. (a) General. Except as otherwise provided in paragraph (b)...

  10. 27 CFR 26.314 - Distinctive liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... officer to— (1) Meet the requirements of 27 CFR part 5; (2) Be distinctive; (3) Be suitable for their... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distinctive liquor bottles..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS...

  11. 27 CFR 26.50 - Formulas for liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Rico who ship wine to the United States shall comply with the formula requirements of 27 CFR part 240... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Formulas for liquors. 26..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LIQUORS AND ARTICLES FROM PUERTO RICO AND THE VIRGIN ISLANDS Formulas...

  12. Quality and Sensorial Characteristics of Chocolate Bar with Natural Dyes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liana Claudia Salanţă

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In the latest period of time the people’s interest for natural products without synthetic dyes, with benefits to the human body has significantly increased. Chocolate is widely consumed all over the world. The pleasure derived from the consumption of chocolate is accompanied by a whole range of effects on the human health, which may explain their its attractiveness. One of the objectives of this reaserch was to extract dyes from various plants (fruits and vegetables and incorporating them in white chocolate. In order to characterize the new product, several physicochemical analyses were conducted (moisture, dry matter, ash content, total extract and acidity. Also the consumer perception was followed by conducting a sensory analysis. The new product can be placed in the free synthetic dyes category

  13. Ochratoxin A in cocoa and chocolate sampled in Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turcotte, A-M; Scott, P M

    2011-06-01

    In order to determine the levels of ochratoxin A (OTA) in cocoa and cocoa products available in Canada, a previously published analytical method, with minor modifications to the extraction and immunoaffinity clean-up and inclusion of an evaporation step, was initially used (Method I). To improve the low method recoveries (46-61%), 40% methanol was then included in the aqueous sodium bicarbonate extraction solvent (pH 7.8) (Method II). Clean-up was on an Ochratest™ immunoaffinity column and OTA was determined by liquid chromatography (LC) with fluorescence detection. Recoveries of OTA from spiked cocoa powder (0.5 and 5 ng g(-1)) were 75-84%; while recoveries from chocolate were 93-94%. The optimized method was sensitive (limit of quantification (LOQ) = 0.07-0.08 ng g(-1)), accurate (recovery = 75-94%) and precise (coefficient of variation (CV) chocolate. Analysis of 32 samples of cocoa powder (16 alkalized and 16 natural) for OTA showed an incidence of 100%, with concentrations ranging from 0.25 to 7.8 ng g(-1); in six samples the OTA level exceeded 2 ng g(-1), the previously considered European Union limit for cocoa. The frequency of detection of OTA in 28 chocolate samples (21 dark or baking chocolate and seven milk chocolate) was also 100% with concentrations ranging from 0.05 to 1.4 ng g(-1); one sample had a level higher than the previously considered European Union limit for chocolate (1 ng g(-1)). PMID:21623500

  14. Otobasal liquor fistula causing recurrent bacterial meningitis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cerebral subarachnoid space scintigraphy today still is the modality of choice for detection of a liquorrea or a liquor fistula, especially in the case of a recurrent menengitis of unclear origin. This diagnostic method yielded the results required in the case reported for efficient and successful surgical treatment. (orig./CB)

  15. Clear Liquor Scrubbing with Anhydrite Production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this project to develop an advanced flue gas desulfurization (FGD) process that has decreased capital and operating costs, higher SO2 removal efficiency, and better by-product solids quality than existing, commercially available technology. A clear liquor process (which uses a scrubbing liquid with no solids) will be used to accomplish this objective rather than a slurry liquor process (which contains solids). This clear liquor scrubbing (CLS) project is focused on three research areas: (1) Development of a clear liquor scrubbing process that uses a clear solution to remove SO2 from flue gas and can be operated under inhibited-oxidation conditions; (2) Development of an anhydrite process that converts precipitated calcium sulfite to anhydrous calcium sulfate (anhydrite); and (3) Development of an alkali/humidification process to remove HCl from flue gas upstream of the FGD system. The anhydrite process also can be retrofit into existing FGD systems to produce a valuable by-product as an alternative to gypsum. This fits well into another of FETC's PRDA objectives of developing an advanced byproduct recovery subsystem capable of transforming SO2 into a useable byproduct or high-volume valuable commodities of interest. This paper describes the proposed processes, outlines the test approach, and preliminary Phase I test results

  16. Daqu - a traditional Chinese liquor fermentation starter

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zheng, X.; Rezaei Tabrizi, M.; Nout, M.J.R.; Han, B.

    2011-01-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the world's oldest distilled alcoholic beverages, and it is typically obtained with the use of Daqufermentation starters. Daqu is a saccharifying and fermenting agent, having a significant impact on the flavour of the product. Daqucan be categorized according to maximum incu

  17. Radiation chemistry of liquor: Pt. 3

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of pH and ethenol concentration on the formation of peroxide has been studied. Hydrogen peroxide (92%) and organic peroxide (8%) are produced when the liquor is irradiated in the range of pH from 4 to 9 but no organic peroxide at the pH less than 2.5 and in the aqueous solution of ethanol over a wide concentrations of ethanol. G(H2O2) and G (total peroxide) are equal to 3.6 ± 0.3 and 2.9 ± 0.2 for 0.2% (V/V) aqueous solution of ethanol and the liquor containing 0.2% ethanol and 4.3 ± 0.1 and 3.6 ± 0.3 for 57% aqueous solution of ethanol and the liquor (containing 57% ethanol), respectively. Over a wide ethanol concentration range, there is no organic peroxide in the irradiated aqueous solution of ethanol. It shows that organic peroxide does not formed from ethanol and it could result from the other composition radicals in the liquor

  18. THE EFFECT OF 'ORGANIC' LABELS ON CONSUMER PERCEPTION OF CHOCOLATES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marietta Kiss

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the most important success factors in the organic food industry is the positive image that a significant number of customers attach to organic products in many countries, which includes the perception of healthiness and also sensory characteristics such as smell, texture or taste. Several papers have examined the effect of organic certification on consumer perceptions for many types of products from a number of perspectives. The present study aims to reveal the effect of organic (‘bio’ labels on customers’ evaluation of chocolates regarding five product attributes: fragrance, taste, healthiness, calorie content and price. The two research questions are: (1 ‘How do consumers modify their perceptions about a given chocolate after receiving information as to whether the given chocolate is an organic or a non-organic product?’ and (2 ‘How do consumers’ evaluations of organic and non-organic chocolates relative to each other change after it is revealed which ones have an organic certificate?’ To find the answers an experiment was conducted on a sample of 32 second year bachelor university students from the ‘Commerce and Marketing’ major. During the experiment the students tasted 4 dark (2 regular and 2 organic and 3 milk (2 regular and 1 organic chocolates in two phases. In the first phase they had no information as to whether organic products were involved in the experiment, but in the second the organic products were labelled. The students had to evaluate fragrance, taste, healthiness, and calorie content, and estimate the price in both phases. The results show that ‘organic’ labels can significantly modify consumers’ perception and evaluation of chocolates with every attribute for one or more of the chocolates. Labelling can also widen the perceived gap between organic and regular chocolates according to fragrance, healthiness, calorie content and price. However, changes were identified only in the case of

  19. Experiments on black liquor splashplate nozzle performance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nieminen, K.

    1996-12-31

    The performance of a throttled black liquor splashplate nozzle was studied in this work. A series of industrial-scale experiments were performed using mass flow rate as a variable at a fixed temperature. The experiments were carried out in a spraying chamber next to the recovery boiler with real mill liquor. The disintegration process of the liquor sheet was videotaped for analyzing. The mass flow rate distribution was measured with a collector. The liquor drops produced by the nozzle were videotaped and measured with a video image analysis technique. The industrial-scale experiments were afterwards repeated on a small scale in the laboratory environment which made it possible to study the liquid sheet disintegration process thoroughly. The small-scale experiments were carried out with a solution of water and glycerol and a splashplate nozzle of approximately one tenth the size of full-scale nozzle. The whole liquid sheet and close-up exposures of the plate area were videotaped. However, the videotaping equipment (camera and objective) were not capable of observing the very thin and transparent liquid sheet. The mass flow rate distribution was measured with steps of 2.5 deg from the plate centerline with a collector device. The drop sizes were measured from various sheet angles with Malvern Particle Sizer and a phase Doppler particle anemometer (Aerometrics). The modeling was based on dimensional analysis. The objective was to compare these two experimental settings and to find out whether small-scale experiments can be used in predicting the spraying characteristics in the full-scale. It was also of interest to test the measured black liquor drop sizes against drop size correlations obtained from the literature. (31 refs.)

  20. Sensory profiles of chocolates produced from cocoa cultivars resistant to Moniliophtora Perniciosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paula Bacelar Leite

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study evaluated the sensory quality of chocolates obtained from two cocoa cultivars (PH16 and SR162 resistant to Moniliophtora perniciosa mould comparing to a conventional cocoa that is not resistant to the disease. The acceptability of the chocolates was assessed and the promising cultivars with relevant sensory and commercial attributes could be indicated to cocoa producers and chocolate manufacturers. The descriptive terminology and the sensory profile of chocolates were developed by Quantitative Descriptive Analysis (QDA. Ten panelists, selected on the basis of their discriminatory capacity and reproducibility, defined eleven sensory descriptors, their respective reference materials and the descriptive evaluation ballot. The data were analyzed using ANOVA, Principal Component Analysis (PCA and Tukey's test to compare the means. The results revealed significant differences among the sensory profiles of the chocolates. Chocolates from the PH16 cultivar were characterized by a darker brown color, more intense flavor and odor of chocolate, bitterness and a firmer texture, which are important sensory and commercial attributes. Chocolates from the SR162 cultivar were characterized by a greater sweetness and melting quality and chocolates from the conventional treatment presented intermediate sensory characteristics between those of the other two chocolates. All samples indicated high acceptance, but chocolates from the PH16 and conventional cultivars obtained higher purchase intention scores.

  1. The impact of the manufacturing process on the hardness and sensory properties of milk chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarić Danica B.

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this paper was to examine the impact of the manufacturing process on the textural characteristics and sensory properties of milk chocolate. The research was conducted on the samples of chocolate produced in a ball mill during 30, 60 and 90 minutes of refining, each of them being pre-crystallized at 26, 28 and 30°C. A chocolate mass of identical ingredient composition was also produced using a standard manufacturing process at the same pre-crystallization temperatures. Chocolate hardness was examined using a piece of equipment called Texture Analyser, measuring the stress intensity which leads to chocolate crushing. Sensory analysis was performed using the point scoring method. The new manufacturing process, i.e. the manufacturing of chocolate in a ball mill improves sensory properties and hardness of milk chocolate. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31014

  2. Exploring consumer perception about the different types of chocolate Explorando a percepção do consumidor sobre diferentes tipos de chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Adriana Gámbaro

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The Word Association technique was used to analyze the perception of 120 Uruguayan consumers concerning the different types of chocolate. Similarly, it was estimated how healthy consumers perceived dark, white and milk chocolate to be. As a generic product, chocolate was associated with good taste, positive feelings, sweetness, feelings of warmth and calories/energy. White, dark and milk chocolate were significantly associated with other concepts (creaminess, bitterness, intense taste, etc.. A cluster analysis was performed on the scores regarding the perceived healthiness as reported by the consumers. 3 clusters were identified: Cluster 1 did not perceive any of the three types of chocolate to be very healthy, Cluster 2 considered dark chocolate to be very healthy but white chocolate to be less healthy and Cluster 3 perceived the three types of chocolate as very healthy. The Word Association technique enabled us to identify the differences between the associations made by each cluster.A técnica de Associação de Palavras foi utilizada para analisar a percepção que 120 consumidores uruguaios tinham em relação a diferentes tipos de chocolate. Da mesma forma, estimou-se o quão saudável os consumidores percebiam cada tipo de chocolate: escuro, branco e ao leite. Como um produto genérico, o chocolate foi associado com bom gosto, sentimentos positivos, doçura, sensação de calor e calorias/energia. Chocolates dos tipos branco, escuro e ao leite foram significativamente associados com outros conceitos (cremosidade, amargura, sabor intenso, etc.. Uma análise de agrupamento foi realizada na pontuação em relação à saudabilidade percebida, reportada pelos consumidores. Três grupos foram identificados: Grupo 1 - não percebem qualquer um dos três tipos de chocolate como sendo muito saudável; Grupo 2 - consideram o chocolate escuro como muito saudável e o chocolate branco foi considerado como menos saudável; Grupo 3 - percebem os tr

  3. Can airborne ultrasound monitor bubble size in chocolate?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Aerated chocolate products consist of solid chocolate with the inclusion of bubbles and are a popular consumer product in many countries. The volume fraction and size distribution of the bubbles has an effect on their sensory properties and manufacturing cost. For these reasons it is important to have an online real time process monitoring system capable of measuring their bubble size distribution. As these products are eaten by consumers it is desirable that the monitoring system is non contact to avoid food contaminations. In this work we assess the feasibility of using an airborne ultrasound system to monitor the bubble size distribution in aerated chocolate bars. The experimental results from the airborne acoustic experiments were compared with theoretical results for known bubble size distributions using COMSOL Multiphysics. This combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to develop a greater understanding of how ultrasound propagates through aerated chocolate and to assess the feasibility of using airborne ultrasound to monitor bubble size distribution in these systems. The results indicated that a smaller bubble size distribution would result in an increase in attenuation through the product

  4. Can airborne ultrasound monitor bubble size in chocolate?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, N.; Hazlehurst, T.; Povey, M.; Vieira, J.; Sundara, R.; Sandoz, J.-P.

    2014-04-01

    Aerated chocolate products consist of solid chocolate with the inclusion of bubbles and are a popular consumer product in many countries. The volume fraction and size distribution of the bubbles has an effect on their sensory properties and manufacturing cost. For these reasons it is important to have an online real time process monitoring system capable of measuring their bubble size distribution. As these products are eaten by consumers it is desirable that the monitoring system is non contact to avoid food contaminations. In this work we assess the feasibility of using an airborne ultrasound system to monitor the bubble size distribution in aerated chocolate bars. The experimental results from the airborne acoustic experiments were compared with theoretical results for known bubble size distributions using COMSOL Multiphysics. This combined experimental and theoretical approach is used to develop a greater understanding of how ultrasound propagates through aerated chocolate and to assess the feasibility of using airborne ultrasound to monitor bubble size distribution in these systems. The results indicated that a smaller bubble size distribution would result in an increase in attenuation through the product.

  5. Eyelid liquoric fistula secondary to orbital meningocele

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Antunes Schiave Germano

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Liquoric fistula (LF is defined as the communication of the subarachnoid space with the external environment, which main complication is the development of infection in the central nervous system. We reported the case of a patient with non-traumatic eyelid liquoric fistula secondary to orbital meningocele (congenital lesion, which main clinical manifestation was unilateral eyelid edema. Her symptoms and clinical signs appeared in adulthood, which is uncommon. The patient received surgical treatment, with complete resolution of the eyelid swelling. In conclusion, eyelid cerebrospinal fluid (CSF fistula is a rare condition but with great potential deleterious to the patient. It should be considered in the differential diagnosis of unilateral eyelid edema, and surgical treatment is almost always mandatory.

  6. Imidacloprid in processed tea and tea liquor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SANYAL N.; HAZRA D.; PAL R.; SOMCHAUDHURY A.K.; CHOWDHURY A.

    2006-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a newly introduced broad-spectrum chloronicotinyl insecticide and will find its way in agricultural production, particularly in Asia. However, information on the fate of imidacloprid in crop plants is lacking. The degradation of imidacloprid in processed CTC tea and tea liquor was investigated in the present study in which imidacloprid was applied at recommended application rate (30.0 g a.i./ha) and twice the recommended application rate (60.0 g a.i./ha) for three consecutive seasons. Imidacloprid was rapidly dissipated in processed tea following first order reaction kinetics at all application rates and had half-lives of 0.91~1.16 d with the residue in tea liquor found to be below detectable limit on 3rd day samples. The study revealed that imidacloprid is safe for human consumption and will not pose any residual toxicity problem.

  7. Reduction in Ammonium Ions in Sludge Liquor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eglė Šlajūtė

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Liquor rejected from the centrifugation of the digested sludge can contain the concentrations of ammonium ions up to 1750 mg/L. These loads are usually returned to the intake of wastewater treatment plants (WWTP without additional treatment and can have a negative impact on biological wastewater and/or sludge treatment processes, e.g. phosphorus and nitrogen removal. This article deals with the use of naturally obtained sorbent, zeolite, in batch and column test procedure for removing ammonium from the rejected liquor. This research study was carried out using different sizes of zeolite particles: 0.8–1.6 mm and 1.6–2.5 mm. The highest efficiency of ammonium removal (up to 98 % was achieved by applying the zeolite particles of 0.8–1.6 mm.Article in Lithuanian

  8. Acute effects of brisk walking on urges to eat chocolate, affect, and responses to a stressor and chocolate cue. An experimental study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Adrian H; Oliver, Anita J

    2009-02-01

    The study aimed to investigate the effects of an acute exercise bout on urges to eat chocolate, affect, and psychological and physiological responses to stress and a chocolate cue. Following 3 days of chocolate abstinence, 25 regular chocolate eaters, took part, on separate days, in two randomly ordered conditions, in a within-subject design: a 15-min brisk semi-self-paced brisk walk or a passive control. Following each, participants completed two tasks: the Stroop colour-word interference task, and unwrapping and handling a chocolate bar. Chocolate urges [State Food Cravings Questionnaire (FCQ-S); Rodríguez, S., Fernández, M. C., Cepeda-Benito, A., & Vila, J. (2005). Subjective and physiological reactivity to chocolate images in high and low chocolate cravers. Biological Psychology, 70, 9-18], affective activation [Felt Arousal Scale; Svebak, S., & Murgatroyd, S. (1985). Metamotivational dominance: a multimethod validation of reversal theory constructs. Journal of Perception and Social Psychology, 48, 107-116], affective pleasure/valence [Feelings Scale; Hardy, C. J., & Rejeski, W. J. (1989). Not what, but how one feels: the measurement of affect during exercise. Journal of Sport and Exercise Psychology, 11, 304-317], and systolic/diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP) were assessed throughout. Exercise reduced chocolate urges and there was a trend towards attenuated urges in response to the chocolate cue. Exercise also attenuated SBP/DBP increases in response to the stressor and chocolate cue. The effects on urges varied across the dimensions of the FCQ-S. PMID:18835411

  9. Pyrolysis of Large Black Liquor Droplets

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bartkus, Tadas P.; Dietrich, Daniel L.; T'ien, James S.; Wessel, Richard A.

    2007-01-01

    This paper presents the results of experiments involving the pyrolysis of large black liquor droplets in the NASA KC-135 reduced gravity aircraft. The reduced gravity environment facilitated the study of droplets up to 9 mm in diameter extending the results of previous studies to droplet sizes that are similar to those encountered in recovery boilers. Single black liquor droplets were rapidly inserted into a 923 K oven. The primary independent variables were the initial droplet diameter (0.5 mm to 9 mm), the black liquor solids content (66.12% - 72.9% by mass), and the ambient oxygen mole fraction (0.0 - 0.21). Video records of the experiments provided size and shape of the droplets as a function of time. The results show that the particle diameter at the end of the drying stage (D(sub DRY)) increases linearly with the initial particle diameter (D(sub O)). The results further show that the ratio of the maximum swollen diameter (D(sub MAX)) to D(sub O) decreases with increasing D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) less than 4 mm. This ratio was independent of D(sub O) for droplets with D(sub O) greater than 4 mm. The particle is most spherical at the end of drying, and least spherical at maximum swollen size, regardless of initial sphericity and droplet size.

  10. In Situ Causticizing for Black Liquor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Scott Alan Sinquefield

    2005-10-01

    Black liquor gasification offers a number of attractive incentives to replace Tomlinson boilers but it also leads to an increase in the causticizing load. Reasons for this have been described in previous reports (FY04 ERC, et.al.). The chemistries have also been covered but will be reviewed here briefly. Experimental results of the causticizing reactions with black liquor are presented here. Results of the modeling work were presented in detail in the Phase 1 report. They are included in Table 2 for comparison but will not be discussed in detail. The causticizing agents were added to black liquor in the ratios shown in Table 1, mixed, and then spray-dried. The mixture ratios (doping levels) reflect amount calculated from the stoichiometry above to achieve specified conversions shown in the table. The solids were sieved to 63-90 microns for use in the entrained flow reactors. The firing conditions are shown in Table 2. Pictures and descriptions of the reactors can be found in the Phase 1 annual report. Following gasification, the solids (char) was collected and analyzed by coulometric titration (for carbonate and total carbon), and by inductively coupled plasma emission spectroscopy (ICP) for a wide array of metals.

  11. 27 CFR 70.605 - Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. 70.605 Section 70.605 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and... Claims Procedures § 70.605 Claims relating to imported, domestic, and Virgin Islands liquors. (a) Claims involving taxes on domestic liquors, imported liquors, and liquors manufactured in the Virgin Islands...

  12. 27 CFR 19.639 - Use and resale of liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use and resale of liquor... BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle and Label Requirements Liquor Bottle Requirements § 19.639 Use and resale of liquor bottles. No proprietor shall use any...

  13. 27 CFR 19.638 - Disposition of stocks of liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liquor bottles. 19.638 Section 19.638 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle and Label Requirements Liquor Bottle Requirements § 19.638 Disposition of stocks of liquor bottles. When a...

  14. Combustion properties of kraft black liquors; Mustalipeaen koostumuksen vaikutus lipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Siistonen, H.; Heikkinen, T.; Malkavaara, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this work is to study the combustion properties of kraft black liquors from modified cooking. Both the industrial and laboratory-made black liquors are included. In addition, changes in the combustion properties of the spent liquors obtained by mixing prior to combustion different chlorine-free bleach liquors with black liquor are studied. (author)

  15. Physical, bioactive and sensory quality parameters of reduced sugar chocolates formulated with natural sweeteners as sucrose alternatives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Komes, Draženka; Dujmović, Marko; Karlović, Sven; Biškić, Matija; Brnčić, Mladen; Ježek, Damir

    2015-01-15

    In this study, sugar alcohols, dietary fibers, syrups and natural sweeteners were used as sucrose alternatives in the production of reduced sugar chocolates (50% of cocoa parts) with enhanced bioactive profile. Formulated chocolates were evaluated for their physical (particle size distribution, texture) and sensory properties, sugar composition, polyphenolic compounds content and antioxidant capacity. All produced reduced sugar chocolates ensured >20% lower calorific value than conventional chocolate (prepared with sucrose). Formulated chocolates containing stevia leaves and peppermint exhibited the best sensory properties (especially with regard to mouthfeel, sweetness and herbal aroma), as well as the highest polyphenolic content and antioxidant capacity. Particle size and hardness of chocolates increased in comparison to conventional chocolate, in particular when the combination of fructose and isomalt or lactitol was used. The bioactive profile of produced chocolates was enriched with phenolic acids, flavone (luteolin and apigenin) and flavonol (quercetin) derivatives, which were not identified in control chocolate. PMID:25148960

  16. Characteristics of Gouda cheese supplemented with fruit liquors

    OpenAIRE

    Choi, Hee Young; Yang, Chul Ju; Choi, Kap Seong; Bae, Inhyu

    2015-01-01

    This study was conducted in order to evaluate the quality characteristics of Gouda cheeses supplemented with fruit liquor (Prunusmume or Cornus officinalis). Fruit liquor was supplemented to Gouda cheeses during preparation. Changes in chemical composition, lactic acid bacterial population, pH, water-soluble nitrogen, sensory characteristics, and proteolysis were monitored in the prepared ripened cheese. The electrophoresis patterns of cheese proteins, fruit liquor functional component concen...

  17. Compost liquor bioremediation using waste materials as biofiltration media.

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, A. J.; Tyrrel, Sean F.

    2005-01-01

    Compost liquor results from the percolation of precipitation through composting waste; the release of liquids from high moisture content feedstocks; and as a result of runoff from hard surfaces and machinery. This research aimed to establish the potential for waste materials to act as media for low-cost compost liquor biofilters. Six types of potential biofilter media were packed into experimental biofilters (1 m long x 0.11 m diameter) and irrigated with compost liquor (organic loading rate ...

  18. Does chocolate reduce blood pressure? A meta-analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ried Karin

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Dark chocolate and flavanol-rich cocoa products have attracted interest as an alternative treatment option for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular disease. Previous meta-analyses concluded that cocoa-rich foods may reduce blood pressure. Recently, several additional trials have been conducted with conflicting results. Our study summarises current evidence on the effect of flavanol-rich cocoa products on blood pressure in hypertensive and normotensive individuals. Methods We searched Medline, Cochrane and international trial registries between 1955 and 2009 for randomised controlled trials investigating the effect of cocoa as food or drink compared with placebo on systolic and diastolic blood pressure (SBP/DBP for a minimum duration of 2 weeks. We conducted random effects meta-analysis of all studies fitting the inclusion criteria, as well as subgroup analysis by baseline blood pressure (hypertensive/normotensive. Meta-regression analysis explored the association between type of treatment, dosage, duration or baseline blood pressure and blood pressure outcome. Statistical significance was set at P Results Fifteen trial arms of 13 assessed studies met the inclusion criteria. Pooled meta-analysis of all trials revealed a significant blood pressure-reducing effect of cocoa-chocolate compared with control (mean BP change ± SE: SBP: -3.2 ± 1.9 mmHg, P = 0.001; DBP: -2.0 ± 1.3 mmHg, P = 0.003. However, subgroup meta-analysis was significant only for the hypertensive or prehypertensive subgroups (SBP: -5.0 ± 3.0 mmHg; P = 0.0009; DBP: -2.7 ± 2.2 mm Hg, P = 0.01, while BP was not significantly reduced in the normotensive subgroups (SBP: -1.6 ± 2.3 mmHg, P = 0.17; DBP: -1.3 ± 1.6 mmHg, P = 0.12. Nine trials used chocolate containing 50% to 70% cocoa compared with white chocolate or other cocoa-free controls, while six trials compared high- with low-flavanol cocoa products. Daily flavanol dosages ranged from 30

  19. Fitting mathematical models to describe the rheological behaviour of chocolate pastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbosa, Carla; Diogo, Filipa; Alves, M. Rui

    2016-06-01

    The flow behavior is of utmost importance for the chocolate industry. The objective of this work was to study two mathematical models, Casson and Windhab models that can be used to fit chocolate rheological data and evaluate which better infers or previews the rheological behaviour of different chocolate pastes. Rheological properties (viscosity, shear stress and shear rates) were obtained with a rotational viscometer equipped with a concentric cylinder. The chocolate samples were white chocolate and chocolate with varying percentages in cacao (55%, 70% and 83%). The results showed that the Windhab model was the best to describe the flow behaviour of all the studied samples with higher determination coefficients (r2 > 0.9).

  20. Doctors Say a Chocolate a Day Keeps Them Away

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Patricia; Reaney; 林多多

    2002-01-01

    本文的标题别具风采,很生动形象,很亲切而富有说服力。这毕竟是“医嘱”呀!文章内还有一句也很精彩,堪称佳句:NOT ALL CHOCOLATE CRE-ATED EQUAL。使你也许会联想到英语中的一句名言:MAN ARE CREATED E-QUAL。(人生来就是平等)!当然,本文还有一句“中听”的话:So the message is,enjoy a little chocolate in moderation,but ensure you eat five portions of fruit andvegetables daily to get all the flavonoids you need without the added fat。此言之精髓是:巧克力虽好,但别忘了大吃水果和蔬菜哟!】

  1. Physical Characteristics of Cocoa Butter and Palm Stearin Mixture in Milk Chocolate System

    OpenAIRE

    Misnawi Jati

    2008-01-01

    Chocolate products for consumption in tropical areas frequently become soft and tend to bloom due to melting and migration of fat contained, the product becomes dully and less interesting. Fat fraction determines chocolate texture, appearance and its handling. Objective of this research is to study the characteristic of mixed fat of cocoa butter, milk fat and stearin; in which the latest was added into a chocolate formula expected to increase its physical characteristic. Response Surface Meth...

  2. Smelling the books: The effect of chocolate scent on purchase-related behavior in a bookstore

    OpenAIRE

    DOUCE, Lieve; Poels, Karolien; Janssens, Wim; De Backer, Charlotte

    2013-01-01

    The aims of this research were to (1) explore the different effects of an ambient scent of chocolate on general approach versus goal-directed behavior, and (2) investigate whether an ambient chocolate scent diffused in a retail environment has a positive effect on consumers’ behavior toward thematically congruent products. A field study with 201 participants shows that a chocolate scent positively influences general approach behavior and negatively influences goal-directed behavior in a books...

  3. Sensory and instrumental evaluation of physical characteristics of laboratory -made chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Jovanović Olga Lj.; Pajin Biljana S.

    2002-01-01

    Sensory evaluation of chocolate, as a complex multicompound system, is one of the ways to define and control its physico-chemical characteristics, i.e. quality. Chocolate quality depends on structure and ingredients percentage that influence its appearance, taste and behaviour in the production processes and storage. The aim of this work was to compare certain quality factors of laboratory-made chocolate with added emulsifier-blooming inhibitor, determinated by sensory and instrumental analys...

  4. An empirical study on the relationship of purchasing a chocolate based on its packaging

    OpenAIRE

    Yasaman Giyahi

    2012-01-01

    Chocolate is one of popular gifts among people in many societies. Packaging of such product plays an important role on marketing this item and the primary question of this survey is to determine the impact of packaging on better introducing a product. The inference statistical tests show that packaging is an important item in selection of chocolate as a gift. Percentage of chocolate is the most important information on packaging and color of packaging is of paramount significance when custome...

  5. Development and storage study of reduced sugar soy containing compound chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Pandey, Alka; Singh, Gurmukh

    2010-01-01

    Possibility of using full fat soy flour (FFSF) for replacer for whole milk powder (WMP), stevia-mannitol blend as replacer for sugar and soybean oil (SBO) as replacer for cocoa butter in chocolate manufacture without impairing the sensory quality characteristics of chocolate was explored. Data on the sensory evaluation of WMP, sugar and cocoa butter substituted chocolates revealed that 40% (w/w) of WMP, sugar and cocoa butter can be successfully substituted by FFSF, stevia-mannitol blend and ...

  6. Visualization of the hot chocolate sound effect by spectrograms

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Trávníček, Zdeněk; Fedorchenko, Alexander I.; Pavelka, Miroslav; Hrubý, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 331, č. 25 (2012), s. 5387-5392. ISSN 0022-460X R&D Projects: GA AV ČR(CZ) IAA200760801; GA ČR(CZ) GCP101/11/J019 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20760514 Keywords : hot chocolate effect * gas-liquid mixture * speed of sound Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics Impact factor: 1.613, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0022460X12005640

  7. Chocolate During Pregnancy Has Good Impact on Baby

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晖

    2004-01-01

    在传统的观念中,巧克力是美味高脂的代名词,令几多爱关女士垂涎欲 滴却又望而却步。但不想其对孕妇却有如下神奇功效:Eating chocolate is good for the baby。因此,为了下一代的健康,请孕妇尽情享用吧!

  8. TWO FACES OF MASCULINITY IN AXE CHOCOLATE ADVERTISEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Bernadeta Ririn; Lulu Laela Amalia

    2012-01-01

    Abstract: An advertisement has never been departed from an ideology. Although it occurs implicitly, an ideology in an advertisement is able to make someone believe in particular value of life. This study tries to reveal the ideology both in positive meaning as a belief system which marks certain group and in negative meaning as a false consciousness. Besides that, this study also tries to reveal the way of illustrating the ideology that lies within the Axe Chocolate advertisement. In order to...

  9. TWO FACES OF MASCULINITY IN AXE CHOCOLATE ADVERTISEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Bernadeta Ririn; Lulu L. Amalia

    2016-01-01

    An advertisement has never been departed from an ideology. Although it occurs implicitly, an ideology in an advertisement is able to make someone believe in particular value of life. This study tries to reveal the ideology both in positive meaning as a belief system which marks certain group and in negative meaning as a false consciousness. Besides that, this study also tries to reveal the way of illustrating the ideology that lies within the Axe Chocolate advertisement. In order to obtain th...

  10. International outbreak of Salmonella Oranienburg due to German chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Weise Ekkehard; Bartelt Edda; Behnke Susanne C; Fisher Ian ST; Prager Rita; Roggentin Peter; Hauri Anja M; Ethelberg Steen; Fell Gerhard; van Treeck Ulrich; Feil Fabian; Dreesman Johannes; Werber Dirk; Ellis Andrea; Siitonen Anja

    2005-01-01

    Abstract Background This report describes a large international chocolate-associated Salmonella outbreak originating from Germany. Methods We conducted epidemiologic investigations including a case-control study, and food safety investigations. Salmonella (S.) Oranienburg isolates were subtyped by the use of pulsed-field gel electrophoresis (PFGE). Results From 1 October 2001 through 24 March 2002, an estimated excess of 439 S. Oranienburg notifications was registered in Germany. Simultaneous...

  11. Edible applications of shellac oleogels: spreads, chocolate paste and cakes

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Ashok; Rajarethinem, Pravin S; Grędowska, Agnieszka; Turhan, Ozge; Lesaffer, Ans; De Vos, Winnok; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate three potential edible applications of shellac oleogels as (i) a continuous oil phase for preparation of emulsifier-free, structured w/o emulsions (spreads), (ii) a replacer for oil-binders in chocolate paste formulations and (iii) a shortening alternative for cake preparation. Water-in-oil emulsions with up to 60 wt% water were prepared without the need for an emulsifier by simply using shellac oleogels as the continuous oil phase. The water droplets in these emulsions (size <...

  12. Improved method for determination of light filth in chocolate products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shostak, M T

    1978-07-01

    The recovery of rodent hairs from chocolate has been significantly improved by the introduction of an additional defatting step, substitution of 40% isopropanol for water, and substitution of mineral oil-heptane (85+15) for heptane in the trapping-off step. These changes have no adverse effect on insect fragment recovery. An average recovery of 95% was obtained for rodent hairs, coefficient of variation 7.9%. Insect fragment recoveries were 100%. PMID:681273

  13. Chocolate as a cough suppressant: rationale and justification for an upcoming clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halfdanarson, Thorvardur R; Jatoi, Aminah

    2007-01-01

    Cough is a troubling symptom for many patients with cancer. Current cough suppressants can cause side effects and, at the same time, might not provide absolute cough palliation. Suprisingly, accumulating evience suggests that dark chocolate can carry antitussive effects. Although mechanisms remain unknown, it is thought that theobromine, a methylxanthine intrinsic to dark chocolate, might potentially suppress cough. To date, clinical trials with dark chocolate have not been undertaken. This article describes an upcoming trial to determine whether dark chocolate might serve as an antitussive in patients with cancer. PMID:18632476

  14. Physical Characteristics of Cocoa Butter and Palm Stearin Mixture in Milk Chocolate System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Jati

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate products for consumption in tropical areas frequently become soft and tend to bloom due to melting and migration of fat contained, the product becomes dully and less interesting. Fat fraction determines chocolate texture, appearance and its handling. Objective of this research is to study the characteristic of mixed fat of cocoa butter, milk fat and stearin; in which the latest was added into a chocolate formula expected to increase its physical characteristic. Response Surface Methodology design was used for the study at stearin concentration of 10–60 g kg-1 and lecithin of 1–7 g kg-1. Parameters of the study were fat melting point, chocolate hardness and preference on chocolate texture and overall acceptance. Result of the study showed that the stearin concentration significantly altered chocolate physical characteristic, where the lecithin concentration did not influence. The presence of stearin in milk chocolate system showed fat eutectic phenomenon. Substitution of cocoa butter with stearin up to concentration of 35 g kg-1 in the formulation showed a clear eutectic; however, at higher concentrations the phenomenon was compensated by the increase in stearin crystal seed which raised melting point and hardness. This result also clearly indicated that cocoa butter substitution with palm stearin to obtain resistant chocolate should be designed in a range of 43–60 g kg-1 in its formulation, equal to 15–18% from cocoa butter added.Key words : chocolate, cocoa butter, stearin, eutectic, solidifier, emulsifier, melting point, texture.

  15. Chocolate packaging cues and first moment of truth: An exploratory study on young consumers’ mind

    OpenAIRE

    Suraj Kushe Shekhar; P.T. Raveendran

    2013-01-01

    Packaging is often called as the fifth P of the marketing mix. Chocolate is a product which is loved to be consumed irrespective of any age group. Consumers were asked to imagine that a new chocolate bar has been launched in the market and were yet to sense (sight or taste) it or a chocolate bar which was already launched in the market and were yet to sense (sight or taste) it .The present study explored different chocolate packaging cues that could possibly influence the purchase decision of...

  16. Chocolate packaging cues and first moment of truth: An exploratory study on young consumers’ mind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suraj Kushe Shekhar

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Packaging is often called as the fifth P of the marketing mix. Chocolate is a product which is loved to be consumed irrespective of any age group. Consumers were asked to imagine that a new chocolate bar has been launched in the market and were yet to sense (sight or taste it or a chocolate bar which was already launched in the market and were yet to sense (sight or taste it .The present study explored different chocolate packaging cues that could possibly influence the purchase decision of young consumers in such a scenario. Descriptive research with convenient sampling elicited 240 responses across the age group lying between 11 to 27 years. Results showed that an attractive package design was of paramount significance in first purchase of chocolate bars. The important factors which affected the buying decision were ‘Information’ and ‘Visual aesthetics’. However it was found that chocolate packaging had less influence on subsequent purchase of chocolate bars. It was also inferred that an attractive package along with a strong advertising campaign could bring prospective sales for a newly launched chocolate bar. The study also discussed the influence of chocolate packaging for national and international brands across various demographic variables.

  17. An empirical study on the relationship of purchasing a chocolate based on its packaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasaman Giyahi

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is one of popular gifts among people in many societies. Packaging of such product plays an important role on marketing this item and the primary question of this survey is to determine the impact of packaging on better introducing a product. The inference statistical tests show that packaging is an important item in selection of chocolate as a gift. Percentage of chocolate is the most important information on packaging and color of packaging is of paramount significance when customers purchase chocolate for individuals with official relationship. In this paper, we present an empirical study to measure the effects of chocolates' packaging on purchasing them. The proposed study of this paper designs a questionnaire and distributes them among different people. The results are analyzed using some non-parametric tests and they are discussed. The preliminary results indicate that the number of purchased packages within a year, cost of purchasing chocolate within a year, type of relationship of recipients of chocolate as gift, gender of recipient of chocolate as gift, age group of recipient of gift, type of store, nationality of chocolate, significance of packaging in various price ranges, type of packaging, insertion of information on package and color of packaging, are important factors influencing people to buy more.

  18. Health Benefits of Methylxanthines in Cacao and Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafael Franco

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available One may wonder why methylxanthines are so abundant in beverages used by humans for centuries, or in cola-drinks that have been heavily consumed since their appearance. It is likely that humans have stuck to any brew containing compounds with psychoactive properties, resulting in a better daily life, i.e., more efficient thinking, exploring, hunting, etc., however, without the serious side effects of drugs of abuse. The physiological effects of methylxanthines have been known for a long time and they are mainly mediated by the so-called adenosine receptors. Caffeine and theobromine are the most abundant methylxanthines in cacao and their physiological effects are notable. Their health-promoting benefits are so remarkable that chocolate is explored as a functional food. The consequences of adenosine receptor blockade by natural compounds present in cacao/chocolate are here reviewed. Palatability and health benefits of methylxanthines, in general, and theobromine, in particular, have further contributed to sustain one of the most innocuous and pleasant habits: chocolate consumption.

  19. Use of a clay modeling task to reduce chocolate craving.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade, Jackie; Pears, Sally; May, Jon; Kavanagh, David J

    2012-06-01

    Elaborated Intrusion theory (EI theory; Kavanagh, Andrade, & May, 2005) posits two main cognitive components in craving: associative processes that lead to intrusive thoughts about the craved substance or activity, and elaborative processes supporting mental imagery of the substance or activity. We used a novel visuospatial task to test the hypothesis that visual imagery plays a key role in craving. Experiment 1 showed that spending 10 min constructing shapes from modeling clay (plasticine) reduced participants' craving for chocolate compared with spending 10 min 'letting your mind wander'. Increasing the load on verbal working memory using a mental arithmetic task (counting backwards by threes) did not reduce craving further. Experiment 2 compared effects on craving of a simpler verbal task (counting by ones) and clay modeling. Clay modeling reduced overall craving strength and strength of craving imagery, and reduced the frequency of thoughts about chocolate. The results are consistent with EI theory, showing that craving is reduced by loading the visuospatial sketchpad of working memory but not by loading the phonological loop. Clay modeling might be a useful self-help tool to help manage craving for chocolate, snacks and other foods. PMID:22369958

  20. Imidacloprid in processed tea and tea liquor*

    OpenAIRE

    Sanyal, N.; Hazra, D.; Pal, R; Somchaudhury, A.K.; Chowdhury, A.

    2006-01-01

    Imidacloprid is a newly introduced broad-spectrum chloronicotinyl insecticide and will find its way in agricultural production, particularly in Asia. However, information on the fate of imidacloprid in crop plants is lacking. The degradation of imidacloprid in processed CTC tea and tea liquor was investigated in the present study in which imidacloprid was applied at recommended application rate (30.0 g a.i./ha) and twice the recommended application rate (60.0 g a.i./ha) for three consecutive ...

  1. Everyday Eating Experiences of Chocolate and Non-Chocolate Snacks Impact Postprandial Anxiety, Energy and Emotional States

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François-Pierre J. Martin

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Social and psychological stressors are both a part of daily life and are increasingly recognized as contributors to individual susceptibility to develop diseases and metabolic disorders. The present study investigated how snacks differing in sensory properties and presentation can influence ratings of affect in consumers with different levels of dispositional anxiety. This study examines the relationships between a pre-disposition to anxiety and food using a repeated exposures design with three interspersed test days over a period of two weeks. The study was conducted on ninety free-living male (n = 28 and female (n = 62 Dutch participants aged between 18 and 35 years old, with a BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m2 and different anxiety trait levels assessed using State-Trait Anxiety Inventory tests. The study was randomized by age, gender, anxiety trait score, and followed a parallel open design. Three test products: dark chocolate, a milk chocolate snack and crackers with cheese spread (control, which differed in composition, sensory properties and presentation, were evaluated. Changes in self-reported anxiety, emotion, and energetic states were assessed as a function of eating the snacks just after consumption and up to one hour. The repeated exposure design over a period of two weeks enabled the investigations of potential cumulative effects of regular consumption of the food products. The milk chocolate snack resulted in the decrease of anxiety in high anxiety trait subjects, whereas dark chocolate and cheese and crackers respectively improved the anxiety level and the energetic state of low anxiety trait participants. The mood effects were not altered with repeated exposure, and the magnitude of changes was similar on each test day, which illustrates the repeatability of the effects of the food on subjective measures of postprandial wellness.

  2. 27 CFR 27.204 - Distinctive liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... such bottles are found by the appropriate TTB officer to— (1) Meet the requirements of 27 CFR part 5... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distinctive liquor bottles..., DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS IMPORTATION OF DISTILLED SPIRITS, WINES, AND BEER Requirements for...

  3. 27 CFR 5.46 - Standard liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Standard liquor bottles. 5.46 Section 5.46 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS LABELING AND ADVERTISING OF DISTILLED SPIRITS Standards of Fill...

  4. Leaching uraniferous ores with carbonated liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An alkaline carbonate, and optionally bicarbonate solution containing an oxidising agent is used in the leaching of a uraniferous ore. The process is carried out under concentration, temperature and pressure conditions which cause solubilisation of the uranium present in the ore. Uranium alkaline carbonate and, if present, bicarbonate, are present in solution at a concentration close to the limit of solubility at the attack temperature. The solid and liquid phases resulting from the attack operation are separated, the reactants in the liquid are readjusted, and the liquid is recycled to the ore attack operation. The attack is carried out at a temperature lower than 300 deg. C. and the suspension collected after the attack operation is cooled to a temperature higher than 40 deg. C. The uranium is maintained in a state of saturation and is then precipitated in the attack medium. The solid phase is treated with an aqueous liquor to recover the residual liquor resulting from the attack operation and to redissolve the precipitated uranium compound. The solid and liquid fractions are separated

  5. Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) Programme - 12397

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Waste material from the reprocessing of irradiated fuel has been stored under water for several decades leading to the water becoming highly radioactive. As a critical enabler to the decommissioning strategy for the Sellafield site, the Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) programme has been established to provide a processing route for this highly radioactive liquor. This paper reviews the progress that has been made since the start of routine LAR transfer cycles (July 2010) and follows on from the earlier paper presented at WM2011. The paper focuses on the learning from the first full year of routine LAR transfer cycles and the application of this learning to the wider strategies for the treatment of further radioactive liquid effluents on the Sellafield site. During this period over 100,000 Curies of radioactivity has been safely removed and treated. The past year has witnessed the very successful introduction of the LAR programme. This has lead to hazard reduction at MSSS and demonstration that the SIXEP facility can meet the significantly increased challenge that the LAR programme represents. Part of the success has been the ability to predict and deliver a realistic production schedule with the availability of the MSSS, EDT and SIXEP facilities being central to this. Most importantly, the LAR programme has been successful in bringing together key stakeholders to deliver this work while integrating with the existing, day to day, demands of the Sellafield site. (authors)

  6. Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) Programme - 12397

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pether, Colin; Carrol, Phil; Birkett, Eddie; Kibble, Matthew [Sellafield Ltd, Cumbria (United Kingdom)

    2012-07-01

    Waste material from the reprocessing of irradiated fuel has been stored under water for several decades leading to the water becoming highly radioactive. As a critical enabler to the decommissioning strategy for the Sellafield site, the Liquor Activity Reduction (LAR) programme has been established to provide a processing route for this highly radioactive liquor. This paper reviews the progress that has been made since the start of routine LAR transfer cycles (July 2010) and follows on from the earlier paper presented at WM2011. The paper focuses on the learning from the first full year of routine LAR transfer cycles and the application of this learning to the wider strategies for the treatment of further radioactive liquid effluents on the Sellafield site. During this period over 100,000 Curies of radioactivity has been safely removed and treated. The past year has witnessed the very successful introduction of the LAR programme. This has lead to hazard reduction at MSSS and demonstration that the SIXEP facility can meet the significantly increased challenge that the LAR programme represents. Part of the success has been the ability to predict and deliver a realistic production schedule with the availability of the MSSS, EDT and SIXEP facilities being central to this. Most importantly, the LAR programme has been successful in bringing together key stakeholders to deliver this work while integrating with the existing, day to day, demands of the Sellafield site. (authors)

  7. Effect of soya milk on nutritive, antioxidative, reological and textural properties of chocolate produced in a ball mill

    OpenAIRE

    Zarić Danica B.; Pajin Biljana S.; Rakin Marica B.; Šereš Zita I.; Dokić Ljubica P.; Tomić Jelena M.

    2011-01-01

    Chocolate is a complex rheological system in which non-fat cocoa particles and sugar particles are enveloped by crystal matrix of cocoa butter. Physical properties of chocolate depend on ingredient composition, method of production and properly performed pre-crystallization phase. In this work, chocolate was produced in an unconventional way, i.e. in a ball mill applying variable refining time (30, 60 and 90 min) and pre-crystallization temperature in chocolate masses (26, 28 and 30⁰C)....

  8. 75 FR 6698 - Notice of Intent To Prepare an Environmental Impact Statement for the Proposed West Chocolate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-02-10

    ... West Chocolate Mountains Renewable Energy Evaluation Area, Imperial County, CA, and Possible Land Use... Conservation Area (CDCA) Plan to identify whether lands within the West Chocolate Mountains area should be made...: You may submit comments on issues and planning criteria related to the West Chocolate...

  9. The Science of Chocolate: Interactive Activities on Phase Transitions, Emulsification, and Nucleation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowat, Amy C.; Hollar, Kathryn A.; Stone, Howard A.; Rosenberg, Daniel

    2011-01-01

    Nearly everyone loves chocolate, which makes this an excellent topic for communicating scientific concepts to the general public and to students in the classroom. Here we present the outline and activities for an interactive presentation on the science of chocolate for nonspecialists and their children ages 6 and up. We design the presentation…

  10. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Massolt, Elske T.; van Haard, Paul M.; Rehfeld, Jens F.; Posthuma, Eduardus F.; van der Veer, Eveline; Schweitzer, Dave H.

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa,

  11. Is Chocolate Milk the New-Age Energy\\Sports Drink in the United States?

    OpenAIRE

    Dharmasena, Senarath; Capps, Oral, Jr.

    2011-01-01

    Data from U.S. households for calendar year 2008 were used in examining demographic and economic factors affecting demand for chocolate milk using Heckman two-step procedure. Price, income, age, education, region, race, Hispanic status, and presence of children were significant drivers of consumption of chocolate milk. Sample selection bias was statistically significant.

  12. Cocoa Polyphenols: Can We Consider Cocoa and Chocolate as Potential Functional Food?

    OpenAIRE

    Djurdjica Ackar; Kristina Valek Lendić; Marina Valek; Drago Šubarić; Borislav Miličević; Jurislav Babić; Ilija Nedić

    2013-01-01

    Chocolate has been consumed as confection, aphrodisiac, and folk medicine for many years before science proved its potential health benefiting effects. Main compounds of cocoa and chocolate which contribute to human health are polyphenols that act as antioxidants and have potential anti-inflammatory, cardioprotective, antihepatotoxic, antibacterial, antiviral, antiallergenic, and anticarcinogenic properties. This paper gives a short overview of scientific literature regarding cocoa polyph...

  13. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massolt, Elske T; van Haard, Paul M; Rehfeld, Jens F;

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa...

  14. Investigations of Physical-Chemical and Microbiological Deterioration of Chocolate Pralines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Cecilie Lykke Marvig

    in the fillings is important for the confectionery industry when developing new products. 677 micro-organisms, belonging to bacteria, yeast, and moulds and capable of growing at sugar rich media, were isolated from 40 chocolate pralines and 25 sugar syrups used for chocolate pralines production. The isolates were...

  15. Identification and characterisation of organisms associated with chocolate pralines and sugar syrups used for their production

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Cecilie Lykke Marvig; Kristiansen, Rikke M.; Madsen, Mikkel G.;

    2014-01-01

    preservatives is needed. Using media containing 40-50% glucose (aw 0.872-0.925) bacteria, yeasts and moulds were isolated from chocolate pralines (aw 0.70-0.898) of nine manufactures and sugar syrups (aw 0.854) used as ingredient in chocolate praline production by one of the manufacturers. Isolates were...

  16. Appetite suppression through smelling of dark chocolate correlates with changes in ghrelin in young women

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Massolt, Elske T; van Haard, Paul M; Rehfeld, Jens F;

    2010-01-01

    Cephalic effects on appetite are mediated by vagal tone and altered gastrointestinal hormones. The objective of this study is to explore the relationship between appetite and levels of gastrointestinal hormones after smelling chocolate and after melt-and-swallow 30 g chocolate (1.059 oz, 85% cocoa......, 12.5 g of sugar per 100g product). Twelve female residents (BMI between 18 and 25 kg/m(2)) all participated in two 60-minute study sessions. In the first session, all 12 women ate chocolate; for the second session, they were randomized either to smell chocolate (n=6) or to serve as a control (no...... eating or smelling; n=6). At the start of the sessions, levels of insulin, glucagon-like peptide-1 (GLP-1) and cholecystokinin (CCK), but not glucose, correlated with appetite scored on a visual analogue scale (VAS). In contrast, ghrelin levels correlated inversely with scored appetite. Chocolate eating...

  17. Catalytic mechanism of sodium compounds in black liquor during gasification of coal black liquor slurry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The coal black liquor slurry (CBLS) was composed of coal and black pulping liquor, which has plenty of sodium compounds, lignin and cellulose. The sodium compounds have a catalytic effect on the gasification process of coal black liquor slurry, while lignin and cellulose enhance the heat value. Alkali-catalyzed gasification experiments of CBLS and CWS (coal water slurry) are investigated on the thermobalance and fixed bed reactor. The residues of the gasification of CBLS and CWS are analyzed by XRD, SEM and FT-IR. It is found that many micro- and mesopores and zigzag faces exist in the surface of the CBLS coke, which play a key role in the catalytic gasification. Sodium can enhance the reaction potential, weaken the bond of C-O and improve the gasification reaction rate. XRD results show that sodium aluminum silicate and nepheline are the main crystal components of the CBLS and CWS. The C-O stretching vibration peak in the 1060 cm-1 band in the CBLS shifts to 995.65 cm-1 in the CBLS coke after partial gasification. This means that the energy of the C-O stretching vibration in the CBLS carbon matrix decreases, so the structure of the carbon matrix is more liable to react with an oxygen ion or hydroxide ion. The amplitude of the C-O stretching vibration peak is augmented step by step due to the ground-excited level jump of the C-O band

  18. Recovery of molybdenum from uranium liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Some uranium ores contain enough molybdenum to make the recovery of molybdenum from uranium-bearing process streams attractive. Most past attempts have been unsuccessful because of uranium contamination of the product. Uranium-bearing liquors are usually passed over an activated charcoal bed to selectively remove molybdenum, and the char is regenerated by passing a sodium hydroxide solution through it to remove most of the molybdenum. This molybdenum strip solution generally contains in excess of 500 ppm U3O8. If the char bed is selectively stripped of uranium first with an aqueous solution of pH less than about 5.5, the molybdenum subsequently stripped from the bed contains substantially less than 500 ppm U3O8

  19. Generation of methane from textile desizing liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Opwis, Klaus; Mayer-Gall, Thomas; Schollmeyer, Eckhard [Deutsches Textilforschungszentrum Nord-West e.V., Krefeld (Germany); Dammer, Christoph; Titscher, Tanja; Nickisch-Hartfiel, Anna [Hochschule Niederrhein, Frankenring, Krefeld (Germany); Gruen, Oliver; Spurk, Christoph [OeKOBiT GmbH, Foehren (Germany); Schloderer, Christine; Koeppe, Axel [Textilveredlung an der Wiese, Loerrach (Germany); Doerfler, Christian; Bachus, Herbert [CHT R. Beitlich GmbH, Bismarckstr, Tuebingen (Germany)

    2010-08-15

    A new strategy for the biological transformation of sugar-containing wastewaters from the textile desizing process to biogas was developed. Here, industrial liquors were separated from the following washing step by squeezing the impregnated fabrics after desizing. These waters exhibit a chemical oxygen demand of 40 g/L and allow a direct use in microbial biogas reactors without further treatment or accumulation. After reaching balanced conditions, the microbes continuously produce biogas. Moreover, the chemical oxygen demand can be reduced up to 75%. This new technology seems to be practicable and even attractive for small- and medium-sized enterprises with an annual cotton production down to 2000 t. At this stage, a reliable eco-balance of the overall process is still pending. Further investigations will be carried out soon. (Abstract Copyright [2010], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  20. Assessment of the effect of type of dairy product and of chocolate matrix on the oral absorption of monomeric chocolate flavanols in a small animal model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gossai, D; Lau-Cam, C A

    2009-03-01

    This study has examined the effects of type of dairy product (whole milk, skim milk, heavy cream) and chocolate matrix (baking, dark, dairy milk, white) on the oral absorption of the chocolate flavanols (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin in a small animal model. In the study, each flavanol compound, as a solution in water or a dairy product or as a chocolate dispersion in water, was administered intragastrically to male Sprague-Dawley rats in an amount equal to or equivalent to 350 mg/kg. In each instance, blood samples were collected over a 5 h period, and used to measure plasma total catechin concentrations by HPLC after enzymatic hydrolysis of flavanol conjugates. Pharmacokinetic data were evaluated using a one compartment approach. Whole milk and heavy cream, and to a much lesser extent skim milk, lowered the oral absorption of both (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin and altered the AUC, C(max), k(a), k(e) and t1/2 values in direct proportion to their fat, but not to their protein, content. In addition, the t(max) for solutions of (-)-epicatechin in water and skim milk occurred 2 h earlier than from solutions in whole milk and heavy cream. Similarly, dispersions of baking chocolate in water and in whole milk yielded plasma levels of monomeric catechins that were, respectively, about equal to and much lower than those from aqueous solutions of authentic flavanols. A determining role for a chocolate matrix (dark, dairy milk or white chocolate) on the oral absorption of its constitutive monomeric flavanols was suggested by the apparent variability in plasma total catechins levels that existed among them both before and after their spiking with equal amounts of exogenous (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin. Such a variability could reflect differences among different chocolates in terms of their physical properties, matrix components, and matrix characteristics imposed by the manufacturing process used for each type of chocolate. In all the experiments, (+)-catechin

  1. Visualization of the hot chocolate sound effect by spectrograms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trávníček, Z.; Fedorchenko, A. I.; Pavelka, M.; Hrubý, J.

    2012-12-01

    We present an experimental and a theoretical analysis of the hot chocolate effect. The sound effect is evaluated using time-frequency signal processing, resulting in a quantitative visualization by spectrograms. This method allows us to capture the whole phenomenon, namely to quantify the dynamics of the rising pitch. A general form of the time dependence volume fraction of the bubbles is proposed. We show that the effect occurs due to the nonlinear dependence of the speed of sound in the gas/liquid mixture on the volume fraction of the bubbles and the nonlinear time dependence of the volume fraction of the bubbles.

  2. 27 CFR 19.634 - Receipt and storage of liquor bottles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... CFR 31.263. Liquor bottles, including those of less than 200 ml capacity, shall be stored in a safe... liquor bottles. 19.634 Section 19.634 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Liquor Bottle and...

  3. Nitrogen removal from the saline sludge liquor by electrochemical denitrification

    OpenAIRE

    Li, XY; Chan, KY; Xie, ZM

    2006-01-01

    Sludge liquor from the sludge dewatering process has a high ammonia content. In the present study, a lab-scale electrochemical (EC) system with a pair of Ti electrode plates was used for treating the sludge centrate liquor of digested wastewater sludge with a NH4 + - N content of around 500 mg/L. The sludge liquor had a high salinity due to seawater being used for toilet flushing in Hong Kong. The results show that the EC process is highly effective for denitrification of the saline sludge li...

  4. Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fourth meeting held July 28--30, 1987

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emerson, D. B.; Whitworth, B. A.

    1987-10-01

    Research programs, presented at the black liquor review meeting are described. Research topics include the following: Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery; Black Liquor Physical Properties; Viscosity of Strong Black Liquor; Ultrafiltration of Kraft Black Liquor; Molecular Weight Distribution of Kraft Lignin; Black Liquor Droplet Formation Project; Fundamental Studies of Black Liquor Combustion; Black Liquor Combustion Sensors; Flash X-ray Imagining of Black Liquor Sprays; Laser Induced Fluorescence For Process Control In The Pulp and Paper Industry; Recovery Boiler Optimization; Black Liquor Gasification and Use of the Products in Combined-Cycle Cogeneration; Black Liquor Steam Plasma Automization; The B and W Pyrosonic 2000R System; Monsteras Boiler Control System; and Cooperative Program Project Reviews. Individual projects are processed separately for the data bases.

  5. ON THE BLACK LIQUOR AND RECYCLE COOKING OF AS-AQ STRAW PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Haiqiang Shi; Beihai He; Bingyue Liu

    2004-01-01

    Thick black liquor, thin black liquor and solid state sodium hydroxide are added to the liquor treated by sulfur dioxide, then the blended liquor is used to recycle cooking of straw pulp. The black liquor,separated liquor and pulp of every cycles are analyzed respectively. Result shows that the content of lignin and organism in recycle black liquor and separated liquor increases faster in the first three cycles and then continues to increase slowly till four or five times, after that it trends to a stable state. The main organism separated from waste liquor of AS-AQ treated by sulfur dioxide is alkali-lignin,above 50% of total lignin in black liquor. The yield of pulp made from recycle cooking is steady, the hardness of pulp has a great improvement with recycle cooking. The brightness of pulp reduces correspondingly before bleaching, and after bleaching the brightness of pulp is relatively high and steady at the same sodium hypo chlorite dosage.

  6. Pengaruh Konsentrasi Total Alkali Aktif Terhadap % Sulfiditas Dalam White Liquor Pada Proses Recaustisizing Di PT. Toba Pulp Lestari, Tbk Porsea

    OpenAIRE

    Sebul Manullang

    2009-01-01

    White Liquor adalah liquor yang diperoleh dari reaksi green liquor dengan CaO( kapur tohor), melalui proses recaustisizing yang terjadi pada caustisizer. White Liquor inilah yang akan digunakan sebagai bahan utama pemasak kayu pada unit digester. Sebelum White Liquor digunakan , perlu untuk mengontrol kualitas white liquor tersebut. Parameter yang dianalisa dalam white liquor adalah Total Aktif Alkali(TAA) dan Sulfiditas(S). Target Total Aktif Alkali yang diinginkan adalah 98 gpl – 108 gpl, s...

  7. TWO FACES OF MASCULINITY IN AXE CHOCOLATE ADVERTISEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadeta Ririn

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: An advertisement has never been departed from an ideology. Although it occurs implicitly, an ideology in an advertisement is able to make someone believe in particular value of life. This study tries to reveal the ideology both in positive meaning as a belief system which marks certain group and in negative meaning as a false consciousness. Besides that, this study also tries to reveal the way of illustrating the ideology that lies within the Axe Chocolate advertisement. In order to obtain the ideology, each scene in the Axe Chocolate advertisement is analyzed based on Barthes’ model of sign. Then, to find the way of illustrating the ideology, the connotative meaning of mass media codes applied in the advertisement, i.e. fashion codes, color codes, non-verbal codes and technical codes is analyzed. The result of this study shows that masculinity appears as the negative and positive ideology because masculinity is not contradictory with Indonesian culture. However, the value of masculinity shown by the advertiser is narrowed down into the area of sexuality only. In addition to this, the way of illustrating the ideology of masculinity in sexuality area also gives negative stereotype to women, for instance by showing women as figures who like to advertise their body through wearing fashion which exposes women’s body.   Keywords: ideology, advertisement, semiotics, mass media codes

  8. TWO FACES OF MASCULINITY IN AXE CHOCOLATE ADVERTISEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bernadeta Ririn

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available An advertisement has never been departed from an ideology. Although it occurs implicitly, an ideology in an advertisement is able to make someone believe in particular value of life. This study tries to reveal the ideology both in positive meaning as a belief system which marks certain group and in negative meaning as a false consciousness. Besides that, this study also tries to reveal the way of illustrating the ideology that lies within the Axe Chocolate advertisement. In order to obtain the ideology, each scene in the Axe Chocolate advertisement is analyzed based on Barthes’ model of sign. Then, to find the way of illustrating the ideology, the connotative meaning of mass media codes applied in the advertisement, i.e. fashion codes, color codes, non-verbal codes and technical codes is analyzed. The result of this study shows that masculinity appears as the negative and positive ideology because masculinity is not contradictory with Indonesian culture. However, the value of masculinity shown by the advertiser is narrowed down into the area of sexuality only. In addition to this, the way of illustrating the ideology of masculinity in sexuality area also gives negative stereotype to women, for instance by showing women as figures who like to advertise their body through wearing fashion which exposes women’s body.

  9. Pyrolysis and gasification behavior of black liquor under pressurized conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Whitty, K.

    1997-11-01

    The purpose of this study has been to enhance the understanding of the processes involved in pressurized black liquor gasification. Gasification is known to occur in three stages: drying, pyrolysis and char gasification. The work presented here focuses on the pyrolysis and gasification stages. Experiments were carried out primarily in two laboratory-scale reactors. A pressurized grid heater was used to study black liquor pyrolysis under pressurized conditions. Char yields and the fate of elements in the liquor, as well as the degree of liquor swelling, were measured in this device. A pressurized thermogravimetric reactor was used to measure the rate of the char gasification process under different temperatures and pressures and in various gas atmospheres. Pyrolysis experiments were also carried out in this device, and data on swelling behavior, char yields and component release were obtained 317 refs.

  10. Development of a auto-loading system for radioisotope liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A loading system with computer distant control for radioisotope liquor is developed. It's arm to avoid close operating to the radioactive in the radioisotope liquor. Microcontroller is used as control center, step motor and peristaltic pump as manipulator in this system. The product process is performed with real-time measurement and control. The system has many function including data storage, data query, printing, operator information management, et al. (authors)

  11. Will the Ban on Liquor Sales To Juveniles Be Effective?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Retailers are not allowed to sell alcohol to juveniles and signs advertising this must be clearly shown in supermarkets and liquor stores. This is according to Article 19 of the Regulations on Management of Alcohol Circulation, which was put into practice on January 1. The provision marks the second time in 2005 that the tightening up of liquor sales was written into the law. The first occasion was a provision in the Regulations on Retail Sales

  12. Chocolate intake is associated with better cognitive function: The Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crichton, Georgina E; Elias, Merrill F; Alkerwi, Ala'a

    2016-05-01

    Chocolate and cocoa flavanols have been associated with improvements in a range of health complaints dating from ancient times, and has established cardiovascular benefits. Less is known about the effects of chocolate on neurocognition and behaviour. The aim of this study was to investigate whether chocolate intake was associated with cognitive function, with adjustment for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Cross-sectional analyses were undertaken on 968 community-dwelling participants, aged 23-98 years, from the Maine-Syracuse Longitudinal Study (MSLS). Habitual chocolate intake was related to cognitive performance, measured with an extensive battery of neuropsychological tests. More frequent chocolate consumption was significantly associated with better performance on the Global Composite score, Visual-Spatial Memory and Organization, Working Memory, Scanning and Tracking, Abstract Reasoning, and the Mini-Mental State Examination. With the exception of Working Memory, these relations were not attenuated with statistical control for cardiovascular, lifestyle and dietary factors. Prospective analyses revealed no association between cognitive function and chocolate intake measured up to 18 years later. Further intervention trials and longitudinal studies are needed to explore relations between chocolate, cocoa flavanols and cognition, and the underlying causal mechanisms. PMID:26873453

  13. Mixed selection. Effects of body images, dietary restraint, and persuasive messages on females' orientations towards chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Durkin, Kevin; Hendry, Alana; Stritzke, Werner G K

    2013-01-01

    Many women experience ambivalent reactions to chocolate: craving it but also wary of its impact on weight and health. Chocolate advertisements often use thin ideal models and previous research indicates that this exacerbates ambivalence. This experiment compared attitudes to, and consumption of, chocolate following exposure to images containing thin or overweight models together with written messages that were either positive or negative about eating chocolate. Participants (all female) were categorised as either low- or high-restraint. Approach, avoidance and guilt motives towards chocolate were measured and the participants had an opportunity to consume chocolate. Exposure to thin ideal models led to higher approach motives and this effect was most marked among the high restraint participants. Avoidance and guilt scores did not vary as a function of model size or message, but there were clear differences between the restraint groups, with the high restraint participants scoring substantially higher than low restraint participants on both of these measures. When the participants were provided with an opportunity to eat some chocolate, those with high restraint who had been exposed to the thin models consumed the most. PMID:23032304

  14. Brisk walking reduces ad libitum snacking in regular chocolate eaters during a workplace simulation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oh, Hwajung; Taylor, Adrian H

    2012-02-01

    Workplace snacking can contribute to obesity. Exercise reduces chocolate cravings but effects on chocolate consumption are unknown. This study investigated the effect of brief exercise on ad libitum consumption during breaks in a computerised task. Seventy-eight regular chocolate eaters, age: 24.90±8.15 years, BMI: 23.56±3.78 kg/m(2) abstained for 2 days. They were randomly assigned to one of four conditions, in a 2 × 2 factorial design, involving either a 15 min brisk walk or quiet rest, and then computerised Stroop tasks with low or high demanding conditions, in three 180 s blocks with a 90 s interval. Throughout, a pre-weighed bowl of chocolates was available for ad libitum eating. A two-way ANOVA revealed no interaction effect of exercise and stress on total chocolate consumption, or main effect of stress, but a main effect of exercise [F(1, 74)=7.12, pexercise (15.6 g) than control (28.8 g) group. Exercise also increased affective activation, but there was no mediating effect of change in affect on chocolate consumption. A brief walk may help to reduce ad libitum snacking in regular chocolate eaters. PMID:22100187

  15. Survey of the trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid content of cocoa-containing and chocolate products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hurst, W Jeffrey; Glinski, Jan A; Miller, Kenneth B; Apgar, Joan; Davey, Matthew H; Stuart, David A

    2008-09-24

    Dietary resveratrol (3,4',5-trihydroxystilbene) has been implicated in the health benefits associated with grapes and red wine, more specifically with potential benefits for metabolic syndrome, energy use, and increased endurance. Levels of trans-resveratrol and its glucoside, trans-piceid, were determined in 19 top selling commercially available cocoa-containing and chocolate products from the U.S. market. Amounts of trans-resveratrol and trans-piceid were closely correlated with the amount of nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) in the cocoa-containing products. Among these products, trans-resveratrol levels were highest in cocoa powders (1.85 +/- 0.43 microg/g), followed by unsweetened baking chocolates (1.24 +/- 0.22), semisweet chocolate baking chips (0.52 +/- 0.14), dark chocolates (0.35 +/- 0.08), milk chocolates (0.10 +/- 0.05), and chocolate syrups (0.09 +/- 0.02). These cocoa-containing and chocolate products have about 3-5 times more trans-piceid than trans-resveratrol. Levels of trans-piceid were highest in the cocoa powders (7.14 +/- 0.80 microg/g), followed by unsweetened baking chocolates (4.04 +/- 0.14), semisweet chocolate baking chips (2.01 +/- 0.18), dark chocolates (1.82 +/- 0.36), milk chocolates (0.44 +/- 0.06), and chocolate syrups (0.35 +/- 0.06). On an equal weight basis, cocoa powder had about half as much trans-resveratrol as the average California red wine. On a per serving basis, cocoa-containing and chocolate products had less trans-resveratrol than red wine and grape juice but more than roasted peanuts. Overall, these cocoa-containing and chocolate products rank second after red wines and grape juice in foods with the highest levels of total trans-resveratrol in the diet. PMID:18759443

  16. pH modulation and salivary sugar clearance of different chocolates in children: A randomized clinical trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SVSG Nirmala

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Sugars that occur naturally in foods and those added in processed foods may act as the source for fermentable carbohydrates and may initiate caries process. Among all the foods consumed by children, chocolates form an important constituent. A wide variety of chocolates are available in the Indian market and very few studies have compared their acidogenicity and salivary sugar clearance. Objectives: To compare the acidogenicity and salivary sugar clearance of 6 different commercially available chocolates in the Indian market. Materials and Methods: Thirty subjects aged 10-15 years were selected randomly from one of the available public schools in Nellore city. Six commercially available chocolates in the Indian market were divided into three groups, unfilled (dark and milk chocolate, filled (wafer and fruit and nuts chocolate, and candy (hard milk and mango-flavored candy groups. Plaque pH values and salivary sugar clearance rates are assessed at baseline, 5, 10, 15, 20, and 30 min after consumption. All the data obtained were statistically evaluated using independent sample t-test and one-way ANOVA for multiple group comparisons. Results: Mango-flavored candy had maximum fall in plaque pH and least fall in plaque pH was recorded with milk chocolate. Fruit and nuts chocolate had a maximum clearance of salivary sugar and least fall in the salivary sugar clearance was recorded with dark chocolate. When the plaque pH and salivary sugar clearance of all the chocolates were assessed, it was seen that the values were statistically significant at all the time intervals (P < 0.05. Conclusion: Dark chocolate had a high fall in pH and milk chocolate had low salivary sugar clearance which signifies that unfilled chocolates are more cariogenic than other chocolates. Even though mango-flavored candy had maximum fall in plaque pH, its salivary sugar clearance was high.

  17. Effect of soya milk on nutritive, antioxidative, reological and textural properties of chocolate produced in a ball mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarić Danica B.

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a complex rheological system in which non-fat cocoa particles and sugar particles are enveloped by crystal matrix of cocoa butter. Physical properties of chocolate depend on ingredient composition, method of production and properly performed pre-crystallization phase. In this work, chocolate was produced in an unconventional way, i.e. in a ball mill applying variable refining time (30, 60 and 90 min and pre-crystallization temperature in chocolate masses (26, 28 and 30⁰C. Two types of chocolate were produced: chocolate with 20% of powdered cow’s milk (R1 and chocolate with 20% of soya milk powder (R2. The quality of chocolate was followed by comparing nutritive composition, 23 polyphenol content, hardness of chocolate, solid triglyceride content (SFC and rheological parameters (Casson yield flow (Pa, Casson viscosity (Pas, the area of the thixotropic loop, elastic modulus and creep curves. The aim of this paper is determining changes caused by replacing cow’s milk with soya milk powder in respect of nutritive, rheological and sensory properties, as well as defining optimal parameters: precrystallization temperature and refining time of soya milk chocolate in order to obtain suitable sensory and physical properties identical to those of milk chocolate mass. The results show that replacing powdered cow’s milk with soya milk powder affects the increase in nutritive value of soya milk chocolate. R2 chocolate mass showed the increase in essential amino acids and fatty acids. This chocolate mass also showed the increase in total polyphenols by 28.1% comparing to R1 chocolate mass. By comparing viscosity, yield stress, shear stress and the area of the thixotropic loop, it can be observed that R1 chocolate mass represents a more organized and simpler system than the mass with soya milk (R2, as it shows lower values for all the above mentioned parameters, regardless of the refining time and pre-crystallization temperature

  18. Research on combustion of black-liquor drops

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Black liquor, the major by-product of the kraft process for production of pulp, is one of the most important industrial fuels. It is burned in recovery boilers in the form of large spray drops (mm), with the objective of simultaneous recovery of heat and chemicals (sodium and sulfur). Even though black-liquor combustion in boilers has been practised for over half a century, research efforts toward improvement of combustion efficiency and abatement of environmental emissions are much more recent. The present paper addresses a specific aspect of that research, namely, elucidation of processes which occur during combustion of black-liquor drops in boiler-gas streams. The paper (a) gives a brief description of the kraft process, (b) reviews the experimental and theoretical (modeling) research advances on combustion of kraft-liquor drops during the 1980s and 1990s, (c) re-examines the results of an earlier combustion study in which black-liquor drops were observed in free flight at temperatures near those in recovery boilers, and (d) recommends input for the modeling of in-flight combustion of kraft-liquor drops in recovery boilers. (author)

  19. Proceedings of the black liquor research program review fifth meeting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1988-09-01

    On June 14--17, 1988 the participants and invited guests of the Cooperative Program in Kraft Recovery gathered in Charleston, South Carolina, to review progress on four major black liquor research programs being executed at the Institute of Paper Chemistry, the University of Maine, the National Bureau of Standards, and the University of Florida. These programs include: (1) Black Liquor Properties; (2) Black Liquor Droplet Formation; (3) Black Liquor Nozzle Evaluation; and (4) Black Liquor Combustion. In addition to the objectives of previous meetings, this meeting made a direct attempt to gather ideas on how to improve our ability to move from new technology concepts to commercial implementation. Also attached is the agenda for the Charleston meeting. The first two days were involved with updates and reviews of the four major black liquor programs. A half day was spent discussing pathways to implementation and developing thoughts on what industry, DOE and academia could do to facilitate commercial implementation of the research results. This publication is a summary of the presentations made in Charleston and the industry responses to the research work. Readers are cautioned that the contents are in-progress updates on the status of the research and do not represent referred technical papers. Any questions regarding the content should be referred to the principal investigators of the project.

  20. The impact of the manufacturing process on the hardness and sensory properties of milk chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Zarić Danica B.; Pajin Biljana S.; Lončarević Ivana S.; Šoronja-Simović Dragana M.; Šereš Zita I.

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this paper was to examine the impact of the manufacturing process on the textural characteristics and sensory properties of milk chocolate. The research was conducted on the samples of chocolate produced in a ball mill during 30, 60 and 90 minutes of refining, each of them being pre-crystallized at 26, 28 and 30°C. A chocolate mass of identical ingredient composition was also produced using a standard manufacturing process at the same pre-crystallization temperatures. Chocola...

  1. Vanillin: Synthetic Flavoring from Spent Sulfite Liquor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hocking, Martin B.

    1997-09-01

    Separation of the lignin component of wood from the cellulose presents an opportunity to access various interesting products from the lignin fragments. The lignin represents availability of a sizable renewable resource. Vanillin, or 3-methoxy-4-hydroxybenzaldehyde, is one of a series of related substituted aromatic flavor constituents, and represents one of the potentially profitable possibilities. Vanillin production from the lignin-containing waste liquor obtained from acid sulfite pulping of wood began in North America in the mid 1930's. By 1981 one plant at Thorold, Ontario produced 60% of the contemporary world supply of vanillin. The process also simultaneously decreased the organic loading of the aqueous waste streams of the pulping process. Today, however, whilst vanillin production from lignin is still practiced in Norway and a few other areas, all North American facilities using this process have closed, primarily for environmental reasons. New North American vanillin plants use petrochemical raw materials. An innovation is needed to help overcome the environmental problems of this process before vanillin production from lignin is likely to resume here. Current interest in the promotion of chemicals production from renewable raw materials reinforces the incentive to do this.

  2. Influence of the chemical composition on the combustion properties of kraft black liquor; Mustalipeaen koostumuksen vaikutus lipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Siistonen, H.; Malkavaara, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland). Inst. of Chemistry

    1997-10-01

    The aim of this work is to study the combustion properties of kraft black liquors from modified cooking. Both the industrial and laboratory-made black liquors are included. In addition, changes in the combustion properties of the spent liquors obtained by mixing prior to combustion different chlorine-free bleach liquors with black liquor are studied. (orig.)

  3. Microbial Community Composition Associated with Maotai Liquor Fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Qiang; Zhang, Hongxun; Liu, Xiu

    2016-06-01

    The solid-state fermentation state of Chinese Maotai liquor involves the interaction of several complex microbial communities leading to the generation of the most complex liquor fermentation system in the world and contributes to the unique flavor and aroma of the liquor. In this study, total DNA was extracted from 3 fermented grain samples (FG1, FG2, and FG3) and 12 environmental samples, including Daqu (DA1, DA2, DA3, and DA4), cellar mud (CS1, CS2, and CS3), soil (SL1 and SL2), air (A1 and A2), and sorghum (SH), and the 16S and 18S rRNA genes were amplified. The distribution of typical microorganisms in the samples was analyzed using nested PCR-denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis, while quantitative PCR amplification of 16S rRNA and internal transcribed spacer genes was performed to estimate the microbial abundance present in each sample. The results indicated that Daqu was the primary source of bacteria, followed by the air, soil, and sorghum samples, while the majority of the fungi responsible for Maotai liquor fermentation were from Daqu and sorghum. Highest bacterial concentrations were found in fermented grains, followed by Daqu and sorghum, while the highest fungal concentrations were found in Daqu, followed by sorghum and an air sample from outside the liquor production area. The findings of this study may provide information regarding the mechanisms responsible for flavor development in Maotai liquor, and may be used to further optimize the traditional art of making liquor. PMID:27122124

  4. Edible applications of shellac oleogels: spreads, chocolate paste and cakes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patel, Ashok R; Rajarethinem, Pravin S; Grędowska, Agnieszka; Turhan, Ozge; Lesaffer, Ans; De Vos, Winnok H; Van de Walle, Davy; Dewettinck, Koen

    2014-04-01

    We demonstrate three potential edible applications of shellac oleogels as (i) a continuous oil phase for preparation of emulsifier-free, structured w/o emulsions (spreads), (ii) a replacer for oil-binders in chocolate paste formulations and (iii) a shortening alternative for cake preparation. Water-in-oil emulsions with up to 60 wt% water were prepared without the need for an emulsifier by simply using shellac oleogels as the continuous oil phase. The water droplets in these emulsions (size oil-binder and a partial replacement of palm oil (∼27%) with a shellac oleogel, showed no sign of 'oiling-out' when stored at elevated temperature (30 °C) for several weeks. Further, cakes prepared using oleogel-based w/o emulsions (20 wt% water) as a shortening alternative showed comparable functionalities (texture and sensory attributes) to the standard cake. PMID:24647527

  5. Rheological Modification of Reduced Fat Chocolate Induced by the Addition of Limonene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Do, T.-A. Line; Vieira, Joselio; Hargreaves, Jeremy; Wolf, Bettina; Mitchell, John

    2008-07-01

    The objective of this study is to understand how the addition of limonene, a low molecular weight hydrophobic compound, to chocolate, leads to a decrease in the viscosity of molten chocolate. Chocolate is a fat (cocoa butter) based dispersion of solids (sugar, cocoa and milk solids). We showed that, by mixing with cocoa butter, limonene decreases the viscosity of chocolate by decreasing the viscosity of its continuous phase, liquid cocoa butter. To understand the functionality of limonene in decreasing the viscosity of cocoa butter (triacylglyceride melt), additional mixtures of cocoa butter and limonene were prepared and their viscosity was measured. The dependence of the viscosity on the ratio of cocoa butter to limonene analyzed using Kay's equation seems to indicate that limonene mixes with and within the cocoa butter triacylglycerides, diluting the fat and leading to a decrease in the overall fat viscosity.

  6. The usefulness of MRI in evaluation of hormonal therapy for the ovarian chocolate cysts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the diagnostic capability of MRI in ovarian chocolate cysts treated by Danazol (analogue of testosterone). Both inversion recovery as T1-weighted image and long TE and TR spin echo as T2-weighted image were performed before and during hormonal therapy. Temporal change of signal intensity and size was evaluated in three ovarian chocolate cysts (stage II: 2 cases, stage III: 1 case by Beecham classification, 1966) using the 0.15-T MR system. The high intense signal from all of the cysts was seen on both T1 and T2 weighted images before treatment. There was marked decrease in size of the chocolate cysts during hormonal therapy, and they were of considerably lower signal intensity than initially on T2-weighted image. We concluded that MRI was useful to evaluate hormonal therapy for ovarian chocolate cysts. (author)

  7. Determination of toxic metals in different brand of chocolates and candies, marketed in Pakistan

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In present study three toxic metals, cadmium (Cd), nickel (Ni) and lead (Pb) were determined in chocolates and candy samples available in local markets of Hyderabad, Pakistan. Concentrations of understudy toxic metals (TMs) were determined by electro thermal atomic absorption spectrometry (ETAAS) prior to microwave assisted acid digestion. Validation of the methodology was performed by standard addition method and conventional acid digestion on electric hot plate to obtained TMs concentration, for comparative purpose to obtain results within the 95% confidence level. No significant differences were observed for TMs obtained from both methods (P 0.05). The concentration of Cd, Ni and Pb were observed in chocolates and candy samples is ranged as of 0.099 - 0.353, 1.45 - 4.33 and 1.11 - 2.48 mu g/g, respectively. The results indicated that cocoa-based chocolates have higher contents of TMs than milk- based chocolates and candies. (author)

  8. Radionuclides in coffee, cacao and chocolate in Serbia during 2006-2007

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The object of this work was monitoring radioactivity in 88 products of coffee, cacao and chocolate in Serbia during 2006-2007. The each product contained legal criterion for radionuclide safety. (author)

  9. Sensory and instrumental evaluation of physical characteristics of laboratory -made chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jovanović Olga Lj.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Sensory evaluation of chocolate, as a complex multicompound system, is one of the ways to define and control its physico-chemical characteristics, i.e. quality. Chocolate quality depends on structure and ingredients percentage that influence its appearance, taste and behaviour in the production processes and storage. The aim of this work was to compare certain quality factors of laboratory-made chocolate with added emulsifier-blooming inhibitor, determinated by sensory and instrumental analyses. Sensory evaluation of chocolate samples was made according to ISO 6685:1985 method (total score system. This ISO standard method was supplemented with QDA method for determination of mouth feel. The results of colour sensory evaluation showed good agreement with whiteness obtained on a MOM Colour 100 instrument by Hunter system evaluation. This showed that the sensory analysis, in comparison with instrumental determination of some quality factors, is an objective method.

  10. Studying the Business Prospects of a Potential Handmade Chocolate Shop in Helsinki, Finland

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Fei; Fu, Lu

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to concentrate on assessing the possibilities of establishing a handmade chocolate shop in Helsinki, Finland. The research is mainly a marketing research and concentrates on meeting the marketing demand, the potential customers’ expectations. By the further analysis and research of survey, the basic elements of establishing handmade chocolate shop will be listed. Based on this the basic principle of a business model can be formulated. The study involved resou...

  11. The implementation of HACCP management system in a chocolate ice cream plant

    OpenAIRE

    Junchao Lu; Xiao-Hui Pua; Chi-Te Liu; Che-Lang Chang; Kuan-Chen Cheng

    2014-01-01

    To guarantee the safety of chocolate ice cream production, the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP) system was applied to the production process. The biological, chemical, and physical hazards that may exist in every step of chocolate ice cream production were identified. In addition, the critical control points were selected and the critical limits, monitoring, corrective measures, records, and verifications were established. The critical control points, which include pasteurizati...

  12. Phenolic and Theobromine Contents of Commercial Dark, Milk and White Chocolates on the Malaysian Market

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng Chia Meng; Abbe Maleyki Mhd Jalil; Amin Ismail

    2009-01-01

    Chocolate contains a wide range of antioxidants that includes soluble phenolic compounds (phenolic acids, catechin, epicatechin, and proanthocyanidins), insoluble polymeric phenolics and methylxanthines. The objective of this study was to determine phenolic and theobromine contents in dark (DC), milk (MC), and white (WC) chocolates commonly found in the Malaysian marketplace. Total phenolic and flavonoids were determined by means of a spectrometric assay, while catechin, epicatechin and theob...

  13. Chocolate flavanols and skin photoprotection: a parallel, double-blind, randomized clinical trial

    OpenAIRE

    Mogollon, Jaime Andres; Boivin, Catherine; Lemieux, Simone; Blanchet, Claudine; Claveau, Joël; Dodin, Sylvie

    2014-01-01

    Background Solar ultraviolet (UV) radiation has deleterious effects on the skin, including sunburn, photoaging and cancer. Chocolate flavanols are naturally-occurring antioxidant and anti-inflammatory molecules that could play a role in preventing cutaneous UV damage. We investigated the influence of 12-week high-flavanol chocolate (HFC) consumption on skin sensitivity to UV radiation, measured by minimal erythema dose (MED). We also evaluated skin elasticity and hydration. Methods In this 2-...

  14. The Acidogenicity of Various Chocolates Available in Indian Market: A Comparative Study

    OpenAIRE

    M Hegde, Amitha; Shetty, Rajmohan; Sequeira, Aletta Reema

    2009-01-01

    It is widely accepted that all foods containing "fermentable carbohydrates" have the potential to contribute to caries formation. Fermentable carbohydrates are present in most starches and all sugars, including those that occur naturally in foods and those added in processed foods. The relative cariogenicity of chocolates is dependent on their composition, texture, solubility, retentiveness and ability to stimulate salivary flow. The composition of the chocolates has profound impact on its ca...

  15. Evaluation of Antiradical Activity of Different Cocoa and Chocolate Products: Relation with Lipid and Protein Composition

    OpenAIRE

    Vertuani, Silvia; Scalambra, Emanuela; Vittorio, Trotta; Bino, Alessia; Malisardi, Gemma; Baldisserotto, Anna; Manfredini, Stefano

    2014-01-01

    Chocolate antioxidant properties are often claimed; however, they are frequently different from the parent natural sources due to the industry or artisan transformation. In particular, antioxidant property of chocolate and cocoa are not adequately taken into consideration by consumers who normally make use of this food just for its flavor and taste properties. In this study, we have investigated the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of cocoa nibs, cocoa masses, and corresponding...

  16. Easy Extraction Method To Evaluate δ13C Vanillin by Liquid Chromatography-Isotopic Ratio Mass Spectrometry in Chocolate Bars and Chocolate Snack Foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bononi, Monica; Quaglia, Giancarlo; Tateo, Fernando

    2015-05-20

    An easy extraction method that permits the use of a liquid chromatography-isotopic ratio mass spectrometry (LC-IRMS) system to evaluate δ(13)C of vanillin in chocolate products and industrial flavorings is presented. The method applies the determination of stable isotopes of carbon to discriminate between natural vanillin from vanilla beans and vanillin from other sources (mixtures from beans, synthesis, or biotechnology). A series of 13 chocolate bars and chocolate snack foods available on the Italian market and 8 vanilla flavorings derived from industrial quality control processes were analyzed. Only 30% of products considered in this work that declared "vanilla" on the label showed data that permitted the declaration "vanilla" according to European Union (EU) Regulation 1334/2008. All samples not citing "vanilla" or "natural flavoring" on the label gave the correct declaration. The extraction method is presented with data useful for statistical evaluation. PMID:25965784

  17. Binding and desulfurization characteristics of pulp black liquor in biocoalbriquettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Heejoon; Lu, Guoqing; Li, Tianji; Sadakata, Masayoshi

    2002-04-01

    To control pollutant emissions from coal combustion in some developing countries, biocoalbriquette, an artificially produced solid fuel, was developed. Both the breaking strength and production costs of the biocoalbriquette have become essentially the most important factors in popularizing it in these countries. To increase the breaking strength and decrease the production costs, it is proposed in this study to use pulp black liquor, a byproduct from the pulp production industry, as a binder. The influences of pulp black liquor on the briquetting and combustion characteristics were investigated. Furthermore, the desulfurization characteristics of pulp black liquor were also evaluated through combustion experiments. The study results show that the briquetting pressure has a limited effect on the breaking strength. An increase in the briquetting pressure yields greater breaking strength of up to the 50 MPa. Above 50 MPa, the breaking strength changes very little with the briquetting pressure. The use of pulp black liquor has had a greater effect on increasing the breaking strength than on changing the briquetting pressure and also on improving the combustion characteristics of the biocoalbriquette. On the other hand, pulp black liquor has some desulfurization capabilities. When used as a binder, it not only increases the breaking strength and decreases the necessary briquetting pressure, but it also improves some characteristics of the combustion and reduces the pollutants emission. PMID:11999073

  18. Drop formation of black liquor spraying; Mustalipeaen pisaroituminen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fogelholm, C.J.; Kankkunen, A.; Nieminen, K.; Laine, J.; Miikkulainen, P. [Helsinki Univ. of Technology, Otaniemi (Finland): Lab. of Energy Technology and Environmental Protection

    1997-10-01

    Black liquor is a spent liquor of the pulp and paper industry. It is burned in kraft recovery boilers for chemical and energy recovery. The high dry solids content and viscosity of black liquor require a high spraying temperature. This affects the performance of the boiler. Kraft recovery boiler deposit formation, emissions and chemical recovery are strongly affected by the drop size and the velocity of the black liquor spray formed by a splashplate nozzle. The sheet breakup mechanism is studied with a system based on a video and image-analysis. The drop size of mill-scale nozzles was measured also with an image-analysis-system. Measurements were carried out in a spray test chamber. The sheet breakup mechanism and drop size tests were carried out both below and over the boiling point of black liquor. Special attention was paid to the effect of flashing on drop formation. Temperature increase normally decreases drop size. In the temperature where the wavy-sheet disintegration changes to perforated-sheet disintegration the drop size increases. Spray velocity rises when the temperature is increased above the boiling point. (orig.)

  19. Fatty acid and sodium contents of commercial milk chocolate – analytical aspects and nutritional information

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato Cesar Susin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available SummaryChocolate consumption is usually associated with enjoyment, milk chocolate desserts being a very popular choice. Besides, the literature provides data suggesting health benefits for chocolate products as compared to non-chocolate candies. However, the lipid composition of cocoa and its commercial products has yet to be completely elucidated and understood, although much research has been carried out with this objective. Contributions to this objective frequently face difficulties in the field of Analytical Chemistry due to the complexity of the composition of such a food. On the other hand, the sodium content of foods is currently a major concern. Thus, this work aims to provide information concerning the composition of commercial milk chocolate in terms of its fatty acid profile and sodium content. To achieve this purpose, analytical adjustments and improvements to the methodology were made and described in this paper. Sodium (FAAS and a total of 50 fatty acids (GC-FID were determined in eight samples of milk chocolate bars from different manufacturers. The samples were purchased from retailers in Porto Alegre – Brazil. In the determination of the fatty acids, possible losses during methylation deserved special attention and were studied. Nevertheless, large differences were not found in comparison with the nutritional facts declared on the label. However, the results obtained for sodium demonstrated the importance of food inspection, considering the discrepancies found.

  20. Safety Evaluation of 30 kGy Irradiated Chocolate Ice Cream

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study was investigated the potential toxicity of gamma-irradiated chocolate ice cream for its future use in space. Chocolate ice cream was irradiated at a dose of 30 kGy at a temperature of -20°C. For the animal study, AIN-93G was used as a control diet and irradiated and non-irradiated chocolate ice cream diets were administered to male and female ICR mice (ten mice per group) for three months. During the experimental period, the group fed irradiated chocolate ice cream did not show any changes in appearance, behavior, mortality, body weight, organ weight, or food consumption compared to the control. Also, all biochemical parameters, including hematology profiles, erythrocyte counts, and serum biochemical values were in normal ranges. In histopathological examinations of liver and kidney tissues, there were no significant differences between the control group and the group fed irradiated chocolate ice cream. These results indicate that chocolate ice cream irradiated at 30 kGy did not cause any toxic effects and could be applied for the development of safe and hygienic space food

  1. Development and storage study of reduced sugar soy containing compound chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Alka; Singh, Gurmukh

    2011-02-01

    Possibility of using full fat soy flour (FFSF) for replacer for whole milk powder (WMP), stevia-mannitol blend as replacer for sugar and soybean oil (SBO) as replacer for cocoa butter in chocolate manufacture without impairing the sensory quality characteristics of chocolate was explored. Data on the sensory evaluation of WMP, sugar and cocoa butter substituted chocolates revealed that 40% (w/w) of WMP, sugar and cocoa butter can be successfully substituted by FFSF, stevia-mannitol blend and SBO, respectively in the preparation of high protein and low sugar chocolate without impairing the sensory attributes. Lecithin was found to be optimum at 0.32% (w/w) level of chocolate mix. Protein content of optimized formulation increased by 21.8% over control. Storage study of the product indicated an increase in hardness, free fatty acid content, peroxide value, total plate count, yeast and mold count, whereas a decrease in moisture content, pH value and sensory scores. The optimized chocolate was found acceptable (score ≥7.0) after 90 days of storage at 16 ± 1°C and ~65% RH. PMID:23572719

  2. Optimizing chocolate production through traceability: A review of the influence of farming practices on cocoa bean quality

    OpenAIRE

    Saltini, Rolando; Akkerman, Renzo; Frosch, Stina

    2013-01-01

    Due to recent developments in traceability systems, it is now possible to exchange significant amounts of data through food supply chains. Farming practices applied by cocoa farmers at the beginning of the chocolate supply chain strongly influence several quality parameters of the finished chocolate. However, information regarding these practices does not normally reach the chocolate manufacturer. As a consequence, many specifications of the raw material cannot be taken into consideration in ...

  3. Effects of the amount of soy milk on thermorheological, thermal and textural properties of chocolate with soy milk

    OpenAIRE

    Zarić Danica B.; Pajin Biljana S.; Lončarević Ivana S.; Petrović Jovana S.; Stamenković-Đoković Marijana M.

    2015-01-01

    Chocolate is a two-phase rheological system. The solid phase, consisting of non-fat cocoa particles, sugar and soy milk is wrapped in a fat phase - cocoa butter. Physical, thermal, textural and organoleptic properties of chocolate depend on the composition of the ingredients, manufacturing process and a properly conducted pre-crystallization phase. For this study, two chocolate masses were produced in a ball mill: one with 15% of soy milk powder (R1) and th...

  4. Formation of fuel NOx during black-liquor combustion

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fuel NOx and thermal NOx were measured in combustion gases from black liquors in two laboratory furnaces. Combustion at 950 C in air (8% O2) produced NOx concentrations of 40-80ppm. Combustion at 950 C in synthetic air containing no nitrogen (21% 02 in Ar) produced the same result, demonstrating that all of the NOx produced during combustion at 950 C was fuel NOx. Formation of fuel NOx increased moderately with increasing temperature in the range of 800-1,000 C, but temperature sensitivity of fuel NOx was much less than that of thermal NOx. The results imply that the major source of NOx in recovery furnace emissions is the fuel NOx in recovery furnace formed by conversion of liquor-bound nitrogen during combustion. This is consistent with thermal NOx theory, which postulates that black-liquor combustion temperatures are too low to generate significant amounts of thermal NOx

  5. The effect of pre-dive ingestion of dark chocolate on endothelial function after a scuba dive

    OpenAIRE

    Theunissen, S; Balestra, C; Boutros, A.; De Bels, D; Guerrero, F.; Germonpré, P

    2015-01-01

    Objective: The aim of the study was to observe the effects of dark chocolate on endothelial function after scuba diving. Methods: Forty-two male scuba divers were divided into two groups: a control (n = 21) and a chocolate group (n = 21). They performed a 33-metres deep scuba-air dive for 20 minutes in a diving pool (Nemo 33, Brussels). Water temperature was 33OC. The chocolate group ingested 30 g of dark chocolate (86% cocoa) 90 minutes before the dive. Flow-mediated dilatation (FMD), digita...

  6. Release model for black liquor droplet; Mustalipeaepisaran vapautumismalli

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Saastamoinen, J. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland)

    1997-10-01

    The release of sodium, potassium, chlorine and sulphur from black liquor droplets during pyrolysis, combustion and gasification is studied by modelling work. A model for drying, pyrolysis and swelling of black liquor has been developed earlier. A submodel for the release of sulphur, which takes place at temperatures below 500 deg C has been incorporated to this model. A previous model for the combustion and gasification of char particles has been further developed to account for the effect of sodium, potassium and chlorine. A model for the release of these components as function of time has been developed. (orig.)

  7. Utilization of black liquor as concrete admixture and set retarder aid

    OpenAIRE

    Samar A. El-Mekkawi; Ibrahim M. Ismail; Mohammed M. El-Attar; Alaa A. Fahmy; Samia S. Mohammed

    2011-01-01

    The utilization of black liquor, produced by the pulp and paper industry in Egypt, as a workability aid and set retarder admixture has been investigated. This approach may help eliminate the environmentally polluting black liquor waste. It also provides a low cost by-product, which can be widely used in the construction industry. The properties of black liquor and its performance on concrete at two different ratios of water to cement have been studied. The results revealed that black liquor f...

  8. Recovery of Flavonoids from Orange Press Liquor by an Integrated Membrane Process

    OpenAIRE

    Alfredo Cassano; Carmela Conidi; René Ruby-Figueroa

    2014-01-01

    Orange press liquor is a by-product generated by the citrus processing industry containing huge amounts of natural phenolic compounds with recognized antioxidant activity. In this work, an integrated membrane process for the recovery of flavonoids from orange press liquors was investigated on a laboratory scale. The liquor was previously clarified by ultrafiltration (UF) in selected operating conditions by using hollow fiber polysulfone membranes. Then, the clarified liquor with a total solub...

  9. Antioxidant Activity of Lignin Phenolic Compounds Extracted from Kraft and Sulphite Black Liquors

    OpenAIRE

    Ana Paula Duarte; Cecília Baptista; Nuno Gil; Hélio Faustino

    2010-01-01

    The antioxidant activity of the phenolic compounds present in industrial black liquors obtained from the two cooking processes (kraft and sulphite) used in Portugal to produce Eucalyptus globulus pulp was evaluated. The black liquors treated at several pH values were extracted with ethyl acetate. Phenolic fractions were further separated by liquid chromatography of the crude extracts of kraft liquor at pH = 6 and sulphite liquor at the original pH. Total phenolic content was determined in ter...

  10. Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Craig Brown; Ingvar Landalv; Ragnar Stare; Jerry Yuan; Nikolai DeMartini; Nasser Ashgriz

    2008-03-31

    Weyerhaeuser operates the world's only commercial high-temperature black liquor gasifier at its pulp mill in New Bern, NC. The unit was started-up in December 1996 and currently processes about 15% of the mill's black liquor. Weyerhaeuser, Chemrec AB (the gasifier technology developer), and the U.S. Department of Energy recognized that the long-term, continuous operation of the New Bern gasifier offered a unique opportunity to advance the state of high temperature black liquor gasification toward the commercial-scale pressurized O2-blown gasification technology needed as a foundation for the Forest Products Bio-Refinery of the future. Weyerhaeuser along with its subcontracting partners submitted a proposal in response to the 2004 joint USDOE and USDA solicitation - 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative'. The Weyerhaeuser project 'Advancement of High Temperature Black Liquor Gasification' was awarded USDOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42259 in November 2004. The overall goal of the DOE sponsored project was to utilize the Chemrec{trademark} black liquor gasification facility at New Bern as a test bed for advancing the development status of molten phase black liquor gasification. In particular, project tasks were directed at improvements to process performance and reliability. The effort featured the development and validation of advanced CFD modeling tools and the application of these tools to direct burner technology modifications. The project also focused on gaining a fundamental understanding and developing practical solutions to address condensate and green liquor scaling issues, and process integration issues related to gasifier dregs and product gas scrubbing. The Project was conducted in two phases with a review point between the phases. Weyerhaeuser pulled together a team of collaborators to undertake these tasks. Chemrec AB, the technology supplier, was intimately involved in most tasks, and focused primarily on the

  11. Application of Deuterium NMR Analysis for the Differentiation of Korean and Foreign Liquors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Han, G.C.; Lee, S.G. [Korea Research Institute of Chemical Technology, Taejon (Korea)

    2000-02-01

    The {sup 2}H NMR analysis was used to determine the relative deuterium contents at the position of methyl and methylene in ethyl alcohols. Four different liquors manufactured in Korea clearly showed different R values from those of foreign liquors. These R values for the Korean liquors could be used to distinguish a adulteration. (author). 10 refs., 1 tabs., 2 figs.

  12. 75 FR 62853 - Reno-Sparks Indian Colony Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Reno-Sparks Indian Colony Liquor Control Ordinance AGENCY: Bureau of Indian... Liquor Control Ordinance of the Reno-Sparks Indian Colony. The enactment of this Ordinance allows the Wal-Mart Superstore to sell liquor on tribal lands, which will general millions of dollars in sales...

  13. 78 FR 15037 - Bishop Paiute Tribe-Liquor Control Ordinance No. 2012-07

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-08

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Bishop Paiute Tribe--Liquor Control Ordinance No. 2012-07 AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice publishes the Liquor Control Ordinance No... consumption of liquor within the Indian Country of the Bishop Paiute Tribe. The land is trust land and...

  14. 77 FR 39731 - Swinomish Indian Tribal Community-Title 15, Chapter 4: Liquor Legalization, Regulation and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-05

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Swinomish Indian Tribal Community--Title 15, Chapter 4: Liquor Legalization... publishes Title 15, Chapter 4: Liquor Legalization, Regulation and License Code for the Swinomish Indian Tribal Community. The Code regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of liquor...

  15. 27 CFR 19.773 - Daily record of wholesale liquor dealer and taxpaid storeroom operations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... liquor dealer and taxpaid storeroom operations. 19.773 Section 19.773 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS DISTILLED SPIRITS PLANTS Records and Reports Other Records § 19.773 Daily record of wholesale liquor dealer and...

  16. 77 FR 74025 - Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria-Liquor Control Statute

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-12-12

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Federated Indians of Graton Rancheria--Liquor Control Statute AGENCY: Bureau of... Rancheria--Liquor Control Statute (Ordinance). The Ordinance regulates and controls the sale, consumption and possession of liquor within the Graton Rancheria's Indian country. This Ordinance will...

  17. 76 FR 4366 - Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel Liquor Control Law

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-01-25

    ... extent permitted by law shall preempt any tax imposed on such liquor sales by the State of California... Bureau of Indian Affairs Iipay Nation of Santa Ysabel Liquor Control Law AGENCY: Bureau of Indian Affairs, Interior. ACTION: Notice. SUMMARY: This notice publishes Liquor Control Law No. LB-06-08 of the...

  18. 19 CFR 122.134 - When airline does not have in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline does not have in-bond liquor... SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.134 When airline... where the airline involved does not have an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom. When this occurs,...

  19. 19 CFR 122.135 - When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false When airline has in-bond liquor storeroom. 122.135...; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY AIR COMMERCE REGULATIONS Aircraft Liquor Kits § 122.135 When airline has in-bond... airline involved has an authorized in-bond liquor storeroom may be removed and restocked in the...

  20. Return of experimentally induced chocolate craving after extinction in a different context: Divergence between craving for and expecting to eat chocolate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D. van Gucht; D. Vansteenwegen; T. Beckers; O. Van den Bergh

    2008-01-01

    Unlike in fear conditioning, little attention has been devoted to extinction and renewal in appetitive conditioning, despite its relevance for extinction-based addiction treatments. We developed a paradigm, using a specific tray as a conditioned stimulus (CS) for eating chocolate (unconditioned stim

  1. LAND TREATMENT FIELD STUDIES. VOLUME 6. INORGANIC PICKLING LIQUOR WASTE

    Science.gov (United States)

    This report presents the results of field measurements and observations of a land treatment site for the management of an inorganic pickling liquor waste. The waste is spread on the site as a 20% solids sludge. Sulfate and iron are known to be major waste constituents. The organi...

  2. 75 FR 75694 - Klamath Tribes Liquor Control Ordinance Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-06

    ... notice FR Doc. 2010-26695, beginning on page 65373 in the issue of October 22, 2010, make the following... was published in the Federal Register on November 11, 1953 (18 FR 7178 (1953). This Ordinance further... Bureau of Indian Affairs Klamath Tribes Liquor Control Ordinance Correction AGENCY: Bureau of...

  3. Clinical value of 111/u-DTPA liquor fistula diagnosis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    So far, there have been only a few publications on liquor fistula diagnosis using 111In-DTPA. Studies in this field are still in the experimental stage, and a standard method is not available. In consequence, the author's findings cannot be directly compared with other publications. (orig./MG)

  4. Anaerobic biodegradation of spent sulphite liquor in a UASB reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantsch, T.G.; Angelidaki, Irini; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye;

    2002-01-01

    Anaerobic biodegradation of fermented spent sulphite liquor, SSL, which is produced during the manufacture of sulphite pulp, was investigated. SSL contains a high concentration of lignin products in addition to hemicellulose and has a very high COD load (173 g COD l1). Batch experiments with...

  5. Novel maqui liquor using traditional pacharán processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gironés-Vilaplana, Amadeo; Calín-Sánchez, Angel; Moreno, Diego A; Carbonell-Barrachina, Angel A; García-Viguera, Cristina

    2015-04-15

    Pacharán is an aniseed liquor-based beverage made with sloe berry (Prunus spinosa L.), that has been historically produced in Navarra (Northern Spain). On the other hand, Chilean native maqui berry (Aristotelia chilensis) now under increasing study because of its potential health benefits, is not widely known. The aim of this work was to design a new aniseed liquor-based beverage with maqui berry (MBL), characterising its bioactive and volatile composition, antioxidant capacity, sensory quality, and compare it to traditional pacharán (SBP). The results showed that MBL had attractive colour, exhibited higher anthocyanin content and retention during maceration, higher antioxidant capacity, presented similar aroma profile and showed optimal sensory characteristics. Therefore, MBL can be an acceptable new liquor, with better quality characteristics and higher anthocyanin content and retention than pacharán, as well as with great scores in sensory analysis and consumer acceptance, offering a new and tasty beverage for future liquor manufacturing. PMID:25466148

  6. Sodium and sulfur release and recapture during black liquor burning

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Frederick, W.J.; Iisa, K.; Wag, K.; Reis, V.V.; Boonsongsup, L.; Forssen, M.; Hupa, M.

    1995-08-01

    The objective of this study was to provide data on sulfur and sodium volatilization during black liquor burning, and on SO2 capture by solid sodium carbonate and sodium chloride. This data was interpreted and modeled into rate equations suitable for use in computational models for recovery boilers.

  7. 75 FR 65373 - Klamath Tribes Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-22

    ... on November 11, 1953 (18 FR 7178 (1953)). This amendment further regulates and controls the sale... (1983), the Secretary of the Interior shall certify and publish in the Federal Register notice of... and porter. 1.1.7. ``Package'' means any container or receptacle used for holding liquor....

  8. The pulling power of chocolate: Effects of approach-avoidance training on approach bias and consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dickson, Hugh; Kavanagh, David J; MacLeod, Colin

    2016-04-01

    Previous research has shown that action tendencies to approach alcohol may be modified using computerized Approach-Avoidance Task (AAT), and that this impacted on subsequent consumption. A recent paper in this journal (Becker, Jostman, Wiers, & Holland, 2015) failed to show significant training effects for food in three studies: Nor did it find effects on subsequent consumption. However, avoidance training to high calorie foods was tested against a control rather than Approach training. The present study used a more comparable paradigm to the alcohol studies. It randomly assigned 90 participants to 'approach' or 'avoid' chocolate images on the AAT, and then asked them to taste and rate chocolates. A significant interaction of condition and time showed that training to avoid chocolate resulted in faster avoidance responses to chocolate images, compared with training to approach it. Consistent with Becker et al.'s Study 3, no effect was found on amounts of chocolate consumed, although a newly published study in this journal (Schumacher, Kemps, & Tiggemann, 2016) did do so. The collective evidence does not as yet provide solid basis for the application of AAT training to reduction of problematic food consumption, although clinical trials have yet to be conducted. PMID:26725150

  9. Metals and cocoa products: a study on characterization of toxic and essential metals in chocolates (abstract)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, a sophisticated analytical technique, atomic absorption spectrometer (both with FAAS and GFAAS modes of atomization), was used for analyzing essential and toxic metal (Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb and Cd) contents in 32 commonly consumed cocoa products (chocolates) prepared by different national and multinational companies. Significant differences were observed between the micro element contents of the 32 varieties (P < 0.01). The risk posed by the quantity of heavy metals lead, cadmium and nickel present in cocoa products (chocolates) is of serious apprehension and weekly intake was calculated. The Concentration of Pb and Cd in cocoa powder is found to be highest 492 and 197 mu g/L followed by cocoa based chocolates 306 and 46.8 mu g/L, sugar based chocolates 209.8 and 40.3 mu g/L whereas it is least in milk based chocolates samples 88.3 and 33 mu g/L respectively. The concentration of Pb and Cd was found below the provisional tolerable weekly intake defined by FAO/WHO. All essential elements were assessed for their weekly intake with the dietary reference intakes. In order to validate our results, certified reference material (Wheat flour 1589, Milk powder A-11 and Milk Powder A-8) were analyzed for Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, Ni, Pb and Cd levels. Determined concentrations were quite in good agreement with certified levels. Data was interpreted through cluster analysis and pattern recognition. (author)

  10. Nutritional and microbiological evaluations of chocolate-coated Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) fruit for commercial use

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mahamadou E.GOUNGA; Shi-ying XU; Zhang WANG

    2008-01-01

    In recent years, China has become an increasingly important and the largest chestnut producer in the world. This study aimed to evaluate the nutritional value and microbiological quality of the roasted freeze-dried Chinese chestnut (Castanea mollissima) (RFDC) coated with dark chocolate (DCC) and milk chocolate (MCC) for industrial use and commercial consumption.Chocolate coating significantly improved the nutritional value of chestnut. RFDC had high levels of starch (66.23%) and fibers (3.85%) while DCC and MCC contained significantly high amounts of sucrose, protein, fat and minerals. Furthermore, the protein content doubled in MCC rather than in DCC. This could be attributed to the different formulations in the two products. Milk powder and whey protein constituted the source of protein in MCC while cocoa powder added to MCC formulation constituted an additional source of minerals. The amino acid profile showed differences in amino acid composition related to the sample's protein content, indicating their good nutritional quality. The moisture contents in all RFDC, DCC and MCC were suitable for industrial processing. These results provide information about the additional nutrients of chocolate-coated chestnut and confirm that the product is an interesting nutritional food. The combination of freeze-drying and chocolate-coating generally results in greater reductions on microbiological loads, extending shelf life of harvested chestnut for commercial application. This is an alternative strategy to add value to chestnut, minimizing the significant losses in harvested fruits and providing a wider range of choices of new products to the consumer disposal.

  11. Evaluation of antiradical activity of different cocoa and chocolate products: relation with lipid and protein composition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vertuani, Silvia; Scalambra, Emanuela; Vittorio, Trotta; Bino, Alessia; Malisardi, Gemma; Baldisserotto, Anna; Manfredini, Stefano

    2014-04-01

    Chocolate antioxidant properties are often claimed; however, they are frequently different from the parent natural sources due to the industry or artisan transformation. In particular, antioxidant property of chocolate and cocoa are not adequately taken into consideration by consumers who normally make use of this food just for its flavor and taste properties. In this study, we have investigated the antioxidant capacity and total phenolic content of cocoa nibs, cocoa masses, and corresponding chocolate bars with different percentages of cocoa from different origins. The antioxidant capacity of the different samples was measured by two different assays [1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl radical (DPPH) and ferric reducing antioxidant of potency (FRAP) tests]. The Folin-Ciocalteu reagent was used to assess the total phenolic content. The masses showed a higher antioxidant power than the nibs, and this has been attributed to the fact that in the nibs is still present the lipid part, which will form the cocoa butter. The influence of milk, whey, and soy proteins was also investigated. Our results showed that the extra dark cocoa bar, 100% cocoa chocolate, is the best in terms of total polyphenol content and in terms of antioxidant capacity according to the DPPH and FRAP tests. In addition, the bars of organic dark chocolate 80%, dark Tanzania 80%, and Trinidad 80% products are well performing in all respects. As highlighted by us, the antiradical properties of cocoa products are higher than many antioxidant supplements in tablets. PMID:24433077

  12. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.

    1998-05-01

    The overall objective of the program was to develop correlations to predict physical properties within requirements of engineering precision from a knowledge of pulping conditions and of kraft black liquor composition, if possible. These correlations were to include those relating thermodynamic properties to pulping conditions and liquor composition. The basic premise upon which the research was based is the premise that black liquor behaves as a polymer solution. This premise has proven to be true, and has been used successfully in developing data reduction methods and in interpreting results. A three phase effort involving pulping, analysis of liquor composition, and measurement of liquor properties was conducted.

  13. 78 FR 54676 - Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the West Chocolate Mountains Renewable...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... December 14, 2012 (77 FR 74479 and 77 FR 71446), which initiated a 30-day protest period for the proposed... Bureau of Land Management Notice of Availability of the Record of Decision for the West Chocolate... Amendment to the California Desert Conservation Area (CDCA) Plan for the West Chocolate Mountains...

  14. Quiescent water-in-oil Pickering emulsions as a route toward healthier fruit juice infused chocolate confectionary

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Skelhon, T.S.; Grossiord, N.; Morgan, A.R.; Bon, S.A.F.

    2012-01-01

    We demonstrate a route toward the preparation of healthier fruit juice infused chocolate candy. Up to 50 wt% of the fat content in chocolate, that is cocoa butter and milk fats, is replaced with fruit juice in the form of emulsion droplets using a quiescent Pickering emulsion fabrication strategy. F

  15. 78 FR 18626 - Notice of Proposed Expansion, Extension, and Notification of a Public Meeting for the Chocolate...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-27

    ... Availability can be found at 77 FR 53189. The Draft Legislative EIS evaluates the environmental effects of... for the Chocolate Mountain Aerial Gunnery Range Withdrawal; CA AGENCY: Bureau of Land Management... geothermal leasing laws, for military use of the Chocolate Mountain Aerial Gunnery Range (CMAGR) in...

  16. Effects of the amount of soy milk on thermorheological, thermal and textural properties of chocolate with soy milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zarić Danica B.

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a two-phase rheological system. The solid phase, consisting of non-fat cocoa particles, sugar and soy milk is wrapped in a fat phase - cocoa butter. Physical, thermal, textural and organoleptic properties of chocolate depend on the composition of the ingredients, manufacturing process and a properly conducted pre-crystallization phase. For this study, two chocolate masses were produced in a ball mill: one with 15% of soy milk powder (R1 and the other with 20% of soy milk powder (R2. The chocolate mass was produced at different milling times (30, 60 and 90 min, and pre-crystallization temperature (26, 28 and 30oC. The aim of the study was to evaluate the changes caused by different amounts of soy milk powder on the quality of the chocolate. The quality of chocolate was evaluated by comparing the nutritional composition, hardness, thermorheological and thermal properties of the chocolate mass. The results show that chocolate mass R2, due to the presence of higher amounts of soy milk proteins, should be milled longer, and also needs lower temperatures for pre-crystallization. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR 31014

  17. β-Glucan and Dark Chocolate: A Randomized Crossover Study on Short-Term Satiety and Energy Intake

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asli Akyol

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The aims of this study were to adapt a traditional recipe into a healthier form by adding 3 g of oat β-glucan, substituting milk chocolate to dark chocolate with 70% cocoa, and to examine the effect of these alterations on short-term satiety and energy intake. Materials and Methods: Study subjects (n = 25 were tested in a randomized, crossover design with four products closely matched for energy content. Four different versions of a traditional recipe including milk chocolate-control (CON, oat β-glucan (B-GLU, dark chocolate (DARK or oat β-glucan and dark chocolate (B-GLU + DARK were given to subjects on different test days. After subjects were asked to report visual analog scale (VAS scores on sensory outcomes and related satiety for four hours ad libitum, lunch was served and energy intake of individuals was measured. Results: VAS scores indicated that none of the test foods exerted an improved effect on satiety feelings. However, energy intake of individuals during ad libitum lunch was significantly lower in dark chocolate groups (CON: 849.46 ± 47.45 kcal versus DARK: 677.69 ± 48.45 kcal and B-GLU + DARK: 691.08 ± 47.45 kcal, p = 0.014. Conclusion: The study demonstrated that substituting dark chocolate for milk chocolate is more effective in inducing satiety during subsequent food intake in healthy subjects.

  18. Catalytic effect of black liquor on the gasification reactivity of petroleum coke

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhan, Xiuli; Zhou, ZhiJie; Wang, Fuchen [Kay Laboratory of Coal Gasification of Ministry of Education, East China University of Science and Technology, Shanghai 200237 (China)

    2010-05-15

    CO{sub 2} gasification of petroleum coke using black liquor as a catalyst was performed in a thermogravimetric analyzer (TGA) under temperatures 1223-1673 K at ambient pressure to evaluate the effect of black liquor loading on petroleum coke gasification. It was found that the gasification reactivity of petroleum coke was improved greatly by black liquor. The gasification reactivity was affected by different loading methods in the order: wet grinding > dry grinding > physical impregnation > dry mix. The catalytic activity of black liquor was higher than that of pure alkali metal. The effect of temperature on the gasification reactivity of petroleum coke was changed by black liquor. The reactivity reaches its maximum at 1573 K. The reactivity of petroleum coke was found higher than that of Shenfu coal when black liquor loading is 5 wt.% (of petroleum coke), clearly demonstrating that black liquor could be an effective catalyst for petroleum coke gasification. (author)

  19. Process stability for chemical recovery units: Which black liquor firing control strategies enhance stability?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Clay, D.T.; Frederickson, J.O.; Andrews, J.R. [James River Corp., Berlin, NH (United States). Engineering Dept.

    1995-12-31

    Black liquor firing control strategies strive to buffer chemical recovery units (CRU) from changes in kraft pulp mill process. The importance of firing control strategy has increased recently with the trend to link concentrators directly to CRU liquor headers to ensure minimal liquor storage. Four control strategies were evaluated: (1) black liquor nozzle pressure, (2) black liquor volumetric flow, (3) black liquor solids mass flow, and (4) energy flow control. The variation between the base case and the four different control strategies was evaluated by changes in six process parameters, i.e., pressure, velocity, solids mass flow, energy released, droplet diameter, and droplet evaporative load. Results indicated that for non-fouling units, the energy release strategy provided the best stability. For fouling units, the choice was less obvious; none of the evaluated control strategies ranked consistently best. Liquor header (nozzle) pressure control proved to be least desirable. 10 refs., 8 figs., 4 tabs.

  20. 78 FR 4431 - Santee Sioux Nation-Title XXI-Alcohol, Chapter 1.-Santee Sioux Nation Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-01-22

    ... certify and publish in the Federal Register notice of adopted liquor ordinances for the purpose of... devoted to sale of liquor. 6. ``Malt Liquor'' means beer, strong beer, ale, stout and porter. 7. ``Nation...: 1. To publish and enforce rules and regulations governing liquor on the Reservation; 2. To...

  1. BRAND POSITIONING. AN ANALYZE OF THE ROMANIAN CHOCOLATE BARS MARKET FROM YOUNGSTERS PERSPECTIVE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dulea Iulia - Andreea

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract: Positioning is a very important component of the marketing strategy. Positioning has an impact on the entire marketing mix and is crucial for differentiating a brand from competition and gaining competitive advantage. The evaluation of the consumer's perceptions about the positioning of the existing brands in a category is a must in order to design an effective brand positioning or repositioning strategy. This paper assesses youngsters’s perceptions about the positioning of the chocolate bar brands existing in Romania through perceptual mapping. The results of the study show that the attributes by which youngsters assess chocolate bar brands can be grouped into the following categories: quality, taste and content, physical effects, price and appearance. Therefore, perceptual mapping is a useful technique in analysing a brand positioning strategy, but also in generating a brand repositioning strategy. Keywords: Positioning strategy, brand, perceptual mapping, positioning process, chocolate bars, youngsters.

  2. Influence of emulsifiers on the optimization of processing parameters of refining milk chocolate in the ball mill

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pajin Biljana

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate manufacture is a complex process which includes a large number of technology operations. One of the obligatory phases is milling, called refining, which aims at obtaining the appropriate distribution of particle size, resulting in the chocolate with optimal physical and sensory characteristics. The aim of this work was to define and optimize the process parameters for the production of milk chocolate by a non-conventional procedure, using the ball mill. The quality of chocolate mass, produced on this way, is determined by measuring the following parameters: moisture, size of the largest cocoa particle, yield flow, and Casson plastic viscosity. A special consideration of this study is the optimization of the types and amounts of emulsifiers, which are responsible for achieving the appropriate rheological and physical characteristics of the chocolate mass. The obtained parameters are compared with those which are typical for the standard procedure.

  3. Penentuan Konsentrasi Total Alkali Aktif dan Sulfiditas dalam White Liquor pada Proses Recausticizing PT. Toba Pulp Lestari, Tbk Porsea

    OpenAIRE

    Juliani, Eva

    2015-01-01

    White Liquor is liquor which is derived from green liquor with CaO (burnt lime), by recaustisizing process in caustisizer. This white liquor will use as wood cooking in digester unit. Before white liquor used, require to control the quality of white liquor. Parameter which analysis in white liquor is total active alkali (TAA), and Sulfidity (%). Total goals of active alkali wanted is 95 g/l- 110 g/l,white goals of sulfidity is 20 %-29%. From this perception have result that total active alkal...

  4. Cycling Time Trial Performance 4 Hours After Glycogen-Lowering Exercise Is Similarly Enhanced by Recovery Nondairy Chocolate Beverages Versus Chocolate Milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Upshaw, Adam U; Wong, Tiffany S; Bandegan, Arash; Lemon, Peter W

    2016-02-01

    Postexercise chocolate milk ingestion has been shown to enhance both glycogen resynthesis and subsequent exercise performance. To assess whether nondairy chocolate beverage ingestion post-glycogen-lowering exercise can enhance 20-km cycling time trial performance 4 hr later, eight healthy trained male cyclists (21.8 ± 2.3y, VO2max = 61.2 ± 1.4 ml·kg-1·min-1; M ± SD) completed a series of intense cycling intervals designed to lower muscle glycogen (Jentjens & Jeukendrup, 2003) followed by 4 hr of recovery and a subsequent 20-km cycling time trial. During the first 2 hr of recovery, participants ingested chocolate dairy milk (DAIRYCHOC), chocolate soy beverage (SOYCHOC), chocolate hemp beverage (HEMPCHOC), low-fat dairy milk (MILK), or a low-energy artificially sweetened, flavored beverage (PLACEBO) at 30-min intervals in a double-blind, counterbalanced repeated-measures design. All drinks, except the PLACEBO (247 kJ) were isoenergetic (2,107 kJ), and all chocolate-flavored drinks provided 1-g CHO·kg body mass-1·h-1. Fluid intake across treatments was equalized (2,262 ± 148 ml) by ingesting appropriate quantities of water based on drink intake. The CHO:PRO ratio was 4:1, 1.5:1, 4:1, and 6:1 for DAIRYCHOC, MILK, SOYCHOC, and HEMPCHOC, respectively. One-way analysis of variance with repeated measures showed time trial performance (DAIRYCHOC = 34.58 ± 2.5 min, SOYCHOC = 34.83 ± 2.2 min, HEMPCHOC = 34.88 ± 1.1 min, MILK = 34.47 ± 1.7 min) was enhanced similarly vs PLACEBO (37.85 ± 2.1) for all treatments (p = .019) These data suggest that postexercise macronutrient and total energy intake are more important for same-day 20-km cycling time trial performance after glycogen-lowering exercise than protein type or protein-to-carbohydrate ratio. PMID:26314086

  5. 巧克力上的涂鸦——Alison Nelson's Chocolate Bar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    汲取怀旧的主题,Alison Nelson's Chocolate Bar将巧克力这个最受欢迎的甜食,从吃、喝、穿等跨界无限延伸巧克力主题,连大人也爱不释手。坐落纽约年轻时尚指标据点Henri Bendel百货三楼的Chocolate Bar,叛逆又充满艺术趣味、利落的时尚空间.

  6. Eating dark and milk chocolate: a randomized crossover study of effects on appetite and energy intake

    OpenAIRE

    Sørensen, L B; Astrup, A.

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To compare the effect of dark and milk chocolate on appetite sensations and energy intake at an ad libitum test meal in healthy, normal-weight men. Subjects/methods: A total of 16 young, healthy, normal-weight men participated in a randomized, crossover study. Test meals were 100 g of either milk (2285 kJ) or dark chocolate (2502 kJ). Visual-analogue scales were used to record appetite sensations before and after the test meal was consumed and subsequently every 30 min for 5 h. An ...

  7. The implementation of HACCP management system in a chocolate ice cream plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junchao Lu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available To guarantee the safety of chocolate ice cream production, the Hazard Analysis Critical Control Points (HACCP system was applied to the production process. The biological, chemical, and physical hazards that may exist in every step of chocolate ice cream production were identified. In addition, the critical control points were selected and the critical limits, monitoring, corrective measures, records, and verifications were established. The critical control points, which include pasteurization and freezing, were identified. Implementing the HACCP system in food manufacturing can effectively ensure food safety and quality, expand the market, and improve the manufacturers' management level.

  8. Planning of experimental removal of cadmium in finite bath system using the chocolate clay B as adsorbent; Caracterizacao de adsorvente (argila chocolate B) visando a remocao de cadmio

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mota, J.D.; Rodrigues, M.G.F.; Lima, W.S.; Souza, R.S., E-mail: wsl_20@yahoo.com.br, E-mail: meiry@deq.ufcg.edu.br [Universidade Federal de Campina Grande (LABNOV/UFCG), PB (Brazil). Unidade Academica de Engenharia Quimica. Lab. de Desenvolvimento de Novos Materiais

    2012-07-01

    The smectite clays are characterized by having a high cation exchange capacity and ability to remove metal ions. They have great industrial importance, for its abundance and low cost. The first part of this work was to characterize the clay called Chocolate B through the techniques of X-Ray Diffraction, X-Ray Spectroscopy and Energy Dispersive Physical Adsorption of Nitrogen. The second part of the work aims to evaluate the significance of the variables: pH and initial concentration on removal of cadmium in a batch system. In the experimental design used was a 2{sup 2} factorial analysis with the addition at the central point, and evaluated the percentage of removal (Rem%) and removal capacity (EQF). XRD results corroborating the chemical analysis (EDX), characterized as a B Chocolate smectite clays. Statistical analysis showed a strong influence of variable pH on the removal of cadmium. (author)

  9. Perfil sensorial de bolos de chocolate formulados com farinha de yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius Sensorial profile of chocolate cakes formulated with yacon flour (Smallanthus sonchifolius

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vivianne Montarroyos Padilha

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Neste trabalho foi avaliado o uso de farinha de yacon na formulação de bolos de chocolate para se verificar a influência deste constituinte sobre a qualidade sensorial e cromaticidade do produto. Foram analisadas amostras de bolos, formulados com farinha de yacon, denominadas: amostra P (bolo padrão, sem farinha de yacon, amostra A (bolo com 20% de farinha de yacon e amostra B (bolo com 40% de farinha de yacon. Para a avaliação sensorial, foi realizada a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (ADQ, utilizando 15 provadores treinados, os quais definiram 9 atributos sensoriais (cor, estrutura do miolo, aroma, gosto doce, sabor de chocolate, sabor residual, umectância, maciez e qualidade global. A análise física dos bolos foi realizada através da caracterização cromática. Os dados sensoriais foram submetidos à análise de variância ANOVA, sendo realizado o teste de Duncan para comparação entre as médias de Duncan, ao nível de 5% de significância. Para verificar as correlações entre as amostras e os atributos, foi realizada a Análise de Componentes Principais (ACP. Na ACP, a soma de componentes principais 1 e 2 foi de 83,3%, ou seja, a variabilidade entre as amostras foi explicada por estes dois componentes. Os resultados obtidos demonstraram que a adição de 40% de farinha de yacon resultou em maiores notas para o aroma (10,16, gosto doce (7,60, sabor de chocolate (10,52, maciez (11,44 e qualidade global (11,64. Com relação ao atributo estrutura não houve diferença significativa entre as notas dos bolos P, A e B. Independente da quantidade de farinha de yacon adicionada, o perfil sensorial dos bolos de chocolate foi influenciado e, em particular, o bolo com maior teor de farinha de yacon apresentou as melhores notas.This study evaluated the use of yacon flour in the formulation of chocolate cakes by investigating its influence on the sensory quality and chromaticity of the product. The following samples were prepared and

  10. Physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report. Phase I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.

    1983-12-01

    Methods were selected, equipment installed, and procedures developed for determining rheological properties; for determining thermal properties (stability, density, thermal expansion, and heat capacity); for purification and characterization of lignin (glass transition, stability, weight average molecular weight, and number average molecular weight); and for performing chemical analyses (negative inorganic ions, positive inorganic ions, acid organic salts, lignin, and total solids). A strategy for pulping to supply test liquors was developed, and a statistically designed pulping experiment was specified for a Southern softwood species. Arrangements were made for performing initial pulping work in an industrial pilot plant, and a preliminary set of pulping experiments were conducted. Liquors from the preliminary pulping experiments were used to test procedures and to determine reproducibility of the experiment. Literature was also surveyed and preliminary selection of designs for a pilot digester, and for equipment to determine surface tension were made.

  11. Studies on synthesis of alumina nanopowder from synthetic Bayer liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Procedure for synthesis of alumina nanopowder from Bayer liquor (synthetic sodium aluminate solution) is investigated. Cooling, ageing and then addition of 3 ml/l Tiron (1,2-dihydroxy-3,5-benzene disulfonic acid disodium salt) to the supersaturated liquor affect purity and fineness of the nanopowder product. X-ray diffraction (XRD), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive X-ray (EDAX) analyses indicate that purity of the alumina nanopowder increases with the aging time. Experimental observations show that highly pure alumina nanopowders could be produced by direct calcination of cold gelatinous sodium aluminate solution followed by careful washing at a Tiron concentration of 3 ml/l NaOH

  12. ON THE BLACK LIQUOR AND RECYCLE COOKING OF AS-AQ STRAW PULP

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HaiqiangShi; BeihaiHe; BingyueLiu

    2004-01-01

    Thick black liquor, thin black liquor and solid state sodium hydroxide are added to the liquor treated by sulfur dioxide, then the blended liquor is used to recycle cooking of straw pulp. The black liquor, separated liquor and pulp of every cycles are analyzed respectively. Result shows that the content of lignin and organism in recycle black liquor and separated liquor increases faster in the first three cycles and then continues to increase slowly till four or five times, after that it trends to a stable state. The main organism separated fi'om waste liquor of AS-AQ treated by sulfur dioxide is alkali-lignin,above 50% of total lignin in black liquor. The yield of pulp made fi'om recycle cooking is steady, the hardness of pulp has a great improvement with recycle cooking. The brightness of pulp reduces correspondingly before bleaching, and after bleaching the brightness of pulp is relatively high and steady at the same sodium hypo chlorite dosage.

  13. Marketing Strategy of Imported Beers before Liquor Liberalization

    OpenAIRE

    Sinee Sankrusme

    2012-01-01

    These are the case study analysis of imported beer companies: the C.V.S Syndicate Company and the TIS Worldwide Marketing (1997) Company. The purpose of the study is to analyze marketing strategy and marketing mix of imported beers before liquor liberalization in 2000. The qualitative and descriptive approaches to the case study analysis used standard research methodology. The results of the study indicated (1) Marketing strategy depended on the economic situation, (2) The company’s marketing...

  14. Utilization of maltose enriched spent grains liquor for xanthan production

    OpenAIRE

    Dodić Jelena M.; Vučurović Damjan G.; Grahovac Jovana A.; Dodić Siniša N.; Popov Stevan D.; Jokić Aleksandar I.

    2011-01-01

    The present study examines xanthan production by Xanthomonas campestris under aerobic conditions on spent grains liquor based cultivation media containing four different amounts of maltose. All four experiments were performed simultaneously, so that all stages of the biotechnological process would be carried out under identical conditions. In addition to the cultivation parameters (pH value, contents of dissolved oxygen, reducing sugars and assimilable nitrogen, turbidity and trickling ...

  15. Total Phenolic Content and Antioxidant Activity of Different Types of Chocolate, Milk, Semisweet, Dark, and Soy, in Cerebral Cortex, Hippocampus, and Cerebellum of Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Niara da Silva Medeiros

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Chocolate is a product consumed worldwide and it stands out for presenting an important amount of phenolic compounds. In this study, the total phenolic content and antioxidant activity in the cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of male Wistar rats when consuming different types of chocolate, including milk, semisweet, dark, and soy, was evaluated. The total polyphenols concentration and antioxidant activity in vitro by the method of DPPH radical-scavenging test were evaluated in chocolate samples. Lipid peroxidation (TBARS, protein oxidation (carbonyl, sulfhydryl groups, and activity of SOD enzyme in cerebral cortex, hippocampus, and cerebellum of rats treated or not with hydrogen peroxide and/or chocolate were also evaluated. The dark chocolate demonstrated higher phenolic content and antioxidant activity, followed by semisweet, soy, and milk chocolates. The addition of chocolate in the diet of the rats reduced lipid peroxidation and protein oxidation caused by hydrogen peroxide. In the sulfhydryl assay, we observed that the levels of nonenzymatic defenses only increased with the chocolate treatments The SOD enzyme activity was modulated in the tissues treated with the chocolates. We observed in the samples of chocolate a significant polyphenol content and an important antioxidant activity; however, additional studies with different chocolates and other tissues are necessary to further such findings.

  16. Hydrogen production by supercritical water gasification of alkaline black liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cao, Changqing; Guo, Liejin; Chen, Yunan; Lu, Youjun [Xi' an Jiatong Univ. (China)

    2010-07-01

    Black liquor was gasified continuously in supercritical water successfully and the main gaseous products were H{sub 2}, CO{sub 2} and CH{sub 4} with little amount of CO, C{sub 2}H{sub 4} and C{sub 2}H{sub 6}. The increase of the temperature and the decrease of the flow rate and black liquor concentration enhanced SCWG of black liquor. The change of the system pressure had limited influence on the gasification effect. The maximal COD removal efficiency of 88.69 % was obtained at the temperature of 600 C. The pH values of the aqueous residue were all decreased to the range of 6.4{proportional_to}8 while the pH value of cooling effluence below 360 C increased to about 11 and the sodium content was much higher than that in the aqueous residue. The reaction rate for COD degradation in supercritical water was obtained by assuming pseudo first order reaction. And the activation energy and pre-exponential for COD removal in SCWG were 74.38kJ/mol and 1.11 x 10{sup 4} s{sup -1} respectively. (orig.)

  17. Disturbances of the liquor circulation: differential diagnosis of the hydrocephalus by radionuclide scintigraphy, pneumoencephalography and determination of the liquor pressure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Normal-pressure hydrocephalus (NPH) is a special case of communicating hydrocephalus with disturbed resorption of cerebrospinal fluid. Because of the therapeutic consequences, NPH must be clearly differentiated from cerebral atrophy with compensatory increase of the liquor and from hydrocephalus with well-balanced cerebrospinal fluid. NPH is indicated by: excessive pressure rise after artificial volume load on the liquor space in spinal infusion tests; in the X-ray picture, an internal hydrocephalus; an acute-angled corpus callosum, and a progressive ventricular enlargement following in the pneumoencephalography; ventricular reflux with stasis in radionuclide cisternography. In some limiting cases, the diagnosis can be facilitated by a quantitative functional study of the dynamics of the cerebrospinal fluid with the aid of radionuclides. The biological half-life of 131I albumin is doubled when the resorption of the cerebrospinal fluid is disturbed. (orig.)

  18. Quantification of the predominant monomeric catechins in baking chocolate standard reference material by LC/APCI-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, Bryant C; Sharpless, Katherine E

    2003-01-29

    Catechins are polyphenolic plant compounds (flavonoids) that may offer significant health benefits to humans. These benefits stem largely from their anticarcinogenic, antioxidant, and antimutagenic properties. Recent epidemiological studies suggest that the consumption of flavonoid-containing foods is associated with reduced risk of cardiovascular disease. Chocolate is a natural cocoa bean-based product that reportedly contains high levels of monomeric, oligomeric, and polymeric catechins. We have applied solid-liquid extraction and liquid chromatography coupled with atmospheric pressure chemical ionization-mass spectrometry to the identification and determination of the predominant monomeric catechins, (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin, in a baking chocolate Standard Reference Material (NIST Standard Reference Material 2384). (+)-Catechin and (-)-epicatechin are detected and quantified in chocolate extracts on the basis of selected-ion monitoring of their protonated [M + H](+) molecular ions. Tryptophan methyl ester is used as an internal standard. The developed method has the capacity to accurately quantify as little as 0.1 microg/mL (0.01 mg of catechin/g of chocolate) of either catechin in chocolate extracts, and the method has additionally been used to certify (+)-catechin and (-)-epicatechin levels in the baking chocolate Standard Reference Material. This is the first reported use of liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry for the quantitative determination of monomeric catechins in chocolate and the only report certifying monomeric catechin levels in a food-based Standard Reference Material. PMID:12537419

  19. Chocolate intake may reduce liver count in 99m-Tc-tetrofosmin myocardial SPECT

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The accumulation of 99m-Tc-Tetrofosmin (TF) in the liver and intestine may often interfere the image quality of myocardial TF SPECT. Although milk intake before acquisition is recommended to reduce its accumulation by enhancing biliary excretion of TF, some patients cannot accept milk. To elucidate the efficacy of chocolate intake as a substitute for milk, we investigated 72 patients with coronary heart disease who underwent TF SPECT (stress imaging; n=36, rest imaging; n=36). Following injection of TF, the patients were randomly treated either with milk (n=24), or chocolate (n=24). The images were acquired before treatment, at 15 min, at 30 min, and 45 min after treatment. The ratio of liver to heart count (LHR) was calculated and was compared between the two groups. LHR in the stress imaging was not significantly different between the milk-treated and chocolate-treated groups: 1.86 vs 1.87 before treatment, 1.39 vs 1.39 at 30 min, and 1.02 vs 1.03 at 45 min. LHR in the rest imaging was also the same between the two groups: 1.43 vs 1.42 before treatment, 1.22 vs 1.21 at 15 min, and 0.95 vs. 0.95 at 30 min. Chocolate intake may be equally effective to milk intake in reducing the liver accumulation of TF. (author)

  20. Dark chocolate consumption improves leukocyte adhesion factors and vascular function in overweight men

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Esser, D.; Mars, M.; Oosterink, E.; Stalmach, A.; Müller, M.R.; Afman, L.A.

    2014-01-01

    Flavanol-enriched chocolate consumption increases endothelium-dependent vasodilation. Most research so far has focused on flow-mediated dilation (FMD) only; the effects on other factors relevant to endothelial health, such as inflammation and leukocyte adhesion, have hardly been addressed. We invest

  1. Meet the Molecules in Chocolate: Informal Opportunities for Building Thematic Molecular Models with Children

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amey, Jennifer R.; Fletcher, Matthew D.; Fletcher, Rachael V.; Jones, Alison; Roberts, Erica W.; Roberts, Ieuan O.

    2008-01-01

    We describe the development and use of a molecular model building activity with a chocolate theme, suitable for a public presentation of chemistry through interaction with visitors to science festivals and museums, and as a special classroom activity during science weeks, and so forth. (Contains 3 figures.)

  2. Using Roald Dahl's "Charlie and the Chocolate Factory" to Teach Different Recruitment and Selection Paradigms

    Science.gov (United States)

    Billsberry, Jon; Gilbert, Louise H.

    2008-01-01

    This article makes a case for using Roald Dahl's children's fantasy and morality tale "Charlie and the Chocolate Factory" to teach recruitment and selection. It draws attention to its relevance in illustrating and explaining three different recruitment and selection paradigms: psychometric, social process, and fit. It argues that the use of this…

  3. Chocolate Chip Cookies and Rubrics: Helping Students Understand Rubrics in Inclusive Settings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Elizabeth Wikfors; Salmon, Susan J.

    2003-01-01

    This article discusses how teachers can familiarize their students, with and without disabilities, with rubric terminology and the use of rubrics. It addresses why rubrics should be used, designing a rubric, and current uses of rubrics. A chocolate chip cookie rubric is provided as an example. (Contains 7 references.) (CR)

  4. A CTE Legacy Built on Chocolate: Milton Hershey School's 100 Years

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kemmery, Robert

    2010-01-01

    One hundred years ago, Chocolate Magnate Milton S. Hershey and his wife Catherine signed the deed of trust creating the Hershey Industrial School in the heart of their Pennsylvania farming community. They had no children of their own and wanted to help orphan boys get a good education. The couple eventually left their entire fortune to the school.…

  5. Kiss High Blood Pressure Goodbye: The Relationship between Dark Chocolate and Hypertension

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nordmoe, Eric D.

    2008-01-01

    This article reports on a delicious finding from a recent study claiming a causal link between dark chocolate consumption and blood pressure reductions. In the article, I provide ideas for using this study to whet student appetites for a discussion of statistical ideas, including experimental design, measurement error and inference methods.

  6. Making a chocolate chip: development and evaluation of a 6K SNP array for Theobroma cacao.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Theobroma cacao, the key ingredient in chocolate production, is one of the world's most important tree fruit crops, with ~4,000,000 metric tons produced across 50 countries. To move towards gene discovery and marker-assisted breeding in cacao, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification pr...

  7. Azoreductase activity in bacteria associated with the greening of instant chocolate puddings.

    OpenAIRE

    Dykes, G A; Timm, R G; von Holy, A

    1994-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain AZR1 and Klebsiella sp. strain AZR2 were isolated from reconstituted instant chocolate puddings that had turned green and were found to have azoreductase activity. This activity was inducible and NADH dependent. Differences in dye reduction rates between the two strains were apparent, and substrate specificity related to dye structure was observed.

  8. The Chocolate Milk Crisis: A Consumer Economics Simulation Unit for Grades 1-6.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derrico, Patricia; Karsotis, A. Thomas

    1981-01-01

    Describes a simulation game developed to introduce elementary school students to basic economic concepts, including scarcity, availability, resource utilization, trade-offs, and demand and barter. The simulation, based on a shortage of chocolate milk in the elementary school lunch room, stressed problem solving skills. (DB)

  9. Reduced-in-sugar Chocolate Chip Cookies: Functionality of Sucralose/Maltodextrin: Isomalt Blends

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reduced-in-sugar Chocolate Chip Cookies: Functionality of Sucralose/Maltodextrin:Isomalt Blends Rebecca McKemie1, Ruthann B. Swanson1, Elizabeth M. Savage2 and Hong Zhuang2 1University of Georgia, Athens, GA 30605; 2ARS-USDA, Athens, GA 30605 Modified baked product availability may reduce simple ...

  10. Effects of Alkali Concentration and Conching Temperature on Flavour, Hardness and Colour of Chocolate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Misnawi Jati

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Alkalization is an addition of alkali into cocoa mass to improve product quality in terms of flavour and colour appearance. Sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate are usual to be added into cocoa cotyledon prior to roasting. A study has been carried out to evaluate the effects of alkalization proceeded upon conching on chocolate sensory properties, hardness and colour. Re sponse Surface Methodology design at alkali concentrations of 1—15 g kg -1 and conching temperature of 40—80 oC have been used in the study. Parameters evaluated were sensory properties, particle size, hardness and colour. Results of the study showed that alkali concentration significantly influenced aroma, overall preference, particle size and hardness; meanwhile, conching temperature showed significant influence on aroma, taste, appearance, overall preference and texture of chocolate. Alkali concentration and conching temperature showed interactively influence on aroma and overall preference. A good quality of chocolate could be found at the alkali concentration of 8—15 g kg -1 and conching temperature of 74—80 oC. Key words: cocoa bean, chocolate, flavour, conching, alkalization, colour, particle size, texture.

  11. Large scale experiments and modeling of black liquor gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Per

    2011-07-01

    Biomass gasification could provide a basis for increased electricity and engine fuel production from a renewable source in the pulp and paper industry. This work focuses on the largest byproduct available at the pulp mills, black liquor. Black liquor is a mixture of spent cooking chemicals, dissolved lignin, dissolved carbohydrates and a small portion of inorganic compounds found in the wood. The conventional technology to recover the cooking chemicals and the chemical energy as heat is combustion in large boilers. Here, gasification could be an alternative, replacing or complementing the boilers. The gasification technology produces a combustible gas that can be cleaned to produce electricity in a gas turbine/engine or, be synthesized into valuable chemicals or liquid engine fuels. The technology has been demonstrated in development scale since 2005 and appears to be promising. Still, commercial plants have not yet been built. This thesis focuses on the understanding of the oxygen blown, pressurized, entrained flow, black liquor gasification technology. The main goals have been to increase the understanding about the dominating mechanisms in black liquor gasification and to develop an engineering tool that can be used to design and optimize, pressurized, entrained flow, black liquor gasifiers. To accomplish these goals gas samples were extracted from the gasification reactor using a gas sampling probe that was developed within this work. Gas samples were also collected downstream the quench located underneath the reactor and the results were compared. Finally, an existing numerical model was developed so it can predict the behavior of the black liquor gasifier within reasonable accuracy. Even though the actual mechanisms in the reactor and quench are very complex it appears that they can be described with relatively simple global mechanisms. The main gas components are dictated by the water gas shift reaction. At the outlet of the reactor the gas composition is

  12. β-Glucan and Dark Chocolate: A Randomized Crossover Study on Short-Term Satiety and Energy Intake

    OpenAIRE

    Asli Akyol; Halil Dasgin; Aylin Ayaz; Zehra Buyuktuncer; H. Tanju Besler

    2014-01-01

    Aim: The aims of this study were to adapt a traditional recipe into a healthier form by adding 3 g of oat β-glucan, substituting milk chocolate to dark chocolate with 70% cocoa, and to examine the effect of these alterations on short-term satiety and energy intake. Materials and Methods: Study subjects (n = 25) were tested in a randomized, crossover design with four products closely matched for energy content. Four different versions of a traditional recipe including milk chocolate-control (C...

  13. Fairtrade - A Competitive Imperative? : An Investigation to Understand the Role of Fair Trade in Company Strategy in the Chocolate Industry

    OpenAIRE

    Vettersand, Elina; Tran, Thao

    2012-01-01

    Background: The rise in ethical consumerism has become evident through an increase in sales of fair trade products in recent years. Consumers are prepared to pay a premium for fair trade chocolate, and with a steady future growth in the fair trade movement, this is an attractive market for new entrants. Of particular focus are the Swedish and German markets for fair trade chocolate as they show promising growth rates and interest in this field. Problem:       The chocolate industry is very co...

  14. Rheological characterization of mixed liquor in a submerged membrane bioreactor: Interest for process management

    OpenAIRE

    Van Kaam, Romuald; Anne-Archard, Dominique; Alliet-Gaubert, Marion; Albasi, Claire

    2008-01-01

    Rheological analyses of a submerged membrane bioreactor mixed liquor were performed in the aim of characterizing the mixed liquor present in the bioreactor and thus proposing a process management. These analyses pointed out that the mixed liquor was characterized by its viscoplastic property, which leads to a possible restructuring ability when a shear stress lower than the yield stress is applied. As the shear stress in the bioreactor is essentially generated by coarse bubbles, specific expe...

  15. Parents' and children's acceptance of skim chocolate milks sweetened by monk fruit and stevia leaf extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, X E; Lopetcharat, K; Drake, M A

    2015-05-01

    Chocolate milk increases milk consumption of children, but high sugar content raises health concerns. Interest in sugar reduction and parents' preference for natural sweeteners necessitates further research on natural nonnutritive sweeteners. However, it is important to maintain consumer acceptability, especially for children, while reducing sugar in chocolate milk. The objectives of this study were to identify the sweetness intensity perception of stevia leaf (STV) and monk fruit (MK) extracts in skim chocolate milk (SCM), to evaluate STV and MK as the sole or partial sweetener source for SCM for young adults (19 to 35 y) and children (5 to 13 y), and to determine if information on natural nonnutritive sweeteners impacted parents' acceptability of SCM. Power function and 2-alternative forced choice studies were used to determine the iso-sweetness of nonnutritive sweeteners to a sucrose control in SCM (51.4 g/L, SUC control). Young adults (n = 131) evaluated 9 different SCM (SUC control, STV, MK, STV:sucrose blends, or MK:sucrose blends) in a completely randomized 2-d test. Children (n = 167) evaluated SUC control SCM and SCM with 39.7 g/L sucrose and 46 mg/L MK (MK25) or 30 mg/L STV (STV25). Parents evaluated SUC control, MK25, and STV25 in a balanced crossover design with a 40-d wait time between primed or unprimed ballots. Chocolate milks solely sweetened by nonnutritive sweeteners were less acceptable compared with SUC control by young adults. MK25 and STV25 were acceptable by young adults and children. The presentation of chocolate milk label information had different effects on parental acceptance. Traditional parents preferred sucrose sweetened SCM, and label conscious parents preferred SCM with natural nonnutritive sweeteners. PMID:25847181

  16. The effect of storage temperature on the quality and formation of blooming defects in chocolate confectionery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenka Machálková

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The study aimed at assessing changes in the quality of certain types of chocolate products over the storage period with particular focus on the formation and development of fat and sugar bloom in chocolate products. Seven products were selected in collaboration with a chocolate factory to undergo monitoring and analysis and stored at four temperature regimens (6 °C, 12 °C, 20 °C and 30 °C. Five samplings were carried out over the storing period (18 weeks for evaluation of the dynamics of changes in their quality. Each sampling was accompanied by sensory evaluation; selected physical attributes were also analysed: changes in colour (∆E*ab within the CIE (L*a*b system and changes in hardness using the TIRAtest 27025. The results showed a significant effect of storing temperature on the intensity of changes in the quality of products. The results of sensory evaluation of selected products showed that the highest quality for the majority of descriptors was achieved by products stored at temperatures of 6 °C and 12 °C. As regards samples stored under the temperature regimen of 20 °C, the products started to show visible differences, caused primarily by the formation of fat bloom while storing at 30 °C proved to be extremely unsuitable for all the tested products. Since storing temperatures of 6, 12 and 20 °C did not considerably affect hardness and colour of each product, no distinct changes occurred under such temperature regimens. From the aspect of analytical measurements of colour and hardness of each product, storing at temperatures of 20 °C can be termed appropriate. In all the analyses, the effect of the temperature regimen of 30 °C was significantly negative due to defects caused by blooms on the chocolate, meaning that such temperatures are not advisable for storing chocolate products, even over a short term.

  17. The histogram as basis for the quantification of the intracranial liquor compartment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports about a CT method for the quantification of intracranial liquor components under the consideration of the computer-tomographically established histogram curve. After determining the threshold value between liquor and the other density values, the area portion is put as integral of the density interval for liquor in relation to the integral of the summation curve. Here a percentage indication of the liquor-dense portions referred to the overall intracranial space in the individual layer is possible. This method can be realized clinically within a relatively short period and provides in single examinations and in follow-up examinations of cerebro-atrophic processes reliable findings. (orig.)

  18. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for physical properties of kraft black liquor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.; Zaman, A.A.; Stoy, M.O.; Schmidl, G.W.; Dong, D.J.; Speck, B.

    1998-04-01

    A wide variety of experimental techniques have been used in this work, and many of these have been developed completely or improved significantly in the course of the research done during this program. Therefore, it is appropriate to describe these techniques in detail as a reference for future workers so that the techniques can be used in future work with little additional effort or so that the results reported from this program can be compared better with future results from other work. In many cases, the techniques described are for specific analytical instruments. It is recognized that these may be superseded by future developments and improvements in instrumentation if a complete description of techniques used successfully in the past on other instrumentation is available. The total pulping and liquor preparation research work performed included chip and white liquor preparation, digestion, pulp washing, liquor and wash recovery, liquor sampling, weak liquor concentration in two steps to about 45--50% solids with an intermediate soap skimming at about 140F and 27--30% solids, determination of pulp yield and Kappa number, determination of total liquor solids, and a check on the total material balance for pulping. All other research was performed either on a sample of the weak black liquor (the combined black liquor and washes from the digester) or on the skimmed liquor that had been concentrated.

  19. Treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry by acidification and reuse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Wen-bo; MU Huan-zhen; HUANG Yan-chu

    2003-01-01

    Two different kinds of black liquor from the papermaking industry were treated by acidification and reuse. The experimental parameters and conditions were discussed in detail. The experimental results indicated that the treatment process mentioned in this article is an effective process for the treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry. By the treatment, the solid materials in black liquor are transferred into two by-products and the other components are reused or evaporated. Thus, no wastewater except some condensation water would be discharged in pulping process and the problem of pollution of black liquor would be effectively solved.

  20. Treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry by acidification and reuse.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wen-Bo; Mu, Huan-Zhen; Huang, Yan-Chu

    2003-09-01

    Two different kinds of black liquor from the papermaking industry were treated by acidification and reuse. The experimental parameters and conditions were discussed in detail. The experimental results indicated that the treatment process mentioned in this article is an effective process for the treatment of black liquor from the papermaking industry. By the treatment, the solid materials in black liquor are transferred into two by-products and the other components are reused or evaporated. Thus, no wastewater except some condensation water would be discharged in pulping process and the problem of pollution of black liquor would be effectively solved. PMID:14562934

  1. Nettle (Urtica dioica L.) extracts as functional ingredients for production of chocolates with improved bioactive composition and sensory properties.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belščak-Cvitanović, Ana; Komes, Draženka; Durgo, Ksenija; Vojvodić, Aleksandra; Bušić, Arijana

    2015-12-01

    Pursuant to the tendencies of producing functional foods, attractive to a wide range of consumers, in this study chocolates enriched with freeze dried (FD) and concentrated (CE) nettle extracts were formulated, and their polyphenolic and antioxidant capacity stability evaluated during 12 months of storage. A simple aqueous extraction procedure of nettle was developed, and the defined extract evaluated for its cytotoxic and antioxidant/prooxidant activity on human colon cancer cell line (SW 480). An increase in total polyphenolic content, chlorogenic acid and flavonoid derivatives (originating from nettle extract) contents was achieved in enriched chocolates. Implementation of FD extract enabled higher increase of polyphenolic content in comparison to CE extract. During storage, fluctuations of polyphenolic content were observed, but the final bioactive parameters did not differ (or increased) from the initial ones. Nettle enriched chocolates exhibited more intense bitterness and astringency, while dark chocolates were preferred over milk and semisweet ones. PMID:26604346

  2. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Simone, Silvia; Conidi, Carmela; Ursino, Claudia; Cassano, Alfredo; Figoli, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids), whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF) membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride) (PVDF) hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM). Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP). Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m²·h·bar), coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m²·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively. PMID:26805899

  3. Clarification of Orange Press Liquors by PVDF Hollow Fiber Membranes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Simone

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Press liquors are typical by-products of the citrus juice processing characterized by a high content of organic compounds and associated problems of environmental impact, which imply high treatment costs. However, these wastes contain a great number of health promoting substances, including fibers, carotenoids and phenolic compounds (mainly flavonoids, whose recovery against waste-destruction technologies is very attractive for new business opportunities. In this work, the clarification of orange press liquor by using microfiltration (MF membranes is studied as a preliminary step to obtain a permeate stream enriched in antioxidant compounds which can be further processed to produce extracts of nutraceutical and/or pharmaceutical interest. MF poly(vinylidene fluoride (PVDF hollow fibers were prepared by the dry/wet spinning technique. A series of fibers was produced from the same polymeric dope, in order to investigate the effect of selected spinning parameters, i.e., bore fluid composition and flowrate, on their properties. The morphology of the produced fibers was analyzed by Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM. Fibers were further characterized for their mechanical properties, porosity, bubble point, pore size distribution and pure water permeability (PWP. Some of the produced fibers exhibited high permeability (pure water permeability ~530 L/m2·h·bar, coupled to good mechanical resistance and pore size in the range of MF membranes. These fibers were selected and used for the clarification of press liquor from orange peel processing. In optimized operating conditions, the selected fibers produced steady-state fluxes of about 41 L/m2·h with rejections towards polyphenols and total antioxidant activity of 4.1% and 1.4%, respectively.

  4. Uranium recovery from acid leach liquors: Ix or Sx?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Various technologies for uranium recovery from sulphuric acid leach solutions were compared. Although the main consideration was the economics (Capex, recovery and Opex) of the various technologies and associated unit operations, other factors, such as flexibility, reliability, ease of operation, fire risk, stability with regards to feed flow variations, and feed solids content, would also need to be considered in the overall analysis. The design basis used for the comparison was a production rate or 200 kg/h U3O8 over a solution concentration range of 40 to 1500 mg/L U3O8. The technologies to be compared included Resin-in-pulp (RIP), Fixed-bed Ion Exchange (FBIX), Continuous Countercurrent Ion Exchange (CCIX, e.g. NIMCIX), and Solvent Extraction (Sx) using Bateman Pulsed Columns (BPC) and Bateman Settlers. Countercurrent Decantation (CCD) and clarification would be required for the Sx and FBIX technologies. The preliminary economic evaluation indicated that a flowsheet, comprising RIP for bulk uranium extraction and upgrade, followed by Sx, employing the BPC for purification of the RIP eluate stream, was the most economic option at leach liquor concentrations below 900 mg/L. Above 900 mg/L the economic evaluation suggested that CCDs followed by Sx in the BPC was the most economical processing option. For applications where the ore is abrasive and not amenable to RIP, due to the rate of resin consumption, Paste Thickeners to remove the bulk of the solids, followed by RIP, was found to be the most economic processing option at leach liquor concentrations below 200 mg/L. However, for leach liquor concentrations above 200 mg/L, a CCD-circuit followed by Sx using BPC was again the most economic favourable route

  5. Preparation of nuclear grade uranium oxide from Jaduguda leach liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been conducted on pilot plant scale for solvent extraction of uranium from sulphuric acid leach liquor for Jaduguda uranium ore using Alamine-336 in kerosene as extractant and Isodecanol as modifier. A solvent extraction set up of 10 litre/min. capacity, having 4 stages each for extraction and stripping, was used. The uranium was recovered by stripping with 1M sodium chloride solution. The MDU precipitated from strip solution contained 85% U3O8. Since NFC has planned to set up its plant at Turamdih and a proposal was also made to integrate the process flow sheet of UCIL and NFC, it was decided to have a detailed studies on the production of nuclear grade uranium oxide from leach liquor. The work was done in line with the eluex process adopting one more stage of solvent extraction, i.e. after leaching in sulphuric acid and filtration, the clarified solution at pH of about 2 was processed through ion exchange system for extraction of uranium. The uranium was eluted with sulphuric acid. From the eluted solution uranium was again extracted with Alamine-336 in kerosene. Isodecanol was used as modifier. The stripping was done with ammonium nitrate-nitric acid, which is not a common practice. From the nitrate solution uranium was again extracted with TBP in kerosene and stripped with acidified water. From this strip solution ammonium diuranate was precipitated and ignited to uranium oxide. A parallel work was also conducted by extracting uranium directly from leach liquor by Alamine-336 and processing further as mentioned above. In both the cases, the uranium oxide produced contained the same percentage (99.8%) of U3O8. (author). 7 refs

  6. Extraction-atomic-absorption determination of vanadium in salt liquors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extraction-atomic-absorption method to determine 0.1-0.8 mg/l vanadium in salt liquors containing 300 g/l NaCl is developed. To separate the basis extraction concentrating with hydroxyquinoline solution in chloroform with subsequent reextraction of vanadium at pH 9.4 is used. Results of vanadium determination in the salt liquer are as follows: vanadium determined x=0.22 mg/l, n=10, ssub(x)=0.045 mg/l, confidence range (at α=0.95)-(0.22+-0.03) mg/l, relative standard deviation is 0.20

  7. Oxidizing attack process of uranium ore by a carbonated liquor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A continuous process for digesting a uraniferous ore by oxidation with a recycling aqueous liquor containing alkaline carbonates and bicarbonates in solution as well as uranium in a concentration close to its solubility limit at digestion temperature, and of recuperation of the precipitated uranium within the solid phase remaining after digestion. The digestion is carried out by spraying oxygen into the hot reactional medium in order not only to permit oxidation of the uranium and its solubilization but also to ensure that the sulphides of impurities and organic substances present in the ore are oxidized

  8. Removal of vat and disperse dyes from residual pad liquors

    OpenAIRE

    Golob, Vera; Ojstršek, Alenka

    2012-01-01

    The efficiency of three wastewater treatment techniques, coagulation/flocculation, adsorption and ultrafiltration, has been studied for the removal of vat and disperse dyes from residual pad liquors. Three inorganic coagulants Al2(SO4)3 18H2O, FeSO4 7H2O, FeCl3 6H2O and commercial cationic flocculant, as individuals and in combination, were tested for the coagulation/flocculation methods. Granular activated carbon was used as an adsorbent in the adsorption technique. Ultrafiltration was perfo...

  9. Consumption of High-Polyphenol Dark Chocolate Improves Endothelial Function in Individuals with Stage 1 Hypertension and Excess Body Weight

    OpenAIRE

    Lívia de Paula Nogueira; Marcela Paranhos Knibel; Márcia Regina Simas Gonçalves Torres; José Firmino Nogueira Neto; Antonio Felipe Sanjuliani

    2012-01-01

    Background. Hypertension and excess body weight are important risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. Recent evidence suggests that high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function and lowers blood pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the association of chocolate 70% cocoa intake with metabolic profile, oxidative stress, inflammation, blood pressure, and endothelial function in stage 1 hypertensives with excess body weight. Methods. Intervention clinical trial includes 22 stag...

  10. Chocolate Pilgrims Find Paradise in Pennsylvania%巧克力迷的天堂--宾夕法尼亚

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kim Clark

    2003-01-01

    @@ I pull up to the dowdy1 brick factory in a blink-and-you'll-miss-it Pennsylvania town. It doesn't look promising. But I open the door,and the sweet dark smell of chocolate draws my nose first into the Wilbur Chocolate Co. factory store in Lititz. Although the town seems almost deserted2, the tiny store is packed with shoppers loading baskets with"Buds", drops of silky choco

  11. Farinha de yacon e inulina como ingredientes na formulação de bolo de chocolate Yacon meal and inulin such as ingredients in chocolate cake preparation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janaína Andréa Moscatto

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Novos ingredientes têm sido investigados para que possam atender às exigências do mercado consumidor atual que deseja produtos com qualidade sensorial e nutricional associada a benefícios para a saúde. Os frutooligossacarídeos (FOS presentes no yacon (Polymnia sonchifolia, e a inulina apresentam propriedades promotoras de saúde (fibra alimentar e efeito prebiótico e podem melhorar aspectos sensoriais em alimentos. O presente trabalho teve como objetivos utilizar a inulina e/ou farinha de yacon como ingredientes do bolo de chocolate. Os bolos obtidos das formulações padrão (P, da formulação (A contendo a farinha de trigo substituída em 20% por farinha de yacon e da formulação (B contendo a farinha de trigo substituída em 40% por farinha de yacon e em 6% por inulina, foram avaliados quanto às suas propriedades químicas e físicas, preferência e estabilidade de armazenamento em relação ao bolo padrão de chocolate. Os bolos das formulações A e B apresentaram propriedades químicas, físicas, preferência e estabilidade comparáveis ao da formulação padrão. Como vantagens, apresentaram menores valores de dureza, maiores teores em fibra alimentar total (12,35% e 23,6% em relação ao P (9,02%. O valor calórico foi semelhante (2,09kal para A e menor (1,62kal para B que do padrão (2,13kcal, além da presença de frutooligossacarídeos e ou inulina. Portanto, a farinha de yacon e inulina podem ser utilizadas como ingredientes para formular bolo de chocolate, fornecendo produtos com características que atendem às exigências do mercado consumidor.The high consumer's needs for food with sensorial and nutritional qualities besides nutritional benefits to health, makes new ingredients search necessary in order to meet the consumer's. The fructooligosaccharides of yacon and inulin have properties that improve health (alimentary fiber and prebiotic effect and they can improve sensorial aspects in food. This work aims at

  12. Dark chocolate or tomato extract for prehypertension: a randomised controlled trial

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Frank Oliver R

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flavanol-rich chocolate and lycopene-rich tomato extract have attracted interest as potential alternative treatment options for hypertension, a known risk factor for cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. Treatment of prehypertension (SBP 120–139/DBP 80–89 mmHg may forestall progression to hypertension. However, there has been only limited research into non-pharmacological treatment options for prehypertension. We investigated the effect of dark chocolate or tomato extract on blood pressure, and their acceptability as an ongoing treatment option in a prehypertensive population. Methods Our trial consisted of two phases: a randomised controlled three-group-parallel trial over 12 weeks (phase 1 followed by a crossover of the two active treatment arms over an additional 12-week period (phase 2. Group 1 received a 50 g daily dose of dark chocolate with 70% cocoa containing 750 mg polyphenols, group 2 were allocated one tomato extract capsule containing 15 mg lycopene per day, and group 3 received one placebo capsule daily over 8 weeks followed by a 4-week washout period. In phase 2 the active treatment groups were crossed over to receive the alternative treatment. Median blood pressure, weight, and abdominal circumference were measured 4-weekly, and other characteristics including physical activity, general health, energy, mood, and acceptability of treatment were assessed by questionnaire at 0, 8 and 20 weeks. We analysed changes over time using a linear mixed model, and one time point differences using Kruskal-Wallis, Fisher's-Exact, or t-tests. Results Thirty-six prehypertensive healthy adult volunteers completed the 6-month trial. Blood pressure changes over time within groups and between groups were not significant and independent of treatment. Weight and other characteristics did not change significantly during the trial. However, a marked difference in acceptability between the two treatment forms (chocolate or

  13. High-Caloric and Chocolate Stimuli Processing in Healthy Humans: An Integration of Functional Imaging and Electrophysiological Findings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Deyar Asmaro

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available There has been a great deal of interest in understanding how the human brain processes appetitive food cues, and knowing how such cues elicit craving responses is particularly relevant when current eating behavior trends within Westernized societies are considered. One substance that holds a special place with regard to food preference is chocolate, and studies that used functional magnetic resonance imaging (fMRI and event-related potentials (ERPs have identified neural regions and electrical signatures that are elicited by chocolate cue presentations. This review will examine fMRI and ERP findings from studies that used high-caloric food and chocolate cues as stimuli, with a focus on responses observed in samples of healthy participants, as opposed to those with eating-related pathology. The utility of using high-caloric and chocolate stimuli as a means of understanding the human reward system will also be highlighted, as these findings may be particularly important for understanding processes related to pathological overeating and addiction to illicit substances. Finally, research from our own lab that focused on chocolate stimulus processing in chocolate cravers and non-cravers will be discussed, as the approach used may help bridge fMRI and ERP findings so that a more complete understanding of appetitive stimulus processing in the temporal and spatial domains may be established.

  14. Perfil sensorial de bolos de chocolate formulados com farinha de yacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius) Sensorial profile of chocolate cakes formulated with yacon flour (Smallanthus sonchifolius)

    OpenAIRE

    Vivianne Montarroyos Padilha; Priscilla Moura Rolim; Silvana Magalhães Salgado; Alda Souza Livera; Samara Alvachian Cardoso Andrade; Nonete Barbosa Guerra

    2010-01-01

    Neste trabalho foi avaliado o uso de farinha de yacon na formulação de bolos de chocolate para se verificar a influência deste constituinte sobre a qualidade sensorial e cromaticidade do produto. Foram analisadas amostras de bolos, formulados com farinha de yacon, denominadas: amostra P (bolo padrão, sem farinha de yacon), amostra A (bolo com 20% de farinha de yacon) e amostra B (bolo com 40% de farinha de yacon). Para a avaliação sensorial, foi realizada a Análise Descritiva Quantitativa (AD...

  15. Study on the changes of physical and chemical properties for the black liquor of straw plug induced by radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The black liquor of straw plug was treated by electron beam or γ-ray radiation. The relationship between the viscosity of the black liquor of straw plug and the radiation beam type, the irradiated dose, the temperature of the black liquor at irradiation time and the concentration of the solid state matter in the black liquor was investigated. The result shows that the radiation treatment makes the organic big molecular of the black liquor decomposed, the environmental loading factor of the black liquor reduced; after an irradiation of 20 kGy, the viscosity of the black liquor of straw plug with 30% solid state matter is reduced by 50%, the property of vaporization is obviously improved, but the calorific value of the black liquor has almost no change

  16. 78 FR 54670 - Miami Tribe of Oklahoma-Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-05

    ... container or receptacle used for holding liquor. (j) Public Place. Includes state or county or tribal or... Ordinance, on Miami Tribe of Oklahoma Trust Land, and sells it, whether in the original container or not... 1. Any room, house, building, vehicle, structure, or other place where liquor or alcoholic...

  17. Discrimination between authentic and adulterated liquors by near-infrared spectroscopy and ensemble classification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Hui; Tan, Chao; Wu, Tong; Wang, Li; Zhu, Wanping

    2014-09-01

    Chinese liquor is one of the famous distilled spirits and counterfeit liquor is becoming a serious problem in the market. Especially, age liquor is facing the crisis of confidence because it is difficult for consumer to identify the marked age, which prompts unscrupulous traders to pose off low-grade liquors as high-grade liquors. An ideal method for authenticity confirmation of liquors should be non-invasive, non-destructive and timely. The combination of near-infrared spectroscopy with chemometrics proves to be a good way to reach these premises. A new strategy is proposed for classification and verification of the adulteration of liquors by using NIR spectroscopy and chemometric classification, i.e., ensemble support vector machines (SVM). Three measures, i.e., accuracy, sensitivity and specificity were used for performance evaluation. The results confirmed that the strategy can serve as a screening tool applied to verify adulteration of the liquor, that is, a prior step used to condition the sample to a deeper analysis only when a positive result for adulteration is obtained by the proposed methodology.

  18. 75 FR 41518 - Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish (Gun Lake) Tribe Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-16

    ...This notice publishes the Secretary's certification of the Match-E-Be-Nash-She-Wish Band of Pottawatomi Indians (Gun Lake) Liquor Control Ordinance. The Ordinance regulates and controls the possession, sale, and consumption of liquor within the tribal lands. The tribal lands are located in Indian Country and this Ordinance allows for possession and sale of alcoholic beverages within their......

  19. 27 CFR 31.163 - Requirements when a wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. 31.163 Section 31.163 Alcohol, Tobacco Products... wholesale dealer in liquors maintains a retail department. (a) Constructive receipt and sale. When a... spirits, and the retail sales of distilled spirits normally represent 90 percent or more of the volume...

  20. Radionuclide cisternography in the diagnosis of pathology of the liquor system in children

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radionuclide cisternograhy (RCG) was performed in 78 children with different forms of hydrocephaus: external, internal (ventricular) and obstructive. Radiological signs were determined by spatial-time distribution of a radiopharmaceutical over the liquor pathways. Morphological and liquorodynamic disorders (liquor circulation and resorption disorders) served as a basis for the differentiation of hydrocephalus forms

  1. 75 FR 51102 - Liquor Ordinance of the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes; Correction

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    .... Correction In the Federal Register of July 27, 2010, in FR Doc. 2010-18319, on page 44011, in the first and... Bureau of Indian Affairs Liquor Ordinance of the Wichita and Affiliated Tribes; Correction AGENCY: Bureau... published a document in the Federal Register of July 27, 2010, concerning the Liquor Ordinance of...

  2. Male Readership Differences in Liquor Magazine Ads Employing Nonsensical and Sexual Humor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, Leonard N.; And Others

    A study examined the attention getting value of nonsensical and sexual humor used in liquor advertisements to determine if one was more effective than the other in attracting male magazine readers. Thirty-two Starch-scored liquor ads taken from 1976 and 1977 issues of "Time,""Newsweek," and "Sports Illustrated" were analyzed by three male readers.…

  3. Certification Becomes Important for the I Quality; and Safety Supervision of the Chinese Liquor Sector

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ The end of 2007, over 200 unit products of more than 80 Chinese firms have passed the quality grade certification for liquor products. These products involve distilled spirits, beer, wine, yellow wine, fruit syrup wine and others, and cover over 80% of the national top-branded liquor products.

  4. 27 CFR 31.61 - Single sale of liquors or warehouse receipts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... warehouse receipts. 31.61 Section 31.61 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND... Persons Who Are Not Dealers in Liquors Or Beer § 31.61 Single sale of liquors or warehouse receipts. A single sale of distilled spirits, wines, or beer, or a single sale of one or more warehouse receipts...

  5. 27 CFR 31.75 - Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 27 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Dealer in beer and dealer in liquors at the same location. 31.75 Section 31.75 Alcohol, Tobacco Products and Firearms ALCOHOL AND TOBACCO TAX AND TRADE BUREAU, DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY LIQUORS ALCOHOL BEVERAGE DEALERS Places Subject to Registration § 31.75 Dealer in...

  6. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bai, Y.; Bao, Y.B.; Cai, X.L.; Chen, C.H. [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); Ye, X.C., E-mail: yexuchu@njtech.edu.cn [College of Materials Science and Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China); State Key Laboratory of Materials-Oriented Chemical Engineering, Nanjing Tech University, Nanjing 210009 (China)

    2014-08-15

    Highlights: • The waste neutralization liquor was injected directly into the kiln system. • No obvious effect on the quality of cement clinker. • The disposing method was a zero-discharge process. • The waste liquor can be used as an alternative fuel to reduce the coal consumption. - Abstract: The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production.

  7. 77 FR 10547 - Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas-First Amended Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-22

    ...This notice publishes the amendment to the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Beer and Liquor Tax Ordinance. The Ordinance regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of liquor within the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of Texas' Reservation. The land is trust land and this Ordinance allows for the possession and sale of alcoholic beverages within the Kickapoo Traditional Tribe of......

  8. 76 FR 77549 - Lummi Nation-Title 20-Code of Laws-Liquor Code

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Lummi Nation--Title 20--Code of Laws--Liquor Code AGENCY: Bureau of Indian...--Code of Laws--Liquor Code. The Code regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of... this Code allows for the possession and sale of alcoholic beverages within the Lummi...

  9. A prospective clinical study of feto-maternal outcome in pregnancies with abnormal liquor volume

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rutwa J. Chavda

    2014-02-01

    Conclusions: A good clinical examination can pick up most subjects of abnormal liquor volume. Abnormal liquor volumes are associated with increased maternal morbidity and adverse perinatal outcome. [Int J Reprod Contracept Obstet Gynecol 2014; 3(1.000: 181-184

  10. Feasibility of disposing waste glyphosate neutralization liquor with cement rotary kiln

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The waste neutralization liquor was injected directly into the kiln system. • No obvious effect on the quality of cement clinker. • The disposing method was a zero-discharge process. • The waste liquor can be used as an alternative fuel to reduce the coal consumption. - Abstract: The waste neutralization liquor generated during the glyphosate production using glycine-dimethylphosphit process is a severe pollution problem due to its high salinity and organic components. The cement rotary kiln was proposed as a zero discharge strategy of disposal. In this work, the waste liquor was calcinated and the mineralogical phases of residue were characterized by scanning electron microscope (SEM) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The mineralogical phases and the strength of cement clinker were characterized to evaluate the influence to the products. The burnability of cement raw meal added with waste liquor and the calorific value of waste liquor were tested to evaluate the influence to the thermal state of the kiln system. The results showed that after the addition of this liquor, the differences of the main phases and the strength of cement clinker were negligible, the burnability of raw meal was improved; and the calorific value of this liquor was 6140 J/g, which made it could be considered as an alternative fuel during the actual production

  11. SPENT SULPHITE LIQUOR FOR CULTIVATION OF AN EDIBLE RHIZOPUS SP.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge A Ferreira,

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Spent sulphite liquor, the major byproduct from the sulphite pulp production process, was diluted to 50% and used for production of an edible zygomycete Rhizopus sp. The focus was on production, yield, and composition of the fungal biomass composition. The fungus grew well at 20 to 40°C, but 32°C was found to be preferable compared to 20 and 40°C in terms of biomass production and yield (maximum of 0.16 g/g sugars, protein content (0.50-0.60 g/g, alkali-insoluble material (AIM (ca 0.15 g/g, and glucosamine content (up to 0.30 g/g of AIM. During cultivation in a pilot airlift bioreactor, the yield increased as aeration was raised from 0.15 to 1.0 vvm, indicating a high demand for oxygen. After cultivation at 1.0 vvm for 84 h, high yield and production of biomass (up to 0.34 g/g sugars, protein (0.30-0.50 g/g, lipids (0.02-0.07 g/g, AIM (0.16-0.28 g/g, and glucosamine (0.22-0.32 g/g AIM were obtained. The fungal biomass produced from spent sulphite liquor is presently being tested as a replacement for fishmeal in feed for fish aquaculture and seems to be a potential source of nutrients and for production of glucosamine.

  12. Chemical Analysis of the Chinese Liquor Luzhoulaojiao by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Feng Yao; Bin Yi; Caihong Shen; Fei Tao; Yumin Liu; Zhixin Lin; Ping Xu

    2015-01-01

    Luzhoulaojiao liquor is a type of Chinese liquor that dates back hundreds of years, but whose precise chemical composition remains unknown. This paper describes the screening of the liquor and the identification of its compounds using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOF-MS). Samples were prepared by both liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase microextraction, which facilitated the detection of thousands of compounds in the liquor, t...

  13. Kinetics and compensation effects during steam gasification of Fujian anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin Ju; Zhang Ji-yu; Zhong Xue-qing [Fuzhou University, Fuzhou (China). Institute of Chemical Engineering and Technology

    2009-08-15

    Catalytic steam gasification kinetics of Fujian Youxi anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst was investigated in an isothermal thermo-gravimetric analyzer under ambient pressure. Coal conversions versus reaction time with different viscose liquor concentrations (0-12% NaOH) were measured at the temperature range from 850 to 950{sup o}C. The research shows that the viscose liquor can greatly improve the gasification rate and carbon conversion. The Loading Saturation Level (LSL) of the viscose liquor within the experimental conditions was also determined. The catalytic steam gasification reaction can be well fitted by a shrinking-core model (SCM) and the reaction rate constants are obtained. The kinetic analysis indicates that the catalytic gasification exhibits a prominent compensation effect between the activation energy and the pre-exponential factor. The kinetic equation including the compensation effects for the catalytic steam gasification of Fujian Youxi anthracite using viscose liquor as catalyst is presented. 23 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  14. Assessment of flavanol stereoisomers and caffeine and theobromine content in commercial chocolates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alañón, M E; Castle, S M; Siswanto, P J; Cifuentes-Gómez, T; Spencer, J P E

    2016-10-01

    Assessment of the flavanol composition of 41 commercial chocolates was by HPLC-DAD. Among individual flavonols ranged from 0.095 to 3.264mgg(-1), epicatechin was the predominant flavanol accounting for 32.9%. Contrary to catechin, epicatechin was a reliable predictive value of the polyphenol content. Conversely the percentage of theobromine used as a proxy measure for nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) was not a good predictor of epicatechin or flavanol content. In a further chiral analysis, the naturally occurring forms of cocoa flavanols, (-)-epicatechin and (+)-catechin, was determined joint the occurrence of (+)-epicatechin and (-)-catechin due to the epimerization reactions produced in chocolate manufacture. (-)-Epicatechin, the most bioactive compound and predominant form accounted of 93%. However, no positive correlation was found with% cocoa solids, the most significant quality parameter. PMID:27132838

  15. Variation of total aroma and polyphenol content of dark chocolate during three phase of conching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albak, F; Tekin, A R

    2016-01-01

    Variation in the volatiles, total polyphenol, theobromine and caffein was investigated both qualitatively and quantitatively for all phases of conching with GC/MS/SPME, HPLC, GC/O, and UV-visible spectrophotometry. The volatile compounds being identified during the three phases consisted of aldehydes, ketones, pyrazines, acids, alcohols and esters. The number and concentration of these compounds were observed to be 31-25,681 ppb, 44-34,838 ppb and 44-29,809 ppb in the dry, pasty, and liquid phases respectively. The odor of dark chocolate was described as nutty, sweet, caramel, green and chocolate using olfactometry. The percent decrease in the concentration of total polyphenol, caffein and theobromine was observed to be only 3.0, 11.0, and 32.0 respectively. PMID:26788007

  16. The Role of Media on Consumer Brand Choice A Case Study of Chocolate Industry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fazlollah Kazemi

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available brand choice in the market, it becomes necessary for manufacturers to understand the major factors attractingbuyers to his own brand. The survey of 538 randomly selected consumers of Pune/India examined the roleplayed by media on consumer brand choice of Cadbury Dairy Milk (chocolate brand. Results revealed that theage group of consumers does not have significant effect on reception of advertizing by Cadbury Dairy Milk. Italso shows that 37.7% of the consumers prefer Cadbury Dairy Milk more than other brands of chocolate. Themajor reason for brand preference is advertisement (52.6%. TV advertising was most preferred by78.8% of therespondents of all the media used. High preference for advertisement is highlighted for companies that want tonot only retain their market but to increase their market share.

  17. Value assignment of nutrient concentrations in standard reference material 2384 baking chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharpless, Katherine E; Brown Thomas, Jeanice; Nelson, Bryant C; Phinney, Curtis S; Sieber, John R; Wood, Laura J; Yen, James H; Howell, Daniel W

    2002-11-20

    Standard Reference Material (SRM) Baking Chocolate was recently issued, and the process used for value assignment of nutrient concentrations is reported herein. SRM 2384 is intended for use as a primary control material for assigning values to in-house control materials and for validation of analytical methods for the measurement of fatty acids, proximates, vitamins, and elements in chocolate and similar high-fat matrices. The Certificate of Analysis for SRM 2384 provides assigned values for concentrations of fatty acids, proximates, vitamins, elements, and total dietary fiber, for which product labeling is required by the Nutrition Labeling and Education Act of 1990, as well as for catechins, caffeine, theobromine, and theophylline. These assigned values were based on measurements by NIST and/or collaborating laboratories. PMID:12428961

  18. Immunoreactive beta-endorphin increases after an aspartame chocolate drink in healthy human subjects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melchior, J C; Rigaud, D; Colas-Linhart, N; Petiet, A; Girard, A; Apfelbaum, M

    1991-11-01

    It has been claimed that sucrose intake induces a rise in beta-endorphins. In an attempt to discriminate between the sensorial and metabolic effects of sucrose intake in this process, the effects of two chocolate drinks were compared: one sweetened with 50 g of sucrose, the other with 80 mg of aspartame. Plasma beta-endorphin concentrations were more elevated after the aspartame drink than after sucrose or fasting, while insulin increased after drinking as much with aspartame as with sucrose. We suggest that the increase in beta-endorphin after aspartame edulcorated chocolate is related with insulin secretion in the absence of marked changes in blood glucose or with a direct effect of aspartame itself on beta-endorphin liberation. PMID:1805284

  19. Studies on cocoa butter-replacer mixtures suitable for the local chocolate production.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    El-Mallah, M. Hassan

    1998-12-01

    Full Text Available Mixtures of cocoa butter with different replacers, added at different levels, were prepared. From their properties, and particularly solid fat index, helped much in selecting the more suitable mixture for local chocolate production. It was found that cocoa butter-Illexao mixtures, at levels 10% and 15% replacer, gave more satisfactory results with respect to mouthfeel, hardness and brittleness.

    Se prepararon mezclas de manteca de cacao con diferentes sucedáneos añadidos en diferentes proporciones. Sus propiedades y particularmente el índice de grasa sólida, ayudaron mucho en la selección de la mezcla más adecuada para la producción de chocolate local. Se encontró que las mezclas con el 10% o 15% de lllexao en manteca de cacao, dieron los resultados más satisfactorios con respecto a la palatabilidad, dureza y consistencia.

  20. Chocolate consumption and cardiometabolic disorders: systematic review and meta-analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Buitrago-Lopez, Adriana; Sanderson, Jean; Johnson, Laura; Warnakula, Samantha; Wood, Angela; Di Angelantonio, Emanuele; Franco, Oscar H

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the association of chocolate consumption with the risk of developing cardiometabolic disorders. Design Systematic review and meta-analysis of randomised controlled trials and observational studies. Data sources Medline, Embase, Cochrane Library, PubMed, CINAHL, IPA, Web of Science, Scopus, Pascal, reference lists of relevant studies to October 2010, and email contact with authors. Study selection Randomised trials and cohort, case-control, and cross sectional studies car...

  1. A Phaseolus vulgaris Extract Reduces Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Chocolate Seeking in Rats

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrai, Irene; Piga, Valentina; Carai, Mauro A. M.; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Previous evidence has suggested that treatment with a standardized dry extract of Phaseolus vulgaris reduced intake and operant self-administration of highly palatable foods and fluids in rats and mice. The present study was designed to assess whether such extract was also effective in reducing seeking behavior for a highly hedonic chocolate-flavored beverage, using a “reinstatement” procedure adopted from the drug addiction research field and modeling relapse behavior. Rats were initially trained to lever-respond for the chocolate-flavored beverage under the Fixed Ratio (FR) 10 schedule of reinforcement. Subsequently, rats were exposed to an extinction responding phase, during which lever-responding – being unreinforced – diminished progressively up to extinction. Lever-responding was then powerfully reinstated by the non-contingent presentation of a complex of gustatory, olfactory, auditory, and visual stimuli previously associated to the availability of the chocolate-flavored beverage. Acute, intragastric administration of P. vulgaris dry extract (100 and 500 mg/kg) reduced lever-responding by 40–45%, in comparison to vehicle condition. These results indicate the ability of P. vulgaris dry extract to reduce seeking behavior for a highly palatable nourishment in an experimental model of relapse into disordered eating of palatable foods. The unavailability of the chocolate-flavored beverage in the reinstatement session tends to exclude that the observed effect of the P. vulgaris dry extract was secondary to any inhibition of carbohydrate metabolism; conversely, it is the likely consequence on a central action on the rewarding and hedonic properties of food. PMID:27199752

  2. Making a chocolate chip: development and evaluation of a 6K SNP array for Theobroma cacao

    OpenAIRE

    Livingstone, Donald; Royaert, Stefan; Stack, Conrad; Mockaitis, Keithanne; May, Greg; Farmer, Andrew; Saski, Christopher; Schnell, Ray; Kuhn, David; Motamayor, Juan Carlos

    2015-01-01

    Theobroma cacao, the key ingredient in chocolate production, is one of the world's most important tree fruit crops, with ∼4,000,000 metric tons produced across 50 countries. To move towards gene discovery and marker-assisted breeding in cacao, a single-nucleotide polymorphism (SNP) identification project was undertaken using RNAseq data from 16 diverse cacao cultivars. RNA sequences were aligned to the assembled transcriptome of the cultivar Matina 1-6, and 330,000 SNPs within coding regions ...

  3. “I chocolate U”究竟犯了什么错误

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏捷

    2008-01-01

    当“I chocolate U”的广告第一次出现在人们眼前时,浓厚而豪华的格调让所有人第一眼就记住了,即便是在两年后的今天,当笔者向所有人提起“那款巧克力手机”,所有人都能随即记起。

  4. Detection and identification of xerophilic fungi in Belgian chocolate confectionery factories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Clercq, Nikki; Van Coillie, Els; Van Pamel, Els; De Meulenaer, Bruno; Devlieghere, Frank; Vlaemynck, Geertrui

    2015-04-01

    Chocolate confectionery fillings are generally regarded as microbiologically stable. The stability of these fillings is largely due to the general practice of adding either alcohol or preservatives. Consumer demands are now stimulating producers to move away from adding alcohol or other preservatives to their confectionery fillings and instead to search for innovative formulations. Such changes in composition can influence the shelf life of the product and may lead to spoilage by xerophilic fungi. The aim of this study was to test whether the production environment of Belgian chocolate confectionery factories and common ingredients of chocolate confectioneries could be potential sources of contamination with xerophilic fungal species. In the factory environment, the general and strictly xerophilic fungal spore load was determined using an RCS Air Sampler device in combination with DG18 and MY50G medium, respectively. Four basic ingredients of chocolate confectionery fillings were also examined for fungal spore levels using a direct plating technique. Detected fungi were identified to species level by a combination of morphological characterization and sequence analysis. Results indicated a general fungal spore load in the range of 50-250 colony forming units per cubic meter of air (CFU/m(3) air) and a more strict xerophilic spore load below 50 CFU/m(3) air. These results indicate rather low levels of fungal spores present in the factory environment. The most prevalent fungi in the factory environment were identified as Penicillium spp., particularly Penicillium brevicompactum. Examination of the basic ingredients of confectionery fillings revealed nuts to be the most likely potential source of direct contamination. In nuts, the most prevalent fungal species identified were Eurotium, particularly Eurotium repens. PMID:25475302

  5. A transformational product to improve self-control strength: The Chocolate Machine

    OpenAIRE

    Kehr, Flavius; Hassenzahl, Marc; Laschke, Matthias; Diefenbach, Sarah

    2012-01-01

    Lack of self-control is at the heart of many undesirable behaviors, such as overeating, overspending, and even overworking. While the field of persuasive technologies explicitly searches for ways to change attitudes and behaviors, it more or less neglects the science of self-control. We present the Chocolate Machine, an interactive device to train self-control strength based upon Ego Depletion theory. A longitudinal, control-group, field study s...

  6. Effect of cinnamon powder addition during conching on the flavor of dark chocolate mass

    OpenAIRE

    Albak, F.; Tekin, A. R.

    2013-01-01

    In the present study, refined dark chocolate mix was conched with the addition of finely powdered cinnamon in a laboratory-style conching machine to evaluate its aroma profile both analytically and sensorially. The analytical determinations were carried out by a combination of solid phase micro extraction (SPME)-gas chromatography (GC)-mass spectroscopy (MS) and-olfactometry(O), while the sensory evaluation was made with trained panelists. The optimum conditions for the SPME were found to be ...

  7. Effect of Inulin and Stevia on Some Physical Properties of Chocolate Milk

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi; Beitollah Alipour; Seyed Rafi Arefhosseini; Zohre Delshadian; Aziz Homayouni Rad

    2012-01-01

    Background: The aim of this study was to assess physical properties of dietetic chocolate milkproduced by stevia as a sugar replacer and inulin. Along with having prebiotic effect, inulin canalso participate in enhancing textural properties of beverages. Therefore, this novel food will beuseful for all people especially for diabetics.Methods: This study was carried out in Quality Control Laboratory of Food Science and TechnologyDepartment, Health and Nutrition Faculty, Tabriz University of Me...

  8. Dark chocolate supplementation reduces the oxygen cost of moderate intensity cycling

    OpenAIRE

    Patel, Rishikesh Kankesh; Brouner, James; Spendiff, Owen

    2015-01-01

    Background Dark chocolate (DC) is abundant in flavanols which have been reported to increase the bioavailability and bioactivity of nitric oxide (NO). Increasing NO bioavailability has often demonstrated reduced oxygen cost and performance enhancement during submaximal exercise. Methods Nine moderately-trained male participants volunteered to undertake baseline (BL) measurements that comprised a cycle \\documentclass[12pt]{minimal} \\usepackage{amsmath} \\usepackage{wasysym} \\usepackage{amsfonts...

  9. A Phaseolus vulgaris Extract Reduces Cue-Induced Reinstatement of Chocolate Seeking in Rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorrai, Irene; Piga, Valentina; Carai, Mauro A M; Riva, Antonella; Morazzoni, Paolo; Gessa, Gian Luigi; Colombo, Giancarlo; Maccioni, Paola

    2016-01-01

    Previous evidence has suggested that treatment with a standardized dry extract of Phaseolus vulgaris reduced intake and operant self-administration of highly palatable foods and fluids in rats and mice. The present study was designed to assess whether such extract was also effective in reducing seeking behavior for a highly hedonic chocolate-flavored beverage, using a "reinstatement" procedure adopted from the drug addiction research field and modeling relapse behavior. Rats were initially trained to lever-respond for the chocolate-flavored beverage under the Fixed Ratio (FR) 10 schedule of reinforcement. Subsequently, rats were exposed to an extinction responding phase, during which lever-responding - being unreinforced - diminished progressively up to extinction. Lever-responding was then powerfully reinstated by the non-contingent presentation of a complex of gustatory, olfactory, auditory, and visual stimuli previously associated to the availability of the chocolate-flavored beverage. Acute, intragastric administration of P. vulgaris dry extract (100 and 500 mg/kg) reduced lever-responding by 40-45%, in comparison to vehicle condition. These results indicate the ability of P. vulgaris dry extract to reduce seeking behavior for a highly palatable nourishment in an experimental model of relapse into disordered eating of palatable foods. The unavailability of the chocolate-flavored beverage in the reinstatement session tends to exclude that the observed effect of the P. vulgaris dry extract was secondary to any inhibition of carbohydrate metabolism; conversely, it is the likely consequence on a central action on the rewarding and hedonic properties of food. PMID:27199752

  10. Studies on cocoa butter-replacer mixtures suitable for the local chocolate production.

    OpenAIRE

    El-Mallah, M. Hassan; Megahed, M. G.

    1998-01-01

    Mixtures of cocoa butter with different replacers, added at different levels, were prepared. From their properties, and particularly solid fat index, helped much in selecting the more suitable mixture for local chocolate production. It was found that cocoa butter-Illexao mixtures, at levels 10% and 15% replacer, gave more satisfactory results with respect to mouthfeel, hardness and brittleness.

    Se prepararon mezclas de manteca de cacao con diferentes sucedáneos añadidos en ...

  11. Identification and Characterization of Cocoa Solids and Milk Proteins in Chocolate Using X-ray Microanalysis

    OpenAIRE

    Brooker, B E

    1990-01-01

    X-ray microanalysis was used to compare the elemental composition of isolated cocoa solids with milk powder. Whereas mllk powder contained similar high levels of calcium and potassium, cocoa sol ids were rich in potassium but contained very small amounts of calcium. This difference in elemental composition allowed the two populations of particles to be distinguished in digital X-ray maps of frozen and fractured samples of plain , milk and white chocolates examined by cryo-scanning electron...

  12. Itch and skin rash from chocolate during fluoxetine and sertraline treatment: Case report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svenson Svante

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background The skin contains a system for producing serotonin as well as serotonin receptors. Serotonin can also cause pruritus when injected into the skin. SSRI-drugs increase serotonin concentrations and are known to have pruritus and other dermal side effects. Case presentation A 46-year-old man consulted his doctor due to symptoms of depression. He did not suffer from any allergy but drinking red wine caused vasomotor rhinitis. Antidepressive treatment with fluoxetine 20 mg daily was initiated which was successful. After three weeks of treatment an itching rash appeared. An adverse drug reaction (ADR induced by fluoxetine was suspected and fluoxetine treatment was discontinued. The symptoms disappeared with clemastine and betametasone treatment. Since the depressive symptoms returned sertraline medication was initiated. After approximately two weeks of sertraline treatment he noted an intense itching sensation in his scalp after eating a piece of chocolate cake. The itch spread to the arms, abdomen and legs and the patient treated himself with clemastine and the itch disappeared. He now realised that he had eaten a chocolate cake before this episode and remembered that before the first episode he had had a chocolate mousse dessert. He had never had any reaction from eating chocolate before and therefore reported this observation to his doctor. Conclusions This case report suggests that there may be individuals that are very sensitive to increases in serotonin concentrations. Dermal side reactions to SSRI-drugs in these patients may be due to high activity in the serotonergic system at the dermal and epidermo-dermal junctional area rather than a hypersensitivity to the drug molecule itself.

  13. 40 CFR 430.03 - Best management practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill prevention, and control. 430.03 Section 430... practices (BMPs) for spent pulping liquor, soap, and turpentine management, spill prevention, and control... Liquor, Soap, and Turpentine Service: Any process vessel, storage tank, pumping system, evaporator,...

  14. 78 FR 15970 - Cedarville Rancheria-Liquor Licensing Ordinance of the Cedarville Rancheria, Ordinance No. 2012-05

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-03-13

    ... Bureau of Indian Affairs Cedarville Rancheria--Liquor Licensing Ordinance of the Cedarville Rancheria... publishes the Liquor Licensing Ordinance of the Cedarville Rancheria, Ordinance No. 2012-05. The Ordinance regulates and controls the possession, sale and consumption of liquor within the Indian Country of...

  15. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of kraft black liquors. Interim report No.3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.; Dong, D.J.; Schmidl, G.W.; Stoy, M.A.; Zaman, A.A.

    1993-09-01

    The black liquor properties program has conducted a systematic collection data of properties, liquor composition, and lignin characteristics. Complete data, except for some density data, has been collected for Slash Pine black liquors made by experimental pulping at a total of 25 different pulping conditions that cover the entire range used for commercial pulping. In addition, complete data has been collected for some mill liquors and partial properties or composition data has been collected on Slash Pine black liquors made at 16 different pulping conditions and some mill liquors. Data reduction methods have been developed or extended for correlation of viscosity, heat capacity, heat of dilution, and density. Correlation of properties to pulping conditions and of composition to pulping conditions has begun. In most cases, data reduction methods have been developed that are fundamentally based and that have been shown to be generally applicable to all black liquors. While it has not proven to be possible to include research for comprehensive correlations for properties for liquors from other species, we have shown that the behavior of liquors made from other species is similar to that which has been explored extensively for Slash Pine liquors. This report reviews the methods used, describes examples of data reduction methods that have been developed, and presents some preliminary results for correlation of liquor composition and properties to pulping conditions for Slash Pine black liquors.

  16. Impact of replacing regular chocolate milk with the reduced-sugar option on milk consumption in elementary schools in Saskatoon, Canada.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Henry, Carol; Whiting, Susan J; Finch, Sarah L; Zello, Gordon A; Vatanparast, Hassan

    2016-05-01

    Excess sugar consumption in children has led to the removal of chocolate milk from some schools. Lower-sugar formulations, if accepted, would provide the benefits of milk consumption. In a cross-over trial, milk consumption was measured in 8 schools over 6 weeks in 2 phases: phase 1 provided standard 1% chocolate milk and plain 2% milk choices for the first 3 weeks, and phase 2 provided reduced-sugar 1% chocolate milk and plain 2% milk for the next 3 weeks. Milk selection and milk wasted were measured by sex and grade (1-8). Children chose chocolate milk more often than white milk in both phases (phase 1, 8.93% ± 0.75% vs. 0.87% ± 0.11% (p chocolate milk in phase 2 (p chocolate milk over plain milk even when a reduced-sugar formula was offered; however, switching to reduced-sugar chocolate milk led to a decrease in the number of students choosing milk. Longer-duration studies are required to determine if students would purchase reduced-sugar chocolate milk at the same rate as they would purchase regular chocolate milk. PMID:27120342

  17. Does the chocolate interfere with the radiolabelling of erythrocytes with 99 mTc?

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present in this work the case of a failure of erythrocytes labelling with 99mTc for a twenty five years old patient making the examination not interpretable. The patient reported that she drank a chocolate drink the morning before the examination. it is the first observation of a such interaction between the chocolate consumption. We do not have any explanation at this date, some compounds in the cocoa can be considered with caution. Some flavonoids (catechins and pro-cyanidins) modify the plasmatic and intra-erythrocyte oxido-reducer statute and could interact with the labelling (specific reduction of the 99mTc pertechnetate in the middle of erythrocyte by the tin pyrophosphate. These compounds, as well as the methyl-xanthine-theobromine, seem modify the membrane permeability of erythrocytes and could interfere with the input of pyrophosphate or 99mTc-pertechnetate in the middle of erythrocyte. these observations, in spite of preliminary ones, lead us to recommend near the patients to avoid the chocolate foods in the twenty four hours before this type of examinations. (N.C.)

  18. Rheological of chocolate-flavored, reduced-calories coating as a function of conching process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Medina-Torres, Luis; Sanchez-Olivares, Guadalupe; Nuñez-Ramirez, Diola Marina; Moreno, Leonardo; Calderas, Fausto

    2014-07-01

    Continuous flow and linear viscoelasticity rheology of chocolate coating is studied in this work using fat substitute gums (xanthan, GX). An alternative conching process, using a Rotor-Estator (RE) type impeller, is proposed. The objective is to obtain a chocolate coating material with improved flow properties. Characterization of the final material through particle size distribution (PSD), differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) and proximal analysis is reported. Particle size distribution of the final material showed less polydispersity and therefore, greater homogeneity; fusion points were also generated at around 20 °C assuming crystal type I (β'2) and II (α). Moreover, the final material exhibited crossover points (higher structure material), whereas the commercial brand chocolate used for comparison did not. The best conditions to produce the coating were maturing of 36 h and 35 °C, showing crossover points around 76 Pa and a 0.505 solids particle dispersion (average particle diameter of 0.364 μm), and a fusion point at 20.04 °C with a ΔHf of 1.40 (J/g). The results indicate that xanthan gum is a good substitute for cocoa butter and provides stability to the final product. PMID:24966441

  19. Entrained Flow Black Liquor Gasification - Detailed Experiments and Mathematical Modelling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Carlsson, Per (Energy Technology Centre, Piteaa (Sweden)), e-mail: per.carlsson@etcpitea.se

    2009-07-01

    Black liquor, a by-product from the Kraft pulping process is a highly viscous fluid consisting of approximately 30% water, 30 % alkali salts and 40 % combustible material. The alkali salts originating from the pulp making process need to be recovered in order for the pulp mill to be economical and to satisfy environmental regulation. Currently, the recovery takes place in large boilers called Tomlinson recovery boilers. However, a more energy efficient way to recover the chemicals could be via gasification in a pressurized, entrained flow, high temperature gasifier. To demonstrate this technology a development plant (DP1) was built in 2005 by the technology vendor Chemrec. Since then, the plant has been running for more than 10,000 h and frequently been updated and optimized. As steps towards commercialization and scale-up different computational models of varying sophistication are used as design and optimization tools for the process. Still, the engineering tools can only provide sensible predictions if they are properly validated and verified. This thesis is concerned with validation of a comprehensive mathematical model based on Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) describing the gasification reactor and experimental investigations of the process characteristics in the DP1 gasifier. Paper A describes the system design and methodology for high temperature gas sampling during pressurized black liquor gasification. In this work a water-cooled gas sampling probe is installed in the hot part of the DP1 gasification reactor and several gas samples are withdrawn and analyzed. The experimentally obtained data in Paper A are then used as validation data for the CFD-model described in Paper B. In Paper C the obtained data from Paper A are thoroughly analyzed and the influence of reactor operation on producer gas composition is determined. In Paper D black liquor sprays from a gas assisted nozzle is experimentally investigated using high speed photography. Furthermore, the

  20. The Quality of Milk Chocolate Bars by Substitution of Cocoa Butter, Milk Powder and Lecithin Soya – A Preliminary Study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hasni Dian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Milk chocolate is most important products of confectionary that are well-known for its consumer, and a precious ended product in entirely value added chain in cacao. In chocolate industry, each ingredient plays an important role in product quality. This research aims to assess the possibility of substitution of cocoa butter and its impact on physiological appearance and sensory quality hedonically, to formulate optimum formulation of palm oil as cocoa butter substitute (0%; 10%; 20%, milk powder (0%; 10%; 20% and lechitin (0.5%; 1%; 1.5%. Melting point and attribute preferences test were conducted for aroma, texture and flavour. Melting point were indicated that interaction within palm oil replacement and milk powder had significant impact to lowering the melting point of milk chocolate, whilst addition of lechitin up to 1% also decreased the melting point range. Attribute preference test from 40 untrained panellists evaluated that palm oil replacement up to 20% had improved the panellists preferences for aroma whereas it had contradiction effect for texture. For taste, additional milk powder up to 20% definitely enhances the taste preferences. Partial Least Regression shows that palm oil replacement had negative effect on aroma and flavour of milk chocolate, whereas it has positive impact on texture. The increase of additional of milk powder plays an negative impact as well to panellist perceptions towards aroma, flavour and texture. Lechitin as emulsifier influences significantly towards the aroma and flavour of milk chocolate, but not for texture. Sensory evaluation revealed that milk chocolate made from 10% palm oil substitution, 10% milk powder and 1% lechitin as more accepted hedonically as conventional milk chocolate.

  1. The kinetics of the gasification of black liquor. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Richards, Tobias; Theliander, Hans; Wintoko, Joko [Chalmers Univ. of Technology, Goeteborg (Sweden). Forest Products and Chemical Engineering

    2004-05-01

    Within the project, a special equipment has been manufactured in order to perform gasification experiments on single black liquor droplets. There are possibilities with the equipment to dynamically measure the weight of the droplet as well as its center temperature. Furthermore, some key gases (CO{sub 2}, CO, H{sub 2}S, CH{sub 4} and SO{sub 2}) are continuously measured. It is also possible to follow the gasification stages visually through a glass window. Parallel with this, a mathematical model has been developed to describe the gasification. It consists of both reaction kinetics and transport phenomenon. As a first step, the temperature profile was modeled and after that the model has been expanded to describe the swelling.

  2. Electrowinning of lead powder from chloride leach liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owais, Ashour [Suez Canal Univ., Suez (Egypt). Metallurgical and Materials Engineering Dept.

    2012-11-15

    Electrowinning of lead powder from chloride leach liquor obtained from secondary lead slag leached in hydrochloric acid is the main aim of this work. The resulted lead chloride solution (leachate) containing 2.2 wt.-% Pb and 1.24 wt.-% HCl was electrowon in an electrolytic cell containing one graphite plate as inert anode and two lead sheets as starting permanent cathodes. Different electrolysis parameters such as current density, electrolyte temperature and electrolyte stirring rate were studied. As indicated by SEM, EDX and XRD analyses, fine and pure (100 % Pb) powders with a dispersed and needle-like shape were formed with cathodic current efficiency up to 67.9 % and electrical energy demand ranges from 0.809 to 4.998 kWh/kg Pb with productivity up to 2.63 g/Ah. (orig.)

  3. Comparison of Algorithms for an Electronic Nose in Identifying Liquors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi-biao Shi; Tao Yu; Qun Zhao; Yang Li; Yu-bin Lan

    2008-01-01

    When the electronic nose is used to identify different varieties of distilled liquors, the pattern recognition algorithm is chosen on the basis of the experience, which lacks the guiding principle. In this research, the different brands of distilled spirits were identified using the pattern recognition algorithms (principal component analysis and the artificial neural network). The recognition rates of different algorithms were compared. The recognition rate of the Back Propagation Neural Network (BPNN) is the highest. Owing to the slow convergence speed of the BPNN, it tends easily to get into a local minimum. A chaotic BPNN was tried in order to overcome the disadvantage of the BPNN. The convergence speed of the chaotic BPNN is 75.5 times faster than that of the BPNN.

  4. Combustion properties of kraft black liquors; Ligniinifraktion vaikutus mustalipeaen poltto-ominaisuuksiin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alen, R.; Rantanen, K.; Ekman, J.; Malkavaara, P. [Jyvaeskylae Univ. (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    The aim of this investigation was to find relationships between the structure of the dissolved lignin and the combustion properties (pyrolysis time, char burning time, and swelling) of softwood and hardwood kraft black liquors. In this conjunction, pine and birch chips, as well as their two mixtures (the mass ratios of pine chips to birch chips were 80:20 and 60:40), were delignified by conventional kraft pulping. In each cook series, a liquor sample was withdrawn at certain time intervals to obtain liquor samples with different chemical composition. The black liquors obtained were analyzed with respect to the content of lignin and `lignin monomers`, but also the molecular-mass distribution and the mass average molecular mass of lignin were made. In addition, the dissolved lignin was characterized by NMR spectroscopy and elemental analysis. Further data on the chemical structures of lignin in black liquors were obtained by identifying various degradation products formed from this material during oxidative (CuO oxidation) and pyrolytic treatments. Several correlations between the `structural parameters` of the dissolved lignin and the combustion properties of black liquor were found. These correlations were significant especially in the case of pine cook. The results revealed many findings which are, together with the earlier data, useful for a better understanding of the thermochemical behavior of different kraft black liquors during combustion in a recovery furnace. (author)

  5. A new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems with the discharge of black liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guolin; Shi, Jeffrey X; Langrish, Tim A G

    2007-11-01

    Aqueous ammonia mixed with caustic potash as wheat straw pulping liquor was investigated. The caustic potash did not only reduce the NH3 usage and cooking time, but also provided a potassium source as a fertilizer in the black liquor. Excess NH3 in the black liquor was recovered and reused by batch distillation with a 98% recovery rate of free NH3. The black liquor was further treated for reuse by coagulation under alkaline conditions. The effects of different flocculation conditions, such as the dosage of 10% aluminium polychloride, the dosage of 0.1% polyacrylamide, the reaction temperature and the pH of the black liquor on the flocculating process were studied. The supernatant was recycled as cooking liquor by adding extra NH4OH and KOH. The amount of delignification and the pulp yield for the process remained steady at 82-85% and 48-50%, respectively, when reusing the supernatant four times. The coagulated residues could be further processed as solid fertilizers. This study provided a new pulping process for wheat straw to reduce problems of discharge black liquor. PMID:17092702

  6. INVESTIGATION OF FUEL CHEMISTRY AND BED PERFORMANCE IN A FLUIDIZED BED BLACK LIQUOR STEAM REFORMER

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Whitty

    2003-12-01

    The University of Utah project ''Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer'' (DOE award number DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation for projects to provide technical support for black liquor and biomass gasification. The primary focus of the project is to provide support for a DOE-sponsored demonstration of MTCI's black liquor steam reforming technology at Georgia-Pacific's paper mill in Big Island, Virginia. A more overarching goal is to improve the understanding of phenomena that take place during low temperature black liquor gasification. This is achieved through five complementary technical tasks: (1) construction of a fluidized bed black liquor gasification test system, (2) investigation of bed performance, (3) evaluation of product gas quality, (4) black liquor conversion analysis and modeling and (5) computational modeling of the Big Island gasifier. Four experimental devices have been constructed under this project. The largest facility, which is the heart of the experimental effort, is a pressurized fluidized bed gasification test system. The system is designed to be able to reproduce conditions near the black liquor injectors in the Big Island steam reformer, so the behavior of black liquor pyrolysis and char gasification can be quantified in a representative environment. The gasification test system comprises five subsystems: steam generation and superheating, black liquor feed, fluidized bed reactor, afterburner for syngas combustion and a flue gas cooler/condenser. The three-story system is located at University of Utah's Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility, and all resources there are available to support the research.

  7. Chemical Analysis of the Chinese Liquor Luzhoulaojiao by Comprehensive Two-Dimensional Gas Chromatography/Time-of-Flight Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Feng; Yi, Bin; Shen, Caihong; Tao, Fei; Liu, Yumin; Lin, Zhixin; Xu, Ping

    2015-04-01

    Luzhoulaojiao liquor is a type of Chinese liquor that dates back hundreds of years, but whose precise chemical composition remains unknown. This paper describes the screening of the liquor and the identification of its compounds using comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography/time-of-flight mass spectrometry (GC × GC/TOF-MS). Samples were prepared by both liquid-liquid extraction and solid-phase microextraction, which facilitated the detection of thousands of compounds in the liquor, thus demonstrating the superior performance of the proposed method over those reported in previous studies. A total of 320 compounds were common to all 18 types of Luzhoulaojiao liquor studied here, and 13 abundant and potentially bioactive compounds were further quantified. The results indicated that the high-performance method presented here is well suited for the detection and identification of compounds in liquors. This study also contributes to enriching our knowledge of the contents of Chinese liquors.

  8. Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Whitty

    2007-06-30

    University of Utah's project entitled 'Investigation of Fuel Chemistry and Bed Performance in a Fluidized Bed Black Liquor Steam Reformer' (DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-02NT41490) was developed in response to a solicitation released by the U.S. Department of Energy in December 2001, requesting proposals for projects targeted towards black liquor/biomass gasification technology support research and development. Specifically, the solicitation was seeking projects that would provide technical support for Department of Energy supported black liquor and biomass gasification demonstration projects under development at the time.

  9. Energy considerations for steam plasma gasification of black liquor and chemical recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grandy, J.D.; Kong, P.C.

    1995-10-01

    This paper investigates the energy economics of using a hybrid steam plasma process to gasify black liquor. In the pulp and paper industry, gasification is gaining credibility as an incremental method to supplement the standard Kraft process, which bums the black liquor in large furnaces to recover energy and inorganic chemicals (sodium and sulfur) that are recycled back into the wood pulping process. This paper shows that despite the energy intensive nature of steam plasma processing, several fortuitous conditions arise that make it a viable technology for the gasification of black liquor.

  10. THE PRODUCTION OF ORANGE PRESS LIQUOR SPIRIT: TECHNICAL AND ECONOMIC ASPECTS

    OpenAIRE

    J. O. FERREIRA; H. ROÇAFA JUNIOR; J. B. FARIA

    2008-01-01

    The orange juice industry produces, at the end of the residue extraction, a by-product called orange press liquor. Considering its high content of soluble solids and the large volume of the liquor produced in Brazilian orange juice plants, an earlier study was conducted on the technical viability of using orange press liquor as raw material for a new distilled bevera...

  11. Generation of Hydrogen, Lignin and Sodium Hydroxide from Pulping Black Liquor by Electrolysis

    OpenAIRE

    Guangzai Nong; Zongwen Zhou; Shuangfei Wang

    2015-01-01

    Black liquor is generated in Kraft pulping of wood or non-wood raw material in pulp mills, and regarded as a renewable resource. The objective of this paper was to develop an effective means to remove the water pollutants by recovery of both lignin and sodium hydroxide from black liquor, based on electrolysis. The treatment of a 1000 mL of black liquor (122 g/L solid contents) consumed 345.6 kJ of electric energy, and led to the generation of 30.7 g of sodium hydroxide, 0.82 g of hydrogen gas...

  12. State-Specific Liquor Excise Taxes and Retail Prices in Eight U.S. States, 2012

    OpenAIRE

    Siegel, Michael; Grundman, Jody; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S.; King, Charles; Albers, Alison B.; Williams, Rebecca S.; Jernigan, David H.

    2013-01-01

    We investigated the relationship between state excise taxes and liquor prices in eight states, using 2012 data for 45 brands. We made 6,042 price observations among 177 liquor stores with online prices. Using a hierarchical model, we examined the relationship between excise taxes and product prices. State excise taxes were significantly related to liquor prices, with an estimated pass-through rate of 0.93. The proportion of price accounted for by excise taxes averaged 7.0%. We find that excis...

  13. Method for improving separation of carbohydrates from wood pulping and wood or biomass hydrolysis liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffith, William Louis; Compere, Alicia Lucille; Leitten, Jr., Carl Frederick

    2010-04-20

    A method for separating carbohydrates from pulping liquors includes the steps of providing a wood pulping or wood or biomass hydrolysis pulping liquor having lignin therein, and mixing the liquor with an acid or a gas which forms an acid upon contact with water to initiate precipitation of carbohydrate to begin formation of a precipitate. During precipitation, at least one long chain carboxylated carbohydrate and at least one cationic polymer, such as a polyamine or polyimine are added, wherein the precipitate aggregates into larger precipitate structures. Carbohydrate gel precipitates are then selectively removed from the larger precipitate structures. The method process yields both a carbohydrate precipitate and a high purity lignin.

  14. State-specific liquor excise taxes and retail prices in 8 US states, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siegel, Michael; Grundman, Jody; DeJong, William; Naimi, Timothy S; King, Charles; Albers, Alison B; Williams, Rebecca S; Jernigan, David H

    2013-01-01

    The authors investigated the relationship between state excise taxes and liquor prices in 8 states, using 2012 data for 45 brands. The authors made 6042 price observations among 177 liquor stores with online prices. Using a hierarchical model, the authors examined the relationship between excise taxes and product prices. State excise taxes were significantly related to liquor prices, with an estimated pass-through rate of 0.93. The proportion of price accounted for by excise taxes averaged 7.0%. The authors find that excise taxes do increase the price of alcohol, but states are not taking advantage of this opportunity to reduce alcohol-related morbidity and mortality. PMID:24159914

  15. Effect of Chocolate and Yerba Mate Phenolic Compounds on Inflammatory and Oxidative Biomarkers in HIV/AIDS Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petrilli, Aline A; Souza, Suelen J; Teixeira, Andrea M; Pontilho, Patricia M; Souza, José M P; Luzia, Liania A; Rondó, Patricia H C

    2016-01-01

    Flavonoids in cocoa and yerba mate have a beneficial role on inflammation and oxidative disorders. Their effect on HIV individuals has not been studied yet, despite the high cardiovascular risk of this population. This study investigated the role of cocoa and yerba mate consumption on oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers in HIV+ individuals. A cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted in 92 individuals on antiretroviral therapy for at least six months and at viral suppression. Participants were randomized to receive either 65 g of chocolate or chocolate-placebo or 3 g of yerba mate or mate-placebo for 15 days each, alternating by a washout period of 15 days. At baseline, and at the end of each intervention regimen, data regarding anthropometry, inflammatory, oxidative and immunological parameters were collected. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, lipid profile, white blood cell profile and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were assessed. There was a difference between mean concentrations of HDL-c (ANOVA; p ≤ 0.05) among the different regimens: dark chocolate, chocolate-placebo, yerba mate and mate-placebo. When a paired Student t-test was used for comparisons between mean HDL-c at baseline and after each regimen, the mean concentration of HDL-c was higher after supplementation with dark chocolate (p = 0.008). PMID:27223302

  16. Effect of Chocolate and Yerba Mate Phenolic Compounds on Inflammatory and Oxidative Biomarkers in HIV/AIDS Individuals

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline A. Petrilli

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Flavonoids in cocoa and yerba mate have a beneficial role on inflammation and oxidative disorders. Their effect on HIV individuals has not been studied yet, despite the high cardiovascular risk of this population. This study investigated the role of cocoa and yerba mate consumption on oxidative and inflammatory biomarkers in HIV+ individuals. A cross-over, placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized clinical trial was conducted in 92 individuals on antiretroviral therapy for at least six months and at viral suppression. Participants were randomized to receive either 65 g of chocolate or chocolate-placebo or 3 g of yerba mate or mate-placebo for 15 days each, alternating by a washout period of 15 days. At baseline, and at the end of each intervention regimen, data regarding anthropometry, inflammatory, oxidative and immunological parameters were collected. High-sensitivity C-reactive protein, fibrinogen, lipid profile, white blood cell profile and thiobarbituric acid reactive substances were assessed. There was a difference between mean concentrations of HDL-c (ANOVA; p ≤ 0.05 among the different regimens: dark chocolate, chocolate-placebo, yerba mate and mate-placebo. When a paired Student t-test was used for comparisons between mean HDL-c at baseline and after each regimen, the mean concentration of HDL-c was higher after supplementation with dark chocolate (p = 0.008.

  17. Effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters in ApoE3L mice fed a high-cholesterol atherogenic diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, G.K.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Suarez, M.; Bunschoten, A.; Golde, J.M. van; Arola, L.; Keijer, J.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Heeringa, P.

    2013-01-01

    Scope: Dietary intake of cocoa and/or chocolate has been suggested to exhibit protective cardiovascular effects although this is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. Methods and results: Fou

  18. Effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters in ApoE3L mice fed a high-cholesterol atherogenic diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, G.K.; Wielinga, P.Y.; Suarez, M.; Bunschoten, A.; Golde, J.M.; Arola, L.; Keijer, J.; Kleemann, R.; Kooistra, T.; Heeringa, P.

    2013-01-01

    SCOPE: Dietary intake of cocoa and/or chocolate has been suggested to exhibit protective cardiovascular effects although this is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. METHODS AND RESULTS: Fou

  19. Effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters in ApoE3L mice fed a high-cholesterol atherogenic diet

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yakala, Gopala K.; Wielinga, Peter Y.; Suarez, Manuel; Bunschoten, Annelies; van Golde, Jolanda M.; Arola, Lluis; Keijer, Jaap; Kleemann, Robert; Kooistra, Teake; Heeringa, Peter

    2013-01-01

    ScopeDietary intake of cocoa and/or chocolate has been suggested to exhibit protective cardiovascular effects although this is still controversial. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of chocolate supplementation on metabolic and cardiovascular parameters. Methods and resultsFour gr

  20. Effect of cocoa butter replacement with a beta-glucan-rich hydrocolloid (C-trim30) on the rheological and tribological properties of chocolates

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cocoa butter in chocolates was replaced with C-trim30 (5, 10, 15% by weight), a beta-glucan-rich hydrocolloid containing elevated amount of beta-glucan (32%, db). Then, the effects of the C-trim30 on the rheological, tribological, and textural properties of chocolates were investigated. The viscos...

  1. Pengaruh Strenght White Liquor Terhadap Kappa Number Pada Proses Pemasakan Di Digester Unit Fiber Line Di PT. Toba Pulp Lestari, TbK-Sosorladang

    OpenAIRE

    Marpaung, Yenni Sugiarti

    2011-01-01

    White liquor is the cooking liquid used in the cooking process at digester in PT, Toba Pulp Lestari. Strenght white liquor greatly affect the delignification process of lignin removal process set fort in the numbers of kappa. Hight strenght white liquor, lower of kappa number and lower strenght white liquor, more difficult to eliminate the lignin. Strenght white liquor optimal analysis to each the kappa number target is 105,7 g/l.

  2. Black liquor fractionation for biofuels production - a techno-economic assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mesfun, Sennai; Lundgren, Joakim; Grip, Carl-Erik; Toffolo, Andrea; Nilsson, Rasika Lasanthi Kudahettige; Rova, Ulrika

    2014-08-01

    The hemicelluloses fraction of black liquor is an underutilized resource in many chemical pulp mills. It is possible to extract and separate the lignin and hemicelluloses from the black liquor and use the hemicelluloses for biochemical conversion into biofuels and chemicals. Precipitation of the lignin from the black liquor would consequently decrease the thermal load on the recovery boiler, which is often referred to as a bottleneck for increased pulp production. The objective of this work is to techno-economically evaluate the production of sodium-free lignin as a solid fuel and butanol to be used as fossil gasoline replacement by fractionating black liquor. The hydrolysis and fermentation processes are modeled in Aspen Plus to analyze energy and material balances as well as to evaluate the plant economics. A mathematical model of an existing pulp and paper mill is used to analyze the effects on the energy performance of the mill subprocesses. PMID:24950095

  3. Liquor Law Liability on the College Campus: When Are We Responsible?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Janosik, Steven M.

    1983-01-01

    Reviews legislation and court litigation dealing with liquor law liability on the college campus and presents some risk prevention recommendations for administrators, including becoming familiar with the law and reviewing student life policies that pertain to drinking. (JAC)

  4. LIQUOR AND BEVERAGE CONSUMPTION IN CHINA:A CENSORED DEMAND SYSTEM APPROACH

    OpenAIRE

    Pan, Suwen; Fang, Cheng

    2003-01-01

    This paper estimated the Liquor and Beverage Consumption based on a Chinese survey data. The results showed that beer consumption has been relatively stable during the past 10 years. However, there exists large potential wine market in china.

  5. Stress Analysis and Evaluation of Piping System in Uranium Liquor Critical Facility

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    <正>The piplines of the piping system in the uranium liquor critical facility are very thin, so the piping rigidity is bad, the measuring cylinders piping system (Fig. 1) connects the vessel the pump and the rigid

  6. Simultaneous and rapid determination of multiple component concentrations in a Kraft liquor process stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jian; Chai, Xin Sheng; Zhu, Junyoung

    2008-06-24

    The present invention is a rapid method of determining the concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. The present invention is also a simple, low cost, device of determining the in-situ concentration of the major components in a chemical stream. In particular, the present invention provides a useful method for simultaneously determining the concentrations of sodium hydroxide, sodium sulfide and sodium carbonate in aqueous kraft pulping liquors through use of an attenuated total reflectance (ATR) tunnel flow cell or optical probe capable of producing a ultraviolet absorbency spectrum over a wavelength of 190 to 300 nm. In addition, the present invention eliminates the need for manual sampling and dilution previously required to generate analyzable samples. The inventive method can be used in Kraft pulping operations to control white liquor causticizing efficiency, sulfate reduction efficiency in green liquor, oxidation efficiency for oxidized white liquor and the active and effective alkali charge to kraft pulping operations.

  7. 75 FR 23289 - Ponca Tribe of Indians of Oklahoma Liquor Control Ordinance

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... members shall not accept gratuity, compensation, or other things of value from any Liquor producer..., but not limited to, a determination that the applicant is of good character and reputation and...

  8. Food of the gods: cure for humanity? A cultural history of the medicinal and ritual use of chocolate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dillinger, T L; Barriga, P; Escárcega, S; Jimenez, M; Salazar Lowe, D; Grivetti, L E

    2000-08-01

    The medicinal use of cacao, or chocolate, both as a primary remedy and as a vehicle to deliver other medicines, originated in the New World and diffused to Europe in the mid 1500s. These practices originated among the Olmec, Maya and Mexica (Aztec). The word cacao is derived from Olmec and the subsequent Mayan languages (kakaw); the chocolate-related term cacahuatl is Nahuatl (Aztec language), derived from Olmec/Mayan etymology. Early colonial era documents included instructions for the medicinal use of cacao. The Badianus Codex (1552) noted the use of cacao flowers to treat fatigue, whereas the Florentine Codex (1590) offered a prescription of cacao beans, maize and the herb tlacoxochitl (Calliandra anomala) to alleviate fever and panting of breath and to treat the faint of heart. Subsequent 16th to early 20th century manuscripts produced in Europe and New Spain revealed >100 medicinal uses for cacao/chocolate. Three consistent roles can be identified: 1) to treat emaciated patients to gain weight; 2) to stimulate nervous systems of apathetic, exhausted or feeble patients; and 3) to improve digestion and elimination where cacao/chocolate countered the effects of stagnant or weak stomachs, stimulated kidneys and improved bowel function. Additional medical complaints treated with chocolate/cacao have included anemia, poor appetite, mental fatigue, poor breast milk production, consumption/tuberculosis, fever, gout, kidney stones, reduced longevity and poor sexual appetite/low virility. Chocolate paste was a medium used to administer drugs and to counter the taste of bitter pharmacological additives. In addition to cacao beans, preparations of cacao bark, oil (cacao butter), leaves and flowers have been used to treat burns, bowel dysfunction, cuts and skin irritations. PMID:10917925

  9. Consumption of Alcoholic Beverages and Liquor Consumption by Michigan High School Students, 2011

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzales, Katherine R.; Largo, Thomas W.; Miller, Corinne; Kanny, Dafna; Brewer, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Introduction Excessive alcohol consumption was responsible for approximately 4,300 annual deaths in the United States among people younger than 21 from 2006 through 2010. Underage drinking cost the United States $24.6 billion in 2006. Previous studies have shown that liquor is the most common type of alcohol consumed by high school students. However, little is known about the types of liquor consumed by youth or about the mixing of alcohol with energy drinks. Methods The 2011 Michigan Youth T...

  10. Study of Airing Way of Fermented Grain in Brewing of Luzhou-flavor Liquor

    OpenAIRE

    Ke Long; Ying-ying Ma; Hui-bo Luo; Zong-hua Ao; Jian-gang Yang

    2014-01-01

    Effects of different airing way of fermented grains on the physical and chemical indicators, uniformity, of unfermented grain and pits fermentation of Luzhou-flavor liquor were studied in this study. The results indicated that as the way of mechanization airing, the machine airing way absolutely more meets the technology demand on the production of Luzhou-flavor liquor than the airing on-field and airing on-bed. Furthermore, it not only benefits for the stability and uniformity of fermented g...

  11. Pubs in Public Life: A Place for Liquor Spaces in the City of Vancouver

    OpenAIRE

    Forbes, Heather

    2010-01-01

    Vancouver liquor licensing bylaws has been described by members of the media, industry, government and general public as overly restrictive, especially in the areas of hours ofservice, geographical distribution and the cultural diversity ofpublic liquor spaces. According to the City of Vancouver, the objective of city stewardship is to provide for the social, economic and physical well-being of citizens. A consultation of both academic research and the Vancouver community suggests that public...

  12. 19 CFR 11.6 - Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 19 Customs Duties 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk. 11.6 Section 11.6 Customs Duties U.S. CUSTOMS AND BORDER PROTECTION, DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY; DEPARTMENT OF THE TREASURY PACKING AND STAMPING; MARKING Packing and Stamping § 11.6 Distilled spirits, wines, and malt liquors in bulk. (a)...

  13. A prospective clinical study of feto-maternal outcome in pregnancies with abnormal liquor volume

    OpenAIRE

    Rutwa J. Chavda; Hardev B. Saini

    2014-01-01

    Background: Evaluating feto-maternal outcome in pregnancies with abnormal liquor volume. Methods: 200 pregnant subjects between 20 and 42 weeks of gestation, who were clinically suspected to have an abnormal amniotic fluid volume (oligohydramnios or polyhydramnios) were subjected to ultrasonographic (USG) assessment of amniotic fluid index. The subjects were closely monitored during pregnancy, labour and puerperium. Results: Ultrasonically, abnormal liquor volume was confirmed in 90-93...

  14. New black liquor combustion characteristics III; Mustalipeaen uudet poltto-ominaisuudet III

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Forssen, M.; Backman, R.; Enestam, S.; Lauren, T.; Skrifvars, B.J. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland). Combustion Chemistry Research Group

    1997-10-01

    The main purposes in this work is to: 1. Compare black liquor combustion characterization results to recovery boiler experiences. 2. Study the mechanisms of sodium release in black liquor combustion In the first part results from black liquor combustion characterization tests developed by Aabo Akademi University will be compared to experiences at four Finnish kraft recovery boilers. When comparing the laboratory data to the compiled field data emphasis will be put on the behavior of the black liquor during burning, the release of sodium and potassium, the melting behavior of the deposits and the NO and SO{sub 2} emissions. The main purpose in the second part of the work is to study the release mechanisms of sodium from black liquor char during combustion. Sodium is mainly released from the char by the mechanism where the molten sodiumcarbonate reacts with the char carbon. The study is divided into four subtasks and is performed mainly by conducting experiments in laboratory scale devices: (1) Sodium release during char reactions is studied for different liquors by analyzing the amount of sodium remaining in char after different holding times in a hot inert atmosphere. (2) A DTA/TGA apparatus is used to study in isothermal conditions the char reactions on prepyrolyzed char. (3) The effect of the form of sodium on the sodium release during char reactions. Black liquors added with different sodium salts (Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}, Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}, Na{sub 2}S{sub 2}O{sub 2}, Na{sub 2}S sekae NaCl) are used in experiments as in subtask 1. (4) Sodium release during combustion (2-5 % O{sub 2}) of single black liquor particles

  15. A comprehensive program to develop correlations for the physical properties of Kraft black liquor. Interim report No. 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fricke, A.L.; Dong, D.J.; Schmidl, G.W.; Stoy, M.A.; Zaman, A.A.

    1993-09-01

    The black liquor properties program has been conducted over this last period so as to systematically collect data on properties, liquor composition, and lignin characteristics very carefully by methods that have developed during this program. Complete data has been collected for Slash Pine black liquors made by experimental pulping at different pulping conditions. In addition, data has been collected for mill liquors and partial properties or composition data has been collected on Slash Pine black liquors. Data reduction methods have been developed or extended for correlation of viscosity, heat capacity, heat of dilution, and density. Correlation of properties to pulping conditions and of composition to. pulping conditions has begun. In most cases, data reduction methods have been developed that are fundamentally based and that have been shown to be generally applicable to all black liquors. In the near future, we fully expect to accomplish our goal of developing generalized correlations relating physical properties of Slash Pine kraft black liquors to liquor composition. This interim report reviews the methods used, describes examples of data reduction methods that have been developed, and presents some preliminary results for correlation of liquor composition and properties to pulping conditions for Slash Pine black liquors.

  16. Impact of starter cultures and fermentation techniques on the volatile aroma and sensory profile of chocolate

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Crafack, Michael; Keul, Hanna; Eskildsen, Carl Emil Aae;

    2014-01-01

    aroma and sensory profile, but whilst the application of starter cultures did affect the volatile aroma profile, differences were too small to significantly change consumer perception of the chocolates as compared to a spontaneously fermented control. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved....... cultures on the formation of flavour precursors, composition of volatile aroma compounds and sensory profile was investigated in cocoa inoculated with cultures encompassing a highly aromatic strain of Pichia kluyveri or a pectinolytic strain of Kluyveromyces marxianus, and compared to commercially...

  17. Charlie and the chocolate factory: adaptación y traducción

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana María Castro Ortíz

    2008-05-01

    Full Text Available En este estudio se presenta la relación existente entre el discurso literario, el cinematográfico y el traductivo, por medio de un análisis descriptivo de algunos apartes de la obra literaria titulada "Charlie y la fábrica de chocolates", sus dos adaptaciones al cine y la subtitulación al español de la segunda adaptación. De esta manera, se evidencian algunas variaciones de las características propias de los personajes que pueden influir en el mensaje transmitido en la obra literaria original.

  18. Chemical and sensory evaluation of dark chocolate with addition of quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd.)

    OpenAIRE

    Schumacher, Andrea B.; Brandelli, Adriano; Macedo, Fernanda C.; Pieta, Luiza; Klug, Tâmmila V.; de Jong, Erna V.

    2010-01-01

    Quinoa (Chenopodium quinoa Willd) is a good source of vitamin E containing high quality protein. A dark chocolate with the addition of 12, 16 or 20% quinoa was developed. The protein concentration of the products increased as the percentage of quinoa increased. The product containing 20% quinoa showed only 9% increase in vitamin E, while the quantity of polyphenols decreased from 23.5 to 18 μmol pirocatechin/g. The amount of essential amino acids was improved in samples containing quinoa. Cys...

  19. The Effect of Advertising and In-Store Promotion on the Demand for Chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Jason C. Patalinghug

    2013-01-01

    This paper analyzes the effect of TV advertising and in-store displays on the sales of chocolates. I examine which method is more effective in gaining customers and in increasing total sales. Also, I look at the evidence to see whether the lack of advertising by a firm will hurt the industry as a whole. In this essay, I use a nested logit model on scanner data obtained by the Zwick Center for Food and Resource Policy at the University of Connecticut's Department of Agricultural and Resource E...

  20. Effects of Alkali Concentration and Conching Temperature on Flavour, Hardness and Colour of Chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Misnawi Jati; Susijahadi .; Jinap Selamat; Teguh Wahyudi; Novrita Putriani

    2006-01-01

    Alkalization is an addition of alkali into cocoa mass to improve product quality in terms of flavour and colour appearance. Sodium bicarbonate and potassium bicarbonate are usual to be added into cocoa cotyledon prior to roasting. A study has been carried out to evaluate the effects of alkalization proceeded upon conching on chocolate sensory properties, hardness and colour. Re sponse Surface Methodology design at alkali concentrations of 1—15 g kg -1 and conching temperature of 40—80 oC have...

  1. Fat Polymorphism and Crystal Seeding Effects on Fat Bloom Stability of Dark Chocolate

    OpenAIRE

    Koyano, T.; Hachiya, I.; Sato, K

    1990-01-01

    The effects of seeding with fine crystal powders on the physical properties of dark chocolate are re viewed in terms of the polymorphism and crystallization behavior of cocoa butter (CBJ and of its major fat constituents. The polymorphic structure of four symmetric mixed acids saturated -oleic-saturated (Sat-0- Sat) triacylglycerols (TAGs I [POP (1 ,3-dipalmitoyl-2- oleoyl-glyceroll ;SOS I 1 ,3-distearoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol); AOA (1 ,3-diarachidoyl-2-oleoyl-glycerol); and BOB 11 ,3-dibehenoyl-...

  2. Computed tomographic volumetry of cerebral liquor by semiautomatic contour recognition and gray value histogram analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A program (VAC, Siemens) using selfmade, anthropomorphous phantomas to measure semiautomatically the volume of the cerebral liquor in CT scans of the whole skull was tested. Cerebral tissue was simulated by ellipsoid bodies made from Agar and Nal which were placed in a human skull. Volumes of the ventricular and subarachnoidal liquor could be defined arbitrarily. A correlation coefficient of r>=0.9 using a slice thickness of 1-5 mm was found (thickness 8 mm: r=0.75). The volume of the cerebral liquor was underestimated by 25-68%. Separate measurements of the ventricular and subarachnoidal liquor spaces showed a high accuracy of the measurements done in the ventricles (r=0.997, y=0.996x-1). The volume of the subarachnoidal liquor was not detected completely due to partial volume effects which were seen especially in the basal and apical scans. The program VAC is useful for the semiautomatic measurement of the volume of the ventricles. The assessment of the subarachnoidal liquor is limited to semiquantitative results. (orig./MG)

  3. Generation of Hydrogen, Lignin and Sodium Hydroxide from Pulping Black Liquor by Electrolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guangzai Nong

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Black liquor is generated in Kraft pulping of wood or non-wood raw material in pulp mills, and regarded as a renewable resource. The objective of this paper was to develop an effective means to remove the water pollutants by recovery of both lignin and sodium hydroxide from black liquor, based on electrolysis. The treatment of a 1000 mL of black liquor (122 g/L solid contents consumed 345.6 kJ of electric energy, and led to the generation of 30.7 g of sodium hydroxide, 0.82 g of hydrogen gas and 52.1 g of biomass solids. Therefore, the recovery ratios of elemental sodium and biomass solids are 80.4% and 76%, respectively. Treating black liquor by electrolysis is an environmentally friendly technology that can, in particular, be an alternative process in addressing the environmental issues of pulping waste liquor to the small-scale mills without black liquor recovery.

  4. Recovery of Flavonoids from Orange Press Liquor by an Integrated Membrane Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Cassano

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Orange press liquor is a by-product generated by the citrus processing industry containing huge amounts of natural phenolic compounds with recognized antioxidant activity. In this work, an integrated membrane process for the recovery of flavonoids from orange press liquors was investigated on a laboratory scale. The liquor was previously clarified by ultrafiltration (UF in selected operating conditions by using hollow fiber polysulfone membranes. Then, the clarified liquor with a total soluble solids (TSS content of 10 g·100 g−1 was pre-concentrated by nanofiltration (NF up to 32 g TSS 100 g−1 by using a polyethersulfone spiral-wound membrane. A final concentration step, up to 47 g TSS 100 g−1, was performed by using an osmotic distillation (OD apparatus equipped with polypropylene hollow fiber membranes. Suspended solids were completely removed in the UF step producing a clarified liquor containing most part of the flavonoids of the original press liquor due to the low rejection of the UF membrane towards these compounds. Flavanones and anthocyanins were highly rejected by the NF membrane, producing a permeate stream with a TSS content of 4.5 g·100 g−1. An increasing of both the flavanones and anthocyanins concentration was observed in the NF retentate by increasing the volume reduction factor (VRF. The final concentration of flavonoids by OD produced a concentrated solution of interest for nutraceutical and pharmaceutical applications.

  5. Maternal chocolate and sucrose soft drink intake induces hepatic steatosis in rat offspring associated with altered lipid gene expression profile

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjærgaard, Maj; Nilsson, C.; Rosendal, A.;

    2014-01-01

    of overfeeding during different developmental periods. Methods: Sprague-Dawley rats were offered chow or high-fat/high-sucrose diet (chow plus chocolate and soft drink) during gestation and lactation. At birth, offspring were randomly cross-fostered within each dietary group into small and normal litter sizes...... weight gain and adiposity in offspring born to chow-fed dams. Conclusion: Our results suggest that supplementation of chocolate and soft drink during gestation and lactation contributes to early onset of hepatic steatosis associated with changes in hepatic gene expression and lipid handling. © 2013...

  6. Optimizing chocolate production through traceability: A review of the influence of farming practices on cocoa bean quality

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Saltini, Rolando; Akkerman, Renzo; Frosch, Stina

    2013-01-01

    Due to recent developments in traceability systems, it is now possible to exchange significant amounts of data through food supply chains. Farming practices applied by cocoa farmers at the beginning of the chocolate supply chain strongly influence several quality parameters of the finished...... studies have been investigating the influence of certain farming practices on cocoa beans and the subsequent chocolate quality parameters. However, no comprehensive analysis of the process variables in the chain and their effects on the quality can be found. In this paper we review and classify...

  7. The transport of plutonium nitrate liquor in the UK

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The PFR fuel cycle reasons for plutonium nitrate liquor transport are discussed, identifying the pre 1980 'one litre' bottle associated with nuclear R and D activities and then the 250 litre PUNIT transport container to support the PFR fuel cycle. The PUNIT vessel design is discussed, addressing, in particular, the need for clean filling and criticality design features together with the identification of the IAEA transport regulations criteria and the late 1970s testing programme -the full scale drop tests and the model fire tests. Radiolysis is discussed together with the need for inert gas padding. The filling facility and operation are then outlined together with the fissile material accountancy requirements. The shipments and emergency arrangements are then described drawing attention to time and weather constraints. The risk assessment is discussed, together with reference to the Competent Authority (DoT) 'authorisation' and any constraints. A history of the amount of material transferred is then given - relating that to the reprocessing plant operations since 1980. The most satisfactory performance over 12 years is noted. (author)

  8. Anaerobic biodegradation of spent sulphite liquor in a UASB reactor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jantsch, T.G.; Angelidaki, Irini; Schmidt, Jens Ejbye;

    2002-01-01

    with diluted SSL and pretreated SSL indicated a potential of 12–22 l methane per litre SSL, which corresponds to 0.13–0.22 l methane ðg VSÞ1 and COD removal of up to 37%. COD removal in a mesophilic upflow anaerobic sludge blanket, UASB, reactor ranged from10% to 31% at an organic loading rate, OLR, of 10–51 g...... ðl dÞ1 and hydraulic retention time from 3.7 to 1.5 days. The biogas productivity was 3 l ðlreactor dÞ1, with a yield of 0.05 l gas ðg VSÞ1. These results suggest that anaerobic digestion in UASB reactors may provide a new alternative for the treatment of SSL to other treatment strategies......Anaerobic biodegradation of fermented spent sulphite liquor, SSL, which is produced during the manufacture of sulphite pulp, was investigated. SSL contains a high concentration of lignin products in addition to hemicellulose and has a very high COD load (173 g COD l1). Batch experiments...

  9. Improved Materials for High-Temperature Black Liquor Gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keiser, J.R.; Hemrick, J.G.; Gorog, J.P.; Leary, R.

    2006-06-29

    with fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel refractory, which appears to be the most resistant to degradation found to date, exhibiting over a year of service life and expected to be capable of over two years of service life. Regarding the use of refractory mortar, it was found that expansion of the current chrome-alumina mortar when subjected to black liquor smelt is likely contributing to the strains seen on the vessel shell. Additionally, the candidate high-alumina mortar that was originally proposed as a replacement for the current chrome-alumina mortar also showed a large amount of expansion when subjected to molten smelt. A UMR experimental mortar, composed of a phosphate bonded system specifically designed for use with fusion-cast magnesium-aluminum spinel, was found to perform well in the molten smelt environment. Strain gauges installed on the gasifier vessel shell provided valuable information about the expansion of the refractory, and a new set of strain gauges and thermocouples has been installed in order to monitor the loading caused by the currently installed spinel refractory. These results provide information for a direct comparison of the expansion of the two refractories. Measurements to date suggest that the fusion-cast magnesia-alumina spinel is expanding less than the fusion-cast {alpha}/{beta}-alumina used previously. A modified liquor nozzle was designed and constructed to test a number of materials that should be more resistant to erosion and corrosion than the material currently used. Inserts made of three erosion-resistant metallic materials were fabricated, along with inserts made of three ceramic materials. The assembled system was sent to the New Bern mill for installation in the gasifer in 2005. Following operation of the gasifier using the modified nozzle, inserts should be removed and analyzed for wear by erosion/corrosion. Although no materials have been directly identified for sensor/thermocouple protection tubes, several of the

  10. Maleic acid treatment of biologically detoxified corn stover liquor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Daehwan; Ximenes, Eduardo A; Nichols, Nancy N; Cao, Guangli; Frazer, Sarah E; Ladisch, Michael R

    2016-09-01

    Elimination of microbial and enzyme inhibitors from pretreated lignocellulose is critical for effective cellulose conversion and yeast fermentation of liquid hot water (LHW) pretreated corn stover. In this study, xylan oligomers were hydrolyzed using either maleic acid or hemicellulases, and other soluble inhibitors were eliminated by biological detoxification. Corn stover at 20% (w/v) solids was LHW pretreated LHW (severity factor: 4.3). The 20% solids (w/v) pretreated corn stover derived liquor was recovered and biologically detoxified using the fungus Coniochaeta ligniaria NRRL30616. After maleic acid treatment, and using 5 filter paper units of cellulase/g glucan (8.3mg protein/g glucan), 73% higher cellulose conversion from corn stover was obtained for biodetoxified samples compared to undetoxified samples. This corresponded to 87% cellulose to glucose conversion. Ethanol production by yeast of pretreated corn stover solids hydrolysate was 1.4 times higher than undetoxified samples, with a reduction of 3h in the fermentation lag phase. PMID:27262718

  11. Fine crystallization purification of mother liquors for the growth of α-LiIO3 single crystals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The problems encountered in the additional purification of mother liquors and the possibility of optimizing this process, using mother liquor for the crystal growth of lithium iodate, α-LiIO3, as a model system, are reviewed. The ability of some crystals, e.g., those of hexagonal lithium iodate, to absorb cation impurities from the mother liquor during growth, confirmed by experimental evidence, is used to develop a process for controlled fine purification of mother liquors. Using crystallization onto monocrystal plates of the same composition as the macro component in solution, one can achieve the desired purity of the mother liquor in terms of cation microimpurities. A routine procedure is proposed for calculating the desired degree of crystallization (using known values of λ), which makes it possible to achieve essentially any purity of mother liquors in terms of cation microimpurities

  12. Nutritional status and effect of seaweed chocolate on anemic adolescent girls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Thahira Banu

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The study was carried out to study the nutritional status, develop a product incorporating seaweed and assess its impact on anemic adolescent girls. Five hundred adolescent girls in the age group of 15–18 years were selected from a women's college at Kilakarai, Tamil Nadu, India as the target group to find the prevalence of anemia. Among the 500 subjects 100 with a hemoglobin level of 7–9 g/dL (moderate anemia were selected by purposive sampling technique for supplementation. Seaweed incorporated chocolate was formulated, standardized, tested for consumer acceptability and in vitro iron bioavailability and supplemented to the selected subjects. The result of the study indicates that seaweed chocolate developed obtained the highest score for overall acceptability, 56 mg of iron/100 g and 11.80 mg of bioavailable iron. The results were found to be promising as there was a significant increase in hemoglobin, TIBC, MCH, MCV, serum iron and serum ferritin levels in the selected subjects. Seaweeds are a less consumed natural resource but abundantly available in the coastal areas of India as they are rich source of nutrients and can be used as an effective therapeutic and nutrient adjunct.

  13. Regular Consumption of a Flavanol-rich Chocolate can Improve Oxidant Stress in Young Soccer Players

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carl L. Keen

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The consumption of a diet rich in certain flavonoids, including the flavanol sub-class, has been associated with a reduced risk for vascular disease. We evaluated the effects of the regular consumption (14 d of a flavanol-containing milk chocolate (FCMC or cocoa butter chocolate (CBC on variables related to vascular disease risk, oxidative stress and physical activity. Twenty-eight free-living, young (18–20 years old male soccer players consumed daily 105 g of FCMC (168 mg of flavanols or CBC (<5 mg of flavanols, as part of their normal diet. The consumption of FCMC was significantly associated with a decrease in diastolic blood pressure (-5 mm Hg, mean blood pressure (-5 mm Hg, plasma cholesterol (-11%, LDL-cholesterol (-15%, malondialdehyde (-12%, urate (-11% and lactate dehydrogenase (LDH activity (-11%, and an increase in vitamin E/cholesterol (+12%. No relevant changes in these variables were associated with CBC consumption. No changes in the plasma levels of (--epicatechin were observed following analysis of fasting blood samples. In conclusion, FCMC consumption was associated with changes in several variables often associated with cardiovascular health and oxidant stress. The presence of significant quantities of flavanols in FCMC is likely to have been one of the contributing factors to these results.

  14. Effect of Inulin and Stevia on Some Physical Properties of Chocolate Milk

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Asghari Jafarabadi

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of this study was to assess physical properties of dietetic chocolate milkproduced by stevia as a sugar replacer and inulin. Along with having prebiotic effect, inulin canalso participate in enhancing textural properties of beverages. Therefore, this novel food will beuseful for all people especially for diabetics.Methods: This study was carried out in Quality Control Laboratory of Food Science and TechnologyDepartment, Health and Nutrition Faculty, Tabriz University of Medical Science, during2011-2012. The assay was performed on nine treatments with three replications. Sugar was substitutedwith stevia in two proportions of sucrose to stevia; 50:50 and 0:100. Inulin, in four levelsof 0%, 2%, 4% and 6%, was added to the treatments of 50% and 100% stevia. The control samplecontained no stevia and no inulin, such as commercial ones. Precipitation amount and viscositywere measured 24 hours after production. Data analyzed by one-way ANOVA, at the significantlevel of 0.05, using SPSS software ver. 17.Results: Sugar replacement with stevia caused significant increase in precipitation and significantdecrease in viscosity (P0.05. The sample containing50% stevia and 6% inulin had the lowest precipitation while having a non-significantlydifference with the control.Conclusion: A thickener agent, such as inulin, should be used in the chocolate milk sweetenedby stevia to improve physical properties of the product.

  15. LOYALTY – THE NUCLEUS OF BRAND CAPITAL. CASE STUDY: ROM CHOCOLATE BAR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brindusa Mariana Amalancei

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available It is considered that loyalty to the brand of some primary customers is the core of the brand capital. A brand, however, may have substantial value, which is given to it by its symbol and slogans, if it is continued with the purchase of a brand after the buyers have made a comparison with the competing products that have superior characteristics. Structured on several levels, which are each a different marketing challenge, the loyalty to the brand consists of many factors, among which the most important is the user experience. The paper aims to highlight, starting from a series of articles in online media, the manner in which a traditional Romanian brand, ROM chocolate bar, continuously repositions itself, attempting to maintain and even increase the loyalty of its consumers, as well as to answer the consumer’s authenticity, accessibility, credibility and modernity needs. Even though in specialized literature there are opinions according to which traditional brands are commonly old-fashioned or dull, ROM chocolate bar shows the opposite view, being considered a successful brand which is appreciated both at national and international levels.

  16. Mill Integration-Pulping, Stream Reforming and Direct Causticization for Black Liquor Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adriaan van Heiningen

    2007-06-30

    MTCI/StoneChem developed a steam reforming, fluidized bed gasification technology for biomass. DOE supported the demonstration of this technology for gasification of spent wood pulping liquor (or 'black liquor') at Georgia-Pacific's Big Island, Virginia mill. The present pre-commercial R&D project addressed the opportunities as well as identified negative aspects when the MTCI/StoneChem gasification technology is integrated in a pulp mill production facility. The opportunities arise because black liquor gasification produces sulfur (as H{sub 2}S) and sodium (as Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}) in separate streams which may be used beneficially for improved pulp yield and properties. The negative aspect of kraft black liquor gasification is that the amount of Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} which must be converted to NaOH (the so called causticizing requirement) is increased. This arises because sulfur is released as Na{sub 2}S during conventional kraft black liquor recovery, while during gasification the sodium associated Na{sub 2}S is partly or fully converted to Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3}. The causticizing requirement can be eliminated by including a TiO{sub 2} based cyclic process called direct causticization. In this process black liquor is gasified in the presence of (low sodium content) titanates which convert Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} to (high sodium content) titanates. NaOH is formed when contacting the latter titanates with water, thereby eliminating the causticizing requirement entirely. The leached and low sodium titanates are returned to the gasification process. The project team comprised the University of Maine (UM), North Carolina State University (NCSU) and MTCI/ThermoChem. NCSU and MTCI are subcontractors to UM. The principal organization for the contract is UM. NCSU investigated the techno-economics of using advanced pulping techniques which fully utilize the unique cooking liquors produced by steam reforming of black liquor (Task 1). UM studied the kinetics and

  17. Surface Layer Properties of Dough Liquor Components: Are They Key Parameters in Gas Retention in Bread Dough?

    OpenAIRE

    Primo Martin, C.; Hamer, R J; Jongh, de, J

    2006-01-01

    Gas cell stability during bread making is controlled by both surface and bulk properties. This paper is focused on studying the surface properties of the water-soluble phase of the dough, the dough liquor (with and without lipids), as well as the composition of the air/water interface. Using infrared reflection measurements, we showed that in lipid-poor liquor, proteins are the dominant species present at the air/water interface. With complete liquor (including the lipids), a mixed interface ...

  18. A Constructed Alkaline Consortium and Its Dynamics in Treating Alkaline Black Liquor with Very High Pollution Load

    OpenAIRE

    Yang, Chunyu; Cao, Guangchun; Li, Yang; Zhang, Xiaojun; Ren, Hongyan; Wang, Xia; Feng, Jinhui; Zhao, Liping; Xu, Ping

    2008-01-01

    Background Paper pulp wastewater resulting from alkaline extraction of wheat straw, known as black liquor, is very difficult to be treated and causes serious environmental problems due to its high pH value and chemical oxygen demand (COD) pollution load. Lignin, semicellulose and cellulose are the main contributors to the high COD values in black liquor. Very few microorganisms can survive in such harsh environments of the alkaline wheat straw black liquor. A naturally developed microbial com...

  19. Optical properties of black liquor and refractometric methods for monitoring the solid residue concentration in sulfate cellulose production

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belov, N. P.; Lapshov, S. N.; Mayorov, E. E.; Sherstobitova, A. S.; Yaskov, A. D.

    2012-07-01

    Measurements of the refractive index, its temperature dependence, and the optical transmission of black liquors produced during sulfate pulping are reported for soluble solid residue concentrations up to k ≅ 60 %. The design features of a commercial refractometer for monitoring the concentration of black liquor are examined briefly. A procedure is proposed for laboratory calibration of commercial sensors that employs black liquor solutions in highly refractive organic liquids as reference samples.

  20. Synthetic gas production from dry black liquor gasification process using direct causticization with CO2 capture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We study synthetic gas production from dry black liquor gasification system. ► Direct causticization eliminates energy intensive lime kiln reducing biomass use. ► Results show large SNG production potential at significant energy efficiency (58%). ► Substantial CO2 capture potential plus CO2 reductions from natural gas replacement. ► Significant transport fuel replacement especially in Sweden and Europe. -- Abstract: Synthetic natural gas (SNG) production from dry black liquor gasification (DBLG) system is an attractive option to reduce CO2 emissions replacing natural gas. This article evaluates the energy conversion performance of SNG production from oxygen blown circulating fluidized bed (CFB) black liquor gasification process with direct causticization by investigating system integration with a reference pulp mill producing 1000 air dried tonnes (ADt) of pulp per day. The direct causticization process eliminates use of energy intensive lime kiln that is a main component required in the conventional black liquor recovery cycle with the recovery boiler. The paper has estimated SNG production potential, the process energy ratio of black liquor (BL) conversion to SNG, and quantified the potential CO2 abatement. Based on reference pulp mill capacity, the results indicate a large potential of SNG production (about 162 MW) from black liquor but at a cost of additional biomass import (36.7 MW) to compensate the total energy deficit. The process shows cold gas energy efficiency of about 58% considering black liquor and biomass import as major energy inputs. About 700 ktonnes per year of CO2 abatement i.e. both possible CO2 capture and CO2 offset from bio-fuel use replacing natural gas, is estimated. Moreover, the SNG production offers a significant fuel replacement in transport sector especially in countries with large pulp and paper industry e.g. in Sweden, about 72% of motor gasoline and 40% of total motor fuel could be replaced.

  1. Consumption of High-Polyphenol Dark Chocolate Improves Endothelial Function in Individuals with Stage 1 Hypertension and Excess Body Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lívia de Paula Nogueira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypertension and excess body weight are important risk factors for endothelial dysfunction. Recent evidence suggests that high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function and lowers blood pressure. This study aimed to evaluate the association of chocolate 70% cocoa intake with metabolic profile, oxidative stress, inflammation, blood pressure, and endothelial function in stage 1 hypertensives with excess body weight. Methods. Intervention clinical trial includes 22 stage 1 hypertensives without previous antihypertensive treatment, aged 18 to 60 years and presents a body mass index between 25.0 and 34.9 kg/m2. All participants were instructed to consume 50 g of chocolate 70% cocoa/day (2135 mg polyphenols for 4 weeks. Endothelial function was evaluated by peripheral artery tonometry using Endo-PAT 2000 (Itamar Medical. Results. Twenty participants (10 men completed the study. Comparison of pre-post intervention revealed that (1 there were no significant changes in anthropometric parameters, percentage body fat, glucose metabolism, lipid profile, biomarkers of inflammation, adhesion molecules, oxidized LDL, and blood pressure; (2 the assessment of endothelial function through the reactive hyperemia index showed a significant increase: 1.94 ± 0.18 to 2.22 ± 0.08, P=0.01. Conclusion.In individuals with stage 1 hypertension and excess body weight, high-polyphenol dark chocolate improves endothelial function.

  2. Determination of antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of chocolate by attenuated total reflectance-Fourier transformed-infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Yaxi; Pan, Zhi Jie; Liao, Wen; Li, Jiaqi; Gruget, Pierre; Kitts, David D; Lu, Xiaonan

    2016-07-01

    Antioxidant capacity and phenolic content of chocolate, containing different amounts of cacao (35-100%), were determined using attenuated total reflectance (ATR)-Fourier transformed-infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy (4000-550cm(-1)). Antioxidant capacities were first characterized using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl) and ORAC (oxygen radical absorbance capacity) assays. Phenolic contents, including total phenol and procyanidins monomers, were quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteu assay and high performance liquid chromatography coupled with photodiode array detector (HPLC-DAD), respectively. Five partial least-squares regression (PLSR) models were constructed and cross-validated using FT-IR spectra from 18 types of chocolate and corresponding reference values determined using DPPH, ORAC, Folin-Ciocalteu, and HPLC assays. The models were validated using seven unknown samples of chocolate. PLSR models showed good prediction capability for DPPH [R(2)-P (prediction)=0.88, RMSEP (root mean squares error of prediction)=12.62μmol Trolox/g DFW], ORAC (R(2)-P=0.90, RMSEP=37.92), Folin-Ciocalteu (R(2)-P=0.88, RMSEP=5.08), and (+)-catechin (R(2)-P=0.86, RMSEP=0.10), but lacked accuracy in the prediction of (-)-epicatechin (R(2)-P=0.72, RMSEP=0.57). ATR-FT-IR spectroscopy can be used for rapid prediction of antioxidant capacity, total phenolic content, and (+)-catechin in chocolate. PMID:26920292

  3. The Chocolate Shop and Atomic Orbitals: A New Atomic Model Created by High School Students to Teach Elementary Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liguori, Lucia

    2014-01-01

    Atomic orbital theory is a difficult subject for many high school and beginning undergraduate students, as it includes mathematical concepts not yet covered in the school curriculum. Moreover, it requires certain ability for abstraction and imagination. A new atomic orbital model "the chocolate shop" created "by" students…

  4. Morphometric and functional abnormalities of kidneys in the progeny of mice fed chocolate during pregnancy and lactation.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ewa Skopińska-Rózewska

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Even most commonly consumed beverages like tea, coffee, chocolate and cocoa contain methylxanthines, biogenic amines and polyphenols, among them catechins, that exhibit significant biological activity and might profoundly affect the organism homeostasis. We have previously shown that 400 mg of bitter chocolate or 6 mg of theobromine added to the daily diet of pregnant and afterwards lactating mice affected embryonic angiogenesis and caused bone mineralization disturbances as well as limb shortening in 4-weeks old offspring. The aim of the present study was the morphometric and functional evaluation of kidneys in the 4-weeks old progeny mice fed according to the protocol mentioned above. Progeny from the mice fed chocolate presented considerable morphometric abnormalities in the kidney structure, with the lower number of glomeruli per mm2 and their increased diameter. Moreover, higher serum creatinine concentration was observed in that group of offspring. No morphometric or functional irregularities were found in the progeny of mice fed theobromine. Abnormalities demonstrated in the offspring of mice fed chocolate are not related to its theobromine content. Consequently, identification of active compound(s responsible for the observed effects is of vital importance.

  5. Comparison of epidemiological marker methods for identification of Salmonella typhimurium isolates from an outbreak caused by contaminated chocolate.

    OpenAIRE

    Kapperud, G; Lassen, J.; Dommarsnes, K; Kristiansen, B. E.; Caugant, D A; Ask, E; Jahkola, M

    1989-01-01

    Plasmid profile analysis, restriction endonuclease analysis, and multilocus enzyme electrophoresis were used in conjunction with serotyping, bacteriophage typing, and biochemical fingerprinting to trace epidemiologically related isolates of Salmonella typhimurium from an outbreak caused by contaminated chocolate products in Norway and Finland. To evaluate the efficiency of the epidemiological marker methods, isolates from the outbreak were compared with five groups of control isolates not kno...

  6. Bolo de "chocolate" produzido com pó de cupuaçu e kefir "Chocolate" pound cake with cupuassu and kefir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mauricio Sergio Esteller

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Nos últimos anos vem ocorrendo a valorização dos recursos e produtos naturais. Cresce em todo o mundo a preocupação com a conservação do meio ambiente e a valorização dos recursos da flora e fauna. É forte a demanda por tecnologias de processo, de produto e de aplicação. Neste estudo foi utilizada formulação padronizada para bolo tipo inglês, substituindo cacau em pó por cupuaçu em pó e com adição de kefir, mantendo-se o total de sólidos. O tempo e a temperatura de assamento foram fixados em 50 minutos e 180 ºC. Foram avaliados a porosidade do miolo, o perfil de textura, cor, umidade, volume específico e densidade da massa. Os resultados mostraram que a adição de pó de cupuaçu não altera as características do bolo padrão elaborado com cacau e que a adição de kefir modifica a textura e a porosidade do miolo.In the last years, natural resources and products have gained the attention of consumers. The concern with the conservation of the environment and the importance of the flora and fauna increases in the whole world. The demand for application, product, and process technologies is strong. In this study, a control chocolate pound cake formula was used changing cocoa powder from the original formula to cupuassu powder and adding kefir, keeping the amounts of total solids. The time and temperature were fixed in 50 minutes and 180 ºC. Crumb porosity, texture profile analysis (TPA, color, moisture, specific volume, and dough density were evaluated. The results showed that cupuassu powder can be used as a cocoa replacer in "chocolate" cake production and that kefir changed the texture and crumb porosity of the cake.

  7. Antioxidant activity and polyphenol and procyanidin contents of selected commercially available cocoa-containing and chocolate products in the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Kenneth B; Stuart, David A; Smith, Nancy L; Lee, Chang Y; McHale, Nancy L; Flanagan, Judith A; Ou, Boxin; Hurst, W Jeffrey

    2006-05-31

    In the United States, commercially available foods, including cocoa and chocolate, are being marketed with statements referring to the level of antioxidant activity and polyphenols. For cocoa-containing foods, there has been no comprehensive survey of the content of these and other chemistries. A survey of cocoa and chocolate-containing products marketed in the United States was conducted to determine antioxidant activity and polyphenol and procyanidin contents. Commercially available samples consisted of the top market share products in each of the following six categories: natural cocoa, unsweetened baking chocolate, dark chocolate, semisweet baking chips, milk chocolate, and chocolate syrup. Composite samples were characterized using four different methods: oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC), vitamin C equivalence antioxidant capacity (VCEAC), total polyphenols, and procyanidins. All composite lots were further characterized for percent nonfat cocoa solids (NFCS) and percent fat. Natural cocoas had the highest levels of antioxidant activities, total polyphenols, and procyanidins followed by baking chocolates, dark chocolates and baking chips, and finally milk chocolate and syrups. The results showed a strong linear correlation between NFCS and ORAC (R (2) = 0.9849), total polyphenols (R (2) = 0.9793), and procyanidins (R (2) = 0.946), respectively. On the basis of principal component analysis, 81.4% of the sample set was associated with NFCS, antioxidant activity, total polyphenols, and procyanidins. The results indicated that, regardless of the product category, NFCS were the primary factor contributing to the level of cocoa antioxidants in the products tested. Results further suggested that differences in cocoa bean blends and processing, with the possible exception of Dutching, are minor factors in determining the level of antioxidants in commercially available cocoa-containing products in the United States. PMID:16719535

  8. Determinação de substitutos da manteiga de cacau em coberturas de chocolate através da análise de triacilgliceróis Determination of cocoa butter substitutes in coating chocolate.by analysis the triacylglycerol composition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Paula Rodrigues MINIM

    1999-05-01

    Full Text Available A legislação brasileira proíbe a adição de substitutos da manteiga de cacau ao chocolate. O presente trabalho teve como objetivo verificar o padrão de qualidade de coberturas comercializadas na região de Campinas. Para isso, foram analisadas cinco marcas de cobertura de chocolate ao leite e quatro de cobertura de chocolate amargo. Para verificar a possível adição de substitutos determinou-se, por cromatografia gasosa a alta temperatura (CGAT, a composição em triacilgliceróis da gordura extraída e os resultados foram analisados pelo método matemático de Padley & Timms. Não foi detectada a presença de substitutos da manteiga de cacau nas amostras de cobertura de chocolate analisadas.Brazilian regulations prohibit the addition of cocoa butter replacements to chocolate, in total or partial substitution. The objective of the present work was to check the quality standards of four of coating bitter Brasilian chocolate bars and five of coating milk chocolate bars, commercialized in Campinas. In order to check the possible addition of substitutes, the triacylglycerol composition was determined, and the results were analysed by Padley & Timms mathematical method. The triacylglycerol composition of each sample was determined by high temperature gas chromatography (HTGC. The presence of cocoa butter replacements was not detected in the brands of coating chocolate.

  9. Differential effect of polyphenol-rich dark chocolate on biomarkers of glucose metabolism and cardiovascular risk factors in healthy, overweight and obese subjects: a randomized clinical trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Almoosawi, S; Tsang, C; Ostertag, L M; Fyfe, L; Al-Dujaili, E A S

    2012-10-01

    The association between excess cortisol and various parameters of metabolic syndrome including hypertension, insulin resistance and dyslipidaemia is increasingly recognised. The present single-blind randomised placebo-controlled cross-over study compared the effect of polyphenol-rich dark chocolate (DC) on biomarkers of glucose metabolism, lipid profile, and blood pressure (BP) in females with BMI ≥ 25 kg m(-2) (n = 21) and females with BMI metabolic benefits of consuming polyphenol-rich dark chocolate while demonstrating the possibility of adverse effects occurring with polyphenol-poor chocolate placebo. PMID:22796902

  10. Preparation of adhesive for bamboo plywood using concentrated papermaking black liquor directly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    Adhesive for bamboo plywood prepared directly using lignin existing in the black liquor as a kind of material replacing phenol was proposed on the basis of the same structural properties of lignin and phenol. The results indicate that the reaction time of black liquor methylating is 30 min, when the ratio of alkali to formaldehyde is controlled at approximately 0.20, decomposition rate of formaldehyde is the lowest and the effect of black liquor methylating is the best, the optimal molar ratio of phenol: formaldehyde to NaOH to H2O of preparing phenolic resin is liquor to phenolic resin, all terms of performance of black liquor phenolic resin are excellent and satisfy the requirement. All terms of performance of bamboo plywood prepared using this technique are better than that of excellent bamboo plywood of national criteria. Using this technique, the cost is depressed by 28.69% without altering the traditional adhesive producing technique flow, and without using additional equipment.

  11. Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kevin Whitty

    2008-06-30

    The University of Utah's project 'Investigation of Pressurized Entrained-Flow Kraft Black Liquor Gasification in an Industrially Relevant Environment' (U.S. DOE Cooperative Agreement DE-FC26-04NT42261) was a response to U.S. DOE/NETL solicitation DE-PS36-04GO94002, 'Biomass Research and Development Initiative' Topical Area 4-Kraft Black Liquor Gasification. The project began September 30, 2004. The objective of the project was to improve the understanding of black liquor conversion in high pressure, high temperature reactors that gasify liquor through partial oxidation with either air or oxygen. The physical and chemical characteristics of both the gas and condensed phase were to be studied over the entire range of liquor conversion, and the rates and mechanisms of processes responsible for converting the liquor to its final smelt and syngas products were to be investigated. This would be accomplished by combining fundamental, lab-scale experiments with measurements taken using a new semi-pilot scale pressurized entrained-flow gasifier. As a result of insufficient availability of funds and changes in priority within the Office of Biomass Programs of the U.S. Department of Energy, the research program was terminated in its second year. In total, only half of the budgeted funding was made available for the program, and most of this was used during the first year for construction of the experimental systems to be used in the program. This had a severe impact on the program. As a consequence, most of the planned research was unable to be performed. Only studies that relied on computational modeling or existing experimental facilities started early enough to deliver useful results by the time to program was terminated Over the course of the program, small scale (approx. 1 ton/day) entrained-flow gasifier was designed and installed at the University of Utah's off-campus Industrial Combustion and Gasification Research Facility. The system is

  12. INDUCTION OF LABOUR WITH VAGINAL MISOPROSTOL AND INCIDENCE OF MECONIUM STAINED LIQUOR AND FETAL OUTCOME

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indira Mani

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available AIM Induction of labour with low dose of misoprostol and detecting the incidence of meconium stained liquor and foetal outcome. DESIGN Prospective randomized control trail conducted at Niloufer Maternity and Children Hospital from January 2013 to September 2014. PARTICIPANTS 150 pregnant women requiring induction of labour. METHODS The women were divided into 2 groups based on BISHOP score as favorable and unfavorable cervix group. Induction delivery interval, number of misoprostol doses, incidence of meconium stained liquor, NICU admission and APGAR score. RESULTS Among the outcomes compared between unfavorable and favorable cervix groups induction delivery interval, number of misoprostol doses and incidence of meconium stained liquor was more in unfavorable cervix group and ‘p’ value was statistically significant. Long induction delivery interval and higher number of misoprostol doses were associated with higher incidence of meconium stained liquor in primi gravida with unfavorable cervix group. CONCLUSION Misoprostol is an effective priming and labour inducing agent, which fulfils all the criteria of an ideal inducing agent. Though incidence of meconium stained liquor is higher in misoprostol induced labour among women with unfavorable cervix, the foetal outcome seems to be very good.

  13. New black liquor combustion characteristics II; Mustalipeaen uudet poltto-ominaisuudet II

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hupa, M.; Backman, R.; Bostroem, S.; Forssen, M.; Uusikartano, T. [Aabo Akademi, Turku (Finland)

    1996-12-01

    In an earlier study (LIEKKI 2, Y 17), the combustion characteristics of 17 liquors of different origin were studied by four laboratory tests. These tests were (1) single droplet burning, (2) single droplet pyrolysis, (3) pressurized gasification, and (4) calculation of melting properties of inorganic carryover particles. The study showed that there are big differences between liquors of different origin. These differences strongly affect the combustion properties, i.e. pyrolysis and burning times, swelling, and fouling tendency of heat transfer surfaces. The objective for the present research project was to investigate the reasons why some properties affect the combustion behavior more than others. The project is partly complementary to the previous study, partly a more detailed study of some of the phenomena observed earlier. The work constitutes of the following studies: (1) further study of several more liquors by the same methods, (2) pyrolysis swelling in inert gas (N{sub 2}) at two temperatures, 700 deg C and 900 deg C, (3) effect of heat treatment black liquors, (4) effect of addition of sodium compounds to a virgin black liquor, (5) data treatment and correlations, (6) nitrogen oxide formation tendency. (author)

  14. Form transition of sodium during combustion of black liquor coal slurry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LAN Ze-quan; CAO Xin-yu; ZHOU Jun-hu; LIU Jian-zhong; CHENG Jun; CEN Ke-fa

    2008-01-01

    Several typical ash samples from a 0.25 MW test furnace fired black liquor coal slurry were selected for investigation. The phases and compounds containing sodium in ash samples were acquired from X-ray diffraction analyses. As well, detailed analyses of the amounts of major mineral elements along thickness gradients of representative ash samples were carried out. The elements, including Na, Si, Al, S and Cl were analyzed by the advanced electron probe microanalyzer equipment, which provid evidence and interpretation for the analytical results of XRD. The findings indicate that the occurrence form of sodium has experi-enced important changes during the combustion of black liquor coal slurry, which translated into nepheline, thenardite, sodium sulfate, sodium chloride, sodium silicoaluminate, hauyne and other phases containing sodium, from NaOH, Na2CO3 and Na2S in raw fuel. Of all the sodium compounds, nepheline, thenardite and sodium sulfate are the most important forms of Na in solid com-bustion residues. Such a transformation of Na during the combustion of black liquor coal slurry resulted in a considerable impact on ash deposition and is not only different from the raw coal and papermaking black liquors, but is also affected by local circum-stances in the combustion furnace. Amounts of Na, S and Cl in ash deposits from low temperature zones were larger than those from high temperature zones. Our findings should provide important theoretical instructions for industrial applications of black liquor coal slurry.

  15. Imbibition-displacement of an aqueous interstitial liquor by an organic fluid containing a surfactant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Imbibition was investigated as a method of assisting the removal of interstitial liquor from the salt cake contained in the Hanford underground storage tanks. In this application, imbibition would be the displacement of the interstitial liquor from the salt cake by a heavy organic containing a surfactant. Preliminary studies with a salt cake liquor system formed from NaNO3 alone indicated that a surfactant-tetrachloroethylene system could displace 75 percent of the interstitial liquor. Further investigations were carried out with a sale cake--liquor system containing NaNO3, NaNO2, NaAlO2, and NaOH. Twenty-seven surfactants and two heavy organics, carbon tetrachloride and tetrachloroethylene, were tested. In one test, an anionic surfactant and tetrachloroethylene gave promising results with the latter salt cake; however, these results could not be duplicated. All other surfactants tested gave unsatisfactory results. The presence of NaOH in the salt cake recipe seems to increase the interfacial tension of the interstitial liquid-organic fluid system. Investigations of chemical and radiation stability, corrosion aspects, and ease of removability from the tanks of the heavy organic systems revealed t

  16. Chemical and physical properties of high-yield alkaline sulfite green liquor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sell, N.J.; Norman, J.C. (Univ. of Wisconsin, Green Bay, WI (United States). Natural and Applied Sciences)

    1993-11-01

    The majority of sodium sulfite pulping liquor recovery systems are based on the reductive burning of the spent liquor, followed by acidification of the resulting smelt solution by CO[sub 2]. This study investigated a number of the physical and chemical properties of the resulting green liquor which might be relevant to the optimum design of this type of sulfite and carbonate recovery system for an alkaline sulfite high-yield process. CO[sub 2] gas does generate H[sub 2]S when bubbled through green liquor; however, a large amount of solid soon is formed. Continuing the flow leads to increased amounts of H[sub 2]S, but the ratio of H[sub 2]S to CO[sub 2] remains less than 1.0. Solutions more highly concentrated in Na[sub 2]S absorb relatively more CO[sub 2], regardless of the ratios of H[sub 2]S to CO[sub 2] in the initial gas stream. The percentage of H[sub 2]S released increases with increasing Na[sub 2]S concentration. Stripping the green liquor with inert gas, steam, or vacuum does not improve the H[sub 2]S removal efficiency. The maximum CO[sub 2] pressure can be generated by decomposing pure 6 M NaHCO[sub 3]. If the starting material is a bicarbonate/carbonate mixture, conversion is incomplete and a portion of the NaHCO[sub 3] forms a dead load.

  17. Laser Induced Fluorescence For Measurement Of Lignin Concentrations In Pulping Liquors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horvath, J. J.; Semerjian, H. G.; Biasca, K. L.; Attala, R.

    1988-11-01

    Laser excited fluorescence of pulping liquors was investigated for use in the pulp and paper industry for process measurement and control applications. Liquors from both mill and laboratory cooks were studied. A Nd-YAG pumped dye laser was used to generate the excitation wavelength of 280 nm; measurements were also performed using a commercially available fluorometer. Measurements on mill pulping liquors gave strong signals and showed changes in the fluorescence intensity during the cook. Absorption spectra of diluted mill liquor samples showed large changes during the cook. Samples from well controlled and characterized laboratory cooks showed fluorescence to be linear with concentration over two decades with an upper limit of approximately 1000 ppm dissolved lignin. At the end of these cooks a possible chemical change was indicated by an increase in the observed fluorescence intensity. Results indicate that lignin concentrations in pulping liquors can be accurately determined with fluorescence in the linear optical region over a greater dynamic range than absorption spectroscopy. Laser induced fluorescence may also provide an indication of chemical changes occurring in the lignin structure during a cook.

  18. Chocolate rheology

    OpenAIRE

    Estela Vidal Gonçalves; Suzana Caetano da Silva Lannes

    2010-01-01

    Rheology is the science that studies the deformation and flow of solids and fluids under the influence of mechanical forces. The rheological measures of a product in the stage of manufacture can be useful in quality control. The microstructure of a product can also be correlated with its rheological behavior allowing for the development of new materials. Rheometry permits attainment of rheological equations applied in process engineering, particularly unit operations that involve heat and mas...

  19. Effect of pulping variables on enthalpy of kraft black liquors: Empirical predictive models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaman, A.A.; Fricke, A.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-07-01

    The effects of pulping variables on enthalpy of slash pine kraft black liquors from a 2{sup k} + 2k + 1 (k = 4) central composite design pulping experiments that were performed in a large pilot scale digester have been studied. The four cooling variables were effective alkali, sulfidity, cooking temperature, and time at temperature. In all cases, the white liquor was adjusted to a causticizing efficiency of 85% and a reduction of 93% with Na{sub 2}CO{sub 3} and Na{sub 2}SO{sub 4}. The enthalpy of these liquors was determined over wide ranges of temperature and solids concentrations using a Setaram C-80 calorimeter. In this work, previous models for enthalpy-concentration relations were used to perform a systematic study on the effects of pulping conditions on enthalpy and to develop statistically based quantitative models for enthalpy as a function of pulping variables. These results are presented, and their utility is discussed.

  20. Precipitation of uranium by hydrogen peroxide from the liquor of Xiamatang uranium ore

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A Chemical precipitation process of recovering uranium from the leaching liquor of uranium ore was investigated. The process includes primarily precipitation of iron with lime, preprocessing of the slurry of iron hydroxide and precipitation of uranium with H2O2. The leaching liquor is neutralized by lime milk to pH 3.7 for precipitating iron hydroxide. The precipitated slurry is recycled to leaching process for recovering uranium in it after being flocculated and pre-processed. It can avoid the filter of the slurry of iron bydroxide. H2O2 is used to precipitate uranium in the leaching liquor free of iron, and the pH of process for uranium precipitation is adjusted to 3.5 by adding MgO slurry. It is shown in the results that lime, H2O2 and MgO can be used to obtain the uranium peroxide product containing over 65% uranium without environmental pollution