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Sample records for chloupek leaves dceg

  1. DCEG Symposium to Honor Joseph F. Fraumeni, Jr. | Poster

    Science.gov (United States)

    By Nancy Parrish, Staff Writer On May 6, the Division of Cancer Epidemiology and Genetics (DCEG) will sponsor a symposium to honor 50 years of leadership from its founding director, Joseph F. Fraumeni, Jr., M.D., who stepped down from the position in July 2012. The conference, entitled “Cancer Epidemiology: From Pedigrees to Populations,” will highlight critical findings in cancer epidemiology from the last 50 years, as well as opportunities for future research directions. Long History of Leadership and Discovery

  2. Taking Leave?

    CERN Multimedia

    2000-01-01

    Planning a holiday? Then if you're a member of the personnel, you'll need to use the Laboratory's new leave system that will be put in place on 1 October. Leave allocations don't change - you are entitled to just as much holiday as before - but instead of being credited annually, your leave will be credited on a monthly basis, and this information will be communicated on your salary slip. The reason for the change is that with the various new leave schemes such as Recruitment by Saved Leave (RSL) and the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP), a streamlined procedure was required for dealing with all kinds of leave. In the new system, each member of the personnel will have leave accounts to which leave will be credited monthly from the payroll and debited each time an absence is registered in the CERN Electronic Document Handling system (EDH). Leave balances will appear on monthly pay slips, and full details of leave transactions and balances will be available through EDH at all times. As the leave will be c...

  3. Leaving Libya

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mc Kenzie-Brown, Peter

    2011-07-15

    Canadian workers in Libya have been leaving the country due to civic unrest. Canadian companies evacuated their expat employees in cooperation with the Canadian government, without regard to the financial aspect, to keep them safe. Canadian expats are optimistic about the future.

  4. Leaving Iraq?

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    It has been three years since the war in Iraq began, but the situation in the country, especially the security, has not improved much. Meanwhile, the world is wondering when U.S. troops will leave, and the American public appears to be getting impatient with the seemingly endless casualty reports. Some groups have held

  5. Absence and leave; sick leave. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-12-03

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations on the use of sick leave and advanced sick leave for serious communicable diseases, including pandemic influenza when appropriate. We are also permitting employees to substitute up to 26 weeks of accrued or accumulated sick leave for unpaid Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) leave to care for a seriously injured or ill covered servicemember, as authorized under the National Defense Authorization Act for Fiscal Year 2008, including up to 30 days of advanced sick leave for this purpose. Finally, we are reorganizing the existing sick leave regulations to enhance reader understanding and administration of the program.

  6. 5 CFR 630.503 - Leave from former leave systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leave from former leave systems. 630.503... AND LEAVE Recredit of Leave § 630.503 Leave from former leave systems. An employee who earned leave under the leave acts of 1936 or any other leave system merged under subchapter I of chapter 63 of...

  7. SAVED LEAVE BONUS

    CERN Multimedia

    Division des ressources humaines

    2000-01-01

    Staff members participating in the RSL programme are entitled to one additional day of saved leave for each full period of 20 days remaining in their saved leave account on 31 December 1999.Allowing some time for all concerned to make sure that their periods of leave taken in 1999 are properly registered, HR division will proceed with the crediting of the appropriate number of days in the saved leave accounts from 25 January 2000.Human Resources DivisionTel.73359

  8. Parental leave in Belgium

    OpenAIRE

    Maron, Leila; Meulders, Danièle; O'Dorchai, Sile Padraigin

    2008-01-01

    All over Europe, parental leaves are essentially taken by women which leads to perpetuate gender inequalities in the labour market. The economic literature illustrates the issues at stake and is presented in this article to contextualise the analysis of the Belgian parental leave system. The Belgian parental leave system has two strong features: it is individualised and it offers a relatively short leave. The system could be improved by the implementation of a wage-related payment. However, p...

  9. Leaving home in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Rikke Skovgaard

    2015-01-01

    The paper focuses on ethnic differences in the timing and patterns of leaving the parental home. Leaving home is a key transition in the life course of the individual, and extensive research has been conducted on the timing and patterns of leaving it. However, ethnic differences in these patterns...

  10. Negative leave balances

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1Â September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply. Â Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30Â September and/or 31Â December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates i...

  11. Negative leave balances

    CERN Document Server

    Human Resources Department

    2005-01-01

    Members of the personnel entitled to annual leave and, where appropriate, saved leave and/or compensatory leave are requested to take note of the new arrangements described below, which were recommended by the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) at its meeting on 1 September 2005 and subsequently approved by the Director-General. The changes do not apply to members of the personnel participating in the Progressive Retirement Programme (PRP) or the Part-time Work as a pre-retirement measure, for whom the specific provisions communicated at the time of joining will continue to apply.  Negative balances in annual leave, saved leave and/or compensatory leave accounts at the end of the leave year (30th September) and on the date on which bonuses are credited to the saved leave account (31st December): Where members of the personnel have a leave account with a negative balance on 30 September and/or 31 December, leave will automatically be transferred from one account to another on the relevant dates in or...

  12. The Temporary Leave Dilemma -

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2010-01-01

    Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers and whet......Lone mothers have to take care of a sick child with little or no help from the child’s other parent and have to carry all costs connected to leave-taking. This paper empirically tests whether lone mothers take more temporary parental leave to care for sick children than partnered mothers...

  13. Icephobicity of Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavehpour, H. Pirouz; Shirazi, Elika T.; Alizadeh-Birjandi, Elaheh

    2016-11-01

    Ice adhesion and excessive accumulation on exposed structures and equipment are well known to cause serious problems in cold-climate regions; therefore, the development of coatings that can resist icing can solve many challenges in various areas of industry. This work was inspired by nature and ice-resistivity and superhydrophobicity of plants leaves. Kale is an example of a plant that can be harvested in winter. It shows superhydrophobic behavior, which is normally known as an advantage for cleaning the leaves, but we were able to show that its surface structure and high contact angle of water drops on kale leaves could delay the ice formation process making it a good candidate for an ice-repellent coating. We have performed in-depth experimental analyses on how different plants can prevent icing, and contact angle measurements and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) of the leaves were taken to further mimic their surface morphology.

  14. TRAVEL AND HOME LEAVE

    CERN Multimedia

    Human Resources Division

    2002-01-01

    Administrative procedures for : Travel to the home station and home leave (hl) Additional travel to the home station (at) Travel to the home station and home leave for family reasons (hlf) As part of the process of simplifying administrative procedures, HR and AS Divisions have devised a new, virtually automatic procedure for payment of travel expenses to the home station. The changes are aimed at rationalising administrative procedures and not at reducing benefits. The conditions of eligibility are unchanged. The new procedure, which will be operational with effect from 1st June 2002, will greatly simplify the administrative processing of claims for travel expenses and the recording of home leaves. Currently, requests for payment are introduced manually into the Advances and Claims system (AVCL) by divisional secretariats. All travel to the home station starting prior to 1st June 2002 will be processed according to the existing system whereas that starting on 1st June and after will be processed accordi...

  15. REMINDER: Saved Leave Scheme (SLS)

    CERN Multimedia

    2003-01-01

    Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'* annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2003 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they ar...

  16. Leaves: Nature's Solar Collectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isabelle, Aaron D.; de Groot, Cornelis

    2009-01-01

    One of the most captivating things about plants is the way they capture the Sun's energy, but this can be a difficult topic to cover with elementary students. Therefore, to help students to make a concrete connection to this abstract concept, this series of solar-energy lessons focuses on leaves and how they act as "solar collectors." As students…

  17. 75 FR 70845 - Absence and Leave; Qualifying Exigency Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-11-19

    ...; ] OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 630 RIN 3206-AM11 Absence and Leave; Qualifying Exigency Leave AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Proposed rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management is issuing proposed regulations to implement an amendment to the Family and Medical Leave...

  18. 5 CFR 630.1117 - Procedures for returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... annual leave to emergency leave donors and leave banks. 630.1117 Section 630.1117 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1117 Procedures for returning unused donated annual leave to emergency leave...

  19. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    2014-01-01

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...... men’s negotiations of parental leave at work place level and secondly, to explore and discuss how Danish fathers construct leave practices – and individual male identities – in the workplace....

  20. Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22 B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the ...

  1. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Document Server

    HR Division

    2002-01-01

    Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'*) annual and compensatory leave (excluding saved leave accumulated in accordance with the provisions of Administrative Circular No. 22B) can be transferred to the saved leave account at the end of the leave year (30 September). We remind you that, since last year, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts is transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. Therefore, staff members have no administrative steps to take. In addition, the transfer, which eliminates the risk of omitting to request leave transfers and rules out calculation errors in transfer requests, will be clearly shown in the list of leave transactions that can be consulted in EDH from October 2002 onwards. Furthermore, this automatic leave transfer optimizes staff members' chances of benefiting from a saved leave bonus provided that they are still participants in the schem...

  2. Negotiating leave in the workplace

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bloksgaard, Lotte

    In Denmark leave entitlement is not only regulated by law but is also part of the various collective agreements established in the respective occupational sectors and at the local workplace level. Consequently, Danish fathers have very different leave entitlements, depending on the sector, branch...... and workplace in which they are employed. The paper focuses on fathers’ negotiations of parental leave in three large Danish work places, offering men different opportunities for leave. With a focus on the differences in the work place contexts/opportunities for leave, the aim of the paper is firstly to explore...... men’s negotiations of parental leave at work place level and secondly, to explore and discuss how Danish fathers construct leave practices – and individual male identities – in the workplace....

  3. [Precautionary maternity leave in Tirol].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ludescher, K; Baumgartner, E; Roner, A; Brezinka, C

    1998-01-01

    Under Austrian law, precautionary maternity leave is a decree issued by the district public health physician. It forbids a pregnant woman to work and mandates immediate maternity leave. Regular maternity leave for all women employed in all jobs begins at 32 weeks of gestation. Women who work in workplaces deemed dangerous and women with a history of obstetric problems such as premature or growth-retarded babies from previous pregnancies are regularly 'sent' into precautionary maternity leave. The public health physicians of Tirol's nine administrative districts were interviewed and supplied data on precautionary maternity leave from their districts. In 100 women who attended the clinic for pregnancies at risk of the Obstetrics/Gynecology Department of Innsbruck University Hospital and who had already obtained precautionary maternity leave, the medical/administrative procedure was studied in each case and correlated with pregnancy outcome. The town district of Innsbruck and the district that comprises the suburbs of the provincial capital had the highest rates of precautionary maternity leave. The town district of Innsbruck had a rate of 24.3% of all pregnant women (employed and not employed) in precautionary maternity leave in 1997, whereas the whole province of Tirol had 13.4%. More than 80% of decrees for precautionary maternity leave are issued by district public health physicians on the basis of written recommendations from gynecologists. One third of women who are sent into precautionary maternity leave are issued the decree prior to 12 weeks of gestation - mostly cases of multiple pregnancies and women with previous miscarriages. The present system of precautionary maternity leave appears to work in the sense that most working pregnant women with risk factors are correctly identified - with most errors on the side of caution. As the system also helps employers - the employee's pay is paid from the federal family support fund and state insurance once she is in

  4. 76 FR 60701 - Absence and Leave; Qualifying Exigency Leave

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-30

    ... / Friday, September 30, 2011 / Rules and Regulations#0;#0; ] OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT 5 CFR Part 630 RIN 3206-AM11 Absence and Leave; Qualifying Exigency Leave AGENCY: U.S. Office of Personnel Management. ACTION: Final rule. SUMMARY: The U.S. Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations...

  5. REMINDER Saved Leave Scheme (SLS) : Simplified procedure for the transfer of leave to saved leave accounts

    CERN Document Server

    HR Division

    2001-01-01

    As part of the process of streamlining procedures, the HR and AS Divisions have jointly developed a system whereby annual and compensatory leave will henceforth be automatically transferred1) to saved leave accounts. Under the provisions of the voluntary saved leave scheme (SLS), a maximum total of 10 days'2)Previously, every person taking part in the scheme has been individually issued with a form for the purposes of requesting the transfer of leave to the leave account and the transfer has then had to be done manually by HR Division. To streamline the procedure, unused leave of all those taking part in the saved leave scheme at the closure of the leave-year accounts will henceforth be transferred automatically to the saved leave account on that date. This simplification is in the interest of all parties concerned. This automatic transfer procedure has a number of advantages for participants in the SLS scheme. First, staff members will no longer have to take any administrative steps. Secondly, the new proced...

  6. 5 CFR 630.1003 - Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishing leave banks and leave bank... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1003 Establishing leave banks and leave bank boards. (a) Each agency that participates in the voluntary leave bank program shall, in accordance...

  7. New statement of leave format

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2009-01-01

    Following the communication of the Standing Concertation Committee published in Weekly Bulletin No. 18-19 of 27 April 2009, the current statement of leave on monthly pay slips has been replaced with the EDH Leave Transactions report that displays the up-to-date situation of individual leave balances at all times. The report is available on EDH. Additionally, the layout of the pay slip has been modernised. The new version of the pay slip will be send out from September 2009 onwards. Finance and Purchasing Department, Personnel Accounting Human Resources Department, Organisation and Procedures General Infrastructure Services Department, Administrative Information Services

  8. Key Obama officials leave administration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Showstack, Randy

    2013-01-01

    Secretary of the Interior Ken Salazar is one of the latest members of the Obama administration to announce that he is leaving his position near the start of President Obama's second term in office. Salazar, who has served as interior secretary since January 2009, intends to leave the department by the end of March, the department noted on 16 January. Salazar joins a number of other key officials who are planning to leave the administration. They include Environmental Protection Agency administrator Lisa Jackson, National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration administrator Jane Lubchenco, and U.S. Geological Survey director Marcia McNutt.

  9. 5 CFR 630.1204 - Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Intermittent leave or reduced leave schedule. 630.1204 Section 630.1204 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1204 Intermittent leave or reduced leave...

  10. 5 CFR 630.404 - Use of sick leave during annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of sick leave during annual leave. 630.404 Section 630.404 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.404 Use of sick leave during annual leave. Subject to §...

  11. 5 CFR 630.1203 - Leave entitlement.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Leave entitlement. 630.1203 Section 630.1203 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1203 Leave entitlement. (a) An employee shall be entitled to...

  12. Nutrient resorption from seagrass leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Stapel, J.; Hemminga, M.A.

    1997-01-01

    The resorption of nutrients (C, N and P) from senescent leaves of six seagrass species from nine different locations in tropical (Indonesia and Kenya), Mediterranean (Spain) and temperate (The Netherlands) regions has been investigated. Resorption was quantitatively assessed by calculating the diffe

  13. Watch out for the leaves!

    CERN Multimedia

    HSE Unit

    2013-01-01

    Now that autumn is here, dead leaves falling from the trees form a colourful carpet that is pleasing to the eye. However, the reality is less pleasant for pedestrians, since these leaves increase the risk of slipping and falling, especially when the ground is wet.   These conditions are also hazardous for two- and four-wheeled vehicles, whose grip on the ground can be severely reduced, thereby increasing the risk of them skidding out of control. Cyclists are among the most vulnerable road users when faced with these hazards. It is therefore essential to be alert to the dangers, which can be lessened by taking a few simple precautions such as moderating your speed and wearing suitable shoes. We also invite you to notify the Service Desk if you notice a road or pavement where there is a high concentration of dead leaves. The CERN Roads and Drainage Service will then ensure that the leaves are cleared in order to reduce the risk of accidents in the area.

  14. 5 CFR 630.1114 - Accrual of leave while using donated annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accrual of leave while using donated annual leave. 630.1114 Section 630.1114 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1114 Accrual of leave...

  15. Sick Leave and Subjective Health Complaints

    OpenAIRE

    Tveito, Torill Helene

    2007-01-01

    The aims of this thesis were to identify risk factors for high levels of sick leave and investigate what – if anything – can be done to reduce sick leave. What is the role of “subjective health complaints”, coping, and psychosocial work factors in relation to sick leave, and to what extent do these factors and the sick leave relate to quality of life? Are there any interventions with a documented effect on sick leave in the literature? Is it possible to influence sick leave thr...

  16. Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... patientinstructions/000867.htm Leaving the hospital - your discharge plan To use the sharing features on this page, ... once you leave. This is called a discharge plan. Your health care providers at the hospital will ...

  17. Smoking Leaves Lasting Marks on DNA: Study

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... fullstory_161060.html Smoking Leaves Lasting Marks on DNA: Study Changes related to disease found in more ... cigarettes can leave a lasting imprint on human DNA, altering more than 7,000 genes in ways ...

  18. 5 CFR 630.1015 - Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank and leave transfer programs. 630.1015 Section 630.1015 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1015...

  19. 5 CFR 630.1104 - Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donations from a leave bank to an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1104 Section 630.1104 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1104...

  20. 5 CFR 630.1013 - Participation in voluntary leave transfer and leave bank programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Participation in voluntary leave transfer and leave bank programs. 630.1013 Section 630.1013 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1013...

  1. 5 CFR 630.1009 - Use of annual leave withdrawn from a leave bank.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of annual leave withdrawn from a leave bank. 630.1009 Section 630.1009 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1009 Use of annual...

  2. 5 CFR 630.1004 - Application to become a leave contributor and leave bank member.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application to become a leave contributor and leave bank member. 630.1004 Section 630.1004 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1004 Application...

  3. Resource capture by single leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Long, S.P.

    1992-05-01

    Leaves show a variety of strategies for maximizing CO{sub 2} and light capture. These are more meaningfully explained if they are considered in the context of maximizing capture relative to the utilization of water, nutrients and carbohydrates reserves. There is considerable variation between crops in their efficiency of CO{sub 2} and light capture at the leaf level. Understanding of these mechanisms indicate some ways in which efficiency of resource capture could be level cannot be meaningfully considered without simultaneous understanding of implications at the canopy level. 36 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  4. On the Sharing of Temporary Parental Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Amilon, Anna

    2007-01-01

    This paper views temporary parental leave (leave from work to take care of a sick child) as a household public good, produced with time inputs of the parents as the only input. Assuming equal productivities in the production of temporary parental leave and equal utility functions of the spouses, ......-point of the female is found to push the intra household allocation of temporary parental leave towards greater sharing between the spouses. In addition, an increase in the insurance ceiling will further sharing of temporary parental leave in some families, while reducing it in others....

  5. Broad Leaves in Strong Flow

    CERN Document Server

    Miller, Laura

    2013-01-01

    Flexible broad leaves are thought to reconfigure in the wind and water to reduce the drag forces that act upon them. Simple mathematical models of a flexible beam immersed in a two-dimensional flow will also exhibit this behavior. What is less understood is how the mechanical properties of a leaf in a three-dimensional flow will passively allow roll up into a cone shape and reduce both drag and vortex induced oscillations. In this fluid dynamics video, the flows around the leaves are compared with those of simplified sheets using 3D numerical simulations and physical models. For some reconfiguration shapes, large forces and oscillations due to strong vortex shedding are produced. In the actual leaf, a stable recirculation zone is formed within the wake of the reconfigured cone. In physical and numerical models that reconfigure into cones, a similar recirculation zone is observed with both rigid and flexible tethers. These results suggest that the three-dimensional cone structure in addition to flexibility is ...

  6. Phytic acid in green leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hadi Alkarawi, H; Zotz, G

    2014-07-01

    Phytic acid or phytate, the free-acid form of myo-inositolhexakiphosphate, is abundant in many seeds and fruits, where it represents the major storage form of phosphorus. Although also known from other plant tissues, available reports on the occurrence of phytic acid, e.g. in leaves, have never been compiled, nor have they been critically reviewed. We found 45 published studies with information on phytic acid content in leaves. Phytic acid was almost always detected when studies specifically tried to detect it, and accounted for up to 98% of total P. However, we argue that such extreme values, which rival findings from storage organs, are dubious and probably result from measurement errors. Excluding these high values from further quantitative analysis, foliar phytic acid-P averaged 2.3 mg·g(-1) , and represented, on average, 7.6% of total P. Remarkably, the ratio of phytic acid-P to total P did not increase with total P, we even detected a negative correlation of the two variables within one species, Manihot esculenta. This enigmatic finding warrants further attention.

  7. RECRUITMENT FINANCED BY SAVED LEAVE (RSL PROGRAMME)

    CERN Document Server

    Division du Personnel; Tel. 73903

    1999-01-01

    Transfer to the saved leave account and saved leave bonusStaff members participating in the RSL programme may opt to transfer up to 10 days of unused annual leave or unused compensatory leave into their saved leave account, at the end of the leave year, i.e. 30 September (as set out in the implementation procedure dated 27 August 1997).A leave transfer request form, which you should complete, sign and return, if you wish to use this possibility, has been addressed you. To allow the necessary time for the processing of your request, you should return it without delay.As foreseen in the implementation procedure, an additional day of saved leave will be granted for each full period of 20 days remaining in the saved leave account on 31 December 1999, for any staff member participating in the RSL programme until that date.For part-time staff members participating in the RSL programme, the above-mentioned days of leave (annual, compensatory and saved) are adjusted proportionally to their contractual working week as...

  8. Role of leaves in phototropism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, S L; Leopold, A C

    1966-05-01

    Experiments with green seedlings of sunflower (Helianthus annuns L.) indicate the existence of a phototropic mechanism which involves the leaves or cotyledons, and which can produce an asymmetry of auxin content without the involvement of lateral auxin transport, the classic explanation of phototropism in etiolated seedlings. The basic lines of evidence for the leaf-mediated tropism are: 1) darkening of one cotyledon will cause curvature of the stem toward the lighted cotyledon: 2) the darkened cotyledon sustains an enhanced growth rate in the stem below it: 3) conversely, light suppresses the growth-stimulating effects of a single cotyledon: and 4) more diffusible auxin is obtained from the stem below darkened cotyledons than below lighted ones.

  9. A new class of non-leaves

    CERN Document Server

    Souza, Fábio S

    2011-01-01

    We give examples of open smooth manifolds that cannot be leaves of any Riemannian foliation of arbitrary codimension on a compact manifold. We also present a new class of non-leaves of C^0 codimension one foliations, simply connected manifolds of dimension at least 5 that are non-periodic in homotopy, namely in their 2-dimensional homotopy groups.

  10. 20 CFR 638.532 - Annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... regardless of the date of enrollment provided that the student was not AWOL or on administrative leave without pay from the date of enrollment. Accrual time shall begin on the day the student departs for a... only once per year of enrollment. (e) Students shall not be charged annual leave for travel time to...

  11. Recovery of protein from green leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tamayo Tenorio, Angelica; Gieteling, Jarno; Jong, De Govardus A.H.; Boom, Remko M.; Goot, Van Der Atze J.

    2016-01-01

    Plant leaves are a major potential source of novel food proteins. Till now, leaf protein extraction methods mainly focus on the extraction of soluble proteins, like rubisco protein, leaving more than half of all protein unextracted. Here, we report on the total protein extraction from sugar beet

  12. A Feminist Perspective on Parental Leave Policies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sallee, Margaret W.

    2008-01-01

    This article focuses on the ways that three feminist theories--liberal feminism, cultural feminism, and feminist poststructuralism--might be used to craft parental leave policies. After examining each theory in detail, the article concludes by offering one example of an ideal parental leave policy that combines the best features of each theory to…

  13. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Document Server

    DIVISION HR

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programs) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave. They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave a...

  14. INTRODUCTION OF A NEW LEAVE MANAGEMENT SYSTEM

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Division

    2000-01-01

    The introduction of new leave rules (arising from the RSL, PRP and other programmes) has made the present leave management system rather complicated and difficult to manage. It has therefore been decided to replace it with a more flexible and adaptable system, which will come into force on 1st October 2000. Henceforth, days of leave will be credited monthly instead of annually. Members of the personnel will have round-the-clock direct access to more detailed, confidential information regarding their various kinds of leave.They will also receive a personal monthly statement with their pay slips. The new system does not require any amendment of the regulations, except with respect to the frequency of leave calculations (monthly instead of annual). I. Main characteristics of the new leave system 1. The main feature of the new system is the creation of accounts to which leave will be credited or debited as appropriate. Depending on their circumstances, members of the personnel may have up to four individual leave...

  15. 5 CFR 550.1207 - Recrediting annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of title 5, United States Code, but is covered by a different leave system, the employing agency must... leave than can be recredited under the different leave system, the employee must refund only the amount... formal leave system to which his or her annual leave can be recredited, the employing agency...

  16. 5 CFR 630.502 - Sick leave recredit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... different leave systems under section 6308 of title 5, United States Code, 7 calendar days of sick leave are... leave system to which he or she can transfer only a part of his or her sick leave is entitled to a... employee returns to the leave system under which it was earned on or after December 2, 1994. (f)...

  17. 5 CFR 630.1206 - Notice of leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Notice of leave. 630.1206 Section 630.1206 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1206 Notice of leave. (a) If leave taken under § 630.1203(a)...

  18. 5 CFR 630.703 - Computation of shore leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of shore leave. 630.703 Section 630.703 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Shore Leave § 630.703 Computation of shore leave. (a) An employee earns shore leave at...

  19. Labour supply responses to paid parental leave

    OpenAIRE

    Karimi, Arizo; Lindahl, Erica; Skogman Thoursie , Peter

    2012-01-01

    Women account for the majority of parental leave take-up, which is likely one of the major reasons for the gender gap in income and wages. Consequently, many countries exert effort to promote a more gender equal division of parental leave. Indeed, the last decades have seen an increase in fathers’ take-up of parental leave benefits, but the gender earnings gap has remained fairly constant. In this paper we re-evaluate the labour supply responses of both mothers and fathers to three major refo...

  20. Phytochemical and antifungal activities of Uvaria. chamae leaves and roots, Spondias mombin leaves and bark and Combretum racemosum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okwuosa, O M T B; Chukwura, E I; Chukwuma, G O; Okwuosa, C N; Enweani, I B; Agbakoba, N R; Chukwuma, C M; Manafa, P O; Umedum, C U

    2012-12-01

    The effects of crude and dilutions of aqueous, methanolic and n-hexane extracts of Uvaria chamae (roots and leaves), Spondias mombin (leaves and bark) and Combretum racemosum (Leaves), on pathogenic candida albicans and aspergillus niger was studied. The aim was to contribute to the search for a cheaper, conventional cure for both fungi. Phytochemical analysis revealed varying degrees of alkaloids, glycosides, saponin, lipid and oil, tannins, flavonoids, terpenoids and acids. Agar diffusion method was used for anti fungal assay. Minimum inhibitory concentration (mic) used was 10 mg/ml of extract and dilutions of the non polar solvents of 10 (-1) and 10(-2) was used. Results showed that none of the plant parts was active against aspergillus niger. Combretum racemosum had no antifungal effect on tested organisms as well as the different dilutions. However crude methanolic extract of uvaria (roots and leaves), spondias ( bark and leaves ), and n-hexane extracts of uvaria (leaves and roots), produced anti candidal effects with diameters in this order 14.67 +/- 0.72mm, 10.67 +/- 0.52 mm, 11.00 +/- 0.47 mm, 15.00 +/- 0.47 mm, and 14.67 +/- 0.72 mm respectively. Some of the plant parts especially uvaria had zones of inhibition at a confidence limit comparable with control drug which is ketoconazole and it had inhibitory effects at a diameter of 20.06 +/- 0.40 mm.

  1. 5 CFR 630.1111 - Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... annual leave received by an emergency leave recipient. 630.1111 Section 630.1111 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1111 Limitation on the amount of donated annual leave received by an emergency...

  2. The Chromatography of Leaves and Inks.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chemecology, 1997

    1997-01-01

    Describes the use of a simple process known as chromatography to separate and observe the color pigments in leaves, inks, and other materials. Provides some historical background and detailed procedures. (DDR)

  3. Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinicke, Kenneth; Cybulski, Franz Wilhelm; Drews, Lea Vedel

    2005-01-01

    In the article it is argued that contemporary fatherhood and masculinity differ increasingly from hegemonic masculinity according to which men are primarily responsible for ensuring the financial basis of the family. The article “Fathers on Parental Leave in Denmark”, based on interviews with 15......, parental leave and domestic affairs. The article also demonstrates that the issue of parental leave may cause a conflict of interest between an employer and en employee although the majority of employers in this study emphasize that parental leave is unproblematic for them....... Danish men and 8 employers, shows that many men’s ideas about fatherhood and family responsibility tend to revolve around such aspects as close contact and involvement with children. However, it seems that men do not acknowledge fully the significance of gender for their decisions concerning the child...

  4. Anthelmintic activity of leaves of justicia beddomei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srinivasa, U; Rao, J Venkateshwara; Krupanidhi, A M; Shanmukhappa, S

    2007-01-01

    Ethanolic and Chloroform extract of leaves of Justicia beddomei were evaluated separately for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheretima posthuma, using Piperazine citrate as reference standard. The results indicated that ethanolic extract was more potent than the chloroform extract.

  5. Auxin level and regeneration of Begonia leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heide, O M

    1968-06-01

    As previously found, both the level of ether-extractable auxin (presumably indole-3-acetic acid) and the root-forming ability of B.xcheimantha leaves are increased under long-day conditions by high temperature, whereas the capacity for adventitious bud formation is reduced. However, this relation is present under relatively high light intensity only. Under the low light intensities in late fall neither auxin level nor regeneration ability were significantly affected by temperature.Dark treatment of detached leaves for 2 to 16 days greatly counteracted the inhibitory effect of high temperature on bud formation and reduced both the auxin level and the root-forming ability of the leaves.The great seasonal changes in the regeneration ability of Begonia leaves seem to be the result of a complex interaction of temperature, day-length, and daily light energy on the level of endogenous auxin and other growth regulators.

  6. Early School Leaving: Reasons and Consequences

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erika GYÖNÖS

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Early school leaving represents a loss of potential that has effects on both social and economic scale (reduced social cohesion, lower financial incomes, increase of social allocations. Early school leaving has various reasons that can be either social or economic. Due to the average statistics of the 27 countries of the European Union, in 2008 78,5% of the populations of these countries went to school regularly, whereas the same statistics applied for Romania showed an extent of 78,3%. The statistics of early school leaving showed some 14, 9% in the countries of the EU, whereas in Romania this index was higher (15, 9%. Sequel to some analyses we can state that there is a strong relationship between the variables named participation in education and early school leaving; more than that, there is a strong relationship between the extent of school studies completion and the rate of unemployment.

  7. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    HR Department

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new im-plementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme ...

  8. Short-Term Saved Leave Scheme

    CERN Multimedia

    2007-01-01

    As announced at the meeting of the Standing Concertation Committee (SCC) on 26 June 2007 and in http://Bulletin No. 28/2007, the existing Saved Leave Scheme will be discontinued as of 31 December 2007. Staff participating in the Scheme will shortly receive a contract amendment stipulating the end of financial contributions compensated by save leave. Leave already accumulated on saved leave accounts can continue to be taken in accordance with the rules applicable to the current scheme. A new system of saved leave will enter into force on 1 January 2008 and will be the subject of a new implementation procedure entitled "Short-term saved leave scheme" dated 1 January 2008. At its meeting on 4 December 2007, the SCC agreed to recommend the Director-General to approve this procedure, which can be consulted on the HR Department’s website at the following address: https://cern.ch/hr-services/services-Ben/sls_shortterm.asp All staff wishing to participate in the new scheme a...

  9. Cadmium accumulation in leaves of leafy vegetables.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldantoni, Daniela; Morra, Luigi; Zaccardelli, Massimo; Alfani, Anna

    2016-01-01

    Leafy vegetables have a relatively high potential for Cd uptake and translocation, and are thus considered Cd accumulators. For this reason, leaves and roots of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L.) and endive (Cichorium endivia L.) plants, grown on different agricultural soils in Campania region (southern Italy), subjected to different fertilisation treatments (unfertilisation, compost amendment and mineral fertilisation), were analysed for Cd concentrations. Moreover, to clarify if the highest concentrations found are linked to older and inedible or to younger and edible leaves, external and internal endive leaves were separately analysed. All the leafy vegetables analysed showed on average 2-fold higher Cd concentrations in leaves than in roots. Leaf Cd concentrations in both lettuce and endive plants significantly differed among fertilisation treatments, with values highest in the plants grown on mineral fertilised soils. Apart from the soil fertilisation treatments, however, Cd leaf concentrations were often higher (up to 4-fold) than the threshold deduced by the EU 420/2011 Regulation, although the plants grew on unpolluted soils. Anyway, external leaves of endive plants showed significantly higher concentrations than internal leaves (in some cases the values were 3-fold higher), partly reassuring on the consumption of the younger leaves. Moreover, this study points out two major drawbacks in the Italian and European regulatory frameworks: (1) metal concentration (as total and/or available fraction) limits in agricultural soils are lacking; (2) metal concentration thresholds (currently existing only for Cd and Pb in crops) reported in the EU 420/2011 Regulation, expressed on the fresh weight basis rather than on the dry weight basis, appear not suitable.

  10. Pharmacological Activities of ‘Chandrakhya’ Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ashish Singhai

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The herbal drug ‘Chandrakhya’ is commonly used in Indian traditional medicine for thousands of years. Various activities of its rhizome have been reported by several researchers but the studies on leaves are not yet reported. The aim of this study is to explore the analgesic, antibacterial and an antifungal activity of Zingiber officinale (ZO [Chandrakhya] leaves on albino rats. Aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Zingiber officinale leaves were selected at different doses and analgesic activity was evaluated by acetic acid induced writhing test and tail clip method. The anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity of the ZO leaves was evaluated by employing well diffusion method against S. aureus, E.coli, P.vulgaris and C. albicans. It was found that the aqueous and alcoholic extracts at the dose of 400mg/kg showed significant analgesic activity as well as shown significant anti-bacterial and anti-fungal activity at the dose of 40 mg/ml. The present study shows the usefulness of the leaves of Zingiber officinale and indicates that its alcoholic extract is more active than the aqueous extract in analgesic, antibacterial and antifungal activities.

  11. University Students Leaving Relationships (USLR): Scale Development and Gender Differences in Decisions to Leave Romantic Relationships

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hendy, Helen M.; Can, S. Hakan; Joseph, Lauren J.; Scherer, Cory R.

    2013-01-01

    The University Students Leaving Relationships scale was developed to identify student concerns when contemplating dissolution of romantic relationships. Participants included 1,106 students who rated the importance of issues when deciding to leave relationships. Factor analysis produced three dimensions: Missing the Relationship, Social…

  12. Uptake of perfluoroalkyl acids in the leaves of coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Huanhuan; Liu, Wei; He, Xin; Wang, Yu; Zhang, Qian

    2015-07-01

    Analytical methods for determining perfluoroalkyl acids (PFAAs) in leaves were developed to quantify a suite of analytes in both coniferous and deciduous broad-leaved trees. Sodium hydroxide-methanol and solid-phase extraction was selected as the extracting and cleanup strategy for PFAA analysis. Ten perfluorocarboxylic acids (PFCAs) and 4 perfluorosulfonic acids (PFSAs) were monitored in 7 kinds of leaves grown in the urban areas of Dalian, China. The results show that coniferous tree leaves take up more PFAAs than broad-leaved tree leaves, with the highest amount of 150 ng/g in pine needles. Leaf PFCA levels were much higher than PFSAs level. Short carbon-chain PFCAs with 3 to 6 perfluorinated carbons account for approximately 40% to 80% of the total leaf PFAAs, where uptake decreased with increasing carbon chain length. Temporal observation of leaf PFAAs revealed no significant variation of concentrations in the leaves over a weekly interval and the absence of significant seasonal change in pine needles and sophora. The present study provides some evidence for the accumulation of PFAAs in leaves, which is valuable for understanding their environmental behavior and the development of alternative bioindicator.

  13. Leaving home and leaving the state: evidence from the United States

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mulder, C.H.; Clark, W.A.V.

    2000-01-01

    Leaving the parental home is an important first step in a long-term housing career. We extend the previous research on this topic by examining the impact of housing market factors on the risks of leaving with or without a partner in the United States. We also re-examine the role of the income of the

  14. Rendering Falling Leaves on Graphics Hardware

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcos Balsa

    2008-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing interest in simulating natural phenomena in computer graphics applications. Animating natural scenes in real time is one of the most challenging problems due to the inherent complexity of their structure, formed by millions of geometric entities, and the interactions that happen within. An example of natural scenario that is needed for games or simulation programs are forests. Forests are difficult to render because the huge amount of geometric entities and the large amount of detail to be represented. Moreover, the interactions between the objects (grass, leaves and external forces such as wind are complex to model. In this paper we concentrate in the rendering of falling leaves at low cost. We present a technique that exploits graphics hardware in order to render thousands of leaves with different falling paths in real time and low memory requirements.

  15. Causes and Consequences of a Father's Child Leave: Evidence from a Reform of Leave Schemes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Helena Skyt

    Many OECD countries have implemented policies to induce couples to share parental leave. This paper investigates how responsive intra-household leave-sharing is to changes in economic incentives. To investigate this fundamental question, we are forced to look at one of the Nordic countries which...... are the most progressive when it comes to family-friendly policies. An extensive reform of child leave schemes in Denmark affected couples differently depending on whether the parents where employed in the same or in different parts of the public sector. Based on a difference-in-differences strategy, I find...... that economic incentives are very important for intra-household leave-sharing. Increasing the couples' after tax income by $9 per day of leave which is transferred from the mother to the father is found to lead to a one day transfer. This corresponds to a supply elasticity close to unity....

  16. 5 CFR 630.308 - Scheduling of annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scheduling of annual leave. 630.308 Section 630.308 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Annual Leave § 630.308 Scheduling of annual leave. (a) Except as provided in paragraph...

  17. 38 CFR 21.342 - Leave accounting policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 38 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave accounting policy. 21.342 Section 21.342 Pensions, Bonuses, and Veterans' Relief DEPARTMENT OF VETERANS AFFAIRS.... Chapter 31 Leaves of Absence § 21.342 Leave accounting policy. (a) Amount of leave. A veteran pursuing...

  18. 38 CFR 21.8340 - Leaves of absence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Purpose of leave of absence. The purpose of the leave system is to enable the child to maintain his or her status as an active program participant. (Authority: 38 U.S.C. 1804(c), 1814) (b) Basis for leave of... entitlement. During a leave of absence, VA suspends the running of the basic 24-month period of...

  19. 5 CFR 630.501 - Annual leave recredit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... annual leave is transferred between different leave systems under section 6308 of title 5, United States Code, or is recredited under a different leave system as the result of a refund under section 6306 of... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual leave recredit. 630.501...

  20. 5 CFR 831.302 - Unused sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... annuity is increased by the days of unused sick leave to his credit under a formal leave system. (b) An...) A formal leave system is one which is provided by law or regulation or operates under written rules... 5 Administrative Personnel 2 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Unused sick leave. 831.302 Section...

  1. 5 CFR 630.804 - Granting of funeral leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Granting of funeral leave. 630.804 Section 630.804 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Funeral Leave § 630.804 Granting of funeral leave. (a) An agency shall grant an...

  2. 5 CFR 630.401 - Granting sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Granting sick leave. 630.401 Section 630.401 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.401 Granting sick leave. (a) Subject to paragraphs (b) through (e) of...

  3. 5 CFR 630.1113 - Using donated annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Using donated annual leave. 630.1113 Section 630.1113 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1113 Using donated annual leave. (a) Any...

  4. 5 CFR 630.909 - Use of transferred annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of transferred annual leave. 630.909 Section 630.909 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.909 Use of transferred annual leave. (a) A...

  5. 5 CFR 630.1210 - Greater leave entitlements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Greater leave entitlements. 630.1210 Section 630.1210 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1210 Greater leave entitlements. (a) An agency shall...

  6. 5 CFR 630.1205 - Substitution of paid leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Substitution of paid leave. 630.1205 Section 630.1205 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Family and Medical Leave § 630.1205 Substitution of paid leave. (a) Except as provided...

  7. 5 CFR 630.704 - Granting shore leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Granting shore leave. 630.704 Section 630.704 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Shore Leave § 630.704 Granting shore leave. (a) Authority. (1) An employee has an absolute...

  8. 5 CFR 630.1109 - Donating annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Donating annual leave. 630.1109 Section 630.1109 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1109 Donating annual leave. An employee may...

  9. 5 CFR 630.906 - Transfer of annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer of annual leave. 630.906 Section 630.906 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.906 Transfer of annual leave. (a) An employee may submit...

  10. 5 CFR 630.605 - Computation of home leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Computation of home leave. 630.605 Section 630.605 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.605 Computation of home leave. (a) For each month of service abroad,...

  11. 5 CFR 630.606 - Grant of home leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Grant of home leave. 630.606 Section 630.606 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.606 Grant of home leave. (a) Entitlement. Except as otherwise authorized...

  12. 5 CFR 630.402 - Requesting sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Requesting sick leave. 630.402 Section 630.402 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.402 Requesting sick leave. An employee must file an application—written, oral,...

  13. 5 CFR 630.1108 - Use of available paid leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Use of available paid leave. 630.1108 Section 630.1108 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1108 Use of available paid leave. An...

  14. Studying chromium biosorption using arabica coffee leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Carlos Florez García

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available This work was aimed at providing an alternative for removing heavy metals such as chromium from waste water (effluent from the leather industry and galvanoplasty (coating with a thin layer of metal by electrochemical means, using coffee leaves as bio- mass. Using arabica coffee (Castle variety leaves led to 82% chromium removal efficiency for 1,000 mg/L synthetic dissolutions in 4 pH dissolution operating conditions, 0 rpm agitation, 0.149 mm diameter biomass particle size and 0.85 g/ml biomass / dissolution volume ratio.

  15. The effect of own and spousal parental leave on earnings

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Elly-Ann

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the effect of parental leave - both own and spousal - on subsequent earnings using different sources of variation. Using fixed-effect models, and in line with previous results, parental leave is found to decrease each parent's future earnings. Also spousal leave is important, but only for mothers. In fact, each month the father stays on parental leave has a larger positive effect on maternal earnings than a similar reduction in the mother's own leave. Using two reforms...

  16. A Response to Arguments against Mandated Parental Leave: Findings from the Connecticut Survey of Parental Leave Policies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Trzcinski, Eileen; Finn-Stevenson, Matia

    1991-01-01

    Analyzes arguments against mandated parental leave: that many firms voluntarily provide parental leave; that child care is what parents want; and that mandated parental leave will raise business costs. Presents data showing that less than 15 percent of Connecticut firms provided job-guaranteed parental leave and that most firms dealt with leaves…

  17. 5 CFR 630.1110 - Limitation on the amount of annual leave donated by an emergency leave donor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitation on the amount of annual leave donated by an emergency leave donor. 630.1110 Section 630.1110 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program §...

  18. Do junior doctors take sick leave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perkin, M R; Higton, A; Witcomb, M

    2003-09-01

    Nosocomial infections place a heavy burden on overstretched health services. An audit of junior doctors' sick leave behaviour was undertaken in 1993 and again in 2001. The object was to ascertain the level of common infectious illness and to investigate whether junior doctors were remaining at work inappropriately. The doctors were asked if any factors had influenced their decision to take sick leave or not. Between the two audits several initiatives have been introduced to improve the working conditions of junior doctors, including the New Deal to reduce hours of work. Eighty one junior doctors in a large teaching hospital participated in 1993 and 110 in 2001. The number reporting an infectious illness in the previous six months was similar (61.7% in 1993, 68.2% in 2001). There had been a significant increase in the percentage of infectious illness episodes for which the doctors took sick leave (15.1% in 1993, 36.8% in 2001, p work (72% in 1993, 68% in 2001). Consultant pressure was cited by 26% (1993) and 20% (2001). Use of the staff occupational health unit was minimal, with none of the ill doctors contacting the department in 1993 and only three in 2001. Overall, despite the reduction in the number of infectious doctors not taking sick leave, the majority remained at work. Fundamental changes are needed if potentially infected doctors are not to present a risk of iatrogenic infection.

  19. Fungi colonizing dead leaves of herbs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kowalik

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The material was collected from the Botanical Garden and the Collegium Medicum Medicinal Plant Garden of the Jagiellonian University in Krakow. The investigated species were: lemon balm (Mellisa officinalis L., common lavender (Lavendula angustifolia Mill., horsemint (Mentha longifolia L., sage (Salvia officinalis L., sweet basil (Ocimum basilicum L., and wild marjoram (Origanum vulgare L.. The aim of the investigation was to identify fungi causing the death of leaf tissues of herbs from the mint family Lamiaceae. In mycological investigations, 180 fragments of each plant leaves (1,080 dead leaf fragments in total were placed in a 2% PDA medium. Over 970 colonies of fungi belonging to 48 species were isolated from the dead leaf tissues of the six herb species. Alternaria alternata (toxin-producing, Epicoccum nigrum and Sordaria fimicola were the most frequently isolated. The largest numbers of colonies and species of fungi were isolated from horsemint, while the lowest numbers were from wild marjoram leaves. It was shown that the death of leaves of selected herb species from the Lamiaceae family was caused by various fungi. The results of the mycological analysis confirmed the diversity of species colonizing the leaves of the herbs.

  20. Epicuticular waxes and glaucousness of Encephalartos leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Osborne, R; Stevens, JF

    1996-01-01

    The epicuticular leaf waxes from four glaucous and four non-glaucous species of Encephalartos were examined by GC-mass spectrometry and SEM techniques. The four glaucous-leaved species, E. horridus, E. lehmannii, E. princeps and E. trispinosus, all occurring in xeric conditions in the Eastern Cape P

  1. Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves. Teachers' Manual.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, Tracy; And Others

    This is a guide for use with "Ladybugs and Lettuce Leaves" activity cards which are activities for elementary school students (grades 4 to 6) focusing on gardening. It includes educational objectives for each topic as well as lists of vocabulary words, comments, questions for discussion, additional activities, and resources. An interdisciplinary…

  2. Early school leaving and lifelong guidance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plant, Peter; Oomen, Annemarie

    Early school leaving (ESL) is costly for the individual, for society and for the economy. Not just in economic terms, but also in terms of low self esteem, and the risk of social exclusion. More, and, in particular, better education can lead to positive outcomes, in relation to employment, level...

  3. Sabbatical Leave: Who Gains and How Much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Oranit B.; Eden, Dov; Westman, Mina; Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Hammer, Leslie B.; Kluger, Avraham N.; Krausz, Moshe; Maslach, Christina; O'Driscoll, Michael; Perrewe, Pamela L.; Quick, James Campbell; Rosenblatt, Zehava; Spector, Paul E.

    2010-01-01

    A rigorous quasi-experiment tested the ameliorative effects of a sabbatical leave, a special case of respite from routine work. We hypothesized that (a) respite increases resource level and well-being and (b) individual differences and respite features moderate respite effects. A sample of 129 faculty members on sabbatical and 129 matched controls…

  4. Institutional Practices and Faculty Who Leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patton, Carl V.

    1983-01-01

    A variety of incentives offered to faculty to leave an institution in difficult financial circumstances are outlined. They include: liberalizing the actuarial pension reduction, lump-sum severance payments, annuity enhancements, phased retirement, retirement perquisites, retraining for outplacement, paid retraining, and earnings supplements during…

  5. Leave no trace in the outdoors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marion, Jeffrey L.

    2014-01-01

    The essential guide for enjoying the outdoors without harming the environment. - Details the seven core principles of Leave No Trace ethics and practices - Covers hiking, campfires, food storage, and personal hygiene - Endorsed by the USDI National Park Service, Bureau of Land Management, Fish & Wildlife Service, U.S. Geological Survey, and the USDA Forest Service

  6. Father's Rights to Paid Parental Leave in the Nordic Countries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rostgaard, Tine; Haas, L.

    2011-01-01

    European Union policy encourages men and women to share parental leave to balance work and family life and promote gender equality in the labor market. A new directive extends parental leave to four months and introduces a quota, so one month is reserved for each parent. This article explores...... to what extent government-provided, paid parental leave and quotas for fathers could bring about equality in the division of leave between men and women by focusing on the pioneers in the field, the Nordic countries – the first nations to offer fathers parental leave and introduce quotas. First, we...... describe the extent to which parental leave policies have been established and implemented in a way that is likely to promote equal sharing of leave. Next, we evaluate the impact of particular configurations of gender equality incentives in present parental leave policies for the actual division of leave...

  7. Don’t leave your baggage unattended

    CERN Multimedia

    2016-01-01

    “Don’t leave your baggage unattended” is a familiar request to anyone who travels by air, but it’s good advice wherever you may be.    At CERN, if an unattended bag is found anywhere on the site, the Fire and Rescue service will be called to evacuate the area, maintain a security perimeter for as long as necessary, and attempt to identify the owner. If the owner cannot be found in a reasonable amount of time, there’s a very strong chance that the bag will be destroyed. You can take two simple steps to avoid this fate: Don’t leave your baggage unattended;   Make sure that your contact details are clearly visible on the bag or suitcase so that, should you find yourself separated from it, you can easily be reunited.

  8. In vitro antimicrobial activity of olive leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markin, D; Duek, L; Berdicevsky, I

    2003-04-01

    We investigated the antimicrobial effect of olive leaves against bacteria and fungi. The microorganisms tested were inoculated in various concentrations of olive leaf water extract. Olive leaf 0.6% (w/v) water extract killed almost all bacteria tested, within 3 h. Dermatophytes were inhibited by 1.25% (w/v) plant extract following a 3-day exposure whereas Candida albicans was killed following a 24 h incubation in the presence of 15% (w/v) plant extract. Olive leaf extract fractions, obtained by dialysis, that showed antimicrobial activity consisted of particles smaller than 1000 molecular rate cutoffs. Scanning electron microscopic observations of C. albicans, exposed to 40% (w/v) olive leaf extract, showed invaginated and amorphous cells. Escherichia coli cells, subjected to a similar treatment but exposed to only 0.6% (w/v) olive leaf extract showed complete destruction. These findings suggest an antimicrobial potential for olive leaves.

  9. On the Motion of Falling Leaves

    CERN Document Server

    Razavi, Pedram

    2010-01-01

    This paper investigates the motion of falling leaves through modeling using papers and the corresponding data collected from more than four thousands experiments. Two series of experiments were designed in order to study the relationship between different parameters which can affect different paths of motion in leaves. In the first series of experiments, the shapes of the potential paths that falling papers can take were investigated as a whole. A new classification scheme was derived from these experiments, categorizing the motion of falling sheets of paper based on the deviation from the original point of release and the shape of the path they take on their descending journey. We believe this new classification scheme can be very useful with potential applications in various fields such as biology, meteorology, etc.; it can also build a foundation for further experiments. The second set of experiments was focused on the dynamics and shape of the motion of the falling paper itself. It was observed from these...

  10. Texture and Wettability of Metallic Lotus Leaves

    CERN Document Server

    Frankiewicz, Christophe

    2015-01-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of sup...

  11. Constituents of the leaves of Verbascum blattaria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Youn, I-Soo; Han, Ah-Reum; Roh, Mark S; Seo, Eun-Kyoung

    2015-03-01

    Phytochemical investigation of the dried leaves of Verbascum blattaria L. (Scrophulariaceae) led to the isolation and identification of five known compounds, E-harpagoside, laterioside, kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside, bis(2-ethylhexyl)phthalate, and (2S)-liquiritigenin. The structures of these compounds were determined by physical and spectroscopic data analysis. All compounds were isolated from V blattaria for the first time.

  12. Texture and wettability of metallic lotus leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frankiewicz, C.; Attinger, D.

    2016-02-01

    Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional coatings opens the way to large scale and robust manufacturing of superrepellent surfaces.Superhydrophobic surfaces with the self-cleaning behavior of lotus leaves are sought for drag reduction and phase change heat transfer applications. These superrepellent surfaces have traditionally been fabricated by random or deterministic texturing of a hydrophobic material. Recently, superrepellent surfaces have also been made from hydrophilic materials, by deterministic texturing using photolithography, without low-surface energy coating. Here, we show that hydrophilic materials can also be made superrepellent to water by chemical texturing, a stochastic rather than deterministic process. These metallic surfaces are the first analog of lotus leaves, in terms of wettability, texture and repellency. A mechanistic model is also proposed to describe the influence of multiple tiers of roughness on wettability and repellency. This demonstrated ability to make hydrophilic materials superrepellent without deterministic structuring or additional

  13. Photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kortschak, H.P.; Nickell, L.G.

    1973-01-01

    The photosynthetic carbon monoxide metabolism by sugarcane was studied to determine whether substantial quantities of CO are removed from the air by fields in Hawaii. Leaves metabolized low CO concentrations photosynthetically, with sucrose as an end product. Rates of uptake were of the order of 10/sup -4/ power mg/d sq m/hr. This was to low to be significant in removing CO from the atmosphere.

  14. Studies on Photosynthetic Characteristics of Plum Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Many photosynthetic characteristics of three plum varieties were studied with a infrared CO2 analyzer. Results showed that plums belong to light-loving species,having a relative high light compensation point (75~ 80μmol · m-2 · s-1 ), In natural light range from none to 1400μmol · m-2s-1PAR,the light response curve of plum as a hyperbo and the net photosynthetic rate(Pn) in leavs increased with PA elevation. Pn of plum tree was 20 to 22.50mg CO2 · dm-1 · h-1 at 1380μmol · m-2 · s-1 PAR,indicating that plum was typi cal C3-type fruit tree. Diurnal change in Pn was a bimoal curve with the highest photosynthetic rate arising at about 10:00 a. m. indicated the clear“none-rest”characteristic in plum leaves. Among three varieties. SuiLi3 had the shortest“none-rest“time followed by JiLin6 and NuXinLi. Seasonal change in Pn was a bi modal curve with the first period of high Pn in late June and the second in late August. Pn in leaves decreased visibly in period of drought in Spring and Summer.

  15. Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juheini Amin

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available Acute Toxicity of Justicia gendarussa Burm. Leaves. Preminelary experiment showed that ethanolic extract ofgandarusa leaves (Justicia gendarussa Burm. could decreased uric acid blood level on rats. The aim of this experimentwas to determine of the value LD50 and liver function based on activities of aminotransferase. Animals test which wereused in this experiment were 50 males and 50 females white mice. They were divided into 5 groups. Group 1 as controlgroup was given aquadest. Group 2-5 were treated by ethanolic extract of gandarusa leaves with dosage 4, 8, 16, and 32g/kg bw. The LD50 value was determined by the amount of death in group during 24 hours after giving a single dose oftest substance. The result showed that the highest dose was practically non toxic with LD50 value of 31.99 g/kg bw(male groups and 27.85 g/kg bw (female groups. Measurement of aminotransferase activity was done by usingcolorimetric method. The result of ANOVA analysis for liver function showed that the giving test substance 4 g/kg bw–16 g/kg bw was not significantly different between treated groups and control group.

  16. The cost of sickness: on the effect of the duration of sick leave on post-sick leave earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andersen, Signe Hald

    2010-05-01

    Studies analysing the effect of the duration of sick leave on subsequent labour market outcomes do not consider the potential endogenous relationship between duration and labour market outcomes. This paper deals with this shortcoming by using a consistent estimator attained through Instrumental Variables methods for estimating the effect of the duration of a sick leave spell on post-sick leave earnings. I use Danish administrative data and a major 2001 reform of the sick leave system as the instrument for duration. I find that the duration of a sick leave spell has both short and long term effects on post-sick leave earnings.

  17. 29 CFR 825.301 - Designation of FMLA leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the employer's failure to timely designate leave does not cause harm or injury to the employee. In all... alternative caregiver for the seriously-ill son or daughter if the leave had been designated timely....

  18. The Length of Maternity Leave and Family Health

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Beuchert-Pedersen, Louise Voldby; Humlum, Maria Knoth; Vejlin, Rune Majlund

    We study the relationship between the length of maternity leave and the physical and psychological health of the family. Using a reform of the parental leave scheme in Denmark that increased the number of weeks of leave with full benefit compensation, we estimate the effect of the lenght of mater......We study the relationship between the length of maternity leave and the physical and psychological health of the family. Using a reform of the parental leave scheme in Denmark that increased the number of weeks of leave with full benefit compensation, we estimate the effect of the lenght...... complement the existing evidence on maternity leave expansions that tends to find limited effects on children's later deveopmental, educational, and labor market outcomes. Our results suggest that any beneficial effects of increasing the lenght of maternity leave are greater for low-resource families....

  19. 77 FR 8959 - The Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-15

    ... leave and the costs, benefits, and impact on productivity of such policies. Title IV contains provisions... AFCTCA are: Sec. 825.110 (Eligible employee); Sec. 825.205 (Increments of FMLA leave for intermittent...

  20. 48 CFR 752.7031 - Leave and holidays.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    .... (e) Military leave. Military leave of not more than 15 calendar days in any calendar year may be... not limited to 1 year or less and who is a reservist of the United States Armed Forces, provided that such military leave has been approved in advance by the cognizant Mission Director or...

  1. 25 CFR 38.12 - Leave system for education personnel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 25 Indians 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Leave system for education personnel. 38.12 Section 38.12 Indians BUREAU OF INDIAN AFFAIRS, DEPARTMENT OF THE INTERIOR EDUCATION EDUCATION PERSONNEL § 38.12 Leave... under this part shall be credited to the employee's sick leave account under the system in §...

  2. Why Band Directors Leave: From the Mouths of Maestros

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheib, John W.

    2004-01-01

    This article discusses the results of a survey conducted by the author asking music teachers why they leave their jobs. The author compiled an e-mail survey and sent it to instrumental music teachers who were making plans to leave their jobs for new positions or to leave the music education profession entirely. In order to widen the pool of…

  3. 5 CFR 630.911 - Restoration of transferred annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Restoration of transferred annual leave. 630.911 Section 630.911 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.911 Restoration of transferred...

  4. STUDY OF ORGANIC ACIDS IN ALMOND LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lenchyk L.V.

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Introduction. Almond (Amygdalus communis is a stone fruit, from the Rosaceae family, closest to the peach. It is spread throughout the entire Mediterranean region and afterwards to the Southwestern USA, Northern Africa, Turkey, Iran, Australia and South Africa. It is sensitive to wet conditions, and therefore is not grown in wet climates. Iran is located in the semi-arid region of the world. Because of its special tolerance to water stress, almond is one of the main agricultural products in rainfed condition in Iran. Almond leaves have been investigated for their phenolic content and antioxidant activity. It was found that total antioxidant activity and phenolic compounds exhibited variations according to season, plant organ (leaf and stem and variety. Analysis of previous research on almonds focused on investigating compounds mostly in seeds and phenolic compounds in leaves, but organic acids in leaves have not been studied. Aim of this study was investigation of organic acids in leaves of almond variety which is distributed in Razavi Khorasan province of Iran. Materials and Methods. In August 2012 almond leaves were collected in Iran, dried and grinded. The study of qualitative composition and quantitative determination of carboxylic acids in almond leaves was carried out by gas chromatography with mass spectrometric detection. For determination organic acids content, to 50 mg of dried plant material in 2 ml vial internal standard (50 μg of tridecane in hexane was added and filled up with 1.0 ml of methylating agent (14 % BCl3 in methanol, Supelco 3-3033. The mixture was kept in a sealed vial during 8 hours at 65 °C. At this time fatty oil was fully extracted, and hydrolyzed into its constituent fatty acids and their methylation was done. At the same time free organic and phenolcarbonic acids were methylated too. The reaction mixture was poured from the plant material sediment and was diluted with 1 ml of distilled water. To extract methyl

  5. 29 CFR 825.310 - Certification for leave taken to care for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave).

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... servicemember (military caregiver leave). 825.310 Section 825.310 Labor Regulations Relating to Labor (Continued... for a covered servicemember (military caregiver leave). (a) Required information from health care provider. When leave is taken to care for a covered servicemember with a serious injury or illness,...

  6. ANTIOXIDANT EFFECT OF MAJORANA HORTENSIS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Palaniswamy Radha

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Free radicals can be generated in the biological systems in the form of reactive oxygen species which are harmful and these are removed by the antioxidant system in the body. Antioxidants protect us from free radicals that cause tissue damage, neurodegenerative diseases and cancer. Plants are a rich source of antioxidants. In the present study, Majorana hortensis, commonly called majoram was chosen as the candidate plant to determine the antioxidant potential. The enzymic activity and non-enzymic levels of the fresh leaves was determined proving the plant to be a potent source of antioxidants.

  7. Terpenoid constituents from leaves of Guarea kunthiana

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garcez, Fernanda R.; Garcez, Walmir S.; Bazzo, Rita de Cassia [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica]. E-mail: frgarcez@nin.ufms.br; Silva, Ana Francisca G. da [Universidade Estadual de Mato Grosso do Sul, Mundo Novo, MS (Brazil). Unidade Universitaria de Mundo Novo; Resende, Ubirazilda M. [Mato Grosso do Sul Univ., Campo Grande, MS (Brazil). Dept. de Biologia

    2004-10-01

    From leaves of Guarea kunthiana one new kaurene diterpene (ent-kaur-16-en-2-one) was isolated along with eight known diterpenes (ent-kaur-16-ene, ent-3{alpha}- and 3{beta}-hydroxykaur-16-ene, kolavelool, kolavenol, kolavenal, ent-13-epi-manoyloxide and (-)-nephthenol), four sesquiterpenes (alismol, alismoxide, spathulenol and 4{beta},10{alpha}-aromadendranediol), polyprenol-12 and {alpha}- and {delta}-tocopherols. Kolavenal is reported for the first time as a natural product, as well as the occurrence of cembrane- and ent-kaurane-type diterpenes in the Meliaceae. (author)

  8. Utilisation of vegetable leaves for carp production

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The results of two sets of experiments on mono-culture of grass carp (Ctenopharyngodon idella) and mixed culture of carps (grass carp 50 : catla 20 : rohu 15 : mrigal 15) fed exclusively with vegetable leaves are reported. The experiments were conducted with two replicates each in 0.02 ha ponds of Wastewater Aquaculture Division of the Central Institute of Freshwater Aquaculture, Rahara during 1991-93. Monoculture of grass carp stocked at 1000/ha demonstrated an average net production of 21.0...

  9. Gender codes why women are leaving computing

    CERN Document Server

    Misa, Thomas J

    2010-01-01

    The computing profession is facing a serious gender crisis. Women are abandoning the computing field at an alarming rate. Fewer are entering the profession than anytime in the past twenty-five years, while too many are leaving the field in mid-career. With a maximum of insight and a minimum of jargon, Gender Codes explains the complex social and cultural processes at work in gender and computing today. Edited by Thomas Misa and featuring a Foreword by Linda Shafer, Chair of the IEEE Computer Society Press, this insightful collection of essays explores the persisting gender imbalance in computing and presents a clear course of action for turning things around.

  10. Evolutionary biology. Chewed leaves reveal ancient relationship.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pennisi, E

    2000-07-14

    On page 291, researchers describe a new beetle fossil based not on traces of the insect skeleton but on the distinctive gouges the beetles left when they munched on 11 ginger leaves many millions of years ago. The chew marks of the newly described Cephaloleichnites strongi prove that leaf beetles underwent rapid evolution and diversification more than 65 million years ago, possibly taking advantage of (and perhaps influencing) the rapid diversification among flowering plants occurring at the same time. What's more, C. strongi represents the earliest known rolled-leaf beetle species, hundreds of which today still prefer just one of the ginger- and heliconia-like plants in the Zingiberales order.

  11. Ozone injury and infection of potato leaves by Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.; Glickman, M.

    1969-09-01

    Symptoms of ozone injury were observed on older leaves of potato cultivars Norland and Katahdin under experimental conditions. This symptom expression closely resembled flecks observed on potato leaves also blighted by Botrytis cinerea in the field. Inoculation of ozone-injured and noninjured potato leaves with B. cinerea showed that infection was more rapid and disease development more severe on ozone-injured leaves. Infection was frequently observed to originate in ozone-injured leaf areas. Ozone injury, under experimental conditions, appeared to increase the susceptibility of potato leaves to infection by B. cinerea. 6 references.

  12. Superexpression of tuberculosis antigens in plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dorokhov, Yuri L; Sheveleva, Anna A; Frolova, Olga Y; Komarova, Tatjana V; Zvereva, Anna S; Ivanov, Peter A; Atabekov, Joseph G

    2007-05-01

    Recent developments in genetic engineering allow the employment of plants as factories for 1/foreign protein production. Thus, tuberculosis (TB) ESAT6 antigen was expressed in different plant systems, but the level of vaccine protein accumulation was extremely low. We describe the technology for superexpression of TB vaccine proteins (Ag85B, ESAT6, and ESAT6:Ag85B fusion) in plant leaves which involves: (i) construction of tobacco mosaic virus-based vectors with the coat protein genes substituted by those for TB antigens; (ii) Agrobacterium-mediated delivery to plant leaf tissues of binary vectors containing the cDNA copy of the vector virus genome; and (iii) replication of virus vectors in plant cells under conditions suppressing the virus-induced gene silencing. This technology enables efficient production of the TB vaccine proteins in plants; in particular, the level of Ag85B antigen accumulation was not less than 800 mg/kg of fresh leaves. Expression of TB antigens in plant cells as His(6)-tagged proteins promoted their isolation and purification by Ni-NTA affinity chromatography. Deletion of transmembrane domains from Ag85B caused a dramatic increase in its intracellular stability. We propose that the strategy of TB antigens superproduction in a plant might be used as a basis for the creation of prophylactic and therapeutic vaccine against TB.

  13. Antiamnesic potential of Murraya koenigii leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasudevan, Mani; Parle, Milind

    2009-03-01

    Murraya koenigii leaves commonly known as curry patta are added routinely to Indian gravy and vegetarian dishes as a favorite condiment. The effects of Murraya koenigii leaves (MKL) on cognitive functions, total serum cholesterol level and brain cholinesterase activity in young and aged mice fed orally with a diet containing 2%, 4% and 8% w/w of MKL for 30 days consecutively, were investigated. The memory scores were measured using various exteroceptive and interoceptive behavioral models. The MKL diets produced a significant dose-dependent improvement in the memory scores of young and aged mice and significantly reduced the amnesia induced by scopolamine (0.4 mg/kg, i.p.) and diazepam (1 mg/kg, i.p.). Also, brain cholinesterase activity and total cholesterol levels were reduced by the MKL diets. The underlying mechanism of action for the observed nootropic effect may be attributed to pro-cholinergic activity and a cholesterol lowering property. Therefore, it would be worthwhile to investigate specifically the therapeutic potential of MKL in the management of Alzheimer patients.

  14. Bioactivities examination of Cinchona leaves ethanol extracts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Artanti, Nina; Udin, Linar Z.; Hanafi, M.; Jamilah, Kurniasih, Ida Rahmi; Primahana, Gian; Anita, Yulia; Sundowo, Andini; Kandace, Yoice Sri

    2017-01-01

    Cinchona species especially the barks are commonly known for commercial production of quinine as antimalarial. Although it is also reported for treatment of depurative, whooping cough, influenza and dysentery. In this paper we reported in vitro examination of other bioactivities (antidiabetes, antioxidant and in vitro cytotoxicity) of 70% ethanol extract of Cinchona ledgeriana and C. succirubra leaves as well as qunine, quinidine, and cinchonine the major alkaloids found in Cinchona species. Antidiabetes was conducted using α-glucosidase inhibitory activity assay. Antioxidant was conducted using DPPH free radical scavenging activity assay. In vitro cytotoxic activity was concucted by microscopic observation on growth of breast cancer cell line MCF-7. The results showed that at concentration of 100 µg/ml, C. ledgeriana leaves ethanol extracts showed the best activity as antidiabetes (98% inhibitory of α-glucosidase activity) and antioxidant (92% DPPH free radical scavenging activity), whereas at the same concentration C. succirubra, quinine, quinidine and cinchonine showed very low activities of antidiabetes and antioxidant. Microscopic observation of in vitro cytotoxicity showed that C. ledgeriana also has excellent cytotoxicity to breast cancer cell line MCF-7 which better than quinine, quinidine and cinchonine, whereas C. succirubra showed low cytotoxicity. These results suggest that cinchona species have many potential as the source of drugs discovery and development other than just for malaria treatment. Therefore it is important to conduct further studies and to maintain the available Cinchona plantation in Indonesia.

  15. Sabbatical leave: who gains and how much?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davidson, Oranit B; Eden, Dov; Westman, Mina; Cohen-Charash, Yochi; Hammer, Leslie B; Kluger, Avraham N; Krausz, Moshe; Maslach, Christina; O'Driscoll, Michael; Perrewé, Pamela L; Quick, James Campbell; Rosenblatt, Zehava; Spector, Paul E

    2010-09-01

    A rigorous quasi-experiment tested the ameliorative effects of a sabbatical leave, a special case of respite from routine work. We hypothesized that (a) respite increases resource level and well-being and (b) individual differences and respite features moderate respite effects. A sample of 129 faculty members on sabbatical and 129 matched controls completed measures of resource gain, resource loss, and well-being before, during, and after the sabbatical. Among the sabbatees, resource loss declined and resource gain and well-being rose during the sabbatical. The comparison group showed no change. Moderation analysis revealed that those who reported higher respite self-efficacy and greater control, were more detached, had a more positive sabbatical experience, and spent their sabbatical outside their home country enjoyed more enhanced well-being than others.

  16. Role of Leaves in Phototropism 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lam, Shue-Lock; Leopold, A. C.

    1966-01-01

    Experiments with green seedlings of sunflower (Helianthus annuns L.) indicate the existence of a phototropic mechanism which involves the leaves or cotyledons, and which can produce an asymmetry of auxin content without the involvement of lateral auxin transport, the classic explanation of phototropism in etiolated seedlings. The basic lines of evidence for the leaf-mediated tropism are: 1) darkening of one cotyledon will cause curvature of the stem toward the lighted cotyledon: 2) the darkened cotyledon sustains an enhanced growth rate in the stem below it: 3) conversely, light suppresses the growth-stimulating effects of a single cotyledon: and 4) more diffusible auxin is obtained from the stem below darkened cotyledons than below lighted ones. PMID:16656329

  17. Flavonoids from leaves of Mauritia flexuosa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Djalma M. de Oliveira

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available The chromatographic fractionation of the Mauritia flexuosa L. f., Arecaceae, leaves extract, a plant known by the name of buriti palm tree, resulted in the isolation of six flavonoids: tricin-7-O-rutinoside, apigenin-6-C-arabinoside, 8-C-glucoside (isoschaftoside, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside (nicotiflorine, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (rutin, luteolin-8-C-glucoside (orientin and luteolin-6-C-glucoside (isoorientin. The flavonoids were found out and previously reported as constituents of the Arecaceae family plants, but the occurrence of C-glucoside flavonoids, in the species being analyzed, is described for the first time on this study. The structural elucidations of all of the isolated compounds were performed by means of the comparison of their spectral data (¹H and 13C NMR, UV and ESI-MS with those ones of the literature.

  18. Modeling Leaves Based on Real Image

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Yu-kun; LI Yun-feng; ZHU Qing-sheng; LIU Yin-bin

    2004-01-01

    Plants have complex structures. The shape of a plant component is vital for capturing the characteristics of a species. One of the challenges in computer graphics is to create geometry of objects in an intuitive and direct way while allowing interactive manipulation of the resulting shapes. In this paper,an interactive method for modeling leaves based on real image is proposed using biological data for individual plants. The modeling process begins with a one-dimensional analogue of implicit surfaces,from which a 2D silhouette of a leaf is generated based on image segmentation. The silhouette skeleton is thus obtained. Feature parameters of the leaf are extracted based on biologically experimental data, and the obtained leaf structure is then modified by comparing the synthetic result with the real leaf so as to make the leaf structure more realistic. Finally, the leaf mesh is constructed by sweeps.

  19. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL PROFILE OF PAEDERIA FOETIDA LINN. LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinesh Kumar Chellappan

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Paederia foetida Linn. (P. foetida are commonly known as skunk vine or Chinese fever vine, are used for various ailments medicinally throughout Asia and other tropical parts of the world by traditional healers. The plant is mainly used for arthritis and rheumatic disorders. The whole plant shows tonic, astringent and antiphlogistic actions and has been used in tenesmus. This present work presents a detailed pharmacognostical study of the leaf of the crude drug P. foetida. The samples were studied using procedures of light, confocal microscopy, WHO recommended physico-chemical determinations and authentic phytochemical procedures. The physico-chemical, morphological and histological parameters presented in this study may be proposed as parameters to establish the authenticity of P. foetida and may possibly help to differentiate the drug from its adulterants.

  20. Steroids from Dysoxylum grande (Meliaceae) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wah, Low Kok; Abas, Faridah; Cordell, Geoffrey A; Ito, Hideyuki; Ismail, Intan Safinar

    2013-02-01

    Seven new 23-oxo-cholestane derivatives named as grandol A (1), B (2), C (3), D (4), E (5), F (6), and G (7) were isolated from Dysoxylum grande leaves alongside with a new 3,4-secodammar-4(28)-en-3-oic acid derivative (8). The structures of the compounds were elucidated based on the interpretation of spectroscopic data, and their relative configurations were established by NOESY 2D NMR data. All of the isolates were tested for anti-acetylcholinesterase activity using thin layer chromatography (TLC)-bioautography with fast blue B salt. Only grandol A (1) and B (2) showed positive results, with clear discoloration at a concentration of 12.5 ppm. However, the obtained IC(50) values for grandol A and B, when using Ellman's method, were not significant (>200 μg/ml).

  1. Photoperiodic flowering: time measurement mechanisms in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Hun; Shim, Jae Sung; Kinmonth-Schultz, Hannah A; Imaizumi, Takato

    2015-01-01

    Many plants use information about changing day length (photoperiod) to align their flowering time with seasonal changes to increase reproductive success. A mechanism for photoperiodic time measurement is present in leaves, and the day-length-specific induction of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene, which encodes florigen, is a major final output of the pathway. Here, we summarize the current understanding of the molecular mechanisms by which photoperiodic information is perceived in order to trigger FT expression in Arabidopsis as well as in the primary cereals wheat, barley, and rice. In these plants, the differences in photoperiod are measured by interactions between circadian-clock-regulated components, such as CONSTANS (CO), and light signaling. The interactions happen under certain day-length conditions, as previously predicted by the external coincidence model. In these plants, the coincidence mechanisms are governed by multilayered regulation with numerous conserved as well as unique regulatory components, highlighting the breadth of photoperiodic regulation across plant species.

  2. Anatomical structure of moss leaves and their photosynthetic activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krupa

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The photosynthetic activity of the leaf area unit increases depending on the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure of the leaves of six chosen moss species. There is a correlation between the leaf area and the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure resulting in enlargement of the area of contact of the assimilating cells with air. The leaves of Catharinea undulata having a one-layer blade and provided with several lamellae show a higher photosynthesis per 1 cm2 of their surface than the one-layer leaves of Mniurnm or Funaria. Aloina leaves are the smallest in area among those of the moss species discussed, however, their photosynthetic rate is almost 4.5 times higher than in Funaria leaves. By analogy to the structure of leaves and their function in vascular, plants, these changes and correlations may be considered as attempts of primeval adaptation of mosses to terrestrial conditions of living.

  3. 5 CFR 630.1304 - Receipt, processing, and transfer of leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... leave. 630.1304 Section 630.1304 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Reservist Leave Bank Program § 630.1304 Receipt, processing, and transfer of leave. (a) Each agency shall accept annual leave contributed to the reservist leave bank by...

  4. 5 CFR 630.1005 - Limitations on contribution of annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... leave. 630.1005 Section 630.1005 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1005 Limitations on contribution of annual leave. (a) In any one leave year, a leave contributor may contribute no more than a total of one-half...

  5. 5 CFR 630.403 - Supporting evidence for the use of sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... leave. 630.403 Section 630.403 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.403 Supporting evidence for the use of sick leave. (a) An agency may grant sick leave only when the need for sick leave is supported by administratively...

  6. 5 CFR 630.1115 - Limitations on the use of donated annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... leave. 630.1115 Section 630.1115 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1115 Limitations on the use of donated annual leave. Donated annual leave transferred to a leave recipient under this subpart may not be—...

  7. Isolation of mesophyll protoplasts from mature leaves of soybeans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, W

    1983-12-01

    A procedure based on a combined cellulase-Pectolyase Y-23 enzyme digestion and metrizamide-sorbitol gradient purification protocol was developed for isolating mesophyll protoplasts from mature leaves of soybean (Glycine max L. Merr.). Based on chlorophyll content, this procedure results in a 10 to 15% protoplast yield from fully expanded mature leaves and a 20 to 30% yield from young (expanding) leaves within 3 hours. Isolated protoplasts displayed high rates of HCO(3) (-)-dependent photosynthesis; greater than 75 micromoles O(2) evolved per milligram chlorophyll per hour at 25 degrees C. This photosynthetic rate is comparable to that of mesophyll cells isolated mechanically from the same leaves.

  8. Disabled Veteran Leave and Other Miscellaneous Changes. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-08-05

    The Office of Personnel Management is issuing final regulations to implement the Wounded Warriors Federal Leave Act of 2015, which establishes a separate new leave category, to be known as "disabled veteran leave," available during a 12-month period beginning on the first day of employment to be used by an employee who is a veteran with a service-connected disability rated at 30 percent or more for purposes of undergoing medical treatment for such disability. We are also rescinding two obsolete leave-related regulations.

  9. Responce of leaves of three plant species to aluminium stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Agata Konarska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Water culture experiments were undertaken for 14 days to examine the effect of increasing aluminum level (0, 10, 20 40 mg·dm-3 AlCl3·6 H2O on growth of sunflower, red pepper and radish leaves. The early stage of Al toxicity was characterized by curling or rolling of young leaves, marginal and veinal chlorosis, dark green leaves as soon as purpling of margins and veins of leaves. Reduction of leaf size and increased stomata density were observed with increasing Al concentration. Additionally, length of stomata cells decreased after Al-treatment.

  10. GPs' negotiation strategies regarding sick leave for subjective health complaints

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsen, Stein Tore; Malterud, Kirsti; Werner, Erik L.

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: To explore general practitioners ’(GPs’) specific negotiation strategies regarding sick-leave issues with patientssuffering from subjective health complaints. Design: Focus-group study. Setting: Nine focus-group interviews in three citiesin different regions of Norway. Participants: 48...... to sick leave. Conclusions and implications: GPs seem to have a conscious approach to negotiations of sickness certification, as they report applying specific strategies to limit the duration of sick leave due to subjective health complaints. This give-and-take way of handling sick leave negotiations has...

  11. Oil from Tobacco Leaves: FOLIUM - Installation of Hydrocarbon Accumulating Pathways in Tobacco Leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2012-01-01

    PETRO Project: LBNL is modifying tobacco to enable it to directly produce fuel molecules in its leaves for use as a biofuel. Tobacco is a good crop for biofuels production because it is an outstanding biomass crop, has a long history of cultivation, does not compete with the national food supply, and is highly responsive to genetic manipulation. LBNL will incorporate traits for hydrocarbon biosynthesis from cyanobacteria and algae, and enhance light utilization and carbon uptake in tobacco, improving the efficiency of photosynthesis so more fuel can be produced in the leaves. The tobacco-generated biofuels can be processed for gasoline, jet fuel or diesel alternatives. LBNL is also working to optimize methods for planting, cultivating and harvesting tobacco to increase biomass production several-fold over the level of traditional growing techniques.

  12. Parental leave for residents and pediatric training programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-02-01

    The American Academy of Pediatrics (AAP) is committed to the development of rational, equitable, and effective parental leave policies that are sensitive to the needs of pediatric residents, families, and developing infants and that enable parents to spend adequate and good-quality time with their young children. It is important for each residency program to have a policy for parental leave that is written, that is accessible to residents, and that clearly delineates program practices regarding parental leave. At a minimum, a parental leave policy for residents and fellows should conform legally with the Family Medical Leave Act as well as with respective state laws and should meet institutional requirements of the Accreditation Council for Graduate Medical Education for accredited programs. Policies should be well formulated and communicated in a culturally sensitive manner. The AAP advocates for extension of benefits consistent with the Family Medical Leave Act to all residents and interns beginning at the time that pediatric residency training begins. The AAP recommends that regardless of gender, residents who become parents should be guaranteed 6 to 8 weeks, at a minimum, of parental leave with pay after the infant's birth. In addition, in conformance with federal law, the resident should be allowed to extend the leave time when necessary by using paid vacation time or leave without pay. Coparenting, adopting, or fostering of a child should entitle the resident, regardless of gender, to the same amount of paid leave (6-8 weeks) as a person who takes maternity/paternity leave. Flexibility, creativity, and advanced planning are necessary to arrange schedules that optimize resident education and experience, cultivate equity in sharing workloads, and protect pregnant residents from overly strenuous work experiences at critical times of their pregnancies.

  13. Defensive Sesquiterpenoids from Leaves of Eupatorium adenophorum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石伟; 骆世洪; 黎胜红

    2012-01-01

    The invasive plant Eupatorium adenophorum Spreng has caused great economic loss in China, and is gravely threatening the native biodiversity and ecosystem. The plant has been phytochemically investigated for the defen- sive chemical substances in its leaves. Three active sesquiterpenoids were isolated and identified, which include a new sesquiterpenoid (1), and two known sesquiterpenoids (2, 3). Their structures were established by spectroscopic studies such as 1D- and 2D-NMR and MS analyses. Meanwhile, the antifeedant activities of these compounds against two generalist plant-feeding insects, Helicoverpa armigera and Spodoptera exigua, were carried out. Com- pound 1 showed significant antifeedant activity against S. exigua with ECs0 = 7.46 μg/cm^2, while compounds 2 and 3 were more active against H. armigera (EC50=2.57 and 3.04 μg/cm^2 respectively). These findings suggest a de- fensive role of sesquiterpenoids in E. adenophorum against herbivores.

  14. Ensilage of cardboard and date palm leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baroon, Z; El-Nawawy, A S; Al-Othman, A

    2004-01-01

    Eight treatments of cardboard (CB) and date palm leaves (DPL) with or without alkali treatments plus molasses, dates, and ammonium sulfate were ensiled in laboratory silos. Latobacillus plantarum and Saccharomyces cerevisiae inoculants were added at an application rate of 10(5) cfu/g of silage to study their possible influence on the fermentation process. Silos were sealed and incubated at 30 degrees C. The anaerobic ensiling was evaluated for chemical and microbiological variables by opening the silos after 30, 60, and 90 days. After 90 days, significantly low pH values (5.2-3.5) were obtained. The percentages of hemicellulose, cellulose, lignin, and ash were determined. Concentrations of reducing sugars, ether extract, and crude protein tended to be acceptable among treatments. Silages showed a significantly high lactic acid concentration (up to 4.3%) and only traces of butyric acid (below 1%). Also changes in acetic and propionic acids concentrations were determined. Lactobacillus populations remained almost static while yeast and molds populations tended to be lower after 90 days of ensilage. Neither alkali treatment nor microbial inoculants showed a relationship with the ensiling process. Thus, overall, it was concluded that CB and DPL can be effectively ensiled and the resultant silages are acceptable to merit their use as ruminant feed in arid regions.

  15. Phytotoxins from the leaves of Ruta graveolens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hale, Amber L; Meepagala, Kumudini M; Oliva, Anna; Aliotta, Giovanni; Duke, Stephen O

    2004-06-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the ethyl acetate extract of Ruta graveolens (common rue) leaves led to the isolation of the furanocoumarins 5-methoxypsoralen (5-MOP), 8-methoxypsoralen (8-MOP), and the quinolone alkaloid graveoline as phytotoxic constituents. Graveoline and 8-MOP substantially inhibited growth of Lactuca sativa (lettuce) seedlings and reduced chlorophyll content at 100 microM; this effect was not due to a direct effect on chlorophyll synthesis. Radical growth of L. sativa was inhibited by 10 microM 8-MOP. Graveoline inhibited growth of Lemna paucicostata (duckweed) at 100 microM. This is the first report of the phytotoxic activity of graveoline. Growth of Agrostis stolonifera (bentgrass) was inhibited by 5-MOP at 30 microM. All three compounds substantially reduced cell division in Allium cepa (onion) at or below 100 microM. None of the compounds caused significant cellular leakage of Cucumis sativus (cucumber) cotyledon disks at 100 microM. All three compounds inhibit plant growth, at least partially through inhibition of cell division.

  16. ANTIDIARRHOEAL ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF ACORUS CALAMUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mayur D. Kapadia et al

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available In developing countries, the majority of people living in rural areas almost exclusively use traditional medicines to treat all sorts of diseases including diarrhea. Many plants namely Andrographis paniculata, Acacia catechu, Acacia chandra, Terminalia chebula, Pterocarpus marsapium, Cassia auriculata etc. available in india are used in traditional folklore medicine for the treatment of diarrhea. Diarrhoea is a comman cause of illness resulting in high mortality in developing countries worldwide distribution of diarrhoea accounts for more than 5-8 millions deaths each year. It thus becomes important to identify and evaluate scientifically the antidiarrhoeal effects of leaves of Acorus calamus against castor oil induced dirrhoea. Methanolic Extract was studied for antidiarrhoeal potential using wistar rats and loperamide as a standard. Extracts were administered orally to test animals. Stools were collected upto 4 hrs in transparent plastic dishes of uniform weight. Urine was drained off by gravity every 15 mins. during the 4 hrs. diarrhoeal free period, acute diarrhoea and late diarrhoeal excretions were noted. Gastrointestinal motility test also performed. Methanolic extract showed promising antidiarrhoeal activity which valid its traditional claim. Methanolic extract (400mg/kg showed control wet feaces (0.98±0.35 and more diarrhoeal period.

  17. The energetic characterization of pineapple crown leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, R M; Queiroga, T S; Calixto, G Q; Almeida, H N; Melo, D M A; Melo, M A F; Freitas, J C O; Curbelo, F D S

    2015-12-01

    Energetic characterization of biomass allows for assessing its energy potential for application in different conversion processes into energy. The objective of this study is to physicochemically characterize pineapple crown leaves (PC) for their application in energy conversion processes. PC was characterized according to ASTM E871-82, E1755-01, and E873-82 for determination of moisture, ash, and volatile matter, respectively; the fixed carbon was calculated by difference. Higher heating value was determined by ASTM E711-87 and ash chemical composition was determined by XRF. The thermogravimetric and FTIR analyses were performed to evaluate the thermal decomposition and identify the main functional groups of biomass. PC has potential for application in thermochemical processes, showing high volatile matter (89.5%), bulk density (420.8 kg/m(3)), and higher heating value (18.9 MJ/kg). The results show its energy potential justifying application of this agricultural waste into energy conversion processes, implementing sustainability in the production, and reducing the environmental liabilities caused by its disposal.

  18. Occupational exposures and sick leave during pregnancy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Mette Lausten; Thulstrup, Ane Marie; Juhl, Mette

    2015-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: This study aimed to investigate associations between work postures, lifting at work, shift work, work hours, and job strain and the risk of sick leave during pregnancy from 10-29 completed pregnancy weeks in a large cohort of Danish pregnant women. METHODS: Data from 51 874 pregnancies...... in the Danish National Birth Cohort collected between 1996-2002 were linked to the Danish Register for Evaluation of Marginalization. Exposure information was based on telephone interviews. Hazard ratios (HR) with 95% confidence intervals (95% CI) were calculated by Cox regression analysis, using time of first.......73-2.09, HRnight 1.52, 95% CI 1.15-2.01), monthly night shifts HRtrend 1.12, 95% CI 1.11-1.14, increasing weekly work hours HRtrend 0.93, 95% CI 0.91-0.95 and high job strain HR 1.52, 95% CI 1.42-1.63. Some exposures influenced HR in either a positive or negative time-dependent way. CONCLUSION: Our results support...

  19. Nematicidal isochromane glycoside from Kigelia pinnata leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olubunmi ATOLANI

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Synthetic nematicides such as oxamyl and carbofuran play significant roles in the management of plant-parasitic nematodes. However, their negative environmental impacts have it imperative to search for safer alternatives. As part of our contribution in the search for bio-nematicides, compounds from plant extract were screened for possible potent nematicidal agent. A new isochromane carboxylic acid glycoside, isolated from the leaves of Kigelia pinnata (Lam. Benth (Bignoniaceae was evaluated for its nematicidal activity. The structure of the proposed compound was characterized by various spectroscopic methods, which included UV, FTIR, 1D-, and 2D-NMR, FAB-MS, TOF-ESI-MS and TOF-ESI-MS/MS (TANDEM. The in vitro experiment conducted on the glycoside against Meloidogyne incognita juveniles and eggs indicated an induced mortality. Its activity can be compared favourably with oxamyl, when tested at 0.1 mg/mL concentration. At four hours of observation, no significant difference (P < 0.05 between oxamyl and the glycoside was observed. The present data sustains that natural glycoside is a promising oxamyl alternate for controlling nematode-induced plant root knots and may contribute to integrated pest management.

  20. Pharmacognostical analysis of Naringi crenulata leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Subramanian Sampathkumar; N Ramakrishnan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To analyse the pharmacognostical characters of an important medicinal plant Naringi crenulataMethods: The Pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic or morphological characters, macroscopic studies, physico-chemical evaluation, phytochemical screening and fluorescence analysis of powdered crude drug were carried out. Results: The phytochemical studies of the ethanolic extract showed the presence of tannins, phenols, flavonoids, saponin, quinine, protein, lipid and Triterpenoid, Alkaloids Anthraquinones were not detected. The physico-chemical analysis of the leaves revealed a composition of 19.46% total ash value, 15.24% alcohol soluble extractive value, 61.02% water soluble extractive value, 51.49% acid insoluble ash value and 56.69% crude fibre content. Conclusions:These studies provide referential information for correct identification and standardization ofNaringi crenulata. On the basis of various pharmacognostic parameters and the determination of these characters will aid future investigators in their pharmacological analysis of this species and the presence of phytocompounds, may be of use for developing plant based drugs for various ailments. (N. crenulata) (Roxb.) Nicols.

  1. 29 CFR 825.120 - Leave for pregnancy or birth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 29 Labor 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Leave for pregnancy or birth. 825.120 Section 825.120 Labor... pregnancy or birth. (a) General rules. Eligible employees are entitled to FMLA leave for pregnancy or birth... condition. Note, too, that many State pregnancy disability laws specify a period of disability either...

  2. Chemical analysis of Ginkgo biloba leaves and extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Beek, van T.A.

    2002-01-01

    The chemical analysis and quality control of Ginkgo leaves and extracts is reviewed. Important constituents present in the medicinally used leaves are the terpene trilactones, i.e., ginkgolides A, B, C, J and bilobalide, many flavonol glycosides, biflavones, proanthocyanidins, alkylphenols, simple p

  3. Seasonal Variations of the Flavonoid Content from Ginkgo biloba Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lobstein, A; Rietsch-Jako, L; Haag-Berrurier, M; Anton, R

    1991-10-01

    An HPLC method for the separation and the quantitative determination of flavonol glycosides, acylflavonol glycosides, and biflavones in crude leaf extracts from GINKGO BILOBA is described. The results, expressed in percentage of rutine, kaempferol P-coumaroyl glucorhamnoside, and bilobetin showed a higher amount of acylflavonol glycosides in buds, of flavonol glycosides in spring leaves, and of biflavones in autumn leaves.

  4. Sick leave analysis among self-employed Dutch farmers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartman, E.; Oude Vrielink, H.H.E.; Huirne, R.B.M.; Metz, J.H.M.

    2003-01-01

    Background Agriculture is one of the most physically demanding and risky industries. Aim The objective of this study was to provide baseline data on the diagnoses, occurrence and duration of sick leave of self-employed Dutch farmers. Method A database of 22807 sick leave claims of 12627 farmers duri

  5. Chicoric Acid Found in Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    This is the first report to identify the presence of chicoric acid (cichoric acid; also known as dicaffeoyltartaric acid) in basil leaves. Rosmarinic acid, chicoric acid, and caftaric acid (in the order of most abundant to least; all derivatives of caffeic acid) were identified in fresh basil leaves...

  6. Carbon monoxide photoproduction from rice and maize leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yonemura, S.; Morokuma, M.; Kawashima, S.; Tsuruta, H.

    We investigated CO photoproduction from intact leaves of rice ( Oryza sativa L.) and maize ( Zea mays L.) by laboratory experiments. CO photoproduction showed positive correlation with light intensity and was positively dependent on oxygen concentration. The average CO photoproduction was 2.6±0.3×10 10 molecules cm -2 s -1 from rice leaves and 2.2±0.1×10 10 molecules cm -2 s -1 from maize leaves ( n=5) at a radiation intensity of 49 mW cm -2. CO photoproduction from senescent rice leaves was 9 times greater (25.7±1.5×10 10 molecules cm -2 s -1, n=2) at the same radiation intensity than from live leaves, and responded slowly to changes in oxygen concentration and light intensity. CO photoproduction showed no correlation with CO 2 concentration or humidity. This indicates that CO photoproduction in leaves is not directly controlled by carbon metabolism or stomatal conductance. The lack of dependence on stomatal conductance leads to the conclusion that the diffusion of CO from inside the leaves to the atmosphere is not a controlling factor for CO photoproduction from rice and maize leaves.

  7. Regional Guidelines for management of patients absent Without Leave (AWOL)

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2015-01-01

    The overarching purpose of these guidelines is to promote the safety and protection of service users and others in the event of a service user going missing or Absent Without Leave (AWOL). The guidelines provide a framework for all staff when it is determined that a service user is absent without leave.

  8. Identifying employees at risk for job loss during sick leave

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Flach, Peter A.; Groothoff, Johan W.; Bultmann, Ute

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: To examine the associations between medical, work-related, organizational and sociodemographic factors and job loss during sick leave in a Dutch population of 4132 employees on sick leave. Methods: Data were assessed by occupational health physicians (OHPs) on sociodemographic, medical, wor

  9. Leaves as composites of latent developmental and evolutionary shapes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Across plants, leaves exhibit profound diversity in shape. As a single leaf expands, its shape is in constant flux. Additionally, plants may also produce leaves with different shapes at successive nodes. Because leaf shape can vary in many different ways, theoretically the effects of distinct proces...

  10. Some pharmacognostical characteristics of moringa oleifera lam. Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pal, S K; Mukherjee, P K; Saha, K; Pal, M; Saha, B P

    1996-04-01

    The macroscopic character of the leaflets ash values extractive values by different solvent extractive behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents fluorescence characters by treatment with different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of Maoringa oleifera lam (fam moringaceae) were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters, chemical group test of different extracts of the leaves were also performed.

  11. SOME PHARMACOGNOSTICAL CHARACTERISTICS OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LAM. LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    1996-01-01

    The macroscopic character of the leaflets ash values extractive values by different solvent extractive behavior on treatment with different chemical reagents fluorescence characters by treatment with different chemical reagents of the powdered leaves of Maoringa oleifera lam (fam moringaceae) were studied to fix some pharmacognostical parameters, chemical group test of different extracts of the leaves were also performed.

  12. Organizational Justice and Social Workers' Intentions to Leave Agency Positions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae Kuen; Solomon, Phyllis; Jang, Cinjae

    2012-01-01

    The authors investigated the impact of organizational justice on social workers' intention to leave Korean social service agencies. Specifically, this study concentrated on the moderating effect of organizational justice on the relationship between burnout and intention to leave. The authors surveyed 218 front-line social workers from 51 social…

  13. Reasons that Orthodontic Faculty Teach and Consider Leaving Teaching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kula, Katherine; Glaros, Alan; Larson, Brent; Tuncay, Orhan

    2000-01-01

    Surveyed full-time (FT) and part-time (PT) orthodontic faculty about reasons for considering leaving academia. About 38 percent FT and 25 percent PT were currently considering leaving. The factors most important for FT were work-related: salary support, financial support of department, and control over work or destiny. For PTs, the reasons were:…

  14. 20 CFR 416.215 - You leave the United States.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 20 Employees' Benefits 2 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false You leave the United States. 416.215 Section... Eligible § 416.215 You leave the United States. You lose your eligibility for SSI benefits for any month during all of which you are outside of the United States. If you are outside of the United States for...

  15. Phenolic Composition and Antioxidant Activity of Malus domestica Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mindaugas Liaudanskas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the composition and content of phenolic compounds in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and to evaluate the antioxidant activity of these extracts. The total phenolic content was determined spectrophotometrically, as well as the total flavonoid content in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves and the antioxidant activity of these extracts, by the ABTS, DPPH, and FRAP assays. The highest amount of phenolic compounds and flavonoids as well as the highest antioxidant activity was determined in the ethanol extracts obtained from the apple leaves of the cv. Aldas. The analysis by the HPLC method revealed that phloridzin was a predominant component in the ethanol extracts of the apple leaves of all cultivars investigated. The following quercetin glycosides were identified and quantified in the ethanol extracts of apple leaves: hyperoside, isoquercitrin, avicularin, rutin, and quercitrin. Quercitrin was the major compound among quercetin glycosides.

  16. Gravitropism in leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana (L.) Heynh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mano, Eriko; Horiguchi, Gorou; Tsukaya, Hirokazu

    2006-02-01

    In higher plants, stems and roots show negative and positive gravitropism, respectively. However, current knowledge on the graviresponse of leaves is lacking. In this study, we analyzed the positioning and movement of rosette leaves of Arabidopsis thaliana under light and dark conditions. We found that the radial positioning of rosette leaves was not affected by the direction of gravity under continuous white light. In contrast, when plants were shifted to darkness, the leaves moved upwards, suggesting negative gravitropism. Analysis of the phosphoglucomutase and shoot gravitropism 2-1 mutants revealed that the sedimenting amyloplasts in the leaf petiole are important for gravity perception, as is the case in stems and roots. In addition, our detailed physiological analyses revealed a unique feature of leaf movement after the shift to darkness, i.e. movement could be divided into negative gravitropism and nastic movement. The orientation of rosette leaves is ascribed to a combination of these movements.

  17. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL EVALUATIONS OF THE LEAVES OF ZIZIPHUS MAURITIANA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramesh Kumar Singh et al.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Ziziphus mauritiana belongs to family Rhamnaceae and commonly known as Indian jujube or ber. The leaves are alternate and elliptic. Flowers are small and bisexual. The leaves are about 2.5 – 3.2 cm long. Commercially it is cultivated in China & India. Ziziphus mauritiana is small to medium sized spiny tree. The chemical compositions of the leaves are proteins & amino acids, flavonoids, alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoides, saponins, fibers, tannins and phenolic compounds. Leaves are used in the treatment of diarrhoea, gastric disorder, fever, liver damage and pulmonary disorders. The present work deals to summarize the Pharmacognostical studies like ash value, extractive value, moisture content, volatile matters, crude fibers, phytochemical test, fluorescence analysis and micro chemical test. The alcoholic and aqueous extract of Ziziphus mauritiana leave shows hepatoprotective, antioxidant and other important pharmacological activities. The results of above parameters show the clue for more medicinal properties of Ziziphus mauritiana.

  18. A biochemical model of photosynthesis for mango leaves: evidence for the effect of fruit on photosynthetic capacity of nearby leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Urban, L; Le Roux, X; Sinoquet, H; Jaffuel, S; Jannoyer, M

    2003-04-01

    Variations in leaf nitrogen concentration per unit mass (Nm) and per unit area (Na), mass-to-area ratio (Ma), total nonstructural carbohydrates (Ta), and photosynthetic capacity (maximum carboxylation rate, electron transport capacity, rate of phosphate release in triose phosphate utilization and dark respiration rate) were studied within the digitized crowns of two 3-year-old mango trees (Mangifera indica L.) on La Réunion Island. Additional measurements of Nm, Na, Ma, Ta and photosynthetic capacities were performed on young, fully expanded leaves of 11-year-old mango trees. Leaves of similar gap fractions were taken far from and close to developing fruits. Unlike Nm, both Na and Ta were linearly correlated to gap fraction. Similar relationships were found for all leaves whatever their age and origin, except for Ta, for which we found a significant tree effect. Photosynthetic capacity was nonlinearly correlated to Na, and a unique relationship was obtained for all types of leaves. Photosynthetic acclimation to light was mainly driven by changes in Ma, but allocation of total leaf N between the different photosynthetic functions also played a substantial role in acclimation to the lowest irradiances. Leaves close to developing fruits exhibited a higher photosynthetic capacity than other leaves, but similar Ta. Our data suggest that Ta does not control photosynthetic capacity in mango leaves. We used the data to parameterize a biochemically based model of photosynthesis and an empirical stomatal conductance model, allowing accurate predictions of net photosynthesis of leaves in field-grown mango trees.

  19. Proteome analysis of muscadine grape leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sheikh M Basha

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available Sheikh M Basha1, Ramesh Katam1, Hemanth Vasanthaiah1, Frank Matta21Center for Viticulture and Small Fruit Research, Florida A and M University, Tallahassee, FL, USA; 2Plant and Soil Science Department, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS, USAAbstract: Muscadine grapes are native to the southeastern United States and are used for making wine and consumed as fresh fruit. Grape berries, as ‘sink organs,’ rely on the use of available carbohydrate resources produced by photosynthesis to support their development and composition. A high throughput two-dimensional gel electrophoresis (2-DE was conducted on muscadine (Vitis rotundifolia grape leaf proteins to document complexity in their composition and to determine protein identity and function for enhancing photosynthetic efficiency of muscadine grape. 2-DE resolved muscadine leaf proteins into >258 polypeptides with pIs between 3.5 and 8.0 and molecular weight between 12,000 to 15,0000 Daltons. The consistently expressed proteins were excised and subjected to sequencing. Homology search of protein sequences showed 84% identity with Viridi plantae database. Identity of some of these proteins included RuBisCO, glutamine synthetase, pathogenesis-related protein, glyoxisomal malate dehydrogenase, ribonucleoprotein, chloroplast precursor, oxygen evolving enhancer protein. Comparative analysis of 10 muscadine cultivars showed quantitative differences in expression of 39 polypeptides among these genotypes. The results suggested that the polypeptide composition of muscadine grape leaf is complex, and polypeptide number and amount vary widely among muscadine genotypes, and these variations may be responsible for differences in their physiology, berry and stress tolerance characteristics.Keywords: grapevine, leaves, muscadine, proteins, sequencing, 2-DE

  20. Phytochemical, proximate and elemental analysis of acalypha wilkesiana leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Kingsley

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available Acalypha wilkesiana,commonly called Irish petticoat, is native to the south pacific islands andbelongs to the family Euphorbiaceae. Apart from its use as a vegetable, theplant is also used in traditional medicine as a diuretic plant and is eaten inthe management of hypertension. In this study, three samples (ethanol extract,aqueous extract and dried powder of Acalypha wilkesiana leaves were analyzedfor the presence of phytochemicals according to standard methods. Apart fromflavonoids, steroids, anthraquinones and phytate, all the phytochemicals testedfor are present in the three samples. This qualitative analysis showed thepresence of flavonoids only in the ethanol extract and powdered leave, steroidsonly in the ethanol extract, anthraquinones and phytate in the aqueous extractand powdered leave only. Proximate analysis revealed the presence of ash [4.16%(aqueous extract,13.98% (ethanol extract and 13.65% (powdered leaves],moisture [66.0% (aqueous extract, 30.89% (ethanol extract and 12.0% (powderedleaves], total lipid [1.75% (aqueous extract, 4.25% (ethanol extract and2.20% (powdered leaves], as well as fiber, crude protein and energy, whileelemental analysis revealed the presence of sodium [0.0086% (aqueous extract,0.024% (ethanol extract and 0.015% (powdered leaves], potassium [0.49%(aqueous extract, 1.36% (ethanol extract and 1.44% (powdered leaves], aswell as chloride and calcium. The various phytochemical compounds detected areknown to have beneficial use in industries and medical sciences, and alsoexhibit physiological activity.

  1. Ingress of Salmonella enterica Typhimurium into tomato leaves through hydathodes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganyu Gu

    Full Text Available Internal contamination of Salmonella in plants is attracting increasing attention for food safety reasons. In this study, three different tomato cultivars "Florida Lanai", "Crown Jewel", "Ailsa Craig" and the transgenic line Sp5 of "Ailsa Craig" were inoculated with 1 µl GFP-labeled Salmonella Typhimurium through guttation droplets at concentrations of 10(9 or 10(7 CFU/ml. Survival of Salmonella on/in tomato leaves was detected by both direct plating and enrichment methods. Salmonella cells survived best on/in the inoculated leaves of cultivar "Ailsa Craig" and decreased fastest on/in "Florida Lanai" leaves. Increased guttation in the abscisic acid over-expressing Sp5 plants may have facilitated the entrance of Salmonella into leaves and the colonization on the surface of tomato leaves. Internalization of Salmonella Typhimurium in tomato leaves through guttation drop inoculation was confirmed by confocal laser microscopy. For the first time, convincing evidence is presented that S. enterica can enter tomato leaves through hydathodes and move into the vascular system, which may result in the internal translocation of the bacteria inside plants.

  2. Relationship between Zingiberaceae Leaves Compounds and its Tyrosinase Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irmanida Batubara

    2016-11-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Zingiberaceae family has not been much explored its potential, especially as a skin lightening. The relationship between total anthocyanins, chlorophyll, carotenoids and tannins contents of Zingiberaceae leaves and tyrosinase activity were determined. Ten species of Zingiberaceae were separated by n-hexane and the residues were extracted with ethyl acetate. The total anthocyanins, chlorophyll, carotenoids, tannins contents and the activities of ethyl acetate extracts were determined by spectrometric method. The tyrosinase inhibition was determined by using L-tyrosine (monophenolase and L-DOPA (diphenolase substrates. The most active extract was the leaves extract of Zingiber purpureum which exhibited 82.86% for monophenolase inhibition and the leaves extract of Curcuma zedoaria which exhibited 90.20% for diphenolase inhibition. The correlation between carotenoids content and monophenolase inhibition was 52%, while between tannin content and diphenolase inhibition was only 15%. Therefore, among 10 leaves species of Zingiberaceae, Zingiber purpureum Roscoe and Curcuma zedoaria leaves are the most potential for tyrosinase inhibitors and can be developed as whitening agent.How to CiteBatubara, I., Kartika, Y. & Darusman, L. K. (2016. Relationship between Zingiberaceae Leaves Compounds and its Tyrosinase Activity. Biosaintifika: Journal of Biology & Biology Education, 8(3, 371-377. 

  3. [Mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leaves against platelet aggregation].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xin-Hua; Di, Yan-Hui

    2014-06-01

    This study was purposed to explore the mechanism of cooked blanched garlic leave juice against platelet aggregation. The juice of blanched garlic leaves was mixed with platelet rich plasma (PRP), the human platelet aggregation, the activation of human platelets induced by adenosine diphosphate (ADP) and collagen were observed; the expression levels of the activated platelets (Fib-R) and P-selectin (CD62P), and the amount of platelet fibrinogen binding were detected by flow cytometry; 10 rabbits were randomly divided into two groups, in addition to the normal diet, they were fed with physiologic saline and cooked blanched garlic leave juice respectively. After 1, 3, 5 , 8 weeks, the maximum ratio of rabbit platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen were observed . The results showed that the cooked blanched garlic leave juice could significantly inhibit human platelet aggregation induced by ADP and collagen (P 0.05), but was able to inhibit platelet fibrinogen binding capacity (P garlic leave juice was significantly lower than that in control group (P garlic leave juice can inhibit platelet aggregation in vitro and in vivo, the inhibition of aggregation pathway mainly is blocking the combination of fibrinogen with Fib-R, which finally results in the inhibition of platelet aggregation. Therefore, regular consumption of cooked blanched garlic leaves may prevent cardiovascular thrombotic diseases.

  4. Abscisic Acid Biosynthesis in Leaves and Roots of Xanthium strumarium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Creelman, R A; Gage, D A; Stults, J T; Zeevaart, J A

    1987-11-01

    RESEARCH ON THE BIOSYNTHESIS OF ABSCISIC ACID (ABA) HAS FOCUSED PRIMARILY ON TWO PATHWAYS: (a) the direct pathway from farnesyl pyrophosphate, and (b) the indirect pathway involving a carotenoid precursor. We have investigated which biosynthetic pathway is operating in turgid and stressed Xanthium leaves, and in stressed Xanthium roots using long-term incubations in (18)O(2). It was found that in stressed leaves three atoms of (18)O from (18)O(2) are incorporated into the ABA molecule, and that the amount of (18)O incorporated increases with time. One (18)O atom is incorporated rapidly into the carboxyl group of ABA, whereas the other two atoms are very slowly incorporated into the ring oxygens. The fourth oxygen atom in the carboxyl group of ABA is derived from water. ABA from stressed roots of Xanthium incubated in (18)O(2) shows a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA in stressed leaves, but with incorporation of more (18)O into the tertiary hydroxyl group at C-1' after 6 and 12 hours than found in ABA from stressed leaves. It is proposed that the precursors to stress-induced ABA are xanthophylls, and that a xanthophyll lacking an oxygen function at C-6 (carotenoid numbering scheme) plays a crucial role in ABA biosynthesis in Xanthium roots. In turgid Xanthium leaves, (18)O is incorporated into ABA to a much lesser extent than it is in stressed leaves, whereas exogenously applied (14)C-ABA is completely catabolized within 48 hours. This suggests that ABA in turgid leaves is either (a) made via a biosynthetic pathway which is different from the one in stressed leaves, or (b) has a half-life on the order of days as compared with a half-life of 15.5 hours in water-stressed Xanthium leaves. Phaseic acid showed a labeling pattern similar to that of ABA, but with an additional (18)O incorporated during 8'-hydroxylation of ABA to phaseic acid.

  5. 5 CFR 630.908 - Limitations on donation of annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Limitations on donation of annual leave... REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.908 Limitations on donation of annual... amount of annual leave he or she would be entitled to accrue during the leave year in which the...

  6. 5 CFR 630.306 - Time limit for use of restored annual leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... leave. 630.306 Section 630.306 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Annual Leave § 630.306 Time limit for use of restored annual leave. (a) Except... leave restored under 5 U.S.C. 6304(d) must be scheduled and used not later than the end of the...

  7. Phytotoxic steroidal saponins from Agave offoyana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez, Andy J; Simonet, Ana M; Calle, Juan M; Pecio, Łukasz; Guerra, José O; Stochmal, Anna; Macías, Francisco A

    2014-09-01

    A bioassay-guided fractionation of Agave offoyana leaves led to the isolation of five steroidal saponins (1-5) along with six known saponins (6-11). The compounds were identified as (25R)-spirost-5-en-2α,3β-diol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (1), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (2), (25R)-spirost-5-en-3β-ol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (3), (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{α-l-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (4) and (25R)-26-O-β-d-glucopyranosylfurost-5-en-3β,22α,26-triol-12-one 3-O-{β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-O-[β-d-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-O-β-d-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-O-β-d-galactopyranoside} (5) by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis, including one- and two-dimensional NMR techniques, mass spectrometry and chemical methods. The phytotoxicity of the isolated compounds on the standard target species Lactuca sativa was evaluated.

  8. Ozone injury increases infection of geranium leaves by Botrytis cinerea

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manning, W.J.; Feder, W.A.; Perkins, I.

    1970-04-01

    Detached and attached, inoculated and noninoculated, ozone-injured and noninjured leaves from the lower, middle, and terminal regions of plants of geranium cultivars Enchantress and White Mountain were observed for infection by Botrytis cinerea. Previous exposure to ozone did not appreciably influence the susceptibility of leaves of either geranium cultivar to infection by B. cinerea, unless there was visible ozone injury. Ozone-injured, necrotic tissues on older attached and detached geranium leaves of both cultivars served as infection courts for B. cinerea. 14 references, 1 table.

  9. Amylases from orange leaves. Characterization and relation to starch breakdown.

    OpenAIRE

    Sanz Grau, Amparo; Guardiola Bárcena, José Luis

    1988-01-01

    Starch content in adult orange (Citrus sinensis L. Osbeck) leaves was highest at the end of the winter rest period and decreased during flowering and fruit set. Young inflorescence leaves accumulated starch until the June drop period to decrease to a low value at the end of it. Both, α- and ß-amylase activities were found in the leaves and the enzymes separated through Sephadex G100 filtration. By electrophoresis in polyacrylamide gels with 0.25 % amylopectine, α-amylase was resolved in 5 ba...

  10. 0144 Sick leave patterns as predictors of disability pension or long-term sick leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stapelfeldt, Christina; Vinther Nielsen, Claus; Trolle Andersen, Niels;

    2014-01-01

    OBJECTIVES: The public health care sector is challenged by high sick leave rates among home-care personnel. This group also has a high probability of being granted a disability pension. We studied whether a workplace-registered frequent short-term sick leave spell pattern was an early indicator...... of future disability pension or future long-term sick leave among eldercare workers. METHOD: 2774 employees' sick leave days were categorised: 0-2 and 3-17 short (1-7 days) spells, 2-13 mixed short and long (8+ days) spells, and long spells only. Disability pension and long-term sick leave were subsequently...... the pseudo values method adjusted for age, occupation and unfavourable work factors. RESULTS: A frequent short-term and a mixed sick leave pattern increased the RR of being granted a disability pension; the RR was 2.08 (95% CI: 1.00-4.35) and 2.61 (95% CI: 1.33-5.12). Inversely, the long-term sick leave...

  11. Palaeophytochemical Constituents of Cretaceous Ginkgo coriacea Florin Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    You-Xing Zhao; Cheng-Sen Li; Xiao-Dong Luo; Yu-Fei Wang; Jun Zhou

    2006-01-01

    Chemical investigation of the organic solvent extract of Cretaceous Ginkgo coriacea Florin leaves by liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), analogous to those from extant leaves of Ginkgo biloba L., led to the detection of a group of natural flavonoids and other volatiles. The similarity of the chemical constituents in these two species of Ginkgo suggest that the secondary metabolism of extant G. biloba is close to that of the Cretaceous species. The remaining natural products may be one explanation why the leaves of the Cretaceous G. coriacea have been preserved morphologically in fossilization. The detection of flavonoids suggests that the leaves of G. coriacea experienced a mild post-depositional environment during their fossilization. This appears to be the oldest occurrence of flavonoids in plant fossils.

  12. Eczema May Leave Some Flu Shots Less Effective, Study Finds

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163564.html Eczema May Leave Some Flu Shots Less Effective, Study ... But a new study suggests that people with eczema should request the vaccine be given into the ...

  13. Variation of arbutin content in Bergenia sp. leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Galambosi, B.; Galambosi, Zs.; Siivari, J.; Siivari, K.; Sankelo, T.; Shikov, A.

    2007-01-01

    The common garden perennial, Bergenia, should be utilized as a special new crop for raw material production in the cosmetic industry, producing arbutin. Under open field and full sun conditions, the arbutin contents of Bergenia leaves have not changed significantly.

  14. Keep on growing: building and patterning leaves in the grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, Michael W; Hake, Sarah

    2016-02-01

    Monocot leaves have unique features that arise early in their development. Maturing leaves protectively enclose younger leaves and the meristem, the pool of founder cells from which a leaf emerges. Through the maturation process, proximal sheath and distal blade tissues differentiate and are separated by the ligule and auricle structures. Here we review current research focusing on the contribution of gene regulatory factors and phytohormones on the patterning and differentiation of monocot leaves primarily focusing on research in the grasses (Poaceae). The 10000 members of the grasses include the true grain cereals (wheat, rice, maize, etc.), biofuel crops such as sugarcane, pasture grasses, and bamboo. They are the most studied of the monocots due to their tremendous agricultural and agronomic importance.

  15. Anticarcinogenic effects of curry leaves in dimethylhydrazine-treated rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khanum, F; Anilakumar, K R; Sudarshana Krishna, K R; Viswanathan, K R; Santhanam, K

    2000-01-01

    Curry leaves are one of the spices used in Indian dishes for aroma and preservation. There are no reports on the antioxidant properties of curry leaves. In this study, the antioxidant potential of curry leaves in rats treated with a known chemical carcinogen, dimethylhydrazine hydrochloride (DMH) was investigated. Food intake was reduced in the rats fed curry leaf-supplemented diet but the body and the organ weights were not affected. Vitamin A content in the liver was significantly increased whereas glutathione (GSH) content was not altered. A 50% reduction was seen in the micronuclei induced by DMH and a 30% reduction in the activity of gamma-glutamyl transpeptidase when the rats were fed a curry leaf-supplemented diet. These results indicate that curry leaves have high potential as reducer of the toxicity of DMH.

  16. PHARMACOGNOSTICAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON LEAVES OF CASSIA OBTUSIFOLIA LINN.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sufiyan Ahmad

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the macroscopical and microscopical studies on leaves of Cassia obtusifolia Linn. Some distinct and different characters were observed with section of young thin leaves. The anatomy of the leaves was studied by taking transverse section of midrib. The chloroplasts are much more concentrated in the palisade layer of the mesophyll. There is only one large vascular bundle in the midrib. The midrib was stained with toluidine blue. This helps to resolve the vascular tissues with greater certainty. The xylem and phloem were also observed. Powder microscopical examination showed the presence of parenchyma cells, xylem fibres and starch grain. Physiochemical parameter and preliminary phytochemical study of the leaves powder were also carried out.

  17. A new triterpene saponin from the leaves of Ilex kudincha

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wen Jian Zuo; Yi Mei Zeng; Yue Hu; He Meng; Zhen Hui Wang; Jin Hui Wang

    2009-01-01

    A new compound, kudinoside LZ_2 (1), was isolated from the leaves of Ilex kudincha. Its structure was elucidated by the combination of one- and two-dimensional NMR analysis, HR-ESI-MS, CD spectrum measurement and chemical evidences.

  18. Can Social Media Sites Leave You Socially Isolated?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... https://medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_163931.html Can Social Media Sites Leave You Socially Isolated? More time using ... people who spend a lot of time on social media -- websites designed to bring people together -- seem to ...

  19. Preparation and properties of waste tea leaves particleboard

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shi Jin-shu; Li Jian-zhang; Fan Yong-ming; Ma Hong-xia

    2006-01-01

    Urea-formaldehyde (UF) adhesive is the main source of formaldehyde emission from UF-bonded boards. The components in waste tea leaves can react with formaldehyde to serve as a raw material in the production of low formaldehyde emission boards. In our study, waste tea leaves and UF adhesive were employed in the preparation of waste tea leaves particleboard (WTLB). An orthogonal experimental method was applied to investigate the effects of process parameters on formaldehyde emission and mechanical properties of WTLB. The results indicated that: 1) waste tea leaves had the ability to abate formaldehyde emission from boards; and 2) density of the WTLB was a significant factor affecting its modulus of rupture (MOR), modulus of elasticity (MOE) and internal bonding (IB).

  20. A New Pregnane Glycoside from Fermented Leaves of Agave americana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new minor pregnane glycoside was isolated from the fermented leaves of Agave americana. Its structure was elucidated as (20S)-5α-pregnane-3β, 20-diol 20-O-β-D-glucopyrano- side (1) by spectral methods.

  1. Study of Antioxidant Activity of Juglans regia leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    FARHAD HATAMJAFARI

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to investigate the antioxidant activity for Juglans regia leaves. The Methanol extract from Iranian Juglans regia leaves that grow in Karaj and Tonekabon regions was examined. In addition, total amount of DPPH (1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl radical scavenging activities and reductive power of crude extracted its different fractions were determined. The antioxidant activity data by DPPH has been compared in both regions.

  2. Managing overlapping federal FMLA and state leave regulations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grebowski, Lucinda S

    2002-03-01

    The overlap between the Family and Medical Leave Act and state leave laws can create complications. Employers, particularly those with multistate operations, may wish to consider an outsourced absence management system, which can remove the burden of day-to-day administration and the need to stay abreast of changing state regulations. However, employers cannot outsource the responsibility to set broad policy toward absence management.

  3. Diuretic activity of leaves of Garcinia cambogia in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Mathew, Githa E.; Mathew, B.; M M Shaneeb; Nyanthara, B

    2011-01-01

    The present study was undertaken to establish the diuretic activity of ethanol and aqueous extract of dried leaves of Garcinia cambogia in rats. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves were administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg and compared with furosemide (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) as the standard. The parameters measured for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine concentration electrolytes such as sodium, potassium and chloride have been evaluate...

  4. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF AGAVE SISALANA PERRINE LEAVES (WASTE)

    OpenAIRE

    Mwandogo O. Chigodi; David K. Samoei; Mutemi Muthangya

    2013-01-01

    Phytochemical properties of the methanolic, Ethyl acetate and Hexane extract of the Agave sisalana Perrine leaves were investigated to evaluate the chemical properties. The phytochemical screening revealed that Tannins, Cardiac glycosides, Reducing sugars, Saponins, Flavonoids, Phlobatannins, Steroids, Terpenoids, and Coumarins were present in the three extracts of A. sisalana Perrine leaves while, Alkaloids were present only in the methanolic and Ethyl acetate extracts. Anthraquinones and Em...

  5. Effect of Neem Leaves Extract (Azadirachta Indica on Wound Healing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Naveen Kumar Chundran

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: Neem leaves (Azadirachta Indica have active ingredients such as nimbidin and sodium nimbidate which possess/possesinganti-inflammatory, antibacterial, antifungal and antiviral properties that help in healing process and also contains an excellent nutrition which plays/playing a vital role information of collagen and formation of new capillaries. The aim of this experimental study is to evaluate healing activity of neem leaves. Methods: This experiment was conducted in Pharmacology Lab of Universitas Padjadjaran on October 2012. Twenty seven rats were grouped randomly into 3 groups and 1.5cm of excision wound was created. Negative control group was treated with a topical application of saline solution (sodium chloride0.9%, treatment group with a topical application of neem leaves extract and positive control group had been treated with a topical application of povidone-iodine for 15 days. Healing was assessed by the longest diameter of the raw surface of wound on days 0, 5, 10 and 15. The data were then analyzed using Mann-Whitney U test. Results: There was a significant reduction in the longest diameter of wound in group of neem leaves extract, compared with group sodium chloride 0.9%,.and there was no significant difference in the longest diameter of wound between neem leaves, extract and povidone iodine. Conclusions: Neem leaves extract has the same wound healing rate compared to povidone iodine. A further study in human should be conducted in the future

  6. Spectra of normal and nutrient-deficient maize leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abbas, A. H.; Barr, R.; Hall, J. D.; Crane, F. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1973-01-01

    Reflectance, transmittance and absorptance spectra of normal and six types of nutrient-deficient (N, P, K, S, Mg, and Ca) maize (Zea mays L.) leaves were analyzed at 30 selected wavelengths from 500 to 2600 nm. The analysis of variance showed significant differences in reflectance, transmittance and absorptance in the visible wavelengths among leaf numbers 3, 4, and 5, among the seven treatments, and among the interactions of leaf number and treatments. In the infrared wavelengths only treatments produced significant differences. The chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced in all nutrient-deficient treatments. Percent moisture was increased in S-, Mg-, and N-deficiencies. Polynomial regression analysis of leaf thickness and leaf moisture content showed that these two variables were significantly and directly related. Leaves from the P- and Ca-deficient plants absorbed less energy in the near infrared than the normal plants; S-, Mg-, K-, and N-deficient leaves absorbed more than the normal. Both S- and N-deficient leaves had higher temperatues than normal maize leaves.

  7. Detecting red blotch disease in grape leaves using hyperspectral imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mehrubeoglu, Mehrube; Orlebeck, Keith; Zemlan, Michael J.; Autran, Wesley

    2016-05-01

    Red blotch disease is a viral disease that affects grapevines. Symptoms appear as irregular blotches on grape leaves with pink and red veins on the underside of the leaves. Red blotch disease causes a reduction in the accumulation of sugar in grapevines affecting the quality of grapes and resulting in delayed harvest. Detecting and monitoring this disease early is important for grapevine management. This work focuses on the use of hyperspectral imaging for detection and mapping red blotch disease in grape leaves. Grape leaves with known red blotch disease have been imaged with a portable hyperspectral imaging system both on and off the vine to investigate the spectral signature of red blotch disease as well as to identify the diseased areas on the leaves. Modified reflectance calculated at spectral bands corresponding to 566 nm (green) and 628 nm (red), and modified reflectance ratios computed at two sets of bands (566 nm / 628 nm, 680 nm / 738 nm) were selected as effective features to differentiate red blotch from healthy-looking and dry leaf. These two modified reflectance and two ratios of modified reflectance values were then used to train the support vector machine classifier in a supervised learning scheme. Once the SVM classifier was defined, two-class classification was achieved for grape leaf hyperspectral images. Identification of the red blotch disease on grape leaves as well as mapping different stages of the disease using hyperspectral imaging are presented in this paper.

  8. Features of a chemical composition of dry leaves of Steviavebaudiana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irina Borisovna Krasina

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available This work is dedicated to the study of a chemical composition of dry leaves of Stevia. Dry leaves of Stevia contain diterpene glycosides that contribute to their sweet taste, which makes possible the use of Stevia as a sugar substitute in a production of flour confectionery products. The evaluation of amino acid composition of dried leaves of Stevia showed that their composition includes 7 essential amino acids, among them the limiting amino acid is valine.During experimental researches it was established that they are containing in a sufficient quantity water-soluble and fat-soluble vitamins in their composition. We have studied the effect of processing conditions on the degree of milling of dry leaves of Stevia. It was revealed that the pressure of 5 MPa in the contact zone of the working elements do not guarantee a product with a desired degree of milling. Milling of dried leaves of Stevia at a pressure equal to 10 MPa, allows achieving a high degree of size reduction with a simultaneous formation of the main physical and chemical characteristics of amilledproduct. It was established that granulometric composition of dry leaves of Stevia, obtained by milling in a rotor-roller disintegrator, presents the highest content of particles with a size from 5 to 30 μm, ensuring high consumer properties of the obtained biologically active additives (BAA.

  9. FTIR Spectroscopic Study of Broad Bean 3iseased Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2012-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to indentify diseased leaves of broad bean by vibra- tional spectroscopy. [Method] In this paper, broad bean rust, fusarium rhizome rot, broad bean zonate spot, yellow leaf curl virus and normal leaves were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy combined with chemometrics. [Result] The spectra of the samples were similar, only with minor differences in absorption inten- sity of several peaks. Second derivative analyses show that the significant difference of all samples was in the range of 1 200-700 cm2. The data in the range of 1 200- 700 cm' were selected to evaluate correlation coefficients, hierarchical cluster analy- sis (HCA) and principal component analysis (PCA). Results showed that the correla- tion coefficients are larger than 0.928 not only between the healthy leaves, but also between the same diseased leaves. The values between healthy and diseased leaves, and among diseased leaves, are all declined. HCA and PCA yielded about 73.3% and 82.2% accuracy, respectively. [Conclusion] This study demonstrated that FTIR techniques might be used to detect crop diseases.

  10. Temporal heterogeneity of cold acclimation phenotypes in Arabidopsis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorsuch, Peter A; Pandey, Subedar; Atkin, Owen K

    2010-02-01

    To predict the effects of temperature changes on plant growth and performance, it is crucial to understand the impact of thermal history on leaf morphology, anatomy and physiology. Here, we document a comprehensive range of leaf phenotypes in 25/20 degrees C-grown Arabidopsis thaliana plants that were shifted to 5 degrees C for up to 2 months. When warm-grown, pre-existing (PE) leaves were exposed to cold, leaf thickness increased due to an increase in mesophyll cell size. Leaves that were entirely cold-developed (CD) were twice as thick (eight cell layers) as their warm-developed (WD) counterparts (six layers), and also had higher epidermal and stomatal cell densities. After 4 d of cold, PE leaves accumulated high levels of total non-structural carbohydrates (TNC). However, glucose and starch levels declined thereafter, and after 45 d in the cold, PE leaves exhibited similar TNC to CD leaves. A similar phenomenon was observed in delta(13)C and a range of photosynthetic parameters. In cold-treated PE leaves, an increase in respiration (R(dark)) with cold exposure time was evident when measured at 25 degrees C but not 5 degrees C. Cold acclimation was associated with a large increase in the ratio of leaf R(dark) to photosynthesis. The data highlight the importance of understanding developmental thermal history in determining individual phenotypic traits.

  11. The expert is leaving---The knowledge is lost? DLR's knowledge management solutions for the leaving expert issue.

    OpenAIRE

    Knodt, Uwe; Dineva, Evelina; Nagel, Björn

    2015-01-01

    Since four years the German Aerospace Centre (DLR, Deutsches Zentrum für Luft- und Raumfahrt) reorganizes its knowledge management processes. In the project "Establishing an integrated knowledge management system" (EIWis) critical knowledge gaps become identified. By asking the employees in a survey about knowledge management a main problem was clearly identified: the leaving expert issue. There are various situations why experts are leaving...

  12. ALUMINUM CONTENT OF TEA LEAVES AND FACTORS AFFECTING THE UPTAKE OF ALUMINUM FROM SOIL INTO TEA LEAVES

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Numerous studies indicated that aluminum, the most abundant metallic element within the lithosphere, was considered to be related to some human diseases especially the Alzheimer's disease. Tea, economically an important beverage in the world, has been found to contain higher concentration of aluminum than many other drinks and foods. Therefore, tea would be a potentially important source of dietary aluminum. In order to understand the sources of aluminum in tea leaves and factors related with aluminum content of tea leaves, an experiment was designed to investigate the relationships of aluminum in tea leaves with leaf age, soil properties and forms of aluminum in soils. The results showed that there were great distinctions in the concentration of aluminum in tea leaves with different leaf age (Alold leaf> Almature leaf> Alyoung leaf). Moreover, soil pH was the major factor controlling the uptake of aluminum from soil into tea leaves. Furthermore, the content of aluminum in tea leaves was better predicated by the soluble aluminum extracted by 0. 02mol/L CaCl2.

  13. Discrimination of Five Citrus Diseased Leaves by FTIR Spectroscopy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xingxiang; ZHAO; Gang; LIU; Weixing; LI; Xiaohua; Wang; Jianming; HAO; Xiangping; ZHOU

    2014-01-01

    In this paper,citrus brown spot,huanglongbing,canker,fuliginous,Cercospora sp. and healthy leaves were studied using Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy( FTIR) combined with statistical analysis. The results showed that the spectra of the samples were similar,whereas there were obvious differences in the second derivatives of infrared spectra in the range of 1 500- 700 cm- 1. The correlative analysis were evaluated,results showed that the correlation coefficients were larger than 0. 918 between healthy leaves,and between the same diseased leaves. However,the values were all decreased between healthy and diseased leaves,and among different diseased leaves. The preprocessed original,first derivative and second derivative spectra in the range of 1 200- 700 cm- 1were chosen to evaluated principal component analysis( PCA) and hierarchical cluster analysis( HCA),respectively. The performance of the overall accuracy of PCA was 92.5%,which were better than original dataset and first derivative dataset. HCA by selecting second derivative dataset yield about 90% accuracy. This study proved that FTIR spectroscopy could be detected citrus diseases quickly and accurately.

  14. Diversity of fungi colonizing leaves of Rhododendron (Rhododendron L. cuttings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Kierpiec-Baran

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Rhododendrons (Rhododendron L. are shrubs whose attractiveness is determined by their multi-coloured flowers and evergreen leaves. Necroses visible on the leaves of rhododendron cuttings diminish the suitability of nursery material for marketing. These symptoms are most frequently caused by fungi. The investigations were conducted in 2010–2011 in an ornamental shrub nursery to identify fungi colonizing the phyllosphere of rhododendron cuttings and causing leaf necroses. The material for analysis consisted of leaves of 11 rhododendron cultivars. 550 leaves were collected from 110 half-year-old cuttings for mycological analysis. Over 350 fungal colonies belonging to 15 species were isolated from the leaves of rhododendron cuttings. The dominants included: Pestalotiopsis sydowiana, Trichoderma koningii and Alternaria alternata. The influents included: Aspergillus brasiliensis, Mucor hiemalis f. hiemalis, Epicoccum nigrum, Sordaria fimicola and Umbelopsis isabellina. A large majority of the fungi preferred the phyllosphere environment of Yakushima rhododendron (R. yakushimanum cultivars ‘Sneezy’ and ‘Golden Torch’ as well as of the large-flowered cultivars ‘Flautando’, ‘Dominik’, and ‘Simona’. The phyllosphere of the large-flowered cultivars ‘Bernstein’, ‘Nova Zembla’, and ‘Goldbuckett’ was a reservoir for many fungal colonies and fungi species. The cultivars less susceptible to colonization by fungi and the most promising for planting in green areas and home gardens are the large-flowered cultivars ‘Bernstein’, ‘Nova Zembla’, ‘Goldbuckett’, ‘Rasputin’, and ‘Roseum Elegans’.

  15. Antioxidant Activity of Leaves and Fruits of Iranian Conifers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Emami

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Cupressus semipervirens var. horizontalis, Cupressus semipervirens var. semipervirens, Cupressus semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis, Juniperus communis subsp. hemisphaerica, Juniperus excelsa subsp. excelsa, Juniperus excelsa subsp. polycarpos, Juniperus foetidissima, Juniperus oblonga, Juniperus sabina, Platycladus orientalis and Taxus baccata are Iranian conifers. The antioxidant activity of leaves and fruits of these 11 different taxons were evaluated. The leaves of both male and female, and fruits of these plants were collected from different areas of the country. Methanol extract of leaves and fruits of these taxons were prepared. Antioxidant activity of each extracts was measured using two different tests of the ferric thiocyanate method and thiobarbituric acid. Results indicated that the methanol extracts of leaves, of male and female, and fruits of all these species (27 samples possessed antioxidant activity when tested with both methods. The antioxidant activity was then compared with those of α-tocopherol (a natural antioxidant and butylated hydroxytoluene (a synthetic antioxidant. Methanol extract of fruits of C. semipervirens cv. Cereifeormis showed the highest antioxidant activity while the methanol extract of leaves of C. semipervirens var. semipervirens possessed the lowest antioxidant activity. However, our finding showed that most of the tested extracts were showing strong antioxidant activity even higher than α-tocopherol.

  16. Genetic variation in alkaloid accumulation in leaves of Nicotiana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bo SUN; Fen ZHANG; Guo-jun ZHOU; Guo-hai CHU; Fang-fang HUANG; Qiao-mei WANG; Li-feng JIN; Fu-cheng LIN; Jun YANG

    2013-01-01

    Alkaloids are plant secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in Nicotiana species and contribute greatly to the quality of tobacco leaves. Some alkaloids, such as nornicotine and myosmine, have adverse effects on human health. To reduce the content of harmful alkaloids in tobacco leaves through conventional breeding, a genetic study of the alkaloid variation among different genotypes is required. In this study, alkaloid profiles in leaves of five Nicotiana tabacum cultivars and Nicotiana tomentosiformis were investigated. Six alkaloids were identified from al six genotypes via gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Significant differences in alkaloid content were ob-served both among different leaf positions and among cultivars. The contents of nornicotine and myosmine were positively and significantly correlated (R2=0.881), and were also separated from those of other alkaloids by clustering. Thus, the genotype plays a major role in alkaloid accumulation, indicating a high potential for manipulation of alkaloid content through traditional breeding.

  17. Genetic variation in alkaloid accumulation in leaves of Nicotiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Bo; Zhang, Fen; Zhou, Guo-jun; Chu, Guo-hai; Huang, Fang-fang; Wang, Qiao-mei; Jin, Li-feng; Lin, Fu-cheng; Yang, Jun

    2013-12-01

    Alkaloids are plant secondary metabolites that are widely distributed in Nicotiana species and contribute greatly to the quality of tobacco leaves. Some alkaloids, such as nornicotine and myosmine, have adverse effects on human health. To reduce the content of harmful alkaloids in tobacco leaves through conventional breeding, a genetic study of the alkaloid variation among different genotypes is required. In this study, alkaloid profiles in leaves of five Nicotiana tabacum cultivars and Nicotiana tomentosiformis were investigated. Six alkaloids were identified from all six genotypes via gas chromatograph-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Significant differences in alkaloid content were observed both among different leaf positions and among cultivars. The contents of nornicotine and myosmine were positively and significantly correlated (R(2)=0.881), and were also separated from those of other alkaloids by clustering. Thus, the genotype plays a major role in alkaloid accumulation, indicating a high potential for manipulation of alkaloid content through traditional breeding.

  18. Photosynthesis rate in moss leaves of various anatomical structure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Krupa

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available On the basis of measurements of the rate of gas exchange in the leaves of mosses the value of the compensation and of the light saturation of photosynthesis points was determined. These points differentiate mosses into photo- and sciophilous ones.Moss species such as: Mnium punctatum, Catherinea undulata, Polytrichum juniperinum, Funaria hygrometrica, Polytrichum piliferum, Aloina rigida were also classified according to differences in the anatomical structure of their leaves. The morphological characters of the anatomical structure of leaves and their chlorophyll content are connected with photosynthetic activity. There is a correlation between the leaf surface and the degree of differentiation of the anatomical structure. This results in an enlargement of the contact surface of the cells assimilating from the air, and this in turn is associated with an increase in the photosynthetic activity per leaf surface area unit.

  19. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escalona-Arranz, Julio César; Péres-Roses, Renato; Urdaneta-Laffita, Imilci; Camacho-Pozo, Miladis Isabel; Rodríguez-Amado, Jesús; Licea-Jiménez, Irina

    2010-07-01

    Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS). Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts.

  20. Anticomplement activity of polyacetylenes from leaves of Dendropanax morbifera Leveille.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Ill-Min; Song, Hong-Keun; Kim, Sun-Jin; Moon, Hyung-In

    2011-05-01

    The present study evaluated the anticomplement effect of polyacetylenes from Dendropanax morbifera (Araliaceae) in the classical pathway complement system. The leaves of D. morbifera were evaluated with regard to its anticomplement activity, and its active principles identified following activity-guided isolation. An aqueous CCl(4) fraction of the leaves of D. morbifera exhibited significant anticomplement activity on the classical pathway complement system, which was expressed as total hemolytic activity. Three polyacetylenes isolated from the leaves of D. morbifera, namely (3S)-falcarinol (1), (3S,8S)-falcarindiol (2) and (3S)-diynene (3). Compounds 1, 2 and 3 showed inhibitory activity against complement system with 50% inhibitory concentrations (IC(50)) values of 87.3 µM, 15.2 µM and 39.8 µM. Among the compounds tested, 2 showed the most potent anticomplement activity (IC(50), 15.2 µM).

  1. Mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) as environmental contamination biomonitors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Vivianne L.B. de; Santos, Suzana O.; Fonseca, Cassia K.L.; Paiva, Ana Claudia de; Silva, Waldecy A. da, E-mail: vlsouza@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: suzirecifeusa@hotmail.com, E-mail: cassia.kellen@hotmail.com, E-mail: acpaiva@cnen.gov.br, E-mail: waldecy@cnen.gov.br [Centro Regional de Ciencias Nucleares do Nordeste (CRCN-NE/CNEN-PE), Recife, PE (Brazil)

    2015-07-01

    Sometimes, plants growing in contaminated sediments by trace metals can not avoid absorption of these metals, but only to limit its translocation, so that the accumulated metals in their tissues will have different levels of concentrations. Some trace metals (copper, zinc, manganese, among others) are essential for plants, although they are toxic at high concentrations, damaging its growth, production or quality. The aim of this work from is to verify the presence of metals such as copper, manganese and iron in mangrove leaves (Rhizophora mangle) collected in some beaches of the Northeast of Brazil (such as: Maceio, Sao Jose da Coroa Grande, Japaratinga, Croa do Gore, Ponta das Pedras). Leaves' metals content (extracted by adding acids) were determined by a fast sequential atomic absorption spectrometer (SpectrAA-220FS/VARIAN). The results showed that there are more Fe and Mn in mangrove leaves than in other metals comparing with all study areas (Fe > Mn > Co > Zn > Cu). (author)

  2. Pharmacognostical and Phytochemical Investigation on Leaves of Ficus microcarpa Linn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravichandra V D

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Ficus microcarpa Linn. (Syn: Ficus nitidas; Family: Moraceae grows in Tropical and Subtropical regions of India, used for variety of purpose in traditional medicine. The usefulness of this plant is described in many folk books including Ayurveda and different biologically active phytoconstituents were isolated from plant. But no reports are available on morph anatomy, and phytochemical studies, hence present attempt was undertaken to investigate the microscopically and preliminary phytochemical and Physico-chemical studies on the leaves of Ficus microcarpa. The study reveals the leaves are variable, coriaceous, oblong, elliptic to broadly elliptic or obovate. The transverse section of the leaves shows presence of epidermis, sponge parenchyma, bicollateral vascular bundles, nonglandular, glandular trichome and spiral vessels. The powder microscopy revealed the presence of anomocytic stomata, glandular trichome, covering trichome and prismatic calcium oxalate crystals. Physicochemical parameters like ash value, extractive value and phytochemical screening with different reagents showed the presence of fluorescence compounds, steroids, triterpenoids, phenols, tannins and flavonoids.

  3. [Maternity leave and experience of working mothers in Lebanon].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saadé, N; Barbour, B; Salameh, P

    2010-09-01

    We conducted a cross-sectional study of 802 Lebanese mothers to evaluate effect of rapid return to work on their health and that of their child. Breastfeeding practices were also assessed. The duration of maternity leave was insufficient for 72.8% of the women. Rapid return to work could cause physical and psychological problems depending on the type of work. The average length of breastfeeding was 4.7 months and while the average desired length was 10.9 months. Breastfeeding depended on the duration of the maternity leave, the possibility of breaks for breastfeeding and the presence of nurseries at work. Urgent interventions are necessary to prolong maternity leave and promote breastfeeding among working women.

  4. Pharmacognostical studies on the leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaliappan Nirmala

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour Spreng belonging to the family Lamiaceae commonly known as Karpuravalli, Omavalli in Tamil, Patta ajavayin, Patharcur in Hindi, Country borage in English is a large succulent aromatic perennial herb. It is highly aromatic pubescent herb with distinctive smelling leaves. The plant is distributed throughout in India, cultivated in the gardens. The leaves of this plant have been used in malarial fever, hepatopathy, renal and vesical calculi, cough, chronic asthma, hiccough, bronchitis, anthelmintic, colic and convulsions. This paper deals with the micro morphological studies carried out on the leaves of Plectranthus amboinicus one of the WHO accepted parameter for identification of medicinal plants. For the better understanding of structural details Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM also employed.

  5. Antimicrobial activity of extracts from Tamarindus indica L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julio Cesar Escalona-Arranz

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Tamarindus indica L. leaves are reported worldwide as antibacterial and antifungal agents; however, this observation is not completely accurate in the case of Cuba. In this article, decoctions from fresh and sun dried leaves, as well as fluid extracts prepared with 30 and 70% ethanol-water and the pure essential oil from tamarind leaves were microbiologically tested against Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Salmonella typhimurium, Pseudomona aeruginosa and Candida albicans. Aqueous and fluid extracts were previously characterized by spectrophotometric determination of their total phenols and flavonoids, while the essential oil was chemically evaluated by gas chromatography/mass spectroscopy (GC/MS. Experimental data suggest phenols as active compounds against B. subtilis cultures, but not against other microorganisms. On the other hand, the essential oil exhibited a good antimicrobial spectrum when pure, but its relative low concentrations in common folk preparations do not allow for any good activity in these extracts.

  6. Funding child rearing: child allowance and parental leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, J R

    1996-01-01

    This article proposes two financing plans to address what the author identifies as the two primary concerns in the child care field: (1) a child allowance for poor and near-poor households to address the child care problems of low-income families, and (2) a program of voluntary parental leave, available to all parents at child birth or adoption, to ensure the adequacy of infant care. The child allowance plan would cover the first three children in families up to 175% of the poverty level (more than 22 million children) at an annual cost of $45 billion. The author suggests that the allowance could be financed by redirecting funds from existing income support (for example, Aid to Families with Dependent Children), tax credit, and tax deduction programs. Financing the parental leave program would require new revenues, generated by an employee-paid increase in payroll tax totaling 3.5%. Each employee's contributions would create a parental leave account (PLA). Families could use the funds in these accounts to cover the cost of a one-year leave from work after the birth or adoption of a child. If families did not have enough dollars in their accounts to cover the cost of the leave, the federal government would extend a low-interest loan to them, which they would have to pay back. The amount individuals receive through Social Security would be adjusted upward or downward according to the balances in their parental leave accounts at retirement. The author suggests that both proposals would help parents balance work and family obligations and protect parental freedom of choice over the care and upbringing of their children.

  7. Nutritional Composition of Water Spinach (Ipomoea aquatica Forsk.) Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umar, K. J.; Hassan, L. G.; Dangoggo, S. M.; Ladan, M. J.

    Analyses of the nutritional composition of water spinach (Ipomoea aquatica) Forsk leaves were carried out using standard methods of food analysis. The proximate composition as well as mineral elements were determined. The leaves were found on dry weight basis to have high moisture (72.83±0.29%), ash (10.83±0.80%), crude lipid (11.00±0.50%), crude fibre (17.67±0.35%) and available carbohydrate (54.20±0.68%), but low in crude protein content (6.30±0.27%). The leaves also have energy value (300.94±5.31 kcal/100 g) that is within the range reported in some Nigerian leafy vegetables. The mineral element contents were high with remarkable concentration of K (5,458.33±954.70 mg/100 g) and Fe (210.30±2.47 mg/100 g). Also the leaves content moderate concentrations of Na (135.00±2.50 mg/100 g), calcium (416.70±5.77 mg/100 g), Magnesium (301.64±12.69 mg/100 g) and P (109.29±0.55 mg/100 g), with low Cu (0.36±0.01 mg/100 g), Mn (2.14±0.22 mg/100 g) and Zn (2.47±0.27 mg/100 g) contents. Comparing the mineral content with recommended dietary allowance, it was showed that the plant leaves is good sources of K, Mn and Fe for all categories of people, while Mg is adequate enough for adult female and children. From the result, Ipomoea aquatica Forsk leaves could be used for nutritional purposes, due to the amount and diversity of nutrients it contains.

  8. Secondary Metabolites from Leaves of Manilkara subsericea (Mart.) Dubard

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Almeida, Fernanda Borges; Fernandes, Caio Pinho; Romao, Wanderson; Vanini, Gabriela; Costa, Helber Barcelos; França, Hildegardo Seibert; Santos, Marcelo Guerra; Carvalho, José Carlos Tavares; Falcão, Deborah Quintanilha; Rocha, Leandro

    2015-01-01

    Background: Manilkara subsericea (Sapotaceae) is a species widely spread in the sandbanks of Restinga de Jurubatiba National Park (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil). It is commonly known as “maçaranduba”, “maçarandubinha” and “guracica”, being used in this locality as food, and timber. However, M. subsericea remains almost unexplored regarding its chemical constituents, including secondary metabolites from the leaves. Objective: Identify the chemical constituents from the leaves of M. subsericea. Materials and Methods: Leaves were macerated with ethanol (96% v/v), and dried crude ethanolic extract was sequentially washed with the organic solvents in order to obtain an ethyl acetate fraction. Substances from this fraction were identified by different techniques, such as negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). Fresh leaves from M. subsericea were also submitted to hydrodistillation in order to obtain volatile substances, which were identified by gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometer. Results: NMR1H and 13C spectra allowed for the identification of the compounds myricetin, quercetin, and kaempferol from the ethyl acetate fraction. The negative-ion electrospray ionization Fourier transform ion cyclotron resonance mass spectrometry mass spectrum also revealed the presence in this fraction of a polyhydroxytriterpene acid (pomolic acid), and some flavonoids, such as quercitrin, and myricitrin. In all 34 volatile compounds were identified by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry, including monoterpenes, sesquiterpenes, and long chain hydrocarbons. Conclusion: This study describes the first reports concerning the phytochemical information about leaves from M. subsericea. SUMMARY Manilkara subsericea fruits proved to be a rich source of triterpenes. However, no phytochemical studies were carried out with leaves. Thus, we described identification of volatile substances from its essential oils, in addition to

  9. Students with Special Educational Needs in Secondary Education: Are They Intending to Learn or to Leave?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pijl, Sip Jan; Frostad, Per; Mjaavatn, Per Egil

    2014-01-01

    During their secondary school years, a considerable number of students seriously consider choosing between learning and leaving. Leaving school early means that students do not complete their education. Early school leaving is the last step in a process in which students gradually lose interest and develop the intention to leave school. This study…

  10. 5 CFR 630.1006 - Application to become a leave recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application to become a leave recipient. 630.1006 Section 630.1006 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1006 Application to become a leave...

  11. 5 CFR 630.1014 - Movement between voluntary leave bank programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Movement between voluntary leave bank programs. 630.1014 Section 630.1014 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1014 Movement between voluntary leave...

  12. 5 CFR 630.405 - Sick leave used in the computation of an annuity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Sick leave used in the computation of an annuity. 630.405 Section 630.405 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.405 Sick leave used in the computation of an annuity....

  13. 5 CFR 630.406 - Records on the use of sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Records on the use of sick leave. 630.406 Section 630.406 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Sick Leave § 630.406 Records on the use of sick leave. An agency must maintain records...

  14. 5 CFR 630.504 - Reestablishment of leave account after military service.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Reestablishment of leave account after military service. 630.504 Section 630.504 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Recredit of Leave § 630.504 Reestablishment of leave account...

  15. 5 CFR 630.607 - Transfer and recredit of home leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transfer and recredit of home leave. 630.607 Section 630.607 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Home Leave § 630.607 Transfer and recredit of home leave. An employee is entitled...

  16. 5 CFR 630.1008 - Accrual of annual and sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accrual of annual and sick leave. 630.1008 Section 630.1008 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1008 Accrual of annual and sick leave. (a) Except...

  17. 5 CFR 630.907 - Accrual of annual and sick leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Accrual of annual and sick leave. 630.907 Section 630.907 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.907 Accrual of annual and sick leave. (a) Except...

  18. 5 CFR 630.1106 - Agency review of an application to become an emergency leave recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... an emergency leave recipient. 630.1106 Section 630.1106 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1106 Agency review of an application to become an emergency leave recipient. An agency must review an application...

  19. 5 CFR 630.302 - Maximum annual leave accumulation-forty-five day limitation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Maximum annual leave accumulation-forty-five day limitation. 630.302 Section 630.302 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Annual Leave § 630.302 Maximum annual leave...

  20. 5 CFR 630.1016 - Termination of a voluntary leave bank program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Termination of a voluntary leave bank program. 630.1016 Section 630.1016 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1016 Termination of a voluntary leave...

  1. Is There Spectral Variation in the Polarized Reflectance of Leaves?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vanderbilt, V. C.; Daughtry, C. S. T.; Biehl, L. L.

    2014-01-01

    The light scattered by plant canopies depends in part on the light scattering/absorbing properties of the leaves and is key to understanding the remote sensing process in the optical domain. Here we specifically looked for evidence of fine spectral detail in the polarized portion of the light reflected from the individual leaves of five species of plants measured at Brewsters angle over the wavelength range 450 to 2300nm. Our results show no strong, unambiguous evidence of narrow band spectral variation of the polarized portion of the reflectance factor.

  2. Family and Medical Leave Act; Definition of Spouse. Final rule.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-08

    The U.S. Office of Personnel Management (OPM) is revising the definition of spouse in its regulations on the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) as a result of the decision by the United States Supreme Court holding section 3 of the Defense of Marriage Act (DOMA) unconstitutional. The new definition replaces the existing definition, which contains language from DOMA that refers to "a legal union between one man and one woman.'' The new definition permits Federal employees with same-sex spouses to use FMLA leave in the same manner as Federal employees with opposite-sex spouses.

  3. Increasing the Length of Parents' Birth-Related Leave

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Astrid Würtz

    2010-01-01

    Investments in children are generally seen as investments in the future economy. In this study I focus on time investments in children as I investigate the long-term educational effects on children of increasing parents' birth-related leave from 14 to 20 weeks using a natural experiment from 1984...... in Denmark. The causal effect of the reform is identified using regression discontinuity design to compare a population sample of children born shortly before and shortly after the reform took effect. Results indicate that increasing parents' access to birth-related leave has no measurable effect on children...

  4. Extraction and identification of bioactive compounds from agarwood leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, N. Y.; Yunus, M. A. C.; Idham, Z.; Ruslan, M. S. H.; Aziz, A. H. A.; Irwansyah, N.

    2016-11-01

    Agarwood commonly known as gaharu, aloeswood or eaglewood have been used as traditional medicine for centuries and its essential oil also being used as perfumery ingredients and aroma enhancers in food products. However, there is least study on the agarwood leaves though it contains large number of biomolecules component that show diverse pharmacological activity. Previous study showed that the extracted compounds from the leaves possess activities like anti-mutagenic, anti-tumor and anti-helminthic. The main objectives of this research were to determine bioactive compounds in agarwood leaves; leaves extract and oil yield obtained from maceration and soxhlet extraction methods respectively. The maceration process was performed at different operating temperature of 25°C, 50°C and 75°C and different retention time at 30, 60, 90 and 120 minutes. Meanwhile, various solvents were used to extract the oil from agarwood leaves using soxhlet method which are hexane, water, isopropanol and ethanol. The extracted oil from agarwood leaves by soxhlet extraction was analyzed using gas chromatography mass spectrometry. The results showed that the highest extract of 1.53% was obtained when increase the temperature to 75 °C and longest retention time of 120 minutes gave the highest oil yield of 2.10 % by using maceration. This is because at higher temperature enhances the solubility solute and diffusivity coefficient, thus increase the extract yield while longer retention time allow the reaction between solvent and solute occurred more rapidly giving higher extract. Furthermore, the soxhlet extraction using n-hexane as the solvent gave the highest oil yield as compared to other solvent due to the non-polar properties of n-hexane increase the efficiency of oil which is also non-polar to soluble in the solvent. In addition, the results also reported that the oil extracted from agarwood leaves contains bioactive compounds which are phytol, squalene, n-hexadecanoic acid and

  5. Aroma transition from rosemary leaves during aromatization of olive oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa Yılmazer

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available The aroma profile of aromatized olive oil was determined in this study. The primary objective was to investigate the transition of major aroma compounds from rosemary and olive fruit during the kneading step of olive oil production by response surface methodology. For this purpose, temperature, time, and amount of rosemary leaves were determined as independent variables. The results indicated that temperature and time did not affect the transition of target compounds, but rosemary leaves addition had a strong influence on transition, especially for characteristic aroma compounds of this herb. Adequacies of developed models were found to be high enough to predict each aromatic component of interest.

  6. Treatment for burn blisters: debride or leave intact?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murphy, Faye; Amblum, Jeshi

    2014-05-01

    This article presents findings from a systematic literature review of whether blisters arising from minor burns should be de-roofed or left intact. It discusses the risks of infection, healing outcomes, discomfort, choice of dressings and costs associated with each method, and reveals that debriding blisters larger than the patient's little fingernail while leaving smaller ones intact is generally agreed to be the best option. The article also explains external factors that influence the choice of whether to debride or leave blisters intact, reviews policy at the trust where one of the authors works in the context of the research and makes recommendations for practice.

  7. Antioxidant Activity of the Successive Extracts of Aesculus indica Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Guno Sindhu Chakraborthy

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available Plants are the best source of active secondary metabolites which are beneficial to mankind. Many plant origin drugs have been reported with biological properties like Analgesic, Anti-inflammatory, Antioxidant, hypoglycemic agents and many more. The successive extracts of Aesculus indica leaves were screened for in vitro antioxidant properties using the standard procedures. The successive extracts such as petroleum ether, ethyl acetate, methanol and water and 50% crude methanol extracts exhibited IC 50 values of respectively in DPPH and respectively in nitric oxide radical inhibition assays. The values are comparable with the standards such as ascorbic acid and quercetin. The Aesculus indica leaves are showing significant antioxidant activity.

  8. Bioactive triterpenes and phenolics of leaves of Eugenia brasiliensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michele Debiase Alberton Magina

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available A chemical investigation of Eugenia brasiliensis Lam. (Myrtaceae leaves led to the isolation of α-amyrin and β-amyrin (in a mixture, betulin, 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid, quercetin, catechin and gallocatechin. Herein, the identification of 29-hydroxy-oleanolic acid is reported for the first time in the Myrtaceae family. Moreover, in this study, the extract, fractions and six of the seven compounds were monitored for toxicity toward Artemia salina, antibacterial and acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity. The crude ethanol extract of the leaves and fractions were found be active on A. salina toxicity bioassay.

  9. Bioethanol production from Ficus religiosa leaves using microwave irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klein, Miri; Griess, Ofir; Pulidindi, Indra Neel; Perkas, Nina; Gedanken, Aharon

    2016-07-15

    A microwave assisted feasible process for the production of bioethanol from Ficus religiosa leaves was developed. Under the process conditions (8 min. microwave irradiation, 1 M HCl), 10.1 wt% glucose yield was obtained from the leaves. Microwave based hydrolysis process yielded higher glucose content (10.1 wt%) compared to the conventional hydrothermal process (4.1 wt%). Upon fermentation of the hydrolysate using Baker's yeast, 3 wt% (dry wt. basis) of bioethanol was produced.

  10. Administrative circular n°3 (Rev. 2) – Home leave, travel to home station and assimilated leave and travel

    CERN Multimedia

    2013-01-01

    Administrative Circular No. 3 (Rev. 2) entitled “Home leave, travel to the home station and assimilated leave and travel”, approved by the Director-General following discussion at the Standing Concertation Committee meeting of 11 October 2012 and entering into force on 1 January 2013, is available on the intranet site of the Human Resources Department.   This circular is applicable to employed members of the personnel. It cancels and replaces Administrative Circular No. 3 (Rev. 1) entitled “Travel to the home station and home leave” of June 2002. The circular was revised in order to take into account the new status of Associate Member State and the fact that henceforth, home stations may be situated on territory outside of Europe. It is proposed to introduce a new system of determination of the benefits (Travel expenses, travel time and distance indemnity) granted in the context of home leave and supplementary journeys to the home station.  For t...

  11. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ahmad, Nisar; Fazal, Hina; Ayaz, Muhammad; Abbasi, Bilal Haider; Mohammad, Ijaz; Fazal, Lubna

    2011-08-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×10(3)/µL, 8.10×10(3)/µL, 84.0% to 55×10(3)/µL, 3.7×10(3)/µL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×10(3)/µL to 168×10(3)/µL, WBC from 3.7×10(3)/µL to 7.7×10(3)/µL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Carica papaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.

  12. The evolution, morphology and development of fern leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra eVasco

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Leaves are lateral determinate structures formed in a predictable sequence (phyllotaxy on the flanks of an indeterminate shoot apical meristem. The origin and evolution of leaves in vascular plants has been widely debated. Being the main conspicuous organ of nearl all vascular plants and often easy to recognize as such, it seems surprising that leaves have had multiple origins. For decades, morphologists, anatomists, paleobotanists, and systematists have contributed data to this debate. More recently, molecular genetic studies have provided insight into leaf evolution and development mainly within angiosperms and, to a lesser extent, lycophytes. There has been recent interest in extending leaf evolutionary developmental studies to other species and lineages, particularly in lycophytes and ferns. Therefore, a review of fern leaf morphology, evolution and development is timely. Here we discuss the theories of leaf evolution in ferns, morphology and diversity of fern leaves, and experimental results of fern leaf development. We summarize what is known about the molecular genetics of fern leaf development and what future studies might tell us about the evolution of fern leaf development.

  13. Using hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Zhao, Xueguan; Meng, Zhijun; Zou, Wei

    2016-11-01

    In the process of tomato plants growth, due to the effect of plants genetic factors, poor environment factors, or disoperation of parasites, there will generate a series of unusual symptoms on tomato plants from physiology, organization structure and external form, as a result, they cannot grow normally, and further to influence the tomato yield and economic benefits. Hyperspectral image usually has high spectral resolution, not only contains spectral information, but also contains the image information, so this study adopted hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves, and developed a simple hyperspectral imaging system, including a halogen lamp light source unit, a hyperspectral image acquisition unit and a data processing unit. Spectrometer detection wavelength ranged from 400nm to 1000nm. After hyperspectral images of tomato leaves being captured, it was needed to calibrate hyperspectral images. This research used spectrum angle matching method and spectral red edge parameters discriminant method respectively to identify diseased tomato leaves. Using spectral red edge parameters discriminant method produced higher recognition accuracy, the accuracy was higher than 90%. Research results have shown that using hyperspectral imaging technology to identify diseased tomato leaves is feasible, and provides the discriminant basis for subsequent disease control of tomato plants.

  14. Antimicrobial Activity of UV-Induced Phenylamides from Rice Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hye Lin Park

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Rice produces a wide array of phytoalexins in response to pathogen attacks and UV-irradiation. Except for the flavonoid sakuranetin, most phytoalexins identified in rice are diterpenoid compounds. Analysis of phenolic-enriched fractions from UV-treated rice leaves showed that several phenolic compounds in addition to sakuranetin accumulated remarkably in rice leaves. We isolated two compounds from UV-treated rice leaves using silica gel column chromatography and preparative HPLC. The isolated phenolic compounds were identified as phenylamide compounds: N-trans-cinnamoyltryptamine and N-p-coumaroylserotonin. Expression analysis of biosynthetic genes demonstrated that genes for arylamine biosynthesis were upregulated by UV irradiation. This result suggested that phenylamide biosynthetic pathways are activated in rice leaves by UV treatment. To unravel the role of UV-induced phenylamides as phytoalexins, we examined their antimicrobial activity against rice fungal and bacterial pathogens. N-trans-Cinnamoyltryptamine inhibited the growth of rice brown spot fungus (Bipolaris oryzae. In addition to the known antifungal activity to the blast fungus, sakuranetin had antimicrobial activity toward B. oryzae and Rhizoctonia solani (rice sheath blight fungus. UV-induced phenylamides and sakuranetin also had antimicrobial activity against rice bacterial pathogens for grain rot (Burkholderia glumae, blight (Xanthomonas oryzae pv. oryzae and leaf streak (X. oryzae pv. oryzicola diseases. These findings suggested that the UV-induced phenylamides in rice are phytoalexins against a diverse array of pathogens.

  15. A factor from spinach leaves interacting with chlorophylls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Willemke

    1967-01-01

    A factor has been isolated from spinach leaves that interacts with chlorophyll. This interaction is measurable as an increased light sensitivity and fluorescence capacity of the pigment in an aqueous medium. The factor is probably a protein. Interaction was also observed with bacteriochlorophyll an

  16. Physiological responses of plant leaves to atmospheric ammonia and ammonium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pearson, J.; Soares, A.

    Misting of leaves of several plant species with 3 mM aqueous NH +4 at pH 5, or fumigation with 3000 μg m -3 gaseous NH 3 for 1 h, elicits similar biochemical and physiological changes in the species tested. The enzyme glutamine synthetase (GS) was shown to increase its activity in all species, while that of nitrate reductase (NR) was inhibited, at least in those species which possessed the ability to induce foliar NR. At the same time there were marked changes in organic anion concentrations, with malate and citrate in particular being reduced in concentration, following either NH +4 or NH 3 application to leaves. The changes in organic anions are also discussed in the light of pH regulation by the cell. A stimulation of photosynthesis was also evident when leaves were treated with either NH 3 or NH +4. It is argued that, because of the differences in solution chemistry of the two ammonia forms, the aqueous form applied at pH 5 and the gaseous form being an alkali in solution, these changes can only have occurred through the ability of the leaves to readily assimilate both forms of the ammonia. The biochemical changes might have potential as markers for the onset of physiological perturbation by atmospheric ammonia pollution, particularly changes in organic acid concentration; their use in an index of pollution stress is briefly discussed.

  17. Why Do Student Nurses Leave? Suggestions from a Delphi Study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Last, Lynn; Fulbrook, Paul

    2003-01-01

    Focus groups and interviews gathered professional opinions about why students leave nursing; results were formulated into a questionnaire administered to 32 students in a three-round Delphi. Factors contributing to attrition included theory-practice gap, university-clinical site relationships, unmet expectations, stress, and not feeling valued.…

  18. McCallen Professional Research and Teaching Leave Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCallen, R. [Lawrence Livermore National Lab. (LLNL), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-10-16

    This end of assignment report for a Professional Research and Teaching (PRT) Leave award includes the attached assessment of success by the host organization, University of California Davis (UCD). The following summarizes the accomplishments and attached are a selection of documented items.

  19. "Who Leaves?" Teacher Attrition and Student Achievement. Working Paper 23

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyd, Donald; Grossman, Pamela; Lankford, Hamilton; Loeb, Susanna; Wyckoff, James

    2009-01-01

    This paper analyzes attrition patterns among teachers in New York City public elementary and middle schools and explores whether teachers who transfer among schools, or leave teaching entirely, are more or less effective than those who remain. We find that the first-year teachers who are less effective in improving student math scores have higher…

  20. Thermal Degradation of Flavonol Glycosides in Noni Leaves During Roasting

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shixin Deng

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Noni leaves have been used for a variety of health benefits for thousands of years. Noni leaf tea, a commercial product made by a roasting process, is attracting more attention due to its potential health benefits. Flavonoids appear to be some of the predominant constituents in noni leaves. As flavonoids exist mostly in the forms of glycosides or polymers, degradation to corresponding metabolites is usually needed for bio-absorption. This study investigates the effects of thermal treatment (non-aqueous roasting on flavonoids in noni leaves. Rutin and kaempferol glycoside contents decreased dramatically as roasting time and/or temperature increased, while quercetin and kaempferol aglycones were produced. A quantitative comparison demonstrated that quercetin and kaempferol concentrations were 3.74 and 6.28 times greater in noni leaf tea than in raw noni leaves, respectively. These findings indicate that the roasting process for the noni leaf tea could induce the degradation of flavonol glycosides, and produce their aglycone metabolites, which in turn, may lead to more beneficial bioactivities and bioavailability.

  1. Triterpenoid glycosides from the leaves of Meliosma henryi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alabdul Magid, Abdulmagid; Morjani, Hamid; Harakat, Dominique; Madoulet, Claudie; Dumontet, Vincent; Lavaud, Catherine

    2015-01-01

    Seven triterpenoid glycosides, named meliosmosides A-G, were isolated from the leaves of Meliosma henryi Diels (Sabiaceae). Their structures were elucidated by different spectroscopic methods including 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as HRESIMS analysis. Isolated compounds were evaluated for their cytotoxic activity against KB cell line.

  2. Isolation and chemical characterization of phosphatidyl glycerol from spinach leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Haverkate, E.; Deenen, L.L.M. van

    1965-01-01

    Pure phosphatidyl glycerol was obtained from spinach leaves after repeated chromatography on silica columns. Ascertainment of the configuration of the hydrolysis products formed by the action of phospholipases C (EC 3.1.4.3) and D (EC 3.1.4.4) demonstrated that this phospholipid is identical with 1,

  3. Spectral characteristics of normal and nutrient-deficient maize leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Abbas, A. H.; Barr, R.; Hall, J. D.; Crane, F. L.; Baumgardner, M. F.

    1972-01-01

    Reflectance, transmittance and absorbance spectra of normal and six types of mineral-deficient (N,P,K,S,Mg and Ca) maize (Zea mays L.) leaves were analyzed at 30 selected wavelengths along the electromagnetic spectrum from 500 to 2600 nm. Chlorophyll content and percent leaf moisture were also determined. Leaf thermograms were obtained for normal, N- and S- deficient leaves. The results of the analysis of variance showed significant differences in reflectance, transmittance and absorbance in the visible wavelengths among leaf numbers 3, 4, and 5, among the seven nutrient treatments, and among the interactions of leaves and treatments. In the reflective infrared wavelengths only treatments produced significant differences. The chlorophyll content of leaves was reduced in all deficiencies in comparison to controls. Percent moisture was increased in S-, Mg- and N- deficiencies. Positive correlation (r = 0.707) between moisture content and percent absorption at both 1450 and 1930 nm were obtained. Polynomial regression analysis of leaf thickness and leaf moisture content showed that these two variables were significantly and directly related (r = 0.894).

  4. [Thermal dissipation pathway in cucumber seedling leaves under hypoxia stress].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, Yong-xi; Sun, Jin; Wang, Li-ping; Shu, Sheng; Guo, Shi-rong

    2011-03-01

    A water culture experiment was conducted to study the relationship between photosynthetic thermal dissipation and xanthophyll cycle in cucumber seedling leaves under hypoxia stress (the dissolved oxygen concentration in nutrient solution was 0.9-1.1 mg x L(-1)). Under the hypoxia stress, there was a significant decrease in the quantum yield of PS II photochemistry rate (phi(PS II)), net photosynthetic rate (Pn) under saturation light intensity, quanta yield (AQY), and maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm), suggesting that the photoinhibition of the seedling leaves was induced. Meanwhile, the thermal dissipation (NPQ) and the allocation of dissipation energy (D) by antenna increased, but the photochemical quenching apparent (q(p)) decreased, suggesting the enhancement of thermal dissipation in cucumber leaves under hypoxia stress. A positive correlation was observed between NPQ and xanthophyll de-epoxidation state (DEPS), and both of them were promoted by ascorbic acid (AsA) and inhibited by 1,4-dithiothreitol (DTT), suggesting that xanthophyll cycle was the major pathway of photosynthetic thermal dissipation in cucumber seedling leaves under hypoxia stress.

  5. Dengue fever treatment with Carica papaya leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nisar Ahmad; Hina Fazal; Muhammad Ayaz; Bilal Haider Abbasi; Ijaz Mohammad; Lubna Fazal

    2011-01-01

    The main objective of the current study is to investigate the potential of Carica papaya leaves extracts against Dengue fever in 45 year old patient bitten by carrier mosquitoes. For the treatment of Dengue fever the extract was prepared in water. 25 mL of aqueous extract of C. papaya leaves was administered to patient infected with Dengue fever twice daily i.e. morning and evening for five consecutive days. Before the extract administration the blood samples from patient were analyzed. Platelets count (PLT), White Blood Cells (WBC) and Neutrophils (NEUT) decreased from 176×103/μL, 8.10×10 3/μL, 84.0% to 55×10 3/μL, 3.7×10 3/μL and 46.0%. Subsequently, the blood samples were rechecked after the administration of leaves extract. It was observed that the PLT count increased from 55×103/μL to 168×10 3/μL, WBC from 3.7×10 3/μL to 7.7×10 3/μL and NEUT from 46.0% to 78.3%. From the patient feelings and blood reports it showed that Caricapapaya leaves aqueous extract exhibited potential activity against Dengue fever. Furthermore, the different parts of this valuable specie can be further used as a strong natural candidate against viral diseases.

  6. Review of Caught in the Pulpit: Leaving Belief Behind

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonathan S Simmons

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available 'Caught in the Pulpit: Leaving Belief Behind 'expands on a pilot study of non-believing Protestant ministers that Daniel C. Dennett and Linda LaScola published in 'Evolutionary Psychology 'in 2010. As a continuation of the study, this slight but engaging book similarly concerns those who entered the clergy but were unable to move beyond their doubts.

  7. Chromatographic profiles of Ginkgo biloba leaves and selected products

    Science.gov (United States)

    An LC-DAD-ESI/MS method was developed to obtain chromatographic profiles for the flavonoids and terpene lactones of Ginkgo biloba leaves and selected G. biloba products. The method was used to identify 46 glycosylated flavonols and flavones, 3 free flavonol aglycones, catechin, 10 biflavones, a dihy...

  8. Factors Related to Teachers' Intention to Leave the Classroom Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tippens, Abby; Ricketts, John C.; Morgan, A. Christian; Navarro, Marie; Flanders, Frank B.

    2013-01-01

    The challenge of retaining teachers in the profession of agricultural education is a prevalent and growing problem in the United States. The purpose of this study was to determine the primary factors contributing to intention to leave the profession among Georgia agriculture teachers. Teacher-participants responded to a web-based survey which…

  9. High throughput sequencing of small RNAs in Potato Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Understanding the role of small RNAs (sRNAs) in gene regulation, function and development is a rapidly evolving field. sRNAs result from transcript degradation and to regulatory micro RNA (miRNA) and small inhibitory RNA (siRNA) classes involved in gene regulation. The sRNAs from potato leaves were...

  10. Kaempferol and quercetin glycosides from Rubus idaeus L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gudej, Jan

    2003-01-01

    Quercetin 3-0-beta-D-glucoside (I), quercetin and kaempferol 3-0-beta-D-galactosides (II, III), kaempferol 3-0-beta-L-arabinopyranoside (IV), kaempferol 3-0-beta-D-(6''-E-p-coumaroyl)-glucoside (tiliroside) (V) and methyl gallate (VI) were isolated from Rubus idaeus L. subspecies culture of Norna leaves and fully characterized.

  11. Einstein's Tea Leaves and Pressure Systems in the Atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tandon, Amit; Marshall, John

    2010-01-01

    Tea leaves gather in the center of the cup when the tea is stirred. In 1926 Einstein explained the phenomenon in terms of a secondary, rim-to-center circulation caused by the fluid rubbing against the bottom of the cup. This explanation can be connected to air movement in atmospheric pressure systems to explore, for example, why low-pressure…

  12. Two new sphingolipids from the leaves of Piper betle L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Duo-Zhi; Xiong, Hua-Bin; Tian, Kai; Guo, Jun-Ming; Huang, Xiang-Zhong; Jiang, Zhi-Yong

    2013-09-12

    Two new sphingolipids, pipercerebrosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the leaves of Piper betle L. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical degradation. These two compounds did not show significant cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines K562 and HL-60 in a MTT assay.

  13. Two New Sphingolipids from the Leaves of Piper betle L.

    OpenAIRE

    Zhi-Yong Jiang; Xiang-Zhong Huang; Jun-Ming Guo; Kai Tian; Hua-Bin Xiong; Duo-Zhi Chen

    2013-01-01

    Two new sphingolipids, pipercerebrosides A (1) and B (2), were isolated from the leaves of Piper betle L. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical degradation. These two compounds did not show significant cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines K562 and HL-60 in a MTT assay.

  14. Two New Sphingolipids from the Leaves of Piper betle L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zhi-Yong Jiang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new sphingolipids, pipercerebrosides A (1 and B (2, were isolated from the leaves of Piper betle L. Their structures, including absolute configurations, were determined by spectroscopic analysis and chemical degradation. These two compounds did not show significant cytotoxic activity against the cancer cell lines K562 and HL-60 in a MTT assay.

  15. Labour Market Effects of Parental Leave: A European Perspective

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Akgündüz, Y.E.; Plantenga, J.

    2011-01-01

    We investigate the aggregate-level effects of parental leave legislation on various labour market outcomes of women in 16 European countries for the period since 1970. The paper updates and extends previous findings in the literature. Results show increases in participation rates that diminish with

  16. Three new megastigmanes from the leaves of Annona muricata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsushige, Ayano; Matsunami, Katsuyoshi; Kotake, Yaichiro; Otsuka, Hideaki; Ohta, Shigeru

    2012-04-01

    Three new megastigmanes (1-3), named annoionols A and B (1, 2) and annoionoside (3), were isolated from the leaves of Annona muricata L. (Annonaceae) together with 14 known compounds (4-17). Among the known compounds, annoionol C (4) was isolated from a natural source for the first time. The structures of all compounds were elucidated by spectroscopic and chemical analyses.

  17. Cassava leaves as protein source for pigs in Central Vietnam

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    2007-01-01

    The aim of the studies described in this thesis was to evaluate the use of cassava leaves as protein sources for pigs when used at high levels in the diet, either in fresh form or with simplified methods of processing. In twenty cassava varieties taken from the upper part of the plant at the root

  18. Predicting stay/leave behavior among volleyball referees

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Yperen, N.W.

    1998-01-01

    This study aimed to predict stay/leave behavior among volleyball referees. The predictor variables reflect commitment aspects from the literature: attraction, perceived lack of alternatives, personal investments, and feelings of obligation to remain. Intent to quit was assumed to mediate the link be

  19. Physical Education, Liberal Education and the Leaving Certificate Examination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulcahy, D. G.

    2012-01-01

    This article considers the conceptualization of physical education as a Leaving Certificate Examination subject and the place of physical education in a liberal education. Special attention is given to the conceptual evolution of physical education and its intrinsic educational values and to the developments in the idea of a liberal education over…

  20. Gender Inequality and the Family and Medical Leave Act

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prohaska, Ariane; Zipp, John F.

    2011-01-01

    In this article, we use feminist theories of the state to examine why the Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA) has had relatively little impact on increasing men's caregiving after the birth or adoption of a child. An analysis of witness testimonies and of the language of the proposed bill at three different stages of its development revealed that…

  1. Methyl carnosate, an antibacterial diterpene isolated from Salvia officinalis leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Climati, Elisa; Mastrogiovanni, Fabio; Valeri, Maria; Salvini, Laura; Bonechi, Claudia; Mamadalieva, Nilufar Zokirzhonovna; Egamberdieva, Dilfuza; Taddei, Anna Rita; Tiezzi, Antonio

    2013-04-01

    Ethanolic extracts of Salvia officinalis leaves demonstrated antibacterial activity against Bacillus cereus. Fractionation of the extracts led to the isolation of the most active antibacterial compound, which, from spectroscopic and LC-MS evidence, was proved to be the diterpene, methyl carnosate.

  2. Phospholipid signaling responses in salt-stressed rice leaves

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darwish, E.; Testerink, C.; Khalil, M.; El-Shihy, O.; Munnik, T.

    2009-01-01

    Salinity is one of the major environmental factors limiting growth and productivity of rice plants. In this study, the effect of salt stress on phospholipid signaling responses in rice leaves was investigated. Leaf cuts were radiolabeled with 32 P-orthophosphate and the lipids extracted and analyzed

  3. Organizational Ethics and Teachers' Intent to Leave: An Integrative Approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shapira-Lishchinsky, Orly; Rosenblatt, Zehava

    2009-01-01

    Purpose: The present study focuses on developing a conceptual framework that explores the relationships between teachers' intent to leave and a spectrum of ethics perceptions. The authors argue that these relationships are mediated by organizational commitment (affective and normative). Research Design: Organizational ethics was measured by…

  4. "Hello, Goodbye": Exploring the Phenomenon of Leaving Teaching Early

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torres, Aubrey Scheopner

    2012-01-01

    High teacher attrition rates hinder schools in their ability to provide quality instruction. This study seeks to understand why teachers leave early in their careers (within the first 5 years) using a mixed methods approach that combined 50 in-depth interviews with 15 public and 10 Catholic school teachers in the United States who left early with…

  5. Integrated absence management and the Family and Medical Leave Act.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Judy A

    2008-05-01

    Intermittent unscheduled absenteeism often challenges employers to meet the needs of their employees, control direct absenteeism costs, and maintain the staff needed to serve customers. Occupational health nurses have opportunities to play an important role in addressing this challenge. Measurable financial impacts have been demonstrated from integrating the management of intermittent FMLA leave with an employer's existing absence management program.

  6. Photosynthesis in Plants with Non-Green Leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vartak, Rehka

    2006-01-01

    Enquiry based learning is an important tool in science teaching. Students of Class XI (16-17 years old) were asked to hypothesise on the role of different pigments found in plants with non-green leaves. The majority hypothesised that these plants were devoid of chlorophylls and some other pigments performed the function of photosynthesis. Their…

  7. New cytotoxic steroids from the leaves of Clerodendrum trichotomum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Rui-Lan; Wang, Rui; Ding, Lan; Shi, Yan-Ping

    2013-07-01

    A phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Clerodendrum trichotomum led to the isolation of five new (2-6) and two known (1 and 7) steroids, whose structures and relative configurations were elucidated by comprehensive spectroscopic analysis and by comparison of their NMR data with those of related compounds. Steroids 2 and 5 exhibited moderate cytotoxicity in vitro against HeLa cell line.

  8. Three new hecogenin glycosides from fermented leaves of Agave americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jin, Jian-Ming; Liu, Xi-Kui; Yang, Chong-Ren

    2003-06-01

    Eight steroidal compounds, including three new hecogenin glycosides, agamenosides D-F, were isolated from the fermented leaves of Agave americana. The structures of the new steroidal saponins were elucidated by spectroscopic data and chemical methods. The activity of the isolated compounds on deformations of mycelia germinated from conidia of Pyricularia oaryzae P-2b was evaluated.

  9. The Total Energy Flux Leaving the Ocean's Mixed Layer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rimac, Antonija; von Storch, Jin-Song; Eden, Carsten

    2016-01-01

    The total energy flux leaving the ocean’s spatially and seasonally varying mixed layer is estimated using a global ⅝1/10° ocean general circulation model. From the total wind-power input of 3.33 TW into near-inertial waves (0.35 TW), subinertial fluctuations (0.87 TW), and the time-mean circulation

  10. Pharmacognostical Investigation and Physicochemical Analysis of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kalaskar Mohan G.; Saner Sachin Y.; Pawar Manohar V.; Rokade Dipak L; Surana Sanjay J

    2012-01-01

    Objective: Celastrus paniculatus Willd. is an important Indian medicinal plant and widely used in the treatment of the verity of disease and well explored scientifically for their pharmacological properties. The current study was therefore carried out to provide requisite pharmacognostic details about the plant. Methods: Pharmacognostic investigation of the fresh, powdered and anatomical sections of the leaves of Celastrus paniculatus Willd. was carried out to determine its morphological, anatomical, and phytochemical diagnostic features. Quantitative diagnostic characteristics, physicochemical properties and quantitative phytochemical measures were established. Results: The morphology of leave reveled, leaves are alternate, acute, acuminate or obtuse, rounded with cuncate base,; margin is finely crenate, venation is reticulate. The microscopy reveals the dorsiventral type of leave, with anomocytic stomata, covering (lower epidermis) and glandular (upper epidermis) trichomes. The collateral vascular bundle crowned with sclerenchymatous fiber, ideoblast of calcium oxalate. The Quantitative diagnostic characteristics such as leaf constant were measured. Physicochemical properties such as ash, extractive values and fluorescence analysis were established. Quantitative phytochemical revealed presence of carbohydrates, fixed oil, glycosides, cumarines, tannins, flavonoids, saponins, steroids and triterpenoids. Conclusion: The results of the study could be useful in setting some diagnostic indices for the identification and preparation of a monograph of the plant.

  11. Circular spectropolarimetric sensing of chiral photosystems in decaying leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patty, C. H. Lucas; Visser, Luuk J. J.; Ariese, Freek; Buma, Wybren Jan; Sparks, William B.; van Spanning, Rob J. M.; Röling, Wilfred F. M.; Snik, Frans

    2017-03-01

    Circular polarization spectroscopy has proven to be an indispensable tool in photosynthesis research and (bio)molecular research in general. Oxygenic photosystems typically display an asymmetric Cotton effect around the chlorophyll absorbance maximum with a signal ≤ 1 % . In vegetation, these signals are the direct result of the chirality of the supramolecular aggregates. The circular polarization is thus directly influenced by the composition and architecture of the photosynthetic macrodomains, and is thereby linked to photosynthetic functioning. Although ordinarily measured only on a molecular level, we have developed a new spectropolarimetric instrument, TreePol, that allows for both laboratory and in-the-field measurements. Through spectral multiplexing, TreePol is capable of fast measurements with a sensitivity of ∼ 1 *10-4 and is therefore suitable of non-destructively probing the molecular architecture of whole plant leaves. We have measured the chiroptical evolution of Hedera helix leaves for a period of 22 days. Spectrally resolved circular polarization measurements (450-900 nm) on whole leaves in transmission exhibit a strong decrease in the polarization signal over time after plucking, which we accredit to the deterioration of chiral macro-aggregates. Chlorophyll a levels measured over the same period by means of UV-vis absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy showed a much smaller decrease. With these results we are able to distinguish healthy from deteriorating leaves. Hereby we indicate the potency of circular polarization spectroscopy on whole and intact leaves as a nondestructive tool for structural and plant stress assessment. Additionally, we underline the establishment of circular polarization signals as remotely accessible means of detecting the presence of extraterrestrial life.

  12. NEMATICIDAL ACTIVITY OF ALSTONIA BOONEI AND BRIDELIA FERRUGINEA LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olatunji, Gabriel Ademola

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Chemical environmental hazards warrant researches on green chemistry. Screen house and field studies were conducted to investigate the natural nematicidal potential of Alstonia boonei and Bridelia ferruginea leaves. The leaves were extracted successively using n- hexane, ethyl acetate and ethanol; the crude extracts were tested on Meloidogyne incognita that infects Corchorus olitorius in a 9 x 4 x 3 factorial experiment. In the Screen house and field, Alstonia boonei ethanol extracts (ALSB/EtOH caused a significant (p<0.05 increase in plant height and number of leaves which compared significantly with that of reference standard carbofuran, whereas Alstonia boonei ethyl acetate extract (ALSB/EtOAc and Bridelia ferruginea ethyl acetate extract (BRDF/EtOAc influenced the production of higher number of branches which was similar to that of carbofuran. Nematodes were significantly (p<0.05 absent in the soil and root of plants that received the highest concentrations (75% and 50% of ALSB/EtOH, ALSB/EtOAc and Bridelia ferruginea ethanol extracts. Corchorus olitorius plants that received carbofuran and ALSB/EtOH flowered significantly earlier than plants treated with aqueous extracts of Alstonia boonei and Bridelia ferruginea, which also produced significantly (p<0.05 lower plant height, fewer leaves, fewer branches and had nematodes in their root and soil at harvest. Phytochemical screening of plant extracts revealed the presence of alkaloids, flavonoids, anthraquinones, tannins and saponins. The extracts of the leaves of A. boonei and B. ferruginea were nematicidal and appear to hold promise as natural, biodegradable and environmentally friendly alternative crop protectants against Meloidogyne incognita.

  13. Proteomic Analysis of Strawberry Leaves Infected with Colletotrichum fragariae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xianping Fang; Huasheng Ma; Songlin Raun

    2012-01-01

    Understanding the defense mechanisms used by anthracnose-resistant strawberries against Colletotrichum infection is important for breeding purposes.To characterize cell responses to Colletotrichum infection,proteomes from strawberry seedling leaves that had or had not been infected with Colletotrichum fragariae were characterized at different time points post infection by 2-DE and by MALDI-TOF/TOF MS/MS and database-searching protein identification.Mass spectrometry identified 49 differentially expressed proteins with significant intensity differences (> 1.5-fold,p <0.05) in mock-and C.fragariae-infected leaves at least at one time point.Notably,2-DE analysis revealed that C.fragariae infection increased the expression of well-known and novel pathogen-responsive proteins whose expression patterns tended to correlate with physiological changes in the leaves.Quantitative real-time PCR was used to examine the transcriptional profiles of infected and uninfected strawberry leaves,and western blotting confirmed the induction of β-1,3-glucanase and a lowmolecular-weight heat shock protein in response to C.fragariae infection.During the late phase of infection,proteins involved in the Calvin cycle and glycolysis pathway had suppressed expression.The abundance changes,putative functions,and participation in physiological reactions for the identified proteins produce a pathogenresponsive protein network in C.fragariae-infected strawberry leaves.Together,these findings increase our knowledge of pathogen resistance mechanisms,especially those found in non-model plant species.

  14. Structure of fructans from excised leaves of New Zealand flax.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sims, I M; Cairns, A J; Furneaux, R H

    2001-07-01

    The accumulation of total water-soluble carbohydrate, and specifically sucrose and fructan, by excised leaves of Phormium tenax and P. cookianum (family Phormiaceae J. G. Agardh, order Asparagales) was investigated. Total water-soluble carbohydrate content of excised leaves of P. tenax and P. cookianum increased during 48 h of continuous illumination at an average rate of 1.3 and 0.9 mg g(-1) fresh weight leaf per hour, respectively. The sucrose content of excised leaves increased throughout the experimental period. The fructan content of excised leaves of P. tenax increased slightly throughout the experimental period, whilst that of P. cookianum was variable and showed no overall change. Chemical and spectroscopic analysis of the fructans obtained from the two Phormium species showed that they were similar to each other and contained mostly 1-linked and terminal fructofuranosyl (Fruf) residues, together with smaller amounts of 6-linked Fruf, 1,6-branched Fruf, terminal and 6-linked glucopyranosyl residues. Separation of the fructans by thin-layer and high-performance anion-exchange chromatography revealed the presence of a complex mixture of fructo-oligosaccharides and higher molecular weight fructan. The branched structure of the fructans isolated from excised leaves of Phormium resembles that of fructans and fructo-oligosaccharides isolated from some related species within the order Asparagales (Agave vera cruz, Cordyline australis and Urginea maritima), but is distinct from the linear structure of fructans from others (Allium cepa and Asparagus officinalis). The structural heterogeniety of fructans within both the order Asparagales and superorder Liliiflorae may be a useful chemotaxonomic aid.

  15. Child-Care in Norway: Use of Parental Leave by Fathers

    OpenAIRE

    Naz, Ghazala

    2011-01-01

    An important feature of parental leave in Norway is that it allows significant sharing of leave between parents. Parents may take 54 weeks of leave and receive 80 per cent of previous earnings or 44 weeks of leave with 100 per cent of earnings, up to a ceiling amount. Nine weeks of total leave are, however, reserved for the mother and six weeks for the father and, as a general rule, these weeks cannot be transferred to the other parent. The remaining parental leave can be shared between paren...

  16. Utilization of Anting-Anting (Acalypha indica) Leaves as Antibacterial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Batubara, Irmanida; Wahyuni, Wulan Tri; Firdaus, Imam

    2016-01-01

    Anting-anting (Acalypha indica) plants is a species of plant having catkin type of inflorescence. This research aims to utilize anting-anting as antibacterial toward Streptococcus mutans and degradation of biofilm on teeth. Anting-anting leaves were extracted by maceration technique using methanol, chloroform, and n-hexane. Antibacterial and biofilm degradation assays were performed using microdilution technique with 96 well. n-Hexane extracts of anting-anting leaves gave the best antibacterial potency with minimum inhibitory concentration and minimum bactericidal concentration value of 500 μg/mL and exhibited good biofilm degradation activity. Fraction of F3 obtained from fractionation of n-hexane's extract with column chromatography was a potential for degradation of biofilm with IC50 value of 56.82 μg/mL. Alkaloid was suggested as antibacterial and degradation of biofilm in the active fraction.

  17. Phenolic Compounds Analysis of Root, Stalk, and Leaves of Nettle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Semih Otles

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Types of nettles (Urtica dioica were collected from different regions to analyze phenolic compounds in this research. Nettles are specially grown in the coastal part. According to this kind of properties, nettle samples were collected from coastal part of (Mediterranean, Aegean, Black sea, and Marmara Turkey. Phenolic profile, total phenol compounds, and antioxidant activities of nettle samples were analyzed. Nettles were separated to the part of root, stalk, and leaves. Then, these parts of nettle were analyzed to understand the difference of phenolic compounds and amount of them. Nettle (root, stalk and leaves samples were analyzed by using High-Performance Liquid Chromatography with Diode-Array Detection (HPLC-DAD to qualitative and quantitative determination of the phenolic compounds. Total phenolic components were measured by using Folin-Ciocalteu method. The antioxidant activity was measured by using DPPH (2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl which is generally used for herbal samples and based on single electron transfer (SET.

  18. Antibacterial Constituents of Hainan Morinda citrifolia (Noni) Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Wei-Min; Wang, Wei; Zhang, Jing-Jing; Wang, Zhi-Rong; Wang, Yu; Hao, Wang-Jun; Huang, Wu-Yang

    2016-05-01

    Noni (Morinda citrifolia L.) is an edible and medicinal plant distributed in Hainan, China. The antibacterial activities of the extracts of water (WE), petroleum ether (PEE), ethyl acetate (EAE), chloroform (CE), and n-butanol (BE) were assayed by the disk diffusion method. The results showed that the extracts from Noni leaves possessed antibacterial effects against Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Proteus vulgaris, and Staphylococcus aureus. Among 5 different extracts, the BE produced the best antibacterial activity. The samples were first extracted by ethanol, and the primary compounds in the BE fraction of ethanol extract was further isolated and identified. Six phenolic compounds, including 5, 15-dimethylmorindol, ferulic acid, p-hydroxycinamic acid, methyl 4-hydroxybenzoate, methyl ferulate, and methyl 4-hydroxycinnamate, were identifiedby NMR. The results indicated that the phenolic compounds might significantly contribute to antibacterial activities of Noni leaves.

  19. Satisfaction with fishing and the desire to leave.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pascoe, Sean; Cannard, Toni; Jebreen, Eddie; Dichmont, Catherine M; Schirmer, Jacki

    2015-09-01

    Predicting who may leave a fishery is an important consideration when designing capacity reduction programs to enhance both ecological and economic sustainability. In this paper, the relationship between satisfaction and the desire to exit a fishery is examined for the Queensland East Coast Trawl fishery. Income from fishing, and changes in income over the last 5 years, were key factors affecting overall satisfaction. Relative income per se was not a significant factor, counter to most satisfaction studies. Continuing a family tradition of fishing and, for one group, pride in being a fisher was found to be significant. Satisfaction with fishing overall and the challenge of fishing were found to be the primary drivers of the desire to stay or leave the fishery. Surprisingly, public perceptions of fishing, trust in management and perceptions of equity in resource allocation did not significantly affect overall satisfaction or the desire to exit the fishery.

  20. Antioxidant and Anticancer Constituents from the Leaves of Liriodendron tulipifera

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ya-Fei Kang

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Sixteen compounds were extracted and purified from the leaves of Liriodendron tulipifera. These compounds include aporphines, oxoaporphine, coumarin, sesquiterpene lactone, benzenoids, cyclitol and steroids. (+-Norstephalagine (2 (an aporphine and scopoletin (8 (a coumarin were isolated from Liriodendron tulipifera leaves from the first time. The identified compounds were screened for their antiradical scavenging, metal chelating and ferric reducing power activities. The results have showed that these compounds have antioxidative activity. The study has also examined the chemopreventive property of the isolated compounds against human melanoma cells A375. The results shown that (−-anonaine (1, (−-liridinine (3, (+-lirinidine (6, lysicamine (7 and epitulipinolide diepoxide (9 significantly inhibited the proliferation of melanoma cells. These results revealed that these compounds have antioxidative activity and chemopreventive activity in skin melanoma cells.

  1. Low Reynolds number flow near tiny leaves, stems, and trichomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strickland, Christopher; Pasour, Virginia; Miller, Laura

    2016-11-01

    In terrestrial and aquatic environments such as forest canopies, grass fields, and seagrass beds, the density and shape of trunks, branches, stems, leaves and trichomes (the hairs or fine outgrowths on plants) can drastically alter both the average wind speed and profile through these environments and near each plant. While many studies of flow in these environments have focused on bulk properties of the flow at scales on the order of meters, the low Reynolds number flow close to vegetative structures is especially complex and relevant to nutrient exchange. Using three-dimensional immersed boundary simulations, we resolve the flow around trichomes and small leaves and quantify velocities, shear stresses, and mixing while varying the height and density of idealized structures. National Science Foundation Grant DMS-1127914 to the Statistical and Applied Mathematical Sciences Institute, and the Army Research Office.

  2. Clinorotation affects mesophyll photosynthetic cells in leaves of pea seedlings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Adamchuk, N I

    1998-07-01

    Experiments with autotrophs in altered gravity condition have a grate significant for development of space biology. The main results of investigation in the photosynthetic apparatus state under microgravity condition have based on the experiments with maturity plants and their differentiated cells. The structural and functional organization of photosynthetic cells in seedlings is poor understandable still. Along with chloroplasts preserving a native membrane system in palisade parenchyma cells of the 29-day pea plant leaves in microgravity, chloroplasts with fribly packed or damaged granae, whose thylakoids appeared as vesicles with an electrontransparent content, were also observed. The investigation of preceding process induced these effects have a sense. That is why, the goal of our experiments was to perform the study of a structural organization of the photosynthetic cells of 3-d pair of pea seedlings leaves under the influence of clinorotation.

  3. PHANTASTICA regulates development of the adaxial mesophyll in Nicotiana leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHale, Neil A; Koning, Ross E

    2004-05-01

    Initiation and growth of leaf blades is oriented by an adaxial/abaxial axis aligned with the original axis of polarity in the leaf primordium. To investigate mechanisms regulating this process, we cloned the Nicotiana tabacum ortholog of PHANTASTICA (NTPHAN) and generated a series of antisense transgenics in N. sylvestris. We show that NSPHAN is expressed throughout emerging blade primordia in the wild type and becomes localized to the middle mesophyll in the expanding lamina. Antisense NSPHAN leaves show ectopic expression of NTH20, a class I KNOX gene. Juvenile transgenic leaves have normal adaxial/abaxial polarity and generate leaf blades in the normal position, but the adaxial mesophyll shows disorganized patterns of cell division, delayed maturation of palisade, and ectopic reinitiation of blade primordia along the midrib. Reversal of the phenotype with exogenous gibberellic acid suggests that NSPHAN, acting via KNOX repression, maintains determinacy in the expanding lamina and sustains the patterns of cell proliferation critical to palisade development.

  4. Morpho anatomical studies of leaves of Abutilon indicum (linn.) sweet

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramadoss Karthikeyan; PannemVenkatesh; Nesepogu Chandrasekhar

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the pharmacognostic parameters of the leaves of Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet which will assist in standardization, quality assurance, purity and sample identification of the species. Methods: The pharmacognostic studies were carried out in terms of organoleptic, microscopic, powder microscopic, leaf constants and fluorescence analysis. Results:Macroscopic study showed that the leaf shape -cordate, Size -2-4 cm long, Colour - Green, Odour -Characteristic, Taste -Characteristic, Surface - Smooth, Apex -Acute to acuminate, Lamina-Simple, Cordate, Reticulate, Dentate, Margin-Crenate-Dentate. The microscopic features of leaves were observed as covering trichomes, glandular trichome, vascular bundles, crystals, stomata ,mucilage secretory cells adaxial epidermis, palisade mesophyll, spongy mesophyll and lateral vein. Further the study was evaluated leaf constants, powder microscopy and fluorescence study of leaf powder. Conclusion: Various pharmacognostic characters observed in this study help in the identification and standardization of Abutilon indicum (Linn.) Sweet.

  5. Nutritive and Anti-nutritive Evaluation of Cnidoscolus aurifolia Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uwemedimo Emmanuel Udo

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Cnidoscolus aurifolia were analysed for their chemical, antinutrients, proximate and mineral element compositions using standard procedures. Phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, saponins, flavonoids, terpenes and tannins while anthraquinones, glycosides and phlobatannins were absent. Proximate analysis indicated high protein content (59.45 ± 0.07% with crude fibre and fat also present in appreciable quantities. Mineral elements determination showed the presence of calcium, iron, magnesium, potassium and zinc. Antinutrient analysis of the leaf extract of C. aurifolia indicated low levels of phytic acid and hydrocyanide well below the lethal doses. An unusually high oxalate level of 404.80 ± 0.11 mg/100 g (dry weight was also obtained although still below toxic level. These results support the ethnomedicinal and nutritional uses of this plant and suggest that the consumption of leaves of C. aurifolia is not harmful nutritively.

  6. A potential low-coumarin cinnamon substitute: Cinnamomum osmophloeum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yeh, Ting-Feng; Lin, Chun-Ya; Chang, Shang-Tzen

    2014-02-19

    The essential oils from leaves of Taiwan's indigenous cinnamon (Cinnamomum osmophloeum ct. cinnamaldehyde) have similar constituents as compared to that from commercial bark cinnamons. This indigenous cinnamon has been proven to have excellent bioactivities. To understand whether this indigenous cinnamon contains a high level of the hepatotoxic compound, coumarin, as often seen in Cassia cinnamons, current research focused on determining the coumarin content in this indigenous cinnamon and screening the low-coumarin clones. The results demonstrated that the coumarin contents in all tested indigenous cinnamon clones were much lower than that found in Cassia cinnamons. In addition, this indigenous cinnamon contains about 80% (w/w) of cinnamaldehyde and 0.4-2.7% (w/w) of eugenol in its leaf essential oils. This combination could provide this indigenous cinnamon a better shelf life compared to that of regular commercial cinnamons. These results suggested that leaves of this indigenous cinnamon could be a potential resource for a safer cinnamon substitute.

  7. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Azadirachta Indica Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    HAQUE RABIU

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Azadirachta Indica Leaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms (Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridiagalli. Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control. Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 40 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Azadirachta Indica Leaves has been reported

  8. "Essential oils of Heracleum Persicum Desf.ex Fischer leaves "

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojab F

    2002-07-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Heracleum persicum Desf ex Fischer (Syn. H glabrascens Boiss. & Hohen, H. prbescens Rech. (Fam Apiaceae were collected in July - Auguest 1993 from kandavan area in north of Tehran. The oil was extracted by hydrodistillation (0.13% from leaves and was analyzed by GC, GC/CS and 1H-NMR. The major component was trans - anethole (82.8% Other components were β - pinene, p-cymene and terpinolene (monoterpenes , α- caryophylene, α- bergamotene, α- farnesene, zingiberene, spathulenol (sesqiterpenes. Cis - anethole, stragole, 2,5-dimethyl styrene (aromatic compounds, and β- springene ( an aliphatic and hydrocarbonic diterpene . It is concluded that this oil is a source of trans - anethole .

  9. Antimicrobial and cytotoxic activities of Abroma augusta Lnn. leaves extract

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FK Saikot; Alam Khan; MF Hasan

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antimicrobial and cytotoxic activity of acetone extract of leaves ofAbroma augusta. Methods: Disc diffusion method was used to demonstrate antibacterial and antifungal activities. Cytotoxicity was determined against brine shrimp nauplii. In addition, minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC) was determined using serial dilution technique to determine antibacterial potency. Results: The extract showed significant antibacterial activities against three gram-positive (Bacillus subtilis, Bacillus megaterium and Staphylococcus aureus) and four gram-negative (Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Shigella sonnei and Salmonella typhi) bacteria. The antifungal activity was found strong against five fungi (Aspergillus flavus, Aspergillus niger, Candida albicans, Rhizopus oryzae and Aspergillus fumigatus). In cytotoxicity determination, LC50 of the extract against brine shrimp nauplii was 7.06μg/ml. Conclusions: The Abroma leaves extract may be consider as a potent antimicrobial and cytotoxic agent for further advance research.

  10. Diuretic activity of leaves of Garcinia cambogia in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Githa E Mathew

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to establish the diuretic activity of ethanol and aqueous extract of dried leaves of Garcinia cambogia in rats. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves were administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg and compared with furosemide (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally as the standard. The parameters measured for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine concentration electrolytes such as sodium, potassium and chloride have been evaluated . The rats treated with ethanol extract of Garcinia cambogia and aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia in a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg showed higher urine output when compared to the respective control. Both ethanol and aqueous extracts have showed a significant dose-dependent increase in the excretion of electrolytes when compared to the control group.

  11. Diuretic activity of leaves of garcinia cambogia in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mathew, Githa E; Mathew, B; Shaneeb, M M; Nyanthara, B

    2011-03-01

    The present study was undertaken to establish the diuretic activity of ethanol and aqueous extract of dried leaves of Garcinia cambogia in rats. Aqueous and ethanol extracts of leaves were administered to experimental rats orally at doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg and compared with furosemide (20 mg/kg, intraperitoneally) as the standard. The parameters measured for diuretic activity were total urine volume, urine concentration electrolytes such as sodium, potassium and chloride have been evaluated . The rats treated with ethanol extract of Garcinia cambogia and aqueous extract of Garcinia cambogia in a dose of 100 and 200 mg/kg showed higher urine output when compared to the respective control. Both ethanol and aqueous extracts have showed a significant dose-dependent increase in the excretion of electrolytes when compared to the control group.

  12. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JavidAli; BashirAhmad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant activity of aqueous, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane extracts of Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides) leaves. Methods: Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using in-vitro antioxidant assays model 1, 1’-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity. The antioxidant activities were compared with standard antioxidant agents such as ascorbic acid. Results: The antioxidant activities (% inhibition) of all the tested extracts were increased in the order i.e. menthol > ethanol > aqueous > acetone > chloroform > ethyl acetate > n-hexane. The methanol extract EC50 (µg/mL) value was compatible with vitamin C (standard). The antioxidant activity of H. rhamnoides leaves extracts increased in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions: It was observed that H. rhamnoides was a potential resource of antioxidants and thus could put off numerous radical linked diseases.

  13. Flowering time regulation: photoperiod- and temperature-sensing in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Young Hun; Ito, Shogo; Imaizumi, Takato

    2013-10-01

    Plants monitor changes in photoperiod and temperature to synchronize their flowering with seasonal changes to maximize fitness. In the Arabidopsis photoperiodic flowering pathway, the circadian clock-regulated components, such as FLAVIN-BINDING, KELCH REPEAT, F-BOX 1 and CONSTANS, both of which have light-controlled functions, are crucial to induce the day-length specific expression of the FLOWERING LOCUS T (FT) gene in leaves. Recent advances indicate that FT transcriptional regulation is central for integrating the information derived from other important internal and external factors, such as developmental age, amount of gibberellic acid, and the ambient temperature. In this review, we describe how these factors interactively regulate the expression of FT, the main component of florigen, in leaves.

  14. Chemical Composition of Essential Oil from Marrubium Vulgare L. Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Bayir, Burcu; Gündüz, Hatice; Usta, Tuba; Şahin, Esma; Özdemir, Zeynep; Kayır, Ömer; Sen, Özkan; Akşit, Hüseyin; Elmastaş, Mahfuz; Erenler, Ramazan

    2014-01-01

    – The essential oils are significant for pharmaceutical, food and cosmetic industries. Marrubium vulgare L. has been used as a traditional medicine to treat the various illnesses. The chemical composition of the essential oil from leaves of Marrubium vulgare L.was obtained by steam distillation using the Clevenger apparatus. The oil was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The main constituent of the oil was α-pinene (28.85%)

  15. Some studies on anaerobic decomposition of leucaena leucocephala leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torane, J.V.; Lokhande, C.D.; Pawar, S.H. (Energy Studies Lab., Shivaji Univ., Kolhapur (IN))

    1990-01-01

    Batch type anaerobic decomposition process in leucaena leucocephala plant material (leaves) has been carried out under mesophilic conditions (below 35{degrees}C). The results of studies involving variations in pH, conductivity, temperature, and optical density of digester slurry for four weeks are reported. The gas production rate was also studied which reveals that the use of leucaena leucocephala for biogas production will be helpful.

  16. Effects of gravity on transpiration of plant leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hirai, Hiroaki; Kitaya, Yoshiaki

    2009-04-01

    To clarify effects of gravity on the water vapor exchange between plants and the ambient air, we evaluated the transpiration rate of plant leaves at 0.01, 1.0, and 2.0 g for 20 s each during parabolic airplane flights. The transpiration rates of a strawberry leaf and a replica leaf made of wet cloth were determined using a chamber method with humidity sensors. Absolute humidity at 3 and 8 mm below the lower surface of leaves was measured to evaluate the effect of gravity on humidity near leaves and estimate their transpiration rate. The transpiration rate of the replica leaf decreased by 42% with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g and increased by 31% with increasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 2.0 g. Absolute humidity near the intact strawberry leaf was 5 g m(-3) at ambient absolute humidity of 2.3 g m(-3) and gravity of 1.0 g. The absolute humidity increased by 2.5 g m(-3) with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g. The transpiration rate of the intact leaf decreased by 46% with decreasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 0.01 g and increased by 32% with increasing gravity levels from 1.0 to 2.0 g. We confirmed that the transpiration rate of leaves was suppressed by retarding the water vapor transfer due to restricted free air convection under microgravity conditions.

  17. Aqueous extract of neem leaves in treatment of Psoriasis vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey S

    1994-01-01

    Full Text Available A double blind clinical drug trial was conducted to see the efficacy of an indigenous drug made up of aqueous extract of Neem leaves in 50 cases of uncomplicated psoriasis taking conventional coal tar regime. Patients taking drug in addition to coal tar had shown a quicker and better response in comparison to placebo group. No any untoward effect was noticed during the period of trial. Probable mode of action is discussed.

  18. The Angle at Which the Facial Nerve Leaves the Mastoid

    OpenAIRE

    Holt, James J.

    1991-01-01

    Some skull base procedures require extensive dissection of the facial nerve. This can be difficult at the mastoid tip, where the nerve is approximated to soft tissues. The nerve was dissected in this area in 15 cadaver specimens. The mean angle at which the facial nerve leaves the mastoid tip in 117°. This information should aid the skull base surgeon in the identification of the facial nerve at the mastoid tip.

  19. CHEMICAL CONSTITUENTS FROM THE LEAVES OF MAGNOLIA DENUDATA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JIANG DU; MING-LEI WANG; RUO-YUN CHEN; DE-QUAN YU

    2001-01-01

    20 compounds were isolated from the leaves of Magnolia denudata including 16 lignans, which (16) andβ-sitosterol (20), the other 15 compounds were obtained from this species for the first time. The absolute configurations of 3 compounds (1, 4,10) were determined by CD spectroscopy for the first time. The anti-inflammatory activities of compounds 1, 2 and 16 were assessed and 2 was shown to have significant inhibition effect on mice hind-paw edema induced by carrageenan.

  20. Quality Standards of Leaves of Nyctanthes arbor-tristis Linn.

    OpenAIRE

    Shivani S; Ansari SH; Zahiruddin S; Ahmad S; Rabea Parveen

    2015-01-01

    Nyctanthe sarbor-tristis (Oleaceae) commonly known as night jasmine is a mythological plant with immense medicinal value in Ayurveda. The leaf juice is used to treat loss of appetite, liver disorders, biliary disorders chronic fever, malarial fever, obstinate sciatica and rheumatism. The present study was performed for establishing the quality standards of the leaves as per the WHO guidelines to confirm its purity and authentication. The various standardization parameters like macroscopy, mic...

  1. Clerodane diterpenes from leaves of Casearia sylvestris Swartz

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santos, Andre G. dos; Perez, Carla C.; Tininis, Aristeu G.; Bolzani, Vanderlan da S.; Cavalheiro, Alberto J. [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: albjcava@iq.unesp.br

    2007-09-15

    Ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Casearia sylvestris yielded a novel clerodane diterpene, 15-hydroxy-3-cleroden-2-one, together with the known diterpenes (-)-hardwickiic acid, reported for the first time from this species, and casearins B and G, previously isolated from C. sylvestris. The structures of all four compounds were determined by spectrometric analysis. The new clerodane diterpene and (-)-hardwickiic acid contain structural features that are completely different from the highly oxygenated casearins and casearvestrins isolated from C. sylvestris. (author)

  2. Apigenin, an Anticancer Isolated from Macaranga gigantifolia Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sofa Fajriah

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Apigenin, a flavonoid compound has been isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of methanol extract of Macaranga gigantifolia leaves. Isolation and purification of apigenin conducted using column and centrifugal chromatography and chemical structure characterized based on spectroscopic data. In vitro anticancer activity test against murine leukimia P-388 cell line showed potential activity as anticancer with IC50 14.13 µg/mL.

  3. The transcriptional response of Arabidopsis leaves to Fe deficiency

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge eRodriguez-Celma

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Due to its ease to donate or accept electrons, iron (Fe plays a crucial role in respiration and metabolism, including tetrapyrrole synthesis, in virtually all organisms. In plants, Fe is a component of the photosystems and thus essential for photosynthesis. Fe deficiency compromises chlorophyll (Chl synthesis, leading to interveinal chlorosis in developing leaves and decreased photosynthetic activity. To gain insights into the responses of photosynthetically active cells to Fe deficiency, we conducted transcriptional profiling experiments on leaves from Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient plants using the RNA-seq technology. As anticipated, genes associated with photosynthesis and tetrapyrrole metabolism were dramatically down-regulated by Fe deficiency. A sophisticated response comprising the down-regulation of HEMA1 and NYC1, which catalyze the first committed step in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis and the conversion of Chl b to Chl a at the commencement of Chl breakdown, respectively, and the up-regulation of CGLD27, which is conserved in plastid-containing organisms and putatively involved in xanthophyll biosynthesis, indicates a carefully orchestrated balance of potentially toxic tetrapyrrole intermediates and functional end products to avoid photo-oxidative damage. Comparing the responses to Fe deficiency in leaves to that in roots confirmed subgroup 1b bHLH transcription factors and POPEYE/BRUTUS as important regulators of Fe homeostasis in both leaf and root cells, and indicated six novel players with putative roles in Fe homeostasis that were highly expressed in leaves and roots and greatly induced by Fe deficiency. The data further revealed down-regulation of organ-specific subsets of genes encoding ribosomal proteins, which may be indicative of a change in ribosomal composition that could bias translation. It is concluded that Fe deficiency causes a massive reorganization of plastid activity, which is adjusting leaf function to the availability

  4. The transcriptional response of Arabidopsis leaves to Fe deficiency.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Celma, Jorge; Pan, I Chun; Li, Wenfeng; Lan, Ping; Buckhout, Thomas J; Schmidt, Wolfgang

    2013-01-01

    Due to its ease to donate or accept electrons, iron (Fe) plays a crucial role in respiration and metabolism, including tetrapyrrole synthesis, in virtually all organisms. In plants, Fe is a component of the photosystems and thus essential for photosynthesis. Fe deficiency compromises chlorophyll (Chl) synthesis, leading to interveinal chlorosis in developing leaves and decreased photosynthetic activity. To gain insights into the responses of photosynthetically active cells to Fe deficiency, we conducted transcriptional profiling experiments on leaves from Fe-sufficient and Fe-deficient plants using the RNA-seq technology. As anticipated, genes associated with photosynthesis and tetrapyrrole metabolism were dramatically down-regulated by Fe deficiency. A sophisticated response comprising the down-regulation of HEMA1 and NYC1, which catalyze the first committed step in tetrapyrrole biosynthesis and the conversion of Chl b to Chl a at the commencement of Chl breakdown, respectively, and the up-regulation of CGLD27, which is conserved in plastid-containing organisms and putatively involved in xanthophyll biosynthesis, indicates a carefully orchestrated balance of potentially toxic tetrapyrrole intermediates and functional end products to avoid photo-oxidative damage. Comparing the responses to Fe deficiency in leaves to that in roots confirmed subgroup 1b bHLH transcription factors and POPEYE/BRUTUS as important regulators of Fe homeostasis in both leaf and root cells, and indicated six novel players with putative roles in Fe homeostasis that were highly expressed in leaves and roots and greatly induced by Fe deficiency. The data further revealed down-regulation of organ-specific subsets of genes encoding ribosomal proteins, which may be indicative of a change in ribosomal composition that could bias translation. It is concluded that Fe deficiency causes a massive reorganization of plastid activity, which is adjusting leaf function to the availability of Fe.

  5. The Family and Medical Leave Act (FMLA): Policy Issues

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-09-04

    incapacity due to the same condition; (2) any period of incapacity due to pregnancy or for prenatal care; (3) any period of incapacity or treatment...said it was very or somewhat difficult to deal with unplanned intermittent leave. Among employers with FMLA...According to one study, because of the FMLA, first-time mothers who work full-time during pregnancy may be more likely to work part-time than full

  6. Acetogenins in Annona muricata L. (annonaceae) leaves are potent molluscicides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luna, J De S; De Carvalho, J M; De Lima, M R F; Bieber, L W; Bento, Edson De S; Franck, X; Sant'ana, A E G

    2006-03-01

    An ethanolic extract of the leaves of Annona muricata was shown to be toxic to adult forms of the snail Biomphalaria glabrata (LC50 9.32 microg mL(-1)) and to larvae of the brine shrimp Artemia salina (LC50 0.49 microg mL(-1)). Activity-guided fractionation of the extract gave rise to a sample with high molluscicidal activity that contained the acetogenins, annonacin (90%), isoannonacin (6%) and goniothalamicin (4%).

  7. Free radical scavenging activity of leaves of Cucumis sativus

    OpenAIRE

    Pritesh Rashmikant Shah; Swati Dhande; Yadunath Joshi; Vilasrao Kadam

    2013-01-01

    Cucumis sativus commonly called as ‘Cucumber’ is commonly used plant throughout the world. The plant is attributed to various uses in Ayurveda. The methanolic extract of leaves of Cucumis sativus was screened for free radical scavenging activity properties using gallic acid as standard antioxidant. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH) free radical. Different concentrations of leaf extract ranging from 100- 1000µg/ml were subjected to DPPH...

  8. A Model for the Analysis of Sick Leave in Sweden

    OpenAIRE

    David Edgerton; Curt Wells

    2000-01-01

    This paper addresses the question of how to model individual behavior in the face of changes in the set of rules that govern the social welfare system in Sweden. To this end, the Swedish sickness insurance provides an excellent study object, since the system has often been changed during the past decade. The question of employee compensation for sick leave is one the more widely discussed aspects of Swedish social welfare legislation, and it is therefore of interest to examine how individuals...

  9. Pregnancy and employment leave: legal precedents and future policy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gardin, S K; Richwald, G A

    1986-01-01

    An estimated 85% of female workers in the US become pregnant during their working lives; 62% of married US women were employed for some period during the 12 months preceding childbirth. Historically, US legislation has assumed a protectionist policy with regard to restricting prenatal and postpartum employment, yet this stance has not been backed up by protection of income, benefits, reinstatement, or seniority. The passage in 1964 of Title VII of the Federal Civil Rights Act banning discrimination on the basis of sex triggered a long string of legal battles fought on the premise that pregnancy is a disability. As a result of Congressional efforts, an amendment to Title VII--the Pregnancy Discrimination Act--was passed in 1978. This law requires that women disabled due to pregnancy or childbirth be provided with the same benefits as those provided other disabled employees. However, the law does not require an employer who does not provide disability benefits, paid sick leave, or medical benefits to other employees to provide them to pregnant women. A weakness of existing legislation is its failure to address the difficulties inherent in accommodating childbearing women in the labor force. Accommodation under the current employment system results in productivity disruption and financial losses for both employer and employee. In all other major industrial countries, maternity benefits such as paid leave before and after childbirth, reinstatement rights, and nursing breaks on the job are guaranteed through national legislation. Such benefits emanate from acknowledgment of women's essential participation in the labor force as well as their unique ability to give birth. Under a more flexible employment system, equal protection would not result in the denial of maternity leave to female employees, but rather the provision parental leave to male and female employees.

  10. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa U

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of leaves of Moringa oleifera were screened for various bioactive constituents like glycosides, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids and alkaloids. The chloroform and methanol extracts were evaluated for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheritima postuma using Piperazine citrate and Rajah Pravartani Vati (Ayurvedic preparation as a reference standards. The results obtained indicated that the chloroform extract was more potent compared to other extracts.

  11. Three new compounds from the leaves of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhi

    2010-01-01

    Three new compounds named (2E)prenyl benzoate-4-O-α-L-arabinopyranosyl (1→6) β-D-glucopyranoside (1), 7-methoxy-8-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl coumarin (2), and 3,4'-dihydroxy-3'-methoxy benzenepentanoic acid (3) were isolated from the leaves of Acanthopanax senticosus Harms. The structures of new compounds were determined by means of 2D NMR experiments and chemical methods.

  12. Phenylpropanoid glycosides from the leaves of Paulownia coreana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jin-Kyu; Si, Chuan-Ling; Bae, Young-Soo

    2008-02-15

    Study on the water soluble fraction from the leaves of Paulownia coreana led to the isolation of verbascoside (1), isoverbascoside (2), campneoside II (3), and a new phenylpropanoid glycoside, (R,S)-7-hydroxy-7-(3,4-dihydroxyphenyl)-ethyl-O-alpha-L-rhamnopyranosyl(1 --> 3)-beta-d-(6-O-caffeoyl)-glucopyranoside (4). The structures of these compounds were established on the basis of spectroscopic evidence.

  13. Bioactive limonoids from the leaves of Azaridachta indica (Neem).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gualtieri, Maria J; Malafronte, Nicola; Vassallo, Antonio; Braca, Alessandra; Cotugno, Roberta; Vasaturo, Michele; De Tommasi, Nunziatina; Dal Piaz, Fabrizio

    2014-03-28

    Eight new limonoids (1-8) and one new phenol glycoside (9), along with six known compounds, were isolated from the leaves of Azaridachta indica. The structures of 1-9 were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic data analysis. Compounds isolated were assayed for their cytotoxicity against different cancer cell lines. Moreover, their ability to interact with the molecular chaperone Hsp90, affecting its biological activity, was tested.

  14. Triterpenoidal constituents of the leaves of Carissa carandas.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Siddiqui, Bina S; Ghani, Usman; Ali, Syed Tahir; Usmani, Shahid Badar; Begum, Sabira

    2003-06-01

    Studies undertaken on the fresh leaves of Carissa carandas have led to the isolation of four pentacyclic triterpenoids (1-4) including one new constituent carissin (1) and two hitherto unreported compounds 2 and 3. The structure of the new triterpenoid has been elucidated as 3beta-hydroxy-27-E-feruloyloxyurs-12-en-28-oic acid. Compelete assignment of the protons of 2 has also been made based on 2D NMR studies.

  15. EARLY SCHOOL LEAVING IN RURAL AREAS OF EUROPE AND SPAIN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rogeli Santamaría Luna

    2015-12-01

    In this short article will present data and sources, but above all be evident that the low presence of rural factor in education and that the rural / urban divide still exists. Referencians Europe cited Spain and the start of the indicators of quality of life and early school leaving is estimated in Spain, rural or not, 2020 in relation to the proposed European Territorial Agenda 2020 target of 15%. Besides conclusions and proposals to be referred.

  16. MEMORY ENHANCING ACTIVITIES OF FICUS RELIGIOSA LEAVES IN RODENTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wangkhem Bandana Devi

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Ficus religiosa, a sacred tree to both Hindus and Buddhists, is recognized for its medicinal as well as religious purposes in India. The ethanolic extract prepared from the leaves of Ficus religiosa was studied for memory enhancing activities in Wistar albino rats and Swiss albino mice. The present study was carried out on five models such as Elevated-Plus Maze, Step through passive avoidance test, Sodium nitrite intoxication, Hebb-Williams Maze and Radial Arm Maze to evaluate learning and memory parameters. Scopolamine (1mg/kg, i.p was used as inducing agent in Elevated-plus maze, Step through passive avoidance test and sodium nitrite (95mg/kg, s.c was used as inducing agent in Sodium nitrite intoxication model. Piracetam (200mg/kg, i.p was used as standard nootropic agent for all the models except for Sodium nitrite intoxication; Mentat was used as positive control for Sodium nitrite intoxication model. The ethanolic extract of Ficus religiosa leaves significantly improved memory and reversed the amnesia induced by scopolamine and hypoxia induced by sodium nitrite. The ethanolic extract of Ficus religiosa leaves (100 mg/kg was comparable to that of piracetam (200 mg/kg and Mentat (100mg/kg. From the results of the present study it is concluded that the leaf extract of Ficus religiosa might possess anti-amnesic as well as nootropic properties. Also the major active constituents present in its leaves such as amino acids may be responsible for these activities.

  17. Apigenin, an Anticancer Isolated from Macaranga gigantifolia Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    Apigenin, a flavonoid compound has been isolated from the ethyl acetate fraction of methanol extract of Macaranga gigantifolia leaves. Isolation and purification of apigenin conducted using column and centrifugal chromatography and chemical structure characterized based on spectroscopic data. In vitro anticancer activity test against murine leukimia P-388 cell line showed potential activity as anticancer with IC50 14.13 µg/mL.

  18. A new glycoside from the leaves of Neoalsomitra integrifoliola

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dong Min Su; Jing Qu; You Cai Hu; Shi Shan Yu; Wen Zhao Tang; Yun Bao Liu; Shuang Gang Ma; De Quan Yu

    2008-01-01

    A new ionone glycoside (6R,9R)-blumenyl α-L-rhanmopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-gluco-pyranoside (1),together with a new natural product 2-methoxyl-4-trans-propenyl-phenol α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→6)-β-D-glucopyranoside (2),was isolated from the leaves of Neoalsomitra integrifoliola.Their structures were elucidated by chemical and spectral analysis.Compound 1 showed weak anti-inflammatory and low-level antioxidant activities.

  19. Ultrasonically assisted antioxidant extraction from grape stalks and olive leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cárcel, Juan A.; García-Pérez, José V.; Mulet, Antonio; Rodríguez, Ligia; Riera, Enrique

    2010-01-01

    Grape stalks and olive leaves present high amount of phenolic compounds with antioxidant properties. The extraction of these compounds may be considered a way to increase in value both agro-food by-products. Ultrasound is widely applied in extraction due to its effects (cavitation, microstirring or sponge effect) over the process. The goal of this work was to address the application of ultrasound on the antioxidant extraction of olive leaves and grape stalk. For that purpose, the extraction of antioxidant compounds from grape stalks and olive leaves, previously dried at 100 °C, were carried out using a ethanolic solution (80 % v/v) at 60 °C. Extractions were carried out with (US; 30 kHz; 600W)) and agitation (AG) without ultrasound application. In the AG experiments, the solution was agitated with a stirrer. Samples were obtained at different extraction time (10, 30, 60, 120, 180, 240, 360, 480 and 1440 min) and their antioxidant capacity was measured using FRAP method. The Naik model was used to model the extraction kinetics, being identified the antioxidant capacity of extracts at the equilibrium (Y eq) and the initial velocity of extraction (Y eq/B). For grape stalks, the antioxidant capacity of extracts at the equilibrium (Y eq) and the initial velocity of extraction (Y eq/B) were higher in AG experiments than in US experiments. In the olive leaves extractions, the Y eq/B was of the same order for both treatments but Y eq was significantly higher for US experiments. The different influence of ultrasound for both by-products can be explained from their different geometry and structure.

  20. Malate Synthesis by Dark Carbon Dioxide Fixation in Leaves 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, Carolyn; Perchorowicz, John T.; Gibbs, Martin

    1978-01-01

    The rates of dark CO2 fixation and the label distribution in malate following dark 14CO2 fixation in a C-4 plant (maize), a C-3 plant (sunflower), and two Crassulacean acid metabolism plants (Bryophyllum calycinum and Kalanchoë diagremontianum leaves and plantlets) are compared. Within the first 30 minutes of dark 14CO2 fixation, leaves of maize, B. calycinum, and sunflower, and K. diagremontianum plantlets fix CO2 at rates of 1.4, 3.4, 0.23, and 1.0 μmoles of CO2/mg of chlorophyll· hour, respectively. Net CO2 fixation stops within 3 hours in maize and sunflower, but Crassulaceans continue fixing CO2 for the duration of the 23-hour experiment. A bacterial procedure using Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC No. 8014 and one using malic enzyme to remove the β-carboxyl (C4) from malate are compared. It is reported that highly purified malic enzyme and the bacterial method provide equivalent results. Less purified malic enzyme may overestimate the label in C4 as much as 15 to 20%. The contribution of carbon atom 1 of malate is between 18 and 21% of the total carboxyl label after 1 minute of dark CO2 fixation. Isotopic labeling in the two carboxyls approached unity with time. The rate of increase is greatest in sunflower leaves and Kalanchoë plantlets. In addition, Kalanchoë leaves fix 14CO2 more rapidly than Kalanchoë plantlets and the equilibration of the malate carboxyls occurs more slowly. The rates of fixation and the randomization are tissue-specific. The rate of fixation does not correlate with the rate of randomization of isotope in the malate carboxyls. PMID:16660319

  1. Malate synthesis by dark carbon dioxide fixation in leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levi, C; Perchorowicz, J T; Gibbs, M

    1978-04-01

    The rates of dark CO(2) fixation and the label distribution in malate following dark (14)CO(2) fixation in a C-4 plant (maize), a C-3 plant (sunflower), and two Crassulacean acid metabolism plants (Bryophyllum calycinum and Kalanchoë diagremontianum leaves and plantlets) are compared. Within the first 30 minutes of dark (14)CO(2) fixation, leaves of maize, B. calycinum, and sunflower, and K. diagremontianum plantlets fix CO(2) at rates of 1.4, 3.4, 0.23, and 1.0 mumoles of CO(2)/mg of chlorophyll. hour, respectively. Net CO(2) fixation stops within 3 hours in maize and sunflower, but Crassulaceans continue fixing CO(2) for the duration of the 23-hour experiment.A bacterial procedure using Lactobacillus plantarum ATCC No. 8014 and one using malic enzyme to remove the beta-carboxyl (C(4)) from malate are compared. It is reported that highly purified malic enzyme and the bacterial method provide equivalent results. Less purified malic enzyme may overestimate the label in C(4) as much as 15 to 20%.The contribution of carbon atom 1 of malate is between 18 and 21% of the total carboxyl label after 1 minute of dark CO(2) fixation. Isotopic labeling in the two carboxyls approached unity with time. The rate of increase is greatest in sunflower leaves and Kalanchoë plantlets. In addition, Kalanchoë leaves fix (14)CO(2) more rapidly than Kalanchoë plantlets and the equilibration of the malate carboxyls occurs more slowly. The rates of fixation and the randomization are tissue-specific. The rate of fixation does not correlate with the rate of randomization of isotope in the malate carboxyls.

  2. COMPARISON OF RNA EXTRACTION METHODS FOR Passiflora edulis SIMS LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    2016-01-01

    ABSTRACT Functional genomic analyses require intact RNA; however, Passiflora edulis leaves are rich in secondary metabolites that interfere with RNA extraction primarily by promoting oxidative processes and by precipitating with nucleic acids. This study aimed to analyse three RNA extraction methods, Concert™ Plant RNA Reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA), TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen) and TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen)/ice -commercial products specifically designed to extract RNA, and...

  3. Leaving Libertarianism: : Social Ties in Robert Nozick's New Philosophy

    OpenAIRE

    Herbjørnsrud, Dag

    2002-01-01

    SUMMARY This thesis Leaving Libertarianism: Social Ties in Robert Nozick s New Philosophy challenges the general and most widespread portrayals of the American philosopher Robert Nozick (1938-2002) by studying the notion of social ties in his later philosophy. The point of departure is the present descriptions of Nozick s philosophy. Mostly these depictions are based upon three postulates: That Nozick is an extreme individualist, that the libertarian Anarchy, State, and Utopia (1...

  4. Sulfur compounds identification and quantification from Allium spp. fresh leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liliana Gîtin

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Background: Pyruvic acid concentration is a critical factor in determining Allium spp. pungency. This study was initiated to accurately measure the background pyruvic acid levels in Romanian Allium spp. From the pungency point of view, all analyzed plant varieties in this study are considered low pungent cultivars based on the enzymatically produced pyruvate level (between 42 μmol/g and 222 μmol/g fresh wt. Chromatographic analysis was carried out for the different varieties of the most popular fresh leaves (Allium cepa var. “Diamant”, Allium cepa var. “Rubiniu”, and Allium ursinum L. in order to identify the sulfur compounds. The thin layer chromatography analysis led to the identification of allicin, with Rf = 0.377–0.47, as an important sulfur compound. The gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis of the leaves' extracts detected disulfides as the major sulfur compounds. Principal component analysis was performed to establish the differences in plant composition. These studies suggest the potential good uses of the fresh leaves of Romanian Allium spp. as condiment, ingredient, or preservative in the food industry.

  5. Mechanical Stress Induces Remodeling of Vascular Networks in Growing Leaves.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yohai Bar-Sinai

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Differentiation into well-defined patterns and tissue growth are recognized as key processes in organismal development. However, it is unclear whether patterns are passively, homogeneously dilated by growth or whether they remodel during tissue expansion. Leaf vascular networks are well-fitted to investigate this issue, since leaves are approximately two-dimensional and grow manyfold in size. Here we study experimentally and computationally how vein patterns affect growth. We first model the growing vasculature as a network of viscoelastic rods and consider its response to external mechanical stress. We use the so-called texture tensor to quantify the local network geometry and reveal that growth is heterogeneous, resembling non-affine deformations in composite materials. We then apply mechanical forces to growing leaves after veins have differentiated, which respond by anisotropic growth and reorientation of the network in the direction of external stress. External mechanical stress appears to make growth more homogeneous, in contrast with the model with viscoelastic rods. However, we reconcile the model with experimental data by incorporating randomness in rod thickness and a threshold in the rod growth law, making the rods viscoelastoplastic. Altogether, we show that the higher stiffness of veins leads to their reorientation along external forces, along with a reduction in growth heterogeneity. This process may lead to the reinforcement of leaves against mechanical stress. More generally, our work contributes to a framework whereby growth and patterns are coordinated through the differences in mechanical properties between cell types.

  6. EVALUATION OF GASTRIC ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF TRICHOSANTHES DIOICA ROXB. LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Hamdulay*, Z. Attaurrahaman , V. Shende and M. Lawar

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Trichosanthes dioica Roxb (family: Cucurbitaceae, commonly known as “Sespadula” in English and “Parwal” in Hindi and is widely grown throughout India. The leaves of this plant have also been used in traditional system of medicine for overcoming problems like constipation, fever, skin infection, wound healing and also in gastric ulcer. In the present study Aqueous extract of leaves of Trichosanthes dioica Roxb was evaluated for its antiulcer activity against; 1 Aspirin plus pylorus ligation model and, 2 Ethanol/HCl-induced ulcer in wistar rats. Ranitidine (100 mg/kg was used as the standard drug. Different groups of rats (n=6 in each group were given two doses (250 and 500 mg/kg of T.dioica extract. Phytochemical analysis of the extract was also done. Phytochemical results revealed presence of tannins, saponins, triterpenoids, flavanoids. Thus only T.dioica extract (500 mg/kg significantly (p<0.001 reduced the ulcer index in all the models used. The extract also significantly (p<0.001 increased the pH of gastric acid while at the same time reduced the volume of gastric juice, free and total acidities. Also it showed significant (p<0.05 reduction in pepsin activity. In conclusion, the present study provides preliminary data on antiulcer potential of Trichosanthes dioica leaves and supports the traditional use of the plant for the treatment of gastric ulcer.

  7. COMPARISON OF RNA EXTRACTION METHODS FOR Passiflora edulis SIMS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ANNY CAROLYNE DA LUZ

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Functional genomic analyses require intact RNA; however, Passiflora edulis leaves are rich in secondary metabolites that interfere with RNA extraction primarily by promoting oxidative processes and by precipitating with nucleic acids. This study aimed to analyse three RNA extraction methods, Concert™ Plant RNA Reagent (Invitrogen, Carlsbad, CA, USA, TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen and TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen/ice -commercial products specifically designed to extract RNA, and to determine which method is the most effective for extracting RNA from the leaves of passion fruit plants. In contrast to the RNA extracted using the other 2 methods, the RNA extracted using TRIzol® Reagent (Invitrogen did not have acceptable A260/A280 and A260/A230 ratios and did not have ideal concentrations. Agarose gel electrophoresis showed a strong DNA band for all of the Concert™ method extractions but not for the TRIzol® and TRIzol®/ice methods. The TRIzol® method resulted in smears during electrophoresis. Due to its low levels of DNA contamination, ideal A260/A280 and A260/A230 ratios and superior sample integrity, RNA from the TRIzol®/ice method was used for reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR, and the resulting amplicons were highly similar. We conclude that TRIzol®/ice is the preferred method for RNA extraction for P. edulis leaves.

  8. Transcriptome response of cassava leaves under natural shade.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, Zehong; Zhang, Yang; Xiao, Yi; Liu, Fangfang; Wang, Minghui; Zhu, Xinguang; Liu, Peng; Sun, Qi; Wang, Wenquan; Peng, Ming; Brutnell, Tom; Li, Pinghua

    2016-01-01

    Cassava is an important staple crop in tropical and sub-tropical areas. As a common farming practice, cassava is usually cultivated intercropping with other crops and subjected to various degrees of shading, which causes reduced productivity. Herein, a comparative transcriptomic analysis was performed on a series of developmental cassava leaves under both full sunlight and natural shade conditions. Gene expression profiles of these two conditions exhibited similar developmental transitions, e.g. genes related to cell wall and basic cellular metabolism were highly expressed in immature leaves, genes involved in lipid metabolism and tetrapyrrole synthesis were highly expressed during the transition stages, and genes related to photosynthesis and carbohydrates metabolism were highly expressed in mature leaves. Compared with the control, shade significantly induced the expression of genes involved in light reaction of photosynthesis, light signaling and DNA synthesis/chromatin structure; however, the genes related to anthocyanins biosynthesis, heat shock, calvin cycle, glycolysis, TCA cycle, mitochondrial electron transport, and starch and sucrose metabolisms were dramatically depressed. Moreover, the shade also influenced the expression of hormone-related genes and transcriptional factors. The findings would improve our understanding of molecular mechanisms of shade response, and shed light on pathways associated with shade-avoidance syndrome for cassava improvement.

  9. Amino acid quality indices of the leaves of Clerodendrum volubile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ochuko Lucky Erukainure

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the amino acid profile and quality indices of Clerodendrum volubile (C. volubile leaves. Methods: Dried leaves of C. volubile were blended, defatted and subjected to amino acid analysis using the technicon sequential multi-sample amino acid analyzer. The amino acid quality indices which covers for chemical score, essential amino acid index, nutritional index, true digestibility, protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, and digestible indispensable amino acid score were evaluated using standard formulas. Results: Amino acid analysis revealed glutamic acid to have the highest concentration, with cysteine having the least. Aspartic acid had the highest chemical score, this was followed by glycine, histidine and arginine, respectively. The least scores were observed in serine and methionine. Glutamic acid had the highest value for true digestibility and protein digestibility corrected amino acid score, with the least observed in cysteine. Digestible indispensable amino acid score evaluation showed histidine to have the highest value for infants (birth to 6 months, threonine for children (6 months to 3 years, while isoleucine was observed to have the highest value for older children, adolescents and adults. The essential amino acid index value was less than 4, while nutritional index value was less than 0.5. Conclusions: These results indicated the leaves of C. volubile as a potential source of amino acids in the human diet as portrayed by its amino acids profile and qualities.

  10. Robinia pseudoacacia leaves improve soil physical and chemical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Babar; KHAN; Abdukadir; Ablimit; Rashed; MAHMOOD; Muhammad; QASIM

    2010-01-01

    The role of the leaves of Robinia pseudoacacia L., which is widely distributed in the arid lands, on improving soil physical and chemical properties was analyzed at various incubation periods. The incubated soils added with 0, 25, 50 and 75 g Robinia pseudoacacia leaves were tested after consecutive incubation intervals of 6, 8 and 10 months and the different soil parameters were measured. The results showed the increases in organic matter (OM), extractable K, cation exchange capacity (CEC), aggregate stability and water holding capacity, but the decreases in pH value and bulk density after 6 months’ incubation. The gradual decrease in change rates of soil properties indicated less microbial population and organic residual mineralization under acidic conditions, which were resulted from fast decomposition of leaves after the first 6 months incubation. The increases in soil organic matter content, extractable K, CEC, aggregate stability and water holding capacity and the decreases in soil pH and bulk density provide favorable conditions for crop’s growth.

  11. Robinia pseudoacacia leaves improve soil physical and chemical properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Babar KHAN; Abdukadir Ablimit; Rashed MAHMOOD; Muhammad QASIM

    2010-01-01

    The role of the leaves of Robinia pseudoacacia L.,which is widely distributed in the arid lands,on improving soil physical and chemical properties was analyzed at various incubation periods.The incubated soils added with 0,25,50 and 75 g Robinia pseudoacacia leaves were tested after consecutive incubation intervals of 6,8 and 10 months and the different soil parameters were measured.The results showed the increases in organic matter (OM),extractable K,cation exchange capacity (CEC),aggregate stability and water holding capacity,but the decreases in pH value and bulk density after 6 months' incubation.The gradual decrease in change rates of soil properties indicated less microbial population and organic residual mineralization under acidic conditions,which were resulted from fast decomposition of leaves after the first 6 months incubation.The increases in soil organic matter content,extractable K,CEC,aggregate stability and water holding capacity and the decreases in soil pH and bulk density provide favorable conditions for crop's growth.

  12. Interaction of enteroaggregative Escherichia coli with salad leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berger, Cedric N; Shaw, Robert K; Ruiz-Perez, Fernando; Nataro, James P; Henderson, Ian R; Pallen, Mark J; Frankel, Gad

    2009-08-01

    Enteroaggregative Escherichia coli (EAEC) are important human pathogens. However, their environmental reservoir is unknown. As fresh salad leaves are increasingly recognized as an important environmental vector for human pathogens, we investigated leaf attachment capability of EAEC strains. We found that binding of clinical EAEC isolates to leaves from Eruca vesicaria (commonly known as rocket or arugula) can be divided into high, moderate and low adherent phenotypes. Using the prototype EAEC strain 042 to investigate the underlining mechanisms involved in leaf attachment, we found small attached bacterial aggregates over the entire leaf surface and dense bacterial attachment to the guard cell of the stomata. An aaf 042 mutant lost the ability to bind the epidermis while retaining stomatal adherence. In contrast, a fliC 042 mutant retained the ability to bind the epidermis but lost stomatal tropism. These results show that multiple adherence factors are involved in the interaction of EAEC with leaves, that EAEC uses similar colonization factors to bind mucosal and leaf surfaces and that fresh produce might be an important reservoir of EAEC strains.

  13. Electronic pay and leave statements (e-Payslips)

    CERN Multimedia

    2004-01-01

    Within the framework of measures to simplify and rationalise administrative procedures, the FI and IT Departments proposed a project to introduce electronic pay and leave statements. The project was launched at the beginning of 2004 after it had been approved by the Director of the Finance and Human Resources Departments. The project was presented to the GTPA (Groupe de Travail sur les Procédures Administratives) and discussed at the meeting of the SCC (Standing Concertation Committee) on 8 July 2004. The system designed and developed by the IT Department is now operational. What will change? Members of the personnel who currently receive a paper copy of their pay and/or leave statement will, in future, receive monthly e-mail notification of their electronic pay and leave statement, instead of the paper document. The current project does not affect retired members of the personnel. Each person receiving the e-mail notification will be invited to consult these electronic statements by clicking on a link p...

  14. Polyphenol profile and antioxidant activity of extracts from olive leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Svetla Yancheva

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available The compounds, derivatives of olive leaves have a high antioxidant activity. The content of the total phenolic compounds (TPC, antioxidant activity (AOA and HPLC polyphenol profile of methanol extracts from the leaves of the olive cultivars Chondrolia Halkidiki, Kalamon, Koroneiki grown in the nursery (in vivo and in vitro plants of Chondrolia Halkidiki were compared. The results obtained for TPC varied between 9.2±0.5 mgGAE*gDW-1 and 16.4±0.5 mgGAE*gDW-1 . Antioxidant capacity was determined by four methods DPPH, ABTS, FRAP and CUPRAC. The highest results for TPC and AOA were achieved for the leaves of Chondrolia Halkidiki grown in vitro. A high correlation between the results gained from the TPC and AOA was established. Conducted HPLC analysis revealed the presence of 3,4- dihydroxybenzoic, caffeic, sinapic and ferulic acids and quercetin, hesperidin and luteolin and the quercetin glycosides rutin and hyperoside.

  15. Leaving from and returning to nursing practice: contributing factors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jamieson, Isabel; Taua, Chris

    2009-07-01

    Many nurses leave nursing and never return. Others return after a period of time. Given the global shortage of nurses a better understanding of these movements is needed. The present study focused on nurses who had been out of nursing for more than five years, and explored factors that influenced their leaving and return to practice. All the nurses who had undertaken a Competency Assessment Programme at a given New Zealand tertiary institution during 2005 were invited to participate. Of the 70 questionnaires mailed out 32 (44.5%) were completed and returned. Quantitative data were analysed using Microsoft Excel, and the qualitative data were coded and analysed by means of content analysis. For each, leaving and returning, three key issues emerged. Nurses left for personal reasons, to seek a career change, or because of poor working conditions. They returned when they had the personal freedom to do so, for fiscal reasons, or because they were motivated by some sense of unfinished business. These findings indicate that it is important for educators involved with Competency Assessment Programmes to collaborate with employers in ensuring that there are opportunities for re-entry to positive work environments, with a degree of flexibility that suits the demographic characteristics of those nurses returning to practice.

  16. Structure of Kalanchoë pumila Bak. leaves (Crassulaceae DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mykhaylo Chernetskyy

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The structure of Kalanchoё pumila Bak. was studied with the use of stereoscopic, light, scanning and transmission electron microscopy. It was found that the chlorenchymatic tissue was divided into subepidermal small-celled mesophyll and large-celled (water transporting, CAM type mesophyll, placed in the central part of the leaf. The mesophyll structure and its cell ultrastructure indicate C3 photosynthesis in this taxon, whereas CAM photosynthesis, being an adaptive syndrome, is induced by external factors. Three groups of xeromorphic traits were observed in the structure of K. pumila leaves, related to: 1 storing water in the ground and epidermal tissues, 2 decreased transpiration (the closing of stomata during heat, 3 avoiding excess insolation of the mesophyll and overheating of the leaf (striated cuticula, anthocyan pigments, tannin storage. The last two groups of xeromorphic traits also include thickening of the outer walls of cuticular cells, a thick-layered cuticula, and the presence of epicuticular wax and calcium carbonate deposits. Microchannels which enhance transpiration efficiency in developing K. pumila leaves were found in the vicinity of anticlinal walls in the outer walls of epidermal cells. Calcium deposits produced on the leaf surfaces protect them in extreme conditions. Adaptive traits in the structure of K. pumila leaves are conservative and they confirm the relations between this taxon and the conditions in their native land.

  17. Isolation and culture of protoplast from leaves of Lactuca sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Witool Chaipakdee

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Protoplasts were isolated from leaves of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. seedlings after in vitro germination for 25, 30, 40 and 50 days. The leaves were stripped and incubated in various combinations of cellulase and pectinase. Protoplasts were cultured on MS medium containing various kinds and concentrations of plant growth regulators in different culture systems including liquid media, hanging, drop culture and solid media. Results revealed that the highest number of viable protoplasts, 14.1x105 cells per gram of fresh weight, was obtained from 30 day-old leaves of lettuce seedlings and isolated by using 2% cellulase in combination with 1% pectinase. Liquid MS medium supplemented with 0.5 mg/l NAA and 0.5 mg/l BA promoted the highest cell division up to 17.67%. First division of protoplasts was observed at 4 days after culture and microcolony formation occurred at the 4th week after culturing. Unfortunately, neither callus formation nor plantlet regeneration were obtained.

  18. EVALUATION OF PHYSICOCHEMICAL & PHYTOCHEMICAL PARAMETERS OF AMARANTHUS CAUDATUS LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiremath G. Urmila

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available The present study was carried out to provide physicochemical and phytochemical detail about the plant Amaranthus caudatus. The physicochemical results obtained can be used for the identification of the powdered drugs. In the phytochemical screening different type of extracts were prepared to find the presence of secondary metabolites. The results revealed the presence of carbohydrates, glycosides, saponins, proteins, amino acids, tannins, and phenolic compounds in the plant. Amaranthus caudatus belongs to the family Amaranthaceae .The Amaranthus plants are spread throughout the world, growing under a wide range of climatic conditions and they are able to produce grains and leaves edible vegetables. Traditionally it has been used nutritionally for infants, children, pregnant and lactating woman, as it is comparable to the properties of milk; it was also used in countering heavy menstrual bleeding and vaginal discharge. It helps control dysentery and diarrhea. The roots were used to cure kidney stones, leaves used to cure cuts, leprosy, boils, burns, fever and decoction of the stem used in jaundice. The plant has cooling effect, laxative, diuretic, stomachic and antipyretic, anti-diarrheal, anti-hemorrhagic. The leaves, roots, bark, stem, seeds have medicinal value.

  19. Characteristics of opiate users leaving detoxification treatment against medical advice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kenne, Deric R; Boros, Alec P; Fischbein, Rebecca L

    2010-07-01

    Substance-dependent patients leaving against medical advice (AMA) pose a unique challenge to detoxification programs. Most notably, AMA patients fail to access residential or outpatient treatment needed after detoxification and often return to detoxification treatment multiple times which has deleterious results for the patient and is taxing to the healthcare system. Using retrospective data from 89 daily opiate-using detoxification patients completing detoxification and 95 patients leaving AMA, we sought to identify patient characteristics useful in predicting AMA discharges from detoxification. Bivariate analyses indicated that AMA patients reported drug use did not impair their health, were injection drug users, younger and had fewer previous treatment admissions. Binomial logistic regression indicated that AMA patients were more likely to be unemployed and report that drug use did not impair their health. Patients completing detoxification were less likely to be injection drug users and less likely to be self-referred to treatment. Identifying patients at risk of leaving AMA provides an opportunity for clinicians to intervene in an effort to increase treatment engagement for these patients.

  20. Brine shrimp cytotoxic activities of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JavidAli; BashirAhmad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate brine shrimp lethality assay of solvent extracts (aqueous, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane) of Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides) leaves. Methods: Brine shrimp cytotoxicity assay was used to assess the cytotoxic potential of H. rhamnoides leaves extracts. Three vials for concentration of each extract were made and 10 shrimps per vial (30 shrimps per dilution) were transferred to specific concentration of each extract. Results: The mortality of aqueous extract was 46.7%, methanol extract was 46.7%, ethanolic extract was 50.0%, ethyl acetate was 26.7%, acetone extract was 33.3%, chloroform extract was 40.0% and n-hexane extract was 33.3%. The lowest LD50 was found in methanol extracts (1199.97 µg/mL). Brine shrimp cytotoxicity of tested extracts of H. rhamnoides showed that mortality rate was concentration dependent. Conclusions: It is concluded that bioactive components are present in all leaves extracts of H. rhamnoides, which could be accounted for its pharmacological effects. Thus, the results support the uses of this plant species in traditional medicine.

  1. 5 CFR 630.1107 - Notification of approval or disapproval of an application to become an emergency leave recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... of an application to become an emergency leave recipient. 630.1107 Section 630.1107 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave... emergency leave recipient. Once the employee's application to become an emergency leave recipient is...

  2. Radioactivity of Tobacco Leaves and Radiation Dose Induced from Smoking

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Constantin Papastefanou

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available The radioactivity in tobacco leaves collected from 15 different regions of Greece and before cigarette production was studied in order to find out any association between the root uptake of radionuclides from soil ground by the tobacco plants and the effective dose induced to smokers from cigarette tobacco due to the naturally occurring primordial radionuclides , such as 226Ra and 210Pb of the uranium series and 228Ra of the thorium series and/or man-made radionuclides, such as 137Cs of Chernobyl origin. Gamma-ray spectrometry was applied using Ge planar and coaxial type detectors of high resolution and high efficiency. It was concluded that the activities of the radioisotopes of radium, 226Ra and 228Ra in the tobacco leaves reflected their origin from the soil by root uptake rather than fertilizers used in the cultivation of tobacco plants. Lead-210 originated from the air and was deposited onto the tobacco leaves and trapped by the trichomes. Potassium-40 in the tobacco leaves was due to root uptake either from soil or from fertilizer. The cesium radioisotopes 137Cs and 134Cs in tobacco leaves were due to root uptake and not due to deposition onto the leaf foliage as they still remained in soil four years after the Chernobyl reactor accident, but were absent from the atmosphere because of the rain washout (precipitation and gravitational settling. The annual effective dose due to inhalation for adults (smokers for 226Ra varied from 42.5 to 178.6 μSv/y (average 79.7 μSv/y, while for 228Ra from 19.3 to 116.0 μSv/y (average 67.1 μSv/y and for 210Pb from 47.0 to 134.9 μSv/y (average 104.7 μSv/y, that is the same order of magnitude for each radionuclide. The sum of the effective doses of the three radionuclides varied from 151.9 to 401.3 μSv/y (average 251.5 μSv/y. The annual effective dose from 137Cs of Chernobyl origin was three orders of magnitude lower as it varied from 70.4 to 410.4 nSv/y (average 199.3 nSv/y.

  3. Peculiarities of tropane alkaloids determination in Datura Stramonium L. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Володимир Анатолійович Міщенко

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The questions of the search, pharmacological activity and standardization of natural extracts are appropriate and important for national pharmaceutical science and practice. Since 2000, one of the key points of the Action Plan to ensure the integration of Ukraine into the European Union is development of the State Pharmacopoeia of Ukraine harmonized with the European Pharmacopoeia (PhEur.Aim: A comparative analysis of herbal material according to the methods for tropane group alkaloids determination, as described in the PhEur and in the 11th Edition of USSR Pharmacopoeia Monographs «Stramonium leaf».Methods: Datura leaves samples have been harvested during 2010-2012 in different regions of Ukraine for experimental research. Identification of tropane group alkaloids was carried out by the method of thin-layer chromatography (TLC and by Vitali-Morin colour reaction. According to the PhEur method, firstly Dragendorff reagent and then Sodium nitrite solutions were used for the TLC plates spraying. Alkaloids assay was carried out by alkalimetry method with indicator determination of equivalence point.Results: Datura leaves qualitative features, defined by PhEur and the 11th Edition of USSR Pharmacopoeia Monographs «Stramonium leaf», as well as their rationing have been analyzed. Certain differences concerning regulated quality parameters of herbal material have been determined. A comparative analysis of the natural extracts by described in the given normative documents methods for determination of tropane group alkaloids content has been done. After spraying the TLC plates with Sodium nitrite solution, red-brown zones corresponding Hyoscyamine were determined. Hyoscine zones were characterized by less intense color. As a result of quantitative determination it was determined that the alkaloids content in analyzed Datura leaves samples was within the limits regulated by the PhEur and the 11th Edition of USSR Pharmacopoeia – more than 0

  4. Changes in the reflectance of ex situ leaves: A methodological approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponzoni, Flavio Jorge; Inoe, Mario Takao

    1992-04-01

    The main aspects of the interaction between electromagnetic radiation and detached leaves are presented. An experiment with Eucalipto and Araucaria detached leaves is described, including the description of the methodologies utilized in the collection and storage of the reflectance.

  5. Fluorescence parameters of leaves of trees and shrubs during period of adverse weather conditions in Krasnoyarsk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavorueva, E. N.; Zavoruev, V. V.

    2015-11-01

    The effect of adverse weather conditions (AWC) on the fluorescence parameters of leaves Prinsepia sinensis, Amelanchier florida, Crataegus chlorocarca is obtained. However, significant changes in the fluorescence of the leaves of Acer negundo, Betula pendula under AWC were not observed.

  6. Flavonoids in the leaves of polish species of the genus Betula L. III. The flavonoids of B. oycoviensis Bess. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Pawłowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available B. oycoviensis Bess. leaves were found to contain compounds characteristic of B. "nova" i.e. myricitrin, isoquercitrin and probably also kaempferol 3-rhamno-7-glucoside, quercetin 3,7,4'-trimethyl ether, and quercetin 7,3',4'-trimethyl ether. They also contain compounds which occur in B. pendula Roth. (kaempferol 3-glucoside, isorhamnetin 3-glactoside, 6-methoxykaempferide, acacetin 7-glucoside, and probably scutellarein 7-glycoside. These biochemical traits bring out still better the hybrid origin of B. oycoviensis.

  7. Longevity of guard cell chloroplasts in falling leaves: implication for stomatal function and cellular aging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zeiger, E.; Schwartz, A.

    1982-11-12

    Guard cell chloroplasts in senescing leaves from 12 species of perennial trees and three species of annual plants survived considerably longer than their mesophyll counterparts. In Ginkgo biloba, stomata from yellow leaves opened during the day and closed at night; guard cell chloroplasts from these leaves showed fluorescence transients associated with electron transport and photophosphorylation. These findings indicate that guard cell chloroplasts are highly conserved throughout the life-span of the leaf and that leaves retain stomatal control during senescence.

  8. Should I stay or should I go?: the impact of age norms on leaving home

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billari, F.; Liefbroer, A.C.

    2007-01-01

    This article studies the association between social norms and the timing of leaving home. Although largely overlooked by most recent studies on leaving home, life-course theory suggests that age norms and age grading infl uence life-course decisions in general and leaving home in particular. We use

  9. Students with special educational needs in secondary education: are they intending to learn or to leave?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Pijl, Sip Jan; Frostad, Per; Mjaavatn, Per Egil

    2014-01-01

    During their secondary school years, a considerable number of students seriously consider choosing between learning and leaving. Leaving school early means that students do not complete their education. Early school leaving is the last step in a process in which students gradually lose interest and

  10. Detection of honey mesquite leaves in cattle diets using fecal near infrared reflectance spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Honey mesquite (Prosopis glandulosa Torr.) is a common invasive shrub whose leaves contain secondary compounds that limit consumption by cattle. However, crude protein and fiber levels of mesquite leaves are similar to alfalfa hay. The ability to consume small quantities of mesquite leaves might mak...

  11. Study on Photosynthesis of Different Position Leaves of Cucumber in Solar-Greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    AI Xi-zhen; ZHANG Zhen-xian; YU Xian-chang; XING Yu-xian

    2003-01-01

    The photosynthetic rate (Pn) and carboxylation efficiency (CE) were observed to be the highestin mid-position leaves of cucumber in solar-greenhouse, second in upper and middle-lower position leaves, andlowest in lower-position leaves. The saturation light of the mid-position leaves was also the highest, while thephoto compensation points of the upper, middle and lower position leaves decreased as the leaf-position descen-ded. During the growth period, the Pn of most leaves enhanced as PFD increased. Pn curves of diurnal varia-tion in different position leaves had single-peak which appeared at 12:00 a.m. As the plant density increased,the PFD of different layer leaves decreased, especially of the lower position leaves. The effect of plant densityon the Pn of the upper-position leaves was not visible, but on the light compensation points was obvious. As tolower position leaves, the Pn and saturation light decreased as the plant density increased, but the light com-pensation points were not obviously affected. Cucumber leaves had certain capacity of adaptation and adjust-ment to light intensity which expressed as the lower the PFD, the higher the apparent quantum yield (AQY).So the AQY increased as the leaf position descended and plant density increased.

  12. Evidence from Maternity Leave Expansions of the Impact of Maternal Care on Early Child Development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Michael; Milligan, Kevin

    2010-01-01

    We study the impact of maternal care on early child development using an expansion in Canadian maternity leave entitlements. Following the leave expansion, mothers who took leave spent 48-58 percent more time not working in their children's first year of life. This extra maternal care primarily crowded out home-based care by unlicensed…

  13. ANTIOXIDANT AND ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF STEVIA LEAVES EXTRACTS AND SILVER NANOPARTICLES COLLOIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iryna Laguta

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available Three extracts of Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni were prepared using various types of raw materials: leaves of plants grown ex situ, leaves of plants grown in vitro, callus culture formed on damaged leaves. Composition of the extracts, their activity in the synthesis of silver nanoparticles colloids, as well as antioxidant and antimicrobial properties of the extracts and the colloids were investigated.

  14. 5 CFR 630.1105 - Application to become an emergency leave recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application to become an emergency leave recipient. 630.1105 Section 630.1105 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1105 Application to become an...

  15. 5 CFR 630.905 - Approval of application to become a leave recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of application to become a leave recipient. 630.905 Section 630.905 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.905 Approval of application to become...

  16. 5 CFR 630.904 - Application to become a leave recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Application to become a leave recipient. 630.904 Section 630.904 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Transfer Program § 630.904 Application to become a...

  17. 5 CFR 630.1112 - Transferring donated annual leave between agencies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Transferring donated annual leave between agencies. 630.1112 Section 630.1112 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1112 Transferring donated annual...

  18. 5 CFR 630.1103 - Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Establishment of an emergency leave transfer program. 630.1103 Section 630.1103 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Emergency Leave Transfer Program § 630.1103 Establishment of...

  19. 5 CFR 630.1007 - Approval of application to become a leave recipient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Approval of application to become a leave recipient. 630.1007 Section 630.1007 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Voluntary Leave Bank Program § 630.1007 Approval of application to become...

  20. Sharing the caring : State, family and gender equality in parental leave policy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Widener, Anmarie J.

    2006-01-01

    Parental leave policies give parents a temporary leave from employment in order to care for a child. Secondary aims are to increase women’s attachment to the labour force as well as supporting gender equal roles in paid and unpaid work. This study researched parent satisfaction of parental leave p

  1. Development and Leaf Consumption by Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) Reared on Leaves of Agroenergy Crops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabezas, M F; Nava, D E; Geissler, L O; Melo, M; Garcia, M S; Krüger, R

    2013-12-01

    Spodoptera cosmioides (Walker) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae) is a polyphagous pest that threatens more than 24 species of crop plants including those used for biodiesel production such as Ricinus communis (castor bean), Jatropha curcas (Barbados nut), and Aleurites fordii (tung oil tree). The development and leaf consumption by S. cosmioides reared on leaves of these three species were studied under controlled laboratory conditions. The egg-to-adult development time of S. cosmioides was shortest when reared on castor bean leaves and longest when reared on tung oil tree leaves. Larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves had seven instars, whereas those reared on tung oil tree leaves had eight. Females originating from larvae reared on castor bean and Barbados nut leaves showed greater fecundity than did females originating from larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves. Insects fed on castor bean leaves had shorter life spans than those fed on tung oil tree and Barbados nut leaves although the oviposition period did not differ significantly. The intrinsic and finite rates of increase were highest for females reared on castor bean leaves. Total leaf consumption was highest for larvae reared on tung oil tree leaves and lowest for those reared on Barbados nut leaves. We conclude that castor bean is a more appropriate host plant for the development of S. cosmioides than are Barbados nut and tung oil tree.

  2. 5 CFR 630.202 - Full biweekly pay period; leave earnings.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Full biweekly pay period; leave earnings. 630.202 Section 630.202 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE... biweekly pay period; leave earnings. (a) Full-time employees. A full-time employee earns leave during...

  3. Comparison of stomatal characteristics and photosynthesis of polymorphic Populus euphratica leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Caixia; QIU Jian; JIANG Chunning; YUE Ning; WANG Xiuqin; WANG Wanfu

    2007-01-01

    The leaf shapes of adult Populus euphratica vary from lanceolate to dentate broad-ovate.In order to find the mechanism regarding the ecological adaptation of the polymorphic leaves,the dentate broad-ovate,broad-ovate,and lanceolate leaves were chosen to study their stomatal and photosynthetic characteristics.It is observed that the stomas on the adaxial and abaxial epidermis of the same leaves open non-uniformly with similar densities.The stomatal densities are different among the three typical leaves,which decrease from broad-ovate to lanceolate leaves.Their stomatal sunken degree varied obviously,decreasing from broad-ovate to lanceolate leaves.The changes of the diurnal photosynthetic rate of the three typical leaves follow a single peak curve.The mean diurnal photosynthetic rates of these leaves rank from high to low as broad-ovate>dentate broad-ovate>lanceolate leaves.The light compensation points are similar in the three typical leaves,while the light saturation points vary obviously.The efficiency of solar energy conversion and potential activity of the PSⅡ in the leaves differ significantly,with the dentate broad-ovate leaves the highest.The results suggest that their leaf shapes,anatomic structures,and photosynthetic characteristics change during the leaf development.

  4. Cytotoxic Constituents from the Leaves of Zanthoxylum schinifolium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fang, Zhe; Min, Byung Sun; Kim, Ae Kyong; Woo, Mi Hee [Catholic Univ. of Daegu, Gyeongsan (Korea, Republic of); Jun, Do Youn; Kim, Young Ho [Kyungpook National Univ., Daegu (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-04-15

    The roots, stems, pericarps, and seeds of Z. schinifolium were each extracted with MeOH, and the leaves were extracted with 80% MeOH and concentrated. These extracts were examined on MTT for cytotoxicity against Jurkat T cell clone E6.1. The results showed that the leaves extract had the strongest MTT cytotoxicity. The MeOH extract of Z. schinifolium leaves was subsequently fractionated into four parts: methylene chloride, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and water. These fractions were examined on MTT for cytotoxicity. The results showed that the methylene chloride fraction exhibited the strongest MTT cytotoxicity. Chromatographic separation of the methylene chloride and butanol fractions had yielded a quinolin (1), three phenylpropanoids (2, 3, 12), four coumarins (4 ∼ 7), three triterpenoids (8 ∼ 10), an alkaloid (11), an alcohol glucoside (13) and three monoterpene glucosides (14, 15, 16). One of these compounds were identified as new threo-6-amino-5-hydroxy-5-methyl-1,3-oxazinan-4-one (11) together with fifteen known, 3-heptyl-2-methylisoquinolin-1(2H)-one (1), integrifoliodiol (2), cuspidiol (3), bergapten (4), aurapten (5), 8-hydroxy-7-methoxy-chromen-2-one (6), 6,7-dimethoxy-2H-naphthalen-1-one (7), lupeol (8), lupeone (9), β-sitosterol (10), syringin (12), 2-propyl alchol β-D-glucopyranoside (13), vomifoliol-9-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (14), betulalbuside A (15) and cnidioside C (16) on the basis of spectroscopic and chemical evidences. All of the compounds were isolated for the first time from this plant except 5 and 7. In the MTT cytotoxicity assay against Jurkat T cell clone E6.1, IC{sub 50} values of cuspidiol (3) and auraptene (5) were obtained at 7.3 μg/mL and 16.5 μg/mL, respectively.

  5. Cellular proton dynamics in Elodea canadensis leaves induced by cadmium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tariq Javed, M; Lindberg, Sylvia; Greger, Maria

    2014-04-01

    Our earlier investigations showed that Elodea canadensis shoots, grown in the presence of cadmium (Cd), caused basification of the surrounding medium. The present study was aimed to examine the proton dynamics of the apoplastic, cytosolic and vacuolar regions of E. canadensis leaves upon Cd exposure and to establish possible linkage between cellular pH changes and the medium basification. The changes in cytosolic calcium [Ca(2+)]cyt was also investigated as the [Ca(2+)]cyt and [pH]cyt homeostasis are closely linked. The cellular H(+) and Ca(2+) concentrations were monitored by fluorescence microscopy and ion-specific fluorescent dyes. Cadmium concentration of leaf-cell walls was measured after plant cultivation at different fixed levels of starting pH. The protoplasts from E. canadensis leaves were isolated by use of a newly developed enzymatic method. Upon Cd addition, both cytosolic and vacuolar pH of leaf protoplasts increased with a concomitant rise in the cytosolic Ca(2+) concentration. Time course studies revealed that changes in [Ca(2+)]cyt and [pH]cyt followed similar dynamics. Cadmium (0.5 μM) exposure decreased the apoplastic pH by 0.85 units. The maximum cell wall bound Cd-contents were obtained in plants grown at low starting pH. It is concluded that Cd treatment causes apoplastic acidosis in E. canadensis leaves associated with enhanced Cd binding to the cell walls and, consequently, reduced Cd influx into the cytosol.

  6. Antimicrobial and antipathogenic activity of Fallopia japonica leaves alcoholic extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ioana-Cristina Marinaş

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study consists in the investigation of the antimicrobial and antiphatogenic activity of ethanol extracts obtain from F. japonica leaves. Total phenolic content was determined by Folin-Ciocalteu method, while their phenolic composition was specified by HPLC. In vitro antimicrobial activity of various concentrations ranging from 6.25 to 200 μL/mL of alcoholic (ethanol 70% extract of F. japonica were analyzed on different clinical and reference bacterial strains (Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis, Enterococcus faecalis, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Acinetobacter baumanii and fungal strains belonging to Candida spp. using agar disk diffusion method and broth dilution method. The anti-pathogenic properties were studied by determining the adhesion capacity of microbial strains to inert substrate. The soluble virulence factors were quantified using specific media with different biochemical substrats for revealing haemolysins, lecithinase, gelatinase, lipase, DN-ase, amylase and iron chelating agents. The antibiogram adapted technique assesseded the synergic effects of F. japonica leaves extracts with the clinical used antibiotics for different bacterial strains. The studied extract showed the best antimicrobial activity against P. aeruginosa (6.25 μL/mL due to phenolic compound identified (epicatechin, rutin and quercetin. In the Gram-positive strains’ case were observed phenotypic changes in the DNA-ase and lechitinase enzymes expression. In the antibioresistance pattern profiling it was observed that F. japonica leaves improved the Kanamycin activity for S. aureus, Colistin for P. aeruginosa and Meropenem for A. baumanii. In this respect, could be assumed that this extract could be used complementarily with antibiotherapy, by inhibiting the specific virulence factors.

  7. Fungal epiphytes and endophytes of coffee leaves (Coffea arabica).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santamaría, Johanna; Bayman, Paul

    2005-07-01

    Plants harbor diverse communities of fungi and other microorganisms. Fungi are known to occur both on plant surfaces (epiphytes) and inside plant tissues (endophytes), but the two communities have rarely been compared. We compared epiphytic and endophytic fungal communities associated with leaves of coffee (Coffea arabica) in Puerto Rico. We asked whether the dominant fungi are the same in both communities, whether endophyte and epiphyte communities are equally diverse, and whether epiphytes and endophytes exhibit similar patterns of spatial heterogeneity among sites. Leaves of naturalized coffee plants were collected from six sites in Puerto Rico. Epiphytic and endophytic fungi were isolated by placing leaf pieces on potato dextrose agar without and with surface sterilization, respectively. A total of 821 colonies were isolated and grouped into 131 morphospecies. The taxonomic affinities of the four most common nonsporulating fungi were determined by sequencing the nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region: two grouped with Xylaria and one each with Botryosphaeria and Guignardia. Of the most common genera, Pestalotia and Botryosphaeria were significantly more common as epiphytes; Colletotrichum, Xylaria, and Guignardia were significantly more common as endophytes. Suprisingly, more morphospecies occurred as endophytes than as epiphytes. Differences among sites in number of fungi per plant were significant. Thus epiphytic and endophytic communities differed greatly on a single leaf, despite living only millimeters apart, and both communities differed from site to site. Significant correlations between occurrence of fungal morphospecies suggested that fungi may have positive or negative effects on their neighbors. This is the first quantitative comparison of epiphytic and endophytic fungal floras in any plant, and the first to examine endophytic fungi or epiphytic fungi in leaves of coffee, one of the world's most valuable crops.

  8. Genotoxic and antimicrobial studies of the leaves of Psidium guajava

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nwannemka Lauretta Ofodile

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Background: The guava, Psidium guajava is one of the most gregarious of fruit trees, of the Myrtaceae family. The leaf of P. guajava is a common herb used in the treatment of diarrhea in Nigeria and this has generated special interest in the probable antimicrobial and genotoxic effects of the leaf. However the mode of action of the leaf extracts has not been reported, hence the genotoxicity study. Materials and Methods: Antimicrobial activity of the aqueous and ethanolic extracts of the leaves of Psidium guajava on Aspergillus fumigatus, Candida albicans, Salmonella spp., and Staphylococcus aureus were investigated using agar-well method and also subjected to phytochemical screening and Gas chromatography-Mass spectroscopy analysis. General toxicity and genotoxic effects of the aqueous leaf extracts (0.01 g/mL, 0.03 g/mL, 0.06 g/mL and 0.08 g/mL of P. guajava on Allium cepa root tips were also investigated using aceto-orcein squash technique. Results: Results showed that both aqueous and ethanolic extracts of guava leaf inhibited the growth of the bacteria and fungi tested. The ethanolic extract showed stronger inhibition than the aqueous extract against the organisms. A total of forty one compounds were identified in guava leaves using GC-MS analysis and these substances were found to be essential oils. The cytological effects at low concentration included mainly c-mitosis, vagrant chromosomes, chromosome bridges, and binucleate cells with EC50 of 0.02 g/mL. Conclusion: The antimicrobial activity of the essential oils from the extracts of leaves of P. guajava could be partly due to alterations associated with the cell division as deduced from the results.

  9. Antigenotoxic activities of crude extracts from Acacia salicina leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mansour, Hédi B; Boubaker, Jihed; Bouhlel, Inès; Mahmoud, Amor; Bernillon, Stéphane; Chibani, Jemni B; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2007-01-01

    For centuries, plants have been used in traditional medicines and there has been recent interest in the chemopreventive properties of compounds derived from plants. In the present study, we investigated the effects of extracts of Acacia salicina leaves on the genotoxicity of benzo[a]pyrene (B(a)P) and nifuroxazide in the SOS Chromotest. Aqueous, total oligomers flavonoids (TOF)-enriched, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts were prepared from powdered Acacia leaves, and characterized qualitatively for the presence of tannins, flavonoids, and sterols. All the extracts significantly decreased the genotoxicity induced by 1 microg B(a)P (+S9) and 10 microg nifuroxazide (-S9). The TOF-enriched and methanol extracts decreased the SOS response induced by B(a)P to a greater extent, whereas the TOF-enriched and the ethyl acetate extracts exhibited increased activity against the SOS response produced by nifuroxazide. In addition, the aqueous, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts showed increased activity in scavenging the 1,1-diphenyl- 2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) free radical, while 100-300 microg/ml of all the test extracts were active in inhibiting O2-production in a xanthine/xanthine oxidase system. In contrast, only the petroleum ether extract was effective at inhibiting nitroblue tetrazolium reduction by the superoxide radical in a nonenzymatic O2- -generating system. The present study indicates that extracts of A. salicina leaves are a significant source of compounds with antigenotoxic and antioxidant activity (most likely phenolic compounds and sterols), and thus may be useful for chemoprevention.

  10. Megastimanes and ergostane type steroid from leaves Cratylia mollis (Leguminosae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lima, Luciano S.; Lima, Marcos V.B.; David, Juceni P.; David, Jorge M. [Universidade Federal da Bahia (UFBA), Salvador, BA (Brazil). Faculdade de Farmacia. Inst. de Quimica; Giulietti, Ana M.; Queiroz, Luciano P. de [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    2009-07-01

    From the methanolic extract of the leaves of Cratylia mollis were obtained by chromatographic techniques (3S,5S,6S,9R)-3,6-dihydroxy-5,6-dihydro-beta-ionol (1), and a new bis-norisoprenoid named (4S{sup *}, 6S{sup *})-4-but-1E-enyl-4,6-dihydroxy-3,5,5-trimethyl-cyclohex-2-enone (2) as well as 5 alpha,8 alpha-epidioxy ergosta-6,22-dien-3-beta-ol. The structures of the pure compounds were elucidated based on MS, {sup 1}H and {sup 13}C NMR spectroscopic data analyses. (author)

  11. Chemical constituents from the leaves ofCerbera manghas

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhang Xiao-po; Pei Yue-hu; Liu Ming-sheng; Kang Sheng-li; Zhang Jun-qing

    2010-01-01

    Objective:To study the chemical constituents in leaves ofCebera manghas.Methods: Chemical constituents were isolated by using various column chromatography and the structures were elucidated on basis of physicochemical constants and spectral data analysis.Results: Nine compounds were obtained including p-hydroxybenzaldehyde (1), benzamide (2), n-hexadecane acid monoglyceride(3), loliolide(4), β-sitosterol(5), cerberin(6), neriifolin(7), cerleaside A(8), daucosterol (9).Conclusions: Compounds 1-4 are obtained from this genus for the first time.

  12. Cytotoxic phloroglucinols from the leaves of Myrtus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cottiglia, Filippo; Casu, Laura; Leonti, Marco; Caboni, Pierluigi; Floris, Costantino; Busonera, Bernardetta; Farci, Pamela; Ouhtit, Aicha; Sanna, Giuseppina

    2012-02-24

    Bioactivity-guided fractionation of a dichloromethane extract of the leaves of Myrtus communis led to the isolation of phloroglucinol derivatives. The structures of the new myrtucommulones J, K, and L (1-3) and the previously known myrtucommulone A (4) were elucidated on the basis of extensive 1D and 2D NMR experiments as well as high-resolutionmass spectrometry. Myrtucommulone J was obtained as a tautomeric pair (1/1a). The compounds were tested in vitro for their cytotoxic and antibacterial activities.

  13. Polyphenolic compounds isolated from the leaves of Myrtus communis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoshimura, Morio; Amakura, Yoshiaki; Tokuhara, Mie; Yoshida, Takashi

    2008-07-01

    Four hydrolyzable tannins [oenothein B (1), eugeniflorin D(2) (2), and tellimagrandins I (3) and II (4)], two related polyphenolic compounds [gallic acid (5) and quinic acid 3,5-di-O-gallate (6)], and four myricetin glycosides [myricetins 3-O-beta-D-xyloside (7), 3-O-beta-D-galactoside (8), 3-O-beta-D-galactoside 6''-O-gallate (9), and 3-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (10)] were isolated from the leaves of Myrtus communis. Antioxidant activities of the isolated compounds were evaluated by 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical scavenging assay.

  14. VOLATILE OIL COMPOSITION OF THE LEAVES OF EUCALYPTUS CITRIODORA HOOK.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal Abhilasha

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook. (Myrtaceae of Delhi region yielded 0.22 % of the volatile oil which was analyzed by GC and GC-MS techniques. Fifteen components comprising 100 % of the total volatiles were identified which consisted of five monoterpenes (96.3 % and ten aliphatic components (3.7 %. The major monoterpenes characterized included α- pinene (38.6 %, β -.pinene (25.7%, sabinene (19.6% and α-thujene (11.9%. Among the aliphatic constituents, there were six hydrocarbons (2.3 % and four aliphatic alcohols (1.4 %. Myrcene and all aliphatic constituents were present in trace amounts.

  15. Amino Acid transport in protoplasts isolated from soybean leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vernooy, C D; Lin, W

    1986-05-01

    We isolated large quantities of mesophyll protoplasts from source and sink leaves of soybean plants and examined them for amino acid uptake. Accumulation of amino acids in isolated protoplasts was linear for at least 40 minutes. Uptake kinetics revealed the presence of both saturable and linear components. Increasing external pH decreases the uptake. The uncoupler, carbonyl cyanide p-trifluoromethoxyphenylhydrazone at 15 micromolar inhibited and fusicoccin at 10 micromolar stimulated amino acid uptake. Our data are consistent with a proton-cotransport mechanism for the uptake of l-glutamine and alpha-amino isobutyric acid into soybean mesophyll cells.

  16. Antiplatelet Aggregation Coumarins from the Leaves of Murraya omphalocarpa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang-Chang Wu

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Using a bioactivity-guided fractionation method, two coumarins: minumicrolineacetonide (1 and epimurpaniculol senecioate (2, were isolated from the leaves ofMurraya omphalocarpa Hayata (Rutaceae. Compound 1 had been previously synthesizedand was now isolated from natural sources for the first time, and compound 2, possessing anegative optical rotation value, is new. The structures and their stereochemistry were fullyelucidated on the basis of spectroscopic and X-ray crystallographic techniques. Bothcompounds 1 and 2 are active in the antiplatelet aggregation assay. Interestingly, thepossible acetonide artifact 1 displayed significant antiplatelet aggregation induced not onlyby AA and collagen but also by platelet activating factor (PAF.

  17. Tapping of electrical energy from plant leaves: Sansevieria trifasciata

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jain, K.A.; Hundet, A.; Abraham, S.; Nigam, H.L.

    Some investigations on the prospective use of plant leaves as useful battery material have been described in this paper. A bio-emf-device (BED) has been developed using the leaf of Sansevieria trifasciata. The current - voltage (I-V) and the current - power (I-power) characteristics have been measured. Kinetic studies have also been made taking different loads. The results based on these characteristics of BED indicate a close involvement of the bio-contribution in the generation of electric power. Some applications of using these BEDs are also suggested to operate low power electronic circuits.

  18. New flavone from the leaves of Neea theifera (Nyctaginaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rinaldo, Daniel; Rodrigues, Clenilson M.; Rodrigues, Juliana; Sannomiya, Miriam; Santos, Lourdes C. dos; Vilegas, Wagner [UNESP, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica]. E-mail: vilegasw@gmail.com

    2007-07-01

    Neea theifera Oerst. (Nyctaginaceae) is widely used in Brazilian folk medicine for the treatment of gastric ulcers and inflammation. Phytochemical investigation of the leaves of Neea theifera afforded the isolation of the new flavone luteolin-7-O-[2''-O-(5'''-O-feruloyl)- {beta}-D-apiofuranosyl]-b-D-glucopyranoside (1) besides the eight-known compounds vitexin, isovitexin, isoorientin, orientin, vicenin-2, chrysoeriol, apigenin and luteolin. Their chemical identification was established by NMR spectroscopic methods including 2D-NMR, as well as UV and ESI-MS analyses. (author)

  19. Who are they and why are they leaving?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploegstra, Jeffrey Thomas

    Quality science teachers continue to be in short supply in the United States. This shortage can be attributed to a number of factors including a rapidly growing population, low numbers entering the field, retirement, and attrition. The case has been made that teacher shortage issues are most strongly related to teacher attrition. If we intend to address the concern over the supply of highly qualified teachers, we need to understand why teachers leave, who we are losing and how they are different from those who stay in teaching. This study addressed these issues through a mixed methods approach. Surveys of the opinions, beliefs, and experiences of teachers, observations of their teaching performance, and interviews were analyzed to identify significant issues leading to departure from classroom teaching. Analysis of the data consisted of MANOVA, correlation, and Chi-square analysis of the survey instruments and observations comparing leavers and stayers. The interviews and other data were triangulated to develop a number of significant themes related to the underlying causes of teacher attrition. The outcomes of this study lend significant insight into the relationships between teacher characteristics, expectations, experiences, and their decision to continue teaching. Major findings include: (1) The workload of teaching is a significant source of dissatisfaction for all teachers, and leavers describe an inability to balance life and work as a significant factor in their decision to leave; (2) Teachers who intend to leave are generally less satisfied with their teacher education programs; (3) Leavers have higher expectations of themselves and/or expect more recognition; (4) Leavers feel held back as professionals due to a variety of contextual factors; (5) Leavers and stayers are similar in their beliefs and practices; (6) Student interactions are a much more significant factor than previously reported. Leavers generally report more discipline issues and less

  20. Cytotoxic alkaloids from stems, leaves and twigs of Dasymaschalon blumei.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chanakul, Waraporn; Tuchinda, Patoomratana; Anantachoke, Natthinee; Pohmakotr, Manat; Piyachaturawat, Pawinee; Jariyawat, Surawat; Suksen, Kanoknetr; Jaipetch, Tharworn; Nuntasaen, Narong; Reutrakul, Vichai

    2011-10-01

    Bioassay-guided fractionation of the cytotoxic ethyl acetate extract from the stems of Dasymaschalon blumei (Annonaceae) led to the isolation of four aristololactam alkaloids, including the hitherto unknown 3,5-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxyaristolactam (1), as well as the three known compounds, aristolactam BI, goniopedaline, and griffithinam. Additionally, the cytotoxic extract from the combined leaves and twigs of the same plant yielded three known oxoaporphine alkaloids, oxodiscoguattine, dicentrinone, and duguevalline. The structures of aristolactams and oxoaporphine alkaloids were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic methods. All isolates were evaluated for cytotoxicity against a panel of mammalian cancer cell lines and a noncancerous human embryonic kidney cell Hek 293.

  1. Viewing Asking for Leave from a Cultural Perspective

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨洪娟

    2013-01-01

    This thesis aims at investigating what the discourse patterns are in the asking-for-leave notes written by Chinese stu⁃dents and native English speakers respectively and what excuses are given by Chinese students and native English speakers. Role play and retrospective interview were employed as research methords. The results show that the Chinese students all use an induc⁃tive pattern, while all native English speakers write the note in a deductive way. Besides, the excuses presented by the two kinds of subjects are different due to their different cultural background.

  2. Steroidal glycosides from the leaves of Cestrum nocturnum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mimaki, Yoshihiro; Watanabe, Kazuki; Sakagami, Hiroshi; Sashida, Yutaka

    2002-12-01

    Further phytochemical analysis aimed at the steroidal glycoside constituents of the leaves of Cestrum nocturnum has resulted in the isolation of eight new steroidal glycosides (1-8), which were classified into a spirostanol saponin (1), a furostanol saponin (2), a pseudo-furostanol saponin (3), two pregnane glycosides (4, 5), two cholestane glycosides (6, 7), and pregnane-carboxylic acid gamma-lactone glycoside (8), and of two known spirostanol glycosides (9, 10). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic evidence.

  3. Effect of Plantago australis leaves on different gastric ulcer models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.E. Bürger

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The anti-ulcerogenic effect of the crude ethanolic extract (CEE of Plantago australis leaves was tested against ethanol-, indomethacin-, and cold restrain-induced stress ulcers. The CEE (500 and 1000 mg/kg reduced the lesion index (LI and the ulcer index in ethanol-induced ulcers, and the dose of 1000 mg/kg increased the amount of mucous. The highest dose of the CEE reduced the LI of cold restraint-induced stress ulcers when compared to the control group. The indomethacin-induced ulcers were not affected by this extract.

  4. Fluidized and vibrofluidized shallow beds of fresh leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Renata de Aquino Brito Lima; Maria do Carmo Ferreira

    2011-01-01

    The fluid dynamics behavior of shallow fluidized and vibrofluidized beds operating with fresh leaves was investigated with the aim of exploring drying applications in a modified conveyor belt (MCB) system, which may be operated in a fixed- or fiuidized-bed mode. Leaves of the specimens Duranta repens,Schinus molle, Coleus barbatus, Buxus sempervirens, and Bougainvillea spectabilis were tested with a range of sphericities from 0.063 to 0.213. bulk densities from 0.038 to 0.251 g/cm3. apparent densities from 0.52 to 0.97 g/cm3 and ratios of total surface area to volume from 21 to 224 cm-t. Fluidization characteristic curves were obtained by measuring pressure drops versus air velocity in a rectangular column of 0.20m x 0.11 m cross section. It was not possible to reach real fluidized regimes with the leaves due to strongly non-homogeneous beds. Nevertheless, the characteristic curves allowed for the identification of a transition regime from fixed- to expanded-beds, and parameters such as air velocity and pressure drop obtained from the experimental data at the transition were reproducible for specimens with lower surface area or lower specific gravity (i.e., Duranta repens, Schinus molle, and Bougainvillea spectabilis).The transition velocity and pressure drop could not be predicted by the literature developed for estimat0.5 and 1.0 helped to reduce channeling and decrease the transition velocities from fixed to expanded regimes although it did not affect the pressure drops after the bed expansion. The results suggest that drying fresh leaves using the MCB dryer operating in a fluidized mode would not be feasible because none of the materials investigated attained a high-quality fluidization. Operation of the MCB dryer may be possible by alternating between the fixed and vibrofluidized modes. For the specimens tested, the drying should be performed in a range of air velocities from 0.50 to 0.60 m/s to ensure that the operation is in a vibrofluidized regime. The

  5. Novel lignans from the stems and leaves of Trachelospermum jasminoides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ling Jing; Neng Jiang Yu; Yu Shan Li; Le Fu; Yi Min Zhao

    2011-01-01

    Two novel 5-methoxydibenzylhydroxybutyrolactone lignans named 5-methoxytracheloside and 5-methoxytrachelogenin were isolated from the stems and leaves of Trachelospermum jasminoides (Lindl.) Lem., their structures were determined as (85, 8'S)-8'-hydroxy-3, 3', 4, 5-tetramethoxylignan-9, 9'-olide-4'-O-β-D-glucopyranoside and (8S, 8'S)-4', 8'-dihydroxy-3, 3', 4, 5-tertra-methoxylignan-9, 9'-olide by various spectroscopic analysis. 5-Methoxytracheloside was a new compound and 5-methoxytrachelogenin was isolated from natural source for the first time.

  6. Cucurbitacins from the Leaves of Citrullus colocynthis (L. Schrad

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    Rachid Chawech

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Two new tetracyclic cucurbitane-type triterpene glycosides were isolated from an ethyl acetate extract of Citrullus colocynthis leaves together with four known cucurbitacins. Their structures were established on the basis of their spectroscopic data (mainly NMR and mass spectrometry. Evaluation of the in vitro cytotoxic activity of the isolated compounds against two human colon cancer cell lines (HT29 and Caco-2 and one normal rat intestine epithelial cell line (IEC6, revealed that one of the isolated compounds presented interesting specific cytotoxic activity towards colorectal cell lines.

  7. Phenylpropanoid Glycosides from the Leaves of Ananas comosus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wen-Hao; Huang, Xiao-Juan; Shu, Huo-Ming; Hui, Yang; Guo, Fei-Yan; Song, Xiao-Ping; Ji, Ming-Hui; Chen, Guang-Ying

    2015-12-01

    Two new phenylpropanoid glycosides, named β-D-(1-O-acetyl-3,6-O-diferuloyl) fructofuranosyl β-D-6'-O-acetylglucopyranoside (1) and β-D-(1-O-acetyl-3,6-O-diferuloyl) fructofuranosyl α-D-glucopyranoside (2), along with two known analogues (3-4) and four glycerides (5-8), were isolated from the EtOAc extract of the leaves of Ananas comosus. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of 1D- and 2D-NMR analyses, as well as HR-ESI-MS experiments. Compounds 1-4 showed significant antibacterial activities against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli.

  8. Phytochemical examination of Prosopis cineraria L.(druce leaves

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    Malik Archana

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical studies on the leaves of Prosopis cineraria resulted in isolation of methyl docosanoate, diisopropyl-9,10-dihydroxyicosane-1,20-dioate, tricosan-1-ol and 7,24-tirucalladien-3-one. While diisopropyl-10,11-dihydroxyicosane-1,20-dioate is a hitherto unreported compound, methyl docosanoate, tricosan-1-ol and 7,24-tirucalladien-3-one are being reported for the first time from P. cineraria . These compounds have been characterized on the basis of spectral and other data.

  9. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF LEAVES OF JATROPHA CURCAS PLANT

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    Ahirrao R.A.

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The various extract of leaves Jatropha curcas Linn. belonging to the family Euphorbiaceae were investigated for its physicochemical and phytochemical screening. Ash value (total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash, extractive values, Loss on drying were studied dry weight. Ash content analysis was showed total ash, acid insoluble ash and water soluble ash [7.40 %, 4.42 % and 6.12 % respectively]. The moisture content was found to be 1.70 %. Preliminary phytochemical analysis test showed the presence of steroids, flavonoids, alkaloids, saponins, triterpenoids, tannins and carbohydrate.

  10. Antinociceptive activity ofRicinus communisL. leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Dnyaneshwar J Taur; Maruti G Waghmare; Rajendra S Bandal; Ravindra Y Patil

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antinociceptive activity of the methanol extract ofRicinus communis leaves (MRCL).Methods: Antinociceptive activity was evaluated using acetic acid induced writhing test, formalin induced paw licking and tail immersion method in mice at doses of 100,125 and150 mg/kg bw.Results:The results indicated thatMRCL exhibited considerable antinociceptive activity against three classical models of pain in mice. Preliminary phytochemical analysis suggested the presence of saponin, steroids and alkaloids.Conclusions:It can be concluded that MRCL possesses antinociceptive potential that may be due to saponin, steroids and alkaloids in it.

  11. Cytotoxic Constituents from bark and leaves of Amyris pinnata Kunth.

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    Luis Enrique Cuca-Suarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available From leaves and bark of Amyris pinnata Kunth twelve compounds were isolated, corresponding to six lignans 1-6, three coumarins 7-9, a sesquiterpene 10, an oxazole alkaloid 11, and a prenylated flavonoid 12,. Metabolites were identified by spectroscopic techniques ( 1H and 13C NMR, EIMS and by comparison with published data in the literature. C ytotoxicity against leukemia, solid tumors, and normal cells was evaluated for all isolated compounds. Lignans were found to be the most cytotoxic compounds occurring in A. pinnata.

  12. Occurrence of biflavones in leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis specimens

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    Marcus V. Bahia

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform partition of methanol extract of leaves of Caesalpinia pyramidalis was submitted to different chromatographic procedures which afforded besides agathisflavone and taxifolin, the minor biflavones loniflavone, amentoflavone, 5'- hydroxyamentoflavone and podocarpusflavone A. The structures of the compounds were established on the basis of NMR and MS data analysis. Besides, the content of biflavones of different specimens of C. pyramidalis, which are collected in different habitats of the Brazilian semi-arid region, was determinated by LC-APCI-MS analysis. These analysis demonstrated that only the specimens harvested in Bahia state showed collectively the presence of agathisflavone, amentoflavone, sequoiaflavone and podocarpusflavone A.

  13. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY TEST OF EXTRACT NYAMPLUNG (Calophyllum inophyllum Linn. LEAVES

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    Mutiara Novianti

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical screening and antibacterial activity from ethanol extract of nyamplung (Callophylum inophyllum Linn. leaves from Indonesia against Escherichia coli has been done. The extraction was done by soklet extraction using ethanol. Antibacterial activity test using the Optical Density method at λmax 600 nm. The result of phytochemical screening from ethanol extract showed that there were flavonoid compounds, saponins, tannins, phenols and triterpenoids. The result of antibacterial activity test showed that the optimum activity occurs at incubation time of 3 hours with percentase inhibition persentase i.e. 59.03 %.

  14. A cytotoxic compound from the leaves of Juglans mandshurica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    From Juglans mandshurica leaves, a new quinone compound was isolated through bioassay-guided fractionation. The structure elucidation of the compound was established based on spectroscopic studies, notably of the 2D NMR spectra. The compound exhibited moderate cytotoxic activities against Hela, MCF-7, BGC823 and 3T3-Llcell lines with IC50 ranges from 7.5 to 26.8 μmol/L.(C) 2007 Li Jia An. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  15. Metabolic Response of Pakchoi Leaves to Amino Acid Nitrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xiao-li; YU Wen-juan; ZHOU Qian; HAN Rui-feng; HUANG Dan-feng

    2014-01-01

    Different nitrogen (N) forms may cause changes in the metabolic profiles of plants. However, few studies have been conducted on the effects of amino acid-N on plant metabolic proifles. The main objective of this study was to identify primary metabolites associated with amino acid-N (Gly, Gln and Ala) through metabolic proifle analysis using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Plants of pakchoi (Brassica campestris L. ssp. chinensis L.), Huawang and Wuyueman cultivars, were grown with different nitrogen forms (i.e., Gly, Gln, Ala, NO3--N, and N starvation) applied under sterile hydroponic conditions. The fresh weight and plant N accumulation of Huawang were greater than those of Wuyueman, which indicates that the former exhibited better N-use efficiency than the latter. The physiological performances of the applied N forms were generally in the order of NO3--N>Gln>Gly>Ala. The metabolic analysis of leaf polar extracts revealed 30 amino acid N-responsive metabolites in the two pakchoi cultivars, mainly consisting of sugars, amino acids, and organic acids. Changes in the carbon metabolism of pakchoi leaves under amino acid treatments occurred via the accumulation of fructose, glucose, xylose, and arabinose. Disruption of amino acid metabolism resulted in accumulation of endogenous Gly in Gly treatment, Pro in Ala treatment, and Asn in three amino acid (Gly, Gln and Ala) treatments. By contrast, the levels of endogenous Gln and Leu decreased. However, this reduction varied among cultivars and amino acid types. Amino acid-N supply also affected the citric acid cycle, namely, the second stage of respiration, where leaves in Gly, Gln and Ala treatments contained low levels of malic, citric and succinic acids compared with leaves in NO3--N treatments. No signiifcant difference in the metabolic responses was observed between the two cultivars which differed in their capability to use N. The response of primary metabolites in pakchoi leaves to amino acid-N supply

  16. Ultrastructural characteristic of cells and pigment analysis in floating and submerged leaves of Trapa natans L.

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    Оlena M. Nedukha

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The comparative analysis of ultrastructure of the photosynthetic cells and pigment content of Trapa natans in both floating and submerged leaves at vegetative phase were conducted. It has shown that the changes of cell ultrasructure and pigment content in leaves are depended from the location of leaves above or under water surface. It has ascertained that submersion of the leaves under water lead to: 1 increase of thylakoid number in grana; 2 decrease of number of the chloroplasts with starch grains; 3 decrease of the relation between chlorophylls (Chlа/ Chlb and of the sum of chlorophylls (Chlа+ Chlb in comparison with analogical parameters in floating leaves

  17. Comparative Study of Carbon Storage and Allocation Characteristics of Mature Evergreen Broad-leaved Forest

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhangquan; ZENG; Canming; ZHANGY; Yandong; NIU; Xiquan; LI; Zijian; WU; Jia; LUO

    2014-01-01

    Evergreen broad-leaved forest is an important forest type in China.This paper analyzes the allocation characteristics of vegetation and soil carbon pool of evergreen broad-leaved forest,to understand the current status of research on the carbon storage of evergreen broadleaved forest as well as shortcomings.In the context of global climate change,it is necessary to carry out the long-term research of evergreen broad-leaved forest,in order to grasp the formation mechanism of evergreen broad-leaved forest productivity,and the impact of climate change on the carbon sequestration function of evergreen broad-leaved forest ecosystem.

  18. Polyphenols, phytosterols, and reducing sugars in air-cured tobacco leaves injured by ozone air pollution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menser, H.A.; Chaplin, J.F.; Cheng, A.L.S.; Sorokin, T.

    1977-03-13

    Air-cured tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.) leaves of several production types were analyzed chemically to determine the effects of ozone-induced weather fleck on polyphenols, phytosterols, and reducing sugars. Seven domestic cultivars provided leaf samples for analysis of polyphenols and phytosterols. Quantities of chlorogenic acid, rutin, scopoletin, free quinic acid, and phytosterols were higher in severely flecked leaves than in leaves flecked only minimally. Greenhouse studies disclosed that leaves grown in carbon-filtered air analyzed as greenpunch samples contained significantly higher levels of reducing sugars than leaves grown in polluted air, regardless of plant injury.

  19. Influence of some chosen morphactins on tissue formation in sunflower (Helianthus annuus L. leaves

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    Adam Tomaszewski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The influence of two morphactins (IT 3233 and IT 3456 on the formation of tissues in sunflower leaves was investigated. The leaves were usually smaller, they had plicate laminae and rolled up edges. The different influence of morphactins in dependence on the position of the leaves on the stem and on the kind of tissues was confirmed. Leaves growing from the first node had the thickest laminae, main ribs and the longest cells of palisade parenchyma. The values contrasted with those in the leaves from the third node. An increase of the number of epidermis cells and stomata in leaves from the first and second node and a decrease in those from the third node were observed. Additional layers (1-2 of palisade parenchyma in leaves of the second and third node were formed. Mesophyll was very compact. Xylem consisted of a greater number of elements, arranged compactly and of much lower diameter.

  20. Antioxidant flavone glycosides from the leaves of Sasa borealis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Hae-Suk; Lim, Ju Hee; Kim, Hyun Jung; Choi, Hyun Jin; Lee, Ik-Soo

    2007-02-01

    Sasa borealis (Poaceae) is a perennial medicinal plant which is a major source of bamboo leaves in Korea. The n-BuOH extract of S. borealis leaves exhibited significant antioxidant activity against the 1,1-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical and a cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage in HepG2 cells. Bioactivity-guided fractionation by column chromatography led to the isolation of two antioxidative flavonoid C-glycoside derivatives, isoorientin (2) and isoorientin 2"-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (4) along with tricin 7-O-beta-D-glucopyranoside (1) and apigenin 6-C-beta-D-xylopyranosyl-8-C-beta-D-glucopyranoside (3). Their structures were identified on the basis of chemical and spectroscopic methods. The radical scavenging activity and cytoprotective effect against oxidative damage of all the isolated compounds were also evaluated. Isoorientin (2) and isoorientin 2-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside (4) showed potent free radical scavenging activity with IC50 values of 9.5 and 34.5 microM, respectively, and strong cytoprotective effects against t-BOOH-induced oxidative damage in HepG2 cells, at very low concentrations of 1.1 microM isoorientin and 0.8 microM isoorientin 2-O-alpha-L-rhamnoside. This is the first report of the isolation and antioxidant activity of compounds 2 and 4 from S. borealis.

  1. Symplasmic transport and phloem loading in gymnosperm leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liesche, Johannes; Martens, Helle Juel; Schulz, Alexander

    2011-01-01

    Despite more than 130 years of research, phloem loading is far from being understood in gymnosperms. In part this is due to the special architecture of their leaves. They differ from angiosperm leaves among others by having a transfusion tissue between bundle sheath and the axial vascular elements. This article reviews the somewhat inaccessible and/or neglected literature and identifies the key points for pre-phloem transport and loading of photoassimilates. The pre-phloem pathway of assimilates is structurally characterized by a high number of plasmodesmata between all cell types starting in the mesophyll and continuing via bundle sheath, transfusion parenchyma, Strasburger cells up to the sieve elements. Occurrence of median cavities and branching indicates that primary plasmodesmata get secondarily modified and multiplied during expansion growth. Only functional tests can elucidate whether this symplasmic pathway is indeed continuous for assimilates, and if phloem loading in gymnosperms is comparable with the symplasmic loading mode in many angiosperm trees. In contrast to angiosperms, the bundle sheath has properties of an endodermis and is equipped with Casparian strips or other wall modifications that form a domain border for any apoplasmic transport. It constitutes a key point of control for nutrient transport, where the opposing flow of mineral nutrients and photoassimilates has to be accommodated in each single cell, bringing to mind the principle of a revolving door. The review lists a number of experiments needed to elucidate the mode of phloem loading in gymnosperms.

  2. Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Effect of Leaves of Cassia sophera Linn.

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    Arijit Mondal

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In the present study, the hepatoprotective activity of ethanolic extracts of Cassia sophera Linn. leaves was evaluated against carbon-tetrachloride- (CCl4- induced hepatic damage in rats. The extracts at doses of 200 and 400 mg/kg were administered orally once daily. The hepatoprotection was assessed in terms of reduction in histological damage, changes in serum enzymes, serum glutamate oxaloacetate transaminase (AST, serum glutamate pyruvate transaminase (ALT, serum alkaline phosphatase (ALP, total bilirubin, and total protein levels. The substantially elevated serum enzymatic levels of AST, ALT, ALP, and total bilirubin were restored towards the normalization significantly by the extracts. The decreased serum total protein level was significantly normalized. Silymarin was used as standard reference and exhibited significant hepatoprotective activity against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatotoxicity in rats. The biochemical observations were supplemented with histopathological examination of rat liver sections. The results of this study strongly indicate that Cassia sophera leaves have potent hepatoprotective action against carbon tetrachloride-induced hepatic damage in rats. This study suggests that possible activity may be due to the presence of flavonoids in the extracts.

  3. Improving flavonoid extraction from Ginkgo biloba leaves by prefermentation processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jiahong; Cao, Fuliang; Su, Erzheng; Wu, Caie; Zhao, Linguo; Ying, Ruifeng

    2013-06-19

    This paper presents a prefermentation treatment method involving fungi to improve flavonoid extraction from the leaves of Ginkgo biloba . The fungi employed for this treatment were screened from the soil present under an ancient ginkgo tree. Seventy-six strains belonging to 23 genera were isolated and identified by a molecular identification method employing 18S rDNA sequences. Thirty-three strains grew well using ginkgo leaves as the growth medium. One strain, Gyx086, with higher extracted yield of flavonoids and more similar to the control, was finally selected for prefermentation processing. The major fermentation factors were optimized by response surface methodology. The optimal conditions for the highest total falvonoid yield were 27.8 °C for temperature, 64.2% for moisture content, and 61 h for fermentation time. Under the optimal condition, a actual total flavonoid yield of 27.59 ± 0.52 mg/g dry weight culture sample was obtained, which was about 70% higher than that of unfermented gingko leaf samples.

  4. Home leaving trajectories in Canada: exploring cultural and gendered dimensions

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    Mitchell, Barbara A.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available EnglishIn this exploratory study, we profile variations in home leaving, homereturning,and home staying behaviour among four ethnocultural groups in Canada -British, Chinese, Indian, and South European. Data collected in a 1999-2000survey of 1,907 young adults (ages 19-35 residing in the Vancouver area areused. Our principal foci are ethnocultural and gendered aspects of home leavingtrajectories, specifically: ages at home leaving and returning, and reasons forhome leaving, home returning and home staying. Special attention is paid toreturners/boomerangers, given an increasing overall trend in home returning inCanada. We find that: (a both ethnocultural origin and gender are importantdeterminants of home leaving trajectory, (b there is a distinct (but far from tidydifference between European-origin and Asian-origin groups in home leavingtrajectory, (c British-Canadians leave home at the youngest ages and Indo-Canadians at the oldest ages, (d the main reason for home leaving isindependence for British-Canadians; schooling for Chinese-Canadians, andmarriage for Indo-Canadians, (e among all four groups, home returners leavehome initially at younger ages and, with the exception of Indo-Canadian youngmen, who typically leave home for school, and (f gender differences in homeleaving trajectory are larger among the Chinese and Indo-Canadians than amongpersons of European origins. Overall, we conclude that the theorized trend of theindividualized family life course holds for only some ethnocultural groups inCanada. We conclude with suggestions for future research directions on thetopic of ethnicity and the home leaving life course transitions.FrenchDans cette étude préliminaire, nous donnons le profil de plusieurscomportements relatifs au fait de quitter la maison, d’y retourner et d’y rester dequatre groupes ethnoculturels au Canada, notamment les Britanniques, lesChinois, les Indiens et les ressortissants du sud de l’Europe. On s’est servi

  5. Effects of biocides on chlorophyll contents of detached basil leaves

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    Titima Arunrangsi

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbicides and insecticides have been widely and intensively used in agricultural areas worldwide to enhance crop yield. However, many biocides cause serious environmental problems. In addition, the biocides may also have some effects on the treated agricultural crops. To study effects of biocides on chlorophyll content in detached basil leaves, 2,4-D dimethylamine salt (2,4 D-Amine, paraquat, carbosulfan, and azadirachtin, were chosen as representatives of biocide. After applying the chemicals to detached basil leaves overnight in darkness, chlorophyll contents were determined. Only treatment with 2,4 D-Amine resulted in reduction of chlorophyll contents significantly compared to treatment with deionized (DI water. In the case of paraquat and carbosulfan, chlorophyll contents were not significantly changed, while slightly higher chlorophyll contents, compared to DI water, after the treatment with azadirachtin, were observed. The results indicated that 2,4 D-Amine shows an ability to accelerate chlorophyll degradation, but azadirachtin helps to retard chlorophyll degradation, when each biocide is used at the concentration recommended by the manufacturer.

  6. Urea-induced oxidative damage in Elodea densa leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maleva, Maria; Borisova, Galina; Chukina, Nadezda; Prasad, M N V

    2015-09-01

    Urea being a fertilizer is expected to be less toxic to plants. However, it was found that urea at 100 mg L(-1) caused the oxidative stress in Elodea leaves due to the formation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) and lipid peroxidation that are known to stimulate antioxidant pathway. Urea at a concentration of 500 and 1000 mg L(-1) decreased low-molecular-weight antioxidants. In this case, the antioxidant status of plants was supported by the activity of antioxidant enzymes such as superoxide dismutase and guaiacol peroxidase. A significant increase in the soluble proteins and -SH groups was observed with high concentrations of urea (30-60 % of control). Thus, the increased activity of antioxidant enzymes, low-molecular-weight antioxidants, and induced soluble protein thiols are implicated in plant resistance to oxidative stress imposed by urea. We found that guaiacol peroxidase plays an important role in the removal of the peroxide in Elodea leaves exposed to 1000 mg L(-1)of urea.

  7. Indigofera pulchra leaves extracts contain anti-Plasmodium berghei agents

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    Sani Ibrahim

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available This study was conducted to investigate the anti-Plasmodium berghei activities of some extracts from Indigofera pulchra leaves. Six groups of mice were intraperitoneally infected with chloroquine sensitive P. berghei (NK 65 among which two groups were orally treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg body weight of methanol leaves extract while another two groups were treated with 100 and 200 mg/kg of n-butanol fraction derived from the methanol extract. Another infected group was treated with chloroquine (25 mg/kg whereas the remaining infected group was left untreated. All infected treated groups possessed a significantly (p<0.05 lowered number of parasitized erythrocytes than the infected untreated group throughout the experimental period except at day 6 post-infection. However, the 200 mg/kg n-butanol fraction treated group demonstrated a persistently lower number of parasitized erythrocytes than other extract-treated groups after day 9 post infection to the termination of the experiment. The P. berghei was found to induce anemia whose severity was significantly (p<0.05 ameliorated by all the treatments. It was concluded that the methanol extract and n-butanol fraction of I. pulchra contains anti-P. berghei phytochemicals that could ameliorate the parasite-induced anemia.

  8. In vitro antioxidant studies in leaves of Annona species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baskar, R; Rajeswari, V; Kumar, T Sathish

    2007-05-01

    Antioxidant potential of leaves of three different species of Annona was studied by using different in vitro models eg., 1,1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl (DPPH), 2,2-azinobis-(3-ethylbenzothizoline-6-sulphonate) (ABTS), nitric oxide, superoxide, hydroxy radical and lipid peroxidation. The ethanolic extract of A. muricata at 500 microg/ml showed maximum scavenging activity (90.05%) of ABTS radical cation followed by the scavenging of hydroxyl radical (85.88%) and nitric oxide (72.60%) at the same concentration. However, the extract showed only moderate lipid peroxidation inhibition activity. In contrast, the extract of A. reticulata showed better activity in quenching DPPH (89.37%) and superoxide radical (80.88%) respectively. A.squamosa extract exhibited least inhibition in all in vitro antioxidant models excepting hydroxyl radical (79.79%). These findings suggest that the extracts of A. muricata possess potent in vitro antioxidant activity as compared to leaves of A. squamosa and A. reticulata suggesting its role as an effective free radical scavenger, augmenting its therapeutic

  9. Antileishmanial Phenylpropanoids from the Leaves of Hyptis pectinata (L. Poit

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    Rosangela A. Falcao

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hyptis pectinata, popularly known in Brazil as “sambacaitá” or “canudinho,” is an aromatic shrub largely grown in the northeast of Brazil. The leaves and bark are used in an infusion for the treatment of throat and skin inflammations, bacterial infections, pain, and cancer. Analogues of rosmarinic acid and flavonoids were obtained from the leaves of Hyptis pectinata and consisted of two new compounds, sambacaitaric acid (1 and 3-O-methyl-sambacaitaric acid (2, and nine known compounds, rosmarinic acid (3, 3-O-methyl-rosmarinic acid (4, ethyl caffeate (5, nepetoidin A (6, nepetoidin B (7, cirsiliol (8, circimaritin (9, 7-O-methylluteolin (10, and genkwanin (11. The structures of these compounds were determined by spectroscopic methods. Compounds 1–5, and 7 were evaluated in vitro against the promastigote form of L. braziliensis, and the ethanol extract. The hexane, ethyl acetate, and methanol-water fractions were also evaluated. The EtOH extract, the hexane extract, EtOAc, MeOH:H2O fractions; and compounds 1, 2 and 4 exhibited antileishmanial activity, and compound 1 was as potent as pentamidine. In contrast, compounds 3, 5, and 7 did not present activity against the promastigote form of L. braziliensis below 100 µM. To our knowledge, compounds 1 and 2 are being described for the first time.

  10. Curcuma longa and Curcuma mangga leaves exhibit functional food property.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Yunbao; Nair, Muraleedharan G

    2012-11-15

    Although leaves of Curcuma mangga and Curcuma longa are used in food preparations, the bioactive components in it are not known. In this study, antioxidant, antiinflammatory and anticancer activities of leave extracts and its isolates were investigated using established bioassay procedures in our laboratory. The leaf extracts of both plants gave similar bioassay and chromatographic profiles. The methanolic and water extracts of C. mangga (CMM and CMW) and C. longa (CLM and CLW), at 100 μg/mL, inhibited lipid peroxidation (LPO) by 78%, 63%, 81% and 43%, cyclooxygenase enzymes COX-1 by 55%, 33%, 43% and 24% and COX-2 by 65%, 55%, 77% and 69%, respectively. At same concentration, CMM, CMW, CLM and CLW showed growth inhibition of human tumour cell lines by 0-46%. Therefore, a bioassay-guided isolation of water and methanolic extracts of C. longa was carried out and afforded nine isolates. At 25 μg/mL, these compounds inhibited LPO by 11-87%, COX-1 and -2 enzymes by 0-35% and 0-82% and growth of human tumour cells by 0-36%, respectively.

  11. Chloroplast ultrastructure in leaves of Cucumis sativus chlorophyll mutant

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    Irena Palczewska

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available The developing and young leaves of Cucumis sativus chlorophyll mutants are yellow, when mature they become green and do not differ in their colour from those of control plants. The mesophyll of yellow leaves contains a diversiform plastid population with a varying degree of defectiveness, which is mainly manifested in the reduction or disorganization of the typical thylakoid system. DNA areas, ribosome-like particles and aggregates of electron-dense material are preserved in the stroma of mutated plastids. Starch grains are deficient. Apart from mutated plastids, chloroplasts with a normal structure, as in control plants, were also observed.The leaf greening process is accompanied by a reconstruction and rearrangement of the inner chloroplast lamellar system and an ability to accumulate starch. However, in the mutant chloroplasts as compared with control-plant ones, an irregular arrangement of grana and reduced number of inter-grana thylakoids can be seen. An osmiophilic substance stored in the stroma of mutated plastids and the vesicles formed from an internal plastid membrane take part in restoration of the membrane system.

  12. Moribund ants leave their nests to die in social isolation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heinze, Jürgen; Walter, Bartosz

    2010-02-01

    Animal societies provide perfect conditions for the spread of infections and are therefore expected to employ mechanisms that reduce the probability of transmitting pathogens to group members [1-4]. Death in nature rarely results from old age but commonly results from diseases. Leaving one's group to die in seclusion might be an efficient way of minimizing the risk of infecting kin. Anecdotal observations of moribund individuals deserting from their groups exist for several species, including humans (e.g., [5]), but have rarely been substantiated by quantitative analysis. Furthermore, to confirm that dying in solitude has evolved because of its altruistic benefits requires refuting the alternative explanation of pathogen manipulation of host behavior. Here we show that workers of the ant Temnothorax unifasciatus dying from fungal infection, uninfected workers whose life expectancy was reduced by exposure to 95% CO(2)[6, 7], and workers dying spontaneously in observation colonies exhibited the same suite of behavior of isolating themselves from their nestmates days or hours before death. Actively leaving the nest and breaking off all social interactions thus occurred regardless of whether individuals were infected or not. Social withdrawal might be a commonly overlooked altruistic trait serving the inclusive fitness interests of dying individuals in social animals.

  13. Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial activity of Flacourtia Ramontchi Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulbha Lalsare

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The literature survey revealed that a very merge amount of pharmacological work has been carried out on Flacourtia ramontchi. Also it was observed from the Ayurvedic literature and Ethnobotanical studies that the plant is very useful in treating inflammation and infectious diseases but no scientific investigation has been done in such direction. Very merge work has been done regarding phytochemical and pharmacological effectiveness on this plant. Successive extraction of the leaves with solvents of increasing polarity; preliminary phytochemical studies of different extracts; screening of chloroform, methanol and hydromethanolic extracts for anti-inflammatory (by Carrageenan induced rat paw model and antimicrobial activity (by Cup and plate method and thin layer chromatographic studies of active extracts using mobile phase i.e. chloroform and methanol. The results clearly indicate that all three extracts i.e. chloroform, methanol and hydromethanolic, of the leaves having anti-inflammatory activity. But the chloroform and methano extract showed promising results and even chloroform extract at the dose 150mg/kg exhibits equipotent anti-inflammatory activity as that of the standard Indomethacin. Methanol extract possess broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity at concentration 10000 mg/ml whereas hydromethanolic and chloroform extracts having more or less antimicrobial activity.

  14. Investigation of in Vitro Anthelmintic activity of Cinnamomum Camphor Leaves

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    HAQUE RABIUL

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available The aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves was investigated for anthelmintic activity using earthworms(Pheretima posthuma, tapeworms (Raillietina spiralis and roundworms (Ascaridia galli. Various concentrations (10-70 mg/ml of plant extract were tested in the bioassay. Piperazine citrate (10 mg/ml was used as reference standard drug whereas distilled water as control.Determination of paralysis time and death time of the worms were recorded. Extract exhibited significant anthelmintic activity at the concentration of 50 mg/ml. The result shows that aqueous extract possesses vermicidal activity and found to be effective as an anthelmintic. Therefore, the anthelmintic activity of the aqueous extract of Cinnamomum camphorLeaves has been reported. Introduction Infections with helminth are among the most widespread infections in humans and other domestic animals affecting a large number of world population. The majority of these infections due to worms are generally restricted mainly to the tropical regions and the occurance is accelerated due to unhygienic lifestyle and poverty also resulting in the development of symtomps like anaemia, eosinophilia and pneumonia1. Parasitic diseases cause ruthless morbidity affecting principally in population.

  15. Essential oil from Eupatorium buniifolium leaves as potential varroacide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Umpiérrez, María Laura; Santos, Estela; Mendoza, Yamandú; Altesor, Paula; Rossini, Carmen

    2013-10-01

    Beekeeping has experienced a great expansion worldwide. Nowadays, several conventional pesticides, some organic acids, and essential oil components are the main means of chemical control used against Varroa destructor, an ectoparasite that may contribute to the colony collapse disorders. Varroa resistance against conventional pesticides has already been reported; therefore it is imperative to look for alternative control agents to be included in integrated pest management programs. A good alternative seems to be the use of plant essential oils (EOs) which, as natural products, are less toxic and leave fewer residues. Within this context, a bioprospecting program of the local flora searching for botanical pesticides to be used as varroacides was launched. A primary screening (driven by laboratory assays testing for anti-Varroa activity, and safety to bees) led us to select the EOs from Eupatorium buniifolium (Asteraceae) for follow up studies. We have chemical characterized EOs from twigs and leaves collected at different times. The three E. buniifolium EOs tested were active against Varroa in laboratory assays; however, there are differences that might be attributable to chemical differences also found. The foliage EO was selected for a preliminary field trial (on an experimental apiary with 40 hives) that demonstrated acaricidal activity when applied to the hives. Although activity was less than that for oxalic acid (the positive control), this EO was less toxic to bees than the control, encouraging further studies.

  16. New isoflavones from the leaves of Vatairea guianensis Auble

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Souza, Ronilson Freitas de; Marinho, Victor H. S.; Silva, Geilson A. da; Arruda, Alberto C.; Silva, Milton N. da; Arruda, Mara Silvia P., E-mail: mspa@ufpa.br [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Inst. de Ciencias Exatas e Naturais. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Quimica; Costa-Junior, Livio M. [Universidade Federal do Maranhao (UFMA), Chapadinha, MA (Brazil). Centro de Ciencias Agrarias e Ambientais; Silva, Joyce Kelly R. da [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas. Programa de Pos-Graduacao em Biotecnologia; Bastos, Gilmara N.T. [Universidade Federal do Para (UFPA), Belem, PA (Brazil). Instituto de Ciencias Biologicas. Pos-Graduacao em Neurociencias e Biologia Celular

    2013-11-15

    Four isoflavones were isolated from Vatairea guianensis Auble leaves and identified as 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-2{sup ,}2{sup -}dimethylpyrano-(5{sup ,}6{sup :}8,7)-isoflavone (1), 5,7-dihydroxy-3',4'- methylenedioxy-8-prenyl-isoflavone (2), 5,3'-dihydroxy-4'-methoxy-7-O-{beta}-glucopyranoside-8- prenyl-isoflavone (3) and derrone (4) together with five triterpenes identified in mixture, lupeol, a-amyrin, {beta}-amyrin, germanicol and betulinic acid. Substances 1-3 are novel natural products, although 1 and 2 have been cited as synthetic products. However, all these compounds are first reported from this species. Their chemical structures were elucidated based on their 1D and 2D nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) data and high resolution mass spectrometry. The ethanol extract from the leaves and 1-3 were evaluated for their potential in scavenging DPPH* (2,2-diphenyl-1- picrylhydrazylradical) and the results showed that the extract presented high activity (IC{sub 50} = 6.2 {+-} 0.4 {mu}g mL{sup -1}), while the isolated compounds showed low antioxidant power (IC{sub 50} {>=} 29.5 {+-} 2.5 {mu}g mL{sup -1}) when compared to Trolox (IC{sub 50} = 4.5 {+-} 0.4 {mu}g mL{sup -1}). (author)

  17. Liquid chromatographic determination of sennosides in Cassia angustifolia leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivastava, Alpuna; Pandey, Richa; Verma, Ram K; Gupta, Madan M

    2006-01-01

    A simple liquid chromatographic method was developed for the determination of sennosides B and A in leaves of Cassia angustifolia. These compounds were extracted from leaves with a mixture of methanol-water (70 + 30, v/v) after defatting with hexane. Analyte separation and quantitation were achieved by gradient reversed-phase liquid chromatography and UV absorbance at 270 nm using a photodiode array detector. The method involves the use of an RP-18 Lichrocart reversed-phase column (5 microm, 125 x 4.0 mm id) and a binary gradient mobile-phase profile. The various other aspects of analysis, namely, peak purity, similarity, recovery, repeatability, and robustness, were validated. Average recoveries of 98.5 and 98.6%, with a coefficient of variation of 0.8 and 0.3%, were obtained by spiking sample solution with 3 different concentration solutions of standards (60, 100, and 200 microg/mL). Detection limits were 10 microg/mL for sennoside B and 35 microg/mL for sennoside A, present in the sample solution. The quantitation limits were 28 and 100 microg/mL. The analytical method was applied to a large number of senna leaf samples. The new method provides a reliable tool for rapid screening of C. angustifolia samples in large numbers, which is needed in breeding/genetic engineering and genetic mapping experiments.

  18. Parameters Symptomatic for Boron Toxicity in Leaves of Tomato Plants

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    Luis M. Cervilla

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The incidence of boron (B toxicity has risen in areas of intensive agriculture close to the Mediterranean sea. The objective of this research was to study the how B toxicity (0.5 and 2 mM B affects the time course of different indicators of abiotic stress in leaves of two tomato genotypes having different sensitivity to B toxicity (cv. Kosaco and cv. Josefina. Under the treatments of 0.5 and 2 mM B, the tomato plants showed a loss of biomass and foliar area. At the same time, in the leaves of both cultivars, the B concentration increased rapidly from the first day of the experiment. These results were more pronounced in the cv. Josefina, indicating greater sensitivity than in cv. Kosaco with respect to excessive B in the environment. The levels of O2 •− and anthocyanins presented a higher correlation coefficient (r>0.9 than did the levels of B in the leaf, followed by other indicators of stress, such as GPX, chlorophyll b and proline (r>0.8. Our results indicate that these parameters could be used to evaluate the stress level as well as to develop models that could help prevent the damage inflicted by B toxicity in tomato plants.

  19. Distinguishing Bovine Fecal Matter on Spinach Leaves Using Field Spectroscopy

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    Colm D. Everard

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Detection of fecal contaminants on leafy greens in the field will allow for decreasing cross-contamination of produce during and post-harvest. Fecal contamination of leafy greens has been associated with Escherichia coli (E. coli O157:H7 outbreaks and foodborne illnesses. In this study, passive field spectroscopy measuring reflectance and fluorescence created by the sun’s light, coupled with numerical normalization techniques, are used to distinguish fecal contaminants on spinach leaves from soil on spinach leaves and uncontaminated spinach leaf portions. A Savitzky-Golay first derivative transformation and a waveband ratio of 710:688 nm as normalizing techniques were assessed. A soft independent modelling of class analogies (SIMCA procedure with a 216 sample training set successfully predicted all 54 test set sample types using the spectral region of 600–800 nm. The ratio of 710:688 nm along with set thresholds separated all 270 samples by type. Application of these techniques in-field to avoid harvesting of fecal contaminated leafy greens may lead to a reduction in foodborne illnesses as well as reduced produce waste.

  20. Stress inducible proteomic changes in Capsicum annuum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahajan, Neha S; Mishra, Manasi; Tamhane, Vaijayanti A; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P

    2014-01-01

    Herbivore attack induces defense responses in plants, activating several signaling cascades. As a result, molecules deterrent to the herbivores are produced and accumulated in plants. Expression of defense mechanism/traits requires reorganization of the plant metabolism, redirecting the resources otherwise meant for growth. In the present work, protein profile of Capsicum annuum leaves was examined after herbivore attack/induction. Majority of proteins identified as differentially accumulated, were having roles in redox metabolism and photosynthesis. For example, superoxide dismutase and NADP oxidoreductase were upregulated by 10- and 6-fold while carbonic anhydrase and fructose-1,6-bisphosphatase were downregulated by 9- and 4-fold, respectively. Also, superoxide dismutase, NADPH quinone oxidoreductase and NADP dependent isocitrate dehydrogenase transcripts showed a higher accumulation in induced leaf tissues at early time points. In general, proteins having role in defense and damage repair were upregulated while those involved in photosynthesis appeared downregulated. Thus metabolic reconfiguration to balance defense and tolerance was evident in the stress-induced leaves.

  1. Evaluation of reversible contraceptive potential of Cordia dichotoma leaves extract

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    Plaban Bhattacharya

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Considering the safety-risk ratio of steroidal contraceptives, the present work was carried out to evaluate ethno-contraceptive use of Cordia dichotoma G. Forst., Boraginaceae, leaves (LCD. Preliminary pharmacological screening was performed on post-coital female albino rats. The leaves extract (LD50 5.50 g/kg bw showed 100% anti-implantation activity (n=10 at 800 mg/kg dose level. (2-hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin (BCD was used as bioavailability enhancer to form LCD-BCD complex, characterized by DLS, SEM and XRD analyses. The LCD-BCD complex (1:1, w/w exhibited 100% pregnancy interception (n=20 at the dose level of 250 mg/kg and also showed strong estrogenic potential with a luteal phase defect. Qualitative and quantitative phytochemical analyses were carried out. The LCD extract was standardized by a validated HPTLC method and two contraceptive phytoconstituents, apigenin and luteolin were isolated. A detailed pharmacological analyses followed by chronic toxicity study were performed to predict the reversible nature of the developed phytopharmaceutical. The histological and biochemical estimations detected the reversible contraceptive potential after withdrawal. The observations suggested that the developed phyto-pharmaceutical has potential antifertility activity with safety aspects.

  2. Antimicrobial activities of essential oil from Artemisiae argyi leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Wei; ZHANG Xue-ke; WU Nan; FU Yu-jie; ZU Yuan-gang

    2006-01-01

    A study was conducted to determine the antimicrobial activities of essential oil from Artemisiae argyi leaves. The sample of the essential oil was analyzed by GC-MS. From 18 compounds representing the oils, Eucalyptole (18.42%), Spathulenol (14.32), 4-Methyl-1-(1-methylethyl)-3-cyclohexen-1-ol (3.10%), 3-Carene (2.64%) appeared as the main components. The screening of antimicro bial activity of the essential oil was evaluated using agar diffusion and broth microdilution methods. Gram-positive bacterial were more sensitive than gram-negative bacterial of the 8 microorganisms, and Staphylococcus aureus ATCC 6538 showed the lowest MIC (0.3125%) and MBC (0.625%). In the disc diffusion assay, Staphylococcus epidermidis ATCC 49134 and Bacillus subtilis ATCC 6633 showed obvious inhibitory activity. Survival curve showed that, 2MIC ofArtemisiae argyi essential oil had a lethal effect on Candida albicans within the first 1 h. Results presented here suggest that the essential oil of Artemisiae argyi leaves possesses antimicrobial properties, and provides scientific foundations for exploition ofArtemisiae argyi.

  3. Direct analysis of steviol glycosides from Stevia leaves by ambient ionization mass spectrometry performed on whole leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, J Isabella; Li, Xin; Ouyang, Zheng; Cooks, R Graham

    2012-07-07

    Leaf spray mass spectrometry is explored as a fast and simple way for direct analysis of sweet glycosides in fresh untreated Stevia leaves without sample pretreatment. In this technique, a fresh triangular piece of Stevia leaf serves as both sample and substrate. Application of a butanol : methanol : water mixture and a high voltage to intact leaf material produces a high electric field at the tip of the leaf. This results in field emission of charged droplets containing the glycosides. The resulting dry ions are detected by mass spectrometry and confirmed by tandem mass spectrometry and exact mass measurements. A comparison between leaf spray and other ambient ionization methods which are successful for screening glycosides in Stevia leaves--desorption electrospray ionization, low temperature plasma and paper spray--shows that leaf spray produces the highest quality spectra. It is also extremely easy to implement with no need for nebulizing gas or sample preparation and is suited to semi-quantitative determinations. The potential for the application of leaf spray mass spectrometry to direct and rapid screening of plant materials is here realized in the case of Stevia sweet glycosides.

  4. Hevea Leaves Boundary Identification based on Morphological Transformation and Edge Detection Features

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    Sule Tekkesinoglu

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The goal of this study is to present a concept to identify overlapping rubber tree (Hevea brasiliensis-scientific name leaf boundaries. Basically rubber tree leaves show similarity to each other and they may contain similar information such as color, texture or shape of leaves. In fact rubber tree leaves are naturally in class of palmate leaves, it means that numbers of leaves are joining at their base. So it reflects the information of the position of the leaves whether the leaves are overlapped or separated. Therefore, this unique feature could be used to distinguish particular leaves from others clone to identify the type of trees. This study addresses the problem of identifying the overlapped leaves with complex background. The morphological transformation is often applied in order to obtain the foreground object and the background location as well. However, it does not yield satisfactory results in order to get boundaries information. This study, presents on improved approach to identify boundary of rubber tree leaves based on morphological operation and edge detection methods. The outcome of this fused algorithm exhibits promising results for identifying the leaf boundaries of rubber trees.

  5. Physiological and morphological acclimation to height in cupressoid leaves of 100-year-old Chamaecyparis obtusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shiraki, Ayumi; Azuma, Wakana; Kuroda, Keiko; Ishii, H Roaki

    2016-10-15

    Cupressoid (scale-like) leaves are morphologically and functionally intermediate between stems and leaves. While past studies on height acclimation of cupressoid leaves have focused on acclimation to the vertical light gradient, the relationship between morphology and hydraulic function remains unexplored. Here, we compared physiological and morphological characteristics between treetop and lower-crown leaves of 100-year-old Chamaecyparis obtusa Endl. trees (~27 m tall) to investigate whether height-acclimation compensates for hydraulic constraints. We found that physiological acclimation of leaves was determined by light, which drove the vertical gradient of evaporative demand, while leaf morphology and anatomy were determined by height. Compared with lower-crown leaves, treetop leaves were physiologically acclimated to water stress. Leaf hydraulic conductance was not affected by height, and this contributed to higher photosynthetic rates of treetop leaves. Treetop leaves had higher leaf area density and greater leaf mass per area, which increase light interception but could also decrease hydraulic efficiency. We inferred that transfusion tissue flanking the leaf vein, which was more developed in the treetop leaves, contributes to water-stress acclimation and maintenance of leaf hydraulic conductance by facilitating osmotic adjustment of leaf water potential and efficient water transport from xylem to mesophyll. Our findings may represent anatomical adaptation that compensates for hydraulic constraints on physiological function with increasing height.

  6. Chemical constituents and antioxidant activity of Mallotus roxburghianus leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rana, Virendra S; Rawat, Mohan S M; Pant, Geeta; Nagatsu, Akito

    2005-06-01

    Mallotus roxburghianus is used in the traditional medicine in North-Eastern India, but previously no work has been done on the identification of bioactive compounds. Two new compounds, 3-(1-C-beta-D-glucopyranosyl)-2,6-dihydroxy-5-methoxybenzoic acid (6) and 2,4,8,9,10-pentahydroxy-3,7-dimethoxyanthracene-6-O-beta-D-rhamnopyranoside (7) together with beta-sitosterol (1), stigmasterol (2), betulinic acid (3), 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (4), beta-sitosterol-beta-D-glucoside (5), and bergenin (8) were isolated and identified from the leaves of M. roxburghianus. The chloroform soluble portion of the alcoholic extract of leaf, and compounds 3, 6, 7, and 8 exhibited encouraging antioxidant activities.

  7. Chemical constituents from the leaves of Juglans mandshurica.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Da Lei; Zhang, Chang Hao; Luo, Jie; Jin, Mei; Zheng, Ming Shan; Cui, Jiong Mo; Son, Jong Keun; Li, Gao

    2015-04-01

    Two new (1 and 3) and two known diarylheptanoids (2 and 4), along with two tetralones (5 and 6), one naphthoquinone (7), four phenylpropanoids (8-11), and one phenol (12) were isolated from the leaves of Juglans mandshurica. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectral and chemical data. Compounds 2 and 10 are firstly isolated from this plant and 8 and 12 were isolated from the Juglans genus for the first time. Among these compounds, only 7 exhibited moderate cytotoxicities against cultured MGC-803, A549, K562, and HeLa tumor cell lines with IC50 values of 25.90, 28.60, 39.06, 44.90 μM, respectively.

  8. Seasonal trends in the elemental content of sweet cherry leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanchez-Alonso, F.; Lachica, M.

    1987-01-01

    Seasonal variation of N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S, Fe, Mn, Cu, Zn, B were determined in leaves of Prunus avium L., cv Napoleon. An equation for each element relating sampling date and content is given. Nitrogen, P, K, and Zn concentrations decreased during the vegetative cycle, while Ca, Mg, Fe and B increased. There was no seasonal change for S and Cu. The most suitable sampling period for a nutritional diagnosis is from mid-July to mid-August. There are significant interevolutive correlations among all the pairs of elements except those in which S and/or Cu take part. Certain soil parameters, such as an alkaline pH, a coarse texture and low content of k and organic matter could be responsible for the nutritive observed.

  9. Spectral radiation of tree leaves in Bogor Agricultural University campus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andika Purbaya, Deki; Badriyah Rushayati, Siti; Budi Prasetyo, Lilik

    2017-01-01

    Every anthropogenic activities that use fossil fuels will produce pollutants such as greenhouse gases. CO2 with other greenhouse gases increase urban air temperatures through the greenhouse effect. The aims of this study are to measure spectral radiation of several species of trees leaves in Bogor Agricultural University Campus and determine types of trees that are effective in absorbing CO2. Data was statistically analyzed based on the order of spectral radiation value. Meanwhile, grouping the ability of species to absorb CO2 was done based on normal curve distribution. Spectral radiation value is inversely proportional to the ability of plants to absorb CO2. The tree species classified as having a high ability to absorb CO2 is Tamrindus indica, Adenanthera pavoniana, Samanea saman, and Ceiba pentandra whereas the species classified as low capacity in absorbing CO2 is Annona murricata, Pterocarpus indicus, Acacia mangium, and Canangium odoratum, the rest classified as having moderate capability.

  10. Flavonoids and fatty acids of Camellia japonica leaves extract

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    Cinthia M. Azuma

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available The ethanol extract from the leaves of Camellia japonica L., Theaceae, showed antiradical potential in the DPPH test using TLC plates (SiO2. Aiming the isolation of active compounds, this extract was partitioned between BuOH:H2O (1:1 and the two obtained phases were also evaluated to detection of antiradical activity. The active BuOH phase was fractionated in Sephadex LH-20 and silica (normal or reverse phase to afford three aglycone flavonoids (quercetin, kaempferol and apigenin, which have been described in the C. japonica at first time, two glycosilated flavonoids (rutin and quercetrin, and a mixture of saturated fatty acids. The structures of isolated compounds were defined by NMR and GC/MS analyses.

  11. Bioactive constituents from the leaves of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakdarat, Santi; Shuyprom, Aussavashai; Pientong, Chamsai; Ekalaksananan, Tipaya; Thongchai, Sasithorn

    2009-03-01

    Three chlorophyll derivatives (phaeophytins) were isolated from the chloroform extract of Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves by means of chromatographic techniques and bioactivity-guided fractionation to give three pure compounds. Structure elucidation of the isolated compounds was carried out on the basis of spectral analyses. Three of these were known compounds with structures related to chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b namely 13(2)-hydroxy-(13(2)-R)-phaeophytin b, 13(2)-hydroxy-(13(2)-S)-phaeophytin a and 13(2)-hydroxy-(13(2)-R)-phaeophytin a. These compounds, which have not previously been reported in this plant, were shown to have anti-herpes simplex activity. They exhibited anti-HSV-1F activity at subtoxic concentrations. Their inhibitory activity affected the virus before viral entry to the host cells. This effect might be virucidal or interference with viral adsorption or penetration.

  12. Evaluation of wound healing activity of Tecomaria capensis leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Saini NK; Singhal M; Srivastava B

    2012-01-01

    The aim of the present study was to evaluate the potential wound healing activity of Tecomaria capensis leaves extract (TCLE) using different models in rats.(a) Excision wound model,(b) Incision wound model and (c) Dead space wound model.TCLE (100,300,1 000 and 2 000 mg.kg-1) was given to rats to observe acute toxicity.No toxicity was found in animals till 14 days.TCLE 5% and 10% ointment were applied topically in excision wound model and incision wound model.TCLE 200 and 400 mg·kg-1 were given orally in dead space wound model.It improved healing in excision wound model,increased breaking strength of tissue in incision wound model,and increased granuloma breaking strength and hydroxyproline content in dead space wound model.These results showed that TCLE presents significant wound healing activity.

  13. Popeye strikes again: The deep proteome of spinach leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fasoli, Elisa; D'Amato, Alfonsina; Kravchuk, Alexander V; Boschetti, Egisto; Bachi, Angela; Righetti, Pier Giorgio

    2011-01-01

    The cytoplasmic proteome of spinach leaves (Spinacia oleracea L) has been investigated with the help of commercially available (ProteoMiner) combinatorial peptide ligand libraries and with home-made ligand beads as prepared in our laboratory. The protein capture had been performed at three pH values (4.0, 7.0 and 9.3) and elution performed in 4% boiling SDS, 20mM DTT. The total number of unique gene products identified amounts to 322 proteins, of which 114 are in common with the control, untreated sample, 18 are present only in the control and 190 represent the new species detected with the help of all combined eluates and likely represent low-abundance species. This is the first in depth exploration of the spinach cytoplasmic proteome and might enable further studies on interaction, regulation and expression of proteins biological processes in combination or not with transcriptomics data.

  14. RESEARCH OF PHENOLIC COMPLEX OF LEAVES OF MESPILUS GERMANICA L.

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    N. N. Vdovenko-Martynova

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaves of Mespilus germanica L. from Rosaceae family gathered in Kabardino Balkaria regions and in Botanical garden of Pyatigorsk Medical and Pharmaceutical Institute. The purpose of the study is examination of phenolic compounds in the raw materieals under analysis. Qualitative composition and quantitative identification of phenolic compounds in the air-dry raw materials of samples under study was done using qualitative reactions and high performance liquid chromatography method (HPLC. 13 compounds were received, 8 of them were identified as the substances of phenolic origin: flavonoids (quercetine, taxofolin, luteolin, hydroxycoric acids (gallic, chlorogenic, ferulic, polyphenolic compounds (epigallocatechin gallate, epicatechin. The sum of identified phenolic compounds amounted to 78,24% of all compounds found by the given method.

  15. Rosmarinus officinalis leaves as a natural source of bioactive compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borrás-Linares, Isabel; Stojanović, Zorica; Quirantes-Piné, Rosa; Arráez-Román, David; Švarc-Gajić, Jaroslava; Fernández-Gutiérrez, Alberto; Segura-Carretero, Antonio

    2014-11-10

    In an extensive search for bioactive compounds from plant sources, the composition of different extracts of rosemary leaves collected from different geographical zones of Serbia was studied. The qualitative and quantitative characterization of 20 rosemary (Rosmarinus officinalis) samples, obtained by microwave-assisted extraction (MAE), was determined by high performance liquid chromatography coupled to electrospray quadrupole-time of flight mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QTOF-MS). The high mass accuracy and true isotopic pattern in both MS and MS/MS spectra provided by the QTOF-MS analyzer enabled the characterization of a wide range of phenolic compounds in the extracts, including flavonoids, phenolic diterpenes and abietan-type triterpenoids, among others. According to the data compiled, rosemary samples from Sokobanja presented the highest levels in flavonoids and other compounds such as carnosol, rosmaridiphenol, rosmadial, rosmarinic acid, and carnosic acid. On the other hand, higher contents in triterpenes were found in the extracts of rosemary from Gložan (Vojvodina).

  16. Cytotoxic components of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. (Cactaceae) leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Sri Nurestri Abdul; Shin, Sim Kae; Wahab, Norhanom Abdul; Yaacob, Hashim

    2009-05-06

    Dihydroactinidiolide (1) and a mixture of sterols [campesterol (2), stigmasterol (3) and beta-sitosterol (4)], together with the previously isolated individual compounds beta-sitosterol (4), 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (5), alpha-tocopherol (6), phytol (7) were isolated from the active ethyl acetate fraction of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. (Cactaceae) leaves. Cytotoxic activities of the above mentioned compounds against five human carcinoma cell lines, namely the human nasopharyngeal epidermoid carcinoma cell line (KB), human cervical carcinoma cell line (CasKi), human colon carcinoma cell line (HCT 116), human hormone-dependent breast carcinoma cell line (MCF7) and human lung carcinoma cell line (A549); and non-cancer human fibroblast cell line (MRC-5) were investigated. Compound 5 possessed very remarkable cytotoxic activity against KB cells, with an IC(50 )value of 0.81microg/mL. This is the first report on the cytotoxic activities of the compounds isolated from Pereskia bleo.

  17. Effects of Water Solutions on Extracting Green Tea Leaves

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    Wen-Ying Huang

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates the effects of water solutions on the antioxidant content of green tea leaf extracts. Green teas prepared with tap water and distilled water were compared with respect to four antioxidant assays: total phenol content, reducing power, DMPD assay, and trolox equivalent antioxidant capacity assay. The results indicate that green tea prepared with distilled water exhibits higher antioxidant activity than that made with tap water. The high performance liquid chromatography showed that major constituents of green tea were found in higher concentrations in tea made with distilled water than in that made with tap water. This could be due to less calcium fixation in leaves and small water clusters. Water solutions composed of less mineralisation are more effective in promoting the quality of green tea leaf extracts.

  18. Pseudo-Dirac dark matter leaves a trace.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Simone, Andrea; Sanz, Veronica; Sato, Hiromitsu Phil

    2010-09-17

    Pseudo-Dirac dark matter is a viable type of dark matter which originates from a new Dirac fermion whose two Weyl states get slightly split in mass by a small Majorana term. The decay of the heavier to the lighter state naturally occurs over a detectable length scale. Thus, whenever pseudo-Dirac dark matter is produced in a collider, it leaves a clear trace: a visible displaced vertex in association with missing energy. Moreover, pseudo-Dirac dark matter behaves Dirac-like for relic abundance and Majorana-like in direct detection experiments. We provide a general effective field theory treatment, specializing to a pseudo-Dirac bino. The dark matter mass and the mass splitting can be extracted from measurements of the decay length and the invariant mass of the products, even in the presence of missing energy.

  19. Four New Flavonol Glycosides from the Leaves of Brugmansia suaveolens

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    Fabiana Geller

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Four new flavonol glycosides were isolated from the leaves of Brugmansia suaveolens: kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1'''→2''-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside (1, kaempferol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1'''→2''-O-α-L-arabinopyranoside-7-O-į-D-gluco-pyranoside (2, kaempferol 3-O-β-D-[6'''-O-(E-caffeoyl]-glucopyranosyl-(1'''→2''-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, and kaempferol 3-O-β-D-[2'''-O-(E-caffeoyl]-glucopyranosyl-(1'''→2''-O-α-l-arabinopyranoside-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (4. The structure elucidation was performed by MS, 1D and 2D NMR analyses.

  20. Free radical scavenging activity of leaves of Cucumis sativus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pritesh Rashmikant Shah

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Cucumis sativus commonly called as ‘Cucumber’ is commonly used plant throughout the world. The plant is attributed to various uses in Ayurveda. The methanolic extract of leaves of Cucumis sativus was screened for free radical scavenging activity properties using gallic acid as standard antioxidant. Free radical scavenging activity was evaluated using 1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl-hydrazyl (DPPH free radical. Different concentrations of leaf extract ranging from 100- 1000µg/ml were subjected to DPPH assay. Leaf extract showed a maximum DPPH scavenging activity of 86.17% at 1000µg/ml, whereas for Gallic acid it was found to be 98.03%. The study reveals that antioxidant activity of plant would exert beneficial effects if consumed.

  1. Identification of a senescence-related protease in coriander leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Senescence-related protease may play an important role in leaf senescence. By improved SDS-Gela- tin-PAGE assay, a 63 ku senescence-related protease (63 SRP) in coriander leaves was identified. Activity of 63 SRP was increased in parallel to the advance of coriander leaf senescence, and inhibited by treating the leaf with gibberellic acid, and enhanced by ethylene treatment. The 63 SRP was suggested to be a serine protease based on the fact that its activity was inhibited by the protease inhibitor PMSF. The optimal temperature for the activity of the 70 ku protease was 50℃. The maximal activity was observed at pH 6-9, some activity could be observed on the gel slices incubated at pH 5 or 11. The 63 SRP was partly purified by the way of ammonium sulfate precipitation and then gel slicing after gel electrophoresis.

  2. Shaping the sperm head: an ER enzyme leaves its mark

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Angshumoy; Lin, Yi-Nan; Matzuk, Martin M.

    2006-01-01

    Lipid storage diseases are debilitating inherited metabolic disorders that stem from the absence of specific lysosomal enzymes that degrade selected lipids. Most characteristically, these disorders affect the nervous and the reticulo-endothelial systems, with massive organomegaly resulting from the presence of engorged, lipid-laden macrophages. In this issue of the JCI, Yildiz et al. describe the role of the ER-resident enzyme β-glucosidase 2 (GBA2) in mice (see the related article beginning on page 2985). Surprisingly, GBA2 deficiency leaves bile acid and cholesterol metabolism intact, instead causing lipid accumulation in the ER of testicular Sertoli cells, round-headed sperm (globozoospermia), and impaired male fertility. PMID:17080191

  3. Availability of grasses, weeds and leaves as energy resource

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Osadolor, Odia O. [Faculty of Engineering and Technology, Ambrose Alli University, Ekpoma, Edo State (Nigeria)

    2009-03-15

    The forest and savanna are already denuded of trees, hence this study focused on grasses, weeds and leaves as a possible source of sustainable, highly renewable replacement for wood as an energy source. A study of the availability and productivity of the material across Nigeria showed that it varies from 381 g/m{sup 2} a in Gombe, 732 g/m{sup 2} a in Ekpoma, 610 g/m{sup 2} a in Auchi to 1421 g/m{sup 2} a in the Benue-Plateau forest of Jos area. The turnover rate was, however, positive across the country ranging from 0.097 to 0.130 while the annual incremental yield varied from 26 g to 402 g. (author)

  4. Profiling and Quantification of Phenolics in Stevia rebaudiana Leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karaköse, Hande; Müller, Anja; Kuhnert, Nikolai

    2015-10-21

    Stevia rebaudiana (Bertoni) is a plant from the Asteraceae family with significant economic value because of the steviol glycoside sweeteners in its leaves. Chlorogenic acids and flavonoid glycosides of S. rebaudiana from seven different botanical varieties cultivated over two years and harvested three times a year in eight European locations were profiled and quantified in a total of 166 samples. Compounds quantified include chlorogenic acids as well as flavonoid glycosides and aglycons. All phenolic concentration profiles show a perfect Gaussian distribution. Principal component analyses allow distinction between varieties of different geographical origin and distinction between different plant varieties. Although concentrations of all chlorogenic acids showed a positive correlation, no correlation was observed for flavonoid glycosides. Conclusions from these findings with respect to the biosynthesis and functional role of phenolics in S. rebaudiana are discussed.

  5. First discovery of anatomically preserved Cordaitean leaves in China

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang, S.; Tian, B. [China University of Mining & Technology (China). Analysis and Test Centre

    1995-06-01

    The first species of the anatomically-preserved Cordaitean leaves is described and is named Cordaites taiyuanensis sp. nov. The morphological feature of the new species is similar to that of Cordaites principals (Germ.) Gein, widely distributed in the Carboniferous and Permian strata in China, but its antomatical structure is different from that of the same species of Euroamerican Flora. The main characteristics of the anatomical structure are: the primary xylem of the bundles is of mesarch; the upper and lower epidermises both have 3-5 thin and short hydrodermal sclerenchyma strands (interstitial strips); the mesophyle does not differentiate into palisade tissue and spongy tissue; the walls of the mesophyll cells are conspicuously infolded; and the margin of the leaf is thickened into a drumstick shape in the transverse section. 8 refs., 2 tabs.

  6. OpenCV Based Disease Identification of Mango Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jayaprakash Sethupathy

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims in classifying and identifying the diseases of mango leaves for Indian agriculture. K-means algorithm is chosen for the disease segmentation, and the disease classification and identification is carried out using the SVM classifier. Disease identification based on analysis of patches or discoloring of leaf will hold good for some of the plant diseases, but some other diseases which will deform the leaf shape cannot be identified based on the same method. In this case leaf shape based disease identification has to be performed. Based on this analysis two topics are addressed in this research paper. (1 Disease identification using the OpenCV libraries (2 Leaf shape based disease identification.

  7. Optical parameters of leaves of seven weed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausman, H. W.; Menges, R. M.; Richardson, A. J.; Walter, H.; Rodriguez, R. R.; Tamez, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    The absorption coefficient (k), infinite reflectance (R), and scattering coefficient (s) were tabulated for five wavelengths and analyzed for statistical differences for seven weed species. The wavelengths were: 0.55-micrometer, 0.65-micrometers, 0.85-micrometer, 1.65-micrometers, and 2.20-micrometer. The R of common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense (L.) Pers.), and annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) leaves at the 0.85-micrometer wavelength were significantly (p=0.05) higher than for sunflower (Heliantus annus L.), ragweed parthenium (Parthenium hysterophorus L.), or London rocket (Sisymbrium irio L.). Annual sowthistle had the largest k value, and Plamer amaranth (Amaranthus palmer S. Wats.) had the smallest k value at the 0.65 approximately chlorophyll absorption wavelength. In general, john-songress, ragweed parthenium, or London rocket had the largest s values among the five wavelengths, wereas annual sowthistle and plamar amaranth were usually lowest.

  8. [The "crystals" in the sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) leaves].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semenova, G A; Romanova, A K

    2011-01-01

    Crystal containing cells widely distributed in plant tissues, though the origin of the crystals and their functions are still opened to question. Membrane vesicles in beet leaves are visible in electronic microscope. They originate in cytoplasm and penetrate into vacuole by pinocytosis with participation of tonoplast. In light microscope, vesicles are luminous likewise crystals in crystal cells. Such vesicles-"crystals" fulfill crystal cells also. The content of vesicles-"crystals" are electronic transparent at every path of leaf development. It was proposed that distinct vesicles-"crystals" in cytoplasm and vacuole and mass of them in crystal cells, vein bundles, and epidermal cells--all of them are lytic compartments. Later, obviously, true crystals are formed.

  9. Cytotoxic steroids from the leaves of Dysoxylum binectariferum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Hui-Jiao; Wang, Jun-Song; Kong, Ling-Yi

    2014-08-01

    Four new cholestane-type (1-4) and two new ergostane-type (5, 6) steroids were isolated from the leaves of Dysoxylum binectariferum. Their structures were elucidated on the basis of spectroscopic analysis, including 1D and 2D NMR techniques. The absolute configurations were established by comparison with the literature and Mo2(OAc)4-induced electronic circular dichroism (ECD) data. All the isolates were evaluated for cytotoxicity against A549 (lung carcinoma), MCF-7 (breast adenocarcinoma), and HepG2 (hepatocellular carcinoma) human cancer cell lines. Three of the new cholestane-type steroids displayed potent antiproliferative effects on the tumor cells with IC50 values ranging from 1.5 to 9.6μM, whereas the two new ergostane-type (5, 6) steroids were deemed inactive.

  10. Origin of the subepidermal tissue in Piper L. leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, A T; Simão, E; Silva, L; Torres, G A

    2015-05-01

    Studies on the anatomy of Piper leaves demonstrate the presence of a subepidermal tissue distinct from the adjacent epidermis, which cells show thin walls and hyaline contents. Some authors consider such cells a hypodermal tissue, while others refer to them as components of a multiple epidermis. In this study, the nature of this subepidermal tissue was investigated through the analysis of leaf ontogeny in three Piper species. The analysis showed that the referred tissue originates from the ground meristem and, thus, should be considered a hypodermis. The studied species suggests that the role of the hypodermis would be to protect the photosynthetic apparatus from excess light, regulating the intensity of light reaching the chlorophyll parenchyma.

  11. Two New Steroidal Glycosides from Fermented Leaves of Agave americana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JianMingJIN; XiKuiLIU; 等

    2002-01-01

    Two new spirostanol glycosides named agamenoside A and B, ere isolated from the fermented leaves of Agave americana. Their structures were elucidated as (23S,25R)-5α-spirostan-3β,6α,23-triol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactopyranoside(1) and (25R)-5α-spiro-stan-3β,6α-diol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(1→2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-(1→3)]-β-D-glucopyra-nosyl-(1→4)-β-D-galactopyranoside(2) by a combination of chemical and spectral methods.

  12. Two New Steroidal Glycosides from Fermented Leaves of Agave americana

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Two new spirostanol glycosides named agamenoside A and B, were isolated from the fcrmcnted leaves of Agave americana. Their structures were elucidated as (23S, 25R)-5α-spirostan-3β, 6α, 23-triol 3-O-α-L-rhamnopyranosyl-(1→3)- β-D-glucopyranosyl-(l→2)-[β-D-xylopyranosyl-( 1 →3)]-β-D-glucopyranosyl-( l →4)-β-D-galactopyranoside (1) and (25R)-5α-spiro stan-3β, 6α-diol 3-O-β-D-glucopyranosyl-(l→2)-[ β-D-xylopyranosyl-(l→3)]- β-D-glucopyra nosyl-(1→4)- β-D-galactopyranoside (2) by a combination of chemical and spectral methods.

  13. Phytochemical and Antimicrobial Properties of Leaves of Alchonea Cordifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. J. George

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemistry of Achornea cordifolia leaf extract using different solvents was studied using standard methods. The effects of the leaf extract on some pathogenic bacteria and fungi were also examined. The Phytochemical screening of the leaves shows the presence of useful ethno-botanical bioactive substances such as tannin, saponin, flavonoid, cardiac glycoside and anthraquinone, while alkaloid, phlobatanin and terpene also tested for were absent. The butanol fraction of the extract gives the highest zone of inhibition (13.0 mm against Staphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli and pseudomonas aeruginosa, which are in parity. The control, gentamycin injection gives 12.5 mm, 11.0 mm and 12.0 mm respective zones of inhibition against the Staphylococcus aureus, Eschariclia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. Also, the butanol fraction of the extract shows highest zone of inhibition of 17.0 mm against Candida albican, while ethanolic extract gives 13.0 mm zone of inhibition against Trichophyton violaceum.

  14. Optical parameters of leaves of seven weed species

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausman, H. W.; Menges, R. M.; Richardson, A. J.; Walter, H.; Rodriguez, R. R.; Tamez, S. (Principal Investigator)

    1982-01-01

    Absorption coefficient (k), infinite reflectance (R inf.) and scattering coefficient (s) were tabulated for five wavelengths and analyzed for statistical differences for seven weed species. The wavelengths were: 0.55, 0.65, 0.85, 1.65, and 2.20 microns. The R inf. of common lambsquarters (Chenopodium album L.), johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense L. Pers.), and annual sowthistle (Sonchus oleraceus L.) leaves at the 0.85 micron wavelength were significantly (p = 0.05) higher than for sunflower (Helianthus annuus L.), ragweed parthenium (parthenium hysterophorus L.), or London rocket (Sisymbrium irio L.). Annual sowthistle had the largest k value, and Palmer amaranth (Amaranthus palmeri S. Wats.) had the smallest k value at the 0.65 micron chlorophyll absorption wavelength. In general, johnsongrass, ragweed parthenium, and London rocket had the largest s values among the five wavelengths, whereas annual sowthistle and Palmer amaranth were usually lowest.

  15. Microwave drying characteristics of coriander (Coriandrum sativum L.) leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarimeseli, Ayse [Department of Chemical Engineering, Inonu University, 44069 Malatya (Turkey)

    2011-02-15

    Effect of microwave power output on effective moisture diffusivity, colour parameters and rehydration characteristics of coriander leaves (Coriandrum sativum L.) was investigated by using a microwave drier. Within the range of microwave power values, 180-360 W, effective moisture diffusivities were found to be 6.3 x 10{sup -11}-2.19 x 10{sup -10} m{sup 2}/s and the result could successfully be presented with the model suggested by Midilli et al. No significant differences in the colour parameters were obtained between the fresh and dried samples and the changes in their values were not dependent on the power outputs of the microwave drier. The highest rehydration capacity was recorded for the samples dried at 180 W and lowest at 900 W. (author)

  16. Transpiration-induced changes in the photosynthetic capacity of leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharkey, T D

    1984-02-01

    High transpiration rates were found to affect the photosynthetic capacity of Xanthium strumarium L. leaves in a manner analagous to that of low soil water potential. The effect was also looked for and found in Gossypium hirsutum L., Agathis robusta (C. Moore ex Muell.) Bailey, Eucalyptus microcarpa Maiden, Larrea divaricata Cav., the wilty flacca tomato mutant (Lycopersicon esculentum (L.) Mill.) and Scrophularia desertorum (Munz) Shaw. Two methods were used to distinguish between effects on stomatal conductance, which can lower assimilation by reducing CO2 availability, and effects on the photosynthetic capacity of the mesophyll. First, the response of assimilation to intercellular CO2 pressure (C i) was compared under conditions of high and low transpiration. Second, in addition to estimating C i using the usual Ohm's law analogy, C i was measured directly using the closed-loop technique of T.D. Sharkey, K. Imai, G.D. Farquhar and I.R. Cowan (1982, Plant Physiol, 60, 657-659). Transpiration stress responses of Xanthium strumarium were compared with soil drought effects. Both stresses reduced photosynthesis at high C i but not at low C i; transpiration stress increased the quantum requirement of photosynthesis. Transpiration stress could be induced in small sections of leaves. Total transpiration from the plant did not influence the photosynthetic capacity of a leaf kept under constant conditions, indicating that water deficits develop over small areas within the leaf. The effect of high transpiration on photosynthesis was reversed approximately half-way by returning the plants to low-transpiration conditions. This reversal occurred as fast as measurements could be made (5 min), but little further recovery was observed in subsequent hours.

  17. Isolation and identification of phenolic compounds from Gynura divaricata leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chunpeng Wan

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Phenolic constituents were the principle bioactivity compounds exist in Gynura divaricata, little phenolic compounds were reported from the plant previously. Materials and Methods: 60% ethanol extract from the leaves of Gynura divaricata were isolated and purified by column chromatography of Silica gel, ODS and Sephadex LH-20, the structures of the isolated compounds were identified by UV, 1H-NMR, 13C-NMR and MS spectroscopic techniques. Additionally, a high-performance liquid chromatography-diode array detector-electrospray ionization-mass (HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS analytical method was developed to identify some minor constituents in the n-butanol fraction of the ethanol extract of Gynura divaricata. Results: Six flavonols and one Dicaffeoylquinic acid were isolated from the leaves of Gynura divaricata, and these compounds were identified as follows: quercetin (1, kaempferol (2, kaempferol-3-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (3, quercetin-3-O-rutinoside (4, kaempferol-3,7-di-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (5, kaempferol-3-O-rutinoside-7-O-β-D-glucopyranoside (6, and 3,5-dicaffeoylquinic acid (7. A total of 13 compounds, including 9 flavonol glycosides and 4 phenolic acids, were tentatively identified by comparing their retention time (RT, UV, and MS spectrum values with those that had been identified and the published data. Conclusion: This was the first time to use the HPLC-DAD-ESI-MS method to identify the phytochemicals of the genera Gynura. Moreover, compounds (6 and (7 have been isolated for the first time from the genus Gynura.

  18. Antioxidant properties of cell wall polysaccharides of Stevia rebaudiana leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mediesse Kengne Francine

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To examine the total phenolic and protein contents, and the antioxidant activities of cell wall polysaccharide fractions of Stevia rebaudiana leaves. Methods: Three different polysaccharide-enriched fractions, namely FPE (extract with 50 mmol/ L ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid, FPK (extract with 0.05 mol/L KOH and FH (extract with 4 mol/L KOH were extracted from Stevia rebaudiana leaves. The antioxidant activity of these fractions was evaluated based on their ability to scavenge DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl free radical, to reduce ferric power, to chelate ferrous ion and to protect human DNA. Results: The results indicated that protein content was found to be higher in FPK polysaccharide enriched fraction (47.48 µg per mg of FPK. Furthermore, the phenolic compound analysis according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method was higher in FPK (17.71 µg ferulic acid. The DPPH maximal inhibition percentage of the three polysaccharide-enriched fractions at 400 µg/mL was 27.66%, 59.90% and 23.21% respectively for FPE, FPK and FH. All the polysaccharide fractions exhibited a ferric reducing power except the FH one. The three fractions also exhibited lipid peroxidation inhibition, and they completely reverted the DNA damage induced by H2O2/FeCl2. FPK showed the strongest scavenging activity against the DPPH radical, the best chelating ability and lipid peroxidation inhibition. Conclusions: Stevia cell wall polysaccharide fractions are potent protective agents against oxidative stress. The analysis revealed major differences in the antioxidant activity in the three polysaccharides fractions. However, the 0.05 mol/L KOH pectin fraction (FPK showed better antioxidant activity.

  19. Antioxidant properties of cell wall polysaccharides of Stevia rebaudiana leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mediesse Kengne Francine; Woguia Alice Louise; Fogue Souopgui Pythagore; Atogho-Tiedeu Barbara; Simo Gustave; Thadde Boudjeko

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To examine the total phenolic and protein contents, and the antioxidant activities of cell wall polysaccharide fractions of Stevia rebaudiana leaves.Methods:L ethylene diamine tetra acetic acid), FPK (extract with 0.05 mol/L KOH) and FH (extract with 4 mol/L KOH) were extracted from Stevia rebaudiana leaves. The antioxidant activity of these fractions was evaluated based on their ability to scavenge DPPH (1, 1-diphenyl-2-picryl hydrazyl) free radical, to reduce ferric power, to chelate ferrous ion and to protect human DNA. Three different polysaccharide-enriched fractions, namely FPE (extract with 50 mmol/Results: The results indicated that protein content was found to be higher in FPK polysaccharide enriched fraction (47.48 µg per mg of FPK). Furthermore, the phenolic compound analysis according to the Folin-Ciocalteu method was higher in FPK (17.71 µg ferulic acid). The DPPH maximal inhibition percentage of the three polysaccharide-enriched fractions at 400 µg/mL was 27.66%, 59.90% and 23.21% respectively for FPE, FPK and FH. All the polysaccharide fractions exhibited a ferric reducing power except the FH one. The three fractions also exhibited lipid peroxidation inhibition, and they completely reverted the DNA damage induced by H2O2/FeCl2. FPK showed the strongest scavenging activity against the DPPH radical, the best chelating ability and lipid peroxidation inhibition.Conclusions: Stevia cell wall polysaccharide fractions are potent protective agents against oxidative stress. The analysis revealed major differences in the antioxidant activity in the three polysaccharides fractions. However, the 0.05 mol/L KOH pectin fraction (FPK) showed better antioxidant activity.

  20. Sick leave among home-care personnel: a longitudinal study of risk factors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Holmström Eva B

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Sick leave due to neck, shoulder and back disorders (NSBD is higher among health-care workers, especially nursing aides/assistant nurses, compared with employees in other occupations. More information is needed about predictors of sick leave among health care workers. The aim of the study was to assess whether self-reported factors related to health, work and leisure time could predict: 1 future certified sick leave due to any cause, in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group I and 2 future self-reported sick leave due to NSBD in nursing aides/assistant nurses (Study group II. Methods Study group I, comprised 443 female nursing aides/assistant nurses, not on sick leave at baseline when a questionnaire was completed. Data on certified sick leave were collected after 18 months. Study group II comprised 274 of the women, who at baseline reported no sick leave during the preceding year due to NSBD and who participated at the 18 month follow-up. Data on sick leave due to NSBD were collected from the questionnaire at 18 months. The associations between future sick leave and factors related to health, work and leisure time were tested by logistic regression analyses. Results Health-related factors such as previous low back disorders (OR: 1.89; 95% CI 1.20–2.97 and previous sick leave (OR 6.40; 95%CI 3.97–10.31, were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to any cause. Factors related to health, work and leisure time, i.e. previous low back disorders (OR: 4.45; 95% CI 1.27–15.77 previous sick leave, not due to NSBD (OR 3.30; 95%CI 1.33–8.17, high strain work (OR 2.34; 95%CI 1.05–5.23 and high perceived physical exertion in domestic work (OR 2.56; 95%CI 1.12–5.86 were associated with a higher risk of future sick leave due to NSBD. In the final analyses, previous low back disorders and previous sick leave remained significant in both study groups. Conclusion The results suggest a focus on previous low

  1. The use of bead beating to prepare suspensions of nuclei for flow cytometry from fresh leaves, herbarium leaves, petals and pollen.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roberts, Andy V

    2007-12-01

    "Bead beating" is commonly used to release DNA from cells for genomic studies but it was used here to prepare suspensions of plant nuclei for measurement of DNA amounts by flow cytometry. Plant material was placed in 2-ml screw-capped tubes containing beads of zirconia/silica (2.5 mm diameter) or glass (2.5 or 1.0 mm diameter) and 1 ml of lysis buffer. The tubes were mechanically shaken with an FP120 FastPrep Cell Disrupter to release intact nuclei from plant tissue by the impact of the beads. The nuclei were then stained with propidium iodide (PI) and analyzed by flow cytometry. The method was tested using fresh leaves, fresh petals and herbarium leaves of Rosa canina, leaves and pollen of R. rugosa, and fresh leaves of Petroselinum crispum, Nicotiana tabacum, and Allium cepa. Batches of 12 samples of fresh leaves were prepared, simultaneously, in 45 s by bead beating in the Cell Disrupter. In flow cytometry histograms, nuclei of fresh leaves gave G(1)/G(0) peaks with CVs of less than 3.0% and nuclei from fresh petals and herbarium leaves of R. canina, and pollen of the generative nuclei of R. rugosa gave peaks with coefficients of variation (CVs) of less than 4.0%. DNA amounts estimated from 24-month-old herbarium leaves, using P. crispum as an internal standard, were less than those of fresh leaves by a small but significant amount. Suspensions of nuclei can be prepared rapidly and conveniently from a diversity of tissues by bead beating. Exposure of laboratory workers to harmful substances in the lysis buffer is minimized.

  2. 5 CFR 630.310 - Scheduling of annual leave by employees determined necessary for Year 2000 computer conversion...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scheduling of annual leave by employees... Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Annual Leave § 630.310 Scheduling of annual leave by employees determined necessary for Year 2000 computer conversion efforts....

  3. 5 CFR 630.311 - Scheduling of annual leave by employees determined necessary to respond to the “National...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Scheduling of annual leave by employees... Section 630.311 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Annual Leave § 630.311 Scheduling of annual leave by employees determined necessary...

  4. 5 CFR 630.307 - Time limit for use of restored annual leave-former missing employees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... leave-former missing employees. 630.307 Section 630.307 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Annual Leave § 630.307 Time limit for use of restored annual leave—former missing employees. Annual leave restored under section 5562 of title 5, United...

  5. 5 CFR 630.309 - Time limit for use of restored annual leave-extended exigency of the public business.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... leave-extended exigency of the public business. 630.309 Section 630.309 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Annual Leave § 630.309 Time limit for use of restored annual leave—extended exigency of the public business. (a) Annual leave...

  6. 5 CFR 630.301 - Annual leave accrual and accumulation-Senior Executive Service, Senior-Level, and Scientific and...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 5 Administrative Personnel 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Annual leave accrual and accumulation....301 Administrative Personnel OFFICE OF PERSONNEL MANAGEMENT CIVIL SERVICE REGULATIONS ABSENCE AND LEAVE Annual Leave § 630.301 Annual leave accrual and accumulation—Senior Executive Service,...

  7. Metabolism by grasshoppers of volatile chemical constituents from Mangifera indica and Solanum paniculatum leaves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ramos, Clécio S; Ramos, Natália S M; Da Silva, Rodolfo R; Da Câmara, Cláudio A G; Almeida, Argus V

    2012-12-01

    The chemical volatiles from plant leaves and their biological activities have been extensively studied. However, no studies have addressed plant-chemical volatiles after undergoing the digestive process in host insects. Here we describe for the first time chemical profiles of volatile constituents from Solanum paniculatum and Mangifera indica leaves metabolized by grasshoppers. Both profiles were qualitatively and quantitatively different from the profiles of non-metabolized leaves. The amount of nerolidol, the major constituent of S. paniculatum leaves, decreased and other sesquiterpenes, such as spathulenol, were formed during the digestive process of the grasshopper Chromacris speciosa. In M. indica, the presence of phenylpropanoids was observed (dillapiole, Z-asarone, E-asarone and γ-asarone) in the leaves metabolized by the grasshopper Tropidacris collaris, but these compounds were not found in the non-metabolized leaves.

  8. Job and Professional Leaving Among Newly Licensed RNs: A Structural Equation Model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Unruh, Lynn; Zhang, Ning Jackie; Chisolm, Latarsha

    2016-01-01

    With more than 50% of the nursing workforce close to retirement, it is especially important to keep younger nurses in nursing jobs and careers. This study empirically tests a structural equation model of registered nurse (RN) intent to leave the job and profession using data from a survey of newly licensed RNs (NLRNs). Job demands, difficulties and control, intent to leave the job, and intent to leave the profession were latent variables. A number of direct, indirect, and mediating relationships were modeled. Measurement models for all latent variables and the structural model had good fit. The final model showed a path from job demands, difficulties, and control to job satisfaction to intent to leave the job to intent to leave the profession. The results suggest that the process of an NLRN intending to leave the job and profession involves a number of mediators between the work environment and this intent.

  9. Histochemical Investigation and Kinds of Alkaloids in Leaves of Different Developmental Stages in Thymus quinquecostatus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Haiting Jing

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Thymus quinquecostatus, with more medical value, is a kind of wild plants. In order to exploit and utilize this plant, we studied the species and locations of alkaloids in its leaves. In this paper, histochemical study of leaves at different developing stages was taken to localize the alkaloids. Meanwhile, the kinds and content of alkaloids in leaves were identified using GC-MS technique. It was found that there were two kinds of glandular trichomes, namely, peltate trichomes and capitate trichomes, on the surface of leaves, and their secretory cells could secrete alkaloids. Results showed that trichomes could secrete alkaloids as soon as the first pair of leaves formed, and there were altogether 18 kinds of alkaloids identified by GC-MS. Nearly all of these alkaloids of leaves at different developing stages were distinct from each other, except one, 3-methoxy-a-methyl-benzeneethanamine, persists at different developing stages with high concentration.

  10. Structural Characteristics and Eco-adaptability of Heteromorphic Leaves of Populus euphratica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhao-xia; Zheng Cai-xia

    2005-01-01

    The microstructural and ultrastructural traits of three kinds of typical leaves of Populus euphratica Olive, including lanceolate, broad-ovate and dentate broad-ovate leaves, were studied by using electron microscope and optical microscope. The results showed that with the leaves changing from lanceolate shape to dentate broad-ovate shape, their structure obviously tended to be xeromorph: developed palisade tissue, undeveloped spongy tissue, thick cutin layer and sunken stomas. The amount of mitochondria tended to be increased, and the shape of chloroplasts varied from regular spindle to irregular rotundity or oval. The leaves were covered with wax without cilium, and the stomas on the upper and lower epidermis of the leaves opened unevenly. The stomas on the lower epidermis were deeper than those on the upper epidermis under the scanning electron microscope. The results implied that the structural characteristics of the diversiform-leaves of P. euphratica are related to its eco-adaptability.

  11. Differences in visible and near-infrared light reflectance between orange fruit and leaves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gausman, H. W.; Escobar, D. E.; Berumen, A.

    1975-01-01

    The objective was to find the best time during the season (April 26, 1972 to January 8, 1973) to distinguish orange fruit from leaves by spectrophotometrically determining at 10-day intervals when the difference in visible (550- and 650-nm wavelengths) and near-infrared (850-nm wavelength) light reflectance between fruit and nearby leaves was largest. December 5 to January 8 was the best time to distinguish fruit from leaves. During this period the fruit's color was rapidly changing from green to yellow, and the difference in visible light reflectance between fruit and leaves was largest. The difference in near-infrared reflectance between leaves and fruit remained essentially constant during ripening when the difference in visible light reflectance between leaves and fruit was largest.

  12. CALIFORNIA STATE UNIVERSITY CATASTROPHIC (CAT) LEAVE DONATION PROGRAM: DEMOGRAPHICS, ECONOMIC SECURITY, AND SOCIAL EQUITY.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muller, Christina

    2015-01-01

    The California State University (CSU) Chancellor's Office reached an agreement with all CSU collective bargaining units and Employee Relations on a uniform Catastrophic (CAT) Leave Donation Program in 1992. The CAT Leave Donation Program allows employees to donate sick and/or vacation leave credits to employees who are incapacitated due to a catastrophic illness or injury and have exhausted all of their own leave credits. This also extends to employees with whom family illnesses are deemed catastrophic, thus requiring the employee to care for an immediate family member. Stakeholders include union represented employees who accrue leave credits as well as any employee who receives or donates hours of leave credits in the program. Other stakeholders include the family members and program administrators.

  13. Preparation of Samples for Leaf Architecture Studies, A Method for Mounting Cleared Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alejandra Vasco

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Premise of the study: Several recent waves of interest in leaf architecture have shown an expanding range of approaches and applications across a number of disciplines. Despite this increased interest, examination of existing archives of cleared and mounted leaves shows that current methods for mounting, in particular, yield unsatisfactory results and deterioration of samples over relatively short periods. Although techniques for clearing and staining leaves are numerous, published techniques for mounting leaves are scarce. Methods and Results: Here we present a complete protocol and recommendations for clearing, staining, and imaging leaves, and, most importantly, a method to permanently mount cleared leaves. Conclusions: The mounting protocol is faster than other methods, inexpensive, and straightforward; moreover, it yields clear and permanent samples that can easily be imaged, scanned, and stored. Specimens mounted with this method preserve well, with leaves that were mounted more than 35 years ago showing no signs of bubbling or discoloration.

  14. Flavonoids in the leaves of polish species of the genus Betula L. L The flavonoids of B. pendula Roth. and B. obscura Kot. leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucyna Pawłowska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Betula pendula Roth. leaves were found to contain, beside the flavonoids detected earlier by other researchers, isorhamnetin 3-galactoside, acacetin 7-glucoside, and perhaps scutellarein 7-glycoside and quercetin 3-glycoside-7,4'-dimethyl ether. The investigated specimens of this species can be divided into two groups on the basis of the presence or absence in them of 6-methoxykaempferide. Group I was characterized by larger leaf-blades containing this compound, whereas it was absent in group II with smaller leaves. The composition of the leaf flavonoids of B. obscura Kot. samples was identical with that of the specimens of the above-mentioned small leaved B. pendula.

  15. Comparative Perspectives on Work-Life Balance and Gender Equality: Fathers on Leave Alone

    OpenAIRE

    O'Brien, Margaret; Wall, Karin

    2017-01-01

    This book portrays men’s experiences of home alone leave and how it affects their lives and family gender roles in different policy contexts and explores how this unique parental leave design is implemented in these contrasting policy regimes. The book brings together three major theoretical strands: social policy, in particular the literature on comparative leave policy developments; family and gender studies, in particular the analysis of gendered divisions of work and care and recent shi...

  16. Sensorial evolution of cassava flour (Manihot esculenta crantz) added to protein concentrate cassava leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Lima, Elaine C S; Feijo, Márcia B S; Freitas, Maria C J; dos Santos, Edna R; Armando U.O. SABAA-SRUR; Moura, Luciana S M

    2012-01-01

    Cassava is regarded as the nutritional base of populations in developing countries, and flour, product made of cassava, is the most consumed in the world. The cassava leaves are very rich in vegetable proteins, but a big amount is lost in processing the crop. The objective of this study was to do a sensory evaluation of cassava flour to which a protein concentrate obtained from cassava leaves (CPML) was added. The CPML was obtained from cassava leaves by isoelectric precipitation and added to...

  17. Analysis of lipophilic fraction from leaves, inflorescences and rhizomes of Silphium perfoliatum L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radosław Kowalski

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a qualitative and quantitative chromatographic analysis (GC/MS of the lipophilic fraction extracted from leaves, inflorescences and rhizomes of Silphium perfoliatum L. collected in 1998-2000. It was shown that the extracts of leaves and inflorescences are similar in composition, containing among their main constituents: α-amyrine (up to 13.9% of total components in leaves, up to 11.3% in inflorescences, heptacosane (up to 7.1% in leaves, up to 7.6% in inflorescences, stigmasterol (up to 8.1% in leaves, up to 2.2% in inflorescences, γ-sitosterol (up to 6.9% in leaves, up to 2.2% in inflorescences, β-amyrine (up to 4.1% in leaves, up to 5.8% in inflorescences, β-caryophyllene (up to 2.6% in leaves, up to 1.5% in inflorescences, caryophyllene oxide (up to 4.4% in leaves, up to 2.9% in inflorescences, germacrene D (up to 13.8% in leaves, up to 9.7% in inflorescences and α-pinene (up to 3.3% in leaves, up to 2.4% in inflorescences. The chemical composition of lipophilic extract of rhizomes significantly differs from that of leaves and inflorescences. The following compounds can be counted among the dominant ones occurring in rhizome extracts: diterpene of labdane type - 16-acetoxycarterochaetol (up to 45% and sesquiterpenes - 7-b-H-silphiperfol-5-ene (up to 9.1%, 7-a-H-silphiperfol-5-ene (up to 10.7%, d-elemene (up to 7.6%, isocomene (up to 5.6%, germacrene D (up to 5.2% and modhephene (up to 5.1%.

  18. Suicide after leaving the UK armed forces--a cohort study.

    OpenAIRE

    Kapur, N; While, D.; Blatchley, N; Bray, I.; Harrison, K.

    2009-01-01

    Editors' Summary Background. Leaving any job can be hard but for people leaving the armed forces the adjustment to their new circumstances can sometimes be particularly difficult. For example, ex-military personnel may face obstacles to getting a new job, particularly if they were injured in action. Some become homeless. Others turn to alcohol or drugs or suffer mental illnesses such as depression. These things probably aren't common but those who leave the armed forces might also be at highe...

  19. PURIFICATION OF GINKGO LEAVES EXTRACT WITH MACROPOROUS ADSORBENT BASED ON UREA—FORMALDEHYDE CONDENSED POLYMERS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XUMingcheng; XUMancai; 等

    2000-01-01

    The relationship between the adsorption properties for the active components of ginkgo leaves and the structure of the adsorbents based on urea-formaldehyde condensed polymers was investigated.The results revealed that these adsorbents showed very high adsorpton selectivity for both flavonol glycosides and terpene lactones contained in ginkgo leaves.Thus,an adsorption separation procedure for purification of ginkgo leaves extracts was developed.

  20. Chlorophyll fluorescence kinetics, photosynthetic activity, and pigment composition of blue-shade and half-shade leaves as compared to sun and shade leaves of different trees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lichtenthaler, Hartmut K; Babani, Fatbardha; Navrátil, Martin; Buschmann, Claus

    2013-11-01

    The chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence induction kinetics, net photosynthetic CO2 fixation rates P N, and composition of photosynthetic pigments of differently light exposed leaves of several trees were comparatively measured to determine the differences in photosynthetic activity and pigment adaptation of leaves. The functional measurements were carried out with sun, half-shade and shade leaves of seven different trees species. These were: Acer platanoides L., Ginkgo biloba L., Fagus sylvatica L., Platanus x acerifolia Willd., Populus nigra L., Quercus robur L., Tilia cordata Mill. In three cases (beech, ginkgo, and oak), we compared the Chl fluorescence kinetics and photosynthetic rates of blue-shade leaves of the north tree crown receiving only blue sky light but no direct sunlight with that of sun leaves. In these cases, we also determined in detail the pigment composition of all four leaf types. In addition, we determined the quantum irradiance and spectral irradiance of direct sunlight, blue skylight as well as the irradiance in half shade and full shade. The results indicate that sun leaves possess significantly higher mean values for the net CO2 fixation rates P N (7.8-10.7 μmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) leaf area) and the Chl fluorescence ratio R Fd (3.85-4.46) as compared to shade leaves (mean P N of 2.6-3.8 μmol CO2 m(-2) s(-1) leaf area.; mean R Fd of 1.94-2.56). Sun leaves also exhibit higher mean values for the pigment ratio Chl a/b (3.14-3.31) and considerably lower values for the weight ratio total chlorophylls to total carotenoids, (a + b)/(x + c), (4.07-4.25) as compared to shade leaves (Chl a/b 2.62-2.72) and (a + b)/(x + c) of 5.18-5.54. Blue-shade and half-shade leaves have an intermediate position between sun and shade leaves in all investigated parameters including the ratio F v/F o (maximum quantum yield of PS2 photochemistry) and are significantly different from sun and shade leaves but could not be differentiated from each other. The