WorldWideScience

Sample records for chlortetracycline

  1. 21 CFR 520.445b - Chlortetracycline powder.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... veal. (B) (ii) (3) (4) The following uses of chlortetracycline hydrochloride or chlortetracycline... established in preruminating calves; do not use in calves to be processed for veal. (5) Use in a drench or... in calves to be processed for veal....

  2. 21 CFR 558.128 - Chlortetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ...-069 Dried Cane Molasses 3.00 4-04-695 Potassium Chloride 2.00 6-03-755 Mineral Oil 2.00 8-03-123 Iron Oxide 0.50 6-02-431 Chlortetracycline Type A medicated article (90 gram/lb) 3.33 1Content of vitamin and... No. Dicalcium Phosphate 46.20 6-26-335 Sodium Chloride (Salt) 15.00 6-04-152 Magnesium Oxide 10.67...

  3. 21 CFR 558.145 - Chlortetracycline, procaine penicillin, and sulfamethazine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlortetracycline, procaine penicillin, and... FEEDS Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.145 Chlortetracycline, procaine penicillin... pound, 4.4 percent (20 grams) of sulfamethazine, and procaine penicillin equivalent in activity to...

  4. 21 CFR 558.155 - Chlortetracycline, sulfathiazole, penicillin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlortetracycline, sulfathiazole, penicillin. 558... Specific New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds § 558.155 Chlortetracycline, sulfathiazole, penicillin... percent (20 grams) sulfathiazole, and procaine penicillin equivalent to 10 grams of penicillin per...

  5. Kinetics of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline adsorption and desorption on two acid soils

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fernandez Calviño, David; Bermúdez-Couso, Alipio; Arias-Estévez, Manuel;

    2015-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to quantify retention/release of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline on two soils, paying attention to sorption kinetics and to implications of the adsorption/desorption processes on transfer of these pollutants to the various environmental compartments...... tetracycline > oxytetracycline > chlortetracycline in soil 1, with similar values for the three antibiotics and the sequence tetracycline > chlortetracycline > oxytetracycline in soil 2. The desorption sequences were oxytetracycline > tetracycline > chlortetracycline in soil 1 and oxytetracycline...... > chlortetracycline > tetracycline in soil 2. In conclusion, the SFC technique has yielded new kinetic data regarding tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline adsorption/desorption on soils, indicating that it can be used to shed further light on the retention and transport processes affecting antibiotics...

  6. Blood concentrations of chlortetracycline in macaws fed medicated pelleted feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flammer, K; Cassidy, D R; Landgraf, W W; Ross, P F

    1989-01-01

    A trial was conducted to determine the suitability of using a pelleted diet containing chlortetracycline (CTC) for treatment of chlamydiosis in macaws. Macaws, normally fed seed and fruit diets in captivity, are notoriously difficult to treat with CTC-medicated mash diets. Healthy macaws fed a pelleted diet containing 1% or 1.5% CTC for 30 or 45 days maintained adequate food intake and mean blood concentrations of 1-2 CTC micrograms/ml blood throughout the treatment period. There were no significant differences between blood concentrations induced by the different dietary CTC concentrations. Blood concentrations of 1 microgram/ml are considered therapeutic, so it is likely that 1% CTC-medicated pellets will be adequate for treating chlamydiosis in these species. PMID:2930403

  7. Sorption of Tetracycline, Oxytetracycline, and Chlortetracycline in Illite and Kaolinite Suspensions

    OpenAIRE

    O P Bansal

    2013-01-01

    The sorption interaction of three widely used tetracycline antibiotics, namely, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline, under various conditions of time, pH, temperature, ionic strength, and exchangeable cations on illites and kaolinites was examined. First-order reaction indicated diffusion-controlled adsorption, maximum adsorption occurring at pH values of 3.5, 3, and 4 for tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline, respectively. Adsorption isotherms of “L” type sho...

  8. Dissipation kinetics of oxytetracycline, tetracycline, and chlortetracycline residues in soil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yuanzhu; Wang, Haijiao; Liu, Xiaoxia; Zhao, Guangyu; Sun, Ying

    2016-07-01

    The dissipation of different residual states of tetracycline antibiotics (TCs) including oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC), and chlortetracycline (CTC) laboratory microcosm systems was investigated in this study. The residues were fractionated by stepwise extractions into aqueous state (KCl solution extracts), organic state (MeOH extracts), residual state I (citric acid-sodium citrate buffer and ethyl acetate extracts) and residual state II (acetonitrile-EDTA-McIlvaine buffer extracts) for accurate evaluation of TCs pollution. The antibiotics in the aqueous state were hardly detected, whereas the antibiotics in the organic state dissipated relatively fast (not detectable within 15 days after application) and followed simple first-order kinetics (SFOK) (R (2) from 0.929 to 0.990). While first-order double-exponential decay model (FODED) (R (2) from 0.840 to 0.999) and availability-adjusted first-order model (AAFO) (R (2) from 0.939 to 0.999) had a better fit on the dissipation of both residue state I and II than SFOK. TCs in these states were likely sequestered into a dormant undegradable phase since no degradation product was detected during the entire experiment. In addition, the overall 50 % dissipation values (i.e., stability) of the three TCs were OTC > TC > CTC. The TCs tend to dissipate faster in the high water content and organic matter soil. PMID:27072037

  9. Microbiological turbidimetric analysis of low chlortetracycline concentrations in feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragheb, H S; Porubcan, L S

    1975-05-01

    Recovery studies in which chlortetracycline hydrochloride (CTC-HCI) standard was added to cattle and swine feed supplements at 4.09-9.99 g/ton showed lower antibiotic recovery turbidimetrically (80.6-98.7%) than by the AOAC modified standard as in 38.179(d) (91.2-98.7%) and the plain buffer as in 38.179(b) (93.8-133.0%) methods. Three feeds fortified with a commercial premix at the levels of 5.0 and 10.0 g CTC-HCI/ton showed an overall CTC-HCI recovery of 87.6-110.6% by manual turbidimetric assay. Results were 89.1-108.7% by the AOAC inactivated feed diluent standard and 95.4-125.4% by the plain buffer methods. For some sample extracts (as in cattle feed) the use of heat to stop bacterial growth in the turbidimetric method caused formation of a precipitate. Cooling of cultures to room temperature and rapid reading of sample turbidity followed by standard curve concentrations minimized this interference. The manual turbidimetric assay of low levels of CTC-HCI in feeds appears to offer advantages over other methods. PMID:1141190

  10. Immunosuppressant Effect of Long Term and Subtherapeutic Chlortetracycline in Broiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TONG Jian-ming; ZHANG Ri-jun; SA Ren-na; PAN Shu-yuan; HUANG Yan

    2002-01-01

    Experiments were conducted with 270 Abore Acre male broilers to study the influence of dietary chlortetracycline (CTC) on the bursal, thymus and spleen weight index and T, B cell proliferation and antibody responses of broilers. Results show that 50mg/kg CTC had no significant inhibitory effect on thymus and spleen weight index, and T, B cell proliferation of broilers at 21 days old. 150mg/kg CTC had significant inhibitory effect on bursal, thymus and spleen, and T, B cell proliferation (P<0.05). Dietary CTC had a direct inhibitory effect on lymphocyte proliferation in vitro. 50mg/kg and 150mg/kg CTC had a significant inhibitory effect on the antibody responses to BSA (P<0.01). Results demonstrated that subtherapeutic and long term CTC had significant inhibitory effects on immune organs and antibody response. The immunosuppressant effect became higher when the level of CTC increased. 150mg/kg CTC increased the growth rate of broilers significantly.

  11. Development of a UHPLC-MS/MS method for the measurement of chlortetracycline degradation in swine manure

    Science.gov (United States)

    An ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) method was developed capable of simultaneously measuring chlortetracycline (CTC), epi-chlortetracycline (epi-CTC) and isochlortetracycline (ICTC), as well as other structurally related tetracyclines in swine manur...

  12. Development of aminoglycoside and β-lactamase resistance among intestinal microbiota of swine treated with lincomycin, chlortetracycline, and amoxicillin

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Jian; Liang LI; Liu, Baotao; Xia, Jing; Liao, Xiaoping; Liu, Yahong

    2014-01-01

    Lincomycin, chlortetracycline, and amoxicillin are commonly used antimicrobials for growth promotion and infectious disease prophylaxis in swine production. In this study, we investigated the shifts and resistance development among intestinal microbiota in pregnant sows before and after lincomycin, chlortetracycline, and amoxicillin treatment by using phylogenetic analysis, bacterial enumeration, and PCR. After the antimicrobial treatment, shifts in microbial community, an increased proportio...

  13. Major proteins related to chlortetracycline biosynthesis in a Streptomyces aureofaciens production strain studied by quantitative proteomics

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Li, X.; Novotná, Jana; Vohradský, Jiří; Weiser, Jaroslav

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 55, - (2001), s. -. ISSN 0175-7598 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA204/98/0443 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5020903 Keywords : Streptomyces aureofaciens * chlortetracycline biosynthesis Subject RIV: EB - Genetics ; Molecular Biology Impact factor: 1.754, year: 2001

  14. Use of high-performance liquid chromatography to monitor stability of tetracycline and chlortetracycline in susceptibility determinations.

    OpenAIRE

    A. Ray; Newton, V

    1991-01-01

    Trypticase soy broth and nutrient broth were used in the antimicrobial susceptibility testing of tetracycline and chlortetracycline with Bacillus subtilis. The stability of the antibiotics in both media at an incubation temperature of 37 degrees C was monitored by high-performance liquid chromatography. It was found that Trypticase soy broth has limited application in susceptibility testing for the tetracycline congeners tested and that chlortetracycline is more unstable than tetracycline.

  15. Effect of Dietary Monensin or Chlortetracycline on Methane Production from Cattle Waste

    OpenAIRE

    Varel, V. H.; Hashimoto, A. G.

    1981-01-01

    Wastes from feedlot cattle fed finishing diets containing either monensin, chlortetracycline, or no antibiotic were investigated as substrates for methane production. We used continuously mixed anaerobic fermentors with 3-liter working volumes at 35 and 55°C; these fermentors were fed once per day. Within a few days after waste from animals fed monensin was added, the volume of methane produced began to decrease in the 55°C fermentors. After 9 days of daily feeding, methane production was sev...

  16. Binding of Tetracycline and Chlortetracycline to the Enzyme Trypsin: Spectroscopic and Molecular Modeling Investigations

    OpenAIRE

    Chi, Zhenxing; Liu, Rutao; Yang, Hongxu; Shen, Hengmei; Wang, Jing

    2011-01-01

    Tetracycline (TC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) are common members of the widely used veterinary drug tetracyclines, the residue of which in the environment can enter human body, being potentially harmful. In this study, we establish a new strategy to probe the binding modes of TC and CTC with trypsin based on spectroscopic and computational modeling methods. Both TC and CTC can interact with trypsin with one binding site to form trypsin-TC (CTC) complex, mainly through van der Waals' interacti...

  17. Tetracycline resistance genes persist in soil amended with cattle feces independently from chlortetracycline selection pressure

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselková, Martina; Kotrbová, Lucie; Bhumibhamon, G.; Chroňáková, Alica; Jirout, Jiří; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Schmitt, H.; Elhottová, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 81, February (2015), s. 259-265. ISSN 0038-0717 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/2077; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA MŠk(CZ) ED1.1.00/02.0073 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:67179843 Keywords : antibiotic resistance * cattle feces * chlortetracycline * grassland soil * tetracycline resistance genes * intI1 gene Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology; CE - Biochemistry (UEK-B) Impact factor: 3.932, year: 2014

  18. Degradation and toxicity assessment of sulfamethoxazole and chlortetracycline using electron beam, ozone and UV.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Tae-Hun; Kim, Sang Don; Kim, Hyun Young; Lim, Seung Joo; Lee, Myunjoo; Yu, Seungho

    2012-08-15

    Recently, the occurrence of antibiotics in sewage treatment plant effluent, as well as drinking water, has raised concern about their potential impacts on the environment and public health. Antibiotics are found in surface and ground waters, which indicate their ineffective removal by conventional wastewater treatment processes. Therefore, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have received considerable attention for the removal of antibiotics. This study was conducted to evaluate the degradation and mineralization of antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole and chlortetracycline) using an electron beam, ozone and UV, and the change of toxicity. Also, the electrical energy consumption based on the EE/O parameter (the electrical energy required per order of pollutants removal in 1 m(3) wastewater) was used to quantify the energy cost associated with the different AOPs (electron beam, ozone and UV) for the degradation of antibiotics. The results showed that an electron beam effective for the removals of both sulfamethoxazole and chlortetracycline in aqueous solutions. However, degradation of the target compounds by ozone and UV showed different trends. The oxidation efficiency of each organic compound was very dependent upon the AOP used. Algal toxicity was significantly reduced after each treatment. However, based on the electrical energy, the electron beam was more efficient than ozone and UV. Electron beam treatment could be an effective and safe method for the removal of antibiotic compounds. PMID:22682797

  19. Suppression and control of experimentally induced procine coccidiosis with chlortetracycline combination, buquinolate, and lincomycin hydrochloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Onawunmi, O A; Todd, A C

    1976-06-01

    Weaned pigs were divided into nonmedicated control and medicated principal groups and 3 days later were exposed to infective oocysts comprised of mixed species of swine origin. In separate experiments, a chlortetracycline combination (plus sulfamethazine and penicilin), buquinolate, or lincomycin was administered prophylactically to the principals, starting 3 days before they were exposed to infection, and then was evaluated for efficacy against the experimental exposures. Comparisons between control and principal groups were made on the basis of fecal oocyst counts, fecal consistencies, and body weight gains. On the basis of oocyst counts, both chlortetracycline combination and buquinolate minimized the development of coccidial populations in groups given medicated feed; nonmedicated controls discharged substantial numbers of oocysts. Lincomycin medication was not effective in pigs given 111 mg/kg of feed; it was effective at dose levels of 330 mg/kg of feed and at 22 mg/kg body weight, intramuscularly. Medicated principals always gained more weight on the average than did their infected nonmedicated controls during the experiments. The data on oocyst production support the position that the 3 compounds can function as coccidiostats in swine. PMID:937785

  20. Physiological and molecular responses of the earthworm (Eisenia fetida) to soil chlortetracycline contamination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aims to evaluate toxic effects of exposure to chlortetracycline (CTC) in soil on reproductive endpoints (juvenile counts and cocoon counts), biochemical responses, and genotoxic potentials of the earthworm Eisenia fetida. Results showed that juvenile counts and cocoon counts of the tested earthworms were reduced after exposure to CTC. The effective concentrations (EC50 values) for juvenile and cocoon counts were 96.1 and 120.3 mg/kg, respectively. Treatment of earthworms with CTC significantly changed the activity of catalase (CAT), superoxide dismutase (SOD) and glutathione S-transferase (GST). An increase in malondialdehyde (MDA) indicated that CTC could cause cellular lipid peroxidation in the tested earthworms. The percentage of DNA in the tail of single-cell gel electrophoresis of coelomocytes as an indication of DNA damage increased after treatment with different doses of CTC, and a dose-dependent DNA damage of coelomocytes was found. In conclusion, CTC induces physiological responses and genotoxicity on earthworms. - Highlights: ► Reproductive endpoints were assessed for Eisenia fetida exposed to chlortectracyline (CTC). ► CTC may induce physiological and molecular responses in E. fetida. ► A clear relationship was observed between CTC doses and DNA damage of coelomocytes. - Chlortetracycline in soil could induce physiological responses and genotoxicity on earthworms at realistic environmental concentrations.

  1. Management of Antibiotic Residues from Agricultural Sources: Use of Composting to Reduce Chlortetracycline Residues in Beef Manure from Treated Animals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlortetracycline (CTC) is one of only ten antibiotics licensed in the U.S.A. for use as a growth promoter for livestock. The widespread use of CTC may contribute to development of antibiotic-resistant bacteria. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of composting on the fate of C...

  2. Quantification of bioavailable chlortetracycline in pig feces using a bacterial whole-cell biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L. H.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Sørensen, S. J.

    2002-01-01

    Bacterial whole-cell biosensors were used to measure the concentration of chlortetracycline (CTC) in the feces of pigs. In this study, the Escherichia coli biosensor used has a detection limit of 0.03 mg/kg CTC in pig feces. The tetracycline concentration was correlated with the appearance and...... maintenance of fecal coliform bacteria resistant to tetracycline. Initially, large quantities of water-extractable CTC were excreted from the pigs and measurable amounts were detected even at 30 days after treatment cessation. This led to a sharp rise in the number of tetracycline resistant coliform bacteria...... in the feces, to within the same order of magnitude as the total coliform count. The high level of tetracycline resistance was maintained in spite of the declining concentration of tetracycline. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  3. Degradation and toxicity assessment of sulfamethoxazole and chlortetracycline using electron beam, ozone and UV

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Tae-Hun [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Sang Don; Kim, Hyun Young [Department of Environmental Science and Engineering, Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology (GIST), 1 Oryong-dong, Buk-gu, Gwangju 500-712 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Seung Joo; Lee, Myunjoo [Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of); Yu, Seungho, E-mail: seunghoyu68@gmail.com [Research Division for Industry and Environment, Korea Atomic Energy Research Institute, Jeongeup, Jeonbuk 580-185 (Korea, Republic of)

    2012-08-15

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The degradation efficiency and trends for antibiotics were different between AOPs. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The toxicities of target antibiotics were mainly affected by parent compounds. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer E-beam was electrically more energy efficient than ozone and UV-C. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Application of AOPs should be considered according to the types of pharmaceuticals. - Abstract: Recently, the occurrence of antibiotics in sewage treatment plant effluent, as well as drinking water, has raised concern about their potential impacts on the environment and public health. Antibiotics are found in surface and ground waters, which indicate their ineffective removal by conventional wastewater treatment processes. Therefore, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have received considerable attention for the removal of antibiotics. This study was conducted to evaluate the degradation and mineralization of antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole and chlortetracycline) using an electron beam, ozone and UV, and the change of toxicity. Also, the electrical energy consumption based on the EE/O parameter (the electrical energy required per order of pollutants removal in 1 m{sup 3} wastewater) was used to quantify the energy cost associated with the different AOPs (electron beam, ozone and UV) for the degradation of antibiotics. The results showed that an electron beam effective for the removals of both sulfamethoxazole and chlortetracycline in aqueous solutions. However, degradation of the target compounds by ozone and UV showed different trends. The oxidation efficiency of each organic compound was very dependent upon the AOP used. Algal toxicity was significantly reduced after each treatment. However, based on the electrical energy, the electron beam was more efficient than ozone and UV. Electron beam treatment could be an effective and safe method for the removal of antibiotic compounds.

  4. Degradation and toxicity assessment of sulfamethoxazole and chlortetracycline using electron beam, ozone and UV

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The degradation efficiency and trends for antibiotics were different between AOPs. ► The toxicities of target antibiotics were mainly affected by parent compounds. ► E-beam was electrically more energy efficient than ozone and UV-C. ► Application of AOPs should be considered according to the types of pharmaceuticals. - Abstract: Recently, the occurrence of antibiotics in sewage treatment plant effluent, as well as drinking water, has raised concern about their potential impacts on the environment and public health. Antibiotics are found in surface and ground waters, which indicate their ineffective removal by conventional wastewater treatment processes. Therefore, advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) have received considerable attention for the removal of antibiotics. This study was conducted to evaluate the degradation and mineralization of antibiotics (sulfamethoxazole and chlortetracycline) using an electron beam, ozone and UV, and the change of toxicity. Also, the electrical energy consumption based on the EE/O parameter (the electrical energy required per order of pollutants removal in 1 m3 wastewater) was used to quantify the energy cost associated with the different AOPs (electron beam, ozone and UV) for the degradation of antibiotics. The results showed that an electron beam effective for the removals of both sulfamethoxazole and chlortetracycline in aqueous solutions. However, degradation of the target compounds by ozone and UV showed different trends. The oxidation efficiency of each organic compound was very dependent upon the AOP used. Algal toxicity was significantly reduced after each treatment. However, based on the electrical energy, the electron beam was more efficient than ozone and UV. Electron beam treatment could be an effective and safe method for the removal of antibiotic compounds.

  5. Changes in the prevalence of resistant Escherichia coli in cattle receiving subcutaneously injectable oxytetracycline in addition to in-feed chlortetracycline compared with cattle receiving only in-feed chlortetracycline

    OpenAIRE

    O'Connor, A. M.; Poppe, C.; McEwen, S A

    2002-01-01

    Information about the prevalence of antibiotic resistance in commensal enteric bacteria is of interest because these bacteria are potential indicators of selection pressure on enteric bacteria and represent a reservoir of resistance genes in potentially pathogenic bacteria. This study reports changes in the prevalence of resistance to antibiotics in commensal Escherichia coli from cattle receiving either subcutaneously injectable oxytetracycline in addition to in-feed chlortetracycline or onl...

  6. Toxic effects of chlortetracycline on maize growth, reactive oxygen species generation and the antioxidant response

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Bei Wen; Yu Liu; Peng Wang; Tong Wu; Shuzhen Zhang; Xiaoquan Shan; Jingfen Lu

    2012-01-01

    The toxicity of chlortetracycline (CTC) on maize (Zea mays L.) growth and reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation was studied.The root and shoot lengths and fresh weights of maize seedlings were inhibited by CTC treatment (p < 0.05).Root length was more sensitive than other parameters with the EC10 value of 0.064 mg/L.The spin trapping technique followed by electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) analysis was used to quantify the ROS production.The ROS generated in maize roots after exposure to CTC was identified as hydroxyl radical (-OH).The EPR signal intensity correlated positively with the logarithm of CTC concentrations exposed (p < 0.05).The dynamic changes of malondialdehyde (MDA) contents and the antioxidative enzyme activities in maize roots were also determined.As compared to the control group,CTC was found to significantly increase MDA content.Treatment of maize roots with the ·OH scavenger sodium benzoate (SB) reduced the MDA content and enhanced the antioxidative enzyme activities.The results demonstrated the harmfulness of CTC at high dose to maize in the early developmental stage,and clarified that the inducement of ·OH is one of the mechanisms of CTC toxicity.

  7. Online prediction for contamination of chlortetracycline fermentation based on Dezert-Smarandache theory

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jianwen Yang; Xiangguang Chen; Huaiping Jin

    2015-01-01

    Fermentative production of chlortetracycline is a complex fed-batch bioprocess. It generally takes over 90 h for cultivation and is often contaminated by undesired microorganisms. Once the fermentation system is contami-nated to certain extent, the product quality and yield wil be seriously affected, leading to a substantial economic loss. Using information fusion based on the Dezer–Smarandache theory, self-recursive wavelet neural network and unscented kalman filter, a novel method for online prediction of contamination is developed. Al state vari-ables of culture process involving easy-to-measure and difficult-to-measure variables commonly obtained with soft-sensors present their contamination symptoms. By extracting and fusing latent information from the chang-ing trend of each variable, integral and accurate prediction results for contamination can be achieved. This makes preventive and corrective measures be taken promptly. The field experimental results show that the method can be used to detect the contamination in time, reducing production loss and enhancing economic efficiency.

  8. Determination of oxytetracycline, tetracycline and chlortetracycline in beef meat by HPLC-DAD detector in Albania

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ALMA EMIRI

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available A study was conducted from June 2012 to May 2013 to estimate the proportion of tetracycline residue levels in beef at main slaughterhouses in Tirana, capital of Albania. A total of 37 beef muscle samples were randomly collected from slaughtered beef in the slaughterhouses. The samples were analyzed by using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC, with Photo Diode Array detector (DAD. The detection limit of the method was calculated to be 25 μg/kg and the limit of quantitation was found to be 50 μg/kg. The recoveries of oxytetracycline (OTC, tetracycline (TC and chlortetracycline (CTC from spiked samples at three fortification levels were higher than 78% for all drugs. From 37 beef meat samples collected from different slaughterhouses of Tirana, only 4 samples showed detectable concentration of OTC residues but were lower than the maximum residue limits (MRLs according to Commission Regulation (EU No 37/2010. TC and CTC were absent in all samples. These levels were not able to induce risks to human health. However other studies are necessary to evaluate other drug residues in beef samples and to evaluate the hazards of these residues in relation with daily intakes and other related factors.

  9. Microbiological plate and turbidimetric assays of chlortetracycline in feeds: collaborative study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ragheb, H S

    1977-09-01

    The manual and automated turbidimetric assays and a modified official plate assay for chlortetracycline (CTC-HCl) in feed were collaboratively studied. Three feed samples (swine feed, 100 g CTC-HCl/ton; premix I, 20 g each of CTC-HCl and sulfamethazine/lb, and 10 g penicillin/lb; and premix II, 50 g CTC-HCl/lb) were analyzed at 2 dilutions. Twelve laboratories conducted the plate assay; 8 laboratories the manual turbidimetric method; and 7 laboratories, the Autoturb analysis. Within a method, there was no significant difference between dilutions. Between methods, there was a significant difference between the manual turbidimetric plate assays only for swine feed. However, the same sample dilutions or the average values of the 2 dilutions for both methods showed no statistical difference. Among the collaborators, the slope of CTC-HCl standard curve varied between about 2.0 and 3.0 for the plate method. The turbidimetric assay has been adopted as official first action for feeds containing larger than or equal to 20 g CTC-HCl/lb. PMID:330490

  10. Removal of chlortetracycline from spiked municipal wastewater using a photoelectrocatalytic process operated under sunlight irradiations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Daghrir, Rimeh, E-mail: rimeh.daghrir@ete.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement, 490 rue de la Couronne, Québec, Qc G1K 9A9 (Canada); Drogui, Patrick, E-mail: patrick.drogui@ete.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement, 490 rue de la Couronne, Québec, Qc G1K 9A9 (Canada); Delegan, Nazar, E-mail: delegan@emt.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650 Blvd. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Qc J3X 1S2 (Canada); El Khakani, My Ali, E-mail: elkhakani@emt.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, INRS-Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650 Blvd. Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Qc J3X 1S2 (Canada)

    2014-01-01

    The degradation of chlortetracycline in synthetic solution and in municipal effluent was investigated using a photoelectrocatalytic oxidation process under visible irradiation. The N-doped TiO{sub 2} used as photoanode with 3.4 at.% of nitrogen content was prepared by means of a radiofrequency magnetron sputtering (RF-MS) process. Under visible irradiation, higher photoelectrocatalytic removal efficiency of CTC was recorded using N-doped TiO{sub 2} compared to the conventional electrochemical oxidation, direct photolysis and photocatalysis processes. The photoelectrocatalytic process operated at 0.6 A of current intensity during 180 min of treatment time promotes the degradation of 99.1 ± 0.1% of CTC. Under these conditions, removal rates of 85.4 ± 3.6%, 87.4 ± 3.1% and 55.7 ± 2.9% of TOC, TN and NH{sub 4}{sup +} have been recorded. During the treatment, CTC was mainly transformed into CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O. The process was also found to be effective in removing indicator of pathogens such as fecal coliform (log-inactivation was higher than 1.2 units). - Highlights: •PECO process is a feasible technology for the treatment of MWW contaminated by CTC. •99.1% ± 0.1% of CTC was degraded by PECO using N-doped TiO{sub 2}. •85.4% ± 3.6% of TOC removal and 97.5% ± 1.2% of COD removal were achieved. •87.4% ± 3.1% of TN removal and 55.7% ± 2.9% of NH{sub 4}{sup +} removal were recorded. •More than 94% of fecal coliform was removed (abatement > 1.2-log units)

  11. Alteration of the ileal microbiota of weanling piglets by the growth-promoting antibiotic chlortetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rettedal, Elizabeth; Vilain, Sébastien; Lindblom, Stacy; Lehnert, Kelly; Scofield, Clay; George, Sajan; Clay, Sharon; Kaushik, Radhey S; Rosa, Artur J M; Francis, David; Brözel, Volker S

    2009-09-01

    Antibiotics such as chlortetracycline (CTC) have been used to promote growth of pigs for decades, but concerns over increased antibiotic-resistant infections in humans have prompted the development of alternative strategies. Developing alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) could be informed by information on the mechanisms of growth promotion, notably, how AGPs affect the microbial populations of the gastrointestinal tract. Pigs from three sows were aseptically delivered by cesarean section. Six piglets were distributed to each of two foster mothers until weaning, when piglets were fed a diet with or without 50 mg/kg CTC for 2 weeks. The ileal bacterial microbiota was characterized by using a cultivation-independent approach based on DNA extraction, PCR amplification, cloning, and sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene pool. The ileal and mucosal communities of these growing pigs were dominated by Lactobacillus bacteria, various members of the family Clostridiaceae, and members of the poorly known genus Turicibacter. Overall, CTC treatment resulted in three shifts: a decrease in Lactobacillus johnsonii, an increase in L. amylovorus, and a decrease in Turicibacter phylotypes. The composition of the microbiota varied considerably between individual pigs, as revealed by shared operational taxonomic units (OTUs) and similarity (SONS) analysis (theta(YC) values). While the observed variation between untreated pigs obscured the possible effect of CTC, integral-LIBSHUFF and SONS analyses of pooled libraries indicated a significant shift due to CTC in both the lumen and the mucosa, with some OTUs unique to either treated or control ileum. DOTUR analysis revealed little overlap between control and treated communities at the 3% difference level, indicating unique ileal communities in the presence of CTC. PMID:19617391

  12. Determination of oxytetracycline, tetracycline, and chlortetracycline in milk by liquid chromatography with postcolumn derivatization and fluorescence detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, A L; Lino, C M; Silveira, I N

    1999-01-01

    A multiresidue method for isolation and liquid chromatographic determination of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC), and chlortetracycline (CTC) in milk is presented. The sensitivity of the method is adequate to meet the needs of regulatory agencies. The European Community established 100 micrograms/kg as the maximum residue limit (MRL) in milk for TC, CTC, and OTC. Recoveries exceeded 80% for all tetracyclines at all levels, with good precision. Correlation coefficients of standards curves for individual tetracyclines isolated from fortified samples ranged from 0.991 for CTC to 0.998 for OTC. Other antibiotics that might interfere with analysis did not interfere with elution times of OTC, TC, and CTC. The procedure is rapid, precise, and quantitative and requires minimal preparation and minimal use of organic solvents. It can be applied to routine surveillance programs. We can prepare 10 samples for analysis in about 1.45 h. PMID:10028670

  13. Untersuchung der Sensitivität von Chlamydien-Isolaten unter Verwendung verschiedener antibakterieller Wirkstoffe (Chlortetracyclin, Doxycyclin, Enrofloxacin, Difloxacin, Clarithromycin und Erythromycin)

    OpenAIRE

    Blanco Peña, Kinndle Marta

    2007-01-01

    Nach der Literaturübersicht wird die Methode zur Bestimmung der Antibiotikumempfindlichkeit von 27 Chlamydophila psittaci-Isolaten gegen Chlortetracyclin (CTC), Doxycyclin, Enrofloxacin, Difloxacin, Clarithromycin und Erythromycin - minimale Hemmkonzentration (MHK) - aufgeführt. Die MHK wird als die niedrigste Konzentration einer Substanz angesehen, die eben die Bildung reifer zytoplasmatischer Chlamydophila psittaci-Einschlüsse (infektiöse Partikel) verhindert. Als resistent werden Chlamydie...

  14. A survey of chlortetracycline concentration in feed and its residue in chicken egg in commercial layer farms

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    K Kodimalar; R A Rajini; S Ezhivalavan; G Sarathchandra

    2014-06-01

    The worldwide increase in the use of antibiotics as an integral part of poultry and livestock production industry has recently received increasing attention as a contributory factor in the international emergence of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in human beings. To gauge the presence of the aforementioned scenario in the Indian context, a preliminary survey was conducted to assess the use of chlortetracycline (CTC) in 12 commercial layer farms and to quantify and confirm its residue in the egg. Samples of feed and eggs were collected at day 0 (prior to CTC addition), 3rd, 5th and 7th day during treatment and on the 9th and 14th day (2nd and 7th day after withdrawal of CTC) from each of the 12 commercial poultry farms studied. Concentration of CTC in feed was significantly ( < 0.01) high on the 3rd, 5th and 7th day. On the 9th day and 14th day CTC concentration in feed was significantly ( <0.01) lower compared to the earlier 3 days studied. A highly significant difference ( <0.01) of the antibiotic residue in egg was observed in all the 5 days with high residual levels of CTC in egg. CTC in feed and its residue in egg were detected even on the 9th and 14th day respectively.

  15. Photoelectrocatalytic oxidation of chlortetracycline using Ti/TiO2 photo-anode with simultaneous H2O2 production

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► The TiO2 coatings were found to be of rutile and anatase nanostructured morphology. ► The PECO process applied under optimal conditions oxidized 98.0 ± 0.2% of CTC. ► TOC concentration could be optimally diminished up to 67.3 ± 2.15%. ► The degradation rate follows the L–H kinetic with a rate of 6 × 10−4 L mg−1 min−1. ► Biotests revealed that treated effluent was not toxic versus untreated effluent. - Abstract: This study investigated the photoelectrocatalytic oxidation (PECO) of chlortetracycline (CTC) in aqueous solution using a Ti/TiO2 photocatalyst. The Ti/TiO2 used as photo-anode was prepared by a pulsed laser deposition (PLD) method. The PLD TiO2 coatings were found to have rutile and anatase structures consisting of nano-crystallites of approximately 10 nm and 15 nm in diameter, respectively. The influence of various parameters such as crystallographic structure of Ti/TiO2, cathode material and pH were evaluated. Experimental results revealed that a current intensity of 0.39 A under UV irradiation (245 nm) for a period of treatment of 120 min was beneficial for CTC oxidation. The initial CTC concentration (25 μg/L) could be optimally diminished up to 98.0 ± 0.2% while using a Ti/TiO2 photo-anode having a crystallographic structure of anatase and using vitreous carbon as cathode. Under these conditions, a relatively high mineralization of CTC (67.3 ± 2.15% of TOC removal and 69.3 ± 3.10% of TN removal) was recorded. The initial rate of photoelectrocatalytic degradation of CTC can be well described by the Langmuir–Hinshelwood (L–H) kinetic model (R2 = 0.9996) with a reaction rate constant of 17.3 μg/L min. Likewise, microtox (Vibrio fisheri), microalga (Pseudokirchneriella Subcapitata) and Daphnia (Daphnia magna) biotests revealed that the treated – effluent was not toxic compared to the untreated effluent.

  16. Effects of Chlortetracycline and 4-epi-chlortetracycline on the Growth of Rape and Its Accumulation in Seedling%金霉素和4-差向金霉素对油菜生长的影响及其在幼苗体内的积累

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    魏瑞成; 邵明诚; 陈明; 王冉

    2012-01-01

    以油菜为材料,研究不同浓度金霉素(chlortetracycline,CTC)和代谢物差向金霉素(4-epi-chlortetracycline,ECTC)胁迫对其发芽、生长和抗氧化酶活性的影响,以及CTC和ECTC在幼苗体内的积累.结果表明:随着处理浓度的升高,种子发芽率、发芽势没有显著差异,但株高和根长受到明显抑制;在1~30 mg·L-1处理浓度下,CTC和ECTC诱导的幼苗体内抗氧化酶SOD、POD、CAT活性均高于对照组;幼苗体内CTC、ECTC积累含量随着处理浓度的升高而增加,表明CTC和ECTC可在油菜幼苗体内积累,这可能产生潜在食品安全风险.%Effects of different concentrations of chlortetracycline (CTC ) and 4-epi-chlortetracycline(ECTC) on the growth and the activities of antioxidant enzymes in rape and the accumulation of CTC and ECTC in seedlings were studied by using water culture method. The results showed that seedling height and root length significantly reduced, compared to the control, and the root elongation could be recommended as a sensitive indicator to assess crops eco-toxicity of CTC and ECTC. The activities of antioxidant enzymes as superoxide dismutase(SOD), peroxidase(POD) and catalase(CAT) induced by CTC and ECTC at concentration ranges of l~30 mg·L‐1 were higher than the control. When rape seedling was stressed by 1 mg · L‐1 and 10 mg · L‐1 of CTC and ECTC, the activities of SOD and POD were enhanced, but declined by 30 mg·L‐1. SOD, POD removed oxygen free radical in coordination with CAT at concentration levels of 1 mg·L‐1 and 10 mg·L‐1 of CTC and ECTC. However, at a concentration of 30 mg · L‐1, CTC and ECTC would cause certain oxidative damage on rape seedling. The difference of antioxidant enzyme system suggested that ability of rape seedling anti-CTC stress was stronger than anti-ECTC. With the concentration of CTC and ECTC increased, the contents of them accumulated in seedlings were increased, which could result in a potential food safety

  17. Complexação da tetraciclina, da oxitetraciclina e da clortetraciclina com o catião cobre (II). Estudo potenciométrico Tetracycline, oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline complexation with copper (II). Potentiometric study

    OpenAIRE

    Couto, Cristina M. C. M.; M. Conceição B. S. M. Montenegro; Salette Reis

    2000-01-01

    Stability constants of complexes formed by copper (II) with three different tetracyclines (tetracycline, oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline) have been determined potentiometrically with an automatic system in aqueous medium at 25,0 ± 0,2 ºC and I = 0,1 mol L-1 NaNO3. The protonation constants of the three tetracyclines were also determined under the same conditions. The distribution of the complexes was then simulated at therapeutic levels of the drugs.

  18. Complexação da tetraciclina, da oxitetraciclina e da clortetraciclina com o catião cobre (II. Estudo potenciométrico Tetracycline, oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline complexation with copper (II. Potentiometric study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristina M. C. M. Couto

    2000-08-01

    Full Text Available Stability constants of complexes formed by copper (II with three different tetracyclines (tetracycline, oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline have been determined potentiometrically with an automatic system in aqueous medium at 25,0 ± 0,2 ºC and I = 0,1 mol L-1 NaNO3. The protonation constants of the three tetracyclines were also determined under the same conditions. The distribution of the complexes was then simulated at therapeutic levels of the drugs.

  19. 动物性食品中土霉素、金霉素和四环素检测方法研究进展%Development of Detection Methods of Oxytetracycline, Chlortetracycline and Tetracycline in Animal Derived Foods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨琳

    2012-01-01

      Tetracycline is a kind of broad-spectrum antibiotic. It has a good bactericidal effect which often used as a feed additive in animal husbandry and aquaculture. The common tetracyclines are Oxytetracycline,Chlortetracycline,and Tetracycline. In recent years, some lawless persons abuse these kinds of drugs for economic benefit resulting in large residual of oxytetracycline,chlortetracycline, tetracycline in animal foods,which impact on public health seriously. The detection methods of oxytetracycline,Chlortetracycline,and Tetracycline in animal foods are mainly high performance liquid chromatography,capillary electrophoresis method,immunology and microbiology methods,and the high performance liquid chromatography is the most widely used.%  四环素类药物是一类广谱抗菌素,有良好的杀菌抑菌作用,经常作为饲料添加剂用于畜牧及水产养殖中,常见的四环素类药物包括土霉素、金霉素、四环素。近年来,一些不法分子为了经济效益,常滥用这类药物,导致动物性食品中土霉素、金霉素、四环素大量残留,严重影响公众健康。动物性食品中土霉素、金霉素、四环素的检测方法主要有高效液相色谱法、免疫学方法、毛细管电泳法和微生物学方法,其中高效液相色谱法应用最广。

  20. Meta-analysis of the effects of laidlomycin propionate, fed alone or in combination with chlortetracycline, compared with monensin sodium, fed alone or in combination with tylosin, on growth performance, health, and carcass outcomes in finishing steers in North America.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cernicchiaro, N; Corbin, M; Quinn, M; Prouty, F; Branine, M; Renter, D G

    2016-04-01

    The objective of this research was to use data from multiple studies to comprehensively quantify the effects of feeding 1) laidlomycin propionate (LP), alone and/or in combination with chlortetracycline, compared with 2) monensin sodium (MS), alone and/or in combination with tylosin, at commercially approved dosages, on ADG, DMI, feed efficiency (FE), mortality, and carcass characteristics (HCW and liver abscesses). A secondary objective was to explore potential sources of heterogeneity among the comparative effectiveness studies. A systematic review of peer-reviewed literature and industry reports was used to identify studies that included direct comparisons of these treatments in finishing steers in North America. Random-effects meta-analysis models of performance, carcass, and health-related outcomes were fitted with extracted data, consisting of a total of 17 data sets comprising a total of 135 pens and 13,603 steers. Results showed that pens of steers fed LP had increased ADG (live and carcass adjusted), DMI, and HCW compared with those fed monensin ( 0.05) were identified for FE or for health-related outcomes (overall and cause-specific mortality). There was a substantial amount of heterogeneity in outcomes among studies, and when pen size and type of production setting were included in mixed-effects meta-regression models, they accounted for only a small proportion of the between-study heterogeneity found in the meta-analysis models. Therefore, caution should be exercised when interpreting summary estimates in the presence of substantial heterogeneity. However, these results provide comprehensive information on the comparative effects of different ionophores across multiple studies and multiple years, states, and production settings. These unique results can enable quantitative and informed decisions by potential end users of these feed additives that are widely used in the U.S. beef industry for reducing the costs of beef production through enhanced cattle

  1. Otimização e validação de método para determinação de resíduos de oxitetraciclina, tetraciclina e clortetraciclina em leite por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência Optimization and validation of a method for determination of oxytetracycline, tetracycline and chlortetracycline residues in milk by high performance liquid chromatography

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iara C. A. Ruela

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Um método para determinação de resíduos de oxitetraciclina, tetraciclina e clortetraciclina em leite por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência foi otimizado e validado. Ensaios intralaboratoriais empregando soluções padrão, brancos de amostras e amostras adicionadas de soluções padrão dos antimicrobianos foram realizados para avaliação da linearidade, seletividade, exatidão, precisão, limites de detecção e de quantificação do método. As amostras foram homogeneizadas, tratadas com solução tampão de succinato de sódio pH 4,0 e centrifugadas, descartando-se o precipitado. As tetraciclinas foram removidas do sobrenadante por quelação com íons cobre reversivelmente ligados à resina quelante e eluídas com tampão McIlvaine-EDTA pH 4,0. As médias de recuperação para as tetraciclinas foram de 76,2 a 104,9% com coeficiente de variação na faixa de 1,4 a 18,9%. Limites de detecção de 10, 15 e 40ng/mL e limites de quantificação de 10, 20 e 50ng/mL foram determinados para oxitetraciclina, tetraciclina e clortetraciclina, respectivamente.A method for determination of oxytetracycline, tetracycline and chlortetracycline residues in milk by high performance liquid chromatography was optimized and validated. Linearity, selectivity, trueness, precision, limits of detection and quantitation were evaluated by in-house validation procedures employing reference materials, sample blanks and spiked samples. Milk samples were homogenized, treated with sodium succinate pH 4.0 buffer and centrifuged, discarding the precipitate. Tetracyclines were removed from the supernatant by chelating with metal ions bound to a chelating resin and eluted with McIlvaine-EDTA pH 4.0 buffer. Mean recoveries for tetracyclines ranged from 76.2 to 104.9% with coefficients of variation from 1.4 to 18.9%. Detection limits of 10, 15 and 40ng/mL and quantitation limits of 10, 20 and 50ng/mL were determined for oxytetracycline, tetracycline and

  2. Reduction of chlortetracycline residues in manure from therapeutically-treated beef calves

    Science.gov (United States)

    The heavily-used antibacterials, triclosan (TCS) and triclocarban (TCC) are common contaminants of biosolids that are accumulated and adsorbed into waste-water treatment plants. These compounds are highly persistent because they present high octanol-water partitioning coefficients (log10 Kow of 4.9...

  3. Quantification of bioavailable chlortetracycline in pig feces using a bacterial whole-cell biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L. H.; Aarestrup, Frank Møller; Sørensen, S. J.

    2002-01-01

    maintenance of fecal coliform bacteria resistant to tetracycline. Initially, large quantities of water-extractable CTC were excreted from the pigs and measurable amounts were detected even at 30 days after treatment cessation. This led to a sharp rise in the number of tetracycline resistant coliform bacteria...... in the feces, to within the same order of magnitude as the total coliform count. The high level of tetracycline resistance was maintained in spite of the declining concentration of tetracycline. (C) 2002 Elsevier Science B.V. All rights reserved....

  4. Quantification of bioavailable chlortetracycline in pig feces using a bacterial whole-cell biosensor

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Aarestrup, Frank; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2002-01-01

    maintenance of fecal coliform bacteria resistant to tetracycline. Initially, large quantities of water-extractable CTC were excreted from the pigs and measurable amounts were detected even at 30 days after treatment cessation. This led to a sharp rise in the number of tetracycline resistant coliform bacteria...... in the feces, to within the same order of magnitude as the total coliform count. The high level of tetracycline resistance was maintained in spite of the declining concentration of tetracycline....

  5. 75 FR 9334 - New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds; Chlortetracycline

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-02

    ... HUMAN SERVICES Food and Drug Administration 21 CFR Part 558 New Animal Drugs for Use in Animal Feeds... Administration (FDA) is amending the animal drug regulations to reflect approval of a supplemental new animal... CFR Part 558 Animal drugs, animal feeds. 0 Therefore, under the Federal Food, Drug, and Cosmetic...

  6. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO CHLORTETRACYCLINE AND NON-ATOPIC ASTHMA IN CHILDREN LIVING ON FARMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Many studies have reported lower prevalence of childhood asthma and atopy in farming populations relative to urban. The Keokuk County Rural Health Study, a 20-year longitudinal prospective cohort study of the chronic effects of farming on health in 1,004 families from a completel...

  7. Dissipation and effects of chlortetracycline and tylosin in two agricultural soils: A field-scale study in southern Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Sørensen, Bent; Jacobsen, Anne-Marie; Jensen, John;

    2005-01-01

    -1/2 for CTC was 25 d (20-34) and 34 d (28-42) in fields A and B, respectively, and T-1/2 for TYL A was 67 d (54-86) and 49 d (40-64) in fields A and B, respectively. No significant difference was determined between compound half-lives on the two fields. The level of aerobic antibiotic...... classified as a sandy loam soil (field A) and a sandy soil (field 13) and each field was sampled on six occasions during the 155-d experimental period from May to October 2000 for chemical analysis and counts of colony-forming units (CFU) detecting the level of aerobic bacteria surviving antibiotic exposure...

  8. 测定猪肉中土霉素及金霉素残留的HPLC法建立%Determination of residues of oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline in pork by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    智若岚; 刘中成; 李广兴; 张瑞莉

    2011-01-01

    To establish an HPLC method for determination of oxytetracycline and chlorotetracyc line in pork. According to the national detective standard, 5% perchloric acid (50 mL) was adopted as sample extract, acetonitrile+0.01 mol·L-1 sodium dihydrogen phosphate as mobile phase and 355 nm as detection wavelength. In this condition, the result showed that the standard substances concentration of oxytetracycline and chlorotetracycline linear correlation good to extent 0.1-1.0 μg ? mL-1 and 0.2-2.0 ug ? mL-1 on this chromatographic column condition, oxytetracycline: different concentration average recoveries were feom 78.06% to 87.21%, and RSD was 3.02%-7.72%. Chloroteracycline: different concentra- tion average recoveries was 76.45%-85.62% and RSD was 3.46% - 6.32%. The lowest detectable limits of oxytetracycline and chlorotetracycline were 20 and 10 ug·kg-1. The results indicated that the method presented was of convenience, simpleness, quickness and high sensitivity. And the method was applicable to proof quantitative analysis of oxytetracycline and chlorotetracycline residue.%文章建立了测定猪肉组织中土霉素及金霉素残留量的HPLC法.该方法按照国家检测标准采用了5%高氯酸50 mL为样品提取液;乙腈+0.01 mol·L-1磷酸二氢钠溶液(用30%硝酸调节pH2.5)=35:65为流动相;检测波长为355nm,进行测定.在此色谱条件下,土霉素、金霉素标准品浓度在0.1~1.0 μg· mL-1、0.2~2.0μg·mL-1范围内线性关系良好,在3个不同浓度添加水平的回收率为78.06%~87.21%,变异系数为3.02%~7.72%,金霉素的回收率为76.45%~85.62%,变异系数为3.46%~6.32%.土霉素及金霉素的最低检测线为20和10 μg·kg-1.该检测方法简便、快速且灵敏度高,适用于土霉素、金霉素残留的定性定量分析.

  9. 21 CFR 558.305 - Laidlomycin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... calves. Do not use in calves to be processed for veal. 046573 (3) 5 Chlortetracycline 350 mg/head/day For... processed for veal. 046573 (4) 5 to 10 For improved feed efficiency. Feed continuously in a Type C feed at a... processed for veal. 046573 (6) 5 to 10 Chlortetracycline 350 mg/head/day For improved feed efficiency;...

  10. HILIC separation mechanisms of tetracyclines on amino bonded silica column

    Science.gov (United States)

    Effects of mobile phase variations on the chromatographic separation on amino bonded silica column in hydrophilic interaction chromatography (HILIC) were investigated for four zwitterionic tetracyclines (TCs): oxytetracycline, doxycycline, chlortetracycline and tetracycline. A mixed-mode retention m...

  11. Multi-class determination and confirmation of antibiotic residues in honey using LC-MS/MS

    Science.gov (United States)

    A multi-class method was developed for the determination and confirmation in honey of tetracyclines (chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline), fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, difloxacin, enrofloxacin, and sarafloxacin), macrolides (tylosin), lincosamides (lin...

  12. Toxicity of tetracyclines and tetracycline degradation products to environmentally relevant bacteria, including selected tetracycline-resistant bacteria

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Halling-Sørensen, B.; Sengeløv, G.; Tjørnelund, J.

    2002-01-01

    Tetracyclines used in veterinary therapy invariably will find their way as parent compound and degradation products to the agricultural field. Major degradation products formed due to the limited stability of parent tetracyclines (tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline) in aqueous...... same concentration level as tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline on both the sludge and the tetracycline-sensitive soil bacteria. Further, both 5a,6-anhydrotetracychne and 5a,6-anhydrochlortetracycline had potency on tetracycline-resistant bacteria supporting a mode of action different...

  13. Elimination patterns of worldwide used sulfonamides and tetracyclines during anaerobic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spielmeyer, Astrid; Breier, Bettina; Groißmeier, Kathrin; Hamscher, Gerd

    2015-10-01

    Antibiotics such as sulfonamides and tetracyclines are frequently used in veterinary medicine. Due to incomplete absorption in the animal gut and/or unmetabolized excretion, the substances can enter the environment by using manure as soil fertilizer. The anaerobic fermentation process of biogas plants is discussed as potential sink for antibiotic compounds. However, negative impacts of antibiotics on the fermentation process are suspected. The elimination of sulfadiazine, sulfamethazine, tetracycline and chlortetracycline in semi-continuous lab-scale fermenters was investigated. Both biogas production and methane yield were not negatively affected by concentrations up to 38 mg per kg for sulfonamides and 7 mg per kg for tetracyclines. All substances were partly eliminated with elimination rates between 14% and 89%. Both matrix and structure of the target molecule influenced the elimination rate. Chlortetracycline was mainly transformed into iso-chlortetracycline. In all other cases, the elimination pathways remained undiscovered; however, sorption processes seem to have a negligible impact. PMID:26142997

  14. 21 CFR 556.720 - Tetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Tetracycline. 556.720 Section 556.720 Food and... Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.720 Tetracycline. (a) Acceptable daily intake (ADI). The ADI for total tetracycline residues (chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline) is 25 micrograms per kilogram...

  15. Construction of an extended range whole-cell tetracycline biosensor by use of the tet(M) resistance gene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bahl, Martin Iain; Hansen, Lars Hestbjerg; Sørensen, Søren Johannes

    2005-01-01

    protein gene. Tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline and minocycline all effectively induced the resulting Escherichia coli MC4100/pTGM biosensor and similar dose-response characteristics were recorded by flow cytometry for all four compounds. The novel tetracycline biosensor was responsive to...

  16. 21 CFR 556.500 - Oxytetracycline.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Oxytetracycline. 556.500 Section 556.500 Food and... Residues of New Animal Drugs § 556.500 Oxytetracycline. (a) Acceptable daily intake (ADI). The ADI for total tetracycline residues (chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline) is 25 micrograms...

  17. 21 CFR 514.1 - Applications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Register citations affecting § 514.1, see the List of CFR Sections Affected, which appears in the Finding... from chlortetracycline), a complete description of each chemical reaction with graphic formulas used to... does not himself perform all the manufacturing, processing, packaging, labeling, and control...

  18. Development of aminoglycoside and β-lactamase resistance in intestinal microbiota of swine treated with lincomycin, chlorotetracycline and amoxicillin

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian eSun

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lincomycin, chlortetracycline, and amoxicillin are commonly used antimicrobials for growth promotion and infectious disease prophylaxis in swine production. In this study, we investigated the shifts and resistance development among intestinal microbiota in pregnant sows before and after lincomycin, chlortetracycline, and amoxicillin treatment by using phylogenetic analysis, bacterial enumeration, and PCR. After the antimicrobial treatment, shifts in microbial community, an increased proportion of resistant bacteria, and genes related to antimicrobial resistance as compared to the day before antimicrobial administration (day 0 were observed. Importantly, a positive correlation between antimicrobial resistance gene expression in different categories, especially those encoding aminoglycoside and β-lactamase and antimicrobial resistance, was observed. These findings demonstrate an important role of antimicrobial usage in animals in the development of antimicrobial resistance, and support the notion that prudent use of antimicrobials in swine is needed to reduce the risk of the emergence of multi-drug resistant (MDR zoonotic pathogens.

  19. Response Surface Optimization of a Rapid Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Method for Simultaneous Determination of Tetracycline Antibiotics in Manure

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    A rapid and cleanup-free ultrasound-assisted extraction method is proposed for the simultaneous extraction of oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and doxycycline in manure. The analytes were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector. The influence of several variables on the efficiency of the extraction procedure was investigated by single-factor experiments. The temperature, pH, and amount of extraction solution were selected for optimiza...

  20. Sorption, Leaching, and Surface Runoff of Beef Cattle Veterinary Pharmaceuticals under Simulated Irrigated Pasture Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Popova, Inna E.; Bair, Daniel A.; Kenneth W Tate; Parikh, Sanjai J.

    2013-01-01

    The use of veterinary pharmaceuticals in beef cattle has led to concerns associated with the development of antibiotic resistance in bacteria and endocrine disruption in aquatic organisms. Despite the potential negative consequences, data on the transport and mitigation of pharmaceuticals in grazed watersheds with irrigated pasture are scarce. The objective of this study was to assess the transport of common beef cattle pharmaceuticals (i.e., oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, ivermectin) vi...

  1. Radiation syntheses of Pectin/acrylamide (PEC/PAM) and Pectin/Diethylaminoethylmethacrylate (PEC/DEAMA) hydrogels as drug delivery systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different pH responsive copolymer hydrogels based on pectin were prepared by the effect of radiation. The physical and chemical properties of prepared hydrogels were studied by FTIR, and TGA. Also, the prepared hydrogels were evaluated for the possible use as drug delivery system for chlortetracycline HCL as model drug. The results revealed that the swelling ratios and the release behavior of hydrogels depend mainly on the pH of the medium and the hydrogel composition. (author)

  2. Nioella nitratireducens gen. nov., sp. nov., a novel member of the family Rhodobacteraceae isolated from Azorean Island

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajasabapathy, R.; Mohandass, C.; Yoon, J.-H.; Dastager, S.G.; Liu, Q.; Khieu, T.-N.; Son, C.K.; Li, W.-J.; Colaco, A.

    ), cefadroxyl (30), tobramycin (10), chlortetracycline (30), rifampicin (15), amikacin (30), norfloxacin (10), penicillin-G (2 U), polymyxin-B (50 U) and bacitracin (8 U). Phylogenetic analyses Genomic DNA of strain SSW136T was isolated using DNeasy Blood....) and the second direction was developed in chloroform/methanol/acetic acid/water (40:7.5:6:1.8, by vol.). Total lipid material and specific functional groups were detected using molybdophosphoric acid (total lipids), molybdenum blue spray reagent (phosphate...

  3. Indirect Flow Injection Chemiluminescence Method for the Determination of Tetracyclines Using Cu(Ⅱ) as a Probe Ion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Su Qin HAN; Er Bao LIU; Hua LI

    2005-01-01

    This paper reported an indirect flow injection chemiluminescence (FI-CL) method for the determination of the drugs tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC) and oxytetracycline (OTC) using Cu(Ⅱ) as a probe ion. The CL reaction was induced on-line and after injection of the sample the negative peaks appeared as a result of complexation. The method was applied to the determination of TCs in pharmaceuticals and human urine with recoveries in the range 95~105%.

  4. Determination of Tetracycline Antibiotic Residues in Edible Swine Tissues by Liquid Chromatography with Spectrofluorometric Detection and Confirmation by Mass Spectrometry

    OpenAIRE

    Pena, Angelina; Lino, Celeste M.; Alonso, Rosa; BARCELÓ Damia

    2007-01-01

    A sensitive and specific method is described for the simultaneous determination of oxytetracycline, tetracycline (TC), and chlortetracycline residues in edible swine tissues, by combining liquid chromatography with spectrofluorometric and mass spectrometry detection. The procedure involved a preliminary extraction with EDTA-McIlvaine buffer acidified at pH 4.0, followed by solid-phase extraction cleanup using a polymeric sorbent. The liquid chromatography analysis was performed with spectrofl...

  5. Antibiotic residues and drug resistance in human intestinal flora.

    OpenAIRE

    Corpet, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    The effect of residual levels of ampicillin on the drug resistance of fecal flora was studied in human volunteers given 1.5 mg of ampicillin orally per day for 21 days. This treatment failed to have any significant reproducible effect on the number of resistant Escherichia coli in their feces. The effect of continuous administration of small doses of ampicillin, chlortetracycline, or streptomycin in the drinking water was studied in gnotobiotic mice inoculated with a human fecal flora. In thi...

  6. Alteration of the Ileal Microbiota of Weanling Piglets by the Growth-Promoting Antibiotic Chlortetracycline▿ † ‡

    OpenAIRE

    Rettedal, Elizabeth; Vilain, Sébastien; Lindblom, Stacy; Lehnert, Kelly; Scofield, Clay; George, Sajan; Clay, Sharon; Kaushik, Radhey S.; Artur J.M. Rosa; Francis, David; Brözel, Volker S.

    2009-01-01

    Antibiotics such as chlortetracycline (CTC) have been used to promote growth of pigs for decades, but concerns over increased antibiotic-resistant infections in humans have prompted the development of alternative strategies. Developing alternatives to antibiotic growth promoters (AGPs) could be informed by information on the mechanisms of growth promotion, notably, how AGPs affect the microbial populations of the gastrointestinal tract. Pigs from three sows were aseptically delivered by cesar...

  7. Discriminant analysis of antibiotic resistance patterns in fecal streptococci, a method to differentiate human and animal sources of fecal pollution in natural waters.

    OpenAIRE

    Wiggins, B A

    1996-01-01

    Discriminant analysis of patterns of antibiotic resistance in fecal streptococci was used to differentiate between human and animal sources of fecal pollution in natural waters. A total of 1,435 isolates from 17 samples of cattle, poultry, human, and wild-animal wastes were obtained, and their ability to grow in the presence of four concentrations of five antibiotics (chlortetracycline, halofuginone, oxytetracycline, salinomycin, and streptomycin) was measured. When the resulting antibiotic r...

  8. Quantitative Campylobacter spp., antibiotic resistance genes, and veterinary antibiotics in surface and ground water following manure application: Influence of tile drainage control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frey, Steven K; Topp, Edward; Khan, Izhar U H; Ball, Bonnie R; Edwards, Mark; Gottschall, Natalie; Sunohara, Mark; Lapen, David R

    2015-11-01

    This work investigated chlortetracycline, tylosin, and tetracycline (plus transformation products), and DNA-based quantitative Campylobacter spp. and Campylobacter tetracycline antibiotic resistant genes (tet(O)) in tile drainage, groundwater, and soil before and following a liquid swine manure (LSM) application on clay loam plots under controlled (CD) and free (FD) tile drainage. Chlortetracycline/tetracycline was strongly bound to manure solids while tylosin dominated in the liquid portion of manure. The chlortetracycline transformation product isochlortetracycline was the most persistent analyte in water. Rhodamine WT (RWT) tracer was mixed with manure and monitored in tile and groundwater. RWT and veterinary antibiotic (VA) concentrations were strongly correlated in water which supported the use of RWT as a surrogate tracer. While CD reduced tile discharge and eliminated application-induced VA movement (via tile) to surface water, total VA mass loading to surface water was not affected by CD. At both CD and FD test plots, the biggest 'flush' of VA mass and highest VA concentrations occurred in response to precipitation received 2d after application, which strongly influenced the flow abatement capacity of CD on account of highly elevated water levels in field initiating overflow drainage for CD systems (when water level <0.3m below surface). VA concentrations in tile and groundwater became very low within 10d following application. Both Campylobacter spp. and Campylobacter tet(O) genes were present in groundwater and soil prior to application, and increased thereafter. Unlike the VA compounds, Campylobacter spp. and Campylobacter tet(O) gene loadings in tile drainage were reduced by CD, in relation to FD. PMID:26065824

  9. Sorption of tetracycline antibiotics on hyper-crosslinked polystyrene from aqueous and aqueous-organic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Udalova, A. Yu.; Dmitrienko, S. G.; Apyari, V. V.

    2015-06-01

    The sorption of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, and doxycycline on hyper-cross-linked polystyrene from aqueous and aqueous-organic solutions is studied under static and dynamic conditions in order to extend the range of the sorbents suitable for sorption isolation and the preconcentration of tetracycline antibiotics. Features of tetracycline sorption depending on the acidity of a solution and the nature and concentration of the compounds are explained. It is shown that hyper-crosslinked polystyrene can be used for the group sorption preconcentration of these compounds.

  10. Spread of tetracycline resistance genes at a conventional dairy farm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kyselková, Martina; Jirout, Jiří; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Schmitt, H.; Elhottová, Dana

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 6, may (2015), s. 536. ISSN 1664-302X R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP504/10/2077; GA MŠk(CZ) EE2.3.30.0032; GA MŠk(CZ) LO1415 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 ; RVO:60077344 Keywords : antibiotic resistance spread * animal manure * cattle intestinal microflora * chlortetracycline * dairy cattle * dairy farm * heavy metals * tetracycline resistance genes Subject RIV: EI - Biotechnology ; Bionics; EE - Microbiology, Virology (BC-A) Impact factor: 3.989, year: 2014

  11. Magnetic separation of antibiotics by electrochemical magnetic seeding

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Magnetic separation of several classes of antibiotics was investigated using electrochemical magnetic seeding. Electrocoagulation with a sacrificial anode followed by addition of magnetite particles was applied for the magnetic seeding of antibiotics. With electrochemical magnetic seeding using an iron anode, tetracycline antibiotics (oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline and tetracycline) and cephalosporin antibiotic (cefdinir) were rapidly removed from synthetic wastewater by magnetic separation using a neodymium magnet. Iron and aluminium anodes were suitable for magnetic seeding of the antibiotics. The results indicated that the ability of antibiotics to form strong complex with iron and aluminium allowed the higher removal by magnetic separation. This method would be appropriate for rapid treatment of antibiotics in wastewater.

  12. A swine dysentery model for evaluation of drug prophylaxis: efficacy of various drugs in the control of swine dysentery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raynaud, J P; Brunault, G; Patterson, E B

    1981-01-01

    A swine dysentery (SD) model that produces consistent, homogeneous, and severe SD was used in 2 experiments to compare the prophylactic effectiveness of 5 commercially available swine feed additive products. Under the conditions of these studies, carbadox and carbadox + sulfamethazine proved to be the most effective agents in preventing SD during the infection + medication and postmedication periods. Olaquindox was effective in preventing SD in the infection + medication period; however, SD recurrence was high during the postmedication period. Nithiamide and chlortetracycline + sulfamethazine + penicillin were least effective in preventing SD during the infection + medication and postmedication periods. PMID:7224318

  13. Fluorimetric determination of the active form of tetracycline, chloretetracycline and oxytetracycline in partially decomposed solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Regosz, A

    1977-11-01

    The content of tetracycline (1), chlortetracycline (2) and oxytetracycline (3) has been determined by use of the fluorimetric method in partially decomposed acqueous solutions of different pH values. The procedure consisted in the extraction of fluorescent calcium and 5.5-diethyl-barbituric acid complexes of 1 and 3 (with 2 calcium complex only) into an organic solvent. In the method, only complexes with undecomposed 1--3 show a strong fluorescence. Products of decomposition of the antibiotics did not affect significantly analytical results. Comparative investigations have been carried out with 1--3 using t.l.c. and turbidimetry. PMID:24855

  14. Effects of disinfectants and antibiotics on the anaerobic digestion of piggery waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poels, J.; Van Assche, P.; Verstraete, W.

    1984-01-01

    The effects of disinfectants and antibiotics on the anaerobic digestion of piggery waste were investigated. The disinfectants Tego 51, Dettol, NaOCl and Creolin, and the antibiotics, chlortetracyclin, tylosin, erythromycin, chloramphenicol, bacitracin and virginiamycin were tested at different concentrations. At concentrations normally used in practice, no inhibitory effect on methanisation process was detected. However, higher concentrations of the antimicrobial agents, Dettol, Creolin, bacitracin and virginiamycin, markedly inhibited biogas production. In order to minimize possible digester failures, farmers are advised to respect the normal recommended dose and to use low-toxicity antimicrobial agents. (Refs. 8).

  15. A study on monitoring of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in livestock wastewater and treatment by radiation techniques

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Myung, Seung Woon [KAERI, Daejeon (Korea, Republic of)

    2010-05-15

    In this study, and effective monitoring and the investigation of treatment efficiency of pharmaceuticals from the influent and effluent of livestock wastewater treatment plant (WWTPs) and by-product with radiation processing by LC/ESI-MS/MS was performed. Thirteen pharmaceuticals including antibiotics, growth promoters and disinfectants were assayed from twelve WWTPs in South Korea. The established method could be used to determine low concentration levels of pharmaceuticals in environmental samples. From few influents of live-stock WWTPs, chlortetracycline and acetaminophen were detected with the highest concentration among the monitoring pharmaceuticals. And also lincomycin, sufathiazole, sulfamethazine, trimethoprim, acetyl salicylic acid, tylosin, glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde were detected from the influents of WWTPs

  16. A study on monitoring of pharmaceuticals and personal care products (PPCPs) in livestock wastewater and treatment by radiation techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, and effective monitoring and the investigation of treatment efficiency of pharmaceuticals from the influent and effluent of livestock wastewater treatment plant (WWTPs) and by-product with radiation processing by LC/ESI-MS/MS was performed. Thirteen pharmaceuticals including antibiotics, growth promoters and disinfectants were assayed from twelve WWTPs in South Korea. The established method could be used to determine low concentration levels of pharmaceuticals in environmental samples. From few influents of live-stock WWTPs, chlortetracycline and acetaminophen were detected with the highest concentration among the monitoring pharmaceuticals. And also lincomycin, sufathiazole, sulfamethazine, trimethoprim, acetyl salicylic acid, tylosin, glutaraldehyde and formaldehyde were detected from the influents of WWTPs

  17. Magnetic separation of antibiotics by electrochemical magnetic seeding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ihara, I; Toyoda, K [Department of Agricultural Engineering and Socio Economics, Kobe University, Nada, Kobe 657-8501 (Japan); Beneragama, N; Umetsu, K [Department of Animal Science, Obihiro University of Agriculture and Veterinary Medicine, Obihiro, Hokkaido 080-8555 (Japan)], E-mail: ihara@port.kobe-u.ac.jp

    2009-03-01

    Magnetic separation of several classes of antibiotics was investigated using electrochemical magnetic seeding. Electrocoagulation with a sacrificial anode followed by addition of magnetite particles was applied for the magnetic seeding of antibiotics. With electrochemical magnetic seeding using an iron anode, tetracycline antibiotics (oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline and tetracycline) and cephalosporin antibiotic (cefdinir) were rapidly removed from synthetic wastewater by magnetic separation using a neodymium magnet. Iron and aluminium anodes were suitable for magnetic seeding of the antibiotics. The results indicated that the ability of antibiotics to form strong complex with iron and aluminium allowed the higher removal by magnetic separation. This method would be appropriate for rapid treatment of antibiotics in wastewater.

  18. Synthesis and Characterization of Super absorbent Hydrogels Based on Natural Polymers Using Ionizing Radiations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation processing technology is a useful tool for modification of polymer material including grafting of monomer onto polymer. In this study, novel super absorbent hydrogels was prepared with biodegradable and eco-friendly properties by graft copolymerization of chitosan and different synthetic monomers (AAc, DEAEMA, HEMA, HPMA and HEA) using gamma irradiation to examine the potential use of these hydrogels in the controlled drug release systems. The different chitosan hydrogels were characterized using FTIR spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy and thermal analysis techniques. The effects of the preparation conditions on the gelation process of the synthesized copolymer were investigated. The influence of variables such as feed concentration, irradiation dose, composition ratio, ph and temperature on the swelling of the prepared hydrogels was also examined. The water absorbency of these hydrogels in various ph and salt solutions was studied. The swelling kinetics of the prepared hydrogels and in vitro release dynamics of model drug (Chlortetracycline hydrochloride) from these hydrogels has been studied for the evaluation of swelling mechanism and drug release mechanism from the hydrogels. The adsorption and in vitro release profiles of Chlortetracycline HCl from the prepared gels were also estimated in different ph buffers. The amount of drug released from CS/ (AAc-DEAEMA) hydrogels was higher than that released from other modified CS/AAc hydrogels. This preliminary investigation of chitosan based hydrogels showed that they may be exploited to expand the utilization of these systems in drug delivery applications

  19. Characterization of Antibiotics and Antibiotic Resistance Genes on an Ecological Farm System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Songhe Zhang

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a growing concern worldwide about the prevalence of antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs on the farm. In this study, we investigated the distribution of seven antibiotics and ten ARGs in fresh and dried pig feces, in biogas slurry, and in grape-planting soil from an ecological farm. Antibiotics including sulfamethazine, norfloxacin, ofloxacin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline were detected in these samples (except for sulfamethoxazole in dried feces. In general, antibiotics levels in samples were in the sequence: biogas slurry > fresh feces > soil or dried feces. Results of ecological risk assessments revealed that among the seven antibiotics chlortetracycline showed the highest ecological risk. Among the ten ARGs, sulI and tetO were the most prevalent on this ecological farm. There were positive correlations between certain ARGs and the corresponding antibiotics on this ecological farm. Therefore, continuous monitoring of antibiotics and their corresponding ARGs should be conducted in the agroecosystem near the concentrated animal farming operation systems.

  20. Environmental monitoring study of selected veterinary antibiotics in animal manure and soils in Austria

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martinez-Carballo, Elena [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gonzalez-Barreiro, Carmen [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Scharf, Sigrid [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria); Gans, Oliver [Department of Hazardous Substances and Metabolites, Umweltbundesamt GmbH - Austrian Federal Environment Agency, Spittelauer Laende 5, A-1090 Vienna (Austria)]. E-mail: oliver.gans@umweltbundesamt.at

    2007-07-15

    LC-MS/MS was used for determination of selected tetracyclines, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and fluoroquinolones in manure samples of pig, chicken and turkey, as well as arable soils fertilized with manure. Recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 61 to 105%. Method quantification limits were set to 100 {mu}g/kg for all substances. Analysis of 30 pig manure, 20 chicken and turkey dung, and 30 lyophilized soil samples taken in Austria revealed that in pig manure up to 46 mg/kg chlortetracycline, 29 mg/kg oxytetracycline and 23 mg/kg tetracycline could be detected. As representatives of the group of sulfonamides, sulfadimidine in pig manure and sulfadiazine in chicken and turkey dung were detected in significant amounts (maximum concentration, 20 and 91 mg/kg, respectively). Enrofloxacin was particularly observed in chicken and turkey samples. Positive detection of chlortetracycline, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, in soil samples should be outlined as most important results of this study. - Specific exposure data of selected veterinarian antibiotics in manure and samples of agriculturally used soils are reported for the first time in Austria.

  1. A Confirmatory Method Based on HPLC-MS/MS for the Detection and Quantification of Residue of Tetracyclines in Nonmedicated Feed.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavilán, Rosa E; Nebot, Carolina; Veiga-Gómez, Maria; Roca-Saavedra, Paula; Vazquez Belda, Beatriz; Franco, Carlos M; Cepeda, Alberto

    2016-01-01

    The Commission Regulation 574/2011/EC set up maximum levels of coccidiostats and histomonostats in nonmedicated feed as a consequence of carry-over during manufacturing. Carry-over takes place from medicated to nonmedicated feed during feed production. Similar contamination could also occur for other pharmaceuticals such as tetracyclines, a group of antibiotics commonly employed in food production animal. The objective of this work is to present a simple and fast method for the simultaneous detection of four tetracyclines (chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline) in nontarget feed at a μg/kg level. Validation of the method was performed according to the guideline included in the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC for official method. The validated method was successfully applied to 50 feed samples collected from different milk farms and 25 samples obtained from feed manufacturers. While oxytetracycline was the tetracycline most frequently detected, chlortetracycline was the analyte measured at the highest concentration 15.14 mg/Kg. From 75 nonmedicated feed analysed 15% resulted to be positive for the presence of one tetracycline. PMID:27595038

  2. Evaluation and establishing the performance of different screening tests for tetracycline residues in animal tissues.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Okerman, L; Croubels, S; Cherlet, M; De Wasch, K; De Backer, P; Van Hoof, J

    2004-02-01

    Four methods intended for screening muscle tissue for residues belonging to the tetracycline group were compared using artificially contaminated as well as incurred samples. Two agar diffusion methods were studied: one with Bacillus subtilis as a test strain, the second with Bacillus cereus. Two variants of each method were compared: thin plates for analysis of intact or minced meat, and thick plates for analysis of meat fluid. The thin plate variants could not be evaluated with artificially contaminated samples because it was impossible to prepare homogeneously spiked, undiluted meat. The thick plates were suited for doxycycline and chlortetracycline, but they did not detect oxytetracycline or tetracycline in spiked meat fluid. The results of these tests done on incurred meat were very good for doxycycline and satisfying or just failing for oxytetracycline, while the best detection capability was obtained when intact frozen meat was examined on thin plates seeded with B. cereus. Two commercially available screening tests were also evaluated. The Premi(R) test, an inhibitor test with Bacillus stearothermophilus as a test strain and an indicator for growth, was not suited for detection of tetracyclines up to the maximum residue limit. Tetrasensor(R), a receptor test specific for tetracyclines, proved a quick and simple test able to detect meat samples artificially contaminated with tetracycline, oxytetracycline, doxycycline or chlortetracycline, as well as meat incurred with oxytetracycline or doxycycline. PMID:14754636

  3. Liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry method for the determination of ten tetracycline residues in muscle samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gajda Anna

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available A liquid chromatography – tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS method for the determination of oxytetracycline (OTC, 4-epi oxytetracycline (4-epi OTC, tetracycline (TC, 4-epi tetracycline (4-epi TC, chlortetracycline (CTC, 4-epi chlortetracycline (4-epi CTC, doxycycline (DC, minocycline (MINO, methacycline (META and rolitetracycline (ROLI residues in muscles was developed. The procedure consisted of an oxalic acid extraction followed by protein removal with trichloroacetic acid. Further solid phase clean-up on polymeric (Strata X reversed phase columns was performed to obtain an extract suitable for LC-MS/MS analysis. The tetracyclines were separated on a C 18 analytical column with mobile phase consisting of 0.01% formic acid in acetonitrile and 0.01% formic acid in water in gradient mode. The method was validated according to the Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. The recoveries of all target compounds were 91.8% – 103.6%. The decision limits were from 109.0 to 119.8 μg/kg and detection capability varied within the range of 122.2 to 137.6 μg/kg, depending on the analyte.

  4. Environmental monitoring study of selected veterinary antibiotics in animal manure and soils in Austria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    LC-MS/MS was used for determination of selected tetracyclines, sulfonamides, trimethoprim, and fluoroquinolones in manure samples of pig, chicken and turkey, as well as arable soils fertilized with manure. Recoveries from spiked samples ranged from 61 to 105%. Method quantification limits were set to 100 μg/kg for all substances. Analysis of 30 pig manure, 20 chicken and turkey dung, and 30 lyophilized soil samples taken in Austria revealed that in pig manure up to 46 mg/kg chlortetracycline, 29 mg/kg oxytetracycline and 23 mg/kg tetracycline could be detected. As representatives of the group of sulfonamides, sulfadimidine in pig manure and sulfadiazine in chicken and turkey dung were detected in significant amounts (maximum concentration, 20 and 91 mg/kg, respectively). Enrofloxacin was particularly observed in chicken and turkey samples. Positive detection of chlortetracycline, enrofloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, in soil samples should be outlined as most important results of this study. - Specific exposure data of selected veterinarian antibiotics in manure and samples of agriculturally used soils are reported for the first time in Austria

  5. 两种水生植物对抗生素污染水体的修复作用%The Preliminary Exploration of Remediation the Antibiotics Polluted Water by Two Hydrophytes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈小洁; 李凤玉; 郝雅宾

    2012-01-01

      Hydroponics was used to detect the change of ampicillin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline concentrations in water, to make sure that the elimination effect of Pistia stratiote and Eichhornia crassipes on the antibiotics in the polluted water. The results showed that①in the high concentration series(10~50 µg/mL), the elimination effects of E. crassipes on oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline are better than those of P. stratiote; ②for gathered sewage (antibiotics concentrations<2.5 µg/mL), after training 72 hours, the removal rate for P. stratiote and E. crassipes to tetracycline reached above 80% and 90% respectively, to ampicillin, reached above 80% and 70% respectively. To sum up, the P. stratiote and E. crassipes can repair different level of the water polluted by this four antibiotics, especially E. crassipes. E. crassipes can be supposed to the preferred plant to remove the antibiotics in the polluted water.%  采用水培方法,通过检测水样中氨苄青霉素(Ampicillin)、盐酸四环素(Tetracycline)、盐酸土霉素(Oxytetracycline)和盐酸金霉素(Chlortetracycline)含量的动态变化,确定水生植物大漂(Pistia stratiotes)和凤眼莲(Eichhornia crassipes)对水体中抗生素的清除作用.结果显示:①在系列高浓度(10~50µg/mL)抗生素的条件下,凤眼莲去除水中盐酸金霉素与盐酸土霉素的效果优于大漂;②对于采集的污水(抗生素浓度<2.5µg/mL),培养72 h 后,大漂和凤眼莲对盐酸四环素的去除率分别达80%和90%以上,对氨苄青霉素的去除率分别达80%和70%以上.大漂和凤眼莲对4种抗生素污染的水体均表现出不同程度的修复功能,特别是凤眼莲效果更佳,可作为去除水体抗生素污染的首选材料.

  6. Immunolocation of antisperm monoclonal antibody 6B10 and corresponding antigen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高绍荣; 胡国俊; 段崇文; 刘辉; 韩之明; 宋祥芬; 陈大元

    1999-01-01

    An antisperm monoclonal antibody 6B10 was produced by hybridoma technique of the isotype IgG. The monoclonal antibody was purified by means of ammonium sulfate precipitation and protein A-Sepharose Cl-4B affinity chromatography. SDS polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis was used to evaluate the purity of the antibody. Evaluation of the sperm acrosomal status was determined by chlortetracycline (CTC) staining. It was found that monoclonal antibody 6B10 can inhibit the sperm acrosome reaction induced by progesterone. The corresponding antigen recognized by monoclonal antibody 6B10 was located on the plasma membrane of the sperm acrosome by indirect immunofluorescent microscopy and immunoelectronmicroscopy. Sperm protein was extracted by 1% Triton X-100. The molecular weight of the antigen is 50 ku, detected by Western blot. The antigen is a key protein in the sperm acrosome reaction and may be the receptor of progesterone on the sperm acrosome. It may either be developed as a candidate contraceptive vaccine

  7. Determination of Tetracyclines Residues in Animal Muscle Tissues by SPE- HPLC%肌肉组织中四环素类抗生素的固相萃取-液相色谱法测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈毓芳

    2003-01-01

    建立了四环素类抗生素的高灵敏度测定方法,通过对实验条件的优化,采用固相萃取-反相高效液相色谱法同时测定肌肉组织中的土霉素(oxytetracycline)、四环素(tetracycline)、金霉素(chlortetracycline) 3种四环素类抗生素残留量; 土霉素、四环素、金霉素的检出限分别为 20、 40、 100 μ g/kg; 方法相对标准偏差为 5.1%~ 7.1% (n=5),平均回收率为 80%~ 82%.

  8. Photohemolytic potency of tetracyclines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hemolysis induced by long-wave ultraviolet radiation (UVA) and 8 different commercial tetracycline derivatives was studied in a model using human red blood cells. Demethylchlortetracycline and doxycycline were shown to have pronounced hemolytic properties causing 88% and 85% hemolysis, respectively, at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml and 72 J/ cm2 of UVA. Tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline caused maximally 18% hemolysis at 200 micrograms/ml and lymecycline only 7% at 100 micrograms/ml. Methacycline showed intermediate hemolytic effect of 36% at 200 micrograms/ml. Minocycline had no hemolytic effect whatsoever. These experimental data correlate very well with clinical reports and comparative phototoxicity trials in humans. Photohemolysis may thus be of value for predicting tetracycline phototoxicity

  9. Chemiluminescence determination of tetracyclines using Fenton system in the presence europium(III) ions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new simple chemiluminescent method for the determination of chlortetracycline (Chlor-TC), oxytetracycline (Oxy-TC) and doxycycline (Doxy-TC) is described. This method is based on the europium(III) emission as a result of the energy transfer process from the excited product of the tetracyclines oxidation to the uncomplexed Eu(III). Under the optimum conditions, calibration graphs were obtained for 4 x 10-7 to 2 x 10-5 mol L-1 of Chlor-TC; 2 x 10-7 to 2 x 10-5 mol L-1 of Oxy-TC and 1 x 10-7 to 3 x 10-5 mol L-1 of Doxy-TC. The method was successfully applied to the determination of these drugs in pharmaceutical and veterinary formulation and honey.

  10. Expansion of Shiga Toxin–Producing Escherichia coli by Use of Bovine Antibiotic Growth Promoters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Jong-Chul; Chui, Linda; Wang, Yang; Shen, Jianzhong

    2016-01-01

    Antibiotics are routinely used in food-producing animals to promote growth and prevent infectious diseases. We investigated the effects of bovine antibiotic growth promoters (bAGPs) on the propagation and spread of Shiga toxin (Stx)–encoding phages in Escherichia coli. Co-culture of E. coli O157:H7 and other E. coli isolated from cattle in the presence of sublethal concentrations of bAGPs significantly increased the emergence of non-O157, Stx-producing E. coli by triggering the SOS response system in E. coli O157:H7. The most substantial mediation of Stx phage transmission was induced by oxytetracyline and chlortetracycline, which are commonly used in agriculture. bAGPs may therefore contribute to the expansion of pathogenic Stx-producing E. coli. PMID:27088186

  11. Hierarchical La0.7Ce0.3FeO3/halloysite nanocomposite for photocatalytic degradation of antibiotics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xiazhang; Zhu, Wei; Yan, Xiangyu; Lu, Xiaowang; Yao, Chao; Ni, Chaoying

    2016-08-01

    The hierarchical La0.7Ce0.3FeO3/halloysite nanotubes (HNTs) composites have been successfully prepared via sol-gel method. XRD and TEM characterizations indicated that the sheet-like La0.7Ce0.3FeO3 coupled with the co-precipitated CeO2 were evenly deposited onto the surface of halloysite. The photocatalytic degradation of chlortetracycline under visible light irradiation using La0.7Ce0.3FeO3/HNTs as catalyst was evaluated by high-performance liquid chromatography, which exhibited remarkable photocatalytic activity with the removal rate up to 99 % in 90 min, due to the formation of "solid solution/co-precipitation" heterostructure as well as the excellent adsorptive capability of halloysite for antibiotics.

  12. Fungal Biotransformation of Tetracycline Antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shang, Zhuo; Salim, Angela A; Khalil, Zeinab; Bernhardt, Paul V; Capon, Robert J

    2016-08-01

    The commercial antibiotics tetracycline (3), minocycline (4), chlortetracycline (5), oxytetracycline (6), and doxycycline (7) were biotransformed by a marine-derived fungus Paecilomyces sp. to yield seco-cyclines A-H (9-14, 18 and 19) and hemi-cyclines A-E (20-24). Structures were assigned by detailed spectroscopic analysis, and in the case of 10 X-ray crystallography. Parallel mechanisms account for substrate-product specificity, where 3-5 yield seco-cyclines and 6 and 7 yield hemi-cyclines. The susceptibility of 3-7 to fungal biotransformation is indicative of an unexpected potential for tetracycline "degradation" (i.e., antibiotic resistance) in fungal genomes. Significantly, the fungal-derived tetracycline-like viridicatumtoxins are resistant to fungal biotransformation, providing chemical insights that could inform the development of new tetracycline antibiotics resistant to enzymatic degradation. PMID:27419475

  13. Isolation of tetracyclines in milk using a solid-phase extracting column and water eluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Furusawa, Naoto

    2003-01-01

    An isolating method using a solid-phase extraction (SPE) ISOLUTE(R) C8 endcapped syringe-column for routine monitoring of residual tetracyclines (TCs) (oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC), and doxycycline (DC)) in cow's milk is presented. In the simplest and most environmentally harmless method, milk samples could be applied directly to the SPE column, following which all TCs were eluted with water. No organic solvents were used at all. The purified sample was injected into a high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a photo-diode array detector (PDAD). For the HPLC determination/identification, a LiChrospher(R) 100 RP-8 endcapped column and a mobile phase of acetonitrile -7% (v v(-1)) acetic acid solution (in water) (35:65, v v(-1)) with a PDAD was used. The total time required for the analysis of one sample was 80 and <5%, respectively. PMID:18968895

  14. Probiotic properties of Lactobacillus and Bifidobacterium strains isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Pyoung Il; Jung, Min Young; Chang, Young-Hyo; Kim, Saehun; Kim, Seong-Jae; Park, Yong-Ha

    2007-04-01

    One strain of Lactobacillus salivarius, two strains of Lactobacillus reuteri and Lactobacillus amylovorus, and two strains of Bifidobacterium thermacidophilum with antagonistic effect against Clostridium perfringens were isolated from porcine gastrointestinal tract. Isolates were assayed for their ability to survive in synthetic gastric juice at pH 2.5 and were examined for their ability to grow on agar plate containing porcine bile extract. There was a large variation in the survival of the isolates in gastric juice and growth in the medium containing 0.3% (w/v) bile. L. salivarius G11 and L. amylovorus S6 adhered to the HT-29 epithelial cell line. Cell-free supernatant of L. amylovorus S6 showed higher antagonistic activity as effective as the antibiotics such as neomycin, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline against bacterial pathogens including C. perfringens, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus, Vibrio cholerae, Edwardsiella tarda, and Aeromonas salmonicida subsp. salmonicida. PMID:17136367

  15. Efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of digital dermatitis in dairy cattle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schultz, N.; Capion, N.

    2013-01-01

    Digital dermatitis (DD) is one of the most important causes of lameness in dairy cattle worldwide. The objective of this study was to evaluate the efficacy of salicylic acid in the treatment of the disease. A total of 201 DD lesions from 173 cows from four commercial dairy herds were evaluated...... at day 0 during routine hoof trimming and were allocated into two groups, namely, a control group given chlortetracycline spray, and a treatment group given 10 g of salicylic acid powder applied topically within a bandage. Pain, lesion size and clinical appearance (scored MO to M4) were evaluated on days...... the control group were 2.2 times more likely (P = 0.09) to have a pain score equal to 2 by day 14. The proportion of lesions getting smaller by days 14 and 34 was 2.5 times higher (P salicylic acid should be considered as an alternative...

  16. Chemiluminescence determination of tetracyclines using Fenton system in the presence europium(III) ions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaczmarek, Malgorzata [Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60 - 780 Poznan (Poland); Lis, Stefan, E-mail: blis@amu.edu.pl [Department of Rare Earths, Faculty of Chemistry, Adam Mickiewicz University, Grunwaldzka 6, 60 - 780 Poznan (Poland)

    2009-04-20

    A new simple chemiluminescent method for the determination of chlortetracycline (Chlor-TC), oxytetracycline (Oxy-TC) and doxycycline (Doxy-TC) is described. This method is based on the europium(III) emission as a result of the energy transfer process from the excited product of the tetracyclines oxidation to the uncomplexed Eu(III). Under the optimum conditions, calibration graphs were obtained for 4 x 10{sup -7} to 2 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} of Chlor-TC; 2 x 10{sup -7} to 2 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} of Oxy-TC and 1 x 10{sup -7} to 3 x 10{sup -5} mol L{sup -1} of Doxy-TC. The method was successfully applied to the determination of these drugs in pharmaceutical and veterinary formulation and honey.

  17. Photohemolytic potency of tetracyclines

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjellerup, M.; Ljunggren, B.

    1985-04-01

    Hemolysis induced by long-wave ultraviolet radiation (UVA) and 8 different commercial tetracycline derivatives was studied in a model using human red blood cells. Demethylchlortetracycline and doxycycline were shown to have pronounced hemolytic properties causing 88% and 85% hemolysis, respectively, at a concentration of 50 micrograms/ml and 72 J/ cm2 of UVA. Tetracycline, oxytetracycline, and chlortetracycline caused maximally 18% hemolysis at 200 micrograms/ml and lymecycline only 7% at 100 micrograms/ml. Methacycline showed intermediate hemolytic effect of 36% at 200 micrograms/ml. Minocycline had no hemolytic effect whatsoever. These experimental data correlate very well with clinical reports and comparative phototoxicity trials in humans. Photohemolysis may thus be of value for predicting tetracycline phototoxicity.

  18. 反相高效液相色谱法测定鱼肉组织中四环素族抗生素残留量%Determination of tetracyclines residues in fish meat by RP-HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林玲; 杨春亮; 刘丽丽; 查玉兵; 刘杰

    2009-01-01

    A sensitive method for simultaneously determining residues of tetracyclines oxytetracycline,tetracycline and chlortetracycline in fish meat was established by RP-HPLCwith solid phase extraction.Samples were extracted with Na2EDTAMcllvaine buffer solutions and centrifuged.The sample extracts were cleaned up by C18 solid-phase extraction cartridge and then were determined by detection at 350 nm.Urider the selected conditions the detection limits were 0.02 mg/kg,0.03 mg/kg and 0.04 mg/kg for oxytetracycline,tetracycline and chlortetracycline,respectively.The RSDs of 2.95%~5.73%,and average recoveries of 80%~92%were obtained for them.%建立了一种采用同相萃取-反相高效液相色谱法同时测定鱼肉中土霉素、四环素、金霉素的分析方法,即样品用McI-Vaine-EDTA溶液提取,C18小柱净化,流动相洗脱定容,选择355nm为检测波长进行检测,结果表明:土霉索、四环素、会霉素的检出限分别为0.02、0.03、0.04 mg/kg,方法相对标准偏差为2.95%~5.73%,平均回收率为80%~92%.

  19. 2种四环素类抗生素对厌氧消化的最低抑制浓度和联合抑制类型%Lowest Inhibition Concentration and Combined Inhibiting Type of Two Tetracycline Antibiotics against Anaerobic Digestion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘芳; 颜智勇; 李刚; 谭秀益; 陈俊峰

    2013-01-01

    厌氧消化技术被广泛用于猪场废水的处理,为探明四环素类抗生素对猪场废水对厌氧消化产生抑制作用的边界浓度值,选用了2种常用的四环素类抗生素土霉素和金霉素作为抑制剂,用重铬酸钾法测出COD,以COD去除率反映抗生素的独立抑制和联合抑制效果,结果显示:土霉素、金霉素对厌氧消化的最低抑制浓度分别是0.3、0.1 mg/L,且2种抗生素的联合抑制效果大于单独抑制效果.%Anaerobic digestion technology is widely used in the treatment of piggery wastewater. In order to investigate the boundary concentration of inhibitory effect of tetracycline antibiotics against anaerobic digestion, Oxytetracycline and Chlortetracy-cline were chosen as the inhibitors. Potassium dichromate method was used to measure COD values, and COD removal efficiency was used to reflect the single inhibition and combined inhibition of these two antibiotics. The results showed that the lowest inhibition concentrations of Oxytetracycline and Chlortetracycline against anaerobic digestion were 0. 3 mg/L and 0. 1 mg/L respectively, and their combined inhibiting effect was stronger than the single inhibiting effect.

  20. Excretion masses and environmental occurrence of antibiotics in typical swine and dairy cattle farms in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Li-Jun; Ying, Guang-Guo; Liu, Shan; Zhang, Rui-Quan; Lai, Hua-Jie; Chen, Zhi-Feng; Pan, Chang-Gui

    2013-02-01

    This paper evaluated the excretion masses and environmental occurrence of 11 classes of 50 antibiotics in six typical swine and dairy cattle farms in southern China. Animal feeds, wastewater and solid manure samples as well as environmental samples (soil, stream and well water) were collected in December 2010 from these farms. Twenty eight antibiotics, including tetracyclines, bacitracin, lincomycin, sulfonamides, fluoroquinolones, ceftiofur, trimethoprim, macrolides, and florfenicol, were detected in the feeds, animal wastes and receiving environments. The normalized daily excretion masses per swine and cattle were estimated to be 18.2mg/day/swine and 4.24 mg/day/cattle. Chlortetracycline (11.6 mg/day/swine), bacitracin (3.81 mg/day/swine), lincomycin (1.19 mg/day/swine) and tetracycline (1.04 mg/day/swine) were the main contributors to the normalized daily excretion masses of antibiotics per swine, while chlortetracycline (3.66 mg/day/cattle) contributed 86% of the normalized daily excretion masses of antibiotics per cattle. Based on the survey of feeds and animal wastes from the swine farms and interview with the farmers, antibiotics excreted by swine were mainly originated from the feeds, while antibiotics excreted by dairy cattle were mainly from the injection route. If we assume that the swine and cattle in China excrete the same masses of antibiotics as the selected livestock farms, the total excretion mass by swine and cattle per annum in China could reach 3,080,000 kg/year and 164,000 kg/year. Various antibiotics such as sulfonamides, tetracyclines, fluroquinolones, macrolides, trimethoprim, lincomycin and florfenicol were detected in well water, stream and field soil, suggesting that livestock farms could be an important pollution source of various antibiotics to the receiving environments. PMID:23268145

  1. Characterization of the europium tetracycline complex as a biomarker for atherosclerosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Courrol, Lilia C.; da Silva, Mônica N.; Sicchieri, Leticia B.

    2016-04-01

    Atherosclerosis is a narrowing of the arteries caused by an increase of atheromatous plaque: material formed by macrophage cells containing cholesterol and fatty acids, calcium and a variable amount of fibrous connective tissue. The elation between vulnerable plaques and cardiovascular events can be determined using plaque biomarkers. In this work, atherosclerotic plaques stained with different molar ratios of europium, in a potential plaque biomarker, europium tetracycline complex, were studied by fluorescence microscopy. The tetracycline antibiotic used was chlortetracycline. The growth of atherosclerotic plaque was followed during 60 days in New Zealand rabbits divided in two groups: an experimental group (EG), with nine animals and a control group (CG) with three animals. The animals in the EG received a diet with 1% of cholesterol and the animals of GC received a normal diet. The aortic arch of the animals with 60 days were cut in the vertical plane in 6 μm thick slices, which were mounted on glass slides and stained with hematoxylin an eosin and europium chlortetracycline complex (EuCTc). The fluorescence images were obtained exciting the EuCTc absorption band with a filter cube D (BP 355 - 425) and the emission was collected with a LP 470 suppression filter. Light intensity, detector gain and acquisition time were fixed for comparisons. The 20× magnified images were collected with 12 bit (or 4096 gray tones) resolution. The mean value of gray scale for each molar ratio of EuCTc was different, indicating that the complex interacts with the components of atherosclerotic plaque and the best molar ratio was 1.5 EuCTc. These results indicate the potential use of the EuCTc biomarker for atherosclerotic plaque characterization.

  2. Determination of Tetracyclines in Honey Using Liquid Chromatography with Ultraviolet Absorbance Detection and Residue Confirmation by Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU,Yan; XU,Jin-Zhong; DING,Tao; LI,Gong-Hai

    2007-01-01

    A determination method has been optimized and validated for the simultaneous analysis of tetracycline (TC),oxytetracycline (OTC), chlortetracycline (CTC) and doxycycline (DC) in honey. Tetracyclines (TCs) were removed from honey samples by chelation with metal ions bound to small Chelating Sepharose Fast Flow columns and eluted with Na2EDTA-Mcllvaine pH 4.0 buffers. Extracts were further cleaned up by Oasis HLB solid-phase extraction (SPE), while other solid-phase extraction cartridges were compared. Chromatographic separation was achieved using a polar end-capped C18 column with an isocratic mobile phase consisting of oxalic acid, acetonitrile,and methanol. LC with ultraviolet absorbance at 355 nm resulted in the quantitation of all four tetracycline residues from honey samples fortified at 15, 50, and 100 ng/g, with liner ranges for tetracyclines of 0.05 to 2 μg/mL. Mean recoveries for tetracyclines were greater than 50% with R.S.D. values less than 10% (n= 18). Detection limits of 5,5, 10, 10 ng/g for oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline and doxycycline, respectively and quantitation limits of 15 ng/g for all the four tetracyclines were determined. Direct confirmation of the four residues in honey (2-50 ng/g) was realized by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The linear ranges of tetracyclines determined by LC/MS/MS were between 5 to 300 ng/mL, with the linear correlation coefficient r>0.995. The limits of detection of 1 to 2 ng/g were obtained for the analysis of the TCs in honey.

  3. Determination of typical tetracyclines based on the plasmon resonance absorption of gold nanoparticles%基于金纳米颗粒等离子体共振吸收的典型四环素类药物分析方法

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘春芳; 王燚; 黄承志

    2012-01-01

    研究发现,在pH 9.37的BR缓冲体系中,典型四环素类药物盐酸土霉素、盐酸多西环素、盐酸四环素、盐酸金霉素与氯金酸发生氧化还原反应生成的金纳米颗粒在500~550 nm波长范围内显示出特征的等离子体共振吸收,且吸光度值与四环素类药物的浓度在一定范围内呈良好的线性关系,据此建立了测定四环素类药物的等离子体共振吸收分析新方法.该方法能分别检测0.5~20,0.5~16,0.5~16,0.5~20 μmol/L范围的盐酸土霉素、盐酸多西环素、盐酸四环素和盐酸金霉素,对应的检出限分别为0.20,0.16,0.15,0.18μmol/L.对浓度为20.0 μmol/L的盐酸土霉素进行了15次平行测定,其相对标准偏差为1.53%.该方法成功用于合成样和片剂中土霉素的测定,且根据溶液颜色变化实现了上述四环素类药物的三原色可视化定量检测.%The typical tetracyclines, such as oxytetracycline, doxycycline, tetracycline and chlortetracycline, could react with chloroauric acid to form gold nanoparticles in an aqueous solution(pH 9.37). The prepared gold nanoparticles had characteristic plasmon resonance absorption bands at 500-550 nm, and the intensities of these bands changed in proportion with the concentrations of the tracyclines. This was used to develop a new assay for quantitative detection of tetracyclines. Under the optimum conditions, the linear ranges of the calibration curves of oxytetracycline, doxycycline, tetracycline and chlortetracycline were 0.5-20, 0.5-16, 0.5-16 and 0.5-20μmol/L, respectively. The limits of detection (3σ) for oxytetracycline, doxycycline, tetracycline, and chlortetracycline were 0.20, 0.16, 0.15 and 0.18μmol/L, respectively. The relative standard deviation was 1.53% (coTC=20.0μmol/L,n=15). This method was successfully applied to the analysis of composite samples and oxytetracycline tablets. Visual quantitative detection of tetracyclines based on three primary colours had been made

  4. Effects of six selected antibiotics on plant growth and soil microbial and enzymatic activities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potential impact of six antibiotics (chlortetracycline, tetracycline and tylosin; sulfamethoxazole, sulfamethazine and trimethoprim) on plant growth and soil quality was studied by using seed germination test on filter paper and plant growth test in soil, soil respiration and phosphatase activity tests. The phytotoxic effects varied between the antibiotics and between plant species (sweet oat, rice and cucumber). Rice was most sensitive to sulfamethoxazole with the EC10 value of 0.1 mg/L. The antibiotics tested inhibited soil phosphatase activity during the 22 days' incubation. Significant effects on soil respiration were found for the two sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole and sulfamethazine) and trimethoprim, whereas little effects were observed for the two tetracyclines and tylosin. The effective concentrations (EC10 values) for soil respiration in the first 2 days were 7 mg/kg for sulfamethoxazole, 13 mg/kg for sulfamethazine and 20 mg/kg for trimethoprim. Antibiotic residues in manure and soils may affect soil microbial and enzyme activities. - Terrestrial ecotoxicological effects of antibiotics are related to their sorption and degradation behavior in soil.

  5. Effects of six selected antibiotics on plant growth and soil microbial and enzymatic activities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu Feng [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 511 Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Ying Guangguo, E-mail: guangguo.ying@gmail.co [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 511 Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Tao Ran; Zhao Jianliang; Yang Jifeng [State Key Laboratory of Organic Geochemistry, Guangzhou Institute of Geochemistry, Chinese Academy of Sciences, 511 Kehua Street, Tianhe District, Guangzhou 510640 (China); Zhao Lanfeng [College of Resource and Environmental Science, South China Agricultural University, Guangzhou 510642 (China)

    2009-05-15

    The potential impact of six antibiotics (chlortetracycline, tetracycline and tylosin; sulfamethoxazole, sulfamethazine and trimethoprim) on plant growth and soil quality was studied by using seed germination test on filter paper and plant growth test in soil, soil respiration and phosphatase activity tests. The phytotoxic effects varied between the antibiotics and between plant species (sweet oat, rice and cucumber). Rice was most sensitive to sulfamethoxazole with the EC10 value of 0.1 mg/L. The antibiotics tested inhibited soil phosphatase activity during the 22 days' incubation. Significant effects on soil respiration were found for the two sulfonamides (sulfamethoxazole and sulfamethazine) and trimethoprim, whereas little effects were observed for the two tetracyclines and tylosin. The effective concentrations (EC10 values) for soil respiration in the first 2 days were 7 mg/kg for sulfamethoxazole, 13 mg/kg for sulfamethazine and 20 mg/kg for trimethoprim. Antibiotic residues in manure and soils may affect soil microbial and enzyme activities. - Terrestrial ecotoxicological effects of antibiotics are related to their sorption and degradation behavior in soil.

  6. Response Surface Optimization of a Rapid Ultrasound-Assisted Extraction Method for Simultaneous Determination of Tetracycline Antibiotics in Manure

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lanqing Li

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available A rapid and cleanup-free ultrasound-assisted extraction method is proposed for the simultaneous extraction of oxytetracycline, tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and doxycycline in manure. The analytes were determined using high-performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet detector. The influence of several variables on the efficiency of the extraction procedure was investigated by single-factor experiments. The temperature, pH, and amount of extraction solution were selected for optimization experiment using response surface methodology. The calibration curves showed good linearity (R2>0.99 for all analytes in the range of 0.1–20 μg/mL. The four antibiotics were successfully extracted from manure with recoveries ranging from 81.89 to 92.42% and good reproducibility (RSD, <4.06% under optimal conditions, which include 50 mL of McIlvaine buffer extraction solution (pH 7.15 mixed with 1 g of manure sample, extraction temperature of 40°C, extraction time of 10 min, and three extraction cycles. Method quantification limits of 1.75–2.32 mg/kg were obtained for the studied compounds. The proposed procedure demonstrated clear reductions in extraction time and elimination of cleanup steps. Finally, the applicability to tetracyclines antibiotics determination in real samples was evaluated through the successful determination of four target analytes in swine, cow manure, and mixture of animal manure with inorganic fertilizer.

  7. High throughput detection of tetracycline residues in milk using graphene or graphene oxide as MALDI-TOF MS matrix.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyan; Liu, Yang; Gao, Mingxia; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2012-08-01

    In this work, a new pre-analysis method for tetracyclines (TCs) detection from the milk samples was established. As a good accomplishment for the existing accurate quantification strategies for TCs detection, the new pre-analysis method was demonstrated to be simple, sensitive, fast, cost effective, and high throughput, which would do a great favor to the routine quality pre-analysis of TCs from milk samples. Graphene or graphene oxide was utilized, for the first time, as a duel-platform to enrich and detect the TCs by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). All together, four TCs were chosen as models: tetracycline, oxytetracycline, demeclocycline, and chlortetracycline. Due to the excellent electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties, graphene and graphene oxide were successfully applied as matrices for MALDI-TOF MS with free background inference in low mass range. Meanwhile, graphene or graphene oxide has a large surface area and strong interaction force with the analytes. By taking the advantage of these features, TCs were effectively enriched with the limit of detection (LOD) as low as 2 nM. PMID:22644736

  8. The Detection Limits of Antimicrobial Agents in Cow`s Milk by a Simple Yoghurt Culture Test

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mohsenzadeh

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to study performance of Yoghurt Culture Test (YCT in the detection of antimicrobial residues in milk. For this purpose, the sensitivity of YCT for 15 antibiotics were determined. For each drug, 8 concentrations were tested. The detection limits of YCT at 2.5 h and 4 h incubation were determined (μg kg-1: 15 and 37.5, penicillin G; 4 and 5, ampicillin; 5 and 7.5, amoxycillin; 100 and 200, cephalexin; 80 and 100, cefazoline; 100 and 200, oxytetracycline; 500 and 100, chlortetracycline; 100 and 200, tetracycline; 150 and 200, doxycycline; 200 and 400, sulphadimidine; 500 and 1000, gentamycin; 1000 and 1500, spectinomycin; 400 and 500, erythromycin; 50 and 100, tylosin; 5000 and 10000, chloramphenicol. The YCT detection limits at 2.5 h incubation for ampicillin, cephalexin, tetracycline, oxytetracycline and tylosin are similar to those obtained as Maximum Residue Limit (MRL according to Regulation 2377/90 EEC as set out by the European Union. In addition the detection limits of YCT for some antibiotics were lower than some of microbial inhibitor test.

  9. Effects of dietary supplementation of Chinese medicinal herbs on polymorphonuclear neutrophil immune activity and small intestinal morphology in weanling pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, C W; Lee, T T; Shih, Y C; Yu, B

    2012-04-01

    The purpose of this study was to evaluate the effects of dietary Chinese medicinal herbs (CMH) supplementation composed of Panax ginseng, Dioscoreaceae opposite, Atractylodes macrocephala, Glycyrrhiza uralensis, Ziziphus jujube and Platycodon grandiflorum, on the performance, intestinal tract morphology and immune activity in weanling pigs. Two hundred and forty weaned pigs were assigned randomly to four dietary groups including the negative control (basal diet), 0.1% CMH, 0.3% CMH and 0.114% antibiotic (Chlortetracycline calcium Complex, Sulfathiazole and Procaine Penicillin G) supplementation groups for a 28-day feeding trial. Results indicated that both CMH supplementation groups had a better gain and feed/gain than control group (CT) during the first 2 weeks of the experimental period. The 0.3% CMH had a significant decrease in the diarrhoea score in first 10 days of experimental period when compared with other groups. The CMH supplementation groups had a higher villous height, increased lactobacilli counts in digesta of ileum and decreased coliform counts in colon compared with CT. The immune activities of polymorphonuclear leucocytes (PMNs), including the respiratory burst and Salmonella-killing ability, were significantly enhanced in CMH supplementation groups at day 7 of experiment period. The CMH and antibiotic supplementations increased the nutrient digestibility such as dietary dry matter, crude protein and gross energy in weanling pigs. In conclusion, the dietary CMH supplementation improved intestinal morphology and immune activities of PMNs, thus giving rise to nutrient digestibility and reduce diarrhoea frequency in weanling pigs. PMID:21535231

  10. Prevalence and antimicrobial susceptibility of Campylobacter spp. in live and dressed chicken in Jordan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Osaili, Tareq M; Alaboudi, Akram R; Al-Akhras, Rani R

    2012-01-01

    A total of 140 broiler flocks presented for slaughtering at Amman slaughterhouse were tested for Campylobacter spp. via collection of cloacal swabs from live birds, feathered skin samples at prescalding, and skin samples at postscalding (62°C or 57°C scalding temperature), postevisceration, and postchilling. The results indicated that 40% of the flocks tested by cloacal swabs, 34% at prescalding, 32% at post 57°C scalding, and 32% postevisceration were harboring Campylobacter jejuni. None of the skin samples collected from dressed birds at postscalding (62°C) or postwashing-chilling steps (regardless of scalding temperature) revealed the presence of C. jejuni. Thirty eight isolates were tested for susceptibility to ten antimicrobials by using the microbroth dilution method. Almost 50% of the isolates were multidrug resistant to 9 or 10 out of the ten tested antimicrobials. The other half of tested isolates were sensitive to erythromycin, tetracycline, doxycyclin, chlortetracycline, ciprofloxacin, enorfloxacin, gentamycin, tilmicosin, amoxicillin, and trimethoprim. PMID:21988398

  11. Escherichia coli tetracycline efflux determinants in relation to tetracycline residues in chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Al-Bahry; SN; Al-Mashani; BM; Al-Ansari; AS; Elshafie; AE; Mahmoud; IY

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To screen for Escherichia coli(E.coli)resistant to tetracycline,followed by identification of tet efflux genes by polymerase chain reaction(PCR).In addition,detection of tetracycline residues in chicken livers and kidneys were conducted using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry(HPLC-MS-MS).Methods:Strains of E.coli were isolated from samples of chicken colon and screened for tetracycline resistance.Tetracycline genes conferring resistance(Tc~r)were detected by polymerase chain reaction(PCR).Most of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline(97.9%).Results:PCR analysis indicated that Tc~r E.coli R-plasmids contained tet(A),tet(B)and a combination of both efflux genes.None of the isolates contained other efflux tet genes tet(C,D,E and Y).High performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry(HPLC-MS-MS),a sensitive technique,was used to detect residues of chlortetracycline(CTC),oxytetracyeline(OTC),doxveycline(DC)in chicken livers and kidneys.The samples containing tetracycline residues were at 0.13-0.65pg/μL levels.Conclusions:Tetracycline and other antibiotics are commonly used in the poultry and meat production industry for prevention of microbial infections.Multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria in Oman have increased to alarming levels,threatening public health,domestic and may have adverse effect on environment.

  12. Identification and expression of GABAc receptor in rat testis and spermatozoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shifeng Li; Yunbin Zhang; Haixiong Liu; Yuanchang Yan; Yiping Li

    2008-01-01

    Our previous studies showed that γ-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A and GABAB receptors are involved in rat sperm acrosome reaction induced by progesterone or GABA. Here,we report the presence of GABAc receptor in rat testis and spermatozoa.Full-length complementary DNA encoding the ρ1,ρ2 and ρ3 subunits of GABAc receptor were cloned from rat testis;their sequences are identical to those of rat GABAc receptor in retina.Reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that during the development of rat testis,the transcript levels of the ρ1 and ρ2 subunits showed little change,while the expression of ρ3 was gradually up-regulated.Immunofluorescence analysis using an anti-ρ1 antibody revealed that GABAc receptor exists on the elongated spermatid and sperm.Using a chlortetracycline assay,we found that N(4)-chloroacetylcytosine arabinoside, a GABAc receptor agonist,triggered rat sperm acrosome reaction;whereas(1,2,5,6-tetrahydropyridin-4-yl)methylphosphinic acid,a GABAc receptor antagonist, inhibited the ability of N(4)-chloroacetylcytosine arabinoside to induce acrosome reaction.These results suggested that GABAc receptors are also involved in rat sperm acrosome reaction.

  13. Techniques for sperm evaluation using fluorescent probes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrielle Thainar Mendes Cunha

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available  A variety of laboratory tests were developed to obtain more reliable results of sperm evaluation and increase the accuracy of sperm fertility predictions. These tests detected damage of sperm specific compartments or organelles, which cannot be detected in routine sperm analysis. The use of fluorescent probes and detection using fluorescent microscopy or flow cytometry is an important tool but a more precise and accurate laboratory test is needed. Propidium iodide and 6-carboxyfluorescein diacetate are used for evaluations of plasmatic membrane integrity. Fluorescein isothiocyanate, associated with conjugated lecithin Psium sativum or Arachis hypogaea, are used for evaluations of acrosome integrity. Two probes, MitoTracker or Rhodamine123, are generally used to measure the absence or presence of mitochondrial potential. However, a better option is 5,5’; 6,6’ - tetrachloro - 1,1’; 3,3’ -tetraetilbenzimidazolil-carbocyanine (JC-1 dye, which assesses not only the presence of mitochondrial potential and distinguished spermatozoa with poorly and highly functional mitochondria. Two techniques, TUNEL or COMETA, and the Acridine Orange Test (AOT dye are used to evaluate chromatin integrity. A fluorescence technique based on chlortetracycline (CTC or Merocyanine 540 is used to estimate whether sperm pass by or through the capacitation process. This review focuses on the fluorescent probes that are most widely used to evaluate plasma membrane integrity, capacitation, acrosome integrity, chromatin integrity and mitochondrial potential.

  14. An indirect conductimetric screening method for the detection of antibiotic residues in bovine kidneys.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myllyniemi, Anna-Liisa; Sipilä, Hannu; Nuotio, Lasse; Niemi, Anneli; Honkanen-Buzalski, Tuula

    2002-09-01

    An indirect conductimetric screening method using three test bacterium-medium combinations was developed for rapid detection of antibiotic residues in bovine carcasses. The detection time (DT), i.e. the point when the growth of the test bacterium was detected, was determined by observing the rate of change in the conductance plotted against time. This detection time averaged half of the reference time recorded by the instrument software. Total change in conductance (TC) was used as a further measure of growth. Threshold values for DT and TC were determined with inhibitor-free kidney samples. The presence of a residue was indicated if the DT exceeded the respective threshold value and was confirmed if the TC remained below the TC threshold value. The limits of detection (LODs) determined with fortified samples were at about or below the MRLs for cephalexin, chlortetracycline, ciprofloxacin, dihydrostreptomycin, enrofloxacin, oxytetracycline and penicillin G. The LODs for penicillin G, oxytetracycline and the sum of enrofloxacin and ciprofloxacin were also estimated with incurred samples; these samples were also analysed using liquid chromatography. The LODs determined with fortified and incurred samples were in close agreement. Given its rapid detection, good sensitivity to a wide range of antibiotics and ease of performance, the indirect conductimetric method developed here would seem to offer an appealing alternative to agar diffusion tests. PMID:12375852

  15. Relative efficacy of organic acids and antibiotics as growth promoters in broiler chicken

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikrant Laxman Bagal

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim: The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of organic acids as replacer to antibiotics in their various combinations on feed consumption, body weight gain, and feed conversion ratio (FCR in broiler chicks during different phases of growth. Materials and Methods: Antibiotics and organic acids were incorporated into boiler feed in different combinations to form 10 maize based test diets (T1 to T10. Each test diet was offered to four replicates of 10 birds each constituting a total of 400 birds kept for 45 days. Results: Significantly better effect in terms of body weight gain from supplementation of 1% citric acid and 1% citric acid along with antibiotic was observed throughout the entire study, whereas the effect of tartaric acid supplementation was similar to control group. Citric acid (1% along with antibiotic supplementation showed highest feed intake during the experimental period. Significantly better FCR was observed in groups supplemented with 1% citric acid and 1% citric acid along with antibiotic followed by antibiotic along with organic acids supplemented group. Conclusion: Growth performance of birds in terms of body weight, body weight gain, and FCR improved significantly in 1% citric acid which was significantly higher than antibiotic supplemented group. 1% citric acid can effectively replace antibiotic growth promoter (chlortetracycline without affecting growth performance of birds.

  16. High Throughput Detection of Tetracycline Residues in Milk Using Graphene or Graphene Oxide as MALDI-TOF MS Matrix

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Junyan; Liu, Yang; Gao, Mingxia; Zhang, Xiangmin

    2012-08-01

    In this work, a new pre-analysis method for tetracyclines (TCs) detection from the milk samples was established. As a good accomplishment for the existing accurate quantification strategies for TCs detection, the new pre-analysis method was demonstrated to be simple, sensitive, fast, cost effective, and high throughput, which would do a great favor to the routine quality pre-analysis of TCs from milk samples. Graphene or graphene oxide was utilized, for the first time, as a duel-platform to enrich and detect the TCs by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF MS). All together, four TCs were chosen as models: tetracycline, oxytetracycline, demeclocycline, and chlortetracycline. Due to the excellent electronic, thermal, and mechanical properties, graphene and graphene oxide were successfully applied as matrices for MALDI-TOF MS with free background inference in low mass range. Meanwhile, graphene or graphene oxide has a large surface area and strong interaction force with the analytes. By taking the advantage of these features, TCs were effectively enriched with the limit of detection (LOD) as low as 2 nM.

  17. Antibiotics in the coastal environment of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea: Spatial distribution, source analysis and ecological risks

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Thirty-eight antibiotics were systematically investigated in marine environment. • The distribution of antibiotics was significantly correlated with COD and NO3–N. • Untreated domestic sewage was the primary source of antibiotics. • Fluoroquinolones showed a strong sorption capacity onto sediments. • Oxytetracycline, norfloxacin and erythromycin–H2O indicated high risks. - Abstract: In this study, the occurrence and spatial distribution of 38 antibiotics in surface water and sediment samples of the Hailing Bay region, South China Sea, were investigated. Twenty-one, 16 and 15 of 38 antibiotics were detected with the concentrations ranging from <0.08 (clarithromycin) to 15,163 ng/L (oxytetracycline), 2.12 (methacycline) to 1318 ng/L (erythromycin–H2O), <1.95 (ciprofloxacin) to 184 ng/g (chlortetracycline) in the seawater, discharged effluent and sediment samples, respectively. The concentrations of antibiotics in the water phase were correlated positively with chemical oxygen demand and nitrate. The source analysis indicated that untreated domestic sewage was the primary source of antibiotics in the study region. Fluoroquinolones showed strong sorption capacity onto sediments due to their high pseudo-partitioning coefficients. Risk assessment indicated that oxytetracycline, norfloxacin and erythromycin–H2O posed high risks to aquatic organisms

  18. Sorption and Dissipation of Tetracyclines in Soils and Compost

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Ling-Ling; HUANG Li-Dong; CHUNG Ren-Shih; FOK Ka-Hang; ZHANG Yong-Song

    2010-01-01

    Two agricultural soils were collected from Dahu and Pinchen counties and swine manure compost(SMC)from Ping-tung County in Taiwan,China to investigate the sorption and dissipation of three tetracyclines(TCs),i.e.,oxytetracycline(OTC),tetracycline(TC)and chlortetracycline(CTC),in compost,soils and soil/compost mixtures with different organic carbon(OC)contents.There were seven treatments in total.TCs were most strongly adsorbed to SMC in all treatments due to the high OC content.When SMC was present in the soils,the sorption of TCs was significantly enhanced,which might be attributed to the increased OC content and CEC.The adsorption of TCs showed non-linear adsorption isotherms and fitted well to the Preundlich model.After 49 d of incubation at 25 ℃ in soils and soil/compost mixtures in the dark,TCs elapsed in all substrates,with the time required for 50% degradation(DT50)between 20 and 41 d,and the time for90% degradation(DT90)between 68 and 137 d.Soil amended with compost enhanced the stability of TCs and reduced their mobility.The dissipation of TCs in a soil environment was slow,indicating that these compounds might be persistent in soil.

  19. Hormetic effect(s) of tetracyclines as environmental contaminant on Zea mays

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Migliore, Luciana; Godeas, Feliciana [Dipartimento di Biologia, Universita Tor Vergata, Rome (Italy); De Filippis, Stefania Paola [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Toxicological Chemistry Unit, Rome (Italy); Mantovi, Paolo [Centro Ricerche Produzioni Animali, Reggio Emilia (Italy); Barchi, Davide [Assessorato all' Agricoltura, Regione Emilia-Romagna, Bologna (Italy); Testa, Cecilia; Rubattu, Nicolino [Istituto Zooprofilattico Sperimentale della Sardegna, Sassari (Italy); Brambilla, Gianfranco, E-mail: gianfranco.brambilla@iss.i [Istituto Superiore di Sanita, Toxicological Chemistry Unit, Rome (Italy)

    2010-01-15

    Animal wastes from intensive pig farming as fertilizers may expose crops to antimicrobials. Zea mays cultivations were carried out on a virgin field, subjected to dressing with pig slurries contaminated at 15 mg L{sup -1} of Oxy- and 5 mg L{sup -1} of Chlor-tetracycline, and at 8 mg L{sup -1} of Oxy and 3 mg L{sup -1} of Chlor, respectively. Pot cultivation was performed outdoor (Oxy in the range 62.5-1000 ng g{sup -1} dry soil) and plants harvested after 45 days. Tetracyclines analyses on soils and on field plants (roots, stalks, and leaves) did not determine the appreciable presence of tetracyclines. Residues were found in the 45-day pot corn only, in the range of 1-50 ng g{sup -1} for Oxy in roots, accounting for a 5% carry-over rate, on average. Although no detectable residues in plants from on land cultivations, both experimental batches showed the same biphasic growth form corresponding to a dose/response hormetic curve. - Oxytetracycline in soils elicits a hormetic response in Zea mays plants.

  20. Simultaneous Determination of TetracyclinesResidues in Bovine Milk Samples by Solid Phase Extraction and HPLC-FL Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehra Mesgari Abbasi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Introduction:Tetracyclines (TCs are widely used in animal husbandry and their residues in milk may resultinharmful effects on human. The aim of this study was to investigate the presence of TCs residues in various bovine milk samples from local markets of Ardabil, Iran. Methods:One hundred and fourteen pasteurized, sterilized and raw milk samples were collected from markets of Ardabil. Tetracycline, Oxytetracycline and Chlortetracycline (TCs residues extraction carried out by Solid Phase Extraction method. Determination of TCs residues were performed by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC method using Fluorescence detector.Results: The mean of total TCs residues in all samples (114 samples was 97.6 ±16.9ng/g and that of pasteurized, sterilized and raw milk samples were 87.1 ± 17.7, 112.0 ± 57.3 and 154.0 ± 66.3ng/g respectively. Twenty five point four percent of the all samples, and24.4%, 30% and 28.6% of the pasteurized, sterilized and raw milk samples, respectively had higher TCs residues than the recommended maximum levels (100ng/g. Conclusion:This study indicates the presence of tetracycline residues more than allowed amount. Regulatory authorities should ensure proper withdrawal period before milking the animals and definite supervisions are necessary on application of these drugs.

  1. 固相萃取法提取、高效液相色谱-紫外检测法同时测定蜂王浆中土霉素、四环素、金霉素残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薄海波; 陈立仁

    2004-01-01

    土霉素(Oxytetracycline,OTC)、四环素(Tetracycline,TC)、金霉素(Chlortetracycline,CTC)是防治蜂群幼虫腐臭病的常用抗生素,使用不当或过量使用会导致蜂产品中抗生素残留,对人类健康构成威胁,为此,世界各国规定了严格的残留限量.食品中四环素族抗生素残留检测的方法有微生物分析法、薄层色谱法、化学发光法、液相色谱法等,其中最传统的方法是微生物分析法,方法原理是四环素族抗生素抑制蜡样芽孢杆菌生长,在样品溶液周围产生抑菌圈,抑菌圈的大小与溶液中抗生素浓度成正比,

  2. Effects of a mixture of tetracyclines to Lemna gibba and Myriophyllum sibiricum evaluated in aquatic microcosms

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of a mixture of oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, tetracycline and doxycycline on Myriophyllum sibiricum and Lemna gibba was investigated using fifteen 12,000-L microcosms (k = 5, n = 3). Significant concentration-response relationships were only found for M. sibiricum, where dry mass was 69, 47, 30, and 7% of controls at respective treatment concentrations of 0.080, 0.218, 0.668, and 2.289 μmol/L. Somatic endpoints were strongly and negatively correlated with percent light transmission, except plant length, which was positively correlated. Treated microcosms experienced a reduction in the percent of surface irradiance penetrating the water column as high as 99.8% at a depth of 70 cm, relative to controls. Position relative to the water column was likely responsible for the differential effects observed between floating (L. gibba) and submerged (M. sibiricum) species of macrophytes. A hazard quotient assessment of the lowest EC10 value indicated significant risk, exceeding the critical HQ value, but not the lowest EC25 value. - Mixtures of tetracycline antibiotics pose a risk to submerged but not floating aquatic plants

  3. Long-term antibiotic exposure in soil is associated with changes in microbial community structure and prevalence of class 1 integrons.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cleary, David W; Bishop, Alistair H; Zhang, Lihong; Topp, Edward; Wellington, Elizabeth M H; Gaze, William H

    2016-10-01

    Antimicrobial resistance is one of the most significant challenges facing the global medical community and can be attributed to the use and misuse of antibiotics. This includes use as growth promoters or for prophylaxis and treatment of bacterial infection in intensively farmed livestock from where antibiotics can enter the environment as residues in manure. We characterised the impact of the long-term application of a mixture of veterinary antibiotics alone (tylosin, sulfamethazine and chlortetracycline) on class 1 integron prevalence and soil microbiota composition. Class 1 integron prevalence increased significantly (P Soil microbiota was analysed using 16S rRNA gene sequencing and revealed significant alterations in composition. Of the 19 significantly different (P < 0.05) OTUs identified, 16 were of the Class Proteobacteria and these decreased in abundance relative to the control plots. Only one OTU, of the Class Cyanobacteria, was shown to increase in abundance significantly; a curiosity given the established sensitivity of this class to antibiotics. We hypothesise that the overrepresentation of Proteobacteria as OTUs that decreased significantly in relative abundance, coupled with the observations of an increase in integron prevalence, may represent a strong selective pressure on these taxa. PMID:27495240

  4. Multiple Antimicrobial Resistance of Escherichia coli Isolated from Chickens in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Talebiyan, Reza; Kheradmand, Mehdi; Khamesipour, Faham; Rabiee-Faradonbeh, Mohammad

    2014-01-01

    Antimicrobial agents are used extremely in order to reduce the great losses caused by Escherichia coli infections in poultry industry. In this study, 318 pathogenic Escherichia coli (APEC) strains isolated from commercial broiler flocks with coli-septicemia were examined for antimicrobials of both veterinary and human significance by disc diffusion method. Multiple resistances to antimicrobial agents were observed in all the isolates. Resistance to the antibiotics was as follows: Tylosin (88.68%), Erythromycin (71.70%), Oxytetracycline (43.40%), Sulfadimethoxine-Trimethoprim (39.62%), Enrofloxacin (37.74%), Florfenicol (35.85%), Chlortetracycline (33.96%), Doxycycline (16.98%), Difloxacin (32.08%), Danofloxacin (28.30%), Chloramphenicol (20.75%), Ciprofloxacin (7.55%), and Gentamicin (5.66%). This study showed resistance against the antimicrobial agents that are commonly applied in poultry, although resistance against the antibiotics that are only applied in humans or less frequently used in poultry was significantly low. This study emphasizes on the occurrence of multiple drug resistant E. coli among diseased broiler chickens in Iran. The data revealed the relative risks of using antimicrobials in poultry industry. It also concluded that use of antibiotics must be limited in poultry farms in order to reduce the antibiotic resistances. PMID:25548716

  5. Determination of selected veterinary antimicrobials in poultry excreta by UHPLC-MS/MS, for application in Salmonella control programs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gorissen, Brecht; Reyns, Tim; Devreese, Mathias; De Backer, Patrick; Van Loco, Joris; Croubels, Siska

    2015-06-01

    The most important source of Salmonella spp. infection in humans is by the consumption of contaminated poultry products. Due to the risk of resistance development and its transfer from animals to humans, the Belgian Royal Decree concerning the eradication of Salmonella (C-2007/22784) prohibits treatment of poultry with antimicrobials against zoonotic Salmonella spp. To uncover illicit use, an analytical method using ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UHPLC-MS/MS) for the determination of antimicrobial residues in poultry excreta was developed and validated for classes having an active spectrum against Salmonella spp. in poultry: β-lactams (amoxicillin and penicillin V), fluoroquinolones (enrofloxacin, difloxacin, and flumequine), polymyxins (colistin), sulfonamides in combination with trimethoprim (sulfachloropyridazine, sulfadiazine, and sulfaclozine), and tetracyclines (chlortetracycline and doxycycline). A generic and high-throughput sample preparation was developed. Extraction of samples was performed by ultrasonication using a combination of acetonitrile and McIlvaine buffer, followed by centrifugation and filtration prior to analysis. The method was validated according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC for linearity, apparent recovery/trueness, repeatability, reproducibility, limit of quantification, limit of detection, specificity, matrix effect, and storage stability in matrix. To demonstrate the applicability of the method, an in vivo experiment was conducted. For each antimicrobial class, one registered drug was selected and administered in the drinking water to two laying hens. Excreta samples were collected every 12 h during and until 2 days after treatment and analyzed using the developed method. PMID:25633214

  6. Development of a quantitative multiclass/multiresidue method for 21 veterinary drugs in shrimp.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Hui; Kijak, Philip J

    2011-01-01

    A multiclass/multiresidue method has been developed and validated for the determination of 21 veterinary drug residues in shrimp, including sulfonamides (sulfadiazine, sulfamerazine, sulfamethazine, sulfachloropyridazine, sulfadimethoxine, and sulfaquinoxaline); tetracyclines (oxytetracycline, tetracycline, and chlortetracycline); (fluoro)quinolones (norfloxacin, ciprofloxacin, enrofloxacin, sarafloxacin, difloxacin, flumequine, oxolinic acid, and nalidixic acid); and cationic dyes (malachite green, gentian violet, leucomalachite green, and leucogentian violet), using HPLC/MS/MS. All drugs were quantifiable over a no less than 10-fold range with matrix-matched standards for linear external calibration, except for oxytetracycline, tetracycline, norfloxacin, and ciprofloxacin, for which norfloxacin-d5 was used as an internal standard. Two grams of preground shrimp sample was extracted twice with extractant at two different pH values. The combined supernatant was further diluted with an aqueous internal standard solution, and 50 microL extract was injected into the HPLC instrument. An online SPE system was set up for automated sample cleanup. A triple quadrupole mass spectrometer equipped with an electrospray ionization source was operated in the multiple-reaction-monitoring mode to acquire data. The method has been validated at three levels within the designated linear ranges for each drug, with accuracies between 77 and 115%, and most CV values below 15%. PMID:21563672

  7. Antibiogram pattern of bacteria causing endometritis in cows

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Udhayavel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim : To find out the organisms causing endometritis in cattle and to determine their in vitro sensitivity to various antibiotics Materials and methods: Thirty uterine secretion samples, 9 from Holstein Friesian and 21 from Jersey cows were collected in and around Namakkal district of Tamil Nadu from clinical cases of endometritis. The bacteria isolated both aerobically and anaerobically from endometritis showed the characteristic colony, were gram stained and confirmed by standard biochemical tests. The invitro antibiotic sensitivity test with different antibiotic discs were carried out. Results and Discussion: Out of 30 samples, 25 contained different strains of bacteria and 5 were found bacteriologically sterile. Different species of bacteria isolated from these samples were, Escherichia coli (36.66%, Klebsiella spp (30%, Proteus spp (13.33%, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (6.66%, Clostridium spp (3.33%. The in vitro antibiotic sensitivity test indicated that the highest number of isolates (64% were sensitive to Ceftriaxone, followed by Gentamicin, Enrofloxacin and Chlortetracycline (32%. Chloramphenicol showed sensitivity in minimum number (8% of isolates. Conclusion : This study revealed that the bacteria E.coli and Klebisella spp are more commonly isolated in endometritis in cows and the drug Ceftriaxone is highly effective. [Vet World 2013; 6(2.000: 100-102

  8. Escherichia coli tetracycline efflux determinants in relation to tetracycline residues in chicken

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Al-Bahry SN; Al-Mashani BM; Al-Ansari AS; Elshafie AE; Mahmoud IY

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To screen for Escherichia coli (E. coli) resistant to tetracycline, followed by identification of tet efflux genes by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, detection of tetracycline residues in chicken livers and kidneys were conducted using high performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS). Methods:Strains of E. coli were isolated from samples of chicken colon and screened for tetracycline resistance. Tetracycline genes conferring resistance (Tcr) were detected by polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Most of the isolates were resistant to tetracycline (97.9%). Results: PCR analysis indicated that Tcr E. coli R-plasmids contained tet(A), tet(B) and a combination of both efflux genes. None of the isolates contained other efflux tet genes tet (C, D, E and Y). High performance liquid chromatography-tandem quadrupole mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS-MS), a sensitive technique, was used to detect residues of chlortetracycline (CTC), oxytetracycline (OTC), doxycycline (DC) in chicken livers and kidneys. The samples containing tetracycline residues were at 0.13-0.65 pg/μL levels. Conclusions: Tetracycline and other antibiotics are commonly used in the poultry and meat production industry for prevention of microbial infections. Multiple antibiotic resistant bacteria in Oman have increased to alarming levels, threatening public health, domestic and may have adverse effect on environment.

  9. A novel green chemistry method for nonaqueous extraction and high-performance liquid chromatography detection of first-, second-, and third-generation tetracyclines, 4-epitetracycline, and tylosin in animal feeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Chinchilla, Fabio; Sánchez, Jorge; García, Fernando; Rodríguez, César

    2012-07-25

    Although tetracyclines and macrolides are common additives for animal nutrition, methods for their simultaneous determination in animal feeds are nonexistent. By coupling an organic extraction and solid-phase extraction cleanup to a high-performance liquid chromatography separation and a nonaqueous postcolumn derivatization, we succeeded in detecting from 0.2 to 24.0 μg kg(-1) of tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, tigecycline, and 4-epitetracycline in this complex and heterogeneous matrix. Minocycline and tylosin could also be detected with our procedure, but using UV spectrophotometry (1.5 ≤ LOD ≤ 1.9 mg kg(-1)). Linear responses with correlation coefficients between 0.996 and 0.999 were obtained for all analytes in the 0.5-10 mg kg(-1) concentration range. Average recoveries between 59 and 97% and between 98 and 102% were obtained for the tetracyclines and tylosin, respectively. Replicate standard deviations were typically below 5%. When this method was applied to 20 feeds marketed in Costa Rica, we detected labeling inconsistencies, banned mixtures of tetracyclines, and tetracycline concentrations that contravene international regulation. PMID:22738432

  10. Determination of tetracycline antibiotic residues in edible swine tissues by liquid chromatography with spectrofluorometric detection and confirmation by mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pena, Angelina; Lino, Celeste M; Alonso, Rosa; Barceló, Damia

    2007-06-27

    A sensitive and specific method is described for the simultaneous determination of oxytetracycline, tetracycline (TC), and chlortetracycline residues in edible swine tissues, by combining liquid chromatography with spectrofluorometric and mass spectrometry detection. The procedure involved a preliminary extraction with EDTA-McIlvaine buffer acidified at pH 4.0, followed by solid-phase extraction cleanup using a polymeric sorbent. The liquid chromatography analysis was performed with spectrofluorometric detection after postcolumn derivatization with magnesium ions. The limits of quantification were 50 microg/kg for muscle and 100 microg/kg for kidney tissues. The recovery values were greater than 77.8% for muscle and 65.1% for kidney. The method has been successfully used for the quantification of tetracyclines in swine tissues samples. The selective liquid chromatography mass spectrometric analysis for confirmation of oxytetracycline in one positive swine muscle sample was made by atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI). The APCI mass spectra of the TCs gave the protonated molecular ion and two typical fragment ions, required for their confirmation in single ion monitoring scan mode in animal tissues. PMID:17550268

  11. Assessment of antimicrobial usage and residues in commercial chicken eggs from smallholder poultry keepers in Morogoro municipality, Tanzania.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nonga, H E; Simon, C; Karimuribo, E D; Mdegela, R H

    2010-08-01

    Occurrence of antimicrobial residues in commercial chicken eggs was determined in Morogoro municipality between January and February 2007. Twenty smallholder farmers were interviewed on the types of antimicrobials, reasons of use and their awareness on antimicrobial withdrawal period. Seventy egg samples were collected for qualitative antimicrobial drug residues analysis by use of agar well diffusion and Delvotest SP assays. It was found that farmers use antimicrobial drugs as prophylaxis and treatment of common chicken diseases namely fowl typhoid (85%), infectious bursa disease (Gumboro) (65%) infectious coryza (65%), collibacilosis (55%), coccidiosis (54%), Newcastle disease (50%), helminthosis (20%) and fowl pox (15%). Antimicrobials accounted for 85% of the drugs commonly used. It was also found that 65% of the farmers treat their chicken themselves. The common drugs were oxytetracycline (75%), egg booster (50%), amprolium (35%), sulphamethoxypyridazine (35%), sulphanilamide (25%), chlortetracyclines (10%), chloramphenicol (10%), sulphadiazine-trimethoprim (20%), duoxycycline (20%), sulphadiazine (25%) and flumequine (10%). Eighty per cent of the farmers had knowledge on antimicrobial withdrawal period sold eggs before withdrawal period and almost 85% were unaware of possible effects of antimicrobial residues in humans. All 70 eggs were positive to antimicrobial residues by Delvotest kit, but 21.4% positive with agar well diffusion test. It was concluded that the presence of antimicrobial residues in table eggs could be of public health significance to the egg consumers in Morogoro municipality. PMID:19486498

  12. Acrosome membrane integrity and cryocapacitation are related to cholesterol content of bull spermatozoa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Srivastava N; Srivastava SK; Ghosh SK; Amit Kumar; Perumal P; Jerome A

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the cryoinjury prediction of spermatozoa in relation to its cholesterol content at fresh and frozen-thaw stages. Methods: Ejaculates (n=12) were processed for cryopreservation, acrosome integrity (fluorescent and giemsa stains), cryoinjury (distribution of non capacitated, capacitated and acrosome reacted, pattern F, B and AR, respectively of Chlortetracycline, CTC assay), in vitro fertiltiy (IVF) and cholesterol content of spermatozoa at fresh, pre-freeze and frozen-thaw stages were evaluated. Values were fitted in prediction equation to predict acrosome integrity (AI) and cryoinjury. Results: Study indicated that cholesterol content of fresh spermatozoa can be used to predict cholesterol content of spermatozoa at pre-freeze and frozen-thaw stages of cryopreservation protocol with medium to high level of accuracy (P<0.05 and P<0.01, respectively). Cholesterol content of fresh spermatozoa can be used to predict AI, pattern B and AR and Penetration Index (PI) of IVF with medium level of accuracy (P<0.05) at frozen-thaw but not at pre-freeze stage. Similarly cholesterol content of frozen-thaw spermatozoa can be used to predict AI and pattern AR of frozen-thaw spermatozoa with medium level of accuracy (P<0.05). Conclusion: This study revealed strong evidence that cholesterol content of fresh as well as frozen-thaw bull spermatozoa can be a good predictor of level of cryoinjury following preservation at ultra low temperature.

  13. Metal ion mediated synthesis of molecularly imprinted polymers targeting tetracyclines in aqueous samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qu, Guorun; Zheng, Sulian; Liu, Yumin; Xie, Wei; Wu, Aibo; Zhang, Dabing

    2009-10-01

    Molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) prepared in water-containing systems are more appropriate as adsorption materials in analyte extraction from biological samples. However, water as a polar solvent involved in the synthesis of MIPs frequently disrupts non-covalent interactions, and causes non-specific binding. In this study Fe(2+) was used as mediator to prepare MIPs, targeting tetracyclines (TCs) of tetracycline (TC), oxytetracycline (OTC) and chlortetracycline (CTC), with TC as template molecule and methacrylic acid (MAA) as functional monomer. The subsequent binding assay indicated that Fe(2+) was responsible for substantially improved specific binding in recognition of TCs by decreasing the non-specific binding. Spectrophotometric analysis suggested the existence of the strong interactions among TC, metal ions and MAA in the mixture of methanol and water. Moreover, mass spectrometric measurements verified that Fe(2+) could bridge between TC and MAA to form a ternary complex of one TC, one Fe(2+) and four MAAs with a mass of 844.857. Furthermore, combined with molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) for sample pretreatment, HPLC-UV analysis data revealed good performance of the obtained MIPs as adsorbents. The recoveries of TC, OTC and CTC in urine samples were 80.1-91.6%, 78.4-89.3% and 78.2-86.2%, respectively. This research strategy provides an example for preparation of desirable water-compatible MIPs extracting target drugs from aqueous samples by introducing metal ion as mediator into conventional polymerization system. PMID:19726243

  14. Addressing the challenges of tetracycline analysis in soil: extraction, clean-up, and matrix effects in LC-MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Connor, Seamus; Locke, Jonas; Aga, Diana S

    2007-11-01

    An optimized extraction and clean-up method for the analysis of chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline antibiotics in soil is presented in this work. Soil extraction using different solvents was performed, but the use of a 50 : 50 (v/v) methanol : acetate buffer (pH 8) solvent mixture in a pressurized liquid extraction (PLE) system proved to give the best extraction efficiency and reproducibility. The effect of soil composition on the PLE extraction efficiency was also examined, and results indicated that recovery data for one soil is not necessarily consistent with other soil types containing different compositions of clay and organic matter content. The percent recoveries of the optimized PLE method varied between the soils and ranged from 22-99%, depending on soil type, and more specifically clay content. In addition, the extent of ionization suppression caused by co-extracted humic acids was examined in an ion trap mass spectrometer (MS), and a single quadrupole MS. It was found that under positive electrospray ionization, the single quadrupole MS was less susceptible to ionization suppression than the ion trap MS. Therefore, various sample clean-up procedures were evaluated to selectively reduce the amount of co-extracted humic acids in the soil extracts. The most effective clean-up was obtained from the use of StrataX sorbent in combination with a strong anion exchange cartridge. PMID:17968453

  15. Determination of tetracyclines in food samples by molecularly imprinted monolithic column coupling with high performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiangli; He, Xiwen; Zhang, Yukui; Chen, Langxing

    2009-08-15

    A novel solid phase extraction (SPE) method for determination of tetracyclines (TCs) in milk and honey samples by molecularly imprinted monolithic column was developed. Using tetracycline (TC) as the template, methacrylic acid (MAA) as the functional monomer, ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) as the cross-linker, methanol as the solvent, cyclohexanol and dodecanol as the mixed porogenic solvents, a TC imprinted monolithic column was prepared by in situ molecular imprinting technique for the first time, and the optimal synthesis conditions and the selectivity of TC imprinted monolithic column were investigated. The interfering substances in food samples and TCs can be separated successfully on imprinted column. Molecularly imprinted solid phase extraction (MISPE) coupling with C18 column was used to determinate the TCs in milk and honey. The recoveries of this method for six tetracyclines antibiotics such as tetracycline (TC), oxytetracycline (OTC), minocycline (MINO), chlortetracycline (CTC), metacycline (MTC) and doxycycline (DTC) were investigated, and high recoveries of 73.3-90.6% from milk samples and 62.6-82.3% from honey samples were obtained. A method for determination of TCs at low concentration level in milk and honey samples was successfully developed by using the monolithic column as the precolumn for solid phase extraction of six TCs compounds. PMID:19576466

  16. Multiclass determination and confirmation of antibiotic residues in honey using LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lopez, Mayda I; Pettis, Jeffery S; Smith, I Barton; Chu, Pak-Sin

    2008-03-12

    A multiclass method has been developed for the determination and confirmation in honey of tetracyclines (chlortetracycline, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline), fluoroquinolones (ciprofloxacin, danofloxacin, difloxacin, enrofloxacin, and sarafloxacin), macrolides (tylosin), lincosamides (lincomycin), aminoglycosides (streptomycin), sulfonamides (sulfathiazole), phenicols (chloramphenicol), and fumagillin residues using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Erythromycin (a macrolide) and monensin (an ionophore) can be detected and confirmed but not quantitated. Honey samples (approximately 2 g) are dissolved in 10 mL of water and centrifuged. An aliquot of the supernatant is used to determine streptomycin. The remaining supernatant is filtered through a fine-mesh nylon fabric and cleaned up by solid phase extraction. After solvent evaporation and sample reconstitution, 15 antibiotics are assayed by LC-MS/MS using electrospray ionization (ESI) in positive ion mode. Afterward, chloramphenicol is assayed using ESI in negative ion mode. The method has been validated at the low part per billion levels for most of the drugs with accuracies between 65 and 104% and coefficients of variation less than 17%. The evaluation of matrix effects caused by honey of different floral origin is presented. PMID:18257525

  17. Determination of tetracyclines residues in honey by on-line solid-phase extraction high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jiantao; Chen, Ligang; Wang, Xiao; Jin, Haiyan; Ding, Lan; Zhang, Kun; Zhang, Hanqi

    2008-06-15

    An automated system using on-line solid-phase extraction (SPE) high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with ultraviolet (UV) detection was developed for the determination of tetracyclines (TCs), such as tetracycline (TC), oxytetracycline (OTC), chlortetracycline (CTC), metacycline (MC), and doxycycline (DC) in honey. One milliliter diluted honey sample was injected into a conditioned C18 SPE column and the matrix was washed out with water for 3 min. By rotation of the switching valve, TCs were eluted and transferred to the analytical column by the chromatographic mobile phase. Chromatographic conditions were optimized. TCs were separated in less than 8 min with a gradient elution using a mixture of 0.8% formic acid and acetonitrile. The UV detection was performed at 365 nm. The conditions for on-line SPE, including solvent and total time for loading sample and washing matrix were also optimized. Time for extraction and separation decreased greatly. For the five kinds of TCs, the limits of detection (LODs) at a signal-to-noise of 3 ranged from 5 to 12 ng g(-1). The relative standard deviations (R.S.D.) for the determination of TCs ranged from 3.4 to 7.1% within a day and ranged from 3.2 to 8.9% in 3 days, respectively. PMID:18585209

  18. Determination of residues of tetracycline antibiotics in animal tissues by high-performance liquid chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mulders, E J; van de Lagemaat, D

    1989-01-01

    A method has been developed for the determination of tetracycline (TC), oxytetracycline (OTC), chlortetracycline (CTC) and doxycycline (DC) in animal tissues. Tissues were macerated with a buffer solution and centrifuged. The supernatant solution was purified over a Sep-Pak C18 cartridge which had previously been deactivated by silylation. Tetracyclines were eluted with methanol, the solvent evaporated and the residue dissolved in the HPLC mobile phase. Compounds were separated on a Novapak Phenyl Radial-Pak cartridge with a Resolve CN guard column using gradient elution and UV detection. The method was tested on chicken, porcine and bovine muscle. Recoveries were determined for OTC, TC, CTC and DC added to porcine, bovine and chicken muscle at levels of 0.05 and 0.2 mg kg-1. They varied from about 90% for OTC to about 68% for DC with coefficients of variation of 1.8-7.5%. The limit of determination is 5-10 micrograms kg-1. The method was validated on tissues of laying-hens after intramuscular injection of OTC. PMID:2490571

  19. Ion chromatographic analysis of tetracyclines using polymeric column and acidic eluent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ding, X; Mou, S

    2000-11-01

    High-performance ion chromatography (HPIC) is first successfully used to analyze tetracycline antibiotics (TCs) in this work. The TCs are well separated on a solvent compatible polymeric cation-exchange column within 12 min. Isocratic elution with acetonitrile-hydrochloride is very advantageous for routine analysis. HPIC may be seen as a specific variant of the more common high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) for water-soluble and polar pharmaceuticals with low hydrophobicity. The detection limits (signal-to-noise ratio=3:1) of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC), chlortetracycline (CTC), doxycycline (DC) are 10, 10, 20 and 20 microg l(-1), respectively. Samples are prepared by vortex mixing with an ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid disodium salt (Na2EDTA)-McIlvaine buffer (pH 4.0) solution and the mixture filtrates through a molecular weight cut-off filter. The method has been successfully applied to monitor the OTC removal rate through every reactor in the process of OTC manufacturing wastewater treatment by bio-chemical technology. It is also applicable to determine the TCs residues in milk and milk powder with satisfying results. PMID:11128204

  20. Liquid chromatography with ultraviolet absorbance detection for the analysis of tetracycline residues in honey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Viñas, Pilar; Balsalobre, Nuria; López-Erroz, Carmen; Hernández-Córdoba, Manuel

    2004-01-01

    The separation of tetracyclines (TCs) using reversed-phase liquid chromatography (LC) is proposed. The use of an amide-based stationary phase prevents the interaction of tetracyclines with the residual silanol groups and thus avoids the appearance of tailed peaks. Detection was based on using an UV spectrophotometer and gradient elution with acetonitrile-oxalic acid as mobile phase permitted good separation of all the peaks. Specificity was demonstrated by the retention characteristics, UV spectra and peak purity index. Linearity, precision, recovery and sensitivity were satisfactory. The procedure was applied to the analysis of tetracycline residues (tetracycline, oxytetracycline (OTC), chlortetracycline (CTC), doxycycline (DC), minocycline (MINO) and methacycline (MTC)) in honey of different types. Extraction involved using a mild acidic solvent containing EDTA to release protein-bound or sugar-bound tetracyclines. For the clean-up step, solid phase extraction using phenyl cartridges was applied. Detection limits in the honey using the proposed procedure are between 15 and 30 ng g(-1), depending on the tetracycline. PMID:14753778

  1. Binding study of tetracyclines to human serum albumin using difference spectrophotometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zia, H; Price, J C

    1976-02-01

    The binding of several tetracyclines to human serum albumin was studied using difference spectrophotometry and a spectrophotometric probe, 2-(4'-hydroxybenzeneazo)benzoic acid. Difference spectra observed for the interaction between the probe and human serum albumin were similar to probe-bovine serum albumin spectra but were less intense for a given concentration of probe and did not reach saturation as quickly. Difference spectra for the tetracyclines were dependent on the characteristics of the ring substituents. More hydrophobic substituents on the D and C rings tended to give more intense difference spectra, but charge-transfer complexing may also have been involved since methacycline with a methylene group in the 6-position showed the most intense spectra of the compounds studied. Solvent perturbation, pH, and urea studies tended to confirm that something other than hydrophobic binding of the tetracyclines was involved. Drug-probe displacement studies showed that methacycline gave the greatest probe displacement followed by doxycycline, chlortetracycline, oxytetracycline, and tetracycline. This order of displacement of the anionic probe indicates that both hydrophobic and charge-transfer binding are involved. Experiments with calcium ion and ethylenediaminetetraacetic acid showed that the difference spectra obtained with the tetracyclines and human serum albumin were not the result of metallic bridge-chelate formation. PMID:3641

  2. Preparation and evaluation of solid-phase microextraction fiber based on molecularly imprinted polymers for trace analysis of tetracyclines in complicated samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Xiaogang; Pan, Jialiang; Hu, Yuling; Huo, Yin; Li, Gongke

    2008-04-25

    Molecularly imprinted polymer (MIP) is widely used in many fields because of its characteristics of high selectivity, chemical stability and easy preparation. To enhance the selectivity and applicability of solid-phase microextraction (SPME), a novel MIP-coated SPME fiber was firstly prepared by multiple co-polymerization method with tetracycline as template. It could be coupled directly to high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) and used for trace analysis of tetracyclines (TCs) in complicated samples. The characteristics and application of the fibers were investigated. The electron microscope provided a crosslinked and porous surface, and the average thickness of the MIP coating was 19.5 microm. Compared with the non-imprinted polymer (NIP) coated fibers, the special selectivity to tetracycline and structure-similar oxytetracycline, doxycycline, chlortetracycline were discovered with the MIP-coated fibers. The adsorption and desorption of TCs with the MIP-coated fiber could be achieved quickly. A method for the fluorimetric determination of four TCs by the MIP-coated SPME coupled with HPLC was developed. The optimized extraction conditions such as extraction solvent, desorption solvent, and stirring speed were studied. Linear ranges for the four TCs were 5.00-200 microg/L and detection limits were within the range of 1.0-2.3 microg/L. The method was applied to simultaneous multi-residue analysis of four TCs in the spiked chicken feed, chicken muscle, and milk samples with the satisfactory recoveries. PMID:18325526

  3. Effect of Different Oligosaccharides on Immunity, and Cecal Microflora in Broilers

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Ying; SHAN An-shan

    2004-01-01

    One hundred and forty-four Avin broilers (1 d old) were randomly divided into six treatments, with three replicates of eight birds each to investigate the effect of different oligosaccharides on index of immune organ, cecal weight and microflora in broilers. The control group (Group Ⅰ) was fed with corn-soybean meal as basal diet, and the trial groups (group Ⅱ, Ⅲ, Ⅳ, Ⅴ and Ⅵ ) were fed with basal diet plus 0.1% manoligosaccharides (MOS), 0.3% soybean-oligosaccharides (SBOS), 0.3% fructooligosaccharides (FOS), 0.3% α -glucooligosaccharides(α -GOS) and 0.03% chlortetracycline (CTC), respectively. The results showed that oligosaccharides supplementation significantly (P<0.05) increased bifidobacteria concentration ofyoung broilers and did not affect on bifidobacteria or escherichia coli concentration of the birds ( P >0.05). Cecal weights of 21 d old broilers fed with FOS and α -GOS were significantly (P <0.05) increased, higher than those with MOS and SBOS, but addition of oligosaccharides had no effect on the birds. The effect of oligosaccharides on the cecal length was the same as on the cecal weights. Oligosaccharides supplement did not affect on indexes of immune organs.

  4. Capacitation status and fertility of fresh and frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gillan, L; Evans, G; Maxwell, W M

    1997-01-01

    The effect of cryopreservation on the capacitation status and fertility of ram spermatozoa was observed. After the chlortetracycline staining technique was validated for ram spermatozoa, it was applied to fresh or long-term frozen-stored spermatozoa. Fresh spermatozoa displayed mainly the F pattern (non-capacitated; 61.3%), becoming B pattern (capacitated; 54%) and AR pattern (acrosome reacted; 41%) with incubation (6 h at 37 degrees C). In contrast, frozen spermatozoa displayed the B pattern (65.9%), becoming the AR pattern (64.2%) with incubation. This demonstrates that cryopreservation may cause membrane changes in ram spermatozoa functionally equivalent to capacitation. The differences in capacitation status did not affect in vitro fertilization rates between fresh and frozen spermatozoa, but pregnancy rates at Day 18 after intrauterine artificial insemination were higher for fresh than for frozen spermatozoa. This difference was not evident at Day 50, possibly as a result of the high embryonic loss between Days 18 and 50 when fresh unincubated and frozen incubated spermatozoa were inseminated. Further research is necessary to determine what part of the cryopreservation process is responsible for the membrane changes in ram spermatozoa. PMID:9418976

  5. Modulation of bovine sperm signalling pathways: correlation between intracellular parameters and sperm capacitation and acrosome exocytosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pons-Rejraji, Hanae; Bailey, Janice L; Leclerc, Pierre

    2009-01-01

    In the present study, the viability, intracellular pH (pHi), cAMP ([cAMP]i), calcium concentration and protein phosphotyrosine content were evaluated in relation to the acrosomal and capacitation status of freshly ejaculated bull spermatozoa. These parameters were evaluated before and after incubation with the capacitation inducer heparin, the phosphodiesterase inhibitor 3-isobutyl-1-methylxanthine (IBMX), the phosphotyrosyl-protein phosphatase inhibitors phenylarsine oxide (PAO) and sodium orthovanadate, and hydrogen peroxide. The results obtained were integrated to address the physiological interactions between the different signalling events affecting sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction. As expected, heparin promoted the expression of the 'B' pattern of chlortetracycline binding, increased pHi, [cAMP]i and the phosphotyrosine content of sperm proteins. The effects of heparin were enhanced by IBMX. Both PAO and sodium orthovanadate stimulated protein phosphotyrosine content and acrosomal exocytosis, although only PAO affected pH, Ca2+ and cAMP levels. Intracellular pH was increased while both Ca2+ and [cAMP]i were decreased. Physiological concentrations of H2O2 increased [cAMP]i and promoted acrosomal exocytosis. A significant positive correlation was found between sperm capacitation, protein phosphotyrosine content and stored Ca2+ concentration, whereas the acrosome reaction was correlated with pHi and Ca2+ concentration. This study presents the first global analysis of the major elements individually described during sperm capacitation and acrosome reaction signalling pathways, supported by statistical correlations. PMID:19383258

  6. The occurrence and fate of tetracyclines in two pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants of Northern China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Jie; Wang, Chong; Mao, Daqing; Luo, Yi

    2016-01-01

    Several parameters of the method, solid-phase extraction (SPE)-ultra-performance liquid chromatography (UPLC)-tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS), were optimized to investigate the presence and partitioning of 18 antibiotics (including sulfonamides, tetracyclines, quinolones, macrolides, and β-lactams) during various processing stages at two typical pharmaceutical wastewater treatment plants (PWWTPs) in northern China. Oxytetracycline (OTC), chlortetracycline (CTC), and tetracycline (TC) were all detected in each stage of both PWWTPs. Antibiotics were largely removed through biological units of both PWWTPs, with removal efficiencies of 62.0 to 78.3%. Mass balance analyses indicated that degradation (44.8-53.7% for PWWTP1 and 40.1-59.6% for PWWTP2) was the major mechanism responsible for the removal of tetracyclines, whereas the contribution of sorption by sludge (12.6-20.0% for PWWTP1 and 18.7-33.5% for PWWTP2) was less significant for the investigated pharmaceuticals. Although there was significant removal of tetracyclines through PWWTPs, large amounts of tetracyclines were still discharged through the effluent (up to 32.0 ± 6.0 mg L(-1)) and dewatered sludge (up to 5,481.1 ± 123.0 mg kg(-1)), which increased the risk of selecting for antibiotic resistance in the receiving water and soil environments. PMID:26396005

  7. Monitoring Antibiotic Residues and Corresponding Antibiotic Resistance Genes in an Agroecosystem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yasser M. Awad

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs have been commonly reported due to the overuse worldwide of antibiotics. Antibiotic overuse disturbs the environment and threatens public human health. The objective of this study was to measure the residual concentrations of veterinary antibiotics in the tetracycline group (TCs, including tetracycline (TC and chlortetracycline (CTC, as well as those in the sulfonamide group (SAs, including sulfamethazine (SMT, sulfamethoxazole (SMX, and sulfathiazole (STZ. We also isolated the corresponding ARGs in the agroecosystem. Four sediment samples and two rice paddy soil samples were collected from sites near a swine composting facility along the Naerincheon River in Hongcheon, Korea. High performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS/MS was employed with a solid-phase extraction method to measure the concentration of each antibiotic. ARGs were identified by the qualitative polymerase chain-reaction using synthetic primers. SAs and their corresponding ARGs were highly detected in sediment samples whereas TCs were not detected except for sediments sample #1. ARGs for TCs and SAs were detected in rice paddy soils, while ARGs for TCs were only found in sediment #2 and #4. Continuous monitoring of antibiotic residue and its comprehensive impact on the environment is needed to ensure environmental health.

  8. [Anaerobic digestion of animal manure contaminated by tetracyclines].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tong, Zi-Lin; Liu, Yuan-Lu; Hu, Zhen-Hu; Yuan, Shou-Jun

    2012-03-01

    Anaerobic digestion of pig manure spiked with tetracycline (TC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) and the degradation of the two antibiotics during the anaerobic digestion at 35 degrees C were investigated. The results indicate that propionate was the main volatile fatty acid produced during the anaerobic digestion followed by acetate. Compared with the CTC addition, TC + CTC addition showed obvious inhibitory effect on the hydrolysis and acidification of easily digestible organic components of pig manure. The cumulative methane production of TC, CTC, TC + CTC and CK2 during anaerobic digestion was 386.4 mL, 406.0 mL, 412.1 mL and 464.6 mL, respectively. Degradation of TC and CTC followed the first-order kinetic equation. The half-life of TC and CTC was 14-18 days and 10 days, respectively. After the treatment of 45-day anaerobic digestion, the degradation efficiency of TC was 88.6%-91.6% with 97.7%-98.2% of CTC. Therefore, anaerobic digestion shows the benefit on the management of animal manures contaminated by tetracyclines. PMID:22624404

  9. Effects of a mixture of tetracyclines to Lemna gibba and Myriophyllum sibiricum evaluated in aquatic microcosms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brain, Richard A. [Centre for Toxicology, Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)]. E-mail: rbrain01@uoguelph.ca; Wilson, Christian J. [Centre for Toxicology, Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Johnson, David J. [Centre for Toxicology, Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Sanderson, Hans [Centre for Toxicology, Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Bestari, Ketut [Centre for Toxicology, Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Hanson, Mark L. [Centre for Toxicology, Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Sibley, Paul K. [Centre for Toxicology, Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada); Solomon, Keith R. [Centre for Toxicology, Department of Environmental Biology, University of Guelph, Guelph, Ontario, N1G 2W1 (Canada)

    2005-12-15

    The impact of a mixture of oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline, tetracycline and doxycycline on Myriophyllum sibiricum and Lemna gibba was investigated using fifteen 12,000-L microcosms (k = 5, n = 3). Significant concentration-response relationships were only found for M. sibiricum, where dry mass was 69, 47, 30, and 7% of controls at respective treatment concentrations of 0.080, 0.218, 0.668, and 2.289 {mu}mol/L. Somatic endpoints were strongly and negatively correlated with percent light transmission, except plant length, which was positively correlated. Treated microcosms experienced a reduction in the percent of surface irradiance penetrating the water column as high as 99.8% at a depth of 70 cm, relative to controls. Position relative to the water column was likely responsible for the differential effects observed between floating (L. gibba) and submerged (M. sibiricum) species of macrophytes. A hazard quotient assessment of the lowest EC{sub 10} value indicated significant risk, exceeding the critical HQ value, but not the lowest EC{sub 25} value. - Mixtures of tetracycline antibiotics pose a risk to submerged but not floating aquatic plants.

  10. Fate of tetracyclines in swine manure of three selected swine farms in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Min Qiao; Wangda Chen; Jianqiang Su; Bing Zhang; Cai Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Veterinary antibiotics can enter the environment due to the common practice of land application of manure from treated animals.The environmental fate of tetracyclines in swine manure after composting and field application remains largely unknown.This study analyzed the concentrations of tetracyclines in manure,manure-based compost and compost amended soil in selected swine farms from Beijing,Jiaxing and Putian,China to determine the dilution effects of antibiotics when released into the soil environment.The results demonstrate that residues of antibiotics were detected in all samples and chlortetracycline as well as its degradation products should be regarded critically concerning their potential ecotoxicity.Application of manure-based compost to soil could reduce the possible risk posed by antibiotic contamination,but the trigger value of 100 μg/kg was still exceeded in soil samples (776.1 μg/kg dw) from Putian City after application of compost.Field studies such as the present one can help to improve the routine administration of antibiotic-containing composted manure.

  11. Effects of straw addition on increased greenhouse vegetable yield and reduced antibiotic residue in lfuvo-aquic soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhi-qiang; WANG Xiu-bin; LI Chun-hua; HUANG Shao-wen; GAO Wei; TANG Ji-wei; JIN Ji-yun

    2015-01-01

    Organic manure application is an important measure for high yield and good quality vegetable production, whereas organic manure is also a main source of residual antibiotic in soils. A 3-yr experiment was conducted on a lfuvo-aguic soil in Tianjin of northern China. The objective of this study was to investigate the effects of different fertilization patterns on yield of six-sea-son vegetables with celery and tomato rotation, and dynamic change of tetracyclines residues in the soil during the sixth growing season (tomato season). The ifeld experiment comprised six treatments depending on the proportion of nitrogen of each type of fertilizer:4/4 CN (CN, nitrogen in chemical fertilizer), 3/4 CN+1/4 MN (MN, nitrogen in pig manure), 2/4 CN+2/4 MN, 1/4 CN+3/4 MN, 2/4 CN+1/4 MN+1/4 SN (SN, nitrogen in corn straw), and CF (conventional fertilization, the amounts of nitrogen application were 943 and 912 kg N ha–1 for celery and tomato season, respectively). In addition to CF treatment, the amount of nitrogen application in other treatments was greatly reduced and equal (450 and 450 kg N ha–1 for celery and tomato season, respectively). Results showed that the combined application of 3/4 CN+1/4 MN achieved the highest yield and economic beneift in the ifrst four seasons, but addition of straw (2/4 CN+1/4 MN+1/4 SN treatment) performed better in the subsequent two seasons, and the average yields of 2/4 CN+1/4 MN+1/4 SN treatment were respectively higher by 9.9 and 12.8%than those of 4/4 CN treatment, and by 5.6 and 10.5%than those of CF treatment. The residual chlortet-racycline (CTC) in manure-amended soil for three consecutive years increased along with the increase of applied amount of pig manure. Under the same amount of pig manure application, content of CTC in straw-amended soil was obviously decreased compared with no straw-amended soil (3/4 CN+1/4 MN treatment), and averagely decreased by 41.9%for four sampling periods in the sixth season. Addition of crop straw

  12. Development of a modified QuEChERS method for the determination of veterinary antibiotics in swine manure by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Chunna; Wang, Mingru; Xiao, Hui; Huai, Binbin; Wang, Feng; Pan, Guangfang; Liao, Xiaoping; Liu, Yahong

    2016-08-01

    A QuEChERS (quick, easy, cheap, effective, rugged and safe) based methodology was developed for the rapid, simultaneous quantification and identification of 26 veterinary drugs in swine manure by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry. The selected antibiotics included tetracyclines, sulfonamides, macrolides, fluoroquinolones, lincosamides and pleuromutilins. This is the first study to determine pleuromutilin levels in manure. The QuEChERS process involved two simple steps. First, sample extraction with methanol: acetonitrile: 0.1M EDTA-McIlvaine buffer followed by phase separation with MgSO4: NaCl addition. The supernatant was then extracted and cleaned by dispersive solid-phase extraction using a primary-secondary amine (PSA) and octadecylsilane (C18) support. The proposed method provides a linearity in the range of 1-500ngmL-1 and linear regression coefficients (r) were greater than 0.996. MDL and MQL ranged between 0.01-1.86μgkg(-1) and 0.05-5.91μgkg(-1), respectively. Recoveries ranged from 61.39 to 105.65% with the exception of sulfaquinoxaline (55.7-56.8%) and valnemulin (33.7-37.7%). This method resulted in good precision (repeatability and reproducibility) and relative standard deviations less than 17% within the same day, and lower than 20% between days. The method was then applied to study the swine manure samples collected from Guangdong, China. Chlortetracycline, tetracycline, doxycycline, sulfadimidine and tilmicosin were detected in all samples indicating high residuals in manure. In fact tilmicosin was detected at 14400μgkg(-1) suggesting that prudent treatment of manure should be conducted to prevent environmental contamination. In conclusion, this workflow can provide a simpler and more cost-effective alternative to conventional methods and is compatible with processing large sample numbers over a short time period. PMID:27276651

  13. A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with resonance Rayleigh scattering detection for the determination of four tetracycline antibiotics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with resonance Rayleigh scattering detection (HPLC-RRS) was developed for simultaneous separation and determination of four tetracycline antibiotics (TCs). A good chromatographic separation among the compounds was achieved using a Synergi Fusion-RP column (150 mm x 4.6 mm; 4 μm) and a mobile phase consisting of methanol-acetonitrile-oxalic acid (5 mM) at the flow rate of 0.8 mL min-1. Column temperature was 30 deg. C. The RRS signal was detected at λex = λem = 370 nm. The recoveries of sample added standard ranged from 95.3% to 103.5%, and the relative standard deviation was below 2.79%. A detection limit of 2.12-5.12 μg mL-1 was reached and a linear range was found between peak height and concentration in the range of 10.36-518.0 μg mL-1 for oxytetracycline (OTC), 12.11-605.5 μg mL-1 for tetracycline (TC), 11.79-589.5 μg mL-1 for chlortetracycline (CTC) and 10.32-516.0 μg mL-1 for doxycycline (DC). The linear regression coefficients were all above 0.999. The method has been applied successfully to the determination of OTC, TC, CTC, DC in pharmaceutical formulations and in honey. The method was simple, rapid and showed a better linear relation and high repeatability

  14. Enriching membrane cholesterol improves stability and cryosurvival of buffalo spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajoriya, J S; Prasad, J K; Ramteke, S S; Perumal, P; Ghosh, S K; Singh, M; Pande, Megha; Srivastava, N

    2016-01-01

    Buffalo spermatozoa are comparatively more susceptible to freezing hazards than cattle spermatozoa. In recent times incubation of spermatozoa with cholesterol-loaded-cyclodextrins (CLC) has shown improvements in semen quality in several species. Therefore, this study was undertaken to evaluate the incubation level of CLC at which maximum benefit is derived for the buffalo spermatozoa. For the study, 120 million spermatozoa were incubated in 2, 3 and 4 mg/mL of CLC (Gr II, III and IV, respectively) and cholesterol and phospholipids content, their ratio, flow cytometric evaluation of plasma membrane integrity (PMI), plasma membrane fluidity and extent of cryoinjury (Chlortetracycline, CTC assay) were compared with an untreated control (Gr I). Additionally the ability of cholesterol-loaded-spermatozoa to undergo induced acrosome reaction (IAR) using ionophore calcium (A23187) was evaluated in frozen-thaw samples. Data show a significant and linear increase (CV=0.88) in cholesterol content of spermatozoa in Gr II, III and IV and a significant decrease in phospholipids content at frozen-thaw stage in Gr IV than Gr III spermatozoa. The study revealed a significant improvement in PMI and significant reduction in plasma membrane fluidity and cryoinjury of CLC treated spermatozoa at progressive stages in three groups compared to control. Nevertheless, spermatozoa of Gr II, III and IV were significantly less responsive to ionophore calcium (A23187) than Gr I. This study shows for the first time that incubation of buffalo bull spermatozoa with CLC (3mg/120×10(6)) prior to processing permits greater numbers of sperm to survive cryopreservation while allowing spermatozoa to capacitate and the acrosome to react to AR inducer ionophore calcium (A23187). PMID:26619942

  15. Effects of adsorption onto silica sand particles on the hydrolysis of tetracycline antibiotics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Hyun-Joong; Lim, Mi-Young; Kwon, Jung-Hwan

    2012-07-01

    Due to high usage of tetracycline antibiotics, concerns have been raised about their environmental fate. In this study, potential changes in the pseudo-first-order hydrolysis rate constants for three tetracyclines, tetracycline (TC), oxytetracycline (OTC) and chlortetracycline (CTC), were evaluated by measuring the rate constants in batch and column leaching experiments. The first-order hydrolysis rate constants were measured at pH 5, 7, and 9 using batch tests. The values were highest at pH 7 for all three tetracyclines (0.0030 ± 0.0004, 0.0042 ± 0.0001, and 0.0323 ± 0.0003 h(-1) for TC, OTC, and CTC, respectively), indicating relatively short environmental half-lives of tetracyclines. Interestingly, it was found that the rates of degradation of the parent tetracyclines were much faster when silica sand was present in a batch solution or when the solution was passed through a silica column. For example, the ratios of the first-order degradation rate constants obtained in the column experiments to those in batch experiments were 13.2, 2.1, and 2.0 for TC, OTC, and CTC at a volumetric flow rate of 0.08 mL h(-1), with an observed tendency for this ratio to increase with an increased flow rate. This indicates that the silica surface may serve as a catalyst for hydrolysis and that the actual environmental half-lives of tetracycline antibiotics could be shorter than those estimated from laboratory hydrolysis rate constants using the standard batch protocol. Furthermore, the toxicity of the column effluent containing hydrolysis metabolites was assessed using bioluminescence inhibition in Vibrio fischeri. It was estimated that the toxicity of the metabolites of CTC was lower than that of their parent compound, whereas the toxicity of metabolites of TC and OTC was as high as or higher than that of their parent compounds. PMID:22555157

  16. Degranulation of mast cells and inhibition of the response to secretory agents by phototoxic compounds and ultraviolet radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The symptoms of cutaneous phototoxicity from coal tar compounds and the nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug benoxaprofen are characterized by wheal and flare formation which is mediated by histamine released from dermal mast cells. Rat serosal mast cells were used as an in vitro model system to study the direct effect of phototoxic compounds on mast cell degranulation. The coal tar compounds studied included acridine and pyrene. Combined exposure of cells to acridine and UVA (320 to 400 nm) radiation caused mast cells to degranulate, as assayed by the release of [3H]serotonin. Maximum [3H]serotonin release (70 to 80%) was obtained with 50 microM acridine and 300 kJ/m2 UVA. Pyrene (25 microM), when photoexcited with UVB (280 to 360 nm) radiation, caused about 80% release of [3H]serotonin. No degranulation occurred with 20 microM benoxaprofen and UVB doses up to 7.2 kJ/m2. Trypan blue staining correlated well with degranulation caused by acridine plus UVA; however, with pyrene plus UVB there was greater [3H]serotonin release than dye uptake. Excitation of photosensitizers with doses of UV radiation that did not cause trypan blue staining suppressed degranulation of mast cells in response to chemical stimulation. Acridine, pyrene, and benoxaprofen in the presence of UV radiation inhibited the mast cells from responding to compound 48/80 or the calcium ionophore, chlortetracycline. Two other phototoxic compounds, chlorpromazine and deoxytetracycline, also abolished degranulation by compound 48/80. These findings indicate that phototoxic compounds: (1) cause degranulation in the presence of high doses of UV radiation; and (2) suppress degranulation of mast cells in response to secretory stimuli at doses of UV radiation that do not cause release of mediator

  17. In vitro capacitation and acrosome reaction in sperm of the phyllostomid bat Artibeus jamaicensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Álvarez-Guerrero, Alma; González-Díaz, Francisco; Medrano, Alfredo; Moreno-Mendoza, Norma

    2016-04-01

    Sperm capacitation occurs during the passage of sperm through the female reproductive tract. Once the sperm binds to the pellucid zone, the acrosome reaction to enable penetration of the oocyte is completed. In this study, sperm of Artibeus jamaicensis bat was used to evaluate both capacitation status and the acrosome reaction under in vitro conditions, incubating sperm at 32 and 37°C with and without progesterone. Sperm was incubated at different times to assess sperm cells' functionality in terms of capacitation and acrosome reaction, using the chlortetracycline staining, lectin fluoresceinisocyanate conjugate-Pisum sativum agglutinin (FITC-PSA), and transmission electron microscopy. Sperm cells that presented uniform fluorescence throughout the head and mid-piece were classified as non-capacitated. Subsequently, sperm cells, which were observed with fluorescence only in the anterior portion of the head and mid-piece, were classified as capacitated. Sperm cells with no fluorescence in the head, but fluorescence in the mid-piece, were categorized as sperm cells that have carried out the acrosome reaction. During the acrosome reaction, sperm cells showed changes in their morphology, so it was not possible to distinguish the plasma and acrosomal membranes. Around the entire head, it was not possible to distinguish the fusion points between these membranes that made it possible for the acrosomal reaction to take place and thus to release the enzymes necessary to penetrate the pellucid zone. In conclusion, under appropriate in vitro conditions and by supplementing the culture medium with progesterone, A. jamaicensis bat sperm cells are able to be capacitated in a period from 6 to 8 h and to carry out the acrosome reaction. PMID:26744028

  18. Diurnal variations in the occurrence and the fate of hormones and antibiotics in activated sludge wastewater treatment in Oslo, Norway

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present an assessment of the dynamics in the influent concentration of hormones (estrone, estriol) and antibiotics (trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin) in the liquid phase including the efficiency of biological municipal wastewater treatment. The concentration of estradiol, 17-α-ethinylestradiol, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, demeclocycline, chlortetracycline, cefuroxime, cyclophosphamide, and ifosfamide were below the limit of detection in all of the sewage samples collected within this study. Two different types of diurnal variation pattern were identified in the influent mass loads of selected antibiotics and hormones that effectively correlate with daily drug administration patterns and with the expected maximum human hormone release, respectively. The occurrence of natural hormones and antimicrobials, administered every 12 hours, shows a daily trend of decreasing contaminant mass load, having the maximum values in the morning hours. The occurrence of antibiotics, typically administered every 8 hours, indicates a daily peak value in samples collected under the highest hydraulic loading. The efficiency of biological removal of both hormones and antibiotics is shown to be limited. Compared to the values obtained in the influent samples, increased concentrations are observed in the biologically treated effluent for trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin, mainly as a result of deconjugation processes. Ciprofloxacin is shown as the predominant antimicrobial compound in the effluent, and it is present at quantities approximately 10 fold greater than the total mass of the other of the compounds due to poor removal efficiency and alternating solid-liquid partitioning behaviour. Our results suggest that, to increase the micro-pollutant removal and the chemical dosing efficiency in enhanced tertiary treatment, significant benefits can be derived from the optimisation of reactor design and the development of control schemes that

  19. Effect of medium on the kinematics of frozen-thawed ram spermatozoa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mortimer, Sharon T; Maxwell, W M Chis

    2004-02-01

    Cervically inseminated cryopreserved ram spermatozoa have reduced fertility due to poor mucus-penetrating ability. This effect is ameliorated by the addition of 20% (v/v) seminal plasma (SP) to the phosphate-buffered saline (PBS) thawing medium. The aims of this study were to determine whether the impaired mucus penetration was due to alterations in the sperm motility and, if so, whether these alterations were due to the SP or its viscosity, or to the medium components. To this end, artificial SP medium (ASP), a medium which supports motility but not capacitation, was compared with PBS and SP. Thawed, pooled semen from seven mature rams was layered under 1 ml each of PBS, SP and ASP and motile spermatozoa allowed to swim up (37 degrees C, 30 min). Upper regions of the overlays were harvested, and the capacitation status of the spermatozoa in each suspension determined by chlortetracycline (CTC) analysis. Sperm movement was videotaped in 300 microm chambers for both computer-aided sperm analysis assessment and manual flagellar curvature analysis. There was no effect of the culture medium on the concentration of spermatozoa recovered by swim up, nor on the proportion of motile spermatozoa. However, the spermatozoa resuspended in PBS did show changes associated with capacitation in both the CTC-binding patterns and in their movement patterns. These changes were significantly greater than those observed in spermatozoa resuspended in SP or ASP. These results indicated that the differences in sperm movement and function observed in SP medium were not due to changes in viscosity, but rather to components of the medium. PMID:15056794

  20. A Drug Combination Screen Identifies Drugs Active against Amoxicillin-induced Round Bodies of Borrelia burgdorferi Persisters from an FDA Drug Library

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie eFeng

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Although currently recommended antibiotics for Lyme disease such as doxycycline or amoxicillin cure the majority of the patients, about 10-20% of patients treated for Lyme disease may experience lingering symptoms including fatigue, pain, or joint and muscle aches. Under stress conditions such as starvation or antibiotic exposure, Borrelia burgdorferi can develop round body forms, which are a type of persister bacteria that are not killed by current Lyme antibiotics. To identify more effective drugs that are active against the round bodies of B. burgdorferi, we established a round body persister model induced by amoxicillin and screened the Food and Drug Administration (FDA drug library consisting of 1581 drug compounds and also 22 drug combinations using the SYBR Green I/propidium iodide (PI viability assay. We identified 23 drug candidates that have higher activity against the round bodies of B. burgdorferi than either amoxicillin or doxycycline. Eleven of these scored better than metronidazole and tinidazole which have been previously described to be active against round bodies. While some drug candidates such as daptomycin and clofazimine overlapped with a previous screen against stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters, additional drug candidates active against round bodies we identified include artemisinin, ciprofloxacin, nifuroxime, fosfomycin, chlortetracycline, sulfacetamide, sulfamethoxypyridazine and sulfathiozole. Two triple drug combinations had the highest activity against round bodies and stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters: artemisinin/cefoperazone/doxycycline and sulfachlorpyridazine/daptomycin/doxycycline. These findings confirm and extend previous findings that certain drug combinations have superior activity against B. burgdorferi persisters in vitro, even if pre-treated with amoxicillin. These findings may have implications for improved treatment of Lyme disease.

  1. A Drug Combination Screen Identifies Drugs Active against Amoxicillin-Induced Round Bodies of In Vitro Borrelia burgdorferi Persisters from an FDA Drug Library

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Jie; Shi, Wanliang; Zhang, Shuo; Sullivan, David; Auwaerter, Paul G.; Zhang, Ying

    2016-01-01

    Although currently recommended antibiotics for Lyme disease such as doxycycline or amoxicillin cure the majority of the patients, about 10–20% of patients treated for Lyme disease may experience lingering symptoms including fatigue, pain, or joint and muscle aches. Under experimental stress conditions such as starvation or antibiotic exposure, Borrelia burgdorferi can develop round body forms, which are a type of persister bacteria that appear resistant in vitro to customary first-line antibiotics for Lyme disease. To identify more effective drugs with activity against the round body form of B. burgdorferi, we established a round body persister model induced by exposure to amoxicillin (50 μg/ml) and then screened the Food and Drug Administration drug library consisting of 1581 drug compounds and also 22 drug combinations using the SYBR Green I/propidium iodide viability assay. We identified 23 drug candidates that have higher activity against the round bodies of B. burgdorferi than either amoxicillin or doxycycline. Eleven individual drugs scored better than metronidazole and tinidazole which have been previously described to be active against round bodies. In this amoxicillin-induced round body model, some drug candidates such as daptomycin and clofazimine also displayed enhanced activity which was similar to a previous screen against stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters not exposure to amoxicillin. Additional candidate drugs active against round bodies identified include artemisinin, ciprofloxacin, nifuroxime, fosfomycin, chlortetracycline, sulfacetamide, sulfamethoxypyridazine and sulfathiozole. Two triple drug combinations had the highest activity against amoxicillin-induced round bodies and stationary phase B. burgdorferi persisters: artemisinin/cefoperazone/doxycycline and sulfachlorpyridazine/daptomycin/doxycycline. These findings confirm and extend previous findings that certain drug combinations have superior activity against B. burgdorferi

  2. Prevalence of veterinary antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant Escherichia coli in the surface water of a livestock production region in northern China.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuelian Zhang

    Full Text Available This study investigated the occurrence of 12 veterinary antibiotics (VAs and the susceptibility of Escherichia coli (E. coli in a rural water system that was affected by livestock production in northern China. Each of the surveyed sites was determined with at least eight antibiotics with maximum concentration of up to 450 ng L(-1. The use of VAs in livestock farming probably was a primary source of antibiotics in the rivers. Increasing total antibiotics were measured from up- to mid- and downstream in the two tributaries. Eighty-eight percent of the 218 E. coli isolates that were derived from the study area exhibited, in total, 48 resistance profiles against the eight examined drugs. Significant correlations were found among the resistance rates of sulfamethoxazole-trimethoprim, chloromycetin and ampicillin as well as between tetracycline and chlortetracycline, suggesting a possible cross-selection for resistance among these drugs. The E. coli resistance frequency also increased from up- to midstream in the three rivers. E. coli isolates from different water systems showed varying drug numbers of resistance. No clear relationship was observed in the antibiotic resistance frequency with corresponding antibiotic concentration, indicating that the antibiotic resistance for E. coli in the aquatic environment might be affected by factors besides antibiotics. High numbers of resistant E. coli were also isolated from the conserved reservoir. These results suggest that rural surface water may become a large pool of VAs and resistant bacteria. This study contributes to current information on VAs and resistant bacteria contamination in aquatic environments particularly in areas under intensive agriculture. Moreover, this study indicates an urgent need to monitor the use of VAs in animal production, and to control the release of animal-originated antibiotics into the environment.

  3. Determination of tetracycline residues in soil by pressurized liquid extraction and liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andreu, Vicente; Vazquez-Roig, Pablo; Blasco, Cristina; Picó, Yolanda

    2009-07-01

    An optimized extraction and cleanup method for the analysis of chlortetracycline (CTC), doxycycline (DC), oxytetracycline (OTC) and tetracycline (TC) in soil is presented. Soil extraction in a pressurized liquid extraction system, followed by extract clean up using solid-phase extraction (SPE) and tetracycline determination by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) provided appropriate efficiency and reproducibility. Different dispersing agents and solvents for soil extraction and several SPE cartridges for cleanup were compared. The best extraction results were obtained using ethylenediamine tetraacetic acid-treated sand as dispersing agent, and water at 70 degrees C. The most effective cleanup was obtained using Strata-X sorbent in combination with a strong anion exchange cartridge. Recoveries ranged from 71% to 96% and precision, as indicated by the relative standard deviations, was within the range of 8-15%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) by using LC-MS/MS, based on signal-to-noise ratio (S/N) of 10, ranged from 1 microg kg(-1) for TC to 5 microg kg(-1) for CTC. These results pointed out that this technique is appropriate to determine tetracyclines in soils. Analysis of 100 samples taken in the Valencian Community revealed that, in soil, up to 5 microg kg(-1) CTC, 15 microg kg(-1) OTC, 18 microg kg(-1) TC, and 12 microg kg(-1) DC could be detected. Detection of the analytes in several samples, which typify great part of the Spanish agricultural soils, should be outlined as most important result of this study. PMID:19205670

  4. Tetracyclines: a pleitropic family of compounds with promising therapeutic properties. Review of the literature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Griffin, Michael O; Fricovsky, Eduardo; Ceballos, Guillermo; Villarreal, Francisco

    2010-09-01

    There must be something unique about a class of drugs (discovered and developed in the mid-1940s) where there are more than 130 ongoing clinical trials currently listed. Tetracyclines were developed as a result of the screening of soil samples for antibiotic organisms. The first of these compounds chlortetracycline was introduced in 1948. Soon after their development tetracyclines were found to be highly effective against various pathogens including rickettsiae, Gram-positive, and Gram-negative bacteria, thus, becoming a class of broad-spectrum antibiotics. The mechanism of action of tetracyclines is thought to be related to the inhibition of protein synthesis by binding to the 30S bacterial ribosome. Tetracyclines are also an effective anti-malarial drug. Over time, many other "protective" actions have been described for tetracyclines. Minocycline, which can readily cross cell membranes, is known to be a potent anti-apoptotic agent. Its mechanism of action appears to relate to specific effects exerted on apoptosis signaling pathways. Another tetracycline, doxycycline is known to exert antiprotease activities. Doxycycline can inhibit matrix metalloproteinases, which contribute to tissue destruction activities in diseases such as gingivitis. A large body of literature has provided additional evidence for the "beneficial" actions of tetracyclines, including their ability to act as oxygen radical scavengers and anti-inflammatory agents. This increasing volume of published work and ongoing clinical trials supports the notion that a more systematic examination of their possible therapeutic uses is warranted. This review provides a summary of tetracycline's multiple mechanisms of action and while using the effects on the heart as an example, this review also notes their potential to benefit patients suffering from various pathologies such as cancer, Rosacea, and Parkinson's disease. PMID:20592239

  5. Effect of Origanum chemotypes on broiler intestinal bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Betancourt, Liliana; Rodriguez, Fernando; Phandanouvong, Vienvilay; Ariza-Nieto, Claudia; Hume, Michael; Nisbet, David; Afanador-Téllez, German; Van Kley, Alexandra Martynova; Nalian, Armen

    2014-10-01

    Essential oils have been proposed as alternatives to antibiotic use in food animal production. This study evaluated 3 chemotypes of the Origanum genus, containing varying amounts of secondary metabolites carvacrol, thymol, and sabinene, in the broiler chicken diet. Aerial parts of Origanum vulgare L. (OL), O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (OH), and O. majorana (OM) were collected from a greenhouse located in the high altitude Sabana de Bogotá (Savanna of Bogotá) and O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (OG) produced and ground in Greece. Oregano essential oils (OEO) from these plants were obtained by steam distillation and analyzed by gas chromatography coupled to a mass spectrometer. Six treatments were evaluated: 200 mg/kg of OEO from OH, OL, and OM, 50 mg/kg of OEO from OG, 500 mg/kg of chlortetracycline, and without additives. Broiler chicks were maintained at 2,600 m above sea level, placed in brooder cages under a completely randomized design. Template DNA was isolated from duodenal, jejunal, ileal, and cecal contents in each group and bacterial 16S rDNA patterns were analyzed by denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis. Dendrograms of denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis band patterns revealed 2 main clusters, OEO-treated chicks and nontreated control chicks, in each intestinal segment. Band patterns from different gut compartments revealed major bacterial population shifts in the foregut (duodenum, jejunum, and ileum) compared with the hindgut (cecum and colon) at all ages evaluated (P ascites was seen in additive-supplemented groups compared with the control group. This study represents the first work to evaluate the effects of the 3 main chemotypes of Origanum genus in broilers. PMID:25071230

  6. Degradation of Tetracyclines in Pig Manure by Composting with Rice Straw.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chai, Rushan; Huang, Lidong; Li, Lingling; Gielen, Gerty; Wang, Hailong; Zhang, Yongsong

    2016-03-01

    A holistic approach was followed for utilizing tetracyclines (TCs)-contaminated pig manure, by composting this with rice straw in a greenhouse for CO₂ fertilization and composted residue application. After composting, the composted residues can be applied to cropland as a supplemental source of synthetic fertilizers. The objective of this study was to determine the effect of pig manure-rice straw composting on the degradation of TCs in pig manure. The results showed that greenhouse composting significantly accelerated the degradation of TCs. Contents (150 mg·kg(-1)) of oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) in the composting feedstock could be completely removed within 42 days for OTC and TC, and 14 days for CTC. However, in the control samples incubated at 25 °C in the dark, concentrations of OTC, TC and CTC only decreased 64.7%, 66.7% and 73.3%, respectively, after 49 days. The degradation rates of TCs in the composting feedstock were in the order of CTC > TC > OTC. During the composting process, CTC dissipated rapidly with the time required for 50% degradation (DT50) and 90% degradation (DT90) of 2.4 and 7.9 days, but OTC was more persistent with DT50 and DT90 values of 5.5 and 18.4 days. On the basis of the results obtained in this study, it could be concluded that pig manure-rice straw composting in a greenhouse can help to accelerate the degradation of TCs in pig manure and make composted residues safer for field application. This technology could be an acceptable practice for greenhouse farmers to utilize TCs-contaminated pig manure. PMID:26927136

  7. Study of spatial and temporal distribution of antimicrobial in water and sediments from caging fish farms by on-line SPE-LC-MS/MS.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monteiro, Sérgio H; Francisco, Jeane G; Andrade, Graziela C R M; Botelho, Rafael G; Figueiredo, Leila A; Tornisielo, Valdemar L

    2016-09-01

    An on-line solid phase extraction liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (SPE-LC-MS/MS) method for the determination of 12 antimicrobials in sediment and surface water was developed and validated. Furthermore, the spatial and temporal antimicrobials distributions in the sediment and in the water of four fish farms located in the hydroelectric dam of Ilha Solteira Reservoir in Brazil were investigated over four seasons in three sampling sites: at the fish cages, 100 and 1,000 m downstream far from the cages. The method was performed using an Agilent Zorbax 80 SB-C8 column (9.4 × 15 mm, 5 µm) as the loading column, and the Agilent Zorbax Eclipse Plus C18 column (3.0 × 100 mm, 3.5 µm) as a separation column within a run time of 13 min. The limits of quantification were less than 9 ng·L(-1) for the antibiotics in water and 16 µg·kg(-1) in sediment; the recovery ranged from 80 to 119%, with a variation coefficient less than 11%, and the repeatability was lower than 15%. Oxytetracycline was found in the water in all sample seasons. However, florfenicol was identified in April and October 2013 and January 2014, and tetracycline was present in July 2013. Regarding the sediment, oxytetracycline and tetracycline were found in all sampling periods, but chlortetracycline was only identified in January 2014. The spatial distribution of antimicrobials showed that the main pollution source came from the fish farms. This study demonstrated that the proposed method is reliable for the monitoring of antimicrobials in water and sediments and it showed contamination in both matrices from Ilha Solteira Reservoir. PMID:27249158

  8. Irradiation studies of local Streptomyces strains for higher antibiotic producing capacity. Part of a coordinated programme on radiation microbiology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The 14 mutants produced by sequential exposure to gamma and ultraviolet irradiation were found to belong to different fundamental types of variants differing in morphology, stability, and metabolite spectra from the parent strain. The first hour mutants, M-1 to M-4 could be considered as belonging to the first category of mutants. Metabolites produced were the same as the parent but differ only in quantity. One was a morphological mutant, M-4 which differed from the parent strain in the production of a brown pigment and conidia, and lack of aerial mycelium. It was found to be most stable and capable of producing high antibiotic yield. The rest of the mutants, M-5 to M-14 could be grouped in the second category. The synthesis of one or more metabolites of the parent strain has been lost by mutation. Unexpectedly, a mutant, M-9 instead of synthesizing either oxytetracycline or tetracycline produced chlortetracycline. Coconut water was found inhibitory to the production of antibiotics by the parent strain and the high and low producing mutants. Modifying the medium by incorporating phosphate and adjusting the initial pH to 4.75 raised the antibiotic yield of the 10% coconut water supplemented medium of M-4 more than the control. Higher pH than the optimum shortened the lag phase but reduced the antibiotic yield while a lower initial pH prevented the growth of the organism giving negligible yield. A reduction of pH to pH 4.5 for the initial 48 hours lengthened the lag phase with almost no adverse effect on the yield. The incorporation of large amounts of coconut water aggravated the amino acid imbalance of the medium

  9. Performance of vertical up-flow constructed wetlands on swine wastewater containing tetracyclines and tet genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xu; Liu, Chaoxiang; Li, Ke; Su, Jianqiang; Zhu, Gefu; Liu, Lin

    2015-03-01

    Antibiotics and antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs) pollution in animal feeding farms received more public attention recently. Livestock wastewater contains large quantities of antibiotics and ARGs even after traditional lagoon treatment. In this study, the performance of vertical up-flow constructed wetlands (VUF-CWs) on swine wastewater containing tetracycline compounds (TCs) and tet genes was evaluated based on three aspects, TCs and tet genes removal efficiencies, residual TCs and tet genes in soils and plants, and the effect of TCs accumulation on nutrients removal and tet genes development. High removal efficiencies (69.0-99.9%) were achieved for oxytetracycline (OTC), tetracycline (TC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) with or without OTC spiked in the influent additionally. TCs concentrations in surface soils increased at first two sampling periods and then decreased after plants were harvested. Satisfactory nutrients removal efficiencies were also obtained, but TN and NH4-N removal efficiencies were significantly negative correlated with total concentration of TCs (∑TCs) in the soils (p < 0.01). The absolute abundances of all the target genes (tetO, tetM, tetW, tetA, tetX and intI1) were greatly reduced with their log units ranging from 0.26 to 3.3. However, the relative abundances of tetO, tetM and tetX in some effluent samples were significantly higher than those in the influent (p < 0.05). The relative abundances of tet genes except for tetO were significantly correlated with ∑TCs in the soils (p < 0.05). In summary, the proposed VUF-CWs are effective alternative for the removal of TCs and tet genes. But it is of great importance to prevent large accumulation of TCs in the soils. PMID:25528541

  10. A reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography coupled with resonance Rayleigh scattering detection for the determination of four tetracycline antibiotics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Lifeng [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China); Peng Jingdong [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)], E-mail: hxpengjd@swu.edu.cn; Liu Limin [School of Chemistry and Chemical Engineering, Southwest University, Chongqing 400715 (China)

    2008-12-07

    A new reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography with resonance Rayleigh scattering detection (HPLC-RRS) was developed for simultaneous separation and determination of four tetracycline antibiotics (TCs). A good chromatographic separation among the compounds was achieved using a Synergi Fusion-RP column (150 mm x 4.6 mm; 4 {mu}m) and a mobile phase consisting of methanol-acetonitrile-oxalic acid (5 mM) at the flow rate of 0.8 mL min{sup -1}. Column temperature was 30 deg. C. The RRS signal was detected at {lambda}{sub ex} = {lambda}{sub em} = 370 nm. The recoveries of sample added standard ranged from 95.3% to 103.5%, and the relative standard deviation was below 2.79%. A detection limit of 2.12-5.12 {mu}g mL{sup -1} was reached and a linear range was found between peak height and concentration in the range of 10.36-518.0 {mu}g mL{sup -1} for oxytetracycline (OTC), 12.11-605.5 {mu}g mL{sup -1} for tetracycline (TC), 11.79-589.5 {mu}g mL{sup -1} for chlortetracycline (CTC) and 10.32-516.0 {mu}g mL{sup -1} for doxycycline (DC). The linear regression coefficients were all above 0.999. The method has been applied successfully to the determination of OTC, TC, CTC, DC in pharmaceutical formulations and in honey. The method was simple, rapid and showed a better linear relation and high repeatability.

  11. Diurnal variations in the occurrence and the fate of hormones and antibiotics in activated sludge wastewater treatment in Oslo, Norway

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plosz, Benedek Gy., E-mail: benedek.plosz@niva.no [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, Gaustadalleen 21, NO-0349, Oslo (Norway); Leknes, Henriette [Norwegian Institute for Air Research NILU, 2027 Kjeller (Norway); Liltved, Helge; Thomas, Kevin V. [Norwegian Institute for Water Research, NIVA, Gaustadalleen 21, NO-0349, Oslo (Norway)

    2010-03-15

    We present an assessment of the dynamics in the influent concentration of hormones (estrone, estriol) and antibiotics (trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole, tetracycline, ciprofloxacin) in the liquid phase including the efficiency of biological municipal wastewater treatment. The concentration of estradiol, 17-{alpha}-ethinylestradiol, doxycycline, oxytetracycline, demeclocycline, chlortetracycline, cefuroxime, cyclophosphamide, and ifosfamide were below the limit of detection in all of the sewage samples collected within this study. Two different types of diurnal variation pattern were identified in the influent mass loads of selected antibiotics and hormones that effectively correlate with daily drug administration patterns and with the expected maximum human hormone release, respectively. The occurrence of natural hormones and antimicrobials, administered every 12 hours, shows a daily trend of decreasing contaminant mass load, having the maximum values in the morning hours. The occurrence of antibiotics, typically administered every 8 hours, indicates a daily peak value in samples collected under the highest hydraulic loading. The efficiency of biological removal of both hormones and antibiotics is shown to be limited. Compared to the values obtained in the influent samples, increased concentrations are observed in the biologically treated effluent for trimethoprim, sulfamethoxazole and ciprofloxacin, mainly as a result of deconjugation processes. Ciprofloxacin is shown as the predominant antimicrobial compound in the effluent, and it is present at quantities approximately 10 fold greater than the total mass of the other of the compounds due to poor removal efficiency and alternating solid-liquid partitioning behaviour. Our results suggest that, to increase the micro-pollutant removal and the chemical dosing efficiency in enhanced tertiary treatment, significant benefits can be derived from the optimisation of reactor design and the development of control schemes that

  12. Tetracycline residues and tetracycline resistance genes in groundwater impacted by swine production facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mackie, R.I.; Koike, S.; Krapac, I.; Chee-Sanford, J.; Maxwell, Susan; Aminov, R.I.

    2006-01-01

    Antibiotics are used at therapeutic levels to treat disease; at slightly lower levels as prophylactics; and at low, subtherapeutic levels for growth promotion and improvement of feed efficiency. Over 88% of swine producers in the United States gave antimicrobials to grower/finisher pigs in feed as a growth promoter in 2000. It is estimated that ca. 75% of antibiotics are not absorbed by animals and are excreted in urine and feces. The extensive use of antibiotics in swine production has resulted in antibiotic resistance in many intestinal bacteria, which are also excreted in swine feces, resulting in dissemination of resistance genes into the environment.To assess the impact of manure management on groundwater quality, groundwater samples have been collected near two swine confinement facilities that use lagoons for manure storage and treatment. Several key contaminant indicators-including inorganic ions, antibiotics, and antibiotic resistance genes-were analyzed in groundwater collected from the monitoring wells. Chloride, ammonium, potassium, and sodium were predominant inorganic constituents in the manure samples and served as indicators of groundwater contamination. Based on these analyses, shallow groundwater has been impacted by lagoon seepage at both sites. Liquid chromatography-mass spectroscopy (LC-MS) was used to measure the dissolved concentrations of tetracycline, chlortetracycline, and oxytetracycline in groundwater and manure. Although tetracyclines were regularly used at both facilities, they were infrequently detected in manure samples and then at relatively trace concentrations. Concentrations of all tetracyclines and their breakdown products in the groundwater sampled were generally less than 0.5 ??g/L.Bacterial tetracycline resistance genes served as distinct genotypic markers to indicate the dissemination and mobility of antibiotic resistance genes that originated from the lagoons. Applying PCR to genomic DNA extracted from the lagoon and

  13. 城市污水厂中四环素类抗生素分布特性研究%Determination of the Distribution Characteristics of Tetracyclines in Wastewater Treatment Plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘冲; 黄满红; 肖斌

    2012-01-01

    HPLC - MS/MS was used to determinate the distribution and removal rate of tetracyclines in A wastewater treatment plant in Jiangsu prorince. The result showed that the three tetracyclines were dete,3ted. In influent water, the concentration of tetracyclines were from 96 ng·L-1 to 336 ng·L-1 , and in effluent water, only detect the tetracycline, whose concentration was about 130 ng·L-1. By the mass balance, in A wastewater treatment plant, the sludge adsorption remove about 28.8% of tetracycline, 38.0% of oxytetracycline and 34.9% of chlortetracycline; the biological degrada- tion remove about 32.5% of tetracycline, 62.0% of oxytetracycline and 65.1% of chlortetrtetrcycline.%使用HPLC-MS/MS检测江苏某城市污水厂A中3种四环素抗生素分布状况,并利用质量平衡分析其在污水厂中的归趋及去除特性。结果显示进水中3种四环素含量分别是:四环素336ng·L^-1,土霉素202ng·L^-1和金霉素96ng·L^-1。而出水中只检测到四环素含量为130ng·L^-1,土霉素和金霉素都未检出。结合实测数据,通过质量平衡计算可知,污水厂A中污泥吸附对3种四环素的降解率分别为四环素28.8%,土霉素38.O%和金霉素34.9%。生物降解对3种四环素的去除率分别为四环素为32.5%,土霉素为62.0%,金霉素为65.1%。

  14. Bandgap tailoring of in-situ nitrogen-doped TiO₂ sputtered films intended for electrophotocatalytic applications under solar light

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delegan, N.; El Khakani, M. A., E-mail: elkhakani@emt.inrs.ca [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Énergie, Matériaux et Télécommunications, 1650, Boulevard Lionel-Boulet, Varennes, Québec J3X-1S2 (Canada); Daghrir, R.; Drogui, P. [Institut National de la Recherche Scientifique, Centre Eau, Terre et Environnement, 490 Rue de la Couronne, Québec G1K-9A9 (Canada)

    2014-10-21

    We report on a reactive RF-sputtering process permitting the in-situ nitrogen doping of TiO₂ films in order to shift their photoactivity from UV to visible range. By carefully controlling the relative nitrogen-to-argon mass flow rate ratio (within the 0%–25% range) in the sputter deposition chamber, TiO₂:N films were grown with nitrogen contents ranging from 0 to 6.2 at. %, as determined by high-resolution X-ray spectroscopy measurements. A systematic investigation of the crystalline structure of the TiO₂:N films, as a function of their N content, revealed that low N contents (0.2–0.3 at. %) induce crystallization in the rutile phase while higher N contents (≥1.4 at. %) were accompanied with the recovery of the anatase structure with an average crystallite size of ~35 nm. By using both UV-Vis absorption and spectroscopic ellipsometry measurements, we were able to quantitatively determine the bandgap (E{sub g}) variation of the TiO₂:N films as a function of their N content. Thus, we have demonstrated that the E{sub g} of the TiO₂:N films effectively narrows from 3.2 eV down to a value as low as ~2.3 eV for the optimal N doping concentration of 3.4 at. % (higher N incorporation does not translate into further red shifting of the TiO₂:N films' E{sub g}). The photoactivity of the TiO₂:N films under visible light was confirmed through electro-photocatalytic decomposition of chlortetracycline (CTC, an emerging water pollutant) under standard 1.5AM solar radiation. Thus, CTC degradation efficiencies of up to 98% were achieved with 2 hours process cycles under simulated solar light. Moreover, the electro-photocatalytic performance of the TiO₂:N films is shown to be directly correlated to their optoelectronic properties (namely their bandgap narrowing).

  15. 应用高效液相色谱法对饲料中五种抗生素的同时检测%Simultaneous determination of many antibiotics in feedstuff by High Performance Liquid Chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李丽; 王金晶; 陈立江; 刘宇; 王菁; 焉喜臣

    2013-01-01

    In our study, we established an efficient method for simultaneous detec-tion of 5 antibiotics in feed by high-performance liquid chromatography was estab-lished. Chlortetracycline(CTC), chloramphenicol(CAP), erythromycin(ERY), roxithromy-cin(ROX) and benzylpenicillin potassium(PG) were separated thoroughly by gradient elution under the conditions of column temperature at 30 ℃, flow rate of 1.0 mL/min, and with the injection volume of 20 μL. The signal was detected at 210 nm. The results showed that a linear range was found between peak height and concentration in the range of 0.5~40 μg/mL for CTC, CAP and PG, and 0.5~80 μg/mL for ERY and ROX. The linear regression coefficients were not less than 0.999 7. The recovery rates of the five antibiotics were from 95.86% to 98.72%, and RSD was less than 2%. High-performance liquid chromatography is simple, rapid and has high accuracy and precision, which meets the detection of CTC, CPA, ERY, ROX and PG in feedstuff.%本试验建立了同时测定饲料中5种抗生素含量的高效液相色谱法。试验采用梯度洗脱,使金霉素、氯霉素、红霉素、罗红霉素、青霉素得到较好的分离;柱温30℃,流速为1.0 mL/min,进样量20μL,检测波长210 nm。结果显示,金霉素、氯霉素、青霉素标准曲线线性范围为0.5~40μg/mL,红霉素、罗红霉素标准曲线线性范围为0.5~80μg/mL,相关系数r≥0.9997。饲料中5种抗生素的加样回收率为95.86%~98.72%,RSD<2%。本试验建立的梯度洗脱方法简便快速,准确度和精密度较高,可以满足饲料中CTC、CPA、ERY、ROX、PG的检测。

  16. Direct screening of tetracyclines in water and bovine milk using room temperature phosphorescence detection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A fast and simple flow-through optosensor was designed and characterized for the direct screening of four tetracycline (TCC) antibiotics (tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline and doxycycline) in water and bovine milk samples. The proposed optosensor provides rapid binary yes/no overall responses, being appropriate for the screening of this family of antibiotics above or below a pre-set concentration threshold. The experimental set-up is based on a flow-injection manifold coupled on-line to a phosphorescence detector. Aliquots of the samples are pretreated with Eu(III) to form room temperature phosphorescent metal chelates and injected in the flow manifold. Those chelates are then on-line retained on a conventional flow-cell (packed with polymeric Amberlite XAD-4 particles) which is placed inside the cell holder of the phosphorimeter. After the emission is registered, the antibiotic-metal complexes are eluted from the packed resin with 1 M HCl (for milk samples a second regeneration step, using methanol, should be performed). A sample throughput of about 20 samples per hour was obtained. Optimum experimental conditions include a pH 9, a Eu(III) concentration of 2 x 10-4 M and 8 mM sodium sulphite as chemical deoxygenant. The phosphorescence emitted by the europium-TCC complexes was measured at 394 and 617 nm for excitation and emission wavelengths, respectively. The unreliability region, given by the probability of false positives and false negatives, respectively (set at 5% in both cases) was in the range between 0.2 and 11.6 nM for detection of tetracyclines in water samples (at a cut-off level of 4 nM) and in the range between 165 and 238 nM for detection of tetracyclines in milk (cut-off level fixed at the normative EU level of 200 nM). Finally, the applicability of the proposed screening optosensor was tested for the reliable control of tetracyclines in contaminated and uncontaminated water and milk samples

  17. Antimicrobial drug use and risk factors associated with treatment incidence and mortality in Swiss veal calves reared under improved welfare conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lava, M; Schüpbach-Regula, G; Steiner, A; Meylan, M

    2016-04-01

    Ninety-one Swiss veal farms producing under a label with improved welfare standards were visited between August and December 2014 to investigate risk factors related to antimicrobial drug use and mortality. All herds consisted of own and purchased calves, with a median of 77.4% of purchased calves. The calves' mean age was 29±15days at purchasing and the fattening period lasted at average 120±28 days. The mean carcass weight was 125±12kg. A mean of 58±33 calves were fattened per farm and year, and purchased calves were bought from a mean of 20±17 farms of origin. Antimicrobial drug treatment incidence was calculated with the defined daily dose methodology. The mean treatment incidence (TIADD) was 21±15 daily doses per calf and year. The mean mortality risk was 4.1%, calves died at a mean age of 94±50 days, and the main causes of death were bovine respiratory disease (BRD, 50%) and gastro-intestinal disease (33%). Two multivariable models were constructed, for antimicrobial drug treatment incidence (53 farms) and mortality (91 farms). No quarantine, shared air space for several groups of calves, and no clinical examination upon arrival at the farm were associated with increased antimicrobial treatment incidence. Maximum group size and weight differences >100kg within a group were associated with increased mortality risk, while vaccination and beef breed were associated with decreased mortality risk. The majority of antimicrobial treatments (84.6%) were given as group treatments with oral powder fed through an automatic milk feeding system. Combination products containing chlortetracycline with tylosin and sulfadimidine or with spiramycin were used for 54.9%, and amoxicillin for 43.7% of the oral group treatments. The main indication for individual treatment was BRD (73%). The mean age at the time of treatment was 51 days, corresponding to an estimated weight of 80-100kg. Individual treatments were mainly applied through injections (88.5%), and included

  18. Unravelling a vicious circle: animal feed marketed in Costa Rica contains irregular concentrations of tetracyclines and abundant oxytetracycline-resistant Gram-positive bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granados-Chinchilla, Fabio; Alfaro, Margarita; Chavarría, Guadalupe; Rodríguez, César

    2014-01-01

    Diverse tetracyclines are used to prevent and control bacterial infections in livestock and farmed fish. These drugs are administered through the diet, but farmers seldom check whether feed contains antibiotic-resistant bacteria that may colonise their crops or transfer their resistance traits to species of veterinary relevance. To examine whether antibiotic dosage defines the abundance of antibiotic-resistant bacteria in animal feed, we determined the concentration of parental compounds and epimers of oxytetracycline (OTC), doxycycline, tetracycline and chlortetracycline, as well as the abundance and resistance level of OTC-resistant bacteria in samples of fish (n = 21), poultry (n = 21), swine (n = 21), and shrimp feed (n = 21) marketed in Costa Rica. Fish feed contained the highest amounts of tetracyclines (119-8365 mg kg(-1)) and the largest proportion of bacteria resistant to 10 μg ml(-1) (1.8-92.4%) or 100 μg ml(-1) of OTC (12.5-63.8%). Poultry (78-438 mg kg(-1)) and swine (41-1076 mg kg(-1)) feed had intermediate concentrations of tetracyclines and OTC-resistant bacteria (0.2-66% and 0.3-49%, respectively), whereas shrimp feed showed the lowest amounts of tetracyclines (21.5-50.3 mg kg(-1)), no OTC and no culturable OTC-resistant bacteria. In line with these results, the MIC50 of OTC for 150 isolates from fish and poultry feed was > 256 µg ml(-1), while that of 150 bacteria isolated from swine feed was 192 µg ml(-1). Phenotypic tests, fatty acid profiles and proteotypic analyses by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation-time of flight mass-spectroscopy revealed that most OTC-resistant isolates were Gram-positive bacteria of low G+C% content from the genera Staphylococcus and Bacillus. Clear correlations between OTC dosage and feed colonisation with OTC-resistant bacteria were seen in medicated feed for fish (r = 0.179-0.651). Nonetheless, some unmedicated feed for fish, swine and poultry contained large populations of OTC-resistant bacteria

  19. Development, validation, and application of PCR primers for detection of tetracycline efflux genes of gram-negative bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aminov, R I; Chee-Sanford, J C; Garrigues, N; Teferedegne, B; Krapac, I J; White, B A; Mackie, R I

    2002-04-01

    Phylogenetic analysis of tetracycline resistance genes, which confer resistance due to the efflux of tetracycline from the cell catalyzed by drug:H(+) antiport and share a common structure with 12 transmembrane segments (12-TMS), suggested the monophyletic origin of these genes. With a high degree of confidence, this tet subcluster unifies 11 genes encoding tet efflux pumps and includes tet(A), tet(B), tet(C), tet(D), tet(E), tet(G), tet(H), tet(J), tet(Y), tet(Z), and tet(30). Phylogeny-aided alignments were used to design a set of PCR primers for detection, retrieval, and sequence analysis of the corresponding gene fragments from a variety of bacterial and environmental sources. After rigorous validation with the characterized control tet templates, this primer set was used to determine the genotype of the corresponding tetracycline resistance genes in total DNA of swine feed and feces and in the lagoons and groundwater underlying two large swine production facilities known to be impacted by waste seepage. The compounded tet fingerprint of animal feed was found to be tetCDEHZ, while the corresponding fingerprint of total intestinal microbiota was tetBCGHYZ. Interestingly, the tet fingerprints in geographically distant waste lagoons were identical (tetBCEHYZ) and were similar to the fecal fingerprint at the third location mentioned above. Despite the sporadic detection of chlortetracycline in waste lagoons, no auxiliary diversity of tet genes in comparison with the fecal diversity could be detected, suggesting that the tet pool is generated mainly in the gut of tetracycline-fed animals, with a negligible contribution from selection imposed by tetracycline that is released into the environment. The tet efflux genes were found to be percolating into the underlying groundwater and could be detected as far as 250 m downstream from the lagoons. With yet another family of tet genes, this study confirmed our earlier findings that the antibiotic resistance gene pool

  20. Comparison of feed additive technologies for preconditioning of weaned beef calves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hersom, M; Imler, A; Thrift, T; Yelich, J; Arthington, J

    2015-06-01

    Our objective was to evaluate the response of weaned calves to different supplemental feed additives in a supplement to affect calf performance and mitigate stress response observed during weaning and preconditioning. At weaning in each of 2 yr, 160 Angus and Brangus calves (203 and 227 ± 2.3 and 2.5 kg) were stratified by BW, sex, and breed and were randomly allotted to 1 of 4 treatments ( = 40 calves/treatment): 1) supplement without feed additives (control, CON), 2) supplemented with chlortetracycline, 350 mg/d (CTC), 3) supplemented with monensin, 175 mg/d (RUM), and 4) supplemented with rumen modifier, 5 g/d (ACT). Calves were held by treatment in 1 of 4 drylot pens for 7 d after weaning and were offered ad libitum access to hay and 2.27 kg/d of supplement before placement in one of thirty-two 0.8-ha pastures (5 calves/pasture). On pasture calves were supplemented with 2.27 kg/d (yr 1) or supplemented at 1.0% BW (yr 2). Calf BW and blood samples were collected following weaning (d 0, 1, 4, 7, 11 in yr 1; d 0, 1, 3, 7, 14 in yr 2), at the conclusion of the preconditioning period (d 50, 51 in yr 2), and after transportation (d 52, 55, 59, 65 in yr 2) for analysis of acute phase protein (APP) concentrations. In yr 2, after 44 d on pasture, calves were loaded on 2 semitrucks and transported for 24 h. On return, calves were placed in 4 pastures with hay and fed their respective supplements for 14 d. For each year, data were analyzed with the MIXED procedure of SAS. The model included the main effect of treatment, and pasture was the experimental unit. All variables quantified by day were analyzed using repeated measures. In yr 1, ACT and CTC had greater (P 0.05) among treatments; however an effect of day after transport (P < 0.001) was observed. Feed cost of gain and income over production cost (P ≥ 0.15; mean = $0.51/kg and $73.51, respectively) were not different among treatments. Use of supplemental additives may improve calf performance during a

  1. Development and application of a dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction method for the determination of tetracyclines in beef by liquid chromatography mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mookantsa, S O S; Dube, S; Nindi, M M

    2016-02-01

    A rapid, cost effective and environmentally friendly extraction method, based on dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction (DLLME) was developed for the determination of six tetracyclines in meat destined for human consumption. Meat extracts were analysed for tetracyclines using liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS), a sensitive and selective analytical technique. Various factors influencing the pre-concentration of tetracyclines such as sample pH, type and volume of both disperser solvent and extraction solvent were optimized. Validation parameters such as calibration function, limit of detection (LOD), limit of quantification (LOQ), detection capability (CCα), decision limit (CCβ), accuracy and precision were established according to Commission Decision 2002/657/EC. Linearity in the range of 25-200 µg kg(-1) was obtained with regression coefficients ranging from 0.9991 to 0.9998. Recoveries of spiked blank muscle samples at three levels (50, 100 and 150 µg kg(-1)) ranged from 80% to 105% and reproducibility was between 2% and 7%. LODs and LOQs ranged from 2.2 to 3.6 µg kg(-1) and from 7.4 to 11.5 µg kg(-1) respectively while CCα ranged from 105 to 111 µg kg(-1) and CCβ ranged from 107 to 122 µg kg(-1). The proposed method compared well with the existing accepted dispersive solid phase extraction method and was successfully applied to the pre-concentration and determination of tetracyclines in meat samples. Eleven of the thirty bovine muscle samples obtained from local abattoirs and butcheries were found to contain residues of two tetracycline antibiotics (chlortetracycline and oxytetracycline), with oxytetracycline being the most detected. Concentration levels of the tetracycline residues detected in bovine muscle samples were lower (12.4 and 68.9 µg kg(-1)) than the stipulated European Union maximum residue level (MRL) of 100 µg kg(-1), hence the meat was fit for human consumption. From this work it can be concluded that the DLLME

  2. Fast and ultrafast spectroscopic investigation of tetracycline derivatives in organic and aqueous media.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carlotti, Benedetta; Fuoco, Domenico; Elisei, Fausto

    2010-12-28

    The photophysical properties of seven tetracycline derivatives (tetracycline, oxytetracycline, demeclocycline, chlortetracycline, doxycycline, minocycline and meclocycline) in organic solvents and aqueous solution were studied using steady-state absorption and fluorescence techniques and transient absorption spectroscopies with nanosecond and femtosecond time resolution. The molecular structure, solvent and pH effects on the optical properties of this class of pharmaceutically interesting compounds were investigated in detail. The investigation furnished a complete description of the nature, the spectral and kinetic properties of the excited states formed upon irradiation. All the tetracycline derivatives exhibited a similar behaviour, and the photophysics of these molecules is different in organic solvents and in aqueous medium, where they exhibit a significant pH dependence. In water, compared to organic solvents, these compounds showed a blue-shifted bathochromic absorption band, a red-shifted emission spectrum, an increased Stokes shift and a decreased fluorescence quantum yield. These findings, together with the overall investigated solvent effect, suggested that in aqueous solvent additional fast and non-radiative deactivation processes, responsible for the large Stokes Shift and for the reduced fluorescence efficiency, are present. In fact, in organic media just two transients were observed during the ultrafast time-resolved investigation: the vibrationally hot S(1) state which was quickly stabilized by solvent reorganization to the relaxed S(1) state. This state showed lifetimes of tens of picoseconds and relaxed by fluorescence and internal conversion. No longer-lived transients were detected. In aqueous solution the excited-state deactivation of tetracyclines was found to be more complicated. Different protonated and tautomeric forms of the S(1) state were detected: a component which showed decay times of tens of picoseconds and a component which was

  3. Spread of tetracycline resistance genes at a conventional dairy farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martina eKyselkova

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The use of antibiotics in animal husbandry contributes to the worldwide problem of increasing antibiotic resistance in animal and human pathogens. Intensive animal production is considered an important source of antibiotic resistance genes released to the environment, while the contribution of smaller farms remains to be evaluated. Here we monitor the spread of tetracycline resistance (TC-r genes at a middle-size conventional dairy farm, where chlortetracycline (CTC, as intrauterine suppository is prophylactically used after each calving. Our study has shown that animals at the farm acquired the TC-r genes in their early age (1-2 weeks, likely due to colonization with TC-resistant bacteria from their mothers and/or the farm environment. The relative abundance of the TC-r genes tet(W, tet(Q and tet(M in fresh excrements of calves was about 1-2 orders of magnitude higher compared to heifers and dairy cows, possibly due to the presence of antibiotic residues in milk fed to calves. The occurrence and abundance of TC-r genes in fresh excrements of heifers and adult cows remained unaffected by intrauterine CTC applications, with tet(O, tet(Q and tet(W representing a ‘core TC-resistome’ of the farm, and tet(A, tet(M, tet(Y and tet(X occurring occasionally. The genes tet(A, tet(M, tet(Y and tet(X were shown to be respectively harbored by Shigella, Lactobacillus and Clostridium, Acinetobacter, and Wautersiella. Soil in the farm proximity, as well as field soil to which manure from the farm was applied, was contaminated with TC-r genes occurring in the farm, and some of the TC-r genes persisted in the field over 3 months following the manure application. Concluding, our study shows that antibiotic resistance genes may be a stable part of the intestinal metagenome of cattle even if antibiotics are not used for growth stimulation, and that smaller dairy farms may also contribute to environmental pollution with antibiotic resistance genes.

  4. Spread of tetracycline resistance genes at a conventional dairy farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kyselková, Martina; Jirout, Jiří; Vrchotová, Naděžda; Schmitt, Heike; Elhottová, Dana

    2015-01-01

    The use of antibiotics in animal husbandry contributes to the worldwide problem of increasing antibiotic resistance in animal and human pathogens. Intensive animal production is considered an important source of antibiotic resistance genes released to the environment, while the contribution of smaller farms remains to be evaluated. Here we monitor the spread of tetracycline resistance (TC-r) genes at a middle-size conventional dairy farm, where chlortetracycline (CTC, as intrauterine suppository) is prophylactically used after each calving. Our study has shown that animals at the farm acquired the TC-r genes in their early age (1-2 weeks), likely due to colonization with TC-resistant bacteria from their mothers and/or the farm environment. The relative abundance of the TC-r genes tet(W), tet(Q), and tet(M) in fresh excrements of calves was about 1-2 orders of magnitude higher compared to heifers and dairy cows, possibly due to the presence of antibiotic residues in milk fed to calves. The occurrence and abundance of TC-r genes in fresh excrements of heifers and adult cows remained unaffected by intrauterine CTC applications, with tet(O), tet(Q), and tet(W) representing a "core TC-resistome" of the farm, and tet(A), tet(M), tet(Y), and tet(X) occurring occasionally. The genes tet(A), tet(M), tet(Y), and tet(X) were shown to be respectively harbored by Shigella, Lactobacillus and Clostridium, Acinetobacter, and Wautersiella. Soil in the farm proximity, as well as field soil to which manure from the farm was applied, was contaminated with TC-r genes occurring in the farm, and some of the TC-r genes persisted in the field over 3 months following the manure application. Concluding, our study shows that antibiotic resistance genes may be a stable part of the intestinal metagenome of cattle even if antibiotics are not used for growth stimulation, and that smaller dairy farms may also contribute to environmental pollution with antibiotic resistance genes. PMID:26074912

  5. Direct screening of tetracyclines in water and bovine milk using room temperature phosphorescence detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Traviesa-Alvarez, J.M. [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, c/Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Costa-Fernandez, J.M. [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, c/Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Pereiro, R. [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, c/Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain); Sanz-Medel, A. [Department of Physical and Analytical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Oviedo, c/Julian Claveria 8, 33006 Oviedo (Spain)]. E-mail: asm@uniovi.es

    2007-04-18

    A fast and simple flow-through optosensor was designed and characterized for the direct screening of four tetracycline (TCC) antibiotics (tetracycline, oxytetracycline, chlortetracycline and doxycycline) in water and bovine milk samples. The proposed optosensor provides rapid binary yes/no overall responses, being appropriate for the screening of this family of antibiotics above or below a pre-set concentration threshold. The experimental set-up is based on a flow-injection manifold coupled on-line to a phosphorescence detector. Aliquots of the samples are pretreated with Eu(III) to form room temperature phosphorescent metal chelates and injected in the flow manifold. Those chelates are then on-line retained on a conventional flow-cell (packed with polymeric Amberlite XAD-4 particles) which is placed inside the cell holder of the phosphorimeter. After the emission is registered, the antibiotic-metal complexes are eluted from the packed resin with 1 M HCl (for milk samples a second regeneration step, using methanol, should be performed). A sample throughput of about 20 samples per hour was obtained. Optimum experimental conditions include a pH 9, a Eu(III) concentration of 2 x 10{sup -4} M and 8 mM sodium sulphite as chemical deoxygenant. The phosphorescence emitted by the europium-TCC complexes was measured at 394 and 617 nm for excitation and emission wavelengths, respectively. The unreliability region, given by the probability of false positives and false negatives, respectively (set at 5% in both cases) was in the range between 0.2 and 11.6 nM for detection of tetracyclines in water samples (at a cut-off level of 4 nM) and in the range between 165 and 238 nM for detection of tetracyclines in milk (cut-off level fixed at the normative EU level of 200 nM). Finally, the applicability of the proposed screening optosensor was tested for the reliable control of tetracyclines in contaminated and uncontaminated water and milk samples.

  6. Development and evaluation of a conditionally lethal transgenic pink bollworm

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new area-wide pest control strategy using the pink bollworm, Pectinophora gossypiella (Saunders) (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae), genetically transformed with a conditionally lethal gene, is under development. Conditional lethality of several transgenic pink bollworm strains was demonstrated in a series of laboratory rearing experiments. Pink bollworms were transformed with genetic constructs using the RIDL technology (Release of Insects with a Dominant Lethal gene) for development of an autocidal biological control system for possible supplement or replacement of radiation based sterile insect release. LA1124 is a lethal construct controlled by a tetracycline repressible transactivator protein (tTA), in which binding of tTA to its specific target sequence tetO drives production of more tTA. In the absence of tetracycline, this leads to lethality by high expression of tTA. When tetracycline is present, tTA does not bind tetO, and so the positive feedback cycle is not established and tTA remains at a low, non-lethal level for more detail on the tetO-tTA system). Tetracycline (in the form of chlortetracycline or CTC) is a normal part of the pink bollworm artificial diet, so such a strain of pink bollworm could readily be incorporated into the current mass-rearing system. Eight laboratory rearing experiments have been conducted with the LA1124 lines where pink bollworm heterozygous for the RIDL gene were crossed to wild type pink bollworm to produce an F1 generation with a 1:1 ratio of progeny of two genotypes: one that is heterozygous for the RIDL gene and one that is wild type. These were reared with and without CTC and mortality was scored at larval, pupal, and adult stages. This experiment was designed to simulate progeny mortality that would occur from the mating of a homozygous RIDL moth with a wild type pink bollworm after release of RIDL moths in a cotton field, while also including an internal wild type control (the wild type siblings of the heterozygous F1

  7. Compost and residues from biogas plant as potting substrates for salt-tolerant and salt-sensitive plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cam Van, Do Thi

    2013-08-01

    proportions of compost and additives (Styromull or Perlite). The results show that the large percentage (> 50% by volume) of compost in the substrate had negative effects on plant growth and nutrient uptake (N, P, K, Mg and Na) because of its high salt content in compost-based substrates. However, both yield formation and nutrient uptake of the studied plants when grown in peat-based substrates significantly increased comparing to those of compost-based substrates and almost gained the level of the control. Especially, the growth of Salvia was significantly improved. Consequently, compost-based media (with more than 50% of compost) may not be recommended for salt sensitive ornamental plants, while less than 25% volume of compost incorporated with Peat creates favorable peat-based substrates which reasonably enhanced growth of Pelargonium and Salvia. Investigating antibiotic uptake by cabbage (Brassica oleracea var. capitata f. abba) from the manure-amended soils containing high and low carbon content spiked with the two antibiotics Chlortetracycline and Sulfamethazine was targeted as the third objective. The input concentrations of the studied antibiotics were 100, 200 and 400 {mu}g/kg regarded to their present concentration range in Chinese top soils. The antibiotics in plant materials were analyzed by HPLC-MS after extraction. The results reveal that the presence of available high carbon content in the soil increased crop yield of cabbage. However antibiotics were not detected in the cabbage materials according to the antibiotic employment with the initial studied concentrations. It may be concluded that with the small amounts of antibiotics applied to the soils, there is no risk of uptake of antibiotics by plants.

  8. Effects of Cordyceps power on growth performance and immune function of broilers%冬虫夏草菌粉对肉鸡生长性能和免疫功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邵紫培; 尹艳军; 袁洪水

    2016-01-01

    试验旨在研究冬虫夏草菌粉对肉鸡生长性能和免疫功能的影响。将200羽1日龄AA肉鸡随机分为5组,每组4个重复。空白对照组仅饲喂基础日粮;抗生素对照组在基础日粮中添加350 mg/kg金霉素;冬虫夏草菌粉试验组设低、中、高3个剂量,分别在基础日粮中添加0.05%、0.1%、0.2%冬虫夏草菌粉。试验周期42 d,分为前期(1~21 d)、后期(22~42 d)两个阶段。结果表明,与空白对照组相比,中、高剂量组在增加肉鸡均重、平均日增重,降低肉鸡料重比,提高肉鸡胸腺指数和脾脏指数,增加机体外周血T淋巴细胞的转化率、增强肉鸡白细胞吞噬能力方面均呈显著水平(P<0.05);与抗生素对照组相比,可降低腹泻发生率。由此可知,冬虫夏草菌粉可作为饲料添加剂用来提高肉鸡的生长性能和免疫功能,替代抗生素预防腹泻发生。%The aim of this experiment is to study the effects of Cordyceps power on growth performance and immune function of broiler chicken. 200 1-day-old Arbor Acres broilers were randomly divided into 5 groups with 5 repeats. The blank control group was fed basal diet and the antibiotics control group was supplemented with 350 mg/kg chlortetracycline, the experimental groups were supplemented with 0.05%, 0.1%, 0.2% Cordyceps power respectively. The cycle of test were 42 days, including pro⁃phase (1~21 d) and anaphase (22~42 d). The results showed that: compared with control group, middle and high dose groups increased average weigh, average daily gain and reduced feed gain ratio signifi⁃cantly (P<0.05); improved thymus index and spleen index dramatically (P<0.05); increased the quanti⁃ty of T lymphocyte (P<0.05) and enhanced phagocytic function of leukocyte remarkably (P<0.05). Com⁃pared with antibiotics control group, middle and high dose groups can reduce incidence of diarrhea. This research indicated that growth performance and

  9. SPE-HPLC Determination of Tetracycline Antibiotics Residues in Honey-original Biological Fluids%固相萃取-高效液相色谱法测定蜜源生物液中3种四环素族抗生素的残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张一; 郝小燕; 肖海涛; 杨俊; 章嵘

    2012-01-01

    [ Objective ] The aim was to establish a reliable method for the simultaneous determination of residues for oxytetracycline (OTC ) , tetracycline (TC) and chlortetracycline (CTC) by solid-phase extraction with high-performance liquid chromatography (SPE-HPLC) in honey-original biological fluids. [Method] 0.1 mol/L Na2EDTA-Mcllvaine solution was used as extraction solvent. After cleaning by Oasis HLB SPE column, TCs were separated by the mobile phase which included 0. 01 mol/L oxalic acid, acetonitrile, methanol, and the separation mode was gradient elution. [ Result] OTC and TC showed a good linear relationship in the range of 0.2 -20. 0 μg/ml, and the correlation coefficients were 0.999 6-0.999 8, CTC showed a good linear relationship in the range of 0. 5 - 20. 0 μg/ml, and the correlation coefficients was 0.999 8, and the average recoveries (n = 5 ) of the three compounds concerned were 98.4% - 104.9% . And the relative standard deviations were 1.9% -5.0%. [Conclusion] The method is simple, reliable, sensitive and suitable for the detection of the residuals for TCs in honey-original biological fluids.%[目的]建立固相萃取-高效液相色谱法同时测定蜜源生物液中土霉素(OTC)、四环素(TC)、金霉素(CTC)残留量的方法.[方法]采用0.1mol/L Na2EDTA-Mcllvaine溶液提取样品,Oasis HLB固相萃取柱净化,以0.01mol/L草酸-乙腈-甲醇对待测成分进行梯度洗脱.[结果]OTC、TC在0.2~20.0μg/ml范围内线性关系良好,相关系数在0.9996~0.9998;CTC在0.5~20.0μg/ml范围内线性关系良好,相关系数为0.9998;各组分在0.05~0.20mg/kg添加浓度范围内,平均回收率在98.4%~104.9%,相对标准偏差为1.9%~5.0%.[结论]该方法简单、可靠、灵敏度高,适用于蜜源生物液中四环素族抗生素残留的检测.

  10. Evaluation of the Charm maximum residue limit β-lactam and tetracycline test for the detection of antibiotics in ewe and goat milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beltrán, M C; Romero, T; Althaus, R L; Molina, M P

    2013-05-01

    CCβ for tetracyclines was also lower than EU-MRL for chlortetracycline (ewe milk: ≤ 50 µg/kg; goat milk: 75 µg/kg), oxytetracycline (≤ 50 µg/kg), and tetracycline (≤ 50 µg/kg). Regarding the 4-epimers of these tetracyclines only 4-epioxytetracycline was detected by the Charm MRL BLTET test below EU-MRL (ewe milk: 75 µg/kg; goat milk: ≤ 50 µg/kg). Acidiol had no effect on the performance of the test. The Charm MRL BLTET test could be used routinely with adapted test procedure for the fast screening of ewe and goat milk. PMID:23453521

  11. Use of antibiotics in animal agriculture and the fate of antibiotic residues and resistance genes in the environment after land application of swine manure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Two swine confinement facilities, designated sites A and C were the focus of study. The antibiotic regimens at both sites included chlortetracycline and tylosin. Hog manure at these sites was treated in open, unlined lagoons before being applied as fertilizer to onsite (site A) and offsite (Site C) farm fields. Sites differed in their sub-surface geology, and each site was outfitted with a network of groundwater sampling wells for the monitoring of chemical contaminants, antibiotic residues, bacterial indicators of faecal contamination, and antibiotic resistance genes. Sterile containers were used to collect water from waste lagoons and wells once in 2000, and twice in 2001 and 2002. Additionally, the presence of antibiotic resistance genes was investigated from soil samples collected from 2005 to 2007 from seven different fields that were amended with manure. DNA was extracted from water and soil samples. Detection of antibiotic resistance genes was accomplished by PCR using primers that have been described elsewhere. These primer sets targeted three major groups of antibiotic resistance genes: 1) four classes of genes (tet(M), tet(O), tet(Q), tet(W)) conferring resistance to tetracycline by means of ribosomal protection proteins; 2) three classes of genes (tet(C), tet(H), tet(Z)) conferring resistance to tetracycline by means of efflux pump proteins; 3) eight RNA methylase genes (tlr(B), tlr(D), erm(A), erm(B), erm(C), erm(F), erm(G), erm(Q)) conferring resistance to macrolide antibiotics, including tylosin and erythromycin, as well as to the lincosamide antibiotics and Streptogramin-B. The RNA methylases tlr(B) and tlr(D) have been found in tylosin-producing strains of soil bacteria, while the other six erm genes come from a diversity of pathogenic, human commensal, and environmental bacteria. These genes were selected as targets based on preliminary surveys of lagoon and groundwater and upon the antibiotic usage of the study sites. Presence

  12. 2009-2011年广州市番禺区水产品污染状况分析%Monitoring of the pollution of aquatic products in Panyu, Guangzhou in 2009-2011

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林东明; 吴利楠; 麦洁梅; 张琪; 杨福荣

    2012-01-01

    Objective To understand the exteni of pollution of aquatic products in Panyu Guangzhou and to provide the basic food safety supervision. Methods Aquatic products (e.g. freshwater fish, marine fish, shrimps, crabs, shellfish, chilled ready to eat aquatic products and other aquatic products) from different markets, meat and vegetable markets and catering units of Panyu Guangzhou, were randomly collected for the detection of heavy metals, antibiotics, pesticides, pathogens, liver fluke and other projects. Results All aquatic products had a high cadmium level, and 5.2% of the samples exceeded the limit. The average cadmium content of shrimps/crabs was 0.516 mg/kg, the highest content was 14.300 mg/kg; and the percentage of shellfish, marine fish and freshwater fish exceeding the limit was 4.5% , 3.7% and 2.5%, respectively. 99.5% of the samples had the lead content below the limit. The levels of mercury and arsenic were not exceeding the limit. Part of the aquatic products were found to have a high level of tetracycline, oxytetracycline and chlortetracycline, and the percentage of samples exceeding the limit for these antibiotics was ranged from 8.3% to 14.3%. The levels of BHC and DDT in all samples were below the limit. 98.1% of the samples had the content of formaldehyde below the limit. Among the 222 samples, 18.5% had Vibrio parahaemolyticus (VP). The percentage of shrimps/crabs and shellfish with Vibrio parahaemolyticus was 41.7% and 33.3%, respectively. There was a significant different in the degree of contamination with Vibrio parahaemolyticus in freshwater fish, marine fish, shrimps/crabs and shellfish (P0.05). Salmonella and Vibrio cholerae was not detected. Pathogens and liver fluke were not found in the ready to eat raw aquatic products. Conclusion There was a serious cadmium contamination of aquatic products. The level of Vibrio parahaemolyticus was high in the aquatic products in Panyu district. The abuse of antibiotics in aquaculture and by the food