Sample records for chlorpyrifos oxon cpo

  1. Comparative toxicity of chlorpyrifos and its oxon derivatives to soil microbial activity by combined methods. (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Yao, Jun; Chen, Huilun; Chen, Ke; Trebse, Polonca; Zaray, Gyula


    The inhibitory effects of the pesticide Chlorpyrifos (CPF) and its oxon derivative (CPO) on soil microbial activity were evaluated through the measurement of metabolic parameters and the microbial urease enzyme. The thermodynamic parameters related to microbial activity were measured and recorded as power-time curves. Microbial growth rate constant k, total heat evolution Q(T), metabolic enthalpy DeltaH(met), mass specific heat rate J(Q/S), microbial biomass C and inhibitory ratio I were calculated. They showed the linear relationship with doses of CPF and CPO. Thereinto, the linear correlations, k versus biomass C and DeltaH(met) versus biomass C, elucidated that k and DeltaH(met) were growth yield dependent. In this work, 20% inhibitory ratio IC(20) was obtained with 9.8 microg g(-1) for CPF and 0.37 microg g(-1) CPO, meaning that the acute toxicity of CPO was 26 times that of CPF, since the CPO had more potent toxicity to living organism due to its active functional group. Comparing the change tendency of DeltaH(met) and other parameter, the values almost kept constant when exposure to CPF (<5.0 microg g(-1)). It illustrates that individual reacted to stress resulted from environment change by shifting resources from other biological activities (such as reproduction or growth) toward survival to some extent. Urease activity responses in relation to the CPF and CPO exposure were observed and consistent with above thermodynamic parameters.

  2. Chlorpyrifos-Oxon Disrupts Zebrafish Axonal Growth and Motor Behavior


    Yang, Dongren; Lauridsen, Holly; Buels, Kalmia; Chi, Lai-Har; La Du, Jane; Bruun, Donald A.; Olson, James R.; Tanguay, Robert L.; Lein, Pamela J.


    Axonal morphology is a critical determinant of neuronal connectivity, and perturbation of the rate or extent of axonal growth during development has been linked to neurobehavioral deficits in animal models and humans. We previously demonstrated that the organophosphorus pesticide (OP) chlorpyrifos (CPF) inhibits axonal growth in cultured neurons. In this study, we used a zebrafish model to determine whether CPF, its oxon metabolite (CPFO), or the excreted metabolite trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP...

  3. Particulate and gas-phase products from the atmospheric degradation of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon (United States)

    Borrás, Esther; Ródenas, Milagros; Vázquez, Mónica; Vera, Teresa; Muñoz, Amalia


    The phosphorothioate structure is highly present in several pesticides. However, there is a lack of information about its degradation process in air and the secondary pollutants formed. Herein, the atmospheric reactions of chlorpyrifos, one of the most world-used insecticide, and its main degradation product - chlorpyrifos-oxon - are described. The photo-oxidation under the presence of NOx was studied in a large outdoor simulation chamber for both chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-oxon, observing a rapid degradation (Half lifetime < 3.5 h for both compounds). Also, the photolysis reactions of both were studied. The formation of particulate matter (aerosol mass yield ranged 6-59%) and gaseous products were monitored. The chemical composition of minor products was studied, identifying 15 multi-oxygenated derivatives. The most abundant products were ring-retaining molecules such as 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-ol and ethyl 3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl hydrogen phosphate. An atmospheric degradation mechanism has been amplified based on an oxidation started with OH-nucleophilic attack to Pdbnd S bond.

  4. Inhibition of recombinant human carboxylesterase 1 and 2 and monoacylglycerol lipase by chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon and methyl paraoxon

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    Crow, J. Allen; Bittles, Victoria; Herring, Katye L.; Borazjani, Abdolsamad [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States); Potter, Philip M. [Department of Chemical Biology and Therapeutics, St. Jude Children' s Research Hospital, 332 N. Lauderdale, Memphis, TN 38105 (United States); Ross, Matthew K., E-mail: [Center for Environmental Health Sciences, Department of Basic Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Mississippi State University, Mississippi State, MS 39762 (United States)


    Oxons are the bioactivated metabolites of organophosphorus insecticides formed via cytochrome P450 monooxygenase-catalyzed desulfuration of the parent compound. Oxons react covalently with the active site serine residue of serine hydrolases, thereby inactivating the enzyme. A number of serine hydrolases other than acetylcholinesterase, the canonical target of oxons, have been reported to react with and be inhibited by oxons. These off-target serine hydrolases include carboxylesterase 1 (CES1), CES2, and monoacylglycerol lipase. Carboxylesterases (CES, EC metabolize a number of xenobiotic and endobiotic compounds containing ester, amide, and thioester bonds and are important in the metabolism of many pharmaceuticals. Monoglyceride lipase (MGL, EC hydrolyzes monoglycerides including the endocannabinoid, 2-arachidonoylglycerol (2-AG). The physiological consequences and toxicity related to the inhibition of off-target serine hydrolases by oxons due to chronic, low level environmental exposures are poorly understood. Here, we determined the potency of inhibition (IC{sub 50} values; 15 min preincubation, enzyme and inhibitor) of recombinant CES1, CES2, and MGL by chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon and methyl paraoxon. The order of potency for these three oxons with CES1, CES2, and MGL was chlorpyrifos oxon > paraoxon > methyl paraoxon, although the difference in potency for chlorpyrifos oxon with CES1 and CES2 did not reach statistical significance. We also determined the bimolecular rate constants (k{sub inact}/K{sub I}) for the covalent reaction of chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon and methyl paraoxon with CES1 and CES2. Consistent with the results for the IC{sub 50} values, the order of reactivity for each of the three oxons with CES1 and CES2 was chlorpyrifos oxon > paraoxon > methyl paraoxon. The bimolecular rate constant for the reaction of chlorpyrifos oxon with MGL was also determined and was less than the values determined for chlorpyrifos oxon with CES1

  5. Effects of sub-lethal neurite outgrowth inhibitory concentrations of chlorpyrifos oxon on cytoskeletal proteins and acetylcholinesterase in differentiating N2a cells

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    Flaskos, J., E-mail: [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Nikolaidis, E. [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Harris, W. [School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham NG11 8NS (United Kingdom); Sachana, M. [Laboratory of Biochemistry and Toxicology, School of Veterinary Medicine, Aristotle University of Thessaloniki, 54124 Thessaloniki (Greece); Hargreaves, A.J., E-mail: [School of Science and Technology, Nottingham Trent University, Clifton Lane, Nottingham NG11 8NS (United Kingdom)


    Previous work in our laboratory has shown that sub-lethal concentrations (1-10 {mu}M) of chlorpyrifos (CPF), diazinon (DZ) and diazinon oxon (DZO) inhibit the outgrowth of axon-like neurites in differentiating mouse N2a neuroblastoma cells concomitant with altered levels and/or phosphorylation state of axonal cytoskeleton and growth-associated proteins. The aim of the present work was to determine whether chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) was capable of inhibiting N2a cell differentiation in a similar manner. Using experimental conditions similar to our previous work, sub-lethal concentrations (1-10 {mu}M) of CPO were found to inhibit N2a cell differentiation. However, unlike previous studies with DZ and DZO, there was a high level of sustained inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in CPO treated cells. Impairment of neurite outgrowth was also associated with reduced levels of growth associated protein-43 and neurofilament heavy chain (NFH), and the distribution of NFH in cells stained by indirect immunofluorescence was disrupted. However, in contrast to previous findings for DZO, the absolute level of phosphorylated NFH was unaffected by CPO exposure. Taken together, the findings suggest that sub-lethal concentrations of CPO inhibit axon outgrowth in differentiating N2a cells and that this effect involves reduced levels of two proteins that play key roles in axon outgrowth and maintenance. Although the inhibition of neurite outgrowth is unlikely to involve AChE inhibition directly, further work will help to determine whether the persistent inhibition of AChE by CPO can account for the different effects induced by CPO and DZO on the levels of total and phosphorylated NFH. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Sub-lethal levels of chlorpyrifos oxon inhibit neurite outgrowth in N2a cells Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Acetylcholinesterase exhibits sustained inhibition throughout exposure Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The levels of neurofilament heavy chain and GAP-43

  6. Comparative toxicity of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion and their oxon derivatives to larval Rana boylii (United States)

    Sparling, D.W.; Fellers, G.


    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are ubiquitous in the environment and are highly toxic to amphibians. They deactivate cholinesterase, resulting in neurological dysfunction. Most chemicals in this group require oxidative desulfuration to achieve their greatest cholinesterase-inhibiting potencies. Oxon derivatives are formed within liver cells but also by bacterial decay of parental pesticides. This study examines the toxicity of chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon and their oxons on the foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii). R. boylii is exposed to agricultural pesticides in the California Central Valley. Median lethal concentrations of the parental forms during a 96 h exposure were 3.00 mg/L (24 h) for chlorpyrifos, 2.14 mg/L for malathion and 7.49 mg/L for diazinon. Corresponding oxons were 10 to 100 times more toxic than their parental forms. We conclude that environmental concentrations of these pesticides can be harmful to R. boylii populations. ?? 2006 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  7. Comparative toxicity of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion and their oxon derivatives to larval Rana boylii. (United States)

    Sparling, D W; Fellers, G


    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are ubiquitous in the environment and are highly toxic to amphibians. They deactivate cholinesterase, resulting in neurological dysfunction. Most chemicals in this group require oxidative desulfuration to achieve their greatest cholinesterase-inhibiting potencies. Oxon derivatives are formed within liver cells but also by bacterial decay of parental pesticides. This study examines the toxicity of chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon and their oxons on the foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii). R. boylii is exposed to agricultural pesticides in the California Central Valley. Median lethal concentrations of the parental forms during a 96 h exposure were 3.00 mg/L (24h) for chlorpyrifos, 2.14 mg/L for malathion and 7.49 mg/L for diazinon. Corresponding oxons were 10 to 100 times more toxic than their parental forms. We conclude that environmental concentrations of these pesticides can be harmful to R. boylii populations.

  8. Comparative toxicity of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, malathion and their oxon derivatives to larval Rana boylii

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    Sparling, D.W. [Cooperative Wildlife Research Laboratory, Department of Zoology and Center for Ecology, Southern Illinois University, LS II, MS6504, Carbondale, IL 62901 (United States)]. E-mail:; Fellers, G. [Western Ecology Research Center, U.S. Geological Survey, Point Reyes National Seashore, Point Reyes, CA 94956 (United States)


    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are ubiquitous in the environment and are highly toxic to amphibians. They deactivate cholinesterase, resulting in neurological dysfunction. Most chemicals in this group require oxidative desulfuration to achieve their greatest cholinesterase-inhibiting potencies. Oxon derivatives are formed within liver cells but also by bacterial decay of parental pesticides. This study examines the toxicity of chlorpyrifos, malathion and diazinon and their oxons on the foothill yellow-legged frog (Rana boylii). R. boylii is exposed to agricultural pesticides in the California Central Valley. Median lethal concentrations of the parental forms during a 96 h exposure were 3.00 mg/L (24 h) for chlorpyrifos, 2.14 mg/L for malathion and 7.49 mg/L for diazinon. Corresponding oxons were 10 to 100 times more toxic than their parental forms. We conclude that environmental concentrations of these pesticides can be harmful to R. boylii populations. - Laboratory tests on the toxicity of OP insecticides and their oxons suggest that they may be acutely lethal to amphibians at ecologically relevant concentrations.

  9. Subacute developmental exposure of zebrafish to the organophosphate pesticide metabolite, chlorpyrifos-oxon, results in defects in Rohon-Beard sensory neuron development. (United States)

    Jacobson, Saskia M; Birkholz, Denise A; McNamara, Marcy L; Bharate, Sandip B; George, Kathleen M


    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are environmental toxicants known to inhibit the catalytic activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) resulting in hypercholinergic toxicity symptoms. In developing embryos, OPs have been hypothesized to affect both cholinergic and non-cholinergic pathways. In order to understand the neurological pathways affected by OP exposure during embryogenesis, we developed a subacute model of OP developmental exposure in zebrafish by exposing embryos to a dose of the OP metabolite chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO) that is non-lethal and significantly inhibited AChE enzymatic activity compared to control embryos (43% at 1 day post-fertilization (dpf) and 11% at 2dpf). Phenotypic analysis of CPO-exposed embryos demonstrated that embryonic growth, as analyzed by gross morphology, was normal in 85% of treated embryos. Muscle fiber formation was similar to control embryos as analyzed by birefringence, and nicotinic acetylcholine receptor (nAChR) cluster formation was quantitatively similar to control embryos as analyzed by α-bungarotoxin staining. These results indicate that partial AChE activity during the early days of zebrafish development is sufficient for general development, muscle fiber, and nAChR development. Rohon-Beard (RB) sensory neurons exhibited aberrant peripheral axon extension and gene expression profiling suggests that several genes responsible for RB neurogenesis are down-regulated. Stability of CPO in egg water at 28.5 °C was determined by HPLC-UV-MS analysis which revealed that the CPO concentration used in our studies hydrolyzes in egg water with a half-life of 1 day. The result that developmental CPO exposure affected RB neurogenesis without affecting muscle fiber or nAChR cluster formation demonstrates that zebrafish are a strong model system for characterizing subtle neurological pathologies resulting from environmental toxicants.

  10. Protein tyrosine adduct in humans self-poisoned by chlorpyrifos

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    Li, Bin, E-mail: [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Eyer, Peter, E-mail: [Walther-Straub-Institut Für Pharmakologie und Toxikologie, Ludwig-Maximilians-Universität München, 80336 München (Germany); Eddleston, Michael, E-mail: [Clinical Pharmacology Unit, University of Edinburgh, Edinburgh (United Kingdom); Jiang, Wei, E-mail: [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Schopfer, Lawrence M., E-mail: [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States); Lockridge, Oksana, E-mail: [Eppley Institute, University of Nebraska Medical Center, Omaha, NE 68198-5950 (United States)


    Studies of human cases of self-inflicted poisoning suggest that chlorpyrifos oxon reacts not only with acetylcholinesterase and butyrylcholinesterase but also with other blood proteins. A favored candidate is albumin because in vitro and animal studies have identified tyrosine 411 of albumin as a site covalently modified by organophosphorus poisons. Our goal was to test this proposal in humans by determining whether plasma from humans poisoned by chlorpyrifos has adducts on tyrosine. Plasma samples from 5 self-poisoned humans were drawn at various time intervals after ingestion of chlorpyrifos for a total of 34 samples. All 34 samples were analyzed for plasma levels of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) as a function of time post-ingestion. Eleven samples were analyzed for the presence of diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine by mass spectrometry. Six samples yielded diethoxyphosphorylated tyrosine in pronase digests. Blood collected as late as 5 days after chlorpyrifos ingestion was positive for CPO-tyrosine, consistent with the 20-day half-life of albumin. High plasma CPO levels did not predict detectable levels of CPO-tyrosine. CPO-tyrosine was identified in pralidoxime treated patients as well as in patients not treated with pralidoxime, indicating that pralidoxime does not reverse CPO binding to tyrosine in humans. Plasma butyrylcholinesterase was a more sensitive biomarker of exposure than adducts on tyrosine. In conclusion, chlorpyrifos oxon makes a stable covalent adduct on the tyrosine residue of blood proteins in humans who ingested chlorpyrifos. - Highlights: • Chlorpyrifos-poisoned patients have adducts on protein tyrosine. • Diethoxyphosphate-tyrosine does not lose an alkyl group. • Proteins in addition to AChE and BChE are modified by organophosphates.

  11. Tissue distribution, isozyme abundance and sensitivity to chlorpyrifos-oxon of carboxylesterases in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

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    Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C. [Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Environmental Science, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III, 45071 Toledo (Spain)], E-mail:; Wheelock, Craig E. [Division of Physiological Chemistry II, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77, Stockholm (Sweden)


    A laboratory-based study was conducted to determine the basal carboxylesterase (CbE) activity in different tissues of the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris, and its sensitivity to the organophosphate (OP) pesticide chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPx). Carboxylesterase activity was found in the pharynx, crop, gizzard, anterior intestine, wall muscle and reproductive tissues of L. terrestris, and multiple tissue-specific isozymes were observed by native gel electrophoresis. Esterase activity and sensitivity to CPx inhibition varied on a tissue- and substrate-specific basis, suggesting isoforms-specific selectivity to OP-mediated inhibition. Three practical issues are recommended for the use of earthworm CbE activity as a biomarker of pesticide exposure: (i) CbE should be measured using several routine substrates, (ii) it should be determined in selected tissues instead of whole organism homogenate, and (iii) earthworm CbE activity should be used in conjuncture with other common biomarkers (e.g., ChE) within a multibiomarker approach to assess field exposure of OPs, and potentially other agrochemicals. - The measurement of carboxylesterase inhibition in earthworm is a sensitive and complementary biomarker of pesticide exposure.

  12. The use of Artificial Neural Networks for the selective detection of two organophosphate insecticides: chlorpyrifos and chlorfenvinfos. (United States)

    Istamboulie, Georges; Cortina-Puig, Montserrat; Marty, Jean-Louis; Noguer, Thierry


    Amperometric acetylcholinesterase (AChE) biosensors have been developed to resolve mixtures of chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) and chlorfenvinfos (CFV) pesticides. Three different biosensors were built using the wild type from electric eel (EE), the genetically modified Drosophila melanogaster AChE B394 and B394 co-immobilized with a phosphotriesterase (PTE). Artificial Neural Networks (ANNs) were used to model the combined response of the two pesticides. Specifically two different ANNs were constructed. The first one was used to model the combined response of B394+PTE and EE biosensors and was applied when the concentration of CPO was high and the other, modelling the combined response of B394+PTE and B394 biosensors, was applied with low concentrations of CPO. In both cases, good prediction ability was obtained with correlation coefficients better than 0.986 when the obtained values were compared with those expected for a set of six external test samples not used for training.

  13. Determinan Ekspor CPO Indonesia

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    Ratih Rosita


    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the products that are important to the economy of Indonesia. This study aims to analyze the performance of Indonesia's CPO exports and to look for the influence of the independent variables such as production volume CPO, CPO consumption and the value of the rupiah against the U.S. dollar. The authors of this study tested using the Method of Error Correction Model. The time interval used is from 1998 to 2011 with the data quarter. The findings suggest that Indonesia's CPO production volume variables exert a positive and significant impact on the number of Indonesian CPO exports in both the short and long term, then the variable volume Indonesia CPO consumption in the short and long term is also a significant effect on the number of Indonesian CPO exports but negatively related, this is due to the domestic CPO consumption greater that the capacity to export will be reduced. Variables of the Rupiah against the U.S. dollar also affects Indonesia's CPO exports significantly and negatively related to both the short and long term and conditions of the depreciation of the rupiah exchange rate is not enough to effectively be driving exports. Estimates show that the close relationship between external demand caused exports to Indonesia's export performance vulnerable to external shocks. Side factors are also a determinant of export performance. Keywords: palm oil, CPO consumption, Error Correction Model

  14. Determinan Ekspor CPO Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ratih Rosita


    Full Text Available Palm oil is one of the products that are important to the economy of Indonesia. This study aims to analyze the performance of Indonesia's CPO exports and to look for the influence of the independent variables such as production volume CPO, CPO consumption and the value of the rupiah against the U.S. dollar. The authors of this study tested using the Method of Error Correction Model. The time interval used is from 1998 to 2011 with the data quarter. The findings suggest that Indonesia's CPO production volume variables exert a positive and significant impact on the number of Indonesian CPO exports in both the short and long term, then the variable volume Indonesia CPO consumption in the short and long term is also a significant effect on the number of Indonesian CPO exports but negatively related, this is due to the domestic CPO consumption greater that the capacity to export will be reduced. Variables of the Rupiah against the U.S. dollar also affects Indonesia's CPO exports significantly and negatively related to both the short and long term and conditions of the depreciation of the rupiah exchange rate is not enough to effectively be driving exports. Estimates show that the close relationship between external demand caused exports to Indonesia's export performance vulnerable to external shocks. Side factors are also a determinant of export performance.

  15. The Relationship between PON1 phenotype and PON1-192 genotype in detoxification of three oxons by human liver. (United States)

    Mutch, Elaine; Daly, Ann K; Williams, Faith M


    Phosphorothioate pesticides (OP) such as diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and parathion are activated to highly toxic oxon metabolites by the cytochromes P450 (P450s), mainly in the liver. Simultaneously, the P450s catalyze detoxification of OP to nontoxic dearylated metabolites. The oxon is then detoxified to the dearylated metabolite by PON1, an A-esterase present in the liver and blood serum. The aims of this study were to define the influence of PON1-192 genotype and phenotype on the capacity of human liver microsomes (n = 27) to detoxify the oxons diazoxon, chlorpyrifos-oxon, and paraoxon. Near physiological assay conditions were used to reflect as closely as possible metabolism in vivo and because the hydrolytic activity of the allelic variants of PON1-192 are differentially affected by a number of conditions. The rates of hydrolysis of diazoxon, chlorpyrifos-oxon, and paraoxon varied 5.7-, 16-, and 56-fold, respectively, regardless of PON1-192 genotype. Individuals with the PON1-192RR genotype preferentially hydrolyzed paraoxon (p < 0.01), and the R allele was associated with higher hydrolytic activity toward chlorpyrifos-oxon, but not diazoxon. There were strongly significant relationships between phenylacetate and paraoxon hydrolysis (p < 0.001) and phenylacetate and chlorpyrifos-oxon hydrolysis (p < 0.001), but not between phenylacetate and diazoxon hydrolysis. These data highlight the importance of PON1 phenotype for efficient hydrolysis of paraoxon and chlorpyrifos-oxon, but environmental and yet unknown genetic factors are more important than PON1-192 genotype in determining capacity to hydrolyze diazoxon.

  16. Comparative effects of chlorpyrifos in wild type and cannabinoid Cb1 receptor knockout mice

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    Baireddy, Praveena; Liu, Jing; Hinsdale, Myron; Pope, Carey, E-mail:


    Endocannabinoids (eCBs) modulate neurotransmission by inhibiting the release of a variety of neurotransmitters. The cannabinoid receptor agonist WIN 55.212-2 (WIN) can modulate organophosphorus (OP) anticholinesterase toxicity in rats, presumably by inhibiting acetylcholine (ACh) release. Some OP anticholinesterases also inhibit eCB-degrading enzymes. We studied the effects of the OP insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) on cholinergic signs of toxicity, cholinesterase activity and ACh release in tissues from wild type (+/+) and cannabinoid CB1 receptor knockout (-/-) mice. Mice of both genotypes (n = 5-6/treatment group) were challenged with CPF (300 mg/kg, 2 ml/kg in peanut oil, sc) and evaluated for functional and neurochemical changes. Both genotypes exhibited similar cholinergic signs and cholinesterase inhibition (82-95% at 48 h after dosing) in cortex, cerebellum and heart. WIN reduced depolarization-induced ACh release in vitro in hippocampal slices from wild type mice, but had no effect in hippocampal slices from knockouts or in striatal slices from either genotype. Chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO, 100 {mu}M) reduced release in hippocampal slices from both genotypes in vitro, but with a greater reduction in tissues from wild types (21% vs 12%). CPO had no significant in vitro effect on ACh release in striatum. CPF reduced ACh release in hippocampus from both genotypes ex vivo, but reduction was again significantly greater in tissues from wild types (52% vs 36%). In striatum, CPF led to a similar reduction (20-23%) in tissues from both genotypes. Thus, while CB1 deletion in mice had little influence on the expression of acute toxicity following CPF, CPF- or CPO-induced changes in ACh release appeared sensitive to modulation by CB1-mediated eCB signaling in a brain-regional manner. -- Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer C57Bl/6 mice showed dose-related cholinergic toxicity following subcutaneous chlorpyrifos exposure. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Wild type and

  17. A Human Life-Stage Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Model for Chlorpyrifos: Development and Validation

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    Smith, Jordan N.; Hinderliter, Paul M.; Timchalk, Charles; Bartels, M. J.; Poet, Torka S.


    Sensitivity to chemicals in animals and humans are known to vary with age. Age-related changes in sensitivity to chlorpyrifos have been reported in animal models. A life-stage physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model was developed to computationally predict disposition of CPF and its metabolites, chlorpyrifos-oxon (the ultimate toxicant) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), as well as B-esterase inhibition by chlorpyrifos-oxon in humans. In this model, age-dependent body weight was calculated from a generalized Gompertz function, and compartments (liver, brain, fat, blood, diaphragm, rapid, and slow) were scaled based on body weight from polynomial functions on a fractional body weight basis. Blood flows among compartments were calculated as a constant flow per compartment volume. The life-stage PBPK/PD model was calibrated and tested against controlled adult human exposure studies. Model simulations suggest age-dependent pharmacokinetics and response may exist. At oral doses ≥ 0.55 mg/kg of chlorpyrifos (significantly higher than environmental exposure levels), 6 mo old children are predicted to have higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and higher levels of red blood cell cholinesterase inhibition compared to adults from equivalent oral doses of chlorpyrifos. At lower doses that are more relevant to environmental exposures, the model predicts that adults will have slightly higher levels of chlorpyrifos-oxon in blood and greater cholinesterase inhibition. This model provides a computational framework for age-comparative simulations that can be utilized to predict CPF disposition and biological response over various postnatal life-stages.

  18. Oral intake of hydrogen-rich water ameliorated chlorpyrifos-induced neurotoxicity in rats

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    Wang, Tingting; Zhao, Ling; Liu, Mengyu; Xie, Fei; Ma, Xuemei, E-mail:; Zhao, Pengxiang; Liu, Yunqi; Li, Jiala; Wang, Minglian; Yang, Zhaona; Zhang, Yutong


    Chronic exposure to low-levels of organophosphate (OP) compounds, such as chlorpyrifos (CPF), induces oxidative stress and could be related to neurological disorders. Hydrogen has been identified as a novel antioxidant which could selectively scavenge hydroxyl radicals. We explore whether intake of hydrogen-rich water (HRW) can protect Wistar rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity. Rats were gavaged daily with 6.75 mg/kg body weight (1/20 LD{sub 50}) of CPF and given HRW by oral intake. Nissl staining and electron microscopy results indicated that HRW intake had protective effects on the CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons and neuronal mitochondria. Immunostaining results showed that the increased glial fibrillary acidic protein (GFAP) expression in astrocytes induced by CPF exposure can be ameliorated by HRW intake. Moreover, HRW intake also attenuated CPF-induced oxidative stress as evidenced by enhanced level of MDA, accompanied by an increase in GSH level and SOD and CAT activity. Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity tests showed significant decrease in brain AChE activity after CPF exposure, and this effect can be ameliorated by HRW intake. An in vitro study demonstrated that AChE activity was more intense in HRW than in normal water with or without chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPO), the metabolically-activated form of CPF. These observations suggest that HRW intake can protect rats from CPF-induced neurotoxicity, and the protective effects of hydrogen may be mediated by regulating the oxidant and antioxidant status of rats. Furthermore, this work defines a novel mechanism of biological activity of hydrogen by directly increasing the AChE activity. - Highlights: • Hydrogen molecules protect rats from CPF-induced damage of hippocampal neurons. • The increased GFAP expression induced by CPF can also be ameliorated by hydrogen. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated the increase in CPF-induced oxidative stress. • Hydrogen molecules attenuated AChE inhibition in vivo

  19. In vitro rat hepatic and intestinal metabolism of the organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon. (United States)

    Poet, T S; Wu, H; Kousba, A A; Timchalk, C


    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZN) are thionophosphorus organophosphate (OP) insecticides; their toxicity is mediated through CYP metabolism to CPF-oxon and DZN-oxon, respectively. Conversely, CYPs also detoxify these OPs to trichloropyridinol (TCP) and 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine (IMHP), respectively. In addition, A-esterase (PON1) metabolism of CPF- and DZN-oxon also forms TCP and IMHP. This study evaluated the role intestinal and hepatic metabolism may play in both the activation and detoxification of CPF and DZN in Sprague-Dawley rats. Similar CYP- and PON1-mediated metabolic profiles were demonstrated in microsomes from liver or isolated intestinal enterocytes. The metabolic efficiency was estimated by calculating the psuedo-1st order rate constant from the metabolic constants by dividing Vmax/Km. In enterocyte microsomes, the CYP metabolic efficiency for metabolism to the oxon metabolites was approximately 28-fold greater for CPF than DZN. Compared on a per nmol P450 basis, the Vmax for CPF in enterocytes was approximately 2-3 times higher than in liver microsomes for the production of CPF-oxon and TCP. The Michaelis-Menten rate constant (Km) for the metabolism of CPF to CPF-oxon was comparable in liver and enterocyte microsomes; however, the enterocyte Km for TCP production was higher (indicating a lower affinity). The smaller volume of intestine, lower amount of CYP, and higher Km for TCP in the enterocyte microsomes, resulted in a lower catalytic efficiency (2 and 62 times) than in liver for oxon and TCP. PON1-mediated metabolism of CPF- and DZN-oxon was also demonstrated in liver and enterocyte microsomes. Although PON1 affinity for the substrates was comparable in hepatic and enterocytic microsomes, the Vmax were 48- to 275-fold higher, in the liver. These results suggest that intestinal metabolism may impact the metabolism of CPF and DZN, especially following low-dose oral exposures.

  20. In Vitro Rat Hepatic and Intestinal Metabolism of the Organophosphate Pesticides Chlorpyrifos and Diazinon

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Poet, Torka S.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Wu, Hong (BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Kousba, Ahmed A.(BATTELLE (PACIFIC NW LAB)); Timchalk, Charles (Pacific Northwest National Laboratory)


    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZN) are thionophosphorus organophosphate, insecticides; their toxicity is mediated through CYP450 metabolism to CPF-oxon and DZN-oxon, respectively. Conversely, CYP450s also detoxify these OPs to trichloropyridinol (TCP) and 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine (IMHP), respectively. In addition, A-esterase metabolism of CPF- and DZN-oxon also form TCP and IMHP. This study evaluated the role intestinal and hepatic metabolism may play in the first-pass elimination of CPF and DZN. Similar CYP450- and A-esterase-mediated metabolic profiles were demonstrated in microsomes from liver or isolated intestinal enterocytes. In enterocyte microsomes, the CYP450 metabolic efficiency (Vmax/Km) for metabolism to the oxon metabolites was~5-fold greater for CPF than DZN. Compared on a per nmol P450 basis, the Vmax for CPF in enterocytes was~2-3 times higher than in liver microsomes for the production of CPF-oxon and TCP. The affinity (Km) for the metabolism of CPF to CPF-oxon was comparable in liver and enterocyte microsomes, however the enterocyte Km for TCP production was higher (lower affinity). The smaller volume of intestine, lower amount of CYP450, and higher Km for TCP in the enterocyte microsomes, resulted in a lower catalytic efficiency (2 and 62 times) than in liver for oxon and TCP. A-esterase-mediated metabolism of CPF- and DZN-oxon was also demonstrated in liver and enterocyte microsomes. Although A-esterase affinity for the substrates were comparable in hepatic and enterocyte microsomes, the Vmax were 48 - to 275-fold, in the liver. These results suggest that intestinal metabolism may impact first-pass metabolism of CPF and DZN, especially following low-dose oral exposures.

  1. Trend Produksi dan Ekspor Minyak Sawit (CPO Indonesia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andi Alatas


    Full Text Available This study aims to determine the trend of palm oil production, the trend of the value of production, trends of CPO(crude palm oil export volume, trend value of Indonesian exports, as well as to determine the factors that influence the Indonesian CPO exports and to know the benefits of Indonesia's CPO. The data that used are annual data which were analyzed using regression analysis to estimate the influential factors, the analysis of RCA (Revealed Comparative Abvantage and AR (Acceleration Ratio were used to determine the comparative advantage of the Indonesian palm oil in international market.The results showed that the trend of Indonesian palm oil production on average was increased, while the trend of the value of production, the export volume trend, and the trend of Indonesian CPO export value also increased from year to year. The high productivity of Indonesian palm oil production allows the State Indonesia's CPO to exports to neighboring countries, such as China, India, and the Netherlands. From the results of research on the factors that influence the CPO exports to China state that the International CPO price, exchange rate, per capita income, population, and the price substitution (soybean. Factors affecting the CPO exports to China were the CPO price International, capita income of, population, and the price substitution. Factors that affecting CPO exports to Netherland countries were the domestic price, capita income, population, trend, and subtitusi price.Analysis to determine the comparative advantage to Indonesian CPO market showed that Indonesian CPORCA value was higher than the value of the RCACPO World wide  average, while the World RCA value of 1,06, this showed that the market share of Indonesian CPO superior and capableto compete in international market. The growth of Indonesian CPO export has accelerated and higher than other countries in the World (AR =1,009.

  2. Diazinon, chlorpyrifos and parathion are metabolised by multiple cytochromes P450 in human liver. (United States)

    Mutch, Elaine; Williams, Faith M


    This research describes both the activation and detoxification of diazinon, chlorpyrifos and parathion by recombinant P450 isozymes and by human liver microsomes that had been characterised for P450 marker activities. Wide variations in activity were found for diazinon (50 microM; 500 microM) activation to diazoxon, chlorpyrifos (100 microM) to chlorpyrifos oxon and parathion (5 microM, 20 microM and 200 microM) to paraoxon in NADPH-dependent reactions. In parallel, the dearylated metabolites pyrimidinol (IHMP), trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and p-nitrophenol (PNP) were produced from diazinon, chlorpyrifos and parathion, respectively, with similarly wide variations in activity. There were significant correlations between diazoxon formation from diazinon (50 microM; 500 microM) with the three CYP3A4/5 marker reactions, while IHMP formation correlated significantly with the three CYP3A4/5 reactions, the CYP2C8 marker reaction (pdiazinon; CYPs 2D6, 3A5, 2B6 and 3A4 were best at producing chlorpyrifos-oxon and CYPs 2C19, 2D6, 3A5 and 3A4 at producing TCP from chlorpyrifos (100 microM). These data strongly suggest that CYPs 3A4/5, 2C8, 1A2, 2C19 and 2D6 are primarily involved in the metabolism of all three OPs, although the profile of participating isoforms was different for each of the pesticides suggesting that chemical structure influences which P450s mediate the reaction. The marked inter-individual variation in expression of the various P450 isozymes may result in sub-populations of individuals that produce higher systemic oxon levels with increased susceptibility to OP toxicity.

  3. CPO-IPN collaboration for proton therapy; La collaboration CPO-IPN pour la protontherapy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arianer, J.; Buhour, J.M.; Coat, F.; Mueller, A.C. [Services Techniques, Inst. de Physique Nucleaire, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France); Mazal, A. [CPO, Paris-11 Univ., 91 - Orsay (France)


    Since January 1997 a collaboration between CPO-IPN has been started in order to develop proton therapy instruments at Orsay. The final purposes are to build an isocentric gantry and further a medically dedicated super-conducting proton accelerator for treatment of cancers. (authors) 6 figs., 1 tab.

  4. Biotransformation of chlorpyrifos and diazinon by human liver microsomes and recombinant human cytochrome P450s (CYP). (United States)

    Sams, C; Cocker, J; Lennard, M S


    The cytochrome P450 (CYP)-mediated biotransformation of the organophosphorothioate insecticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon was investigated. Rates of desulphuration to the active oxon metabolite (chlorpyrifos-oxon and diazinon-oxon) and dearylation to non-toxic hydrolysis products were determined in human liver microsome preparations from five individual donors and in recombinant CYP enzymes. Chlorpyrifos and diazinon underwent desulphuration in human liver microsome with mean Km = 30 and 45 microM and V(max) = 353 and 766 pmol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively. Dearylation of these compounds by human liver microsome proceeded with Km = 12 and 28 microM and V(max) = 653 and 1186 pmol min(-1) mg(-1), respectively. The apparent intrinsic clearance (V(max)/Km) of dearylation was 4.5- and 2.5-fold greater than desulphuration for chlorpyrifos and diazinon, respectively. Recombinant human CYP2B6 possessed the highest desulphuration activity for chlorpyrifos, whereas CYP2C19 had the highest dearylation activity. In contrast, both desulphuration and dearylation of diazinon were catalysed at similar rates, in the rank order CYP2C19 > CYP1A2 > CYP2B6 > CYP3A4. Both organophosphorothioates were more readily detoxified (dearylation) than bioactivated (desulphuration) in all human liver microsome preparations. However, the role of individual CYP enzymes in these two biotransformation pathways varied according to the structure of the organophosphorothioate, which was reflected in different activation/detoxification ratios for chlorpyrifos and diazinon. Variability in activity of individual CYP enzymes may influence interindividual sensitivity to the toxic effects of chlorpyrifos and diazinon.

  5. Simple Epoxide Formation for the Organic Laboratory Using Oxone (United States)

    Broshears, Williams C.; Esteb, John J.; Richter, Jeremy; Wilson, Anne M.


    Epoxide chemistry is widely used in organic synthesis and regularly discussed in organic chemistry textbooks. An experiment to generate dimethyldioxirane in situ from acetone using Oxone is explained.

  6. The In Vivo Quantitation of Diazinon, Chlorpyrifos and their Major Metabolites in Rat Blood for the Refinement of a Physiologically-based Pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic Models.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busby, Andrea L.; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Timchalk, Chuck


    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZN) are inhibitors of acetylcholinesterase due to the effects of their active oxon metabolites. The inhibition of acetylcholinesterase results in a buildup of acetylcholine within the nerve synapses leading to a variety of neurotoxic effects (Mileson et al., 1998). These effects are most clearly seen following acute high dose exposures but they can also be observed in lower dose chronic cases as well. Chlorpyrifos is the active ingredient in commonly used organophosphorous (OP) insecticides like DURSBAN and LORSBAN (Timchalk et. al, 2002). Chlorpyrifos and diazinon are used to eliminate pests in agricultural applications like cotton and fruit crops. Every year globally there are approximately 3 million cases of organophosphate poisoning reported resulting in 200,000 deaths (Haywood et al., 2000). The public is exposed to these chemicals on a regular basis at chronic low levels from food and water contamination, dermal contact and inhalation. The United States National Health and Nutrition Examination Survey indicated that of approximately 3,600 persons from all 64 NHANES III locations, 70% tested positive for TCP in urine, suggesting exposure to chlorpyrifos (NHANES III, 1994). The chemical structures of chlorpyrifos, diazinon, and their major metabolites trichlorpyridinol (TCP), and isopropyl-methyl-hydroxypyrimidine (IMHP) are shown in Figure 1. The parent compounds, CPF and DZN, are metabolized to their potent inhibiting oxon forms via a desulfuration reaction initiated by cytochrome P450 (CYP)(Poet et al., 2003; Amitai et al., 1998). Competing with the formation of oxon is the detoxification metabolism of CPF to TCP and DZN to IMHP via a dearylation reaction utilizing the same enzymes. A-esterase (PON1) and other B-esterases also contribute to the production of TCP and IMHP through the metabolism of CPF-oxon and DZN-oxon, respectively (Poet et al., 2003; Ma et al., 1994). The ratio between the toxification

  7. Understanding the adsorption mechanism of noble gases Kr and Xe in CPO-27-Ni, CPO-27-Mg, and ZIF-8. (United States)

    Magdysyuk, O V; Adams, F; Liermann, H-P; Spanopoulos, I; Trikalitis, P N; Hirscher, M; Morris, R E; Duncan, M J; McCormick, L J; Dinnebier, R E


    An experimental study of Xe and Kr adsorption in metal-organic frameworks CPO-27-Ni, CPO-27-Mg, and ZIF-8 was carried out. In situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction experiments allowed precise determination of the adsorption sites and sequence of their filling with increasing of gas pressure at different temperatures. Structural investigations were used for interpretation of gas adsorption measurements.

  8. Understanding the adsorption mechanism of noble gases Kr and Xe in CPO-27-Ni, CPO-27-Mg, and ZIF-8


    Magdysyuk, O V; ADAMS, F; Liermann, H-P.; Spanopoulos, I; Trikalitis, P N; M. Hirscher; Morris, R. E.; Duncan, M J; McCormick, L J; Dinnebier, R. E.


    An experimental study of Xe and Kr adsorption in metal-organic frameworks CPO-27-Ni, CPO-27-Mg, and ZIF-8 was carried out. In situ synchrotron X-ray powder diffraction experiments allowed precise determination of the adsorption sites and sequence of their filling with increasing of gas pressure at different temperatures. Structural investigations were used for interpretation of gas adsorption measurements. Postprint Peer reviewed

  9. An Age-Dependent Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Model for the Organophosphorus Insecticide Chlorpyrifos in the Preweanling Rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Chuck; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Poet, Torka S.


    Juvenile rats are more susceptible than adults to the acute toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides like chlorpyrifos (CPF). Age- and dose-dependent differences in metabolism may be responsible. Of importance is CYP450 activation and detoxification of CPF to chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-oxon) and trichloropyridinol (TCP), as well as B-esterase (cholinesterase; ChE) and A-esterase (PON-1) detoxification of CPF-oxon to TCP. In the current study, a modified physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model incorporating age-dependent changes in CYP450, PON-1, and tissue ChE levels for rats was developed. In this model, age was used as a dependent function to estimate body weight which was then used to allometrically scale both metabolism and tissue ChE levels. Model simulations suggest that preweanling rats are particularly sensitive to CPF toxicity, with levels of CPF-oxon in blood and brain disproportionately increasing, relative to the response in adult rats. This age-dependent non-linear increase in CPF-oxon concentration may potentially result from the depletion of non-target B-esterases, and a lower PON-1 metabolic capacity in younger animals. These results indicate that the PBPK/PD model behaves consistently with the general understanding of CPF toxicity, pharmacokinetics and tissue ChE inhibition in neonatal and adult rats. Hence, this model represents an important starting point for developing a computational model to assess the neurotoxic potential of environmentally relevant organophosphate exposures in infants and children.

  10. Effects of Nicotine Exposure on In Vitro Metabolism of Chlorpyrifos in Male Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sookwang; Busby, Andrea L.; Timchalk, Charles; Poet, Torka S.


    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a common organophosphate (OP) insecticide which is metabolized by CYP450s to the neurotoxic metabolite, chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-oxon) and a non-toxic metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP). The objective of this study was to quantify the effect of repeated in vivo nicotine exposures on CPF in vitro metabolism and marker substrate activities in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were dosed subcutaneously with 1 mg nicotine/kg/, for up to 10 days. Animals showed signs of cholinergic crisis after the initial nicotine doses, but exhibited adaptation after a couple days of treatment. Rats were sacrificed on selected days 4 or 24 hr after the last nicotine-treatment. While CYP450 reduced CO spectra were not different across the treatments, the single nicotine dose group showed a 2-fold increase in CYP2E1 marker substrate (p-nitrophenol) activity 24 hr after a single nicotine treatment compared to saline controls. Conversely, repeated nicotine treatments resulted in decreased EROD marker substrate activity 4 hr after the 7th day of treatment. CPF-oxon Vmax and Km did not show significant changes across the different nicotine treatment groups. The Vmax describing the metabolism of CPF to TCP was increased on all groups (days 1, 7, and 10) 24 hr after nicotine treatment but were unchanged 4 hr after nicotine treatment. Results of this in vitro study suggest that repeated nicotine exposure (i.e., from smoking) may result in altered metabolism of CPF. Future in vivo experiments based on these results will be conducted to ascertain the impact of in vivo nicotine exposures on CPF metabolism in rats.

  11. The In Vivo Quantitation of Diazinon, chlorpyrifos, and Their Major Metabolites in Rat Blood for the Refinement of a Physiologically-Based Pharmacokinetic/Pharmacodynamic Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Busby, A.; Kousba, A.; Timchalk, C.


    Chlorpyrifos (CPF)(O,O-diethyl-O-[3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl]-phosphorothioate, CAS 2921-88-2), and diazinon (DZN)(O,O-diethyl-O-2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-pyrimidyl thiophosphate, CAS 333-41-5) are commonly encountered organophosphorus insecticides whose oxon metabolites (CPF-oxon and DZN-oxon) have the ability to strongly inhibit acetylcholinesterase, an enzyme responsible for the breakdown of acetylcholine at nerve synapses. Chlorpyrifos-oxon and DZN-oxon are highly unstable compounds that degrade via hepatic, peripheral blood, and intestinal metabolism to the more stable metabolites, TCP (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, CAS not assigned) and IMHP (2-isopropyl-6-methyl-4-pyrimidinol, CAS 2814-20-2), respectively. Studies have been performed to understand and model the chronic and acute toxic effects of CPF and DZN individually but little is known about their combined effects. The purpose of this study was to improve physiologically based pharmacokinetic/ pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) computational models by quantifying concentrations of CPF and DZN and their metabolites TCP and IMHP in whole rat blood, following exposure to the chemicals individually or as a mixture. Male Sprague-Dawley rats were orally dosed with 60 mg/kg of CPF, DZN, or a mixture of these two pesticides. When administered individually DZN and CPF were seen to reach their maximum concentration at ~3 hours post-dosing. When given as a mixture, both DZN and CPF peak blood concentrations were not achieved until ~6 hours post-dosing and the calculated blood area under the curve (AUC) for both chemicals exceeded those calculated following the single dose. Blood concentrations of IMHP and TCP correlated with these findings. It is proposed that the higher AUC obtained for both CPF and DZN as a mixture resulted from competition for the same metabolic enzyme systems.

  12. Effect of In Vivo Nicotine Exposure on Chlorpyrifos Pharmacokinetics and Pharmacodynamics in Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Sookwang; Poet, Torka S.; Smith, Jordan N.; Busby-Hjerpe, Andrea L.; Timchalk, Charles


    Routine use of tobacco products may modify physiological and metabolic functions, including drug metabolizing enzymes, which may impact the pharmacokinetics of environmental contaminants. Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus (OP) insecticide that is bioactivated to chlorpyrifos-oxon, and manifests its neurotoxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The objective of this study was to evaluate the impact of repeated nicotine exposure on the pharmacokinetics of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and its major metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) in blood and urine and also to determine the impact on cholinesterase (ChE) activity in plasma and brain. Animals were exposed to 7-daily doses of either 1 mg nicotine/kg or saline (sc), and to either a single oral dose of 35 mg CPF/kg or a repeated dose of 5 mg CPF/kg/day for 7 days. Groups of rats were then sacrificed at multiple time-points after receiving the last dose of CPF. Repeated nicotine and CPF exposures resulted in enhanced metabolism of CPF to TCPy, as evidenced by increases in the measured TCPy concentration and AUC in blood. However, there was no significant difference in the amount of TCPy (free or total) excreted in the urine. The extent of brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition was reduced due to nicotine co-exposure consistent with an increase in CYP450-mediated dearylation (detoxification) versus desulfuration. It was of interest to note that the impact of nicotine co-exposure was experimentally observed only after repeated CPF doses. Physiologically based pharmacokinetic model simulations of CPF-oxon concentrations in blood and brain were predicted to be lower in nicotine treated groups, which were simulated by increasing the dearylation Vmax based upon previously conducted in vitro metabolism studies. These results were consistent with the experimental data. The current study demonstrated that repeated nicotine exposure could alter CPF metabolism in vivo, further modulating brain AChE inhibition.

  13. Highly efficient oxidation of alcohols using Oxone(R) as oxidant catalyzed by ruthenium complex under mild reaction conditions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zi Qiang Lei; Jian Qiang Wang; Peng Hua Yan


    Aromatic and alkyl alcohols were oxidized to the corresponding aldehydes or ketones at room temperature with high conversion and selectivity using Oxone (2KHSO5·KHSO4·K2SO4) as oxidant catalyzed by ruthenium complex Quin-Ru-Quin (where Quin = 8-hydroxyquinoline). The reaction time is very short and the preparation of complex is simple. 2008 Zi Qiang Lei. Published by Elsevier B.V. on behalf of Chinese Chemical Society. All rights reserved.

  14. Analisis Faktor-Faktor yang Mempengaruhi Ekspor Crude Palm Oil (CPO) Indonesia ke Uni Eropa


    Pinem, Nurul Fajriah


    Since 2004, Crude Palm Oil (CPO) is the largest contributor to the production of vegetable oil. Indonesia supplies 47 % of the world's palm oil, and Malaysia dominate 85% of palm oil market in the world. Most of them exported to European Union, India, China, and Singapore. World market price of CPO is still under controlled by European market particulary. Rotterdam as the standar. The purpose of this study was to analyze the factors influenced the Indonesian CPO exports to the EU. The data of...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vera Devani


    Full Text Available PKS “XYZ” merupakan perusahaan yang bergerak di bidang pengolahan kelapa sawit. Produk yang dihasilkan adalah Crude Palm Oil (CPO dan Palm Kernel Oil (PKO. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisa kehilangan minyak (oil losses dan faktor-faktor penyebab dengan menggunakan metoda Statistical Process Control. Statistical Process Control adalah sekumpulan strategi, teknik, dan tindakan yang diambil oleh sebuah organisasi untuk memastikan bahwa strategi tersebut menghasilkan produk yang berkualitas atau menyediakan pelayanan yang berkualitas. Sampel terjadinya oil losses pada CPO yang diteliti adalah tandan kosong (tankos, biji (nut, ampas (fibre, dan sludge akhir. Berdasarkan Peta Kendali I-MR dapat disimpulkan bahwa kondisi keempat jenis oil losses CPO berada dalam batas kendali dan konsisten. Sedangkan nilai Cpk dari total oil losses berada di luar batas kendali rata-rata proses, hal ini berarti CPO yang diproduksi telah memenuhi kebutuhan pelanggan, dengan total oil losses kurang dari batas maksimum yang ditetapkan oleh perusahaan yaitu 1,65%.

  16. Internal Concentration and Time Are Important Modifiers of Toxicity: The Case of Chlorpyrifos on Caenorhabditis elegans. (United States)

    Roh, Ji-Yeon; Lee, Hyun-Jeoung; Kwon, Jung-Hwan


    The internal concentration of chemicals in exposed organisms changes over time due to absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion processes since chemicals are taken up from the environment. Internal concentration and time are very important modifiers of toxicity when biomarkers are used to evaluate the potential hazards and risks of environmental pollutants. In this study, the responses of molecular biomarkers, and the fate of chemicals in the body, were comprehensively investigated to determine cause-and-effect relationships over time. Chlorpyrifos (CP) was selected as a model chemical, and Caenorhabditis elegans was exposed to CP for 4 h using the passive dosing method. Worms were then monitored in fresh medium during a 48-h recovery regime. The mRNA expression of genes related to CYP metabolism (cyp35a2 and cyp35a3) increased during the constant exposure phase. The body residue of CP decreased once it reached a peak level during the early stage of exposure, indicating that the initial uptake of CP rapidly induced biotransformation with the synthesis of new CYP metabolic proteins. The residual chlorpyrifos-oxon concentration, an acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitor, continuously increased even after the recovery regime started. These delayed toxicokinetics seem to be important for the extension of AChE inhibition for up to 9 h after the start of the recovery regime. Comprehensive investigation into the molecular initiation events and changes in the internal concentrations of chemical species provide insight into response causality within the framework of an adverse outcome pathway.

  17. PON1 status does not influence cholinesterase activity in Egyptian agricultural workers exposed to chlorpyrifos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ellison, Corie A., E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Crane, Alice L., E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Bonner, Matthew R., E-mail: [Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Knaak, James B., E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Browne, Richard W., E-mail: [Department of Biotechnical and Clinical Laboratory Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Lein, Pamela J., E-mail: [Department of Molecular Biosciences, University of California School of Veterinary Medicine, Davis, CA 95618 (United States); Olson, James R., E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology and Toxicology, School of Medicine and Biomedical Sciences, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States); Department of Social and Preventive Medicine, State University of New York at Buffalo, Buffalo, NY 14214 (United States)


    Animal studies have shown that paraoxonase 1 (PON1) genotype can influence susceptibility to the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF). However, Monte Carlo analysis suggests that PON1 genotype may not affect CPF-related toxicity at low exposure conditions in humans. The current study sought to determine the influence of PON1 genotype on the activity of blood cholinesterase as well as the effect of CPF exposure on serum PON1 in workers occupationally exposed to CPF. Saliva, blood and urine were collected from agricultural workers (n = 120) from Egypt's Menoufia Governorate to determine PON1 genotype, blood cholinesterase activity, serum PON1 activity towards chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPOase) and paraoxon (POase), and urinary levels of the CPF metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy). The PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) but not the PON1 192 genotype had a significant effect on CPOase activity. However, both the PON1 55 (P ≤ 0.05) and PON1 192 (P ≤ 0.001) genotypes had a significant effect on POase activity. Workers had significantly inhibited AChE and BuChE after CPF application; however, neither CPOase activity nor POase activity was associated with ChE depression when adjusted for CPF exposure (as determined by urinary TCPy levels) and stratified by PON1 genotype. CPOase and POase activity were also generally unaffected by CPF exposure although there were alterations in activity within specific genotype groups. Together, these results suggest that workers retained the capacity to detoxify chlorpyrifos-oxon under the exposure conditions experienced by this study population regardless of PON1 genotype and activity and that effects of CPF exposure on PON1 activity are minimal. -- Highlights: ► CPF exposure resulted in an increase in TCPy and decreases in BuChE and AChE. ► CPOase activity decreased in subjects with the PON1 55LM and PON1 55 MM genotypes. ► Neither PON1 genotype nor CPOase activity had an effect on BuChE or AChE inhibition.

  18. Nano porous alkaline earth metal silicates as free fatty acid adsorbents from Crude Palm Oil (CPO) (United States)

    Masmur, Indra; Sembiring, Seri Bima; Bangun, Nimpan; Kaban, Jamaran; Putri, Nabila Karina


    Free fatty acids(FFA) from Crude Palm Oil (CPO) have been adsorbed by alkaline earth metal silicate (M-silicate : M = Mg, Ca, Sr and Ba) adsorbents in ethanol using batch method. The adsorbents were prepared from the chloride salts of alkaline metals and Na2SiO3. The resulting white solid of the alkaline earth metal silicates were then heated at 800°C for 3 hours to enlarge their porosities. All adsorbents were characterized by SEM-EDX, XRD and BET. The EDX spectrum of SEM-EDX showed the appearance of all elements in the adsorbents, and the XRD spectrum of all adsorbents showed that they have crystobalite structure. The porosity of the adsorbents calculated by BET method showed that the porosities of the adsorbents range from 2.0884 - 2.0969 nm. All the adsorbents were used to adsorb the FFA from CPO containing 4.79%, 7.3%, 10.37% and 13.34% of FFA. The ratio of adsorbent to CPO to be used in adsorption of FFA from CPO were made 1:1, 1:2 and 1:3, with adsorption time of 1 hour. We found that the maximum adsorption of FFA from CPO was given by Ca-Silicate adsorbent which was between 69.86 - 94.78%, while the lowest adsorption was shown by Mg-silicate adsorbent which was 49.32 -74.53%.

  19. Organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos and its metabolites alter the expression of biomarker genes of differentiation in D3 mouse embryonic stem cells in a comparable way to other model neurodevelopmental toxicants. (United States)

    Estevan, Carmen; Fuster, Encarnación; Del Río, Eva; Pamies, David; Vilanova, Eugenio; Sogorb, Miguel A


    There are discrepancies about whether chlorpyrifos is able to induce neurodevelopmental toxicity or not. We previously reported alterations in the pattern of expression of biomarker genes of differentiation in D3 mouse embryonic stem cells caused by chlorpyrifos and its metabolites chlorpyrifos-oxon and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol. Now, we reanalyze these data comparing the effects on these genes with those caused in the same genes by retinoic acid, valproic acid, and penicillin-G (model compounds considered as strong, weak, and non-neurodevelopmental toxicants, respectively). We also compare the effects of chlorpyrifos and its metabolites on the cell viability of D3 cells and 3T3 mouse fibroblasts with the effects caused in the same cells by the three model compounds. We conclude that chlorpyrifos and its metabolites act, regarding these end-points, as the weak neurodevelopmental toxicant valproic acid, and consequently, a principle of caution should be applied avoiding occupational exposures in pregnant women. A second independent experiment run with different cellular batches coming from the same clone obtained the same result as the first one.

  20. Ibuprofen degradation and toxicity evolution during Fe(2+)/Oxone/UV process. (United States)

    Gong, Han; Chu, Wei; Lam, So Hiu; Lin, Angela Yu-Chen


    This study shows the degradation of ibuprofen in aqueous solution using oxone process mediated by Fe(2+) with UV irradiation (FOU). Fe(2+)/Oxone (FO), Fe(2+)/UV (FU), Oxone/UV (OU) processes were investigated separately to elucidate the role of different conditions in the processes. The effects of UV wavelength, the dosage of Fe(2+), the dosage of oxone, initial target compound concentration, solution pH and anions on the degradation efficiency were studied. In general the FOU is best performed among the processes. About 97% of 0.05 mM ibuprofen was removed in 10 min, under the optimal conditions of FOU (wavelength = 300 nm, [Fe(2+)]0 = 0.25 mM, [Oxone]0 = 0.25 mM, and pH = 3.68). Subsequent tests like the mineralization efficiency and toxicity evolution were also conducted to ensure the FOU is a safe and comprehensive treatment process after the ibuprofen is removed. However, the above optimal conditions for IBP degradation were found inadequate in the TOC and toxicity tests. After cross examining the test results and intermediates, it was found that the low TOC and toxicity removal was mainly due to the accumulation of toxic intermediates in the solution. It is therefore suggested that a stepwise introduction of Fe(2+)and oxone (to control the radical concentration at a lower level, so as to minimize the futile consumption of radicals) with an elevated dosage of [IBP]0:[Fe(2+)]0:[Oxone]0 to 1:25:25 (to effectively degrade the unwanted intermediates at the later stage of reaction) is an efficient approach to ensure the TOC removal and toxicity elimination in FOU.

  1. Simulasi Perdagangan Kontrak Berjangka CPO pada Bursa Malaysia dengan Cyclic Forecasting Periode Januari-Desember 2009

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tomy G. Soemapradja


    Full Text Available Crude palm oil (CPO is one commodity that could be consumed and also as one alternative of non- fossil fuel: biodiesel. Since 2006, CPO commodity trade has its significant raise, followed by forward contract trade. The increasing of CPO price in 2006 is the lowest in historic analysis data period 2007-2008. Cyclic forecasting model is used following cycle pattern of twice-a-year, with a combination of Solver function in Ms. Excel that could minimize MSE as 161,02, Beta 0,0688 and intercept in -11,0396. Cyclic forecasting period is supposed to be used along with technical analysis, using stop loss to reduce risk. It needs additional research to adjust confidence level so VaR value is not too high that could fix trading strategy along this research. 

  2. Effects of preheating of crude palm oil (CPO) on injection system, performance and emission of a diesel engine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, S.; Lim, T.H.; Yu, C.W. [Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Mechanical Engineering, Penang (Malaysia)


    Crude palm oil (CPO) is one of the vegetable oils that have potential for use as fuels for diesel engines. CPO is renewable, and is safe and easy to handle. However, at room temperature (30-32 deg C) CPO has a viscosity about 10 times higher than that of diesel. To lower CPO's viscosity to the level of diesel's viscosity, a heating temperature of at least 92 deg C is needed. At this temperature, there is a concern that the close-fitting parts of the injection system might be affected. This study focused on finding out the effects of preheating of fuel on the injection system utilising a modified method of friction test, which involves injecting fuel outside the combustion chamber during motoring. Results show that preheating of CPO lowered CPO's viscosity and provided smooth fuel flow, but did not affect the injection system, even heating up to 100 deg C. Nevertheless, heating up to such a high temperature offered no benefits in terms of engine performance. However, heating is necessary for smooth flow and to avoid fuel filter clogging. Both can be achieved by heating CPO to 60 deg C. Combustion analyses comparisons between CPO and diesel found that CPO produced a higher peak pressure of 6%, a shorter ignition delay of 2.6 deg, a lower maximum heat release rate and a longer combustion period. Over the entire load range, CPO combustion produced average CO and NO emissions that were 9.2 and 29.3% higher, respectively, compared with those from diesel combustion. (Author)

  3. [Photochemical degradation of chlorpyrifos in water]. (United States)

    Wu, Xiangwei; Hua, Rimao; Tang, Feng; Li, Xuede; Cao, Haiqun; Yue, Yongde


    In this paper, the effects of different light sources, temperature, pH, and water quality on the photochemical degradation of clilorpyrifos in water were examined under natural and simulated solar irradiation. The results showed that the photochemical degradation of chlorpyrifos in water followed the first order reaction, and its half-life was 0.62, 6.92, 19.74 and 22.50 h under high pressure mercury lamp (HPML), xenon lamp (XL), ultraviolet lamp (UV), and sunlight (SL) irradiation, respectively. Temperature had a significant effect on the degradation rate of chlorpyrifos, which was increased with increasing temperature and reached the maximum at 35 degrees C. The degradation rate of chlorpyrifos was stable both in acid and in neutral buffer solution, but enhanced in alkaline buffer solution. Water quality also had a significant effect, with a decreasing degradation rate of chlorpyrifos in the sequence of distilled water > tap water > river water > lake wate > paddy water.

  4. Age-dependent pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic response in preweanling rats following oral exposure to the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Chuck; Poet, Torka S.; Kousba, Ahmed A.


    Juvenile rats are more susceptible than adults to the acute toxicity of organophosphorus insecticides like chlorpyrifos (CPF). Age- and dose-dependent differences in metabolism may be responsible. Of importance is CYP450 activation and detoxification of CPF to CPF-oxon and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), as well as B-esterase (cholinesterase; ChE) and A-esterase (PON-1) detoxification of CPF-oxon to TCP. The pharmacokinetics of CPF, TCP, and the extent of blood (plasma/RBC), and brain ChE inhibition in rats were determined on postnatal days (PND) -5, -12, and -17 following oral gavage administration of 1 and 10 mg CPF/kg of body weight. For all neonatal ages the blood TCP exceeded the CPF concentration, and within each age group there was no evidence of non-linear kinetics over the dose range evaluated. Younger animals demonstrated a greater sensitivity to ChE inhibition as evident by the dose- and age-dependent inhibition of plasma, RBC, and brain ChE. Of particular importance was the observation that even in rats as young as PND-5, the CYP450 metabolic capacity was adequate to metabolize CPF to both TCP and CPF-oxon based on the detection of TCP in blood and extensive ChE inhibition (biomarker of CPF-oxon) at all ages. In addition, the increase in the blood TCP concentration ({approx}3-fold) in PND-17 rats relative to the response in the younger animals, and the higher blood concentrations of CPF in neonatal rats (1.7 to 7.5-fold) relative to adults was consistent with an increase in CYP450 metabolic capacity with age. This is the first reported study that evaluated both the pharmacokinetics of the parent pesticide, the major metabolite and the extent of ChE inhibition dynamics in the same animals as a function of neonatal age. The results suggest that in the neonatal rat, CPF was rapidly absorbed and metabolized, and the extent of metabolism was age-dependent.

  5. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by bacterial genus Pseudomonas. (United States)

    Gilani, Razia Alam; Rafique, Mazhar; Rehman, Abdul; Munis, Muhammad Farooq Hussain; Rehman, Shafiq Ur; Chaudhary, Hassan Javed


    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphorus pesticide commonly used in agriculture. It is noxious to a variety of organisms that include living soil biota along with beneficial arthropods, fish, birds, humans, animals, and plants. Exposure to chlorpyrifos may cause detrimental effects as delayed seedling emergence, fruit deformities, and abnormal cell division. Contamination of chlorpyrifos has been found about 24 km from the site of its application. There are many physico-chemical and biological approaches to remove organophosphorus pesticides from the ecosystem, among them most promising is biodegradation. The 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethylthiophosphate (DETP) as primary products are made when chlorpyrifos is degraded by soil microorganisms which further break into nontoxic metabolites as CO(2), H(2)O, and NH(3). Pseudomonas is a diversified genus possessing a series of catabolic pathways and enzymes involved in pesticide degradation. Pseudomonas putida MAS-1 is reported to be more efficient in chlorpyrifos degradation by a rate of 90% in 24 h among Pseudomonas genus. The current review analyzed the comparative potential of bacterial species in Pseudomonas genus for degradation of chlorpyrifos thus, expressing an ecofriendly approach for the treatment of environmental contaminants like pesticides.

  6. High volumetric uptake of ammonia using Cu-MOF-74/Cu-CPO-27. (United States)

    Katz, Michael J; Howarth, Ashlee J; Moghadam, Peyman Z; DeCoste, Jared B; Snurr, Randall Q; Hupp, Joseph T; Farha, Omar K


    Cu-MOF-74 (also known as Cu-CPO-27) was identified as a sorbent having one of the highest densities of Cu(ii) sites per unit volume. Given that Cu(ii) in the framework can be thermally activated to yield a five-coordinate Cu(ii) species, we identified this MOF as a potential candidate for maximal volumetric uptake of ammonia. To that end, the kinetic breakthrough of ammonia in Cu-MOF-74/Cu-CPO-27 was examined under both dry and humid conditions. Under dry conditions the MOF exhibited a respectable performance (2.6 vs. 2.9 NH3 per nm(3) for the current record holder HKUST-1), and under 80% relative humidity, the MOF outperformed HKUST-1 (5.9 vs. 3.9 NH3 per nm(3), respectively).

  7. The iron member of the CPO-27 coordination polymer series: Synthesis, characterization, and intriguing redox properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Märcz, Matthias; Johnsen, Rune; Dietzel, Pascal D.C.


    synchrotron radiation, revealing a honeycomb-type framework, isostructural to the other compounds in the CPO-27-M series. Exposure to oxygen was found to have pronounced effects on the material, like change of color, band gap, and structural details which we associate with oxidation of the iron(II) in the M2......The microporous coordination polymer CPO-27-Fe was synthesized from iron salts and 2,5-dihydroxyterephthalic acid by microwave assisted solvothermal synthesis. The crystal structures of the as-synthesized compounds were determined by Rietveld refinement from powder X-ray diffraction data using...... transitions when heated up during which it reversibly changes between oxidation states +2 and +3, remaining in divalent state in the empty framework structure Fe2(dhtp) in the last crystalline phase. These measurements also indicate that methanol contained in the pore after synthesis is transformed...

  8. Association of transforming growth-factor alpha gene polymorphisms with nonsyndromic cleft palate only (CPO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shiang, R. (Univ. of California, Irvine, CA (United States)); Lidral, A.C.; Ardinger, H.H.; Murray, J.C.; Romitti, P.A.; Munger, R.G.; Buetow, K.H.


    Genetic analysis and tissue-specific expression studies support a role for transforming growth-factor alpha (TGFA) in craniofacial development. Previous studies have confirmed an association of alleles for TGFA with nonsyndromic cleft lip with or without cleft palate (CL/P) in humans. The authors carried out a retrospective association study to determine whether specific allelic variants of the TGFA gene are also associated with cleft palate only (CPO). The PCR products from 12 overlapping sets of primers to the TGFA cDNA were examined by using single-strand conformational polymorphism analysis. Four DNA polymorphic sites for TGFA were identified in the 3[prime] untranslated region of the TGFA gene. These variants, as well as previously identified RFLPs for TGFA, were characterized in case and control populations for CPO by using X[sup 2] analysis. A significant association between alleles of TGFA and CPO was identified which further supports a role for this gene as one of the genetic determinants of craniofacial development. Sequence analysis of the variants disclosed a cluster of three variable sites within 30 bp of each other in the 3[prime] untranslated region previously associated with an antisense transcript. These studies extend the role for TGFA in craniofacial morphogenesis and support an interrelated mechanism underlying nonsyndromic forms of CL/P. 46 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. Dissipation of chlorpyrifos on pakchoi inside and outside greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YU Yun-long; FANG Hua; WANG Xiao; YU Jing-quan; FAN De-fang


    The dissipation of chlorpyrifos on pakchoi inside and outside greenhouse was studied. The decline curve of chlorpyrifos on pakchoi could be described as first-order kinetic. The experimental data showed that both the hermetic environment of greenhouse and season affected dissipation rates of chlorpyrifos on pakchoi. Chlorpyrifos declined faster outside greenhouse than inside greenhouse.Chlorpyrifos residues at pre-harvest time were below the maximum residue limits (MRLs) fixed in China, whereas the values inside greenhouse were higher than those outside greenhouse by almost 50%. The recommended pre-harvest time established under conditions of open field might not always fit to greenhouse production.

  10. Variation characteristics of chlorpyrifos in nonsterile wetland plant hydroponic system. (United States)

    Wang, Chuan; Zhou, Qiaohong; Zhang, Liping; Zhang, Yan; Xiao, Enrong; Wu, Zhenbin


    Six wetland plants were investigated for their effect on the degradation characteristics of chlorpyrifos in nonsterile hydroponic system at constant temperature of 28 degrees C. The results showed that the removal rates of chlorpyrifos in the water of plant systems were 1.26-5.56% higher than that in the control without plants. Scirpus validus and Typha angustifolia were better than other hygrophytes in elimination of chlorpyrifos. The removal rates of the two systems were up to 88%. Plants of acaulescent group had an advantage over caulescent group in removing chlorpyrifos. Phytoaccumulation of chlorpyrifos was observed, and the order of chlorpyrifos concentration in different plant tissues was root > stem > leaf. It was also found that chlorpyrifos and its metabolite TCP decreased rapidly at the initial step of the experiment.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Widyastutik Widyastutik


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 The Objective of this research is to analyze the competitiveness and the factors that influence Indonesia CPO export to China, Malaysia, and Singapore in the ACFTA. Revealed Comparative Advantage was used to analyze competitiveness in China, Malaysia, and Singapore. Panel data regression method with fixed effect (cross section weight was used to analyze export supply model as an impact of ACFTA. The results shows that all dependent variables (domestic production of CPO, international price of CPO, price domestic of CPO, price of soybean oil, price of gasoline, exchange rate, lag of export, and dummy of ACFTA have the significant influence on CPO export to China, Malaysia, and Singapore.   Keywords: CPO, ASEAN-China, Revealed Comparative Advantage (RCA  

  12. Efficient elimination of caffeine from water using Oxone activated by a magnetic and recyclable cobalt/carbon nanocomposite derived from ZIF-67. (United States)

    Lin, Kun-Yi Andrew; Chen, Bo-Chau


    To eliminate caffeine, one of the most common pharmaceuticals and personal care products, from water, Oxone (peroxymonosulfate salt) was proposed to degrade it. To accelerate the generation of sulfate radicals from Oxone, a magnetic cobalt/carbon nanocomposite (CCN) was prepared from a one-step carbonization of a cobalt-based Zeolitic Imidazolate Framework (ZIF-67). The resultant CCN exhibits immobilized cobalt and increased porosity, and can be magnetically manipulated. These characteristics make CCN a promising heterogeneous catalyst to activate Oxone for caffeine degradation. Factors affecting the caffeine degradation were investigated, including CCN loading, Oxone dosage, temperature, pH, surfactants, salts and inhibitors. A higher CCN loading, Oxone dosage and temperature greatly improved the caffeine degradation by CCN-activated Oxone. Acidic conditions were also preferable over basic conditions for caffeine degradation. The addition of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) and NaCl both significantly hindered caffeine degradation because bromide from CTAB and chloride from NaCl scavenged sulfate radicals. Based on the effects of inhibitors (i.e., methanol and tert-butyl alcohol), the caffeine degradation by CCN-activated Oxone was considered to primarily involve sulfate radicals and, less commonly, hydroxyl radicals. The intermediates generated during the caffeine degradation were analyzed using GC-MS and a possible degradation pathway was proposed. CCN was also able to activate Oxone for caffeine degradation for multiple cycles without changing its catalytic activity. These features reveal that CCN is an effective and promising catalyst for the activation of Oxone for the degradation of caffeine.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuli Ristianingsih


    Full Text Available KINETIC STUDY OF CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL DEGUMMING OF CRUDE PALM OIL (CPO USING PHOSPHORIC ACID. The removal of phospholipids (‘degumming’ is the first step in the process of refining crude vegetable oil. The purpose of this research was to study degumming process and its effects to the oil’s quality. CPO used in this research was reacted with phosphoric acid using stirred tank reactor. The batch process was operated for 2 hours in various temperature, phosphoric acid concentration, and agitation speed. The sample was taken every 15 minutes which then analyzed by spectrophotometer at the wave length of 650 nm to measure the gum concentration in the oil. By minimizing sum of squares of errors between experimental and simulation data,  the mass transfer coefficient (Kca, reaction rate constant (k1 and phase equilibrium constants (K were be calculate. The result showed that the temperature, phosphoric acid concentration and agitation speed were highly affecting in the degumming process. At the range of temperature of 323≤T≤353 K, the higher temperature, the larger reaction rate constant and its relationship can be express as . At the range of Reynolds number of 121.4438 ≤ Re ≤ 630.2521, the effect of agitation speed to mass transfer coefficient (Kca can be express as Sh=0.09986.Re0.5998.Sc0.3995. From these two equations obtained, one can say that the temperature has effect on the reaction rate and mass transfer.    Abstrak   Penelitian ini bertujuan untuk mempelajari kinetika proses penghilangan getah (degumming CPO (Crude Palm Oil yang meliputi kinetika reaksi dan transfer massanya. Parameter yang dipelajari meliputi suhu, kecepatan pengadukan dan konsentrasi asam fosfat. Percobaan dilakukan dengan mereaksikan CPO dan  asam fosfat dalam sebuah reaktor tangki berpengaduk selama 2 jam. Sampel diambil setiap 15 menit kemudian dianalisis dengan spektrofotometer panjang gelombang 650 nm untuk mengetahui konsentrasi gum tersisa pada

  14. Synthesis of o-Carboxyarylacrylic Acids by Room Temperature Oxidative Cleavage of Hydroxynaphthalenes and Higher Aromatics with Oxone. (United States)

    Parida, Keshaba Nanda; Moorthy, Jarugu Narasimha


    A simple procedure for the synthesis of a variety of o-carboxyarylacrylic acids has been developed with Oxone (2KHSO5·KHSO4·K2SO4); the oxidation reaction involves the stirring of methoxy/hydroxy-substituted naphthalenes, phenanthrenes, anthracenes, etc. with Oxone in an acetonitrile-water mixture (1:1, v/v) at rt. Mechanistically, the reaction proceeds via initial oxidation of naphthalene to o-quinone, which undergoes cleavage to the corresponding o-carboxyarylacrylic acid. The higher aromatics are found to yield carboxymethyl lactones derived from the initially formed o-carboxyarylacrylic acids.

  15. Comparative chlorpyrifos pharmacokinetics via multiple routes of exposure and vehicles of administration in the adult rat. (United States)

    Smith, Jordan Ned; Campbell, James A; Busby-Hjerpe, Andrea L; Lee, Sookwang; Poet, Torka S; Barr, Dana B; Timchalk, Charles


    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a commonly used organophosphorus pesticide. A number of toxicity and mechanistic studies have been conducted in animals, where CPF has been administered via a variety of different exposure routes and dosing vehicles. This study compared chlorpyrifos (CPF) pharmacokinetics using oral, intravenous (IV), and subcutaneous (SC) exposure routes and corn oil, saline/Tween 20, and dimethyl sulfoxide (DMSO) as dosing vehicles. Two groups of rats were co-administered target doses (5 mg/kg) of CPF and isotopically labeled CPF (L-CPF). One group was exposed by both oral (CPF) and IV (L-CPF) routes using saline/Tween 20 vehicle; whereas, the second group was exposed by the SC route using two vehicles, corn oil (CPF) and DMSO (L-CPF). A third group was only administered CPF by the oral route in corn oil. For all treatments, blood and urine time course samples were collected and analyzed for 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), and isotopically labeled 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (L-TCPy). Peak TCPy/L-TCPy concentrations in blood (20.2 micromol/l), TCPy/L-TCPy blood AUC (94.9 micromol/lh), and percent of dose excreted in urine (100%) were all highest in rats dosed orally with CPF in saline/Tween 20 and second highest in rats dosed orally with CPF in corn oil. Peak TCPy concentrations in blood were more rapidly obtained after oral administration of CPF in saline/Tween 20 compared to all other dosing scenarios (>1.5 h). These results indicate that orally administered CPF is more extensively metabolized than systemic exposures of CPF (SC and IV), and vehicle of administration also has an effect on absorption rates. Thus, equivalent doses via different routes and/or vehicles of administration could potentially lead to different body burdens of CPF, different rates of bioactivation to CPF-oxon, and different toxic responses. Simulations using a physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for CPF are consistent with these possibilities


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Chuck; Poet, Torka S.; Hinman, Melissa N.; Busby, Andrea L.; Kousba, Ahmed A.


    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZN) are two commonly used organophosphorus (OP) insecticides and potential exists for concurrent exposures. The primary neurotoxic effects from OP pesticide exposures result from the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by their oxon metabolites. The pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic impact of acute binary exposures to CPF and DZN in rats were evaluated in this study. Rats were orally administered CPF, DZN or a CPF/DZN mixture (0, 15, 30 or 60 mg/kg) and blood (plasma and RBC), and brain were collected at 0, 3, 6, 12 and 24 h post-dosing, urine was also collected at 24 h. Chlorpyrifos, DZN and their respective metabolites 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and 2-isopropyl-4-methyl-6-hydroxypyrimidine (IMHP) were quantified in blood and/or urine and cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition was measured in brain, RBCs and plasma. Co-exposure to CPF/DZN at 15/15 mg/kg, did not appreciably alter the pharmacokinetics of CPF, DZN or their metabolites in blood; whereas, a 60/60 mg/kg dose resulted in a transient increase in Cmax, AUC, and decreased clearance of both compounds, likely due to competition between CPF and DZN for CYP450 metabolism. At lower doses, most likely to be encountered in occupational or environmental exposures, the pharmacokinetics were linear. A dose-dependent inhibition of ChE was noted in tissues for both the single and co-exposures. The overall potency for ChE inhibition was greater for CPF than DZN and the binary mixture response appeared to be strongly influenced by CPF. A comparison of the ChE binary response at the low dose (15 mg/kg), where there were no apparent pharmacokinetic interactions, suggested that the overall ChE response was additive. These are the first reported experiments we are aware of that characterize both the pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic interactions between CPF and DZN in the rat, and will be used to further develop a binary physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic

  17. Organophosphorus insecticides chlorpyrifos and diazinon and oxidative stress in neuronal cells in a genetic model of glutathione deficiency. (United States)

    Giordano, Gennaro; Afsharinejad, Zhara; Guizzetti, Marina; Vitalone, Annabella; Kavanagh, Terrance J; Costa, Lucio G


    Over the past several years evidence has been accumulating from in vivo animal studies, observations in humans, and in vitro studies, that organophosphorus (OP) insecticides may induce oxidative stress. Such effects may contribute to some of the toxic manifestations of OPs, particularly upon chronic or developmental exposures. The aim of this study was to investigate the role of oxidative stress in the neurotoxicity of two commonly used OPs, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZ), their oxygen analogs (CPO and DZO), and their "inactive" metabolites (TCP and IMP), in neuronal cells from a genetic model of glutathione deficiency. Cerebellar granule neurons from wild type mice (Gclm +/+) and mice lacking the modifier subunit of glutamate cysteine ligase (Gclm -/-), the first and limiting step in the synthesis of glutathione (GSH), were utilized. The latter display very low levels of GSH and are more susceptible to the toxicity of agents that increase oxidative stress. CPO and DZO were the most cytotoxic compounds, followed by CPF and DZ, while TCP and IMP displayed lower toxicity. Toxicity was significantly higher (10- to 25-fold) in neurons from Gclm (-/-) mice, and was antagonized by various antioxidants. Depletion of GSH from Gclm (+/+) neurons significantly increased their sensitivity to OP toxicity. OPs increased intracellular levels of reactive oxygen species and lipid peroxidation and in both cases the effects were greater in neurons from Gclm (-/-) mice. OPs did not alter intracellular levels of GSH, but significantly increased those of oxidized glutathione (GSSG). Cytotoxicity was not antagonized by cholinergic antagonists, but was decreased by the calcium chelator BAPTA-AM. These studies indicate that cytotoxicity of OPs involves generation of reactive oxygen species and is modulated by intracellular GSH, and suggest that it may involve disturbances in intracellular homeostasis of calcium.

  18. Biomonitoring of ecosystem degradation caused by CPO waste of Mentaya River in Central Kalimantan use of esterase isozyme electromorph method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available The impact of CPO (Crude Palm Oil dock activity in Mentaya River of Central Borneo caused degradation of ecosystem, particularly on both mangrove and macrozoobenthos community. One of methods used for monitoring of ecosystem degradation was to determine species that were still survive under the polluted conditions. These survival species were assumed to synthesize alloenzyme that can be used as indicator. Alloenzyme was synthesized as an effort of adaptation processes toward environmental pressures caused by CPO spill on Mentaya River. Alloenzyme would be expressed as phenotypic and genotypic adaptation processes or phenotypic plasticity. Research was carried out, consisted of field research included collecting sample and environmental data (oil content, temperature, pH, electric conductivity and redox potential, and laboratory research included series analysis of water quality (DO, BOD, COD, pH, TSS, TDS and also alloenzyme content of Soneratia caseolaris L. and Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man. The alloenzyme of root and leaves mangrove and prawn’s hepatopancreas was analyzed using Spencer starch gel electrophoresis modified method of exposed on sucrose solution. Separated components of alloenzyme were detected by special staining for Esterase isozyme. The results revealed that Soneratia caseolaris L. and Macrobrachium rosenbergii de Man were bioindicator organisms for the polluted site by oil spills from CPO loading activities. The polluted river water by oil spill from CPO activities decreased redox potential, DO, increased oil content, DHL, water temperature, pH sediment, pH water, TDS, BOD, COD, TSS. Gel electrophoretical analysis demonstrated that Mangrove Soneratia caseolaris synthesized alloenzyme consisted of complex enzymes such as EST in its root and leave cells. Those enzymes were nearly similar to those of Macrobrachium rosenbergii. The oil spill from CPO have ester bonding so its adaptation mechanism with release Esterase

  19. Subacute developmental exposure of zebrafish to the organophosphate pesticide metabolite, chlorpyrifos-oxon, results in defects in Rohon-Beard sensory neuron development


    Jacobson, Saskia M.; Birkholz, Denise A.; McNamara, Marcy L.; Bharate, Sandip B.; George, Kathleen M.


    Organophosphate pesticides (OPs) are environmental toxicants known to inhibit the catalytic activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) resulting in hypercholinergic toxicity symptoms. In developing embryos, OPs have been hypothesized to affect both cholinergic and non-cholinergic pathways. In order to understand the neurological pathways affected by OP exposure during embryogenesis, we developed a subacute model of OP developmental exposure in zebrafish by exposing embryos to a dose of the OP me...

  20. 77 FR 56115 - Safety Zone for Fireworks Display, Potomac River, National Harbor Access Channel; Oxon Hill, MD (United States)


    ...: Table of Acronyms DHS Department of Homeland Security FR Federal Register NPRM Notice of Proposed..., adjacent to the Gaylord National Resort Hotel, at Oxon Hill in Prince Georges County, Maryland, scheduled... of Executive Order 13563. The Office of Management and Budget has not reviewed it under those...

  1. Oxidation of Borneol to Camphor Using Oxone and Catalytic Sodium Chloride: A Green Experiment for the Undergraduate Organic Chemistry Laboratory (United States)

    Lang, Patrick T.; Harned, Andrew M.; Wissinger, Jane E.


    A new green oxidation procedure was developed for the undergraduate organic teaching laboratories using Oxone and a catalytic quantity of sodium chloride for the conversion of borneol to camphor. This simple 1 h, room temperature reaction afforded high quality and yield of product, was environmentally friendly, and produced negligible quantities…

  2. Optimised room temperature, water-based synthesis of CPO-27-M metal-organic frameworks with high space-time yields † (United States)

    Garzón-Tovar, L.; Carné-Sánchez, A.; Carbonell, C.; Imaz, I.; Maspoch, D.


    The exceptional porosity of Metal-Organic Frameworks (MOFs) could be harnessed for countless practical applications. However, one of the challenges currently precluding the industrial exploitation of these materials is a lack of green methods for their synthesis. Since green synthetic methods obviate the use of organic solvents, they are expected to reduce the production costs, safety hazards and environmental impact typically associated with MOF fabrication. Herein we describe the stepwise optimisation of reaction parameters (pH, reagent concentrations and reaction time) for the room temperature, water-based synthesis of several members of the CPO-27/MOF-74-M series of MOFs, including ones made from Mg(II), Ni(II), Co(II) and Zn(II) ions. Using this method, we built MOFs with excellent BET surface areas and unprecedented Space-Time Yields (STYs). Employing this approach, we have synthesised CPO-27-M MOFs with record BET surface areas, including 1279 m2 g-1 (CPO-27-Zn), 1351 m2 g-1 (CPO-27-Ni), 1572 m2 g-1 (CPO-27-Co), and 1603 m2 g-1 (CPO-27-Mg). We anticipate that our method could be applied to produce CPO-27-Ni, -Mg, -Co and -Zn with STYs of 44 Kg m-3 day-1, 191 Kg m-3 day-1, 1462 Kg m-3 day-1 and a record 18720 Kg m-3 day-1, respectively. PMID:27293584

  3. Synthesis gas/H{sub 2} via SCT-CPO. A pilot-plant experience

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Basini, L.; Cimino, R.; Guarinoni, A. [Eni S.p.A., Divisione Refining and Marketing, Direzione Ricerca e Sviluppo Tecnologico, San Donato Milanese (Italy); Campanelli, G.; Ficili, C.; Ponzo, R. [Eni S.p.A., Divisione Refining and Marketing, Direzione Ricerca e Sviluppo Tecnologico, San Filippo del Mela (Italy)


    Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas have been extensively utilised for more than 70 years in chemical and refinery industries. Their uses are becoming today more complex being influenced by strategic, political, economic and sustainability considerations. Clean fuel production and heavy residues utilisation, Gas To Liquid initiatives and the desired but not yet accomplished Electric Energy production with Fuel Cells, are issues whose development and costs would benefit from innovations in Hydrogen and Synthesis Gas production and utilisation. The existing technological needs will be briefly discussed considering a new H{sub 2}/Synthesis gas production method, the Short Contact Time - Catalytic Partial Oxidation (SCT-CPO). This has been studied since the early '90es by performing an extensive work at lab-scale and in bench scale levels and finally scaling-up the technology. In 2001 Snamprogetti (the engineering company of the ENI group) and Haldor Topsoe A/S successfully operated a first pilot plant in Houston, TX and in 2005 EniTecnologie realised and operated a second multi-purpose plant in Milazzo, Sicily. The multi-purpose plant includes all the main operation units of an industrial realisation and allows a full simulation of real conditions. Moreover it is designed to process a wide class of hydrocarbons (ranging from NG to liquid and heavy fuels). This work reviews its features and capabilities of providing useful information for the development of technological applications. (orig.)

  4. A pixel ionization chamber used as beam monitor at the Institut Curie-Centre de Protontherapie de Orsay (CPO)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    La Rosa, A. [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Universita di Torino. Via P. Giuria 1, Torino 10125 (Italy) and INFN. Via P. Giuria 1, Turin 10125 (Italy)]. E-mail:; Garella, M.A. [INFN. Via P. Giuria 1, Turin 10125 (Italy); Bourhaleb, F. [Fondazione TERA. Via Puccini 11, Novara 28100 (Italy); Cirio, R. [INFN. Via P. Giuria 1, Turin 10125 (Italy); Donetti, M. [INFN. Via P. Giuria 1, Turin 10125 (Italy); Fondazione CNAO. Via Caminadella 16, Milan 20123 (Italy); Giordanengo, S. [INFN. Via P. Giuria 1, Turin 10125 (Italy); Givehchi, N. [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Universita di Torino. Via P. Giuria 1, Turin 10125 (Italy); INFN. Via P. Giuria 1, Turin 10125 (Italy); Marchetto, F. [INFN. Via P. Giuria 1, Turin 10125 (Italy); Martin, F. [Institut Curie-Centre de Protontherapie de Orsay. Bat. 101 Campus Universitaire, Orsay Cedex 91898 (France); Meyroneinc, S. [Institut Curie-Centre de Protontherapie de Orsay. Bat. 101 Campus Universitaire, Orsay Cedex 91898 (France); Peroni, C. [Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale, Universita di Torino. Via P. Giuria 1, Turin 10125 (Italy); INFN. Via P. Giuria 1, Turin 10125 (Italy); Pitta, G. [Fondazione TERA. Via Puccini 11, Novara 28100 (Italy)


    The Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Torino, in collaboration with the Institut Curie-Centre de Protontherapie de Orsay (CPO), have developed and built a pixel parallel plate ionization chamber to be used as monitor for the proton therapy beam line at the Institut Curie-CPO (Orsay, France). The sensitive area of the detector is (160x160) mm{sup 2}, with the anode segmented in 1024 square pixels arranged in a 32x32 matrix; the area of each pixel is (5x5) mm{sup 2}. The detector has been placed on the beam line just upstream of the last collimator to monitor the beam shape and to measure the stability and reproducibility of the delivery system. In this paper, we present a detailed description of the detector and the results of a set of preliminary tests.

  5. A pixel ionization chamber used as beam monitor at the Institut Curie—Centre de Protontherapie de Orsay (CPO) (United States)

    La Rosa, A.; Garella, M. A.; Bourhaleb, F.; Cirio, R.; Donetti, M.; Giordanengo, S.; Givehchi, N.; Marchetto, F.; Martin, F.; Meyroneinc, S.; Peroni, C.; Pittà, G.


    The Dipartimento di Fisica Sperimentale and the Istituto Nazionale di Fisica Nucleare (INFN), Torino, in collaboration with the Institut Curie—Centre de Protontherapie de Orsay (CPO), have developed and built a pixel parallel plate ionization chamber to be used as monitor for the proton therapy beam line at the Institut Curie—CPO (Orsay, France). The sensitive area of the detector is (160×160) mm 2, with the anode segmented in 1024 square pixels arranged in a 32×32 matrix; the area of each pixel is (5×5) mm 2. The detector has been placed on the beam line just upstream of the last collimator to monitor the beam shape and to measure the stability and reproducibility of the delivery system. In this paper, we present a detailed description of the detector and the results of a set of preliminary tests.

  6. Chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and effect of vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.M. Kammon


    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted to study chlorpyrifos chronic toxicity in broilers and the protective effect of vitamin C. Oral administration of 0.8 mg/kg body weight (bw (1/50 LD50 chlorpyrifos (Radar®, produced mild diarrhea and gross lesions comprised of paleness, flaccid consistency and slightly enlargement of liver. Histopathologically, chlorpyrifos produced degenerative changes in various organs. Oral administration of 100 mg/kg bw vitamin C partially ameliorated the degenerative changes in kidney and heart. There was insignificant alteration in biochemical and haematological profiles. It is concluded that supplementation of vitamin C reduced the severity of lesions induced by chronic chlorpyrifos toxicity in broilers.

  7. Development of the Artificial Antigens for the Organophosphorus Insecticide chlorpyrifos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Guo-nian; WU Gang; WU Hui-ming


    This study reported that the hapten of the organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos,O,Odiethyl-O-[3,5-dichloro-6-(2-carboxyethyl)thio-2-pyridyl]phosphorothioate(named AR) was synthesized by using technical grade chlorpyrifos reacted with 3-marcapropanoic acid in hot alkaline solution.The hapten was conjugated to bovine serum albumin (BSA) with the modified active ester method to form artificial immune antigen.The ratio of AR:BSA was 39:1.The artificial coating antigen for chlorpyrifos was synthesized by conjugating AR to ovalbumin (OVA) with the mixed-anhydride method,and the ratio was 13:1.The anti-chlorpyrifos polyclonal antibodies were obtained by using the artificial immune antigen (AR-BSA) to immune in the rabbits.

  8. Delisting toxicity evaluation of HTH and oxone(trade name) decontaminated VX. Final report, July 1989-March 1990

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Manthei, J.H.; Heitkamp, D.H.; Buettner, L.C.; Lawrence-Beckett, E.M.; Samuel, J.B.


    The acute percutaneous (bare skin) LD50 was determined for EA 2192 in the rabbit. Also established were the effective doses (ED50s) for the major toxic signs observed. Dermal, Department of Transportation (DOT), tests with rabbits indicated that VX/HTH decontaminated waste is a Class B poison after being aged only 24 hr following initiation of the decontamination procedure. The same reaction, when allowed to age through about 2 half-lives (28-30 days), was no longer a Class B poison and was nonhazardous by Code of Maryland Regulations (COMAR) toxicity criteria. The DOT tests with OXONE decontaminated/neutralized VX showed this solution to be less than a Class B poison by all three routes of administration (rat oral, rat inhalation, and rabbit dermal) after only 24-hr aging and a nonhazardous material by COMAR toxicity criteria.... vx, Rat, Half-life, ED50, EA 2192, Rabbit, COMAR, Decontaminated/Neutralized, HTH, OXONE, LD50.

  9. Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos by Pseudomonas Resinovarans Strain AST2.2 Isolated from Enriched Cultures.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anish Sharma*,


    Full Text Available A bacterial strain AST2.2 with chlorpyrifos degrading ability was isolated by enrichment technique from apple orchard soil with previous history of chlorpyrifos use. Based on the morphological, biochemical tests and 16S rRNA sequence analysis, AST2.2 strain was identified as Pseudomonas resinovarans. The strain AST2.2 utilized chlorpyrifos as the sole source of carbon and energy. This strain exhibited growth upto 400mg/l concentration of chlorpyrifos and exhibited high extracellular organophosphorus hydrolase (OPH activity. Gas chromatography-flame ionization detector (GC-FID studies revealed that Pseudomonas resinovarans AST2.2 degraded 43.90 % of chlorpyrifos (400 mg/l within 96 hrs. Intermediates of chlorpyrifos degradation were identified using GC-MS. This strain have potential to degrade chlorpyrifos and thus can be used for bioremediation and ecological restoration of sites contaminated with chlorpyrifos.

  10. Impact of repeated nicotine and alcohol coexposure on in vitro and in vivo chlorpyrifos dosimetry and cholinesterase inhibition. (United States)

    Lee, S; Poet, T S; Smith, J N; Hjerpe, A L; Gunawan, R; Timchalk, C


    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphorus insecticide, and neurotoxicity results from inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) by its metabolite, chlorpyrifos-oxon. Routine consumption of alcohol and tobacco modifies metabolic and physiological processes impacting the metabolism and pharmacokinetics of other xenobiotics, including pesticides. This study evaluated the influence of repeated ethanol and nicotine coexposure on in vivo CPF dosimetry and cholinesterase (ChE) response (ChE- includes AChE and/or butyrylcholinesterase (BuChE)). Hepatic microsomes were prepared from groups of naive, ethanol-only (1 g/kg/d, 7 d, po), and ethanol + nicotine (1 mg/kg/d 7 d, sc)-treated rats, and the in vitro metabolism of CPF was evaluated. For in vivo studies, rats were treated with saline or ethanol (1 g/kg/d, po) + nicotine (1 mg/kg/d, sc) in addition to CPF (1 or 5 mg/kg/d, po) for 7 d. The major CPF metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy), in blood and urine and the plasma ChE and brain acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activities were measured in rats. There were differences in pharmacokinetics, with higher TCPy peak concentrations and increased blood TCPy AUC in ethanol + nicotine groups compared to CPF only (approximately 1.8- and 3.8-fold at 1 and 5 mg CPF doses, respectively). Brain AChE activities after ethanol + nicotine treatments showed significantly less inhibition following repeated 5 mg CPF/kg dosing compared to CPF only (96 ± 13 and 66 ± 7% of naive at 4 h post last CPF dosing, respectively). Although brain AChE activity was minimal inhibited for the 1-mg CPF/kg/d groups, the ethanol + nicotine pretreatment resulted in a similar trend (i.e., slightly less inhibition). No marked differences were observed in plasma ChE activities due to the alcohol + nicotine treatments. In vitro, CPF metabolism was not markedly affected by repeated ethanol or both ethanol + nicotine exposures. Compared with a previous study of nicotine and CPF exposure, there were no

  11. Transformation of Chlorpyrifos and Chlorpyrifos-Methyl in Prairie Pothole Porewaters (United States)

    Anderson, R. M.; Chin, Y. P.


    The prairie pothole region (PPR) extends over approximately 700,000 km2 in the Great Plains region in United States and Canada and is a critical breeding ground for migratory waterfowl, as well as an important ecosystem for diverse invertebrates and aquatic plants (van der Valk, 2003). Consisting of up to 12 million permanent and temporary depressional wetlands, the PPR is negatively impacted by non-point source pesticide pollution due to extensive agricultural development in the region. Recent studies have shown that high (mM) levels of sulfate in the pothole lakes are capable of abiotically reducing dinitroaniline and chloroacetanilide pesticides (Zeng, 2011; Zeng, 2012). In this study the transformation of the organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos (CP) and its analog chlorpyrifos-methyl (CPM) was studied using pore waters sampled from two pothole lakes. CP and CPM have been found to react in the laboratory with sulfur species via a SN2 mechanism, with degradation by sulfur compounds occurring faster than hydrolysis at high pH (Wu, 2006). To date the reaction of CP and CPM in natural environments with sulfur species has not been studied. Chlorpyrifos-methyl underwent rapid degradation in the presence of reduced sulfur species in pore water, while chlorpyrifos degradation occurred at significantly slower rates. Both CP and CPM degradation occurred at comparable rates to what has been previously observed in the laboratory (Wu, 2006). References van der Valk, Arnold G., and Roger L. Pederson. "The SWANCC decision and its implications for prairie potholes." Wetlands 23.3 (2003): 590-596. Wu, Tong, Qiu Gan, and Urs Jans. "Nucleophilic Substitution of Phosphorothionate Ester Pesticides with Bisulfide (HS-) and Polysulfides (Sn2-)." Environmental science & technology 40.17 (2006): 5428-5434. Zeng, Teng, et al. "Pesticide processing potential in prairie pothole porewaters."Environmental science & technology 45.16 (2011): 6814-6822. Zeng, Teng, Yu-Ping Chin, and William

  12. The optimization process of biodiesel production using multiple feedstock (CPO and Jatropha) with assistance of ultrasound at 40 kHz (United States)

    Fajar, Berkah; Wilis, Widayat


    CPO prices are unstable, therefore affecting the supply of feedstock to produce biodiesel [2]. To overcome the shortage of feedstock, it is necessary to use multiple feedstock, in this case is CPO and Jatropha [1]. This objective of this work to optimizate biodiesel production using multifeedstock (CPO and Jatropha) with assistance of ultrasound. The optimization was to find the highest yield and the least production time. Experiments was carried out using an ultrasonic bath at a frequency of 40 kHz. The ratio of CPO and Jatropha was 1: 1, 3: 1, 4: 1 while the ratio of methanol and oil was 5: 1, 6: 1, 7: 1 and the reaction time was 50, 60, and 70 minutes. KOH was used as a catalyst. The experiment data was optimized using a Response Surface Methodology [3,4]. The optimum point was at a frequency of 40 kHz obtained at a 2.8: 1 mixture of CPO - Jatropha, 6.4: 1 molar ratio of methanol-oil and 61.5 minutes of reaction time. The results of quality testing shows that the biodiesel produced meets the ASTM standard D6751 and SNI 04-7182-2006[5].


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    O. Rachmaniah


    Full Text Available Reaksi transesterifikasi dalam proses pembuatan biodiesel merupakan reaksi yang lambat karena berlangsung dalam sistem dua fase. Permasalahan tersebut dapat diatasi dengan penambahan co-solvent yang tidak reaktif. Penambahan co-solvent bertujuan untuk membentuk sistem satu fase. Oleh sebab itu, penelitian ini dilakukan dengan tujuan mempelajari pengaruh penambahan co-solvent THF terhadap metil ester yang dihasilkan pada reaksi transesterifikasi pembuatan biodiesel dari crude palm oil (CPO. Adapun variabel yang dipelajari adalah molar ratio minyak terhadap metanol, jumlah THF dan jumlah katalis yang digunakan, serta waktu reaksi. Selain itu, dilakukan pula reaksi transesterifikasi tanpa penambahan co-solvent (metode konvensional sebagai pembanding. Reaksi dilakukan skala laboratorium menggunakan labu alas bulat berleher tiga dilengkapi pendingin balik, termometer dan pengaduk magnetik. Suhu reaksi dijaga pada 30oC menggunakan penangas air dan tekanan atmosferik. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan reaksi transeterifikasi dengan penambahan co-solvent berlangsung lebih cepat dibandingkan reaksi konvensional. Transesterifikasi dengan penambahan co-solvent menghasilkan kadar metil ester lebih tinggi dibandingkan metode konvensional. Kadar metil ester tertinggi (98,42% dicapai saat penambahan THF:metanol = 2:1, molar ratio CPO:metanol = 1:6 dan katalis NaOH 0,5%-berat. Pemakaian katalis 1,3%-berat memberikan kadar metil ester lebih tinggi dibandingkan saat pemakaian katalis 0,5%-berat (kenaikan rata-rata kadar metil ester sebesar 3-4%. Peningkatan ratio THF:metanol  hingga 2:1 hanya memberikan  kenaikan kadar metil ester sebesar 1,47%.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Setiadi Djohar


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 /* Style Definitions */ table.MsoNormalTable {mso-style-name:"Table Normal"; mso-tstyle-rowband-size:0; mso-tstyle-colband-size:0; mso-style-noshow:yes; mso-style-parent:""; mso-padding-alt:0cm 5.4pt 0cm 5.4pt; mso-para-margin:0cm; mso-para-margin-bottom:.0001pt; mso-pagination:widow-orphan; font-size:10.0pt; font-family:"Times New Roman"; mso-ansi-language:#0400; mso-fareast-language:#0400; mso-bidi-language:#0400;} Todays, Supply Chain Management (SCM becomes one icon of strategic factors to achieve a competitive advantage. This is a SCM case study in agroindustry especially crude palm oil (CPO at PT. Eka Dura Indonesia (PT EDI, Astra Agro Lestari, Riau. The objectives of study is mapping of SCM problems of PT EDI, especially about value advantage and productivity advantage. Beside that, the objectives is building a SCM simulation model as strategic tool for developing strategy to achieve a competitive advantage. A system approach and modeling is used to analyze SCM problems. This study is successfully to build SCM Model that consist of SCM Strategic Model and SCM Tactic Model. SCM Model is used for simulating some scenarios about site management, supply schedulling, and tank management to CPO forecasting. From this model, the study also develops strategy chain for SCM to achieve a competitive advantage

  15. The role of length scales in bridging the gap between rock CPO and seismic signals of crustal anisotropy (United States)

    Okaya, D.; Johnson, S. E.; Vel, S. S.; Song, W. J.; Christensen, N. I.


    Recent studies based on laboratory petrophysics and in particular EBSD-based calculations indicate material rock anisotropy for crustal rocks can possess significant low orders of symmetry. These symmetries based on elastic tensor calculations can range from hexagonal and orthorhombic down to monoclinic and triclinic. On the other hand, interpretation of field seismic data yield crustal anisotropy of fast- or slow-axis transverse isotropy (hexagonal) symmetry at best; identification of orthorhombic symmetry is barely possible. Seismic results are often limited to simple orientations of the symmetry axes, such as vertical (radial anisotropy) or horizontal (azimuthal anisotropy). The physical scales of earth anisotropic fabrics and of seismic waves affect the types of information that may be extracted from seismic signals. A seismic wave has inherent limits to resolving capabilities, usually measured as some percentage of its wavelength, λ. This wave will accumulate anisotropic signal in two ways based on its path through anisotropic media of physical size, L: (1) When the wave is much smaller than the anisotropic material (λ > L), the wave will not see details of the material but will respond to just the bulk average of the material. In the first case, the wave will be sensitive to large scale earth changes such as limbs of an antiformal mountain range. The accumulating anisotropic seismic signal can get complicated (e.g., shear wave splits of splits). In the second case, the wave is too large to see any fine detail, and the material can be represented by an equivalent "effective media" that produces the same seismic response. Geometrical structure is a factor that helps bridge the scales of rock CPO to lower resolution seismic signals. Local rock CPO can fill or be mapped into a structure that is large enough for a seismic wave to respond to. We use tensor representation of anisotropic elasticity to formulate a way to separate structural effects from local rock

  16. Examining the joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and atrazine in the aquatic species: Lepomis macrochirus, Pimephales promelas and Chironomus tentans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tyler Mehler, W.; Schuler, Lance J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901-6511 (United States); Lydy, Michael J. [Fisheries and Illinois Aquaculture Center and Department of Zoology, Southern Illinois University at Carbondale, Carbondale, IL 62901-6511 (United States)], E-mail:


    The joint toxicity of chlorpyrifos and atrazine was compared to that of chlorpyrifos alone to discern any greater than additive response using both acute toxicity testing and whole-body residue analysis. In addition, acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibition and biotransformation were investigated to evaluate the toxic mode of action of chlorpyrifos in the presence of atrazine. The joint toxicity of atrazine and chlorpyrifos exhibited no significant difference in Lepomis macrochirus compared to chlorpyrifos alone; while studies performed with Pimephales promelas and Chironomus tentans, did show significant differences. AChE activity and biotransformation showed no significant differences between the joint toxicity of atrazine and chlorpyrifos and that of chlorpyrifos alone. From the data collected, the combination of atrazine and chlorpyrifos pose little additional risk than that of chlorpyrifos alone to the tested fish species. - The joint toxicity between atrazine and chlorpyrifos caused greater than additive responses in invertebrates, but the interactions in vertebrates was less pronounced.

  17. An electrochemical immunosensor based on interdigitated array microelectrode for the detection of chlorpyrifos. (United States)

    Cao, Yaoyao; Sun, Xia; Guo, Yemin; Zhao, Wenping; Wang, Xiangyou


    An electrochemical immunosensor based on interdigitated array microelectrodes (IDAMs) was developed for sensitive, specific and rapid detection of chlorpyrifos. Anti-chlorpyrifos monoclonal antibodies were orientedly immobilized onto the gold microelectrode surface through protein A. Chlorpyrifos were then captured by the immobilized antibody, resulting in an impedance change in the IDAMs surface. Electrochemical impedance spectroscopy was used in conjunction with the fabricated sensor to detect chlorpyrifos. Under optimum conditions, the impedance value change of chlorpyrifos was proportional to its concentrations in the range of 10(0)-10(5) ng/mL. The detection limit was found to be 0.014 ng/mL for chlorpyrifos. The proposed chlorpyrifos immunosensor could be used as a screening method in pesticide determination for the analysis of environmental, agricultural and pharmaceutical samples due to its rapidity, sensitivity and low cost.

  18. Effects of fractal grid on emissions in burner combustion by using fuel-water-air premix injector derived from biodiesel crude palm oil (CPO base

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suardi Mirnah


    Full Text Available The alternative fuel is attracted good attention from worldwide especially for renewable and prevention energy such as biodiesel. Biodiesel is one of the hydrocarbon fuels and it has potential for external combustion. As one of the different solutions to these problems, rapid mixing of biodiesel-water-air technique is one of the most significant approaches to improve the combustion and reduce the emissions. The gas emission can be reduced by two methods. First is by improving an injector with fractal and the other is by using a biodiesel-water mixture as an alternative fuel. Mixing of water with fuel in the combustion process is a low cost and effective way. This research used biodiesel Crude Palm Oil (CPO as fuels in which blended with diesel. This study investigated the effects of water content and equivalence ratio on emissions with the rapid mixing injector. Fuels used are diesel, CPO5, CPO10 and CPO15 and the exhausts gaseous tested are CO, CO2, HC and NOX. The gas emissions processes are tested by using the gas analyzer. In this research, water premix of percentage up to 15vol% and blending biodiesel ratio was varied from 5vom% - 15vol%. The result shows that increasing of water content will effected decrement of CO, CO2 and HC emissions but increasing the NOX emissions.

  19. CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} magnetic nanoparticles as a highly active heterogeneous catalyst of oxone for the degradation of diclofenac in water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deng, Jing [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); Shao, Yisheng, E-mail: [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China); China Academy of Urban Planning and Design, Beijing 100037 (China); Gao, Naiyun; Tan, Chaoqun; Zhou, Shiqing; Hu, Xuhao [State Key Laboratory of Pollution Control Reuse, Tongji University, Shanghai 200092 (China)


    Highlights: • CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} MNPs tested as heterogeneous catalyst for the activation of oxone. • The catalytic performance was typically affected by several key operating parameters. • The catalyst exhibited good stability and easily recovered with excellent reusability. • Degradation pathway was proposed according to the results of LC-MS/MS analysis. -- Abstract: A magnetic nanoscaled catalyst cobalt ferrite (CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}) was successfully prepared and used for the activation of oxone to generate sulfate radicals for the degradation of diclofenac. The catalyst was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The effects of calcination temperature, initial pH, catalyst and oxone dosage on the degradation efficiency were investigated. Results demonstrated that CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4}-300 exhibited the best catalytic performance and almost complete removal of diclofenac was obtained in 15 min. The degradation efficiency increased with initial pH decreasing in the pH range of 5–9. The increase of catalyst and oxone dosage both had the positive effect on the degradation of diclofenac. Moreover, CoFe{sub 2}O{sub 4} could retain high degradation efficiency even after being reused for five cycles. Finally, the major diclofenac degradation intermediates were identified and the primary degradation pathways were proposed.

  20. Effect of chlorpyrifos and monocrotophos on locomotor behaviour and acetylcholinesterase activity of subterranean termites, Odontotermes obesus. (United States)

    Venkateswara Rao, J; Parvathi, K; Kavitha, P; Jakka, N M; Pallela, R


    The acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos and monocrotophos to subterranean termites, Odontotermes obesus (Rambur), has been studied by a paper contact method. The LC50 values for chlorpyrifos and monocrotophos were 0.046 and 0.148 microg cm(-2), respectively. Chlorpyrifos was 3.22-fold more toxic than monocrotophos. The effect of the pesticides on locomotor behaviour (velocity) and head acetylcholinesterase (AChE: EC activity was estimated in LC50-exposed termites at intervals of 4, 8, 12, 16, 20 and 24 h. Chlorpyrifos- and monocrotophos-treated termites showed, respectively, 97 and 88% reduction in locomotor behaviour (velocity) after 24 h. At all time intervals the chlorpyrifos-treated termites exhibited more AChE inhibition and showed greater distorted behaviour than those exposed to monocrotophos. In vitro studies indicated that the I50 value (50% inhibition) for chlorpyrifos against AChE was 8.75 times that of monocrotophos.

  1. Histopathological alterations in liver anatomy after exposure to chlorpyrifos in zebrafish (Danio rerio)


    Bangeppagari, Manjunatha


    Chlorpyrifos is an organophosphate pesticide widely used in agriculture and aquaculture. This study investigated its effects on histopathology of zebrafish (Danio rerio) liver. For this six adult male and six adult female zebrafish were exposed to 200 ?g/L of chlorpyrifos for 24h, 48h, 72h and 96hrs. Chlorpyrifos toxicity on liver histopathological changes were examined by light microscopy. Structural damage spotted in the liver were vacuolization and presence of sinusoid spaces were observed...

  2. [Thermodynamics adsorption and its influencing factors of chlorpyrifos and triazophos on the bentonite and humus]. (United States)

    Zhu, Li-Jun; Zhang, Wei; Zhang, Jin-Chi; Zai, De-Xin; Zhao, Rong


    The adsorption of chlorpyrifos and triazophos on bentonite and humus was investigated by using the equilibrium oscillometry. The adsorption capacity of chlorpyrifos and triazophos on humus was great higher than bentonite at the same concentration. Equilibrium data of Langmuir, Freundlich isotherms showed significant relationship to the adsorption of chlorpyrifos and triazophos on humus (chlorpyrifos: R2 0.996 4, 0.996 3; triazophos: R2 0.998 9, 0.992 4). Langmuir isotherm was the best for chlorpyrifos and triazophos on bentonite (chlorpyrifos: R2 = 0.995 7, triazophos: R2 = 0.998 9). The pH value, adsorption equilibrium time and temperature were the main factors affecting adsorption of chlorpyrifos and triazophos on bentonite and humus. The adsorption equilibrium time on mixed adsorbent was 12h for chlorpyrifos and 6h for triazophos respectively. The mass ratio of humus and bentonite was 12% and 14% respectively, the adsorption of chlorpyrifos and triazophos was the stronglest and tended to saturation. At different temperatures by calculating the thermodynamic parameters deltaG, deltaH and deltaS, confirmed that the adsorption reaction was a spontaneous exothermic process theoretically. The adsorption was the best when the pH value was 6.0 and the temperature was 15 degrees C.

  3. [Biodegradation mechanism of DDT and chlorpyrifos using molecular simulation]. (United States)

    Lin, Yu-Zhen; Zeng, Guang-Ming; Zhang, Yu; Chen, Ming; Jiang, Min; Zhang, Jia-Chao; Lu, Lun-Hui; Liu, Li-Feng


    In order to explore the microscopic degradation mechanism of organic pesticides degrading enzymes, we used molecular docking method to investigate the binding modes of DDT to laccase and chlorpyrifos to organophosphorus hydrolase, and obtained the corresponding complex structures. According to the principle of minimum scoring, the results showed that the MolDock scores were -103.134 and -111.626, re-rank scores were -72.858 and -80.261, respectively. And we used LPC/CSU server search the interactions between organic pesticides and their degrading enzymes. Our results showed that hydrophobic interaction was the strongest contacts in DDT-laccase complex, and both hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions were the strongest contacts when chlorpyrifos-organophosphorus hydrolase complex. The amino acid residues Tyr224 in laccase and Arg254 in organophosphorus hydrolase were detected to play significant roles in catalytic processes.

  4. Chlorpyrifos Detection by Piezoelectric Biosensor Based on Acetylcholinesterase Immobilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) was immobilized on multilayer films assembled by poly diallyldimethylammonium chloride (PDDA) and ι-carrageenan (IC) on silver-coated crystal electrode surfaces to detect the chlorpyrifos belonging to the organophosphates pesticide.Mass sensitive quartz crystal microbalance (QCM) was used to study the effect of AChE concentration and pH of phosphate buffer solution on immobilized acetylcholinesterase.The optimized conditions were as follows: pH was 6.0 which was near isoelectric ...

  5. Sublethal toxicity of chlorpyrifos to salmonid olfaction after hypersaline acclimation. (United States)

    Maryoung, Lindley A; Blunt, Brian; Tierney, Keith B; Schlenk, Daniel


    Salmonid habitats can be impacted by several environmental factors, such as salinization, which can also affect salmonid tolerance to anthropogenic stressors, such as pesticides. Previous studies have shown that hypersaline acclimation enhances the acute toxicity of certain organophosphate and carbamate pesticides to euryhaline fish; however, sublethal impacts have been far less studied. The current study aims to determine how hypersaline acclimation and exposure to the organophosphate chlorpyrifos (CPF) impact salmonid olfaction. Combined acclimation and exposure to CPF was shown to impact rainbow trout olfaction at the molecular, physiological, and behavioral levels. Concurrent exposure to hypersalinity and 0.5μg/L CPF upregulated four genes (chloride intracellular channel 4, G protein zgc:101761, calcium calmodulin dependent protein kinase II delta, and adrenergic alpha 2C receptor) that inhibit olfactory signal transduction. At the physiological level, hypersalinity and chlorpyrifos caused a decrease in sensory response to the amino acid l-serine and the bile salt taurocholic acid. Combined acclimation and exposure also negatively impacted behavior and reduced the avoidance of a predator cue (l-serine). Thus, acclimation to hypersaline conditions and exposure to environmentally relevant concentrations of chlorpyrifos caused an inhibition of olfactory signal transduction leading to a decreased response to odorants and impairment of olfactory mediated behaviors.

  6. The Produce of Methyl Ester from Crude Palm Oil (CPO) Using Heterogene Catalyst Ash of Chicken Bone (CaO) using Ethanol as Solvent (United States)

    Sinaga, M. S.; Fauzi, R.; Turnip, J. R.


    Methyl Ester (methyl ester) is generally made by trans esterification using heterogeneous base catalyst. To simplify the separation, the heterogeneous catalyst is used, such as CaO, which in this case was isolated from chicken bones made by softening chicken bones and do calcination process. Some other important variables other than the selection of the catalyst is the catalyst dosage, molar ratio of ethanol to the CPO and the reaction temperature. The best result from this observe is at the molar ratio of ethanol to the CPO is 17: 1, the reaction temperature is 70 ° C and 7% catalyst (w.t) with reaction time for 7 hours at 500 rpm as a constant variable, got 90,052 % purity, so that this result does not get the standard requirements of biodiesel, because of the purity of the biodiesel standard temporary must be achieve > 96.5 %. This study aims to produce methyl ester yield with the influence of the reaction temperature, percent of catalyst and molar ratio of ethanol and CPO. The most influential variable is the temperature of the reaction that gives a significant yield difference of methyl ester produced. It’s been proven by the increasing temperature used will also significantly increase the yield of methyl ester.

  7. Development of a Physiologically Based Pharmacokinetic and Pharmacodynamic Model to Determine Dosimetry and Cholinesterase Inhibition for a Binary Mixture of Chlorpyrifos and Diazinon in the Rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Chuck; Poet, Torka S.


    Physiologically based pharmacokinetic/pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) models have been developed and validated for the organophosphorus (OP) insecticides chlorpyrifos (CPF) and diazinon (DZN). Based on similar pharmacokinetic and mode of action properties it is anticipated that these OPs could interact at a number of important metabolic steps including: CYP450 mediated activation/detoxification, and blood/tissue cholinesterase (ChE) binding/inhibition. We developed a binary PBPK/PD model for CPF, DZN and their metabolites based on previously published models for the individual insecticides. The metabolic interactions (CYP450) between CPF and DZN were evaluated in vitro and suggests that CPF is more substantially metabolized to its oxon metabolite than is DZN. These data are consistent with their observed in vivo relative potency (CPF>DZN). Each insecticide inhibited the other’s in vitro metabolism in a concentration-dependent manner. The PBPK model code used to described the metabolism of CPF and DZN was modified to reflect the type of inhibition kinetics (i.e. competitive vs. non-competitive). The binary model was then evaluated against previously published rodent dosimetry and ChE inhibition data for the mixture. The PBPK/PD model simulations of the acute oral exposure to single- (15 mg/kg) vs. binary-mixtures (15+15 mg/kg) of CFP and DZN at this lower dose resulted in no differences in the predicted pharmacokinetics of either the parent OPs or their respective metabolites; whereas, a binary oral dose of CPF+DZN at 60+60 mg/kg did result in observable changes in the DZN pharmacokinetics. Cmax was more reasonably fit by modifying the absorption parameters. It is anticipated that at low environmentally relevant binary doses, most likely to be encountered in occupational or environmental related exposures, that the pharmacokinetics are expected to be linear, and ChE inhibition dose-additive.

  8. Binding and detoxification of chlorpyrifos by lactic acid bacteria on rice straw silage fermentation. (United States)

    Wang, Yan-Su; Wu, Tian-Hao; Yang, Yao; Zhu, Cen-Ling; Ding, Cheng-Long; Dai, Chuan-Chao


    This investigation examined the reduction of pesticide residues on straw inoculated with lactic acid bacteria (LAB) during ensiling. Lactobacillus casei WYS3 was isolated from rice straw that contained pesticide residues. Non-sterilized rice straw, which was inoculated with L. casei WYS3, showed increased removal of chlorpyrifos after ensiling, compared with rice straw that was not inoculated with L. casei WYS3 or sterilized rice straw. In pure culture, these strains can bind chlorpyrifos as indicated by high-performance liquid chromatography analysis. Viable L. casei WYS3 was shown to bind 33.3-42% of exogenously added chlorpyrifos. These results are similar to those of acid-treated cells but less than those of heat-treated cells, which were found to bind 32.0% and 77.2% of the added chlorpyrifos respectively. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis determined that L. casei WYS3 detoxified chlorpyrifos via P-O-C cleavage. Real-time polymerized chain reaction analysis determined that organophosphorus hydrolase gene expression tripled after the addition of chlorpyrifos to LAB cultures, compared with the control group (without chlorpyrifos). This paper highlights the potential use of LAB starter cultures for the detoxification and removal of chlorpyrifos residues in the environment.

  9. 76 FR 52945 - Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment... (United States)


    ... AGENCY Chlorpyrifos Registration Review; Preliminary Human Health Risk Assessment; Extension of Comment... availability of the chlorpyrifos registration review; preliminary human health risk assessment. This document extends the comment period for 30 days, from Tuesday, September 6, 2011 to Thursday, October 6,...

  10. Amygdala kindling in immature rats: proconvulsant effect of the organophosphate insecticide-chlorpyrifos. (United States)

    Wurpel, J N; Hirt, P C; Bidanset, J H


    Administration of the organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos to immature rats exerted a proconvulsant effect on seizures induced by kindling. Chlorpyrifos was administered to 16 or 17 day old rats in a dose range of 0.3 to 10 mg/kg, subcutaneously. Amygdala kindling was performed by stimulating the rats every 15 minutes to a total of 20 stimulations. Kindling occurred more rapidly in the chlorpyrifos treated rats than vehicle treated rats, the proconvulsant effect was dose-dependent. The proconvulsant effect of chlorpyrifos was more pronounced in the early stages of kindling, indicating a possible increase in local excitability of the amygdala in the presence of chlorpyrifos. Chlorpyrifos also reduced the after discharge threshold in the amygdala in a dose-dependent manner and increased the duration of after discharges elicited by electrical stimulus, indicating an increase in excitability of the amygdala. The effects of chlorpyrifos on kindling were additive with xylene: the proconvulsant effect in the early stages of kindling was greatly enhanced by xylene. Xylene, administered alone as a 0.2% solution, reduced the after discharge threshold of the amygdala, increased the after discharge duration and increased the rate of kindling. These experiments demonstrate a proconvulsant effect of chlorpyrifos in amygdala kindling and this proconvulsant action is additive with xylene.


    This study aimed to model long-term subtoxic human exposure to an organophosphorus pesticide, chlorpyrifos, and to examine the influence of that exposure on the response to intermittent high-dose acute challenges. Adult rats were maintained on a chlorpyrifos-containing diet to p...

  12. Tuning the target composition of amine-grafted CPO-27-Mg for capture of CO2 under post-combustion and air filtering conditions: a combined experimental and computational study. (United States)

    Bernini, M C; García Blanco, A A; Villarroel-Rocha, J; Fairen-Jimenez, D; Sapag, K; Ramirez-Pastor, A J; Narda, G E


    A computational and experimental screening of hypothetical and real compounds exhibiting different degrees of ethylenediamine grafted to the CPO-27-Mg or Mg-DOBDC skeleton is performed in order to determine the target composition that optimizes the CO2 adsorption properties under flue gas and air filtering conditions. On the basis of the [Mg2(dobdc)] formula, eighteen hypothetical models involving 15-100% of functionalization of the coordinatively unsaturated sites (CUS) were considered by means of Grand Canonical Monte Carlo simulations to evaluate the CO2 adsorption at 298 K. In addition, post-synthesis modification was applied to CPO-27-Mg leading to three kinds of samples exhibiting 15, 50, and 60% of CUS functionalization with ethylenediamine, named CPO-27-Mg-a, CPO-27-Mg-b and CPO-27-Mg-c. Compounds were characterized using elemental analysis, TGA, FTIR spectroscopy, PXRD and DSC. Finally, bare and functionalized CPO-27-Mg materials were evaluated using gas adsorption and microcalorimetry in the 0.001-1 bar range, which is pertinent for the mentioned applications. Valuable information related to design criteria for synthesis of tuned CO2 adsorbents is derived through this computational and experimental investigation.

  13. Environmental Behavior of Chlorpyrifos and Endosulfan in a Tropical Soil in Central Brazil. (United States)

    Dores, Eliana F G C; Spadotto, Claudio A; Weber, Oscarlina L S; Dalla Villa, Ricardo; Vecchiato, Antonio B; Pinto, Alicio A


    The environmental behavior of chlorpyrifos and endosulfan in soil was studied in the central-western region of Brazil by means of a field experiment. Sorption was evaluated in laboratory batch experiments. Chlorpyrifos and endosulfan were applied to experimental plots on uncultivated soil and the following processes were studied: leaching, runoff, and dissipation in top soil. Field dissipation of chlorpyrifos and endosulfan was more rapid than reported in temperate climates. Despite the high Koc of the studied pesticides, the two endosulfan isomers and endosulfan sulfate as well as chlorpyrifos were detected in percolated water. In runoff water and sediment, both endosulfan isomers and endosulfan sulfate were detected throughout the period of study. Observed losses of endosulfan by leaching (below a depth of 50 cm) and runoff were 0.0013 and 1.04% of the applied amount, whereas chlorpyrifos losses were 0.003 and 0.032%, respectively. Leaching of these highly adsorbed pesticides was attributed to preferential flow.

  14. CoFe2O4 magnetic nanoparticles as a highly active heterogeneous catalyst of oxone for the degradation of diclofenac in water. (United States)

    Deng, Jing; Shao, Yisheng; Gao, Naiyun; Tan, Chaoqun; Zhou, Shiqing; Hu, Xuhao


    A magnetic nanoscaled catalyst cobalt ferrite (CoFe2O4) was successfully prepared and used for the activation of oxone to generate sulfate radicals for the degradation of diclofenac. The catalyst was characterized by transmission electron microscopy, X-ray diffractometry, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and vibrating sample magnetometer. The effects of calcination temperature, initial pH, catalyst and oxone dosage on the degradation efficiency were investigated. Results demonstrated that CoFe2O4-300 exhibited the best catalytic performance and almost complete removal of diclofenac was obtained in 15 min. The degradation efficiency increased with initial pH decreasing in the pH range of 5-9. The increase of catalyst and oxone dosage both had the positive effect on the degradation of diclofenac. Moreover, CoFe2O4 could retain high degradation efficiency even after being reused for five cycles. Finally, the major diclofenac degradation intermediates were identified and the primary degradation pathways were proposed.

  15. Evaluation of antigout activity of Phyllanthus emblica fruit extracts on potassium oxonate-induced gout rat model (United States)

    Sarvaiya, Vaidehi N.; Sadariya, Kamlesh A.; Pancha, Prakash G.; Thaker, Aswin M.; Patel, Aashish C.; Prajapati, Ankit S.


    Aim: The present study has been conducted to evaluate antigout activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Phyllanthus emblica fruits following its 28 days repeated oral administration on potassium oxonate-induced gout rat model. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 42 male Sprague-Dawely rats dividing them in seven groups having six rats in each group. Groups I, II, and III served as vehicle control group, gout control group, and standard treatment control group, respectively. Rats of all the groups except vehicle control group were administered potassium oxonate at 250 mg/kg (IP), throughout the study period (28 days) for induction of gout. Groups IV and V received aqueous extract of P. emblica at 200 and 400 mg/kg, and Groups VI and VII received alcoholic extract of P. emblica at 200 and 400 mg/kg (daily oral for 28 days). At the end of study, all the rats were subjected to blood collection; blood and serum sample were analyzed for hematological and biochemical parameters, respectively. After collection of blood samples on the 29th day, all the rats were sacrificed and subjected to post mortem examination to determine the presence or absence of gross and histopathological lesions in kidney tissues. Results: At the end of study, rats of gout control group showed increase in platelets counts, serum creatinine, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and xanthine oxidase (XO) enzyme level along with alterations in kidney tissues as compared to vehicle control group. Gouty rats treated with aqueous and alcoholic extracts of P. emblica at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight and standard treatment allopurinol at 5 mg/kg body weight showed reduction in platelets counts, serum creatinine, uric acid, BUN, and XO enzyme level along with significant improvements in histological structure of kidney as compared to rats of gout control group. Conclusion: Oral administration of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of P. emblica fruits for 28 days has shown protection against

  16. Evaluation of antigout activity of Phyllanthus emblica fruit extracts on potassium oxonate-induced gout rat model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vaidehi N. Sarvaiya


    Full Text Available Aim: The present study has been conducted to evaluate antigout activity of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of Phyllanthus emblica fruits following its 28 days repeated oral administration on potassium oxonate-induced gout rat model. Materials and Methods: The study was conducted on 42 male Sprague-Dawely rats dividing them in seven groups having six rats in each group. Groups I, II, and III served as vehicle control group, gout control group, and standard treatment control group, respectively. Rats of all the groups except vehicle control group were administered potassium oxonate at 250 mg/kg (IP, throughout the study period (28 days for induction of gout. Groups IV and V received aqueous extract of P. emblica at 200 and 400 mg/kg, and Groups VI and VII received alcoholic extract of P. emblica at 200 and 400 mg/kg (daily oral for 28 days. At the end of study, all the rats were subjected to blood collection; blood and serum sample were analyzed for hematological and biochemical parameters, respectively. After collection of blood samples on the 29th day, all the rats were sacrificed and subjected to post mortem examination to determine the presence or absence of gross and histopathological lesions in kidney tissues. Results: At the end of study, rats of gout control group showed increase in platelets counts, serum creatinine, uric acid, blood urea nitrogen (BUN, and xanthine oxidase (XO enzyme level along with alterations in kidney tissues as compared to vehicle control group. Gouty rats treated with aqueous and alcoholic extracts of P. emblica at 200 and 400 mg/kg body weight and standard treatment allopurinol at 5 mg/kg body weight showed reduction in platelets counts, serum creatinine, uric acid, BUN, and XO enzyme level along with significant improvements in histological structure of kidney as compared to rats of gout control group. Conclusion: Oral administration of aqueous and alcoholic extracts of P. emblica fruits for 28 days has shown

  17. Review of Toxicology of Atrazine and Chlorpyrifos on Fish

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Xu; LI Jilong; XING Houjuan; XU Shiwen


    Atrazine (ATR) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are widely used in agriculture, but have resulted in a series of toxicological and environmental problems. They were heavily used which have potential threat to fish and rodents. Several recent laboratory studies have shown ATR and CPF could lead to oxidative damage, immunocyte reduced and inhibit acetylcholinesterase (ACHE). In order to clarify the toxicity of ATR and CPF, this paper summarized the adverse effects of ATR and CPF on reproduction, nerve and immune systems in fish.

  18. Larval exposure to chlorpyrifos affects nutritional physiology and induces genotoxicity in silkworm Philosamia ricini (Lepidoptera: Saturnidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moni Kankana Kalita


    Full Text Available Chlorpyrifos is a most widely used organophosphate insecticide because of its cost effectiveness and degradable nature. However, this pesticide enters and contaminates the environment either by direct application, spray drifts or crop run off and shows adverse effect on the non-targeted organisms. Philosamia ricini (eri silkworm, one of the most exploited, domesticated and commercialized non mulberry silkworm is known for mass production of eri silk. The silkworm larvae get exposed to pesticide residues on the leaves of food plants. The present study investigates the effect of commercial formulation of chlorpyrifos (Pyrifos-20 EC on eri silkworm. Initially the LC50 value of chlorpyrifos was determined at 24 - 96 h and further experiments were carried out with sub lethal concentrations of the chlorpyrifos after 24 h of exposure period. The potential toxicity of chlorpyrifos was evaluated as a fuction of metabolism and nutritional physiology in 3rd, 4th and 5th instar larvae. Alteration in histoarchitecture of 5th instar eri silkworm gut exposed to sub lethal concentration of chlorpyrifos formulation was also studied. Chlorpyrifos induced genotoxicity in silkworm hemocytes was also investigated by single cell gel electrophoresis, micronuclei assay and apoptosis assay. Herein, LC50 values of chlorpyrifos were calculated as 3.83, 3.35, 2.68 and 2.35 mg/L at 24 h, 48 h, 72 h and 96 h respectively. A significant decrease in trehalose activity along with digestive enzyme activity was observed in chlorpyrifos affected groups (P < 0.05. Further, genotoxicity study revealed higher tail percentage, tail length and tail moment of the damage DNA in chlorpyrifos exposed groups (P < 0.001. Moreover, at 2.0 mg/L concentration, ~ 10 fold increases in tail length was observed as compared to the control. Results showed activation of caspase activity following 24 hr chlorpyrifos exposure (1.5 mg/L and 2.0 mg/L in a dose-dependent manner. Moreover, in control group

  19. Toxicity assessing for chlorpyrifos-contaminated soil with three different earthworm test methods

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Shi-ping; DUAN Chang-qun; FU Hui; CHEN Yu-hui; WANG Xue-hua; YU Ze-fen


    Earthworm toxicity tests are useful tools for terrestrial risk assessment but require a hierarchy of test designs that differ in effect levels (behavior, sublethal, lethal). In this study, the toxicity of chlorpyrifos contaminated soil on earthworms was assessed. In addition to the acute and chronic tests, an avoidance response test was applied. Earthworms were exposed to sublethal and lethal concentration of chlorpyrifos, and evaluated for acute toxicity, growth, fecundity and avoidance response after a certain exposure period. The test methods covered all important ecological relevant endpoints (acute, chronic, behavioral). Concentration of 78.91 mg/kg, chlorpyrifos caused significant toxic effects in all test methods, but at lower test concentrations, only significant chronic toxic effects could be observed. In the present study, chlorpyrifos had adverse effect on growth and fecundity in earthworm exposed to 5 mg/kg chlorpyrifos after eight weeks. The avoidance response test, however, showed significant repellent effects concentration of 40 mg/kg chlorpyrifos. For chlorpyrifos, concentration affecting avoidance response was far greater than growth and fecundity, it seemed likely that earthworms were not able to escape from pesticide-contaminated soil into the clean soil in field and hence were exposed continuously to elevated concentrations of pesticides.

  20. Degradation of chlorpyrifos in laboratory soil and its impact on soil microbial functional diversity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Hua; YU Yunlong; CHU Xiaoqiang; WANG Xiuguo; YANG Xiaoe; YU Jingquan


    Degradation of chlorpyrifos at different concentrations in soil and its impact on soil microbial functional diversity were investigated under laboratory conditions. The degradation half-lives of chlorpyrifos at levels of 4, 8, and 12 mg/kg in soil were calculated to be 14.3, 16.7, and 18.0 d, respectively. The Biolog study showed that average well color development (AWCD) in soils was significantly (P < 0.05) inhibited by chlorpyrifos within the first two weeks and thereafter recovered to the similar level as the control. A similar variation in the diversity indices (Simpson index 1/D and McIntosh index U) in chlorpyrifos-treated soils was observed, no significant difference in the Shannon-Wiener index H' was found in these soils. With increasing chlorpyrifos concentration, the half-lives of chlorpyrifos were significantly (P ≤ 0.05) extended and its inhibitory effects on soil microorganisms were aggravated. It is concluded that chlorpyrifos residues in soil had a temporary or short-term inhibitory effect on soil microbial functional diversity.

  1. Genetics and preliminary mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance in Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Homoptera: Pseudococcidae). (United States)

    Afzal, Muhammad Babar Shahzad; Ijaz, Mamuna; Farooq, Zahra; Shad, Sarfraz Ali; Abbas, Naeem


    Cotton mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley, is a serious pest of cotton and other crops and infestation by this pest results in yield losses that affect the economy of Pakistan. Various groups of insecticides have been used to control this pest but resistance development is a major factor that inhibits its control in the field. Chlorpyrifos is a common insecticide used against many pests including P. solenopsis. The present experiment was designed to assess the genetics and mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance and to develop a better resistance management strategy and assess the genetics and mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance. Before selection, the field strain showed 3.1-fold resistance compared to the susceptible strain (CSS). After 8 rounds of selection with chlorpyrifos, a selected population developed a 191.0-fold resistance compared to the CSS. The LC50 values of F1 (CRR ♀ × CSS ♂) and F1(†) (CRR ♂ × CSS ♀) strains were not significantly different and dominance (DLC) values were 0.42 and 0.55. Reciprocal crosses between chlorpyrifos susceptible and resistant strains indicated that resistance was autosomal and incompletely recessive. The monogenic model of fit test and calculation of number of genes segregating in the chlorpyrifos resistant strain demonstrated that resistance is controlled by multiple genes. A value of 0.59 was calculated for realized heritability for chlorpyrifos resistance. Synergism bioassays with piperonyl butoxide and S, S, S-butyl phosphorotrithioate showed that chlorpyrifos resistance was associated with microsomal oxidases and esterases. It was concluded that chlorpyrifos resistance in P. solenopsis was autosomally inherited, incompletely recessive and polygenic. These findings would be helpful to improve the management of P. solenopsis.

  2. Enhanced remediation of chlorpyrifos by ryegrass (Lolium multiflorum) and a chlorpyrifos degrading bacterial endophyte Mezorhizobium sp. HN3. (United States)

    Jabeen, Hina; Iqbal, Samina; Ahmad, Fiaz; Afzal, Muhammad; Firdous, Sadiqa


    For effective remediation of contaminants, plant-endophyte partnership is a promising field to be explored. Generally endophytic bacteria assist their host plant by withstanding the stress induced by the contaminants. The objective of this study was to explore the suitability of plant-bacterial partnership for chlorpyrifos (CP) remediation using ryegrass and a CP degrading endophyte, Mesorhizobium sp. HN3 which belongs to plant growth promoting rhizobia. The inoculated yfp-tagged Mesorhizobium sp. HN3 efficiently colonized in the rhizosphere, enhanced plant growth and degradation of CP and its metabolite 3,5,6 trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP). Significantly lower CP residues were observed in the roots and shoots of plants vegetated in inoculated soil which might be attributed to the efficient root colonization of HN3yfp. These results suggest the involvement of Mesorhizobium sp. HN3yfp in CP degradation inside the roots and rhizosphere of plants and further emphasize on the effectiveness of endophytic bacteria in stimulating the remediation of pesticide contaminants. This is the first report which demonstrates the efficacy of bacterial endophyte for degradation of CP residues taken up by the plant and enhanced remediation of chlorpyrifos contaminated soil.


    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is an organophosphorus insecticide that elicits toxicity through inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Young animals are markedly more sensitive than adults to the acute toxicity of CPF. We evaluated acetylcholine (ACh) release and its muscarinic recept...


    This study investigated the qualitative and quantitative neuropathological changes that occur in the fetal brain following gestational exposure to chlorpyrifos [(O,O'diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothionate], a commonly used organophosphorus insecticide. Two cohort...

  5. Soil bacteria showing a potential of chlorpyrifos degradation and plant growth enhancement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shamsa Akbar

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Background: Since 1960s, the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos has been widely used for the purpose of pest control. However, given its persistence and toxicity towards life forms, the elimination of chlorpyrifos from contaminated sites has become an urgent issue. For this process bioremediation is the method of choice. Results: Two bacterial strains, JCp4 and FCp1, exhibiting chlorpyrifos-degradation potential were isolated from pesticide contaminated agricultural fields. These isolates were able to degrade 84.4% and 78.6% of the initial concentration of chlorpyrifos (100 mg L-1 within a period of only 10 days. Based on 16S rRNA sequence analysis, these strains were identified as Achromobacter xylosoxidans (JCp4 and Ochrobactrum sp. (FCp1. These strains exhibited the ability to degrade chlorpyrifos in sterilized as well as non-sterilized soils, and were able to degrade 93-100% of the input concentration (200 mg kg-1 within 42 days. The rate of degradation in inoculated soils ranged from 4.40 to 4.76 mg-1 kg-1 d-1 with rate constants varying between 0.047 and 0.069 d-1. These strains also displayed substantial plant growth promoting traits such as phosphate solubilization, indole acetic acid production and ammonia production both in absence as well as in the presence of chlorpyrifos. However, presence of chlorpyrifos (100 and 200 mg L-1 was found to have a negative effect on indole acetic acid production and phosphate solubilization with percentage reduction values ranging between 2.65-10.6% and 4.5-17.6%, respectively. Plant growth experiment demonstrated that chlorpyrifos has a negative effect on plant growth and causes a decrease in parameters such as percentage germination, plant height and biomass. Inoculation of soil with chlorpyrifos-degrading strains was found to enhance plant growth significantly in terms of plant length and weight. Moreover, it was noted that these strains degraded chlorpyrifos at an increased rate (5

  6. Evaluating Oxidative Stress Factors Induced by Chlorpyrifos Poisoning in Plasma of Wistar Rat


    Saberi, M.; A Zare’i Mahmoudabadi; M Fasihi Ramandi; A Kazemi; J Rasouli Vani


    Introduction: Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a broad-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide that has been used abundantly over the globe during the past 40 years. Chemical pesticides may induce oxidative stress via generating free radicals and altering antioxidant levels of the free radical scavenging enzyme activity. Therefore, this study aimed to evaluate the toxicity of Chlorpyrifos-induced oxidative stress in the plasma samples of Wistar rat. Methods: Twenty-four male Wistar rats were selected r...

  7. Effects of chlorpyrifos on glutathione S-transferase in migratory locust, Locusta migratoria. (United States)

    Qin, Guohua; Liu, Ting; Guo, Yaping; Zhang, Xueyao; Ma, Enbo; Zhang, Jianzhen


    Chlorpyrifos is a typical organophosphate pesticide and is among the most widely used worldwide. The objective of the present investigation was to assess the effect of chlorpyrifos exposure on glutathione S-transferase in Locusta migratoria. In the present study, chlorpyrifos (0.1, 0.2, and 0.4mgg(-1) body weight) was topically applied in the abdomen of locusts. The GST activity, mRNA levels of ten L. migratoria GSTs and protein levels of four representative GSTs were detected. The results showed that chlorpyrifos treatment caused significant decrease of 1,2-dichloro-4-nitrobenzene (DCNB) and p-nitro-benzyl chloride (p-NBC) activities, whereas 1-chloro-2,4-dinitrobenzene (CDNB) activity was not altered in locusts. The mRNA levels of seven L. migratoria GSTs, including LmGSTs2, LmGSTs3, LmGSTs4, LmGSTs5, LmGSTs6, LmGSTt1, and LmGSTu1, were decreased after chlorpyrifos exposure. The protein levels of LmGSTs5, LmGSTt1 and LmGSTu1 were significantly decreased at higher doses of chlorpyrifos. However, chlorpyrifos elevated the mRNA and protein expression of LmGSTd1. It indicated that LmGSTd1 might contribute to the resistance of locust to organophosphate pesticides such as chlorpyrifos, whereas the decrease in other GSTs might be an economic compensation by the insect to differentially regulate the expression of enzymes involved in the detoxification of insecticides on the expense of those that are not.

  8. The enzyme toxicity and genotoxicity of chlorpyrifos and its toxic metabolite TCP to zebrafish Danio rerio. (United States)

    Wang, Jun; Wang, Jinhua; Zhu, Lusheng; Xie, Hui; Shao, Bo; Hou, Xinxin


    Chlorpyrifos is a broad-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide (O,O-diethyl -O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate) that is used in numerous agricultural and urban pest controls. The primary metabolite of chlorpyrifos is 3,5,6-trichloro pyridine-2-phenol (TCP). Because of its strong water solubility and mobility, this harmful metabolite exists in the environment in a large amount. Although TCP has potentially harmful effects on organisms in the environment, few studies have addressed TCP pollution. Therefore, this study was undertaken to investigate the effect of chlorpyrifos and TCP on the microsomal cytochrome P450 content in the liver, on the activity of NADPH-P450 reductase and antioxidative enzymes [catalase (CAT) and superoxide dismutase (SOD)], and on reactive oxygen species (ROS) generation and DNA damage in zebrafish. Male and female zebrafish were separated and exposed to a control solution and three concentrations of chlorpyrifos (0.01, 0.1, 1 mg L(-1)) and TCP (0.01, 0.1, 0.5 mg L(-1)), respectively, sampled after 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 days. The results indicated that the P450 content and the NADPH-P450 reductase and antioxidative enzyme (CAT and SOD) activities could be induced by chlorpyrifos and TCP. DNA damage of zebrafish was enhanced with increasing chlorpyrifos and TCP concentrations. Meanwhile, chlorpyrifos and TCP induced a significant increase of ROS generation in the zebrafish hepatopancreas. In conclusion, this study proved that chlorpyrifos (0.01-1 mg L(-1)) and TCP (0.01-0.5 mg L(-1)) are both highly toxic to zebrafish.

  9. Intentional chlorpyrifos poisoning in pregnant woman and subsequent fetal death

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T H Indu


    Full Text Available Organophosphate poisoning is an important medical emergency exist in agriculture-oriented countries such as India. This case report describes the treatment strategies followed for a management of suicidal intoxication of a pregnant woman by chlorpyrifos compound at a secondary care public hospital, Udhagamandalam, India. The patient was unable to perceive fetal movements and had classic clinical symptoms of organophosphate poisoning such as excess salivation and pinpoint pupil. The patient was administered with 2 g of pralidoxime and 10 ampoules of atropine sulfate (1.2 mg each. The fetotoxic evaluation showed fetal death. The antidote given to the patient was according to the criteria given by the World Health Organization. The late admission of the patient may be considered as a reason for fetal death. Psychosocial, educational programs are highly recommended for the population in this region to reduce the number of intentional poisoning attempts.

  10. Study on Immunochemical Assays for the Organophosphorus Insecticide Chlorpyrifos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Gang; HUANG Ya-li; ZHU Guo-nian; WU Hui-ming; LI Cong


    The anti-chlorpyrifos polyclonal antibodies were obtained by using the artificial immune antigen to immune in New Zealand′s white rabbits. The enzyme-tagged antibodies were prepared by coupling horseradish peroxidase (HRP) to the purified antibody with the modified sodium periodate method. The indirect competitive enzyme linked immuno-sorbent assays (ELISA) and the HRP-taggedantibodydirect ELISA (E-Ab) were established, respectively.The limit of detection (LOD) for the indirect ELISA and E-Ab were 0.0033 and 0.0042 μg mL-1, respectively. The linear detection ranged well from 0.005 to 2.0 μg mL-1.

  11. Acute Toxicity and Neurotoxicity of Chlorpyrifos in Black Tiger Shrimp, Penaeus monodon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tassanee Eamkamon


    Full Text Available Acute toxicity and neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos were determined in black tiger shrimp, P. monodon. LC50 values after 24 to 96 h of exposure were between 149.55 and 59.16 nmol/L. To determine the neurotoxicity of chlorpyrifos, the inhibition of acetylcholinesterase was monitored in the gill of the shrimps exposed to lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L and sub-lethal (0.019, 0.194, and 1.942 nmol/L concentrations of chlorpyrifos. In lethal dose exposure, the AChE activities observed in shrimp exposed to 0.194, and 1.942 µmol/L of chlorpyrifos were significantly lower (1.7 and 3.3 times than that of control shrimp after 30 min of exposure (p<0.05. In sub-lethal exposure tests, the AChE activity of shrimp was significantly lower (1.9 times than that of control shrimp after exposure to 1.942 nmol/L of chlorpyrifos for 72 h (p<0.05. The sensitive reduction of AChE activity at the sub-lethal concentration, which was 30 times lower than 96 h LC50 value found in this study, indicates the potential use as a biomarker of chlorpyrifos exposure.

  12. Biotransformation of chlorpyrifos in riparian wetlands in agricultural watersheds: implications for wetland management. (United States)

    Karpuzcu, M Ekrem; Sedlak, David L; Stringfellow, William T


    Biodegradation of the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl) phosphorothioate) in sediments from wetlands and agricultural drains in San Joaquin Valley, CA was investigated. Sediments were collected monthly, spiked with chlorpyrifos, and rates of chlorpyrifos degradation were measured using a standardized aerobic biodegradation assay. Phosphoesterase enzyme activities were measured and phosphotriesterase activity was related to observed biodegradation kinetics. First-order biodegradation rates varied between 0.02 and 0.69 day(-1), after accounting for abiotic losses. The average rate of abiotic chlorpyrifos hydrolysis was 0.02 d(-1) at pH 7.2 and 30 °C. Sediments from the site exhibiting the highest chlorpyrifos degradation capacity were incubated under anaerobic conditions to assess the effect of redox conditions on degradation rates. Half-lives were 5 and 92 days under aerobic and anaerobic conditions, respectively. There was a consistent decrease in observed biodegradation rates at one site due to permanently flooded conditions prevailing during one sampling year. These results suggest that wetland management strategies such as allowing a wet-dry cycle could enhance degradation rates. There was significant correlation between phosphotriesterase (PTE) activity and the chlorpyrifos biotransformation rates, with this relationship varying among sites. PTE activities may be useful as an indicator of biodegradation potential with reference to the previously established site-specific correlations.

  13. Development of a freeze-dried fungal wettable powder preparation able to biodegrade chlorpyrifos on vegetables.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jie Liu

    Full Text Available Continuous use of the pesticide chlorpyrifos has resulted in harmful contaminations in environment and species. Based on a chlorpyrifos-degrading fungus Cladosporium cladosporioides strain Hu-01 (collection number: CCTCC M 20711, a fungal wettable powder preparation was developed aiming to efficiently remove chlorpyrifos residues from vegetables. The formula was determined to be 11.0% of carboxymethyl cellulose-Na, 9.0% of polyethylene glycol 6000, 5.0% of primary alcohol ethoxylate, 2.5% of glycine, 5.0% of fucose, 27.5% of kaolin and 40% of freeze dried fungi by response surface methodology (RSM. The results of quality inspection indicated that the fungal preparation could reach manufacturing standards. Finally, the degradation of chlorpyrifos by this fungal preparation was determined on pre-harvest cabbage. Compared to the controls without fungal preparation, the degradation of chlorpyrifos on cabbages, which was sprayed with the fungal preparation, was up to 91% after 7 d. These results suggested this freeze-dried fungal wettable powder may possess potential for biodegradation of chlorpyrifos residues on vegetables and provide a potential strategy for food and environment safety against pesticide residues.

  14. Exogenous salicylic acid alleviates the toxicity of chlorpyrifos in wheat plants (Triticum aestivum). (United States)

    Wang, Caixia; Zhang, Qingming


    The role of exogenous salicylic acid (SA) in protecting wheat plants (Triticum aestivum) from contamination by the insecticide chlorpyrifos was investigated in this study. The wheat plants were grown in soils with different concentrations (5, 10, 20, and 40mgkg(-1)) of chlorpyrifos. When the third leaf emerged, the wheat leaves were sprayed with 1, 2, 4, 8, and 16mgL(-1) of SA once a day for 6 days. The results showed that wheat exposed to higher concentrations of chlorpyrifos (≥20mgkg(-1)) caused declines in growth and chlorophyll content and altered the activities of a series of antioxidant enzymes including superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), peroxidase (POD), and ascorbate peroxidase (APX). Interestingly, treatments with different concentrations of SA mitigated the stress generated by chlorpyrifos and improved the measured parameters to varying degrees. Furthermore, a reverse transcription and quantitative PCR experiment revealed that the activities of SOD and CAT can be regulated by their target gene in wheat when treated with SA. We also found that SA is able to block the accumulation of chlorpyrifos in wheat. However, the effect of SA was related to its concentration. In this study, the application of 2mgL(-1) of SA had the greatest ameliorating effect on chlorpyrifos toxicity in wheat plants.

  15. Sediment microbes and biofilms increase the bioavailability of chlorpyrifos in Chironomus riparius (Chironomidae, Diptera). (United States)

    Widenfalk, Anneli; Lundqvist, Anna; Goedkoop, Willem


    In a microcosm study, the importance of different sources of organic matter (humic acids, sterile sediment, sediment, and a microbial extract) for the bioavailability of the hydrophobic pesticide chlorpyrifos to Chironomus riparius larvae was quantified. In the last two treatments biofilms were allowed to grow before (14)C-chlorpyrifos addition. Chlorpyrifos accumulation was quantified after 25 h of exposure and after 21 h of depuration. Larval accumulation was twice as high in the microbial extract treatment (447+/-79 microg/kg ww larvae) and 1.7 times higher in the sediment treatment (371+/-33 microg/kg). After depuration, chlorpyrifos accumulation in larval tissue showed even higher differences; 3.1 times higher tissue concentrations in the microbial extract treatment (218+/-21 microg/kg) and 2.2 times higher in the sediment treatment (156+/-35 microg/kg). In contrast, chlorpyrifos accumulation in the humic acid and sterile sediment did not differ from that in controls. These results show that living microbes and biofilms, by creating a microenvironment and providing food for larvae, markedly increase the bioavailability of chlorpyrifos to Chironomus riparius.

  16. Taurine ameliorated thyroid function in rats co-administered with chlorpyrifos and lead. (United States)

    Akande, Motunrayo Ganiyat; Shittu, Muftau; Uchendu, Chidiebere; Yaqub, Lukuman Surakat


    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used organophosphate insecticide for domestic, agricultural and industrial purposes. Lead is a toxic heavy metal and it is used for domestic and industrial purposes. Taurine is a semi essential amino acid with bioprotective properties. The aim of this study was to investigate the effects of taurine on thyroid function in Wistar rats co-administered with chlorpyrifos and lead. The rats were divided into 5 groups of 10 rats each. The first two groups were administered with distilled water and soya oil (1 ml/kg) respectively. The other groups received taurine (50 mg/kg), chlorpyrifos + lead [chlorpyrifos (4.25 mg/kg, 1/20 median lethal dose] and lead (233.25 mg/kg, 1/20 median lethal dose) and taurine + chlorpyrifos + lead respectively. The treatments were administered once daily by oral gavage for 16 weeks. The rats were euthanized after the completion of the study and the thyroid function and thyroid histoarchitecture were evaluated. The results revealed that co-administration of chlorpyrifos and lead to the rats induced perturbations in thyroid function and this was manifested by reductions in the concentrations of triiodothyronine and thyroxine, increased thyroid stimulating hormone concentration and degeneration of the follicular epithelia of the thyroid gland. Taurine alleviated the perturbations in thyroid function and improved thyroid gland histoarchitecture. The beneficial effects of taurine may be attributed to its ability to protect the body from toxicity and oxidative stress. Taurine may be useful for prophylaxis against disruptions in thyroid function in animals that are exposed to environmental chlorpyrifos and lead.

  17. dd excitations in CPO-27-Ni metal-organic framework: comparison between resonant inelastic X-ray scattering and UV-vis spectroscopy. (United States)

    Gallo, Erik; Lamberti, Carlo; Glatzel, Pieter


    We identify the dd excitations in the metal-organic framework CPO-27-Ni by coupling resonant inelastic X-ray scattering (RIXS) and UV-vis spectroscopy, and we show that the element selectivity of RIXS is crucial to observing the full dd multiplet structure, which is not visible in UV-vis. The combination of calculations using crystal-field multiplet theory and density functional theory can reproduce the RIXS spectral features, crucially improving interpretation of the experimental data. We obtain the crystal-field splitting and magnitude of the electron-electron interactions and correct previously reported values. RIXS instruments at synchrotron radiation sources are accessible to all researchers, and the technique can be applied to a broad range of systems.

  18. Increased Expression of P-Glycoprotein Is Associated With Chlorpyrifos Resistance in the German Cockroach (Blattodea: Blattellidae). (United States)

    Hou, Weiyuan; Jiang, Chu; Zhou, Xiaojie; Qian, Kun; Wang, Lei; Shen, Yanhui; Zhao, Yan


    A principal method for control of the German cockroach, Blattella germanica (L.), is the broad-spectrum organophosphorus insecticide, chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate); however, extensive and repeated application has resulted in the development of resistance to chlorpyrifos in this insect. Evidence suggests that ATP-binding cassette protein transporters, including P-glycoprotein, are involved in insecticide resistance. However, little is known of the role of P-glycoprotein in insecticide resistance in the German cockroach. Here, we developed a chlorpyrifos-resistant strain of German cockroach and investigated the relationship between P-glycoprotein and chlorpyrifos resistance using toxicity assays; inhibition studies with two P-glycoprotein inhibitors, verapamil and quinine; P-glycoprotein-ATPase activity assays; and western blotting analysis. After 23 generations of selection from susceptible strain cockroaches, we obtained animals with high resistance to chlorpyrifos. When P-glycoprotein-ATPase activity was inhibited by verapamil and quinine, we observed enhanced susceptibility to chlorpyrifos in both control and chlorpyrifos-resistant cockroaches. No significant alterations of P-glycoprotein expression or ATPase activity were observed in cockroaches acutely exposed to LD50 doses of chlorpyrifos for 24 h, while P-glycoprotein expression and ATPase activity were clearly elevated in the chlorpyrifos-resistant cockroach strain. Thus, we conclude that P-glycoprotein is associated with chlorpyrifos resistance in the German cockroach and that elevated levels of P-glycoprotein expression and ATPase activity may be an important mechanism of chlorpyrifos resistance in the German cockroach.

  19. Purification and characterization of a novel chlorpyrifos hydrolase from Cladosporium cladosporioides Hu-01. (United States)

    Gao, Yan; Chen, Shaohua; Hu, Meiying; Hu, Qiongbo; Luo, Jianjun; Li, Yanan


    Chlorpyrifos is of great environmental concern due to its widespread use in the past several decades and its potential toxic effects on human health. Thus, the degradation study of chlorpyrifos has become increasing important in recent years. A fungus capable of using chlorpyrifos as the sole carbon source was isolated from organophosphate-contaminated soil and characterized as Cladosporium cladosporioides Hu-01 (collection number: CCTCC M 20711). A novel chlorpyrifos hydrolase from cell extract was purified 35.6-fold to apparent homogeneity with 38.5% overall recovery by ammoniumsulfate precipitation, gel filtration chromatography and anion-exchange chromatography. It is a monomeric structure with a molecular mass of 38.3 kDa. The pI value was estimated to be 5.2. The optimal pH and temperature of the purified enzyme were 6.5 and 40°C, respectively. No cofactors were required for the chlorpyrifos-hydrolysis activity. The enzyme was strongly inhibited by Hg²⁺, Fe³⁺, DTT, β-mercaptoethanol and SDS, whereas slight inhibitory effects (5-10% inhibition) were observed in the presence of Mn²⁺, Zn²⁺, Cu²⁺, Mg²⁺, and EDTA. The purified enzyme hydrolyzed various organophosphorus insecticides with P-O and P-S bond. Chlorpyrifos was the preferred substrate. The Km and Vmax values of the enzyme for chlorpyrifos were 6.7974 μM and 2.6473 μmol·min⁻¹, respectively. Both NH2-terminal sequencing and matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight/time-of-flight mass spectrometer (MALDI-TOF-MS) identified an amino acid sequence MEPDGELSALTQGANS, which shared no similarity with any reported organophosphate-hydrolyzing enzymes. These results suggested that the purified enzyme was a novel hydrolase and might conceivably be developed to fulfill the practical requirements to enable its use in situ for detoxification of chlorpyrifos. Finally, this is the first described chlorpyrifos hydrolase from fungus.

  20. Rapid and highly efficient trimethylsilylation of alcohols and phenols with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) catalysed by in situ generated I2 using Oxone®/KI or cerium ammonium nitrate (CAN)/KI systems under mild conditions

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Eskandar Kolvari; Ardeshir Khazaei; Mohammad Ali Zolfigol; Nadiya Koukabi; Maryam Gilandoust; Neda Bakhit


    Structurally diverse alcohols and phenols were trimethylsilylated in clean and efficient reactions with hexamethyldisilazane (HMDS) in the presence of a catalytic amount of I2 generated in situ from Oxone®/KI or CAN/KI systems. The reactions occur rapidly in good to high yields in wet CH2Cl2 at room temperature.

  1. Temperature influences on water permeability and chlorpyrifos uptake in aquatic insects with differing respiratory strategies (United States)

    Buchwalter, D.B.; Jenkins, J.J.; Curtis, L.R.


    Aquatic insects have evolved diverse respiratory strategies that range from breathing atmospheric air to breathing dissolved oxygen. These strategies result in vast morphological differences among taxa in terms of exchange epithelial surface areas that are in direct contact with the surrounding water that, in turn, affect physiological processes. This paper examines the effects of acute temperature shifts on water permeability and chlorpyrifos uptake in aquatic insects with different respiratory strategies. While considerable differences existed in water permeability among the species tested, acute temperature shifts raised water influx rates similarly in air-breathing and gill-bearing taxa. This contrasts significantly with temperature-shift effects on chlorpyrifos uptake. Temperature shifts of 4.5??C increased 14C-chlorpyrifos accumulation rates in the gill-bearing mayfly Cinygma sp. and in the air-breathing hemipteran Sigara washingtonensis. However, the temperature-induced increase in 14C-chlorpyrifos uptake after 8 h of exposure was 2.75-fold higher in Cinygma than in Sigara. Uptake of 14C-chlorpyrifos was uniformly higher in Cinygma than in Sigara in all experiments. These findings suggest that organisms with relatively large exchange epithelial surface areas are potentially more vulnerable to both osmoregulatory distress as well as contaminant accumulation. Temperature increases appear more likely to impact organisms that have relatively large exchange epithelial surface areas, both as an individual stressor and in combination with additional stressors such as contaminants.

  2. Degradation of chlorpyrifos alone and in combination with chlorothalonil and their effects on soil microbial populations

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHU Xiaoqiang; FANG Hua; PAN Xuedong; WANG Xiao; SHAN Min; FENG Bo; YU Yunlong


    In practice, pesticides are usually applied simultaneously or one after another for crop protection, and this type of pesticide application often leads to a combined contamination of pesticide residues in the soil environment. A laboratory study was conducted to investigate the influence of chlorothalonil on chlorpyrifos degradation and its effects on soil bacterial, fungal, and actinomycete populations. Under the experimental conditions here, the half-lives of chlorpyrifos alone, and in combination with chlorothalonil, at the recommended and double dosages, were measured to be 3.24, 2.77, and 2.63 d, respectively. Chlorpyrifos degradation was not significantly altered by its combination with chlorothalonil. However, the inhibitory effect of chlorpyrifos on soil microorganisms was increased by its combination with chlorothalonil, and the increase was related to the levels of chlorothalonil added. Compared to those in the controls, the populations of bacteria, fungi, and actinomycetes were significantly reduced by 44.1%, 61.1%, and 72.8%, respectively, on the first day after treatment (DAT) by chlorpyrifos alone. With the addition of chlorothalonil, the inhibition was increased to 55.2%, 79.3%, and 85.8% at the recommended dosage, and 86.0%, 94.1%, and 90.8% at the double dosage, at one DAT, respectively. The results suggested that combined effects should be taken into account to assess the actual impacts of pesticide applications.

  3. Prenatal exposure to the organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos and childhood tremor (United States)

    Rauh, Virginia A.; Garcia, Wanda E.; Whyatt, Robin M.; Horton, Megan K.; Barr, Dana B.; Louis, Elan D.


    Background The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), widely used for agricultural purposes, has been linked to neurodevelopmental deficits. Possible motor effects at low to moderate levels of exposure have not been evaluated. Methods Prenatal exposure to CPF was measured in umbilical cord blood in a sample of 263 inner-city minority children, who were followed prospectively. At approximately 11 years of age (mean age 10.9 ± 0.85 years, range = 9.0–13.9), during a neuropsychological assessment, children were asked to draw Archimedes spirals. These were rated by a senior neurologist specializing in movement disorders who was blind to CPF exposure level. Results Compared to all other children, those with prenatal CPF exposure in the upper quartile range (n = 43) were more likely to exhibit mild or mild to moderate tremor (≥1) in either arm (p = 0.03), both arms (p = 0.02), the dominant arm (p = 0.01), and the non-dominant arm (p = 0.055). Logistic regression analyses showed significant CPF effects on tremor in both arms, either arm, the dominant arm (p-values < 0.05), and the non-dominant arm (p = 0.06), after adjustment for sex, age at testing, ethnicity, and medication. Conclusion Prenatal CPF exposure is associated with tremor in middle childhood, which may be a sign of the insecticide's effects on nervous system function. PMID:26385760

  4. Properties and uses of chlorpyrifos in the United States. (United States)

    Solomon, Keith R; Williams, W Martin; Mackay, Donald; Purdy, John; Giddings, Jeffrey M; Giesy, John P


    Physical properties and use data provide the basis for estimating environmental exposures to chlorpyrifos (CPY) and for assessing its risks. The vapor pressure ofCPY is low, solubility in water is agricultural uses. In agricultural soils under field conditions,half-lives are shorter (2 to 120 d, N=58). The mean water-soil adsorption coefficient(Koc) of CPY is 8,216 mL g-1; negligible amounts enter plants via the roots,and it is not translocated in plants. Half-lives for hydrolysis in water are inversely dependent on pH, and range from 16 to 73 d. CPY is an inhibitor of acetylcholinesterase and is potentially toxic to most animals. Differences in susceptibility result from differences in rates of adsorption,distribution, metabolism, and excretion among species. CPY is an important tool in management of a large number of pests (mainly insects and mites) and is used on a wide range of crops in the U.S. Estimates of annual use in the U.S. from 2008 to 2012 range from 3.2 to 4.1 M kg y-1, which is about 50% less than the amount used prior to 2000. Applications to corn and soybeans accounts for 46-50%of CYP's annual use in the U.S.

  5. Isolation and characterization of a novel native Bacillus thuringiensis strain BRC-HZM2 capable of degrading chlorpyrifos. (United States)

    Wu, Songqing; Peng, Yan; Huang, Zhangmin; Huang, Zhipeng; Xu, Lei; Ivan, Gelbič; Guan, Xiong; Zhang, Lingling; Zou, Shuangquan


    Studies were carried out to isolate chlorpyrifos degrading Bacillus thuringiensis (Bt) strains from chlorpyrifos-contaminated samples. Six Bt strains (isolation rate 2.7%) were isolated by modified sodium acetate antibiotic heat treatment, and one novel strain (BRC-HZM2) was selected for further analysis. Phenotype and phylogeny analysis of this strain was conducted on the basis of biochemical reactions, antibiotic sensitivity, 16s rRNA genes, plasmid profile, insecticidal crystal protein profiles, and PCR-RFLP for cry and cyt genes. The degradation rate of chlorpyrifos in liquid culture was estimated during 48 h of incubation for the isolate BRC-HZM2. More than 50% of the initial chlorpyrifos concentration degraded within 12 h, 88.9% after 48 h. These results highlight the potential of the Bt strain for biological control and the bioremediation of environments contaminated with chlorpyrifos.

  6. Energetic Cost of Subacute Chlorpyrifos Intoxication in the German Cockroach (Dictyoptera: Blattellidae)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Søren Achim; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn; Kristensen, Michael


    The energetic cost of a sublethal treatment with chlorpyrifos was estimated by use of direct microcalorimetry to measure metabolic heat in susceptible and resistant strains of the German cockroach Blattella germanica L. Moreover, one of the detoxifcation enzyme systems known to be involved...... in detoxifcation of chlorpyrifos, glutathione-S-transferase, was measured. Individual cockroaches were exposed for 20 min on a glass-surfaces treated with 1.14 ...  g/cm2 of chlorpyrifos. There was no difference in glutathione-S-transferase activity of susceptible or resistant strains after the treatment. The heat...... production increased in the susceptible strain ...  30 min after exposure and declined again after ... 120 min to the basal level. The energetic cost of the exposure to the insecticide corresponds ... 5 h of normal metabolism. There were no signifcant differences in heat production after toxic treatment...

  7. Reactive oxygen species regulated mitochondria-mediated apoptosis in PC12 cells exposed to chlorpyrifos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Eun [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hyeon [Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, In Chul [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Hyun Chul, E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Reactive oxidative species (ROS) generated by environmental toxicants including pesticides could be one of the factors underlying the neuronal cell damage in neurodegenerative diseases. In this study we found that chlorpyrifos (CPF) induced apoptosis in dopaminergic neuronal components of PC12 cells as demonstrated by the activation of caspases and nuclear condensation. Furthermore, CPF also reduced the tyrosine hydroxylase-positive immunoreactivity in substantia nigra of the rat. In addition, CPF induced inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity. Importantly, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC) treatment effectively blocked apoptosis via the caspase-9 and caspase-3 pathways while NAC attenuated the inhibition of mitochondrial complex I activity as well as the oxidative metabolism of dopamine (DA). These results demonstrated that CPF-induced apoptosis was involved in mitochondrial dysfunction through the production of ROS. In the response of cellular antioxidant systems to CPF, we found that CPF treatment increased HO-1 expression while the expression of CuZnSOD and MnSOD was reduced. In addition, we found that CPF treatment activated MAPK pathways, including ERK 1/2, the JNK, and the p38 MAP kinase in a time-dependent manner. NAC treatment abolished MAPK phosphorylation caused by CPF, indicating that ROS are upstream signals of MAPK. Interestingly, MAPK inhibitors abolished cytotoxicity and reduced ROS generation by CPF treatment. Our results demonstrate that CPF induced neuronal cell death in part through MAPK activation via ROS generation, suggesting its potential to generate oxidative stress via mitochondrial damage and its involvement in oxidative stress-related neurodegenerative disease. -- Highlights: ► Chlorpyrifos induces apoptosis. ► Chlorpyrifos inhibits mitochondrial complex I activity. ► ROS is involved in chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis. ► Chlorpyrifos affects cellular antioxidant systems. ► Chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis mediates activation of MAPK.

  8. Prenatal dexamethasone augments the neurobehavioral teratology of chlorpyrifos: significance for maternal stress and preterm labor. (United States)

    Levin, Edward D; Cauley, Marty; Johnson, Joshua E; Cooper, Ellen M; Stapleton, Heather M; Ferguson, P Lee; Seidler, Frederic J; Slotkin, Theodore A


    Glucocorticoids are the consensus treatment given in preterm labor and are also elevated by maternal stress; organophosphate exposures are virtually ubiquitous, so human developmental coexposures to these two agents are common. This study explores how prenatal dexamethasone exposure modifies the neurobehavioral teratology of chlorpyrifos, one of the most widely used organophosphates. We administered dexamethasone to pregnant rats on gestational days 17-19 at a standard therapeutic dose (0.2 mg/kg); offspring were then given chlorpyrifos on postnatal days 1-4, at a dose (1 mg/kg) that produces barely-detectable (<10%) inhibition of brain cholinesterase activity. Dexamethasone did not alter brain chlorpyrifos concentrations, nor did either agent alone or in combination affect brain thyroxine levels. Assessments were carried out from adolescence through adulthood encompassing T-maze alternation, Figure 8 maze (locomotor activity, habituation), novelty-suppressed feeding and novel object recognition tests. For behaviors where chlorpyrifos or dexamethasone individually had small effects, the dual exposure produced larger, significant effects that reflected additivity (locomotor activity, novelty-suppressed feeding, novel object recognition). Where the individual effects were in opposite directions or were restricted to only one agent, we found enhancement of chlorpyrifos' effects by prenatal dexamethasone (habituation). Finally, for behaviors where controls displayed a normal sex difference in performance, the combined treatment either eliminated or reversed the difference (locomotor activity, novel object recognition). Combined exposure to dexamethasone and chlorpyrifos results in a worsened neurobehavioral outcome, providing a proof-of-principle that prenatal glucocorticoids can create a subpopulation with enhanced vulnerability to environmental toxicants.

  9. Simplificação do índice CPO dos 18 aos 25 anos DMF Index simplification from 18 to 25 years

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz O. C. Guimarães


    Full Text Available O índice CPO pode ser estimado pelo dobro do valor obtido pelo exame de dois hemiarcos (superior direito e inferior esquerdo, e pelo quádruplo do valor observado em seis dentes (primeiro molar e incisivo central superiores direitos, primeiro pré-molar superior esquerdo, segundo molar e incisivo lateral inferiores esquerdos e segundo pré-molar inferior direito. As estimativas foram feitas por métodos da estatística descritiva, em termos de média, composição percentual e coeficiente de prevalência de cárie, tendo-se levantado dados em 100 indivíduos de 18 a 25 anos.The DMF index can be estimated at double the value observed in the exam of two hemiarchs (Upper Right and Lower Left, or at four times the value obtained from six teeth (First Molar and Central Incisor Upper Right, first bicuspid upper left, second molar and lateral incisor lower left and second bicuspid lower right. The estimates were made by the use of methods of descriptive statistics, averages, percentages and the coefficient of the prevalence of caries, in a sample of 100 people, aged from 18 to 25 years.

  10. Comparison the physicochemical properties of bunch press fibre cellulose and cyclone fibre cellulose of waste from industry Crude Palm Oil (CPO

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    Irfan Gustian


    Full Text Available Normal 0 false false false EN-US X-NONE X-NONE Study on comparison the physicochemical properties of bunch press fibre cellulose (Bpfc and cyclone fibre cellulose (Cfc wastes from industry Crude Palm oil (CPO have been performed. The physicochemical properties both of celluloses have been done such as the average degree of polymerization (DP, solubility properties, functional group analysis, thermal properties and X-ray diffraction patterns. The average degrees of polymerization (DP have been obtained 2195 and 567 for Bpfc and Cfc. Bunch press fibre cellulose and cyclone fibre cellulose were soluble in cupriethylenediamine (CED. FT-IR analysis showed the same pattern of spectrum but different intensities. Thermal stability of bunch press fibre cellulose and cyclone fibre cellulose remains stable up to a temperature of 250 °C. Glass transition bunch press fibre cellulose greater than the glass transition cyclone fibre cellulose and X-ray diffraction pattern shows the same pattern and intensity varies.

  11. 76 FR 25281 - Atrazine, Chloroneb, Chlorpyrifos, Clofencet, Endosulfan, et al.; Proposed Tolerance Actions (United States)


    ... AGENCY 40 CFR Part 180 Atrazine, Chloroneb, Chlorpyrifos, Clofencet, Endosulfan, et al.; Proposed..., modify certain tolerances for atrazine, establish tolerances for endosulfan, and make minor revisions to..., EPA is proposing to modify certain tolerances for the herbicide atrazine. In addition, EPA...

  12. Specific surface area effect on adsorption of chlorpyrifos and TCP by soils and modeling (United States)

    The adsorption of chlorpyrifos and TCP (3,5,6, trichloro-2-pyridinol) was determined in four soils (Mollisol, Inceptisol, Entisol, Alfisol) having different specific surface areas (19–84 m2/g) but rather similar organic matter content (2.4–3.5%). Adsorption isotherms were derived from batch equilibr...


    Our previous study showed that single exposure to 25 mg/kg (p.o.) of organophsphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CHP) led to significant alterations in all EEG frequency bands within 0.1-50 Hz range, reduction in core temperature (Tc) and motor activity (MA). The alterations in EEG pe...

  14. Detrmination of Organophosphorus Pesticides (Diazinon and Chlorpyrifos in Water Resources in Barzok, Kashan

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    Rouhollah Dehghani


    Full Text Available Background: The growing population and increasing needs to agricultural products increased use of pesticides resulting in contamination of the environment, including water. The purpose of this study was to determination of pesticide residues in agricultural water resources in Barzok city of Kashan in 2011.Materials and Methods: This study as a descriptive and cross-sectional study that was conducted at spring season. That totals of 135 samples of the agricultural water resources of Barzok were collected randomly and mixtures from different stations. After extraction and preparation of samples, the pesticide residues were determined by using the HPTLC (High Performance Thin Layer Chromatography devices and CATS4 software. Finally, obtained data were analyzed by using ANOVA statistical methods.Results: The results of this study showed that maximum amount of diazinon and chlorpyrifos has been 22.43 and 11.79 ppm respectively, and the pesticide residues have declined gradually overtime of (p<0.001.Furthermore, after a month 95.9% of Chlorpyrifos and 88.8% of diazinon is degraded.Conclusion: Accordingly, the remaining of diazinon and chlorpyrifos after a month of spraying was higher than determined limited standards. Because Chlorpyrifos is broken down rapidly more than diazinon, it is recommended that besides educating farmers on the proper use of pesticides, unnecessary contact with the water resources of this region must stop at least one month after spraying.

  15. Developmental sub-chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos reduces anxiety-related behavior in zebrafish larvae


    Richendrfer, Holly; Pelkowski, Sean D.; Colwill, Ruth M.; Créton, Robbert


    Neurobehavioral disorders such as anxiety, autism, and attention deficit hyperactivity disorders are typically influenced by genetic and environmental factors. Although several genetic risk factors have been identified in recent years, little is known about the environmental factors that either cause neurobehavioral disorders or contribute to their progression in genetically predisposed individuals. One environmental factor that has raised concerns is chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticid...

  16. Resistance differences between chlorpyrifos and synthetic pyrethroids in Cimex lectularius population from Denmark. (United States)

    Kilpinen, Ole; Kristensen, Michael; Jensen, Karl-Martin Vagn


    Bed bug, Cimex lectularius L., populations were investigated for resistance against permethrin and chlorpyrifos in a topical application bioassay, after an initial establishment of a discriminating dose with a susceptible population. For both insecticides, ca. two times the lethal dose LD(99) was selected: 2,560 ng of permethrin and 200 ng of chlorpyrifos per bed bug, respectively. Bed bugs were collected from infested homes in Denmark at ten locations and bred in the laboratory. The frequency of permethrin-resistant individuals was high in Danish bed bug populations as susceptible individuals were only found in three of ten populations. In contrast, the frequency of chlorpyrifos-resistant individuals was low in Danish bed bug populations, but resistant individuals were found in five of ten populations. To test the significance of the observed resistance, we performed tarsal contact test with commercially available insecticides. The test indicated that both a permethrin and a deltamethrin product had very low efficacy against the field-collected bed bug populations. Despite the reduced sensitivity to synthetic pyrethroids, all populations tested in the tarsal test on the commercial product with micro-encapsulated chlorpyrifos resulted in close to 100% mortality.

  17. Effects of drain-fill cycling on chlorpyrifos mineralization in wetland sediment-water microcosms. (United States)

    Gebremariam, Seyoum Yami; Beutel, Marc W


    Constructed treatment wetlands are efficient at retaining a range of pesticides, however the ultimate fate of many of these compound is not well understood. This study evaluated the effect of drain-fill cycling on the mineralization of chlorpyrifos, a commonly used organophosphate insecticide, in wetland sediment-water microcosms. Monitoring of the fate of (14)C ring-labeled chlorpyrifos showed that drain-fill cycling resulted in significantly lower mineralization rates relative to permanently flooded conditions. The reduction in mineralization was linked to enhanced partitioning of the pesticide to the sediment phase, which could potentially inhibit chlorpyrifos hydrolysis and mineralization. Over the nearly two-month experiment, less than 2.5% of the added compound was mineralized. While rates of mineralization in this experiment were higher than those reported for other soils and sediments, their low magnitude underscores how persistent chlorpyrifos and its metabolites are in aquatic environments, and suggests that management strategies and ecological risk assessment should focus more on ultimate mineralization rather than the simple disappearance of the parent compound.

  18. Comparative and combined acute toxicity of butachlor, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos on earthworm, Eisenia fetida. (United States)

    Chen, Chen; Wang, Yanhua; Zhao, Xueping; Wang, Qiang; Qian, Yongzhong


    Various pesticides have become widespread contaminants of soils due to their large applications in agriculture and homes. An earthworm assay was used to assess the acute toxicity of butachlor, imidacloprid and chlorpyrifos with different modes of action. Ecotoxicities of these pesticides were compared for earthworm Eisenia fetida separately and in combination in artificial soil and contact filter paper tests. Imidacloprid was the most toxic for E. fetida with LC₅₀ (lethal concentration 50) values three orders magnitude lower than that of butachlor and chlorpyrifos in both tests. The toxicity of the mixtures was compared to that predicted by the concentration addition (CA) model. According to the CA model, the observed toxicities of all binary mixtures were less than additive. However, for all the mixtures in 14 d artificial soil test, and mixtures of butachlor plus chlorpyrifos and imidacloprid plus chlorpyrifos in 48 h contact filter paper test, the difference in toxicity was less than 30%, hence it was concluded that the mixtures conformed to CA. The combined effects of the pesticides in contact filter paper tests were not consistent with the results in artificial soil toxicity tests, which may be associated with the interaction of soil salts with the pesticides. The CA model provides estimates of mixture toxicity that did not markedly underestimate the measured toxicity, and therefore the CA model is the most suitable to use in ecological risk assessments of the pesticides.

  19. Dissipation of chlorpyrifos in pakchoi-vegetated soil in a greenhouse

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Hua; YU Yun-long; WANG Xiao; SHAN Min; WU Xiao-mao; YU Jing-quan


    The dissipation of chlorpyrifos in pakchoi-vegetated soil was investigated in the summer and autumn in a greenhouse and field, respectively. The dissipation of chlorpyrifos in pakchoi-grown soil was comparatively described by fitting the residue data to seven models (1st-order, 1.5th-order, 2nd-order, RF 1st-order, RF 1.5th-order, RF 2nd-order, and bi-exponential or two-compartment models). Statistical analysis was performed using the SPSS 11.5 statistical package. The bi-exponential model was selected as the optimal model according to the coefficient of determination r2. The dissipation half-lives (DT50) of chlorpyrifos in pakchoi-vegetated soil at the recommended dose in the summer and autumn, calculated by the bi-exponential model, were 0.6 and 1.2 d in a greenhouse,0.4 and 1.0 d in a field, respectively; the corresponding values at double dose were 1.2 and 2.1 d in a greenhouse, 0.5 and 1.3 d in a field, respectively. The kinetic data indicate the dissipation of chlorpyrifos in pakchoi-grown soil in a greenhouse is slower than that in a field, and dissipates slower in the autumn than in the summer.

  20. Effects of chlorpyrifos in freshwater model ecosystems: the influence of experimental conditions on ecotoxicological thresholds

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wijngaarden, van R.P.A.; Brock, T.C.M.; Douglas, M.T.


    Three experiments were conducted to determine the impact of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (single applications of 0.01 to 10 µg AI litre-1) in plankton-dominated nutrient-rich microcosms. The microcosms (water volume approximately 14 litres) were established in the laboratory under temperature, light

  1. Effects of chlorpyrifos, carbendazim and linuron on the ecology of a small indoor aquatic microcosm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Daam, M.A.; Brink, van den P.J.


    To validate the use of small indoor microcosms for the risk assessment of pesticides, the fate and effects of chlorpyrifos, carbendazim, and linuron were studied in 8.5¿liter indoor freshwater microcosms. Functional and structural responses to selected concentrations were evaluated and compared with

  2. Inhibition of acetylcholinesterase in guppies (Poecilia reticulata) by chlorpyrifos at sublethal concentrations: Methodological aspects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    van der Wel, H.; Welling, W.


    Acetylcholinesterase activity is a potential biochemical indicator of toxic stress in fish and a sensitive parameter for testing water for the presence of organophosphates. A number of methodological aspects regarding the determination of the in vivo effect of chlorpyrifos on acetylcholinesterase in guppies have been investigated. It was found that with acetylthiocholine as a substrate, the contribution of pseudocholinesterase to the total cholinesterase activity can be neglected. Protection of acetylcholinesterase of guppies exposed to chlorpyrifos from additional, artifactual in vitro enzyme inhibition during homogenization is necessary. Very low concentrations of acetone in the exposure medium, resulting from dilution of the stock solution of chlorpyrifos in acetone, can result in large decreases in the oxygen content of this medium. This may affect the uptake rate of the toxic compound and, thereby, cholinesterase inhibition. Very low, sublethal concentrations of chlorpyrifos result in high inhibition levels of acetylcholinesterase (80-90%) in guppies within 2 weeks of continuous exposure. Recovery of the enzyme activity occurs after the exposed animals are kept in clean medium for 4 days, but the rate of recovery is considerably lower than the rate of inhibition.

  3. The effects of chlorpyrifos on cholinesterase activity and foraging behavior in the dragonfly, Anax junius (Odonata) (United States)

    Brewer, S.K.; Atchison, G.J.


    We examined head capsule cholinesterase (ChE) and foraging behavior in nymphs of the dragonfly, Anax junius, exposed for 24 h to 0.2, 0.6 and 1.0 ??g l-1 of the organophosphorus (OP) insecticide, chlorpyrifos [O,O-diethyl O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl) phosphorothioate]. The invertebrate community is an important component of the structure and function of wetland ecosystems, yet the potential effects of insecticides on wetland ecosystems are largely unknown. Our objectives were to determine if exposure to environmentally realistic concentrations of chlorpyrifos affected foraging behavior and ChE activity in head capsules of dragonfly nymphs. Nymphs were exposed to different concentrations of chlorpyrifos and different prey densities in a factorial design. ChE activities and foraging behaviors of treated nymphs were not statistically different (p ??? 0.05) from control groups. Prey density effects exerted a greater effect on dragonfly foraging than toxicant exposures. Nymphs offered higher prey densities exhibited more foraging behaviors but also missed their prey more often. High variability in ChE activities within the control group and across treated groups precluded determination of relationships between ChE and foraging behaviors. It appears that A. junius is relatively tolerant of chlorpyrifos, although the concentrations we tested have been shown in other work to adversely affect the prey base; therefore the introduction of this insecticide may have indirect adverse affects on top invertebrate predators such as Odonata.

  4. Dissipation and distribution of chlorpyrifos in selected vegetables through foliage and root uptake. (United States)

    Ge, Jing; Lu, Mengxiao; Wang, Donglan; Zhang, Zhiyong; Liu, Xianjin; Yu, Xiangyang


    Dissipation, distribution and uptake pathways of chlorpyrifos were investigated in pakchoi (Brassica chinensis L.) and lettuce (Lactuca sativa) with foliage treatments under a greenhouse trial and root treatments under a hydroponic experiment. The dissipation trends were similar for chlorpyrifos in pakchoi and lettuce with different treatments. More than 94% of chlorpyrifos was degraded in the samples for both of the vegetables 21 days after the foliage treatments. For the root treatment, the dissipation rate of chlorpyrifos in pakchoi and lettuce at the low concentration was greater than 93%, however, for the high concentrations, the dissipation rates were all under 90%. Both shoots and roots of the vegetables were able to absorb chlorpyrifos from the environment and distribute it inside the plants. Root concentration factor (RCF) values at different concentrations with the hydroponic experiment ranged from 5 to 39 for pakchoi, and from 14 to 35 for lettuce. The translocation factor (TF) representing the capability of the vegetables to translocate contaminants was significantly different for pakchoi and lettuce with foliage and root treatments. The values of TF with foliage treatments ranged from 0.003 to 0.22 for pakchoi, and from 0.032 to 1.63 for lettuce. The values of TF with root treatments ranged from 0.01 to 0.17 for pakchoi, and from 0.003 to 0.23 for lettuce. Significant difference of TF was found between pakchoi and lettuce with foliage treatments, and at high concentrations (10 and 50 mg L(-1)) with root treatments as well. However, there was no significant difference of TF between pakchoi and lettuce at 1 mg L(-1) with root treatment.

  5. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition in the threeridge mussel (Amblema plicata) by chlorpyrifos: implications for biomonitoring (United States)

    Doran, W.J.; Cope, W.G.; Rada, R.G.; Sandheinrich, M.B.


    The effects of chlorpyrifos, an organophosphorus insecticide, were examined on the activity of the nervous system enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the threeridge mussel Amblema plicata in a 24-day laboratory test. Thirty-six mussels in each of seven treatments (18 mussels per duplicate) were exposed to chlorpyrifos (0.1, 0.2, 0.3, 0.6, and 1.2 mg/L), a solvent (acetone), and a solvent-free (well water) control for 12, 24, or 96 h. The activity of AChE was measured in the anterior adductor muscle of eight mussels from each treatment after exposure. To assess potential latent effects, six mussels from each treatment were removed after 24 h of exposure and transferred to untreated water for a 21-day holding period; AChE activity was measured on three mussels from each treatment at 7 and 21 days of the holding period. The activity of AChE in chlorpyrifos-exposed mussels did not differ from controls after 12 or 24 h of exposure (t- test, P>0.05), but was significantly less than controls after 96 h (t- test, P=0.01). AChE activity did not vary among mussels at 24 h of exposure (i.e., Day 0 of holding period) and those at Day 7 and Day 21 of the holding period. Overall changes in AChE activity of mussels during the test were unrelated to individual chlorpyrifos concentrations and exposure times (repeated measure ANOVA; (P=0.06). A power analysis revealed that the sample size must be increased from 2 to 5 replicates (8 to 20 mussels per time interval and test concentration) to increase the probability of detecting significant differences in AChE activity. This calculated increase in sample size has potential implications for future biomonitoring studies with chlorpyrifos and unionid mussels.

  6. Morpho-toxicology of chlorpyrifos to prolactin cells of a freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis =Morpho-toxicology of chlorpyrifos to prolactin cells of a freshwater catfish, Heteropneustes fossilis

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    Diwakar Mishra


    Full Text Available In the present study, an organophosphorus compound Coroban (active ingredient chlorpyrifos – E.C. 20% was used. In short-term exposure the fish were subjected to 0.8 of 96h LC50 value of chlorpyrifos (1.76 mg L-1 for 96h. In long-term exposure the experiment was performed for 28 days by using 0.2 of 96h LC50 value of chlorpyrifos (0.44 mg L-1. Fish were killed on each time intervals from control and experimental (chlorpyrifos groups after 24, 48, 72, and 96h in short-term exposure and after 7, 14, 21, and 28 days in long-term experiment. Blood samples were collected and sera were analyzed for calcium. Pituitary glands were fixed for histological studies and stained with Herlant tetrachrome and Heidenhain’s azan techniques. Short-term exposure of chlorpyrifos caused decrease in the serum calcium levels. No change was noticed in the prolactin cells of chlorpyrifos treated fish. Long-term treatment with chlorpyrifos provoked hypocalcemia. The prolactin cells of treated fish exhibited slight degranulation after 21 days whereas the nuclear volume remained unchanged. After 28 days, the prolactin cells exhibited further degranulation and the nuclear volume recorded an increase. Cytolysis and vacuolization were also visible. No estudo presente, o composto organofosforo Coroban (ingrediente ativo clorpirifo – E.C. 20% foi usado. Na exposição a curto prazo os peixes foram submetido a 0,8 de valor LC50 de 96h de clorpirifo (1,76 mg L-1 durante 96h. Na exposição a longo prazo o experimento foi executado durante 28 dias usando 0,2 de valor LC50 de 96h de clorpirifos (0,44 mg L-1. Os peixes foram mortos a cada intervalo dos grupos controle e experimental (clorpirifos após 24, 48, 72, e 96h em exposição a curto prazo e após 7, 14, 21, e 28 dias no experimento a longo prazo. As amostras de sangue foram colhidas e o soro foi analisado para cálcio. As glândulas pituitárias foram fixadas para estudos histológicos e colorido por tetracromo de

  7. The expression profile of detoxifying enzyme of tomato leaf miner, Tuta absoluta Meyrik (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae to chlorpyrifos

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    Idin Zibaee


    Full Text Available The tomato leafminer, Tuta absoluta (Meyrich (Lepidoptera: Gelechiidae is an important pest of tomato crops worldwide. The persistent use of organophosphate insecticide to control this pest has led to resistance. However, there is no report on the susceptibility and resistance mechanism of field population of Tuta absoluta (Meyrik from Iran. Furthermore, the toxicity and impact of chlorpyrifos on metabolic enzymes in this pest remains unknown. The populations of T. absoluta from Rasht in Iran displayed LC30; 4332, LC50; 5010 and LC90; 7027 μg larva-1 to chlorpyrifos. The toxicity of chlorpyrifos could be synergized more bydiethyl maleate (DEM and triphenylphosphate (TPP whereas the synergistic effect of piperonylbutoxide (PBO was not efficient as well as two other synergists. The synergistic effect ranged from 1.3 to 1.9-fold in 24 h and 1.2 to 1.5-fold in 48 h. The exposure with chlorpyrifos for 24 and 48 h significantly increased the activities of esterase and cytochrome P450-dependent monooxygenases, while there were no significant changes in glutathione-S-transferase. Field populations of T. absoluta from Iran displayed less susceptibility to chlorpyrifos and had a relatively high LC50 in compare to other previous studies. Esterases and cytochrome P450 monooxygenase might be involved in the metabolism, and hence resistance to, chlorpyrifos in this pest.

  8. Use of Bacillus thuringiensis supernatant from a fermentation process to improve bioremediation of chlorpyrifos in contaminated soils. (United States)

    Aceves-Diez, Angel E; Estrada-Castañeda, Kelly J; Castañeda-Sandoval, Laura M


    The aim of this research was to investigate the potential of a nutrient-rich organic waste, namely the cell-free supernatant of Bacillus thuringiensis (BtS) gathered from fermentation, as a biostimulating agent to improve and sustain microbial populations and their enzymatic activities, thereby assisting in the bioremediation of chlorpyrifos-contaminated soil at a high dose (70 mg kg(-1)). Experiments were performed for up to 80 d. Chlorpyrifos degradation and its major metabolic product, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), were quantified by high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC); total microbial populations were enumerated by direct counts in specific medium; and fluorescein diacetate (FDA) hydrolysis was measured as an index of soil microbial activity. Throughout the experiment, there was higher chlorpyrifos degradation in soil supplemented with BtS (83.1%) as compared to non-supplemented soil. TCP formation and degradation occurred in all soils, but the greatest degradation (30.34%) was observed in soil supplemented with BtS. The total microbial populations were significantly improved by supplementation with BtS. The application of chlorpyrifos to soil inhibited the enzymatic activity; however, this negative effect was counteracted by BtS, inducing an increase of approximately 16% in FDA hydrolysis. These results demonstrate the potential of B. thuringiensis supernatant as a suitable biostimulation agent for enhancing chlorpyrifos and TCP biodegradation in chlorpyrifos-contaminated soils.

  9. Attenuating effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester with intralipid on hepatotoxicity of chlorpyrifos in the case of rats

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    Recep Dokuyucu


    Full Text Available Background: Chlorpyrifos (CPF, insecticide widely used in agriculture, may cause poisonings in the case of humans. As a result, there is a large amount of treatment research underway to focus on the possibility of chlorpyrifos induced poisonings. The aim of this study has been to evaluate the effects of caffeic acid phenethyl ester (CAPE and intralipid (IL on hepatotoxicity induced by chlorpyrifos in the case of rats. Material and Methods: The rats in this study were treated with CPF (10 mg/kg body weight (b.w., orally, CAPE (10 μmol/kg b.w., intraperitoneally, IL (18.6 ml/kg b.w., orally, CPF+CAPE, CPF+IL, and CPF+CAPE+IL. The plasma total oxidant capacity (TOC, total antioxidant capacity (TAC were measured and the oxidative stress index (OSI was calculated. Liver histopathology and immunohistochemical staining were performed. Results: Chlorpyrifos statistically significantly decreased the TAC levels in the rats’ plasma and increased the apoptosis and the TOC and OSI levels. In the chlorpyrifos induced liver injury, CAPE and CAPE+IL significantly decreased the plasma OSI levels and the apoptosis, and significantly increased the plasma TAC levels. Conclusions: This study revealed that CAPE and CAPE+IL attenuate chlorpyrifos induced liver injuries by decreasing oxidative stress and apoptosis. Med Pr 2016;67(6:743–749

  10. Electrochemical Determination of Chlorpyrifos on a Nano-TiO₂Cellulose Acetate Composite Modified Glassy Carbon Electrode. (United States)

    Kumaravel, Ammasai; Chandrasekaran, Maruthai


    A rapid and simple method of determination of chlorpyrifos is important in environmental monitoring and quality control. Electrochemical methods for the determination of pesticides are fast, sensitive, reproducible, and cost-effective. The key factor in electrochemical methods is the choice of suitable electrode materials. The electrode materials should have good stability, reproducibility, more sensitivity, and easy method of preparation. Mercury-based electrodes have been widely used for the determination of chlorpyrifos. From an environmental point of view mercury cannot be used. In this study a biocompatible nano-TiO2/cellulose acetate modified glassy carbon electrode was prepared by a simple method and used for the electrochemical sensing of chlorpyrifos in aqueous methanolic solution. Electroanalytical techniques such as cyclic voltammetry, differential pulse voltammetry, and amperometry were used in this work. This electrode showed very good stability, reproducibility, and sensitivity. A well-defined peak was obtained for the reduction of chlorpyrifos in cyclic voltammetry and differential pulse voltammetry. A smooth noise-free current response was obtained in amperometric analysis. The peak current obtained was proportional to the concentration of chlorpyrifos and was used to determine the unknown concentration of chlorpyrifos in the samples. Analytical parameters such as LOD, LOQ, and linear range were estimated. Analysis of real samples was also carried out. The results were validated through HPLC. This composite electrode can be used as an alternative to mercury electrodes reported in the literature.

  11. Changes of field incurred chlorpyrifos and its toxic metabolite residues in rice during food processing from-RAC-to-consumption. (United States)

    Zhang, Zhiyong; Jiang, Wayne W; Jian, Qiu; Song, Wencheng; Zheng, Zuntao; Wang, Donglan; Liu, Xianjin


    The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of food processing on field incurred residues levels of chlorpyrifos and its metabolite 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) in rice. The chlorpyrifos and TCP were found to be 1.27 and 0.093 mg kg-1 in straw and 0.41 and 0.073 mg kg-1 in grain, respectively. It is observed that the sunlight for 2 hours does not decrease the chlorpyrifos and TCP residues in grain significantly. Their residues in rice were reduced by up to 50% by hulling. The cooking reduced the chlorpyrifos and TCP in rice to undetectable level (below 0.01 mg kg-1). Processing factors (PFs) of chlorpyrifos and TCP residues in rice during food processing were similar. Various factors have impacts on the fates of chlorpyrifos and TCP residues and the important steps to reduce their residues in rice were hulling and cooking. The results can contribute to assure the consumer of a safe wholesome food supply.

  12. Production of a recombinant laccase from Pichia pastoris and biodegradation of chlorpyrifos in a laccase/vanillin system. (United States)

    Xie, Huifang; Li, Qi; Wang, Minmin; Zhao, Linguo


    The recombinant strain P. pastoris GS115-lccC was used to produce laccase with high activity. Factors influencing laccase expression, such as pH, methanol concentration, copper concentration, peptone concentration, shaker rotate speed, and medium volume were investigated. Under the optimal conditions, laccase activity reached 12,344 U/L on day 15. The recombinant enzyme was purified by precipitating and dialyzing to electrophoretic homogeneity, and was estimated to have a molecular mass of about 58 kDa. When guaiacol was the substrate, the laccase showed the highest activity at pH 5.0 and was stable when the pH was 4.5~6.0. The optimal temperature for the laccase to oxidize guaiacol was 60°C, but it was not stable at high temperature. The enzyme could remain stable at 30°C for 5 days. The recombinant laccase was used to degrade chlorpyrifos in several laccase/mediator systems. Among three synthetic mediators (ABTS, HBT, VA) and three natural mediators (vanillin, 2,6-DMP, and guaiacol), vanillin showed the most enhancement on degradation of chlorpyrifos. Both laccase and vanillin were responsible for the degradation of chlorpyrifos. A higher dosage of vanillin may promote a higher level of degradation of chlorpyrifos, and the 2-step addition of vanillin led to 98% chlorpyrifos degradation. The degradation of chlorpyrifos was faster in the L/V system (kobs = 0.151) than that in the buffer solution (kobs = 0.028).

  13. Exposure to chlorpyrifos in gaseous and particulate form in greenhouses: a pilot study. (United States)

    Kim, Seung Won; Lee, Eun Gyung; Lee, Taekhee; Lee, Larry A; Harper, Martin


    Phase distribution of airborne chemicals is important because intake and uptake mechanisms of each phase are different. The phase distribution and concentrations are needed to determine strategies of exposure assessment, hazard control, and worker protection. However, procedures for establishing phase distribution and concentration have not been standardized. The objective of this study was to compare measurements of an airborne semivolatile pesticide (chlorpyrifos) by phase using two different procedures. Six pesticide applications in two facilities were studied and at each site, samples were collected for three time slots: T1, the first 1 or 2 hr after the commencement of application; T2, a 6-hr period immediately following T1; and T3, a 6-hr period after the required re-entry interval (24 hr for chlorpyrifos).Two phase-separating devices were co-located at the center of each greenhouse: semivolatile aerosol dichotomous sampler (SADS) using flow rates of 1.8 l x min(-1) and 0.2 l x min(-1), corresponding to a total inlet flow rate of 2.0 l x min(-1) with a vapor phase flow fraction of 0.1; and an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), along with a standard OVS XAD-2 tube. Chlorpyrifos in vapor and particulate form in a SADS sampling train and that in vapor form in an ESP sampling train were collected in OVS tubes. Chlorpyrifos in particulate form in the ESP setting would have been collected on aluminum substrate. However, no chlorpyrifos in particulate form was recovered from the ESP. Overall (vapor plus particle) concentrations measured by OVS ranged 11.7-186.6 μg/m(3) at T1 and decreased on average 77.1% and 98.9% at T2 and T3, respectively. Overall concentrations measured by SADS were 66.6%, 72.7%, and 102% of those measured by OVS on average at T1, T2, and T3, respectively. Particle fractions from the overall concentrations measured by SADS were 60.0%, 49.2%, and 13.8%, respectively, for T1, T2, and T3. SADS gives better guidance on the distribution of

  14. Application of a mathematical model to describe the effects of chlorpyrifos on Caenorhabditis elegans development.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Windy A Boyd

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The nematode Caenorhabditis elegans is being assessed as an alternative model organism as part of an interagency effort to develop better means to test potentially toxic substances. As part of this effort, assays that use the COPAS Biosort flow sorting technology to record optical measurements (time of flight (TOF and extinction (EXT of individual nematodes under various chemical exposure conditions are being developed. A mathematical model has been created that uses Biosort data to quantitatively and qualitatively describe C. elegans growth, and link changes in growth rates to biological events. Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphate pesticide known to cause developmental delays and malformations in mammals, was used as a model toxicant to test the applicability of the growth model for in vivo toxicological testing. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: L1 larval nematodes were exposed to a range of sub-lethal chlorpyrifos concentrations (0-75 microM and measured every 12 h. In the absence of toxicant, C. elegans matured from L1s to gravid adults by 60 h. A mathematical model was used to estimate nematode size distributions at various times. Mathematical modeling of the distributions allowed the number of measured nematodes and log(EXT and log(TOF growth rates to be estimated. The model revealed three distinct growth phases. The points at which estimated growth rates changed (change points were constant across the ten chlorpyrifos concentrations. Concentration response curves with respect to several model-estimated quantities (numbers of measured nematodes, mean log(TOF and log(EXT, growth rates, and time to reach change points showed a significant decrease in C. elegans growth with increasing chlorpyrifos concentration. CONCLUSIONS: Effects of chlorpyrifos on C. elegans growth and development were mathematically modeled. Statistical tests confirmed a significant concentration effect on several model endpoints. This confirmed that chlorpyrifos

  15. Decreased Reelin Expression and Organophosphate Pesticide Exposure Alters Mouse Behaviour and Brain Morphology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brian R. Mullen


    Full Text Available Genetic and environmental factors are both likely to contribute to neurodevelopmental disorders, including ASDs (autism spectrum disorders. In this study, we examined the combinatorial effect of two factors thought to be involved in autism – reduction in the expression of the extracellular matrix protein reelin and prenatal exposure to an organophosphate pesticide, CPO (chlorpyrifos oxon. Mice with reduced reelin expression or prenatal exposure to CPO exhibited subtle changes in ultrasound vocalization, open field behaviour, social interaction and repetitive behaviour. Paradoxically, mice exposed to both variables often exhibited a mitigation of abnormal behaviours, rather than increased behavioural abnormalities as expected. We identified specific differences in males and females in response to both of these variables. In addition to behavioural abnormalities, we identified anatomical alterations in the olfactory bulb, piriform cortex, hippocampus and cerebellum. As with our behavioural studies, anatomical alterations appeared to be ameliorated in the presence of both variables. While these observations support an interaction between loss of reelin expression and CPO exposure, our results suggest a complexity to this interaction beyond an additive effect of individual phenotypes.

  16. Kinetic investigation on the oxidation of tris(1,10-phenanthroline)iron(II) by oxone: the effect of BSA-SDS interaction. (United States)

    Mandal, Harasit Kumar; Kundu, Arjama; Balti, Subrata; Mahapatra, Ambikesh


    The kinetic investigations of oxidation of tris(1,10-phenanthroline)iron(II) by oxone have been studied spectrophotometrically in phosphate buffer medium of pH 6.8, temperature 308 K, and ionic strength 0.25 mol L(-1). The reactions were also carried out in presence of globular transport protein, bovine serum albumin (BSA) having isoelectric point 4.9, anionic surfactant sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS), and their mixtures. The critical aggregation concentration (CAC) and critical micelle concentration (CMC) of SDS in presence of BSA have been determined using conductivity and kinetic measurement techniques. The secondary structure of BSA was examined by Circular Dichroism (CD) measurement at 308 K. The helix nature of BSA decreases with increase of SDS concentration. The effect of pH on rate in presence of BSA is opposite to its absence, and the effect of urea on rate in presence of BSA indicates the denaturation of BSA. The results depict that amphiphile SDS interacts with BSA and different molecular events, for example, specific binding, cooperative binding, protein unfolding, and micelle formation act. Activation parameters of the reaction in different environments have been determined.

  17. Synthesis and Characterization of Microcapsules with Chlorpyrifos Cores and Polyurea Walls

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Microcapsules with chlorpyrifos cores and polyurea walls were synthesized with 2,4-tolylene diisocyanate as an oil-soluble monomer and ethylenediamine as a water-soluble monomer via an interfacial polycondensation reaction.The products were characterized by means of Fourier transform infrared spectrometry, 13C NMR spectrometry and 31P NMR spectrometry. The morphology, the particle size and the particle size distribution, and the thermal properties were also evaluated. The prepared microcapsules exhibit clear and smooth surfaces and have a mean diameter of 28. 13 μm. These microcapsules also have a good thermal stability for long-term use, and have potential applications in minimizing the toxicity of chlorpyrifos through controlled release.

  18. Critical Duration of Exposure for Developmental Chlorpyrifos-Induced Neurobehavioral Toxicity


    Sledge, Damiyon; Yen, Jerry; Morton, Terrell; Dishaw, Laura; Petro, Ann; Donerly, Susan; Linney, Elwood; Levin, Edward D.


    Developmental exposure of rats to the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) causes persistent neurobehavioral impairment. In a parallel series of studies with zebrafish, we have also found persisting behavioral dysfunction after developmental CPF exposure. We have developed a battery of measures of zebrafish behavior, which are reliable and sensitive to toxicant-induced damage. This study determined the critical duration of developmental CPF exposure for causing persisting neurobehavioral effects. Tes...

  19. Chlorpyrifos and atrazine removal from runoff by vegetated filter strips: experiments and predictive modeling. (United States)

    Poletika, N N; Coody, P N; Fox, G A; Sabbagh, G J; Dolder, S C; White, J


    Runoff volume and flow concentration are hydrological factors that limit effectiveness of vegetated filter strips (VFS) in removing pesticides from surface runoff. Empirical equations that predict VFS pesticide effectiveness based solely on physical characteristics are insufficient on the event scale because they do not completely account for hydrological processes. This research investigated the effect of drainage area ratio (i.e., the ratio of field area to VFS area) and flow concentration (i.e., uniform versus concentrated flow) on pesticide removal efficiency of a VFS and used these data to provide further field verification of a recently proposed numerical/empirical modeling procedure for predicting removal efficiency under variable flow conditions. Runoff volumes were used to simulate drainage area ratios of 15:1 and 30:1. Flow concentration was investigated based on size of the VFS by applying artificial runoff to 10% of the plot width (i.e., concentrated flow) or the full plot width (i.e., uniform flow). Artificial runoff was metered into 4.6-m long VFS plots for 90 min after a simulated rainfall of 63 mm applied over 2 h. The artificial runoff contained sediment and was dosed with chlorpyrifos and atrazine. Pesticide removal efficiency of VFS for uniform flow conditions (59% infiltration; 88% sediment removal) was 85% for chlorpyrifos and 62% for atrazine. Flow concentration reduced removal efficiencies regardless of drainage area ratio (i.e., 16% infiltration, 31% sediment removal, 21% chlorpyrifos removal, and 12% atrazine removal). Without calibration, the predictive modeling based on the integrated VFSMOD and empirical hydrologic-based pesticide trapping efficiency equation predicted atrazine and chlorpyrifos removal efficiency under uniform and concentrated flow conditions. Consideration for hydrological processes, as opposed to statistical relationships based on buffer physical characteristics, is required to adequately predict VFS pesticide trapping

  20. Striatal dopaminergic pathways as a target for the insecticides permethrin and chlorpyrifos. (United States)

    Karen, D J; Li, W; Harp, P R; Gillette, J S; Bloomquist, J R


    Because insecticide exposure has been linked to both Parkinsons disease and Gulf War illness, the neurotoxic actions of pyrethroid and organophosphate insecticides on behavior and striatal dopaminergic pathways were investigated in C57BL/6 mice treated with permethrin (three i.p. doses at 0.2-200 mg/kg) or chlorpyrifos (three s.c. doses at 25-100 mg/kg) over a 2-week period. Permethrin altered maximal [3H]dopamine uptake in striatal synaptosomes from treated mice, with changes in Vmax displaying a bell-shaped curve. Uptake was increased to 134% of control at a dose of 1.5 mg/kg. At higher doses of PM (25 mg/kg), dopamine uptake declined to a level significantly below that of control (50% of control at 200 mg/kg, P < 0.01). We also observed a small, but statistically significant decrease in [3H]dopamine uptake by chlorpyrifos, when given at a dose of 100 mg/kg. There was no significant effect on the Km for dopamine transport. Evidence of cell stress was observed in measures of mitochondrialfunction, which were reduced in mice given high-end doses of chlorpyrifos and permethrin. Although cytotoxicity was not reflected in decreased levels of striatal dopamine in either 200 mg/kg PM or 100 mg/kg CPF treatment groups, an increase in dopamine turnover at 100 mg/kg CPF was indicated by a significant increase in titers of the dopamine metabolite, 3,4-dihydroxyphenylacetic acid. Both permethrin and chlorpyrifos caused a decrease in open field behavior at the highest doses tested. Although frank Parkinsonism was not observed, these findings confirm that dopaminergic neurotransmission is affected by exposure to pyrethroid and organophosphorus insecticides, and may contribute to the overall spectrum of neurotoxicity caused by these compounds.

  1. In-residence, multiple route exposures to chlorpyrifos and diazinon estimated by indirect method models (United States)

    Moschandreas, D. J.; Kim, Y.; Karuchit, S.; Ari, H.; Lebowitz, M. D.; O'Rourke, M. K.; Gordon, S.; Robertson, G.

    One of the objectives of the National Human Exposure Assessment Survey (NHEXAS) is to estimate exposures to several pollutants in multiple media and determine their distributions for the population of Arizona. This paper presents modeling methods used to estimate exposure distributions of chlorpyrifos and diazinon in the residential microenvironment using the database generated in Arizona (NHEXAS-AZ). A four-stage probability sampling design was used for sample selection. Exposures to pesticides were estimated using the indirect method of exposure calculation by combining measured concentrations of the two pesticides in multiple media with questionnaire information such as time subjects spent indoors, dietary and non-dietary items they consumed, and areas they touched. Most distributions of in-residence exposure to chlorpyrifos and diazinon were log-normal or nearly log-normal. Exposures to chlorpyrifos and diazinon vary by pesticide and route as well as by various demographic characteristics of the subjects. Comparisons of exposure to pesticides were investigated among subgroups of demographic categories, including gender, age, minority status, education, family income, household dwelling type, year the dwelling was built, pesticide use, and carpeted areas within dwellings. Residents with large carpeted areas within their dwellings have higher exposures to both pesticides for all routes than those in less carpet-covered areas. Depending on the route, several other determinants of exposure to pesticides were identified, but a clear pattern could not be established regarding the exposure differences between several subpopulation groups.

  2. Developmental and polyamine metabolism alterations in Rhinella arenarum embryos exposed to the organophosphate chlorpyrifos. (United States)

    Sotomayor, Verónica; Lascano, Cecilia; de D'Angelo, Ana María Pechen; Venturino, Andrés


    Organophosphorus pesticides (OPs) are widely applied in the Alto Valle of Río Negro and Neuquén, Argentina, due to intensive fruit growing. Amphibians are particularly sensitive to environmental pollution, and OPs may transiently accumulate in ponds and channels of the region during their reproductive season. Organophosphorus pesticide exposure may alter amphibian embryonic development and the reproductive success of autochthonous species. In the present study, embryos of the common toad Rhinella arenarum were employed to assess developmental alterations and to study polyamine metabolism, which is essential to normal growth, as a possible target underlying the effects of the OP chlorpyrifos. As the duration of chlorpyrifos exposure increased and embryonic development progressed, the median lethal concentration (LC50) values decreased, and the percentage of malformed embryos increased. Developmental arrest was also observed and several morphological alterations were recorded, such as incomplete and abnormal closure of the neural tube, dorsal curvature of the caudal fin, reduction of body size and caudal fin length, atrophy, and edema. An early decrease in ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity and polyamine levels was also observed in embryos exposed to chlorpyrifos. The decrease in polyamine contents in tail bud embryos might be a consequence of the reduction in ODC activity. The alteration of polyamine metabolism occurred before embryonic growth was interrupted and embryonic malformations were observed and may be useful as a biomarker in environmental studies.

  3. Determination of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol levels in the urine of termite control workers using chlorpyrifos.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Chlorpyrifos, an organophosphorus insecticide, has been used to control termites since regulatory measures against the use of chlordanes were taken in September, 1986. We developed an improved gas chromatographic (GC method for the assay of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP in the urine to use in the biological monitoring of exposure to chlorpyrifos. Urinary TCP was separated and determined accurately (C.V., 4% with high sensitivity (detection limit, 10 ng/ml and recovery (recovery greater than 90% using a wide bore capillary column (WBC column. The accuracy and precision of the present GC method are satisfactory. The time course of urinary excretion of TCP was followed in workers. The urinary TCP level was low in the off-season and high in the busy season. Variation in the urinary TCP level corresponded to the termite control season and the length of the working period. The urinary TCP level showed a change reciprocal to the variations in the plasma cholinesterase activity. From these results, it is surmised that the urinary TCP level represents the extent of exposure to chlorpyrifos. The decrease in the level of cholinesterase activity is suggested to be due to exposure to chlorpyrifos. Determination of the urinary TCP level by GC using a WBC column is useful in the biological monitoring of chlorpyrifos in termite control workers and potentially has practical application to health care.

  4. The expression of proteins involved in digestion and detoxification are regulated in Helicoverpa armigera to cope up with chlorpyrifos insecticide. (United States)

    Dawkar, Vishal V; Chikate, Yojana R; More, Tushar H; Gupta, Vidya S; Giri, Ashok P


    Helicoverpa armigera is a key pest in many vital crops, which is mainly controlled by chemical strategies. To manage this pest is becoming challenging due to its ability and evolution of resistance against insecticides. Further, its subsequent spread on nonhost plant is remarkable in recent times. Hence, decoding resistance mechanism against phytochemicals and synthetic insecticides is a major challenge. The present work describes that the digestion, defense and immunity related enzymes are associated with chlorpyrifos resistance in H. armigera. Proteomic analysis of H. armigera gut tissue upon feeding on chlorpyrifos containing diet (CH) and artificial diet (AD) using nano-liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry identified upregulated 23-proteins in CH fed larvae. Database searches combined with gene ontology analysis revealed that the identified gut proteins engrossed in digestion, proteins crucial for immunity, adaptive responses to stress, and detoxification. Biochemical and quantitative real-time polymerase chain reaction analysis of candidate proteins indicated that insects were struggling to get nutrients and energy in presence of CH, while at the same time endeavoring to metabolize chlorpyrifos. Moreover, we proposed a potential processing pathway of chlorpyrifos in H. armigera gut by examining the metabolites using gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. H. armigera exhibit a range of intriguing behavioral, morphological adaptations and resistance to insecticides by regulating expression of proteins involved in digestion and detoxification mechanisms to cope up with chlorpyrifos. In these contexts, as gut is a rich repository of biological information; profound analysis of gut tissues can give clues of detoxification and resistance mechanism in insects.

  5. Indigenous children nearby plantations with chlorpyrifos-treated bags have elevated 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) urinary concentrations

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wendel de Joode, van B.; Barraza-Ruiz, D.A.; Ruepert, C.; Mora, A.M.; Córdoba, L.; Öberg, M.; Wesseling, C.; Mergler, D.; Lindh, C.


    BACKGROUND: The US Environmental Protection Agency voluntary phased-out residential use of chlorpyrifos in 2001. In contrast, in Costa Rica, chlorpyrifos-treated bags are increasingly used to protect banana and plantain fruits from insects and to fulfill product standards, even in populated areas. O

  6. Association between urinary 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol, a metabolite of chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-methyl, and serum T4 and TSH in NHANES 1999–2002 (United States)

    Fortenberry, Gamola Z.; Hu, Howard; Turyk, Mary; Barr, Dana Boyd; Meeker, John D.


    Thyroid hormones are vital to a host of human physiological functions in both children and adults. Exposures to chemicals, including chlorpyrifos, have been found to modify thyroid signaling at environmentally relevant levels in animal studies. The aim of this study was to examine circulating T4 and TSH levels in relation to urinary concentrations of 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPY), a metabolite of the organophosphorus insecticides chlorpyrifos and chlorpyrifos-methyl, using data from individuals 12 years and older from the U.S. National Health and Nutrition Examination Surveys (NHANES). NHANES datasets from 1999–2000 and 2001–2002 were combined, and individuals with thyroid disease, those taking thyroid medications, and pregnant women were excluded (N=3249). Multivariable linear regression models for relationships between log-transformed urinary TCPY and serum total T4 or log (TSH) were constructed adjusting for important covariates. Models were stratified by sex and a categorical age variable (12–18, 18–40, 40–60, and >60 years). In male participants, an interquartile range (IQR) increase in urinary TCPY was associated with statistically significant increases in serum T4 of 3.8% (95th CI 0.75 to 7.0)among those 12–18 years of age and 3.5% (95th CI 0.13 to 7.0) in the 18–40 year age group., relative to median T4 levels using unweighted models. An IQR increase in TCPY was also associated with decreases in TSH of 10.7% (−18.7–2.05) among men 18–40 years old and 20.0% (95th CI −28.9 to −9.86) among men >60 years old. Conversely, urinary TCPY was positively associated with TSH in females >60 years of age. Further research to confirm these findings, elucidate mechanisms of action, and explore the clinical and public health significance of such alterations in thyroid hormones is needed. PMID:22425279

  7. Ce/SBA-15联合Oxone去除水中染料RhB的试验研究%Experimental study on RhB removal from aqueous solution by Ce/SBA-15 combined with oxone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    将负载型的Ce∕SBA-15与过硫酸氢钾复合盐(Oxone)联合,考察了该联合体系对染料罗丹明B(RhB)的去除效果。结果表明:该体系中RhB的去除符合准一级动力学方程,提高Ce∕SBA-15和Oxone投加量,降低初始RhB浓度和提高反应温度会增强RhB的去除效果,未调节溶液初始pH值时, RhB的去除效果最好。制备的Ce∕SBA-15在5次循环使用后仍具有约80%的RhB去除率, RhB的去除机制为表面吸附催化。 Ce∕SBA-15与Oxone联合产生以硫酸根自由基为主的处理技术对难降解污染物质具有潜在的实际应用价值。%The effect of supported Ce/SBA-15-oxone combined system on Rhodamine B removal from aqueous solution was investigated. The results showed that, the process of RhB removal followed pseudo-first or‐der kinetics equation, the removal rate of RhB increased with increasing Ce/SBA-15 and oxone dosage, reaction temperature and decreasing initial RhB concentration. The maximum removal efficiency was achieved under the condition that the initial pH value of the solution was unjusted. The material Ce/SBA-15 possessed good reusability, and when reused up to 5 cycles, the removal rate of RhB by it could still maintained at about 80%. The mechanism of RhB removal was surface adsorption and catalysis. It could draw a conclusion that, the com‐bined process of Ce/SBA-15-oxone which could generate sulfate radicals had potential application value in the field of hard-degradable pollutants treatment.

  8. Children's residential exposure to chlorpyrifos: Application of CPPAES field measurements of chlorpyrifos and TCPy within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides model

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hore, Paromita [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Rutgers University and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ), Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08855 (United States)]|[New York City Department of Health, 253 Broadway New York, New York 10007 (United States); Zartarian, Valerie; Xue Jianping; Ozkaynak, Haluk [National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, 109 TW Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Wang, S.-W.; Yang, Y.-C.; Chu, P.-Ling; Robson, Mark; Georgopoulos, Panos [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Rutgers University and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ), Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08855 (United States); Sheldon, Linda [National Exposure Research Laboratory, U.S. EPA, 109 TW Alexander Drive, Research Triangle Park, NC 27709 (United States); Needham, Larry Barr, Dana [Contemporary Pesticide Laboratory, Centers for Disease Control, 4770 Buford Highway, Atlanta, GA 30341 (United States); Freeman, Natalie [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Rutgers University and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ), Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08855 (United States)]|[University of Florida, Gainesville, FL 32611 (United States); Lioy, Paul J. [Environmental and Occupational Health Sciences Institute (EOHSI), Rutgers University and the University of Medicine and Dentistry of New Jersey (UMDNJ), Robert Wood Johnson Medical School, 170 Frelinghuysen Road, Piscataway, NJ 08855 (United States)]. E-mail:


    The comprehensive individual field-measurements on non-dietary exposure collected in the Children's-Post-Pesticide-Application-Exposure-Study (CPPAES) were used within MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides, a physically based stochastic human exposure and dose model. In this application, however, the model was run deterministically. The MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides employed the CPPAES as input variables to simulate the exposure and the dose profiles for seven children over a 2-week post-application period following a routine residential and professional indoor crack-and-crevice chlorpyrifos application. The input variables were obtained from a personal activity diary, microenvironmental measurements and personal biomonitoring data obtained from CPPAES samples collected from the individual children and in their homes. Simulation results were compared with CPPAES field measured values obtained from the children's homes to assess the utility of the different microenvironmental data collected in CPPAES, i.e. indicator toys and wipe samplers to estimate aggregate exposures that can be result from one or more exposure pathways and routes. The final analyses of the database involved comparisons of the actual data obtained from the individual biomarker samples of a urinary metabolite of chlorpyrifos (TCPy) and the values predicted by MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides using the CPPAES-derived variables. Because duplicate diet samples were not part of the CPPAES study design, SHEDs-Pesticides simulated dose profiles did not account for the dietary route. The research provided more confidence in the types of data that can be used in the inhalation and dermal contact modules of MENTOR/SHEDS-Pesticides to predict the pesticide dose received by a child. It was determined that we still need additional understanding about: (1) the types of activities and durations of activities that result in non-dietary ingestion of pesticides and (2) the influence of dietary exposures on the levels of TCPy found

  9. Degradation of pesticides chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and chlorothalonil in aqueous solution by TiO2 photocatalysis. (United States)

    Affam, Augustine Chioma; Chaudhuri, Malay


    Degradation of pesticides chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and chlorothalonil in aqueous solution by TiO2 photocatalysis under UVA (365 nm) irradiation was examined. Enhancement of degradation and improvement in biodegradability index (BOD5/COD ratio) by H2O2 addition were also evaluated. UVA irradiation per se produced insignificant degradation of the pesticides. In UV/TiO2 photocatalysis (TiO2 1.5 g L(-1), pH 6 and 300 min irradiation), COD and TOC removal were 25.95 and 8.45%, respectively. In UV/TiO2/H2O2 photocatalysis (TiO2 1.5 g L(-1), H2O2 100 mg L(-1), pH 6 and 300 min irradiation), COD and TOC removal were 53.62 and 21.54%, respectively and biodegradability index improved to 0.26. Ammonia-nitrogen (NH3-N) decreased from 22 to 7.8 mg L(-1) and nitrate-nitrogen (NO3(-)-N) increased from 0.7 to 13.8 mg L(-1) in 300 min, indicating mineralization. Photocatalytic degradation followed pseudo-first order kinetics with rate constant (k) of 0.0025 and 0.0008 min(-1) for COD and TOC removal, respectively. FTIR spectra indicated degradation of the organic bonds of the pesticides. UV/TiO2/H2O2 photocatalysis is effective in degradation of pesticides chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and chlorothalonil in aqueous solution. UV/TiO2/H2O2 photocatalysis may be applied as pretreatment of a chlorpyrifos, cypermethrin and chlorothalonil pesticide wastewater at pH 6, for biological treatment.

  10. Exploration of the chlorpyrifos escape pathway from acylpeptide hydrolases using steered molecular dynamics simulations. (United States)

    Wang, Dongmei; Jin, Hanyong; Wang, Junling; Guan, Shanshan; Zhang, Zuoming; Han, Weiwei


    Acylpeptide hydrolases (APH) catalyze the removal of an N-acylated amino acid from blocked peptides. APH is significantly more sensitive than acetylcholinesterase, a target of Alzheimer's disease, to inhibition by organophosphorus (OP) compounds. Thus, OP compounds can be used as a tool to probe the physiological functions of APH. Here, we report the results of a computational study of molecular dynamics simulations of APH bound to the OP compounds and an exploration of the chlorpyrifos escape pathway using steered molecular dynamics (SMD) simulations. In addition, we apply SMD simulations to identify potential escape routes of chlorpyrifos from hydrolase hydrophobic cavities in the APH-inhibitor complex. Two previously proposed APH pathways were reliably identified by CAVER 3.0, with the estimated relative importance of P1 > P2 for its size. We identify the major pathway, P2, using SMD simulations, and Arg526, Glu88, Gly86, and Asn65 are identified as important residues for the ligand leaving via P2. These results may help in the design of APH-targeting drugs with improved efficacy, as well as in understanding APH selectivity of the inhibitor binding in the prolyl oligopeptidase family.

  11. Chlorpyrifos Determined in Human Blood by UPLC-MS/MS and Its Application in Poisoning Cases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    QIAO Zheng; YAN Hui; ZHUO Xian-yi; SHEN Bao-hua


    Objective To determine the chlorpyrifos in human blood by liquid chromatography-tandemmass spectrometry and to validate its application in poisoning cases. Methods The samples were extracted by a simple one-step protein precipitation procedure. Chromatography was performed on a Capcell Pack C18 mG II column (250 mm×2.0 mm, 5μm) using an isocratic elution of solvent A (0.1% formic acid-water with 2 mmol/L ammoniumacetate) and solvent B (methanol with 2 mmol/L ammoniumacetate) at 5∶95 (V∶V).Results The linearranged from5 to 500ng/mL (r=0.9987).Thelimitofdetection (LOD) and the lower limit of quantification (LLOQ ) were 2 ng/mL and 4 ng/mL , respectively. For this method, the precision and accuracy of intra-day and inter-day were <10% and 97.44%-101.10%, respectively. The re-sults in stability test of long-termfrozen were satisfied. The matrix effect, recovery and process efficien-cy were 64.97%-86.81%, 76.70%-85.52%, and 55.57%-66.58%, respectively. Conclusion This method can provide a rapid approach to chlorpyrifos extraction and determination in toxicological analysis of forensic and clinical treatment.

  12. The cytotoxic effects of the organophosphates chlorpyrifos and diazinon differ from their immunomodulating effects. (United States)

    Oostingh, Gertie Janneke; Wichmann, Gunnar; Schmittner, Maria; Lehmann, Irina; Duschl, Albert


    Some organophosphate insecticides have immunomodulating capacities, but it is unknown whether different compounds within this class affect the immune system to the same extent. In this in vitro study, human immortalized T-lymphocytes or bronchial epithelial cells were treated with diazinon or chlorpyrifos in the absence or presence of cellular stress factors, thereby mimicking a stimulated immune system. Cytotoxicity was determined and cytokine release or cytokine-promoter studies were performed to study immunomodulatory effects of these chemicals, whereby the same concentrations of chlorpyrifos and diazinon were used. Results showed that chlor- pyrifos was cytotoxic at concentrations >/= 250 muM, whereas diazinon was not toxic at concentrations up to 1 mM. The immunomodulatory effects of these two compounds were similar for most cytokine promoters tested and induction of cellular stress enhanced these effects. The results were compared to data obtained with blood mononuclear cells, which confirmed the results of stably transfected cell lines, but refer to a higher sensitivity of primary cells. In conclusion, these two pesticides act in a different manner on cell viability and on some immune parameters, but cell viability was not linked to immunomodulation. The results also imply that healthy and diseased individuals are differentially affected by these pollutants.

  13. Chlorpyrifos is estrogenic and alters embryonic hatching, cell proliferation and apoptosis in zebrafish. (United States)

    Yu, Kaimin; Li, Guochao; Feng, Weimin; Liu, Lili; Zhang, Jiayu; Wu, Wei; Xu, Lei; Yan, Yanchun


    The potential interference of endocrine disrupting chemicals (EDCs) on aquatic animals and humans has drawn wide attention in recent years. Reports have shown that some organophosphorus pesticides were a kind of EDCs, but their effects on fish species are still under research. In present study, flow cytometry data of HEC-1B cell line showed that chlorpyrifos (CPF) could increase cell proliferation index like 17β-estradiol (E2), but the effect of CPF was weaker than of E2 in the same concentration. Moreover, CPF altered the expression pattern of estrogen-responsive gene VTG and ERα in zebrafish embryos. When exposed to CPF at various concentrations (0, 0.10, 0.25, 0.50, 0.75 and 1.00mg/L) for 48h during the embryo stage, compared with controls, the hatching rate of treated groups significantly increased at the same time and the hatching rate of embryos was proportional to CPF concentration. The mRNA expression levels of c-myc, cyclin D1, Bax and Bcl-2, which are closely related to cell proliferation and cell apoptosis, were disturbed by CPF in zebrafish embryos after exposure treated for 48h. In addition, acridine orange (AO) staining of zebrafish embryos showed that cell apoptosis was appeared in the 0.75, 1.00mg/L CPF treated groups. Taken together, the results obtained in the present study indicated that chlorpyrifos is estrogenic and alters embryonic hatching, cell proliferation and apoptosis in zebrafish.

  14. Antibiotics do not affect the degradation of fungicides and enhance the mineralization of chlorpyrifos in biomixtures. (United States)

    Castillo-González, Humberto; Pérez-Villanueva, Marta; Masís-Mora, Mario; Castro-Gutiérrez, Víctor; Rodríguez-Rodríguez, Carlos E


    The use of antibiotics in agriculture produces residues in wastewaters. The disposal of such wastewaters in biopurification systems (BPS) employed for the treatment of pesticides could result in the inhibition of the degrading capacity of the biomixtures used in the BPS. We assayed the effect of two commercial formulations of antibiotics used in agriculture, one containing kasugamycin (KSG) and the other oxytetracycline plus gentamicin (OTC+GTM), on the biomixture performance. Doses from 0.1mgkg(-1) to 1000mgkg(-1) of KSG increased the respiration of the biomixture, and low doses enhanced the mineralization rate of the insecticide (14)C-chlorpyrifos. On the contrary, OTC+GTM depressed the respiration of the biomixture and the initial mineralization rate of (14)C-chlorpyrifos; nonetheless, the antibiotics did not decrease overall mineralization values. The application of both formulations in the biomixture at a relevant concentration did not harm the removal of the fungicides carbendazim and metalaxyl, or their enhanced degradation; on the other hand, the biomixture was unable to dissipate tebuconazol or triadimenol, a result that was unchanged during the addition of the antibiotic formulations. These findings reveal that wastewater containing these antibiotics do not affect the performance of BPS. However, such a response may vary depending on the type of pesticide and microbial consortium in the biomixture.

  15. Opuntia ficus indica extract protects against chlorpyrifos-induced damage on mice liver. (United States)

    Ncibi, Saida; Ben Othman, Mahmoud; Akacha, Amira; Krifi, Mohamed Naceur; Zourgui, Lazhar


    This original study investigates the role of Opuntia ficus indica (cactus) cladodes extract against liver damage induced in male SWISS mice by an organophosphorous insecticide, the chlorpyrifos (CPF). Liver damage was evaluated by the measure of its weight and the quantification of some biochemical parameters, such as alanine amino transferase (ALAT), aspartate amino transferase (ASAT), phosphatase alkaline (PAL), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), cholesterol and albumin in serum by spectrophotometric techniques. The experimental approach lasted 48 h and consisted of 6 treatments of six mice each one; (1) control, (2) 10 mg/kg (b.w) CPF, (3) 10mg/kg (b.w) CPF with 100 mg/kg (b.w) cactus, (4) 150 mg/kg (b.w)CPF, (5) 150 mg/kg (b.w) CPF with 1.5 g/kg cactus, (6) 1.5 g/kg cactus. Both chlorpyrifos and cactus were administrated orally via gavages. Our results showed that CPF affects significantly all parameters studied. However, when this pesticide was administrated associated to cactus, we noticed a recovery of all their levels. In the other hand, cactus alone did not affect the studied parameters. These results allow us to conclude firstly that CPF is hepatotoxic and secondly that Opuntia ficus indica stem extract protects the liver and decreases the toxicity induced by this organophosphorous pesticide.

  16. Chlorpyrifos causes decreased organic matter decomposition by suppressing earthworm and termite communities in tropical soil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Silva, P. Mangala C.S., E-mail: [Department of Animal Ecology, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands); Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Ruhuna, Matara (Sri Lanka); Pathiratne, Asoka [Department of Zoology, Faculty of Science, University of Kelaniya, Kelaniya (Sri Lanka); Straalen, Nico M. van; Gestel, Cornelis A.M. van [Department of Animal Ecology, VU University, De Boelelaan 1085, 1081 HV Amsterdam (Netherlands)


    Effects of pesticides on structural and functional properties of ecosystems are rarely studied under tropical conditions. In this study litterbag and earthworm field tests were performed simultaneously at the same tropical field site sprayed with chlorpyrifos (CPF). The recommended dose of CPF (0.6 kg a.i. ha{sup -1}) and two higher doses (4.4-8.8 kg a.i. ha{sup -1}) significantly decreased litter decomposition during the first 3 months after application, which could be explained from lower earthworm and termite abundances during this period. Species-specific effects of CPF on organism abundance and biomass were observed, with termites being mostly affected followed by the earthworm Perionyx excavatus; the earthworm Megascolex sp. was least affected. Recovery was completed within 6 months. Decomposition in the controls and lowest two treatments was completed within 4 months, which suggests the need for modification of standard test guidelines to comply with faster litter degradation under tropical conditions. - Effects of chlorpyrifos on functional and structural endpoints in soil.

  17. Pilot biomonitoring of adults and children following use of chlorpyrifos shampoo and flea collars on dogs. (United States)

    Dyk, Melinda Bigelow; Chen, Zhenshan; Mosadeghi, Sasan; Vega, Helen; Krieger, Robert


    Pesticide handlers and pet owners who use products such as shampoos and dips and insecticide-impregnated collars to treat and control fleas on companion animals are exposed to a variety of active ingredients. Chlorpyrifos exposures of adults and children were measured using urine biomonitoring following use of over-the-counter products on dogs. Age and gender-specific measurements of urinary 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) revealed modest elevations of biomarker excretion following shampoo/dips. Smaller TCPy increments were measured following application of impregnated dog collars. The extent of indoor activity and potential pet contact were important determinants of urine biomarker level. Children without direct pet contact excreted more TCPy following collar application. Pet collars may be a source of indoor surface contamination and human exposure. Children excreted up to 4 times more TCPy than adults when urine volumes were adjusted using age-specific creatinine excretion levels. Although chlorpyrifos is no longer used in the United States in pet care products, results of this research provide perspective on the extent of human exposure from similar pet care products. These pilot studies demonstrated that pet care products such as insecticidal shampoos and dips and impregnated collars may expose family members to low levels of insecticide relative to toxic levels of concern.

  18. Developmental neurotoxic effects of two pesticides: Behavior and biomolecular studies on chlorpyrifos and carbaryl. (United States)

    Lee, Iwa; Eriksson, Per; Fredriksson, Anders; Buratovic, Sonja; Viberg, Henrik


    In recent times, an increased occurrence of neurodevelopmental disorders, such as neurodevelopmental delays and cognitive abnormalities has been recognized. Exposure to pesticides has been suspected to be a possible cause of these disorders, as these compounds target the nervous system of pests. Due to the similarities of brain development and composition, these pesticides may also be neurotoxic to humans. We studied two different pesticides, chlorpyrifos and carbaryl, which specifically inhibit acetylcholinesterase (AChE) in the nervous system. The aim of the study was to investigate if the pesticides can induce neurotoxic effects, when exposure occurs during a period of rapid brain growth and maturation. The results from the present study show that both compounds can affect protein levels in the developing brain and induce persistent adult behavior and cognitive impairments, in mice neonatally exposed to a single oral dose of chlorpyrifos (0.1, 1.0 or 5mg/kg body weight) or carbaryl (0.5, 5.0 or 20.0mg/kg body weight) on postnatal day 10. The results also indicate that the developmental neurotoxic effects induced are not related to the classical mechanism of acute cholinergic hyperstimulation, as the AChE inhibition level (8-12%) remained below the threshold for causing systemic toxicity. The neurotoxic effects are more likely caused by a disturbed neurodevelopment, as similar behavioral neurotoxic effects have been reported in studies with pesticides such as organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids and POPs, when exposed during a critical window of neonatal brain development.

  19. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos and its hydrolysis product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol by a new fungal strain Cladosporium cladosporioides Hu-01. (United States)

    Chen, Shaohua; Liu, Chenglan; Peng, Chuyan; Liu, Hongmei; Hu, Meiying; Zhong, Guohua


    Intensive use of chlorpyrifos has resulted in its ubiquitous presence as a contaminant in surface streams and soils. It is thus critically essential to develop bioremediation methods to degrade and eliminate this pollutant from environments. We present here that a new fungal strain Hu-01 with high chlorpyrifos-degradation activity was isolated and identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides based on the morphology and 5.8S rDNA gene analysis. Strain Hu-01 utilized 50 mg·L(-1) of chlorpyrifos as the sole carbon of source, and tolerated high concentration of chlorpyrifos up to 500 mg·L(-1). The optimum degradation conditions were determined to be 26.8°C and pH 6.5 based on the response surface methodology (RSM). Under these conditions, strain Hu-01 completely metabolized the supplemented chlorpyrifos (50 mg·L(-1)) within 5 d. During the biodegradation process, transient accumulation of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) was observed. However, this intermediate product did not accumulate in the medium and disappeared quickly. No persistent accumulative metabolite was detected by gas chromatopraphy-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis at the end of experiment. Furthermore, degradation kinetics of chlorpyrifos and TCP followed the first-order model. Compared to the non-inoculated controls, the half-lives (t(1/2)) of chlorpyrifos and TCP significantly reduced by 688.0 and 986.9 h with the inoculum, respectively. The isolate harbors the metabolic pathway for the complete detoxification of chlorpyrifos and its hydrolysis product TCP, thus suggesting the fungus may be a promising candidate for bioremediation of chlorpyrifos-contaminated water, soil or crop.

  20. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos and its hydrolysis product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol by a new fungal strain Cladosporium cladosporioides Hu-01.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shaohua Chen

    Full Text Available Intensive use of chlorpyrifos has resulted in its ubiquitous presence as a contaminant in surface streams and soils. It is thus critically essential to develop bioremediation methods to degrade and eliminate this pollutant from environments. We present here that a new fungal strain Hu-01 with high chlorpyrifos-degradation activity was isolated and identified as Cladosporium cladosporioides based on the morphology and 5.8S rDNA gene analysis. Strain Hu-01 utilized 50 mg·L(-1 of chlorpyrifos as the sole carbon of source, and tolerated high concentration of chlorpyrifos up to 500 mg·L(-1. The optimum degradation conditions were determined to be 26.8°C and pH 6.5 based on the response surface methodology (RSM. Under these conditions, strain Hu-01 completely metabolized the supplemented chlorpyrifos (50 mg·L(-1 within 5 d. During the biodegradation process, transient accumulation of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP was observed. However, this intermediate product did not accumulate in the medium and disappeared quickly. No persistent accumulative metabolite was detected by gas chromatopraphy-mass spectrometry (GC-MS analysis at the end of experiment. Furthermore, degradation kinetics of chlorpyrifos and TCP followed the first-order model. Compared to the non-inoculated controls, the half-lives (t(1/2 of chlorpyrifos and TCP significantly reduced by 688.0 and 986.9 h with the inoculum, respectively. The isolate harbors the metabolic pathway for the complete detoxification of chlorpyrifos and its hydrolysis product TCP, thus suggesting the fungus may be a promising candidate for bioremediation of chlorpyrifos-contaminated water, soil or crop.

  1. Effectiveness of personal protective equipment: Relevance of dermal and inhalation exposure to chlorpyrifos among pest control operators

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jagt, K. van der; Tielemans, E.; Links, I.; Brouwer, D.; Hemmen, J. van


    This study assessed the effectiveness of a custom fit personal protective equipment (PPE) program aimed at reducing occupational exposure to pesticides. The intervention study was carried out on 15 pest control operators (PCOs) during mixing/loading and application of chlorpyrifos. Each worker was m

  2. Pharmacokinetics and effects on serum cholinesterase activities of organophosphorus pesticides acephate and chlorpyrifos in chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes. (United States)

    Suemizu, Hiroshi; Sota, Shigeto; Kuronuma, Miyuki; Shimizu, Makiko; Yamazaki, Hiroshi


    Organophosphorus pesticides acephate and chlorpyrifos in foods have potential to impact human health. The aim of the current study was to investigate the pharmacokinetics of acephate and chlorpyrifos orally administered at lowest-observed-adverse-effect-level doses in chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes. Absorbed acephate and its metabolite methamidophos were detected in serum from wild type mice and chimeric mice orally administered 150mg/kg. Approximately 70% inhibition of cholinesterase was evident in plasma of chimeric mice with humanized liver (which have higher serum cholinesterase activities than wild type mice) 1day after oral administrations of acephate. Adjusted animal biomonitoring equivalents from chimeric mice studies were scaled to human biomonitoring equivalents using known species allometric scaling factors and in vitro metabolic clearance data with a simple physiologically based pharmacokinetic (PBPK) model. Estimated plasma concentrations of acephate and chlorpyrifos in humans were consistent with reported concentrations. Acephate cleared similarly in humans and chimeric mice but accidental/incidental overdose levels of chlorpyrifos cleared (dependent on liver metabolism) more slowly from plasma in humans than it did in mice. The data presented here illustrate how chimeric mice transplanted with human hepatocytes in combination with a simple PBPK model can assist evaluations of toxicological potential of organophosphorus pesticides.


    Human exposure to pesticides is often characterized by chronic low level exposure with intermittent spiked higher exposures. Cholinergic transmission is involved in sensory modulation in the cortex and cerebellum, and therefore may be altered following chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposure...

  4. Biodegradation characteristics of chlorpyrifos by sodium alginate immobilized bacteria%海藻酸钠固定化细菌对毒死蜱的降解特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Chlorpyrifos [(O,O-diethyl-O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinyl) phosphorothioate] is a broad spectrum of moderately toxic organophosphorus pesticide used as insecticide on a large variety of crops including fruits, vegetables, cotton, corn and wheat. With especially the recent elimination of five highly toxic organophosphorus pesticides, chlorpyrifos has been widely used in China. Consequently, large quantities of wastewater containing chlorpyrifos have been generated from pesticide industry and lot more chlorpyrifos scattered in the depths of soils and waters in the fields. Moreover, various reports have noted that chlorpyrifos have had visible toxicity in mammalians. Therefore the high degree of persistence of chlorpyrifos in the environment and the toxic effects on humans had necessitated removal. Biodegradation has received increasing attention as an efficient and cheap biotechnological approach to cleaning up polluted environments. Several chemicals have been successfully removed from soil and aquatic environments using degrading microbes. Similarly, biodegradation has been the major mechanism for removing chlorpyrifos residues, especially for treatments of discharged wastewater from the processes of chlorpyrifos production. Previous successes in isolating Bacillus cereus strain from chlorpyrifos degradation have augmented scarce literatures on this strain of chlorpyrifos biodegradation. In order to enhance degradation efficiency, B. cereus HY-1 strain was immobilized with sodium alginate using the syringe titration method. Also biodegradation characteristics of chlorpyrifos by immobilized B. cereus strain were further investigated. While the optimal reaction time was obtained, the effects of the various parameters (e.g., amounts of immobilized biomass, pH and chlorpyrifos initial concentration) of biodegradation were studied. The results showed that chlorpyrifos were readily degraded by sodium alginateimmobilized B.cereus. The appropriate concentration of sodium

  5. Influence of different formulations on chlorpyrifos behavior and risk assessment in bamboo forest of China. (United States)

    Liu, Yihua; Mo, Runhong; Tang, Fubin; Fu, Yan; Guo, Yirong


    The effects of two formulations (emulsifiable concentrate (EC) and granule (G)) on the distribution, degradation, sorption, and residue risk of chlorpyrifos (CHP) were investigated in two producing areas of bamboo shoot. The results showed that CHP was mainly distributed in the topsoil (0-5 cm, P bamboo shoots were in the range of 15.2-75.6 (G) and 10.4-35.7 μg/kg (EC), respectively. The soil type had a notable effect on the CHP behaviors in soil (P bamboo shoot samples (CHP residue exceeding maximum residue limits) were found, the hazard quotients did not exceed 7 %, which meant there was a negligible risk associated with the exposure to CHP via the consumption of bamboo shoots.

  6. Individual and combined toxic effects of cypermethrin and chlorpyrifos on earthworm

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiping Zhou; Changqun Duan; Wong Hang Gi Michelle; Fazhong Yang; Xuehua Wang


    Toxicities were assessed for a pyrethroid (cypermethrin) and an organophosphate insecticide (chlorpyrifos) individually and in combination. A series of tests were conducted on different responses (acute, chronic, behavioral) of earthworms of species Eisenia fetida andrei in the ecological risk assessment of these pesticides. The results showed that the toxicity of the mixture of cypermethrin and chiorpyfifos was significantly higher than either of these pesticides individually, especially on the earthworm's chronic responses.At a concentration of 5 mg/kg, the mixture caused significant reductions on the growth and reproduction rates of earthworms, but did not cause any significant effect when the individual was tested. The increase in toxicity of the pesticide mixture means that the use of toxicity data obtained exclusively from single-pesticide experiments may underestimate the ecological risk of pesticides that actually present in the field.

  7. Efficacy of Aspergillus sp. for degradation of chlorpyrifos in batch and continuous aerated packed bed bioreactors. (United States)

    Yadav, Maya; Srivastva, Navnita; Shukla, Awadhesh Kumar; Singh, Ram Sharan; Upadhyay, Siddh Nath; Dubey, Suresh Kumar


    Aerobic biodegradation of chlorpyrifos (CP) by Aspergillus sp. was investigated in batch and continuous packed bed bioreactors. The optimal process parameters for achieving the maximum removal efficiency (RE), determined using a batch bioreactor packed with polyurethane foam pieces, were inoculum level: 2.5 mg (wet weight) mL(-1), pH 7.0, temperature 28 °C, DO 5.8 mg L(-1), and CP concentration 300 mg L(-1). The continuous packed bed bioreactor was operated at flow rates ranging from 10 to 40 mL h(-1) while keeping other parameters at their optimal level. Steady-state CP removal efficiencies greater than 85 % were obtained up to the inlet loading of 180 mg L(-1) d(-1). The continuous bioreactor behaved as a plug flow unit and was able to stabilize quickly after perturbation in the inlet loading.

  8. Chlorpyrifos induced testicular damage in rats: ameliorative effect of glutathione antioxidant. (United States)

    Elsharkawy, Eman E; Yahia, Doha; El-Nisr, Neveen A


    This study investigated the induction of oxidative stress in the testes of adult rats exposed to chlorpyrifos (CPF). CPF was administered orally, in a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight to male rats for 90 days, twice weekly. Coadministration of water-soluble nonenzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH) was performed in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, orally, for the same period. Another two groups of male rats were administered GSH and corn oil, respectively. The activities of superoxide dismutase and GSH reductase were decreased while the levels of lipid peroxidation were increased in the testicular tissues of the exposed animals. Testosterone level in the serum was significantly decreased. A decrease in the histochemical determination of testicular alkaline phosphatase was observed in CPF-treated rats. A significant decrease in all stages of spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules was recorded in the exposed animals. Coadministration of GSH restored these parameters.

  9. Hormetic response of cholinesterase from Daphnia magna in chronic exposure to triazophos and chlorpyrifos

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shaonan Li; Yajun Tan


    In vivo activity of cholinesterase (ChE) in Daphnia magna was measured at different time points during 21-day exposure to triazophos and chlorpyrifos ranging from 0.05 to 2.50 μg/L and 0.01 to 2.00 μg/L, respectively.For exposure to triazophos, ChE was induced up to 176.5% at 1.5 μg/L and day 10 when measured by acetylthiocholine (ATCh), whereas it was induced up to 174.2% at 0.5 μg/L and day 10 when measured by butyrylthiocholine (BTCh).For exposure to chlorpyrifos, ChE was induced up to 134.0% and 160.5% when measured by ATCh and BTCh, respectivly, with both maximal inductions detected at 0.l μg/L and day 8.Obvious induction in terms of ChE activity was also detected in daphnia removed from exposures 24 hr after their birth and kept in a recovery culture for 21 days.Results indicated that the enzyme displayed symptoms of hormesis, a characteristic featured by conversion from low-dose stimulation to high-dose inhibition.In spite of that, no promotion in terms of reproduction rate and body size was detected at any tested concentrations regardless of whether the daphnia were collected at end of the 21-day exposure or at end of a 21-day recovery culture.This suggested that induction of ChE caused by anticholinesterases had nothing to do with the prosperity of the daphnia population.

  10. Integrating ecosystem services into risk management decisions: case study with Spanish citrus and the insecticide chlorpyrifos. (United States)

    Deacon, Samantha; Norman, Steve; Nicolette, Joseph; Reub, Gregory; Greene, Gretchen; Osborn, Rachel; Andrews, Paul


    The European regulatory system for the approval of pesticides includes a thorough evaluation of risks to the environment and is designed to be protective of ecosystems. However, a decision to ban an agrochemical could also potentially have a negative impact on the value of ecosystem services, if resulting changes in crop management are damaging to ecosystems or result in negative socio-economic impacts. To support regulatory decision-making, consideration of ecosystem services to identify best environmental management options could be a way forward. There is generally a growing trend for the consideration of ecosystem services in decision making. Ecosystems provide the conditions for growing food, regulate water and provide wildlife habitats; these, amongst others, are known as ecosystem services. The objectives of this case study were to bring a holistic approach to decision making by valuing the environmental, social and economic benefits derived from the use of chlorpyrifos in Valencian citrus production. Spanish growers harvest between 5 and 6 milliont of citrus annually, worth an estimated €5 to 7 billion in food markets throughout Europe. The approach highlighted the potential for unintended negative consequences of regulatory decisions if the full context is not considered. In this study, rather than a regulatory restriction, the best option was the continued use of chlorpyrifos together with vegetated conservation patches as refuges for non-target insects. The conservation patches offset potential insecticidal impacts to insects whilst maintaining citrus production, farm income and the amenity value of the citrus landscape of Valencia. This was an initial proof-of-concept study and illustrates the importance of a wider perspective; other cases may have different outcomes depending on policies, the pesticide, crop scenarios, farm economics and the region.

  11. Resistance mechanisms to chlorpyrifos and F392W mutation frequencies in the acetylcholine esterase ace1 allele of field populations of the tobacco whitefly, Bemisia tabaci in China. (United States)

    Zhang, Ning-ning; Liu, Cai-feng; Yang, Fang; Dong, Shuang-lin; Han, Zhao-jun


    The tobacco whitefly B-biotype Bemisia tabaci Gennadius (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae) is a worldwide pest of many crops. In China, chlorpyrifos has been used to control this insect for many years and is still being used despite the fact that some resistance has been reported. To combat resistance and maintain good control efficiency of chlorpyrifos, it is essential to understand resistance mechanisms. A chlorpyrifos resistant tobacco whitefly strain (NJ-R) and a susceptible strain (NJ-S) were derived from a field-collected population in Nanjing, China, and the resistance mechanisms were investigated. More than 30-fold resistance was achieved after selected by chlorpyrifos for 13 generations in the laboratory. However, the resistance dropped significantly to about 18-fold in only 4 generations without selection pressure. Biochemical assays indicated that increased esterase activity was responsible for this resistance, while acetylcholine esterase, glutathione S-transferase, and microsomal-O-demethylase played little or no role. F392W mutations in acel were prevalent in NJ-S and NJ-R strains and 6 field-collected populations of both B and Q-biotype from locations that cover a wide geographical area of China. These findings provide important information about tobacco whitefly chlorpyrifos resistance mechanisms and guidance to combat resistance and optimize use patterns of chlorpyrifos and other organophosphate and carbamate insecticides.

  12. Individual variability in esterase activity and CYP1A levels in Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) exposed to esfenvalerate and chlorpyrifos (United States)

    Wheelock, C.E.; Eder, K.J.; Werner, I.; Huang, H.; Jones, P.D.; Brammell, B.F.; Elskus, A.A.; Hammock, B.D.


    Acetylcholinesterase (AChE) activity has traditionally been monitored as a biomarker of organophosphate (OP) and/or carbamate exposure. However, AChE activity may not be the most sensitive endpoint for these agrochemicals, because OPs can cause adverse physiological effects at concentrations that do not affect AChE activity. Carboxylesterases are a related family of enzymes that have higher affinity than AChE for some OPs and carbamates and may be more sensitive indicators of environmental exposure to these pesticides. In this study, carboxylesterase and AChE activity, cytochrome P4501A (CYP1A) protein levels, and mortality were measured in individual juvenile Chinook salmon (Oncorhynchus tshawytscha) following exposure to an OP (chlorpyrifos) and a pyrethroid (esfenvalerate). As expected, high doses of chlorpyrifos and esfenvalerate were acutely toxic, with nominal concentrations (100 and 1 ??g/l, respectively) causing 100% mortality within 96 h. Exposure to chlorpyrifos at a high dose (7.3 ??g/l), but not a low dose (1.2 ??g/l), significantly inhibited AChE activity in both brain and muscle tissue (85% and 92% inhibition, respectively), while esfenvalerate exposure had no effect. In contrast, liver carboxylesterase activity was significantly inhibited at both the low and high chlorpyrifos dose exposure (56% and 79% inhibition, respectively), while esfenvalerate exposure still had little effect. The inhibition of carboxylesterase activity at levels of chlorpyrifos that did not affect AChE activity suggests that some salmon carboxylesterase isozymes may be more sensitive than AChE to inhibition by OPs. CYP1A protein levels were ???30% suppressed by chlorpyrifos exposure at the high dose, but esfenvalerate had no effect. Three teleost species, Chinook salmon, medaka (Oryzias latipes) and Sacramento splittail (Pogonichthys macrolepidotus), were examined for their ability to hydrolyze a series of pyrethroid surrogate substrates and in all cases hydrolysis activity was

  13. Efeito da interação do nicosulfuron e chlorpyrifos sobre o banco de sementes e os atributos microbianos do solo Effect of sequential nicosulfuron and chlorpyrifos application on seed bank and soil microbial characteristics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Taciane Almeida de Oliveira


    Full Text Available Considerando o período de competição de plantas daninhas e a incidência da lagarta-do-cartucho na cultura do milho, há necessidade de aplicação, em curto intervalo de tempo, de herbicidas e de inseticidas, principalmente o nicosulfuron e o chlorpyrifos. O objetivo deste estudo foi avaliar o efeito da aplicação sequencial do nicosulfuron e do chlorpyrifos sobre a emergência de plântulas do banco de sementes, a taxa de desprendimento de CO2 (respiração basal e o C da biomassa microbiana (CBM do solo. Foi realizada aplicação sequencial, em solo, do nicosulfuron (doses de 0 a 64 g ha-1 associado ou não ao chlorpyrifos (0 e 240 g ha-1. Aos 20, 40 e 60 dias após a aplicação (DAA dos produtos, todas as plântulas emergidas do banco de sementes foram identificadas em nível de espécie, sendo estimadas a frequência, densidade e abundância, além do índice de valor de importância (IVI. Aos 60 DAA, determinou-se também a taxa de desprendimento de CO2, o CBM e o quociente metabólico (qCO2, por meio da relação entre o CO2 acumulado e o CBM total do solo. A aplicação alterou severamente a massa de plântulas secas e o número de espécies nas doses superiores a 20 g ha-1 do nicosulfuron. Na presença do herbicida, as espécies com maior IVI foram Boehavia diffusa e Commelina benghalensis. Quanto aos bioindicadores do solo, foi observado decréscimo na taxa da respiração basal do solo com o aumento da dose aplicada do nicosulfuron associado ao chlorpyrifos, sem efeito na ausência do inseticida. Houve decréscimo linear no CBM em todos os casos, independentemente da aplicação do chlorpyrifos; entretanto, observou-se uma taxa de decréscimo 4,5 vezes maior para o solo que recebeu esse inseticida em conjunto com o nicosulfuron. A avaliação do qCO2 confirmou o efeito negativo da aplicação do inseticida e do herbicida. Conclui-se que a aplicação de chlorpyrifos + nicosulfuron promove impacto negativo sobre o banco de

  14. Avoidance behaviour of Eisenia fetida to carbofuran, chlorpyrifos, mancozeb and metamidophos in natural soils from the highlands of Colombia. (United States)

    García-Santos, Glenda; Keller-Forrer, Karin


    Earthworm avoidance behaviour test is an important screening tool in soil eco-toxicology. This test has been developed and validated under North American and European conditions. However, little research has been performed on the avoidance test in the tropics. This work demonstrates the potential suitability of the avoidance behaviour test as screening method in the highlands of Colombia using Eisenia fetida as the bio-indicator species on contaminated soils with carbofuran and chlorpyrifos. Though for the two active ingredients 100% avoidance was not reached, a curve with six meaningful concentrations is provided. No significant avoidance behaviour trend was found for mancozeb and methamidophos. Tests were conducted in the field yielded similar results to the tests carried out in the laboratory for chlorpyrifos and mancozeb. However, for the case of carbofuran and methamidophos, differences of more than double in avoidance were obtained. Divergence might be explained by soil and temperature conditions.

  15. Application of chemometric analysis based on physicochemical and chromatographic data for the differentiation origin of plant protection products containing chlorpyrifos. (United States)

    Miszczyk, Marek; Płonka, Marlena; Bober, Katarzyna; Dołowy, Małgorzata; Pyka, Alina; Pszczolińska, Klaudia


    The aim of this study was to investigate the similarities and dissimilarities between the pesticide samples in form of emulsifiable concentrates (EC) formulation containing chlorpyrifos as active ingredient coming from different sources (i.e., shops and wholesales) and also belonging to various series. The results obtained by the Headspace Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry method and also some selected physicochemical properties of examined pesticides including pH, density, stability, active ingredient and water content in pesticides tested were compared using two chemometric methods. Applicability of simple cluster analysis and also principal component analysis of obtained data in differentiation of examined plant protection products coming from different sources was confirmed. It would be advantageous in the routine control of originality and also in the detection of counterfeit pesticides, respectively, among commercially available pesticides containing chlorpyrifos as an active ingredient.

  16. Transcriptional impact of organophosphate and metal mixtures on olfaction: Copper dominates the chlorpyrifos-induced response in adult zebrafish


    Tilton, Fred A.; Tilton, Susan C.; Bammler, Theo K.; Beyer, Richard P; Stapleton, Patricia L.; Nathaniel L Scholz; Gallagher, Evan P.


    Chemical exposures in fish have been linked to loss of olfaction leading to an inability to detect predators and prey and decreased survival. However, the mechanisms underlying olfactory neurotoxicity are not well characterized, especially in environmental exposures which involve chemical mixtures. We used zebrafish to characterize olfactory transcriptional responses by two model olfactory inhibitors, the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) and mixtures of CPF with the neurotoxic metal copper (Cu). ...

  17. Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos, Malathion, and Dimethoate by Three Strains of Bacteria Isolated from Pesticide-Polluted Soils in Sudan. (United States)

    Ishag, Abd Elaziz S A; Abdelbagi, Azhari O; Hammad, Ahmed M A; Elsheikh, Elsiddig A E; Elsaid, Osama E; Hur, J-H; Laing, Mark D


    This study was done to identify pesticide-biodegrading microorganisms and to characterize degradation rates. Bacillus safensis strain FO-36b(T), Bacillus subtilis subsp. inaquosorum strain KCTC13429(T), and Bacillus cereus strain ATCC14579(T) were isolated from pesticide-polluted soil in Sudan, separately incubated with each pesticide with periodic samples drawn for GC and GC-MS. Pesticide biodegradation followed a biphasic model. α and β half-lives (days) of chlorpyrifos, malathion, and dimethoate in B. safensis culture were 2.13, 4.76; 2.59, 5.66; and 9.5, 11.0, respectively. Values in B. subtilis and B. cereus cultures were 4.09, 9.45 and 4.33, 9.99 for chlorpyrifos; 2.99, 5.36 and 2.43, 4.71 for malathion; and 9.53, 15.11 and 4.16, 9.27 for dimethoate. No metabolite was detected in B. subtilis cultures, whereas a few were detected from B. safensis and B. cereus cultures. Bacterial efficiency can be ordered as B. safensis > B. subtilis > B. cereus for chlorpyrifos and B. cereus > B. subtilis > B. safensis for malathion and dimethoate.

  18. Diethyl phosphates accumulation in rabbits' hair as an indicator of long term exposure to diazinon and chlorpyrifos. (United States)

    Maravgakis, George; Tzatzarakis, Manolis N; Alegakis, Athanasios K; Stivaktakis, Polychronis D; Tsatsakis, Aristidis M


    Long term exposure to organophosphate pesticides can be evaluated by quantitative analysis of their non-specific metabolites in hair matrix. The aim of this study was to determine whether these metabolites can be internally incorporated into the hair of rabbits exposed to diazinon and chlorpyrifos. The influence of dose and dose duration of each pesticide dosage were investigated. Three groups of rabbits were exposed to different dosages of diazinon (3.0 and 6.0mg/kg/day) and chlorpyrifos (18.0mg/kg/day) via drinking water. Hair samples were collected every month and analyzed for diethyl phosphate (DEP) and diethyl thiophosphate (DETP) by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). The mean concentrations of the low-dose treated group, ranged from 112 to 257pg/mg for DEP and from 295 to 515pg/mg for DETP in hair. The high-dose treated group demonstrated a range of mean concentrations from 142 to 585pg/mg for DEP and from 406 to 988pg/mg for DETP in hair. For the chlorpyrifos treated group, the concentrations ranged from 138 to 1070 for DEP and from 554 to 886pg/mg for DETP. Analysis revealed the incorporation of these metabolites into the rabbit hair in a dosage and dose duration-dependent manner. These data confirms the ability of using hair analysis for diethyl phosphates to assess long-term OP exposure.

  19. Attempted suicide by ingestion of chlorpyrifos: identification in serum and gastric content by GC-FID/GC-MS. (United States)

    Martínez, María A; Ballesteros, Salomé; Sánchez de la Torre, Carolina; Sanchiz, Antonio; Almarza, Elena; García-Aguilera, Alejandro


    A mild case of self-poisoning with a chlorpyrifos formulation following oral ingestion is reported. A 15-year-old female went to the emergency room after the ingestion of a product from a bottle marked with a label "Poison". On admission, she was obtunded, with normal vital signs and a strong smell of solvent. Therapeutic measures included the application of decontamination procedures, oxygen, and gastric protectors. She had a good outcome with mild CNS depression and bradycardia. Two hours after ingestion, biological samples were collected in the emergency room and sent for analysis to our laboratory with instructions to investigate the presence of solvents. The serum and gastric content contained 5.3 and 9.4 microg/mL of unmetabolized chlorpyrifos, 4.6 and 6.9 microg/mL of toluene, and 2.5 and 7.9 microg/mL of butyl acetate, respectively. Small traces of other solvents and tetradifon were also detected. Toxicological analyses were negative for ethanol, other volatile solvents, and common drugs of abuse. The simultaneous determination of chlorpyrifos, toluene, and butyl acetate was performed using the combination of gas chromatography (GC)-flame ionization detection for screening analysis and GC-mass spectrometry for confirmation of the obtained results. The method provides an excellent and rapid tool for use in cases of pesticide poisonings, allowing the simultaneous detection of the pesticide and distillates in the performance of systematic toxicological analysis in forensic and clinical laboratories.

  20. Natural enemies of Atta vollenweideri (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) leaf-cutter ants negatively affected by synthetic pesticides, chlorpyrifos and fipronil. (United States)

    Guillade, Andrea C; Folgarait, Patricia J


    In southern South America, Ada vollenweideri Forel (Hymenoptera: Formicidae) is a significant pest of several crops and forestry, also considered to reduce the carrying capacity of pastures. The most usual control method used in Latin America is the application of synthetic pesticides, mainly chlorpyrifos and fipronil. However, no studies have assessed the effects of these agrochemicals on natural enemies of ants. We aimed to evaluate the efficiency of these pesticides on leaf-cutter ants' control and to test their effect on phorid fly parasitoids. Chlorpyrifos failed to exert complete control over ant colonies in the field and was gravely detrimental to specific parasitoids, reducing their percentage of parasitism, pupal survivorship, and adult longevity. Fipronil, however, exerted complete control over the treated colonies. Laboratory tests using both pesticides, either on ants from foraging trails or on pupariae, showed that chlorpyrifos and fipronil decreased larval and pupal survivorship, as well as adult longevity of parasitoids, in comparison to controls. In conclusion, these pesticides will likely affect parasitoids with regard to their reproductive capacity, leading to the decreased levels of natural parasitism observed in the field after treatments. We discuss why neither pesticide should be taken into account for integrated pest management programs.

  1. Evaluation of temephos and chlorpyrifos-methyl against Culex pipiens (Diptera: Culicidae) larvae in septic tanks in Antalya, Turkey. (United States)

    Cetin, H; Yanikoglu, A; Kocak, O; Cilek, J E


    The larvicidal activity of chlorpyrifos-methyl and temephos was evaluated against Culex pipiens L. (Diptera: Culicidae) in septic tanks in Antalya, Turkey. Chlorpyrifos-methyl (Pyrifos MT 25 emulsifiable concentrate [EC] ) was evaluated at application rates of 0.04, 0.08, and 0.12 mg active ingredient (AI)/liter, and temephos (Temeguard 50 EC) was evaluated at 0.02, 0.04, and 0.06 mg (AI)/liter during a 21-d study. Generally, overall larval reduction in septic tanks from single- and multifamily dwellings treated with either larvicide was significantly greater than pretreatment levels and control tanks for the duration of the study. At 14 d posttreatment, duration of control was greatest in multifamily tanks treated with chlorpyrifos-methyl at the highest application rate with similar levels of control through 21 d for single-family dwellings (range 97-100%). Septic tanks from both types of family dwellings treated at the highest application rate of temephos resulted in >90% reduction through day 21 (range 91-100%). Laboratory bioassays of septic tank water treated at field application rates, without daily dilution, revealed that complete larval mortality was achieved for 21 d at each application rate and formulation. It is thought that daily addition of water and organic matter to the septic tanks in the single and multifamily dwellings influenced the duration of effectiveness of the larvicides.

  2. Toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics of chlorpyrifos is altered in embryos of Japanese medaka exposed to oil sands process-affected water: evidence for inhibition of P-glycoprotein. (United States)

    Alharbi, Hattan A; Alcorn, Jane; Al-Mousa, Ahmed; Giesy, John P; Wiseman, Steve B


    Oil sands process-affected water (OSPW) is generated during extraction of bitumen in the surface mining oil sands industry in Alberta, Canada. Studies were performed in vitro by use of Caco-2 cells, and in vivo with larvae of Japanese medaka (Oryzias latipes) to determine if organic compounds from the aqueous phase of OSPW inhibit ATP binding cassette protein ABCB1 (permeability-glycoprotein, P-gp). Neutral and basic fractions of OSPW inhibited activity of P-gp in Caco-2 cells by 1.9- and 2.0-fold, respectively, while the acidic fraction had the least effect. The organophosphate pesticides chlorpyrifos (a substrate of P-gp) and malathion (not a substrate of P-gp), were used as model chemicals to investigate inhibition of P-gp in larvae. Co-exposure to chlorpyrifos and an extract of OSPW containing basic and neutral compounds reduced survival of larvae to 26.5% compared to survival of larvae exposed only to chlorpyrifos, which was 93.7%. However, co-exposure to malathion and the extract of OSPW did not cause acute lethality compared to exposure only to malathion. Accumulation and bioconcentration of chlorpyrifos, but not malathion, was greater in larvae co-exposed with the extract of OSPW. The terminal elimination half-life of chlorpyrifos in larvae exposed to chlorpyrifos in freshwater was 5 days compared with 11.3 days in larvae exposed to chlorpyrifos in OSPW. Results suggest that in non-acute exposures, basic and neutral organic compounds in the water-soluble fraction of OSPW inhibit activity of P-gp, which suggests that OSPW has the potential to cause adverse effects by chemosensitization. Copyright © 2016 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.

  3. Characterization and expression analysis of peroxiredoxin family genes from the silkworm Bombyx mori in response to phoxim and chlorpyrifos. (United States)

    Shi, Gui-Qin; Zhang, Ze; Jia, Kun-Lun; Zhang, Kun; An, Dong-Xu; Wang, Gang; Zhang, Bao-Long; Yin, He-Nan


    The organophosphorus pesticide poisoning of the silkworm Bombyx mori is one of the major events causing serious damage to sericulture. Some antioxidant enzymes play roles in regulating generation of reactive oxygen species (ROS) by pesticides including phoxim and chlorpyrifos, but relatively little is known about their effects on the silkworm peroxiredoxin family genes. Here, five peroxiredoxin (Prx) genes have been identified in silkworm genome, and Prx genes of silkworm and mammalian homologs have apparent ortholog relationship. Based on the genomic DNA sequence, putative 5'-flanking region of five BmPrxs were obtained and the transcription factor binding sites were predicted. Their expression profiles exposed to different concentrations of phoxim and chlorpyrifos for 24 h, 48 h and 72 h in midgut of silkworm were investigated using quantitative RT-PCR (qRT-PCR). The results showed that five BmPrxs and dual oxidase (BmDUOX) gene were all expressed in midgut of silkworm. After feeding with 0.375 mg/L and 0.75 mg/L phoxim, the transcription levels of BmPrx3 and BmPrx5 that can be located in mitochondria reached their peak levels at an early time point (24h). However, the transcription levels of BmPrx4 and BmPrx6 that can be addressed to secrete from the cell and cytosol, respectively, reached their peak levels at a later time point (72 h). Similar to expose to phoxim, the transcription levels of BmPrx3 and BmPrx5 that can be located in mitochondria reached their peak levels at an early time point (24 h) under chlorpyrifos stress. However, the transcription levels of BmPrx4 and BmPrx6 that can be addressed to secrete from the cell and cytosol, respectively, reached their peak levels at a later time point (72 h) under chlorpyrifos stress. These results revealed that BmPrxs that can be located in mitochondria were able to protect cells even more efficiently than cytosolic from an oxidative stress caused by OP. In addition, BmDUOX was also induced by phomix and

  4. Autophagy regulates chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Park, Jae Hyeon [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Lee, Jeong Eun [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Shin, In Chul [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Hyun Chul, E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Recent studies have shown that up-regulation of autophagy may be a tractable therapeutic intervention for clearing disease-causing proteins, including α-synuclein, ubiquitin, and other misfolded or aggregated proteins in pesticide-induced neurodegeneration. In a previous study, we reported that chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced mitochondria-dependent apoptosis is mediated through reactive oxygen species in SH-SY5Y cells. In this study, we explored a novel pharmacotherapeutic approach to prevent CPF neurotoxicity involving the regulation of autophagy. We investigated the modulation of CPF-induced apoptosis according to autophagy regulation. We found that CPF induced apoptosis in SH-SY5Y cells, as demonstrated by the activation of caspase-3 and nuclear condensation. In addition, we observed that cells treated with CPF underwent autophagic cell death by monitoring the expression of LC3-II and p62. Pretreatment with the autophagy inducer rapamycin significantly enhanced the cell viability of CPF-exposed cells, and the enhancement of cell viability was partially due to alleviation of CPF-induced apoptosis via a decrease in levels of cleaved caspase-3. Specifically, rapamycin pretreatment decreased Bax and increased Bcl-2 expression in mitochondria. In addition, rapamycin significantly decreased cytochrome c release in from mitochondria into the cytosol. However, pretreatment of cells with the autophagy inhibitor, 3-methyladenine (3MA), remarkably increased CPF toxicity in these cells; this with correlated with increased expression of Bax and decreased expression of Bcl-2 in mitochondria. Our results suggest that CPF-induced cytotoxicity is modified by autophagy regulation and that rapamycin protects against CPF-induced apoptosis by enhancing autophagy. Pharmacologic induction of autophagy by rapamycin may be a useful treatment strategy in neurodegenerative disorders. - Highlights: ► Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is cytotoxic to SH-SY5Y cells ► CPF-induced cytotoxicity is mediated by

  5. 毒死蜱随径流迁移规律研究∗%Migration Patterns of Chlorpyrifos with Runoff

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    褚素贞; 张乃明


    The study on migration patterns of chlorpyrifos with runoff was carried out by simulating rainfall. The re-sults showed: (1) Chlorpyrifos concentration in runoff increased significantly with the increase of spraying dosage, spraying times, and soil slope, and chlorpyrifos concentration in surface runoff was significantly higher than that of surface runoff. (2) Correlation analysis indicated that chlorpyrifos concentration in runoff didn’t conform to the line-ar regression relation with chlorpyrifos spraying dosage, spraying times, and soil slope. (3) Chlorpyrifos concentra-tion in runoff was less than the standard of national under the highest dosage was 1. 8g/L, spraying times were 4, and the highest soil slope was 15°, but it would be polluted water if these dosages, spaying times, and soil slope was conducted for long times. In conclusion, when the spaying dosage was less than 1. 2, spraying times were less than 3, and soil slope was less than 10°, chlorpyrifos concentration would not pollute water environment.%以毒死蜱为供试农药,采用模拟人工降雨方法研究了毒死蜱随径流迁移的规律。研究结果表明,(1)喷施毒死蜱后进行模拟降雨,随着施药浓度、喷施次数和土壤坡度的增加,径流中毒死蜱浓度显著增加,且亚地表径流中毒死蜱浓度显著高于地表径流;(2)毒死蜱喷施浓度、喷施次数和土壤坡度与径流中毒死蜱浓度之间均不符合线性回归关系;(3)在最高施药浓度为1.8g/L、连续喷药4次和最大土壤坡度为15°时,径流中毒死蜱浓度尚未超过《有机磷农药工业水污染物排放标准》规定毒死蜱的排放浓度,在本试验条件下常年施用毒死蜱有对水环境造成污染的趋势。当喷施浓度在1.2g/L以下、连续喷药3次以下及最大坡度为10°以下时,径流中毒死蜱浓度不会对水环境造成污染。

  6. How safe is the use of chlorpyrifos: Revelations through its effect on layer birds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. P. Singh


    Full Text Available Aim: The present study was aimed to investigate the immunological competence of chlorpyrifos (CPF insecticide after oral administration in layer chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 White Leghorn birds were given CPF in drinking water at 0.3 ppm/bird/day (no observable effect level dose for a period of 3-month. Immune competence status of layer birds and chicks hatched from CPF-treated birds were estimated at 15 days interval in layer birds and monthly interval in chicks using immunological and biochemical parameters. Results: There was a significant decrease in values of total leukocytes count, absolute lymphocyte count, absolute heterophil count, total serum protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, and serum gamma globulin in the birds treated with CPF as compared to control. Similarly, immune competence tests such as lymphocyte stimulation test, oxidative burst assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests indicated lower immunity in birds treated with CPF as compared to control. Subsequently, chicks produced from CPF-treated birds were also examined for immune competence, but no significant difference was observed between chicks of both the groups. Conclusion: The exposure to CPF produced hemo-biochemical and other changes that could be correlated with changes in the immunological profile of layer chickens suggesting total stoppage of using CPF in poultry sheds.

  7. Immunoprotective activity and antioxidant properties of cactus (Opuntia ficus indica) extract against chlorpyrifos toxicity in rats. (United States)

    Smida, Amani; Ncibi, Saida; Taleb, Jihen; Ben Saad, Anouar; Ncib, Sana; Zourgui, Lazhar


    Opuntia ficus indica (family Cactaceae) is a typical Mediterranean plant, mainly used in food and traditional folk medicine. The present study was designed to evaluate the protective effect of Opuntia ficus indica extract against chlorpyrifos (CPF)-induced immunotoxicity in rats. The experimental animals consisted of four groups of Wistar rats (5-6 weeks old) of eight each: a control group, a group treated with CPF (10mg/kg), a group treated with Opuntia ficus indica extract (100mg/kg), and a group treated with cactus extract then treated with CPF. These components were daily administered by gavage for 30days. After treatment, immunotoxicity was estimated by a count of thymocytes, splenocytes, stem cells in the bone marrow, relative weights of thymus and spleen, DNA aspects, and oxidative stress status in these organs. Results showed that CPF could induce thymus atrophy, splenomegaly, and a decrease in the cell number in the bone marrow. It also increased the oxidative stress markers resulting in elevated levels of the lipid peroxidation with a concomitant decrease in the levels of enzymatic antioxidants (SOD, CAT, GPx) in both spleen and thymus, and also degradation of thymocyte and splenocyte DNA. Consistent histological changes were found in the spleen and thymus under CPF treatment. However, administration of Opuntia ficus indica extract was found to alleviate this CPF-induced damage.

  8. Simultaneous Detection of Fenitrothion and Chlorpyrifos-Methyl with a Photonic Suspension Array.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xuan Wang

    Full Text Available A technique was developed for simultaneous detection of fenitrothion (FNT and chlorpyrifos-methyl (CLT using a photonic suspension array based on silica colloidal crystal beads (SCCBs. The SCCBs were encoded with the characteristic reflection peak originating from the stop-band of colloidal crystal. This approach avoids the bleaching, fading or potential interference seen when encoding by fluorescence. SCCBs with a nanopatterned surface had increased biomolecule binding capacity and improved stability. Under optimal conditions, the proposed suspension array allowed simultaneous detection of the selected pesticides in the ranges of 0.25 to 1024 ng/mL and 0.40 to 735.37 ng/mL, with the limits of detection (LODs of 0.25 and 0.40 ng/mL, respectively. The suspension array was specific and had no significant cross-reactivity with other chemicals. The mean recoveries in tests in which samples were spiked with target standards were 82.35% to 109.90% with a standard deviation within 9.93% for CLT and 81.64% to 108.10% with a standard deviation within 8.82% for FNT. The proposed method shows a potentially powerful capability for fast quantitative analysis of pesticide residues.

  9. Cardiotoxicity in rabbits after a low-level exposure to diazinon, propoxur, and chlorpyrifos. (United States)

    Zafiropoulos, A; Tsarouhas, K; Tsitsimpikou, C; Fragkiadaki, P; Germanakis, I; Tsardi, M; Maravgakis, G; Goutzourelas, N; Vasilaki, F; Kouretas, D; Hayes, Aw; Tsatsakis, Am


    Lethal cardiac complications leading to death and various arrhythmias have been reported after organophosphate and/or carbamate poisonings. The present study focuses on the long-term effects of repeated low-level exposure to diazinon, propoxur, and chlorpyrifos (CPF) on cardiac function in rabbits. The yearly based experimental scheme of exposure consisted of two oral administration periods, lasting 3 months and 1 month each, interrupted by an 8-month washout period (total duration 12 months). At the end of the experimental scheme, the rabbits underwent an echocardiographic evaluation under sedation, after which they were killed and the tissue and serum samples were collected. A mild localized cardiotoxic effect was established by echocardiography for the three pesticides tested. Severe histological alterations were identified, especially in the diazinon-treated animals in agreement with increased persistence of this pesticide established in the cardiac tissue. In addition, all pesticides tested increased the oxidative stress and oxidative modifications in the genomic DNA content of the cardiac tissues, each one following a distinct mechanism.

  10. A model of chlorpyrifos distribution and its biochemical effects on the liver and kidneys of rats. (United States)

    Tanvir, E M; Afroz, R; Chowdhury, Maz; Gan, S H; Karim, N; Islam, M N; Khalil, M I


    This study investigated the main target sites of chlorpyrifos (CPF), its effect on biochemical indices, and the pathological changes observed in rat liver and kidney function using gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Adult female Wistar rats (n = 12) were randomly assigned into two groups (one control and one test group; n = 6 each). The test group received CPF via oral gavage for 21 days at 5 mg/kg daily. The distribution of CPF was determined in various organs (liver, brain, heart, lung, kidney, ovary, adipose tissue, and skeletal muscle), urine and stool samples using GCMS. Approximately 6.18% of CPF was distributed in the body tissues, and the highest CPF concentration (3.80%) was found in adipose tissue. CPF also accumulated in the liver (0.29%), brain (0.22%), kidney (0.10%), and ovary (0.03%). Approximately 83.60% of CPF was detected in the urine. CPF exposure resulted in a significant increase in plasma transaminases, alkaline phosphatase, and total bilirubin levels, a significant reduction in total protein levels and an altered lipid profile. Oxidative stress due to CPF administration was also evidenced by a significant increase in liver malondialdehyde levels. The detrimental effects of CPF on kidney function consisted of a significant increase in plasma urea and creatinine levels. Liver and kidney histology confirmed the observed biochemical changes. In conclusion, CPF bioaccumulates over time and exerts toxic effects on animals.

  11. Acetylcholinesterase inhibition and micronucleus frequency in oysters (Crassostrea corteziensis exposed to chlorpyrifos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AB Benitez-Trinidad1


    Full Text Available Chlorpyrifos (CPF is an Organophosphorous pesticide (OP that has been widely used for both agricultural and domestic pest control. To date, there is little information regarding the effects of this pesticide on aquatic organisms, particularly oysters. The aim of this study was to evaluate Acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity and Micronucleus (MN frequency in the oyster Crassostrea corteziensis in laboratory exposure with CPF (20, 40, 60, 80, and 160 μg/L and in a field study. The results showed that AChE was reduced 60 - 82 % in oysters exposed to CPF, relative to the negative control. Similar AChE results were observed in oysters collected from the Boca de Camichín Estuary in Nayarit, Mexico; with respect to genetic damage, evaluated through MN, treatment with CPF did not induce the MN frequency, nor did the oyster from the field study exhibit an increase in this biomarker. These results suggest that C. corteziensis is a sensitive model for evaluating the acute toxicity of OP in laboratory studies as well in the field. In addition, it generates prospects on studying mechanisms through which the oyster could possess resistance to genotoxic agents, as well as its being a reliable model for evaluating the genotoxic effects of xenobiotics through the MN technique.

  12. How safe is the use of chlorpyrifos: Revelations through its effect on layer birds (United States)

    Singh, P. P.; Kumar, Ashok; Chauhan, R. S.; Pankaj, P. K.


    Aim: The present study was aimed to investigate the immunological competence of chlorpyrifos (CPF) insecticide after oral administration in layer chickens. Materials and Methods: A total of 20 White Leghorn birds were given CPF in drinking water at 0.3 ppm/bird/day (no observable effect level dose) for a period of 3-month. Immune competence status of layer birds and chicks hatched from CPF-treated birds were estimated at 15 days interval in layer birds and monthly interval in chicks using immunological and biochemical parameters. Results: There was a significant decrease in values of total leukocytes count, absolute lymphocyte count, absolute heterophil count, total serum protein, serum albumin, serum globulin, and serum gamma globulin in the birds treated with CPF as compared to control. Similarly, immune competence tests such as lymphocyte stimulation test, oxidative burst assay, and enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay tests indicated lower immunity in birds treated with CPF as compared to control. Subsequently, chicks produced from CPF-treated birds were also examined for immune competence, but no significant difference was observed between chicks of both the groups. Conclusion: The exposure to CPF produced hemo-biochemical and other changes that could be correlated with changes in the immunological profile of layer chickens suggesting total stoppage of using CPF in poultry sheds. PMID:27536038

  13. Bacterial assisted degradation of chlorpyrifos: The key role of environmental conditions, trace metals and organic solvents. (United States)

    Khalid, Saira; Hashmi, Imran; Khan, Sher Jamal


    Wastewater from pesticide industries, agricultural or surface runoff containing pesticides and their residues has adverse environmental impacts. Present study demonstrates effect of petrochemicals and trace metals on chlorpyrifos (CP) biotransformation often released in wastewater of agrochemical industry. Biodegradation was investigated using bacterial strain Pseudomonas kilonensis SRK1 isolated from wastewater spiked with CP. Optimal environmental conditions for CP removal were CFU (306 × 10(6)), pH (8); initial CP concentration (150 mg/L) and glucose as additional carbon source. Among various organic solvents (petrochemicals) used in this study toluene has stimulatory effect on CP degradation process using SRK1, contrary to this benzene and phenol negatively inhibited degradation process. Application of metal ions (Cu (II), Fe (II) Zn (II) at low concentration (1 mg/L) took part in biochemical reaction and positively stimulated CP degradation process. Metal ions at high concentrations have inhibitory effect on degradation process. A first order growth model was shown to fit the data. It could be concluded that both type and concentration of metal ions and petrochemicals can affect CP degradation process.

  14. Effects of chlorpyrifos and chlorantraniliprole on fermentation quality of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage inoculated with or without Lactobacillus plantarum LP. (United States)

    Zhang, Qing; Yu, Zhu; Wang, Xianguo; Na, Risu


    The effects of pesticides and Lactobacillus plantarum (LP) on fermentation quality of alfalfa (Medicago sativa L.) silage were investigated. Chlorpyrifos and chlorantraniliprole were sprayed on the surface of alfalfa plants at 658.6 and 45.0 g active ingredient/ha, respectively. Alfalfa plants were harvested on day 5 post-application and ensiled with or without LP. Chlorpyrifos and chlorantraniliprole decreased the yeast count of alfalfa material (P alfalfa silage (P alfalfa silage treated with pesticides (P alfalfa silage (P alfalfa silage and affected the fermentation process, whereas LP improved the fermentation quality of pesticides-contaminated alfalfa silage and slowed down the dissipation of chlorpyrifos.

  15. Determination of selected pesticides in water samples adjacent to agricultural fields and removal of organophosphorus insecticide chlorpyrifos using soil bacterial isolates (United States)

    Hossain, M. S.; Chowdhury, M. Alamgir Zaman; Pramanik, Md. Kamruzzaman; Rahman, M. A.; Fakhruddin, A. N. M.; Alam, M. Khorshed


    The use of pesticide for crops leads to serious environmental pollution, therefore, it is essential to monitor and develop approaches to remove pesticide from contaminated environment. In this study, water samples were collected to monitor pesticide residues, and degradation of chlorpyrifos was also performed using soil bacteria. Identification of pesticide residues and determination of their levels were performed by high-performance liquid chromatography with photodiode array detector. Among 12 samples, 10 samples were found contaminated with pesticides. Chlorpyrifos was detected in four tested samples and concentrations ranged from 3.27 to 9.31 μg/l whereas fenitrothion ranging from (Below Detection Limit, pesticide residues in water, to protect the aquatic environment. Chlorpyrifos degrading bacterial isolates can be used to clean up environmental samples contaminated with the organophosphate pesticides.

  16. Efficacies of spinosad and a combination of chlorpyrifos-methyl and deltamethrin against phosphine-resistant Rhyzopertha dominica (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) on wheat. (United States)

    Bajracharya, N S; Opit, George P; Talley, J; Jones, C L


    Highly phosphine-resistant populations of Rhyzopertha dominica (F.) (Coleoptera: Bostrichidae) and Tribolium castaneum (Herbst) (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae) have recently been found in Oklahoma grain storage facilities. These findings necessitate development of a phosphine resistance management strategy to ensure continued effective use of phosphine. Therefore, we investigated the efficacies of two grain insecticides, namely, spinosad applied at label rate of 1 ppm and a mixture of chlorpyrifos-methyl and deltamethrin applied at label rates of 3 and 0.5 ppm, respectively, against highly phosphine-resistant R. dominica and T. castaneum. Adult mortality and progeny production suppression of spinosad- or chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin mixture-treated wheat that had been stored for 2, 84, 168, 252, and 336 d posttreatment were assessed. We found that both spinosad and chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin were effective against phosphine-resistant R. dominica and caused 83-100% mortality and also caused total progeny production suppression for all storage periods. Spinosad was not effective against phosphine-resistant T. castaneum; the highest mortality observed was only 3% for all the storage periods. Chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin was effective against phosphine-resistant T. castaneum only in treated wheat stored for 2 and 84 d, where it caused 93-99% mortality. However, chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin was effective and achieved total suppression of progeny production in T. castaneum for all the storage periods. Spinosad was not as effective as chlorpyrifos-methyl + deltamethrin mixture at suppressing progeny production of phosphine-resistant T. castaneum. These two insecticides can be used in a phosphine resistance management strategy for R. dominica and T. castaneum in the United States.

  17. Urinary biomarker concentrations of captan, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in UK adults and children living near agricultural land. (United States)

    Galea, Karen S; MacCalman, Laura; Jones, Kate; Cocker, John; Teedon, Paul; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie


    There is limited information on the exposure to pesticides experienced by UK residents living near agricultural land. This study aimed to investigate their pesticide exposure in relation to spray events. Farmers treating crops with captan, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos or cypermethrin provided spray event information. Adults and children residing ≤100 m from sprayed fields provided first-morning void urine samples during and outwith the spray season. Selected samples (1-2 days after a spray event and at other times (background samples)) were analysed and creatinine adjusted. Generalised Linear Mixed Models were used to investigate if urinary biomarkers of these pesticides were elevated after spray events. The final data set for statistical analysis contained 1518 urine samples from 140 participants, consisting of 523 spray event and 995 background samples which were analysed for pesticide urinary biomarkers. For captan and cypermethrin, the proportion of values below the limit of detection was greater than 80%, with no difference between spray event and background samples. For chlormequat and chlorpyrifos, the geometric mean urinary biomarker concentrations following spray events were 15.4 μg/g creatinine and 2.5 μg/g creatinine, respectively, compared with 16.5 μg/g creatinine and 3.0 μg/g creatinine for background samples within the spraying season. Outwith the spraying season, concentrations for chlorpyrifos were the same as those within spraying season backgrounds, but for chlormequat, lower concentrations were observed outwith the spraying season (12.3 μg/g creatinine). Overall, we observed no evidence indicative of additional urinary pesticide biomarker excretion as a result of spray events, suggesting that sources other than local spraying are responsible for the relatively low urinary pesticide biomarkers detected in the study population.

  18. Contamination of fresh water fish “Schizothorax niger” with chlorpyrifos from “Dal Lake” basins, India

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    Banday Muddasir


    Full Text Available Dal Lake a Sub-Himalyan urban Lake is one of the most beautiful lakes of India and second largest in Jammu & Kashmir. Intensive farming practiced in the surrounding area of Dal Lake and its floating gardensleads to an enhanced vulnerability of crops to pests and indiscriminate use of pesticides. Possible transfer of these hazardous molecules from vegetable fields to the aquatic environment of the Lake, poses a potential threat to the aquatic species and human health as well. In the present investigation conducted from 2008 to 2010, 135 samples of fish including 81 samples of schizothorax niger ( Algaad / Kasheer Gaad and 54 samples of Cyprinus carpii (Punjab Gaad were collected from three basins of Dal Lake namely Hazratbal, Nigeen and Cheshmashahi basin. The samples were analyzed for seven commonly used pesticides viz. Butachlor, γHCH,Chlorpyrifos, Hexaconazole, Endosulfan 1, Endosulfan 2 and Dichlorvas. Detection and quantification of pesticide residues was performed by GC-MS/MS (Thermofinnigan Polaris Q type equipped with Ni ECD. It was found that 73 samples (54.07% out of 135 were contaminated with chlorpyrifos an organophosphate pesticide with mean concentration of (0.0009 ± 0.0010ng/kg with concentration ranging from undetected to 0.003ng/kg. The highest concentration was found in Hazratbal basin in 2009 (0.002 ± 0.001ng/kg. The results also reveal that level of pesticide was higher in pesticide use season than non use season except in 2009 when levels were same. With respect to basins the results show that mean concentration of chlorpyrifos level was higher in pesticide application season than non application season except in Nigeen basin in 2008 and 2009 where levels were same (0.001±0.001ng/kg and in Hazratbal basin in 2010 where levels were same (0.001±0.001ng/kg. The results indicate a sub acute exposure of chlorpyrifos in a locally consumed Schizothorax niger and not in Cyprinus carpii. These findings suggest that low dose

  19. Comparative effects of parathion and chlorpyrifos on extracellular endocannabinoid levels in rat hippocampus: Influence on cholinergic toxicity

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    Liu, Jing [Department of Physiological Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States); Parsons, Loren [Committee on Neurobiology of Affective Disorders, The Scripps Research Institute, La Jolla, CA (United States); Pope, Carey, E-mail: [Department of Physiological Sciences, Center for Veterinary Health Sciences, Oklahoma State University, Stillwater, OK (United States)


    Parathion (PS) and chlorpyrifos (CPF) are organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) that elicit acute toxicity by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Endocannabinoids (eCBs, N-arachidonoylethanolamine, AEA; 2-arachidonoylglycerol, 2AG) can modulate neurotransmission by inhibiting neurotransmitter release. We proposed that differential inhibition of eCB-degrading enzymes (fatty acid amide hydrolase, FAAH, and monoacylglycerol lipase, MAGL) by PS and CPF leads to differences in extracellular eCB levels and toxicity. Microdialysis cannulae were implanted into hippocampus of adult male rats followed by treatment with vehicle (peanut oil, 2 ml/kg, sc), PS (27 mg/kg) or CPF (280 mg/kg) 6–7 days later. Signs of toxicity, AChE, FAAH and MAGL inhibition, and extracellular levels of AEA and 2AG were measured 2 and 4 days later. Signs were noted in PS-treated rats but not in controls or CPF-treated rats. Cholinesterase inhibition was extensive in hippocampus with PS (89–90%) and CPF (78–83%) exposure. FAAH activity was also markedly reduced (88–91%) by both OPs at both time-points. MAGL was inhibited by both OPs but to a lesser degree (35–50%). Increases in extracellular AEA levels were noted after either PS (about 2-fold) or CPF (about 3-fold) while lesser treatment-related 2-AG changes were noted. The cannabinoid CB1 receptor antagonist/inverse agonist AM251 (3 mg/kg, ip) had no influence on functional signs after CPF but markedly decreased toxicity in PS-treated rats. The results suggest that extracellular eCBs levels can be markedly elevated by both PS and CPF. CB1-mediated signaling appears to play a role in the acute toxicity of PS but the role of eCBs in CPF toxicity remains unclear. - Highlights: • Chlorpyrifos and parathion both extensively inhibited hippocampal cholinesterase. • Functional signs were only noted with parathion. • Chlorpyrifos and parathion increased hippocampal extracellular anandamide levels. • 2-Arachidonoylglycerol levels were

  20. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of Chlorpyrifos versus its Major Metabolites Following Oral Administration in the Rat

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    Busby-Hjerpe, Andrea L.; Campbell, James A.; Smith, Jordan N.; Lee, Sookwang; Poet, Torka S.; Barr, Dana; Timchalk, Charles


    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a commonly used diethylphosphorothionate organophosphorus (OP) insecticide. Diethylphosphate (DEP), diethylthiophosphate (DETP) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) are products of in vivo metabolism and environmental degradation of CPF and are routinely measured in urine as biomarkers of exposure. Hence, urinary biomonitoring of TCPy, DEP and DETP may be reflective of an individual’s contact with both the parent pesticide and exposure to these metabolites. In the current study, simultaneous dosing of 13C- or 2H- isotopically labeled CPF (13Clabeled CPF, 5 13C on the TCPy ring; or 2H-labeled CPF, diethyl-D10 (deuterium labeled) on the side chain) were exploited to directly compare the pharmacokinetics and metabolism of CPF with TCPy, and DETP. Individual metabolites were co-administered (oral gavage) with the parent compound at equal molar doses (14 μmol/kg; ~5mg/kg CPF). The key objective in the current study was to quantitatively evaluate the pharmacokinetics of the individual metabolites relative to their formation following a dose of CPF. Major differences in the pharmacokinetics between CPF and metabolites doses were observed within the first 3 h of exposure, due to the required metabolism of CPF to initially form TCPy and DETP. Nonetheless, once a substantial amount of CPF has been metabolized (≥ 3 h post-dosing) pharmacokinetics for both treatment groups and metabolites were very comparable. Urinary excretion rates for orally administered TCPy and DETP relative to 13C-CPF or 2H-CPF derived 13C-TCPy and 2H-DETP were consistent with blood pharmacokinetics, and the urinary clearance of metabolite dosed groups were comparable with the results for the 13C- and 2H-CPF groups. Since the pharmacokinetics of the individual metabolites were not modified by co-exposure to 3 CPF; it suggests that environmental exposure to low dose mixtures of pesticides and metabolites will not impact the pharmacokinetics of either.

  1. Increased gut permeability and bacterial translocation after chronic chlorpyrifos exposure in rats.

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    Claire Joly Condette

    Full Text Available The epithelium's barrier function is crucial for maintaining homeostasis and preventing the passage of food antigens and luminal bacteria. This function is essentially subserved by tight junctions (TJs, multiprotein complexes located in the most apical part of the lateral membrane. Some gastrointestinal disease states are associated with elevated intestinal permeability to macromolecules. In a study on rats, we determined the influence of chronic, daily ingestion of chlorpyrifos (CPF, a pesticide that crosses the placental barrier during pre- and postnatal periods on intestinal permeability and TJ characteristics in the pups. Fluorescein isothiocyanate (FITC-dextran was used as a marker of paracellular transport and mucosal barrier dysfunction. Pups were gavaged with FITC-dextran solution and blood samples were collected every 30 min for 400 min and analyzed spectrofluorimetrically. At sacrifice, different intestinal segments were resected and prepared for analysis of the transcripts (qPCR and localization (using immunofluorescence of ZO-1, occludin and claudins (scaffolding proteins that have a role in the constitution of TJs. In rats that had been exposed to CPF in utero and after birth, we observed a progressive increase in FITC-dextran passage across the epithelial barrier from 210 to 325 min at day 21 after birth (weaning but not at day 60 (adulthood. At both ages, there were significant changes in intestinal TJ gene expression, with downregulation of ZO-1 and occludin and upregulation of claudins 1 and 4. In some intestinal segments, there were changes in the cellular localization of ZO-1 and claudin 4 immunostaining. Lastly, bacterial translocation to the spleen was also observed. The presence of CPF residues in food may disturb epithelial homeostasis in rats. Changes in TJ protein expression and localization may be involved in gut barrier dysfunction in this model. Uncontrolled passage of macromolecules and bacteria across the intestinal

  2. Assessing transferable residues from intermittent exposure to flea control collars containing the organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos. (United States)

    Chambers, Janice E; Boone, J Scott; Davis, M Keith; Moran, John E; Tyler, John W


    Children can be exposed to pesticides from numerous residential sources such as carpet, house dust, toys and clothing from treated homes, and flea control remedies on pets. In the present studies, 48 pet dogs (24 in each of two studies) of different breeds and weights were treated with over-the-counter flea collars containing chlorpyrifos (CP), an organophosphorus insecticide. Transferable insecticide residues were quantified on cotton gloves used to rub the dogs for 5 min and on cotton tee shirts worn by a child (Study 2 only). First morning urine samples were also obtained from adults and children in both studies for metabolite (3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol) quantification. Blood samples were obtained from treated dogs in Study 1 and plasma cholinesterase (ChE) activity was monitored. Transferable residues on gloves for all compounds were highest near the neck of the dogs and were lowest in areas most distant from the neck. Rubbing samples (over the collar) at two weeks post-collar application contained 447+/-57 microg CP/glove while samples from the fur of the back contained 8+/-2 microg CP/glove. In Study 2, cotton tee shirts worn by children at 15 days post-collar application for 4 h showed CP levels of 134+/-66 ng/g shirt. There were significant differences between adults and children in the levels of urinary metabolites with children generally having higher urinary levels of metabolites than adults (grand mean+/-SE; 11.6+/-1.1 and 7.9+/-0.74 ng/mg creatinine for children and adults, respectively, compared to 9.4+/-0.8 and 6.9+/-0.5 ng/mg creatinine before collar placement). Therefore, there was little evidence that the use of this flea collar contributed to enhanced CP exposure of either children or adults.

  3. Fluorescent Chemosensors for Selective and Sensitive Detection of Phosmet/Chlorpyrifos with Octahedral Ni(2+) Complexes. (United States)

    Raj, Pushap; Singh, Amanpreet; Kaur, Kamalpreet; Aree, Thammarat; Singh, Ajnesh; Singh, Narinder


    The hexadentate ligands H2L1-L3 with mixed S, N, O donor sites and possessing substituents having either "no" or electron-releasing/withdrawing nature at terminal ends are synthesized. The ligands H2L1-L3 were tested for binding with library of metal ions, wherein maximum efficiency was observed with Ni(2+), and it motivated us to prepare the Ni(2+) complexes. The ligand H2L1 underwent deprotonation and formed binuclear complex when interacted with Ni(2+) as evident from its crystal structure. The H2L2 and H2L3 having electron-withdrawing/electron releasing groups, respectively, were also deprotonated; however, they afforded mononuclear complexes with Ni(2+) ion. This signifies the importance of steric parameters instead of electronic factors in these particular cases. Impressed by differential behavior of complexes of H2L1 and H2L2/H2L3 with Ni(2+) and their photophysical and electrochemical properties, all the metal complexes were studied for their chemosensing ability. Nowadays with increased use of organophosphate, there is alarming increase of these agents in the environment, and thus we require efficient technique to estimate the level of these agents with high sensitivity and selectivity in aqueous medium. The Ni(2+) complexes with hydrophobic nature were suspended into aqueous medium for testing them as sensor for organophosphate. The (L1)2.(Ni(2+))2 could sense phosmet with detection limit of 44 nM, whereas L2.Ni(2+) and L3.Ni(2+) exhibited the detection limits of 62 and 71 nM, respectively, for chlorpyrifos.

  4. Diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) differ in biomarker responses to the pesticide chlorpyrifos. (United States)

    Karami, Ali; Goh, Yong-Meng; Jahromi, Mohammad Faseleh; Lazorchak, James M; Abdullah, Maha; Courtenay, Simon C


    The impacts of environmental stressors on polyploid organisms are largely unknown. This study investigated changes in morphometric, molecular, and biochemical parameters in full-sibling diploid and triploid African catfish (Clarias gariepinus) in response to chlorpyrifos (CPF) exposures. Juvenile fish were exposed to three concentrations of CPF (mean measured μg/L (SD): 9.71 (2.27), 15.7 (3.69), 31.21 (5.04)) under a static-renewal condition for 21days. Diploid control groups had higher hepatosomatic index (HSI), plasma testosterone (T), and brain GnRH and cyp19a2 expression levels than triploids. In CPF-exposed groups, changes in HSI, total weight and length were different between the diploid and triploid fish. In contrast, condition factor did not alter in any of the treatments, while visceral-somatic index (VSI) changed only in diploids. In diploid fish, exposure to CPF did not change brain 11β-hsd2, ftz-f1, foxl2, GnRH or cyp19a2 mRNA levels, while reduced tph2 transcript levels compared to the control group. In contrast, 11β-hsd2 and foxl2 expression levels were changed in triploids following CPF exposures. In diploids, plasma T levels showed a linear dose-response reduction across CPF treatments correlating with liver weight and plasma total cholesterol concentrations. In contrast, no changes in plasma cholesterol and T concentrations were observed in triploids. Plasma cortisol and 17-β estradiol (E2) showed no response to CPF exposure in either ploidy. Results of this first comparison of biomarker responses to pesticide exposure in diploid and polyploid animals showed substantial differences between diploid and triploid C. gariepinus.

  5. Biotreatment of chlorpyrifos in a bench scale bioreactor using Psychrobacter alimentarius T14. (United States)

    Khalid, Saira; Hashmi, Imran


    Bacteria tolerant to high pesticide concentration could be used for designing an efficient treatment technology. Bacterial strains T14 was isolated from pesticide-contaminated soil in mineral salt medium (MSM) and identified as Psychrobacter alimentarius T14 using 16S rRNA gene sequence analysis. Bench scale bioreactor was evaluated for biotreatment of high Chlorpyrifos (CP) concentration using P. alimentarius T14. Effect of various parameters on bioreactor performance was examined and optimum removal was observed at optical density (OD600 nm): 0.8; pH: 7.2; CP concentration: 300 mg L(-1) and hydraulic retention time: 48 h. At optimum conditions, 70.3/79% of CP/chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal was achieved in batch bioreactors. In addition, P. alimentarius T14 achieved 95/91, 62.3/75, 69.8/64% CP/COD removal efficiency with addition of CS (co-substrates), CS1 (yeast extract + synthetic wastewater), CS2 (glucose + synthetic wastewater) and CS3 (yeast extract), respectively. Addition of CS1 to bioreactor could accelerate CP removal rate up to many cycles with considerable efficiency. However, accumulation of 3, 5, 6-trichloro-2-pyridinol affects reactor performance in cyclic mode. First-order rate constant k1 0.062 h(-1) and t1/2 11.1 h demonstrates fast degradation. Change in concentration of total chlorine and nitrogen could be the result of complete mineralization. Photodegradation of CP in commercial product was more than its pure form. Commercial formulation accelerated photodegradation process; however no effect on biodegradation process was observed. After bio-photodegradation, negligible toxicity for seeds of Triticum aestivum was observed. Study suggests an efficient treatment of wastewater containing CP and its metabolites in batch bioreactors could be achieved using P. alimentarius.

  6. Effect of metal ions and petrochemicals on bioremediation of chlorpyrifos in aerobic sequencing batch bioreactor (ASBR). (United States)

    Khalid, Saira; Hashmi, Imran; Jamal Khan, Sher; Qazi, Ishtiaq A; Nasir, Habib


    Application of chlorpyrifos (CP) has increased its environmental concentration. Increasing CP concentration has increased chances of adverse health effects. Its removal from environment has attained researcher's attention. CP degrading bacterial strains were isolated from wastewater and agricultural soil. Finally, selected five bacterial strains were identified using 16S rRNA nucleotide sequence analysis as Pseudomonas kilonensis SRK1, Serratia marcescens SRK2, Bacillus pumilus SRK4, Achromobacter xylosoxidans SRK5, and Klebsiella sp. T13. Interaction studies among bacterial strains demonstrated possibility for development of five membered bacterial consortium. Biodegradation potential of bacterial consortium was investigated in the presence of petrochemicals and trace metals. About 98 % CP removal was observed in sequencing batch reactors at inoculum level, 10 %; pH, 7; CP concentration, 400 mgL(-1), and HRT, 48 h. Experimental data has shown an excellent fit to first order growth model. Among all petrochemicals only toluene (in low concentration) has stimulatory effect on biodegradation of CP. Addition of petrochemicals (benzene, toluene, and xylene) in high concentration (100 mg L(-1)) inhibited bacterial activity and decreased CP removal. At low concentration i.e., 1 mg L(-1) of inorganic contaminants (Cu, Hg, and Zn) >96 % degradation was observed. Addition of Cu(II) in low concentration has stimulated CP removal efficiency. Hg(II) in all concentrations has strongly inhibited biodegradation rate except at 1 mgL(-1). In simulated pesticide, wastewater CP removal efficiency decreased to 77.5 %. Outcomes of study showed that both type and concentration of petrochemicals and trace metals influenced biodegradation of CP.

  7. Inhibition, recovery and oxime-induced reactivation of muscle esterases following chlorpyrifos exposure in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris

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    Collange, B. [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 Abeilles et Environnement, Site AGROPARC, F-84914, Avignon Cede 09 (France); Wheelock, C.E. [Division of Physiological Chemistry II, Department of Medical Biochemistry and Biophysics, Karolinska Institutet, SE 171 77, Stockholm (Sweden); Rault, M.; Mazzia, C. [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 Abeilles et Environnement, Site AGROPARC, F-84914, Avignon Cede 09 (France); Capowiez, Y. [INRA, Unite PSH, Site AGROPARC, F-84914 Avignon Cedex 09 (France); Sanchez-Hernandez, J.C., E-mail: juancarlos.sanchez@uclm.e [Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Environmental Science, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III s/n, 45071, Toledo (Spain)


    Assessment of wildlife exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides generally involves the measurement of cholinesterase (ChE) inhibition, and complementary biomarkers (or related endpoints) are rarely included. Herein, we investigated the time course inhibition and recovery of ChE and carboxylesterase (CE) activities in the earthworm Lumbricus terrestris exposed to chlorpyrifos, and the ability of oximes to reactivate the phosphorylated ChE activity. Results indicated that these esterase activities are a suitable multibiomarker scheme for monitoring OP exposure due to their high sensitivity to OP inhibition and slow recovery to full activity levels following pesticide exposure. Moreover, oximes reactivated the inhibited ChE activity of the earthworms exposed to 12 and 48 mg kg{sup -1} chlorpyrifos during the first week following pesticide exposure. This methodology is useful for providing evidence for OP-mediated ChE inhibition in individuals with a short history of OP exposure (<=1 week); resulting a valuable approach for assessing multiple OP exposure episodes in the field. - Esterase inhibition combined with oxime reactivation methods is a suitable approach for monitoring organophosphate contamination

  8. Efficacy of Ganoderma sp. JAS4 in bioremediation of chlorpyrifos and its hydrolyzing metabolite TCP from agricultural soil. (United States)

    Silambarasan, Sivagnanam; Abraham, Jayanthi


    A novel fungal strain JAS4 was isolated from agricultural soil and was found to be highly effective in degrading chlorpyrifos and its major degradation product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP). The molecular characterization based on 18S rRNA sequence analysis, revealed strain JAS4 as Ganoderma sp. which could able to degrade chlorpyrifos and its metabolite in an aqueous medium with rate constant of 0.8460 day(-1), following first order rate kinetics, and the time in which the initial insecticide concentration was reduced by 50% (DT(50)) was 0.81 days. Studies on biodegradation in soil with nutrients showed that JAS4 strain exhibited efficient degradation of insecticide with a rate constant of 0.9 day(-1), and DT(50) was 0.73 day. In contrast, degradation of insecticide in soil without nutrients was characterized by a rate constant of 0.7576 day(-1) and the DT(50) was 0.91 day.

  9. Low and high doses of UV-B differentially modulate chlorpyrifos-induced alterations in nitrogen metabolism of cyanobacteria. (United States)

    Srivastava, Prabhat Kumar; Singh, Vijay Pratap; Prasad, Sheo Mohan


    The present study assessed the comparative responses on the specific growth rate, nitrogen metabolism and enzymes associated with nitrogen metabolism in two nitrogen fixing cyanobacteria-Nostoc muscorum and Phormidium foveolarum exposed to two UV-B doses (low; UV-BL: 0.5472kJm(-2) and high; UV-BH: 5.472kJm(-2)) and two doses of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (O,O-diethyl O-3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate; low i.e. CPL, 1µgml(-1) and high i.e. CPH, 2µgml(-1)) singly and in combination. The specific growth rate, NO3(-) and NO2(-) uptake, nitrate assimilating enzymes - nitrate reductase and nitrite reductase and ammonium assimilating enzymes - glutamine synthetase and glutamate synthase were severely affected when treated either with CPH or/and UV-BH while glutamate dehydrogenase exhibited a stimulatory response. CPL also reduced all the measured parameters (except GDH activity) after 24h, however, a stimulatory effect was observed after 72h due to an increase in nitrogen metabolism (and other antioxidant) enzymes during this period. UV-BL did not cause significant alteration in the studied parameters while in combination with CP doses, it either alleviated the inhibitory effects or further enhanced the CPL induced activities of these enzymes (except GDH). Overall results indicate the resistant nature of P. foveolarum against the inhibitory doses of UV-B and chlorpyrifos in comparison to N. muscorum.

  10. Dual-template magnetic molecularly imprinted particles with multi-hollow structure for the detection of dicofol and chlorpyrifos-methyl. (United States)

    Yang, Tao; Feng, Shun; Lu, Yi; Yin, Chao; Wang, Jide


    In this work, a novel dual-template magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer particle for dicofol and chlorpyrifos-methyl was prepared through oil-in-water emulsifier-free emulsion technology. The resulting magnetic particles were characterized with electron microscopy, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. It was found that as-prepared particles were well-shaped spheres with multi-hollow structures and of a size around 125 μm. Meanwhile it showed a good magnetic sensitivity. The results testified that multi-hollow magnetic molecularly imprinted polymers possessed excellent recognition capacity and fast kinetic binding behavior to the objective molecules. The maximum binding amounts toward dicofol and chlorpyrifos-methyl were 31.46 and 25.23 mg/g, respectively. The feasibility of the use of the particles as a solid-phase extraction sorbent was evaluated. Satisfactory recoveries ranging from 90.62 to 111.47 and 91.07 to 94.03% were obtained for dicofol and chlorpyrifos-methyl, respectively, spiked at three concentration levels from real samples. The Langmuir isotherm equation provided an excellent fit to the equilibrium sorption data of either dicofol or chlorpyrifos-methyl. It provided a novel way to advise dual-template magnetic molecularly imprinted polymer particles to adsorb pesticides with high selectivity.

  11. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos and its hydrolysis product 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol using a novel bacterium Ochrobactrum sp. JAS2: A proposal of its metabolic pathway. (United States)

    Abraham, Jayanthi; Silambarasan, Sivagnanam


    Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos and its major metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) were studied with a novel bacterial strain JAS2 isolated from paddy rhizosphere soil. The molecular characterization based on 16S rRNA gene sequence homology confirmed its identity as Ochrobactrum sp. JAS2. The JAS2 strain degraded 300mgl(-1) of chlorpyrifos within 12h of incubation in the aqueous medium and it produced the TCP metabolite. However, after 72h of incubation TCP was also completely degraded by the JAS2 strain. A tentative degradation pathway of chlorpyrifos by Ochrobactrum sp. JAS2 has been proposed on basis of GC-MS analysis. The complete degradation of chlorpyrifos occurred within 24h in the soil spiked with and without addition of nutrients inoculated with Ochrobactrum sp. JAS2. TCP was obtained in both the studies which was degraded completely by 96h in the soil spiked with nutrients and whereas 120h in absence of nutrients in the soil. The mpd gene which is responsible for organophosphorus hydrolase production was identified. The isolates Ochrobactrum sp. JAS2 also exhibited a time dependent increase in the amount of tricalcium phosphate solubilization in Pikovskaya's medium. Further screening of the strain JAS2 for auxiliary plant growth promoting activities revealed its remarkable capability of producing the indole acetic acid (IAA), hydrogen cyanide (HCN) and ammonia.

  12. Prevalência de cárie e CPO-D médio em escolares de doze a treze anos de idade nos anos de 1971 e 1997, região Sul, Brasil

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    Freysleben Glória R


    Full Text Available INTRODUÇÃO: Estudos epidemiológicos de cárie dentária, realizados no Brasil na última década, revelam uma significante redução na prevalência e na severidade da cárie dentária. Dúvidas persistem sobre a validade e a confiabilidade desses achados, em razão de diferentes metodologias e de critérios de diagnóstico utilizados. Foi realizado estudo com o objetivo de comparar a prevalência e a severidade da cárie dentária em escolares de 12 e 13 anos de idade entre 1971 e 1997. MÉTODOS: Foram realizados dois estudos transversais de prevalência, nos anos de 1971 e de 1997, em que todos os alunos de 12 e 13 anos de idade, de uma mesma escola de Florianópolis, SC, Brasil, foram examinados, utilizando-se o mesmo protocolo e os critérios de diagnóstico de cárie dentária, estes originalmente propostos por Klein e Palmer. Foram examinados 202 e 175 escolares, em 1971 e 1997, respectivamente. Todos os exames foram conduzidos pela mesma examinadora, que foi previamente treinada por meio de um exercício de calibração. RESULTADOS: A taxa de resposta foi de 100%, sendo a concordância intra-examinadora, medida dente por dente, muito alta (Kappa > 0,86. As prevalências de cárie foram de 98% e 93,7% em 1971 e 1997, respectivamente. O valor do CPO-D médio variou de 9,17 em 1971 para 6,25 em 1997, tomando-se as idades de 12 e 13 anos em conjunto. CONCLUSÕES: Houve no período uma efetiva redução na prevalência e severidade da cárie dentária, na população estudada. Houve uma mudança real que não se deve a diferentes critérios de diagnóstico empregados.

  13. Repeated exposure to neurotoxic levels of chlorpyrifos alters hippocampal expression of neurotrophins and neuropeptides. (United States)

    Lee, Young S; Lewis, John A; Ippolito, Danielle L; Hussainzada, Naissan; Lein, Pamela J; Jackson, David A; Stallings, Jonathan D


    Chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus pesticide (OP), is one of the most widely used pesticides in the world. Subchronic exposures to CPF that do not cause cholinergic crisis are associated with problems in cognitive function (i.e., learning and memory deficits), but the biological mechanism(s) underlying this association remain speculative. To identify potential mechanisms of subchronic CPF neurotoxicity, adult male Long Evans (LE) rats were administered CPF at 3 or 10mg/kg/d (s.c.) for 21 days. We quantified mRNA and non-coding RNA (ncRNA) expression profiles by RNA-seq, microarray analysis and small ncRNA sequencing technology in the CA1 region of the hippocampus. Hippocampal slice immunohistochemistry was used to determine CPF-induced changes in protein expression and localization patterns. Neither dose of CPF caused overt clinical signs of cholinergic toxicity, although after 21 days of exposure, cholinesterase activity was decreased to 58% or 13% of control levels in the hippocampus of rats in the 3 or 10mg/kg/d groups, respectively. Differential gene expression in the CA1 region of the hippocampus was observed only in the 10mg/kg/d dose group relative to controls. Of the 1382 differentially expressed genes identified by RNA-seq and microarray analysis, 67 were common to both approaches. Differential expression of six of these genes (Bdnf, Cort, Crhbp, Nptx2, Npy and Pnoc) was verified in an independent CPF exposure study; immunohistochemistry demonstrated that CRHBP and NPY were elevated in the CA1 region of the hippocampus at 10mg/kg/d CPF. Gene ontology enrichment analysis suggested association of these genes with receptor-mediated cell survival signaling pathways. miR132/212 was also elevated in the CA1 hippocampal region, which may play a role in the disruption of neurotrophin-mediated cognitive processes after CPF administration. These findings identify potential mediators of CPF-induced neurobehavioral deficits following subchronic exposure to CPF at

  14. Understanding the degradation pathway of the pesticide, chlorpyrifos by noble metal nanoparticles. (United States)

    Bootharaju, M S; Pradeep, T


    Application of nanoparticles (NPs) in environmental remediation such as water purification requires a detailed understanding of the mechanistic aspects of the interaction between the species involved. Here, an attempt was made to understand the chemistry of noble metal nanoparticle-pesticide interaction, as these nanosystems are being used extensively for water purification. Our model pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CP), belonging to the organophosphorothioate group, is shown to decompose to 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) and diethyl thiophosphate at room temperature over Ag and Au NPs, in supported and unsupported forms. The degradation products were characterized by absorption spectroscopy and electrospray ionization mass spectrometry (ESI MS). These were further confirmed by ESI tandem mass spectrometry. The interaction of CP with NP surfaces was investigated using transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive analysis of X-rays, Raman spectroscopy, and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). XPS reveals no change in the oxidation state of silver after the degradation of CP. It is proposed that the degradation of CP proceeds through the formation of AgNP-S surface complex, which is confirmed by Raman spectroscopy. In this complex, the P-O bond cleaves to yield a stable aromatic species, TCP. The rate of degradation of CP increases with increase of temperature and pH. Complete degradation of 10 mL of 2 ppm CP solution is achieved in 3 h using 100 mg of supported Ag@citrate NPs on neutral alumina at room temperature at a loading of ∼0.5 wt %. The effect of alumina and monolayer protection of NPs on the degradation of CP is also investigated. The rate of degradation of CP by Ag NPs is greater than that of Au NPs. The results have implications to the application of noble metal NPs for drinking water purification, as pesticide contamination is prevalent in many parts of the world. Study shows that supported Ag and Au NPs may be employed in sustainable

  15. Esterases activity in the axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum exposed to chlorpyrifos and its implication to motor activity. (United States)

    Robles-Mendoza, Cecilia; Zúñiga-Lagunes, Sebastian R; Ponce de León-Hill, Claudia A; Hernández-Soto, Jesús; Vanegas-Pérez, Cecilia


    The axolotl Ambystoma mexicanum is a neotenic salamander considered a good biological model due to its ability to regenerate limbs, tail, brain and heart cells. Nevertheless, severe reduction of A. mexicanum wild populations in the lacustrine area of Xochimilco, the natural habitat of the axolotl, could be related to several environmental pressures as the presence of organophosphate pesticides (OPPs), intensively applied in agricultural activities in Xochimilco. Thus the aim of this study was to evaluate the effect of environmentally realistic chlorpyrifos (CPF) concentrations, a OPP commonly used in this zone, on esterases activity (acetylcholinesterase and carboxylesterase) and bioconcentration of CPF and to relate them with the motor activity of A. mexicanum juveniles. Axolotls were exposed 48 h to 0.05 and 0.1mg CPF/L, and the responses were evaluated at the end of the CPF exposure. Results suggest that CPF is bioconcentrated into axolotls and that the CPF internal concentrations are related with the observed inhibition activity of AChE (>50%) and CbE (≈ 50%). CPF concentration responsible of the inhibition of the 50% of AChE activity (IC50) was estimated in 0.04 mg CPF/L; however IC50 for CbE activity was not possible to calculate since inhibition levels were lower than 50%, results that suggest a higher resistance of CbE enzymatic activity to CPF. However, motor activity was a more sensitive endpoint to CPF poisoning since time that axolotls spent active and walking, frequency and speed of swimming, frequency of prey attack were reduced >90% of control groups. The motor activity alterations in the axolotl could be related with the registered esterases inhibition. Thus important alterations on axolotls were identified even at short time and low concentrations of CPF exposure. Also, it was possible to link biochemical responses as esterases activity with higher levels of biological organization as behavior. This study provides tools for the regulation of the

  16. Effects of Parsley (Petroselinum crispum) and its Flavonol Constituents, Kaempferol and Quercetin, on Serum Uric Acid Levels, Biomarkers of Oxidative Stress and Liver Xanthine Oxidoreductase Aactivity inOxonate-Induced Hyperuricemic Rats. (United States)

    Haidari, Fatemeh; Keshavarz, Seid Ali; Mohammad Shahi, Majid; Mahboob, Soltan-Ali; Rashidi, Mohammad-Reza


    Increased serum uric acid is known to be a major risk related to the development of several oxidative stress diseases. The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of parsley, quercetin and kaempferol on serum uric acid levels, liver xanthine oxidoreductase activity and two non-invasive biomarkers of oxidative stress (total antioxidant capacity and malondialdehyde concentration) in normal and oxonate-induced hyperuricemic rats. A total of 60 male Wistar rats were randomly divided into ten equal groups; including 5 normal groups (vehicle, parsley, quercetin, kaempferol and allopurinol) and 5 hyperuricemic groups (vehicle, parsley, quercetin, kaempferol and allopurinol). Parsley (5 g/Kg), quercetin (5 mg/Kg), kaempferol (5 mg/Kg) and allopurinol (5 mg/Kg) were administrated to the corresponding groups by oral gavage once a day for 2 weeks. The results showed that parsley and its flavonol did not cause any significant reduction in the serum uric acid levels in normal rats, but significantly reduced the serum uric acid levels of hyperuricemic rats in a time-dependent manner. All treatments significantly inhibited liver xanthine oxidoreductase activity. Parsley, kaempferol and quercetin treatment led also to a significant increase in total antioxidant capacity and decrease in malondialdehyde concentration in hyperuricemic rats. Although the hypouricemic effect of allopurinol was much higher than that of parsley and its flavonol constituents, it could not significantly change oxidative stress biomarkers. These features of parsley and its flavonols make them as a possible alternative for allopurinol, or at least in combination therapy to minimize the side effects of allopurinol to treat hyperuricemia and oxidative stress diseases.

  17. Inhibition of fipronil and nonane metabolism in human liver microsomes and human cytochrome P450 isoforms by chlorpyrifos. (United States)

    Joo, Hyun; Choi, Kyoungju; Rose, Randy L; Hodgson, Ernest


    Previous studies have established that chlorpyrifos (CPS), fipronil, and nonane can all be metabolized by human liver microsomes (HLM) and a number of cytochrome P450 (CYP) isoforms. However, metabolic interactions between these three substrates have not been described. In this study the effect of either coincubation or preincubation of CPS with HLM or CYP isoforms with either fipronil or nonane as substrate was investigated. In both co- and preincubation experiments, CPS significantly inhibited the metabolism of fipronil or nonane by HLM although CPS inhibited the metabolism of fipronil more effectively than that of nonane. CPS significantly inhibited the metabolism of fipronil by CYP3A4 as well as the metabolism of nonane by CYP2B6. In both cases, preincubation with CPS caused greater inhibition than coincubation, suggesting that the inhibition is mechanism based.

  18. Characterisation of cholinesterases and evaluation of the inhibitory potential of chlorpyrifos and dichlorvos to Artemia salina and Artemia parthenogenetica. (United States)

    Varó, I; Navarro, J C; Amat, F; Guilhermino, L


    In this study, the acute toxicity of the organophosphorous pesticides dichlorvos and chlorpyrifos to two different species of Artemia (A. salina and A. parthenogenetica) was evaluated. In addition, the in vivo effect of these two pesticides on cholinesterase (ChE) activity of both A. salina and A. parthenogenetica was also determined. The characterisation of the ChE, using different substrates and specific inhibitors, and the normal range of activity in non-exposed individuals were previously investigated for both species. The results obtained indicate that the ChE of A. salina is different from that of A. parthenogenetica and that both enzymes cannot be classified neither as acetylcholinesterase nor as butyrylcholinesterase since they show intermediary characteristics between the two vertebrate forms. The range of normal ChE activity was 2.65+/-0.15 U/mg protein for A. salina, and 3.69+/-0.17 U/mg protein for A. parthenogenetica. Significant in vivo effects of both pesticides on Artemia ChE activity were found, at concentrations between 5.38 and 9.30 mg/l for dichlorvos and between 1.85 and 3.19 mg/l for chlorpyrifos. Both Artemia species are resistant to these pesticides and they are able to survive with more than 80% ChE inhibition. However, A. parthenogenetica is more resistant than A. salina, with about a 95% reduction in its ChE activity respect to the control for nauplii exposed to the median lethal concentrations (LC50), without lethal effects after 24 h of exposure.

  19. Assessment of model uncertainty during the river export modelling of pesticides and transformation products (United States)

    Gassmann, Matthias; Olsson, Oliver; Kümmerer, Klaus


    The modelling of organic pollutants in the environment is burdened by a load of uncertainties. Not only parameter values are uncertain but often also the mass and timing of pesticide application. By introducing transformation products (TPs) into modelling, further uncertainty coming from the dependence of these substances on their parent compounds and the introduction of new model parameters are likely. The purpose of this study was the investigation of the behaviour of a parsimonious catchment scale model for the assessment of river concentrations of the insecticide Chlorpyrifos (CP) and two of its TPs, Chlorpyrifos Oxon (CPO) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP) under the influence of uncertain input parameter values. Especially parameter uncertainty and pesticide application uncertainty were investigated by Global Sensitivity Analysis (GSA) and the Generalized Likelihood Uncertainty Estimation (GLUE) method, based on Monte-Carlo sampling. GSA revealed that half-lives and sorption parameters as well as half-lives and transformation parameters were correlated to each other. This means, that the concepts of modelling sorption and degradation/transformation were correlated. Thus, it may be difficult in modelling studies to optimize parameter values for these modules. Furthermore, we could show that erroneous pesticide application mass and timing were compensated during Monte-Carlo sampling by changing the half-life of CP. However, the introduction of TCP into the calculation of the objective function was able to enhance identifiability of pesticide application mass. The GLUE analysis showed that CP and TCP were modelled successfully, but CPO modelling failed with high uncertainty and insensitive parameters. We assumed a structural error of the model which was especially important for CPO assessment. This shows that there is the possibility that a chemical and some of its TPs can be modelled successfully by a specific model structure, but for other TPs, the model

  20. An Analysis of Environmental and Biological Effects of Chlorpyrifos%毒死蜱的环境生物学效应分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    余凯敏; 冯为民; 李国超; 张家禹; 刘丽丽; 闫艳春


    With the prohibition of high-toxicity organophosphorous pesticides, the chlorpyrifos as their substitute has been used in a large-scale. The residue of chlorpyrifos, degrading slowly in the water, may cause the potential damages to aquatic organisms and others. To investigate the endocrine disrupting effects of low-concentration chlorpyrifos, flow cytometry was used to analyze the growth cycle of endometrial cancer cell HEC-1B of human. Moreover, zebrafish embryos were selected for chlorpyrifos exposing treatment 60 h at various concentrations of 0, 1.0, 2.0, 3.0 and 4.0 ppm. It was found that the chlorpyrifos caused the zebrafish embryos to death and significant embryonic malformation, the survival rate of the embryos was inversely proportional to chlorpyrifos’ concentration, and the malformation rate was proportional to chlorpyrifos’ concentration. Further, the mRNA expression levels of 5 neurodevelopment maker genes in the chlorpyrifos-treated zebrafish embryos were detected. These results showed that chlorpyrifos of low-concentration acted as endocrine disruptor, and chlorpyrifos of high-concentration affected the normal development of nerve system.%高毒有机磷农药禁用以后,毒死蜱作为其替代品逐渐开始大规模应用。毒死蜱在水中降解缓慢,因此在水中的残留会对水生生物及其他生物造成潜在危害。为探究低浓度毒死蜱的内分泌干扰效应,使用流式细胞仪分析了其对人子宫内膜癌细胞HEC-1B生长周期的影响。为探究高浓度毒死蜱的生物毒性,将斑马鱼胚胎暴露在不同浓度的毒死蜱(0、1.0、2.0、3.0和4.0 ppm)中60 h,发现毒死蜱能导致斑马鱼胚胎的死亡和严重畸形,并且胚胎存活率与处理浓度呈负相关,畸形率与处理浓度呈正相关。最后,检测了毒死蜱处理后斑马鱼胚胎中5种神经系统发育相关基因的表达情况。结果表明,低浓度毒死蜱具有内分泌干扰效应,高浓

  1. Development of Solid-Phase Extraction Using Molecularly Imprinted Polymer for the Analysis of Organophosphorus Pesticides-(Chlorpyrifos) in Aqueous Solution


    Binsalom, A.; Chianella, I.; Campbell, K.; Zourob, M.


    A new and selective sorbent for molecularly imprinted solid-phase extraction (MISPE) was prepared to extract chlorpyrifos (CPF) residue from solutions. The extracted analyte was analyzed by high performance liquid chromotography (HPLC) coupled with photodiode array detection. To synthesize the molecularly imprinted polymers, four different pyrogens (acetonitrile, toluene, dichloromethane and chloroform) were initially studied. CPF was used as the template molecule, methacrylic acid as the fun...

  2. Behavioral and metabolic effects of sublethal doses of two insecticides, chlorpyrifos and methomyl, in the Egyptian cotton leafworm, Spodoptera littoralis (Boisduval) (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae). (United States)

    Dewer, Youssef; Pottier, Marie-Anne; Lalouette, Lisa; Maria, Annick; Dacher, Matthieu; Belzunces, Luc P; Kairo, Guillaume; Renault, David; Maibeche, Martine; Siaussat, David


    Insecticides have long been used as the main method in limiting agricultural pests, but their widespread use has resulted in environmental pollution, development of resistances, and biodiversity reduction. The effects of insecticides at low residual doses on both the targeted crop pest species and beneficial insects have become a major concern. In particular, these low doses can induce unexpected positive (hormetic) effects on pest insects, such as surges in population growth exceeding what would have been observed without pesticide application. Methomyl and chlorpyrifos are two insecticides commonly used to control the population levels of the cotton leafworm Spodoptera littoralis, a major pest moth. The aim of the present study was to examine the effects of sublethal doses of these two pesticides, known to present a residual activity and persistence in the environment, on the moth physiology. Using a metabolomic approach, we showed that sublethal doses of methomyl and chlorpyrifos have a systemic effect on the treated insects. We also demonstrated a behavioral disruption of S. littoralis larvae exposed to sublethal doses of methomyl, whereas no effects were observed for the same doses of chlorpyrifos. Interestingly, we highlighted that sublethal doses of both pesticides did not induce a change in acetylcholinesterase activity in head of exposed larvae.

  3. Influence of the pesticides glyphosate, chlorpyrifos and atrazine on growth parameters of nonochratoxigenic Aspergillus section Nigri strains isolated from agricultural soils. (United States)

    Carranza, Cecilia S; Barberis, Carla L; Chiacchiera, Stella M; Magnoli, Carina E


    This investigation was undertake to determine the effect of glyphosate, chlorpyrifos and atrazine on the lag phase and growth rate of nonochratoxigenic A. niger aggregate strains growing on soil extract medium at -0.70, -2.78 and -7.06 MPa. Under certain conditions, the glyphosate concentrations used significantly increased micelial growth as compared to control. An increase of about 30% was observed for strain AN 251 using 5 and 20 mg L(-1) of glyphosate at -2.78 MPa. The strains behaved differently in the presence of the insecticide chlorpyrifos. A significant decrease in growth rate, compared to control, was observed for all strains except AN 251 at -2.78 MPa with 5 mg L(-1). This strain showed a significant increase in growth rate. With regard to atrazine, significant differences were observed only under some conditions compared to control. An increase in growth rate was observed for strain AN 251 at -2.78 MPa with 5 and 10 mg L(-1) of atrazine. By comparison, a reduction of 25% in growth rate was observed at -7.06 MPa and higher atrazine concentrations. This study shows that glyphosate, chlorpyrifos and atrazine affect the growth parameters of nonochratoxigenic A. niger aggregate strains under in vitro conditions.

  4. Determination of benomyl, diphenyl, o-phenylphenol, thiabendazole, chlorpyrifos, methidathion, and methyl parathion in oranges by solid-phase extraction, liquid chromatography, and gas chromatography. (United States)

    Yamazaki, Y; Ninomiya, T


    A simple and rapid method was developed for determination of benomyl, diphenyl (DP), o-phenylphenol (OPP), thiabendazole (TBZ), chlorpyrifos, methidathion, and methyl parathion in whole oranges. These compounds were extracted from a mixture of samples and anhydrous sodium acetate with ethyl acetate. The ethyl acetate extract was concentrated and cleaned up by passing through tandem solid-phase extraction columns consisting of anion-exchange and primary/secondary amine bonded silica. The eluate was concentrated and volume was adjusted with methanol for subsequent liquid chromatography (LC) and gas chromatography (GC). Benomyl (as methyl-2-benzimidazole carbamate, MBC), DP, OPP, and TBZ residues were determined by LC with fluorescence detection. Recoveries at 3 fortified levels (0.1, 1, and 10 micrograms/g) ranged from 63.9 to 97.4%, with coefficients of variation (CVs) of 1.6 to 15.5%. Limits of detection (LODs) were 0.01 microgram/g for DP, OPP, TBZ and 0.05 microgram/g for benomyl. Chlorpyrifos, methidathion, and methyl parathion residues were determined by GC with flame photometric detection. Recoveries ranged from 90.4 to 97.0%, with CVs of 2.1 to 5.9%. LODs were 0.005 microgram/g for chlorpyrifos and methyl parathion, and 0.01 microgram/g for methidathion.

  5. Sublethal effects of diazinon, fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos on the functional response of predatory bug, Andrallus spinidens Fabricius (Hem.: Pentatomidae in the laboratory conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Moloud GholamzadehChitgar


    Full Text Available The sublethal effects of diazinon, fenitrothion and chlorpyrifos on the functional response of predatory bug, Andrallus spinidens Fabricius (Hem.: Pentatomidae, a potential biological control agent, were studied on 5th-instar nymphs. The experiment was conducted in varying densities (2, 4, 8, 16, 32 and 64 of last instars larvae of Chilo suppressalis Walker (Lepidoptera: Pyralidae as prey at 25 ± 2 °C, 60% ± 10% relative humidity (RH and a photoperiod of 16:8 h (L: D. The results of logistic regressions revealed a type II functional response in the control and all insecticide treatments. Comparison of functional response curves revealed that tested insecticides markedly decreased the mean of preys consumed by A. spinidens. Among them, functional response curve of A. spinidens in chlorpyrifos treatment was significantly lower than the other treatments. In this study, application of insecticides caused a decrease in the attack rate and an increase in the handling time of exposed bugs compared with the control. The longest handling time (3.97 ± 0.62 and the lowest attack rate (0.023 ± 0.007 were observed in chlorpyrifos and fenitrothion treatments, respectively. The results suggested that the adverse effect of these insecticides on A. spinidens should be considered in integrated pest management programs (IPM.

  6. Quaternary and tertiary aldoxime antidotes for organophosphate exposure in a zebrafish model system. (United States)

    Schmidt, Hayden R; Radić, Zoran; Taylor, Palmer; Fradinger, Erica A


    The zebrafish is rapidly becoming an important model system for screening of new therapeutics. Here we evaluated the zebrafish as a potential pharmacological model for screening novel oxime antidotes to organophosphate (OP)-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The ki values determined for chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) and dichlorvos (DDVP) showed that CPO was a more potent inhibitor of both human and zebrafish AChE, but overall zebrafish AChE was less sensitive to OP inhibition. In contrast, aldoxime antidotes, the quaternary ammonium 2-PAM and tertiary amine RS-194B, showed generally similar overall reactivation kinetics, kr, in both zebrafish and human AChE. However, differences between the Kox and k2 constants suggest that zebrafish AChE associates more tightly with oximes, but has a slower maximal reactivation rate than human AChE. Homology modeling suggests that these kinetic differences result from divergences in the amino acids lining the entrance to the active site gorge. Although 2-PAM had the more favorable in vitro reactivation kinetics, RS-194B was more effective antidote in vivo. In intact zebrafish embryos, antidotal treatment with RS-194B rescued embryos from OP toxicity, whereas 2-PAM had no effect. Dechorionation of the embryos prior to antidotal treatment allowed both 2-PAM and RS-194B to rescue zebrafish embryos from OP toxicity. Interestingly, RS-194B and 2-PAM alone increased cholinergic motor activity in dechorionated embryos possibly due to the reversible inhibition kinetics, Ki and αKi, of the oximes. Together these results demonstrate that the zebrafish at various developmental stages provides an excellent model for investigating membrane penetrant antidotes to OP exposure.

  7. Biodegradation of Chlorpyrifos by Manganese Peroxidase%锰过氧化物酶(MnP)对农药毒死蜱降解的初步研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫彩萍; 赵林果; 谢慧芳


    Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by manganese peroxidase (MnP) which was prepared using whit rot fungi P. sordida YK-624 was studied. The systems of chlorpytifos biodegradation were tested. Results showed that the chlorpyrifos biodegradation by MnP should be done in organic acid buffer solution (malonic acid)containing Mn2+ and H2O2 which was produced by glucose oxidase oxidizing glucose. But surfactant Tween 80 was not necessary because of poor solubility of chlorpyrifos. Main influencing factors were determined. It proved that chlorpyrifos could be biodegraded by MnP at 30 ℃ in pH 4.5 malonic acid buffer system, which contained 7.5 mmmol/L MnSO4,2.5 mmol/L glucose and 40 U glucose oxidase. Under the conditions, 400 U/L MnP could degrade 77.51% 30 mg/L chlorpyrifos. GC-MS was used to analyze the product of chlorpyrifos biodegradation by MnP. It was found the possible enzymolysis product was O, O, O', O'-tetraethyl-dithiopyrophosphate, different from hydrolysis or bacterium degradation production of chlorpyrifos.%以广泛使用的有机磷杀虫剂毒死蜱为研究对象,利用白腐菌P.sordida YK-624.菌株所产锰过氧化物酶(MnP)对其进行生物降解的初步研究.首先比较确定了MnP降解毒死蜱所需要的降解体系,即对于毒死蜱的降解,需要在有机酸(丙二酸)存在的缓冲体系中进行,此体系不需要表面活性剂Tween 80,但必须含有Mn2+和葡萄糖氧化酶氧化葡萄糖产生的H2O2.随后对主要影响因素的试验结果表明,MnP降解毒死蜱较好的条件是在pH 4.5的丙二酸缓冲体系中含7.5 mmol/L MnSO4、2.5 mmol/L葡萄糖以及40 U葡萄糖氧化酶,温度30℃.此时,400 U/L的MnP可将30 mg/L的毒死蜱经3d时间降解77.51%.同时,利用GC-MS对毒死蜱酶降解后的产物进行了初步分析,得到1种可能的酶解产物O,O,O’,O’-四乙基二硫代焦磷酸酯,不同于水解和细菌降解途径,值得进行进一步研究.

  8. Oxidation of Aromatic Aldehydes Using Oxone (United States)

    Gandhari, Rajani; Maddukuri, Padma P.; Thottumkara, Vinod K.


    The experiment demonstrating the feasibility of using water as a solvent for organic reactions which highlights the cost and environmental benefits of its use is presented. The experiment encourages students to think in terms of the reaction mechanism of the oxidation of aldehydes knowing that potassium persulfate is the active oxidant in Oxone…

  9. Evaluation of chronic chlorpyrifos-induced reproductive toxicity in male Wistar rat: protective effects of vitamin C

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed M. Sulaiman


    Full Text Available The aim of the present study was to evaluate the effect of vitamin C on reproductive toxicity, induced by chronic chlorpyrifos (CPF exposure in male Wistar rats. Twenty adult male Wistar rats were divided into 4 groups of 5 animals in each group. Group I received soya oil (2 ml/kg; group II was given vitamin C only (100 mg/kg; group III was administered CPF only (10.6 mg/kg; ~1/8th LD50, while group IV was pretreated with vitamin C and then exposed to CPF, 30 min later. The regimens were administered by gavage once daily for 15 weeks. At the end of the treatment period, the animals were sacrificed by jugular venesection after light chloroform anesthesia, and sera obtained from the blood samples were analyzed for follicle-stimulating hormone (FSH, luteinizing hormone (LH and testosterone concentrations. Pituitary gland and the testicular tissues of each rat were quickly dissected, removed and assayed for the levels of glycogen and acetylcholinesterase (AChE activity. The right caudal epididymis was evaluated for spermatozoa concentrations. The results showed that decrease in concentrations of spermatozoa, luteinizing and follicle-stimulating hormones, testosterone, testicular glycogen, and inhibition of pituitary gland and testicular AChE activities caused by CPF were ameliorated by vitamin C. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(1: 23-30

  10. Role of freeze-thaw cycles and chlorpyrifos insecticide use on diffuse Cd loss and sediment accumulation. (United States)

    Wang, Fangli; Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fanghua; Jiao, Wei; Shan, Yushu; Lin, Chunye


    Freeze-thaw cycles are predicted to increase in cold temperate regions. The potential influence of the interactions of freeze-thaw cycles and agrochemicals on the release of Cd into river water is unknown. In this study, the interactions of freeze-thaw cycles and chlorpyrifos (FC) on Cd mobility in soils were analysed. The spatial variability of soil Cd under long-term intensive tillage in a freeze-thaw agro-system was also identified. The temporal variation of sediment Cd was detected based on analysis of the sediment geochemistry. The results showed that FC increased soil Cd mobility, with an increase of approximately 10% in CaCl2-extractable Cd. The increased mobile fractions of water-soluble and exchangeable Cd originated from the decreased fraction of Fe-Mn-oxide-associated Cd and organic matter-bound Cd. The total Cd content in the surface soil followed the zonally decreasing trend of dry land > paddy land > natural land. The Cd concentrations and sedimentation rates of the sediment core generally increased from 1943 to 2013 due to agricultural exploration and farmland irrigation system construction, indicating an increase of the Cd input flux into water. The results provide valuable information about the soil Cd transport response to the influence of climatic and anthropogenic factors in cold intensive agro-systems.

  11. Role of freeze-thaw cycles and chlorpyrifos insecticide use on diffuse Cd loss and sediment accumulation (United States)

    Wang, Fangli; Ouyang, Wei; Hao, Fanghua; Jiao, Wei; Shan, Yushu; Lin, Chunye


    Freeze-thaw cycles are predicted to increase in cold temperate regions. The potential influence of the interactions of freeze-thaw cycles and agrochemicals on the release of Cd into river water is unknown. In this study, the interactions of freeze-thaw cycles and chlorpyrifos (FC) on Cd mobility in soils were analysed. The spatial variability of soil Cd under long-term intensive tillage in a freeze-thaw agro-system was also identified. The temporal variation of sediment Cd was detected based on analysis of the sediment geochemistry. The results showed that FC increased soil Cd mobility, with an increase of approximately 10% in CaCl2-extractable Cd. The increased mobile fractions of water-soluble and exchangeable Cd originated from the decreased fraction of Fe-Mn-oxide-associated Cd and organic matter-bound Cd. The total Cd content in the surface soil followed the zonally decreasing trend of dry land > paddy land > natural land. The Cd concentrations and sedimentation rates of the sediment core generally increased from 1943 to 2013 due to agricultural exploration and farmland irrigation system construction, indicating an increase of the Cd input flux into water. The results provide valuable information about the soil Cd transport response to the influence of climatic and anthropogenic factors in cold intensive agro-systems.

  12. Cytotoxic effect of chlorpyrifos ethyl and its degradation derivatives by Pseudomonas peli strain isolated from the Oued Hamdoun River (Tunisia). (United States)

    Dellai, Afef; Dridi, Dorra; Sakouhi, Seif; Robert, Jacques; Djelal, Hayet; Mosrati, Ridha; Cherif, Ameur; Mansour, Hedi Ben


    A bacterium was isolated from the river of Oued Hamdoun (Tunisia), and its phenotypic features, physiological and chemotaxonomic characteristics and phylogenetic analysis of 16S ribosomal RNA sequence revealed it as Pseudomonas peli (P. peli). Chlorpyrifos ethyl (CP) was used as the sole source of carbon and energy by P. peli, and it was cometabolised in the presence of glucose. CP was completely degraded by P. peli after 96 h of shake incubation. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis indicated that the biodegradation kinetics was not affected by the addition of glucose into the culture medium. In the present study, only transient accumulation of one major no-identified product was observed after 48 h of incubation, with no other persistent metabolites detected. Cytotoxicity of CP, before and after biodegradation with P. peli, was evaluated in vitro using the MTT-colorimetric assay against three human cancer cell lines (A549, lung cell carcinoma, HT29, colon adenocarcinoma and MCF7, breast adenocarcinoma). CP reduced viability of all human cell lines in a dose-dependent manner. Its activity was very remarkable against A549 cell line. However, cytotoxicity strongly decreased in CP obtained after incubation with P. peli Hence, we conclude that when incubated under appropriate conditions,P. peli has a metabolism that completely detoxifies CP.

  13. Changes in Composition and Function of Human Intestinal Microbiota Exposed to Chlorpyrifos in Oil as Assessed by the SHIME® Model

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    Julie Reygner


    Full Text Available The presence of pesticide residues in food is a public health problem. Exposure to these substances in daily life could have serious effects on the intestine—the first organ to come into contact with food contaminants. The present study investigated the impact of a low dose (1 mg/day in oil of the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF on the community structure, diversity and metabolic response of the human gut microbiota using the SHIME® model (six reactors, representing the different parts of the gastrointestinal tract. The last three reactors (representing the colon were inoculated with a mixture of feces from human adults. Three time points were studied: immediately before the first dose of CPF, and then after 15 and 30 days of CPF-oil administration. By using conventional bacterial culture and molecular biology methods, we showed that CPF in oil can affect the gut microbiota. It had the greatest effects on counts of culturable bacteria (with an increase in Enterobacteria, Bacteroides spp. and clostridia counts, and a decrease in bifidobacterial counts and fermentative activity, which were colon-segment-dependent. Our results suggest that: (i CPF in oil treatment affects the gut microbiota (although there was some discordance between the culture-dependent and culture-independent analyses; (ii the changes are “SHIME®-compartment” specific; and (iii the changes are associated with minor alterations in the production of short-chain fatty acids and lactate.

  14. Biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by Klebsiella sp. isolated from an activated sludge sample of waste water treatment plant in Damascus. (United States)

    Ghanem, I; Orfi, M; Shamma, M


    A chlorpyrifos (CPY)-degrading bacterial strain was isolated from an activated sludge sample collected from the Damascus Wastewater Treatment Plant, Syria. The isolation of Klebsiella sp. was facilitated by the addition of CPY at a rate of 3.84 g/L of sludge weekly (selection pressure). Identification of Klebsiella sp. was done using major staining and biochemical differentiation tests (Gram stain, cytochrome oxidase and some relevant saccharide fermentation tests using biochemical assays). Klebsiella sp. was maintained by culturing in a poor medium consisting of mineral salts and CPY as the sole carbon source. When 3 activated sludge samples were incubated in the presence of CPY (13.9 g/L sludge), 46% of added CPY were degraded within 4 d. By comparison, within 4 d the isolated Klebsiella sp. was found to break down 92% of CPY when co-incubated in a poor mineral medium in which CPY was the sole carbon source (13.9 g/L poor medium). Isolated Klebsiella sp. was able to tolerate up to 17.3 g of CPY in the poor medium.

  15. Chlorpyrifos-methyl solubilisation by humic acids used as bio-surfactants extracted from lignocelluloses and kitchen wastes. (United States)

    Scaglia, Barbara; Baglieri, Andrea; Tambone, Fulvia; Gennari, Mara; Adani, Fabrizio


    Chlorpyrifos-methyl (CLP-m) is a widely used organophosphate insecticide that can accumulate in soil and become toxic to humans. CLP-m can be removed from soil by its solubilisation using synthetic surfactants. However, synthetic surfactants can accumulate in soil causing contamination phenomena themselves. Bio-surfactants can be used as an alternative to synthetic ones, reducing costs and environmental issues. In this work, humic acid (HA) extracted from raw biomasses, i.e. lignocelluloses (HAL) and lignocelluloses plus kitchen food waste (HALF), corresponding composts (C) (HALC and HALFC) and leonardite (HAc), were tested in comparison with commercial surfactants, i.e. SDS, Tween 20 and DHAB, to solubilize CLP-m. Results obtained indicated that only biomass-derived HA, composted biomass-derived HA, and SDS solubilized CLP-m: SDS = 0.006; HAL = 0.007; HALC = 0.009 g; HALF = 0.025; HALFC = 0.024) (g CLP-m g(-1) surfactant). Lignocelluloses HAs (HAL, HALF) solubilized CLP-m just as well as SDS while lignocellulosic plus kitchen food waste HA (HALF, HALFC) showed a three times higher CLP-m solubilisation capability. This difference was attributed to the higher concentration of alkyl-Carbon that creates strong links with CLP-m in the hydrophobic micelle-core of the surfactants.

  16. A statistical assessment of pesticide pollution in surface waters using environmental monitoring data: Chlorpyrifos in Central Valley, California. (United States)

    Wang, Dan; Singhasemanon, Nan; Goh, Kean S


    Pesticides are routinely monitored in surface waters and resultant data are analyzed to assess whether their uses will damage aquatic eco-systems. However, the utility of the monitoring data is limited because of the insufficiency in the temporal and spatial sampling coverage and the inability to detect and quantify trace concentrations. This study developed a novel assessment procedure that addresses those limitations by combining 1) statistical methods capable of extracting information from concentrations below changing detection limits, 2) statistical resampling techniques that account for uncertainties rooted in the non-detects and insufficient/irregular sampling coverage, and 3) multiple lines of evidence that improve confidence in the final conclusion. This procedure was demonstrated by an assessment on chlorpyrifos monitoring data in surface waters of California's Central Valley (2005-2013). We detected a significant downward trend in the concentrations, which cannot be observed by commonly-used statistical approaches. We assessed that the aquatic risk was low using a probabilistic method that works with non-detects and has the ability to differentiate indicator groups with varying sensitivity. In addition, we showed that the frequency of exceedance over ambient aquatic life water quality criteria was affected by pesticide use, precipitation and irrigation demand in certain periods anteceding the water sampling events.

  17. Pesticide chlorpyrifos acts as an endocrine disruptor in adult rats causing changes in mammary gland and hormonal balance. (United States)

    Ventura, Clara; Nieto, María Rosa Ramos; Bourguignon, Nadia; Lux-Lantos, Victoria; Rodriguez, Horacio; Cao, Gabriel; Randi, Andrea; Cocca, Claudia; Núñez, Mariel


    Endocrine disruptors (EDs) are compounds that interfere with hormone regulation and influence mammary carcinogenesis. We have previously demonstrated that the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) acts as an ED in vitro, since it induces human breast cancer cells proliferation through estrogen receptor alpha (ERα) pathway. In this work, we studied the effects of CPF at environmental doses (0.01 and 1mg/kg/day) on mammary gland, steroid hormone receptors expression and serum steroid hormone levels. It was carried out using female Sprague-Dawley 40-days-old rats exposed to the pesticide during 100 days. We observed a proliferating ductal network with a higher number of ducts and alveolar structures. We also found an increased number of benign breast diseases, such as hyperplasia and adenosis. CPF enhanced progesterone receptor (PgR) along with the proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA) in epithelial ductal cells. On the other hand, the pesticide reduced the expression of co-repressors of estrogen receptor activity REA and SMRT and it decreased serum estradiol (E2), progesterone (Pg) and luteinizing hormone (LH) levels. Finally, we found a persistent decrease in LH levels among ovariectomized rats exposed to CPF. Therefore, CPF alters the endocrine balance acting as an ED in vivo. These findings warn about the harmful effects that CPF exerts on mammary gland, suggesting that this compound may act as a risk factor for breast cancer.

  18. Biodegradation Characteristics of Chlorpyrifos by Mixed Culture of Bacillus cereus Strains%两株降解菌混合对毒死蜱的降解特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    In the present work,we investigated for the first time the degradation characteristics of chlorpyrifos by the mixed culture of Bacillus cereus strains.The optimal ratio of inoculation volume of the two strains for chlor-pyrifos degradation was established .Further,the effects of the inoculation volume,glucose concentration,initial pH and the initial chlorpyrifos concentration on the degradation efficiency of chlorprifos were determined .Simultaneous-ly,the effect of high salinity on the biodegradation activity of chlorpyrifos was also examined .The results showed that when the ratio(V/V) was 1∶1,the degradation rate to 80 mg/Lof chlorpyrifos reached the highest .The optimal in-oculum amount of the mixed strains was 8%(V/V) of the total volume.Addition of glucose stimulated the growth of the mixed strains but did not enhance the degradation efficiency of chlorpyrifos .The alkaline environment was prone to form the biomass and to achieve a high degradation rate of chlorpyrifos by the mixed strains .When the initial con-centration of chlorpyrifos was 42 mg/L,the residual concentration of chlorpyrifos decreased with the time .However, the degradation curves of chlorpyrifos at high concentrations (108,126 mg/L) followed two peaks.The degradation rate of the mixed strains to 80 mg/L of chlorpyrifos was above 41%while the sodium chloride concentration ranged from 20 g/L to 70 g/L.The results suggest that the mixed strains could be used as a potential and efficient chlor -pyrifos degrader for the bioremediation of contaminated sites ,especially for the cleanup of high salinity wastewater in the chlorpyrifos production enterprises .%  为明确2株蜡状芽孢杆菌(Bacillus cereus)混合对毒死蜱的降解效果,以混合菌对毒死蜱的降解率和菌株的生长量为依据,考察了混合菌不同配比和不同环境因素对混合菌降解毒死蜱的影响。结果表明,两菌株的比例为1∶1(V/V)时,对80 mg/L毒死蜱的降解率最

  19. Changes in Behavior and Brain Acetylcholinesterase Activity in Mosquito Fish, Gambusia affinis in Response to the Sub-Lethal Exposure to Chlorpyrifos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Nageswara Rao


    Full Text Available Sub-lethal studies of chlorpyrifos, O,O-diethyl-O-(3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridyl phosphorothioate on mosquito fish, Gambusia affinis were carried out in vivo, for 20 days to assess the locomotor behavior in relation to bioaccumulation and interaction with a targeted enzyme, acetylcholinesterase (AChE, EC: Fish exposed to sub-lethal concentration of 60 Ag/L (1/5 of LC50 were under stress, and reduced their locomotor behavior like distance travelled per unit time (m/min and swimming speed (cm/sec with respect to the length of exposure. The alteration in locomotor behavior of fish may be due to an accumulation of acetylcholine (ACh, a neurotransmitter at synaptic junctions, due to the inhibition of AChE enzyme activity (40 to 55% in brain and also bioaccumulation of the toxicant in different parts of fish. The bioaccumulation values indicated that the accumulation of chlorpyrifos was maximum in viscera followed by head and body. The average bioconcentration values are 0.109, 0.009 and 0.004 Ag/g for viscera, head and body with depuration rates of 2.24, 1.69 and 0.39 ng/h respectively. It is evident from the results that the sub-lethal concentration [1/5 of LC50; equivalent to Lowest Observed Effect Concentration (LOEC] of chlorpyrifos can able to alter the locomotor behavior of G. affinis in relation to the length of exposure. The findings revealed that the locomotor activity of test organism could be considered as a suitable marker to evaluate the affect of toxicant even at LOEC levels.

  20. Organophosphate pesticide method development and presence of chlorpyrifos in the feet of nearctic-neotropical migratory songbirds from Canada that over-winter in Central America agricultural areas. (United States)

    Alharbi, Hattan A; Letcher, Robert J; Mineau, Pierre; Chen, Da; Chu, Shaogang


    Recent modeling analysis suggests that numerous birds may be at risk of acute poisoning in insecticide-treated fields. Although the majority of avian field studies on pesticides have focused on treated seed, granule, insect or vegetation (oral exposure) ingestion, dermal exposure is an important exposure route when birds come into contact with deposited pesticides on foliage and other surfaces. Some nearctic-neotropical migratory songbirds are likely exposed to pesticides on their non-breeding habitats and include treated crops, plantations or farmlands. In the present study, we developed a method for four environmentally-relevant organophosphate (OP) pesticides (fenthion, fenamiphos, chlorpyrifos and diazinon) in the feet of migratory songbirds (i.e. Common yellowthroat, Gray catbird, Indigo bunting, America redstart, Northern waterthrush, Northern parula, and an additional 12 species of warblers). A total of 190 specimens of the 18 species of songbirds were sampled from available window-killed birds (spring of 2007 and 2011) in downtown Toronto, Canada. The species that were available most likely over-wintered in Mexican/Central American crops such as citrus, coffee and cacao. The feet of the dead birds were sampled and where OP foot exposure likely occurred during over-wintering foraging on pesticide-treated crops. Chlorpyrifos was the only measurable OP (pg mg feet weight(-1)) and in the 2011-collected feet of Black throated blue warbler (0.5), Tennessee warbler (1.0), Northern parula (1.2), Northern waterthrush (0.6), Common yellowthroat (1.0) and the Blue winged warbler (0.9). Dermal contact with OP pesticides during over-wintering in agricultural areas resulted in low levels of chlorpyrifos and long time retention on the feet of a subset of songbirds.

  1. Control of pyrethroid and DDT-resistant Anopheles gambiae by application of indoor residual spraying or mosquito nets treated with a long-lasting organophosphate insecticide, chlorpyrifos-methyl

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chabi Joseph


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Scaling up of long-lasting insecticidal nets (LLINs and indoor residual spraying (IRS with support from the Global Fund and President's Malaria Initiative is providing increased opportunities for malaria control in Africa. The most cost-effective and longest-lasting residual insecticide DDT is also the most environmentally persistent. Alternative residual insecticides exist, but are too short-lived or too expensive to sustain. Dow Agrosciences have developed a microencapsulated formulation (CS of the organophosphate chlorpyrifos methyl as a cost-effective, long-lasting alternative to DDT. Methods Chlorpyrifos methyl CS was tested as an IRS or ITN treatment in experimental huts in an area of Benin where Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasiactus are resistant to pyrethroids, but susceptible to organophosphates. Efficacy and residual activity was compared to that of DDT and the pyrethroid lambdacyalothrin. Results IRS with chlorpyrifos methyl killed 95% of An. gambiae that entered the hut as compared to 31% with lambdacyhalothrin and 50% with DDT. Control of Cx. quinquefasciatus showed a similar trend; although the level of mortality with chlorpyrifos methyl was lower (66% it was still much higher than for DDT (14% or pyrethroid (15% treatments. Nets impregnated with lambdacyhalothrin were compromized by resistance, killing only 30% of An. gambiae and 8% of Cx. quinquefasciatus. Nets impregnated with chlorpyrifos methyl killed more (45% of An gambiae and 15% of Cx. quinquefasciatus, but its activity on netting was of short duration. Contact bioassays on the sprayed cement-sand walls over the nine months of monitoring showed no loss of activity of chlorpyrifos methyl, whereas lambdacyhalothrin and DDT lost activity within a few months of spraying. Conclusion As an IRS treatment against pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes chlorpyrifos methyl CS outperformed DDT and lambdacyhalothrin. In IRS campaigns, chlorpyrifos methyl CS should

  2. Study on Pretreatment of Chlorpyrifos Process Wastewater%毒死蜱工艺废水预处理研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹敏; 钱茂; 周海云; 曹蕾; 蒋永伟


    毒死蜱工艺废水中含有吡啶类衍生物,属高浓度、难降解有毒有机废水.采用电催化氧化-微电解-混凝沉淀组合工艺对毒死蜱工艺废水进行预处理研究,结果表明,当电催化氧化单元进水pH值为3~4、电流密度为14mA/cm2、主反应器HRT为150 min,微电解单元铁炭比1∶1、进水pH值为3~4、HRT为100 min时,COD,TP,TOC的去除率分别为32.49%,37.39%,51.4%;在电催化氧化单元COD去除率出现负值,表明废水中吡啶类物质被有效分解.高效液相色谱分析结果表明,该预处理工艺对废水中3,6,5-三氯吡啶醇有着很好的去除效果,去除率达到99.9%以上.GC--MS分析结果表明,该预处理工艺对废水中的3,6,5-三氯吡啶醇分解彻底.%Chlorpyrifos wastewater which contains pyridine derivatives is highly concentrated refractory organic and toxic wastewater. Combined process of electro-catalytic oxidation- micro-electrolysis-coagulation sedimentation was used to pretreat chlorpyrifos wastewater. Results showed that the removal rates of COD, total phosphorus and TOC were 32.49%, 37.39% and 51.4%, respectively. When pH of electro-catalytic oxidation unit influent was 3 ~ 4, current density, HRT of main reactor, iron-carbon ratio of micro-electrolysis unit, pH of water inflow, hydraulic retention time was 14 mA/cm2, 150 min, 1:1, 3~ 4, 100 min, respectively. When removal efficiency of COD in the electro-catalytic oxidation unit became negative, it indicated that pyridine derivatives in the wastewater were decomposed effectively. Results analyzed by HPLC-MS showed that 3,6,5 -trichloro pyridine alcohol could be removed effectively by using this pretreatment process, and the removal efficiency was more than 99.9%. Meanwhile, results analyzed by GC —MS showed that 3,6,5 -trichloro pyridine alcohol could be decomposed thoroughly by using this pretreatment process.

  3. Development of a Non-Invasive Biomonitoring Approach to Determine Exposure to the Organophosphorus Insecticide Chlorpyrifos in Rat Saliva

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Chuck; Campbell, James A.; Liu, Guodong; Lin, Yuehe; Kousba, Ahmed A.


    Abstract Non-invasive biomonitoring approaches are being developed using reliable portable analytical systems to quantify dosimetry utilizing readily obtainable body fluids, such as saliva. In the current study, rats were given single oral gavage doses (1, 10 or 50 mg/kg) of the insecticide chlorpyrifos (CPF), saliva and blood were collected from groups of animals (4/time-point) at 3, 6, and 12 hr post-dosing, and the samples were analyzed for the CPF metabolite trichlorpyridinol (TCP). Trichlorpyridinol was detected in both blood and saliva at all doses and the TCP concentration in blood exceeded saliva, although the kinetics in blood and saliva were comparable. A physiologically based pharmacokinetic and pharmacodynamic (PBPK/PD) model for CPF incorporated a compartment model to describe the time-course of TCP in blood and saliva. The model adequately simulated the experimental results over the dose ranges evaluated. A rapid and sensitive sequential injection (SI) electrochemical immunoassay was developed to monitor TCP, and the reported detection limit for TCP in water was 6 ng/L. Computer model simulation in the range of the Allowable Daily Intake (ADI) or Reference Dose (RfD) for CPF (0.01-0.003 mg/kg/day) suggest that the electrochemical immunoassay had adequate sensitivity to detect and quantify TCP in saliva at these low exposure levels. To validate this approach further studies are needed to more fully understand the pharmacokinetics of CPF and TCP excretion in saliva. The utilization of saliva as a biomonitoring matrix, coupled to real-time quantitation and PBPK/PD modeling represents a novel approach with broad application for evaluating both occupational and environmental exposures to insecticides.

  4. Transcriptional impact of organophosphate and metal mixtures on olfaction: copper dominates the chlorpyrifos-induced response in adult zebrafish. (United States)

    Tilton, Fred A; Tilton, Susan C; Bammler, Theo K; Beyer, Richard P; Stapleton, Patricia L; Scholz, Nathaniel L; Gallagher, Evan P


    Chemical exposures in fish have been linked to loss of olfaction leading to an inability to detect predators and prey and decreased survival. However, the mechanisms underlying olfactory neurotoxicity are not well characterized, especially in environmental exposures which involve chemical mixtures. We used zebrafish to characterize olfactory transcriptional responses by two model olfactory inhibitors, the pesticide chlorpyrifos (CPF) and mixtures of CPF with the neurotoxic metal copper (Cu). Microarray analysis was performed on RNA from olfactory tissues of zebrafish exposed to CPF alone or to a mixture of CPF and Cu. Gene expression profiles were analyzed using principal component analysis and hierarchical clustering, whereas gene set analysis was used to identify biological themes in the microarray data. Microarray results were confirmed by real-time PCR on genes serving as potential biomarkers of olfactory injury. In addition, we mined our previously published Cu-induced zebrafish olfactory transcriptional response database (Tilton et al., 2008) for the purposes of discriminating pathways of olfaction impacted by either the individual agents or the CPF-Cu mixture transcriptional signatures. CPF exposure altered the expression of gene pathways associated with cellular morphogenesis and odorant binding, but not olfactory signal transduction, a known olfactory pathway for Cu. The mixture profiles shared genes from the Cu and CPF datasets, whereas some genes were altered only by the mixtures. The transcriptional signature of the mixtures was more similar to that in zebrafish exposed to Cu alone than for CPF. In conclusion, exposure to a mixture containing a common environmental metal and pesticide causes a unique transcriptional signature that is heavily influenced by the metal, even when organophosphate predominates.

  5. Impacts of oxidative stress on acetylcholinesterase transcription, and activity in embryos of zebrafish (Danio rerio) following Chlorpyrifos exposure. (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fuentes, Gabriela; Rubio-Escalante, Fernando J; Noreña-Barroso, Elsa; Escalante-Herrera, Karla S; Schlenk, Daniel


    Organophosphate pesticides cause irreversible inhibition of AChE which leads to neuronal overstimulation and death. Thus, dogma indicates that the target of OP pesticides is AChE, but many authors postulate that these compounds also disturb cellular redox processes, and change the activities of antioxidant enzymes. Interestingly, it has also been reported that oxidative stress plays also a role in the regulation and activity of AChE. The aims of this study were to determine the effects of the antioxidant, vitamin C (VC), the oxidant, t-butyl hydroperoxide (tBOOH) and the organophosphate Chlorpyrifos (CPF), on AChE gene transcription and activity in zebrafish embryos after 72h exposure. In addition, oxidative stress was evaluated by measuring antioxidant enzymes activities and transcription, and quantification of total glutathione. Apical effects on the development of zebrafish embryos were also measured. With the exception of AChE inhibition and enhanced gene expression, limited effects of CPF on oxidative stress and apical endpoints were found at this developmental stage. Addition of VC had little effect on oxidative stress or AChE, but increased pericardial area and heartbeat rate through an unknown mechanism. TBOOH diminished AChE gene expression and activity, and caused oxidative stress when administered alone. However, in combination with CPF, only reductions in AChE activity were observed with no significant changes in oxidative stress suggesting the adverse apical endpoints in the embryos may have been due to AChE inhibition by CPF rather than oxidative stress. These results give additional evidence to support the role of prooxidants in AChE activity and expression.

  6. Inulin Supplementation Lowered the Metabolic Defects of Prolonged Exposure to Chlorpyrifos from Gestation to Young Adult Stage in Offspring Rats (United States)

    Reygner, Julie; Lichtenberger, Lydia; Elmhiri, Ghada; Dou, Samir; Bahi-Jaber, Narges; Rhazi, Larbi; Depeint, Flore; Bach, Veronique


    Increasing evidence indicates that chlorpyrifos (CPF), an organophosphorus insecticide, is involved in metabolic disorders. We assess the hypothesis whether supplementation with prebiotics from gestation to adulthood, through a modulation of microbiota composition and fermentative activity, alleviates CPF induced metabolic disorders of 60 days old offspring. 5 groups of Wistar rats, from gestation until weaning, received two doses of CPF pesticide: 1 mg/kg/day (CPF1) or 3.5 mg/kg/day (CPF3.5) with free access to inulin (10g/L in drinking water). Then male pups received the same treatment as dams. Metabolic profile, leptin sensitivity, insulin receptor (IR) expression in liver, gut microbiota composition and short chain fatty acid composition (SCFAs) in the colon, were analyzed at postnatal day 60 in the offspring (PND 60). CPF3.5 increased offspring’s birth body weight (BW) but decreased BW at PND60. Inulin supplementation restored the BW at PND 60 to control levels. Hyperinsulinemia and decrease in insulin receptor β in liver were seen in CPF1 exposed rats. In contrast, hyperglycemia and decrease in insulin level were found in CPF3.5 rats. Inulin restored the levels of some metabolic parameters in CPF groups to ranges comparable with the controls. The total bacterial population, short chain fatty acid (SCFA) production and butyrate levels were enhanced in CPF groups receiving inulin. Our data indicate that developmental exposure to CPF interferes with metabolism with dose related effects evident at adulthood. By modulating microbiota population and fermentative activity, inulin corrected adult metabolic disorders of rats exposed to CPF during development. Prebiotics supply may be thus considered as a novel nutritional strategy to counteract insulin resistance and diabetes induced by a continuous pesticide exposure. PMID:27760213

  7. Bacterial community analysis in chlorpyrifos enrichment cultures via DGGE and use of bacterial consortium for CP biodegradation. (United States)

    Akbar, Shamsa; Sultan, Sikander; Kertesz, Michael


    The organophosphate pesticide chlorpyrifos (CP) has been used extensively since the 1960s for insect control. However, its toxic effects on mammals and persistence in environment necessitate its removal from contaminated sites, biodegradation studies of CP-degrading microbes are therefore of immense importance. Samples from a Pakistani agricultural soil with an extensive history of CP application were used to prepare enrichment cultures using CP as sole carbon source for bacterial community analysis and isolation of CP metabolizing bacteria. Bacterial community analysis (denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis) revealed that the dominant genera enriched under these conditions were Pseudomonas, Acinetobacter and Stenotrophomonas, along with lower numbers of Sphingomonas, Agrobacterium and Burkholderia. Furthermore, it revealed that members of Bacteroidetes, Firmicutes, α- and γ-Proteobacteria and Actinobacteria were present at initial steps of enrichment whereas β-Proteobacteria appeared in later steps and only Proteobacteria were selected by enrichment culturing. However, when CP-degrading strains were isolated from this enrichment culture, the most active organisms were strains of Acinetobacter calcoaceticus, Pseudomonas mendocina and Pseudomonas aeruginosa. These strains degraded 6-7.4 mg L(-1) day(-1) of CP when cultivated in mineral medium, while the consortium of all four strains degraded 9.2 mg L(-1) day(-1) of CP (100 mg L(-1)). Addition of glucose as an additional C source increased the degradation capacity by 8-14 %. After inoculation of contaminated soil with CP (200 mg kg(-1)) disappearance rates were 3.83-4.30 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for individual strains and 4.76 mg kg(-1) day(-1) for the consortium. These results indicate that these organisms are involved in the degradation of CP in soil and represent valuable candidates for in situ bioremediation of contaminated soils and waters.

  8. Negative Ion Chemical Ionization Mass Spectrometry for the Analysis of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in Saliva of Rats Exposed to Chlorpyrifos

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, James A.; Timchalk, Chuck; Kousba, Ahmed A.; Wu, Hong; Valenzuela, Blandina R.; Hoppe, Eric W.


    Organophosphorus (OP) insecticides (e.g. chlorpyrifos) are widely used in a variety of applications, and the potential exists for significant occupational and environmental exposures. They have been associated with more occupational poisoning cases than any other class of insecticides. One of the best approaches for accurately assessing human dosimetry and determining risk from both occupational and environmental exposure is biomonitoring. Biological matrices such as blood and urine have been routinely used for biomonitoring; however, other matrices such as saliva represent a simple and readily obtainable fluid. As a result, saliva has been suggested as an alternative biological matrix for the evaluation of a broad range of biomarkers such as environmental contaminants, drugs of abuse, hormones, chemotherapeutics, heavy metals, and pesticides. Chlorpyrifos (CPF), and its major metabolite, 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCP), have been quantified in urine and blood as a biomarker for exposure to OP insecticides. The purpose of this study was to develop an analytical approach for detecting and quantitating the levels of TCP in saliva obtained from rats exposed to CPF and to evaluate the potential of saliva as a non-invasive biomonitoring matrix. Adult male rats were administered CPF, and blood and saliva were humanely collected for analysis of TCP and CPF. TCP was detected and quantitated in saliva using negative ion chemical ionization mass spectrometry with selected ion monitoring. Initial results indicate that saliva may be potentially utilized as a non-invasive biomonitoring matrix to determine exposure to organophosphate insecticides.

  9. Cholinergic synaptic signaling mechanisms underlying behavioral teratogenicity : Effects of nicotine, chlorpyrifos, and heroin converge on protein kinase C translocation in the intermedial part of the hyperstriatum ventrale and on imprinting behavior in an avian model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Izrael, M; Van der Zee, EA; Slotkin, TA; Yanai, J; Slotkin, Theodore A.


    A wide variety of otherwise unrelated neuroteratogens elicit a common set of behavioral defects centering around cholinergic contributions to cognitive function. We utilized the developing chick to overcome confounds related to maternal effects and compared the actions of nicotine, chlorpyrifos, and

  10. Variation in susceptibility of laboratory and field strains of three stored-grain insect species to beta-cyfluthrin and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin applied to concrete surfaces (United States)

    The efficacy of beta-cyfluthrin and chlorpyrifos-methyl plus deltamethrin applied to clean, concrete floors of empty bins prior to grain storage against field strains of stored-grain insects is unknown. We exposed adults of 16 strains of the red flour beetle, Tribolium castaneum (Herbst); 8 strains ...

  11. Glutathione S-transferase conjugation of organophosphorus pesticides yields S-phospho-, S-aryl-, and S-alkylglutathione derivatives. (United States)

    Fujioka, Kazutoshi; Casida, John E


    Pesticide detoxification is a central feature of selective toxicity and safety evaluation. Two of the principal enzymes involved are GSH S-transferases (GSTs) and cytochrome P450s acting alone and together. More than 100 pesticides are organophosphorus (OP) compounds, but with few exceptions, their GSH conjugates have not been directly observed in vitro or in vivo. The major insecticides chlorpyrifos (CP) and diazinon are of particular interest as multifunctional substrates with diverse metabolites, while ClP(S)(OEt) 2 and the cotton defoliant tribufos are possible precursors of phosphorylated GSH conjugates. Formation of GSH conjugates by GST with GSH was studied in vitro with and without metabolic activation by human liver microsomes or P450 3A4 with NADPH. Metabolites were analyzed by liquid chromatography-electrospray ionization-mass spectrometry (LC-ESI-MS). Five GSH conjugates were identified from CP and chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO), i.e., GSCP and GSCPO in which the 6-chloro substituent of CP and CPO, respectively, is displaced by GSH; S-(3,5,6-trichloropyridin-2-yl)glutathione; S-(3,5-dichloro-6-hydroxypyridin-2-yl)glutathione; and S-ethylglutathione. GST of a human liver microsomal preparation but not P450 3A4 with GSH metabolized CP to GSCP. With GST and GSH, diazinon and diazoxon gave S-(2-isopropyl-4-methylpyrimidin-6-yl)glutathione and ClP(S)(OEt) 2 yielded GSP(S)(OEt) 2. With microsomes, NADPH, GST, and GSH tribufos gave GSP(O)(SBu) 2. The liver of intraperitoneally treated mice contained GSCP from CP, GSP(S)(OEt) 2 from ClP(S)(OEt) 2, and GSP(O)(SBu) 2 from tribufos. GSP(S)(OEt) 2 and GSP(O)(SBu) 2 are the first S-phosphoglutathione metabolites observed in vitro and in vivo directly by LC-ESI-MS. Nine other OP pesticides gave only O-dealkylation in the GST/GSH system. GST-catalyzed metabolism joins P450s and hydrolases as important contributors to OP detoxification.

  12. Determination of Chlorpyrifos Residue in Apples and Their Processing Products by GC%GC测定毒死蜱在苹果及其加工制品中的残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许高政; 周力; 王茜; 王明林


    The field spraying method was used to sprayed chlorpyrifos pesticide on apple trees. After simulating commercialization procedure to process apple juice,gas chromatography was employed to detect chlorpyrifos residue in apples,fresh apple juices and fruit juice concentrates. The results demonstrated that the commercialization process of juic-ing could decrease the chlorpyrifos residue effectively. Chlorpyrifos in fresh fruit juices were only 0.4%-24.2%of that in raw fruit materials.However,owing to the losing of water,chlorpyrifos residue in fruit juice concentrates increased greatly. The recovery of the method was 81.15%-106.02%, the relative standard devation was 7.6%-18.6%(n=5).%采用田间喷药方式对苹果树喷洒毒死蜱农药,然后模拟苹果汁商业化加工过程进行加工,利用气相色谱对苹果、鲜榨苹果汁以及浓缩果汁中的毒死蜱进行检测,结果表明,果汁商业化榨汁过程可有效降低农药残留,鲜榨果汁中的农药残留仅为原料果中的0.4%~24.2%,而浓缩果汁中由于水分的流失,农药残留会出现大幅的提高。该法加标回收率为81.15%~106.02%,测定结果的相对标准偏差为7.6%~18.6%(n=5)。

  13. Preparation of 2.5 % chlorpyrifos microspheres suspension concentrate%2.5%毒死蜱微球悬浮剂的制备

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨石有; 郭瑞峰; 刘德坤; 张翠; 张少飞; 李正杨; 吴刚


    采用流点法对毒死蜱微球悬浮剂的润湿分散剂种类进行了筛选,在所筛选的10种分散剂中,SOPA和N-甲基脂肪酰基牛磺酸盐的流点值较小,分别为0.5032和0.4656.进一步筛选了增稠剂、防冻剂,较优配方:11.2%毒死蜱聚乳酸微球、2.5% SOPA、2.5%N-甲基脂肪酰基牛磺酸盐、3.5%硅酸镁铝、5%乙二醇、0.15%有机硅消泡剂、0.1%苯甲酸钠、水75.05%,制剂的各项质量技术指标基本合格.生测结果表明,2.5%毒死蜱微球悬浮剂对小菜蛾幼虫的毒力略低于48%毒死蜱乳油.%The different wetting dispersants were screened by using pour point method.Among the 10 wetting dispersants,the pour points of SOPA and N-methyl fatty acyltaurine were lower (0.5032 and 0.4656,respectively).Based on the screening of wetting dispersants,thickening agents and anti-freeze agents were obtained.The formulation included 11.2% chlorpyrifos polylactic acid microspheres,2.5% SOPA,2.5% N-methyl fatty acyltaurine,3.5% magnesium aluminum silicate,5% ethylene glycol,0.15% silicone antifoaming agent,0.1% sodium benzoate and 75.05% H2O.The formulation conformed to the requirements for a suspension concentrate in all respects.The LC50 values of 2.5 % chlorpyrifos microspheres suspension concentrate against Plutella xylostella at 48 h was slightly higher than that of 48% chlorpyrifos EC.

  14. Evaluation of potency of known oximes (pralidoxime, trimedoxime, HI-6, methoxime, obidoxime) to in vitro reactivate acetylcholinesterase inhibited by pesticides (chlorpyrifos and methylchlorpyrifos) and nerve agent (Russian VX). (United States)

    Musílek, Kamil; Kuca, Kamil; Jun, Daniel


    Nerve agents and pesticides belong to the group of organophosphates. They are able to inhibit irreversibly the enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Acetylcholinesterase reactivators were designed for the treatment of nerve agent intoxications. Their potency to reactivate pesticide-inhibited AChE was many times evaluated. In this study, five commonly used AChE reactivators (pralidoxime, methoxime, HI-6, obidoxime, trimedoxime) for the reactivation of AChE inhibited by two pesticides (chlorpyrifos and methylchlorpyrifos) were used. Russian VX (nerve agent) as a member of nerve agents' family was taken for comparison. Obtained results show that oximes developed against nerve agent intoxication are less effective for intoxication with organophosphorus pesticides. Especially, methylchlorpyrifos-inhibited AChE was found to be poorly reactivated by the compounds used.

  15. Soil bacterial and fungal community successions under the stress of chlorpyrifos application and molecular characterization of chlorpyrifos-degrading isolates using ERIC-PCR%毒死蜱胁迫下土壤细菌和真菌群落演替及其降解菌群的分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lie-zhong CHEN; Yan-li LI; Yun-long YU


    Chlorpyrifos is a widely used insecticide in recent years, and it will produce adverse effects on soil when applied on crops or mixed with soil. In this study, nested polymerase chain reaction (PCR) and denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) were combined to explore the bacterial and fungal community successions in soil treated with 5 and 20 mg/kg of chlorpyrifos. Furthermore, isolates capable of efficiently decomposing chlorpyrifos were molecular-typed using enterobacterial repetitive intergenic consensus-PCR (ERIC-PCR). Under the experimental conditions, degradation of chlorpyrifos in soil was interpreted with the first-order kinetics, and the half-lives of chlor-pyrifos at 5 and 20 mg/kg doses were calculated to be 8.25 and 8.29 d, respectively. DGGE fingerprint and principal component analysis (PCA) indicated that the composition of the fungal community was obviously changed with the chlorpyrifos treatment, and that samples of chlorpyrifos treatment were significantly separated from those of the control from the beginning to the end. While for the bacterial community, chlorpyrifos-treated soil samples were apparently different in the first 30 d and recovered to a similar level of the control up until 60 d, and the distance in the PCA be-tween the chlorpyrifos-treated samples and the control was getting shorter through time and was final y clustered into one group. Together, our results demonstrated that the application of chlorpyrifos could affect the fungal community structure in a quick and lasting way, while only affecting the bacterial community in a temporary way. Final y, nine typical ERIC types of chlorpyrifos-degrading isolates were screened.%研究目的:评价毒死蜱施用后对土壤细菌和真菌群落结构的影响,并对降解功能菌株进行分析。  创新要点:通过聚合酶链式反应-变性梯度凝胶电泳(PCR-DGGE)方法,揭示了毒死蜱施用后土壤细菌和真菌群落结构动态变化,并对试

  16. The Effect of Route, Vehicle, and Divided Doses on the Pharmacokinetics of Chlorpyrifos and its Metabolite Trichloropyridinol in Neonatal Sprague-Dawley Rats

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marty, M. S.; Domoradzki, J. Y.; Hansen, S. C.; Timchalk, Chuck; Bartels, M. J.; Mattsson, Joel L.


    There is a paucity of data on neonatal systemic exposure using different dosing paradigms. Male CD (Sprague-Dawley derived) rats at postnatal day (PND) 5 were dosed with chlorpyrifos (CPF, 1 mg/kg) using different routes of exposure, vehicles, and single vs. divided doses. Blood concentrations of CPF and its primary metabolite, trichloropyridinol (TCP), were measured at multiple times through 24 h. Groups included: single gavage bolus vs. divided gavage doses in corn oil (1 vs 3 times in 24 h), single gavage bolus vs. divided gavage doses in rat milk, and subcutaneous administration in DMSO. These data were compared with lactational exposure of PND 5 pups from dams exposed to CPF in the diet at 5 mg/kg/day for four weeks or published data from dams exposed to daily gavage with CPF at 5 mg/kg/day. Maternal blood CPF levels were an order of magnitude lower from dietary exposure than gavage (1.1 vs 14.8 ng/g), and blood CPF levels in PND 5 pups that nursed dietary-exposed or gavage-exposed dams were below the limit of detection. Single gavage doses of 1 mg/kg CPF in corn oil vehicle in pups resulted in CPF blood levels of 49 ng/g, and in milk vehicle about 9 ng/g. Divided doses led to lower peak CPF levels. A bolus dose of 1 mg/kg CPF in DMSO administered sc appeared to have substantially altered pharmacokinetics from orally administered chlorpyrifos. To be meaningful for risk assessment, neonatal studies require attention to the exposure scenario, since route, vehicle, dose and frequency of administration result in different systemic exposure to the test chemical and its metabolites.

  17. 毒死蜱—聚乳酸微球的制备及其性能评价%Preparation and characteristics analysis of microspheres of chlorpyrifos and polylactic acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭瑞峰; 黄彬彬; 杨晓伟; 吴祖建; 吴刚


    The sustained-release microspheres of chlorpyrifos was prepared by solvent evaporation method using biodegradable polylactic acid (PLA) as wall materials and chlorpyrifos as core materials. The effects of ratio between core materials to wall materials ( chlorpyrifos weight/ PLA weight, CP value) and the concentration of PLA on the characteristics of microsphere were investigated. The results indicated that particle diameter, drug-loading rate and entrapment efficiency of microsphere increased with the increase of the concentration of PLA. The particle diameter and drug-loading rate of microsphere decreased when the CP value was decreased from 1:2 to 1:5. When the CP value were 1:3 and 1: 4, the entrapment efficiency of microsphere were 89. 88% ± 1. 67% and 90. 55% ± 1. 86% , respectively. The smooth and intact microspheres of chlorpyrifos were formed when the CP value were lower than 1:2. The differential scanning calorimetry ( DSC) determination demonstrated that chlorpyrifos and PLA were combined well to form the microspheres. The results indicated that the appropriate concentration of PLA and CP value contributes to the property of the chlorpyrifos microspheres.%以毒死蜱为芯材,以生物可降解材料聚乳酸(PLA)为载体(壁材),采用溶剂挥发法制备了毒死蜱缓释微球,考察了芯壁材质量比及聚乳酸浓度对微球质量的影响.结果表明:当聚乳酸浓度增加时,载药量和包封率、粒径均随之增加;当芯壁材质量比减小(由1:2减小至1:5)时,微球粒径、载药量也逐渐减小;包封率在芯壁材质量比为1:3和1:4时分别为89.88%±1.67%和90.55%±1.86%;当芯壁材质量比小于1∶2时,微球呈光滑完整的球形.差示扫描量热检测分析证明,毒死蜱和聚乳酸能够有机地结合为一体.表明合适的芯壁材比例和聚乳酸浓度有利于提高制备微球的质量.

  18. 两株蜡状芽孢杆菌对毒死蜱的降解动力学研究%Kinetics of chlorpyrifos degradation by Bacillus cereus strains

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    Organophosphorus pesticides have been widely used to control insect pests in agriculture. These compounds have been implicated in several nerve and muscular diseases in humans. Large-scale manufacturing and handling of organophosphate insecticides have caused the contamination of soils, air, surface water and groundwater across the globe. Chlorpyrifos degradation has become an increasingly important area of research in recent years. The current focus has been on the development of cost effective and eco-friendly technologies for treating polluted environments. Biodegradation has offered an efficient and cheap option for such decontamination process. Similarly, biodegradation has also been the main mechanism for removed chlorpyrifos residue, especially in the treatment of discharged wastewater from the varied processes of chlorpyrifos production. The study of the degradation kinetics was useful for understanding biodegradation processes as well as estimating pollutant concentrations. The degradation of high concentration pollutants was critical for developing practical applications of degrading bacteria. In this study, two pure Bacillus cereus strains (HY-1 and HY-2) were used in chlorpyrifos biodegradation in a batch of shake-flasks. The rate and extent of biodegradation were quantified at different chlorpyrifos initial concentrations (in the range of 40~200 mg·L-1) by B. cereus through adding chorpyrifos to mineralized medium and analyzing chlorpyrifos residue at a definite time. At the same time, the effects of incubation times and size of inoculum on chlorpyrifos degradation rate were determined. The degradation rate of high chlorpyrifos concentration by B. cereus was also measured. The results showed that the appropriate incubation time of inoculum of HY-1 and HY-2 strains were 10 h and 19 h respectively. The data suggested that inoculum incubation time significantly influenced chlorpyrifos degradation efficiency. Optimum inoculum amount for the two strains

  19. Associação do índice CPO-D com indicadores sócio-econômicos e de provisão de serviços odontológicos no Estado do Paraná, Brasil Association of the DMFT index with socioeconomic and dental services indicators in the state of Paraná, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Márcia Helena Baldani


    Full Text Available Este estudo ecológico investigou as associações entre cárie dentária, indicadores sócio-econômicos e de oferta de serviços odontológicos no Estado do Paraná, Brasil, para o ano de 1996. Dois tipos de informações foram reunidos: (1 dados sobre prevalência de cárie dentária (CPO-D aos 12 anos para os municípios do Estado; (2 dados relativos às condições sócio-econômicas e de oferta de serviços odontológicos. Com base em análise de regressão linear simples demonstrou-se correlação significativa entre o índice de cárie dentária nos municípios e os vários indicadores sociais e de oferta de serviços. Resultados da análise de regressão linear múltipla apontaram que apenas um indicador de desigualdade de renda permaneceu significativamente associado com cárie dentária, demonstrando que as piores condições de saúde bucal não podem ser dissociadas das disparidades de renda. Observou-se correlação negativa significativa entre o CPO-D e a proporção de população que recebe água fluorada, principalmente nos municípios com piores indicadores de desigualdade de renda. Nesse sentido, sublinha-se a importância desse benefício não só como recurso para a redução dos níveis de cárie, como também para atenuar o impacto das desigualdades sócio-econômicas sobre a prevalência de cárie dentária.This ecological study investigated the associations between dental caries, socioeconomic indicators, and the supply of dental services in the State of Paraná, Brazil, for the year 1996. Two types of information were collected: (1 data on caries prevalence (DMFT at 12 years for the municipalities (or counties in the State; (2 data on socioeconomic conditions and the supply of dental services. Based on simple linear regression analysis, the study demonstrated a significant correlation between the caries index in municipalities and various social and dental services supply indicators. Results of the analysis of multiple

  20. Biodegradation Status and Prospect of Chlorpyrifos and its Intermediate TCP%毒死蜱及其中间体TCP的微生物降解研究现状及展望

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    This was a review about the biodegradation of chlorpyrifos and TCP. The important role about the bio- degradation of TCP for the removal of chlorpyrifos contamination was clarified. In the end of the paper, the au- thor gave the future direction about dation for the wastewater discharged the treatment of chlorpyrifos pollution, especially about the microbial degra- from pesticide enterprises.%本文就国内外毒死蜱及其中间体TCP(3,5,6-三氯-2-吡啶酚(钠))降解菌的分离筛选及其降解特性研究作一综述,指出了TCP的生物降解对毒死蜱彻底降解的重要作用。最后针对毒死蜱污染的去除,尤其对毒死蜱生产企业的废水处理作出了展望。



    Ibragimov Abdulla; Fatimah Mohamed Arshad; B. K. Bala; Kusairi Mohd Noh; Muhammad Tasrif


    In January 2013, Malaysia reduced the export duty structure to be in line with the Indonesia’s duty structure. Both countries export crude and processed palm oil. Since Malaysia and Indonesia are close competitors and they compete in the same market, a change in export duty rate in one country will affect the other. Indonesia, as the world’s biggest palm oil producer, has drastically widened the values between the crude palm oil and refined palm oil export taxes since October 2011...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ibragimov Abdulla


    Full Text Available In January 2013, Malaysia reduced the export duty structure to be in line with the Indonesia’s duty structure. Both countries export crude and processed palm oil. Since Malaysia and Indonesia are close competitors and they compete in the same market, a change in export duty rate in one country will affect the other. Indonesia, as the world’s biggest palm oil producer, has drastically widened the values between the crude palm oil and refined palm oil export taxes since October 2011, to encourage more downstream investments and production of refined palm oil products. Under the revised export duty structure, crude palm oil and crude palm kernel oil are cheaper for downstream activities in Indonesia. The new structure is expected to reduce Malaysia’s competitiveness in the world market as its export duty is relatively higher. A high export duty results in high price of crude palm oil which is the raw material for processed palm oil. The research questions are: (i What are the likely future trends of crude palm oil exports under the new crude palm oil export duties? Will it increase, reduce or stabilize? (ii What are the likely future trends of processed palm oil exports? Will it increase exponentially, stabilize or reduce? To answer these questions, a system dynamics model was developed for the Malaysian palm oil. Application of the system dynamics model provides a framework to understand the feedback structure and how changes in variables impact the behavior of the palm oil industry. This research suggests that with low crude palm oil export duties crude palm oil domestic price, profitability of plantation owners, immature crop, mature crop, total planted area, production and exports of crude palm oil increase, however exports of processed palm oil decrease.

  3. CPO-induced seismic anisotropy in UHP eclogites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Ultrahigh-pressure (UHP) eclogites often show strong plastic deformation and anisotropy of seismic properties. We report in this paper the seismic velocity and anisotropy of eclogite calculated from the crystallographic preferred orientations (CPOs) of constituent minerals (garnet, omphacite, quartz and rutile) and single crystal elastic properties. We also compared the calculated results with the measured results in similar eclogites. Our results suggest that (1) Except that garnet is a seismically quasi-isotropic mineral, omphacite, quartz, coesite and rutile all have strong seismic anisotropies (AVp = 23.0%―40.9%, Max. AVs = 18.5%―47.1%). They are the major sources for anisotropy in eclogite. The average seismic velocities are fast in garnet and rutile, moderate in omphacite and coesite, and slow in quartz. (2) The deformed eclogites have the maximum Vp (8.33―8.75 km/s) approximately parallel to foliation and lineation, the minimum Vp (8.25―8.62 km/s) approximately normal to foliation and lineation and the Vp anisotropies of 1.0―1.7%. Their Vs are 4.93―4.97 km/s. The corresponding maximum anisotropies (0.73%―1.78%) of Vs are at 45° to both foliation and lineation and the minimum anisotropies at positions normal to lineation on the foliation plane. The Vs1 polarization planes are approximately parallel to foliation. The mean Vp and Vs of eclogite under UHP peak metamorphism conditions (P = 3―5 GPa, T = 900―1100℃) are estimated to be 3.4%―7.2% and 6.3%―12.1% higher than those at ambient pressure and temperature conditions, respectively. (3) Omphacite component dominates the anisotropy of eclogite while garnet component reduces the anisotropy and increases the seismic velocities. Quartz component has a small effect on the anisotropy but reduces the seismic velocities of eclogite. The effect of rutile component is negligible on seismic properties of eclogite due to its trivial volume fraction. (4) The increase of volume fraction of omphacite in eclogite will reduce the seismic velocities and increase the anisotropy. Omphacitite has seismic velocities reduced by 6%―8% and anisotropies increased to 3%―4% compared to those of garnetite. Our results suggest that the seismic properties calculated with single crystal elastic properties and CPOs are equivalent to those measured in laboratory. Moreover, it provides insights into the mineral physical interpretations of eclogite seismic properties.

  4. 多杀菌素·毒死蜱微球高效液相色谱分析%HPLC Analysis Research of Spinosad Chlorpyrifos Microsphere

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘德坤; 张翠; 杨石有; 吴祖建; 吴刚


    [Aims] A method was developed for the quantitative determination of spinosad and chlorpyrifos under the same HPLC condition. [Methods] The mobile phase was a mixture of methanol, acetonitrile and 0.05% acetic sodium solution (45 :45 : 10, by vol), and the flow rate was 1.0 mL/min. A Amethyst C18-H and a UV wavelength detector were used with column temperature at 20 °C and the detection wave length was 250 nm. [Results] For the detection methods of spinosad and chlorpyrifos, the standard deviations were 0.0541 and 0.0701, coefficients of variation were 0.621 'and 0.578%, average recovery rate were 97.45 and 100.03%, and linear correlation coefficient were 0.9999, 0.9997, respectively. [Conclusions] The method in this study displayed the advantages of convenience, shortcut, good separation, high precision and accuracy, and good linear correlations.%[目的]建立了在同一液相色谱条件下测定多杀菌素和毒死蜱的定量分析方法.[方法]以甲醇-乙腈-0.05%乙酸钠溶液(体积比45∶45∶10)为流动相,流速为1.0 mL/min,使用Amethyst C18-H色谱柱,紫外波长检测器,柱温为20℃,选择250 nm为检测波长进行检测.[结果]方法对于多杀菌素和毒死蜱组分的标准偏差分别为0.0541、0.0701,变异系数为0.621%、0.578%,平均回收率为97.45%、100.03%,线性相关系数为0.9999、0.9997.[结论]该方法具有简便、快捷、分离效果好、精密度和准确度高、线性关系好的特点.

  5. Characterization of cholinesterases present in brain and muscle tissues of juvenile blue shark (Prionace glauca

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luís Miguel Fonseca Alves


    Regarding the in vitro exposure to chlorpyrifos-oxon, we have observed a dose-response pattern showing higher ChE inhibitions with increasing pesticide concentrations and with more than 90% inhibition in the highest concentrations, which reveals the potential of this biomarker for biomonitoring studies and contaminant effect assessment in the blue shark.

  6. Assessing Protection Against OP Pesticides and Nerve Agents Provided by Wild-Type HuPON1 Purified from Trichoplusia ni Larvae or Induced via Adenoviral Infection (United States)


    times the median lethal dose (LD50) of the OP nerve agents tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), and cyclosarin (GF), or chlorpyrifos oxon, the toxic...Doctor, M.P. Nambiar, Efficient hydrolysis of the chemical warfare nerve agent tabun by recombinant and purified human and rabbit serum paraoxonase

  7. Alterations in juvenile diploid and triploid African catfish skin gelatin yield and amino acid composition: Effects of chlorpyrifos and butachlor exposures. (United States)

    Karami, Ali; Karbalaei, Samaneh; Zad Bagher, Fariba; Ismail, Amin; Simpson, Stuart L; Courtenay, Simon C


    Skin is a major by-product of the fisheries and aquaculture industries and is a valuable source of gelatin. This study examined the effect of triploidization on gelatin yield and proximate composition of the skin of African catfish (Clarias gariepinus). We further investigated the effects of two commonly used pesticides, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and butachlor (BUC), on the skin gelatin yield and amino acid composition in juvenile full-sibling diploid and triploid African catfish. In two separate experiments, diploid and triploid C. gariepinus were exposed for 21 days to graded CPF [mean measured: 10, 16, or 31 μg/L] or BUC concentrations [Mean measured: 22, 44, or 60 μg/L]. No differences in skin gelatin yield, amino acid or proximate compositions were observed between diploid and triploid control groups. None of the pesticide treatments affected the measured parameters in diploid fish. In triploids, however, gelatin yield was affected by CPF treatments while amino acid composition remained unchanged. Butachlor treatments did not alter any of the measured variables in triploid fish. To our knowledge, this study is the first to investigate changes in the skin gelatin yield and amino acid composition in any animal as a response to polyploidization and/or contaminant exposure.

  8. Effects of melatonin on changes in cognitive performances and brain malondialdehyde concentration induced by sub-chronic co-administration of chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in male Wister rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Idris Sherifat Banke; Ambali Suleiman Folorunsho; Bisalla Mohammed; Suleiman Mohammed Musa; Onukak Charles; Ayo Joseph Olusegun


    Objective: To evaluate the ameliorative effect of melatonin on sub-chronic chlorpyrifos (CPF) and cypermethrin (CYP)-evoked cognitive changes in male Wistar rats. Methods:Fifty adult male Wistar rats, divided into five groups of ten rats each, were used for the study. Groups 1 and II were given distilled water and soya oil (2 mL/kg) respectively. Group III was administered with melatonin at 0.5 mg/kg only. Group IV was administered with CPF [7.96 mg/kg (1/10th LD50)] and CYP [29.6 mg/kg (1/10th LD50)] , and Group V was administered with CPF [7.96 mg/kg (1/10th LD50)] and CYP [29.6 mg/kg (1/10th LD50)] 30 min after melatonin (0.5 mg/kg). The regimens were administered by gavage once daily for 12 weeks. Thereafter, cognitive performances were determined and the brain was evaluated for malonaldehyde concentration. Results: CPF and CYP induced cognitive deficits and increased brain malonaldehyde concentration, which were all ameliorated by melatonin.Conclusion: Cognitive deficits elicited by CPF and CYP was mitigated by melatonin due to its antioxidant property.

  9. Quaternary and tertiary aldoxime antidotes for organophosphate exposure in a zebrafish model system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schmidt, Hayden R. [Department of Biology, Whittier College, Whittier, CA 90608 (United States); Radić, Zoran; Taylor, Palmer [Department of Pharmacology, Skaggs School of Pharmacy and Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of California at San Diego, La Jolla, CA 92093-0650 (United States); Fradinger, Erica A., E-mail: [Department of Biology, Whittier College, Whittier, CA 90608 (United States)


    The zebrafish is rapidly becoming an important model system for screening of new therapeutics. Here we evaluated the zebrafish as a potential pharmacological model for screening novel oxime antidotes to organophosphate (OP)-inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). The k{sub i} values determined for chlorpyrifos oxon (CPO) and dichlorvos (DDVP) showed that CPO was a more potent inhibitor of both human and zebrafish AChE, but overall zebrafish AChE was less sensitive to OP inhibition. In contrast, aldoxime antidotes, the quaternary ammonium 2-PAM and tertiary amine RS-194B, showed generally similar overall reactivation kinetics, k{sub r}, in both zebrafish and human AChE. However, differences between the K{sub ox} and k{sub 2} constants suggest that zebrafish AChE associates more tightly with oximes, but has a slower maximal reactivation rate than human AChE. Homology modeling suggests that these kinetic differences result from divergences in the amino acids lining the entrance to the active site gorge. Although 2-PAM had the more favorable in vitro reactivation kinetics, RS-194B was more effective antidote in vivo. In intact zebrafish embryos, antidotal treatment with RS-194B rescued embryos from OP toxicity, whereas 2-PAM had no effect. Dechorionation of the embryos prior to antidotal treatment allowed both 2-PAM and RS-194B to rescue zebrafish embryos from OP toxicity. Interestingly, RS-194B and 2-PAM alone increased cholinergic motor activity in dechorionated embryos possibly due to the reversible inhibition kinetics, K{sub i} and αK{sub i}, of the oximes. Together these results demonstrate that the zebrafish at various developmental stages provides an excellent model for investigating membrane penetrant antidotes to OP exposure. - Highlights: • Zebrafish AChE shares significant structural similarities with human AChE. • OP-inhibited zebrafish and human AChE exhibit similar reactivation kinetics. • The zebrafish chorion is permeable to BBB penetrant and not

  10. Erythrocyte osmotic fragility and lipid peroxidation following chronic co-exposure of rats to chlorpyrifos and deltamethrin, and the beneficial effect of alpha-lipoic acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chidiebere Uchendu


    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the effect of chronic co-exposure to chlorpyrifos (CPF and deltamethrin (DLT on erythrocyte osmotic fragility, lipid peroxidation and the ameliorative effect of alpha-lipoic acid (ALA on erythrocyte fragility. Thirty-six male Wistar rats divided into six groups of six rats each were used for the study. Groups I (S/oil and II (ALA were given soya oil (2 ml/kg and ALA (60 mg/kg, respectively. Rats in group III (DLT and IV (CPF were exposed to DLT (6.25 mg/kg and CPF (4.75 mg/kg (1/20th of the previously determined LD50 of 125 mg/kg and 95 mg/kg, respectively, over a period of 48 h. Rats in group V (CPF + DLT were co-exposed to CPF (4.75 mg/kg and DLT (6.25 mg/kg, while those in group VI (ALA + CPF + DLT were pretreated with ALA (60 mg/kg and then co-exposed to CPF and DLT, 45 min later. The treatments were administered by gavage once daily for a period of 16 weeks. Blood collected at the end of the experimental period were analyzed for erythrocyte osmotic fragility and malondialdehyde (MDA concentration. The study showed that chronic co-exposure to CPF and DLT resulted in an increase in erythrocyte fragility and MDA concentration which were ameliorated by supplementation with alpha-lipoic acid. The study concluded that repeated co-exposure to CPF and DLT elevated erythrocyte fragility probably due to increased lipid peroxidation, and pretreatment with alpha-lipoic acid ameliorated these alterations.

  11. On The Protection by The Combination of CeO2 Nanoparticles and Sodium Selenite on Human Lymphocytes against Chlorpyrifos-Induced Apoptosis In Vitro

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    Sahar Pedram


    Full Text Available Objective: Chlorpyrifos (CP as an organophosphorus pesticide is thought to induce oxidative stress in human cells via producing reactive oxygen species (ROS that leads to the presence of pathologic conditions due to apoptosis along with acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition.This study aimed to evaluate the apoptotic effects of CP and to assess the protective potential of CeO2 nanoparticle (CNP and sodium selenite (SSe by measuring cascades of apoptosis, oxidative stress, inflammation, and AChE inhibition in human isolated lymphocytes. Materials and Methods: In the present experimental study, we examined the anti-oxidative and AChE activating potential of CNP and SSe in CP-treated human lymphocytes. Therefore, the lymphocytes were isolated and exposed to CP, CP+CNP, CP+SSe, and CP+CNP+SSe after a three-day incubation. Then tumor necrosis factor-alpha (TNF-α release, myeloperoxidase (MPO activity, thiobarbituric acid-reactive substances (TBARS levels as inflammatory/oxidative stress indices along with AChE activity were assessed. In addition, the apoptotic process was measured by flow cytometry. Results: Results showed a significant reduction in the mortality rate, TNF-α, MPO activity, TBARS, and apoptosis rate in cells treated with CNP, SSe and their combination. Interestingly, both CNP and SSe were able to activate AChE which is inhibited by CP. The results supported the synergistic effect of CNP/SSe combination in the prevention of apoptosis along with oxidative stress and inflammatory cascade. Conclusion: CP induces apoptosis in isolated human lymphocytes via oxidative stress and inflammatory mediators. CP firstly produces ROS, which leads to membrane phospholipid damage. The beneficial effects of CNP and SSe in reduction of CP-induced apoptosis and restoring AChE inhibition relate to their anti-oxidative potentials.

  12. Ameliorative effect of vitamin C and E on hematological alterations induced by chlorpyrifos alone and in conjunction with fluoride in Wistar rats

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    Naseer A. Baba


    Full Text Available Objective: Chlorpyrifos (CPF is a common organophosphorus pesticide used worldwide for the management of agricultural and household pests. Similarly excessive fluoride (F ingestion is an important public health problem all over the world due to high fluoride content in groundwater. The present study aimed to investigate the alterations in hematological parameters by CPF alone and in conjunction with fluoride and their amelioration by vitamin C and E. Methods: The study was carried out in two phases; in the first phase toxicity was induced by toxicants and in the second phase ameliorative efficacy of vitamins was tested. Results: In the first phase, repeated oral administration of fluoride in drinking water at the dose of 1 and 10 mg/l caused increased monocyte and total leukocyte count (TLC. On the other hand, orally administered CPF (1 mg/kg resulted in decrease of packed cell volume (PCV with increase in TLC; in addition, granulocytes and monocytes were significantly increased. CPF at 10 mg/kg significantly decreased PCV and total erythrocyte count (TEC, whereas increase in TLC was observed. Co-administration of fluoride in drinking water (10 mg/l and CPF via oral gavage (10 mg/kg for 28 days resulted in decrease of hemoglobin (Hb, PCV, TEC whereas increase in TLC. The differential leukocyte count (DLC showed a decrease in lymphocyte values but an increase in granulocytes and monocytes. Conclusion: Simultaneous administration of with vitamin C and E along with CPF and fluoride ameliorated various hematological parameters, except TLC, granulocytes and monocytes, induced by co-exposure of CPF and fluoride in Wistar rats. [J Exp Integr Med 2013; 3(3.000: 213-218

  13. The toxicity of chlorpyrifos on the early life stage of zebrafish: a survey on the endpoints at development, locomotor behavior, oxidative stress and immunotoxicity. (United States)

    Jin, Yuanxiang; Liu, Zhenzhen; Peng, Tao; Fu, Zhengwei


    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is one of the most toxic pesticides in aquatic ecosystem, but its toxicity mechanisms to fish are still not fully understood. This study examined the toxicity targets of CPF in early life stage of zebrafish on the endpoints at developmental toxicity, neurotoxicity, oxidative stress and immunotoxicity. Firstly, CPF exposure decreased the body length, inhibited the hatchability and heart rate, and resulted in a number of morphological abnormalities, primarily spinal deformities (SD) and pericardial edema (PE), in larval zebrafish. Secondly, the free swimming activities and the swimming behaviors of the larvae in response to the stimulation of light-to-dark photoperiod transition were significantly influenced by the exposure to 100 and 300 μg/L CPF. In addition, the activity of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and the transcription of some genes related to neurotoxicity were also influenced by CPF exposure. Thirdly, CPF exposure induced oxidative stress in the larval zebrafish. The malondialdehyde (MDA) levels increased and the glutathione (GSH) contents decreased significantly in a concentration-dependent manner after the exposure to CPF for 96 hours post fertilization (hpf). CPF affected not only the activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD), catalase (CAT), glutathione peroxidase (GPX) and glutathione S-transferase (GST), but also the transcriptional levels of their respective genes. Finally, the mRNA levels of the main cytokines including tumor necrosis factor α (Tnfα), interferon (Ifn), interleukin-1 beta (Il-1β), interleukin 6 (Il6), complement factor 4 (C4) in the larvae increased significantly after the exposure to 100 or 300 μg/L CPF for 96 hpf, suggesting that the innate immune system disturbed by CPF in larvae. Taken together, our results suggested that CPF had the potential to cause developmental toxicity, behavior alterations, oxidative stress and immunotoxicity in the larval zebrafish.

  14. Rosiglitazone inhibits chlorpyrifos-induced apoptosis via modulation of the oxidative stress and inflammatory response in SH-SY5Y cells

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, Jeong Eun [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Park, Jae Hyeon; Jang, Sea Jeong [Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Koh, Hyun Chul, E-mail: [Department of Pharmacology, College of Medicine, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Hanyang Biomedical Research Institute, Seoul (Korea, Republic of); Graduate School of Biomedical Science and Engineering, Hanyang University, Seoul (Korea, Republic of)


    Oxidative stress can lead to expression of inflammatory transcription factors, which are important regulatory elements in the induction of inflammatory responses. One of the transcription factors, nuclear transcription factor kappa-B (NF-κB) plays a significant role in the inflammation regulatory process. Inflammatory cell death has been implicated in neuronal cell death in some neurodegenerative disorders such as Parkinson's disease (PD). In this study, we investigated the molecular mechanisms underlying apoptosis initiated by chlorpyrifos (CPF)-mediated oxidative stress. Based on the cytotoxic mechanism of CPF, we examined the neuroprotective effects of rosiglitazone (RGZ), a peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma (PPAR-γ) agonist, against CPF-induced neuronal cell death. The treatment of SH-SY5Y cells with CPF induced oxidative stress. In addition, CPF activated the p38, JNK and ERK mitogen-activated protein kinases (MAPKs), and induced increases in the inflammatory genes such as COX-2 and TNF-α. CPF also induced nuclear translocation of NF-κB and inhibitors of NF-κB abolished the CPF-induced COX-2 expression. Pretreatment with RGZ significantly reduced ROS generation and enhanced HO-1 expression in CPF-exposed cells. RGZ blocked the activation of both p38 and JNK signaling, while ERK activation was strengthened. RGZ also attenuated CPF-induced cell death through the reduction of NF-κB-mediated proinflammatory factors. Results from this study suggest that RGZ may exert an anti-apoptotic effect against CPF-induced cytotoxicity by attenuation of oxidative stress as well as inhibition of the inflammatory cascade via inactivation of signaling by p38 and JNK, and NF-κB. - Highlights: • CPF induces apoptotic cell death in SH-SY5Y cells • ROS involved in CPF-mediated apoptotic cell death • Inflammation involved in CPF-mediated apoptotic cell death • Rosiglitazone modulates ROS and inflammatory response in CPF-treated cells.

  15. Molecular Cloning and Expression of CYP9A61: A Chlorpyrifos-Ethyl and Lambda-Cyhalothrin-Inducible Cytochrome P450 cDNA from Cydia pomonella

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    Xueqing Yang


    Full Text Available Cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (CYPs or P450s play paramount roles in detoxification of insecticides in a number of insect pests. However, little is known about the roles of P450s and their responses to insecticide exposure in the codling moth Cydia pomonella (L., an economically important fruit pest. Here we report the characterization and expression analysis of the first P450 gene, designated as CYP9A61, from this pest. The full-length cDNA sequence of CYP9A61 is 2071 bp long and its open reading frame (ORF encodes 538 amino acids. Sequence analysis shows that CYP9A61 shares 51%–60% identity with other known CYP9s and contains the highly conserved substrate recognition site SRS1, SRS4 and SRS5. Quantitative real-time PCR showed that CYP9A61 were 67-fold higher in the fifth instar larvae than in the first instar, and more abundant in the silk gland and fat body than other tissues. Exposure of the 3rd instar larvae to 12.5 mg L−1 of chlorpyrifos-ethyl for 60 h and 0.19 mg L−1 of lambda-cyhalothrin for 36 h resulted in 2.20- and 3.47-fold induction of CYP9A61, respectively. Exposure of the 3rd instar larvae to these two insecticides also significantly enhanced the total P450 activity. The results suggested that CYP9A61 is an insecticide-detoxifying P450.

  16. Comparative Pharmacokinetics of the Organophosphorus Insecticide Chlorpyrifos and its Major Metabolites Diethylphosphate, Diethylthiophosphate and 3,5,6-Trichloro-2-pyridinol in the Rat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Timchalk, Chuck; Busby, Andrea L; Campbell, James A; Needham, Larry L; Barr, Dana


    Abstract Chlorpyrifos (CPF) is a commonly used diethylphosphorothionate organophosphorus (OP) insecticide. Diethylphosphate (DEP), diethylthiophosphate (DETP) and 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol (TCPy) are products of metabolism and of environmental degradation of CPF and are routinely measured in urine as biomarkers of exposure. However, because these same chemicals can result from metabolism or by biodegradation, monitoring total urinary metabolite levels may be reflective of not only an individual’s contact with the parent pesticide, but also exposure with the metabolites, which are present in the environment. The objective of the current study was to compare the pharmacokinetics of orally administered DEP, DETP and TCPy with their kinetics following oral dosing with the parent insecticide CPF in the rat. Groups of rats were orally administered CPF, DEP, TCPy or DETP at doses of 140 μmol/kg body weight, and the time-courses of the metabolites were evaluated in blood and urine. Following oral administration, all three metabolites were well absorbed with peak blood concentrations being attained between 1-3 h post-dosing. In the case of DEP and TCPy virtually all the administered dose was recovered in the urine by 72 h post-dosing, suggesting negligible, if any, metabolism; whereas with DETP, ~50% of the orally administered dose was recovered in the urine. The CPF oral dose was likewise rapidly absorbed and metabolized to DEP, TCPy and DETP, with the distribution of metabolites in the urine followed the order: TCPy (22 ± 3 μmol) > DETP (14 ± 2 μmol) > DEP (1.4 ± 0.7 μmol). Based upon the total amount of TCPy detected in the urine a minimum of 63% of the oral CPF dose was absorbed. These studies support the hypotheses that DEP, DETP and TCPy present in the environment can be readily absorbed and eliminated in the urine of rats and potentially humans.

  17. 漆酶/香草醛体系生物降解毒死蜱影响因素的研究%Factors affecting the biodegradation of chlorpyrifos by laccase/vanillin system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    汪敏敏; 赵林果; 谢慧芳


    研究了漆酶介体体系对有机磷农药毒死蜱生物降解的效果及影响因素.通过对6种介体的试验比较,筛选了合适的介体.在试验条件下,1-羟基苯并三唑(HBT)和2,2’-联氮-二(3-乙基-苯并噻唑-6-磺酸)(ABTS)对漆酶降解毒死蜱存在一定的抑制作用,紫脲酸(VA)和2,6-二甲氧基苯酚(2,6-DMP)对漆酶降解毒死蜱未起促进作用,而天然产物香草醛和愈创木酚可促进漆酶降解毒死蜱,香草醛的促进作用最为明显,选择香草醛作为漆酶介体体系中的介体.研究了漆酶/香草醛体系中,反应时间、漆酶初始酶活、pH、温度、介体投加量及投加方式、毒死蜱初始浓度等因素对毒死蜱生物降解效果的影响.结果表明,控制漆酶初始酶活为0.050 U/mL、pH为5.0、温度30℃,分2次投加香草醛(香草醛与毒死蜱初始值摩尔比分别为40和80)情况下,漆酶/香草醛体系即可在24 h内实现对25 mg/L毒死蜱的有效降解,降解率达98%.%The biodegradation of organophosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos by laccase-mediator system (LMS) was studied and main factors that influencing the degradation efficiency were investigated. The performance of six mediators in LMS were tested, results showed that vanillin and guaigcol promoted the degradation of chlorrpy rifos by laccase, while 1-hydroxybenzotriazole (HBT) and 2,2'-azino-bis(3-ethylbenzothiazoline-6-sulfonate) (ABTS) inhibited the degradation, violuric acid and 2,6-dimethoxyphenol had no obvious promotion. So vanillin was chcse:u as the mediator in LMS. The effect of reaction time,initial laccase activity,Ph,temperature,mediator dosage and the Initial chlorpyrifos concentration on chlorpyrifos biodegradation was investigated. The results showed that chlorp;yri£os could be well biodegraded by laccase/vanillin system. When laccase dosage was 0. 050 U/Ml, initial Ph was 5. 0 , temperature was 30 ℃ and adding vanillin for twice (molar rate of vanillin and

  18. Scale-Up and Demonstration of Fly Ash Oxonation Technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Larry LaBuz; Rui Afonso


    This is the fifth quarterly report under DOE Cooperative Agreement No.: DE-FC26-03NT41730. Due a number of circumstances, mostly associated with subcontractor agreements, the actual beginning of the project was delayed from its original award date of March 5, 2003. DOE's Project Manager was kept informed (verbally) by PPL's Project Manager throughout this period. Because of this delay, this is the fifth quarterly report and it refers to the time period from April-July 2005. (An additional month is included in this quarterly report as we have been in a data analyses mode and wanted to provide new data relative to the previous report). During this period, the project team has been reviewing and analyzing data from the onsite ozonation tests, as well as conducting additional laboratory ash and concrete tests. This report summarizes these activities including some preliminary results. No significant issues or concerns are identified.

  19. Chronic exposure to chlorpyrifos triggered body weight increase and memory impairment depending on human apoE polymorphisms in a targeted replacement mouse model. (United States)

    Peris-Sampedro, Fiona; Basaure, Pia; Reverte, Ingrid; Cabré, Maria; Domingo, José L; Colomina, Maria Teresa


    Despite restrictions on their use, humans are still constantly exposed to organophosphates (OPs). A huge number of studies have ratified the neurotoxic effects of chlorpyrifos (CPF) and suggested its association with neurodegenerative diseases, but data are still scarce. Human apolipoprotein E (apoE) plays an important role in lipid transport and distribution. In humans, the apoE4 isoform has been linked to an increased risk of Alzheimer's disease (AD). ApoE3 is the most prevalent isoform worldwide, and has been often established as the healthful one. The current study, performed in targeted replacement (TR) adult male mice, aimed to inquire whether genetic variations of the human apoE respond differently to a chronic dietary challenge with CPF. At four/five months of age, mice carrying apoE2, apoE3 or apoE4 were pair-fed a diet supplemented with CPF at 0 or 2mg/kg body weight/day for 13weeks. Cholinergic signs were monitored daily and body weight changes weekly. In the last week of treatment, learning and memory were assessed in a Barnes maze task. Dietary CPF challenge increased body weight only in apoE3 mice. Differences in the acquisition and retention of the Barnes maze were attributed to apoE genetic differences. Our results showed that apoE4 mice performed worse than apoE2 and apoE3 carriers in the acquisition period of the spatial task, and that apoE2 mice had poorer retention than the other two genotypes. On the other hand, CPF increased the search velocity of apoE2 subjects during the acquisition period. Retention was impaired only in CPF-exposed apoE3 mice. These results underline that gene×environment interactions need to be taken into account in epidemiological studies. Given that apoE3, the most common polymorphism in humans, has proved to be the most sensitive to CPF, the potential implications for human health merit serious thought.

  20. A dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction-HPLC method for determination of chlorpyrifos in water%分散液相微萃取-高效液相色谱法测定水体中毒死蜱残留

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贺江; 龙海波


    水体中的农药残留是严重的环境安全问题之一,并可通过水产养殖或种植业等途径污染食品。本研究应用分散液相微萃取(Dispersive liquid-liquid microextraction ,DLLME)技术,建立水体中毒死蜱的高效液相色谱( High performance liquid chromatography ,HPLC)分析方法。通过考察萃取剂种类、分散剂种类、萃取剂用量、分散剂用量、盐度以及pH等因素对分散液相微萃取的影响,确定最佳操作参数。经优化的水体中毒死蜱分散液相微萃取过程为:以100μl三氯乙烷为萃取剂,1200μl甲醇为分散剂,混匀后,加入10 ml水样,室温静置2 min,以3000 r/min离心2 min,吸取15μl沉积相,进行HPLC分析。本方法操作简单、成本低,灵敏度、准确度及精密度高,可为水体中毒死蜱残留检测提供新的方法。%The residue of pesticides in water system is one of the serious environmental safety problems, and may con-taminate food through a variety of ways. In the current study, dispersive liquid-liquid micro-extraction ( DLLME) technology was applied for develop a high performance liquid chromatography ( HPLC) analysis methods for the detection of chlorpyrifos in water. In the optimized protocol, the mixture of 100μl trichloroethane used as extract agent and 1 200μl methanol used as dispersing agent were added with 10. 0 ml water samples and stored at room temperature for 2 min, and 15μl deposition sam-pled from above mixture centrifuged at 3 000 r/min for 2 min were subjected to HPLC analysis. The newly developed method was applied to detected the chlorpyrifos with the concentrations ranging from 0. 01~1. 00 mg/L, the results showed the spiked recoveryes were above 85. 5%, indicative of the sensitivity, accuracy and precision. This method offers a new approch for the detection of chlorpyrifos in water sample.

  1. 不同加工方式对豇豆中毒死蜱残留量的影响%Effect of chlorpyrifos residue by different processing methods in cowpea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王向未; 仇厚援; 陈文学; 王强; 袁玉伟


    Chlorpyrifos were widely used,the increasingly pesticide residue in vegetables were harmful to food safety. The effect of immersion time in water,washing after immersion, 1% NaHCO3,vinegar,dishwashing liquid and salt solution on cowpea were analyzed through gas chromatography. Different waterlogging time was helpful for the chlorpyrifos remove,which the removeale rate was 33.332%-70.718% ;To clean the chlorpyrifos in cowpea with water flow after different waterlogging time,which the removal rate were 45.623%,-,69.924% To remove the chlorpyrifos by flushing with 1% NaHCO3 solution,which the removal rate was 25.257%-49.299% ~ The eliminating effect of vinegar was good,the eliminating effect of dishwashing liquid was 17.588%-41.895%, and salt washing were not ideal. The detail for the best clean condition was to soak 15mins and before washing 2 mins,the removale rate was 42.651%-46.358%. The diet exposure assessment should take the processing in consideration to evaluate the pesticide residue on the diet exactly,which will be truly closed to the diet exposure volume,decrease the pesticide risk value.So will be positive to guarantee the diet safety.%毒死蜱是一种常用的农药,蔬菜上的毒死蜱残留问题日益凸显,影响饮食安全,通过气相色谱检测方法,比较了水浸泡、水浸泡后冲洗、1%NaHCO3溶液、醋、洗涤剂和食盐浸泡等方法处理豇豆后的毒死蜱去除效果。其中水浸泡不同时间对豇豆中毒死蜱的去除率在33.332%~70.718%,效果较好;水浸泡后冲洗后去除率达45.623%~69.924%;1%NaHCO3溶液对毒死蜱的去除率达25.257%~49.299%;食用醋去除效果一般;洗涤剂去除率在17.588%~41.895%。食盐对毒死蜱的去除效果不显著。从中挑选出最佳清洗条件:水浸泡15min后清洗2min,进行不同烹饪方式烹饪,去除率范围在42.651%~46.358%。只有考虑加工过程的影响才能正确评价膳食中农药残留的暴露水平,更为真实地接近消

  2. Experimental hut evaluation of bednets treated with an organophosphate (chlorpyrifos-methyl or a pyrethroid (lambdacyhalothrin alone and in combination against insecticide-resistant Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes

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    Corbel Vincent


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Pyrethroid resistant mosquitoes are becoming increasingly common in parts of Africa. It is important to identify alternative insecticides which, if necessary, could be used to replace or supplement the pyrethroids for use on treated nets. Certain compounds of an earlier generation of insecticides, the organophosphates may have potential as net treatments. Methods Comparative studies of chlorpyrifos-methyl (CM, an organophosphate with low mammalian toxicity, and lambdacyhalothrin (L, a pyrethroid, were conducted in experimental huts in Côte d'Ivoire, West Africa. Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus mosquitoes from the area are resistant to pyrethroids and organophosphates (kdr and insensitive acetylcholinesterase Ace.1R. Several treatments and application rates on intact or holed nets were evaluated, including single treatments, mixtures, and differential wall/ceiling treatments. Results and Conclusion All of the treatments were effective in reducing blood feeding from sleepers under the nets and in killing both species of mosquito, despite the presence of the kdr and Ace.1R genes at high frequency. In most cases, the effects of the various treatments did not differ significantly. Five washes of the nets in soap solution did not reduce the impact of the insecticides on A. gambiae mortality, but did lead to an increase in blood feeding. The three combinations performed no differently from the single insecticide treatments, but the low dose mixture performed encouragingly well indicating that such combinations might be used for controlling insecticide resistant mosquitoes. Mortality of mosquitoes that carried both Ace.1R and Ace.1S genes did not differ significantly from mosquitoes that carried only Ace.1S genes on any of the treated nets, indicating that the Ace.1R allele does not confer effective resistance to chlorpyrifos-methyl under the realistic conditions of an experimental hut.

  3. Efecto del enriquecimiento con nutrientes en la degradación de clorpirifos, malatión y metil paratión Inorganic nutrients effect addition over the chlorpyrifos, malathion and methyl parathion degradation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. A. Upegui


    Full Text Available Con el fin de evaluar el efecto del enriquecimiento con nutrientes (una sal de fósforo o un fertilizante comercial con N, P y K como alternativa para mejorar la capacidad de degradación de los microorganismos en una matriz sólida, contaminada con los pesticidas organofosforados: clorpirifos, malatión y metil paratión, se realizaron experimentos de cultivo bajo condiciones controladas de oscuridad, temperatura y humedad por 30 días. En todos los tratamientos hubo degradación de los pesticidas; sin embargo, en el tratamiento con fósforo los tiempos para degradar el clorpirifos y el metil paratión fueron mayores. La presencia de los pesticidas no generó efectos tóxicos detectables sobre la microflora en ninguno de los tratamientos evaluados. La actividad biológica de las matrices no presentó una relación directa con la capacidad de degradación.In order to evaluate the effect of inorganic nutrient addition (phosphorus or commercial fertilizer over the microbial degradation capacity present in a solid matrix contaminated with chlorpyrifos, malathion and methyl parathion, microcosms assays were held under controlled conditions of light, moisture and temperature for 30 days. Results showed that even though three treatments microorganisms were able to degrade the three organophosphorus pesticides, microorganisms of phosphorus-enrichment treatment were less efficient to degrade Chlorpyrifos and Methyl Parathion than microorganisms of Fertilizer-enrichment treatment. It was not observed a direct relation between mineralization and microbial pesticides degradation capacity. The microbial activity was not affected by the presence of organophosphorus pesticides.

  4. Effect of chlorpyrifos on spermatogenesis function and sex hormone levels of male rats%毒死蜱对雄性大鼠生精功能及相关激素水平影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李相鑫; 赛林霖; 谢琳; 刘衍忠; 于功昌; 刘毅


    Objective To explore the effects of chlorpyrifos on spermatogenesis function and sex hormone levels of male rats. Methods 40 male Wistar rats,clean degree,were divided into four groups,the control (0 mg· kg-1 · d-1 ) ,low(2.7 mg · kg-1 · d-1 ) ,moderate(5.4 mg· kg-1 · d -1 )and high dose groups( 12.8 mg· kg-1 · d -1 ). The rats were treated with chlorpyrifos by gavage,once a day for 90 consecutive days. Simultaneously, the controls were treated with equivalent volume of distilled water and tween-80. Then, the testis,epididymides and prostates-seminal vesicles were immediately excised and weighed,and the viscera coefficients were calculated. The number and motility of sperms in the tail of epididymis,the sex hormone levels were tested. Results In the moderate and high-dose groups, the numbers and motilities of sperms were significantly decreased, while the sperm abnormality rates were increased (P <0. 05 ) ,serum testosterone levels were markedly decreased while serum FSH levels were increased ( P < 0. 05 ). There were no significant differences between different groups of serum luteinizing hormone and estrogen. Conclusion Chlorpyrifos can produce reproductive toxicity in male rats, affecting their spermatogenesis function and sex hormone levels.%目的 探讨毒死蜱对雄性大鼠生精功能和血清激素水平的影响.方法 选择21 d龄无特定病原体级雄性Wister大鼠随机分成3个实验组和1个对照组,每组10只.实验组灌胃给予毒死蜱,剂量为2.7、5.4、12.8 mg·kg-1·d-1;对照组给予等量蒸馏水稀释的吐温80溶液.染毒90d后,测定各组大鼠睾丸、附睾和前列腺-精囊腺等脏器系数、检测附睾尾精子数量、精子活动率和精子崎形率以及血清中性激素水平.结果 高、中剂量组精子数量减少、精子畸形率升高、精子活力显著降低(P0.05).结论 毒死蜱对雄性大鼠有明显的生殖毒性,可影响雄性大鼠生精功能和血清中性激素水平.

  5. 电转化法将luxAB基因导入毒死蜱降解茵β菌株的研究%luxAB labelling of chlorpyrifos-degrading strain β by electroporation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昀璐; 花日茂; 唐欣昀; 李瑞雪; 张君; 王道胜


    采用电转化法将带发光酶基因luxAB的质粒pTR102导人毒死蜱降解菌β菌株,研究了细胞生长状态、电压强度、电击时间和质粒浓度对转化效率的影响,并对转化子的生理特性进行研究.实验结果表明,以处于对数生长早期的菌液制备感受态细胞,在质粒浓度16.5μg·mL-1、电压2.5kV,电击时间3ms条件下的转化率最高,可达2.73×102个·μg-1(以每μg质粒DNA中所含转化子个数计).转化子lux-β分别在抗生素平板和LB平板中传代10次,仍具有发光活性和对卡那霉索(Km)的抗性,说明质粒pTR102在转化子中可以稳定遗传.转化子的生理特性变化不显著,对毒死蜱的降解能力较出发菌株提高了近1倍.%A new luxAB gene-labelling method was established in this study in order to provide a method of investigating and tracing the colonization dynamics and degradation activity of chlorpyrifos-degrading bacteria in the natural environment. The luxAB genes were introduced into chlorpyrifosdegrading strain β by electroporation. Ceils in initial logarithmic phase were more sensitive to foreign DNA, and the maximum transformation rate was up to 2.73 x 102 transformants per microgram plasmid DNA when the plasmid concentration was 16.5μg· mL - 1 under the conditions of voltage 2.5 kV and time 3 ms. After plate transfers with or without antibiotics for 10 generations the transformant lux-β still had luminescence activity and Km resistance,indicating that the transformant was genetically stable. In addition, the physiological and biochemical characteristics of lux-β changed little, and the chlorpyrifos-degradation rate of lux-β doubled compared with that of the wild strain β.

  6. 有机农药滴滴涕和毒死蜱生物降解机制的分子模拟研究%Biodegradation Mechanism of DDT and Chlorpyrifos Using Molecular Simulation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林玉珍; 曾光明; 张娱; 陈明; 蒋敏; 张嘉超; 鲁伦慧; 刘利锋


    为探索有机农药滴滴涕和毒死蜱相应降解酶的微观降解机制,用分子对接方法模拟了滴滴涕(DDT)与漆酶(laccase)、毒死蜱(chlorpyrifos)与有机磷水解酶(organophosphorus hydrolase)的相互作用,得到它们复合物结构的理论模型,根据打分函数最低原则筛选出的最佳构象打分函数分别为-103.134和-111.626,二次打分函数分别为-72.858和-80.261.并应用LPC/CSU server研究这些最佳构象的相互作用情况,结果表明,滴滴涕与漆酶之间以疏水作用数量最多,毒死蜱与有机磷水解酶以氢键和疏水作用数量最多.漆酶的Tyr224和有机磷水解酶的Arg254在催化过程中起到了重要作用.%In order to explore the microscopic degradation mechanism of organic pesticides degrading enzymes,we used molecular docking method to investigate the binding modes of DDT to laccase and chlorpyrifos to organophosphorus hydrolase,and obtained the corresponding complex structures.According to the principle of minimum scoring,the results showed that the MolDock scores were-103.134 and-111.626,re-rank scores were-72.858 and-80.261,respectively.And we used LPC/CSU server search the interactions between organic pesticides and their degrading enzymes.Our results showed that hydrophobic interaction was the strongest contacts in DDT-laccase complex,and both hydrogen bonds and hydrophobic interactions were the strongest contacts when chlorpyrifos-organophosphorus hydrolase complex.The amino acid residues Tyr224 in laccase and Arg254 in organophosphorus hydrolase were detected to play significant roles in catalytic processes.

  7. Accumulation and transformation of the chlorpyrifos metabolite 3,5,6-TCP in soil and plants%毒死蜱主要代谢物3,5,6-TCP在土壤、植物中的累积与转化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙宝利; 陕红; 袁志华; 曾希柏


    By pot experiment and laboratory soil incubation experiment, the accumulation and transformation of 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol(3,5,6-TCP), the main metabolite of chlorpyrifos in plant and soil were monitored in order to investigate the accumulation process and its affecting factors of the metabolite of chlorpyrifos in plants and soils. The results showed that:(l)The accumulative amount of 3, 5,6-TCP in plant and soil reached the peak at the 7th day and 14th day, respectively, after chlorpyrifos applied by recommended dose; the degradation rate of 3,5,6-TCP in plant was faster than that in plant and the residue amount of 3,5,6-TCP in plant was undetectable 20 days later; (2) Physical properties of 5 kinds of soil has the decisive effects on the accumulated residue of 3,5,6-TCP and the accumulated value increased with the increasing of the application amount of chlorpyrifos and temperature, however, there were no relationship with the amount of fertilizer and humidity. The average accumulated value of 3,5,6-TCP in five kinds of soil was among 0.14-0. 21μg/g; (3)by continuous monitoring sealed soil sample and using characteristics of chromatographic retention time, it further proved that 3,5,6-TCP was the metabolite of chlorpyrifos and could further transform into 3,5,6-trichloro-2-methoxypyridin (TMP). The result also showed that the degradation way of chlorpyrifos was related to the microbial and its species which can make the safe degra dation of chlorpyrifos possible.%本研究应用盆栽试验和室内土壤培养试验,考察毒死蜱主要代谢物3,5,6-三氯-2-吡啶(简称3,5,6-TCP)在植物、土壤中的累积与转化,研究毒死蜱代谢产物累积量变过程及其影响因素.结果表明:(1)推荐剂量喷施毒死蜱的第7天和第14天,3,5,6-TCP在植物体和土壤中的累积量达到峰值,直到20 d后,植物体内几乎测不出3,5,6-TCP残留,而土壤中3,5,6-TCP残留量仍较高,其降解速度较慢.(2)3,5,6-TCP在5种土壤中的

  8. Preparation and properties of pH-responsive control release system of PAA/chlorpyrifos/amino functionalized mesoporous silica%pH响应性PAA/毒死蜱/氨基化介孔硅缓释体系的制备与性能

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林粤顺; 周红军; 周新华; 龚圣; 徐华; 陈铧耀


    以共缩聚法合成氨基化介孔硅,采用浸渍法制备毒死蜱/氨基化介孔硅,并以带负电荷的聚丙烯酸(PAA)为功能分子,通过静电吸附作用制备了具有 pH 响应的 PAA/毒死蜱/氨基化介孔硅缓释体系。利用 XRD、N2吸附-脱附、TEM、SEM、TG、Zeta电位和FTIR对PAA/毒死蜱/氨基化介孔硅的结构进行了表征,并探究了其在不同pH和温度下的释药行为。结果表明,PAA通过静电作用包覆于毒死蜱/氨基化介孔硅的表面。缓释体系的药物释放主要受到PAA的阻碍作用,PAA修饰载药氨基化介孔硅显示出明显的pH响应性,当pH≤7时,其药物释放速率随 pH 减小而增大,而在偏碱性条件下的释药速率稍大于中性环境。同时,载药体系的释药速率还受到温度的影响。其释药行为可用Korsmeryer-Pappas动力学模型来描述。%A pH-responsive control release system of PAA/chlorpyrifos/mesoporous silica was prepared by using negative charged polyacrylic acid (PAA) to encapsulate amino functionalized mesoporous silica (NH2-MCM-41) with chlorpyrifos loaded in the pores. The PAA/chlorpyrifos/NH2-MCM-41 system were systematically characterized using X-ray diffraction (XRD), N2 adsorption-desorption, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), thermogravimetric analysis (TGA), Zeta potential and Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR). The release behavior of chlorpyrifos was studied at various pH and temperature conditions. The experimental results showed that PAA was coated on the surface of chlorpyrifos/amino functionalized mesoporous silica as a result of electrostatic interaction. The chlorpyrifos release from the PAA/chlorpyrifos/NH2-MCM-41 system was inhibited mainly by PAA blockage with significant pH sensitivity, which increased with pH decrease at pH≤7 and was slightly higher in weak base condition than that in neutral condition. The release also exhibited some

  9. Relación entre residuos de clorpirifos en leche y sangre de vacas Holstein y niveles séricos de estradiol y tiroxina - Chlorpyrifos residues in milk and blood in Holstein cows and their relation to estradiol and thyroxin serum levels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morales Vallecilla, Carlos


    Full Text Available ResumenLos disruptores endocrinos son sustancias que interfieren con la síntesis, secreción, transporte, acción o eliminación hormonal. Algunos pesticidas son considerados disruptores endocrinos y su uso indiscriminado ha sido asociado con afecciones metabólicas y reproductivas. El insecticida organofosforado clorpirifos, ampliamente utilizado para el control de plagas de los pastos enzonas lecheras de Antioquia, Colombia, ha sido asociado con alteraciones en los niveles de hormonas tiroideas y estrógenos. La presente investigación usó la cromatografía de gases para detectar la presencia de residuos de clorpirifos en sangre y leche de vacas Holstein alimentadas con pasto tratado con clorpirifos, además se determinaron por radioinmunoanálisis, los valores sanguíneos detiroxina y 17ß estradiol en los animales el día previo a la entrada en las pasturas tratadas y durante los siguientes 30 días. Aunque la cromatografía gaseosa fue efectiva para detectar clorpirifos en leche y suero durante la estandarización, en ninguna de las muestras de leche y suero sanguíneo de los animales del estudio se detectaron residuos de Clorpirifos. No se halló además diferencia significativa en las concentraciones de tiroxina y estradiol a lo largo del tratamiento. Los hallazgos indican que el tratar pastos con clorpirifos según las indicaciones del fabricante, no ocasionó residuos detectables del insecticida en la sangre y la leche de vacas que lo consumen. Los resultados además podrían indicar que en las concentraciones y condiciones recomendadas por el fabricante, el clorpirifos no es un disruptor endocrino para el ganado bovino enpastoreo.SummaryEndocrine disruptors are compounds that affect synthesis, secretion, transport, action or elimination of hormones. Some pesticides are considered endocrine disruptors and their use has been associated with metabolic and reproductive disorders. The organophosphate insecticide chlorpyrifos, widely used

  10. 可降解聚碳酸亚丙酯-毒死蜱微胶囊的制备及缓释性能评价%Preparation of degradable poly( propylene carbonate)-chlorpyrifos micocapsule and performance evaluation on its controlled release

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟锐; 刘双清; 朱锐; 周小毛; 柏连阳; 李晓刚


    以聚碳酸亚丙酯( PPC)为壁材,聚乙烯醇-1788( PVA-1788)为连续相稳定剂,采用乳化溶剂挥发法制备了包裹毒死蜱的可降解微胶囊.测定了PVA-1788的质量分数、PPC的质量浓度以及PPC与毒死蜱的质量比对微胶囊性能的影响.采用土壤悬浊拟环境实验法评价了PPC的降解性能;通过光学显微镜(OM)、扫描电子显微镜(SEM)、广角X射线衍射(W-XRD)、激光粒度分布仪和高效液相色谱(HPLC)等表征了PPC -毒死蜱微胶囊的性能,同时采用柱层析法探讨了其缓释性能.结果表明:PPC具有生物可降解性;PVA-1788质量分数、PPC质量浓度以及PPC与毒死蜱的质量比对微胶囊的性能有显著影响,当PVA-1788的质量分数为1.0%、PPC的质量浓度为110 mg/mL,PPC与毒死蜱的质量比为1∶2时,可获得球形规整、粒径较小、包封率与载药量较高的微胶囊,其平均粒径为7.3 μm,载药量为16.75%,包封率为89.34%.缓释性能研究结果表明,PPC微胶囊对毒死蜱具有明显的缓释效应,27 d的累积释药率达86.87%.%Degradable microcapsules of chlorpyrifos were prepared by emulsion solvent volatilization method using poly (propylene carbonate) (PPC) as wall material and poly vinyl alcohol-1788 (PVA-1788) as emulsifier. The effects of PVA-1788 concentration, PPC concentration and mass ratio of PPC and chlorpyrifos on the performance of microcapsules were investigated. The degradation performance of PPC was evaluated by simulated soil suspension environment experiment. The PPC-chlorpyrifos microcapsule was charactered by scanning electron microscope ( SEM) , optical microscope ( OM), wide-angle X-ray diffraction spectra (W-XRD) and high performance liquid chromatograph (HPLC), and performance of its controlled-release was studied by column chromatography. The results showed that PPC had a favorable biodegradation and all of the concentration of PVA-1788 and PPC and mass ratio of PPC and chlorpyrifos showed a

  11. Field Efficacy of Monosultap and Chlorpyrifos Cartap Granule(5%) in Controlling Sugarcane Borer%新型低毒农药5%杀单·毒死蜱对甘蔗螟虫防治效果试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘方胤; 杨俊贤; 安玉兴; 彭冬永; 刘福业; 吴文龙; 陈勇生


    The field efficacy of 5 pesticides to control sugarcane borer was tested. The results indicated that there was very significant difference among these different treats not only in the degree of insect pest, but also in cane and sugar yield. 5 percent of Monosultap and chlorpyrifos cartap granule, which could be respectively applied with 75 kg/hm2 both in planting stage and in the earthing-up period, was supposed to be the most effective to control sugarcane borer and to increase cane and sugar yield.%以新型低毒农药5%杀单·毒死蜱为供试药剂,与生产上常见的另外4种农药品种进行药效对比试验.结果表明,在本试验条件下,各农药处理间的枯心率、虫节率、蔗茎产量、含糖量差异极显著.在甘蔗种植时和大培土时各施用新型低毒农药5%杀单·毒死蜱75 kg/hm2具有良好的防治螟虫效果,能减少原料蔗的虫节率,有效提高甘蔗蔗糖分,对甘蔗的增产、增糖具有明显的促进作用.

  12. Tuning of the vinyl groups' spacing at surface of modified silica in preparation of high density imprinted layer-coated silica nanoparticles: a dispersive solid-phase extraction materials for chlorpyrifos. (United States)

    Lu, Qing; Chen, Xuemei; Nie, Li; Luo, Jing; Jiang, Huijun; Chen, Lina; Hu, Qin; Du, Shuhu; Zhang, Zhongping


    This paper reports the preparation of high density imprinted layer-coated silica nanoparticles toward selective recognition and fast enrichment of chlorpyrifos (CP) from complicated matrices. The molecularly imprinted polymers (MIPs) were successfully coated at the surface of modified silica through using the chemical immovable vinyl groups at the nanoparticles' surface, followed by the graft copolymerization of methacrylic acid (MAA) and ethylene glycol dimethacrylate (EGDMA) in the presence of templates CP. It has been demonstrated that the space of end vinyl groups at the surface of silica can be controlled by changing the condition of chemical modification, regulating the thickness of imprinted shells and the density of efficient imprinted sites. After removal of templates by solvent extraction, the recognition sites of CP were created in the polymer coating layer. The CP-imprinted nanoparticles exhibited high recognition selectivity and binding affinity to CP analyte. When the CP-imprinted nanoparticles were used as dispersive solid-phase extraction (dSPE) materials, the high recovery yields of 76.1-93.5% from various spiked samples with only 1microg/mL analyte were achieved by one-step extraction. These results reported herein provide the possibility for the separation and enrichment of CP from complicated matrices by the molecular imprinting modification at the surface of common silica nanoparticles.

  13. 14C-丁草胺、14C-毒死蜱和14C-DDT在日本林蛙中的生物学行为%BEHAVIORS OF 14C-BUTACHLOR,14C-CHLORPYRIFOS AND 14C-DDT IN Rana japonica japonica Guenther

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张奕强; 张海清; 钟创光; 赵小奎; 陈舜华


    用同位素示踪技术研究了14C-丁草胺、14C-毒死蜱和14C-DDT在日本林蛙(Rana japonica japonica Guenther)中的生物学行为.结果发现,14C-丁草胺、14C-毒死蜱和14C-DDT在24h后分布到青蛙的各个器官组织,并分别以胆囊、小肠、小肠为它们的特异性浓集器官.与胆囊或小肠的14C放射性活度比较,其它器官组织中的要小得多.14C-DDT在日本林蛙中较难降解,24h后DDT母体在肝和脂肪组织中占DDT代谢物的54.6%和88.4%.青蛙中的14C-丁草胺、14C-毒死蜱和14C-DDT可被丙酮提取,但三者之间以及在青蛙的器官之间有差异.%The research on the behaviors of 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-DDT in the frog Rana japonica japonica Guenther was carried out. After administrated per os to the frogs in doses of 380,347,363 Bq/g, 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos and 14C-DDT, were distributed respectively to various organs within 24 h with specific accumulating organs as gallbladder, intestine and intestine, relevantly to the pesticides described. Compared to that in gallbladder and intestine, the radioactivity of many organs was extremely low, and this might due to the characters of the pesticides. Analysis of the metabolites of 14C-DDT in frog at 24th hr demonstrated that DDT was difficult to be degraded. Most 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos 14C-DDT in liver and fat or ovary of frog was extractable with acetone. However, there were some differences between the pesticides, and the organs as well. And 14C-butachlor, 14C-chlorpyrifos or 14C-DDT were better bound in liver than in fat.

  14. 围生期毒死蜱暴露致子代8周雄鼠睾丸组织的氧化损伤%Perinatal Exposure to Chlorpyrifos Induced Testicular Oxidative Damage in 8 Week Offspring Male Rat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐肖倩; 张敏; 王学梅; 方鑫; 李海玲; 戴红; 肖瑞


    毒死蜱是目前全世界使用和销售量最大的有机磷杀虫剂之一。为探讨围生期毒死蜱暴露致8周雄性子鼠睾丸组织的氧化损伤,选择健康Wistar妊娠母鼠于妊娠期(gestation days, GD)第6天至子鼠出生后(postnatal days, PND)21天通过灌胃染毒0、0.75、1.35和2.70 mg•kg-1剂量的毒死蜱,待雄性子鼠8周龄取左侧睾丸实施组织病理学检查,右侧睾丸用以检测丙二醛(ma-leic dialdehyde, MDA)的含量和谷胱甘肽S转移酶(glutathione S transferases, GST)、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(glutathione peroxidase, GSH-Px)、总超氧化物歧化酶(total superoxide dismutase, T-SOD)的活力。结果表明,与对照组比较,随着染毒剂量的增加子鼠体重和睾丸、附睾脏器系数有下降的趋势(P>0.05);而MDA呈升高趋势(P>0.05)。各组T-SOD和1.35、2.70 mg•kg-1剂量组GSH-Px活力的下降及2.70 mg•kg-1剂量组GST活力的升高均有统计学意义(P0.05). The decrease in the activity of T-SOD of all dose groups, the increase of the activity of GSH-Px of 1.35 mg•kg-1 and 2.70 mg•kg-1 dose groups and the increase in activity of GST of 2.70 mg•kg-1 dose group were statistically significant (P<0.05). The histopathological examina-tion indicated that the testis of 2.70 mg•kg-1 dose group had significant damage. It is found that the semen volume was reduced and exfoliated spermatogenic cell was increased. Chlorpyrifos impaired the balance of antioxidant sys-tem, thus induced lipid peroxidation damage to the testis of 8 week rat by maternal exposure during GD 6—PND21 d. It is proposed that chlorpyrifos had potential and long-term toxic effect to male reproductive system by perinatal exposure.

  15. 毒死蜱微胶囊悬浮种衣剂的制备研究%Study on Preparation of Chlorpyrifos-loaded Microcapsule Suspending for Seed Coating

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴秋平; 谈增; 符韦维; 冯海


    采用原位聚合法制备20%毒死蜱微胶囊悬浮种衣剂. 以粒径和包封率为指标对乳化剂种类、囊芯比、调酸时间、固化时间和固化温度等条件进行单因素和正交优化设计.优化后的最佳反应条件为:农用乳化剂SP-EW3336用量3.5%,囊芯比1.0,调酸时间60 min,固化温度50℃,固化时间60 min,制得的微胶囊粒径为1.60±0.06μm,包封率可达77%.%20% Chlorpyrifos-loaded microcapsule suspending for seed coating with the excellent perfor-mance indexes were formulated by in-situ polymerization using powder urea formaldehyde resin as capsule wall material. The single-factor test was designed to study the type and dosage of emulsifier ,the dosage of powder urea-formaldehyde resin,the time of adding acid, the curing time and temperature. The orthogonal test was designed to optimize the conditions of preparing the microcapsules. The microcapsules formulated under the optimized condition had the particle size of 1.60±0.06μm, the encapsulation efficiency of 77%.


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马军国; 李效宇


    CYP3A是I相解毒酶系CYP450家族中的重要成员,在肝脏解毒过程中发挥重要作用。首次克隆了白鲢肝脏CYP3A基因并研究了毒死蜱对该基因表达的影响。生物信息学分析预测结果表明,CYP3A基因编码513个氨基酸,其蛋白质分子量为58.8 ku,理论等电点为7.96。该蛋白是一个稳定蛋白且具有一定的亲水性。二级结构预测可知,CYP3A包含45.2%的α-螺旋、12.3%的延伸链、4.3%的β-折叠和38.2%的无规则卷曲,具有2个显著的跨膜结合区。急性毒性实验结果表明,毒死蜱对白鲢具有很高的毒性,其96h LC50为0.172 mg/L。另外,荧光定量PCR检测发现,毒死蜱对白鲢CYP3A基因表达有明显的抑制作用。%Cytochrome P450 (CYPs) enzymes are responsible for the metabolism of various kinds of endogenous and exogenous compounds in mammals. In fish, CYP3A plays an important role in the detoxification of xenobiotics. In the present study, a full-length sequence of CYP3A cDNA in silver carp was cloned and sequenced, and then a phylogenetic tree of CYP3A was constructed. Additionally, the acute toxicity of chlorpyrifos on silver carp and the effect of chlor-pyrifos on CYP3A expression were also evaluated in this study. The results of bioinformatics prediction revealed that the full CYP3A encoded a protein of 513 amino acids and the molecular weight of CYP3A protein was 58.8 ku and the isoelectric point was 7.96. This protein was stable and hydrophilic, and it had 45.2% of α-spin, 12.3% of extended strand, 4.3%ofβ-fold, 38.2%of random coil and two binding-domain of crossing-membrane. Meanwhile, the results of acute toxicity tests indicated that chlorpyrifos was highly toxic to silver carp and the 96h LC50 of chlorpyrifos on silver carp was 0.172 mg/L. Finally, the results of Q RT-PCR indicated that chlorpyrifos significantly down regulated the expression of CYP3A at mRNA level in the liver of silver carp.

  17. Evidence for the activation of organophosphate pesticides by cytochromes P450 3A4 and 2D6 in human liver microsomes. (United States)

    Sams, C; Mason, H J; Rawbone, R


    The role of specific cytochrome P450 isoforms in catalysing the oxidative biotransformation of the organophosphorothioate pesticides parathion, chlorpyrifos and diazinon into structures that inhibit cholinesterase has been investigated in human liver microsomes using chemical inhibitors. Pesticides were incubated with human liver microsomes and production of the anticholinergic oxon metabolite was investigated by the inhibition of human serum cholinesterase. Quinidine and ketoconazole at 10 micromol/l inhibited oxidative biotransformation. Compared to control incubations (no inhibitor) where cholinesterase activity was inhibited to between 1 and 4% of control levels, incorporation of the CYP2D6 inhibitor quinidine into the microsomal incubation resulted in cholinesterase activity of 50% for parathion, 38% for diazinon and 30% for chlorpyrifos. Addition of the CYP3A4 inhibitor ketoconazole to microsomal incubations resulted in 66% cholinesterase activity with diazinon, 20% with parathion and 5% with chlorpyrifos. The unexpected finding that CYP2D6, as well as CYP3A4, catalysed oxidative biotransformation was confirmed for chlorpyrifos and parathion using microsomes prepared from a human lymphoblastoid cell line expressing CYP2D6. While parathion has been investigated only as a model compound, chlorpyrifos and diazinon are both very important, widely used pesticides and CYP2D6 appears to be an important enzyme in their bioactivation pathway. CYP2D6 is polymorphic and hence may influence individual susceptibility to exposure to chlorpyrifos and diazinon as well as other structurally similar pesticides.

  18. Effect of organophosphorus insecticides on phosphorylation of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuyin Li; Liming Zou; Carry Pope


    BACKGROUND: Organophosphorus insecticides may promote the accumulation of acetylcholine at synapses and the neuromuscular junction by inhibiting acetylcholinesterase activity to cause disturbance of neural signal conduction and induce a toxic reaction. Organophosphorus insecticides may act on M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors, whose combination with G proteins is regulated by phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2.OBJECTIVE: To investigate the effects of organophosphorus insecticides on the phosphorylation of G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2-mediated M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptors and to reveal other possible actions of organophosphorus insecticides.DESIGN, TIME AND SETTING: An observational study, which was performed in the Central Laboratory of Shenyang Medical College, and Department of Physiological Sciences, College of Veterinary Medicine, Oklahoma State University from June 2002 to December 2004.METHODS: The M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor was extracted and purified from pig brain using affinity chromatography. Subsequently, the purified M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor, G protein-coupled receptor kinase 2, and [OP32] ATP were incubated with different concentrations of paraoxon and chlorpyrifos oxon together. The mixture then underwent polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, and the gel film was dried and radioactively autographed to detect phosphorylation of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor. Finally, the radio-labeled phosphorylated M2 receptor protein band was excised for counting with an isotope liquid scintillation counter.MAIN OUTCOME MEASURES: Effects of chlorpyrifos oxon, paraoxon, chlorpyrifos, and parathion in different concentrations on the phosphorylation of the M2 muscarinic acetylcholine receptor; effects of chlorpyrifos oxon on the phosphorylation of the adrenergic receptor.CONCLUSION: Different kinds of organophosphorus insecticides have different effects on the phosphorylation of the G protein

  19. CPO Leadership: Unique and Innovative Leadership Characteristics of Senior Enlisted that Sustain Naval Operations (United States)


    Musicians Orderlies SN2 Ordinary Seaman Seaman-Apprentices 2nd class Baymen Musicians Fireman 1st class Privates SN3 Landsman Apprentices 1st...effective. Subsequently, doing this daily will generally harden a sailor’s reaction (connection) to the message being sent by the chief. When this

  20. Effects of Chlorpyrifos on Food Utilization and Detoxifying Enzymes and Acetylcholinesterase of Lymantria dispar%毒死蜱对舞毒蛾食物利用和解毒酶及AChE活性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李慧; 严善春; 王志英; 葛士林; 曹传旺


    采用质量法和酶活性测定法研究了毒死蜱对舞毒蛾(Lymantria dispar)3龄幼虫食物利用的影响,并测定了其毒力及解毒酶、乙酰胆碱酯酶(AChE)的活性.用亚致死浓度(1.5 mg·L-1)毒死蜱处理小黑杨叶片,饲喂舞毒蛾3龄幼虫,其幼虫生长率(RGR)、食物利用率(ECI)和食物转化率(ECD)均显著低于对照,而近似消化率(AD)显著高于对照,相对取食量(RCR)处理和对照间差异不显著.毒死蜱对舞毒蛾幼虫24 h致死中浓度(LC50)为5.86 mg·L-1,其毒力低于三氟氯氰菊酯而高于氧化乐果.毒死蜱对舞毒蛾3龄幼虫体内羧酸酯酶(CarE)、谷胱甘肽S-转移酶(GSTs)和AChE均有抑制作用,抑制程度为CarE>AChE>GSTs.毒死蜱通过影响舞毒蛾食物利用和抑制酶活性而表现出杀虫活性,为一种有效防治舞毒蛾的有机磷杀虫剂.%The effects of sublethal dose of chlorpyrifos (CPF) on food utilization of gypsy moth, Lymantria dispar,as well as CPF toxicity and enzyme activities of carboxylesterase ( CarE ), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs) and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were evaluated in the 3rd-instar gypsy moth larvae using gravimetric method and measuring enzyme activities. Relative growth rate (RGR), efficiency of the conversion of ingested food (ECI) and efficiency of the conversion of digested food (ECD) of 3rd-instar larvae fed on poplar leaves treated by sublethal concentration of CPF were significantly lower than thosc fed on normal polar leaves. However, approximate digestibility (AD) of the treatment was significantly higher than that of control. The relative consumption rate (RCR) of the treatment and control groups were not significantly different. The 24 h LC50 of CPF to the gypsy moth 3rd-instar larvae was 5.86 mg · L-1, which was higher than that of omethoate but lower than that of cyhalothrin. In vitro inhibition assay indicated that the activities of AChE, CarE and GSTs were inhibited by CPF depended on concentrations

  1. 大鼠动态吸入氯吡硫磷染毒模型的建立及致伤效应评价%Model establishment and injury assessment of chlorpyrifos dynamic-inhalation of rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕鑫; 隋昕; 李万华; 聂志勇; 王永安


    目的:建立大鼠全身暴露动态吸入有机磷农药氯吡硫磷(CPF)的染毒模型,探讨SD大鼠急性吸入CPF致伤效应。方法通过优化气溶胶发生参数,建立大鼠急性吸入CPF的动态暴露环境;利用吸附采样-气相检测技术监测暴露舱内CPF的浓度,利用粒径监测仪实时监测暴露舱内CPF的粒径,同时考察气溶胶的浓度和粒径随时间的变化;采用Bliss法,将SPF级雄性SD大鼠置于染毒环境中进行染毒,在不同浓时积(Ct)下观察染毒过程中大鼠的症状,记录染毒后各浓度组大鼠10 d内的死亡情况;同时根据半数致死Ct (LCt50),检测不同暴露浓度染毒后不同时间点血浆胆碱酯酶(ChE)活性变化。结果暴露舱内CPF气溶胶浓度在9个时间段的平均值为160.6 mg·m-3,变异系数(RSD)为6.9%;气溶胶粒径几何平均值为1.1μm,几何标准偏差为1.8,符合国际经济合作与发展组织急性吸入染毒技术要求。在此染毒条件下,SD大鼠全身暴露动态吸入染毒的LCt50为1654.2 mg·m-3·h,随着染毒浓度的增加,血浆ChE活性抑制愈加明显(P<0.05)。结论本研究成功建立了大鼠全身暴露动态吸入CPF染毒模型,为有机磷类工农业产品以及神经性毒剂吸入致伤和防治研究提供实验平台和技术支撑。%OBJECTIVE To establish a model for chlorpyrifos(CPF)whole-body dynamic inhalation exposure in SD rats and investigate the injury effects after acute exposure by CPF. METHODS By optimizing the aerosol parameters ,the animal acute dynamic inhalation exposure of CPF was established. Absorption sampling-gas phase detecting technology was used to monitor the concentration of CPF in the whole-body dynamic-inhalation exposure cabin by exploring the relationship between the concentration , particle size of CPF aerosol and the CPF inhalation time in the exposure cabin via a particle size detector. Using Bliss method

  2. 毒死蜱/环糊精在锌铝类水滑石中插层的制备和性能%Preparation and Characterization of Chlorpyrifos/Cyclodextrin Complex Intercalation into ZnAl-Layered Double Hydroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘洁翔; 任纪辉; 赵乔; 石婷静; 刘志芳; 罗诏; 张晓光


    Chlorpyrifos (CPF) was firstly included in sulfonated hydroxyethyl-β-cyclodextrin (SBECD) and carboxymethyl-β-cyclodextrin (CMCD) in an ethanol or 1-methyl-2-pyrrolidinone (NMP) solvent. Inclusion complexes (CPF/SBECD and CPF/CMCD) were then intercalated into the gal eries of ZnAl-layered double hydroxides (ZAL) to synthesize ZAL-SBECD-CPF and ZAL-CMCD-CPF intercalated materials. The structure and thermal stability of nanohybrids were characterized by powder X-ray diffraction (XRD), Fourier transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy, and thermal gravimetric and differential thermal analysis (TG-DTA). The results showed that both CPF/SBECD and CPF/SBECD were successful y intercalated in the interlayer. The samples prepared in the NMP solvent had a stronger diffraction peak intensity than those prepared with ethanol. The intercalated CPF molecules had a high thermal stability. Furthermore, the release behaviors of CPF from ZAL-SBECD-CPF and ZAL-CMCD-CPF nanohybrids were investigated and analyzed at pH 5.0 and 6.8. ZAL-SBECD-CPF had almost no slow-release behavior, while ZAL-CMCD-CPF showed distinct slow-release, which was caused by the different arrangements of cyclodextrin (CD) in the interlayer. BC release from nanohybrids was faster and the amount released higher at pH 6.8 than at pH 5.0. This was closely correlated with the structural type of CD and the release media. The CPF release kinetic process can be fitted wel by pseudo-second-order and parabolic diffusion models. ZAL-CMCD-CPF remarkably exhibited control ed release behavior, suggesting that it can be potential y applied as a control ed release pesticide formulation.%以层状锌铝类水滑石(ZAL)为主体,分别以磺丁基醚-β-环糊精(SBECD)和羧甲基-β-环糊精(CMCD)包结毒死蜱(CPF)为客体分子,分别在乙醇和N-甲基吡咯烷酮(NMP)溶剂条件下制备ZAL-SBECD-CPF和ZAL-CMCD-CPF插层材料,采用X射线粉末衍射(XRD)、傅里叶变换红外(FT-IR)光谱和热重-差热

  3. Control of San Jose Scale Nymphs, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock, on Almond and Apple Orchards with Pyriproxyfen, Phenoxycarb, Chlorpyrifos, and Mineral Oil Control de Ninfas de la Escama de San José, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock, en Almendros y Manzanos con Piriproxifen, Fenoxicarb, Clorpirifos y Aceite Mineral

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luis Sazo


    Full Text Available The effect of pyriproxyfen, phenoxycarb, chlorpyrifos, and mineral oil in the control of first generation nymphs of the San Jose scale (SJC, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock, in almond, Prunusdulcis (Mill. D.A. Webb, and apple, Malusdomestica Borkh. orchards was studied in the 2001-2002 season in central Chile. One and two sprays of pyriproxyfen 0.07% and phenoxycarb 0.05% were applied, the first at the beginning of the appearance of nymphs in early spring (biofix, and the other 15 days later, and were compared with one spray of chlorpyrifos 0.08% applied at the biofix. Also, one and two sprays of mineral oil 1% were evaluated, the first applied 7 days after the biofix, and the second 15 days after the first spray. Evaluations were done in the laboratory at the end of the dispersion of first generation nymphs, on December 27 and 28 for almonds and apples, respectively, counting the number of nymphs fixed per lineal meter of new twigs collected at infested sectors, percentage of infested apples, and the number of scales fixed per fruit. Results were subjected to ANOVA and Duncan multiple range tests. At low level infestation, one application of pyriproxyfen 0.07%, phenoxycarb 0.05%, or mineral oil 1% in spring reduced significantly (P≤0.05 the number of nymphs fixed per twig, at a level similar to that of a traditional treatment of chlorpyrifos 0.08%. However, at greater infestations, one spray of pyriproxyfen or mineral oil in spring was insufficient to control ESJ.En la temporada 2001-2002 se estudió el efecto de piriproxifen, fenoxicarb, clorpyrifos y aceite mineral en el control de las ninfas de la primera generación de la Escama de San José (ESJ, Diaspidiotus perniciosus (Comstock, en almendros, Prunusdulcis (Mill. D.A. Webb, y manzanos, Malusdomestica Borkh., en Chile central. Se hicieron una y dos aplicaciones de piriproxifen 0,07% y fenoxicarb 0,05%, la primera en el inicio del nacimiento de ninfas de primavera (biofix y la segunda

  4. Optimized culture medium and fermentation conditions for enzyme production by the salt-tolerant chlorpyrifos-degrading bacterium HY-1%耐盐性毒死蜱降解菌HY-1的产酶培养基及发酵条件优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    段海明; 王开运; 于彩虹


    In order to improve the treatment effect of wastewater from pesticide enterprise, it is necessary to study the salt-tolerant characteristics and fermentation conditions of the degrading bacterium. A chlorpyrifos-degrading bacterium Bacillus cereus HY-1 was isolated in laboratory from pesticide wastewater. The optimal fermentation medium and fermentation conditions of HY-1 were selected by single factor and orthogonal test, and the amount of enzyme produced by HY-1 was estimated based on the specific activity of the enzyme. The experimental results were analyzed by the SPSS system. The optimal composition of the culture medium included glucose 6.0 g/L, tryptone 2.2 g/L, KH2PO4 2.0 g/L, K2HPO4 0.2 g/L, MgSO4'7H2O 0.1 g/L, NaCl 0.1 g/L, trace elements solution 2 mL/L. The optimal fermentation conditions of HY-1 were that incubation time of the seed culture was 16 h, fermentation time was 18 h. inoculum amount was 1% (V/V), initial pH 7.0. The specific activity of the degrading enzyme was not affected while the sodium chloride concentration of the fermentation medium in creased from 0 g/L to 30 g/L. To the best of our knowledge, this is the most extremely salt-tolerant bacterium reported that could degrade chlorpyrifos.%为了明确生化处理和微生物降解的关系,通过增加耐盐菌的比例可以提高农药废水生化处理效果.从农药厂废水中分离到1株耐盐性毒死蜱降解菌--蜡状芽孢杆菌(Bacillus cereus HY-1).以从该菌中提取到的降解酶比活力为指标,进行产酶培养基和发酵条件的优化研究.通过单一因素试验和正交试验,对细菌HY-1的产酸培养基和发酵条件进行了优化.运用SPSS软件进行结果分析,所获优化培养基配方为:葡萄糖6.0 g/L,胰蛋白胨2.2 g/L,K2HPO4 2.0 g/L,KH2PO4 0.2 g/L,MgSO4·7H2O 0.1 g/L,NaCl 0.1 g/L和微量元素溶液2 mL/L.得到菌株发酵培养的最佳优化条件为:种子液培养时间为16 h,发酵培养时间为18 h,接种量为1%(V/V),发

  5. A Study on the Oxidative Damage of Adult Offspring Brain Tissue after Gestational Exposure to Chlorpyrifos in Rats%妊娠期暴露毒死蜱对子鼠成年后脑组织氧化损伤的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张敏; 徐肖倩; 刘建东; 刘现洲; 陈文婕; 塔娜; 戴红


    Objective To discuss whether there is any oxidative damage in the adult offspring rats’brain because of wistar rats exposed to organ phosphorus pesticide chlorpyrifos in early pregnancy.Methods Stomach virus infected dose of 1/50 LD50, 1/100 LD50 group, 1/180 LD50 concentration of CPF and corn oil were given to the mother rats intragastrically from the sixth day that the mother rats getting pregnancy to the twenty-first day after the rats born. The rats were put to death 8 weeks after born, then malondialdehyde (MDA) content, superoxide dismutase (SOD) activity and glutathione peroxidase (GSH-PX) dynamic of brain were tested. Results As the increase of decreasing dose, the vigor of SOD and GSH-PX reduced;the content of MDA increased, and there was a dose-response relationship. There were statistically significant differences in the above indicators between every infected dose and corn oil control group (P<0.05).Conclusion There is certain oxidative damage on the brain of 8-week old rat adult offspring because of gestational exposure to low concentration chlorpyrifos.%目的:探讨大鼠妊娠早期暴露有机磷农药毒死蜱对子代鼠成年后大脑氧化损伤与机制。方法在母鼠妊娠后第6天至子鼠出生后第21天给予灌胃染毒,染毒剂量1/50LD50、1/100LD50、1/180LD50浓度的CPF和玉米油组。待子鼠长到第8周后处死,处死取脑做匀浆测大脑匀浆中丙二醛(MDA)含量、超氧化物歧化酶(SOD)活力、谷胱甘肽过氧化物酶(GSH-PXD)活力。结果随着染毒剂量的增加,SOD的活力、GSH-PX的活力下降;而MDA的含量增加,并呈现出一定的剂量反应关系。各暴露染毒剂量组的上述指标还与玉米油对照组之间的差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论妊娠期毒死蜱暴露对8周龄子鼠大脑组织具有神经毒性,其机制可能与毒死蜱暴露至大脑氧化损伤有关。

  6. Development of a passive air sampler to measure airborne organophosphorus pesticides and oxygen analogs in an agricultural community. (United States)

    Armstrong, Jenna L; Yost, Michael G; Fenske, Richard A


    Organophosphorus pesticides are some of the most widely used insecticides in the US, and spray drift may result in human exposures. We investigate sampling methodologies using the polyurethane foam passive air sampling device to measure cumulative monthly airborne concentrations of OP pesticides chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, and oxygen analogs. Passive sampling rates (m(3)d(-1)) were determined using calculations using chemical properties, loss of depuration compounds, and calibration with side-by-side active air sampling in a dynamic laboratory exposure chamber and in the field. The effects of temperature, relative humidity, and wind velocity on outdoor sampling rates were examined at 23 sites in Yakima Valley, Washington. Indoor sampling rates were significantly lower than outdoors. Outdoor rates significantly increased with average wind velocity, with high rates (>4m(3)d(-1)) observed above 8ms(-1). In exposure chamber studies, very little oxygen analog was observed on the PUF-PAS, yet substantial amounts chlorpyrifos-oxon and azinphos methyl oxon were measured in outdoor samples. PUF-PAS is a practical and useful alternative to AAS because it results in little artificial transformation to the oxygen analog during sampling, it provides cumulative exposure estimates, and the measured sampling rates were comparable to rates for other SVOCs. It is ideal for community based participatory research due to low subject burden and simple deployment in remote areas.

  7. Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) Status and Risk of Insecticide Exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Furlong, Clement E.; Cole, Toby B.; Walter, Betsy J.; Shih, Diana M.; Tward, Aaron; Lusis, Aldons J.; Timchalk, Chuck; Richter, Rebecca J.; Costa, Lucio G.


    Paraoxonase 1 (PON1) is an HDL associated enzyme that catalyzes a number of different reactions including the hydrolysis of the toxic oxon metabolites of the insecticides diazinon and chlorpyrifos. PON1 has also been implicated in the detoxication of oxidized lipids and the metabolism of a number of drugs, activating some, while inactivating others. There are two common PON1 coding region polymorphisms (L55M and Q192R). The latter determines the catalytic efficiency of hydrolysis of a number of substrates including chlorpyrifos oxon, but not diazoxon. Evidence for the physiological importance of PON1 in modulating exposures to these two insecticides comes from several different studies. Early studies noted that species with high levels of PON1 were much more resistant to certain organophosphorus (OP) insecticides than were species with low levels. Another early study by Main demonstrated that injected rabbit paraoxonase protected rats from paraoxon toxicity. Our research group began the development of a mouse model system for examining the importance of PON1 in the detoxication of OP insecticides.

  8. Pengaruh Harga Pokok Produksi Dan Harga Jual CPO Dan PKO Terhadap Volume Penjualan Pada PTPN IV (PERSERO) Medan


    Marpaung, Vinka Adriana


    The objective of this research is to determine that the cost of goods manufactured and sales price have effect to the sales volume. The independent variables those are used at this research are cost of goods manufactured and sales price, and the dependent variable is sales volume. The research location is at PT. Perkebunan Nusantara IV which head office is at Letjend. Suprapto Street number 2 Medan. Data in this research are get from documentation and interview with the accounting departme...

  9. CYP-specific bioactivation of four organophosphorothioate pesticides by human liver microsomes. (United States)

    Buratti, Franca M; Volpe, Maria Teresa; Meneguz, Annarita; Vittozzi, Luciano; Testai, Emanuela


    The bioactivation of azinphos-methyl (AZIN), chlorpyrifos (CPF), diazinon (DIA), and parathion (PAR), four widely used organophosphorothioate (OPT) pesticides has been investigated in human liver microsomes (HLM). In addition, the role of human cytochrome P450 (CYPs) in OPT desulfuration at pesticide levels representative of human exposure have been defined by means of correlation and immunoinhibition studies. CYP-mediated oxon formation from the four OPTs is efficiently catalyzed by HLM, although showing a high variability (>40-fold) among samples. Two distinct phases were involved in the desulfuration of AZIN, DIA, and PAR, characterized by different affinity constants (K(mapp1) = 0.13-9 microM and K(mapp2) = 5- 269 microM). Within the range of CPF concentrations tested, only the high-affinity component was evidenced (K(mapp1) = 0.27-0.94 microM). Oxon formation in phenotyped individual HLM showed a significant correlation with CYP1A2-, 3A4-, and 2B6-related activities, at different levels depending on the OPT concentration. Anti-human CYP1A2, 2B6, and 3A4 antibodies significantly inhibited oxon formation, showing the same OPT concentration dependence. Our data indicated that CYP1A2 is mainly involved in OPT desulfuration at low pesticide concentrations, while the role of CYP3A4 is more significant to the low-affinity component of OPT bioactivation. The contribution of CYP2B6 to total hepatic oxon formation was relevant in a wide range of pesticide concentrations, being a very efficient catalyst of both the high- and low-affinity phase. These results suggest CYP1A2 and 2B6 as possible metabolic biomarkers of susceptibility to OPT toxic effect at the actual human exposure levels.

  10. Identification of Two Chlorpyrifos-degrading Strains and the Effect of Bacterial Fermentation on Seed Germination of Radish%两株毒死蜱降解细菌菌株鉴定及对萝卜种子萌发的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    任艳; 张新建; 李红梅; 黄玉杰; 李纪顺; 杨合同


    鉴定两株有较强降解毒死蜱能力的菌株N16和N432,并初步探讨此两株细菌菌液对萝卜种子萌发的影响.通过对其形态、生理生化特征及16S rDNA的分析,进行初步鉴定;以不同浓度的菌液浸泡萝卜种,之后于25℃下培养,测定发芽势、发芽率、发芽指数、活力指数.通过形态特征及序列分析,这两株菌均为琼氏不动杆菌属(Acinetobacter junii).N16细菌原液对萝卜种子发芽率、发芽指数均高于对照组,N432作用完全相反.菌株N16对萝卜种子的萌发具有促进作用,这种促进作用随着培养液的稀释,呈现逐渐降低的趋势.而菌株N432则对种子的萌发具有抑制作用,并且这种抑制作用随着培养液的稀释呈现减弱趋势.%Two bacterial strains N16, N432 which could degrade chlorpyrifos were identified, and the effect of the fermentation liquid from the strains on sprout and seeding of radish was studied. The strains were identified based on the morphological, physiological, biochemical characteristic and 16S rDNA sequences. The radish seed treated with the fermentation liquid at 251 were cultures, and then germination energy, germination rate, germination index, vigor index were measured. It is showed that N16, N432 were identified as Acinetobacter junii according to the morphological characteristic and sequencing. Germination energy, germination rate, germination index, vigor index of radish seeds pretreated with pure bacteria liquid of N16 were higher than control, but they were inhibited by the N432. Germination rate and germination index were promoted by the liquid culture of N16, but they were inhibited by the liquid culture of N432. And the effects including inhibition of N432 and enhancement of N16 would be weakened when their liquid cultures were diluted.

  11. A simple and convenient method for direct α-chlorination of ketones with ammonium chloride and Oxone

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhong Shi Zhou; Li Li; Xue Han He


    When ketones were treated with ammonium chloride and Oxone(R) in MeOH at room temperature,a direct α-chlorination of ketones was occurred and a series of the corresponding α-chloroketones were obtained in moderate to good yields after 24 h.In this reaction,ammonium chloride was used as the source of chlorine and Oxone(R) was used as an oxidant.This method was simple,convenient and providing a novel procedure for preparation of α-chloroketones.

  12. 40 CFR 180.342 - Chlorpyrifos; tolerances for residues. (United States)


    ...) in or on the following food commodities: Commodity Parts per million Alfalfa, forage 3.0 Alfalfa, hay....0 Beet, sugar, molasses 15 Beet, sugar, roots 1.0 Beet, sugar, tops 8.0 Cattle, fat 0.3 Cattle, meat... 2.0 Soybean, seed 0.3 Strawberry 0.2 Sunflower, seed 0.1 Sweet potato, roots 0.05 Turnip, roots...

  13. Analyses of soil fungal community succession under chlorpyrifos stress using PCR-DGGE%聚合酶链反应-变性梯度凝胶电泳分析在毒死蜱胁迫下土壤真菌群落结构演替

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李艳丽; 陈列忠


    Chlorpyrifos (CP) is a broad-spectrum,moderately toxic organophosphorus insecticide.It is widely used throughout the world,especially in recent years with the restrictions or eliminations of highly toxic organophosphorus compounds.The fate of CP after a single application in soil and its effects on soil microbial population,microbial functional diversity,microbial respiration,and enzyme activities have been well investigated.However,the influence of CP application on the soil fungal community succession remains unknown.Denaturing gradient gel electrophoresis (DGGE) is currently used in the characterization of soil bacterial and fungal community.DGGE analysis can provide a picture composed of an array of bands with different intensities,and the banding patterns of DGGE are analyzed using Quantity One V4.62 software (Bio-Rad).An Excel worksheet was used to calculate the Shannon-Wiener index (H),and Matlab software (MathWorks) was performed to do principal component analysis (PCA) of DGGE data.The aim of this study was to assess the effect of CP application on soil fungal community using PCR-DGGE based on internal transcribed spacer (ITS) region and 28S rDNA amplification products.After preincubation in the dark for one week at 25 ℃,CP was applied to soils with a predetermined volume of their commercial formulation,following proper dilution with distilled water,to give a final concentration of 5 mg/kg corresponding to the recommended dose.Soil samples received the same amount of sterilized water without CP were used as controls.Each treatment was conducted thrice,and a total of six microcosms were prepared.At 1,7,15,30,45,and60 d after CP treatment,soil samples were collected to detect CP residue in the soil and to extract soil DNA for polymerase chain reaction (PCR)-DGGE analysis.The degradation curve of CP in soil showed that the CP residues in the soil samples were significantly decreased to 2.086,0.355,and 0.008 mg/kg respectively after 7,30 and 60 d of CP

  14. Zebrafish Models for Human Acute Organophosphorus Poisoning. (United States)

    Faria, Melissa; Garcia-Reyero, Natàlia; Padrós, Francesc; Babin, Patrick J; Sebastián, David; Cachot, Jérôme; Prats, Eva; Arick Ii, Mark; Rial, Eduardo; Knoll-Gellida, Anja; Mathieu, Guilaine; Le Bihanic, Florane; Escalon, B Lynn; Zorzano, Antonio; Soares, Amadeu M V M; Raldúa, Demetrio


    Terrorist use of organophosphorus-based nerve agents and toxic industrial chemicals against civilian populations constitutes a real threat, as demonstrated by the terrorist attacks in Japan in the 1990 s or, even more recently, in the Syrian civil war. Thus, development of more effective countermeasures against acute organophosphorus poisoning is urgently needed. Here, we have generated and validated zebrafish models for mild, moderate and severe acute organophosphorus poisoning by exposing zebrafish larvae to different concentrations of the prototypic organophosphorus compound chlorpyrifos-oxon. Our results show that zebrafish models mimic most of the pathophysiological mechanisms behind this toxidrome in humans, including acetylcholinesterase inhibition, N-methyl-D-aspartate receptor activation, and calcium dysregulation as well as inflammatory and immune responses. The suitability of the zebrafish larvae to in vivo high-throughput screenings of small molecule libraries makes these models a valuable tool for identifying new drugs for multifunctional drug therapy against acute organophosphorus poisoning.

  15. Kinetics of pesticide degradation by human fresh frozen plasma (FFP) in vitro. (United States)

    von der Wellen, Jens; Bierwisch, Anne; Worek, Franz; Thiermann, Horst; Wille, Timo


    There is an ongoing debate about the benefit of fresh frozen plasma (FFP) infusion in organophosphorus (OP) pesticide-poisoned patients. This prompted us to investigate the kinetics of OP pesticide degradation by FFP with an enzymatic assay in vitro. Degradation was rapid with shortest half-lives of 19.5s for chlorpyrifos-oxon, 6.3min for paraoxon-ethyl and 17.9min for dichlorvos. Heptenophos (78.0min), mevinphos (101.8min), profenofos (162.3min) and malaoxon (179.7min) showed half-lives of up to 3h. Substantial longer degradation half-lives of 69.7-80.8h were determined with chlorfenvinphos and bromfenvinphos. Methamidophos and omethoate showed no degradation by FFP indicated by half-lives similar to spontaneous hydrolysis. In conclusion, degradation by FFP depends on the particular OP pesticide and the used FFP batch.

  16. Pesticides in amphibian habitats of Central and Northern California, USA (United States)

    Fellers, Gary M.; Sparling, W; McConnell, Laura; Kleeman, Patrick M.; Drakeford, Leticia


    Previous studies have indicated that toxicity from pesticide exposure may be contributing to amphibian declines in California and that atmospheric deposition could be a primary pathway for pesticides to enter amphibian habitats. We report on a survey of California wetlands sampled along transects associated with Lassen Volcanic National Park, Lake Tahoe, Yosemite National Park, and Sequoia National Park. Each transect ran from the Pacific coast to the Cascades or Sierra Nevada mountains. Pacific chorus frogs (Pseudacris regilla), water, and sediment were collected from wetlands in 2001 and 2002. Twenty-three pesticides were found in frog, water, or sediment samples. Six contaminants including trifluralin, α-endosulfan, chlordanes, and trans-nonachlor were found in adult P. regilla. Seventeen contaminants were found in sediments, including endosulfan sulfate, chlordanes, 1-chloro-4-[2,2-dichloro-1-(4-chlorophenyl)ethenyl]benzene (4,4′-DDE), and chlorpyrifos. The mean number of chemicals detected per pond in sediments was 2.4 (2.5, standard deviation). In water, 17 chemicals were detected, with β-endosulfan being present in almost all samples. Trifluralin, chlordanes, and chlorpyrifos were the next most common. The mean number of chemicals in water per pond was 7.8 (2.9). With the possible exception of chlorpyrifos oxon in sediments and total endosulfans, none of the contaminants exceeded known lethal or sublethal concentrations in P. regilla tissue. Endosulfans, chlorpyrifos, and trifluralin were associated with historic and present day population status of amphibians. Cholinesterase, an essential neurological enzyme that can be depressed by certain pesticides, was reduced in tadpoles from areas with the greatest population declines.

  17. Inhibition of Voltage-Gated Calcium Channels After Subchronic and Repeated Exposure of PC12 Cells to Different Classes of Insecticides. (United States)

    Meijer, Marieke; Brandsema, Joske A R; Nieuwenhuis, Desirée; Wijnolts, Fiona M J; Dingemans, Milou M L; Westerink, Remco H S


    We previously demonstrated that acute inhibition of voltage-gated calcium channels (VGCCs) is a common mode of action for (sub)micromolar concentrations of chemicals, including insecticides. However, because human exposure to chemicals is usually chronic and repeated, we investigated if selected insecticides from different chemical classes (organochlorines, organophosphates, pyrethroids, carbamates, and neonicotinoids) also disturb calcium homeostasis after subchronic (24 h) exposure and after a subsequent (repeated) acute exposure. Effects on calcium homeostasis were investigated with single-cell fluorescence (Fura-2) imaging of PC12 cells. Cells were depolarized with high-K(+) saline to study effects of subchronic or repeated exposure on VGCC-mediated Ca(2+) influx. The results demonstrate that except for carbaryl and imidacloprid, all selected insecticides inhibited depolarization (K(+))-evoked Ca(2+) influx after subchronic exposure (IC50's: approximately 1-10 µM) in PC12 cells. These inhibitory effects were not or only slowly reversible. Moreover, repeated exposure augmented the inhibition of the K(+)-evoked increase in intracellular calcium concentration induced by subchronic exposure to cypermethrin, chlorpyrifos, chlorpyrifos-oxon, and endosulfan (IC50's: approximately 0.1-4 µM). In rat primary cortical cultures, acute and repeated chlorpyrifos exposure also augmented inhibition of VGCCs compared with subchronic exposure. In conclusion, compared with subchronic exposure, repeated exposure increases the potency of insecticides to inhibit VGCCs. However, the potency of insecticides to inhibit VGCCs upon repeated exposure was comparable with the inhibition previously observed following acute exposure, with the exception of chlorpyrifos. The data suggest that an acute exposure paradigm is sufficient for screening chemicals for effects on VGCCs and that PC12 cells are a sensitive model for detection of effects on VGCCs.

  18. Perbandingan Hasil Analisis Beberapa Parameter Mutu Pada Crude Palm Olein Yang Diperoleh Dari Pencampuran Cpo Dan Rbd Palm Olein Terhadap Teoretis


    Alfian, Zul


    Telah dilakukan analisis crude palm olein yang diperoleh dari pencampuran crude palm oil dan RBD palm olein. Hasil analisisnya telah dibandingkan dengan hasil teoretisnya. Analisis crude palm olein tersebut didasarkan pada parameter-parameter kadar asam lemak bebas (ALB), kadar air, kadar pengotor. Hasil perbandingan menyimpulkan bahwa hasil analisis yang dilakukan untuk kadar asam lemak bebas: 1,02%, kadar air: 0,056%, kadar pengotor: 0,012%. Sedangkan hasil teoretis untuk kadar asam lemak...

  19. Localization of the homolog of a mouse craniofacial mutant to human chromosome 18q11 and evaluation of linkage to human CLP and CPO

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Griffith, A.J.; Burgess, D.L.; Kohrman, D.C.; Yu, J. [Univ. of Michigan, Ann Arbor, MI (United States)] [and others


    The transgene-induced mutation 9257 and the spontaneous mutation twirler cause craniofacial and inner ear malformations and are located on mouse chromosome 18 near the ataxia locus ax. To map the human homolog of 9257, a probe from the transgene insertion site was used to screen a human genomic library. Analysis of a cross-hybridizing human clone identified a 3-kb conserved sequence block that does not appear to contain protein coding sequence. Analysis of somatic cell hybrid panels assigned the human locus to 18q11. The polymorphic microsatellite markers D18S1001 and D18S1002 were isolated from the human locus and mapped by linkage analysis using the CEPH pedigrees. The 9257 locus maps close to the centromeres of human chromosome 18q and mouse chromosome 18 at the proximal end of a conserved linkage group. To evaluate the role of this locus in human craniofacial disorders, linkage to D18S1002 was tested in 11 families with autosomal dominant nonsyndromic cleft lip and palate and 3 families with autosomal dominant cleft palate only. Obligatory recombinants were observed in 8 of the families, and negative lod scores from the other families indicated that these disorders are not linked to the chromosome 18 loci. 23 refs., 4 figs., 2 tabs.

  20. Cytotoxicity of organophosphate anticholinesterases. (United States)

    Cao, C J; Mioduszewski, R J; Menking, D E; Valdes, J J; Katz, E J; Eldefrawi, M E; Eldefrawi, A T


    Organophosphate (OP) anticholinesterases were found to modulate metabolic activities of human neuroblastoma cells and hepatocytes, which was detectable by the Cytosensor microphysiometer. The nerve gas ethyl-S-2-diisopropylaminoethyl methylphosphorothiolate (VX), at 10 microM, produced significant reduction in cell metabolism within 2 min, as measured by changes in the acidification rate of the medium. The reduction was dose- and time-dependent and irreversible after 4 h of exposure. Two alkaline degradation products of VX produced no cytotoxicity. Exposure for 24 h to 3 microM VX caused 36% and 94% irreversible loss of metabolism in hepatocytes and neuroblastoma cells, respectively. The insecticides parathion and chlorpyrifos stimulated hepatocyte metabolism but inhibited neuroblastoma cells. Their oxons were more active. Exposure of neuroblastoma cells for 4 h to VX, parathion, paraoxon, diisopropylfluorophosphate or chlorpyrifos gave an LC50 of 65, 775, 640, 340, or 672 microM, respectively, whereas 24 h gave an LC50 of 0.7, 3.7, 2.5, 29, and 31 microM, respectively. Preincubation of hepatocytes with phenobarbital enhanced their response to parathion and VX due to metabolic bioactivation. Atropine partially blocked the effects of VX and paraoxon on both cell types, which suggests the involvement of a muscarinic receptor as the target for cytotoxicity. There was no correlation between OP in vivo neurotoxicity and in vitro cytotoxicity. It is suggested that the former results from their cholinesterase inhibition, while the latter results from action on different targets and requires much higher concentrations.

  1. Human metabolic interactions of environmental chemicals. (United States)

    Hodgson, Ernest; Rose, Randy L


    Investigations utilizing recombinant human xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes as well as human hepatocytes have revealed a number of interactions not only between different environmental chemicals (ECs) but also between ECs and endogenous metabolites. Organophosphorus insecticides (OPs) are potent inhibitors of the human metabolism of carbaryl, carbofuran, DEET and fipronil, as well as the jet fuel components, nonane and naphthalene. OPs are potent irreversible inhibitors of testosterone metabolism by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 and of estradiol metabolism by CYP3A4 and CYP1A2. All of these CYP inhibitions are believed to be due to the release of reactive sulfur during CYP-catalyzed oxidative desulfuration. It has also been shown that the esterase(s) responsible for the initial step in permethrin metabolism in human liver is inhibited by both chlorpyrifos oxon and carbaryl. A number of pesticides, including chlorpyrifos, fipronil and permethrin, and the repellent, DEET, have been shown to be inducers of CYP isoforms in human hepatocytes, with fipronil being the most potent. Several agrochemicals, including fipronil and the pyrethroids, permethrin and deltamethrin, show toxicity toward human hepatocytes with fipronil being the most potent in this regard. Endosulfan-alpha, which has shown promise as a model substrate for phenotyping CYP3A4 and CYP2B6 in human liver microsomes, is also an inducer of CYP2B6, acting through the PXR receptor.

  2. Mechanisms of organophosphate resistance in a field population of oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). (United States)

    Yang, M L; Zhang, J Z; Zhu, K Y; Xuan, T; Liu, X J; Guo, Y P; Ma, E B


    The susceptibilities to three organophosphate (OP) insecticides (malathion, chlorpyrifos, and phoxim), responses to three metabolic synergists [triphenyl phosphate (TPP), piperonyl butoxide (PBO), and diethyl maleate (DEM)], activities of major detoxification enzymes [general esterases (ESTs), glutathione S-transferases (GSTs), and cytochrome P450 monooxygenases (P450s)], and sensitivity of the target enzyme acetylcholinesterase (AChE) were compared between a laboratory-susceptible strain (LS) and a field-resistant population (FR) of the oriental migratory locust, Locusta migratoria manilensis (Meyen). The FR was significantly resistant to malathion (57.5-fold), but marginally resistant to chlorpyrifos (5.4) and phoxim (2.9). The malathion resistance of the FR was significantly diminished by TPP (synergism ratio: 16.2) and DEM (3.3), but was unchanged by PBO. In contrast, none of these synergists significantly affected the toxicity of malathion in the LS. Biochemical studies indicated that EST and GST activities in the FR were 2.1- to 3.2-fold and 1.2- to 2.0-fold, respectively, higher than those in the LS, but there was no significant difference in P450 activity between the LS and FR. Furthermore, AChE from the FR showed 4.0-fold higher activity but was 3.2-, 2.2-, and 1.1-fold less sensitive to inhibition by malaoxon, chlorpyrifos-oxon, and phoxim, respectively, than that from the LS. All these results clearly indicated that the observed malathion resistance in the FR was conferred by multiple mechanisms, including increased detoxification by ESTs and GSTs, and increased activity and reduced sensitivity of AChE to OP inhibition.

  3. Metabolic interactions of agrochemicals in humans. (United States)

    Hodgson, Ernest; Rose, Randy L


    Agrochemicals and other xenobiotics are metabolized by xenobiotic-metabolizing enzymes (XMEs) to products that may be more or less toxic than the parent chemical. In this regard, phase-I XMEs such as cytochrome P450s (CYPs) are of primary importance. Interactions at the level of metabolism may take place via either inhibition or induction of XMEs. Such interactions have often been investigated, in vitro, in experimental animals, using subcellular fractions such as liver microsomes, but seldom in humans or at the level of individual XME isoforms. The authors have been investigating the metabolism of a number of agrochemicals by human liver microsomes and recombinant CYP isoforms and have recently embarked on studies of the induction of XMEs in human hepatocytes. The insecticides chlorpyrifos, carbaryl, carbofuran and fipronil, as well as the repellant DEET, are all extensively metabolized by human liver microsomes and, although a number of CYP isoforms may be involved, CYP2B6 and CYP3A4 are usually the most important. Permethrin is hydrolyzed by esterase(s) present in both human liver microsomes and cytosol. A number of metabolic interactions have been observed. Chlorpyrifos and other phosphorothioates are potent inhibitors of the CYP-dependent metabolism of both endogenous substrates, such as testosterone and estradiol, and exogenous substrates, such as carbaryl, presumably as a result of the interaction of highly reactive sulfur, released during the oxidative desulfuration reaction, with the heme iron of CYP. The hydrolysis of permethrin in human liver can be inhibited by chlorpyrifos oxon and by carbaryl. Fipronil can inhibit testosterone metabolism by CYP3A4 and is an effective inducer of CYP isoforms in human hepatocytes.


    Exposure to organophosphate pesticides (OP) has been associated with sleep disorders: insomnia and ?excessive dreaming'. However neuronal mechanisms of these effects have not been analyzed. OP inhibit acetylcholinesterase activity leading to a hyperativity of the brain cholin...

  5. Evaluating Oxidative Stress Factors Induced by Chlorpyrifos Poisoning in Plasma of Wistar Rat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M Saberi


    Results: The oral administration of CPF could induce symptoms such as tremors, hair erection, weakness, diarrhea and asthma on Day 7 and onward. The data analysis of plasma samples showed significant (P<0.001 decrease in the levels of glutathione and CAT enzymatic activity and a significant increase in SOD enzymatic activity and the MDA level. Conclusion: CPF could induce oxidative stress probably via production of free radicals as was evident by reduction of GSH level and CAT activity accompanied by increase in the activity of SOD and enhancement in the level of MDA in plasma samples. This necessitates the application of antioxidants when having exposure with OP pesticides.


    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  7. Basidiomycetes capability to degrade endosulfan and chlorpyrifos in a complex matrix


    Niell, Silvina; Heinzen, Horacio; Cesio, Verónica; Rivero, Anisleidy; Pareja, Lucía; Cerdeiras, M. Pía


    Los hongos de la podredumbre blanca y marrón de la madera han demostrado presentar una alta capacidad para degradar compuestos xenobióticos. Estas propiedades están determinadas por la batería de enzimas extracelulares que pueden transformar los compuestos a CO2 y H2O. Compuestos como el endosulfán y el clorpirifós han sido considerados en Uruguay de importancia dado su uso indiscriminado en los cultivos agrícolas como la soja, cereales, frutas, entre otros. Estos compuestos son considerados ...

  8. 76 FR 56648 - Atrazine, Chloroneb, Chlorpyrifos, Clofencet, Endosulfan, et al.; Tolerance Actions (United States)


    ... Horse, meat 0.2 4/16/12 Horse, meat byproducts 0.2 4/16/12 Milk 0.05 4/16/12 Sheep, fat 0.2 4/16/12...; hog, meat byproducts; horse, fat; horse, meat; horse, meat byproducts; milk; sheep, fat; sheep, meat..., head 11.0 7/31/12 Lettuce, leaf 6.0 7/31/12 Milk, fat 2.0 7/31/16 Muskmelon 1.0 7/31/12 Mustard...

  9. 40 CFR 180.419 - Chlorpyrifos-methyl; tolerances for residues. (United States)


    ... Horse, meat 0.5 Horse, meat byproducts 0.5 Milk, fat (0.05 ppm (N) in whole milk 1.25 Oat, grain 6.0 Poultry, fat 0.5 Poultry, meat .5 Poultry, meat byproducts .5 Rice, grain 6.0 Sheep, fat 0.5 Sheep, meat 0.5 Sheep, meat byproducts 0.5 Sorghum, grain 6.0 Wheat, grain 6.0 (2) Tolerances are established...


    Very little is known about the effects of chronic exposure to relatively low levels of anticholinesterase insecticides or how the effects of chronic exposure compare to higher, intermittent exposure of the same compound for the same duration. To that end, we exposed adult male ra...

  11. Chlorpyrifos -induced testicular damage in rats: The effect of glutathione antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N.A. El-Nisr


    Full Text Available   This study investigated the induction of oxidative stress in the testis of adult rat exposed to Chlorpyriphos (CPF. CPF was administered orally, in a dose of 30 mg/kg body weight to male rats for 90 days/ twice/ weekly. Co- administration of water soluble non enzymatic antioxidant glutathione (GSH was given in a dose of 100 mg/kg body weight, oral, for the same period. Another two groups of male rats were administered GSH and corn oil, respectively. The activities of superoxide dismutase and glutathione reductase were decreased while the levels of lipid peroxidation were increased in the testicular tissues of the exposed animals. Testosterone hormone level in the serum was significantly decreased. The decrease in the histochemical determination of testicular alkaline phosphatase was observed in CPF-treated rats. A significant decrease in all stages of spermatogenesis in the seminiferous tubules was recorded in the exposed animals. Co-dministration of GSH restored these parameters.

  12. Effects of chlorpyrifos and TCP on human kidney cells using toxicity testing and proteomics (United States)

    An Adverse Outcome Pathway (AOP) is a conceptual framework to apply molecular pathway-based data for use in risk assessment and regulatory decision support. The development of AOPs requires data on the effects of chemicals on biological processes (i.e., molecular initiating event...

  13. Exposures of aquatic organisms to the organophosphorus insecticide, chlorpyrifos resulting from use in the United States. (United States)

    Williams, W Martin; Giddings, Jeffrey M; Purdy, John; Solomon, Keith R; Giesy, John P


    Concentrations of CPY in surface waters are an integral determinant of risk to aquatic organisms. CPY has been measured in surface waters of the U.S. in several environmental monitoring programs and these data were evaluated to characterize concentrations, in relation to major areas of use and changes to the label since 2001, particularly the removal of domestic uses. Frequencies of detection and 95th centile concentrations of CPY decreased more than fivefold between 1992 and 2010. Detections in 1992-2001 ranged from 10.2 to 53%, while 2002-2010 detections ranged from 7 to 11%. The 95th centile concentrations ranged from 0.007 to 0.056 j.lg L -I in 1992-2001 and 0.006-0.008 j.lg L -I in 2002-2010.The greatest frequency of detections occurred in samples from undeveloped and agricultural land-use classes. Samples from urban and mixed land-use classes had the smallest frequency of detections and 95th centile concentrations, consistent with the cessation of most homeowner uses in 2001. The active metabolite of CPY, CPYO, was not detected frequently or in large concentrations. In 10,375 analyses from several sampling programs conducted between 1999 and 2012, only 25 detections (0.24% of samples) of CPYO were reported and estimated concentrations were less than the LOQ.Although the monitoring data on CPY provide relevant insight in quantifying the range of concentrations in surface waters, few monitoring programs have sampled at a frequency sufficient to quantify the time-series pattern of exposure. Therefore,numerical simulations were used to characterize concentrations of CPY in water and sediment for three representative high exposure environments in the U.S. Thefate of CPY in the environment is dependent on a number of dissipation and degradation processes. In terms of surface waters, fate in soils is a major driver of the potential for runoff into surface waters and results from a number of dissipation studies in the laboratory were characterized. Aerobic degradation of CPY exhibits hi-phasic behavior in some soils; initial rates of degradation are greater than overal rates by factors of up to threefold. Along with fate in water, these data were considered in selecting parameters for the modeling concentrations in surface waters. An assessment of vulnerability to runoff was conducted to characterize the potential for CPY to be transported beyond a treated field in runoff water and eroded sediment across the conterminous U.S. A sensitivity analysis was performed on use practices of CPY to determine conditions that resulted in the highest potential runoff of CPY to aquatic systems to narrow the application practices and geographical areas of the country for selecting watersheds for detailed modeling. The selected focus-watersheds were Dry Creek in Georgia (production of pecans), Cedar Creekin Michigan (cherries), and Orestimba Creek in California (intensive agricultural uses). These watersheds provided realistic but reasonable worst-case predictions of concentrations of CPY in water and sediment.Estimated concentrations of CPY in water for the three watersheds were in general agreement with ambient monitoring data from 2002 to 20 I 0 in the datasets from US Geological Survey (USGS), California Department of Pesticide Regulation(CDPR), and Washington State Department of Ecology (WDOE). Maximum daily concentrations predicted for the watershed in California, Georgia, and Michigan were 3.2, 0.04 I, and 0.073 Jlg L -I, respectively, with the 28-d aerobic soil metabolism half-life and 4.5, 0.042, and 0. I 22 Jlg L - 1, respectively, with the 96-d soil halflife.These estimated values compared favorably with maximum concentrations measured in surface water, which ranged from 0.33 to 3.96 Jlg L -1• For sediments,the maximum daily concentrations predicted for the watersheds in California,Georgia, and Michigan were I 1.2, 0.077, and 0.058 Jlg kg-1, respectively, with the 28-d half-life and 22.8, 0.080, and 0.087 Jlg kg-1, respectively, with the 96-d soil half-life. CYP was detected in 12 samples (I 0%) out of 123 sample analyses that existed in the USGS, CDPR, and WDOE databases. The concentrations reported in these detections were from <2.0, up to 19 Jlg kg- 1, with the exception of one value reported at 58.6 Jlg kg- 1• Again, the modeled values compared favorably with these measured values. Duration and recovery intervals between toxicity threshold concentrations of 0.1 and 1.0 Jlg L - 1 were also computed. Based on modeling with the half-life of 28 d, no exceedance events were identified in the focus watersheds in Georgia or Michigan. Using the half-life of 96 d, only three events of 1-d duration only were identified in the Michigan focus-watershed. Frequency of exceedancc was greater in the California focus watershed, though the median duration was only I -d.

  14. Toxicokinetic variation in 15 freshwater arthropod species exposed to the insecticide chlorpyrifos

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rubach, M.N.; Ashauer, R.; Maund, S.J.; Baird, D.J.; Brink, van den P.J.


    Recent advances in modeling the processes of the toxicity of chemicals—toxicokinetics (TK) and toxicodynamics (TD)—are improving environmental risk assessment (ERA) through prediction of effects from time-varying exposure. This has been achieved by linking chemical fate and toxicological effects mec

  15. Comparison of polyurethane foam and XAD-2 sampling matrices to measure airborne organophosphorus pesticides and their oxygen analogs in an agricultural community. (United States)

    Armstrong, Jenna L; Fenske, Richard A; Yost, Michael G; Tchong-French, Maria; Yu, Jianbo


    Side-by-side active air sampling for the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide, chlorpyrifos (CPF) and its oxygen analog, chlorpyrifos-oxon (CPF-O) was conducted with two recommended air sampling matrices: OSHA Versatile Sampling (OVS) tubes with XAD-2 resin, polyurethane foam (PUF) tubes, and passive PUF deposition disks. The study compared the proportion of artificially transformed CPF-O in the laboratory and in the field during a tree fruit application in Washington State. Lab results demonstrated that the NIOSH-recommended OVS tubes artificially transformed up to 32% of CPF to CPF-O during the sampling process, whereas PUF tubes had little to no artificial transformation (⩽0.1%). In the field, the proportion of CPF-O in the sample was significantly higher on OVS tubes than on PUF tubes (p<0.001), confirming that OVS tubes were converting a significant portion of CPF to CPF-O. In addition, PUF tubes reported measurable levels CPF-O in the field even when no artificial transformation was expected. We conclude that the PUF matrix is the superior sampling medium for OP oxygen analogs when compared to XAD-two resin. Community-located PUF tube samples 24h post-application had considerably higher levels CPF-O (16-21ngm(-3)) than near field samples during application (2-14ngm(-3)), suggesting that the oxygen analog is volatile and formed during atmospheric transport. It is recommended that worker and community risk assessments begin to take into consideration the presence of the more toxic oxygen analogs when measuring for OP pesticide mixtures.

  16. B-type esterases in the snail Xeropicta derbentina: An enzymological analysis to evaluate their use as biomarkers of pesticide exposure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Laguerre, Christel [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); INRA, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Environnementale, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); Sanchez-Hernandez, Juan C. [Laboratory of Ecotoxicology, Faculty of Environmental Science, University of Castilla-La Mancha, Avda. Carlos III s/n, 45071 Toledo (Spain); Koehler, Heinz R. [Animal Physiological Ecology, University of Tuebingen, Konrad-Adenauer-Strasse 20, D-72072 Tuebingen (Germany); Triebskorn, Rita [Animal Physiological Ecology, University of Tuebingen, Konrad-Adenauer-Strasse 20, D-72072 Tuebingen (Germany); Steinbeis-Transfer Center for Ecotoxicology and Ecophysiology, Blumenstrasse 13, D-72108 Rottenburg (Germany); Capowiez, Yvan [INRA, Unite PSH, F- 84914 Avignon (France); Rault, Magali [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); INRA, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Environnementale, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); Mazzia, Christophe [Universite d' Avignon et des Pays de Vaucluse, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France); INRA, Laboratoire de Toxicologie Environnementale, UMR 406 UAPV/INRA, F-84914 Avignon (France)], E-mail:


    The study was prompted to characterize the B-type esterase activities in the terrestrial snail Xeropicta derbentina and to evaluate its sensitivity to organophosphorus and carbamate pesticides. Specific cholinesterase and carboxylesterase activities were mainly obtained with acetylthiocholine (K{sub m} = 77.2 mM; V{sub max} = 38.2 mU/mg protein) and 1-naphthyl acetate (K{sub m} = 222 mM, V{sub max} = 1095 mU/mg protein) substrates, respectively. Acetylcholinesterase activity was concentration-dependently inhibited by chlorpyrifos-oxon, dichlorvos, carbaryl and carbofuran (IC50 = 1.35 x 10{sup -5}-3.80 x 10{sup -8} M). The organophosphate-inhibited acetylcholinesterase activity was reactivated in the presence of pyridine-2-aldoxime methochloride. Carboxylesterase activity was inhibited by organophosphorus insecticides (IC50 = 1.20 x 10{sup -5}-2.98 x 10{sup -8} M) but not by carbamates. B-esterase-specific differences in the inhibition by organophosphates and carbamates are discussed with respect to the buffering capacity of the carboxylesterase to reduce pesticide toxicity. These results suggest that B-type esterases in X. derbentina are suitable biomarkers of pesticide exposure and that this snail could be used as sentinel species in field monitoring of Mediterranean climate regions. - Characterization of the B-type esterases in the terrestrial snail Xeropicta derbentina in order to evaluate pesticide exposure.

  17. Pesticides in house dust from urban and farmworker households in California: an observational measurement study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McKone Thomas E


    Full Text Available Abstract Background Studies report that residential use of pesticides in low-income homes is common because of poor housing conditions and pest infestations; however, exposure data on contemporary-use pesticides in low-income households is limited. We conducted a study in low-income homes from urban and agricultural communities to: characterize and compare house dust levels of agricultural and residential-use pesticides; evaluate the correlation of pesticide concentrations in samples collected several days apart; examine whether concentrations of pesticides phased-out for residential uses, but still used in agriculture (i.e., chlorpyrifos and diazinon have declined in homes in the agricultural community; and estimate resident children's pesticide exposures via inadvertent dust ingestion. Methods In 2006, we collected up to two dust samples 5-8 days apart from each of 13 urban homes in Oakland, California and 15 farmworker homes in Salinas, California, an agricultural community (54 samples total. We measured 22 insecticides including organophosphates (chlorpyrifos, diazinon, diazinon-oxon, malathion, methidathion, methyl parathion, phorate, and tetrachlorvinphos and pyrethroids (allethrin-two isomers, bifenthrin, cypermethrin-four isomers, deltamethrin, esfenvalerate, imiprothrin, permethrin-two isomers, prallethrin, and sumithrin, one phthalate herbicide (chlorthal-dimethyl, one dicarboximide fungicide (iprodione, and one pesticide synergist (piperonyl butoxide. Results More than half of the households reported applying pesticides indoors. Analytes frequently detected in both locations included chlorpyrifos, diazinon, permethrin, allethrin, cypermethrin, and piperonyl butoxide; no differences in concentrations or loadings were observed between locations for these analytes. Chlorthal-dimethyl was detected solely in farmworker homes, suggesting contamination due to regional agricultural use. Concentrations in samples collected 5-8 days apart in

  18. 4-Hy-droxy-5-meth-oxy-N,1-dimethyl-2-oxo-N-[4-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)phen-yl]-1,2-di-hydro-quinoline-3-carboxamide. (United States)

    Akinboye, Emmanuel S; Butcher, Ray J; Yildirim, Sema Ozturk; Isaacs, John T


    The title compound, C20H17F3N2O4, named tasquinimod, is a second-generation oral quinoline-3-carboxamide analogue, which is currently in phase III clinical trials for the treatment of metastatic prostate cancer. The quinoline unit is almost planar (r.m.s. deviation of fitted atoms = 0.0075 Å). The carboxamide side chain, substituted at position 3, is tilted by 88.07 (7)° to the quinoline plane. Both the methyl and carbonyl groups of this carboxamide side chain are in a syn conformation. The 4-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)phenyl plane is inclined at 50.62 (17)° to the plane of the carboxamide side chain, and at 87.14 (4)° to the plane of the quinoline ring system. The 4-hy-droxy H atom acts as a double proton donor in an intra-molecular hydrogen bond to the 5-position meth-oxy O atom and in an inter-molecular contact to the 2-oxo group, generating a chain along [010] in the crystal structure.

  19. A comprehensive evaluation of the efficacy of leading oxime therapies in guinea pigs exposed to organophosphorus chemical warfare agents or pesticides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilhelm, Christina M., E-mail: [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Snider, Thomas H., E-mail: [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Babin, Michael C., E-mail: [Battelle, 505 King Avenue, JM-7, Columbus, OH 43201-2693 (United States); Jett, David A., E-mail: [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Platoff, Gennady E., E-mail: [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Allergy and Infectious Diseases, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States); Yeung, David T., E-mail: [National Institutes of Health/National Institute of Neurological Disorders and Stroke, Bethesda, MD 20892 (United States)


    The currently fielded pre-hospital therapeutic regimen for the treatment of organophosphorus (OP) poisoning in the United States (U.S.) is the administration of atropine in combination with an oxime antidote (2-PAM Cl) to reactivate inhibited acetylcholinesterase (AChE). Depending on clinical symptoms, an anticonvulsant, e.g., diazepam, may also be administered. Unfortunately, 2-PAM Cl does not offer sufficient protection across the range of OP threat agents, and there is some question as to whether it is the most effective oxime compound available. The objective of the present study is to identify an oxime antidote, under standardized and comparable conditions, that offers protection at the FDA approved human equivalent dose (HED) of 2-PAM Cl against tabun (GA), sarin (GB), soman (GD), cyclosarin (GF), and VX, and the pesticides paraoxon, chlorpyrifos oxon, and phorate oxon. Male Hartley guinea pigs were subcutaneously challenged with a lethal level of OP and treated at approximately 1 min post challenge with atropine followed by equimolar oxime therapy (2-PAM Cl, HI-6 DMS, obidoxime Cl{sub 2}, TMB-4, MMB4-DMS, HLö-7 DMS, MINA, and RS194B) or therapeutic-index (TI) level therapy (HI-6 DMS, MMB4-DMS, MINA, and RS194B). Clinical signs of toxicity were observed for 24 h post challenge and blood cholinesterase [AChE and butyrylcholinesterase (BChE)] activity was analyzed utilizing a modified Ellman's method. When the oxime is standardized against the HED of 2-PAM Cl for guinea pigs, the evidence from clinical observations, lethality, quality of life (QOL) scores, and cholinesterase reactivation rates across all OPs indicated that MMB4 DMS and HLö-7 DMS were the two most consistently efficacious oximes. - Highlights: • First comprehensive evaluation of leading AChE oxime reactivators • All oximes are compared against current U.S. therapy 2-PAM Cl. • Relative therapeutic oxime efficacies against OP CWNA and pesticides • Contribution to more effective


    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...


    Human exposure to pesticides is often characterized by chronic low level exposure with intermittent spiked higher exposures. Visual disturbances are often reported following exposure to xenobiotics, and cholinesterase-inhibiting compounds have been reported to alter visual functi...



    Diana Chalil


    Crude Palm Oil (CPO) is the biggest consumed vegetable oil in the world. The increase in CPO production raises concern on the environmental impact even outside the producing countries. As a response to this matter, the EU has made a requirement to only import certified CPO (CSPO). India and China, the two biggest importers in the world, are less restrictive to the environmental issues, and their demands are more influenced by CPO price levels. These countries are the main export markets for I...

  3. Multiphoton coherent population oscillation

    CERN Document Server

    Sharypov, A V


    We study the bichromatic driving of a two-level system which displays long-lived coherent population oscillations (CPO). We show that under certain conditions, multiphoton parametric interaction leads to the appearance of CPO resonances at the subharmonic frequencies. In addition, in the region of the CPO resonances, there is strong parametric interaction between the weak sideband components of the electromagnetic field.

  4. Crystal preferred orientation in peridotite ultramylonites deformed by grain size sensitive creep, étang de Lers, Pyrenees, France

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Drury, M.R.; Avé Lallemant, H.G.; Pennock, G.M.; Palasse, L.N.


    In naturally deformed upper mantle rocks a strong olivine crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) occurs in rocks with grain sizes larger than about 15 mm. Finer grained peridotites tend to have weak to random olivine CPO. The different types of olivine CPO are usually interpreted in relation t

  5. Decision Support System for Optimized Herbicide Dose in Spring Barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Mette; Kudsk, Per; Mathiassen, Solvejg K;


    Crop Protection Online (CPO) is a decision support system, which integrates decision algorithms quantifying the requirement for weed control and a herbicide dose model. CPO was designed to be used by advisors and farmers to optimize the choice of herbicide and dose. The recommendations from CPO...

  6. Integrated Lateral Flow Test Strip with Electrochemical Sensor for Quantification of Phosphorylated Cholinesterase: Biomarker of Exposure to Organophosphorus Agents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Du, Dan; Wang, Jun; Wang, Limin; Lu, Donglai; Lin, Yuehe


    An integrated lateral flow test strip with electrochemical sensor (LFTSES) device with rapid, selective and sensitive response for quantification of exposure to organophosphorus (OP) pesticides and nerve agents has been developed. The principle of this approach is based on parallel measurements of post-exposure and baseline acetylcholinesterase (AChE) enzyme activity, where reactivation of the phosphorylated AChE is exploited to enable measurement of total amount of AChE (including inhibited and active) which is used as a baseline for calculation of AChE inhibition. Quantitative measurement of phosphorylated adduct (OP-AChE) was realized by subtracting the active AChE from the total amount of AChE. The proposed LFTSES device integrates immunochromatographic test strip technology with electrochemical measurement using a disposable screen printed electrode which is located under the test zone. It shows linear response between AChE enzyme activity and enzyme concentration from 0.05 to 10 nM, with detection limit of 0.02 nM. Based on this reactivation approach, the LFTSES device has been successfully applied for in vitro red blood cells inhibition studies using chlorpyrifos oxon as a model OP agent. This approach not only eliminates the difficulty in screening of low-dose OP exposure because of individual variation of normal AChE values, but also avoids the problem in overlapping substrate specificity with cholinesterases and avoids potential interference from other electroactive species in biological samples. It is baseline free and thus provides a rapid, sensitive, selective and inexpensive tool for in-field and point-of-care assessment of exposures to OP pesticides and nerve agents.

  7. Organophosphorus pesticides decrease M2 muscarinic receptor function in guinea pig airway nerves via indirect mechanisms.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Becky J Proskocil

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Epidemiological studies link organophosphorus pesticide (OP exposures to asthma, and we have shown that the OPs chlorpyrifos, diazinon and parathion cause airway hyperreactivity in guinea pigs 24 hr after a single subcutaneous injection. OP-induced airway hyperreactivity involves M2 muscarinic receptor dysfunction on airway nerves independent of acetylcholinesterase (AChE inhibition, but how OPs inhibit neuronal M2 receptors in airways is not known. In the central nervous system, OPs interact directly with neurons to alter muscarinic receptor function or expression; therefore, in this study we tested whether the OP parathion or its oxon metabolite, paraoxon, might decrease M2 receptor function on peripheral neurons via similar direct mechanisms. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Intravenous administration of paraoxon, but not parathion, caused acute frequency-dependent potentiation of vagally-induced bronchoconstriction and increased electrical field stimulation (EFS-induced contractions in isolated trachea independent of AChE inhibition. However, paraoxon had no effect on vagally-induced bradycardia in intact guinea pigs or EFS-induced contractions in isolated ileum, suggesting mechanisms other than pharmacologic antagonism of M2 receptors. Paraoxon did not alter M2 receptor expression in cultured cells at the mRNA or protein level as determined by quantitative RT-PCR and radio-ligand binding assays, respectively. Additionally, a biotin-labeled fluorophosphonate, which was used as a probe to identify molecular targets phosphorylated by OPs, did not phosphorylate proteins in guinea pig cardiac membranes that were recognized by M2 receptor antibodies. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: These data indicate that neither direct pharmacologic antagonism nor downregulated expression of M2 receptors contributes to OP inhibition of M2 function in airway nerves, adding to the growing evidence of non-cholinergic mechanisms of OP neurotoxicity.

  8. Fatty acid amide hydrolase inhibition by neurotoxic organophosphorus pesticides. (United States)

    Quistad, G B; Sparks, S E; Casida, J E


    Organophosphorus (OP) compound-induced inhibition of acetylcholinesterase (AChE) and neuropathy target esterase explains the rapid onset and delayed neurotoxic effects, respectively, for OP insecticides and related compounds but apparently not a third or intermediate syndrome with delayed onset and reduced limb mobility. This investigation tests the hypothesis that fatty acid amide hydrolase (FAAH), a modulator of endogenous signaling compounds affecting sleep (oleamide) and analgesia (anandamide), is a sensitive target for OP pesticides with possible secondary neurotoxicity. Chlorpyrifos oxon inhibits 50% of the FAAH activity (IC50 at 15 min, 25 degrees C, pH 9.0) in vitro at 40--56 nM for mouse brain and liver, whereas methyl arachidonyl phosphonofluoridate, ethyl octylphosphonofluoridate (EOPF), oleyl-4H-1,3,2-benzodioxaphosphorin 2-oxide (oleyl-BDPO), and dodecyl-BDPO give IC50s of 0.08--1.1 nM. These BDPOs and EOPF inhibit mouse brain FAAH in vitro with > or =200-fold higher potency than for AChE. Five OP pesticides inhibit 50% of the brain FAAH activity (ED50) at diazinon, and methamidophos occurs near acutely toxic levels, profenofos and tribufos are effective at asymptomatic doses. Two BDPOs (dodecyl and phenyl) and EOPF are potent inhibitors of FAAH in vivo (ED50 0.5--6 mg/kg). FAAH inhibition of > or =76% in brain depresses movement of mice administered anandamide at 30 mg/kg ip, often leading to limb recumbency. Thus, OP pesticides and related inhibitors of FAAH potentiate the cannabinoid activity of anandamide in mice. More generally, OP compound-induced FAAH inhibition and the associated anandamide accumulation may lead to reduced limb mobility as a secondary neurotoxic effect.

  9. Toxicological and biochemical characterizations of malathion sensitivity in two field populations of Oxya chinensis (Orthoptera: Acridoidea)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    We evaluate comparative toxicity of malathion in the two populations of the grasshopper Oxya chinensis, collected from Daixian and Fanshi of Shanxi province, China.General esterases and acetylcholinesterase (AChE) from the two populations were characterized and compared. LD50 of the Daixian population (7.58μg/g body weight) was 2.02-fold higher than that of the Fanshi population (3.75 μg/g body weight). General esterase-specific activities in the Daixian population were 1.91, 1.10 and 1.85-fold higher than those in the Fanshi population, when α-NA, α-NB and β-NA were used as a substrate, respectively.Kinetic studies of general esterase showed that Vmax values of general esterases hydrolyzing α-NA, α-NB and β-NA in the Daixian population were 2.15-, 1.12-, and 1.47-fold,respectively, higher than those in the Fanshi population. The AChE activity of the Fanshi population was 1.54-fold higher than that of the Daixian population. Kinetic analysis of AChE showed that significant differences were presented between the two populations in the Km values; and the Vmax value in the Fanshi population was higher than that in the Daixian population. Inhibition studies of AChE indicated that AChE from the Daixian population was 2.56-, 2.80-, and 2.29-fold less sensitive to inhibition by paraoxon, chlorpyrifos-oxon,and demeton-S-methyl, respectively, than that from the Fanshi population. These biochemical characterizations of general esterases and AChE were consistent with malathion bioassay in the two populations. It is inferred that the reduced sensitivity of altered AChE and increased general esterase activities play an important role in the differences of insusceptibility of Oxya chinensis to malathion between the two populations.

  10. SIFAT FISIK MINYAK SAWIT KASAR DAN KORELASINYA DENGAN ATRIBUT MUTU [Physical Properties of Crude Palm Oil and Their Correlations to the Quality Attributes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nur Wulandari1,2*


    Full Text Available Indonesia is the largest producer and exporter of crude palm oil (CPO in the world. Process engineering applications of CPO during handling, transporting, and processing, need baseline data related to CPO’s physical properties. This research was aimed to obtain baseline data about physical properties of CPO and to study the correlation between CPO’s quality attributes to their physical property parameters. Study on physical property and quality of CPO was conducted to five CPO samples from different CPO’s producers. Those samples had variations on physical property parameters and quality attributes. Some physical property parameters of CPO were depended on the temperature of measurements. CPO samples showed non-Newtonian pseudoplastic behaviour at 25°C with various flow behaviour index (n and concistency index (K, other wise at 55°C all CPO samples showed Newtonian behaviour.There were good correlations between quality attributes of CPO to their physical property parameters at 25°C, including correlations between free fatty acid contents of CPO and the temperatures of crystallization, as well as between iodine values and the rheological properties of CPO.

  11. Methods, quality assurance, and data for assessing atmospheric deposition of pesticides in the Central Valley of California (United States)

    Zamora, Celia; Majewski, Michael S.; Foreman, William T.


    The U.S. Geological Survey monitored atmospheric deposition of pesticides in the Central Valley of California during two studies in 2001 and 2002–04. The 2001 study sampled wet deposition (rain) and storm-drain runoff in the Modesto, California, area during the orchard dormant-spray season to examine the contribution of pesticide concentrations to storm runoff from rainfall. In the 2002–04 study, the number and extent of collection sites in the Central Valley were increased to determine the areal distribution of organophosphate insecticides and other pesticides, and also five more sample types were collected. These were dry deposition, bulk deposition, and three sample types collected from a soil box: aqueous phase in runoff, suspended sediment in runoff, and surficial-soil samples. This report provides concentration data and describes methods and quality assurance of sample collection and laboratory analysis for pesticide compounds in all samples collected from 16 sites. Each sample was analyzed for 41 currently used pesticides and 23 pesticide degradates, including oxygen analogs (oxons) of 9 organophosphate insecticides. Analytical results are presented by sample type and study period. The median concentrations of both chloryprifos and diazinon sampled at four urban (0.067 micrograms per liter [μg/L] and 0.515 μg/L, respectively) and four agricultural sites (0.079 μg/L and 0.583 μg/L, respectively) during a January 2001 storm event in and around Modesto, Calif., were nearly identical, indicating that the overall atmospheric burden in the region appeared to be fairly similar during the sampling event. Comparisons of median concentrations in the rainfall to those in the McHenry storm-drain runoff showed that, for some compounds, rainfall contributed a substantial percentage of the concentration in the runoff; for other compounds, the concentrations in rainfall were much greater than in the runoff. For example, diazinon concentrations in rainfall were about

  12. Efficient preparation of carbamates by Rh-catalysed oxidative carbonylation: unveiling the role of the oxidant. (United States)

    Iturmendi, Amaia; Iglesias, Manuel; Munárriz, Julen; Polo, Victor; Pérez-Torrente, Jesús J; Oro, Luis A


    The synthesis of a wide variety of carbamates from amines, alcohols and carbon monoxide has been achieved by means of a Rh-catalysed oxidative carbonylation reaction that uses Oxone as a stoichiometric oxidant. In-depth studies on the reaction mechanism shed light on the intimate role of Oxone in the catalytic cycle.

  13. The effect of food on the pharmacokinetics of S-1 after single oral administration to patients with solid tumors.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Peters, G.J.; Noordhuis, P.; Groeningen, van C.J.; Giaccone, G.; Holwerda, U.; Voorn, D.; Schrijvers, A; Schornagel, J.H.; Beijnen, J.H.; Fumoleau, P; Schellens, JH


    0.0005), and for cyanuric acid, the breakdown product of oxonic acid, was 5.1 (P = 0.019). Accumulation of uracil, indicative for dihydropyrimidine dehydrogenase inhibition, was not affected, as well as the T(1/2) of FT, 5FU, CDHP, and oxonic acid. Evaluation of the log-transformed data demonstrated

  14. DC-ARM Final Demonstration Report (United States)


    manual valves. The fire pumps and fire main isolation valves were arranged so that the fire main could be operated in any standard configuration ( XRAY ...cables; the variac for the calrod was set at 50 V. The nuisance source consisted of grinding a painted bulkhead in CPO Living. 8.4.2 General Results...the painted surface on the bulkhead in CPO Living. The EWFD located in CPO Living went into alarm 53 seconds after grinding was started (1 minute after


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张国梁; 朱锷霆; 陈宪明; 应美蓉; 张信生; 陆根林



  16. Teratogenic Effects of Chlorpyrifos on Embryos of Microhyla pulchra%毒死蜱对花姬蛙胚胎的致畸效应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘迎; 潘波; 胡燕; 姜蕾; 林勇


    [目的]评价毒死蜱对花姬蛙胚胎的致畸效应.[方法]采用两栖动物胚胎致畸(FETAX)试验研究毒死蜱对花姬蛙胚胎的致畸效应.[结果]毒死蜱可引起花姬蛙胚胎脊索弯曲、皮肤色素减少、头部缩小等畸形现象.随着毒死蜱暴露剂量的增加,总畸形率和3种畸形百分比随之增加,呈现出浓度-效应关系.毒死蜱对花姬蛙胚胎96 h-LC50为1.97 mg a.i./L,96 h-EC50为1.00 mg a.i./L,致畸指数TI=1.97.[结论]毒死蜱对花姬蛙胚胎具有潜在致畸风险.


    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  18. Repeated dose 28-day oral toxicity study in Wistar rats with a mixture of five pesticides often found as residues in food: alphacypermethrin, bromopropylate, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos and mancozeb

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, H.; Østergaard, G.; Lam, Henrik Rye;


    , haematocrite and haemoglobin concentration was significantly reduced in both male and female rats of groups 5 and 6. Relative liver weight was significantly increased in groups 3-6 male and female rats. Absolute thyroid gland weight was significantly increased in groups 3, 5 and 6 male rats and of groups 3......-6 female rats, and relative thyroid gland weight was significantly increased in groups 2-6 male rats and of groups 3-6 female rats. Absolute thymus weight of groups 3-6 male and female rats and relative thymus weight of groups 3-6 male rats and groups 3 and 4 female rats was significantly decreased. A mild...... degree of centrilobular cell hypertrophy of the liver was seen in all male rats and of three female rats of group 6. In the thyroid gland follicular cell hypertrophy was present in one female in the control group and in six females and seven males of group 6. It was concluded that inhibition...


    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  20. BARF对饮水中微量百菌清与毒死蜱的去除特性%Chlorothalonil and chlorpyrifos removal from drinking water by BARF

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐微; 周江文; 申林


    以模拟饮水处理工艺沉淀池出水为试验原水,采用连续流试验装置研究BARF对百菌清与毒死蜱的去除效果,并分析了BARF对两种物质的去除机理.水温为24~27℃条件下的试验结果表明,当空床停留时间(EBCT)在7.5~30 min,BARF对百菌清与毒死蜱去除率分别达到66.7%~86.2%、69.6%~93.0%,两种物质去除率随EBCT增加而增加,但超过15 min后增幅较小;当EBCT为15 min,在15~20℃、10~15℃、<5℃3个温度段内,BARF对百菌清的平均去除率分别为84.2%、79.3%、59.8%,对毒死蜱的平均去除率分别为92.7%、91.4%、80.3%,温度降低不利于两种物质去除.试验水质下,EBCT为15 min、水温高于15℃时,BARF出水百菌清与毒死蜱浓度可达到国家现行饮水水质标准;BARF启动之初对百菌清与毒死蜱的高效去除主要靠活性炭吸附作用,生物膜稳定后,生物作用对两种物质的去除具有较大贡献.


    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  2. 毒死蜱农药对草履虫的毒性研究%Research on Toxicity of Pesticide Chlorpyrifos to Paramecium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李霖; 刘俊; 顾庆龙; 邱同和; 吴桦


    研究了有机磷农药毒死蜱对草履虫的急慢性毒性作用.结果表明:毒死蜱溶液的不同浓度对草履虫的生长有极显著影响,浓度越高毒性作用越大,毒死蜱对草履虫的1h急性毒性作用LC50为0.0435 9mg/L,最大无致死浓度为0.002 5mg/L,最小全致死浓度为1.29mg/L.回归分析结果显示,草履虫种群增长率和毒死蜱溶液浓度呈线性相关.慢性毒性试验结果显示,毒死蜱浓度在0.005~1.29mg/L 范围内,浓度对数越小(即毒死蜱浓度越小)种群增长率越大,说明毒死蜱溶液在一定低浓度范围内可能具有环境内分泌干扰物效应.

  3. The use of self-reported symptoms as a proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning after exposure to chlorpyrifos 50 % plus cypermethrin 5 % among Nepali farmers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kofod, Dea Haagensen; Jørs, Erik; Varma, Anshu


    cholinesterase (PchE) activity, in addition to the symptoms, when assessing occupational acute pesticide poisoning. This study evaluated self-reported symptoms as a proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning among Nepali farmers by examining self-reported acute organophosphate poisoning symptoms and PchE activity......%: moderately hazardous) spray session or a 2-h placebo spray session, and after 7 days' washout, the farmers were assigned to the other spray session. Before and after each spray session farmers were interviewed about acute organophosphate poisoning symptoms and PchE activity was measured. Analyses were...... symptoms among the farmers regardless of organophosphate exposure or poisoning. Thus, self-reported acute organophosphate symptoms seem to be a poor proxy for acute organophosphate poisoning as the occurrence of these symptoms is not necessarily associated with acute organophosphate poisoning. TRIAL...

  4. 10%毒死蜱颗粒剂的配方及加工工艺%Formula and Process of Chlorpyrifos 10% Granules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘兴武; 吴秀华; 汪志稳; 马伦冬; 张玮玮; 张雪莲


    [Aims] The optimum formula and continuous process of chloripyrifos 10% granules were screened out by tests. [Methods] The formula component, process and equipment selection of this granules were studied by adsorption process using natural earth particles as carriers. [Results] The product quality was stable with good fluidity. After stored at (54±2) °C for 14 d, the decomposition rate of the prepared sample was less than 5%, and the broken rate was less than 10%. [Conclusions] The research showed that granulating process is continuous under the condition of the selected formulation. All specifications meet quality requirement.%[目的]通过试验筛选出10%毒死蜱颗粒剂的优惠配方和连续化加工工艺.[方法]以天然颗粒为载体,采用吸附法工艺,研究该制剂的配方组成、加工工艺和设备选型.[结果]试验产品质量稳定合格,流动性好,(54±2)℃、14d毒死蜱分解率≤5%,破碎率≤10%.[结论]在试验选定的配方条件下,所选的加工设备可以实现加工工艺连续化,各项技术指标符合颗粒剂的要求.

  5. Alleviating effects of melatonin on oxidative changes in the testes and pituitary glands evoked by subacute chlorpyrifos administration in Wistar rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Angela J Umosen; Suleiman F Ambali; Joseph O Ayo; Bisala Mohammed; Chidiebere Uchendu


    Objective: To evaluate the alleviating effects of melatonin on oxidative changes in the testes and pituitary gland induced by subacute chlopyrifos (CPF) exposure in rats. Methods: Forty adult male Wistar rats divided into 4 groups of 10 animals were used for the study. Group I received soya oil (2 mL/kg) while group II was administered with melatonin (0.5 mg/kg). Group III was administered CPF only (8.5 mg/kg ~ 1/10th of the LD50) while group IV was pretreated with melatonin (0.5 mg/kg) and then exposed to CPF (8.5 mg/kg), 10 min later. The regimens were administered by gavage once daily for a period of 28 d. At the end of the exposure period, the rats were sacrificed and the testicular tissues and pituitary glands were evaluated for the malonaldehyde (MDA) concentration and activities of superoxide dismutase (SOD) and catalase (CAT). Results: CPF increased MDA concentrations and reduced the activities of SOD and CAT in the testes and pituitary gland. Melatonin pretreatment reduced the testicular and pituitary MDA concentrations and improves the SOD and CAT activities. Conclusions: the study showed that subacute CPF-induced oxidative stress in the testes and pituitary glands were alleviated by melatonin due to its antioxidant property.

  6. Activation Function of Chloroperoxidase in the Presence of Metal Ions at Elevated Temperature from 25 to 55℃

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO, Qiang; JIANG, Yucheng; GAO, Xiaoqin; HU, Mancheng; LI, Shuni; ZHAI, Quanguo


    The investigation and comparison of chlorination activity of chloroperoxidase (CPO) from Caldariomyces fumago in metal ion solutions to those in pure buffer indicated that CPO could be effectively activated by some al- kaline-earth metals and transition metals. The obtained maximum relative activity of CPO was 1.33 time at 75 Co2+ at 25 ℃. Moreover, the CPO stability against temperature was improved in the presence of the above metal ions. At 55℃, CPO could retain only about 40% of activity whereas 75% and 81% of activity were maintained in Mg2+ and Ca2+ media, respectively. It was suggested that the metal ions bind to the acid-base catalytic groups Glu183, His105 and Asp106 around the active site of CPO, and activate CPO by both an enrichment of substrate concentration and the conformational change of CPO, which are favorable to the substrate access. The analysis of kinetic parameters indicated that the activation was mainly due to an increase in kcat values. The affinity and speci- ficity of CPO to substrates were also improved in these metal ion media. The results in this work are promising in view of industrial applications of this versatile biological catalyst.

  7. Paramagnetic nuclear magnetic resonance relaxation and molecular mechanics studies of the chloroperoxidase-indole complex: insights into the mechanism of chloroperoxidase-catalyzed regioselective oxidation of indole. (United States)

    Zhang, Rui; He, Qinghao; Chatfield, David; Wang, Xiaotang


    To unravel the mechanism of chloroperoxidase (CPO)-catalyzed regioselective oxidation of indole, we studied the structure of the CPO-indole complex using nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) relaxation measurements and computational techniques. The dissociation constant (KD) of the CPO-indole complex was calculated to be approximately 21 mM. The distances (r) between protons of indole and the heme iron calculated via NMR relaxation measurements and molecular docking revealed that the pyrrole ring of indole is oriented toward the heme with its 2-H pointing directly at the heme iron. Both KD and r values are independent of pH in the range of 3.0-6.5. The stability and structure of the CPO-indole complex are also independent of the concentration of chloride or iodide ion. Molecular docking suggests the formation of a hydrogen bond between the NH group of indole and the carboxyl O of Glu 183 in the binding of indole to CPO. Simulated annealing of the CPO-indole complex using r values from NMR experiments as distance restraints reveals that the van der Waals interactions were much stronger than the Coulomb interactions in the binding of indole to CPO, indicating that the association of indole with CPO is primarily governed by hydrophobic rather than electrostatic interactions. This work provides the first experimental and theoretical evidence of the long-sought mechanism that leads to the "unexpected" regioselectivity of the CPO-catalyzed oxidation of indole. The structure of the CPO-indole complex will serve as a lighthouse in guiding the design of CPO mutants with tailor-made activities for biotechnological applications.

  8. Different palm oil production systems for energy purposes and their greenhouse gas implications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Wicke, B.; Dornburg, V.; Junginger, H.M.; Faaij, A.P.C.


    This study analyses the greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions of crude palm oil (CPO) and palm fatty acid distillate (PFAD) production in northern Borneo (Malaysia), their transport to the Netherlands and their co-firing with natural gas for electricity production. In the case of CPO, conversion to biodies

  9. 76 FR 7975 - Commodity Pool Operators and Commodity Trading Advisors: Amendments to Compliance Obligations (United States)


    ... proposed Forms CPO-PQR or CTA-PR, contact Kevin P. Walek, Assistant Director, Telephone: (202) 418-5463, E... fulfill this statutory mandate, the Commission and the SEC today are jointly proposing sections 1 and 2 of...: Data Collection for CPOs and CTAs 1. General Purpose of Forms CPO-PQR and CTA-PR Section 4n of the...

  10. Pengurangan Kadar Digliserida dan Asam Lemak Bebas dalam Minyak Sawit Kasar Menggunakan Adsorben

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khoerul Bariyah


    Full Text Available Indonesia is the world’s largest crude palm oil (CPO producer and consumer in 2014. Components that affect the quality of CPO are diglycerides (DAGs and free fatty acids (FFA. DAGs in palm oil are known as the precursor of 3-MCPD esters, while higher content of FFA could influence the oil stability. The contact of CPO with adsorbent could affect the present of DAG and FFA in CPO. The purpose of this study was to determine the best type of adsorbent in reducing DAGs and FFA in CPO with emphasis on the characteristics of the adsorbent and adsorbate. This study was carried out by using three different types of CPO quality and six different types of adsorbent (carbon active, MgO, Magnesol R-60, and 3 types of bleaching earth. The contact process of CPO with different adsorbents were carried out at a temperature of 50-60 °C (without vacuum for adsorbents selection and 90 °C (under vacuum for 30 minutes at a dose of adsorbent 1 and 3 %. The contact process of different adsorbents with CPO have not been able to reduce both DAGs and FFA significantly at the non vacuum condition in three differents CPO sample. The combination of MgO and bleaching earth type 1 could reduce FFA up to 70 % reaching the content of 14 % at vacuum conditions, but did not reduce DAGs of CPO. Different CPO quality and adsorbent characteristics will affect the reduction process of FFA and DAGs.   ABSTRAK Indonesia merupakan negara produsen sekaligus konsumen minyak sawit kasar (Crude Palm Oil/CPO terbesar di dunia pada tahun 2014. Salah satu komponen yang mempengaruhi kualitas CPO adalah digliserida (DAG dan asam lemak bebas (ALB. DAG dalam minyak sawit adalah prekursor pembentuk senyawa karsinogen 3-MCPD ester, sedangkan ALB yang tinggi dapat mempengaruhi stabilitas minyak. Proses kontak adsorben ke dalam CPO akan mempengaruhi keberadaan kedua komponen tersebut. Tujuan penelitian ini adalah untuk menentukan jenis adsorben yang paling baik dalam mengadsorp digliserida dan

  11. A high performance liquid chromatography method for determination of furfural in crude palm oil. (United States)

    Loi, Chia Chun; Boo, Huey Chern; Mohammed, Abdulkarim Sabo; Ariffin, Abdul Azis


    A modified steam distillation method was developed to extract furfural from crude palm oil (CPO). The collected distillates were analysed using high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) coupled with an ultraviolet diode detector at 284nm. The HPLC method allowed identification and quantification of furfural in CPO. The unique thermal extraction of CPO whereby the fresh fruit bunches (FFB) are first subjected to steam treatment, distinguishes itself from other solvent-extracted or cold-pressed vegetable oils. The presence of furfural was also determined in the fresh palm oil from FFB (without undergoing the normal extraction process), palm olein, palm stearin, olive oil, coconut oil, sunflower oil, soya oil and corn oil. The chromatograms of the extracts were compared to that of standard furfural. Furfural was only detected in CPO. The CPO consignments obtained from four mills were shown to contain 7.54 to 20.60mg/kg furfural.

  12. Adenosine A2A receptors and uric acid mediate protective effects of inosine against TNBS-induced colitis in rats. (United States)

    Rahimian, Reza; Fakhfouri, Gohar; Daneshmand, Ali; Mohammadi, Hamed; Bahremand, Arash; Rasouli, Mohammad Reza; Mousavizadeh, Kazem; Dehpour, Ahmad Reza


    Inflammatory bowel disease comprises chronic recurrent inflammation of gastrointestinal tract. This study was conducted to investigate inosine, a potent immunomodulator, in 2,4,6-trinitrobenzene sulphonic acid (TNBS)-induced chronic model of experimental colitis, and contribution of adenosine A(2A) receptors and the metabolite uric acid as possible underlying mechanisms. Experimental colitis was rendered in rats by a single colonic administration of 10 mg of TNBS. Inosine, potassium oxonate (a hepatic uricase inhibitor), SCH-442416 (a selective adenosine A(2A) receptor antagonist), inosine+potassium oxonate, or inosine+SCH-442416 were given twice daily for 7 successive days. At the end of experiment, macroscopic and histopathologic scores, colonic malondialdehyde (MDA), Tumor Necrosis Factor-alpha (TNF-α) and Interleukin-1beta (IL-1β) levels, and myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity were assessed. Plasma uric acid level was measured throughout the experiment. Both macroscopic and histological features of colonic injury were markedly ameliorated by either inosine, oxonate or inosine+oxonate. Likewise, the elevated amounts of MPO and MDA abated as well as those of TNF-α and IL-1β (Pacid levels were significantly higher in inosine or oxonate groups compared to control. Inosine+oxonate resulted in an even more elvelated uric acid level than each treatment alone (Pacid and adenosine A(2A) receptors contribute to these salutary properties.

  13. Effect of cassava bioethanol by-product and crude palm oil in Brahman x Thai native yearling heifer cattle diets: II. Carcass characteristics and meat quality. (United States)

    Phoemchalard, Chirasak; Uriyapongson, Suthipong


    This experiment was conducted to determine the effects of cassava bioethanol by-product (CEP) and crude palm oil (CPO) on the carcass characteristics and meat quality of yearling heifer cattle. Eighteen crossbred Brahman × Thai heifers were randomly allotted to 2 × 3 factorial arrangement consisting of two levels of CEP (15 or 30 %, LCEP or HCEP) and 3 levels of CPO (0, 2, and 4 %). The results obtained showed that lean meat was greater (P Carcass fat (P carcass and 4 % CPO can improve the redness of the meat.

  14. A novel compound to maintain a healthy oral plaque ecology in vitro

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marleen M. Janus


    Full Text Available Objective: Dental caries is caused by prolonged episodes of low pH due to acid production by oral biofilms. Bacteria within such biofilms communicate via quorum sensing (QS. QS regulates several phenotypic biofilm parameters, such as biofilm formation and the production of virulence factors. In this study, we evaluated the effect of several QS modifiers on growth and the cariogenic potential of microcosm oral biofilms. Methods: Biofilms were inoculated with pooled saliva and cultured in the presence of sucrose for 48 and 96 h. QS modifiers (or carrier controls were continuously present. Lactic acid accumulation capacities were compared to evaluate the cariogenic potential of the biofilms. Subsequently, biofilm growth was quantified by determining colony forming unit counts (CFUs and their ecology by 16S rDNA-based microbiome analyses. The minimal inhibitory concentration (MIC for several Streptococcus spp. was determined using microbroth dilution. Results: Of the tested QS modifiers only 3-oxo-N-(2-oxocyclohexyldodecanamide (3-Oxo-N completely abolished lactic acid accumulation by the biofilms without affecting biofilm growth. This compound was selected for further investigation. The active range of 3-Oxo-N was 10–100 µM. The homologous QS molecule, acyl homoserine lactone C12, did not counteract the reduction in lactic acid accumulation, suggesting a mechanism other than QS inhibition. Microbial ecology analyses showed a reduction in the relative abundance of Streptococcus spp. in favor of the relative abundance of Veillonella spp. in the 3-Oxo-N exposed biofilms. The MIC of 3-Oxo-N for several streptococcal species varied between 8 and 32 µM. Conclusion: 3-Oxo-N changes the ecological homeostasis of in vitro dental plaque. It reduces its cariogenic potential by minimizing lactic acid accumulation. Based on our in vitro data, 3-Oxo-N represents a promising compound in maintaining a healthy, non-cariogenic, ecology in in vivo dental plaque.

  15. 嗜铁细菌CAS17的分离鉴定及其对毒死蜱的降解特性研究%Isolation, identification and chlorpyrifos-degradation characteristics of siderophore producing bacterial strain CAS17

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于婷; 董庆龙; 刘嘉芬; 安淼; 王海荣; 余贤美


    采用改良定向培育法,从获得的几株嗜铁细菌菌株中经过驯化筛选,获得1株对毒死蜱有较高降解作用的细菌CAS17.结合其生理生化特性及16SrRNA序列分析,将其鉴定为耐盐短杆菌(Brevibacterium halotolerans).生长特性和毒死蜱降解试验结果表明,该菌株对毒死蜱有较高的耐受性,在毒死蜱浓度达到800 mg·L-1时仍可生长.最适毒死蜱降解浓度为≤100 mg·L-1,降解率可达67%左右,浓度继续升高时降解效果明显降低;最适降解温度为30 ℃,对高温敏感;对pH值有着较强的适应范围,pH值在5~9之间的降解率波动不大;最适降解时间为48 h,振荡速率为150r·min-1,接种量为4%;适合其降解的最佳外加碳源为葡萄糖,最佳氮源为酵母粉,最佳无机盐为CaCl2.

  16. Analysis of Methidathion and Chlorpyrifos in 20% EC by HPLC%20%杀扑磷·毒死蜱乳油高效液相色谱分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    建立了在同一液相色谱条件下测定混剂中杀扑磷和毒死蜱含量的方法.本方法采用XTerra RP18柱,用甲醇-乙腈-水溶液(体积比63:15:22)为流动相,在检测波长230 nm下,外标法对试样中的杀扑磷和毒死蜱进行定量分析.分析结果表明,杀扑磷和毒死蜱的线性相关系数分别为0.9998和0.9999;标准偏差分别为0.032和0.048;变异系数分别为0.32%和0.48%;平均回收率分别为98.67%和98.73%.

  17. Study on Toxicity and Safety Evaluation of Chlorpyrifos and Fenpropathrin to Bee (Apis melliferaL.)%毒死蜱和甲氰菊酯对蜜蜂毒性与安全评价研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴声敢; 王强; 赵学平; 吴长兴; 陈丽萍; 徐浩; 章虎


    通过接触法和摄入法测定了毒死蜱和甲氰菊酯对蜜蜂的毒性.结果表明,毒死蜱和甲氰菊酯对蜜蜂的接触毒性(24h LD50)分别为0.1634μg/蜂和0.0501μg/蜂,胃毒毒性(24h LC50)分别为0.6406mg/L和7.8261mg/L.根据Atkins毒性等级划分标准,毒死蜱和甲氰菊酯对蜜蜂的毒性均为高毒,应禁止在蜜蜂活动区域使用.

  18. DLLME-GC测定水体中的毒死蜱和甲基对硫磷残留%Determination of Chlorpyrifos and Parathion-methyl Residues in Water by DLLME-GC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田海; 郑尊涛; 李建国; 叶贵标


    [目的]采用分散液相微萃取(DLLME)与气相色谱-火焰光度检测(GC-FPD)联用技术建立快速测定水体中毒死蜱和甲基对硫磷残留的新方法.[方法]分别考察萃取剂和分散剂种类与体积、萃取时间、离心时间和盐度等因素对萃取效果的影响,确立最佳萃取条件,采用外标法定量,在0.1~10 mg/L范围内线性关系良好,相关系数为0.999.[结果]在最佳萃取条件下,毒死蜱和甲基对硫磷的平均添加回收率分别为104.10%、100.62%,平均富集系数分别为487.07、456.06,变异系数在2.23%~5.33%之间,仪器检出限在15~18 ng/g之间.[结论]该方法简便、快速、准确、重复性好,适用于水体中农药残留分析.

  19. Progress in research on ecological risk of pesticide chlorpyrifos and its bioremediation%农药毒死蜱的生态风险及其微生物修复技术研究进展

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金花; 陆贻通



  20. Field efficacy tests of 25% chlorpyrifos for controlling fourth-generation paddy borer%25%广治等防治第4代三化螟田间药效试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    秦善秀; 蓝启和; 刘婵缓



  1. 毒死蜱降解菌枝孢霉菌的紫外诱变和筛选%Breeding and Screening of Chlorpyrifos-Degrading Strain Cladosporium cladosporioides by Ultraviolet Ray Mutation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵川; 林庆胜; 杨柳; 胡美英


    通过紫外诱变毒死蜱降解菌枝孢霉菌Cladosporium cladosporioides Hu-01,利用高效液相色谱(HPLC)检测,筛选获得12株突变菌株,其中突变株Hu-01-4和Hu-01-6的降解效果明显高于初始菌株Hu-01.突变株Hu-01-4和Hu-01-6经过加药斜面传种10代,Hu-01-6的降解率比初始菌株提高11.74%,并且保持良好的稳定性.突变菌株Hu-01-6在28 ℃、pH6.5培养条件下的生长量最大,降解率最高,且均明显高于初始菌株Hu-01.

  2. The Residue Dynamic of Chlorpyrifos in Carob,Chili and Soil%毒死蜱在豆角、辣椒和土壤中的残留动态

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴华; 李冰清; 林琼芳; 黄鸿; 欧剑峰; 刘桂清


    采用GC测定方法,对毒死蜱在广州和海口两地的豆角、辣椒及土壤中的残留动态进行了评价.两年的试验结果表明,毒死蜱在广州豆角中的半衰期为4.30 d.在豆角土壤中的半衰期为6.02 d,在辣椒中的半衰期为3.99 d.在辣椒土壤中的半衰期为7.21 d;毒死蜱在海口豆角中的半衰期为4.45 d,在豆角土壤中的半衰期为6.34 d,在辣椒中的半衰期为4.78 d,在辣椒土壤中的半衰期为8.21 d.毒死蜱在正常使用剂量下,有效成分在两地豆角、辣椒和土壤中的最终残留量均低于0.5 mg/kg.

  3. 毒死蜱和吡虫啉对意大利工蜂(Apis mellifera L.)的慢性经口毒性%Chronic Oral Toxicity of Chlorpyrifos and Imidacloprid to Adult Honey Bees (Apis mellifera L.)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    程燕; 谭丽超; 卜元卿; 葛春男; 周军英; 单正军


    文章以毒死蜱和吡虫啉为受试农药,以4日龄内的意大利工蜂(Apis mellifera L.)为受试生物,研究2种农药对意大利工蜂的10 d经口慢性毒性.结果显示:参比物质乐果对意大利工蜂的10 d半致死浓度(10 d-LC50)为0.550 μg a.i.·g-1食物,平均每天半致死剂量(LDD50)为0.019μg a.i.·蜂-1·天-1;在有效试验条件下,毒死蜱对意大利工蜂的10 d LC50为0.582 μg a.i.·g-1食物,LDD50为0.021 μg a.i.·蜂-1·天-1;吡虫啉对意大利工蜂的10 d LC50为0.055 μg a.i.·g-1食物,LDD50为1.542 ng a.i.·蜂-1·天-1.试验结果可为毒死蜱和吡虫啉的安全使用提供科学参考,同时可促进我国农药对蜜蜂的安全性评价体系的完善.

  4. Field efficacy of chlorpyrifos cartap granule (8%) in controlling sugarcane borer%8%毒死蜱·杀螟单颗粒剂对甘蔗螟虫防治效果试验

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    方峰; 赖开平; 叶一强; 韦少平; 王俊; 龚明霞


    以5%特丁硫磷颗粒剂为对照,进行8%毒死蜱·杀螟单颗粒剂对甘蔗螟虫田间防治效果试验.结果显示,在甘蔗松蔸时施用8%毒死蜱·杀螟单颗粒剂2.0-3.0kg ai·ha-1,药后60、90d对甘蔗螟虫的防治效果均超过75%,与对照药剂5%特丁硫磷颗粒剂3.0kg ai·ha-1处理的防效相当,差异不显著.因此,生产中建议结合新植蔗播种、宿根蔗松蔸时使用8%毒死蜱·杀螟单颗粒剂防治甘蔗螟虫,推荐使用剂量为2.0-3.0kg ai·ha-1.

  5. The impact of celestial pole offset modelling on VLBI UT1 Intensive results

    CERN Document Server

    Malkin, Zinovy


    Very Long Baseline Interferometry (VLBI) Intensive sessions are scheduled to provide operational Universal Time (UT1) determinations with low latency. UT1 estimates obtained from these observations heavily depend on the model of the celestial pole motion used during data processing. However, even the most accurate precession-nutation model, IAU 2000/2006, is not accurate enough to realize the full potential of VLBI observations. To achieve the highest possible accuracy in UT1 estimates, a celestial pole offset (CPO), which is the difference between the actual and modelled precession-nutation angles, should be applied. Three CPO models are currently available for users. In this paper, these models have been tested and the differences between UT1 estimates obtained with those models are investigated. It has been shown that neglecting CPO modelling during VLBI UT1 Intensive processing causes systematic errors in UT1 series of up to 20 microarcseconds. It has been also found that using different CPO models causes...

  6. Frequency unlimited optical delay lines based on slow and fast light in SOAs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berger, Perrine; Bourderionnet, Jérôme; Pu, Minhao


    We experimentally demonstrate that up-converted coherent population oscillations (CPO) in SOA open the possibility to conceive integrated optical tunable delay lines beyond the carrier lifetime limit, up to THz frequencies....

  7. Slow light in semiconductor waveguides: Theory and experiment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mørk, Jesper; Öhman, Filip; Poel, Mike van der;


    Slow light in multi-section quantum well waveguide structure is realized using either coherent population oscillations (CPO) and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is studied. The properties of the two schemes are compared and discussed.......Slow light in multi-section quantum well waveguide structure is realized using either coherent population oscillations (CPO) and electromagnetically induced transparency (EIT) is studied. The properties of the two schemes are compared and discussed....

  8. Characterization of N-linked oligosaccharides in chorion peroxidase of Aedes aegypti mosquito. (United States)

    Li, Junsuo S; Li, Jianyong


    A peroxidase is present in the chorion of Aedes aegypti eggs and catalyzes chorion protein cross-linking during chorion hardening, which is critical for egg survival in the environment. The unique chorion peroxidase (CPO) is a glycoprotein. This study deals with the N-glycosylation site, structures, and profile of CPO-associated oligosaccharides using mass spectrometric techniques and enzymatic digestion. CPO was isolated from chorion by solubilization and several chromatographic methods. Mono-saccharide composition was analyzed by HPLC with fluorescent detection. Our data revealed that carbohydrate (D-mannose, N-acetyl D-glucosamine, D-arabinose, N-acetyl D-galactosamine, and L-fucose) accounted for 2.24% of the CPO molecular weight. A single N-glycosylation site (Asn328-Cys- Thr) was identified by tryptic peptide mapping and de novo sequencing of native and PNGase A-deglycosylated CPO using matrix-assisted laser/desorption/ionization time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI/TOF/MS) and liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (LC/MS/MS). The Asn328 was proven to be a major fully glycosylated site. Potential tryptic glycopeptides and profile were first assessed by MALDI/TOF/MS and then by precursor ion scanning during LC/MS/MS. The structures of N-linked oligosaccharides were elucidated from the MS/MS spectra of glycopeptides and exoglycosidase sequencing of PNGase A-released oligosaccharides. These CPO-associated oligosaccharides had dominant Man3GlcNAc2 and Man3 (Fuc) GlcNAc2 and high mannose-type structures (Man(4-8)GlcNAc2). The truncated structures, Man2GlcNAc2 and Man2 (Fuc) GlcNAc2, were also identified. Comparison of CPO activity and Stokes radius between native and deglycosylated CPO suggests that the N-linked oligosaccharides influence the enzyme activity by stabilizing its folded state.

  9. Epidemiology, Etiology and Treatment of Isolated Cleft Palate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeleine L Burg


    Full Text Available Isolated cleft palate (CPO is the rarest form of oral clefting. The incidence of CPO varies substantially by geography from 1.3 to 25.3 per 10,000 live births, with the highest rates in British Columbia, Canada and the lowest rates in Nigeria, Africa. Stratified by ethnicity/race, the highest rates of CPO are observed in non-Hispanic Whites and the lowest in Africans; nevertheless, rates of CPO are consistently higher in females compared to males. Approximately fifty percent of children born with cleft palate occur as part of a known genetic syndrome or with another malformation (e.g., congenital heart defects and the other half occur as solitary defects, referred to often as non-syndromic clefts. The etiology of CPO is multifactorial involving both genetic and environmental risk factors. Several animal models have yielded insight into the molecular pathways responsible for proper closure of the palate, including the BMP, TGF-β, and SHH signaling pathways. In terms of environmental exposures, only maternal tobacco smoke exposure has been found to have a strong association with CPO. Some studies have suggested that maternal glucocorticoid exposure may also be important. Clearly, there is a need for larger epidemiologic studies to further investigate both genetic and environmental risk factors and potential gene-environment interactions. In terms of treatment, there is a need for long-term comprehensive care including surgical, dental and speech pathology. Overall, five main themes emerge as critical in advancing research: (1 monitoring of the occurrence of CPO (capacity building; (2 detailed phenotyping of the severity (biology; (3 understanding of the genetic and environmental risk factors (primary prevention; (4 access to early detection and multidisciplinary treatment (clinical services; and (5 understanding predictors of recurrence and possible interventions among families with a child with CPO (secondary prevention.

  10. Analisis Pengaruh Kebijakan Insentif Pajak Terhadap Produktivitas Industri Pengolahan Kelapa Sawit Di Wilayah Kerja Kantor Wilayah Direktorat Jenderal Pajak Sumatera Utara I


    Suprapto, Agus


    Oil palm industry is one of the strategic industries in agricultural sector which is developing in the tropical countries like Indonesia. The availability of area, inexpensive manpower, and the growth of demand for CPO (crude oil palm) have made Indonesia the biggest CPO exporter in the world. However, the support for tax cut for oil palm companies which perform research and development and community development in the frame of social investment is not sufficient to increase productivity, esp...

  11. OPTIMASI PRODUKSI ENZIMATIS DIASILGLISEROL MELALUI GLISEROLISIS KONTINU [Optimization of Enzymatic Diacylglycerol Production through Continuous Glycerolysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available Diacylglycerol (DAG produced from crude palm oil (CPO is one of the healthy oils that can be consumed for daily human diet. DAG production in Indonesia is constrained by the high cost of the mostly imported lipase. To overcome this problem, research of DAG production has been carried out using crude extracts of lipase produced by local species of fungi Rhizopus oryzae. This study aims to develop a continuous process of enzymatic glycerolysis of CPO for DAG production; to establish optimum conditions of DAG production which includes flow rate of CPO and glycerolysis time; and to test the performance of lipase from the local mold R. oryzae in catalyzing continuous process of glycerolysis for the production of DAG. Lipase isolation was carried out by acetone precipitation and lipase was used as a catalyst in the continuous glycerolysis process. The glycerolysis was conducted by reacting CPO with glycerol continuously at various time periods. The optimum condition of automatic continuous glycerolysis process was achieved at a CPO flow rate of 3 mL/min with a glycerolysis time at the 18 cycles (9 hours. The conversion of DAG was 29%. The performance of lipase was proven to remain stable up to 3 times changes of CPO substrate for 9 hours of glycerolysis process with the best condition at the 3 cycles and can improved conversion of DAG until 37%.

  12. Effects of Two Dietary Lipid Sources at Two Levels on the Survival, Growth and Fatty Acid Composition of the Giant Freshwater Prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Young Chul kim


    Full Text Available A 10 week feeding trial was conducted to investigate dietary crude palm oil (CPO or squid liver oil (SLO, at 3.5% (low or 9.5% (high as a 2 × 2 factorial design on survival, growth and whole body fatty acid composition of the giant freshwater prawn, Macrobrachium rosenbergii.  Growth performance was lowest and highest for prawns fed the CPO-low and SLO-high diets, respectively.  While prawns fed the CPO-high diet had lower growth than those fed the SLO-low diet, no significant differences were detected.  Significant interactions were found for oleic acid, arachidonic acid, n-6 polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA and n-3/n-6 PUFA, while long chain PUFA, eicosapentaenoic acid and docosahexaenoic acid of the prawns were significantly lower when fed the CPO-based diets.  Lower growth of M. rosenbergii fed the CPO-based diets may be related to less favorable fatty acid ratios and/ or lowered digestibility but higher dietary CPO can help mitigate this. 

  13. Pesticide Occurrence and Distribution in the Lower Clackamas River Basin, Oregon, 2000-2005 (United States)

    Carpenter, Kurt D.; Sobieszczyk, Steven; Arnsberg, Andrew J.; Rinella, Frank A.


    upper Noyer Creek, which drain basins having nurseries, pasture, and rural residential land. Some concentrations of insecticides (diazinon, chlorpyrifos, azinphos-methyl, and p,p?-DDE) exceeded U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (USEPA) aquatic-life benchmarks in Carli, Sieben, Rock, Noyer, Doane, and North Fork Deep Creeks. One azinphos-methyl concentration in Doane Creek (0.21 micrograms per liter [?g/L]) exceeded Federal and State of Oregon benchmarks for the protection of fish and benthic invertebrates. Concentrations of several other pesticide compounds exceeded non-USEPA benchmarks. Twenty-six pesticides or degradates were detected in the Clackamas River mainstem, typically at much lower concentrations than those detected in the lower-basin tributaries. At least 1 pesticide was detected in 65 percent of 34 samples collected from the Clackamas River, with an average of 2?3 pesticides per sample. Pesticides were detected in 9 (or 60 percent) of the 15 finished water samples collected from the study water-treatment plant during 2003?2005. These included 10 herbicides, 1 insecticide, 1 fungicide, 1 insect repellent, and 2 pesticide degradates. The herbicides diuron and simazine were the most frequently detected (four times each during the study), at concentrations far below human-health benchmarks?USEPA Maximum Contaminant Levels or U.S. Geological Survey human Health-Based Screening Levels (HBSLs). The highest pesticide concentration in finished drinking water was 0.18 ?g/L of diuron, which was 11 times lower than its low HBSL benchmark. Although 0?2 pesticides were detected in most finished water samples, 9 and 6 pesticides were detected in 2 storm-associated samples from May and September 2005, respectively. Three of the unregulated compounds detected in finished drinking water (diazinon-oxon, deethylatrazine [CIAT], and N, N-diethyl-m-toluamide [DEET]) do not have human-health benchmarks available for comparison. Although most of the 51 curren

  14. Epoxidation reactions of unsaturated fatty esters with potassium peroxomonosulfate. (United States)

    Lie Ken Jie, M S; Pasha, M K


    Epoxidation of the double bond in methyl oleate, octadec-11E-en-9-ynoate, ricinoleate (12-hydroxy-octadec-9Z-enoate), iso-ricinoleate (9-hydroxy-octadec-12Z-enoate), and 12-oxo-octadec-9Z-enoate with potassium peroxomonosulfate (oxone, 2 KHSO5.KHSO4.K2SO4) in the presence of trifluoroacetone or methyl pyruvate gave the corresponding monoepoxy derivatives. Reaction of Oxone with methyl linoleate and octadeca-9Z,11E-dienoate furnished the corresponding diepoxystearate derivative. Methyl 9,12-dioxo-octadec-10Z-enoate was obtained when a C18 furanoid fatty ester (methyl 9,12-epoxy-9,11-octadecadienoate) was treated with Oxone. The yield of these reactions was very high (85-99%), and the epoxy derivatives were readily isolated by solvent extraction. The products were identified by spectroscopic methods.

  15. Sequencing the GRHL3 Coding Region Reveals Rare Truncating Mutations and a Common Susceptibility Variant for Nonsyndromic Cleft Palate (United States)

    Mangold, Elisabeth; Böhmer, Anne C.; Ishorst, Nina; Hoebel, Ann-Kathrin; Gültepe, Pinar; Schuenke, Hannah; Klamt, Johanna; Hofmann, Andrea; Gölz, Lina; Raff, Ruth; Tessmann, Peter; Nowak, Stefanie; Reutter, Heiko; Hemprich, Alexander; Kreusch, Thomas; Kramer, Franz-Josef; Braumann, Bert; Reich, Rudolf; Schmidt, Gül; Jäger, Andreas; Reiter, Rudolf; Brosch, Sibylle; Stavusis, Janis; Ishida, Miho; Seselgyte, Rimante; Moore, Gudrun E.; Nöthen, Markus M.; Borck, Guntram; Aldhorae, Khalid A.; Lace, Baiba; Stanier, Philip; Knapp, Michael; Ludwig, Kerstin U.


    Nonsyndromic cleft lip with/without cleft palate (nsCL/P) and nonsyndromic cleft palate only (nsCPO) are the most frequent subphenotypes of orofacial clefts. A common syndromic form of orofacial clefting is Van der Woude syndrome (VWS) where individuals have CL/P or CPO, often but not always associated with lower lip pits. Recently, ∼5% of VWS-affected individuals were identified with mutations in the grainy head-like 3 gene (GRHL3). To investigate GRHL3 in nonsyndromic clefting, we sequenced its coding region in 576 Europeans with nsCL/P and 96 with nsCPO. Most strikingly, nsCPO-affected individuals had a higher minor allele frequency for rs41268753 (0.099) than control subjects (0.049; p = 1.24 × 10−2). This association was replicated in nsCPO/control cohorts from Latvia, Yemen, and the UK (pcombined = 2.63 × 10−5; ORallelic = 2.46 [95% CI 1.6–3.7]) and reached genome-wide significance in combination with imputed data from a GWAS in nsCPO triads (p = 2.73 × 10−9). Notably, rs41268753 is not associated with nsCL/P (p = 0.45). rs41268753 encodes the highly conserved p.Thr454Met (c.1361C>T) (GERP = 5.3), which prediction programs denote as deleterious, has a CADD score of 29.6, and increases protein binding capacity in silico. Sequencing also revealed four novel truncating GRHL3 mutations including two that were de novo in four families, where all nine individuals harboring mutations had nsCPO. This is important for genetic counseling: given that VWS is rare compared to nsCPO, our data suggest that dominant GRHL3 mutations are more likely to cause nonsyndromic than syndromic CPO. Thus, with rare dominant mutations and a common risk variant in the coding region, we have identified an important contribution for GRHL3 in nsCPO. PMID:27018475

  16. From polymer to monomer: cleavage and rearrangement of Si-O-Si bonds after oxidation yielded an ordered cyclic crystallized structure. (United States)

    Zuo, Yujing; Gou, Zhiming; Cao, Jinfeng; Yang, Zhou; Lu, Haifeng; Feng, Shengyu


    Polymerization reactions are very common in the chemical industry, however, the reaction in which monomers are obtained from polymers is rarely invesitgated. This work reveals for the first time that oxone can break the Si-O-Si bond and induce further rearrangement to yield an ordered cyclic structure. The oxidation of P1, which is obtained by reaction of 2,2'-1,2-ethanediylbis(oxy)bis(ethanethiol) (DBOET) with 1,3-divinyl-1,1,3,3-tetramethyldisiloxane (MM(Vi)), with oxone yielded cyclic crystallized sulfone-siloxane dimer (P1-ox) after unexpected cleavage and rearrangement of the Si-O-Si bond.

  17. Relationship between peak cardiac pumping capability and indices of cardio-respiratory fitness in healthy individuals. (United States)

    Jakovljevic, Djordje G; Popadic-Gacesa, Jelena Z; Barak, Otto F; Nunan, David; Donovan, Gay; Trenell, Michael I; Grujic, Nikola G; Brodie, David A


    Cardiac power output (CPO) is a unique and direct measure of overall cardiac function (i.e. cardiac pumping capability) that integrates both flow- and pressure-generating capacities of the heart. The present study assessed the relationship between peak exercise CPO and selected indices of cardio-respiratory fitness. Thirty-seven healthy adults (23 men and 14 women) performed an incremental exercise test to volitional fatigue using the Bruce protocol with gas exchange and ventilatory measurements. Following a 40-min recovery, the subjects performed a constant maximum workload exercise test at or above 95% of maximal oxygen consumption. Cardiac output was measured using the exponential CO(2) rebreathing method. The CPO, expressed in W, was calculated as the product of the mean arterial blood pressure and cardiac output. At peak exercise, CPO was well correlated with cardiac output (r = 0·92, P<0·01), stroke volume (r = 0·90, P<0·01) and peak oxygen consumption (r = 0·77, P<0·01). The coefficient of correlation was moderate between CPO and anaerobic threshold (r = 0·47, P<0·01), oxygen pulse (r = 0·57, P<0·01), minute ventilation (r = 0·53, P<0·01) and carbon dioxide production (r = 0·56, P<0·01). Small but significant relationship was found between peak CPO and peak heart rate (r = 0·23, P<0·05). These findings suggest that only peak cardiac output and stroke volume truly reflect CPO. Other indices of cardio-respiratory fitness such as oxygen consumption, anaerobic threshold, oxygen pulse, minute ventilation, carbon dioxide production and heart rate should not be used as surrogates for overall cardiac function and pumping capability of the heart.

  18. Hydrogen production with short contact time. Catalytic partial oxidation of hydrocarbons and oxygenated compounds: Recent advances in pilot- and bench-scale testing and process design

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guarinoni, A.; Ponzo, R.; Basini, L. [ENI Refining and Marketing Div., San Donato Milanese (Italy)


    ENI R and D has been active for fifteen years in the development of Short Contact Time - Catalytic Partial Oxidation (SCT-CPO) technologies for producing Hydrogen/Synthesis Gas. From the beginning the experimental work addressed either at defining the fundamental principles or the technical and economical potential of the technology. Good experimental responses, technical solutions' simplicity and flexibility, favourable techno-economical evaluations promoted the progressive widening of the field of the investigations. From Natural Gas (NG) the range of ''processable'' Hydrocarbons extended to Liquefied Petroleum Gas (LPG) and Gasoils, including those characterised by high levels of unsaturated and sulphurated molecules and, lately, to other compounds with biological origin. The extensive work led to the definition of different technological solutions, grouped as follows: Technology 1: Air Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 2: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Gaseous Hydrocarbons and/or Light Compounds with biological origin Technology 3: Enriched Air/Oxygen Blown SCT-CPO of Liquid Hydrocarbons and/or Compounds with biological origin Recently, the licence rights on a non-exclusive basis for the commercialisation of SCT-CPO based processes for H{sub 2}/Synthesis gas production from light hydrocarbons with production capacity lower than 5,000 Nm{sup 3}/h of H{sub 2} or 7,500 Nm3/h of syngas have been assigned to two external companies. In parallel, development of medium- and large-scale plant solutions is progressing within the ENI group framework. These last activities are addressed to the utilisation of SCT-CPO for matching the variable Hydrogen demand in several contexts of oil refining operation. This paper will report on the current status of SCT-CPO with a focus on experimental results obtained, either at pilot- and bench- scale level. (orig.)

  19. Joint analysis of celestial pole offset and free core nutation series (United States)

    Malkin, Zinovy


    Three combined celestial pole offset (CPO) series computed at the Paris Observatory (C04), the United States Naval Observatory (USNO), and the International VLBI Service for Geodesy and Astrometry (IVS), as well as six free core nutation (FCN) models, were compared from different perspectives, such as stochastic and systematic differences, and FCN amplitude and phase variations. The differences between the C04 and IVS CPO series were mostly stochastic, whereas a low-frequency bias at the level of several tens of μ as was found between the C04 and USNO CPO series. The stochastic differences between the C04 and USNO series became considerably smaller when computed at the IVS epochs, which can indicate possible problems with the interpolation of the IVS data at the midnight epochs during the computation of the C04 and USNO series. The comparison of the FCN series showed that the series computed with similar window widths of 1.1-1.2 years were close to one another at a level of 10-20 μ as, whereas the differences between these series and the series computed with a larger window width of 4 and 7 years reached 100 μ as. The dependence of the FCN model on the underlying CPO series was investigated. The RMS differences between the FCN models derived from the C04, USNO, and IVS CPO series were at a level of approximately 15 μ as, which was considerably smaller than the differences among the CPO series. The analysis of the differences between the IVS, C04, and USNO CPO series suggested that the IVS series would be preferable for both precession-nutation and FCN-related studies.

  20. A Qualitative Approach of Identifying Major Cost Influencing Factors in Palm Oil Mills and the Relations towards Production Cost of Crude Palm Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elaine L.Y. Man


    Full Text Available Problem statement: The oil palm industry, which heavily depends on the world market, is an export oriented industry. Worlds palm oil consumption was growing over the years. In addition, Indonesia and Malaysia dominated the oil palm industry. The oil palm industry in Malaysia is very competitive and become one of the major economic sectors contributing to the total revenue of the country. In year 2009, there was a total of 22.40 million tons of oil palm products including palm oil, palm kernel oil, palm kernel cake, oleo-chemicals and finished products, equivalent to RM 49.59 billion of export revenue. However, cost of production for Crude Palm Oil (CPO varies in a big gap. Therefore, it is essential to identify the major cost influencing factors in the production of CPO. Approach: The study system started with collection of Fresh Fruits Bunches (FFB from oil palm plantation to the production of CPO at palm oil mills. Two palm oil mills of different production capacity were chosen for this study. Statistical analysis was done to identify the major cost influencing factors of production cost for CPO. Results: The production cost of CPO for small scale palm oil mills preferably lied between RM 45 to RM 50 per metric tons while large scale palm oil mills lied below RM 45 per metric tons. Conclusion: Palm oil mills with higher production capacity were efficient in producing CPO than lower production capacity palm oil mills. Thus, the production cost of CPO was lower compared to that of small scale palm oil mills.

  1. Controls and implications of anisotropy across a strain gradient within granodiorite, Serifos, Western Cyclades (United States)

    Gaudreau, Élyse; Lagroix, France; Cossette, Élise; Schneider, David; Grasemann, Bernhard


    In order to evaluate the assumption that the crust behaves as an isotropic material in complex structural settings, we integrate crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) and anisotropy of magnetic susceptibility (AMS) data across a strain gradient within a Miocene granodioritic intrusion on Serifos island, Western Cyclades. One of the consequences of anisotropic crust is the variation in seismic wave velocity with the direction of propagation, which is largely controlled by the CPO of anisotropic minerals such as micas. The magnetic fabric of variably deformed granodiorite is used to characterize weakly defined tectonic fabric and thus complements the CPO data. Granodiorite samples exhibit very low strain to mylonitic fabric across the crustal-scale shear zone, recording progressive deformation through the ductile to brittle transition. CPO data was collected using electron backscatter diffraction and seismic properties were calculated using Voigt-Reuss-Hill averaging of the single minerals' elastic stiffness tensor. Quartz CPO is very strong in the weakly deformed samples recording basal and prism {0001} slip. Furthermore, bulging recrystallization and undulose extinction in quartz as well as feldspar grains that exhibit brittle deformation structures are indicative of 300-400 °C temperatures. The mylonite has a very weak CPO for the quartz phase and exhibits prism {0001} slip. The higher strain samples also reveal dynamic recrystallization and grain size reduction of quartz, plagioclase, potassium feldspar and biotite, which are characteristic of 400-500 °C temperatures. Orthoclase and anorthite possess a weak CPO in all samples. The S-wave anisotropy calculated from the CPO data of the weakly deformed granodiorite is the highest of all samples (max: 8%), and the anisotropy of the mylonite is the weakest of all samples (max: <3%). AMS data yields mainly oblate fabrics and the magnetic foliations and lineations correlate with microscopic and macroscopic

  2. Hyper-stable organo-Eu(III) luminophore under high temperature for photo-industrial application. (United States)

    Nakajima, Ayako; Nakanishi, Takayuki; Kitagawa, Yuichi; Seki, Tomohiro; Ito, Hajime; Fushimi, Koji; Hasegawa, Yasuchika


    Novel organo-Eu(III) luminophores, Eu(hfa)x(CPO)y and Eu(hfa)x(TCPO)y (hfa: hexafluoroacetylacetonate, CPO: 4-carboxyphenyl diphenyl phosphine oxide, TCPO: 4,4',4″-tricarboxyphenyl phosphine oxide), were synthesized by the complexation of Eu(III) ions with hfa moieties and CPO or TCPO ligands. The thermal and luminescent stabilities of the luminophores are extremely high. The decomposition temperature of Eu(hfa)x(CPO)y and Eu(hfa)x(TCPO)y were determined as 200 and 450 °C, respectively. The luminescence of Eu(hfa)x(TCPO)y under UV light irradiation was observed even at a high temperature, 400 °C. The luminescent properties of Eu(hfa)x(CPO)y and Eu(hfa)x(TCPO)y were estimated from emission spectra, quantum yields and lifetime measurements. The energy transfer efficiency from hfa moieties to Eu(III) ions in Eu(hfa)x(TCPO)y was 59%. The photosensitized luminescence of hyper-stable Eu(hfa)x(TCPO)y at 400 °C is demonstrated for future photonic applications.

  3. Performance deterioration and durability issues while running a diesel engine with crude palm oil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bari, S.; Yu, C.W.; Lim, T.H. [Universiti Sains Malaysia, School of Mechanical Engineering, Penang (Malaysia)


    Short-term performance tests using crude palm oil (CPO) as fuel for a diesel engine showed CPO to be a suitable substitute, with a peak pressure about 5 per cent higher and an ignition delay about 3 deg shorter compared with diesel. Emissions of NO and CO were about 29 and 9 per cent higher respectively for CPO. However, prolonged use of CPO as fuel caused the engine performance to deteriorate. After 500 h cumulative running with CPO, the maximum power was reduced by about 20 per cent and the minimum brake specific fuel consumption (b.s.f.c.) was increased by about 26 per cent. Examination of the different parts after the engine was dismantled revealed heavy carbon deposits in the combustion chamber; traces of wear on the piston rings, the plunger and the delivery valve of the injection pump; slight scuffing of the cylinder liner; and uneven spray from the nozzles. The affected parts were installed in a new identical engine one by one to evaluate the performance of each respectively. Tests revealed that the main reason for engine performance deterioration was 'valve sticking', caused by carbon deposits on the valve seats and stems. This resulted in leakage during the compression and power strokes and a reduced effective compression ratio and subsequently affected the power and fuel economy. Valve sticking alone contributed about 18 and 23 per cent to the deterioration in maximum power and minimum b.s.f.c. respectively. (Author)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Diana Chalil


    Full Text Available Crude Palm Oil (CPO is the biggest consumed vegetable oil in the world. The increase in CPO production raises concern on the environmental impact even outside the producing countries. As a response to this matter, the EU has made a requirement to only import certified CPO (CSPO. India and China, the two biggest importers in the world, are less restrictive to the environmental issues, and their demands are more influenced by CPO price levels. These countries are the main export markets for Indonesia and Malaysia, the two biggest CPO exporters in the world. This research using monthly price data from the Netherlands, Germany, Italy, EU28, India, China, Indonesia and Malaysia. Market integrations are tested with Cointegration Test, Vector Error Correction Model and Seemingly Unrelated Regression. The results show that these markets are integrated, but European countries are unlikely to lead the price movement. Therefore, the concern on sustainable certification from the European countries still slowly spreads to other main importers, resulting in low absorption of CSPO. Keywords: market integration; sustainable palm oil; seemingly unrelated regression; vector Error correction model

  5. Peroxide-based oxygen generating topical wound dressing for enhancing healing of dermal wounds. (United States)

    Chandra, Prafulla K; Ross, Christina L; Smith, Leona C; Jeong, Seon S; Kim, Jaehyun; Yoo, James J; Harrison, Benjamin S


    Oxygen generating biomaterials represent a new trend in regenerative medicine that aims to generate and supply oxygen at the site of requirement, to support tissue healing and regeneration. To enhance the healing of dermal wounds, we have developed a highly portable, in situ oxygen generating wound dressings that uses sodium percarbonate (SPO) and calcium peroxide (CPO) as chemical oxygen sources. The dressing continuously generated oxygen for more than 3 days, after which it was replaced. In the in vivo testing on porcine full-thickness porcine wound model, the SPO/CPO dressing showed enhanced wound healing during the 8 week study period. Quantitative measurements of wound healing related parameters, such as wound closure, reepithelialization, epidermal thickness and collagen content of dermis showed that supplying oxygen topically using the SPO/CPO dressing significantly accelerated the wound healing. An increase in neovascularization, as determined using Von Willebrand factor (vWF) and CD31 staining, was also observed in the presence of SPO/CPO dressing. This novel design for a wound dressing that contains oxygen generating biomaterials (SPO/CPO) for supplying topical oxygen, may find utility in treating various types of acute to chronic wounds.

  6. Galvanic corrosion of Cu coupled to Au on a print circuit board; Effects of pretreatment solution and etchant concentration in organic solderability preservatives soft etching solution (United States)

    Oh, SeKwon; Kim, YoungJun; Shon, MinYoung; Kwon, HyukSang


    In present study, we quantitatively define the galvanic corrosion phenomenon of Cu electrically coupled to Au on Print Circuit Board in Organic Solderability Preservatives (OSP) pretreatment (pickling and soft etching) solutions. As a result of polarization and ZRA test, galvanic corrosion rate of Cu in soft etching solution was about 3000 times higher than that of pickling solution. The oxone in OSP soft etching solution was acted as strong oxidant for Cu on PCB substrate. And the galvanic corrosion of Cu in OSP soft etching solution was examined with the change of etchants (oxone (KHSO5), sulfuric acid (H2SO4)) concentration. The galvanic corrosion rate of Cu was increased by the increase of the oxone and sulfuric acid concentrations, which lead to the increase of cathodic reactant such as HSO 5 - and H+ ions. And the degree of galvanic corrosion rate of Cu (Δisoft etching = icouple, (Cu-Au) - icorr, Cu) decreased with the decrease of the oxone and sulfuric acid concentrations.

  7. Anthony Richards, Peter Fussey and Andrew Silke (eds.. Terrorism and the Olympics: Major event security and lessons for the future.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert W Hand


    Full Text Available Routledge: Oxon UK, 2011. pp. 243. Hardcover: £68.50-£81.00. ISBN: 978–0–415–49939–2. Paperback (Avail. 1 Apr 2012: £24.95. Amazon Kindle: £56.52. Reviewed by Robert W. Hand University of Aberdeen Istanbul, Turkey

  8. The potential for controlling Pangaeus bilineatus (Heteroptera: Cydnidae) using a combination of entomopathogens and an insecticide. (United States)

    Mbata, George N; Shapiro-Ilan, David


    The peanut burrower bug, Pangaeus bilineatus (Say), is an important pest of peanut (Arachis hypogaea L.) in the southern United States. Current control methods for this pest, which are based on the use of chemical insecticides, have not been successful. Our objective was to determine if entomopathogens applied alone or in combination with a standard chemical insecticide would provide superior levels of P. bilineatus mortality compared with the standard chemical applied alone. Specifically, we investigated the efficacy of an entomopathogenic nematode, Heterorhabditis bacteriophora Poinar (Oswego strain), and a fungus, Beauveria bassiana (Balsamo) Vuillemin (GHA strain), applied alone or in combination with chlorpyrifos. When applied as single treatments, the two entomopathogens were not pathogenic, that is, they did not cause mortality in P. bilineatus adults that was different from the nontreated control. However, 3 and 7 d posttreatment, the combination of the H. bacteriophora and chlorpyrifos caused higher mortality than the nematode, fungus, or insecticide alone, or the combination of chlorpyrifos and B. bassiana. The nature of the interaction between H. bacteriophora and chlorpyrifos was synergistic, which is of particular interest, given that this is the first time a synergy is being reported between a nematode that was not pathogenic when applied alone and a chemical insecticide. B. bassiana and its combination with the chlorpyrifos did not significantly increase insect mortality compared with chlorpyrifos alone or the control. Based on the observation of synergy, the combination of H. bacteriophora and chlorpyrifos should be investigated further for potential adoption in the management of P. bilineatus.

  9. Genetic differentiation in blue shark, Prionace glauca, from the central Pacific Ocean, as inferred by mitochondrial cytochrome b region. (United States)

    Li, Weiwen; Dai, Xiaojie; Zhu, Jiangfeng; Tian, Siquan; He, Shan; Wu, Feng


    Six hundred and ninety-seven base pairs of cytochrome b gene of mtDNA was sequenced and analyzed for 78 blue shark Prionace glauca individuals from three sampled locations in the central Pacific Ocean (CPO). In total, three polymorphic sites were detected which defined four haplotypes. The haplotype diversity (h) ranged from 0.517 to 0.768, and nucleotide diversity (π) was between 0.0007 and 0.0011. Analysis of molecular variance indicated a non-significant differentiation among subpopulations. Furthermore, pairwise FST score analysis revealed a non-significant differentiation among three sampled regions. Generally, low genetic differences were found between different geographic locations in the CPO. This study suggests a single panmictic population of P. glauca in the CPO.

  10. Effect of propofol and remifentanil on cerebral perfusion and oxygenation in pigs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mikkelsen, Mai Louise Grandsgaard; Ambrus, Rikard; Miles, James Edward


    in human but also in veterinary anaesthesia to preserve optimal regulation of cerebral haemodynamics. Propofol and remifentanil are widely used in neuroanaesthesia and are increasingly used in experimental animal studies. In translational models, the pig has advantages compared to small laboratory animals......The objective of this review is to evaluate the existing literature with regard to the influence of propofol and remifentanil total intravenous anaesthesia (TIVA) on cerebral perfusion and oxygenation in healthy pigs. Anaesthesia has influence on cerebral haemodynamics and it is important not only...... and oxygenation (CPO). The evidence evaluated in this systematic review is limited, not focused on propofol and remifentanil and possibly influenced by factors of potential importance for CPO assessment. In one study of healthy pigs, CPO measures were within normal ranges following propofol...

  11. Light storage via coherent population oscillation in a thermal cesium vapor

    CERN Document Server

    de Almeida, A J F; Maynard, M -A; Laupretre, T; Bretenaker, F; Felinto, D; Goldfarb, F; Tabosa, J W R


    We report on the storage of light via the phenomenon of Coherent Population Oscillation (CPO) in an atomic cesium vapor at room temperature. In the experiment the optical information of a probe field is stored in the CPO of two ground states of a Lambda three-level system formed by the Zeeman sublevels of the hyperfine transition F = 3 - F' = 2 of cesium D2 line. We show directly that this CPO based memory is very insensitive to stray magnetic field inhomogeneities and presents a lifetime which is mainly limited only by atomic motion. A theoretical simulation of the measured spectra was also developed and is in very good agreement with the experiment.

  12. Clinical efficacy of a new ciclopiroxolamine/zinc pyrithione shampoo in scalp seborrheic dermatitis treatment. (United States)

    Lorette, Gérard; Ermosilla, Valérie


    Ciclopiroxolamine (CPO) and Zinc Pirythione (ZP) antifungals are efficient at treating scalp seborrheic dermatitis. This multicentre, single-blind, clinical study was conducted to evaluate the efficacy of a shampoo containing the 1.5% CPO/1% ZP association compared to the vehicle shampoo and to 2% ketoconazole foaming gel in the treatment of seborrheic dermatitis. In 189 patients randomised to apply 1 of the 3 products twice a week for 28 days, the global lesional score, erythema, pruritus, global efficacy, quality of life (SF12 and DLQI questionnaires) and tolerance were measured at 0, 7, 14 and 28 days. The 3 products reduced lesional score, erythema and pruritus from day 7 (p shampoo was more efficient in reducing pruritus than ketoconazole gel and vehicle (p = 0.032 and p shampoo improved all DLQI questionnaire dimensions. The CPO/ZP shampoo was as rapid and efficient as ketoconazole gel in SD treatment.

  13. Avaliação da incidência de cárie em pacientes com síndrome de Down após sua inserção em um programa preventivo Evaluation of the incidence of dental caries in patients with Down syndrome after their insertion in a preventive program

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Rogéria Freire de Castilho


    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar a incidência de cárie dentária por meio dos índices CPO-D, CPO-S, ceo-d e ceo-s em indivíduos com síndrome de Down regularmente matriculados em um programa preventivo. Foram examinados 24 indivíduos com síndrome de Down de ambos os sexos, com idade entre um e 48 anos. A prevalência (situação experimental inicial e a incidência (situação experimental final de cárie dentária foram verificadas utilizando-se os índices CPO-D, CPO-S, ceo-d e ceo-s iniciais e finais dos participantes. Dos 24 indivíduos examinados, dez (42,0% eram livres de cárie. A prevalência de cárie dentária mostrou valores de CPO-D= 2,33; CPO-S= 3,60; ceo-d= 1,75 e ceo-s= 2,80; enquanto a incidência de cárie apresentou valores de 2,33; 3,80; 1,10 e 1,90, respectivamente. Os indivíduos com síndrome de Down avaliados neste estudo apresentaram baixos índices de cárie e pequena incidência de novas lesões, enfatizando a importância da manutenção desses pacientes em programas preventivos.The objective of this work was to verify the incidence of dental caries by means of the CPO-D, CPO-S, ceo-d and ceo-s indexes in patients with Down syndrome regularly enrolled in a preventive program. Twenty four Down syndrome patients of both sexes age range of one to 48 years were examined. The prevalence (initial experimental situation and incidence (final experimental situation of dental caries were verified using of the initial and final CPO-D, CPO-S, ceo-d and ceo-s indexes of the participants. From 24 individual examined, 10 (42.0% were free of caries. The prevalence of dental caries showed values of CPO-D= 2.33; CPO-S= 3.60; ceo-d= 1.75 e ceo-s= 2.80; while the incidence of caries showed values of 2.33; 3.80; 1.10 e 1.90, respectively. Down syndrome individuals evaluated in this study presented low level of caries and small incidence of new lesions, emphasizing the importance of the maintenance of these patients at

  14. Dynamics of N-OH bond dissociation in cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone oxime at 193 nm: laser-induced fluorescence detection of nascent OH (v'', J''). (United States)

    Kawade, Monali N; Saha, Ankur; Upadhyaya, Hari P; Kumar, Awadhesh; Naik, Prakash D


    Cyclohexanone oxime (CHO) and cyclopentanone oxime (CPO) in the vapor phase undergo N-OH bond scission upon excitation at 193 nm to produce OH, which was detected state selectively employing laser-induced fluorescence. The measured energy distribution between fragments for both oximes suggests that in CHO the OH produced is mostly vibrationally cold, with moderate rotational excitation, whereas in CPO the OH fragment is also formed in v'' = 1 (~2%). The rotational population of OH (v'' = 0, J'') from CHO is characterized by a rotational temperature of 1440 ± 80 K, whereas the rotational populations of OH (v'' = 0, J'') and OH (v'' = 1, J'') from CPO are characterized by temperatures of 1360 ± 90 K and 930 ± 170 K, respectively. A high fraction of the available energy is partitioned to the relative translation of the fragments with f(T) values of 0.25 and 0.22 for CHO and CPO, respectively. In the case of CHO, the Λ-doublet states of the nascent OH radical are populated almost equally in lower rotational quantum levels N'', with a preference for Π(+) (A') states for higher N''. However, there is no preference for either of the two spin orbit states Π(3/2) and Π(1/2) of OH. The nascent OH product in CPO is equally distributed in both Λ-doublet states of Π(+) (A') and Π(-) (A'') for all N'', but has a preference for the Π(3/2) spin orbit state. Experimental work in combination with theoretical calculations suggests that both CHO and CPO molecules at 193 nm are excited to the S(2) state, which undergoes nonradiative relaxation to the T(2) state. Subsequently, molecules undergo the N-OH bond dissociation from the T(2) state with an exit barrier to produce OH (v'', J'').


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reno Irwanto


    Full Text Available Diabetes mellitus type-2 (DM-2 is a disease characterized by high level of blood glucose which may result in complications of other diseases. Currently, the disease prevalence of DM-2 has been increasing. Appropriate diet patterns can be a solution for DM-2 control. Black soybean milk (BSM enriched with microencapsulated crude palm oil (CPO is an example. The objective of the study was to determine the effectiveness of BSM containing microencapsulated CPO in controlling and improving the condition of DM-2 patients. The intervention consist 2 group with 15 people DM-2 was given BSM 240 mL containing 0.4 g microencapsulated CPO daily for 28 days, while a control group with 11 people DM-2 without intervention product. Data were analyzed using software SPSS 15.0 with student-t test at significant level α=5%. Medicines prescribed to all volunteer were not terminated during the intervention period. The microencapsulated CPO usedin this study has a moisture content of 1.77±0.15%, solubility value of 65.39±2.71%, and total carotene of 295.24±7.40 ppm while BSM has protein content of 2.76±0.13%, fat 1.17±0.06%, ash 0.12±0.08%, moisture 94.69±0.04%, and carbohydrate (by difference 1.27±0.10%. The consumption of BSM containing microencapsulated CPO showed insignificant effects on Fasting Blood Glucose (FBG levels (P>0.05, but significantly reduced cyclooxygenase 2 levels (P0.05, cyclooxygenase 2 (P0.05. The significant changes indicated that BSM containing microenca-psulated CPO has against DM-2 disease.

  16. Study on the superactivity of oxidation of indole catalyzed by chloroperoxidase in reverse micelles%反相胶束体系中氯过氧化物酶催化氧化吲哚的"超活性"研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    茹雪姣; 胡满成; 蒋育澄


    氯过氧化物酶(CPO)在阳离子表面活性剂(DTAB/CTAB)-异辛烷-水反胶束体系中,表现出"超活性",其氧化活性可分别提高177%和156%.研究了表面活性剂浓度、水含量对CPO氧化活性的影响,并通过反相胶束与水相中的CPO与底物H_2O_2形成的化合物Ⅰ的Soret吸收光谱的对比,对其形成的中间体的稳定性进行了研究.结果表明,CPO的氧化活性对表面活性剂浓度及水含量均呈现"钟罩"型依赖规律,反相胶束体系中间体(化合物Ⅰ)的稳定性增强.%Chloroperoxidase (CPO) was found to have a superactivity in reverse micelles formed by DTAB/CTAB-isooctane-water. The oxidation activity of CPO was enhanced up to 177% and 156 % in the DTAB/CTAB-isooctane-water media respectively. The effects of water content and surfactants concentration on the catalytic performance of CPO were investigated. Moreover, the intermediate stability was studied based on the comparison of the Soret band of CPO-H_2O_2 complexes in reversed micelles to that in aqueous system. It was found a "bell shaped" dependences between the surfactants concentration or water content and the oxidation activity CPO,and enhancement in the intermediate stability in reversed micelles solutions.

  17. Deformation of olivine-orthopyroxene aggregates at high pressure and temperature: Implications for the seismic properties of the asthenosphere (United States)

    Soustelle, Vincent; Manthilake, Geeth


    The effect of pressure, temperature and composition on the development of crystal preferred orientations (CPO) and seismic properties of olivine-orthopyroxene aggregates were investigated using samples containing olivine and 12.5, 25 and 50 vol.% of orthopyroxene. The samples were deformed in simple-shear at a constant strain-rate of 10- 4 s- 1 with total shear strains between 0.5 and 1.3, at pressures of 3, 5 and 8 GPa and temperatures of 1300, 1400 and 1500 °C, respectively. Olivine's CPO vary as a function of the orthopyroxene content. All samples have their olivine [010] axes normal to the foliation. Samples with 12.5 and 25% orthopyroxene have their [001] axes parallel to the lineation (B-type), whereas the samples with 50% orthopyroxene have their [100] axes oriented parallel to the lineation (A-type). At 3 GPa, we propose that olivine CPO may result from a variation between two types of diffusion accommodated grain boundary sliding (difGBS) mechanisms. At higher pressure, the relative contribution of difGBS and dislocation related mechanisms depends on the volume of secondary phases. For low orthopyroxene contents, dislocation related mechanisms prevail and induce the development of B-type CPO, whereas for higher amount of orthopyroxene difGBS controls the deformation and leads to A-type CPO. Orthopyroxene's CPO strength increases with increasing pressure and temperature and is characterized by the concentration of [100] and [010] axes normal to the foliation and [001] close to the lineation. The seismic properties show that deformation in pyroxene-poor and rich peridotites are consistent with the seismic anisotropy observed in intraplate regions where the mantle flow is horizontal. Conversely, only pyroxene-rich peridotites deformed through difGBS could explain the Vsh/Vsv < 1 observed below mid-oceanic ridges.

  18. Microstructures and seismic properties of south Patagonian mantle xenoliths (Gobernador Gregores and Pali Aike) (United States)

    Zaffarana, Claudia; Tommasi, Andréa; Vauchez, Alain; Grégoire, Michel


    The subcontinental lithospheric mantle evolves through time due to tectonic events and processes as static recrystallization and melt percolation. To constrain the extent of these processes in the South Patagonian subcontinental mantle lithosphere we performed a microstructural and Electron Backscattered Diffraction (EBSD) study of a suite of 35 peridotite xenoliths brought to the surface by Plio-Pleistocene alkaline volcanic rocks from Gobernador Gregores and Pali Aike. All samples show a well-developed olivine and pyroxene crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO), consistent with deformation by dislocation creep with dominant activation of [100]{0kl} in olivine. The coarse granular or tabular textures and the low density of intracrystalline deformation features indicate that deformation was followed by annealing under static conditions. The xenoliths also show microstructural evidence of multiple episodes of reactive melt percolation. Neither annealing nor melt percolation erased the olivine CPO, which has [010]-fiber, [100]-fiber and orthorhombic patterns in Pali Aike xenoliths and essentially [010]-fiber and orthorhombic patterns in Gobernador Gregores xenoliths. Seismic properties calculated based on the CPO and modal compositions are, however, rather homogeneous, with fast S-wave polarization and P-wave propagation parallel to the [100] olivine axis. The variation in the olivine CPO solely changes the minimum S-wave birefringence direction, which is normal to the foliation for axial-[010] olivine CPO. Average samples for the two localities, obtained by adding up the individual samples CPO data in a common reference frame, show, however, a ‘normal' upper mantle anisotropy with a maximum S-wave birrenfringence of ca. 5% at high angle to the both the maximum [010] and [100] axes concentrations, that is in the foliation, but normal to the lineation, and a minimum birefringence at low angle to the [100] maximum, that is parallel to the lineation.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jauhar Samudera Nayantakaningtyas


    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe aims of this study were to analyze the competitiveness of Indonesian Crude palm oil CPO products in the international market and to analyze the strategy to improve the competitiveness of Indonesian CPO. The analysis methods used this research were descriptive qualitative methods. The tools used to analyze the competitiveness of palm oil is Revealed Comparative Advantages and Porter Diamond Theory, while the development of the strategy used to determine the SWOT method. Based on the analysis of Porter's Diamond System and revealed comparative advantages, this study concluded that the competitiveness of Indonesian CPO was pretty strong, but it still needed a strategy to strengthen its competitiveness especially on derivative products. Some of the routine strategies that need to be done every year, are the development of the CPO industry human resources through training and innovation activities, paying attention to national and international issues by improving government policies, downstream industrial development and palm oil value-added increase, enhance cooperation with manufacturers from other countries through promotions.Keywords: crude palm oil, competitiveness, strategy, analysis of porter's diamondABSTRAKTujuan penelitian ini adalah menganalisis daya saing produk Crude Palm Oil (CPO Indonesia di pasar internasional dan menganalisis strategi peningkatan daya saing CPO Indonesia. Metode pengolahan dan analisis data yang digunakan dalam penelitian ini adalah metode deskriptif kualitatif. Alat  yang digunakan untuk menganalisis daya saing minyak sawit  adalah Revealed Comparative Advantages dan Teori Berlian Porter, sedangkan untuk mengetahui strategi pengembangan digunakan metode SWOT. Hasil analisis Sistem Berlian Porter dan revealed comparative advantages disimpulkan bahwa daya saing CPO Indonesia cukup kuat, namun masih diperlukan adanya strategi untuk memperkuat terutama pada produk turunan CPO. Strategi rutin yang harus


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAO Yongtao; JIANG Lili


    A contour-parallel offset (CPO) tool-path linking algorithm is derived without toolretractions and with the largest practicability. The concept of "tool-path loop tree" (TPL-tree)providing the information on the parent/child relationships among the tool-path loops (TPLs) is presented. The direction, tool-path loop, leaf/branch, layer number, and the corresponding points of the TPL-tree are introduced. By defining TPL as a vector, and by traveling throughout the tree, a CPO tool-path without tool-retractions can be derived.

  1. Crystal preferred orientation of amphibole and implications for seismic anisotropy in the crust (United States)

    Jung, Haemyeong


    Strong seismic anisotropy is often observed in the middle to lower crust and it has been considered to be originated from the crystal preferred orientation (CPO) of anisotropic minerals such as amphibole. Amphibolite is one of the dominant rocks in the middle to lower crust. In this study, crystal preferred orientations of hornblende in amphibolites at Yeoncheon and Chuncheon areas in South Korea were determined by using the electron backscattered diffraction (EBSD)/SEM with HKL Channel 5 software. In Yeoncheon area, hornblende showed two types of CPOs. Type-I CPO is characterized as (100) poles of hornblende aligned subnormal to foliation and [001] axes aligned subparallel to lineation. Type-II CPO is characterized as (100) poles of hornblende aligned subnormal to foliation and (010) poles aligned subparallel to lineation (refer to Ko and Jung, 2015, Nature Communications). In Chuncheon area, three types of CPOs of hornblende were observed. In addition to the type-I and -II CPOs described above, type-III CPO of hornblende was observed in Chuncheon area and it is characterized as (100) poles of hornblende aligned subnormal to foliation and both [001] axes and (010) poles aligned as a girdle subparallel to foliation. Using the observed CPO and the single crystal elastic constant of hornblende, seismic anisotropy of hornblende was calculated. Seismic anisotropy of P-wave was strong in the range of 10.2 - 13.5 %. Seismic anisotropy of S-wave was also strong in the range of 6.9 - 11.2 %. These results show that hornblende deformed in nature can produce a strong CPO, resulting in a strong seismic anisotropy in the middle to lower crust. Taking into account of the CPO of plagioclase in the rock, seismic anisotropies of whole rock turned out to be maximum P-wave anisotropy (Vp) of 9.8% and maximum S-wave anisotropy (Vs) of 8.2%. Therefore, strong seismic anisotropy found in the middle to lower crust in nature can be attributed to the CPO of hornblende in amphibolite.

  2. The legacy of pesticide pollution: An overlooked factor in current risk assessments of freshwater systems

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rasmussen, Jes Jessen; Wiberg-Larsen, Peter; Baattrup-Pedersen, Annette


    We revealed a history of legacy pesticides in water and sediment samples from 19 small streams across an agricultural landscape. Dominant legacy compounds included organochlorine pesticides, such as DDT and lindane, the organophosphate chlorpyrifos and triazine herbicides such as terbutylazine...

  3. Hypotension in Severe Dimethoate Self-Poisoning


    Davies, James; Roberts, Darren; Eyer, Peter; Buckley, Nick; Eddleston, Michael


    Introduction Acute self-poisoning with the organophosphorus (OP) pesticide dimethoate has a human case fatality three-fold higher than poisoning with chlorpyrifos despite similar animal toxicity. The typical clinical presentation of severe dimethoate poisoning is quite distinct from that of chlorpyrifos and other OP pesticides: many patients present with hypotension that progresses to shock and death within 12–48 h post-ingestion. The pathophysiology of this syndrome is not clear. Case report...

  4. 河北省不同地区韭蛆(韭菜迟眼蕈蚊)对杀虫剂的敏感性栽%Sensitivity of Bradysia odoriphaga in Various Places in Hebei Province to Some Insecticides

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高占林; 党志红; 潘文亮; 贾海民; 张克锦


    Sensitivity of Bradysia odoriphaga in various places in Hebei province to some insecticides was determined. The insects in Su ning had about 6~15 times tolerance to chlorpyrifos and phoxim compared with tha t in Yongnian, Dingzhou and Baoding. But no significant differences of sensitiv ity to imidacloprid were found among these places. Also, no significant differen ces of sensitivity to all the 3 insecticides (imidacloprid, chlorpyrifos and ph oxim) were found between the insects fed on leek and garlic.

  5. Rapid determination of dichlorvos, methamidophos and chlorpyrifos in semen coicis for exit by gas chromatography with large-bore capillary column%大口径毛细管-气相色谱法快速测定出口薏苡仁中敌敌畏、甲胺磷、毒死蜱残留量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张泽楷; 伍庆; 王兴宁


    目的:建立大口径毛细管-气相色谱快速测定出口薏苡仁中敌敌畏、甲胺磷、毒死蜱农药残留量的方法.方法:采用OV-1701(30 m×0.53 mm×0.53 μm)分离和火焰光度检测器(FPD)检测,外标法计算含量.结果:线性范围:0.1~2.0μg/mL,加标回收率:82.64%~97.58%,相对标准偏差(RSDl:1.57%~5.35%,检出限:0.004~0.032 mg/kg.结论:本方法快速、简便、准确,适用于测定薏苡仁中敌敌畏、甲胺磷、毒死蜱农药残留.

  6. Residues change of chlorpyrifos and its metabolite 3,5,6-trichloro-2-pyridinol in cucumber during pickling process%毒死蜱及其代谢物3,5,6-三氯-2-吡啶酚在黄瓜腌制过程中的残留水平变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李文明; 韩永涛; 董丰收; 徐军; 刘新刚; 李远播; 孔志强; 郑永权



  7. Obser vation on the Efficacy after Chlorpyrifos and Propoxur amalgamating strengthening to kill Cockroach ffect on hotel%毒死蜱与残杀威混配增效后对现场蟑螂杀灭效果观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)




  8. The Safe Use of Chlorpyrifos in Rice Field and Effects on Rice Planthopper and Its Natural Enemies%水稻田毒死蜱安全使用及其对稻飞虱和主要天敌的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶建人; 施海萍; 冯永斌; 黄贤夫; 王驰; 陈海波; 蔡娟娟


    [目的]水稻田毒死蜱用量多,明确稻米残留情况.[方法]在甬优6号收割15、20、30、40d喷施48%毒死蜱EC360~1080 mL a.i./hm2后调查抽样,用Agilent 6890气相色谱仪检测残留量.[结果]48%毒死蜱EC喷施次数多或用量高,残留大,糠远高于糙米;在离收割15 d喷施1080 mL a.iJhrn2 1次,或者在离收割40、30、20 d均喷施720 mL a.i./hrn23次,糙米中的残留量≥0.1 mg/kg;对稻飞虱能治前控后,蜘蛛影响少,黑肩绿盲蝽杀伤力大.[结论]水稻田喷施毒死蜱,离收割30 d以上或者离收割15d以内,用量应分别控制在1 080、720mLa.i./hm2之内,并尽量减少用药的次数.

  9. 9%毒死蜱·烯唑醇悬浮种衣剂防治玉米地下害虫和丝黑穗田间药效评价%Effect Evaluation of 9%Chlorpyrifos·Diniconazole FS in Field against Underground Pest and Sporisorium Reilianum of Maize

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈亿兵; 金焕贵; 魏民; 张永超


    利用9%毒死蜱·烯唑醇悬浮种衣剂对玉米地下害虫和丝黑穗进行田间药效试验.结果表明:每100 kg种子用9%毒死蜱·烯唑醇悬浮种衣剂128.6~180.0 g包衣处理对蛴螬、金针虫等地下害虫平均防治效果为55.40%~64.83%,对丝黑穗病平均防治效果为66.19%~79.77%,防治效果较好,对玉米安全、无药害.推荐田间有效成分用量以每100 kg种子用药150.0~180.0 g为佳.

  10. The oral acute toxicities of the insecticides containing chlorpyrifos as one active ingredient to Apis mellifera L.%含毒死蜱有效成分的杀虫剂对意大利蜂(Apis mellifera L.)的经口毒性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁睿; 王德辉


    采用摄入法在室内测定了7种含有毒死蜱有效成分的杀虫剂对成年意大利蜂的急性经口毒性.结果表明:所测定的7种杀虫剂对成年意大利的急性经口毒性均为高毒;毒力由高到低的顺序是:10%阿维·毒死蜱乳油>12%高氯·毒死蜱乳油>50%毒死蜱微乳剂>30%甲维·毒死蜱乳油>30%毒死蜱·三唑磷乳油>20%毒死蜱·氟铃脲乳油>22%吡虫·毒死蜱乳油.另外,22%吡虫·毒死蜱乳油对供试蜜蜂24h和48h的致死作用存在明显的差异,其24h LC50值约是48h LC50值的12.6倍.

  11. 一株毒死蜱降解细菌的分离鉴定及其在土壤修复中的应用%Isolation and characterization of a chlorpyrifos degrading bacteria and its bioremediation application in the soil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨丽; 赵宇华; 张炳欣; 张昕


    从蔬菜大棚土壤中分离到一株能以毒死蜱为唯一碳源和能源生长的菌株DSP3,该菌在含毒死蜱(100mg/L)的酵母膏和蛋白胨与同样毒死蜱含量而无酵母膏蛋白胨的无机盐培养基中,18d对毒死蜱的降解率分别为98.6%和76.2%;在土壤实验中20d对毒死蜱(100mg/kg)的降解率接近100%,加入DSP3菌在蔬菜大棚新鲜土壤中能有效促进毒死蜱在土壤中的降解.根据生理生化特征、16S rDNA序列分析、(G+C)mol%测定和DNA同源性分析,将菌株DSP3鉴定为粪产碱杆菌(Alcaligenes faecalis).

  12. Study on Monosultap and Chlorpyrifos Cartap Granules to control sugarcane borer in Yuetang60's cultivation%杀单·毒死蜱在粤糖60号配套栽培中的防虫效应研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘方胤; 陈月桂; 彭冬永; 杨俊贤; 吴文龙; 吴建涛; 文明富; 陈顺; 陈勇生



  13. Oscillatory behaviour of catalytic properties, structure and temperature during the catalytic partial oxidation of methane on Pd/Al2O3

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kimmerle, B.; Baiker, A.; Grunwaldt, Jan-Dierk


    Pd/Al2O3 catalysts showed an oscillatory behaviour during the catalytic partial oxidation (CPO) of methane, which was investigated simultaneously by IR-thermography, X-ray absorption spectroscopy, and online mass-spectrometry to correlate the temperature, state of the catalyst and catalytic...

  14. 32 CFR 536.155 - Claims payable involving tortfeasors other than nonappropriated fund employees. (United States)


    ... equipment or devices for recreational purposes, while using such property, except real property, in the... and claims involving loss of or damage to property are not cognizable. (b) An ACO or a CPO will ask... all claims (including derivative claims), arising as a result of injury to, or death of, any...

  15. Model Identifikasi Risiko dan Strategi Peningkatan Nilai Tambah pada Rantai Pasok Kelapa Sawit

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syarif Hidayat


    Full Text Available The actors in the palm oil supply chain industry are the farmers, traders, crude palm oil (CPO factories, frying-oil factories (refineries, distributors and the consumers. The farmers sell fresh fruit bunches (FFB to the CPO factories through traders. FFB is converted into CPO which is later sold to the refineries. Refineries convert CPO into frying oil which is sold to the consumers through the distributors. There are risks due to product quality consistency, price fluctuation and supply chain continuity. This study has two objectives: (1 to develop a model to identify, evaluate and rank the risks, (2 to develop a model to identify and rank the strategies in improving their added value. Data for this study was obtained through direct interviews and questionnaires. The respondents were selected experts and industry players. The data were processed using Fuzzy Analytic Hierarchy Process (FAHP models. The first FAHP model showed that the two most important risks were the supply chain continuity and product quality. The second FAHP model showed that the recommended strategies to improve the added values of the actors were the improvement of the infrastructure/cluster development, followed by the usage of superior seeds and cultivation techniques.

  16. Dicty_cDB: Contig-U10667-1 [Dicty_cDB

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available |pid:none) Apha aequalis voucher Aaeq putativ... 36 0.48 EU032917_1( EU032917 |pid:none) Cpo putati... 36 0.48 EU032915_1( EU032915 |pid:none) Lacosoma chiridota voucher Lch put... 36 0.48 EU032

  17. DSSHerbicide

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sønderskov, Mette; Fritzsche, Robert; de Mol, Friederike


    DSSHerbicide Germany and DSSHerbicide Poland are two decision support systems (DSS) developed for weed control in winter wheat in Northern regions of Germany and Poland. DSSHerbicide is based upon an existing Danish DSS, Crop Protection Online (CPO). Herbicide recommendations from DSSHerbicide ar...

  18. Rheology, microstructure and crystallographic preferred orientation of matrix containing a dispersed second phase: Insight from experimentally deformed ice (United States)

    Cyprych, Daria; Piazolo, Sandra; Wilson, Christopher J. L.; Luzin, Vladimir; Prior, David J.


    We utilize in situ neutron diffraction to continuously track the average grain size and crystal preferred orientation (CPO) development in ice, during uniaxial compression of two-phase and pure ice samples. Two-phase samples are composed of ice matrix and 20 vol.% of second phases of two types: (1) rheologically soft, platy graphite, and (2) rigid, rhomb-shaped calcite. The samples were tested at 10 °C below the ice melting point, ambient pressures, and two strain rates (1 ×10-5 and 2.5 ×10-6 s-1), to 10 and 20% strain. The final CPO in the ice matrix, where second phases are present, is significantly weaker, and ice grain size is smaller than in an ice-only sample. The microstructural and rheological data point to dislocation creep as the dominant deformation regime. The evolution and final strength of the CPO in ice depend on the efficiency of the recrystallization processes, namely grain boundary migration and nucleation. These processes are markedly influenced by the strength, shape, and grain size of the second phase. In addition, CPO development in ice is further accentuated by strain partitioning into the soft second phase, and the transfer of stress onto the rigid second phase.

  19. Enantioselective epoxidation and carbon-carbon bond cleavage catalyzed by Coprinus cinereus peroxidase and myeloperoxidase. (United States)

    Tuynman, A; Spelberg, J L; Kooter, I M; Schoemaker, H E; Wever, R


    We demonstrate that myeloperoxidase (MPO) and Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CiP) catalyze the enantioselective epoxidation of styrene and a number of substituted derivatives with a reasonable enantiomeric excess (up to 80%) and in a moderate yield. Three major differences with respect to the chloroperoxidase from Caldariomyces fumago (CPO) are observed in the reactivity of MPO and CiP toward styrene derivatives. First, in contrast to CPO, MPO and CiP produced the (S)-isomers of the epoxides in enantiomeric excess. Second, for MPO and CiP the H(2)O(2) had to be added very slowly (10 eq in 16 h) to prevent accumulation of catalytically inactive enzyme intermediates. Under these conditions, CPO hardly showed any epoxidizing activity; only with a high influx of H(2)O(2) (300 eq in 1.6 h) was epoxidation observed. Third, both MPO and CiP formed significant amounts of (substituted) benzaldehydes as side products as a consequence of C-alpha-C-beta bond cleavage of the styrene derivatives, whereas for CPO and cytochrome c peroxidase this activity is not observed. C-alpha-C-beta cleavage was the most prominent reaction catalyzed by CiP, whereas with MPO the relative amount of epoxide formed was higher. This is the first report of peroxidases catalyzing both epoxidation reactions and carbon-carbon bond cleavage. The results are discussed in terms of mechanisms involving ferryl oxygen transfer and electron transfer, respectively.

  20. 76 FR 68358 - Fisheries of the Exclusive Economic Zone Off Alaska; Bering Sea and Aleutian Islands Crab... (United States)


    ..., which may be delivered to any processor and are not subject to regionalization. CPO, CPC, and CVC IFQ are not subject to regionalization and are not required to be matched with a processor holding IPQ... contract for a market report or non-binding formula for the fishery were considered and not advanced...

  1. Light duty utility arm startup plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barnes, G.A.


    This plan details the methods and procedures necessary to ensure a safe transition in the operation of the Light Duty Utility Arm (LDUA) System. The steps identified here outline the work scope and identify responsibilities to complete startup, and turnover of the LDUA to Characterization Project Operations (CPO).

  2. Olivine crystals align during diffusion creep of Earth's upper mantle. (United States)

    Miyazaki, Tomonori; Sueyoshi, Kenta; Hiraga, Takehiko


    The crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) of olivine produced during dislocation creep is considered to be the primary cause of elastic anisotropy in Earth's upper mantle and is often used to determine the direction of mantle flow. A fundamental question remains, however, as to whether the alignment of olivine crystals is uniquely produced by dislocation creep. Here we report the development of CPO in iron-free olivine (that is, forsterite) during diffusion creep; the intensity and pattern of CPO depend on temperature and the presence of melt, which control the appearance of crystallographic planes on grain boundaries. Grain boundary sliding on these crystallography-controlled boundaries accommodated by diffusion contributes to grain rotation, resulting in a CPO. We show that strong radial anisotropy is anticipated at temperatures corresponding to depths where melting initiates to depths where strongly anisotropic and low seismic velocities are detected. Conversely, weak anisotropy is anticipated at temperatures corresponding to depths where almost isotropic mantle is found. We propose diffusion creep to be the primary means of mantle flow.

  3. 75 FR 54794 - Commodity Pool Operators: Relief From Compliance With Certain Disclosure, Reporting and... (United States)


    ... participants. \\25\\ For example, in one case, the alternate recordkeepers were a CPO-affiliated national banking... comply with specified requirements for audit committees.\\27\\ Pursuant to Rule 10A-3 \\28\\ under the... list its securities, the members of the issuer's audit committee must be members of its board...

  4. Study of oral clefts: Indication of gene-environment interaction

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hwang, S.J.; Beaty, T.H.; Panny, S. [Johns Hopkins Univ., Baltimore, MD (United States)] [and others


    In this study of infants with isolated birth defects, 69 cleft palate-only (CPO) cases, 114 cleft lip with or without palate (CL/P), and 284 controls with non-cleft birth defects (all born in Maryland during 1984-1992) were examined to test for associations among genetic markers and different oral clefts. Modest associations were found between transforming growth factor {alpha} (TGF{alpha}) marker and CPO, as well as that between D17S579 (Mfd188) and CL/P in this study. The association between TGF{alpha} marker and CPO reflects a statistical interaction between mother`s smoking and child`s TGF{alpha} genotype. A significantly higher risk of CPO was found among those reporting maternal smoking during pregnancy and carrying less common TGF{alpha} TaqI allele (odds ratio=7.02 with 95% confidence interval 1.8-27.6). This gene-environment interaction was also found among those who reported no family history of any type of birth defect (odds ratio=5.60 with 95% confidence interval 1.4-22.9). Similar associations were seen for CL/P, but these were not statistically significant.

  5. 48 CFR 3032.006-3 - Responsibilities. (United States)


    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 7 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Responsibilities. 3032.006-3 Section 3032.006-3 Federal Acquisition Regulations System DEPARTMENT OF HOMELAND SECURITY... of Part 3032.006-3 Responsibilities. (a) The CPO is authorized to establish specific procedures....

  6. 78 FR 67078 - Membership in a Registered Futures Association (United States)


    ... entities. \\20\\ Policy Statement and Establishment of Definitions of ``Small Entities'' for Purposes of the..., 20 CPOs, 605 CTAs, and 25 CPO/CTAs. To arrive at the monetary estimate, the 652 figure was multiplied... possible, quantify such costs. Do the types of costs or amount of costs vary depending on whether the...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emiliana Rose Jusoh,


    Full Text Available Growing public concern about environment and potential risks to health in the polymer and plasticizer industry promises to increase the market for a safer alternative plasticizer such as a vegetable oil-based agent. The purpose of this study was to investigate the potential of crude palm oil as a bio-additive in polypropylene blown films. The polypropylene was blended with 1%, 3%, and 5% dosages of CPO using a twin screw extruder. The extruded samples were blown using the blown thin film technique. Mechanical, physical, and morphological properties were characterized. Modifying polypropylene with CPO showed good enhancement in the mechanical properties of the polypropylene. Tensile strength, elongation at break, impact strength, and tear strength all increased. The scanning electron microscopy photographs of the CPO-modified PP clearly supported the results from the mechanical strength tests. The presence of CPO in the PP matrices decreased the density and increased the melt flow rate. These findings contribute new knowledge to the additives area and give important implications for designing and manufacturing polymer packaging materials.

  8. Comparison of methods for identifying patients at risk of medication-related harm

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Doormaal, J.E.; Rommers, M.K.; Kosterink, J.G.; Teepe-Twiss, I.M.; Haaijer-Ruskamp, F.M.; Mol, P.G.


    Background With the introduction of Computerised Physician Order Entry (CPOE) in routine hospital care, a great deal of effort has been put into refining Clinical Decision Support Systems (CDSS) to identify patients at risk of preventable medication-related harm. Objectives This study compared a CPO

  9. 77 FR 58889 - Self-Regulatory Organizations; NYSE Arca, Inc.; Notice of Filing of Proposed Rule Change To List... (United States)


    ... exclusion from the definition of the term ``commodity pool operator'' or ``CPO'' in accordance with Rule 4.5... Information (``SAI''), the Fund's Shareholder Reports, and the Trust's Form N-CSR and Form N-SAR, filed twice..., and those documents and the Form N-CSR and Form N-SAR may be viewed on- screen or downloaded from...

  10. 77 FR 11345 - Harmonization of Compliance Obligations for Registered Investment Companies Required To Register... (United States)


    ... Commission has promulgated the exclusions from the definition of CPO that are delineated in Sec. 4.5.\\7\\ \\1... N-CSR is: ``Based on my knowledge, this report does not contain any untrue statement of a material... N-CSR is made available through EDGAR, but does not have to be provided to shareholders. Because...

  11. Late detection of cleft palate

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hanny, K H; de Vries, I A C; Haverkamp, S J; Oomen, K P Q; Penris, W M; Eijkemans, M J C; Kon, M; Mink van der Molen, A B; Breugem, C C


    Cleft palate only (CPO) is a common congenital malformation, and most patients are diagnosed within the first weeks after birth. Late diagnosis of the cleft palate (CP) could initially result in feeding and growth impairment, and subsequently speech and hearing problems later in life. The purpose of

  12. In-situ measurement of texture development rate in CaIrO3 post-perovskite (United States)

    Hunt, Simon A.; Walker, Andrew M.; Mariani, Elisabetta


    The rate of crystallographic preferred orientation (CPO) development during deformation of post-perovskite is crucial in interpreting seismic anisotropy in the lowermost mantle but the stability field of MgSiO3 post-perovskite prevents high-strain deformation experiments being performed on it. Therefore, to constrain the rate of CPO development in post-perovskite, we deformed CaIrO3, a low-pressure analogue of MgSiO3 post-perovskite, in simple shear at 3.2 GPa and 400 °C to a shear strain (γ) of 0.81. From X-ray diffraction patterns acquired during deformation, we invert for CPO as a function of strain. By comparing the CPO that develops with visco-plastic self-consistent (VPSC) models we constrain the critical resolved shear stresses (CRSS) of the non-primary slip-systems in CaIrO3 to be of order 6 times stronger than the primary [ 1 0 0 ] (0 1 0) slip system. This value is significantly less than has been assumed by previous studies and if applicable to MgSiO3 implies that seismic anisotropy in the D″ layer develops slower than has previously been assumed.

  13. The influence of nano-scale second-phase particles on deformation of fine grained calcite mylonites