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Sample records for chlorotic stunt virus

  1. Complete nucleotide sequence of watermelon chlorotic stunt virus originating from Oman.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Akhtar J; Akhtar, Sohail; Briddon, Rob W; Ammara, Um; Al-Matrooshi, Abdulrahman M; Mansoor, Shahid

    2012-07-01

    Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) is a bipartite begomovirus (genus Begomovirus, family Geminiviridae) that causes economic losses to cucurbits, particularly watermelon, across the Middle East and North Africa. Recently squash (Cucurbita moschata) grown in an experimental field in Oman was found to display symptoms such as leaf curling, yellowing and stunting, typical of a begomovirus infection. Sequence analysis of the virus isolated from squash showed 97.6-99.9% nucleotide sequence identity to previously described WmCSV isolates for the DNA A component and 93-98% identity for the DNA B component. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation to Nicotiana benthamiana resulted in the development of symptoms fifteen days post inoculation. This is the first bipartite begomovirus identified in Oman. Overall the Oman isolate showed the highest levels of sequence identity to a WmCSV isolate originating from Iran, which was confirmed by phylogenetic analysis. This suggests that WmCSV present in Oman has been introduced from Iran. The significance of this finding is discussed.

  2. Characterization of a synergistic interaction between two cucurbit-infecting begomoviruses: Squash leaf curl virus and Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sufrin-Ringwald, Tali; Lapidot, Moshe

    2011-02-01

    Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) and Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus (WmCSV) are cucurbit-infecting bipartite begomoviruses. Both viruses are found in the eastern Mediterranean basin but the effects of dual infection of both viruses on melon (Cucumis melo L.) have not been described. 'Arava' melon plants were inoculated in the greenhouse, using whiteflies, with either SLCV, WmCSV, or both. Control plants were exposed to nonviruliferous whiteflies or not exposed at all. Following inoculation, plants were transplanted to a 50-mesh insect-proof nethouse and grown until fruit maturity. The experiment was performed in two melon-growing seasons: spring, transplant in May and harvest in July; and summer, transplant in August and harvest in October. Following inoculation, SLCV-infected melon plants showed mild symptoms that disappeared with time, and there was no effect on plant height. WmCSV-infected plants developed disease symptoms that became more obvious with time, and plants were somewhat shorter than control plants in the spring but not in the summer. SLCV had no effect on yield, regardless of season. WmCSV had no statistically significant effect on yield in the spring but, in the summer, reduced yield by 22%, on average. Dual-inoculated plants showed a synergistic interaction between the two viruses. They developed disease symptoms that were more pronounced than WmCSV alone, with plants being shorter than control plants by 20 to 25% regardless of season. Moreover, the yield of dual-inoculated plants was reduced on average by 21% in the spring and 54% in the summer, and fruit appearance was adversely affected. Dual inoculation did not affect WmCSV DNA level but SLCV DNA level was increased several-fold by the presence of WmCSV.

  3. Molecular, serological and biological variation among chickpea chlorotic stunt virus isolates from five countries of North Africa and West Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abraham, A D; Menzel, W; Varrelmann, M; Vetten, H Josef

    2009-01-01

    Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV), a proposed new member of the genus Polerovirus (family Luteoviridae), has been reported only from Ethiopia. In attempts to determine the geographical distribution and variability of CpCSV, a pair of degenerate primers derived from conserved domains of the luteovirus coat protein (CP) gene was used for RT-PCR analysis of various legume samples originating from five countries and containing unidentified luteoviruses. Sequencing of the amplicons provided evidence for the occurrence of CpCSV also in Egypt, Morocco, Sudan, and Syria. Phylogenetic analysis of the CP nucleotide sequences of 18 samples from the five countries revealed the existence of two geographic groups of CpCSV isolates differing in CP sequences by 8-10%. Group I included isolates from Ethiopia and Sudan, while group II comprised those from Egypt, Morocco and Syria. For distinguishing these two groups, a simple RFLP test using HindIII and/or PvuII for cleavage of CP-gene-derived PCR products was developed. In ELISA and immunoelectron microscopy, however, isolates from these two groups could not be distinguished with rabbit antisera raised against a group-I isolate from Ethiopia (CpCSV-Eth) and a group-II isolate from Syria (CpCSV-Sy). Since none of the ten monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) that had been produced earlier against CpCSV-Eth reacted with group-II isolates, further MAbs were produced. Of the seven MAbs raised against CpCSV-Sy, two reacted only with CpCSV-Sy and two others with both CpCSV-Sy and -Eth. This indicated that there are group I- and II-specific and common (species-specific) epitopes on the CpCSV CP and that the corresponding MAbs are suitable for specific detection and discrimination of CpCSV isolates. Moreover, CpCSV-Sy (group II) caused more severe stunting and yellowing in faba bean than CpCSV-Eth (group I). In conclusion, our data indicate the existence of a geographically associated variation in the molecular, serological and presumably

  4. Genetic variability and evolutionary implications of RNA silencing suppressor genes in RNA1 of sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus isolates infecting sweetpotato and related wild species.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arthur K Tugume

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: The bipartite single-stranded RNA genome of Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV, genus Crinivirus; Closteroviridae encodes a Class 1 RNase III (RNase3, a putative hydrophobic protein (p7 and a 22-kDa protein (p22 from genes located in RNA1. RNase3 and p22 suppress RNA silencing, the basal antiviral defence mechanism in plants. RNase3 is sufficient to render sweetpotato (Ipomoea batatas virus-susceptible and predisposes it to development of severe diseases following infection with unrelated virus. The incidence, strains and gene content of SPCSV infecting wild plant species have not been studied. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Thirty SPCSV isolates were characterized from 10 wild Ipomoea species, Hewittia sublobata or Lepistemon owariensis (family Convolvulaceae in Uganda and compared with 34 local SPCSV isolates infecting sweetpotatoes. All isolates belonged to the East African (EA strain of SPCSV and contained RNase3 and p7, but p22 was not detected in six isolates. The three genes showed only limited genetic variability and the proteins were under purifying selection. SPCSV isolates lacking p22 synergized with Sweet potato feathery mottle virus (SPFMV, genus potyvirus; Potyviridae and caused severe symptoms in co-infected sweetpotato plants. One SPCSV isolate enhanced accumulation of SPFMV, but no severe symptoms developed. A new whitefly-transmitted virus (KML33b encoding an RNase3 homolog (<56% identity to SPCSV RNase3 able to suppresses sense-mediated RNA silencing was detected in I. sinensis. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: SPCSV isolates infecting wild species and sweetpotato in Uganda were genetically undifferentiated, suggesting inter-species transmission of SPCSV. Most isolates in Uganda contained p22, unlike SPCSV isolates characterized from other countries and continents. Enhanced accumulation of SPFMV and increased disease severity were found to be uncoupled phenotypic outcomes of RNase3-mediated viral synergism in

  5. Quantification and Localization of Watermelon Chlorotic Stunt Virus and Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus (Geminiviridae) in Populations of Bemisia tabaci (Hemiptera, Aleyrodidae) with Differential Virus Transmission Characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Mario Kollenberg; Stephan Winter; Monika Götz

    2014-01-01

    Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius) is one of the economically most damaging insects to crops in tropical and subtropical regions. Severe damage is caused by feeding and more seriously by transmitting viruses. Those of the genus begomovirus (Geminiviridae) cause the most significant crop diseases and are transmitted by B. tabaci in a persistent circulative mode, a process which is largely unknown. To analyze the translocation and to identify critical determinants for transmission, two populations of B...

  6. Characterization of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus and its assembly

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verduin, B.J.M.

    1978-01-01

    This thesis decribes the conditions for isolation of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), its ribonucleic acid (RNA) and the coat protein, the characterization of the virus and its constituents (chapter 3, 4 and 5) and the dissociation and assembly behaviour of the virus (chapter 6 and 7).The aim o

  7. Spectroscopy on the assembly of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kruese, J.

    1979-01-01

    This thesis describes the characterization of cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) by using spectroscopic techniques. In chapter one and two the main properties of CCMV, which belongs to the bromoviruses, are summarized. The application of spectroscopic techniques in the study of other viruses is re

  8. First genome analysis and molecular characterization of Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus Egyptian isolate infecting squash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fahmy, Inas Farouk; Taha, Omnia; El-Ashry, Abdel Nasser

    2015-06-01

    This study aims to identifying and characterizing some molecular properties of geminiviruses co-infection in squash field crop cultivated in Egypt. Squash crops observed to be heavily infected with several insect vectors, also severe chlorosis and stunting was observed. Electron microscopic analysis has revealed geminate capsid particles which indicate the infection of Geminiviruses, especially SqLCV which represent an economic problem to squash filed crop in Egypt. We have investigated possible mixed infections with different plant viruses associated with chlorotic stunt diseases and or other genus groups of geminiviruses. The main objective of this study is to investigate the recombination events, possible recombinants and variants among these genera in the same family differing in vector transmission. This is the first report of the molecular characterization, phylogenetic analysis and putative recombination events of the full length genome of the Chickpea Chlorotic Dwarf Mastrevirus in Egypt. And the first report of co-infection with another begomovirus infecting squash plants. A full length clone of both viruses were isolated and characterized at the molecular level. The complete nucleotide sequence of DNA-A was determined (2,572 bp) and submitted to the genbank under accession no. KF692356. The isolate from Egypt has about 97.8 % homology with the Chickpea chlorotic dwarf virus (CpCDV) isolate from Syria DNA-A isolate FR687959, a 83.2 % homology with the Sudan isolate AM933134 and a 82.7 % homology with Pakistan isolate FR687960. To best of our knowledge this is the first report of complete genome of CpCDV that infect squash plants in Egypt and worldwide.

  9. Analysis of gene functions in Maize chlorotic mottle virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Scheets, Kay

    2016-08-15

    Gene functions of strains of Maize chlorotic mottle virus, which comprises the monotypic genus Machlomovirus, have not been previously identified. In this study mutagenesis of the seven genes encoded in maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) showed that the genes with positional and sequence similarity to their homologs in viruses of related tombusvirid genera had similar functions. p50 and its readthrough protein p111 are the only proteins required for replication in maize protoplasts, and they function at a low level in trans. Two movement proteins, p7a and p7b, and coat protein, encoded on subgenomic RNA1, are required for cell-to-cell movement in maize, and p7a and p7b function in trans. A unique protein, p31, expressed as a readthrough extension of p7a, is required for efficient systemic infection. The 5' proximal MCMV gene encodes a unique 32kDa protein that is not required for replication or movement. Transcripts lacking p32 expression accumulate to about 1/3 the level of wild type transcripts in protoplasts and produce delayed, mild infections in maize plants. Additional studies on p32, p31 and the unique amino-terminal region of p50 are needed to further characterize the life cycle of this unique tombusvirid. PMID:27242072

  10. Yellowing disease in zucchini squash produced by mixed infections of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus and Cucumber vein yellowing virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gil-Salas, Francisco M; Peters, Jeff; Boonham, Neil; Cuadrado, Isabel M; Janssen, Dirk

    2011-11-01

    Zucchini squash is host to Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), a member of the genus Crinivirus, and Cucumber vein yellowing virus (CVYV), a member of the genus Ipomovirus, both transmitted by the whitefly Bemisia tabaci. Field observations suggest the appearance of new symptoms observed on leaves of zucchini squash crops when both viruses were present. When infected during controlled experiments with CYSDV only, zucchini plants showed no obvious symptoms and the virus titer decreased between 15 and 45 days postinoculation (dpi), after which it was no longer detected. CVYV caused inconspicuous symptoms restricted to vein clearing on some of the apical leaves and the virus accumulated progressively between 15 and 60 dpi. Similar accumulations of virus followed single inoculations with the potyvirus Zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) and plants showed severe stunting, leaf deformation, and mosaic yellowing. However, in mixed infections with CYSDV and CVYV, intermediate leaves showed chlorotic mottling which evolved later to rolling, brittleness, and complete yellowing of the leaf lamina, with exception of the veins. No consistent alteration of CVYV accumulation was detected but the amounts of CYSDV increased ≈100-fold and remained detectable at 60 dpi. Such synergistic effects on the titer of the crinivirus and symptom expression were not observed when co-infected with ZYMV.

  11. First report of Tomato chlorotic spot virus on Annual Vinca (Catharanthus roseus) in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus was identified in the ornamental crop Catharanthus roseus (commonly known as vinca) in south Florida, the first report of this virus naturally infecting this species. Genetic diversity of the virus was characterized. This report provides an overview of this emerging vir...

  12. The Nucleotide Sequence of Blackberry chlorotic ringspot and Strawberry necrotic shock viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Small fruit crops were thought to be infected with distinct stains of Tobacco streak virus (TSV) for more than 50 years. Two novel ilarviruses, Blackberry chlorotic ringspot virus (BCRV) and Strawberry necrotic shock virus (SNSV) were found to infect small fruit crops. Using TSV specific molecular ...

  13. Cleavage of Maize chlorotic dwarf virus R78 protein by the viral 3C protease

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV) is a member of the genus Waikavirus and encodes a 389 kDa polyprotein from its 11784 nt genomic RNA. Like many polyprotein-encoding viruses, MCDV contains a 3C-like virus protease that is presumably responsible for maturation cleavages of the polyprotein. However,...

  14. First Report of the Natural Occurrence of Tomato chlorotic spot virus in Peanuts in Haiti

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomato chlorotic spot virus (TCSV) was identified in peanut in Haiti. This is the first report of TCSV naturally infecting peanut. Genetic diversity of TCSV was characterized. This report provides an overview of this emerging virus for growers, extension workers, crop consultants and research and...

  15. Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) infecting Lycopersicon esculentum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hafez, El Sayed E; Saber, Ghada A; Fattouh, Faiza A

    2010-01-01

    Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) was detected in tomato crop (Lycopersicon esculentum) in Egypt with characteristic mosaic leaf deformation, stunting, and bushy growth symptoms. TBSV infection was confirmed serologically by ELISA and calculated incidence was 25.5%. Basic physicochemical properties of a purified TBSV Egh isolate were identical to known properties of tombusviruses of isometric 30-nm diameter particles, 41-kDa coat protein and the genome of approximately 4800 nt. This is the first TBSV isolate reported in Egypt. Cloning and partial sequencing of the isolate showed that it is more closely related to TBSV-P and TBSV-Ch than TBSV-Nf and TBSV-S strains of the virus. However, it is distinct from the above strains and could be a new strain of the virus which further confirms the genetic diversity of tombusviruses. PMID:21138066

  16. Complete genome sequence of yam chlorotic necrotic mosaic virus from Dioscorea parviflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Pengyuan; Peng, Jiejun; Guo, Huachun; Chen, Jianping; Chen, Suiyun; Wang, Jianguang

    2016-06-01

    The complete genome sequence of yam chlorotic necrotic mosaic virus (YCNMV) was determined. It is a monopartite ssRNA 8208 nucleotides in length (excluding the poly(A) tail) and encoding a polyprotein of 2622 amino acids. Sequence analysis showed that the P1 region and some conserved motifs, such as the typical potyvirus aphid-transmission motifs DAG, PTK and KITC, are absent. Phylogenetic analysis based on the complete polyprotein sequences of YCNMV and selected members of the family Potyviridae clearly showed that this virus should be assigned to the genus Macluravirus and suggest that YCNMV is a new member of the genus Macluravirus. PMID:26973231

  17. Preliminary X-ray data analysis of crystalline hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family. Authentic virus harvested from infected host kenaf leaves was purified and virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions. One of the crystals diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) is a positive-sense monopartite single-stranded RNA virus that belongs to the Carmovirus genus of the Tombusviridae family, which includes carnation mottle virus (CarMV). The HCRSV virion has a 30 nm diameter icosahedral capsid with T = 3 quasi-symmetry containing 180 copies of a 38 kDa coat protein (CP) and encapsidates a full-length 3.9 kb genomic RNA. Authentic virus was harvested from infected host kenaf leaves and was purified by saturated ammonium sulfate precipitation, sucrose density-gradient centrifugation and anion-exchange chromatography. Virus crystals were grown in multiple conditions; one of the crystals diffracted to 3.2 Å resolution and allowed the collection of a partial data set. The crystal belonged to space group R32, with unit-cell parameters a = b = 336.4, c = 798.5 Å. Packing considerations and rotation-function analysis determined that there were three particles per unit cell, all of which have the same orientation and fixed positions, and resulted in tenfold noncrystallography symmetry for real-space averaging. The crystals used for the structure determination of southern bean mosaic virus (SBMV) have nearly identical characteristics. Together, these findings will greatly aid the high-resolution structure determination of HCRSV

  18. Molecular variability analyses of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus capsid protein

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    T Rana; V Chandel; Y Kumar; R Ram; V Hallan; A A Zaidi

    2010-12-01

    The complete sequences of the coat protein (CP) gene of 26 isolates of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) from India were determined. The isolates were obtained from various pome (apple, pear and quince) and stone (plum, peach, apricot, almond and wild Himalayan cherry) fruit trees. Other previously characterized ACLSV isolates and Trichoviruses were used for comparative analysis. Indian ACLSV isolates among themselves and with isolates from elsewhere in the world shared 91–100% and 70–98% sequence identities at the amino acid and nucleotide levels, respectively. The highest degree of variability was observed in the middle portion with 9 amino acid substitutions in contrast to the N-terminal and C-terminal ends, which were maximally conserved with only 4 amino acid substitutions. In phylogenetic analysis no reasonable correlation between host species and/or geographic origin of the isolates was observed. Alignment with capsid protein genes of other Trichoviruses revealed the TaTao ACLSV peach isolate to be phylogenetically closest to Peach mosaic virus, Apricot pseudo chlorotic leaf spot virus and Cherry mottle leaf virus. Recombination analysis (RDP3 ver.2.6) done for all the available ACLSV complete CP sequences of the world and Indian isolates indicate no significant evidence of recombination. However, one recombination event among Indian ACLSV-CP isolates was detected. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report of complete CP sequence variability study from India and also the first evidence of homologous recombination in ACLSV.

  19. Biology and Genetics of Lettuce Dieback Disease and Lettuce Necrotic Stunt Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lettuce dieback, a new soil-borne disease of lettuce, emerged in the 1990s to cause severe losses for lettuce production in the western United States. The disease is caused by Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) and the recently described tombusvirus, Lettuce necrotic stunt virus (LNSV). The complete ge...

  20. Clematis Chlorotic Mottle Virus, a novel virus occurring in Clematis in the USA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Clematis is a genus of temperate climbing vines that are popular as ornamentals. Samples from domestic and international sources showing symptoms of yellow mottling and veining, chlorotic ring spots, line pattern mosaics, and in some cases flower distortion and discoloration were received at several...

  1. Monoclonal antibody-based serological methods for maize chlorotic mottle virus detection in China*

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jian-xiang; Wang, Qiang; Liu, Huan; Qian, Ya-juan; Xie, Yan; Zhou, Xue-ping

    2013-01-01

    Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) infects maize plants and causes significant losses in corn production worldwide. In this study, purified MCMV particles were used as the immunogen to produce monoclonal antibodies (MAbs) and polyclonal antibodies (PAbs). Four murine MAbs (4B8, 8C11, 6F4, and 9G1) against MCMV were obtained through the hybridoma technology. The triple antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (TAS-ELISA), dot-immunobinding assay (DIBA), and immunocapture reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (IC-RT-PCR) using the MAb 4B8 were then developed for sensitive, specific, and rapid detection of MCMV in fields. MCMV could be detected in infected leaf crude extracts at dilutions of 1:327 680, 1:64 000, and 1:3 276 800 (w/v, g/ml) by TAS-ELISA, DIBA, and IC-RT-PCR, respectively. One hundred and sixty-one maize field samples showing virus-like symptoms and sixty-nine symptomless maize field samples from ten different provinces of China were collected and screened for the presence of MCMV using the established serological methods. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the full length CP genes and Chinese MCMV isolates formed one branch with Thailand isolates. The detection results demonstrated that MCMV is one of most prevalent viruses infecting maize in the Yunnan and Sichuan provinces of China. PMID:23825140

  2. Genome Sequences of Three Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus Isolates from Hawthorns in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Wei; Zheng, Wenyan; Wang, Mei; Li, Xiaohong; Ma, Yue; Dai, Hongyan

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequences of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) isolates from three accessions of hawthorns (Crataegus pinnatifida) grown at Shenyang Agricultural University were determined using Illumina RNA-seq. To confirm the assembly data from the de novo sequencing, two ACLSV genomic sequences (SY01 and SY02) were sequenced using the Sanger method. The SY01 and SY02 sequences obtained with the Sanger method showed 99.5% and 99.7% nucleotide identity with the transcriptome data, respectively. The genome sequences of the hawthorn isolates SY01, SY02 and SY03 (GenBank accession nos. KM207212, KU870524 and KU870525, respectively) consisted of 7,543, 7,561 and 7,545 nucleotides, respectively, excluding poly-adenylated tails. Sequence analysis revealed that these hawthorn isolates shared an overall nucleotide identity of 82.8-92.1% and showed the highest identity of 90.3% for isolate YH (GenBank accession no. KC935955) from pear and the lowest identity of 67.7% for isolate TaTao5 (GenBank accession no. EU223295) from peach. Hawthorn isolate sequences were similar to those of 'B6 type' ACLSV. The relationship between ACLSV isolates largely depends upon the host species. This represents the first comparative study of the genome sequences of ACLSV isolates from hawthorns. PMID:27519059

  3. Genome Sequences of Three Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus Isolates from Hawthorns in China

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Wenyan; Wang, Mei; Li, Xiaohong; Ma, Yue

    2016-01-01

    The genome sequences of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) isolates from three accessions of hawthorns (Crataegus pinnatifida) grown at Shenyang Agricultural University were determined using Illumina RNA-seq. To confirm the assembly data from the de novo sequencing, two ACLSV genomic sequences (SY01 and SY02) were sequenced using the Sanger method. The SY01 and SY02 sequences obtained with the Sanger method showed 99.5% and 99.7% nucleotide identity with the transcriptome data, respectively. The genome sequences of the hawthorn isolates SY01, SY02 and SY03 (GenBank accession nos. KM207212, KU870524 and KU870525, respectively) consisted of 7,543, 7,561 and 7,545 nucleotides, respectively, excluding poly-adenylated tails. Sequence analysis revealed that these hawthorn isolates shared an overall nucleotide identity of 82.8–92.1% and showed the highest identity of 90.3% for isolate YH (GenBank accession no. KC935955) from pear and the lowest identity of 67.7% for isolate TaTao5 (GenBank accession no. EU223295) from peach. Hawthorn isolate sequences were similar to those of ‘B6 type’ ACLSV. The relationship between ACLSV isolates largely depends upon the host species. This represents the first comparative study of the genome sequences of ACLSV isolates from hawthorns. PMID:27519059

  4. Molecular identification of Cucurbit chlorotic yellow virus in Hainan and Henan province%海南省和河南省发生甜瓜褪绿黄化病的分子鉴定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘珊珊; 彭斌; 吴会杰; 柳唐镜; 孔祥义; 施艳; 古勤生

    2013-01-01

    [Objective] To investigate the pathogenic virus causing muskmelon yellowing in Hainan and Henan province, [Methods]the total RNA was extracted from samples collected from infected plants in Sanya, Hainan province and Zhengzhou, Henan province and the coat protein genes(cp) were amplified using Cucurbit cholorotic yellow virus (CCYV) specific primers and cloned. A phylogenetic tree was constructed based on the nucleotide sequences of those cp genes and all the sequences of cp genes within same species and same genus submitted in the GenBank. [Results]The results showed that the fragments of about 880 bp in size produced by RT-PCR were as expected. The phylogenetic tree showed that the samples belonged to the same branch with Cucurbit chlorotic yellow virus whereas Cucuibit yellow stunting disorder virus(CYSDV) and Barley yellow dwarf virus (BPYV) were in other branches. [Conclusions] Our investigation suggested that the yellowing of muskmelon in Hainan and Henan province was caused by Cucurbit cholorotic yellow virus.%[目的]为了探明引起海南省和河南省甜瓜褪绿黄化的病因,[方法]提取从海南三亚和河南郑州采集的甜瓜叶片的RNA,用CCYV特异性引物进行外壳蛋白基因的克隆、测序,并与GenBank中同属或同种病毒的cp基因核苷酸序列构建系统进化树.[结果]结果显示,RT-PCR产物经琼脂糖凝胶电泳,所得条带在880 bp左右,与预期的一致;构建cp基因的系统进化树发现,样品与瓜类褪绿黄化病毒(Cucurbit chlorotic yellows virus,CCYV)的亲缘关系很近,属于同一个分枝,而与该病毒同属不同种的南瓜黄矮失调病毒(Cuc urb it yellow stunting disorder virus,CYSDV)和大麦黄矮病毒(Barley yellow dwarf virus,BYDV)的亲缘关系较远,属于不同的分枝.[结论]证实海南省和河南省甜瓜褪绿黄化病是由瓜类褪绿黄化病毒引起.

  5. Epidemiology of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus in the US Southwest and development of virus resistant melon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), emerged in the Southwest USA in 2006, where it is transmitted by the MEAM1 cryptic species of Bemisia tabaci. The virus results in late-season infection of spring melon crops with limited economic impact; however, all summer and fall cucurbits become ...

  6. Phylogenetic analysis of Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus from Guatemala: Another emergent species in the Squash leaf curl virus clade

    KAUST Repository

    Brown, J.K.

    2011-06-01

    The genome of a new bipartite begomovirus Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus from Guatemala (MCLCuV-GT) was cloned and the genome sequence was determined. The virus causes distinct symptoms on melons that were not previously observed in melon crops in Guatemala or elsewhere. Phylogenetic analysis of MCLCuV-GT and begomoviruses infecting cucurbits and other host plant species indicated that its closest relative was MCLCuV from Costa Rica (MCLCuV-CR). The DNA-A components of two isolates shared 88.8% nucleotide identity, making them strains of the same species. Further, both MCLCuV-GT and MCLCuV-CR grouped with other Western Hemisphere cucurbit-infecting species in the SLCV-clade making them the most southerly cucurbit-infecting members of the clade to date. Although the common region of the cognate components of MCLCuV-GT and MCLCuV-CR, shared similar to 96.3% nucleotide identity. While DNA-A and DNA-B components of MCLCuV-GT were less than 86% nucleotide identity with the respective DNAA and DNA-B common regions of MCLCuV-CR. The late viral genes of the two strains shared the least nt identity (<88%) while their early genes shared the highest nt identity (>90%). The collective evidence suggests that these two strains of MCLCuV are evolutionarily divergent owing in part to recombination, but also due to the accumulation of a substantial number of mutations. In addition they are differentially host-adapted, as has been documented for other cucurbit-infecting, bean-adapted, species in the SLCV clade. (C) 2011 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  7. Insight into the three-dimensional structure of maize chlorotic mottle virus revealed by Cryo-EM single particle analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chun-Yan; Zhang, Qin-Fen; Gao, Yuan-Zhu; Zhou, Xue-Ping; Ji, Gang; Huang, Xiao-Jun; Hong, Jian; Zhang, Chuan-Xi

    2015-11-01

    Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) is the only member of the Machlomovirus genus in the family Tombusviridae. Here, we obtained the Cryo-EM structure of MCMV by single particle analysis with most local resolution at approximately 4 Å. The Cα backbone was built based on residues with bulky side chains. The resolved C-terminus of the capsid protein subunit and obvious openings at the 2-fold axis demonstrated the compactness of the asymmetric unit, which indicates an important role in the stability of MCMV. The Asp116 residue from each subunit around the 5-fold and 3-fold axes contributed to the negative charges in the centers of the pentamers and hexamers, which might serve as a solid barrier against the leakage of genomic RNA. Finally, the loops most exposed on the surface were analyzed and are proposed to be potential functional sites related to MCMV transmission.

  8. Chlorotic mottle of bean (Phaseolus vulgaris L.)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jayasinghe, W.U.

    1982-01-01

    For the past years there have been outbreaks of a disease of bean ( Phaseolus vulgaris L.) in Colombia called bean chlorotic mottle. The etiology of bean chlorotic mottle was not known, but the disease was generally believed to be incited by the same whitefly-transmitted virus that causes variegatio

  9. Structural transitions and energy landscape for Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus capsid mechanics from nanomanipulation in vitro and in silico

    CERN Document Server

    Kononova, Olga; Brasch, Melanie; Cornelissen, Jeroen; Dima, Ruxandra I; Marx, Kenneth A; Wuite, Gijs J L; Roos, Wouter H; Barsegov, Valeri

    2015-01-01

    Physical properties of capsids of plant and animal viruses are important factors in capsid self-assembly, survival of viruses in the extracellular environment, and their cell infectivity. Virus shells can have applications as nanocontainers and delivery vehicles in biotechnology and medicine. Combined AFM experiments and computational modeling on sub-second timescales of the indentation nanomechanics of Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV) capsid show that the capsid's physical properties are dynamic and local characteristics of the structure, which depend on the magnitude and geometry of mechanical input. Surprisingly, under large deformations the CCMV capsid transitions to the collapsed state without substantial local structural alterations. The enthalpy change in this deformation state dH = 11.5 - 12.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to large-amplitude out-of-plane excitations, which contribute to the capsid bending, and the entropy change TdS = 5.1 - 5.8 MJ/mol is mostly due to coherent in-plane rearrangements of pr...

  10. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE STUDY ON THE SPREAD OF APPLE CHLOROTIC LEAF SPOT VIRUS (ACLSV) IN DIFFERENT FRUIT TREE SPECIES IN KYUSTENDIL REGION OF BULGARIA

    OpenAIRE

    Aneliya BORISOVA

    2005-01-01

    The survey was carried out mostly in one of the main fruit tree growing regions of Bulgaria - Kyustendil, during the period of 2004-2005. A total of 632 trees corresponding to 50 apple, 27 pear, 19 plum, 4 peach, 9 sweet cherry and 4 sour cherry cultivars and 21 apricot elites were tested for the presence of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and six other viruses by ELISA. Samples for analyses were collected from different organs of plants: flowers, leaves or phloem tissues. In the pres...

  11. Identification of a single-stranded DNA virus associated with citrus chlorotic dwarf disease, a new member in the family Geminiviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loconsole, Giuliana; Saldarelli, Pasquale; Doddapaneni, Harshavardhan; Savino, Vito; Martelli, Giovanni P; Saponari, Maria

    2012-10-10

    In the attempt to identify the causal agent of Citrus chlorotic dwarf disease (CCDD), a virus-like disorder of citrus, the small RNA fraction and total DNA from symptomatic citrus plants were subjected to high-throughput sequencing. DNA fragments deriving from an apparently new geminivirus-like agent were found and assembled by NGS to re-construct the entire viral genome. The newly identified virus has a circular single-stranded DNA genome comprising five open reading frames (ORFs) with sequence homologies with those encoded by geminiviruses. PCR and qPCR assays were successfully used for determining its presence in the CCDD-affected plants obtained by graft propagation. The larger genome size (3.64 vs. 2.5-3.0 kb) and a number of differences in its structural organization, identified this virus as a highly divergent member of the family Geminiviridae, to which the provisional name of Citrus chlorotic dwarf-associated virus (CCDaV) is assigned.

  12. Can the RNA of the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus be released through a channel by means of free diffusion? A test in silico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isea, Raul; Aponte, Carlos; Cipriani, Roberto

    2004-02-01

    Cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), a plant virus which is member of the Bromoviridae family, is used as a model for the diffusion of a random, short, single stranded RNA, [5'-R(PGpGpApCpUpUpCpGpGpUpCpC)-3')], through a channel on the pseudo-three-fold axis using molecular dynamic simulations. This proposition is based the fact that CCMV undergoes a dynamic structural transition as a response to changes of pH, temperature and ionic strength. Results indicate that the RNA looses its secondary structure and moves into the capside channel by free diffusion. These results are congruent with the hypothesis suggesting that the CCMV capside does not have to dissolve in order to release the RNA into the host. PMID:14962592

  13. First report of Pelargonium zonate spot virus from tomato in the United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelargonium zonate spot virus (PZSV) was first isolated from tomato in southern Italy in 1982, and later was also reported from Spain and France. Infected tomato plants showed stunting, malformation, yellow rings and line patterns on the leaves, and concentric chlorotic ringspots on the stems. In Ju...

  14. Melon Chlorotic Leaf Curl Virus: Characterization and Differential Reassortment with Closest Relatives Reveal Adaptive Virulence in the Squash Leaf Curl Virus Clade and Host Shifting by the Host-Restricted Bean Calico Mosaic Virus▿

    OpenAIRE

    Idris, A. M.; Mills-Lujan, K.; Martin, K; Brown, J K

    2007-01-01

    The genome components of the Melon chlorotic leaf curl virus (MCLCuV) were cloned from symptomatic cantaloupe leaves collected in Guatemala during 2002. The MCLCuV DNA-A and DNA-B components shared their closest nucleotide identities among begomoviruses, at ∼90 and 81%, respectively, with a papaya isolate of MCLCuV from Costa Rica. The closest relatives at the species level were other members of the Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) clade, which is endemic in the southwestern United States and Me...

  15. P19 of Tomato Bushy Stunt Virus Suppresses RNA Silencing Induced by Short Hairpin RNA in Mammal Cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei-xian CHEN; Juan CHEN; Zhen-zhen ZHANG; Ai-long HUANG

    2007-01-01

    To counteract the immune system in parasitic hosts, some viruses encode proteins to suppress the RNA interference (RNAi) effect. In this report, we established two RNAi systems to be easily observed with strong and obvious effect. The function of the P19 of tomato bushy stunt virus, which suppresses RNAi in mammal cells, was then studied using these two systems. Short hairpin RNAs targeting green fluorescence protein (pshRNA-GFP) and firefly luciferase (pshRNA-luc) were designed and inserted into a eukaryotic transcriptional vector pTZU6+1, respectively. The shRNA expressing vectors were co-transfected with plasmids containing the target gene with or without P19. The GFP expression level was assayed by fluorescence microscopy, Western blotting and RT-PCR. The luciferase expression level was analyzed by the dual-luciferase assay system. pshRNA designed in this study down-regulated the target gene specifically and efficiently, with a decrease of expression of both genes of about 70%, respectively. When P19 was introduced into the RNAi systems, the expression of both GFP and the luciferase were mostly recovered compared with the control groups. The RNAi systems of GFP and luciferase were constructed successfully, demonstrating that P19 of tomato bushy stunt virus has the ability to counteract the RNAi effect induced by shRNA in mammal cells.

  16. [Identification of Host Factors Interacting with the Movement Protein of Apple Chlorotic Leaf Spot Virus by Yeast Two-Hybrid System].

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Yikun; Zhong, Min; Zhang, Yu; Wang, Yanan; Cao, Keqiang

    2015-03-01

    In order to identify host factors which interact with the movement protein (MP) of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), ACLSV MP was cloned into the bait vector pGBKT7 and used to screen a cDNA library of Malus sylvestris cv. R12740-7A, which had previously been constructed by yeast two-hybrid sequencing transformation. The protein functions of the identified host factors were determined according to their gene annotations in GenBank. The result showed that the bait plasmid pGBKT7-MP showed no virulence or self-activating effect on yeast strain Y2H Gold. Sixty-nine interactor proteins were identified, which were divided into the following 10 classes according to their described functions: hydrolases; pathogenesis-related proteins; DNA binding proteins; phosphatases; ligases; proteins with catalytic activity; phenylalanine ammonialyases; peroxidases; NAD binding proteins; and proteins of unknown function. Bioinformatic analysis of gene homology suggested that phosphatases, pathogenesis-related proteins and glyceraldehyde-3-phosphate dehydrogenase A may play an important role in the interaction between virus and host. This study may provide a theoretical basis for the further study of viral pathogenesis and virus-host interaction mechanisms.

  17. PRELIMINARY RESULTS OF THE STUDY ON THE SPREAD OF APPLE CHLOROTIC LEAF SPOT VIRUS (ACLSV IN DIFFERENT FRUIT TREE SPECIES IN KYUSTENDIL REGION OF BULGARIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aneliya BORISOVA

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available The survey was carried out mostly in one of the main fruit tree growing regions of Bulgaria - Kyustendil, during the period of 2004-2005. A total of 632 trees corresponding to 50 apple, 27 pear, 19 plum, 4 peach, 9 sweet cherry and 4 sour cherry cultivars and 21 apricot elites were tested for the presence of Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV and six other viruses by ELISA. Samples for analyses were collected from different organs of plants: flowers, leaves or phloem tissues. In the present research, ACLSV was not found in pear, plum, apricot and sour cherry. The highest infection rate of the virus among the infected fruit tree species was in apple (73 % followed by sweet cherry (13.3 % and peach (11.76 %. The frequency of mixed infection was 43.2 % in the infected apple, 33.4 % in sweet cherry and 12.5 % in peach trees. The highest concentrations of ACLSV, measured by ELISA, were observed in naturally grown flower petals of apple and sweet cherry trees in May.

  18. Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus coat protein is essential for cell-to-cell and long-distance movement but not for viral RNA replication.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shengniao Niu

    Full Text Available Hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV is a member of the genus Carmovirus in the family Tombusviridae. In order to study its coat protein (CP functions on virus replication and movement in kenaf (Hibiscus cannabinus L., two HCRSV mutants, designated as p2590 (A to G in which the first start codon ATG was replaced with GTG and p2776 (C to G in which proline 63 was replaced with alanine, were constructed. In vitro transcripts of p2590 (A to G were able to replicate to a similar level as wild type without CP expression in kenaf protoplasts. However, its cell-to-cell movement was not detected in the inoculated kenaf cotyledons. Structurally the proline 63 in subunit C acts as a kink for β-annulus formation during virion assembly. Progeny of transcripts derived from p2776 (C to G was able to move from cell-to-cell in inoculated cotyledons but its long-distance movement was not detected. Virions were not observed in partially purified mutant virus samples isolated from 2776 (C to G inoculated cotyledons. Removal of the N-terminal 77 amino acids of HCRSV CP by trypsin digestion of purified wild type HCRSV virions resulted in only T = 1 empty virus-like particles. Taken together, HCRSV CP is dispensable for viral RNA replication but essential for cell-to-cell movement, and virion is required for the virus systemic movement. The proline 63 is crucial for HCRSV virion assembly in kenaf plants and the N-terminal 77 amino acids including the β-annulus domain is required in T = 3 assembly in vitro.

  19. Strategies to facilitate the development of uncloned or cloned infectious full-length viral cDNAs: Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus as a case study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marais Armelle

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Approaches to simplify and streamline the construction of full-length infectious cDNA clones (FL-cDNAs are needed. Among desirable improvements are the ability to use total nucleic acids (TNA extracts from infected hosts (to bypass viral purification limitations for the direct one-step amplification of large FL-cDNAs, the possibility to inoculate plants with uncloned FL-cDNAs and the simplified cloning of these large molecules. Results Using the 7.55 kb genome of Apple chlorotic leaf spot trichovirus (ACLSV approaches allowing the rapid generation from TNA extracts of FL-cDNAs under the control of the T7 promoter and the successful inoculation of plants using in vitro transcripts obtained from these uncloned amplification products have been developed. We also show that the yeast homologous recombination system permits efficient cloning of FL-cDNAs and the simultaneous one-step tailoring of a ternary Yeast-Escherichia coli-Agrobacterium tumefaciens shuttle vector allowing efficient inoculation of both herbaceous and woody host plants by agroinfiltration. Conclusions The fast and efficient strategies described here should have broad applications, in particular for the study of "difficult" plant viruses, such as those infecting woody hosts, and potentially for other, non plant-infecting viral agents.

  20. Salicylic Acid Inhibits the Replication of Tomato bushy stunt virus by Directly Targeting a Host Component in the Replication Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Miaoying; Sasvari, Zsuzsanna; Gonzalez, Paulina Alatriste; Friso, Giulia; Rowland, Elden; Liu, Xiao-Min; van Wijk, Klaas J; Nagy, Peter D; Klessig, Daniel F

    2015-04-01

    Although the plant hormone salicylic acid (SA) plays a central role in signaling resistance to viral infection, the underlying mechanisms are only partially understood. Identification and characterization of SA's direct targets have been shown to be an effective strategy for dissecting the complex SA-mediated defense signaling network. In search of additional SA targets, we previously developed two sensitive approaches that utilize SA analogs in conjunction with either a photoaffinity labeling technique or surface plasmon resonance-based technology to identify and evaluate candidate SA-binding proteins (SABPs) from Arabidopsis. Using these approaches, we have now identified several members of the Arabidopsis glyceraldehyde 3-phosphate dehydrogenase (GAPDH) protein family, including two chloroplast-localized and two cytosolic isoforms, as SABPs. Cytosolic GAPDH is a well-known glycolytic enzyme; it also is an important host factor involved in the replication of Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), a single-stranded RNA virus. Using a yeast cell-free extract, an in vivo yeast replication system, and plant protoplasts, we demonstrate that SA inhibits TBSV replication. SA does so by inhibiting the binding of cytosolic GAPDH to the negative (-)RNA strand of TBSV. Thus, this study reveals a novel molecular mechanism through which SA regulates virus replication. PMID:25584724

  1. Complete Nucleotide Sequence and Genome Organization of Hibiscus Chlorotic Ringspot Virus, a New Member of the Genus Carmovirus: Evidence for the Presence and Expression of Two Novel Open Reading Frames

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Mei; Koh, Dora Chin-Yen; Weng, Li-Juan; Chang, Min-Li; Yap, Yun-Kiam; Zhang, Lee; Wong, Sek-Man

    2000-01-01

    The complete nucleotide sequence of hibiscus chlorotic ringspot virus (HCRSV) was determined. The genomic RNA (gRNA) is 3,911 nucleotides long and has the potential to encode seven viral proteins in the order of 28 (p28), 23 (p23), 81 (p81), 8 (p8), 9 (p9), 38 (p38), and 25 (p25) kDa. Excluding two unique open reading frames (ORFs) encoding p23 and p25, the ORFs encode proteins with high amino acid similarity to those of carmoviruses. In addition to gRNA, two 3′-coterminated subgenomic RNA (s...

  2. New Experimental Hosts of Tobacco streak virus and Absence of True Seed Transmission in Leguminous Hosts

    OpenAIRE

    Vemana, K.; Jain, R K

    2010-01-01

    Of 70 plant species tested, 50 species were susceptible to Tobacco streak virus (TSV) on sap inoculation. Both localized (necrotic and chlorotic spots) and systemic (necrotic spots, axillary shoot proliferation, stunting, total necrosis and wilt) symptoms are observed by majority of plant species. Eleven new experimental hosts were identified viz., Amaranthus blitum var. oleracea (Chaulai sag), Celosia cristata (Cocks comb), Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis (Palak/Indian spinach), Calendula off...

  3. Tomato bushy stunt virus and DI RNAs as a model for studying mechanisms of RNA virus replication, pathogenicity and recombination. Final technical report for 1994--1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morris, T.J. [Univ. of Nebraska, Lincoln, NE (United States). School of Biological Sciences; Jackson, A.O. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States). Dept. of Plant Biology

    1997-12-31

    Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV) is a small icosahedral virus with a very broad host-range. The symptoms of systemic infection range from mild mosaic to severe necrosis that often results in death. The genome of TBSV is composed of a single plus stranded RNA molecule with five genes. Two 5 inch genes are translated from the viral RNA, and the remaining three are translated from two subgenomic RNAs. Prior to the DOE supported studies, TBSV gene function had been assigned solely on the basis of sequence similarity with other virus genes of known function. The two 5 inch proximal genes (p33 and p92) were thought to be involved in viral replication, the middle gene encoded the capsid protein (p41), but no clear function was assigned to two nested 3 inch genes (p19 and p22), although it was suggested that at least one could be involved in movement. This research has determined the roles of each of the viral genes in the infection process, and the authors have obtained considerable genetic information pertinent to the contributions of the coat protein and the nested genes to the disease phenotypes observed in several host plants. They have also identified another genetic element with a short open reading frame in the 3 inch-noncoding region of the genome that provides a host-dependent replication function.

  4. 玉米褪绿斑驳病毒实时荧光RT-PCR检测方法研究%Detection of Maize chlorotic mottle virus by real-time fluorescent RT-PCR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    闻伟刚; 张建成; 崔俊霞; 张颖

    2011-01-01

    Maize chlorotic mottle virus ( MCMV) is a quarantine pests issued by Chinese government. In this study, accord to the conservative sequences of the coat protein genes of different MCMV isolates, a real - time fluorescent RT - PCR method was established based on specific primers and TaqMan probe. Specific studies have shown that for the two MCMV strains from different sources, a typical amplification curve can be obtained, and not for the Wheat streak mosaic virus, Maize rough dwarf virus and Maize dwarf mosaic virus. Sensitivity comparison found that the detection limit can reach 10 ~5 dilution, which is 100 times higher than the regular RT - PCR method. Thus, the real - time fluorescent RT - PCR is a rapid, sensitive and highly specific method for the detection of MCMV.%玉米褪绿斑驳病毒(Maize chlorotic mottle virus,MCMV)是我国对外公布的检疫性有害生物.本研究根据该病毒外壳蛋白基因的保守序列,设计得到特异性引物及Taqman荧光探针,建立了MCMV的实时荧光RT-PCR方法,并对其灵敏度与特异性进行了研究.该方法针对2个不同来源的毒株均能得到典型扩增曲线,而没有从小麦线条花叶病毒、玉米粗缩病毒和玉米矮花叶病毒的RNA得到扩增曲线,表明引物与荧光探针具有良好的特异性.针对玉米褪绿斑驳病毒RNA不同稀释度样品,实时荧光RT-PCR检测低限达到10-5稀释度,检测灵敏度要比普通RT-PCR高出100倍.因此,本研究建立的MCMV实时荧光方法具有特异性强、灵敏度高和快速有效的优点.

  5. Development and comparison of three PCR methods for detecting Maize chlorotic mottle virus%玉米褪绿斑驳病毒3种PCR检测方法的建立与比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张露茜; 刘战民; 夏雪影; 胡培龙; 于翠; 杨翠云

    2016-01-01

    RT-PCR,TaqMan real-time RT-PCR and SYBR Green Ⅰ real-time RT-PCR approaches were developed for detection of Maize chlorotic mottle virus(MCMV),and their sensitivity in detection of MCMV was compared.Results showed that the sensitivities of TaqMan real-time RT-PCR and SYBR Green Ⅰ real-time RT-PCR methods were ten to one hundred times higher than that of conventional RT-PCR,in particular the TaqMan real-rime RT-PCR,which displays the highest sensitivity with a detectable limit of 1.61 fg.%以带有玉米褪绿斑驳病毒(MCMV)的玉米叶片为材料,研究建立了MCMV的普通RT-PCR、TaqMan实时荧光RT-PCR和SYBR GreenⅠ实时荧光RT-PCR检测方法,并比较了3种方法的灵敏度.结果表明:TaqMan实时荧光RT-PCR的检测灵敏度最高,最低检出量可达1.61 fg,SYBR Green Ⅰ实时荧光RT-PCR略逊之,普通RT-PCR的检测灵敏度则相对较低,与前两者相差10~100倍.

  6. Highly Sensitive and Speciifc Monoclonal Antibody-Based Serological Methods for Rice Ragged Stunt Virus Detection in Rice Plants and Rice Brown Planthopper Vectors

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WU Jian-xiang

    2014-01-01

    Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) is a serious rice disease in Asia, causing serious yield losses on rice. The capsid protein(CP) gene of the major outer capsid protein of RRSV was expressed inEscherichia coli BL21 (DE3) using the pMAL-C2X expression vector. The recombinant protein was used as the immunogen to immunize BALB/c mice. A hybridoma cell line 8A12 secreting monoclonal antibody (MAb) against RRSV was obtained by fusing mouse myeloma cells (Sp 2/0) with spleen cells from the immunized BALB/c mice. Western blot analysis showed that the MAb 8A12 can speciifcally react with RRSV CP. Using the MAb, an antigen-coated-plate enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ACP-ELISA), a dot enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (dot-ELISA), and immunocapture-RT-PCR (IC-RT-PCR) assay were developed to detect RRSV. The established ACP-ELISA, dot-blot ELISA and IC-RT-PCR methods could detect RRSV in infected rice tissue crude extracts with dilutions of 1:40960, 1:1280 and 1:655360 (w/v, g mL-1), respectively. The ACP-ELISA and dot-blot ELISA methods could detect RRSV in infected insect vector crude extracts with dilutions of 1:12800 and 1:1600 (an individual planthopper µL-1), respectively. The ifeld survey revealed that Rice ragged stunt disease occurs on rice in Hainan, Yunnan, Guangxi, Sichuan, Guizhou, Fujian, Hunan, Jiangxi and Zhejiang in China.

  7. In Vitro Synthesized RNA Generated from cDNA Clones of Both Genomic Components of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus Replicates in Cucumber Protoplasts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carolyn A. Owen

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV, a bipartite whitefly-transmitted virus, constitutes a major threat to commercial cucurbit production worldwide. Here, construction of full-length CYSDV RNA1 and RNA2 cDNA clones allowed the in vitro synthesis of RNA transcripts able to replicate in cucumber protoplasts. CYSDV RNA1 proved competent for replication; transcription of both polarities of the genomic RNA was detectable 24 h post inoculation. Hybridization of total RNA extracted from transfected protoplasts or from naturally CYSDV-infected cucurbits revealed high-level transcription of the p22 subgenomic RNA species. Replication of CYSDV RNA2 following co-transfection with RNA1 was also observed, with similar transcription kinetics. A CYSDV RNA2 cDNA clone (T3CM8Δ comprising the 5′- and 3′-UTRs plus the 3′-terminal gene, generated a 2.8 kb RNA able to replicate to high levels in protoplasts in the presence of CYSDV RNA1. The clone T3CM8Δ will facilitate reverse genetics studies of CYSDV gene function and RNA replication determinants.

  8. In Vitro Synthesized RNA Generated from cDNA Clones of Both Genomic Components of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus Replicates in Cucumber Protoplasts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Carolyn A.; Moukarzel, Romy; Huang, Xiao; Kassem, Mona A.; Eliasco, Eleonora; Aranda, Miguel A.; Coutts, Robert H. A.; Livieratos, Ioannis C.

    2016-01-01

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), a bipartite whitefly-transmitted virus, constitutes a major threat to commercial cucurbit production worldwide. Here, construction of full-length CYSDV RNA1 and RNA2 cDNA clones allowed the in vitro synthesis of RNA transcripts able to replicate in cucumber protoplasts. CYSDV RNA1 proved competent for replication; transcription of both polarities of the genomic RNA was detectable 24 h post inoculation. Hybridization of total RNA extracted from transfected protoplasts or from naturally CYSDV-infected cucurbits revealed high-level transcription of the p22 subgenomic RNA species. Replication of CYSDV RNA2 following co-transfection with RNA1 was also observed, with similar transcription kinetics. A CYSDV RNA2 cDNA clone (T3CM8Δ) comprising the 5′- and 3′-UTRs plus the 3′-terminal gene, generated a 2.8 kb RNA able to replicate to high levels in protoplasts in the presence of CYSDV RNA1. The clone T3CM8Δ will facilitate reverse genetics studies of CYSDV gene function and RNA replication determinants. PMID:27314380

  9. In Vitro Synthesized RNA Generated from cDNA Clones of Both Genomic Components of Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus Replicates in Cucumber Protoplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Owen, Carolyn A; Moukarzel, Romy; Huang, Xiao; Kassem, Mona A; Eliasco, Eleonora; Aranda, Miguel A; Coutts, Robert H A; Livieratos, Ioannis C

    2016-01-01

    Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), a bipartite whitefly-transmitted virus, constitutes a major threat to commercial cucurbit production worldwide. Here, construction of full-length CYSDV RNA1 and RNA2 cDNA clones allowed the in vitro synthesis of RNA transcripts able to replicate in cucumber protoplasts. CYSDV RNA1 proved competent for replication; transcription of both polarities of the genomic RNA was detectable 24 h post inoculation. Hybridization of total RNA extracted from transfected protoplasts or from naturally CYSDV-infected cucurbits revealed high-level transcription of the p22 subgenomic RNA species. Replication of CYSDV RNA2 following co-transfection with RNA1 was also observed, with similar transcription kinetics. A CYSDV RNA2 cDNA clone (T3CM8Δ) comprising the 5'- and 3'-UTRs plus the 3'-terminal gene, generated a 2.8 kb RNA able to replicate to high levels in protoplasts in the presence of CYSDV RNA1. The clone T3CM8Δ will facilitate reverse genetics studies of CYSDV gene function and RNA replication determinants. PMID:27314380

  10. Chlorotic spots on Clerodendrum, a disease caused by a nuclear type of Brevipalpus (Acari:Tenuipalpidae transmitted virus Mancha clorótica do Clerodendrum, uma enfermidade causada por um vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Acari:Tenuipalpidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elliot Watanabe Kitajima

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available Chlorotic spots have been observed in plants of Clerodendrum x speciosum growing in residential gardens and parks in Piracicaba, SP, Brazil. Thin sections of diseased tissues revealed characteristic cytopathic effects of the nuclear type of the Brevipalpus (Acari: Tenuipalpidae mite-transmitted viruses (BTrV. Brevipalpus mites, identified as B. phoenicis, infesting symptomatic C. x speciosum plants transmitted the pathogen to healthy C. x speciosum and to C. thomsonae, Gomphrena globosa, Hibiscus cannabinus, H. coccineus, H. schizopetalus, Salvia leucantha, Spathiphyllum wallasi and Tetragonia expansa causing chlorotic spots on their leaves. Mechanical inoculation using leaf extracts from infected C. x speciosum resulted in chlorotic spots on inoculated C. x speciosum, Chenopodium quinoa, C. amaranticolor, G. globosa, H. cannabinus, H. coccineus and T. expansa leaves. C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa kept at 28 - 30°C became systemically infected. The same cytopathic effects caused by the nuclear type of BTrV were seen in tissues from all infected test plants by electron microscopy. The virus was purified from systemically infected leaves of C. amaranticolor and C. quinoa. A polyclonal antiserum obtained from an immunized rabbit presented a strong reaction with the homologous antigen in ELISA tests. The results suggest that this chlorotic spot disease of C. x speciosum is caused by a new species of the nuclear type of BTrV, tentatively named Clerodendrum chlorotic spot virus (ClCSV.Manchas cloróticas e necróticas foram observadas em folhas de várias plantas de coração-sangrento (Clerodendrum x speciosum cultivadas em parques e jardins em Piracicaba, SP, associadas à infestação pelo ácaro tenuipalpídeo Brevipalpus phoenicis. Exames preliminares de secções de tecido das manchas cloróticas ao microscópio eletrônico revelaram a ocorrência de efeitos citopáticos característicos dos induzidos pelos vírus do tipo nuclear, transmitido

  11. Retraction: "An enhanced transient expression system in plants based on suppression of gene silencing by the p19 protein of tomato bushy stunt virus".

    Science.gov (United States)

    2015-11-01

    Retracted: An enhanced transient expression system in plants based on suppression of gene silencing by the p19 protein of tomato bushy stunt virus Volume 33, Issue 5, 949–956, Article first published online: 28 February 2003. The above article, first published online on 28 February 2003 in Wiley Online Library (wileyonlinelibrary.com), and in volume 33, pp. 949–956, has been retracted by agreement between the authors, the journal Editor in Chief, Christoph Benning, and John Wiley & Sons Ltd.This notice updates and replaces a recent correction notice, published on 8 June 2015.In the above article, it has recently been noted that the original Figure 3b in this paper was assembled incorrectly and included image duplications. As the original data are no longer available for assembly of a corrected figure, the experiment was repeated, in agreement with the editors, by co-author S. Rivas. The data from the repeated experiment, presented below together with the original figure legend, lead to the same interpretation and conclusions as in the original paper.Since publication of the above notice the corresponding author has become aware of additional image duplications involving the loading control lanes of Figures 2g, 3a, 4e and 4f. The authors accept that integrity of the scientific literature is compromised by the data manipulation and, for that reason, they wish to retract the article. However, researchers wishing to use the method described in this paper can still obtain the necessary clones from the corresponding author (dcb40@cam.ac.uk). The authors apologise for having allowed this flawed article to be published.

  12. Biological and Molecular Characterization of a Korean Isolate of Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows virus Infecting Cucumis Species in Korea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seung-Kook Choi

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Surveys of yellowing viruses in plastic tunnels and in open field crops of melon (Cucumis melo cultivar catalupo, oriental melon (C. melo cultivar oriental melon, and cucumber (C. sativus were carried out in two melon-growing areas in 2014, Korea. Severe yellowing symptoms on older leaves of melon and chlorotic spots on younger leaves of melon were observed in the plastic tunnels. The symptoms were widespread and included initial chlorotic lesions followed by yellowing of whole leaves and thickening of older leaves. RT-PCR analysis using total RNA extracted from diseased leaves did not show any synthesized products for four cucurbit-infecting viruses; Beet pseudo-yellows virus, Cucumber mosaic virus, Cucurbit yellows stunting disorder virus, and Melon necrotic spot virus. Virus identification using RT-PCR showed Cucurbit aphid-borne yellows Virus (CABYV was largely distributed in melon, oriental melon and cucumber. This result was verified by aphid (Aphis gossypii transmission of CABYV. The complete coat protein (CP gene amplified from melon was cloned and sequenced. The CP gene nucleotide and the deduced amino acid sequence comparisons as well as phylogenetic tree analysis of CABYV CPs showed that the CABYV isolates were undivided into subgroups. Although the low incidence of CABYV in infections to cucurbit crops in this survey, CABYV may become an important treat for cucurbit crops in many different regions in Korea, suggesting that CABYV should be taken into account in disease control of cucurbit crops in Korea.

  13. Development and Comparison of Three PCR Methods for Detecting Peanut stunt virus%花生矮化病毒3种PCR检测方法的建立和比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    代欢欢; 陈舜胜; 杨翠云; 于翠

    2011-01-01

    RT-PCR, SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR and immune-capture RT-PCR approaches were developed for detection of Peanut stunt virus (PSV),and their detecting sensitivity was compared. The results showed that the sensitivity of RT-PCR for detection of PSV was 10-4, whereas the sensitivity of SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR and immune-capture RT-PCR was 10-6,respectively. The detection limit of RT-PCR for soybean leaf samples contaminated with PSV was 10-1, while that of SYBR Green I realtime RT-PCR and immune-capture RT-PCR for the same samples was 10-5, respectively. The detection sensitivity for PSV-contaminated samples by both SYBR Green I real-time RT-PCR and immune-capture RT-PCR was more than 100 times higher than that by RT-PCR, showing the favorable advantages of simplicity, high sensitivity and repeatability.%建立了花生矮化病毒(PSV)普通RT-PCR、SYBR Green I荧光RT-PCR和免疫捕获RT-PCR检测方法,并比较了它们的检测灵敏度.结果表明,以阳性对照为样品,普通RT-PCR灵敏度达到10-4,SYBR Green I荧光RT-PCR和免疫捕获RT-PCR的检测灵敏度相当,相对灵敏度均可达到10-6;检测混有PSV的大豆叶片样品,普通RT-PCR灵敏度为10-1,SYBR GreenI荧光RT-PCR和免疫捕获RT-PCR的检测灵敏度为10-5;SYBR GreenI荧光RT-PCR和免疫捕获RT-PCR方法比直接RT-PCR灵敏度高至少100倍,尤其在带毒植物叶片检测中优势更明显,而且灵敏、简便、同时重复性好.

  14. The stunting syndrome in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Andrew J; Humphrey, Jean H

    2014-11-01

    Linear growth failure is the most common form of undernutrition globally. With an estimated 165 million children below 5 years of age affected, stunting has been identified as a major public health priority, and there are ambitious targets to reduce the prevalence of stunting by 40% between 2010 and 2025. We view this condition as a 'stunting syndrome' in which multiple pathological changes marked by linear growth retardation in early life are associated with increased morbidity and mortality, reduced physical, neurodevelopmental and economic capacity and an elevated risk of metabolic disease into adulthood. Stunting is a cyclical process because women who were themselves stunted in childhood tend to have stunted offspring, creating an intergenerational cycle of poverty and reduced human capital that is difficult to break. In this review, the mechanisms underlying linear growth failure at different ages are described, the short-, medium- and long-term consequences of stunting are discussed, and the evidence for windows of opportunity during the life cycle to target interventions at the stunting syndrome are evaluated. PMID:25310000

  15. Biological and serological characterization of viruses of summer squash crops in Yugoslavia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dukić Nataša M.

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available A survey on summer squash open field crops was carried out during 2000 and 2001 in order to identify the major viruses infecting these crops in different localities. Plants showed different types of symptoms: mild mosaic, chlorotic spotting, distinctive mosaic, blistering of leaf lamina leaf yellowing, deformation of leaf lamina, knobbed fruits and stunting of plants. The symptoms were very variable but showed the viral nature of the investigated summer squash diseases. The collected samples were tested by bioassay and by two serological methods ELISA and EBIA using cucumber mosaic cucumovirus (CMV, zucchini yellow mosaic potyvirus (ZYMV, watermelon mosaic potyvirus 2 (WMV-2, zucchini yellow flack potyvirus (ZYFV watermelon mosaic potyvirus 1 (WMV-1, squash mosaic comovirus (SqMV and cucurbit aphid-borne yellows polerovirus (CABYV polyclonal antisera. In all tested samples single or mixed infection with ZYMV, CMV and WMV-2 was detected. The most prevalent virus infecting summer squash was ZYMV. This is the first report of ZYMV, the most destructive virus infecting cucurbits, in Yugoslavia. It was also proven that the identified viruses are transmissible by Aphis gossypii in a non-persistent manner, but possible role of seed in virus transmission was not confirmed.

  16. Wasting and stunting - similarities and differences

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Briend, André; Khara, Tanya; Dolan, Carmel

    2015-01-01

    Wasting and stunting are often presented as two separate forms of malnutrition requiring different interventions for prevention and/or treatment. These two forms of malnutrition, however, are closely related and often occur together in the same populations and often in the same children. Wasting...... that to decrease malnutrition-related mortality, interventions should aim at preventing both wasting and stunting, which often share common causes. Also, this suggests that treatment interventions should focus on children who are both wasted and stunted and therefore have the greatest deficits in muscle mass......, instead of focusing on one or the other form of malnutrition. Interventions should also focus on young infants and children, who have a low muscle mass in relation to body weight to start with. Using mid-upper-arm circumference (MUAC) to select children in need of treatment may represent a simple way...

  17. Food habits of stunted and non-stunted white perch (Morone americana)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gosch, N.J.C.; Stittie, J.R.; Pope, K.L.

    2010-01-01

    We studied food habits of white perch (Morone americana) from two populations with different stable states (stunted [Branched Oak Lake, Nebraska] and nonstunted [Pawnee Lake, Nebraska]) to determine if change in food habits of white perch is likely to occur in situations where a stunted white perch population is altered to a nonstunted state and vice versa. Three approaches were used to quantitatively describe seasonal (spring = March-May, summer = June-August, autumn = September-November) diets of white perch - 1) frequency of occurrence, 2) percentage of composition by volume, and 3) mean stomach fullness. White perch diets were dominated by cladocerans and dipterans in both reservoirs during all seasons. Fish egg predation was similar between reservoirs, and white perch rarely consumed fishes in either the stunted or the non-stunted population. Shifting a white perch population between stunted and non-stunted states will likely cause little or no change in food habits; fish in both states will primarily consume invertebrates.

  18. The Empidemiology of Wheat Rosette Stunt in Hulunbeir District of Inner—Mongolia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZhangMinghou; LuJun; 等

    1995-01-01

    The virus disease threatening wheat production in Hulunbeir District of Inner-Mongolia was identified as NCMV(Northern Cereal Mosaic Virus)or WRSV(Wheat Rosette Stunt Virus)by test of host range,transmission,virus particle and serology.The main vector for spreading the virus is planthopper,Laodelphax striatellus(Fallen),Which overwinters in the stubbles of wheat underground.The overwintered viruliferous nymphs emerged in late Pril is responsible for the early infection of the disease.Agropyron repens,an important perennial weed in cultivated regions,is also an important wild host of the virus and its vector.Severe loss is induced when wheat is infected before 3-leaf stage.The disease incidence could be predicted by a model with the population and viruliferous rate of overwintered vectors as independent variables.

  19. Contextualising complementary feeding in a broader framework for stunting prevention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Stewart, Christine P; Iannotti, Lora; Dewey, Kathryn G;

    2013-01-01

    An estimated 165 million children are stunted due to the combined effects of poor nutrition, repeated infection and inadequate psychosocial stimulation. The complementary feeding period, generally corresponding to age 6-24 months, represents an important period of sensitivity to stunting with lif......An estimated 165 million children are stunted due to the combined effects of poor nutrition, repeated infection and inadequate psychosocial stimulation. The complementary feeding period, generally corresponding to age 6-24 months, represents an important period of sensitivity to stunting...... with lifelong, possibly irrevocable consequences. Interventions to improve complementary feeding practices or the nutritional quality of complementary foods must take into consideration the contextual as well as proximal determinants of stunting. This review presents a conceptual framework that highlights....... Effectiveness studies with a strong process evaluation component are needed to identify transdisciplinary solutions. Programme and policy interventions aimed at preventing stunting should be informed by careful assessment of these factors at all levels....

  20. Occurrence of Apple stem grooving virus in commercial apple seedlings and analysis of its coat protein sequence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Virus infections are responsible for reduced yield and quality in many crops, and are especially problematic in vegetatively-propagated crops such as apple. Three major viruses (Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus and Apple stem pitting virus) affect apple trees in Kore...

  1. A multiple reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction assay for simultaneous detection and differentiation of latent viruses and apscarviroids in apple trees

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), and Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV) are three latent viruses frequently occurring in apple trees worldwide. In field orchards, these viruses are frequently found in a mixed infection with viroids in the genus Apscarviroid, in...

  2. A Coronavirus Associated with Runting Stunting Syndrome in Broiler Chickens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hauck, Rüdiger; Gallardo, Rodrigo A; Woolcock, Peter R; Shivaprasad, H L

    2016-06-01

    Runting stunting syndrome (RSS) is a disease condition that affects broilers and causes impaired growth and poor feed conversion because of enteritis characterized by pale and distended small intestines with watery contents. The etiology of the disease is multifactorial, and a large variety of viral agents have been implicated. Here we describe the detection and isolation of an infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) -like coronavirus from the intestines of a flock of 60,000 14-day-old brown/red broiler chicks. The birds showed typical clinical signs of RSS including stunting and uneven growth. At necropsy, the small intestines were pale and distended with watery contents. Histopathology of the intestines revealed increased cellularity of the lamina propria, blunting of villi, and cystic changes in the crypts. Negative stain electron microscopy of the intestinal contents revealed coronavirus particles. Transmission electron microscopy of the intestine confirmed coronavirus in the cytoplasm of enterocytes. Using immunohistochemistry (IHC), IBV antigen was detected in the intestinal epithelial cells as well as in the proventriculus and pancreas. There were no lesions in the respiratory system, and no IBV antigen was detected in trachea, lung, air sac, conjunctiva, and cecal tonsils. A coronavirus was isolated from the intestine of chicken embryos but not from the allantoic sac inoculated with the intestinal contents of the broiler chicks. Sequencing of the S1 gene showed nucleic acid sequence identities of 93.8% to the corresponding region of IBV California 99 and of 85.7% to IBV Arkansas. Nucleic acid sequence identities to other IBV genotypes were lower. The histopathologic lesions in the intestines were reproduced after experimental infection of specific-pathogen-free chickens inoculated in the conjunctiva and nares. Five days after infection, six of nine investigated birds showed enteritis associated with IBV antigen as detected by IHC. In contrast to the field

  3. New Experimental Hosts of Tobacco streak virus and Absence of True Seed Transmission in Leguminous Hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vemana, K; Jain, R K

    2010-10-01

    Of 70 plant species tested, 50 species were susceptible to Tobacco streak virus (TSV) on sap inoculation. Both localized (necrotic and chlorotic spots) and systemic (necrotic spots, axillary shoot proliferation, stunting, total necrosis and wilt) symptoms are observed by majority of plant species. Eleven new experimental hosts were identified viz., Amaranthus blitum var. oleracea (Chaulai sag), Celosia cristata (Cocks comb), Beta vulgaris var. bengalensis (Palak/Indian spinach), Calendula officinalis (Pot marigold), Chrysanthemum indicum, Cosmos sulphurens (Yellow cosmos), Citrullus lunatus (Watermelon), Lagenaria siceraria (Bottle gourd), Coriandrum sativum (Coriander), Hibiscus subderiffa var. subderiffa (Roselle) and Portulaca oleraceae (Little hogweed). Detected groundnut seed infection with TSV for the first time by Direct antigen coated immunosorbent assay (DAC-ELISA) using whole seed. The seed infection ranged from 18.9 to 28.9% among the seeds collected from naturally infected and sap inoculated groundnut varieties (JL 24, TMV 2, Prasuna, Kadiri 6, Kadiri 9, Anantha and Kadiri 7 Bold) belonging to spanish and virginia types. Further, TSV was detected both in pod shell and seed testa and none of the samples showed the presence of TSV either in cotyledon or embryo. Grow-out and bio-assay tests proved the absence of seed transmission in groundnut and other legume crops. Hence, TSV isolate was not a true seed transmission case under Indian conditions in legumes. PMID:23637490

  4. Epidemiology and integrated management of persistently transmitted aphid-borne viruses of legume and cereal crops in West Asia and North Africa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Makkouk, Khaled M; Kumari, Safaa G

    2009-05-01

    Cool-season food legumes (faba bean, lentil, chickpea and pea) and cereals (bread and durum wheat and barley) are the most important and widely cultivated crops in West Asia and North Africa (WANA), where they are the main source of carbohydrates and protein for the majority of the population. Persistently transmitted aphid-borne viruses pose a significant limitation to legume and cereal production worldwide. Surveys conducted in many countries in WANA during the last three decades established that the most important of these viruses are: Faba bean necrotic yellows virus (FBNYV: genus Nanovirus; family Nanoviridae), Bean leafroll virus (BLRV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae), Beet western yellows virus (BWYV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae), Soybean dwarf virus (SbDV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae) and Chickpea chlorotic stunt virus (CpCSV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae) which affect legume crops, and Barley yellow dwarf virus-PAV (BYDV-PAV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae), Barley yellow dwarf virus-MAV (BYDV-MAV: genus Luteovirus; family Luteoviridae) and Cereal yellow dwarf virus-RPV (CYDV-RPV: genus Polerovirus; family Luteoviridae) which affect cereal crops. Loss in yield caused by these viruses is usually high when infection occurs early in the growing season. Many aphid vector species for the above-mentioned viruses are reported to be prevalent in the WANA region. In addition, in this region many wild species (annual or perennial) were found infected with these viruses and may play an important role in their ecology and spread. Fast spread of these diseases was always associated with high aphid vector populations and activity. Although virus disease management can be achieved by combining several control measures, development of resistant genotypes is undoubtedly one of the most appropriate control methods. Over the last three decades barley and wheat genotypes resistant to BYDV, faba bean genotypes resistant to BLRV, and

  5. The association between wasting and stunting: an international perspective.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Victora, C G

    1992-05-01

    Wasting and stunting are widely used indices for describing the prevalence of malnutrition in childhood. Studies from Latin America, however, consistently show low prevalences of wasting in the presence of other indicators of poor health. A data base assembled by the World Health Organization, including 175 studies with information on wasting and stunting among 1-y-old children from four regions (Africa, Americas, Asia and Eastern Mediterranean), was used for examining the prevalences of the two indices and their associations. Whereas there was little variation in the median prevalences of stunting among the four regions, those of wasting showed a sevenfold differential. In Africa and Latin America, the correlations between the two prevalences were low; nevertheless, wasting was about three times higher in Africa, for any given level of stunting, than in Latin America. In Asia and the Eastern Mediterranean, there were strong positive correlations between stunting and wasting, but wasting was about twice as common in Asia for any given level of stunting. To interpret low prevalences of wasting as being indicative of a low intensity of malnutrition may be misleading; weight-for-height standards and cut-offs may have to be re-examined for use in different populations.

  6. Contextualising complementary feeding in a broader framework for stunting prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, Christine P; Iannotti, Lora; Dewey, Kathryn G; Michaelsen, Kim F; Onyango, Adelheid W

    2013-09-01

    An estimated 165 million children are stunted due to the combined effects of poor nutrition, repeated infection and inadequate psychosocial stimulation. The complementary feeding period, generally corresponding to age 6-24 months, represents an important period of sensitivity to stunting with lifelong, possibly irrevocable consequences. Interventions to improve complementary feeding practices or the nutritional quality of complementary foods must take into consideration the contextual as well as proximal determinants of stunting. This review presents a conceptual framework that highlights the role of complementary feeding within the layers of contextual and causal factors that lead to stunted growth and development and the resulting short- and long-term consequences. Contextual factors are organized into the following groups: political economy; health and health care systems; education; society and culture; agriculture and food systems; and water, sanitation and environment. We argue that these community and societal conditions underlie infant and young child feeding practices, which are a central pillar to healthy growth and development, and can serve to either impede or enable progress. Effectiveness studies with a strong process evaluation component are needed to identify transdisciplinary solutions. Programme and policy interventions aimed at preventing stunting should be informed by careful assessment of these factors at all levels.

  7. Research Priorities on the Relationship between Wasting and Stunting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khara, Tanya; Dolan, Carmel; Berkley, James A.

    2016-01-01

    Background Wasting and stunting are global public health problems that frequently co-exist. However, they are usually separated in terms of policy, guidance, programming and financing. Though both wasting and stunting are manifestations of undernutrition caused by disease and poor diet, there are critical gaps in our understanding of the physiological relationship between them, and how interventions for one may affect the other. The aim of this exercise was to establish research priorities in the relationships between wasting and stunting to guide future research investments. Methods and Findings We used the CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative) methodology for setting research priorities in health. We utilised a group of experts in nutrition, growth and child health to prioritise 30 research questions against three criteria (answerability, usefulness and impact) using an online survey. Eighteen of 25 (72%) experts took part and prioritised research directly related to programming, particularly at the public health level. The highest-rated questions were: “Can interventions outside of the 1000 days, e.g. pre-school, school age and adolescence, lead to catch-up in height and in other developmental markers?”; “What timely interventions work to mitigate seasonal peaks in both wasting and stunting?”; and “What is the optimal formulation of ready-to-use foods to promote optimal ponderal growth and also support linear growth during and after recovery from severe acute malnutrition?” There was a high level of agreement between experts, particularly for the highest ranking questions. Conclusions Increased commitment to rigorous evaluations of treatment and prevention interventions at the public health level, addressing questions of the timing of intervention, and the extent to which impacts for both wasting and stunting can be achieved, is needed to inform global efforts to tackle undernutrition and its consequences. PMID:27159235

  8. Research Priorities on the Relationship between Wasting and Stunting.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chloe Angood

    Full Text Available Wasting and stunting are global public health problems that frequently co-exist. However, they are usually separated in terms of policy, guidance, programming and financing. Though both wasting and stunting are manifestations of undernutrition caused by disease and poor diet, there are critical gaps in our understanding of the physiological relationship between them, and how interventions for one may affect the other. The aim of this exercise was to establish research priorities in the relationships between wasting and stunting to guide future research investments.We used the CHNRI (Child Health and Nutrition Research Initiative methodology for setting research priorities in health. We utilised a group of experts in nutrition, growth and child health to prioritise 30 research questions against three criteria (answerability, usefulness and impact using an online survey. Eighteen of 25 (72% experts took part and prioritised research directly related to programming, particularly at the public health level. The highest-rated questions were: "Can interventions outside of the 1000 days, e.g. pre-school, school age and adolescence, lead to catch-up in height and in other developmental markers?"; "What timely interventions work to mitigate seasonal peaks in both wasting and stunting?"; and "What is the optimal formulation of ready-to-use foods to promote optimal ponderal growth and also support linear growth during and after recovery from severe acute malnutrition?" There was a high level of agreement between experts, particularly for the highest ranking questions.Increased commitment to rigorous evaluations of treatment and prevention interventions at the public health level, addressing questions of the timing of intervention, and the extent to which impacts for both wasting and stunting can be achieved, is needed to inform global efforts to tackle undernutrition and its consequences.

  9. Identification and Analysis of Differentially Expressed Proteins of Host Rice (Oryza sativa) Infected withRice Grassy Stunt Virus%水稻草状矮化病毒侵染寄主水稻差异表达蛋白的鉴定和分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁新伦; 谢荔岩; 吴祖建

    2014-01-01

    性和形成C-N键的连接酶活性,在细胞组件上,差异蛋白分布于不同的细胞位置,涉及细胞组分、细胞器、细胞、膜结合细胞器、囊(泡)、细胞部分、膜结合囊(泡)、胞内、胞内部分、胞内细胞器、细胞质、胞内膜结合细胞器、细胞质部分、质体、细胞质囊(泡)和细胞质膜结合囊(泡)。KEGG通路分析显示,差异蛋白参与了代谢途径、光合生物固碳反应、碳代谢、乙醛酸和二羧酸代谢、丙氨酸、天门冬氨酸和谷氨酸代谢、氨基酸生物合成、丙酮酸盐代谢、精氨酸和脯氨酸代谢、谷胱甘肽代谢和氮代谢途径等10个KEGG代谢通路。【结论】RGSV 侵染诱导了水稻差异蛋白质表达,获得了一些与 RGSV 侵染水稻相关的蛋白质分子,差异蛋白涉及到多个功能类别。其中与氮有关的生物学过程和光合作用过程变化较为明显。%Objective The objective of this study is to screen, identify and analyze the differentially expressed proteins in rice seedlings after infection withRice grassy stunt virus (RGSV), and to shed new lights on the understanding of molecular mechanisms of RGSV pathogenesis.[Method]Two-dimensional fluorescence difference in gel electrophoresis (2D-DIGE) coupled with matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionization time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOF-MS) was used to analyze and identify differentially expressed protein spots. BioTools was used to search the matched proteins in NCBI database. Bioinformatics included GO (Gene ontology) terms and KEGG (Kyoto encyclopedia of genes and genomes) pathway analysis.[Result]The proteomic profile of the leaves of rice cultivar Xianyou 63 infected with RGSV compared with the control healthy plants was explored by 2D-DIGE. One-hundred and seventy-three protein spots (differential ratio>1.5) were differentially expressed by RGSV infection over the healthy rice plants, including 72 up

  10. Complete genome sequence of arracacha mottle virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Orílio, Anelise F; Lucinda, Natalia; Dusi, André N; Nagata, Tatsuya; Inoue-Nagata, Alice K

    2013-01-01

    Arracacha mottle virus (AMoV) is the only potyvirus reported to infect arracacha (Arracacia xanthorrhiza) in Brazil. Here, the complete genome sequence of an isolate of AMoV was determined to be 9,630 nucleotides in length, excluding the 3' poly-A tail, and encoding a polyprotein of 3,135 amino acids and a putative P3N-PIPO protein. Its genomic organization is typical of a member of the genus Potyvirus, containing all conserved motifs. Its full genome sequence shared 56.2 % nucleotide identity with sunflower chlorotic mottle virus and verbena virus Y, the most closely related viruses.

  11. DETERMINAN STUNTING PADA ANAK USIA 2-3 TAHUN DI TINGKAT PROVINSI (DETERMINANTS OF STUNTING IN CHILDREN 2-3 YEARS OF AGE AT PROVINCE LEVEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sri Mulyati

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRAK Latar belakang: Prevalensi pendek (stunting pada balita masih 36,6 persen. Tingginya prevalensi stunting pada anak balita merupakan refleksi masalah gizi ibu selama kehamilan dan erat kaitannya dengan kemiskinan. Secara agregat, IPKM (Indeks Pembangunan Kesehatan Masyarakat merupakan indikator kemajuan pembangunan kesehatan dan IPM (Indeks Pembangunan Manusia termasuk salah satu dari 24 indikator dalam IPKM. Tujuan analisis: mempelajari determinan faktor yang menjadi pembeda terhadap tinggi rendahnya prevalensi stunting pada anak usia 2-3 tahun di tingkat provinsi. Metode: analisis ini merupakan studi populasi. Data yang dianalisis adalah data agregat dari variabel IPKM, KEK pada ibu hamil dan rumah tangga defisit energi dari data Riskesdas 2007. Sementara variabel IPM dan kemiskinan tahun 2007 dari data BPS. Dalam analisis ini, stunting pada anak usia 2-3 tahun merupakan variabel terikat, sedangkan variabel lainnya merupakan variabel bebas. Uji statistik yang digunakan adalah uji korelasi dan uji diskriminan. Hasil Analisis: Secara bivariat tidak ditemukan korelasi antara KEK pada bumil dengan stunting pada anak usia 2-3 tahun, namun ditemukan korelasi antara stunting dengan IPKM (r=-0,67; p=0,000, IPM (r=-0,52; p=0,002 dan kemiskinan (r=0,58;p=0,003. Hasil uji diskriminan menunjukkan bahwa IPKM adalah faktor pembeda antara prevalensi stunting rendah dan stunting tinggi pada anak usia 2-3 tahun di tingkat provinsi. Kontribusi varian IPKM terhadap perbedaan kedua kelompok stunting sebesar 34 persen. Fungsi diskriminan yang dihasilkan Z = -6.491 + 17.853 *IPKM dengan kemampuan prediksi sebesar 78,8 persen. Kesimpulan: IPKM merupakan faktor pembeda antara prevalensi stunting tinggi dan rendah pada anak usia 2-3 tahun di tingkat provinsi.     ABSTRACT Background: Stunting prevalence in children 2-3 years of age is still 36.6 percent, the high stunting in the age group shows that nutrition problem in mother during pregnancy is highly

  12. FAKTOR RISIKO STUNTING PADA BALITA (24—59 BULAN DI SUMATERA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zilda Oktarina

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThis study was aimed to analyze risk factors of stunting in underfive children aged 24—59 months in Sumatera. A cross sectional study was conducted in 1 239 children at Aceh, North Sumatera, South Sumatera, and Lampung Provinces who have complete variable data of the National Basic Health Research 2010. The data were collected by questionnaires and anthropometric assessment. Chi square analysis and logistic regression were used to assess the association between risk factors and stunting in children. The result showed that prevalence of stunting among children were 44.1%. The significant risk factors of stunting among subjects (p<0.05 were mother’s height (OR=1.36, fat intake (OR=1.30, family size (OR=1.38, and drinking water resources (OR=1.36. The dominant factor that associated with stunting in children was family size (OR=1.38. Researcher suggest that family can control total children with family planning program.Keywords: family size, stunting, underfive childrenABSTRAKPenelitian bertujuan untuk menganalisis faktor risiko stunting pada balita usia 24—59 bulan di Sumatera. Desain penelitian yang digunakan adalah cross sectional yang melibatkan subjek 1 239 balita di Provinsi Aceh, Sumatera Utara, Sumatera Selatan, dan Lampung yang memiliki kelengkapan data variabel penelitian. Data diambil dari hasil Riskesdas 2010. Pengumpulan data Riskesdas 2010 menggunakan kuesioner dan pengukuran antropometri. Analisis chi square dan regresi logistik digunakan untuk mengetahui hubungan antara faktor risiko dengan kejadian stunting pada balita. Hasil penelitian menunjukkan prevalensi balita stunting 44.1%. Faktor risiko stunting pada balita (p<0.05 yaitu tinggi badan ibu (OR=1.36, tingkat asupan lemak (OR=1.30, jumlah anggota rumah tangga (OR=1.38 dan sumber air minum (OR=1.36. Faktor dominan yang berhubungan dengan kejadian stunting pada balita adalah jumlah anggota rumah tangga. Keluarga disarankan agar dapat membatasi jumlah anak sesuai

  13. Lower waist circumference in mildly-stunted adolescents is associated with elevated insulin concentration

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    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Augmented waist circumference (WC is associated with non-communicable diseases and could represent a valuable marker in screening for metabolic dysfunctions in subjects with insufficient linear growth. The objective of the present study was to determine whether bio-chemical and hemodynamic parameters and waist circumference vary between mildly-stunted and non-stunted adolescents from impoverished communities of São Paulo, Brazil. Methods: The cross-sectional study involved 206 subjects, aged between 9 and 19 years and living in impoverished areas of São Paulo, Brazil. The sample population was divided according to height-for-age Z-score (HAZ into stunted (−1 > HAZ ≥ −2 and non-stunted (HAZ ≥ −1 groups, and was sub-divided according to gender. Logistic regression analysis was employed to compare individuals with elevated (> 75th percentile insulin concentrations. The receiver operating characteristic curves were constructed to determine WC cut-off points that could be used to identify stunted and non-stunted individuals with elevated insulin concentrations. Results: WC cut-off points of 58.25 cm and 67.2 cm allowed for correct classification of 90.7% of stunted and 88.7% of non-stunted individuals in the studied population. While the sensitivity of the model was high for stunted and non-stunted subjects (98.8% and 97.2%, respectively, the specificity was modest (57.1% and 41.2%, respectively. Conclusion: The results presented herein suggest that an increase in plasma insulin is one of the primary metabolic modifications in stunted individuals, and that this alteration could be identified at a lower WC cut-off point than in non-stunted counterparts.

  14. Exploring spatial variations and factors associated with childhood stunting in Ethiopia: spatial and multilevel analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Haile, Demewoz; Azage, Muluken; Mola, Tegegn; Rainey, Rochelle

    2016-01-01

    Background Stunting reflects a failure to receive adequate nutrition over a long period of time. Stunting is associated with adverse functional consequences including poor cognition, low educational performance, low adult wages, and poor reproductive outcomes. The objective of the study was to investigate spatial variations and factors associated with childhood stunting in Ethiopia. Methods This study is a secondary data analysis of the 2011 Ethiopian Demographic and Health Survey (EDHS). A t...

  15. Open defecation and childhood stunting in India: an ecological analysis of new data from 112 districts.

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    Dean Spears

    Full Text Available Poor sanitation remains a major public health concern linked to several important health outcomes; emerging evidence indicates a link to childhood stunting. In India over half of the population defecates in the open; the prevalence of stunting remains very high. Recently published data on levels of stunting in 112 districts of India provide an opportunity to explore the relationship between levels of open defecation and stunting within this population. We conducted an ecological regression analysis to assess the association between the prevalence of open defecation and stunting after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Data from the 2011 HUNGaMA survey was used for the outcome of interest, stunting; data from the 2011 Indian Census for the same districts was used for the exposure of interest, open defecation. After adjustment for various potential confounding factors--including socio-economic status, maternal education and calorie availability--a 10 percent increase in open defecation was associated with a 0.7 percentage point increase in both stunting and severe stunting. Differences in open defecation can statistically account for 35 to 55 percent of the average difference in stunting between districts identified as low-performing and high-performing in the HUNGaMA data. In addition, using a Monte Carlo simulation, we explored the effect on statistical power of the common practice of dichotomizing continuous height data into binary stunting indicators. Our simulation showed that dichotomization of height sacrifices statistical power, suggesting that our estimate of the association between open defecation and stunting may be a lower bound. Whilst our analysis is ecological and therefore vulnerable to residual confounding, these findings use the most recently collected large-scale data from India to add to a growing body of suggestive evidence for an effect of poor sanitation on human growth. New intervention studies, currently

  16. Open defecation and childhood stunting in India: an ecological analysis of new data from 112 districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Dean; Ghosh, Arabinda; Cumming, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Poor sanitation remains a major public health concern linked to several important health outcomes; emerging evidence indicates a link to childhood stunting. In India over half of the population defecates in the open; the prevalence of stunting remains very high. Recently published data on levels of stunting in 112 districts of India provide an opportunity to explore the relationship between levels of open defecation and stunting within this population. We conducted an ecological regression analysis to assess the association between the prevalence of open defecation and stunting after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Data from the 2011 HUNGaMA survey was used for the outcome of interest, stunting; data from the 2011 Indian Census for the same districts was used for the exposure of interest, open defecation. After adjustment for various potential confounding factors--including socio-economic status, maternal education and calorie availability--a 10 percent increase in open defecation was associated with a 0.7 percentage point increase in both stunting and severe stunting. Differences in open defecation can statistically account for 35 to 55 percent of the average difference in stunting between districts identified as low-performing and high-performing in the HUNGaMA data. In addition, using a Monte Carlo simulation, we explored the effect on statistical power of the common practice of dichotomizing continuous height data into binary stunting indicators. Our simulation showed that dichotomization of height sacrifices statistical power, suggesting that our estimate of the association between open defecation and stunting may be a lower bound. Whilst our analysis is ecological and therefore vulnerable to residual confounding, these findings use the most recently collected large-scale data from India to add to a growing body of suggestive evidence for an effect of poor sanitation on human growth. New intervention studies, currently underway, may shed more

  17. Open defecation and childhood stunting in India: an ecological analysis of new data from 112 districts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spears, Dean; Ghosh, Arabinda; Cumming, Oliver

    2013-01-01

    Poor sanitation remains a major public health concern linked to several important health outcomes; emerging evidence indicates a link to childhood stunting. In India over half of the population defecates in the open; the prevalence of stunting remains very high. Recently published data on levels of stunting in 112 districts of India provide an opportunity to explore the relationship between levels of open defecation and stunting within this population. We conducted an ecological regression analysis to assess the association between the prevalence of open defecation and stunting after adjustment for potential confounding factors. Data from the 2011 HUNGaMA survey was used for the outcome of interest, stunting; data from the 2011 Indian Census for the same districts was used for the exposure of interest, open defecation. After adjustment for various potential confounding factors--including socio-economic status, maternal education and calorie availability--a 10 percent increase in open defecation was associated with a 0.7 percentage point increase in both stunting and severe stunting. Differences in open defecation can statistically account for 35 to 55 percent of the average difference in stunting between districts identified as low-performing and high-performing in the HUNGaMA data. In addition, using a Monte Carlo simulation, we explored the effect on statistical power of the common practice of dichotomizing continuous height data into binary stunting indicators. Our simulation showed that dichotomization of height sacrifices statistical power, suggesting that our estimate of the association between open defecation and stunting may be a lower bound. Whilst our analysis is ecological and therefore vulnerable to residual confounding, these findings use the most recently collected large-scale data from India to add to a growing body of suggestive evidence for an effect of poor sanitation on human growth. New intervention studies, currently underway, may shed more

  18. Does zinc deficiency play a role in stunting among primary school children in NE Thailand?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Rosalind S; Manger, Mari Skar; Krittaphol, Woravimol; Pongcharoen, Tippawan; Gowachirapant, Sueppong; Bailey, Karl B; Winichagoon, Pattanee

    2007-01-01

    Stunting in school-age years may result in a decrease in adult size, and thus reduced work capacity and adverse reproductive outcomes. We have compared the mean intakes of energy, protein and selected growth-limiting nutrients in fifty-eight stunted children and 172 non-stunted controls drawn from 567 children aged 6-13 years attending ten rural schools in NE Thailand. Control children were selected randomly after stratifying children by age in each school. Dietary data were calculated from 24-h recalls using nutrient values from Thai food composition data and chemical analysis. Inter-relationships between stunting and sociodemographic, anthropometric and biochemical variables were also examined. Biochemical variables investigated were serum albumin, zinc, ferritin, transferrin receptor and retinol, and iodine in casual urine samples. Significantly more males than females were stunted (males, n 38, 65.5% v. females, n 20. 34.5%: P=0.025). Stunted males had lower mean intakes of energy, protein, calcium, phosphorus and zinc, and a lower mean (95% CI) serum zinc (9.19 (8.53, 9.84) v. 9.70 (8.53, 9.29) micromol/1) than non-stunted males; no other biochemical differences were noted. Stunted males also had a lower mean arm muscle area (P= 0.015), after adjusting for age, than non-stunted males. In conclusion, the lower dietary intakes of the stunted males compared to their non-stunted counterparts may be associated with anorexia and hypogeusia induced by zinc deficiency. Hence, zinc deficiency may be a factor limiting linear growth, especially among boys in NE Thailand, but more research is needed to establish whether other factors also play a role. PMID:17217573

  19. Simultaneous detection of four viruses affecting apple and pear by molecular hybridization using a polyprobe

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    Thor Vinícius Martins Fajardo

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The viruses Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV, Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV, Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV and Apple mosaic virus (ApMV are common in apples and pears and main targets of detection in propagation materials. This study aimed at demonstrating the usefulness of the hybridization method with a non-radioactive probe for simultaneous detection of these four viruses. The sensitivity of this method was sufficiently high enabling the detection of ASGV, ACLSV, ASPV and ApMV in total RNA extracted from infected samples. The probe specificity was confirmed by reaction with homologous viral cDNA, individually cloned for each virus.

  20. Complex Assembly Behavior During the Encapsulation of Green Fluorescent Protein Analogs in Virus Derived Protein Capsules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Minten, Inge J.; Nolte, Roeland J.M.; Cornelissen, Jeroen J.L.M.

    2010-01-01

    Enzymes encapsulated in nanocontainers are a better model of the conditions inside a living cell than free enzymes in solution. In a first step toward the encapsulation of multiple enzymes inside the cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) capsid, enhanced green fluorescent protein (EGFP) was attached

  1. First report of ratoon stunt of sugarcane caused by Leifsonia xyl. subsp. xyli in Pakistan

    Science.gov (United States)

    During a survey of the sugarcane crop in the area of Faisalabad, Sargodha and the Dera Ghazi Khan Division of the Punjab province of Pakistan from 2007 to 2010, symptoms consistent with ratoon stunting, including stunted growth and reddening of the vascular bundles at the nodal regions were observed...

  2. Role of Zinc in Stunting of Infants and Children in Rural Ethiopia

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umeta, M.

    2003-01-01

    Stunting is highly prevalent in children in Ethiopia with 57% of infants aged 6-11 mo being affected. The reasons for stunting are poorly understood but zinc deficiency may play a role in its aetiology. The research described in this thesis was carried out in a rural area of Ethiopia. It comprised a

  3. RISIKO PENDIDIKAN IBU TERHADAP KEJADIAN STUNTING PADA ANAK 6-23 BULAN

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    Atikah Rahayu

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTMalnutrition constributes to underlying cause of death of Indonesian underfives chilren. One of the consequences of malnutrition in long time period is growth failure that is stunting. Low education of mother is important risk factor for stunting. The aimed of study was to confirm wether maternal education for child stunting in Banjarbaru. Crossectional design was implied to and 51 children aged 6-23 months old were enrolled in study, which run for three months in the year 2013. Maternal education was calculated by year complete of schooling and stunting was by z-score of height for age. Statistical test for data analysis used chi-square test with 95% confidence interval (CI. Result showed that there a significant association (p<0.05 between maternal education and incidence of stunting in children 6-23 months of age. Mother with low education level had 5,1 fold risk to have child stunting. The study confirmed that maternal education had an important risk to child stunting aged 6-23 months old at least in the study site.Keywords: children 6-23 months of age, maternal education, stuntingABSTRAKKekurangan gizi menjadi salah satu penyebab kematian balita di Indonesia. Konsekuensi kurang zat gizi dalam jangka waktu lama adalah gagal tumbuh. Pendidikan ibu yang rendah merupakan factor risiko yang penting pada pertumbuhan anak. Tujuan penelitian adalah mengkaji risiko tingkat pendidikan ibu dengan kejadian stunting pada anak berumur 6-23 bulan. Desain penelitian adalah cross-sectional dengan besar sampel 51 anak berumur 6-23 bulan. Penelitian dilakukan selama 3 bulan di Cempaka, Banjarbaru tahun 2013. Tingkat pendidikan ibu ditentukan dengan pendidikan formal yang telah diselesaikan, stunting ditentukan dengan indikator z-score untuk panjang badan menurut umur. Data dianalisis dengan uji chi-square dengan confidance interval (CI 95%. Pada penelitian ini ditemukan hubungan yang bermakna (p<0.05 antara pendidikan ibu dengan kejadian stunting pada

  4. Prevalence and associated factors of stunting among primary school children in Eastern Ethiopia

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    Mesfin F

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Firehiwot Mesfin,1 Yemane Berhane,2 Alemayehu Worku2,3 1Department of Public Health, College of Health and Medical Sciences, Haramaya University, Harar, Ethiopia; 2Addis Continental Institute of Public Health, 3School of Public Health, Addis Ababa University, Addis Ababa, EthiopiaBackground: Stunting is a serious impediment to child survival and developing a full learning capacity. Despite several decades of efforts, stunting remained a major public health concern in Ethiopia. Thus, periodic assessment of the factors associated with stunting is imperative.Methods: A cross-sectional study was conducted among school-age children in Eastern Ethiopia. Anthropometric measurements were taken according to the World Health Organization standard procedures. A child was identified as stunted if height-for-age z score is <−2 standard deviations of the median of the reference population. A binary logistic regression model was used to identify factors associated with stunting. Clustering of stunting within schools was controlled during analysis using cluster option in STATA syntax.Results: The prevalence of stunting among school-aged children was 8.9% (95% confidence interval [CI]: 7.6–10.3; of which 2% had severe stunting. The risk of stunting was 1.71 times greater for children born to working mothers than those born to housewives (adjusted odds ratio [AOR] =1.71; 95% CI: 1.08–2.72. Those children whose families did not use a bed net in their home were 1.76 times more likely to be stunted as children than those whose families used insecticide-treated nets (AOR =1.76; 95% CI: 1.22–2.52. Moreover, the risk of stunting was 1.59 times greater for children who had suffered from illness within the last 2 weeks than children who were apparently healthy (AOR =1.59; 95% CI: 1.04–2.40. On the other hand, the risk of stunting was 30% lower for children born to an older mother than a younger one.Conclusion: Stunting, which is indicative of chronic

  5. Nanismo nutricional em escolares no Brasil Stunted schoolchildren in Brazil

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    Glória Elizabeth Carneiro Laurentino

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Revisão da literatura sobre o nanismo nutricional no Brasil. Os principais tópicos abordados foram: definição do problema, a utilização da medida da altura em escolares como método de excelência para avaliar o estado de saúde e nutrição das populações, as principais causas e conseqüências apontadas na literatura e sua magnitude no país. De acordo com a literatura a prevalência do nanismo nutricional varia entre as diversas regiões brasileiras, com nítida desvantagem para as regiões Norte e Nordeste. Sua origem tem sido atribuída especialmente a condições ambientais desfavoráveis. Há indicações de que o atraso da capacidade intelectual e menor capacidade física para o trabalho estão associados ao problema.Literature review on stunting in Brazil. The following topics have been analyzed: problem's definition, the use of schoolchildren's height as the best method to evaluate population health and nutritional status, the main causes and consequences demonstrated in the literature and, at last, the scope of this problem in Brazil. According to lierature the prevalence of stunting varies in different regions of Brazil. The poorest results are found in the North and Northeast. The main determinants of linear growth retardation are poor environmental conditions and among the consequences, results indicate lower physical and mental capacity.

  6. Can water, sanitation and hygiene help eliminate stunting? Current evidence and policy implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cumming, Oliver; Cairncross, Sandy

    2016-05-01

    Stunting is a complex and enduring challenge with far-reaching consequences for those affected and society as a whole. To accelerate progress in eliminating stunting, broader efforts are needed that reach beyond the nutrition sector to tackle the underlying determinants of undernutrition. There is growing interest in how water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) interventions might support strategies to reduce stunting in high-burden settings, such as South Asia and sub-Saharan Africa. This review article considers two broad questions: (1) can WASH interventions make a significant contribution to reducing the global prevalence of childhood stunting, and (2) how can WASH interventions be delivered to optimize their effect on stunting and accelerate progress? The evidence reviewed suggests that poor WASH conditions have a significant detrimental effect on child growth and development resulting from sustained exposure to enteric pathogens but also due to wider social and economic mechanisms. Realizing the potential of WASH to reduce stunting requires a redoubling of efforts to achieve universal access to these services as envisaged under the Sustainable Development Goals. It may also require new or modified WASH strategies that go beyond the scope of traditional interventions to specifically address exposure pathways in the first 2 years of life when the process of stunting is concentrated. PMID:27187910

  7. Suppression of RNAi by dsRNA-degrading RNaseIII enzymes of viruses in animals and plants.

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    Isabel Weinheimer

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Certain RNA and DNA viruses that infect plants, insects, fish or poikilothermic animals encode Class 1 RNaseIII endoribonuclease-like proteins. dsRNA-specific endoribonuclease activity of the RNaseIII of rock bream iridovirus infecting fish and Sweet potato chlorotic stunt crinivirus (SPCSV infecting plants has been shown. Suppression of the host antiviral RNA interference (RNAi pathway has been documented with the RNaseIII of SPCSV and Heliothis virescens ascovirus infecting insects. Suppression of RNAi by the viral RNaseIIIs in non-host organisms of different kingdoms is not known. Here we expressed PPR3, the RNaseIII of Pike-perch iridovirus, in the non-hosts Nicotiana benthamiana (plant and Caenorhabditis elegans (nematode and found that it cleaves double-stranded small interfering RNA (ds-siRNA molecules that are pivotal in the host RNA interference (RNAi pathway and thereby suppresses RNAi in non-host tissues. In N. benthamiana, PPR3 enhanced accumulation of Tobacco rattle tobravirus RNA1 replicon lacking the 16K RNAi suppressor. Furthermore, PPR3 suppressed single-stranded RNA (ssRNA--mediated RNAi and rescued replication of Flock House virus RNA1 replicon lacking the B2 RNAi suppressor in C. elegans. Suppression of RNAi was debilitated with the catalytically compromised mutant PPR3-Ala. However, the RNaseIII (CSR3 produced by SPCSV, which cleaves ds-siRNA and counteracts antiviral RNAi in plants, failed to suppress ssRNA-mediated RNAi in C. elegans. In leaves of N. benthamiana, PPR3 suppressed RNAi induced by ssRNA and dsRNA and reversed silencing; CSR3, however, suppressed only RNAi induced by ssRNA and was unable to reverse silencing. Neither PPR3 nor CSR3 suppressed antisense-mediated RNAi in Drosophila melanogaster. These results show that the RNaseIII enzymes of RNA and DNA viruses suppress RNAi, which requires catalytic activities of RNaseIII. In contrast to other viral silencing suppression proteins, the RNaseIII enzymes are

  8. ANALISIS DETERMINAN DAN PENGARUH STUNTING TERHADAP PRESTASI BELAJAR ANAK SEKOLAH DI KUPANG DAN SUMBA TIMUR, NTT

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    Intje Picauly

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACTThe research was conducted to find out determinant factors that can cause the incidence of stunting and how it may affect elementary school children performance. The research areas were selected based on the difference access of nutrition information. Kabupaten Sumba Timur and Kota Kupang were selected as research areas. Related primary data was taken covering anthropometric index namely body height for age (HFA; weight for age (WFA, and weight for height (WFH, and academic school performances before and after research treatment. Other data was collected by interview using questionnaires. Regression analysis was used to know determinant factors that may bring about stunting. The results showed that determinant factors of stunting were family income, mother’s nutrition knowledge, child care practices, the history of infection, immunization, protein intake, and mother education. While, stunted elementary school children had low academic performances. The higher level of stunting is the lower academic performance of elementary school children.Keywords: academic performances, determinant of Stunting, elementary school studentsABSTRAKPenelitian ini bertujuan untuk mengetahui faktor-faktor yang berhubungan dengan kejadian stunting serta dampaknya terhadap prestasi anak sekolah dasar. Penelitian dilakukan di Kota Kupang dan Kabupaten Sumba Timur. Lokasi penelitian sengaja diambil dua wilayah yang berbeda jangkauan informasi tentang gizi dan manfaatnya serta ketersediaan sarana prasarana yang dapat digunakan untuk pencapaian kondisi bebas masalah gizi. Subjek yang dibutuhkan dalam penelitian ini masing-masing sebanyak 265 siswa di Kota Kupang dan 274 di Kabupaten Sumba Timur. Adapun jenis data yang digunakan adalah data primer yang meliputi data indeks antropometri (TB/U; BB/U; BB/TB dan data hasil pengukuran nilai siswa. Selain itu data–data lain dilengkapi dan diukur menggunakan instrumen kuesioner yang bersifat terstruktur. Analisis

  9. Secondary sexual characteristics of stunted and non-stunted Black South African Boys living in a township in the North West Province

    OpenAIRE

    Kruger, Herculina Salome; Mamabolo, Ramoteme Lesley; Monyeki, Makama Andries; Pienaar, Anita Elizabeth; Toriola, Abel; Van Ridder, Johannes Hendrik

    2012-01-01

    It is known that sexual maturation is dependent on genetic and environmental factors and socio-economic status. The purpose of this study was to describe secondary sexual characteristics of stunted and non-stunted black South African boys from a low socio-economic status living in a township in the North West Province. A total of 129 boys aged 12 to 16 years participated in the study. Height and weight were measured according to the standard protocol suggested by the International Society of ...

  10. Stop stunting: improving child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation in South Asia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Menon, Purnima

    2016-05-01

    The latest available data indicate that 38% of South Asia's children aged 0-59 months are stunted. Such high prevalence combined with the region's large child population explain why South Asia bears about 40% of the global burden of stunting. Recent analyses indicate that the poor diets of children in the first years of life, the poor nutrition of women before and during pregnancy and the prevailing poor sanitation practices in households and communities are important drivers of stunting, most likely because of underlying conditions of women's status, food insecurity, poverty, and social inequalities. With this evidence in mind, UNICEF Regional Office for South Asia convened the Regional Conference: Stop Stunting: Improving Child Feeding, Women's Nutrition, and Household Sanitation in South Asia (New Delhi, November 10-12, 2014). The Conference provided a knowledge-for-action platform with three objectives: (1) share state-of-the-art research findings on the causes of child stunting and its consequences for child growth and development and the sustainable growth and development of nations; (2) discuss better practices and the cost and benefits of scaling up programmes to improve child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation in South Asia; and (3) identify implications for sectoral and cross-sectoral policy, programme, advocacy and research to accelerate progress in reducing child stunting in South Asia. This overview paper summarizes the rationale for the focus on improving child feeding, women's nutrition, and household sanitation as priority areas for investment to prevent child stunting in South Asia. It builds on the invited papers presented at or developed as a follow on to the Stop Stunting Conference. PMID:27187906

  11. Maternal Human Capital and Childhood Stunting In Nepal: A Multi-Level Modeling Approach

    OpenAIRE

    Shrestha, Sundar S.; Findeis, Jill L

    2007-01-01

    Childhood stunting among preschool-age children stands as a serious public health problem to be addressed in Nepal. Applying the multi-level modeling approach to nationally representative data, in the overall, we provide evidence that the negative influence of maternal own education to childhood stunting occurs especially for mother's higher level of education, but there exists substantial residential variations. Most interestingly, we provide new evidence of a strong negative community exter...

  12. Wound-induced endogenous jasmonates stunt plant growth by inhibiting mitosis.

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    Yi Zhang

    Full Text Available When plants are repeatedly injured their growth is stunted and the size of organs such as leaves is greatly reduced. The basis of this effect is not well-understood however, even though it reduces yield of crops injured by herbivory, and produces dramatic effects exemplified in ornamental bonsai plants. We have investigated the genetic and physiological basis of this "bonsai effect" by repeatedly wounding leaves of the model plant Arabidopsis. This treatment stunted growth by 50% and increased the endogenous content of jasmonate (JA, a growth inhibitor, by seven-fold. Significantly, repeated wounding did not stunt the growth of the leaves of mutants unable to synthesise JA, or unable to respond to JA including coi1, jai3, myc2, but not jar1. The stunted growth did not result from reduced cell size, but resulted instead from reduced cell number, and was associated with reduced expression of CycB1;2. Wounding caused systemic disappearance of constitutively expressed JAZ1::GUS. Wounding also activates plant immunity. We show that a gene, 12-oxo-phytodienoate reductase, which catalyses a step in JA biosynthesis, and which we confirm is not required for defence, is however required for wound-induced stunting. Our data suggest that intermediates in the JA biosynthetic pathway activate defence, but a primary function of wound-induced JA is to stunt growth through the suppression of mitosis.

  13. Prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of stunting and thinness among Pakistani primary school children

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    Shahid Ubeera

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Child growth is internationally recognized as an important indicator of nutritional status and health in populations. Child under-nutrition is estimated to be the largest contributor to global burden of disease, and it clusters in South Asia but literature on under-nutrition among school-aged children is difficult to find in this region. The study aimed to assess the prevalence and socio-demographic correlates of stunting and thinness among Pakistani primary school children. Methods A population-based cross-sectional study was conducted with a representative multistage cluster sample of 1860 children aged 5-12 years in Lahore, Pakistan. Stunting ( Results Eight percent (95% CI 6.9-9.4 children were stunted and 10% (95% CI 8.7-11.5 children were thin. Stunting and thinness were not significantly associated with gender. Prevalence of stunting significantly increased with age among both boys and girls (both P 8 years, rural area and urban area with low SES, low-income neighborhoods, lower parental education, more siblings, crowded housing and smoking in living place (all P 10 years (P = 0.003, more siblings (P = 0.016 and crowded housing (P = 0.006. In multivariate logistic regression analyses adjusted simultaneously for all factors, older age (aOR 3.60, 95% CI 1.89-6.88, urban area with low SES (aOR 2.58, 95% CI 1.15-5.81 and low-income neighborhoods (aOR 4.62, 95% CI 1.63-13.10 were associated with stunting while urban area with low SES (aOR 2.28, 95% CI 1.21-4.30 was associated with thinness. In linear regression analyses adjusted for all factors, low-income neighborhoods and older age were associated with lower height-for-age z-score while rural area with low/disadvantaged SES was associated with lower BMI-for-age z-score. Conclusions Relatively low prevalence of stunting and thinness depicted an improvement in the nutritional status of school-aged children in Pakistan. However, the inequities between the poorest and the

  14. Stunt Barbie - A Laboratory Practicum Combining Constant Velocity and Constant Acceleration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hertting, Scott

    2011-04-01

    In preparing to teach the advanced physics course at my high school, I found it useful to work through the end-of-chapter problems in the book used by the advanced class. A problem on motion in one dimension involved a stunt woman in free fall from a tree limb onto a horse running beneath her.2 The problem presents a connected learning opportunity for students because it requires the use of the constant velocity model xf = v*t + xi and the constant acceleration model yf = ½* g* t2 + vyi* t + yi (where g = 9.8 m/s/s) to solve it. I named the stunt woman Barbie and created an activity titled "Stunt Barbie."

  15. [Stunting and emaciation in children under 5 in distinct regions and strata in Mexico].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivera-Dommarco, J; González-Cossío, T; Flores, M; Hernández-Avila, M; Lezana, M A; Sepúlveda-Amor, J

    1995-01-01

    Data from a National Nutrition Survey conducted in 1988 in a probability sample of 13,236 households and 17,426 children under five, representative at the national level and for four regions (North, Center, South, and Mexico City), were analyzed. Risks for wasting and stunting and odds ratios were obtained by region, by district according to proportion of indigenous population and by level of urbanization, by level of education of both parents, by gender, and by various combinations of the former strata. A high risk of stunting and a low risk of wasting were found. The risk of stunting is greater in predominantly indigenous and rural districts, in the South and Center, and in families of mothers with low education and poor housing conditions. The results can be used for food and nutrition policy planning and for targeting nutrition intervention programs. PMID:7618120

  16. The Potential Role of Mycotoxins as a Contributor to Stunting in the SHINE Trial.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Laura E; Prendergast, Andrew J; Turner, Paul C; Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Mutasa, Kuda; Kembo, George; Stoltzfus, Rebecca J

    2015-12-15

    Children in developing countries experience multiple exposures that are harmful to their growth and development. An emerging concern is frequent exposure to mycotoxins that contaminate a wide range of staple foods, including maize and groundnuts. Three mycotoxins are suspected to contribute to poor child health and development: aflatoxin, fumonisin, and deoxynivalenol. We summarize the evidence that mycotoxin exposure is associated with stunting, and propose that the causal pathway may be through environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) and disturbance of the insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1) axis. The objectives of this substudy are to assess the relationship between agricultural and harvest practices and mycotoxin exposure; to evaluate associations between mycotoxin exposure and child stunting; and to investigate EED as a potential pathway linking mycotoxin exposure to child stunting, to inform potential areas for intervention.

  17. Role of Zinc in Stunting of Infants and Children in Rural Ethiopia

    OpenAIRE

    Umeta, M.

    2003-01-01

    Stunting is highly prevalent in children in Ethiopia with 57% of infants aged 6-11 mo being affected. The reasons for stunting are poorly understood but zinc deficiency may play a role in its aetiology. The research described in this thesis was carried out in a rural area of Ethiopia. It comprised a cross-sectional study of 305 breastfed infants aged 5-11 mo and their mothers; a double-blind randomised controlled zinc supplementation trial on growth of 200 breastfed infants aged 6-12 mo for 6...

  18. Main viruses in sweet cherry plantations of Central-Western Spain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodrigo Pérez Sánchez

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Sweet cherry trees (Prunus avium L. are susceptible to a range of diseases, but there have been no studies to date about the viral infection of sweet cherry trees in Spain. To determine the phytosanitary status of Spanish sweet cherry plantations, the incidence and leaf symptoms induced by Prune dwarf (PDV, Prunus necrotic ringspot (PNRSV and Apple chlorotic leaf spot (ACLSV viruses were investigated during 2009. Young leaf samples were taken from 350 sweet cherry trees, corresponding to 17 cultivars, and were analysed by double antibody sandwich enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA. To associate the leaf symptoms with the virus, 50 mature leaves from each infected tree were visually inspected during the summer. The ELISA results revealed that 72 % of sweet cherry trees were infected by at least one of the viruses. PDV occurred in all sampled cultivars and presented the highest infection rate, followed by ACLSV and PNRSV. A high number of trees showed asymptomatic, in both single and mixed infections. The leaf symptoms associated with the viruses involved generalized chlorosis around the midvein (PDV, chlorotic and dark brown necrotic ringspots on both secondary veins and intervein regions (PNRSV, chlorotic and reddish necrotic ringspots (ACLSV and generalized interveinal chlorosis (PDV-PNRSV.

  19. Effects of multivitamin-multimineral supplementation on appetite of stunted young Beninese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.M.; Ategbo, E.A.D.; Raaij, van J.M.A.; Graaf, de C.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2002-01-01

    In the developing world, food intake of young children is often insufficient for growth. Reduced appetite due to several factors including micronutrient deficiencies might be an explanation. We hypothesized that a multivitamin-multimineral supplementation will improve appetite of stunted children in

  20. Zinc supplementation and stunted infants in Ethiopia : a randomised controlled trial

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Umeta, M.; West, C.E.; Haider, J.; Deurenberg, P.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2000-01-01

    Background Stunting is highly prevalent in Ethiopia and many other developing countries but the reason for it is poorly understood. Zinc is essential for growth but diets in such countries often do not contain zinc in sufficient quantity or of sufficient bioavailability. Thus zinc deficiency may pla

  1. Micronutrient supplementation of young stunted Beninese children: effects on appetite and growth performance

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Linear growth retardation (stunting) still has a high prevalence rate in developing countries (ACC/SCN, 2000). In the republic of Benin reported prevalence rates range from 25% to 40%. In malnourished children it is quite common to observe a combination of multiple micronutrient deficiency, loss of

  2. 78 FR 60222 - Safety Zone; Motion Picture Stunt Work and Filming; Chicago, IL

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-10-01

    ...The Coast Guard is establishing five temporary safety zones on waterways near Chicago, IL. These safety zones are intended to restrict vessels from portions of Chicago waterways due to the filming of a motion picture. These temporary safety zones are necessary to protect the surrounding public and vessels from the hazards associated with the stunt work, pyrotechnics, low-flying helicopter, and......

  3. Sequence analysis of leader and trailer regions of rice yellow stunt rhabdovirus and characterization of their in vivo transcripts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王群; 陈晓英; 罗宗礼; 方荣祥

    1999-01-01

    The 3’ leader and the 5’ trailer of the rice yellow stunt rhabdovirus (RYSV) genomic RNA have been cloned and sequenced. Sequence data indicate that the RYSV leader region is composed of 203 nucleotides (nt) and the trailer region 191 nt. The terminal 9 nt of the two regions are complementary and capable of forming a putative panhandle structure common to rhabdovirus genomes. In comparison with the leader or trailer sequences of other rhab-doviruses reported so far, both the leader and trailer of RYSV are the longest and there is no obvious sequence homolo-gy between the counterparts except for a few terminal nt and the UGUU motif in the leader sequences. Polyadenylated plus-strand leader RNA has been detected in RYSV-infected rice plants by 3’ RACE. This is the second example in rhabdoviruses following the report for sonchus yellow net virus (SYNV) for existence of a polyadenylated leader RNA. No polyadenylated plus-strand transcripts of the RYSV trailer have been found using the similar method.

  4. 利用农杆菌注射法鉴定番茄黄化曲叶病毒的沉默抑制子%Determination of Silencing Suppressor of Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus by Agroinfiltration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张余洋; 耶狄迪亚·咖夫尼; 李汉霞

    2012-01-01

    We described the utilization of agroinfiltration to screen and verify the silencing suppressor, V2, of Tomato yellow leaf curl virus ( TYLCV ). The target gene together with the GFP gene was transiently co-expressed in leaves of Nicotiana benthamiana by agroinfiltrations. In all tests of agroinfiltrations, the GFP showed high expression at 2 days post inoculation (dpi), showing the infiltration and expression was successful. On the leaves co-infected with the BV1 gene of Watermelon chlorotic stunt virus or the empty vector pBIN, the GFP fluorescence almost disappeared at 7 dpi due to silencing mechanism of the host plant. The leaves co-infected with V2, showed continuously high expression of GFP, indicating that V2 is the silencing suppressor of TYLCV. Agroinfiltration can be utilized as potent tool for screening the silencing suppressor of plant virus.%利用农杆菌注射法鉴定了番茄黄化曲叶病毒的沉默抑制子V2.将分别携带目标基因与GFP表达载体的农杆菌共注射副本氏烟草中,2d后GFP瞬时高量表达.西瓜褪绿矮化病毒BV1基因表达载体和空载体pBIN分别与GFP共侵染7d后,GFP表达量由于寄主沉默机制而急剧减弱.V基因表达载体与GFP表达载体共侵染叶片7d后,GFP仍保持高水平表达,说明V2作为番茄黄化曲叶病毒沉默抑制子可阻止寄主的沉默机制.农杆菌注射法可快速方便筛选植物病毒沉默抑制子.

  5. Time trends in socioeconomic inequalities in stunting prevalence: analyses of repeated national surveys

    Science.gov (United States)

    Restrepo-Méndez, María Clara; Barros, Aluísio JD; Black, Robert E; Victora, Cesar G

    2016-01-01

    Objective Much is known about national trends in child undernutrition, but there is little information on how socioeconomic inequalities are evolving over time. We aimed to assess socioeconomic inequalities in stunting prevalence over time. Setting Nationally representative household surveys from 25 low and middle income countries. Design We selected nationally representative surveys carried out since the mid-1990s for which information was available on asset indices and on child anthropometry. We identified twenty-five countries which had at least two surveys over an interval of 10 or more years, totaling 87 surveys. Stunting prevalence was calculated according to wealth quintiles. Absolute and relative inequalities were calculated, and time trends were obtained by regression. Results National prevalence declined significantly in 22 of the 25 countries. In 18 out of 25 countries, relative reductions among the rich than among the poor. Overall, there was no indication that inequalities improved. Striking examples are Nepal, with a 17·0 percent points decline in stunting per decade, but where inequalities increased sharply, and Brazil where stunting fell by 6·7 percent points and inequalities were all but eliminated. Conclusions Global progress in reducing stunting has not been accompanied by improved equity, but countries varied markedly in how successful they were in reducing prevalence among the poorest children. It is important to document how some countries were able to reduce inequalities, so that these lessons can be used to foster global progress, particularly in light of the increased importance of within-country inequalities in the post-2015 agenda. PMID:25521530

  6. Relationships between Wasting and Stunting and Their Concurrent Occurrence in Ghanaian Preschool Children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mahama Saaka

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective. The main aim of the study was to assess the magnitude of concurrent wasting and stunting among Ghanaian preschool children. Secondly, we investigated the relationship between wasting and stunting as well as factors associated with these conditions. Methods. This paper is based on reanalysis of anthropometric and other relevant data which was collected in the 2014 Ghana Demographic and Health Survey. The data set consisted of 2,720 preschool children aged 0–59 months. We conducted three-step moderated hierarchical multiple regression analyses to determine independent predictors and moderators of height-for-age Z-score. Results. Nationally, the prevalence of concurrent wasting and stunting among children aged 0–59 months was low at 1.4% but it varied geographically with the Upper East Region having the highest prevalence of 3.2% (95% CI: 1.7–5.8. Children who had low weight-for-height Z-scores were at a higher risk of linear growth retardation (stunting especially among children aged less than three years. A 1-unit increase in weight-for-height Z-score (WHZ was associated with 0.07 standard units’ increase in height-for-age Z-score (HAZ [β = 0.071 (95% CI: 0.03, 0.15]. Conclusions. The study results suggest that weight-for-height relates to linear growth but this relationship is moderated by age of child. Stunting and wasting share some common risk factors. Therefore, measures to prevent wasting may positively influence linear growth.

  7. Factors associated with stunted growth in children below 11 years of age in Antioquia, Colombia, 2004

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    Bibiana Andrea Castro

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To explore some factors associated to stunted growth in children below 11 years of age in the Department of Antioquia.Methodology: Cross-sectional study using the databases of alimentary and nutritional profiles in homes of Antioquia in 2004, based on a representative random sample of homes in the department (95% reliability and error margin of 3%. For this study, 100% of the records of children below 11 years of age were used. A model of generalized equations estimation was constructed for stunted growth classified by a Z score smaller than -2 standard deviation with respect to p 50 of the 1978 NCHS (Centro Nacional de Estadísticas de la Salud - National Center for Health Statistics. Data were analyzed using the GLIMMIX Procedure: SAS version 9.1.Results: We found 18.6% of the children with stunted growth, 75% of the homes with male head of household, 70% of heads of household with maximum 5 years of schooling; 47% of homes were nucleated bi-parental, and 40% extensive with a 5-member median per home; 56.4% poor per unsatisfied basic needs, and 80% in alimentary insecurity. The factors associated to stunted growth were: female gender, 1-5 years of age, head of household with less than 6 years of schooling, more than 5 people in the home, more than two household members under 7 years of age, coming from a poor home per unsatisfied basic needs, belonging to a sub-region different from Medellin, food availability of less than 30 different foods per week, no production of food, and head of household under 40 years of age.Conclusions: Herein, we show evidence of the magnitude of poverty and association of precarious socioeconomic conditions with stunted growth in Antioquia. The study shows the importance of considering the correlated nature of the data for the construction of the model.

  8. Stunting and soil-transmitted-helminth infections among school-age pupils in rural areas of southern China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chen Ying-Dan

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Stunting and soil-transmitted helminth (STH infections including ascariasis, trichuriasis and hookworm remain major public health problems in school-age pupils in developing countries. The objectives of this study were to determine the prevalence of stunting for children and its association with three major soil-transmitted helminths (STH in rural areas of southern China. The study also aims to determine risk factors for stunting and to provide guidance on the prevention and control of stunting and STH infections for future studies in this field. Results A cross-sectional survey was carried out in the poor rural areas in Guangxi Autonomous Regional and Hainan Province where STH prevalence was higher between September and November 2009. Pupils were from 15 primary schools. All the school-age pupils aged between 9 and 12 years old (mean age 11.2 ± 3.2 years, from grades three to six took part in this study. Study contents include questionnaire surveys, physical examination and laboratory methods (stool checking for eggs of three major STH infections and haemoglobin determination was performed for the anaemia test. Finally 1031 school-age pupils took part in survey. The results showed that the overall prevalence of stunting (HAZ Conclusion The present study showed that stunting was highly prevalent among the study population and STH infection is one of the important risk factors for stunting, with moderate-to-heavy intensity infections being the main predictor of stunting. Hence, additional interventions measures such as to promote de-worming treatment, to enhance health education and to improve hygiene and sanitation in order to reduce stunting in this population, are needed throughout the primary school age group.

  9. On the stunted Mocambique tilapia Oreochromis mossambicus (Peters, 1852 (PIsces: Cichlidae of the Matiovila hot spring, Kruger National Park

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T Hecht

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available A stunted population of Oreochromis mossambicus occurs in the Matiovila Hot Sulphur Spring in the Kruger National Park. The growth of the fishes can best be described by the Von Bertalanffy equation L, = ^^(l-e0154^028^ mm SL. Breeding occurs throughout the year and the smallest sexually mature female was 35 mm SL. The fish from this locality were morphometrically compared to another stunted population and to a population of 0. mossambicus from a large impoundment. Speculative reasons for and advantages of stunting are presented.

  10. Identification of RNA viruses in the turkey gut using metagenomics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultry enteric disease is marked by diarrhea, stunting, increased time to market, immune dysfunction and increased mortality. Numerous viruses have been detected in the intestinal tract of poultry, and have subsequently been implicated in enteric disease. Knowledge of the complete viral flora prese...

  11. Ultrastructural changes in chloroplasts of mesophyll cells of chlorotic and prematurely yellowed leaves of Betula pendula Rothr

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    Krystyna Przybył

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available The ultrastructure of chloroplasts was studied in mesophyll cells of the leaves of silver birch (Betula pendula showing interveinal chlorosis or premature yellowing, in comparison with leaves without symptoms or exhibiting symptoms of natural senescence. The leaves were collected between May 26 to June 7 and additionally in the September 10-12 from the upper part of the crown, from increments of the past four years. No major difference in ultrastructure of chloroplasts was found between spongy and palisade mesophyll cells. The following senescencerelated changes were observed in chloroplasts of prematurely yellowed leaves and showing inteveinal chlorosis: reduced chloroplast size, degeneration of the membrane systems of thylakoids and increased electron density of plastoglobuli. The most electron dark globules (lipid droplets were found together with starch grains in cells of spongy mesophyll of leaves showing interveinal chlorosis. Abnormal, spherical and rounded chloroplasts with electron-dark inside of thylakoids or the electron-dark stroma between thylakoids were found only in yellowed and chlorotic leaves in spring.

  12. Transcriptome analysis of woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) response to the infection by Strawberry vein banding virus (SVBV)

    OpenAIRE

    Chen, Jing; ZHANG, HANPING; Feng, Mingfeng; Zuo, Dengpan; Hu, Yahui; Jiang, Tong

    2016-01-01

    Background Woodland strawberry (Fragaria vesca) infected with Strawberry vein banding virus (SVBV) exhibits chlorotic symptoms along the leaf veins. However, little is known about the molecular mechanism of strawberry disease caused by SVBV. Methods We performed the next-generation sequencing (RNA-Seq) study to identify gene expression changes induced by SVBV in woodland strawberry using mock-inoculated plants as a control. Results Using RNA-Seq, we have identified 36,850 unigenes, of which 5...

  13. Prevalence and determinants of child undernutrition and stunting in semiarid region of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciano Lima Correia

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE : To analyze the evolution in the prevalence and determinants of malnutrition in children in the semiarid region of Brazil. METHODS : Data were collected from two cross-sectional population-based household surveys that used the same methodology. Clustering sampling was used to collect data from 8,000 families in Ceará, Northeastern Brazil, for the years 1987 and 2007. Acute undernutrition was calculated as weight/age < -2 standard deviation (SD; stunting as height/age < -2 SD; wasting as weight/height < -2 SD. Data on biological and sociodemographic determinants were analyzed using hierarchical multivariate analyses based on a theoretical model. RESULTS : A sample of 4,513 and 1,533 children under three years of age, in 1987 and 2007, respectively, were included in the analyses. The prevalence of acute malnutrition was reduced by 60.0%, from 12.6% in 1987 to 4.7% in 2007, while prevalence of stunting was reduced by 50.0%, from 27.0% in 1987 to 13.0% in 2007. Prevalence of wasting changed little in the period. In 1987, socioeconomic and biological characteristics (family income, mother’s education, toilet and tap water availability, children’s medical consultation and hospitalization, age, sex and birth weight were significantly associated with undernutrition, stunting and wasting. In 2007, the determinants of malnutrition were restricted to biological characteristics (age, sex and birth weight. Only one socioeconomic characteristic, toilet availability, remained associated with stunting. CONCLUSIONS : Socioeconomic development, along with health interventions, may have contributed to improvements in children’s nutritional status. Birth weight, especially extremely low weight (< 1,500 g, appears as the most important risk factor for early childhood malnutrition.

  14. Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of Napier stunt phytoplasma in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obura, Evans; Midega, Charles A. O.; Masiga, Daniel; Pickett, John A.; Hassan, Mohamed; Koji, Shinsaku; Khan, Zeyaur R.

    2009-10-01

    Napier grass ( Pennisetum purpureum) is the most important fodder crop in smallholder dairy production systems in East Africa, characterized by small zero-grazing units. It is also an important trap crop used in the management of cereal stemborers in maize in the region. However, production of Napier grass in the region is severely constrained by Napier stunt disease. The etiology of the disease is known to be a phytoplasma, 16SrXI strain. However, the putative insect vector was yet unknown. We sampled and identified five leafhopper and three planthopper species associated with Napier grass and used them as candidates in pathogen transmission experiments. Polymerase chain reaction (PCR), based on the highly conserved 16S gene, primed by P1/P6-R16F2n/R16R2 nested primer sets was used to diagnose phytoplasma on test plants and insects, before and after transmission experiments. Healthy plants were exposed for 60 days to insects that had fed on diseased plants and acquired phytoplasma. The plants were then incubated for another 30 days. Nested PCR analyses showed that 58.3% of plants exposed to Recilia banda Kramer (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae) were positive for phytoplasma and developed characteristic stunt disease symptoms while 60% of R. banda insect samples were similarly phytoplasma positive. We compared the nucleotide sequences of the phytoplasma isolated from R. banda, Napier grass on which these insects were fed, and Napier grass infected by R. banda, and found them to be virtually identical. The results confirm that R. banda transmits Napier stunt phytoplasma in western Kenya, and may be the key vector of Napier stunt disease in this region.

  15. Micronutrient supplementation of young stunted Beninese children: effects on appetite and growth performance

    OpenAIRE

    Dossa, R.A.M.

    2001-01-01

    Linear growth retardation (stunting) still has a high prevalence rate in developing countries (ACC/SCN, 2000). In the republic of Benin reported prevalence rates range from 25% to 40%. In malnourished children it is quite common to observe a combination of multiple micronutrient deficiency, loss of appetite and growth retardation. However, possible interactions between these parameters are not yet adequately mapped.The research presented in this thesis was performed to examine whether micronu...

  16. Infection by Intestinal Parasites, Stunting and Anemia in School-Aged Children from Southern Angola.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dinamene Oliveira

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites are responsible for morbidity in children worldwide, especially in low income countries. In the present study we determine the prevalence of intestinal parasites and explore its association with anemia and stunting in school-aged children.A cross-sectional study was conducted from September to October 2010 enrolling 328 children attending the primary school in Lubango, the second largest city after the capital Luanda. Stool samples were collected for parasite detection through microscopy and molecular identification of Entamoeba histolytica and Entamoeba dispar. Stunting was assessed using the z-scores of height for age and hemoglobin concentration was determined using a portable hemoglobin analyzing system.The global prevalence of pathogenic intestinal parasites was 44.2%, the most common being Ascaris lumbricoides (22.0%, Giardia lamblia (20.1% and Hymenolepis nana (8.8%. Molecular detection revealed that 13.1% of the children carried E. dispar and 0.3% were infected with E. histolytica. The prevalence of stunting (mild to severe was 41.5%. Stunting was more frequent in older children (p = 0.006, OR = 1.886, while anemia was more frequent in younger children (p = 0.005, OR = 2.210. The prevalence of anemia was 21.6%, and we found a significant association with infection by H. nana (p = 0.031, OR = 2.449.This is one of the few published studies reporting intestinal parasites infection, nutritional status and anemia in children from Angola. Furthermore, the present work highlights the importance of regular intestinal parasites screening in children.

  17. The costs of stunting in South Asia and the benefits of public investments in nutrition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shekar, Meera; Dayton Eberwein, Julia; Kakietek, Jakub

    2016-05-01

    South Asia is home to the largest number of stunted children worldwide: 65 million or 37% of all South Asian children under 5 were stunted in 2014. The costs to society as a result of stunting during childhood are high and include increased mortality, increased morbidity (in childhood and later as adults), decreased cognitive ability, poor educational outcomes, lost earnings and losses to national economic productivity. Conversely, investing in nutrition provides many benefits for poverty reduction and economic growth. This article draws from analyses conducted in four sub-Saharan countries to demonstrate that investments in nutrition can also be very cost-effective in South Asian countries. Specifically, the analyses demonstrate that scaling up a set of 10 critical nutrition-specific interventions is highly cost-effective when considered as a package. Most of the interventions are also very cost-effective when considered individually. By modelling cost-effectiveness of different scale-up scenarios, the analysis offers insights into ways in which the impact of investing in nutrition interventions can be maximized under budget constraints. Rigorous estimations of the costs and benefits of nutrition investments, similar to those reported here for sub-Saharan countries, are an important next step for all South Asian countries in order to drive political commitment and action and to enhance allocative efficiency of nutrition resources. PMID:27187915

  18. Continuous `stunted' outbursts detected from the Cataclysmic Variable KIC 9202990 using Kepler data

    CERN Document Server

    Ramsay, Gavin; Wood, Matt A; Howell, Steve B; Smale, Alan; Still, Martin; Barclay, Tom

    2015-01-01

    Based on early Kepler data, Ostensen et al. (2010) found that KIC 9202990 showed a 4 hr and a two-week photometric period. They suggested the 4 hr period was a signature of an orbital period; the longer period was possibly due to precession of an accretion disk and KIC 9202990 was a cataclysmic variable with an accretion disk which is always in a bright state (a nova-like system). Using the full Kepler dataset on KIC 9202990 which covers 1421 d (Quarter 2--17), and includes 1 min cadence data from the whole of Quarters 5 and 16, we find that the 4 hr period is stable and therefore a signature of the binary orbital period. In contrast, the 10--12 d period is not stable and shows an amplitude between 20--50 percent. This longer period modulation is similar to those nova-like systems which show `stunted' outbursts. We discuss the problems that a precessing disk model has in explaining the observed characteristics and indicate why we favour a stunted outburst model. Although such stunted events are considered to ...

  19. Determinants of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years of age in India: an in-depth analysis of Maharashtra's comprehensive nutrition survey.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguayo, Víctor M; Nair, Rajilakshmi; Badgaiyan, Nina; Krishna, Vandana

    2016-05-01

    We use a representative sample of 2561 children 0-23 months old to identify the factors most significantly associated with child stunting in the state of Maharashtra, India. We find that 22.7% of children were stunted, with one-third (7.4%) of the stunted children severely stunted. Multivariate regression analyses indicate that children born with low birthweight had a 2.5-fold higher odds of being stunted [odds ratio (OR) 2.49; 95% confidence interval (CI) 1.96-3.27]; children 6-23 months old who were not fed a minimum number of times/day had a 63% higher odds of being stunted (OR 1.63; 95% CI 1.24-2.14); and lower consumption of eggs was associated with a two-fold increased odds of stunting in children 6-23 months old (OR 2.07; 95% CI 1.19-3.61); children whose mother's height was households without access to improved sanitation had 88% higher odds of being severely stunted (OR 1.88; 95% CI 1.17-3.02). Attained linear growth (height-for-age z-score) was significantly lower in children from households without access to improved sanitation, children of mothers without access to electronic media, without decision making power regarding food or whose height was products, fruits and vegetables. In Maharashtra children's birthweight and feeding practices, women's nutrition and status and household sanitation and poverty are the most significant predictors of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years. Key messages One in five (22.7%) of children 0-23 months old in the state of Maharashtra were stunted, and one-third (7.4%) of the stunted children were severely stunted. Birthweight, child feeding, women's nutrition and household sanitation were the most significant predictors of stunting and poor linear growth in children under 2 years. Children born to mothers whose height was below 145 cm, had two-fold higher odds of being stunted; children born with a low birthweight had a 2.5-fold higher odds of being stunted. Low feeding frequency and

  20. KARAKTERISASICYMBIDIUM MOSAIC VIRUS (CYMMV PADA TANAMAN ANGGREK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    KHAMDAN KHALIMI

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Characterization ofCymbidium mosaic virus (CymMV on Orchid Plant Orchids are affected by more virus disease problems than most crops, reducing their commercial values considerably. Orchid viruses are widespread in cultivated orchids, withCymbidium mosaic potexvirus (CymMV being the most prevalent. CymMV high incidence in cultivated orchids has been attributed to the stability and ease of transmission of this virus through cultural practices. CymMV induces floral and foliar necrosis. The virus also reduce plant vigor and lower flower quality, which affect their economic value. The objective of the research is to characterize the virus causing mosaic or chlorotic and necrotic on orchids in West Java. A reverse transcription-polymerase chain reaction (RT- PCR assays using oligonucleotide primers specific to CymMV were also successfully amplified the regions of the coat protein (CP gene of the virus. Analysis by using sodium dodecyl sulphate- polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (SDS-PAGE revealed that the virus have a major structural protein with an estimated molecular weight of 28 kDa. Aligments of partial nucleotide sequences of the CP gene displayed 86 to 92% homology to CymMV isolates from other countries.

  1. Chemotherapy pro-drug activation by biocatalytic virus-like nanoparticles containing cytochrome P450.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sánchez-Sánchez, Lorena; Cadena-Nava, Rubén D; Palomares, Laura A; Ruiz-Garcia, Jaime; Koay, Melissa S T; Cornelissen, Jeroen J M T; Vazquez-Duhalt, Rafael

    2014-06-10

    This work shows, for the first time, the encapsulation of a highly relevant protein in the biomedical field into virus-like particles (VLPs). A bacterial CYP variant was effectively encapsulated in VLPs constituted of coat protein from cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV). The catalytic VLPs are able to transform the chemotherapeutic pro-drug, tamoxifen, and the emerging pro-drug resveratrol. The chemical nature of the products was identified, confirming similar active products than those obtained with human CYP. The enzymatic VLPs remain stable after the catalytic reaction. The potential use of these biocatalytic nanoparticles as targeted CYP carriers for the activation of chemotherapy drugs is discussed. PMID:24835096

  2. Measuring Poverty in Southern India: A Comparison of Socio-Economic Scales Evaluated against Childhood Stunting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kattula, Deepthi; Venugopal, Srinivasan; Velusamy, Vasanthakumar; Sarkar, Rajiv; Jiang, Victoria; S., Mahasampath Gowri; Henry, Ankita; Deosaran, Jordanna Devi; Muliyil, Jayaprakash; Kang, Gagandeep

    2016-01-01

    Introduction Socioeconomic status (SES) scales measure poverty, wealth and economic inequality in a population to guide appropriate economic and public health policies. Measurement of poverty and comparison of material deprivation across nations is a challenge. This study compared four SES scales which have been used locally and internationally and evaluated them against childhood stunting, used as an indicator of chronic deprivation, in urban southern India. Methods A door-to-door survey collected information on socio-demographic indicators such as education, occupation, assets, income and living conditions in a semi-urban slum area in Vellore, Tamil Nadu in southern India. A total of 7925 households were categorized by four SES scales—Kuppuswamy scale, Below Poverty Line scale (BPL), the modified Kuppuswamy scale, and the multidimensional poverty index (MDPI) and the level of agreement compared between scales. Logistic regression was used to test the association of SES scales with stunting. Findings The Kuppuswamy, BPL, MDPI and modified Kuppuswamy scales classified 7.1%, 1%, 5.5%, and 55.3% of families as low SES respectively, indicating conservative estimation of low SES by the BPL and MDPI scales in comparison with the modified Kuppuswamy scale, which had the highest sensitivity (89%). Children from low SES classified by all scales had higher odds of stunting, but the level of agreement between scales was very poor ranging from 1%-15%. Conclusion There is great non-uniformity between existing SES scales and cautious interpretation of SES scales is needed in the context of social, cultural, and economic realities. PMID:27490200

  3. Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation of chrysanthemum (Chrysanthemum morifolium) plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nabeshima, Tomoyuki; Doi, Motoaki; Hosokawa, Munetaka

    2016-08-01

    Agroinfiltration was tested as a method of inoculation of chrysanthemum plants with chrysanthemum stunt viroid (CSVd). Binary vectors harboring dimeric CSVd sequences in sense and antisense orientations were constructed, and Agrobacterium transfected with these binary vectors was infiltrated into chrysanthemum leaves. Northern blotting and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction analysis showed that local infection was established within 7 days and systemic infection within 20 days. CSVd polarities showed no difference in infectivity. This study showed that agroinfiltration of chrysanthemum plants is an easy, rapid, and cost-effective method for CSVd inoculation. PMID:27155239

  4. Napier grass stunt disease prevalence, incidence, severity and genetic variability of the associated phytoplasma in Uganda

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kawube, Geofrey; Talwana, Herbert; Nicolaisen, Mogens;

    2015-01-01

    affected. Sequence alignments and Blast searches showed that the phytoplasma causing NGSD in Uganda belonged to the phytoplasma group 16SrXI, with single nucleotide sequence variants in a few districts. Therefore, there is a need for development of an area wide NGSD management strategy to contain......The prevalence, incidence and severity of Napier grass stunt disease (NGSD) caused by phytoplasma on Pennisetum purpureum, the main fodder for livestock under intensive and semi-intensive management systems in Uganda were determined following a field survey carried out in 17 districts. A total...

  5. Brain serotonergic activation in growth-stunted farmed salmon: adaption versus pathology

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vindas, Marco A.; Johansen, Ida B.; Folkedal, Ole;

    2016-01-01

    ) in aquaculture as a model to explore this stance of evolutionary-based medicine, for which empirical evidence has been lacking. Growth-stunted (GS) farmed fish were characterized by elevated brain serotonergic activation, increased cortisol production and behavioural inhibition. We make the novel observation......Signalling systems activated under stress are highly conserved, suggesting adaptive effects of their function. Pathologies arising from continued activation of such systems may represent a mismatch between evolutionary programming and current environments. Here, we use Atlantic salmon (Salmo salar....... Hence, we propose that serotonin-mediated behavioural inhibition may have evolved in vertebrates to minimize stress exposure in vulnerable individuals....

  6. Viruses in maize and Johnsongrass in southern Ohio.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stewart, L R; Teplier, R; Todd, J C; Jones, M W; Cassone, B J; Wijeratne, S; Wijeratne, A; Redinbaugh, M G

    2014-12-01

    The two major U.S. maize viruses, Maize dwarf mosaic virus (MDMV) and Maize chlorotic dwarf virus (MCDV), emerged in southern Ohio and surrounding regions in the 1960s and caused significant losses. Planting resistant varieties and changing cultural practices has dramatically reduced virus impact in subsequent decades. Current information on the distribution, diversity, and impact of known and potential U.S. maize disease-causing viruses is lacking. To assess the current reservoir of viruses present at the sites of past disease emergence, we used a combination of serological testing and next-generation RNA sequencing approaches. Here, we report enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay and RNA-Seq data from samples collected over 2 years to assess the presence of viruses in cultivated maize and an important weedy reservoir, Johnsongrass (Sorghum halepense). Results revealed a persistent reservoir of MDMV and two strains of MCDV in Ohio Johnsongrass. We identified sequences of several other grass-infecting viruses and confirmed the presence of Wheat mosaic virus in Ohio maize. Together, these results provide important data for managing virus disease in field corn and sweet corn maize crops, and identifying potential future virus threats.

  7. The impoverished gut--a triple burden of diarrhoea, stunting and chronic disease.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guerrant, Richard L; DeBoer, Mark D; Moore, Sean R; Scharf, Rebecca J; Lima, Aldo A M

    2013-04-01

    More than one-fifth of the world's population live in extreme poverty, where a lack of safe water and adequate sanitation enables high rates of enteric infections and diarrhoea to continue unabated. Although oral rehydration therapy has greatly reduced diarrhoea-associated mortality, enteric infections still persist, disrupting intestinal absorptive and barrier functions and resulting in up to 43% of stunted growth, affecting one-fifth of children worldwide and one-third of children in developing countries. Diarrhoea in children from impoverished areas during their first 2 years might cause, on average, an 8 cm growth shortfall and 10 IQ point decrement by the time they are 7-9 years old. A child's height at their second birthday is therefore the best predictor of cognitive development or 'human capital'. To this 'double burden' of diarrhoea and malnutrition, data now suggest that children with stunted growth and repeated gut infections are also at increased risk of developing obesity and its associated comorbidities, resulting in a 'triple burden' of the impoverished gut. Here, we Review the growing evidence for this triple burden and potential mechanisms and interventions that must be understood and applied to prevent the loss of human potential and unaffordable societal costs caused by these vicious cycles of poverty.

  8. Rethinking policy perspectives on childhood stunting: time to formulate a structural and multifactorial strategy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Subramanian, S V; Mejía-Guevara, Iván; Krishna, Aditi

    2016-05-01

    Stunting and chronic undernutrition among children in South Asia remain a major unresolved global health issue. There are compelling intrinsic and moral reasons to ensure that children attain their optimal growth potential facilitated via promotion of healthy living conditions. Investments in efforts to ensure that children's growth is not faltered also have substantial instrumental benefits in terms of cognitive and economic development. Using the case of India, we critique three prevailing approaches to reducing undernutrition among children: an over-reliance on macroeconomic growth as a potent policy instrument, a disproportionate focus on interpreting undernutrition as a demand-side problem and an over-reliance on unintegrated single-factorial (one at a time) approaches to policy and research. Using existing evidence, we develop a case for support-led policy approach with a focus on integrated and structural factors to addressing the problem of undernutrition among children in India. Key messages Eliminating child undernutrition is important from an intrinsic perspective and offers considerable instrumental benefits to individual and society. Evidence suggests that an exclusive reliance on a growth-mediated strategy to eliminate stunting needs to be reconsidered, suggesting the need for a substantial support-led strategy. Interpreting and addressing undernutrition as a demand-side problem with proximal single-factorial interventions is futile. There is an urgent need to develop interventions that address the broader structural and upstream causes of child undernutrition. PMID:27187918

  9. Maternal autonomy is inversely related to child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shroff, Monal; Griffiths, Paula; Adair, Linda; Suchindran, Chirayath; Bentley, Margaret

    2009-01-01

    Child stunting, an outcome of chronic undernutrition, contributes to poor quality of life, morbidity and mortality. In South Asia, the low status of women is thought to be one of the primary determinants of undernutrition across the lifespan. Low female status can result in compromised health outcomes for women, which in turn are related to lower infant birthweight and may affect the quality of infant care and nutrition. Maternal autonomy (defined as a woman's personal power in the household and her ability to influence and change her environment) is likely an important factor influencing child care and ultimately infant and child health outcomes. To examine the relationship between maternal autonomy and child stunting in Andhra Pradesh, India, we analysed data from National Family Health Survey (NFHS)-2. We used cross-sectional demographic, health and anthropometric information for mothers and their oldest child economic status and mother's education. In this south Indian state, two dimensions of female autonomy have an independent effect on child growth, suggesting the need for interventions that increase women's financial and physical autonomy. PMID:19161545

  10. Understanding child stunting in India: a comprehensive analysis of socio-economic, nutritional and environmental determinants using additive quantile regression.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nora Fenske

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Most attempts to address undernutrition, responsible for one third of global child deaths, have fallen behind expectations. This suggests that the assumptions underlying current modelling and intervention practices should be revisited. OBJECTIVE: We undertook a comprehensive analysis of the determinants of child stunting in India, and explored whether the established focus on linear effects of single risks is appropriate. DESIGN: Using cross-sectional data for children aged 0-24 months from the Indian National Family Health Survey for 2005/2006, we populated an evidence-based diagram of immediate, intermediate and underlying determinants of stunting. We modelled linear, non-linear, spatial and age-varying effects of these determinants using additive quantile regression for four quantiles of the Z-score of standardized height-for-age and logistic regression for stunting and severe stunting. RESULTS: At least one variable within each of eleven groups of determinants was significantly associated with height-for-age in the 35% Z-score quantile regression. The non-modifiable risk factors child age and sex, and the protective factors household wealth, maternal education and BMI showed the largest effects. Being a twin or multiple birth was associated with dramatically decreased height-for-age. Maternal age, maternal BMI, birth order and number of antenatal visits influenced child stunting in non-linear ways. Findings across the four quantile and two logistic regression models were largely comparable. CONCLUSIONS: Our analysis confirms the multifactorial nature of child stunting. It emphasizes the need to pursue a systems-based approach and to consider non-linear effects, and suggests that differential effects across the height-for-age distribution do not play a major role.

  11. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Doubova Svetlana V

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one urban extreme poverty level areas in Mexico. Cases comprised stunted children aged between 6 and 23 months. Controls were well-nourished children. Independent variables were defined in five dimensions: family characteristics; family income; household allocation of resources and family organisation; social networks; and child health care. Information was collected from 108 cases and 139 controls in the rural area and from 198 cases and 211 controls in the urban area. Statistical analysis was carried out separately for each area; unconditional multiple logistic regression analyses were performed to obtain the best explanatory model for stunting. Results In the rural area, a greater risk of stunting was associated with father's occupation as farmer and the presence of family networks for child care. The greatest protective effect was found in children cared for exclusively by their mothers. In the urban area, risk factors for stunting were father with unstable job, presence of small social networks, low rate of attendance to the Well Child Program activities, breast-feeding longer than six months, and two variables within the family characteristics dimension (longer duration of parents' union and migration from rural to urban area. Conclusions This study suggests the influence of the family on the nutritional status of children under two years of age living in extreme poverty areas. Factors associated with stunting were different in rural and urban communities

  12. Evidence-based evolution of an integrated nutrition-focused agriculture approach to address the underlying determinants of stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haselow, Nancy J; Stormer, Ame; Pries, Alissa

    2016-05-01

    Despite progress in reducing hunger and malnutrition since the 1990s, many still suffer from undernutrition and food insecurity, particularly women and young children, resulting in preterm birth, low birthweight and stunting, among other conditions. Helen Keller International (HKI) has addressed malnutrition and household food insecurity through implementation of an Enhanced Homestead Food Production (EHFP) programme that increases year-round availability and intake of diverse micronutrient-rich foods and promotes optimal nutrition and hygiene practices among poor households. This paper reviews the evolution and impact of HKI's EHFP programme and identifies core components of the model that address the underlying determinants of stunting. To date, evaluations of EHFP have shown impact on food production, consumption by women and children and household food security. Sale of surplus produce has increased household income, and the use of a transformative gender approach has empowered women. EHFP has also realized nutrition improvements in many project sites. Results from a randomized control trial (RCT) in Baitadi district, Nepal showed a significant improvement in a range of practices known to impact child growth, although no impact on stunting. Additional non-RCT evaluations in Kailali district of Nepal, demonstrated a 10.5% reduction in stunting and in the Chittagong Hill Tracts in Bangladesh, revealed an 18% decrease in stunting. Based on evidence, the EHFP has evolved into an integrated package that includes agriculture, nutrition, water/hygiene/sanitation, linkages to health care, women's empowerment, income generation and advocacy. Closing the stunting gap requires long-term exposure to targeted multi-sectoral solutions and rigorous evaluation to optimize impact. PMID:27187913

  13. Is overweight in stunted preschool children in Cameroon related to reductions in fat oxidation, resting energy expenditure and physical activity?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rihlat Said-Mohamed

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Recent studies suggest that early modifications in metabolic pathways and behaviour, leading to energy conservation and reduced linear growth, could represent adaptations to nutritional constraints during foetal life and infancy. Impaired fat oxidation, low resting energy expenditure and reduced physical activity, resulting from these adaptations, could facilitate fat storage and development of overweight in growth-retarded children that consume more energy-dense food. This study aims at assessing whether: (1 dual-burden preschool children (simultaneously stunted and overweight of Yaounde (Cameroon have low birth-weight (indicator of foetal undernutrition and reductions in fat oxidation, resting energy expenditure (REE and physical activity, (2 fat oxidation, REE and physical activity are associated with foetal growth. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: 162 children (24-72 months were considered: 22 stunted-overweight (SO, 40 stunted (S, 41 overweight (O, and 59 non stunted-non overweight (NSNO. Nutritional status and body composition were assessed using anthropometry and multifrequency bioimpedance analysis. Fasting respiratory quotient (RQ and REE were measured by indirect calorimetry. Physical activity was determined using accelerometers, food questionnaires were used for diet assessment and birth-weight was noted. Mean RQs and REE (weight adjusted did not differ between stunted children (SO and S and non-stunted children (O and NSNO. SO and S children spent more time in sedentary activities than O children (p = 0.01 and p = 0.02, respectively and less time in moderate-to-vigorous activities than NSNO children (p = 0.05 and p = 0.04, respectively. SO children's diet was less diverse (p = 0.01 with less animal products (p = 0.006. Multiple linear regressions model revealed that birth-weight is predictive of RQ (β = 0.237, p<0.01, R(2 = 0.08. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: This study showed that growth

  14. Integrative taxonomy of the stunt nematodes of the genera Bitylenchus and Tylenchorhynchus (Nematoda, Telotylenchidae) with description of two new species and a molecular phylogeny

    Science.gov (United States)

    The genera Tylenchorhynchus Cobb, 1913 and Bitylenchus Filipjev, 1934 contain 104 and 29 valid species, respectively, of plant-parasitic nematodes collectively known as "stunt nematodes”. Stunt nematodes have a broad geographical distribution in several continents and some species damage agricultur...

  15. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal

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    Yasir Bin Nisar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. A retrospective cohort study design was used, in which a pooled cohort of 5235 most recent live births 2 years prior to interview from three Nepal Demographic and Health Surveys (2001, 2006 and 2011 was analysed. The primary outcome was stunting in children age <2 years. The main exposure variable was antenatal IFA supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age <2 years were stunted and severely stunted, respectively. The adjusted relative risk of being stunted was 14% lower in children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77–0.97. Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64–0.92. Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age <2 years. The greatest impact on the risk reduction of child stunting was when IFA supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.

  16. Effects of childhood stunting on the increase of risk factors for obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease. Highlights and achievements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Previous studies by us and others have shown higher energy conservation mechanisms in marginally stunted Brazilian children such as, lower resting energy expenditure, lower fat oxidation, higher susceptibility to gain weight-for-height associated with a higher prevalence of stunted-obese subjects

  17. First Report of Apium Virus Y on Cilantro, Celery, and Parsley in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recently Apium virus Y (ApVY) was detected in field grown cilantro (Coriandrum sativum), celery (Apium graveolens), and parsley (Petroselinum crispum) in California. Previously, in 2003, cilantro plants from 3 different fields in California showed symptoms of mosaic, vein clearing and stunting. Whe...

  18. Rice Responses and Resistance to Planthopper-Borne Viruses at Transcriptomic and Proteomic Levels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Feng; Zhao, Wan; Luo, Lan; Kang, Le

    2016-01-01

    Rice (Oryza sativa) is one of the most important cereal crops in the world, especially in Asian areas. Rice virus diseases are considered as the most serious threat to rice yields. Most rice viruses are transmitted by hemipteran insects such as planthoppers and leafhoppers. In Asia five rice viruses are transmitted mainly by three planthopper species in a persistent manner: Rice stripe virus, Rice black-streaked dwarf virus, Rice ragged stunt virus, Rice grassy stunt virus, and Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus. In rice antivirus studies, several individual genes have been shown to function in rice resistance to viruses. Since plant responses to viral infection are complex, system-level omic studies are required to fully understand the responses. Recently more and more omic studies have appeared in the literatures on relationships between planthoppers and viruses, employing microarray, RNA-Seq, small RNA deep sequencing, degradome sequencing, and proteomic analysis. In this paper, we review the current knowledge and progress of omic studies in rice plant responses and resistance to four planthopper-borned viruses. We also discuss progress in the omic study of the interactions of planthoppers and rice viruses. Future research directions and translational applications of fundamental knowledge of virus-vector-rice interactions are proposed. PMID:26363817

  19. Children's stunting in sub-Saharan Africa: Is there an externality effect of high fertility?

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    Øystein Kravdal

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available A positive relationship between the number of siblings and a child's chance of being stunted has been seen in several studies. It is possible that individual stunting risks are also raised by high fertility in the community, partly because of the impact of aggregate fertility on the local economy, but this issue has not been addressed in earlier investigations. In this study we estimate the independent effect of the child dependency ratio in the province (or governorate, region, or larger geopolitical zone within a country, using DHS data on up to 145,000 children in 152 provinces in 23 countries with at least two such surveys. The data design allows inclusion of lagged province variables and province fixed effects (to control for constant unobserved province characteristics. Three types of regression models for a child's chance of being stunted are estimated. Some estimates suggest an adverse effect of the current child dependency ratio, net of the child's number of siblings, while others do not point in this direction. When the child dependency ratio measured in an earlier survey is included instead, no significant effects appear. Thus, we conclude that there is only weak support for the idea that a child's stunting risk may be raised by high fertility in the community.

  20. Optimisation of the pond rearing of Nile tilapia (Oreochromis niloticus L.). The impact of stunting processes and recruitment control

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Graaf, de G.J.

    2004-01-01

    Stunting is often considered as a major bottleneck for the pond rearing ofNiletilapia ( Oreochromis niloticus niloticus L.) and was a major topic in this study. Neonteny: the earlier breeding of tilapia in ponds takes place, but

  1. Prevalence of Thinness and Stunting and Associated Factors among Adolescent School Girls in Adwa Town, North Ethiopia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregyorgis, Tsgehana; Tadesse, Takele; Atenafu, Azeb

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Despite the fact that adolescence is a window of opportunity to break the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition, adolescents are the neglected age groups. Hence information regarding the nutritional status of adolescents is lacking making creating and implementing intervention programs difficult. Objective. To assess the prevalence of thinness, stunting, and associated factors among adolescent school girls in Adwa town, Northern Ethiopia. Methods. Data on 814 adolescent female students were collected from March to April 2015 using interviewer administered pretested semistructured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Data were entered using EPI INFO version 3.5.3 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 and WHO Anthroplus software. Results. The prevalence of thinness and stunting was 21.4% and 12.2%, respectively. Age of adolescent [AOR = 2.15 (1.14,4.03)], mother's educational status [AOR = 2.34 (1.14,4.80)], eating less than 3 meals per day [AOR = 1.66 (1.12,2.46)], having family size >5 [AOR = 2.53 (1.66,3.86)] were significantly associated with thinness among the adolescent girls. Family size >5 [AOR = 2.05 (1.31,3.23)] and unimproved source of drinking water [AOR = 3.82 (2.20,6.62)] were significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion and Recommendation. Thinness and stunting are prevalent problems in the study area. Strategies to improve the nutritional status of girls should be given much attention. PMID:27294107

  2. Prevalence of Thinness and Stunting and Associated Factors among Adolescent School Girls in Adwa Town, North Ethiopia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregyorgis, Tsgehana; Tadesse, Takele; Atenafu, Azeb

    2016-01-01

    Introduction. Despite the fact that adolescence is a window of opportunity to break the intergenerational cycle of malnutrition, adolescents are the neglected age groups. Hence information regarding the nutritional status of adolescents is lacking making creating and implementing intervention programs difficult. Objective. To assess the prevalence of thinness, stunting, and associated factors among adolescent school girls in Adwa town, Northern Ethiopia. Methods. Data on 814 adolescent female students were collected from March to April 2015 using interviewer administered pretested semistructured questionnaire and anthropometric measurements. Data were entered using EPI INFO version 3.5.3 and analyzed using SPSS version 20 and WHO Anthroplus software. Results. The prevalence of thinness and stunting was 21.4% and 12.2%, respectively. Age of adolescent [AOR = 2.15 (1.14,4.03)], mother's educational status [AOR = 2.34 (1.14,4.80)], eating less than 3 meals per day [AOR = 1.66 (1.12,2.46)], having family size >5 [AOR = 2.53 (1.66,3.86)] were significantly associated with thinness among the adolescent girls. Family size >5 [AOR = 2.05 (1.31,3.23)] and unimproved source of drinking water [AOR = 3.82 (2.20,6.62)] were significantly associated with stunting. Conclusion and Recommendation. Thinness and stunting are prevalent problems in the study area. Strategies to improve the nutritional status of girls should be given much attention. PMID:27294107

  3. Stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in rural areas with low soil zinc concentrations in Jiangsu Province, China

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Qin, Yu; Boonstra, A.; Zhao, J.; Wu, M.; Hu, X.; Kok, F.J.

    2009-01-01

    OBJECTIVE: To assess stunting and zinc deficiency among primary school children in north rural area of Jiangsu Province with low soil zinc concentrations, eastern part of China. METHODS: Two data collection rounds were conducted. In the first data collection round, 2268 primary school children aged

  4. Draft Genome Sequence of "Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae" Strain Mbita1, the Causative Agent of Napier Grass Stunt Disease in Kenya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Anne; Santana-Cruz, Ivette; Wambua, Lillian; Olds, Cassandra; Midega, Charles; Dickinson, Matthew; Kawicha, Praphat; Khan, Zeyaur; Masiga, Daniel; Jores, Joerg; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are bacterial plant pathogens with devastating impact on agricultural production worldwide. In eastern Africa, Napier grass stunt disease causes serious economic losses in the smallholder dairy industry. This draft genome sequence of " ITALIC! CandidatusPhytoplasma oryzae" strain Mbita1 provides insight into its genomic organization and the molecular basis of pathogenicity. PMID:27103722

  5. Multivitamin-multimineral and iron supplementation did not improve appetite of young stunted and anemic Beninese children

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dossa, R.A.; Ategbo, E.A.; Raaij, van J.M.; Graaf, de C.; Hautvast, J.G.A.J.

    2001-01-01

    In developing countries, low food intake is often reported in children < 5 y old. Reduced appetite may be a contributing factor. We investigated whether a combination of a multivitamin-multimineral supplement and additional iron treatment improved appetite and growth of 18- to 30-mo-old stunted and

  6. Stunting delays maturation of triceps surae mechanical properties and motor performance in prepubertal children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, Maria das Graças; Souza, Thaysa O L; Canon, Francis; Pérot, Chantal; Xavier, Luciana C C; Ferraz, Karla M; Osório, Mônica M; Manhães-de-Castro, Raul; Lambertz, Daniel

    2012-12-01

    Malnutrition can lead to possible irreversible consequences in the development of muscle function and some of them are yet poorly characterized. The present study evaluated the mechanical properties of the triceps surae and motor performance in stunted (S) and eutrophic (E) prepubertal children (9 years ± 6 months). Height-for-age ratio was used as indicator of stunting due to early malnutrition, according to the World Health Organization. Torque was determined by maximal voluntary contractions (MVC) and musculotendinous (MT) stiffness was achieved through quick-release tests to obtain MT stiffness index (SI(MT)) and passive stiffness (K (p)) from linear MT stiffness-torque relationships. Percutaneous supramaximal electrically elicited contractions determined twitch torque (Pt) and electromechanical delay (EMD). Motor performance was evaluated by balance test. S group presented significantly lower MVC and a trend of lower Pt values indicating lower capacities to develop force under voluntary or induced conditions. Significantly higher SI(MT) and EMD values were observed, while K (p) and motor performance in balance were significantly lower. Higher SI(MT) values have been reported previously in youngest prepubertal children, indicating that immature activation capacities can mask MT stiffness assessment during voluntary contractions, taking into consideration the higher EMD values as a measure of muscle stiffness contribution. Lower K (p) may indicate a delay in the maturation of tendinous tissue in S group, influencing motor performance in balance. The present study shows that malnutrition leads to adaptation of intrinsic MT elastic properties, but depends on the level of the observed structure.

  7. Sex differences in the effect of birth order and parents' educational status on stunting: a study on Bengalee preschool children from eastern India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biswas, Sadaruddin; Bose, Kaushik

    2010-08-01

    One of the greatest problems facing developing countries, including rural India, is undernutrition in terms of stunting among under 5-year-old children. However, there exists scanty information on the prevalence of stunting among preschool children in India and in particular in West Bengal. This study investigated prevalence of stunting and identified the predictor(s) of stunting among 1-5-year-old Bengalee rural preschool children of Integrated Child Development Services (ICDS) centres. This cross-sectional study was undertaken at different ICDS centres of Chapra Block, Nadia District, West Bengal, India. A total of 673 preschool children (323 boys and 350 girls), aged 1-5 years were selected from 30 randomly selected ICDS centres to study the impact of parents' educational status and child birth order on stunting. The overall (age and sex combined) rate of stunting was 39.2%. Child birth order (BO) (chi(2)=14.10, df=1, peducational status (FES) (chi(2)=21.11, peducational status (MES) (chi(2)=14.34, df=1, p>0.001) were significantly associated with the prevalence of stunting among girls. Logistic regression analyses revealed that both FES (Wald=19.97, por=3rd BO had significantly higher risk (OR=2.49, CI=1.54-4.03) of stunting than those with or=secondary level. Similarly, girls with MESor=secondary level. In conclusion our study revealed that BO as well as parents' educational status were strong predictors of stunting among girls but not boys. Sex discrimination could be a likely cause for this sex difference in the impact of BO and parents' educational status.

  8. Higher Dietary Energy Density is Associated with Stunting but not Overweight and Obesity in a Sample of Urban Malaysian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Siew, Chin Yit; Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Mun, Chan Yoke; Lee, Huang Soo; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2016-01-01

    Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting. PMID:27231732

  9. Higher Dietary Energy Density is Associated with Stunting but not Overweight and Obesity in a Sample of Urban Malaysian Children.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shariff, Zalilah Mohd; Lin, Khor Geok; Sariman, Sarina; Siew, Chin Yit; Yusof, Barakatun Nisak Mohd; Mun, Chan Yoke; Lee, Huang Soo; Mohamad, Maznorila

    2016-01-01

    Although diets with high energy density are associated with increased risk of overweight and obesity, it is not known whether such diets are associated with undernutrition. This study assessed the relationship between dietary energy density (ED) and nutritional status of 745 urban 1- to 10-year-old children. Dietary intakes were obtained using food recall and record for two days. Dietary energy density was based on food and caloric beverages. Higher dietary ED was associated with lower intakes of carbohydrate, sugar, vitamins C and D, and calcium but higher fat, fiber, iron, and folate intakes. While intakes of fruits and milk/dairy products decreased, meat, fish, and legume intakes increased with higher dietary ED. Stunting, but not other growth problems, was associated with higher dietary ED. Future studies should confirm the cause-and-effect relationship between higher dietary ED and stunting.

  10. Common beans and cowpeas as complementary foods to reduce environmental enteric dysfunction and stunting in Malawian children: Study protocol for two randomized controlled trials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interventions to decrease the burden of childhood malnutrition are urgently needed, as millions of children die annually owing to undernutrition and hundreds of millions more are left cognitively and physically stunted. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED), a pervasive chronic subclinical inflamm...

  11. Simultaneous detection of major pome fruit viruses and a viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Surender; Singh, Lakhmir; Ram, Raja; Zaidi, Aijaz A; Hallan, Vipin

    2014-06-01

    A rapid and sensitive two-step RT-PCR protocol for simultaneous detection of major apple viruses, namely Apple mosaic virus (ApMV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) and Apple scar skin viroid (ASSVd), was developed. Five specific primer pairs were tested and confirmed for these viruses and viroid together in a single tube, giving amplicons of ~198, ~330, ~370, ~547 and ~645 bp corresponding to ASGV, ASSVd, ASPV, ApMV and ACLSV, respectively. Using a guanidinium-based extraction buffer along with a commercial kit resulted in better quality RNA as compared to kit, suited for multiplex RT-PCR. A rapid CTAB method for RNA isolation from apple tissue was developed, which produce good yield and saves time. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first report on the simultaneous detection of five pathogens (four viruses and a viroid) from apple with NADH dehydrogenase subunit 5 (nad5) as an internal control.

  12. Preventing environmental enteric dysfunction through improved water, sanitation and hygiene: an opportunity for stunting reduction in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mbuya, Mduduzi N N; Humphrey, Jean H

    2016-05-01

    In 2011, one in every four (26%) children under 5 years of age worldwide was stunted. The realization that most stunting cannot be explained by poor diet or by diarrhoea, nor completely reversed by optimized diet and reduced diarrhoea has led to the hypothesis that a primary underlying cause of stunting is subclinical gut disease. Essentially, ingested microbes set in motion two overlapping and interacting pathways that result in linear growth impairment. Firstly, partial villous atrophy results in a reduced absorptive surface area and loss of digestive enzymes. This in turn results in maldigestion and malabsorption of much needed nutrients. Secondly, microbes and their products make the gut leaky, allowing luminal contents to translocate into systemic circulation. This creates a condition of chronic immune activation, which (i) diverts nutrient resources towards the metabolically expensive business of infection fighting rather than growth; (ii) suppresses the growth hormone-IGF axis and inhibits bone growth, leading to growth impairment; and (iii) causes further damage to the intestinal mucosa thereby exacerbating the problem. As such, the unhygienic environments in which infants and young children live and grow must contribute to, if not be the overriding cause of, this environmental enteric dysfunction. We suggest that a package of baby-WASH interventions (sanitation and water improvement, handwashing with soap, ensuring a clean play and infant feeding environment and food hygiene) that interrupt specific pathways through which feco-oral transmission occurs in the first two years of a child's life may be central to global stunting reduction efforts. PMID:26542185

  13. The family as a determinant of stunting in children living in conditions of extreme poverty: a case-control study

    OpenAIRE

    Doubova Svetlana V; Santos José; Castillo Raúl; Sandoval Araceli; Pérez-Cuevas Ricardo; Reyes Hortensia; Gutiérrez Gonzalo

    2004-01-01

    Abstract Background Malnutrition in children can be a consequence of unfavourable socioeconomic conditions. However, some families maintain adequate nutritional status in their children despite living in poverty. The aim of this study was to ascertain whether family-related factors are determinants of stunting in young Mexican children living in extreme poverty, and whether these factors differ between rural or urban contexts. Methods A case-control study was conducted in one rural and one ur...

  14. Chicken parvovirus-induced runting-stunting syndrome in young broilers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zsak, Laszlo; Cha, Ra Mi; Day, J Michael

    2013-03-01

    Previously we identified a novel parvovirus from enteric contents of chickens that were affected by enteric diseases. Comparative sequence analysis showed that the chicken parvovirus (ChPV) represented a new member in the Parvoviridae family. Here, we describe some of the pathogenic characteristics of ChPV in young broilers. Following experimental infection, 2-day-old broiler chickens showed characteristic signs of enteric disease. Runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) was observed in four of five experimental groups with significant growth retardation between 7 and 28 days postinoculation (DPI). Viral growth in small intestine and shedding was detected at early times postinoculation, which was followed by viremia and generalization of infection. ChPV could be detected in most of the major tissues for 3 to 4 wk postinoculation. Immunohistochemistry staining revealed parvovirus-positive cells in the duodenum of inoculated birds at 7 and 14 DPI. Our data indicate that ChPV alone induces RSS in broilers and is important determinant in the complex etiology of enteric diseases of poultry.

  15. Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is a new natural host of Hop stunt viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuch, Amine; Hamdi, Imen; Ellouze, Olfa; Ghrab, Mohamed; Fkahfakh, Hatem; Drira, Noureddine

    2013-10-01

    Besides hop, Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd) infects many woody species including grapevine, citrus, peach, plum, apricot, almond, pomegranate, mulberry and jujube. Here, we report the first detection of HpSVd in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). Samples corresponding to 16 pistachio cultivars were obtained from a nearby almond collection. From these samples, low molecular weight RNAs were extracted for double polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, northern-blot analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. HpSVd was detected in 4 of the 16 pistachio cultivars in the first year and in 6 in the second, being also detected in the almond collection. Examination of the nucleotide sequences of pistachio and almond isolates revealed 13 new sequence variants. Sequences from pistachio shared 92-96 % similarity with the first reported HpSVd sequence (GenBank X00009), and multiple alignment and phylogenetic analyses showed that one pistachio isolate (HpSVdPis67Jabari) clustered with the plum group, whereas all the others clustered with the hop, and the recombinants plum-citrus and plum-Hop/cit3 groups. By identifying pistachio as a new natural host, we confirm that HpSVd is an ubiquitous and genetically variable viroid that infects many different fruit trees cultivated worldwide.

  16. The influence of antibiotics on the appearance of magnolia stunting symptoms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Kamińska

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of diseased magnolia plants with oxytetracycline, baytril and tylan did not reduce the number of symptomatic plants. However, the sprays with antibiotics promoted the shoot growth, development of symptomless leaves and flower buds. The most efficient were baytril at the concentration of 500 ppm, tylan 200 ppm and oxytetracycline at the concentration of 500 or 1000 ppm. Lower concentrations of baytril and oxytetracycline were not so much effective; higher concentration of tylan decreased the magnolia shoot growth. The effect of antibiotics lasted one season. All the antibiotic treated and control plants, randomly tested by PCR-RFLP, showed the presence of AY(16SrI phytoplasma and some of them were affected with phytoplasma related with apple proliferation phytoplasma group (16SrX. The obtained results indicated that l. magnolia is a natural host plant of phytoplasmas belonging to aster yellows phytoplasma group and apple proliferation group and 2. they support the suggestion that phytoplasmas are the casual agents of magnolia stunting disease.

  17. Pistachio (Pistacia vera L.) is a new natural host of Hop stunt viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elleuch, Amine; Hamdi, Imen; Ellouze, Olfa; Ghrab, Mohamed; Fkahfakh, Hatem; Drira, Noureddine

    2013-10-01

    Besides hop, Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd) infects many woody species including grapevine, citrus, peach, plum, apricot, almond, pomegranate, mulberry and jujube. Here, we report the first detection of HpSVd in pistachio (Pistacia vera L.). Samples corresponding to 16 pistachio cultivars were obtained from a nearby almond collection. From these samples, low molecular weight RNAs were extracted for double polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis, northern-blot analysis and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction assays. HpSVd was detected in 4 of the 16 pistachio cultivars in the first year and in 6 in the second, being also detected in the almond collection. Examination of the nucleotide sequences of pistachio and almond isolates revealed 13 new sequence variants. Sequences from pistachio shared 92-96 % similarity with the first reported HpSVd sequence (GenBank X00009), and multiple alignment and phylogenetic analyses showed that one pistachio isolate (HpSVdPis67Jabari) clustered with the plum group, whereas all the others clustered with the hop, and the recombinants plum-citrus and plum-Hop/cit3 groups. By identifying pistachio as a new natural host, we confirm that HpSVd is an ubiquitous and genetically variable viroid that infects many different fruit trees cultivated worldwide. PMID:23775756

  18. Stunting Persists despite Optimal Feeding: Are Toilets Part of the Solution?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prendergast, Andrew J; Humphrey, Jean H

    2015-01-01

    Children in developing countries have an average length-for-age that is already below the World Health Organization standard at birth and show a further decline in linear growth over the first 24 months of life; however, complementary feeding interventions have only a modest impact on growth. Children living in conditions of poor sanitation and hygiene are frequently exposed to pathogenic microbes through feco-oral transmission. Acute diarrhea represents only the tip of the 'enteric disease iceberg', with a substantial underlying burden of chronic, subclinical enteropathy. Environmental enteric dysfunction (EED) is characterized by disturbance in small intestinal structure and impaired gut barrier function, enabling microbial translocation and chronic systemic inflammation, which may impair growth. Gut damage appears to arise early in infancy and markers of intestinal inflammation, intestinal permeability and systemic immune activation are inversely associated with linear growth. Reducing feco-oral microbial transmission by improving water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) may theoretically prevent or ameliorate EED and improve linear growth; ongoing trials are exploring this hypothesis. Given the complex interplay of factors leading to stunting, multisectoral interventions are likely required. Improving WASH in addition to infant feeding may be one approach to improve the growth and developmental potential of infants in developing countries. PMID:26111567

  19. Synthesis of cellular organelles containing nano-magnets stunts growth of magnetotactic bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naresh, Mohit; Hasija, Vivek; Sharma, Megha; Mittal, Aditya

    2010-07-01

    Magnetotactic bacteria are unique prokaryotes possessing the feature of cellular organelles called magnetosomes (membrane bound 40-50 nm vesicles entrapping a magnetic nano-crystal of magnetite or greigite). The obvious energetic impact of sophisticated eukaryotic-like membrane-bound organelle assembly on a presumably simpler prokaryotic system is not addressed in literature. In this work, while presenting evidence of direct coupling of carbon source consumption to synthesis of magnetosomes, we provide the first experimentally derived estimate of energy for organelle synthesis by Magnetospirillum gryphiswaldense as approximately 5 nJoules per magnetosome. Considering our estimate of approximately 0.2 microJoules per bacterial cell as the energy required for growth, we show that the energetic load of organelle synthesis results in stunting of cell growth. We also show that removal of soluble iron or sequestration by exogenous compounds in the bacterial cell cultures reverses the impact of the excess metabolic load exerted during magnetosomal synthesis. Thus, by taking advantage of the magnetotactic bacterial system we present the first experimental evidence for the presumed energy consumption during assembly of naturally occurring sub-100 nm intra-cellular organelles. PMID:21128392

  20. PERAN KONTEKSTUAL TERHADAP KEJADIAN BALITA PENDEK DI INDONESIA (THE CONTEXTUAL ROLE OF OCCURRENCE STUNTED ON CHILDREN UNDER FIVE IN INDONESIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sihadi Suhadi

    2013-07-01

    ? Pasang Google Toolbar supaya Anda tidak perlu kesulitan lagi dengan kosakata bahasa asing.Bangun bisnis global Anda. Iklankan ke berbagai bahasa menggunakan Google Peluang Pasar Global. Kesimpulan: Variabel yang terkait dengan terjadinya anak balita pendek, yaitu pada level individu adalah konsumsi energi anak balita. Pada level rumah tangga, terutama adalah pola asuh anak, tinggi badan ibu, sanitasi, dan status ekonomi rumah tangga. Pada level provinsi adalah kemiskinan. Saran: Perlu kerjasama lintas sektor untuk memperbaiki variabel-variabel yang terkait, agar proporsi balita pendek turun. ABSTRACT Backgrounds: The prevalence of stunted in Indonesia is 36.8 percent. Children who have severe stunted IQ 11 points lower than children who were not stunted. This analysis looking for factors that cause stunted from the contextual (from level of individual, household, and the Province to the occurrence of stunted children under five. Objectives: To know the causes of the level of individuals, households, and the province on the occurrence of stunted children under five. Methods: Data used secondary data derived from data Basic Health Research (Riskesdas 2010, the tertiary data from BPS, IPKM, and IPM. The number of samples analyzed 9 897 children under five. The statistical analysis data used multilevel statistical model binary logistic regression. Results: Provincial levels have contributed 51.9 percent, 34.9 percent individuals, and households of 13.2 percent to the occurrence of stunted children under five. The proportion of stunted children under five was reduced from 44.5 to 42.5 percent if children under five improved energy consumption, to 40.8 percent if the household energy consumption improved, to 43.2 percent if the household economy improved, to 32.6 percent when corrected parenting, becomes 35.8 percent if the mother is not stunted, to 39.4 pecent when the mother's education improved, and becomes 41.4 percent if the poverty at the provincial level improved. Simak

  1. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon. PMID:27383358

  2. Stunting in children under five years old is still a health problem in the Western Brazilian Amazon: a population-based study in Assis Brasil, Acre, Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mantovani, Saulo Augusto Silva; Ramalho, Alanderson Alves; Pereira, Thasciany Moraes; Branco, Fernando Luiz Cunha Castelo; Oliart-Guzmán, Humberto; Delfino, Breno Matos; Braña, Athos Muniz; Martins, Antonio Camargo; Filgueira-Júnior, José Alcântara; Santos, Ana Paula; Campos, Rhanderson Gardinali; Guimarães, Andréia Silva; Araújo, Thiago Santos de; Oliveira, Cristieli Sérgio de Menezes; Codeço, Cláudia Torres; da Silva-Nunes, Mônica

    2016-06-01

    Despite the process of nutritional transition in Brazil, in some places, such as the Amazon region, stunting is still an important public health problem. We identified the prevalence and factors associated with stunting in children under five years old residing in the urban area of Assis Brasil. A survey was conducted in which a questionnaire on socioeconomic, maternal and children's conditions was applied, and height or length was measured. The children with height for age index below -2 Z-scores were considered stunted, according to the criteria by the World Health Organization. Four hundred and twenty-eight children were evaluated. Of these, 62 were stunted. Factors associated with stunting, according to adjusted models, were: the presence of open sewer, the wealth index for households, the receipt of governmental financial aid and the mother's height, age and education. Therefore, it was observed that family and the mother's characteristics as well as environmental and socioeconomic factors were closely related to the occurrence of stunting in the population studied, and such nutritional disturbance is still a health problem in the Brazilian Amazon.

  3. 利用酵母双杂交筛选与苹果褪绿叶斑病毒CP互作的寄主因子%Screening of the Host Factors Interacting with CP ofApple chlorotic leaf spot virusby Yeast Two-Hybrid System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何乙坤; 钟敏; 胡同乐; 王树桐; 段豪; 丁丽; 王亚南; 曹克强

    2014-01-01

    Objective] The objective of this study is to screen the host factors interacting with coat protein (CP) ofApple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) by yeast two-hybrid system and analyze their function in the interaction between host and virus by the method of bioinformatics.[Method] Firstly, the bait vector of pGBKT7-CP was constructed and transformed into Y2H gold. The growth of the transformed yeast was assayed on the culture plate of SD/-Trp, SD/-Trp/-His and SD/-Trp/-Ade-X-α-Gal to make clear the self-activating effect of pGBKT7-CP. The plasmids of pGBKT7-CPand pGBKT7 were transformed intoY2H gold, the OD 600 of which was tested by ultraviolet spectrophotometer at different stages. The effect of pGBKT7-CP on the yeast was analyzed. Secondly, the interactive proteins of CP were screened from cDNA library ofMalus sylvestris cv. R12740-7A constructed early by yeast two-hybrid sequencing transformation. At last, the positive clones were selected from the culture plate of SD/-Ade/-His/-Leu/-Trp/X-α-Gal and sequenced. BLAST analysis was made for the host factors in the GenBank and the function in the interaction between host and virus was deduced based on gene annotation.[Result] The bait vector of pGBKT7-CP was constructed. The transformed yeast Y2H gold was able to grow on the plate of SD/-Trp, but not able to grow on the plate of SD/-Trp/-His and SD/-Trp/-Ade-X-α-Gal, which implied that the recombined plasmid had no ability to activate the reporter gene of His and Ade.The growth of pGBKT7-CPand the control was similar, which predicated that the recombined plasmid had no virulence to the yeast. Sixty-nine interactive factors were obtained, which were divided into 10 types of proteins based on their functions, including transcription factor activity, carbon fixation activity, cellular iron ion homeostasis, defense response, hydrolase activity, oxidase activity, oxidoreductase activity, photosystem II assembly and protein binding activity. Eight host genes (Malus3

  4. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus determined at 2.8 Å resolution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The structure of melon necrotic spot virus is reported. The structure of melon necrotic spot virus (MNSV) was determined at 2.8 Å resolution. Although MNSV is classified into the genus Carmovirus of the family Tombusviridae, the three-dimensional structure of MNSV showed a higher degree of similarity to tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV), which belongs to the genus Tombusvirus, than to carnation mottle virus (CMtV), turnip crinkle virus (TCV) or cowpea mottle virus (CPMtV) from the genus Carmovirus. Thus, the classification of the family Tombusviridae at the genus level conflicts with the patterns of similarity among coat-protein structures. MNSV is one of the viruses belonging to the genera Tombusvirus or Carmovirus that are naturally transmitted in the soil by zoospores of fungal vectors. The X-ray structure of MNSV provides us with a representative structure of viruses transmitted by fungi

  5. Development of a rapid diagnostic assay for the detection of tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid based on isothermal reverse-transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hammond, Rosemarie W; Zhang, Shulu

    2016-10-01

    A molecular diagnostic assay utilizing reverse transcription-recombinase polymerase amplification (RT-RPA) at an isothermal constant temperature of 39°C and target-specific primers and probe were developed for the rapid, sensitive, and specific detection of tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid (TCDVd) in infected leaf and seed tissues. The performance of the AmplifyRP(®) Acceler8™ RT-RPA diagnostic assay, utilizing a lateral flow strip contained within an amplicon detection chamber, was evaluated and the results were compared with a standard RT-PCR assay. The AmplifyRP(®) Acceler8™ assay was specific for TCDVd in leaf and seed tissues, its sensitivity was comparable to conventional RT-PCR in leaf tissues, and it does not require extensive sample purification, specialized equipment, or technical expertise. This is the first report utilizing an RT-RPA assay to detect viroids and the assay can be used both in the laboratory and in the field for TCDVd detection. PMID:27427473

  6. Relation of ratio indices of anthropometric measures to obesity in a stunted population.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Judd, Suzanne E; Ramirez-Zea, Manuel; Stein, Aryeh D

    2008-01-01

    The ratios of anthropometric measures are used to estimate obesity while controlling for allometric scaling. A good index should be uncorrelated with its denominator; this often requires exponentiation of the denominator. The stability of the derived exponents across populations is not known. We obtained subscapular (SUBS) and triceps (TRI) skinfolds, weight (WT), height (HT), waist circumference (WC), fat mass (FM), and fat-free mass (FFM) in a population of Guatemalan adults [height 1.63 +/- 0.06 m (868 males); 1.51 +/- 0.06 m (1047 females)]. We derived exponents for the indices WT/HT(P), SUBS/TRI(P), TRI/SUBS(P), WC/HT(P), FM/WT(P), and FM/FFM(P) such that the ratios were free from association with their denominators. The derived exponents were (Men: SUBS/TRI(0.88), FM/WT(2.69), FM/FFM(2.86), WC/HT(0.68), and WT/HT(2.17); Women: SUBS/TRI(0.93), FM/WT(2.01), FM/FFM(3.37), WC/HT(0.47), WT/HT(2.03)). For all examined indices the derived exponents differed (P Victora [2005]: Int J Obes 29:483-489). The derived indices were not more strongly correlated with adiposity than were simple unexponentiated ratios. Although exponentiation of the denominator eliminates the association of index with its denominator, the resulting exponents lack generalizability across populations, especially those where stunting remains prevalent.

  7. Obstacles in Breastfeeding Contributed to Stunted Children Status in Barru Regency, South Sulawesi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lydia Fanny

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available The effects of obstacles in breastfeeding towards height of children aged 0-6 were investigated. The purpose of this study was to analyze relationship between obstacles in breast-feeding with the height status of children. This study was a survey research using cross sectional study design. Sample size was as many as 201 and were selected systematically and randomly from 15 villages in Barru Regency in South Sulawesi. Nutritional status were obtained through anthropometric measurements using secca for weight and fixation board for height. The tools used were in good condition and had been previously calibrated. Nutritional intake was obtained using a 24-hour recall with multi-pass consumption method. The numerators were nutritionist, while the supervisor worked as lecturer at nutrition department, Health Polytechnic Makassar. This study had been approved by internal ethics committee at nutrition department. Statistical analysis was done using Chi Square with 95% significance. The results showed that 81% of respondents worked as housewives, 26.9% graduated from secondary education, 65.7% had 1-5 family members per household, 67.7% had a lower energy intake, 50.7% had lower protein intake, 42.8% had a lower intake of vitamin A, and 80% for low of zinc intake respectively. Nutritional status were in accordance to the index of weight/ height, height/ age and weight /age, 10.4% were in severe thinness, 12.4% stunted and 2.6% severe malnutrition. The results of statistical analysis showed that there is a relationship between the obstacles in breastfeeding with height status of children (p = 0.002. Recommendation from this study is to put more intensive efforts from stakeholders to locate lactation counselors and motivator of breastfeeding in each primary health care and optimalized the giving of vitamin A for breasfeeding mother also the giving of food suplement rich of zinc such as fish in Barru.

  8. The complete nucleotide sequence of pelargonium leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGavin, Wendy J; MacFarlane, Stuart A

    2016-05-01

    Investigation of a tombusvirus isolated from tulip plants in Scotland revealed that it was pelargonium leaf curl virus (PLCV) rather than the originally suggested tomato bushy stunt virus. The complete sequence of the PLCV genome was determined for the first time, revealing it to be 4789 nucleotides in size and to have an organization similar to that of the other, previously described tombusviruses. Primers derived from the sequence were used to construct a full-length infectious clone of PLCV that recapitulates the disease symptoms of leaf curling in systemically infected pelargonium plants. PMID:26906694

  9. The complete nucleotide sequence of pelargonium leaf curl virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGavin, Wendy J; MacFarlane, Stuart A

    2016-05-01

    Investigation of a tombusvirus isolated from tulip plants in Scotland revealed that it was pelargonium leaf curl virus (PLCV) rather than the originally suggested tomato bushy stunt virus. The complete sequence of the PLCV genome was determined for the first time, revealing it to be 4789 nucleotides in size and to have an organization similar to that of the other, previously described tombusviruses. Primers derived from the sequence were used to construct a full-length infectious clone of PLCV that recapitulates the disease symptoms of leaf curling in systemically infected pelargonium plants.

  10. Identification and characterization of RNA viruses in the turkey gut using metagenomics: an abundance of picornaviruses and other “small, round viruses”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poultry enteric disease is marked by diarrhea, stunting, immune dysfunction and mortality. Numerous viruses have been detected in the poultry gut, and have subsequently been implicated in enteric disease.Knowledge of the complete viral flora present in the poultry gut would facilitate the developmen...

  11. Analysis of the sequence of a dicot-infecting mastrevirus (family Geminiviridae) originating from Syria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mumtaz, Huma; Kumari, Safaa G; Mansoor, Shahid; Martin, Darren P; Briddon, Rob W

    2011-06-01

    Chickpea stunt disease (CSD) across southern Asia, the Middle East and North Africa is caused by a number of viruses that include single-stranded DNA viruses of the genus Mastrevirus (family Geminiviridae). Despite the importance of CSD in reducing chickpea and lentil production, until recently little was known of the nature of the pathogens causing the disease. Sequence characterisation of virus isolates from Sudan and Pakistan showed the viruses concerned to potentially be new mastrevirus species related to Bean yellow dwarf virus (BeYDV), a virus known to occur in both southern Africa and southern Asia. Here we have determined the complete nucleotide sequence of a mastrevirus associated with CSD in Syria. This virus represents a proposed new species, closely related to the recently characterised Chickpea chlorotic dwarf Sudan virus and Chickpea chlorotic dwarf Pakistan virus but with the highest sequence identity to BeYDV, for which we propose the name Chickpea chlorotic dwarf Syria virus. In addition the biological integrity of the clone was confirmed by infection of Nicotiana benthamiana plants using Agrobacterium-mediated inoculation.

  12. Faktor risiko balita stunting usia 12-36 bulan di Puskesmas Dasan Agung, Mataram, Provinsi Nusa Tenggara Barat

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Imtihanatun Najahah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available A very high stunting prevalence (37.17 % was reported in Mataram City, West Nusa Tenggara. Dasan Agung Community Health Centre localed at the centre of Mataram city reports the highest stunting prevalence (27.78% in children under 5 year of age. The study design was a cross sectional, using a sample of 158 children aged 12-36 month. The dependent variable was 12-36 month old children displaying stunting and the independent variables were socio-economic status, mother’s height, maternal age, mother’s level of education, ANC clinic visit frequency and quality of care, birth weight, exclusive breastfeeding, complementary feeding, birth order and main caregiver choice. Data was collected through interviews, and anthropometric measurement. The instruments used in collecting the data were RISKEDAS and SUSENAS I modification questionnaires, microtoise and infantometer. Data analysis was conducted in stages that included univariate, bivariate (chi-square and multivariate (logistic regression. A high prevalence of stunting (48.1% was evident. There were six variables in the bivariate test results impacted upon of association. These were socio-economic status OR=2.83 (95%CI: 1.35-5.94, mother’s height OR=3.37 (95%CI: 1.69-6.72, ANC clinic visit frequency and quality of care OR=2.3 (95%CI: 1.21-4.36, birth weight OR=20.47 (95%CI: 1.16-354.25, exclusive breastfeeding OR=4.94 (95%CI: 2.51-9.74 and complementary feeding OR=6.38 (95%CI: 3.18-12.78. The variables of maternal age, mother’s level of education, birth order and main caregiver choice were not influencing faktors. In the multivariate analysis, the dominant variables increasing risk faktors was complementary feeding giving OR=7.4 (95%CI: 1.54-34.97, mother’s height OR=2.9 (95%CI: 1.27-6.42 and ANC clinic visit frequency and quality of care OR=2.4 (95%CI: 1.09-5.19. It is recommended that there be efforts to improve the nutrition intake of young girls, women of productive age, pregnant women

  13. Evolution of the biochemical profile of children treated or undergoing treatment for moderate or severe stunting: consequences of metabolic programming?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jullyana F.R. Alves

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: to evaluate changes in the biochemical profile of children treated or being treated for moderate or severe stunting in a nutrition recovery and education center. METHODS: this was a retrospective longitudinal study of 263 children treated at this center between August of 2008 to August of 2011, aged 1 to 6 years, diagnosed with moderate (z-score of height-for-age [HAZ] < -2 or severe stunting (HAZ < -3. Data were collected on socioeconomic conditions, dietary habits, and biochemical changes, as well as height according to age. RESULTS: the nutritional intervention showed an increase in HAZ of children with moderate (0.51 ± 0.4, p = 0.001 and severe (0.91 ± 0.7, p = 0.001 stunting during the monitoring. Increased levels of insulin-like growth factor 1 (IGF-1 (initial: 71.7 ng/dL; final: 90.4 ng/dL; p = 0.01 were also observed, as well as a reduction in triglycerides (TG in both severely (initial: 91.8 mg/dL; final: 79.1 mg/dL; p = 0.01 and in moderately malnourished children (initial: 109.2 mg/dL; final 88.7 mg/dL; p = 0.01, and a significant increase in high-density lipoprotein cholesterol HDL-C only in the third year of intervention (initial: 31.4 mg/dL; final: 42.2 mg/dL. The values of total cholesterol (TC and low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C levels remained high throughout the treatment (initial: 165.1 mg/dL; final: 163.5 mg/dL and initial: 109.0 mg/dL; final: 107.3 mg/dL, respectively. CONCLUSION: the nutritional treatment for children with short stature was effective in reducing stunting and improving TG and HDL-C after three years of intervention. However, the levels of LDL-C and TC remained high even in treated children. It is therefore speculated that these changes may result from metabolic programming due to malnutrition.

  14. Deep Sequencing Analysis of Apple Infecting Viruses in Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cho, In-Sook; Igori, Davaajargal; Lim, Seungmo; Choi, Gug-Seoun; Hammond, John; Lim, Hyoun-Sub; Moon, Jae Sun

    2016-01-01

    Deep sequencing has generated 52 contigs derived from five viruses; Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV), Apple stem grooving virus (ASGV), Apple stem pitting virus (ASPV), Apple green crinkle associated virus (AGCaV), and Apricot latent virus (ApLV) were identified from eight apple samples showing small leaves and/or growth retardation. Nucleotide (nt) sequence identity of the assembled contigs was from 68% to 99% compared to the reference sequences of the five respective viral genomes. Sequences of ASPV and ASGV were the most abundantly represented by the 52 contigs assembled. The presence of the five viruses in the samples was confirmed by RT-PCR using specific primers based on the sequences of each assembled contig. All five viruses were detected in three of the samples, whereas all samples had mixed infections with at least two viruses. The most frequently detected virus was ASPV, followed by ASGV, ApLV, ACLSV, and AGCaV which were withal found in mixed infections in the tested samples. AGCaV was identified in assembled contigs ID 1012480 and 93549, which showed 82% and 78% nt sequence identity with ORF1 of AGCaV isolate Aurora-1. ApLV was identified in three assembled contigs, ID 65587, 1802365, and 116777, which showed 77%, 78%, and 76% nt sequence identity respectively with ORF1 of ApLV isolate LA2. Deep sequencing assay was shown to be a valuable and powerful tool for detection and identification of known and unknown virome in infected apple trees, here identifying ApLV and AGCaV in commercial orchards in Korea for the first time.

  15. Perspective: The Potential Role of Essential Amino Acids and the Mechanistic Target of Rapamycin Complex 1 (mTORC1) Pathway in the Pathogenesis of Child Stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Semba, Richard D; Trehan, Indi; Gonzalez-Freire, Marta; Kraemer, Klaus; Moaddel, Ruin; Ordiz, M Isabel; Ferrucci, Luigi; Manary, Mark J

    2016-09-01

    Stunting is the best summary measure of chronic malnutrition in children. Approximately one-quarter of children under age 5 worldwide are stunted. Lipid-based or micronutrient supplementation has little to no impact in reducing stunting, which suggests that other critical dietary nutrients are missing. A dietary pattern of poor-quality protein is associated with stunting. Stunted children have significantly lower circulating essential amino acids than do nonstunted children. Inadequate dietary intakes of essential amino acids could adversely affect growth, because amino acids are required for synthesis of proteins. The master growth regulation pathway, the mechanistic target of rapamycin complex 1 (mTORC1) pathway, is exquisitely sensitive to amino acid availability. mTORC1 integrates cues such as nutrients, growth factors, oxygen, and energy to regulate growth of bone, skeletal muscle, nervous system, gastrointestinal tract, hematopoietic cells, immune effector cells, organ size, and whole-body energy balance. mTORC1 represses protein and lipid synthesis and cell and organismal growth when amino acids are deficient. Over the past 4 decades, the main paradigm for child nutrition in developing countries has been micronutrient malnutrition, with relatively less attention paid to protein. In this Perspective, we present the view that essential amino acids and the mTORC1 pathway play a key role in child growth. The current assumption that total dietary protein intake is adequate for growth among most children in developing countries needs re-evaluation. PMID:27633102

  16. Effects of childhood stunting on the increase of risk factors for obesity, non-insulin dependent diabetes mellitus and coronary heart disease

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Previous studies by us and others have shown higher energy conservation mechanisms in marginally stunted Brazilian children such as, lower resting energy expenditure, lower fat oxidation, higher susceptibility to gain weight-for-height associated with a higher prevalence of stunted - obese subjects. Hypothesis: previous malnutrition as judged by height-for-age could be associated with alterations in fat patterning, circulating hormones such as insulin and IGF-1. In addition, previous malnutrition could be also associated with alterations in plasma lipid profiles, such as high triglycerides, low high-density lipoprotein cholesterol levels and hypertension. Sample and Methods: We recruited a population of 58 girls and boys with 11-14 years of age from the shantytown population in Sao Paulo, Brazil. Half of this population was of normal weight and height, and the other half was stunted. More than 300 children from to 11 years old were screened to participate in the study and were eligible if they had weight-for-height Z scores (WHZ) of -2 to +2 according to the IVCHS standards. Children recruited for the stunted group (n=28) had height-for-age (HAZ) ≤-1.5 Z score and those for the non-stunted group (n=30) had HAZ >1.50. In addition, the two groups were selectively recruited to assure group similarities in mean age and WH. General anthropometry, blood sampling for fasting insulin, glucose, glycosylated hemoglobin, triglycerides, high-density lipoprotein cholesterol, low-density cholesterol and IGF-1 were made as well as blood pressure. Results: Ninety two percent of the population had low values of IGF-1 indicating impaired growth. Stunted boys and girls had delayed pubertal stages. Lower fasting insulin levels and lower beta cell production according to HAM analysis in comparison to non-stunted children were found, after adjustment for differences in pubertal stages. In addition, a positive association was found between fasting insulin with age for the

  17. Comparative Transcriptome Profiling of a Resistant vs. Susceptible Tomato (Solanum lycopersicum) Cultivar in Response to Infection by Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Tianzi Chen; Yuanda Lv; Tongming Zhao; Nan Li; Yuwen Yang; Wengui Yu; Xin He; Tingli Liu; Baolong Zhang

    2013-01-01

    Tomato yellow leaf curl virus (TYLCV) threatens tomato production worldwide by causing leaf yellowing, leaf curling, plant stunting and flower abscission. The current understanding of the host plant defense response to this virus is very limited. Using whole transcriptome sequencing, we analyzed the differential gene expression in response to TYLCV infection in the TYLCV-resistant tomato breeding line CLN2777A (R) and TYLCV-susceptible tomato breeding line TMXA48-4-0 (S). The mixed inoculated...

  18. Iron-Folic Acid Supplementation During Pregnancy Reduces the Risk of Stunting in Children Less Than 2 Years of Age: A Retrospective Cohort Study from Nepal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nisar, Yasir Bin; Dibley, Michael J; Aguayo, Victor M

    2016-01-27

    The aim of the study was to investigate the effect of antenatal iron-folic acid (IFA) supplementation on child stunting in Nepalese children age children age supplementation. Multivariate Poisson regression analysis was performed. In our sample, 31% and 10% of Nepalese children age children whose mothers used IFA supplements compared to those whose mothers did not use (aRR = 0.86, 95% CI = 0.77-0.97). Additionally, the adjusted relative risk of being stunted was significantly reduced by 23% when antenatal IFA supplementation was started ≤6 months with ≥90 IFA supplements used during pregnancy (aRR = 0.77, 95% CI = 0.64-0.92). Antenatal IFA supplementation significantly reduced the risk of stunting in Nepalese children age supplements were started ≤6 months with ≥90 supplements were used.

  19. Coupling Peptide Antigens to Virus-Like Particles or to Protein Carriers Influences the Th1/Th2 Polarity of the Resulting Immune Response

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rattanaruji Pomwised

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available We have conjugated the S9 peptide, a mimic of the group B streptococcal type III capsular polysaccharide, to different carriers in an effort to elicit an optimal immune response. As carriers, we utilized the soluble protein keyhole limpet hemocyanin and virus-like particles (VLPs from two plant viruses, Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus and Cowpea Mosaic Virus. We have found that coupling the peptide to the soluble protein elicits a Th2 immune response, as evidenced by the production of the peptide-specific IgG1 antibody and IL-4/IL-10 production in response to antigen stimulation, whereas the peptide conjugated to VLPs elicited a Th1 response (IgG2a, IFN-γ. Because the VLPs used as carriers package RNA during the assembly process, we hypothesize that this effect may result from the presence of nucleic acid in the immunogen, which affects the Th1/Th2 polarity of the response.

  20. Heartland Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Vector-Borne Diseases (DVBD) NCEZID Share Compartir Heartland virus On this Page What is Heartland virus? How ... Do I Need to Know? What is Heartland virus? Heartland virus belongs to a family of viruses ...

  1. Genetic and serological characterization of chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus, a member of the genus Tospovirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Pei-Ru; Chien, Wan-Chu; Okuda, Mitsuru; Takeshita, Minoru; Yeh, Shyi-Dong; Wang, Yun-Chi; Chen, Tsung-Chi

    2015-02-01

    Chrysanthemum stem necrosis virus (CSNV) is a member of a tentative tospovirus species. In this study, the complete genomic sequence of the Japanese CSNV isolate TcCh07A was determined. The L RNA is 8960 nt long and encodes the 331.0-kDa RNA-dependent RNA polymerase. The M RNA is 4828 nt long and encodes the 34.1-kDa movement protein (NSm) and the 127.7-kDa glycoprotein precursor (Gn/Gc). The S RNA is 2949 nt long and encodes the 52.4-kDa silencing suppressor protein (NSs) and the 29.3-kDa nucleocapsid (N) protein. The N protein of CSNV-TcCh07A was purified from virus-infected plant tissues and used for production of a rabbit polyclonal antiserum (RAs) and a monoclonal antibody (MAb). Results of serological tests by indirect ELISA and western blotting using the prepared RAs and MAb and a previously produced RAs against the N protein of tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV) indicated that CSNV-TcCh07A, TSWV, tomato chlorotic spot virus, groundnut ringspot virus, alstroemeria necrotic streak virus and impatiens necrotic spot virus are serologically related. PMID:25427981

  2. Complete Genome Sequence of Spiroplasma kunkelii Strain CR2-3x, Causal Agent of Corn Stunt Disease in Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Robert E; Shao, Jonathan; Dally, Ellen L; Zhao, Yan; Gasparich, Gail E; Gaynor, Brady J; Athey, John C; Harrison, Nigel A; Donofrio, Nicole

    2015-01-01

    Spiroplasma kunkelii causes corn stunt disease of Zea mays L. in the Americas. Here, we report the nucleotide sequence of the 1,463,926-bp circular chromosome and four plasmids of strain CR2-3x. This information will facilitate studies of Spiroplasma pathogenicity and evolutionary adaptations to transkingdom parasitism in plants and insect vectors. PMID:26494665

  3. Draft Genome Sequence of “Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae” Strain Mbita1, the Causative Agent of Napier Grass Stunt Disease in Kenya

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Anne; Santana-Cruz, Ivette; Wambua, Lillian; Olds, Cassandra; Midega, Charles; Dickinson, Matthew; Kawicha, Praphat; Khan, Zeyaur; Masiga, Daniel; Schneider, Bernd

    2016-01-01

    Phytoplasmas are bacterial plant pathogens with devastating impact on agricultural production worldwide. In eastern Africa, Napier grass stunt disease causes serious economic losses in the smallholder dairy industry. This draft genome sequence of “Candidatus Phytoplasma oryzae” strain Mbita1 provides insight into its genomic organization and the molecular basis of pathogenicity. PMID:27103722

  4. Maternal education mitigates the negative effects of higher income on the double burden of child stunting and maternal overweight in rural Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Leroy, Jef L; Habicht, Jean-Pierre; González de Cossío, Teresa; Ruel, Marie T

    2014-05-01

    Globally, the rate at which maternal overweight and obesity increase with rising wealth is higher than the accompanying decline in the prevalence of child stunting, resulting in the double burden of malnutrition. The positive association between household wealth and child linear growth is larger in households with a more educated mother. However, whether a similar positive and synergistic association between maternal education and household wealth is observed for maternal body weight is unknown. Our objective was to assess the potential protective role of maternal education in the etiology of the double burden of malnutrition (stunted child with an overweight mother). We used data on 1547 nonpregnant mothers (aged 18-49 y) and their children (aged 0-5 y) collected in a cross-sectional survey in 235 rural communities in southern Mexico. Child height-for-age Z-score and maternal body weight were regressed on household wealth, women's schooling, and the interaction between both, controlling for relevant covariates. A similar model was used for the prevalence of double-burden pairs (stunted child with an overweight mother). In mothers with less than primary school, a doubling in wealth was not associated with improved child's height but was associated with an increase in mother's weight (3.7%, P child height-for-age Z-score (0.32 SD, P Mexico. Where maternal schooling is low, poverty reduction must be accompanied by effective behavior change communication to prevent child stunting and to protect women from unhealthy weight gain. PMID:24598879

  5. First Findings in the Route of the Maize Bushy Stunt Phytoplasma Within Its Vector Dalbulus maidis (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    González, J García; Ossamu Tanaka, F A; Spotti Lopes, J R

    2016-04-01

    In the pathosystem of Dalbulus madis (DeLong & Wolcott) (Hemiptera: Cicadellidae), a vector of maize bushy stunt phytoplasma (MBSP), the interactions occurring during the passage, invasion, and multiplication of the phytoplasma inside the vector body have been generalized from other pathosystems, with a poor understanding of the specific interactions. With the aim to understand MBSP movement and potential specific interactions with its vector, D. maidis adults were dissected to obtain the intestine and salivary gland of both infected (acquisition access period=4 d; latent period=23 d) and noninfected individuals. The organs were processed for visualization with transmission electronic microscopy. Images of phytoplasma cells were observed in the alimentary canal, epithelium of the mesenteron, hemocele, and salivary gland of the vector, and were confirmed through observation of similar cells in maize roots with advanced disease symptoms. The study of the MBSP movement within its vector shows novel findings between the synergy of the MBSP phytoplasma and D. maidis.

  6. Reducing stunting by improving maternal, infant and young child nutrition in regions such as South Asia: evidence, challenges and opportunities.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dewey, Kathryn G

    2016-05-01

    Meeting the high nutrient needs of pregnant and lactating women and their young children in regions such as South Asia is challenging because diets are dominated by staple foods with low nutrient density and poor mineral bioavailability. Gaps in nutritional adequacy in such populations probably date back to the agricultural revolution ~10 000 years ago. Options for improving diets during the first 1000 days include dietary diversification and increased intake of nutrient-rich foods, improved complementary feeding practices, micronutrient supplements and fortified foods or products specifically designed for these target groups. Evidence from intervention trials indicates that several of these strategies, both prenatal and post-natal, can have a positive impact on child growth, but results are mixed and a growth response is not always observed. Nutrition interventions, by themselves, may not result in the desired impact if the target population suffers from frequent infection, both clinical and subclinical. Further research is needed to understand the mechanisms underlying both prenatal and post-natal growth restriction. In the meantime, implementation and rigorous evaluation of integrated interventions that address the multiple causes of stunting is a high priority. These intervention packages should ideally include improved nutrition during both pregnancy and the post-natal period, prevention and control of prenatal and post-natal infection and subclinical conditions that restrict growth, care for women and children and stimulation of early child development. In regions such as South Asia, such strategies hold great promise for reducing stunting and enhancing human capital formation.

  7. Simulated acute central Mycoplasma infections in rats induce fever, anorexia, body mass stunting and lethargy but spare memory.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swanepoel, Tanya; Sabbar, Mariam; Baartman, Tamzyn L; Laburn, Helen P; Mitchell, Duncan; Dukhan, Tanusha; Harden, Lois M

    2016-09-01

    Despite the documented post-infectious neurological complications of a central nervous system (CNS) Mycoplasma infection in humans, very few studies have investigated the acute inflammatory responses and sickness behaviours induced by CNS Mycoplasma infections. We therefore determined the effect of acute central administration of fibroblast-stimulating lipopeptide-1 (FSL-1), derived from Mycoplasma salivarium, and FAM-20 from a more pathogenic species, namely Mycoplasma pneumoniae, on behavioural and inflammatory responses in rats. Male Sprague-Dawley rats had radiotransmitters implanted, intra-abdominally, to measure body temperature and cage activity continuously. After recovery from surgery, rats were conditioned in a fear conditioning task and then immediately received an intra-cisterna magna (i.c.m.) injection of either: (1) FSL-1 (10 or 100μg/5μl) or its vehicle (phosphate-buffered saline, 5μl), or (2) FAM-20 (10 or 100μg/5μl) or its vehicle (dimethyl sulfoxide, 5μl). Body mass and food intake were measured daily. Memory was assessed seven days after injection using fear conditioning tests. A single, i.c.m. injection of either FSL-1 or FAM-20 induced profound, dose-dependent fever, anorexia, lethargy and body mass stunting in rats. Moreover, rats that received an i.c.m. injection of 100μg/5μl FAM-20 had a significant increase in the concentration of IL-1β in both the hypothalamus and the hippocampus for ~27h after injection. Seven days after FSL-1 or FAM-20 injection, when body mass of rats still was stunted, they maintained their memory for fear of the context and for fear of the tone, despite the increase in hippocampal IL-1β concentration after FAM-20 administration. Thus, acute simulated CNS Mycoplasma infections caused pronounced sickness responses and brain inflammation in rats, but spared fear memory. PMID:27180133

  8. Food insecurity in children but not in their mothers is associated with altered activities, school absenteeism, and stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bernal, Jennifer; Frongillo, Edward A; Herrera, Héctor A; Rivera, Juan A

    2014-10-01

    Household food insecurity has substantial detrimental effects on children, but little is known about the mechanisms through which these effects occur. This study investigated some possible mechanisms by examining associations of food insecurity reported by children and mothers with daily activities, school absenteeism, and stunting. We conducted a cross-sectional study in a nonprobabilistic sample of 131 mother-child pairs from a poor peri-urban area in Miranda State, Venezuela. We assessed food insecurity in children by using an instrument developed through a naturalistic approach that had 10 items for food insecurity and 9 items for management strategies. To obtain mothers' reports of food insecurity, a previously validated 12-item instrument was used. Children's daily activities, school absenteeism, and stunting were measured. Chi-square tests for contingency tables and logistic and multiple regression analyses were used to test associations of food insecurity with outcomes. There was no association between mothers' reports of food-insecurity and any child outcome. Children's reports of food insecurity were associated with higher odds of doing passive home chores (OR: 1.17; 95% CI: 1.02, 1.32), cooking at home (OR: 1.21; 95% CI: 1.05, 1,38), taking care of siblings (OR: 1.15; 95% CI: 1.01, 1.31), and doing labor (OR: 1.22; 95% CI: 1.04, 1.42) and lower odds of playing video games (OR: 0.86; 95% CI: 0.76, 0.98) (all P Children's reports of management strategies were associated with 5 of 7 work activities measured. Labor in food-insecure children was the main activity that explained school absenteeism. Food insecurity reported by children can be assessed by pediatricians, school personnel, and other practitioners by using a simple instrument to identify food-insecure children and to respond to mitigate their food insecurity and its consequences. PMID:25143373

  9. Households with a stunted child and obese mother: trends and child feeding practices in a middle-income country, 1992-2008.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aitsi-Selmi, Amina

    2015-06-01

    Middle-income countries in the intermediate stages of the nutrition transition are facing a complex picture of nutrition-related diseases with child stunting and maternal obesity coexisting within single households (SCOB). A debate exists as to whether SCOB is a true phenomenon or a statistical artefact. In this study, we examine time trends and determinants of SCOB in Egypt and test the hypothesis that increased child sugary snack consumption, and reduced fruit/vegetable consumption (markers of poor dietary diversity) are associated with SCOB. Data on 25,065 mothers and their children from the Egyptian Demographic and Health Surveys from 1992, 1995, 2005 and 2008 are used to examine trends in child stunting, maternal obesity and child-mother household type [normal/non-obese, stunted/non-obese, normal/obese, stunted/obese (SCOB)]. The association of child sugary snack and fruit/vegetable consumption with household type is also examined using multinomial logistic regression adjusting for maternal age, maternal education, child age, breastfeeding, household wealth and urban/rural residence. The prevalence of SCOB increased between the periods 1992/95 and 2005/08 despite reductions in stunting levels. This increase paralleled a rise in maternal obesity. Child sugary snack consumption was associated with higher odds (51 %) of belonging to a SCOB household compared with normal/non-obese households, while fruit/vegetable consumption was associated with lower odds (24 %). The results suggest the existence of a link between the rise in maternal obesity and an increase in SCOB, and an association between child sugary snack consumption and SCOB. Addressing SCOB may require a household-rather than individual-based approach to nutrition.

  10. FAKTOR-FAKTOR SOSIAL EKONOMI DAN KESEHATAN MASYARAKAT KAITANNYA DENGAN MASALAH GIZI UNDERWEIGHT, STUNTED, DAN WASTED DI INDONESIA: PENDEKATAN EKOLOGI GIZI

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Hani Ulfani

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available 800x600 Normal 0 false false false IN X-NONE X-NONE MicrosoftInternetExplorer4 Malnutrition is an ecological problem in the sense influenced by various aspects, as explained in the framework of UNICEF (1988. Indonesia as developing country at present still faced such a problem. Eco-nutrition is important to understand related factors affecting malnutrition in Indonesia to find out more effective programs. Eco-nutrition have three key areas : public health (access to quality water, sanitation and health services, socio economic (livelihood assets and malnutrition. The purpose of this research was to study the linkages between socioeconomic and public health factors with the problem of underweight, stunted, and wasted in Indonesia.This research was conducted using cross-sectional study design, analyzed the 424 districts/cities in Indonesia. Data prevalence of underweight, stunted, wasted, level of education and public health factors (access to quality water, hygiene behavior, utilization of Posyandu, complete immunization coverage, incidence of diarrhea, and the incidence of acute respiratory infections (ARI obtained from Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas 2007. Socio-economic data (level of poverty and GDP/capita obtained from the Central Statistic Agency (BPS. Statistical test of Pearson correlation and stepwise linear regression method were implemented to understand factors affecting underweight, stunted, wasted and correlation among variables. The study shows that factors affecting underweight were educational level, poverty level, hygiene behavior and use of Posyandu. While factors affecting stunted were GDP/capita, education level, poverty level, hygiene behavior, and utilization of Posyandu. Factors affecting wasted were hygiene behavior, utilization of Posyandu and complete immunization. Key words: underweight,   stunted,   wasted,   socioeconomic   factors,   public   health,                   eco-nutrition

  11. A new application of monolithic supports: the separation of viruses from one another.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruščić, J; Gutiérrez-Aguirre, I; Žnidarič, M Tušek; Kolundžija, S; Slana, A; Barut, M; Ravnikar, M; Krajačić, M

    2015-04-01

    The emergence of next-generation "deep" sequencing has enabled the study of virus populations with much higher resolutions. This new tool increases the possibility of observing mixed infections caused by combinations of plant viruses, which are likely to occur more frequently than previously thought. The biological impact of co-infecting viruses on their host has yet to be determined and fully understood, and the first step towards reaching this goal is the separation and purification of individual species. Ion-exchange monolith chromatography has been used successfully for the purification and concentration of different viruses, and number of them have been separated from plant homogenate or bacterial and eukaryotic lysate. Thus, the question remained as to whether different virus species present in a single sample could be separated. In this study, anion-exchange chromatography using monolithic supports was optimized for fast and efficient partial purification of three model plant viruses: Turnip yellow mosaic virus, Tomato bushy stunt virus, and Tobacco mosaic virus. The virus species, as well as two virus strains, were separated from each other in a single chromatographic experiment from an artificially mixed sample. Based on A260/280 ratios, we were able to attribute specific peaks to a certain viral morphology/structure (icosahedral or rod-shaped). This first separation of individual viruses from an artificially prepared laboratory mixture should encourage new applications of monolithic chromatographic supports in the separation of plant, bacterial, or animal viruses from all kinds of mixed samples. PMID:25724100

  12. Partial biological and molecular characterization of a Cucumber mosaic virus isolate naturally infecting Cucumis melo in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rasoulpour, Rasoul; Afsharifar, Alireza; Izadpanah, Keramat

    2016-06-01

    Melon seedlings showing systemic chlorotic spots and mosaic symptoms were collected in central part of Iran, and a virus was isolated from diseased plants by mechanical inoculation. The virus systemically infected the most inoculated test plants by inducing mosaic symptoms, while, in the members of Fabaceae family and Chenopodium quinoa induced local lesions. Agar gel diffusion test using a polyclonal antiserum against a squash Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) isolate showed the presence of CMV in the mechanically inoculated plants (designated CMV-Me). The virus was purified by polyethylene glycol precipitation and differential centrifugation. A polyclonal antiserum was produced against the virus that reacted specifically with virus antigen in ELISA and agar gel diffusion tests. The virus was molecularly characterized by PCR amplification of the full length of the coat protein gene using cucumovirus genus specific primer pair CPTALL-3/CPTALL-5 and sequence analysis of the resulting product. No RNA satellite was detected using the primer pair CMVsat3H/sat5T7P. Phylogenetic analysis based on the coat protein amino acid sequences showed that CMV-Me belongs to Subgroup IB. These results may be helpful in melon breeding programs, focusing on plant resistance to plant viruses including CMV. PMID:27366772

  13. Packaging and structural phenotype of brome mosaic virus capsid protein with altered N-terminal β-hexamer structure

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The first 45 amino acid region of brome mosaic virus (BMV) capsid protein (CP) contains RNA binding and structural domains that are implicated in the assembly of infectious virions. One such important structural domain encompassing amino acids 28QPVIV32, highly conserved between BMV and cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), exhibits a β-hexamer structure. In this study we report that alteration of the β-hexamer structure by mutating 28QPVIV32 to 28AAAAA32 had no effect either on symptom phenotype, local and systemic movement in Chenopodium quinoa and RNA profile of in vivo assembled virions. However, sensitivity to RNase and assembly phenotypes distinguished virions assembled with CP subunits having β-hexamer from those of wild type. A comparison of 3-D models obtained by cryo electron microscopy revealed overall similar structural features for wild type and mutant virions, with small but significant differences near the 3-fold axes of symmetry.

  14. Full-length sequence analysis of a distinct isolate of Bidens mottle virus infecting sunflower in Taiwan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liao, J Y; Hu, Chung-Chi; Chen, C C; Chang, C H; Deng, T C

    2009-01-01

    The full-length genome of a potyvirus, previously known as sunflower chlorotic spot virus isolate SF-1 (SCSV-SF-1) which causes novel symptoms on sunflowers (Helianthus annuus), was sequenced and analyzed. The genome of SCSV-SF-1 is 9,741 nucleotides long, encoding a polyprotein of 3,071 amino acids containing the consensus motifs of potyviruses. Sequence comparison revealed that the 3'-terminus of SCSV-SF-1 shared over 96% similarities with isolates of Bidens mottle virus (BiMoV). However, SCSV-SF-1 has a very narrow host range, excluding the diagnostic host species for BiMoV, Bidens pilosa and Zinnia elegans. Therefore, SCSV-SF-1 is a distinct isolate of BiMoV. This is the first report of the full-length nucleotide sequence of BiMoV infecting sunflower in Taiwan.

  15. Complete genome sequence of yacon necrotic mottle virus, a novel putative member of the genus Badnavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ye-Ji; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Young-Kee; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Choi, Hong-Soo; Seo, Jang-Kyun

    2015-04-01

    The complete genome sequence of a previously undescribed virus isolated from a yacon plant exhibiting necrotic mottle, chlorosis, stunting, and leaf malformation symptoms in Gyeongju, Korea, was determined. The genome of this virus consists of one circular double-stranded DNA of 7661 bp in size. The genome contained four open reading frames (ORFs 1 to 4) on the plus strand that potentially encode proteins of 26, 32, 234, and 25 kDa. Protein BLAST analysis showed that ORF3, which is the largest ORF, has 45 % amino acid sequence identity (with 89 % coverage) to the ORF3 of fig badnavirus 1 (FBV-1), a recently identified badnavirus. Phylogenetic analysis provided further evidence that the virus identified in this study is probably a member of a new species in the genus Badnavirus. The name yacon necrotic mottle virus (YNMoV) is proposed for this new virus.

  16. Complete genome sequence of yacon necrotic mottle virus, a novel putative member of the genus Badnavirus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ye-Ji; Kwak, Hae-Ryun; Lee, Young-Kee; Kim, Mi-Kyeong; Choi, Hong-Soo; Seo, Jang-Kyun

    2015-04-01

    The complete genome sequence of a previously undescribed virus isolated from a yacon plant exhibiting necrotic mottle, chlorosis, stunting, and leaf malformation symptoms in Gyeongju, Korea, was determined. The genome of this virus consists of one circular double-stranded DNA of 7661 bp in size. The genome contained four open reading frames (ORFs 1 to 4) on the plus strand that potentially encode proteins of 26, 32, 234, and 25 kDa. Protein BLAST analysis showed that ORF3, which is the largest ORF, has 45 % amino acid sequence identity (with 89 % coverage) to the ORF3 of fig badnavirus 1 (FBV-1), a recently identified badnavirus. Phylogenetic analysis provided further evidence that the virus identified in this study is probably a member of a new species in the genus Badnavirus. The name yacon necrotic mottle virus (YNMoV) is proposed for this new virus. PMID:25643816

  17. Handwashing, sanitation and family planning practices are the strongest underlying determinants of child stunting in rural indigenous communities of Jharkhand and Odisha, Eastern India: a cross-sectional study

    OpenAIRE

    Saxton, J; S. RATH; Nair, N.; Gope, R.; Mahapatra, R.; Tripathy, P.; Prost, A. G.

    2016-01-01

    The World Health Organisation has called for global action to reduce child stunting by 40% by 2025. One third of the world's stunted children live in India, and children belonging to rural indigenous communities are the worst affected. We sought to identify the strongest determinants of stunting among indigenous children in rural Jharkhand and Odisha, India, to highlight key areas for intervention. We analysed data from 1227 children aged 6–23.99 months and their mothers, collected in 2010 fr...

  18. Stunting, poor iron status and parasite infection are significant risk factors for lower cognitive performance in Cambodian school-aged children.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marlene Perignon

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Nutrition is one of many factors affecting the cognitive development of children. In Cambodia, 55% of children <5 y were anemic and 40% stunted in 2010. Currently, no data exists on the nutritional status of Cambodian school-aged children, or on how malnutrition potentially affects their cognitive development. OBJECTIVE: To assess the anthropometric and micronutrient status (iron, vitamin A, zinc, iodine of Cambodian schoolchildren and their associations with cognitive performance. METHODS: School children aged 6-16 y (n = 2443 from 20 primary schools in Cambodia were recruited. Anthropometry, hemoglobin, serum ferritin, transferrin receptors, retinol-binding protein and zinc concentrations, inflammation status, urinary iodine concentration and parasite infection were measured. Socio-economic data were collected in a sub-group of children (n = 616. Cognitive performance was assessed using Raven's Colored Progressive Matrices (RCPM and block design and picture completion, two standardized tests from the Wechsler Intelligence Scale for Children (WISC-III. RESULTS: The prevalence of anemia, iron, zinc, iodine and vitamin A deficiency were 15.7%; 51.2%, 92.8%, 17.3% and 0.7% respectively. The prevalence of stunting was 40.0%, including 10.9% of severe stunting. Stunted children scored significantly lower than non-stunted children on all tests. In RCPM test, boys with iron-deficiency anemia had lower scores than boys with normal iron status (-1.46, p<0.05. In picture completion test, children with normal iron status tended to score higher than iron-deficient children with anemia (-0.81; p = 0.067 or without anemia (-0.49; p = 0.064. Parasite infection was associated with an increase in risk of scoring below the median value in block design test (OR = 1.62; p<0.05, and with lower scores in other tests, for girls only (both p<0.05. CONCLUSION: Poor cognitive performance of Cambodian school-children was multifactorial and

  19. 中国甜樱桃病毒病及其检测技术研究进展%Advances in Sweet Cherry Viruses and Detection Technology in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王文文; 宗晓娟; 陈立伟; 王甲威; 魏海蓉; 徐丽; 严雪瑞; 刘庆忠

    2012-01-01

    综述了近年来中国对甜樱桃(Prunus avium L.)病毒病及其检测技术的相关报道,介绍了中国甜樱桃上常见病毒的种类、危害及特性,主要包括:李属坏死环斑病毒(PNRSV)、李矮缩病毒(PDV)、苹果褪绿叶斑病毒(ACLSV)、樱桃锉叶病毒(CRLV)、樱桃病毒A(CVA)、樱桃绿环斑驳病毒(CGRMV)、樱桃小果病毒(LChV);阐述了甜樱桃病毒检测中所用的方法、技术,包括指示植物法(生物学鉴定法)、电子显微镜技术、血清学方法、分子生物学技术方法等.%The recent virus disease research on sweet cherry in China was reviewed, the species of the main sweet cherry viruses identified and the characteristics of these viruses were introduced. These viruses included Prunus necrotic ringspot virus, Prunus dwarf virus, Apple chlorotic leaf spot virus, Cherry rasp leaf virus, Cherry virus A, Cherry green ring mottle virus,Little cherry virus. The detection technologies were also described, including indicator plant,electron microscopy,sero-logical method and molecular biological techniques.

  20. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch) grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L.) grown in hydroponics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Jendoubi, Hamdi; Vázquez, Saúl; Calatayud, Angeles; Vavpetič, Primož; Vogel-Mikuš, Katarina; Pelicon, Primož; Abadía, Javier; Abadía, Anunciación; Morales, Fermín

    2014-01-01

    Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch) trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. "Orbis") grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated) and basal (untreated) leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume) and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  1. The effects of foliar fertilization with iron sulfate in chlorotic leaves are limited to the treated area. A study with peach trees (Prunus persica L. Batsch grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. grown in hydroponics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamdi eEl-Jendoubi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Crop Fe deficiency is a worldwide problem. The aim of this study was to assess the effects of foliar Fe applications in two species grown in different environments: peach (Prunus persica L. Batsch trees grown in the field and sugar beet (Beta vulgaris L. cv. ‘Orbis’ grown in hydroponics. The distal half of Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves was treated with Fe sulfate by dipping and using a brush in peach trees and sugar beet plants, respectively. The re-greening of the distal (Fe-treated and basal (untreated leaf areas was monitored, and the nutrient and photosynthetic pigment composition of the two areas were also determined. Leaves were also studied using chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, low temperature-scanning electron microscopy microanalysis, scanning transmission ion microscopy-particle induced X-ray emission and Perls Fe staining. The distal, Fe-treated leaf parts of both species showed a significant increase in Fe concentrations (across the whole leaf volume and marked re-greening, with significant increases in the concentrations of all photosynthetic pigments, as well as decreases in de-epoxidation of xanthophyll cycle carotenoids and increases in photochemical efficiency. In the basal, untreated leaf parts, Fe concentrations increased slightly, but little re-greening occurred. No changes in the concentrations of other nutrients were found. Foliar Fe fertilization was effective in re-greening treated leaf areas both in peach trees and sugar beet plants. Results indicate that the effects of foliar Fe-sulfate fertilization in Fe-deficient, chlorotic leaves were minor outside the leaf surface treated, indicating that Fe mobility within the leaf is a major constraint for full fertilizer effectiveness in crops where Fe-deficiency is established and leaf chlorosis occurs.

  2. Effect of complementary feeding with lipid-based nutrient supplements and corn-soy blend on the incidence of stunting and linear growth among 6- to 18-month-old infants and children in rural Malawi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mangani, Charles; Maleta, Kenneth; Phuka, John; Cheung, Yin Bun; Thakwalakwa, Chrissie; Dewey, Kathryn; Manary, Mark; Puumalainen, Taneli; Ashorn, Per

    2015-12-01

    Low nutritional value of complementary foods is associated with high incidence of childhood growth stunting in low-income countries. This study was done to test a hypothesis that dietary complementation with lipid-based nutrient supplements (LNS) promotes linear growth and reduces the incidence of severe stunting among at-risk infants. A total of 840 6-month-old healthy infants in rural Malawi were enrolled to a randomised assessor-blinded trial. The participants received 12-month supplementation with nothing, milk-LNS, soy-LNS, or corn-soy blend (CSB). Supplements provided micronutrients and approximately 280 kcal energy per day. Outcomes were incidence of severe and very severe stunting [length-for-age z-score, (LAZ) supplementation and the lower incidence of stunting. Exploratory analyses suggest that provision of milk-LNS, but not soy-LNS promotes linear growth among at-risk infants mainly between 9 and 12 months of age.

  3. Stunting, Underweight and Overweight in Children Aged 2.0-4.9 Years in Indonesia: Prevalence Trends and Associated Risk Factors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cut Novianti Rachmi

    Full Text Available The double burden of malnutrition affects many low and middle-income countries. This study aimed to: a determine temporal trends in the prevalence of underweight, stunting, and at risk of overweight/ overweight or obesity in Indonesian children aged 2.0-4.9 years; and b examine associated risk factors.A repeated cross-sectional survey. This is a secondary data analysis of waves 1, 2, 3, and 4 (1993, 1997, 2000, and 2007 of the Indonesian Family Life Survey, which includes 13 out of 27 provinces in Indonesia. Height, weight and BMI were expressed as z-scores (2006 WHO Child Growth Standards. Weight-for-age-z-score +1, >+2, >+3 as at-risk, overweight and obese, respectively.There are 938, 913, 939, and 1311 separate children in the 4 waves, respectively. The prevalence of stunting decreased significantly from waves 1 to 4 (from 50.8% to 36.7%, as did the prevalence of underweight (from 34.5% to 21.4%. The prevalence of 'at-risk'/overweight/obesity increased from 10.3% to 16.5% (all P<0.01. Stunting and underweight were related to lower birth weight, being breastfed for 6 months or more, having parents who were underweight or had short stature, and mothers who never attended formal education. Stunting was also higher in rural areas. Being at-risk, or overweight/obese were closely related to being in the youngest age group (2-2·9 years or male, having parents who were overweight/obese or having fathers with university education.The double burden of malnutrition occurs in Indonesian children. Development of policy to combine the management of chronic under-nutrition and over-nutrition is required.

  4. Households with a stunted child and obese mother: trends and child feeding practices in a middle-income country, 1992-2008.

    OpenAIRE

    Aitsi-Selmi, A.

    2015-01-01

    Middle-income countries in the intermediate stages of the nutrition transition are facing a complex picture of nutrition-related diseases with child stunting and maternal obesity coexisting within single households (SCOB). A debate exists as to whether SCOB is a true phenomenon or a statistical artefact. In this study, we examine time trends and determinants of SCOB in Egypt and test the hypothesis that increased child sugary snack consumption, and reduced fruit/vegetable consumption (markers...

  5. Influência do déficit de estatura nos desvios nutricionais em adolescentes e pré-adolescentes Influence of stunting on nutrition disorders in adolescents and pre-adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carla Danusa da Luz Santos

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Avaliar a influência do déficit estatural nos desvios nutricionais em pré-adolescentes e adolescentes de baixa renda. MÉTODOS: Calculou-se o Índice de Massa Corporal a partir do peso e da estatura de alunos da rede pública entre 4 e 8ª séries. Foram utilizadas as tabelas do National Center for Health Statistics de 2000 para crianças e adolescentes e foi considerado excesso de peso Índice de Massa Corporal/Idade>P85 e déficit de peso Índice de Massa Corporal/Idade OBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to evaluate the influence of stunting on nutrition disorders in low-income preadolescents and adolescents. METHODS: Body mass index was calculated from the weight and height of 4 to 8th grade students from public schools. The tables from the National Center for Health Statistics of 2000 for children and adolescents were used as reference guides. Individuals were considered overweight when Body Mass Index-for-age >P85 and underweight when Body Mass Index-for-age stunted when height-for-age was below one standard deviation. Overweight and underweight rates were compared between the non-stunted and stunted groups according to gender and age. RESULTS: A total of 3766 individuals were studied, 50.4% being females. Mean age was 12.8 years, with a standard deviation of 2.0 years and no significant difference between the groups. In the stunted group, overweight was more common among the older children. In the non-stunted group, the distribution by age was similar for all three Body Mass Index-for-age classifications. Distribution by gender shows that overweight in the stunted group prevailed among females (76.1% while in the non-stunted group the difference was minimal between the genders (4.4%. CONCLUSION: In the stunted group, overweight was more common among those older than 12 years and among females. Non-stunted boys were overweight more often than stunted boys.

  6. A Simple RNA-DNA Scaffold Templates the Assembly of Monofunctional Virus-Like Particles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmann, Rees F; Sportsman, Richard; Beren, Christian; Manoharan, Vinothan N; Knobler, Charles M; Gelbart, William M

    2015-06-24

    Using the components of a particularly well-studied plant virus, cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV), we demonstrate the synthesis of virus-like particles (VLPs) with one end of the packaged RNA extending out of the capsid and into the surrounding solution. This construct breaks the otherwise perfect symmetry of the capsid and provides a straightforward route for monofunctionalizing VLPs using the principles of DNA nanotechnology. It also allows physical manipulation of the packaged RNA, a previously inaccessible part of the viral architecture. Our synthesis does not involve covalent chemistry of any kind; rather, we trigger capsid assembly on a scaffold of viral RNA that is hybridized at one end to a complementary DNA strand. Interaction of CCMV capsid protein with this RNA-DNA template leads to selective packaging of the RNA portion into a well-formed capsid but leaves the hybridized portion poking out of the capsid through a small hole. We show that the nucleic acid protruding from the capsid is capable of binding free DNA strands and DNA-functionalized colloidal particles. Separately, we show that the RNA-DNA scaffold can be used to nucleate virus formation on a DNA-functionalized surface. We believe this self-assembly strategy can be adapted to viruses other than CCMV. PMID:26043403

  7. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child health nutrition to help prevent stunting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nearly 200 million young children in developing countries around the world are stunted due to in great extent to malnutrition during infancy. Even though breast feeding is the best nourishment a mother can provide to her baby, after about six months of age, complementary foods, also called as weaning foods, are needed to meet the infant's nutritional recommendations. On the other hand, complementary feeding sometimes reduces breast milk intake and can introduce a potential source of contamination leading to a number of gastrointestinal infections, which can substantially impair growth. Thus, it is very important to accurately measure the amount of breast milk consumed and also to assess the amount and quality of complementary foods introduced to the infant's diet. An isotopic method for measuring breast milk intake based on deuterium dilution and kinetics has been validated using isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS). Recently, a more economical infrared spectroscopy (IS) method has also been used and validated against IRMS. The objectives of this CRP were i) to develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast milk intake using regionally available equipment, ii) use isotopic methods to evaluate nutrient reserves, namely vitamin A, iron and zinc, and energy expenditure in mothers to determine the relative needs for nutritional supplements of mothers in the region, and iii) to use isotopic techniques to compare the nutrient density of milk with nutrient levels in the mother to learn for which nutrients breast milk is a reliable indicator of maternal nutrient reserves in marginally nourished women

  8. Cultivated grapevines represent a symptomless reservoir for the transmission of hop stunt viroid to hop crops: 15 years of evolutionary analysis.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoko Kawaguchi-Ito

    Full Text Available Hop stunt was a mysterious disorder that first emerged in the 1940s in commercial hops in Japan. To investigate the origin of this disorder, we infected hops with natural Hop stunt viroid (HpSVd isolates derived from four host species (hop, grapevine, plum and citrus, which except for hop represent possible sources of the ancestral viroid. These plants were maintained for 15 years, then analyzed the HpSVd variants present. Here we show that the variant originally found in cultivated grapevines gave rise to various combinations of mutations at positions 25, 26, 54, 193, and 281. However, upon prolonged infection, these variants underwent convergent evolution resulting in a limited number of adapted mutants. Some of them showed nucleotide sequences identical to those currently responsible for hop stunt epidemics in commercial hops in Japan, China, and the United States. Therefore, these results indicate that we have successfully reproduced the original process by which a natural HpSVd variant naturally introduced into cultivated hops was able to mutate into the HpSVd variants that are currently present in commercial hops. Furthermore, and importantly, we have identified cultivated grapevines as a symptomless reservoir in which HSVd can evolve and be transmitted to hop crops to cause epidemics.

  9. ECHO virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/001340.htm ECHO virus To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Enteric cytopathic human orphan (ECHO) viruses are a group of viruses that lead to ...

  10. Herança da resistência ao enfezamento em milho Inheritance of the resistance to corn stunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flávio Trevizoli Silveira

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available Os objetivos deste trabalho foram determinar a herança da resistência ao complexo de enfezamento em milho e determinar as melhores fontes de resistência entre as linhagens estudadas. Foram realizadas as análises dialélica e médias de gerações em linhagens de milho. Para a análise dialélica, foram cruzadas 12 linhagens de milho, em dialélico parcial. Para análises de médias de gerações, foram cruzadas três linhagens resistentes e quatro suscetíveis, para a obtenção das gerações F1, F2, RCP R e RCP S. Os trabalhos foram conduzidos em Jaboticabal, SP. A incidência de enfezamento foi avaliada no estádio fenológico R3. Efeitos significativos quanto à capacidade geral de combinação e capacidade específica de combinação foram obtidos, o que indicou que, no controle do caráter enfezamentos, estão envolvidos tanto os efeitos aditivos quanto os de dominância. Análises de médias de gerações mostraram a presença de poucos genes envolvidos com o controle da resistência, com predominância de efeitos aditivos, o que permite a seleção de genótipos resistentes. As linhagens L02, L03 e L05 poderão ser utilizadas como fontes de resistência, em futuras combinações híbridas.The objectives of this work were to determine the inheritance of resistance to corn stunt and determine the best resistance sources among the studied inbred lines. Diallel analysis and generation means were made for corn inbred lines. For the diallel analysis, twelve corn-inbred lines were crossed, in a partial diallel scheme. For the analyses of generation means, three resistant inbred lines and four susceptible ones were crossed, to obtain the F1, F2, RCP R and RCP S generations. The experiments were carried out in Jaboticabal, SP, Brazil. Corn sfunt incidence was evaluated at the phenological phase R3. Significant effects for CGC and CEC were obtained, which indicated that both additive and dominance effects were involved in corn expression of

  11. Comparative pathology of infection by novel diarrhoea viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, G A

    1987-01-01

    Examination of diarrhoeic faeces in the electron microscope often reveals viruses that are presumed to be enteropathogenic. Lesions caused by novel rotaviruses were similar to those of group A rotaviruses, but enterocyte syncytia were seen which are probably pathognomonic for novel rotaviruses. In adenovirus infection in piglets, mature enterocytes were infected and destroyed; intranuclear inclusion bodies were seen in infected enterocytes. Calici-like viruses infected mature enterocytes in calves and the lesions were similar to those described in humans infected with calici-like viruses; in both host species it was impossible to demonstrate virus particles in enterocytes examined in the electron microscope. The Breda virus infected villi and crypts in the lower small intestine and the surface and crypts in the large intestine; it was the only enteropathogenic virus to show this distribution of infection and lesions. Astrovirus infection in lambs was comparable to a mild rotavirus infection, but in calves the epithelium of the dome villi of Peyer's patches was infected. Parvovirus in cats and dogs infected and destroyed small intestinal crypt cells, causing dilated crypts and stunted villi; intranuclear inclusion bodies were prominent. PMID:3036441

  12. Complete nucleotide sequence of rose yellow leaf virus, a new member of the family Tombusviridae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mollov, Dimitre; Lockhart, Ben; Zlesak, David C

    2014-10-01

    The genome of the rose yellow leaf virus (RYLV) has been determined to be 3918 nucleotides long and to contain seven open reading frames (ORFs). ORF1 encodes a 27-kDa peptide (p27). ORF2 shares a common start codon with ORF1 and continues through the amber stop codon of p27 to encode an 87-kDa (p87) protein that has amino acid similarity to the RNA-dependent RNA polymerase (RdRp) of members of the family Tombusviridae. ORFs 3 and 4 have no significant amino acid similarity to known functional viral ORFs. ORF5 encodes a 6-kDa (p6) protein that has similarity to movement proteins of members of the Tombusviridae. ORF5A has no conventional start codon and overlaps with p6. A putative +1 frameshift mechanism allows p6 translation to continue through the stop codon and results in a 12-kDa protein that has high homology to the carmovirus p13 movement protein. The 37-kDa protein encoded by ORF6 has amino acid sequence similarity to coat proteins (CP) of members of the Tombusviridae. ORF7 has no significant amino acid similarity to known viral ORFs. Phylogenetic analysis of the RdRp amino acid sequences grouped RYLV together with the unclassified Rosa rugosa leaf distortion virus (RrLDV), pelargonium line pattern virus (PLPV), and pelargonium chlorotic ring pattern virus (PCRPV) in a distinct subgroup of the family Tombusviridae. PMID:24838852

  13. Examining the Heterogeneous Genome Content of Multipartite Viruses BMV and CCMV by Native Mass Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    van de Waterbeemd, Michiel; Snijder, Joost; Tsvetkova, Irina B.; Dragnea, Bogdan G.; Cornelissen, Jeroen J.; Heck, Albert J. R.

    2016-06-01

    Since the concept was first introduced by Brian Chait and co-workers in 1991, mass spectrometry of proteins and protein complexes under non-denaturing conditions (native MS) has strongly developed, through parallel advances in instrumentation, sample preparation, and data analysis tools. However, the success rate of native MS analysis, particularly in heterogeneous mega-Dalton (MDa) protein complexes, still strongly depends on careful instrument modification. Here, we further explore these boundaries in native mass spectrometry, analyzing two related endogenous multipartite viruses: the Brome Mosaic Virus (BMV) and the Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV). Both CCMV and BMV are approximately 4.6 megadalton (MDa) in mass, of which approximately 1 MDA originates from the genomic content of the virion. Both viruses are produced as mixtures of three particles carrying different segments of the genome, varying by approximately 0.1 MDA in mass (~2%). This mixture of particles poses a challenging analytical problem for high-resolution native MS analysis, given the large mass scales involved. We attempt to unravel the particle heterogeneity using both Q-TOF and Orbitrap mass spectrometers extensively modified for analysis of very large assemblies. We show that manipulation of the charging behavior can provide assistance in assigning the correct charge states. Despite their challenging size and heterogeneity, we obtained native mass spectra with resolved series of charge states for both BMV and CCMV, demonstrating that native MS of endogenous multipartite virions is feasible.

  14. Scope for using plant viruses to present epitopes from animal pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Porta; Lomonossoff

    1998-01-01

    Epitope presentation to the immune system for vaccination purposes can be achieved either via an inactivated or attenuated form of a pathogen or via its isolated antigenic sequences. When free, these peptides can adopt a variety of conformations, most of which will not exist in their native environment. Conjugation to carrier proteins restricts mobility of the peptides and increases their immunogenicity. A high local concentration of epitopes boosts the immune response further and can be generated by the use of self-aggregating carriers, such as the capsid proteins of viruses. In this regard plant viruses have in recent years started to make an impact as safer alternatives to the use of bacterial and attenuated animal viruses: the latter both require propagation in costly cell-culture systems where they can undergo reversion towards a virulent form and/or become contaminated by other pathogens. Plant virus-based vectors can be multiplied cheaply and to high yields (exceeding 1 mg/g plant tissue) in host plants. Both helical (tobacco mosaic virus, potato virus X, alfalfa mosaic virus) and icosahedral (cowpea mosaic virus, tomato bushy stunt virus) particles have been used to express a number of animal B-cell epitopes, whose immunogenic properties have been explored to varying degrees. Copyright 1998 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:10398492

  15. Improving women's nutrition imperative for rapid reduction of childhood stunting in South Asia: coupling of nutrition specific interventions with nutrition sensitive measures essential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vir, Sheila C

    2016-05-01

    The implications of direct nutrition interventions on women's nutrition, birth outcome and stunting rates in children in South Asia are indisputable and well documented. In the last decade, a number of studies present evidence of the role of non-nutritional factors impacting on women's nutrition, birth outcome, caring practices and nutritional status of children. The implications of various dimensions of women's empowerment and gender inequality on child stunting is being increasingly recognised. Evidence reveals the crucial role of early age of marriage and conception, poor secondary education, domestic violence, inadequate decision-making power, poor control over resources, strenuous agriculture activities, and increasing employment of women and of interventions such as cash transfer scheme and microfinance programme on undernutrition in children. Analysis of the nutrition situation of women and children in South Asia and programme findings emphasise the significance of reaching women during adolescence, pre-conception and pregnancy stage. Ensuring women enter pregnancy with adequate height and weight and free from being anemic is crucial. Combining nutrition-specific interventions with measures for empowerment of women is essential. Improvement in dietary intake and health services of women, prevention of early age marriage and conception, completion of secondary education, enhancement in purchasing power of women, reduction of work drudgery and elimination of domestic violence deserve special attention. A range of programme platforms dealing with health, education and empowerment of women could be strategically used for effectively reaching women prior to and during pregnancy to accelerate reduction in stunting rates in children in South Asia. PMID:27187909

  16. Household sanitation and personal hygiene practices are associated with child stunting in rural India: a cross-sectional analysis of surveys

    OpenAIRE

    Rah, Jee Hyun; Aidan A. Cronin; Badgaiyan, Bhupendra; Aguayo, Victor M.; Coates, Suzanne; Ahmed, Sarah

    2015-01-01

    Objectives Increasing evidence suggests that water, sanitation and hygiene (WASH) practices affect linear growth in early childhood. We determined the association between household access to water, sanitation and personal hygiene practices with stunting among children aged 0–23 months in rural India. Setting India. Participants A total of 10 364, 34 639 and 1282 under-2s who participated in the 2005–2006 National Family Health Survey (NFHS-3), the 2011 Hunger and Malnutrition Survey (HUNGaMA)...

  17. Upwelling history of the Mediterranean Sea revealed by stunted growth in the planktic foraminifera Orbulina universa (early Messinian, Crete, Greece)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brachert, T. C.; Bornemann, A.; Reuter, M.; Galer, S. J.; Grimm, K. I.; Fassoulas, C.

    2015-01-01

    fits size variation of O. universa. From the presence of Halimeda bioherms intercalated with the sapropel cycles, we infer cyclic photic zone anoxia and at least some sections with sapropel couplets to have formed in the neritic zone. We also suggest further testing of stunted growth of O. universa as a proxy for enhanced nutrient availability in future palaeoceanographic studies.

  18. Zika Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zika is a virus that is spread mostly by mosquitoes. A pregnant mother can pass it to ... through blood transfusions. There have been outbreaks of Zika virus in the United States, Africa, Southeast Asia, ...

  19. Chikungunya virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya virus infection; Chikungunya ... Where Chikungunya is found Before 2013, the virus was found in Africa, Asia, Europe, and the Indian and Pacific oceans. In late 2013, outbreaks occurred for the first time in the ...

  20. Chikungunya Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Gaines, PhD, MPH, MA, CHES Differentiating Chikungunya From Dengue: A Clinical Challenge For Travelers CDC Travelers' Health Chikungunya Virus Home Prevention Transmission Symptoms & Treatment Geographic Distribution Chikungunya virus in ...

  1. Inherent properties not conserved in other tenuiviruses increase priming and realignment cycles during transcription of Rice stripe virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xiaojuan; Xiong, Guihong; Qiu, Ping; Du, Zhenguo; Richard, Kormelink; Zheng, Luping; Zhang, Jie; Ding, Xinlun; Yang, Liang; Zhang, Songbai; Wu, Zujian

    2016-09-01

    Two tenuiviruses Rice stripe virus (RSV) and Rice grassy stunt virus (RGSV) were found to co-infect rice with the same reovirus Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV). During the co-infection, both tenuiviruses recruited 10-21 nucleotides sized capped-RNA leaders from the RRSV. A total of 245 and 102 RRSV-RGSV and RRSV-RSV chimeric mRNA clones, respectively, were sequenced. An analysis of the sequences suggested a scenario consistent with previously reported data on related viruses, in which capped leader RNAs having a 3' end complementary to the viral template are preferred and upon base pairing the leaders prime processive transcription directly or after one to several cycles of priming and realignment (repetitive prime-and-realign). Interestingly, RSV appeared to have a higher tendency to use repetitive prime-and-realign than RGSV even with the same leader derived from the same RRSV RNA. Combining with relevant data reported previously, this points towards an intrinsic feature of RSV. PMID:27393974

  2. Pré-melhoramento de milho quanto à resistência a enfezamentos Maize pre-breeding for resistance to corn stunt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavia França Teixeira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi selecionar famílias de milho derivadas do retrocruzamento entre o composto "NAP Corn Stunt" (genitor doador e linhagens-elite (genitores recorrentes, quanto à produtividade de grãos e à resistência a enfezamentos, e avaliar a eficiência do emprego de marcadores moleculares para avaliação fenotípica na seleção de genótipos com alta produtividade de grãos. Foram avaliados 100 genótipos, em cinco condições ambientais, na safra agrícola 2009/2010. Foram selecionadas famílias RC1F2, que aliam a alta produtividade dos genitores recorrentes à resistência aos enfezamentos, presente no genitor doador. As famílias selecionadas quanto ao desempenho agronômico e à resistência aos enfezamentos foram: L228-3-324-S, L228-3-237-R, L228-3-109-R, que foram indicadas para cruzamentos com linhagens do grupo heterótico duro; e L3-422-R e L3-586-R, que foram indicadas para cruzamentos com linhagens do grupo heterótico dentado. Na seleção de genótipos de alta produtividade de grãos, a seleção assistida por marcadores moleculares não é eficiente para a recuperação do genótipo do pai recorrente, em comparação à avaliação fenotípica.The objective of this work was to select maize families derived from backcrossing between the composite NAP Corn Stunt (donor parent and inbreed lines (recurrent parents, as to grain yield and resistance to corn stunt, and to evaluate the efficiency of the use of molecular markers in the phenotypic evaluation for the selection of genotypes with high grain yield. One hundred genotypes were evaluated in five environmental conditions in the 2009/2010 crop season. We selected RC1F2 families, which combine high grain yield present in the recurrent parents to resistance to corn stunt present in the donor parent. The selected maize families for agronomic performance and resistance to corn stunt were: L228-3-324-S, L228-3-237-R, L228-3-109-R, which were indicated for crosses

  3. History and Diversity of Citrus leprosis virus Recorded in Herbarium Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, John S; Roy, Avijit; Fu, Shimin; Shao, Jonathan; Schneider, William L; Brlansky, Ronald H

    2015-09-01

    Leprosis refers to two diseases of citrus that present similar necrotic local lesions, often surrounded by chlorotic haloes on citrus. Two distinct viruses are associated with this disease, one that produces particles primarily in the nucleus of infected plant cells (Citrus leprosis virus nuclear type [CiLV-N]; Dichorhavirus) and another type that produces particles in the cytoplasm of infected plant cells (Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type [CiLV-C]; Cilevirus). Both forms are transmitted by Brevipalpid mites and have bipartite, single-stranded, RNA genomes. CiLV-C and CiLV-N are present in South and Central America and as far north as parts of Mexico. Although leprosis disease was originally described from Florida, it disappeared from there in the 1960s. The United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service maintains preserved citrus specimens identified at inspection stations 50 or more years ago with symptoms of citrus leprosis. We isolated RNA from these samples and performed degradome sequencing. We obtained nearly full-length genome sequences of both a typical CiLV-C isolate intercepted from Argentina in 1967 and a distinct CiLV-N isolate obtained in Florida in 1948. The latter is a novel form of CiLV-N, not known to exist anywhere in the world today. We have also documented the previously unreported presence of CiLV-N in Mexico in the mid-20th century.

  4. History and Diversity of Citrus leprosis virus Recorded in Herbarium Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartung, John S; Roy, Avijit; Fu, Shimin; Shao, Jonathan; Schneider, William L; Brlansky, Ronald H

    2015-09-01

    Leprosis refers to two diseases of citrus that present similar necrotic local lesions, often surrounded by chlorotic haloes on citrus. Two distinct viruses are associated with this disease, one that produces particles primarily in the nucleus of infected plant cells (Citrus leprosis virus nuclear type [CiLV-N]; Dichorhavirus) and another type that produces particles in the cytoplasm of infected plant cells (Citrus leprosis virus cytoplasmic type [CiLV-C]; Cilevirus). Both forms are transmitted by Brevipalpid mites and have bipartite, single-stranded, RNA genomes. CiLV-C and CiLV-N are present in South and Central America and as far north as parts of Mexico. Although leprosis disease was originally described from Florida, it disappeared from there in the 1960s. The United States Department of Agriculture-Agricultural Research Service maintains preserved citrus specimens identified at inspection stations 50 or more years ago with symptoms of citrus leprosis. We isolated RNA from these samples and performed degradome sequencing. We obtained nearly full-length genome sequences of both a typical CiLV-C isolate intercepted from Argentina in 1967 and a distinct CiLV-N isolate obtained in Florida in 1948. The latter is a novel form of CiLV-N, not known to exist anywhere in the world today. We have also documented the previously unreported presence of CiLV-N in Mexico in the mid-20th century. PMID:25961338

  5. Effect of timing of glyphosate application to a winter wheat cover crop on stunting of spring-sown onions caused by Rhizoctonia spp. in the Columbia Basin of Washington, 2012.

    Science.gov (United States)

    The development of patches of stunted onion plants caused by Rhizoctonia spp. is an emerging problem in onion bulb crops planted in the semi-arid Columbia Basin of Oregon and Washington following winter cereal cover crops. Cereals such as winter wheat are used as cover crops to protect onion seedlin...

  6. Computer Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Computer viruses are small software programs that are designed to spread from one computerto another and to interfere with computer operation.A virus might delete data on your computer,use your e-mail program to spread itself to othercomputers,or even erase everything on your hard disk.Viruses are most easily spread by attach-ments in e-mail messages or instant messaging messages.That is why it is essential that you never

  7. Computer Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高振桥

    2002-01-01

    If you work with a computer,it is certain that you can not avoid dealing, with at least one computer virus.But how much do you know about it? Well,actually,a computer virus is not a biological' one as causes illnesses to people.It is a kind of computer program

  8. Detection of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV) in pea field in Iran.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfandiari, N; Kohi Habibi, M; Mosahebi, G H; Mozafari, J

    2005-01-01

    During the spring and summer, in 2003-2004, pea viruses were identified in twenty pea fields of Tehran. Some leaf samples were collected randomly from pea fields of Tehran. Samples were tested by Double Antibody Sandwich Enzyme Linked Immunosorbent Assay (DAS-ELISA) technique using polyclonal antiserum of Alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), AS-0001, DSMZ, Braunschweig, Germany). The samples were extracted in 0.1 M Phosphate buffer pH 7 to 7.5 and inoculated on Chenopodium amaranticolor, Chenopodium quina, Phaseolus valgaris, Vicia faba, Vignia unguiculata. Pea cultivars were infected by AMV, causing mild mosaic, translucent veins and a diffuse green-yellow of tender parts and spots may also was involved necrosis of tissue. Infected plants grow slowly and malformed pods produce fewer ovules. In Chenopodium amranticolor, C. quina chlorotic and necrotic flecks, and Vicia faba systemic mosaic had produced. Phaselous vulgaris and Viginia unguiculata are good assay hosts for strains that produce local lesions after 3-5 days in these plants. Back inoculated on Pisum sativum and Vicia faba and tested with DAS-ELISA that had been confirmed the results. This is the first report of AMV on pea from Iran. PMID:16637206

  9. [Molecular identification and sequence analysis of broad bean wilt virus 2 isolates from atractylodes macrocephala Koidz].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Yanbing; Shi, Xiaoli; Zhang, Ximei; Zhao, Huiqi; Zhao, Baojia

    2015-01-01

    To identity the pathogen that causes the mosaic and yellowing symptoms on Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz in Jiangxian, Shanxi province, biological inoculation, sequence-independent amplification (SIA),RT-PCR and other identification methods were used. The results showed that the chlorotic and necrosis symptoms occurred in the indicator plant Chenopodium quinoa after it was infected with the pathogen,and the same symptoms appeared after the reinoculation of healthy Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz; this reflected that the disease was likely to be caused by a virus. The results of SIA and sequencing showed that Broad bean wilt virus 2 (BBWV2) was present in severely mosaic Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz leaves. To further characterize the BBWV2 isolate from Atractylodes macrocephala (BBWV2-Am), the polyprotein partial gene encoded by BBWV2-Am RNA2 was cloned and sequenced. Sequence alignments showed that the nucleotide sequence identity of BBWV2-Am SCP and LCP genes ranged from 79.3% to 87.2% and from 80.1% to 89.2% compared to other BBWV2 strains,respectively; the deduced amino acid sequence similarities of the two gene products ranged from 91.2% to 95.7% and from 89.44 to 95.5%, respectively,compared to those of other BBWV2 strains. Phylogenetic comparisons showed that BBWV2-Am was most likely to be related to BBWV2-Rg,but formed an independent branch. This is the first report of BBWV2 in Atractylodes macrocephala Koidz. PMID:25997332

  10. Inhibition of RNA recruitment and replication of an RNA virus by acridine derivatives with known anti-prion activities.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zsuzsanna Sasvari

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Small molecule inhibitors of RNA virus replication are potent antiviral drugs and useful to dissect selected steps in the replication process. To identify antiviral compounds against Tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV, a model positive stranded RNA virus, we tested acridine derivatives, such as chlorpromazine (CPZ and quinacrine (QC, which are active against prion-based diseases. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Here, we report that CPZ and QC compounds inhibited TBSV RNA accumulation in plants and in protoplasts. In vitro assays revealed that the inhibitory effects of these compounds were manifested at different steps of TBSV replication. QC was shown to have an effect on multiple steps, including: (i inhibition of the selective binding of the p33 replication protein to the viral RNA template, which is required for recruitment of viral RNA for replication; (ii reduction of minus-strand synthesis by the tombusvirus replicase; and (iii inhibition of translation of the uncapped TBSV genomic RNA. In contrast, CPZ was shown to inhibit the in vitro assembly of the TBSV replicase, likely due to binding of CPZ to intracellular membranes, which are important for RNA virus replication. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: Since we found that CPZ was also an effective inhibitor of other plant viruses, including Tobacco mosaic virus and Turnip crinkle virus, it seems likely that CPZ has a broad range of antiviral activity. Thus, these inhibitors constitute effective tools to study similarities in replication strategies of various RNA viruses.

  11. Infectivity analysis of a blackgram isolate of Mungbean yellow mosaic virus and genetic assortment with MYMIV in selective hosts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haq, Q M I; Rouhibakhsh, A; Ali, Arif; Malathi, V G

    2011-06-01

    Yellow mosaic disease in grain legumes in Indian subcontinent is caused by two important virus species viz. Mungbean yellow mosaic virus (MYMV) and Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus (MYMIV), belonging to the genus Begomovirus of the family Geminiviridae. The genomic components of a begomovirus causing yellow mosaic disease in blackgram in southern India were cloned and sequenced. Nucleotide sequence comparison of DNA A component shows the virus isolate to be a variant of Mungbean yellow mosaic virus:-(MYMV-[IN:Vam:05]). However, DNA B component of the present virus isolate has greater similarity (92%) to Mungbean yellow mosaic India virus. Agroinoculations of the viral clones produced typical yellow mosaic symptoms in blackgram and mungbean, severe leaf curl and stunting in French bean, similar to blackgram isolate of MYMIV. Blackgram isolates of both the virus species were only mildly infectious on cowpea, produced atypical leaf curl symptoms and not yellow or golden mosaic. In agroinoculations done by exchanging genomic components, symptom expression was seen only in French bean. In cowpea, blackgram and mungbean there was no visible symptoms though viral DNA could be detected by PCR.

  12. Synergistic infection of two viruses MCMV and SCMV increases the accumulations of both MCMV and MCMV-derived siRNAs in maize

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xia, Zihao; Zhao, Zhenxing; Chen, Ling; Li, Mingjun; Zhou, Tao; Deng, Congliang; Zhou, Qi; Fan, Zaifeng

    2016-01-01

    The co-infection of Maize chlorotic mottle virus (MCMV) and Sugarcane mosaic virus (SCMV) can cause maize lethal necrosis. However, the mechanism underlying the synergistic interaction between these two viruses remains elusive. In this study, we found that the co-infection of MCMV and SCMV increased the accumulation of MCMV. Moreover, the profiles of virus-derived siRNAs (vsiRNAs) from MCMV and SCMV in single- and co-infected maize plants were obtained by high-throughput sequencing. Our data showed that synergistic infection of MCMV and SCMV increased remarkably the accumulation of vsiRNAs from MCMV, which were mainly 22 and 21 nucleotides in length. The single-nucleotide resolution maps of vsiRNAs revealed that vsiRNAs were almost continuously but heterogeneously distributed throughout MCMV and SCMV genomic RNAs, respectively. Moreover, we predicted and annotated dozens of host transcript genes targeted by vsiRNAs. Our results also showed that maize DCLs and several AGOs RNAs were differentially accumulated in maize plants with different treatments (mock, single or double inoculations), which were associated with the accumulation of vsiRNAs. Our findings suggested possible roles of vsiRNAs in the synergistic interaction of MCMV and SCMV in maize plants. PMID:26864602

  13. Computer viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Denning, Peter J.

    1988-01-01

    The worm, Trojan horse, bacterium, and virus are destructive programs that attack information stored in a computer's memory. Virus programs, which propagate by incorporating copies of themselves into other programs, are a growing menace in the late-1980s world of unprotected, networked workstations and personal computers. Limited immunity is offered by memory protection hardware, digitally authenticated object programs,and antibody programs that kill specific viruses. Additional immunity can be gained from the practice of digital hygiene, primarily the refusal to use software from untrusted sources. Full immunity requires attention in a social dimension, the accountability of programmers.

  14. Reticulate leaves and stunted roots are independent phenotypes pointing at opposite roles of the phosphoenolpyruvate/phosphate translocator defective in cue1 in the plastids of both organs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pia eStaehr

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP serves not only as a high energy carbon compound in glycolysis, but it acts also as precursor for plastidial anabolic sequences like the shikimate pathway, which produces aromatic amino acids (AAA and subsequently secondary plant products. After conversion to pyruvate, PEP can also enter de novo fatty acid biosynthesis, the synthesis of branched-chain amino acids, and the non-mevalonate way of isoprenoid production. As PEP cannot be generated by glycolysis in chloroplasts and a variety of non-green plastids, it has to be imported from the cytosol by a phosphate translocator (PT specific for PEP (PPT. A loss of function of PPT1 in Arabidopsis thaliana results in the chlorophyll a/b binding protein underexpressed1 (cue1 mutant, which is characterised by reticulate leaves and stunted roots. Here we dissect the shoot- and root phenotypes, and also address the question whether or not long distance signalling by metabolites is involved in the perturbed mesophyll development of cue1. Reverse grafting experiments showed that the shoot- and root phenotypes develop independently from each other, ruling out long distance metabolite signalling. The leaf phenotype could be transiently modified even in mature leaves, e.g. by an inducible PPT1RNAi approach or by feeding aromatic amino acids (AAA, the cytokinin trans-zeatin (tZ, or the putative signalling molecule dehydrodiconiferyl alcohol glucoside (DCG. Hormones, such as auxins, abscisic acid, gibberellic acid, ethylene, methyl jasmonate, and salicylic acid did not rescue the cue1 leaf phenotype. The low cell density1 (lcd1 mutant shares the reticulate leaf-, but not the stunted root phenotype with cue1. It could neither be rescued by AAA nor by tZ. In contrast, tZ and AAA further inhibited root growth both in cue1 and wild-type plants. Based on our results, we propose a model that PPT1 acts as a net importer of PEP into chloroplast, but as an overflow valve and hence exporter in

  15. Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phillips, Jennan A; Neyland, Anavernyel

    2016-08-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) infections are the latest global public health emergency. Occupational health nurses can protect society by educating workers, women of childbearing age, and others traveling in ZIKV-infected areas about prevention strategies. PMID:27411846

  16. Ebola Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Anusha Rangare Lakshman; Vikas Goya; Hosmar Ganesh Shenoy

    2015-01-01

    The disease Ebola takes its name from the Ebola River situated near a village in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the disease first appeared in 1976. It is caused by a virus from the Filoviridae family (filovirus). The present outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD) concerns four countries in West Africa, namely Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria till date. Further to widespread transmission of the disease, it has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern...

  17. Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... A - Z Index SMALLPOX FACT SHEET The Live Virus Smallpox Vaccine The vaccinia virus is the "live ... it cannot cause smallpox. What is a "live virus" vaccine? A "live virus" vaccine is a vaccine ...

  18. Deletion of chloroplast NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase results in inability to regulate starch synthesis and causes stunted growth under short-day photoperiods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lepistö, Anna; Pakula, Eveliina; Toivola, Jouni; Krieger-Liszkay, Anja; Vignols, Florence; Rintamäki, Eevi

    2013-09-01

    Plastid-localized NADPH-dependent thioredoxin reductase C (NTRC) is a unique NTR enzyme containing both reductase and thioredoxin domains in a single polypeptide. Arabidopsis thaliana NTRC knockout lines (ntrc) show retarded growth, especially under short-day (SD) photoperiods. This study identified chloroplast processes that accounted for growth reduction in SD-acclimated ntrc. The strongest reduction in ntrc growth occurred under photoperiods with nights longer than 14 h, whereas knockout of the NTRC gene did not alter the circadian-clock-controlled growth of Arabidopsis. Lack of NTRC modulated chloroplast reactive oxygen species (ROS) metabolism, but oxidative stress was not the primary cause of retarded growth of SD-acclimated ntrc. Scarcity of starch accumulation made ntrc leaves particularly vulnerable to photoperiods with long nights. Direct interaction of NTRC and ADP-glucose pyrophosphorylase, a key enzyme in starch synthesis, was confirmed by yeast two-hybrid analysis. The ntrc line was not able to maximize starch synthesis during the light period, which was particularly detrimental under SD conditions. Acclimation of Arabidopsis to SD conditions also involved an inductive rise of ROS production in illuminated chloroplasts that was not counterbalanced by the activation of plastidial anti-oxidative systems. It is proposed that knockout of NTRC challenges redox regulation of starch synthesis, resulting in stunted growth of the mutant lines acclimated to the SD photoperiod.

  19. The Disruption of Subsistence Agricultural Systems in Rural Yucatan, Mexico may have Contributed to the Coexistence of Stunting in Children with Adult Overweight and Obesity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurri, Francisco D

    2015-12-01

    This paper attempts to link last century's disruption of local agricultural systems to today's presence of childhood under nutrition and adult overweight and obesity in the Yucatan Peninsula. It first compares Height for Age (H/A), Weight for Age (W/A) and Body Mass Index (BMI) of children from three rural populations in Yucatan and Campeche, Mexico whose subsistence strategy had been altered to different degrees since 1970. It then compares BMI in adults, in the same regions, born before and after the alteration of their environment in the 1970's. Children in the least disrupted zone were taller and had lower BMI than children in the other two, but were not heavier than children from the richest disrupted zone. Children in the poorest disrupted zone were shorter and lighter than the rest. BMI in adult men was higher in the two most disrupted zones only in those cohorts that grew up after the traditional agricultural regime was altered. It is concluded that disruptions of staple-based subsistence agriculture promoted a stockier phenotype in children and a tendency to accumulate body fat. Persistence of these conditions in the twenty first century has favored the coexistence of stunting during childhood with adults who easily become overweight.

  20. Co-ordinated research project on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child health nutrition to help prevent stunting. Report on the 1. research co-ordination meeting

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The concept for the Co-ordinated Research Programme on isotopic evaluations of maternal and child nutrition to help prevent stunting was a consequence of discussions held between IAEA staff and participants in a regional training course on 'Isotope Techniques in Human Nutrition' held in Lima, Peru in June 1996. The intention then was to develop research on factors influencing the success of lactation and the consequent effects on the breast-fed child. The project would have Latin American participants to promote regional exchange of expertise and ideas. Initial participation was from Argentina, Chile, Mexico, Peru and Venezuela. Brazil and Pakistan have now been added to these. There are three Specific Research Objectives: (1) To develop stable isotope methods for measuring breast-milk intake using regionally available equipment. (2) To apply the methodology in the assessment of milk intake in infants in relation to maternal nutrition, socio-economic status and education, and infant nutrition and intake of macro- and micro-nutrients. (3) To use information gathered at 2) to determine the need for supplementation programmes for mothers and/or infants, and educational programmes for the mothers

  1. Computer Viruses. Technology Update.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ponder, Tim, Comp.; Ropog, Marty, Comp.; Keating, Joseph, Comp.

    This document provides general information on computer viruses, how to help protect a computer network from them, measures to take if a computer becomes infected. Highlights include the origins of computer viruses; virus contraction; a description of some common virus types (File Virus, Boot Sector/Partition Table Viruses, Trojan Horses, and…

  2. Create four new unassigned species in the family Tombusviridae

    Science.gov (United States)

    The proposed genus Pelarspovirus contains six viral species with similar biological, morphological, physicochemical, and ultrastructural properties. These viruses are Elderberry latent virus, Pelargonium chlorotic ring pattern virus, Pelargonium line pattern virus, Pelargonium ringspot virus, and R...

  3. Ebola Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anusha Rangare Lakshman

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The disease Ebola takes its name from the Ebola River situated near a village in the Democratic Republic of Congo, where the disease first appeared in 1976. It is caused by a virus from the Filoviridae family (filovirus. The present outbreak of Ebola Virus Disease (EVD concerns four countries in West Africa, namely Guinea, Liberia, Sierra Leone and Nigeria till date. Further to widespread transmission of the disease, it has been declared as a Public Health Emergency of International Concern by the World Health Organisation on 8 August 2014. As of 4 August 2014, countries have reported 1,711 cases (1,070 confirmed, 436 probable, 205 suspect, including 932 deaths. This review paper enlightens about the awareness of Ebola virus and its preventive measures. [Archives Medical Review Journal 2015; 24(3.000: 296-305

  4. 打孔塞入法治疗果树缺铁黄叶病%Therapy Study of Chlorotic Disorder of Fruit Trees Caused by Iron Deficiency through Punched Hole

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王满平; 孙占育; 孙志强; 田芳银; 王小军

    2012-01-01

    Researches selected out eight kinds of iron-contained compounds and insert them to the holes dug on the trunks, in order to cure the fruit chlorosis reduced by iron deficiency economically, safely as well as efficiently,and overcome the poor effects of fertilizing iron on soil or tree leaves and the defects of injecting green-recovering potion from tree trunks, such as restriction by season, poor safety condition and complex operation. These compounds can be divided into four types including: (1) the soluble inorganic ferrous salt FeSO4 ·7H2O and FeCl2 ·4H2O; (2) the soluble inorganic ferric salt Fe2(SO4)3 and FeCl3 ·6H2O; (3) the hard dissolved iron compounds FeC2O4 and Fe2O3; (4) Iron complex ammonium ferrous sulphate Fe(NH4 )2 (SO4 )2 ·6H2O and ferrous citrate. The results showed that several iron-contained compounds can cure chlorotic disorder of fruit trees caused by iron-deficiency within 6~7 days,even the white leaves totally recover to green within 20 days. Fe(NH4 )2 (SO4)2 ·6H2O is the most economic, efficient and safest compound; FeSO4 ·7H2O is the second best. The research also paved a new way for treatment of other trace elements deficiency diseases.%为了经济、安全、高效地治疗果树因缺铁而引发的黄叶病,克服目前土壤和叶面施铁疗效差,树干注射复绿剂受季节限制、安全性差、操作复杂的缺陷,选用4类8种含Fe化合物(易溶性二价无机铁盐FeSO4·7H2O和FeCl2·4H2O,易溶性三价无机铁盐Fe2 (SO4)3和FeCl3·6H2O,难溶性Fe2O3和FeC2O4,铁络合物Fe( NH4)2(SO4)2·6H2O和FeC6O2H6),在树干上打孔后将其塞入.结果表明,多种含铁化合物都能使果树缺铁黄化病在第6至第7天开始复绿,20 d后使已经白化的叶片也能彻底恢复绿色,其中Fe(NH4)2(SO4)2·6H2O最为经济、安全、高效,FeSO4·7H2O次之.

  5. Why mosaic? Gene expression profiling of African cassava mosaic virus-infected cassava reveals the effect of chlorophyll degradation on symptom development.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jiao; Yang, Jun; Bi, Huiping; Zhang, Peng

    2014-02-01

    Cassava mosaic disease, caused by cassava begomoviruses, is the most serious disease for cassava in Africa. However, the pathogenesis of this disease is poorly understood. We employed high throughput digital gene expression profiling based on the Illumina Solexa sequencing technology to investigate the global transcriptional response of cassava to African cassava mosaic virus infection. We found that 3,210 genes were differentially expressed in virus-infected cassava leaves. Gene ontology term and Kyoto Encyclopedia of Genes and Genomes pathway analysis indicated that genes implicated in photosynthesis were most affected, consistent with the chlorotic symptoms observed in infected leaves. The upregulation of chlorophyll degradation genes, including the genes encoding chlorophyllase, pheophytinase, and pheophorbide a oxygenase, and downregulation of genes encoding the major apoproteins in light-harvesting complex II were confirmed by qRT-PCR. These findings, together with the reduction of chlorophyll b content and fewer grana stacks in the infected leaf cells, reveal that the degradation of chlorophyll plays an important role in African cassava mosaic virus symptom development. This study will provide a road map for future investigations into viral pathogenesis.

  6. Coat protein sequence shows that Cucumber mosaic virus isolate from geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) belongs to subgroup II

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Neeraj Verma; B K Mahinghara; Raja Ram; A A Zaidi

    2006-03-01

    A viral disease was identified on geraniums (Pelargonium spp.) grown in a greenhouse at the Institute of Himalayan Bioresource Technology (IHBT), Palampur, exhibiting mild mottling and stunting. The causal virus (Cucumber mosaic virus, CMV) was identified and characterized on the basis of host range, aphid transmission, enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), DNA-RNA hybridization and reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RTPCR). A complete coat protein (CP) gene was amplified using degenerate primers and sequenced. The CP gene showed nucleotide and amino acid homology up to 97%–98% and 96%–99%, respectively with the sequences of CMV subgroup II. The CP gene also showed homologies of 75%–97% in nucleotide and 77%–96% in amino acid with the CMV Indian isolates infecting various crops. On the basis of sequence homology, it was concluded that CMV-infecting geraniums in India belong to subgroup II.

  7. Passatempo Virus, a Vaccinia Virus Strain, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Leite, Juliana A.; Drumond, Betânia P.; Trindade, Giliane S; Zélia I P Lobato; da Fonseca, Flávio G.; dos Santos, João R.; Madureira, Marieta C.; Guedes, Maria I.M.C.; Ferreira, Jaqueline M. S.; Bonjardim, Cláudio A.; Ferreira, Paulo C. P.; Kroon, Erna G.

    2005-01-01

    Passatempo virus was isolated during a zoonotic outbreak. Biologic features and molecular characterization of hemagglutinin, thymidine kinase, and vaccinia growth factor genes suggested a vaccinia virus infection, which strengthens the idea of the reemergence and circulation of vaccinia virus in Brazil. Molecular polymorphisms indicated that Passatempo virus is a different isolate.

  8. Physical Principles in the Self-Assembly of a Simple Spherical Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garmann, Rees F; Comas-Garcia, Mauricio; Knobler, Charles M; Gelbart, William M

    2016-01-19

    Viruses are unique among living organisms insofar as they can be reconstituted "from scratch", that is, synthesized from purified components. In the simplest cases, their "parts list" numbers only two: a single molecule of nucleic acid and many (but a very special number, i.e., multiples of 60) copies of a single protein. Indeed, the smallest viral genomes include essentially only two genes, on the order of a thousand times fewer than the next-simplest organisms like bacteria and yeast. For these reasons, it is possible and even fruitful to take a reductionist approach to viruses and to understand how they work in terms of fundamental physical principles. In this Account, we discuss our recent physical chemistry approach to studying the self-assembly of a particular spherical virus (cowpea chlorotic mottle virus) whose reconstitution from RNA and capsid protein has long served as a model for virus assembly. While previous studies have clarified the roles of certain physical (electrostatic, hydrophobic, steric) interactions in the stability and structure of the final virus, it has been difficult to probe these interactions during assembly because of the inherently short lifetimes of the intermediate states. We feature the role of pH in tuning the magnitude of the interactions among capsid proteins during assembly: in particular, by making the interactions between proteins sufficiently weak, we are able to stall the assembly process and interrogate the structure and composition of particular on-pathway intermediates. Further, we find that the strength of the lateral attractions between RNA-bound proteins plays a key role in addressing several outstanding questions about assembly: What determines the pathway or pathways of assembly? What is the importance of kinetic traps and hysteresis? How do viruses copackage multiple short (compared with wild-type) RNAs or single long RNAs? What determines the relative packaging efficiencies of different RNAs when they are forced

  9. Can Bacteriotherapy Using Commercially Available Probiotics, Prebiotics, and Organic Acids Ameliorate the Symptoms Associated With Runting-Stunting Syndrome in Broiler Chickens?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mundt, E; Collett, S R; Berghaus, R; Pedroso, A A; Lee, M D; Maurer, J J

    2015-06-01

    Runting-stunting syndrome (RSS) in poultry has been known for more than 40 years, but the precise etiology remains unknown and a licensed vaccine is consequently not currently available. In order to mitigate the symptoms associated with RSS, a series of experiments was performed to investigate whether a combined bacteriotherapeutic treatment consisting of probiotics, prebiotics, and organic acids could influence the outcome of this disease. Initially two groups of commercial broiler chickens were either left uninoculated or inoculated with filtrate from homogenized intestines of RSS-affected broiler chickens. One group from each of these two challenge groups was treated, with a bacteriotherapeutic regimen. After 12 days chickens were euthanatized, the body weight was measured, and duodenal lesions were enumerated. Five consecutive broiler chicken flocks were then raised either on litter from RSS-affected birds or on fresh wood shavings. Treatment had no beneficial effect on the number and severity of intestinal lesions. There appeared to be a significant build-up of RSS agent(s) in poultry litter, with each consecutive flock placement, independent of bacteriotherapeutic treatment, as more individuals exhibited intestinal lesions on built-up litter in RSS-affected houses (28.9% vs. 44%). While treatment did not appear to consistently reduce intestinal lesions, it did significantly improve the mean body weights (P<0.05) and uniformity of 12-day-old chickens placed on reused litter in houses in which RSS-infected birds were previously raised. A combination of litter management and bacteriotherapy may be needed to ameliorate the adverse effects of RSS on intestinal health and body weight in broiler chickens. PMID:26473669

  10. Constitutive salicylic acid accumulation in pi4kIIIβ1β2 Arabidopsis plants stunts rosette but not root growth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sašek, Vladimír; Janda, Martin; Delage, Elise; Puyaubert, Juliette; Guivarc'h, Anne; López Maseda, Encarnación; Dobrev, Petre I; Caius, José; Bóka, Károly; Valentová, Olga; Burketová, Lenka; Zachowski, Alain; Ruelland, Eric

    2014-08-01

    Phospholipids have recently been found to be integral elements of hormone signalling pathways. An Arabidopsis thaliana double mutant in two type III phosphatidylinositol-4-kinases (PI4Ks), pi4kIIIβ1β2, displays a stunted rosette growth. The causal link between PI4K activity and growth is unknown. Using microarray analysis, quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (RT-qPCR) and multiple phytohormone analysis by LC-MS we investigated the mechanism responsible for the pi4kIIIβ1β2 phenotype. The pi4kIIIβ1β2 mutant accumulated a high concentration of salicylic acid (SA), constitutively expressed SA marker genes including PR-1, and was more resistant to Pseudomonas syringae. pi4kIIIβ1β2 was crossed with SA signalling mutants eds1 and npr1 and SA biosynthesis mutant sid2 and NahG. The dwarf phenotype of pi4kIIIβ1β2 rosettes was suppressed in all four triple mutants. Whereas eds1 pi4kIIIβ1β2, sid2 pi4kIIIβ1β2 and NahG pi4kIIIβ1β2 had similar amounts of SA as the wild-type (WT), npr1pi4kIIIβ1β2 had more SA than pi4kIIIβ1β2 despite being less dwarfed. This indicates that PI4KIIIβ1 and PI4KIIIβ2 are genetically upstream of EDS1 and need functional SA biosynthesis and perception through NPR1 to express the dwarf phenotype. The slow root growth phenotype of pi4kIIIβ1β2 was not suppressed in any of the triple mutants. The pi4kIIIβ1β2 mutations together cause constitutive activation of SA signalling that is responsible for the dwarf rosette phenotype but not for the short root phenotype.

  11. Oropuche virus: A virus present but ignored

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Salim Mattar V.

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Bunyaviruses are RNA viruses that affect animals and plants; they have five genera and four of them affect humans: Orthobunyavirus, Nairovirus, Phlebovirus and Hantavirus. All of them are Arbovirus, except Hantavirus. The Orthobunyaviruses comprise Oropouche, Tahyna, La Crosse virus, California encephalitis virus and Heartland virus recently discovered (1. Except for Heartland virus which is transmitted by ticks of the genus Amblyoma, these Phleboviruses have as vectors mosquitoes, which bite small mammals which are able to be as reservoirs amplifiers.

  12. Comparative spatial spread overtime of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus (ZYMV) and Watermelon Mosaic Virus (WMV) in fields of transgenic squash expressing the coat protein genes of ZYMV and WMV, and in fields of nontransgenic squash.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klas, Ferdinand E; Fuchs, Marc; Gonsalves, Dennis

    2006-10-01

    The spatial and temporal patterns of aphid-vectored spread of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus (ZYMV) and Watermelon Mosaic Virus (WMV) were monitored over two consecutive years in plantings of nontransgenic and transgenic squash ZW-20H (commercial cv. Freedom II) and ZW-20B, both expressing the coat protein genes of ZYMV and WMV. All test plants were surrounded by nontransgenic plants that were mechanically inoculated with ZYMV or WMV, and served as primary virus source. Across all trials, none of the transgenic plants exhibited systemic symptoms upon infection by ZYMV and WMV but a few of them developed localized chlorotic dots and/or blotches, and had low mixed infection rates [4% (6 of 139) of ZW-20H and 9% (13 of 139) of ZW-20B], as shown by ELISA. Geostatistical analysis of ELISA positive transgenic plants indicated, (i) a lack of spatial relationship on spread of ZYMV and WMV for ZW-20H with flat omnidirectional experimental semivariograms that fitted poorly theoretical models, and (ii) some extent of spatial dependence on ZYMV spread for ZW-20B with a well structured experimental semivariogram that fitted poorly theoretical models during the first but not the second growing season. In contrast, a strong spatial dependence on spread of ZYMV and WMV was found for nontransgenic plants, which developed severe systemic symptoms, had prevalent mixed infection rates (62%, 86 of 139), and well-defined omnidirectional experimental semivariograms that fitted a spherical model. Geostatistical data were sustained by virus transmission experiments with Myzus persicae in screenhouses, showing that commercial transgenic squash ZW-20H alter the dynamics of ZYMV and WMV epidemics by preventing secondary plant-to-plant spread.

  13. Brachypodium distachyon is a suitable host plant for study of Barley yellow dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ye; Nadege, Soumou Wansim; Huang, Caiping; Zhang, Penghui; Song, Shuang; Sun, Liying; Wu, Yunfeng

    2016-04-01

    Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) belong to the family Luteoviridae and cause disease in cereals. Because of the large and complex genome of cereal plants, it is difficult to study host-virus interactions. In order to establish a model host system for the studies on BYDVs, we examined the susceptibility of a monocot model plant, Brachypodium distachyon, to BYDV-GAV infection. Fourteen days after BYDV-GAV inoculation by aphid transmission, B. distachyon plants (inbred line Bd21-3) showed conspicuous disease symptoms such as leaf reddening, dwarfness and root stunting. Virus accumulation was detected in both shoots and roots using reverse transcription PCR and triple antibody sandwich ELISA. Compared with infected wheat plants, B. distachyon plants developed more severe disease symptoms and accumulated a higher level of BYDV-GAV. Under transmission electron microscope, we observed that virus particles accumulated in companion cells and BYDV-GAV infection was associated with the deformation of chloroplasts in the infected leaves of B. distachyon plants. Our results suggest that B. distachyon is a suitable and promising experimental model plant for the host-BYDV-GAV pathosystem and possibly for other BYDVs. PMID:26814813

  14. Occurrence of Cucumber mosaic virus on vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) in India.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madhubala, R; Bhadramurthy, V; Bhat, A I; Hareesh, P S; Retheesh, S T; Bhai, R S

    2005-06-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) causing mosaic, leaf distortion and stunting of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) in India was characterized on the basis of biological and coat protein (CP) nucleotide sequence properties. In mechanical inoculation tests, the virus was found to infect members of Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae and Solanaceae. Nicotiana benthamiana was found to be a suitable host for the propagation of CMV. The virus was purified from inoculated N. benthamiana plants and negatively stained purified preparations contained isometric particles of about 28 nm in diameter. The molecular weight of the viral coat protein subunits was found to be 25.0 kDa. Polyclonal antiserum was produced in New Zealand white rabbit, immunoglobulin G (IgG) was purified and conjugated with alkaline phosphatase enzyme. Double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) method was standardized for the detection of CMV infection in vanilla plants. CP gene of the virus was amplified using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned and sequenced. Sequenced region contained a single open reading frame of 657 nucleotides potentially coding for 218 amino acids. Sequence analyses with other CMV isolates revealed the greatest identity with black pepper isolate of CMV (99%) and the phylogram clearly showed that CMV infecting vanilla belongs to subgroup IB. This is the first report of occurrence of CMV on V. planifolia from India.

  15. In vitro and in vivo toxicity evaluation of plant virus nanocarriers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blandino, Agnese; Lico, Chiara; Baschieri, Selene; Barberini, Lanfranco; Cirotto, Carlo; Blasi, Paolo; Santi, Luca

    2015-05-01

    The use of biological self-assembling materials, plant virus nanoparticles in particular, appears very intriguing as it allows a great choice of symmetries and dimensions, easy chemical and biological engineering of both surface and/or internal cavity as well as safe and rapid production in plants. In this perspective, we present an initial evaluation of the safety profile of two structurally different plant viruses produced in Nicotiana benthamiana L. plants: the filamentous Potato virus X and the icosahedral Tomato bushy stunt virus. In vitro haemolysis assay was used to test the cytotoxic effects, which could arise by pVNPs interaction with cellular membranes, while early embryo assay was used to evaluate toxicity and teratogenicity in vivo. Data indicates that these structurally robust particles, still able to infect plants after incubation in serum up to 24h, have neither toxic nor teratogenic effects in vitro and in vivo. This work represents the first safety-focused characterization of pVNPs in view of their possible use as drug delivery carriers.

  16. Brachypodium distachyon is a suitable host plant for study of Barley yellow dwarf virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ye; Nadege, Soumou Wansim; Huang, Caiping; Zhang, Penghui; Song, Shuang; Sun, Liying; Wu, Yunfeng

    2016-04-01

    Barley yellow dwarf viruses (BYDVs) belong to the family Luteoviridae and cause disease in cereals. Because of the large and complex genome of cereal plants, it is difficult to study host-virus interactions. In order to establish a model host system for the studies on BYDVs, we examined the susceptibility of a monocot model plant, Brachypodium distachyon, to BYDV-GAV infection. Fourteen days after BYDV-GAV inoculation by aphid transmission, B. distachyon plants (inbred line Bd21-3) showed conspicuous disease symptoms such as leaf reddening, dwarfness and root stunting. Virus accumulation was detected in both shoots and roots using reverse transcription PCR and triple antibody sandwich ELISA. Compared with infected wheat plants, B. distachyon plants developed more severe disease symptoms and accumulated a higher level of BYDV-GAV. Under transmission electron microscope, we observed that virus particles accumulated in companion cells and BYDV-GAV infection was associated with the deformation of chloroplasts in the infected leaves of B. distachyon plants. Our results suggest that B. distachyon is a suitable and promising experimental model plant for the host-BYDV-GAV pathosystem and possibly for other BYDVs.

  17. Occurrence of Cucumber mosaic virus on vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) in India

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    R Madhubala; V Bhadramurthy; A I Bhat; P S Hareesh; S T Retheesh; R S Bhai

    2005-06-01

    Cucumber mosaic virus (CMV) causing mosaic, leaf distortion and stunting of vanilla (Vanilla planifolia Andrews) in India was characterized on the basis of biological and coat protein (CP) nucleotide sequence properties. In mechanical inoculation tests, the virus was found to infect members of Chenopodiaceae, Cucurbitaceae, Fabaceae and Solanaceae. Nicotiana benthamiana was found to be a suitable host for the propagation of CMV. The virus was purified from inoculated N. benthamiana plants and negatively stained purified preparations contained isometric particles of about 28 nm in diameter. The molecular weight of the viral coat protein subunits was found to be 25.0 kDa. Polyclonal antiserum was produced in New Zealand white rabbit, immunoglobulin G (IgG) was purified and conjugated with alkaline phosphatase enzyme. Double antibody sandwich-enzyme linked immunosorbent assay (DAS-ELISA) method was standardized for the detection of CMV infection in vanilla plants. CP gene of the virus was amplified using reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction (RT-PCR), cloned and sequenced. Sequenced region contained a single open reading frame of 657 nucleotides potentially coding for 218 amino acids. Sequence analyses with other CMV isolates revealed the greatest identity with black pepper isolate of CMV (99%) and the phylogram clearly showed that CMV infecting vanilla belongs to subgroup IB. This is the first report of occurrence of CMV on V. planifolia from India.

  18. Plant Virus Metagenomics: Advances in Virus Discovery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roossinck, Marilyn J; Martin, Darren P; Roumagnac, Philippe

    2015-06-01

    In recent years plant viruses have been detected from many environments, including domestic and wild plants and interfaces between these systems-aquatic sources, feces of various animals, and insects. A variety of methods have been employed to study plant virus biodiversity, including enrichment for virus-like particles or virus-specific RNA or DNA, or the extraction of total nucleic acids, followed by next-generation deep sequencing and bioinformatic analyses. All of the methods have some shortcomings, but taken together these studies reveal our surprising lack of knowledge about plant viruses and point to the need for more comprehensive studies. In addition, many new viruses have been discovered, with most virus infections in wild plants appearing asymptomatic, suggesting that virus disease may be a byproduct of domestication. For plant pathologists these studies are providing useful tools to detect viruses, and perhaps to predict future problems that could threaten cultivated plants.

  19. Virus Ebola Asia

    OpenAIRE

    Suharyono Wuryadi

    2012-01-01

    Virus Marburg dan Ebola diklasifikasikan sebagai virus yang sangat menular dan dimasukkan dalam klasifikasi sebagai virus/pathogen dengan derajat biosafety 4, sehingga untuk menanganinya diperlukan laboratorium khusus tingkat 4.

  20. Zika Virus and Pregnancy

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Education & Events Advocacy For Patients About ACOG Zika Virus and Pregnancy Home For Patients Zika Virus and ... Education Pamphlets - Spanish Share: PEV002, September 2016 Zika Virus and Pregnancy There are risks to your fetus ...

  1. Computer Viruses: An Overview.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marmion, Dan

    1990-01-01

    Discusses the early history and current proliferation of computer viruses that occur on Macintosh and DOS personal computers, mentions virus detection programs, and offers suggestions for how libraries can protect themselves and their users from damage by computer viruses. (LRW)

  2. Oncogenic viruses and cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Guangxiang; George; Luo; Jing-hsiung; James; Ou

    2015-01-01

    <正>This special issue of the journal is dedicated to the important topic of oncogenic viruses and cancer.It contains seven review articles covering all known oncogenic viruses except for human T-lymphotropic virus type1(HTLV-1).These review articles are contributed by experts on specific viruses and their associated human cancers.Viruses account for about 20%of total human cancer cases.Although many viruses can cause various tumors in animals,only seven of them

  3. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    OpenAIRE

    Marschang, Rachel E.

    2011-01-01

    A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The ...

  4. STATUS TINGGI BADAN PENDEK BERISIKO TERHADAP KETERLAMBATAN USIA MENARCHE PADA PEREMPUAN REMAJA USIA 10-15 TAHUN (STUNTING INCREASED RISK OF DELAYING MENARCHE ON FEMALE ADOLESCENT AGED 10-15 YEARS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nurillah Amaliah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Age of first menstrual period (menarche, as a sign of puberty, was varies among female adolescents. Menarche in Indonesia was moving toward a younger age. However, some are still having menarche in later age. To analyze the relationship between the height status and age of menarche among female adolescents aged 10-15 years in Indonesia. The Basic Health Research (Riskesdas data 2010, a cross-sectional survey data, were analyzed using samples consisted of female adolescent aged 10-15 years. Data analysis was performed in univariate, bivariate with T test and Anova test. Of 13,550 respondents, 48.2 percent had experienced menarche at average age of 12.39 ± 1.08 years. The mean age of menarche of stunted female adolescents was significantly delayed than that of normal female adolescents. The mean age of menarche of female adolescents in higher economic status group was significantly earlier than that of the middle and lower economic status groups. In all age groups, the proportion of female adolescents had experienced menarche are greater in normal height group than that of stunted group. Therefore, the nutritional status of female adolescence should be paid serious attention. Keywords: menarcheal age, stunting, female adolescent ABSTRAK Usia menstruasi pertama (menarche, sebagai tanda pubertas, berbeda pada setiap perempuan remaja. Perkembangan usia menarche di Indonesia semakin menuju ke usia yang lebih muda. Namun, masih ada yang mengalami menarche lambat. Untuk mengetahui hubungan status tinggi badan dan menarche pada perempuan remaja usia 10-15 tahun. Data Riset Kesehatan Dasar (Riskesdas, data survey cross sectioanal dianalisis menggunakan sampel yang terdiri dari perempuan  dengan pendekatan kuantitatif dan desain cross-sectional. Sampel adalah perempuan remaja usia 10–15 tahun. Data dianalisis secara univariat, bivariat dengan uji T dan uji Anova. Dari 13.550 responden di Indonesia sebesar 48,2 persen sudah mengalami menarche

  5. Importance of stunting's early childhood intervention%发育迟缓儿童早期综合干预的重要性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岑雪松; 岑冬梅; 赵璐

    2013-01-01

    [目的]探讨发育迟缓儿童早期综合干预的重要性. [方法]到本中心体检发育迟缓的3月龄婴儿,根据家长自愿原则分为两组,干预组:共71例,其中早产婴儿36例为干预Ⅰ组,足月产35例为干预Ⅱ组,早期综合应用视、听刺激,婴儿操、抚触、游泳、运动干预训练、喂养指导,分别在干预前、干预后1个月、3个月、5个月运用Gesell量表进行评估.未接受干预训练仅常规保健的作为对照组:共62例,其中早产婴儿30例为对照Ⅰ组,足月产32例为对照Ⅱ组.[结果]在干预后1、3、5个月评估时,干预Ⅰ组与对照Ⅰ组相比,身高分别增长0.6、0.9和1.3 cm(P<0.05);体重分别增长0.62、0.70、0.76 kg(P<0.05),DQ平均增长5、9和12(P<0.05).干预Ⅱ组与对照Ⅱ组相比,身高分别增长0.5、0.9、1.5 cm(P<0.05),体重分别增长0.59、0.74、0.80 kg(P<0.05);DQ平均增长4、7、10(P<0.05). [结论]早期综合干预可促进发育迟缓儿童体格、运动、行为心理发展.%[Objective] To investigate the importance of stunting's early childhood intervention.[Methods] According to 3-month-old babies detected parents of voluntary principles were divided into two groups,the intervention group:a total of 71 cases,including 36 cases of premature babies in intervention group 1,full-term 35 cases in the intervention group 2,using of early integrated application,listen to stimulate,baby gymnastics,massage,swimming,sports intervention training,feeding guidance.Gesell scale assessments were carried before the intervention,after the intervention of a month,three months,five months respectively.As a control group who did not receive intervention training (a total of 62 cases,including 30 cases of premature babies in control group Ⅰ,32 full-term patients in control group Ⅱ).[Results] Assessment after the intervention of 1 month,3 months,5 months,intervention Ⅰ group compared with the control group Ⅰ,height increased by 0

  6. 云南省玉溪市玉米致死性坏死病毒原的分子鉴定%Molecular identification of the viruses causing maize lethal necrosis disease in Yuxi, Yunnan Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李帅; 朱敏; 夏子豪; 王廿; 周涛; 董家红; 陈永对; 张仲凯; 范在丰

    2015-01-01

    玉米致死性坏死病是由玉米褪绿斑驳病毒(Maize chlorotic mottle virus,MCMV)和一种或多种马铃薯Y病毒科病毒复合侵染引起的.2014年1月在对云南省玉溪市玉米病毒病害的调查中发现了一些表现严重花叶、矮化叶片甚至整个植株坏死症状的玉米.对采集样品进行RT-PCR检测,所有样品中都同时检测到了MCMV和甘蔗花叶病毒(Sugarcane mosaic virus,SCMV),在一个样品中同时检测到了MCMV、SCMV和南方水稻黑条矮缩病毒(Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus).

  7. Fast, Label-Free Tracking of Single Viruses and Weakly Scattering Nanoparticles in a Nanofluidic Optical Fiber.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Faez, Sanli; Lahini, Yoav; Weidlich, Stefan; Garmann, Rees F; Wondraczek, Katrin; Zeisberger, Matthias; Schmidt, Markus A; Orrit, Michel; Manoharan, Vinothan N

    2015-12-22

    High-speed tracking of single particles is a gateway to understanding physical, chemical, and biological processes at the nanoscale. It is also a major experimental challenge, particularly for small, nanometer-scale particles. Although methods such as confocal or fluorescence microscopy offer both high spatial resolution and high signal-to-background ratios, the fluorescence emission lifetime limits the measurement speed, while photobleaching and thermal diffusion limit the duration of measurements. Here we present a tracking method based on elastic light scattering that enables long-duration measurements of nanoparticle dynamics at rates of thousands of frames per second. We contain the particles within a single-mode silica fiber having a subwavelength, nanofluidic channel and illuminate them using the fiber's strongly confined optical mode. The diffusing particles in this cylindrical geometry are continuously illuminated inside the collection focal plane. We show that the method can track unlabeled dielectric particles as small as 20 nm as well as individual cowpea chlorotic mottle virus (CCMV) virions-26 nm in size and 4.6 megadaltons in mass-at rates of over 3 kHz for durations of tens of seconds. Our setup is easily incorporated into common optical microscopes and extends their detection range to nanometer-scale particles and macromolecules. The ease-of-use and performance of this technique support its potential for widespread applications in medical diagnostics and micro total analysis systems. PMID:26505649

  8. First Report of Pepino Mosaic Virus Infecting Tomato in Mexico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pepino mosaic has become endemic greenhouse tomato disease in many countries around the world. Its occurrence in Mexico has yet to be determined. In early spring of 2010, symptoms of yellow mosaic, chlorotic patches and fruit marbling were observed in approximately 50% of tomato plants in a commerc...

  9. Reference Gene Selection for qPCR Analysis in Tomato-Bipartite Begomovirus Interaction and Validation in Additional Tomato-Virus Pathosystems.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana L M Lacerda

    Full Text Available Quantitative Polymerase Chain Reaction (qPCR is currently the most sensitive technique used for absolute and relative quantification of a target gene transcript, requiring the use of appropriated reference genes for data normalization. To accurately estimate the relative expression of target tomato (Solanum lycopersicum L. genes responsive to several virus species in reverse transcription qPCR analysis, the identification of reliable reference genes is mandatory. In the present study, ten reference genes were analyzed across a set of eight samples: two tomato contrasting genotypes ('Santa Clara', susceptible, and its near-isogenic line 'LAM 157', resistant; subjected to two treatments (inoculation with Tomato chlorotic mottle virus (ToCMoV and its mock-inoculated control and in two distinct times after inoculation (early and late. Reference genes stability was estimated by three statistical programs (geNorm, NormFinder and BestKeeper. To validate the results over broader experimental conditions, a set of ten samples, corresponding to additional three tomato-virus pathosystems that included tospovirus, crinivirus and tymovirus + tobamovirus, was analyzed together with the tomato-ToCMoV pathosystem dataset, using the same algorithms. Taking into account the combined analyses of the ranking order outputs from the three algorithms, TIP41 and EF1 were identified as the most stable genes for tomato-ToCMoV pathosystem, and TIP41 and EXP for the four pathosystems together, and selected to be used as reference in the forthcoming expression qPCR analysis of target genes in experimental conditions involving the aforementioned tomato-virus pathosystems.

  10. An internal ribosome entry site directs translation of the 3'-gene from Pelargonium flower break virus genomic RNA: implications for infectivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olga Fernández-Miragall

    Full Text Available Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV, genus Carmovirus has a single-stranded positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA which contains five ORFs. The two 5'-proximal ORFs encode the replicases, two internal ORFs encode movement proteins, and the 3'-proximal ORF encodes a polypeptide (p37 which plays a dual role as capsid protein and as suppressor of RNA silencing. Like other members of family Tombusviridae, carmoviruses express ORFs that are not 5'-proximal from subgenomic RNAs. However, in one case, corresponding to Hisbiscus chlorotic ringspot virus, it has been reported that the 3'-proximal gene can be translated from the gRNA through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES. Here we show that PFBV also holds an IRES that mediates production of p37 from the gRNA, raising the question of whether this translation strategy may be conserved in the genus. The PFBV IRES was functional both in vitro and in vivo and either in the viral context or when inserted into synthetic bicistronic constructs. Through deletion and mutagenesis studies we have found that the IRES is contained within a 80 nt segment and have identified some structural traits that influence IRES function. Interestingly, mutations that diminish IRES activity strongly reduced the infectivity of the virus while the progress of the infection was favoured by mutations potentiating such activity. These results support the biological significance of the IRES-driven p37 translation and suggest that production of the silencing suppressor from the gRNA might allow the virus to early counteract the defence response of the host, thus facilitating pathogen multiplication and spread.

  11. An internal ribosome entry site directs translation of the 3'-gene from Pelargonium flower break virus genomic RNA: implications for infectivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Miragall, Olga; Hernández, Carmen

    2011-01-01

    Pelargonium flower break virus (PFBV, genus Carmovirus) has a single-stranded positive-sense genomic RNA (gRNA) which contains five ORFs. The two 5'-proximal ORFs encode the replicases, two internal ORFs encode movement proteins, and the 3'-proximal ORF encodes a polypeptide (p37) which plays a dual role as capsid protein and as suppressor of RNA silencing. Like other members of family Tombusviridae, carmoviruses express ORFs that are not 5'-proximal from subgenomic RNAs. However, in one case, corresponding to Hisbiscus chlorotic ringspot virus, it has been reported that the 3'-proximal gene can be translated from the gRNA through an internal ribosome entry site (IRES). Here we show that PFBV also holds an IRES that mediates production of p37 from the gRNA, raising the question of whether this translation strategy may be conserved in the genus. The PFBV IRES was functional both in vitro and in vivo and either in the viral context or when inserted into synthetic bicistronic constructs. Through deletion and mutagenesis studies we have found that the IRES is contained within a 80 nt segment and have identified some structural traits that influence IRES function. Interestingly, mutations that diminish IRES activity strongly reduced the infectivity of the virus while the progress of the infection was favoured by mutations potentiating such activity. These results support the biological significance of the IRES-driven p37 translation and suggest that production of the silencing suppressor from the gRNA might allow the virus to early counteract the defence response of the host, thus facilitating pathogen multiplication and spread.

  12. Suppression of Jasmonic Acid-Mediated Defense by Viral-Inducible MicroRNA319 Facilitates Virus Infection in Rice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Ding, Zuomei; Wu, Kangcheng; Yang, Liang; Li, Yang; Yang, Zhen; Shi, Shan; Liu, Xiaojuan; Zhao, Shanshan; Yang, Zhirui; Wang, Yu; Zheng, Luping; Wei, Juan; Du, Zhenguo; Zhang, Aihong; Miao, Hongqin; Li, Yi; Wu, Zujian; Wu, Jianguo

    2016-09-01

    MicroRNAs (miRNAs) are pivotal modulators of plant development and host-virus interactions. However, the roles and action modes of specific miRNAs involved in viral infection and host susceptibility remain largely unclear. In this study, we show that Rice ragged stunt virus (RRSV) infection caused increased accumulation of miR319 but decreased expression of miR319-regulated TCP (TEOSINTE BRANCHED/CYCLOIDEA/PCF) genes, especially TCP21, in rice plants. Transgenic rice plants overexpressing miR319 or downregulating TCP21 exhibited disease-like phenotypes and showed significantly higher susceptibility to RRSV in comparison with the wild-type plants. In contrast, only mild disease symptoms were observed in RRSV-infected lines overexpressing TCP21 and especially in the transgenic plants overexpressing miR319-resistant TCP21. Both RRSV infection and overexpression of miR319 caused the decreased endogenous jasmonic acid (JA) levels along with downregulated expression of JA biosynthesis and signaling-related genes in rice. However, treatment of rice plants with methyl jasmonate alleviated disease symptoms caused by RRSV and reduced virus accumulation. Taken together, our results suggest that the induction of miR319 by RRSV infection in rice suppresses JA-mediated defense to facilitate virus infection and symptom development. PMID:27381440

  13. Viruses Infecting Reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rachel E. Marschang

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available A large number of viruses have been described in many different reptiles. These viruses include arboviruses that primarily infect mammals or birds as well as viruses that are specific for reptiles. Interest in arboviruses infecting reptiles has mainly focused on the role reptiles may play in the epidemiology of these viruses, especially over winter. Interest in reptile specific viruses has concentrated on both their importance for reptile medicine as well as virus taxonomy and evolution. The impact of many viral infections on reptile health is not known. Koch’s postulates have only been fulfilled for a limited number of reptilian viruses. As diagnostic testing becomes more sensitive, multiple infections with various viruses and other infectious agents are also being detected. In most cases the interactions between these different agents are not known. This review provides an update on viruses described in reptiles, the animal species in which they have been detected, and what is known about their taxonomic positions.

  14. Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... education Fact Sheet PFS005: Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus AUGUST 2015 • Reasons for Getting Tested • Who Should ... For More Information • Glossary Testing for Human Immunodeficiency Virus Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that ...

  15. Analysis of Virus Algorithms

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jyoti Kalyani

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Security of wired and wireless networks is the most challengeable in today's computer world. The aim of this study was to give brief introduction about viruses and worms, their creators and characteristics of algorithms used by viruses. Here wired and wireless network viruses are elaborated. Also viruses are compared with human immune system. On the basis of this comparison four guidelines are given to detect viruses so that more secure systems are made. While concluding this study it is found that the security is most challengeable, thus it is required to make more secure models which automatically detect viruses and prevent the system from its affect.

  16. Hepatitis Delta Virus: A Peculiar Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Carolina Alves; Cristina Branco; Celso Cunha

    2013-01-01

    The hepatitis delta virus (HDV) is distributed worldwide and related to the most severe form of viral hepatitis. HDV is a satellite RNA virus dependent on hepatitis B surface antigens to assemble its envelope and thus form new virions and propagate infection. HDV has a small 1.7 Kb genome making it the smallest known human virus. This deceivingly simple virus has unique biological features and many aspects of its life cycle remain elusive. The present review endeavors to gather the available ...

  17. Virus Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroshi Abe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Of 168 patients with chronic hepatitis B virus (HBV infection-related liver disease, 20 patients who had received 100 mg of lamivudine plus 10 mg/day of adefovir dipivoxil (ADV (ADV group and 124 patients who had received 0.5 mg/day of entecavir or 100 mg/day of lamivudine (non-ADV group for >1 year were enrolled. For comparative analyses, 19 well-matched pairs were obtained from the groups by propensity scores. At the time of enrollment, serum creatinine and phosphate concentrations were similar between the ADV and non-ADV groups; however, urinary phosphate ( and serum bone-specific alkaline phosphatase (BAP ( concentrations were significantly higher in the ADV group than in the non-ADV group. Serum BAP was significantly higher at the time of enrollment than before ADV administration in the ADV group (, although there was no significant change in serum BAP concentration in the non-ADV group. There was a significant positive correlation between the period of ADV therapy and ΔBAP (, . Serum BAP concentration increased before increase in serum creatinine concentration and was useful for early detection of adverse events and for developing adequate measures for continuing ADV for chronic HBV infection-related liver disease.

  18. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    James S. Lawson

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  19. Tumorigenic DNA viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Klein, G.

    1989-01-01

    The eighth volume of Advances in Viral Oncology focuses on the three major DNA virus groups with a postulated or proven tumorigenic potential: papillomaviruses, animal hepatitis viruses, and the Epstein-Bar virus. In the opening chapters, the contributors analyze the evidence that papillomaviruses and animal hepatitis viruses are involved in tumorigenesis and describe the mechanisms that trigger virus-host cell interactions. A detailed section on the Epstein-Barr virus (EBV) - comprising more than half the book - examines the transcription and mRNA processing patterns of the virus genome; the mechanisms by which EBV infects lymphoid and epithelial cells; the immunological aspects of the virus; the actions of EBV in hosts with Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome; and the involvement of EBV in the etiology of Burkitt's lymphoma.

  20. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lawson, James S., E-mail: james.lawson@unsw.edu.au; Heng, Benjamin [School of Biotechnology and Biomolecular Sciences, University of New South Wales, Sydney (Australia)

    2010-04-30

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix.

  1. Viruses and Breast Cancer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Viruses are the accepted cause of many important cancers including cancers of the cervix and anogenital area, the liver, some lymphomas, head and neck cancers and indirectly human immunodeficiency virus associated cancers. For over 50 years, there have been serious attempts to identify viruses which may have a role in breast cancer. Despite these efforts, the establishment of conclusive evidence for such a role has been elusive. However, the development of extremely sophisticated new experimental techniques has allowed the recent development of evidence that human papilloma virus, Epstein-Barr virus, mouse mammary tumor virus and bovine leukemia virus may each have a role in the causation of human breast cancers. This is potentially good news as effective vaccines are already available to prevent infections from carcinogenic strains of human papilloma virus, which causes cancer of the uterine cervix

  2. Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... rashes clinical tools newsletter | contact Share | Herpes Simplex Virus (HSV) A parent's guide to condition and treatment ... skin or mouth sores with the herpes simplex virus (HSV) is called primary herpes. This may be ...

  3. Hepatitis virus panel

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: //medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003558.htm Hepatitis virus panel To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. The hepatitis virus panel is a series of blood tests used ...

  4. Human Parainfluenza Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Human Parainfluenza Viruses (HPIVs) Note: Javascript is disabled or ... CDC.gov . Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) commonly cause respiratory illnesses in ...

  5. I. Identification and characterization of dasheen mosaic virus in Chinese evergreen plants (Aglaonema commutatum) in California. II. New approaches for detecting plant viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kositratana, W.

    1985-01-01

    Chinese evergreen plants (Aglaonema commutatum) with symptoms of mild stunting, chlorosis, leaf distortion and mosaic, were observed in Southern California. Flexuous rods (ca. 750 nm) were detected in leaf dip and partially purified preparations. Dasheen mosac virus (DMV) was identified as the causal agent on the basis of host range, morphology and reaction with DMV antiserum in immunodouble diffusion and immunosorbent electron microscopy (ISEM) tests. Tetragonia expansa was found to be a new host of this virus. Surveys indicate that DMV is not widespread in cultivars of A. commutatum in Southern California. The virus was purified from leaves of seedling Philodendron selloum by clarification with CCl/sub 4/, CHCl/sub 3/, and Triton X-100, precipitation with PEG-8000 and centrifugation in either Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/-sucrose cushion gradients or Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ equilibrium density gradients. Purified virions formed a single UV-absorbing infectious band with densities of 1.31 and 1.245 g/ml in CsCl/sub 2/ and Cs/sub 2/SO/sub 4/ equilibrium density gradients, respectively, and a sedimentation coefficient of 154 S as determined by a linear-log sucrose density gradient centrifugation. Dasheen mosaic virus has a plus-sense ssRNA with the M.W. of 3.2 x 10/sup 6/ under denaturing conditions. Molecular hybridization analysis using /sup 3/H-complementary DNA specific to DMV-Ca RNA showed that DMV-Ca isolate was more closely related to DMV-Fiji isolate than to DMV-Fla isolate, and was very distantly related to ZYMV, TEV. PeMoC and PVY.

  6. Distribution of four viruses in single and mixed infections within infected watermelon plants in Florida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turechek, William W; Kousik, Chandrasekar S; Adkins, Scott

    2010-11-01

    Whitefly-transmitted Squash vein yellowing virus (SqVYV) and Cucurbit leaf crumple virus (CuLCrV) and aphid-transmitted Papaya ringspot virus type W (PRSV-W) have had serious impact on watermelon production in southwest and west-central Florida in the past 5 years. Tissue-blot nucleic acid hybridization assays were developed for simple, high-throughput detection of these three viruses as well as Cucurbit yellow stunting disorder virus (CYSDV), which was first reported in Florida in 2008. To determine virus distribution within plants, we collected 80 entire plants just before or during the harvest period in a systematic sample, 20 each on 11 April, 18 April, 26 April, and 3 May 2007, from a fruiting commercial watermelon field near Immokalee, FL showing symptoms of infection by SqVYV, CuLCrV, and PRSV-W and, possibly, CYSDV. This was followed by a sampling of five plants collected at harvest showing symptoms of virus infection on 11 October 2007 in a different commercial planting located in Duette, FL. Tissue prints were made from cross sections of watermelon plants from the crowns through the tips at 0.6-m intervals on nylon membranes and nucleic acid hybridization assays were used for virus detection. Results from testing crown tissue showed that SqVYV, CuLCrV, and PRSV-W were present in ≈37, 44, and 54%, respectively, of the 80 plants collected over the four sampling dates from the first field. For individual vines diagnosed with SqVYV, the distribution of SqVYV in vine tissue decreased proportionately with distance from the crown. The probability of detecting SqVYV was 70% at the base of the vine compared with 23% at the tip of the vine. In contrast, CuLCrV tended to be more evenly distributed throughout the plant, with ≈10% higher probability of detection at the growing tip relative to the crown of the plant. The distribution of PRSV-W resembled that of SqVYV but with ≈20% higher probability of detection at the tip of the vine. Similar trends were

  7. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    OpenAIRE

    Seth Judson; Joseph Prescott; Vincent Munster

    2015-01-01

    An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fil...

  8. Taming influenza viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Ozawa, Makoto; Kawaoka, Yoshihiro

    2011-01-01

    Plasmid-based reverse genetics systems allow the artificial generation of viruses with cloned cDNA-derived genomes. Since the establishment of such systems for influenza virus, numerous attempts have been made to tame this pathogenic agent. In particular, several types of viruses expressing foreign genes have been generated and used to further our knowledge of influenza virus replication and pathogenicity and to develop novel influenza vaccines. Here, we review these achievements and discuss ...

  9. Global organization of a positive-strand RNA virus genome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Baodong Wu

    Full Text Available The genomes of plus-strand RNA viruses contain many regulatory sequences and structures that direct different viral processes. The traditional view of these RNA elements are as local structures present in non-coding regions. However, this view is changing due to the discovery of regulatory elements in coding regions and functional long-range intra-genomic base pairing interactions. The ∼4.8 kb long RNA genome of the tombusvirus tomato bushy stunt virus (TBSV contains these types of structural features, including six different functional long-distance interactions. We hypothesized that to achieve these multiple interactions this viral genome must utilize a large-scale organizational strategy and, accordingly, we sought to assess the global conformation of the entire TBSV genome. Atomic force micrographs of the genome indicated a mostly condensed structure composed of interconnected protrusions extending from a central hub. This configuration was consistent with the genomic secondary structure model generated using high-throughput selective 2'-hydroxyl acylation analysed by primer extension (i.e. SHAPE, which predicted different sized RNA domains originating from a central region. Known RNA elements were identified in both domain and inter-domain regions, and novel structural features were predicted and functionally confirmed. Interestingly, only two of the six long-range interactions known to form were present in the structural model. However, for those interactions that did not form, complementary partner sequences were positioned relatively close to each other in the structure, suggesting that the secondary structure level of viral genome structure could provide a basic scaffold for the formation of different long-range interactions. The higher-order structural model for the TBSV RNA genome provides a snapshot of the complex framework that allows multiple functional components to operate in concert within a confined context.

  10. BOVINE VIRAL DIARRHEA VIRUSES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovine viral diarrhea virus (BVDV) is an umbrella term for two species of viruses, BVDV1 and BVDV2, within the Pestivirus genus of the Flavivirus family. BVDV viruses are further subclassified as cytopathic and noncytopathic based on their activity in cultured epithelial cells. Noncytopathic BVDV p...

  11. Computer Virus Protection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rajala, Judith B.

    2004-01-01

    A computer virus is a program--a piece of executable code--that has the unique ability to replicate. Like biological viruses, computer viruses can spread quickly and are often difficult to eradicate. They can attach themselves to just about any type of file, and are spread by replicating and being sent from one individual to another. Simply having…

  12. What's West Nile Virus?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Help White House Lunch Recipes What's West Nile Virus? KidsHealth > For Kids > What's West Nile Virus? Print A A A Text Size en español ¿Qué es el Virus del Nilo Occidental? What exactly is the West ...

  13. Respiratory Syncytial Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Things to Know About Zika & Pregnancy Respiratory Syncytial Virus KidsHealth > For Parents > Respiratory Syncytial Virus Print A A A Text Size What's in ... RSV When to Call the Doctor en español Virus respiratorio sincitial About RSV Respiratory syncytial (sin-SISH- ...

  14. Virus diseases of fish

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, Stanley W.

    1954-01-01

    Viruses are probably the cause of a wide spectrum of fish diseases. Although relatively few virus diseases of fish are known today, some of the diseases of unknown etiology, as well as some diseases presently accepted as due to bacteria, protozoa, fungi or nutritional deficiencies, possibly will be recognized eventually as virus diseases.

  15. The taxonomy of viruses should include viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calisher, Charles H

    2016-05-01

    Having lost sight of its goal, the International Committee on Taxonomy of Viruses has redoubled its efforts. That goal is to arrive at a consensus regarding virus classification, i.e., proper placement of viruses in a hierarchical taxonomic scheme; not an easy task given the wide variety of recognized viruses. Rather than suggesting a continuation of the bureaucratic machinations of the past, this opinion piece is a call for insertion of common sense in sorting out the avalanche of information already, and soon-to-be, accrued data. In this way information about viruses ideally would be taxonomically correct as well as useful to working virologists and journal editors, rather than being lost, minimized, or ignored.

  16. Breaking a virus: Identifying molecular level failure modes of a viral capsid by multiscale modeling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnamani, V.; Globisch, C.; Peter, C.; Deserno, M.

    2016-07-01

    We use coarse-grained (CG) simulations to study the deformation of empty Cowpea Chlorotic Mottle Virus (CCMV) capsids under uniaxial compression, from the initial elastic response up to capsid breakage. Our CG model is based on the MARTINI force field and has been amended by a stabilizing elastic network, acting only within individual proteins, that was tuned to capture the fluctuation spectrum of capsid protein dimers, obtained from all atom simulations. We have previously shown that this model predicts force-compression curves that match AFM indentation experiments on empty CCMV capsids. Here we investigate details of the actual breaking events when the CCMV capsid finally fails. We present a symmetry classification of all relevant protein contacts and show that they differ significantly in terms of stability. Specifically, we show that interfaces which break readily are precisely those which are believed to form last during assembly, even though some of them might share the same contacts as other non-breaking interfaces. In particular, the interfaces that form pentamers of dimers never break, while the virtually identical interfaces within hexamers of dimers readily do. Since these units differ in the large-scale geometry and, most noticeably, the cone-angle at the center of the 5- or 6-fold vertex, we propose that the hexameric unit fails because it is pre-stressed. This not only suggests that hexamers of dimers form less frequently during the early stages of assembly; it also offers a natural explanation for the well-known β-barrel motif at the hexameric center as a post-aggregation stabilization mechanism. Finally, we identify those amino acid contacts within all key protein interfaces that are most persistent during compressive deformation of the capsid, thereby providing potential targets for mutation studies aiming to elucidate the key contacts upon which overall stability rests.

  17. Viruses of asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined.

  18. Understanding Ebola Virus Transmission

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Seth Judson

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available An unprecedented number of Ebola virus infections among healthcare workers and patients have raised questions about our understanding of Ebola virus transmission. Here, we explore different routes of Ebola virus transmission between people, summarizing the known epidemiological and experimental data. From this data, we expose important gaps in Ebola virus research pertinent to outbreak situations. We further propose experiments and methods of data collection that will enable scientists to fill these voids in our knowledge about the transmission of Ebola virus.

  19. Viruses of asparagus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tomassoli, Laura; Tiberini, Antonio; Vetten, Heinrich-Josef

    2012-01-01

    The current knowledge on viruses infecting asparagus (Asparagus officinalis) is reviewed. Over half a century, nine virus species belonging to the genera Ilarvirus, Cucumovirus, Nepovirus, Tobamovirus, Potexvirus, and Potyvirus have been found in this crop. The potyvirus Asparagus virus 1 (AV1) and the ilarvirus Asparagus virus 2 (AV2) are widespread and negatively affect the economic life of asparagus crops reducing yield and increasing the susceptibility to biotic and abiotic stress. The main properties and epidemiology of AV1 and AV2 as well as diagnostic techniques for their detection and identification are described. Minor viruses and control are briefly outlined. PMID:22682173

  20. Online identification of viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kolaskar, A S; Naik, P S

    2000-06-01

    A computerized animal virus information system is developed in the Sequence Retrieval System (SRS) format. This database is available on the Word Wide Web (WWW) at the site http://bioinfo.ernet.in/www/avis/avis++ +.html. The database has been used to generate large number of identification matrices for each family. The software is developed in C. Unix shell scripts and Hypertext Marked-up Language (HTML) to assign the family to an unknown virus deterministically and to identify the virus probabilistically. It has been shown that such web based virus identification approach provides results with high confidence in those cases where identification matrix uses large number of independent characters. Protein sequence data for animal viruses have been analyzed and oligopeptides specific to each virus family and also specific to each virus species are identified for several viruses. These peptides thus could be used to identify the virus and to assign the virus family with high confidence showing the usefulness of sequence data in virus identification. PMID:10917875

  1. Southern rice black-streaked dwarf virus: A new proposed Fijivirus species in the family Reoviridae

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU GuoHui; WEN JingJung; CAI DeJiang; LI Peng; XU DongLin; ZHANG ShuGuang

    2008-01-01

    For the past several years, a novel dwarf disease has been observed on rice (Oryza sativa) in some regions of Guangdong Province and Hainan Province, southern China. Infected plants showed stunting,dark leaf and small enations on stem and leaf back. Typical Fijivirus viroplasma containing crystalline arrayed spherical virons approximately 70-75 nm in diameter and tubular structures were detected in ultrathin sections by an electron microscope in parenchyma phloem cells of the infected plants. The virus was transmitted to rice seedlings by white-backed planthoppers, Sogatella furcifera (Hemiptera:Delphacidae), collected in the diseased fields. Analysis of dsRNA extracts from infected plants revealed ten linear segments, which were similar to the electrophoretic profile of Rice black-streaked dwarf virus (RBSDV). RT-PCR with a single primer which matched to a linker sequence ligated to both 3' ends of the viral genomic dsRNAs resulted in amplification of genome segments 9 (S9) and 10 (S10) cDNA products. The complete nucleotide sequences of S9 and S10 were obtained from clones of the RT-PCR amplicon exhibited characteristic properties of Fijivirus including low GC content (34.5% and 35.6%), genus conserved 5' and 3' termini sequences and similar genome organization. Blast searches indicated that the sequences of S9 and S10 shared 68.8%-74.9% and 67.1 %-77.4% nucleotide identities with those of viruses in the Fijivirus group 2, respectively. These values were similar to those among other viruses in the Fijivirus group 2 and considerably lower than those among RBSDV isolates. Phylogenetic trees based on S9 and S10 nucleotide sequences and their putative amino acid sequences showed that this virus represented a separate branch among other Fijiviruses. The virus was also detected by a nested RT-PCR assay in corn (Zea mays), barnyard grass (Echinochloa crusgalli), Juncellus serotinus and flaccidgrass (Pennisetum flaccidum) in and/or adjacent to the infected rice fields

  2. Occurrence, Distribution and Biological variability of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus in cucurbits of Khuzestan province, South west of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Somayeh Safara

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available ZYMV is one of the most important plant viruses that cause economical damage in cucurbits. The symptoms of ZYMV in different cucurbits include stunting, yellowing, mottling, severe mosaic, leaf and fruit deformation, blistering and shoe string. Investigation on occurrence of this virus, in Khuzestan province was carried out in November 2009, April and May 2010 by collecting cucurbits samples from different cucurbits fields. After DAS-ELISA test, ZYMV was maintained in squash. Then total RNA were extracted and were tested by RT-PCR. Using RT-PCR, fragments belonging to N-terminal of coat protein and C-terminal of nuclear inclusion bodies were replicated. PCR product for investigation of replication was loaded in 1% agarose gel. From seven regions in Khuzestan, 175 leaf samples showing different symptoms (yellowing, mosaic, deformation and blistering were collected. Seventy one samples out of total samples (175 samples showed ZYMV infection. Occurrence of Zucchini Yellow Mosaic Virus in Khuzestan province was confirmed, using serological and RT-PCR tests. Infection of ZYMV in Khuzestan province (40.5% is higher than the average of Iran’s infection (38%. This article is first report of occurrence ZYMV in different regions of Khuzestan province except Dezful.

  3. Detection and quantitation of the new world Squash leaf curl virus by TaqMan real-time PCR.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abrahamian, Peter E; Abou-Jawdah, Yusuf

    2013-07-01

    Squash leaf curl diseases are caused by distinct virus species that are separated into two major phylogenetic groups, western and eastern hemisphere groups. The western group includes the new world Squash leaf curl virus (SLCV) which causes major losses to cucurbit production and induces severe stunting and leaf curl in squash plants. A TaqMan-based real time polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) assay has been developed for detection and quantitation of SLCV. Designed primers and probe targeted the AV1 (coat protein) gene and in silico analysis showed that they detect a large number of SLCV isolates. The developed assay could detect the virus in 18fg of total nucleic acid and 30 genomic units. The qPCR assay was about 1000 times more sensitive than PCR and amplified successfully SLCV from a wide range of cucurbit hosts and from viruliferous whiteflies. The developed qPCR assay should be suitable for detection and quantitation purposes for all reported SLCV isolates of the western hemisphere.

  4. Postmortem stability of Ebola virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth; Munster, Vincent J

    2015-05-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus-infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated <7 days posteuthanasia; viral RNA was detectable for 10 weeks.

  5. Heterologous expression of viral suppressors of RNA silencing complements virulence of the HC-Pro mutant of clover yellow vein virus in pea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Atsumi, Go; Nakahara, Kenji S; Wada, Tomoko Sugikawa; Choi, Sun Hee; Masuta, Chikara; Uyeda, Ichiro

    2012-06-01

    Many plant viruses encode suppressors of RNA silencing, including the helper component-proteinase (HC-Pro) of potyviruses. Our previous studies showed that a D-to-Y mutation at amino acid position 193 in HC-Pro (HC-Pro-D193Y) drastically attenuated the virulence of clover yellow vein virus (ClYVV) in legume plants. Furthermore, RNA-silencing suppression (RSS) activity of HC-Pro-D193Y was significantly reduced in Nicotiana benthamiana. Here, we examine the effect of expression of heterologous suppressors of RNA silencing, i.e., tomato bushy stunt virus p19, cucumber mosaic virus 2b, and their mutants, on the virulence of the ClYVV point mutant with D193Y (Cl-D193Y) in pea. P19 and 2b fully and partially complemented Cl-D193Y multiplication and virulence, including lethal systemic HR in pea, respectively, but the P19 and 2b mutants with defects in their RSS activity did not. Our findings strongly suggest that the D193Y mutation exclusively affects RSS activity of HC-Pro and that RSS activity is necessary for ClYVV multiplication and virulence in pea. PMID:22398917

  6. Constructing computer virus phylogenies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goldberg, L.A. [Warwick Univ., Coventry (United Kingdom) Dept. of Computer Science; Goldberg, P.W. [Aston Univ., Birmingham (United Kingdom) Dept. of Applied Mathematics; Phillips, C.A. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States); Sorkin, G.B. [International Business Machines Corp., Yorktown Heights, NY (United States). Thomas J. Watson Research Center

    1996-03-01

    There has been much recent algorithmic work on the problem of reconstructing the evolutionary history of biological species. Computer virus specialists are interested in finding the evolutionary history of computer viruses--a virus is often written using code fragments from one or more other viruses, which are its immediate ancestors. A phylogeny for a collection of computer viruses is a directed acyclic graph whose nodes are the viruses and whose edges map ancestors to descendants and satisfy the property that each code fragment is ``invented`` only once. To provide a simple explanation for the data, we consider the problem of constructing such a phylogeny with a minimal number of edges. In general, this optimization problem cannot be solved in quasi-polynomial time unless NQP=QP; we present positive and negative results for associated approximated problems. When tree solutions exist, they can be constructed and randomly sampled in polynomial time.

  7. Sulfated polysaccharides are potent and selective inhibitors of various enveloped viruses, including herpes simplex virus, cytomegalovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, and human immunodeficiency virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Baba, M.; Snoeck, R; Pauwels, R; De Clercq, E

    1988-01-01

    Several sulfated polysaccharides (dextran sulfate, pentosan polysulfate, fucoidan, and carrageenans) proved to be potent inhibitors for herpes simplex virus, human cytomegalovirus, vesicular stomatitis virus, Sindbis virus, and human immunodeficiency virus. They were moderately inhibitory to vaccinia virus but not inhibitory to adenovirus, coxsackievirus, poliovirus, parainfluenza virus, and reovirus. These results indicate that, with the exception of parainfluenza virus, enveloped viruses ar...

  8. The human oncogenic viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luderer, A.A.; Weetall, H.H

    1986-01-01

    This book contains eight selections. The titles are: Cytogenetics of the Leukemias and Lymphomas; Cytogenetics of Solid Tumors: Renal Cell Carcinoma, Malignant Melanoma, Retinoblastoma, and Wilms' Tumor; Elucidation of a Normal Function for a Human Proto-Oncogene; Detection of HSV-2 Genes and Gene Products in Cervical Neoplasia; Papillomaviruses in Anogennital Neoplasms; Human Epstein-Barr Virus and Cancer; Hepatitis B Virus and Hepatocellular Carcinoma; and Kaposi's Sarcoma: Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) and Associated Viruses.

  9. The Influenza Virus Enigma

    OpenAIRE

    Salomon, Rachelle; Webster, Robert G.

    2009-01-01

    Both seasonal and pandemic influenza continue to challenge both scientists and clinicians. Drug-resistant H1N1 influenza viruses have dominated the 2009 flu season, and the H5N1 avian influenza virus continues to kill both people and poultry in Eurasia. Here, we discuss the pathogenesis and transmissibility of influenza viruses and we emphasize the need to find better predictors of both seasonal and potentially pandemic influenza.

  10. Endocytosis of influenza viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Lakadamyali, Melike; Rust, Michael J.; Zhuang, Xiaowei

    2004-01-01

    Receptor-mediated endocytosis is known to play an important role in the entry of many viruses into host cells. However, the exact internalization mechanism has, until recently, remained poorly understood for many medically important viruses, including influenza. Developments in real-time imaging of single viruses as well as the use of dominant negative mutants to selectively block specific endocytic pathways, have improved our understanding of the influenza infection process.

  11. Filamentous influenza viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Dadonaite, Bernadeta; Vijyakrishnan, Swetha; Fodor, Ervin; Bhella, David; Hutchinson, Edward C.

    2016-01-01

    Clinical isolates of influenza virus produce pleomorphic virus particles, including extremely long filamentous virions. In contrast, strains of influenza that have adapted to laboratory growth typically produce only spherical virions. As a result, the filamentous phenotype has been overlooked in most influenza virus research. Recent advances in imaging and improved animal models have highlighted the distinct structure and functional relevance of filamentous virions. In this review we summaris...

  12. The virus of management

    OpenAIRE

    Kjær, Peter; Frankel, Christian

    2004-01-01

    The virus metaphor may be used in studies of management knowledge not only as a way of describing diffusion processes but also as a way of thinking about viral elements of knowledge production. In the present article, organizational viruses are viewed as ensembles of basic distinctions that are constitutive of concrete bodies of knowledge and which form mutable engines of organizational self-descriptions. Organizational viruses, we contend, are both characterized by stability i...

  13. A leafhopper-transmissible DNA virus with novel evolutionary lineage in the family geminiviridae implicated in grapevine redleaf disease by next-generation sequencing.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sudarsana Poojari

    Full Text Available A graft-transmissible disease displaying red veins, red blotches and total reddening of leaves in red-berried wine grape (Vitis vinifera L. cultivars was observed in commercial vineyards. Next-generation sequencing technology was used to identify etiological agent(s associated with this emerging disease, designated as grapevine redleaf disease (GRD. High quality RNA extracted from leaves of grape cultivars Merlot and Cabernet Franc with and without GRD symptoms was used to prepare cDNA libraries. Assembly of highly informative sequence reads generated from Illumina sequencing of cDNA libraries, followed by bioinformatic analyses of sequence contigs resulted in specific identification of taxonomically disparate viruses and viroids in samples with and without GRD symptoms. A single-stranded DNA virus, tentatively named Grapevine redleaf-associated virus (GRLaV, and Grapevine fanleaf virus were detected only in grapevines showing GRD symptoms. In contrast, Grapevine rupestris stem pitting-associated virus, Hop stunt viroid, Grapevine yellow speckle viroid 1, Citrus exocortis viroid and Citrus exocortis Yucatan viroid were present in both symptomatic and non-symptomatic grapevines. GRLaV was transmitted by the Virginia creeper leafhopper (Erythroneura ziczac Walsh from grapevine-to-grapevine under greenhouse conditions. Molecular and phylogenetic analyses indicated that GRLaV, almost identical to recently reported Grapevine Cabernet Franc-associated virus from New York and Grapevine red blotch-associated virus from California, represents an evolutionarily distinct lineage in the family Geminiviridae with genome characteristics distinct from other leafhopper-transmitted geminiviruses. GRD significantly reduced fruit yield and affected berry quality parameters demonstrating negative impacts of the disease. Higher quantities of carbohydrates were present in symptomatic leaves suggesting their possible role in the expression of redleaf symptoms.

  14. Variabilidade biológica de isolados do Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV oriundos de cultivares de laranjeira Biological variability of Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV isolates from sweet orange cultivars

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jadier de Oliveira Cunha Junior

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available A leprose, causada pelo Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV, é uma das principais doenças presentes em pomares cítricos fluminenses. O objetivo deste trabalho foi comparar o quadro sintomatológico desenvolvido por isolados de CiLV obtidos de cultivares comerciais de laranjeira (Lima, Pêra e Seleta, inoculados mecanicamente em Chenopodium amaranticolor, em três diluições. Após cinco a sete dias da inoculação foram observadas lesões necróticas, com pequeno halo clorótico quando observadas contra a luz. O maior número de lesões, nas três diluições, foi obtido do isolado de 'Seleta', seguido por 'Pêra' e 'Lima'. A melhor diluição utilizada para a observação das lesões foi de 1:10. Os resultados demonstram uma possível variabilidade biológica entre os isolados virais e/ou uma menor ou maior replicação viral, dependendo da cultivar, indicando um possível mecanismo de resistência da planta ao vírus.Citrus leprosis, caused by Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV is one of the major diseases in citrus orchards in the State of Rio de Janeiro. The objective of this study was to compare the development of symptoms on Chenopodium amaranticolor inoculated with CiLV isolates from 'Lima', 'Pera' and 'Seleta' sweet oranges using three different dilutions. Five to seven-days after inoculation, necrotic lesions exhibiting a small chlorotic halo when exposed to the light, were observed. The highest number of lesions developed using the three dilutions was obtained from 'Seleta', an intermediate value from 'Pêra' and the lowest number from 'Lima'. The best dilution for lesions development was 1:10. The results demonstrate a possible biological variability among the virus isolates and/or a lower or higher viral replication, dependent on the cultivar. This indicates a putative mechanism of Citrus resistance to the virus.

  15. First Report of Pratylenchus neglectus, Pratylenchus thornei and Paratylenchus hametus nematodes causing yield reduction to dry land peas and lentils in Idaho

    Science.gov (United States)

    In June 2006, stunted, chlorotic, plants in large patches were observed in two 100-acre fields of dry land peas (Pisum sativum) in Latah County Idaho which resulted in 90% and 75% crop loss. In the same region a 300 acre field of dry land lentils (Lens culinaris) also had plants showing poor growth,...

  16. Colour break in reverse bicolour daffodils is associated with the presence of Narcissus mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Davies Kevin M

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Daffodils (Narcissus pseudonarcissus are one of the world's most popular ornamentals. They also provide a scientific model for studying the carotenoid pigments responsible for their yellow and orange flower colours. In reverse bicolour daffodils, the yellow flower trumpet fades to white with age. The flowers of this type of daffodil are particularly prone to colour break whereby, upon opening, the yellow colour of the perianth is observed to be 'broken' into patches of white. This colour break symptom is characteristic of potyviral infections in other ornamentals such as tulips whose colour break is due to alterations in the presence of anthocyanins. However, reverse bicolour flowers displaying colour break show no other virus-like symptoms such as leaf mottling or plant stunting, leading some to argue that the carotenoid-based colour breaking in reverse bicolour flowers may not be caused by virus infection. Results Although potyviruses have been reported to cause colour break in other flower species, enzyme-linked-immunoassays with an antibody specific to the potyviral family showed that potyviruses were not responsible for the occurrence of colour break in reverse bicolour daffodils. Colour break in this type of daffodil was clearly associated with the presence of large quantities of rod-shaped viral particles of lengths 502-580 nm in tepals. Sap from flowers displaying colour break caused red necrotic lesions on Gomphrena globosa, suggesting the presence of potexvirus. Red necrotic lesions were not observed in this indicator plant when sap from reverse bicolour flowers not showing colour break was used. The reverse transcriptase polymerase reactions using degenerate primers to carla-, potex- and poty-viruses linked viral RNA with colour break and sequencing of the amplified products indicated that the potexvirus Narcissisus mosaic virus was the predominant virus associated with the occurrence of the colour break

  17. FAQ: General Questions about West Nile Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Public Service Videos General Questions About West Nile Virus Recommend on Facebook Tweet Share Compartir On this ... West Nile virus cases? What is West Nile virus? West Nile virus is an arthropod-borne virus ( ...

  18. Virus separation using membranes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grein, Tanja A; Michalsky, Ronald; Czermak, Peter

    2014-01-01

    Industrial manufacturing of cell culture-derived viruses or virus-like particles for gene therapy or vaccine production are complex multistep processes. In addition to the bioreactor, such processes require a multitude of downstream unit operations for product separation, concentration, or purification. Similarly, before a biopharmaceutical product can enter the market, removal or inactivation of potential viral contamination has to be demonstrated. Given the complexity of biological solutions and the high standards on composition and purity of biopharmaceuticals, downstream processing is the bottleneck in many biotechnological production trains. Membrane-based filtration can be an economically attractive and efficient technology for virus separation. Viral clearance, for instance, of up to seven orders of magnitude has been reported for state of the art polymeric membranes under best conditions.This chapter summarizes the fundamentals of virus ultrafiltration, diafiltration, or purification with adsorptive membranes. In lieu of an impractical universally applicable protocol for virus filtration, application of these principles is demonstrated with two examples. The chapter provides detailed methods for production, concentration, purification, and removal of a rod-shaped baculovirus (Autographa californica M nucleopolyhedrovirus, about 40 × 300 nm in size, a potential vector for gene therapy, and an industrially important protein expression system) or a spherical parvovirus (minute virus of mice, 22-26 nm in size, a model virus for virus clearance validation studies).

  19. Rift Valley Fever Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV) is a mosquito-transmitted virus or arbovirus that is endemic in sub-Saharan Africa. In the last decade, Rift Valley fever (RVF) outbreaks have resulted in loss of human and animal life, as well as had significant economic impact. The disease in livestock is primarily a...

  20. Viral Haemorrhagic Septicaemia Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    2013-01-01

    This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus.......This chapter covers the genetics (genotypes and serotypes), clinical signs, host species, transmission, prevalence, diagnosis, control and prevention of viral haemorrhagic septicaemia virus....

  1. INFLUENZA VIRUS IN POULTRY

    Science.gov (United States)

    Avian influenza virus (AIV) is normally found in wild birds, particularly in ducks and shorebirds, where it does not cause any perceptible clinical disease. However, poultry, including chickens and turkeys, are not normal hosts for avian influenza, but if the virus is introduced it can result in mi...

  2. Zika Virus and Pregnancy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stagg, Denise; Hurst, Helen M

    2016-01-01

    Recent outbreaks of Zika virus and reports linking infection in pregnant women with microcephaly in newborns have caused concern worldwide. Information has been evolving rapidly. Nurses and other clinicians, especially those who work with women of childbearing age, play a pivotal role in disseminating accurate information and identifying potential cases of Zika virus infection. PMID:27287356

  3. Positive reinforcement for viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

    2010-01-01

    Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al., in PNAS (St Vincent, et al., 2010), designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These Rigid Amphipathic Fusion Inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses.

  4. Positive reinforcement for viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigant, Frederic; Jung, Michael; Lee, Benhur

    2010-10-29

    Virus-cell membrane fusion requires a critical transition from positive to negative membrane curvature. St. Vincent et al. (2010), in PNAS, designed a class of antivirals that targets this transition. These rigid amphipathic fusion inhibitors are active against an array of enveloped viruses.

  5. Computer Viruses: Pathology and Detection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maxwell, John R.; Lamon, William E.

    1992-01-01

    Explains how computer viruses were originally created, how a computer can become infected by a virus, how viruses operate, symptoms that indicate a computer is infected, how to detect and remove viruses, and how to prevent a reinfection. A sidebar lists eight antivirus resources. (four references) (LRW)

  6. Postmortem Stability of Ebola Virus

    OpenAIRE

    Prescott, Joseph; Bushmaker, Trenton; Fischer, Robert; Miazgowicz, Kerri; Judson, Seth; Vincent J. Munster

    2015-01-01

    The ongoing Ebola virus outbreak in West Africa has highlighted questions regarding stability of the virus and detection of RNA from corpses. We used Ebola virus–infected macaques to model humans who died of Ebola virus disease. Viable virus was isolated

  7. Polyoma BK Virus: An Oncogenic Virus?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Syed Hassan

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available We report a case of a 65-year-old gentleman with a history of end stage renal disease who underwent a successful cadaveric donor kidney transplant four years ago. He subsequently developed BK virus nephropathy related to chronic immunosuppressant therapy. Three years later, misfortune struck again, and he developed adenocarcinoma of the bladder.

  8. Yellow mosaic symptom caused by the nuclear shuttle protein gene of mungbean yellow mosaic virus is associated with single-stranded DNA accumulation and mesophyll spread of the virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuruba, B L; Buvani, A P; Veluthambi, K

    2016-01-01

    Mungbean yellow mosaic virus-[India:Vigna] (MYMV-[IN:Vig]), a blackgram isolate of MYMV, causes yellow mosaic disease in blackgram and mungbean. Two variable DNA-B components, KA22 and KA27, cause distinct symptoms in blackgram [V. mungo (L.) Hepper] with the same DNA-A component. KA22 + DNA-A-agroinoculated blackgram plants displayed yellow mosaic symptom and accumulated high levels of viral single-stranded (ss) DNA. KA27 + DNA-A-agroinoculated blackgram plants displayed severe stunting symptom and accumulated very low levels of viral ssDNA. However, in mungbean [V. radiata (L.) Wilczek], KA27 + DNA-A caused yellow mosaic symptom and a high level of viral ssDNA accumulated. Swapping of KA27 DNA-B with the nuclear shuttle protein gene (NSP) of KA22 DNA-B (KA27xKA22 NSP) caused yellow mosaic symptom in blackgram, suggesting that KA22 NSP is the determinant of yellow mosaic symptom. Interestingly, KA27xKA22 NSP-infected blackgram plants accumulated high levels of viral ssDNA, comparable to that of KA22 DNA-B infection, suggesting that the KA22 NSP is responsible for accumulation of high levels of viral ssDNA. MYMV distribution was studied in blackgram and mungbean plants by leaf tissue hybridization, which showed mesophyll spread of the virus in KA22-infected blackgram leaflets and in KA27-infected mungbean leaflets, both of which displayed yellow mosaic symptom. However, the virus did not accumulate in the mesophyll in the case of KA27-infected blackgram leaflets. Interestingly, the swapped KA27xKA22 NSP-infected blackgram leaflets showed mesophyll accumulation of the virus, suggesting that KA22 NSP determines its mesophyll spread.

  9. Déficit estatural nas crianças brasileiras: relação com condições sócio-ambientais e estado nutricional materno Stunting in Brazilian children: relationship with social-environmental conditions and maternal nutritional status

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elyne M. Engstrom

    1999-09-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo investigou a relação entre o déficit estatural (DE de crianças e o estado nutricional (EN de suas mães e suas condições sócio-ambientais, numa amostra probabilística da população brasileira em 1989. Os dados de 12.644 pares mãe-filho foram analisados. Foram consideradas DE as crianças com valor Z de estatura para idade inferior a -2 em relação à curva de crescimento americana (NCHS. O EN das mães foi aferido por meio do índice de massa corporal. As associações entre o EN de mães e filhos e entre estes EN com as variáveis sociais foram avaliadas por regressão logística. Encontraram-se 14,4% das crianças com DE, apresentando associação inversa com escolaridade materna, renda domiciliar per capita e condições de moradia. Crianças cujas mães não sabiam ler e escrever tiveram maior chance de ter DE (OR = 17,2 do que crianças cujas mães cursaram nove ou mais séries. Em relação às crianças de melhor renda e condições de moradia, a odds ratio (OR foi de 11 para as do primeiro quartil de renda e 7,6 para as de domicílios em más condições. Houve maior risco de DE nas crianças com baixo peso materno (OR = 2,5 em relação às com mães com sobrepeso. Os dados indicam associação entre o baixo peso materno e DE nas crianças brasileiras.The relationship between stunting in Brazilian children with their mother's nutritional status and their social-environmental situation was assessed in a probabilistic sample of the Brazilian population in 1989. Data from 12644 mother-son pairs were analyzed. Maternal nutritional status was classified based on the body mass index and stunting was identified in children with stature or length for age Z <= -2 of the American growth reference curve (NCHS. Stunting was observed in 14.4% of the children (15.9% of boys and 12.9% of girls There was an inverse relationship between the level of stunting and maternal education, income and house living conditions

  10. [Ebola virus disease].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazimek, Katarzyna; Bociaga-Jasik, Monika; Bryniarski, Krzysztof; Gałas, Aleksander; Garlicki, Aleksander; Gawda, Anna; Gawlik, Grzegorz; Gil, Krzysztof; Kosz-Vnenchak, Magdalena; Mrozek-Budzyn, Dorota; Olszanecki, Rafał; Piatek, Anna; Zawilińska, Barbara; Marcinkiewicz, Janusz

    2014-01-01

    Ebola is one of the most virulent zoonotic RNA viruses causing in humans haemorrhagic fever with fatality ratio reaching 90%. During the outbreak of 2014 the number of deaths exceeded 8.000. The "imported" cases reported in Western Europe and USA highlighted the extreme risk of Ebola virus spreading outside the African countries. Thus, haemorrhagic fever outbreak is an international epidemiological problem, also due to the lack of approved prevention and therapeutic strategies. The editorial review article briefly summarizes current knowledge on Ebola virus disease epidemiology, etiology, pathogenesis, clinical presentation, diagnosis as well as possible prevention and treatment.

  11. Viruses in reptiles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ariel Ellen

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The etiology of reptilian viral diseases can be attributed to a wide range of viruses occurring across different genera and families. Thirty to forty years ago, studies of viruses in reptiles focused mainly on the zoonotic potential of arboviruses in reptiles and much effort went into surveys and challenge trials of a range of reptiles with eastern and western equine encephalitis as well as Japanese encephalitis viruses. In the past decade, outbreaks of infection with West Nile virus in human populations and in farmed alligators in the USA has seen the research emphasis placed on the issue of reptiles, particularly crocodiles and alligators, being susceptible to, and reservoirs for, this serious zoonotic disease. Although there are many recognised reptilian viruses, the evidence for those being primary pathogens is relatively limited. Transmission studies establishing pathogenicity and cofactors are likewise scarce, possibly due to the relatively low commercial importance of reptiles, difficulties with the availability of animals and permits for statistically sound experiments, difficulties with housing of reptiles in an experimental setting or the inability to propagate some viruses in cell culture to sufficient titres for transmission studies. Viruses as causes of direct loss of threatened species, such as the chelonid fibropapilloma associated herpesvirus and ranaviruses in farmed and wild tortoises and turtles, have re-focused attention back to the characterisation of the viruses as well as diagnosis and pathogenesis in the host itself. 1. Introduction 2. Methods for working with reptilian viruses 3. Reptilian viruses described by virus families 3.1. Herpesviridae 3.2. Iridoviridae 3.2.1 Ranavirus 3.2.2 Erythrocytic virus 3.2.3 Iridovirus 3.3. Poxviridae 3.4. Adenoviridae 3.5. Papillomaviridae 3.6. Parvoviridae 3.7. Reoviridae 3.8. Retroviridae and inclusion body disease of Boid snakes 3.9. Arboviruses 3.9.1. Flaviviridae 3

  12. First report of Alfalfa mosaic virus infecting basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) in California.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basil (Ocimum basilicum L.) plants collected from a field in Imperial County, CA in May, 2011 were found to exhibit yellowing, chlorotic sectors and spots on leaves, resulting in plants being unmarketable. Total nucleic acid was extracted from plants and tested by RT-PCR for the presence of Alfalfa...

  13. AcEST: BP921408 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available efinition sp|P15629|POL_SOCMV Enzymatic polyprotein OS=Soybean chlorotic mottle virus Align length 80 Score ...se OS=B... 30 9.9 >sp|P15629|POL_SOCMV Enzymatic polyprotein OS=Soybean chlorotic mottle

  14. AcEST: BP919794 [AcEST

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available _hit_id P11639 Definition sp|P11639|Y31K_MCMV Uncharacterized 31.5 kDa protein OS=Maize chlorotic mottle vir...zed 31.5 kDa protein OS=Maize chlorotic mottle virus PE=4 SV=1 Length = 289 Score = 29.6 bits (65), Expect =

  15. Use of Posttranscription Gene Silencing in Squash to Induce Resistance against the Egyptian Isolate of the Squash Leaf Curl Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Omnia; Farouk, Inas; Abdallah, Abdelhadi; Abdallah, Naglaa A

    2016-01-01

    Squash leaf curl virus (SqLCV) is a bipartite begomovirus affecting squash plants. It is transmitted by whitefly Bemisia tabaci biotype B causing severe leaf curling, vein banding, and molting ending by stunting. In this study full-length genomic clone of SqLCV Egyptian isolated and posttranscriptional gene silencing (PTGS) has been induced to develop virus resistance. The Noubaria SqLCV has more than 95% homology with Jordon, Israel, Lebanon, Palestine, and Cairo isolates. Two genes fragment from SqLCV introduced in sense and antisense orientations using pFGC5049 vector to be expressed as hairpin RNA. The first fragment was 348 bp from replication associated protein gene (Rep). The second fragment was 879 bp representing the full sequence of the movement protein gene (BC1). Using real-time PCR, a silencing record of 97% has been recorded to Rep/TrAP construct; as a result it has prevented the appearance of viral symptoms in most tested plants up to two months after infection, while construct containing the BC1 gene scored a reduction in the accumulation of viral genome expression as appearing in real-time PCR results 4.6-fold giving a silencing of 79%, which had a positive effect on symptoms development in most tested plants. PMID:27034922

  16. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... Tweet Share Compartir CDC's Ongoing Work to Contain Ebola in West Africa The Road to Zero: CDC’s ...

  17. Zika Virus Fact Sheet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medical care and advice. There is currently no vaccine available. Prevention Mosquito bites Protection against mosquito bites is a key measure to prevent Zika virus infection. This can be done by wearing ...

  18. Ebola Virus Disease

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... long as their blood contains the virus. Sexual transmission More surveillance data and research are needed on the risks of sexual transmission, and particularly on the prevalence of viable and ...

  19. Hepatitis G virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Vasiliy Ivanovich Reshetnyak; Tatiana Igorevna Karlovich; Ljudmila Urievna Ilchenko

    2008-01-01

    A number of new hepatitis viruses (G,TT,SEN) were discovered late in the past century.We review the data available in the literature and our own findings suggesting that the new hepatitis G virus (HGV),disclosed in the late 1990s,has been rather well studied.Analysis of many studies dealing with HGV mainly suggests the lymphotropicity of this virus.HGV or GBV-C has been ascertained to influence course and prognosis in the HIV-infected patient.Until now,the frequent presence of GBV-C in coinfections,hematological diseases,and biliary pathology gives no grounds to determine it as an "accidental tourist" that is of no significance.The similarity in properties of GBV-C and hepatitis C virus (HCV) offers the possibility of using HGV,and its induced experimental infection,as a model to study hepatitis C and to develop a hepatitis C vaccine.

  20. Avoiding Computer Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rowe, Joyce; And Others

    1989-01-01

    The threat of computer sabotage is a real concern to business teachers and others responsible for academic computer facilities. Teachers can minimize the possibility. Eight suggestions for avoiding computer viruses are given. (JOW)

  1. Hepatitis B virus (image)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hepatitis B is also known as serum hepatitis and is spread through blood and sexual contact. It is ... population. This photograph is an electronmicroscopic image of hepatitis B virus particles. (Image courtesy of the Centers for ...

  2. Additional zinc delivered in a liquid supplement, but not in a fortified porridge, increased fat-free mass accrual among young Peruvian children with mild-to-moderate stunting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arsenault, Joanne E; López de Romaña, Daniel; Penny, Mary E; Van Loan, Marta D; Brown, Kenneth H

    2008-01-01

    The exact mechanism whereby zinc influences growth is unknown, although it has been postulated that zinc may stimulate appetite and energy intake or enhance fat-free mass (FFM) accrual directly. We compared energy intake, reported appetite, and body composition of 6- to 8-mo-old Peruvian children with initial length-for-age Z-score (LAZ) porridge; or 3) no extra zinc in either the supplement or porridge. There were no group-wise differences in changes in dietary energy intakes or body composition or in the prevalence of reported poor appetite. However, among children with an initial LAZ less than the median (-1.1 SD), those who received zinc as a liquid supplement had a 0.41 kg greater increase in FFM than those who did not receive zinc (P < 0.05). We concluded that daily provision of 3 mg of supplemental zinc did not affect energy intake or reported appetite. Among children with initial mild-to-moderate stunting, those who received the zinc supplement had a greater increase in FFM than those who did not receive additional zinc. It is possible that the growth-restricted children were more likely to be zinc deficient and that FFM accrual may be an early growth response to supplemental zinc. Zinc supplements may be more efficacious than the same dose of zinc provided in fortified food; therefore, further research is needed on the optimal level of zinc fortification that will result in improved health outcomes in populations with high rates of zinc deficiency.

  3. Ebola Virus Disease

    OpenAIRE

    PV Bhargavan; PV Shiji; Jare Jagannath Udhavrao; Nagaraj Desai

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus is named after the river in the former Zaire where a haemorrhagic fever initially identified in 1976 involved human to human transmission, as well as spread by contaminated injection equipments. Ebola virus causes an acute febrile illness associated with a high mortality rate. The illness is characterized by multi-system involvement that begins with abrupt onset of headache, myalgia, fever and proceeds to prostration, rash, shock and bleeding manifestation.

  4. Zika Virus Outside Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Hayes, Edward B.

    2009-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a flavivirus related to yellow fever, dengue, West Nile, and Japanese encephalitis viruses. In 2007 ZIKV caused an outbreak of relatively mild disease characterized by rash, arthralgia, and conjunctivitis on Yap Island in the southwestern Pacific Ocean. This was the first time that ZIKV was detected outside of Africa and Asia. The history, transmission dynamics, virology, and clinical manifestations of ZIKV disease are discussed, along with the possibility for diagnostic ...

  5. Genome packaging in viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Sun, Siyang; Rao, Venigalla B.; Rossmann, Michael G.

    2010-01-01

    Genome packaging is a fundamental process in a viral life cycle. Many viruses assemble preformed capsids into which the genomic material is subsequently packaged. These viruses use a packaging motor protein that is driven by the hydrolysis of ATP to condense the nucleic acids into a confined space. How these motor proteins package viral genomes had been poorly understood until recently, when a few X-ray crystal structures and cryo-electron microscopy structures became available. Here we discu...

  6. Respiratory Syncytial Virus (RSV)

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2013-02-04

    Respiratory Syncytial Virus, or RSV, causes cold-like symptoms but can be serious for infants and older adults. In this podcast, CDC’s Dr. Eileen Schneider discusses this common virus and offers tips to prevent its spread.  Created: 2/4/2013 by National Center for Immunization and Respiratory Diseases (NCIRD), Division of Viral Diseases (DVD).   Date Released: 2/13/2013.

  7. Virus templated metallic nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aljabali, Alaa A. A.; Barclay, J. Elaine; Lomonossoff, George P.; Evans, David J.

    2010-12-01

    Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron.Plant viruses are considered as nanobuilding blocks that can be used as synthons or templates for novel materials. Cowpea mosaic virus (CPMV) particles have been shown to template the fabrication of metallic nanoparticles by an electroless deposition metallization process. Palladium ions were electrostatically bound to the virus capsid and, when reduced, acted as nucleation sites for the subsequent metal deposition from solution. The method, although simple, produced highly monodisperse metallic nanoparticles with a diameter of ca. templated particles were prepared with cobalt, nickel, iron, platinum, cobalt-platinum and nickel-iron. Electronic supplementary information (ESI) available: Additional experimental detail, agarose gel electrophoresis results, energy dispersive X-ray spectra, ζ-potential measurements, dynamic light scattering data, nanoparticle tracking analysis and an atomic force microscopy image of Ni-CPMV. See DOI: 10.1039/c0nr00525h

  8. Experimental intraocular infection of exotic cockerels with field strain of velogenic Newcastle disease virus in Nigeria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samaila Jonathan Badau

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Experimental intraocular (conjunctival infection of exotic cockerels with a new field strain of viscerotropic velogenic Newcastle Disease Virus (NDV was conducted to explore the concurrence of some pathological changes with humoral immune responses. After the NDV infection of 4-week-old cockerels, pathologic changes and antibody responses were observed. The clinical signs observed after the artificial inoculation included inappetence, depression, diarrhea, dyspnea, wing and leg paralysis, torticollis and weight loss. Morbidity due to the NDV was 100%, but mortality was 80% by day 18-21 post-infection. Early hyperthermia followed by terminal hypothermia, decreased packed cell volume (PCV, and 231.4 folds peak-antibody response were observed. Necrotic and/or inflammatory lesions were present in the proventriculus, intestine, liver, spleen, kidney and brain. Neurologic and digestive tract perturbations occurred in 10% and 85% of cases, respectively. The disease consistently caused stunted growth, decreased PCV, and necro-inflammatroy lesions concurrent with antibody response, suggesting probable involvement of immune-mediated mechanisms and cell membrane desialylation by viral neuraminidase in the pathogenesis.

  9. Studies on Gene Sequence of Apple Chlorotic Leaf Spot Virus in Chenopodium quinoa and Pear%梨树苹果褪绿叶斑病毒在昆诺藜与梨树上的基因序列比较研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩晓燕; 牛建新; 刘宏; 樊新民; 戴志新

    2006-01-01

    以已知带苹果褪绿叶斑病毒的梨树叶片和皮层及昆诺藜为实验材料,对两种植物总RNA的提取、RT-PCR、目的片断的克隆及其酶切鉴定、基因序列进行了分析比较.结果表明,从两种植物中均可以获得高纯度的总RNA及RT-PCR特异性产物,序列分析结果表明,从梨树中提取的病毒目的片断基因序列与从昆诺藜中提取的病毒基因序列之间存在着差异,但差异不大.

  10. Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Newsletters Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... A Viruses Avian Influenza A Virus Infections in Humans Although avian influenza A viruses usually do not ...

  11. A New Definition of Virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HE Hongjun; CAO Sihua; LUO Li; FENG Tao; PAN Li; ZOU Zhiji

    2006-01-01

    Security experts have not formally defined the distinction between viruses and normal programs. The paper takes user's intension as the criteria for malice, gives a formal definition of viruses that aim at stealing or destroying files, and proposes an algorithm to detect virus correctly. Compared with traditional definitions, this new definition is easy to understand, covers more malwares, adapts development of virus technology, and defines virus on the spot. The paper has also analyzed more than 250 real viruses and finds that they are all in the domain of the new definition, this implies that the new definition has great practical significance.

  12. [Zika virus infection during pregnancy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Picone, O; Vauloup-Fellous, C; D'Ortenzio, E; Huissoud, C; Carles, G; Benachi, A; Faye, A; Luton, D; Paty, M-C; Ayoubi, J-M; Yazdanpanah, Y; Mandelbrot, L; Matheron, S

    2016-05-01

    A Zika virus epidemic is currently ongoing in the Americas. This virus is linked to congenital infections with potential severe neurodevelopmental dysfunction. However, incidence of fetal infection and whether this virus is responsible of other fetal complications are still unknown. National and international public health authorities recommend caution and several prevention measures. Declaration of Zika virus infection is now mandatory in France. Given the available knowledge on Zika virus, we suggest here a review of the current recommendations for management of pregnancy in case of suspicious or infection by Zika virus in a pregnant woman.

  13. Hepatitis viruses: Changing patterns of human disease

    OpenAIRE

    Purcell, R H

    1994-01-01

    Viral hepatitis is a disease of antiquity, but evidence for more than one etiologic agent has been recognized only since the 1940s, when two viruses (hepatitis A virus and hepatitis B virus) were thought to account for all disease. In the past 20 years, three additional hepatitis agents (hepatitis C virus, hepatitis D virus, and hepatitis E virus) have been discovered, and there is evidence for at least one additional virus. Each of the five recognized hepatitis viruses belongs to a different...

  14. Extraction of total nucleic acid based on silica-coated magnetic particles for RT-qPCR detection of plant RNA virus/viroid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Ning; Deng, Congliang; Zhao, Xiaoli; Zhou, Qi; Ge, Guanglu; Liu, Yi; Yan, Wenlong; Xia, Qiang

    2014-02-01

    In this study, a nucleic acid extraction method based on silica-coated magnetic particles (SMPs) and RT-qPCR assay was developed to detect Arabis mosaic virus (ArMV), Lily symptomless virus (LSV), Hop stunt viroid (HSVd) and grape yellow speckle viroid 1 (GYSVd-1). The amplification sequences of RT-qPCR were reversely transcribed in vitro as RNA standard templates. The standard curves covered six or seven orders of magnitude with a detection limit of 100 copies per each assay. Extraction efficiency of the SMPs method was evaluated by recovering spiked ssRNAs from plant samples and compared to two commercial kits (TRIzol and RNeasy Plant mini kit). Results showed that the recovery rate of SMPs method was comparable to the commercial kits when spiked ssRNAs were extracted from lily leaves, whereas it was two or three times higher than commercial kits when spiked ssRNAs were extracted from grapevine leaves. SMPs method was also used to extract viral nucleic acid from15 ArMV-positive lily leaf samples and 15 LSV-positive lily leaf samples. SMPs method did not show statistically significant difference from other methods on detecting ArMV, but LSV. The SMPs method has the same level of virus load as the TRIzol, and its mean virus load of was 0.5log10 lower than the RNeasy Plant mini kit. Nucleic acid was extracted from 19 grapevine-leaf samples with SMPs and the two commercial kits and subsequently screened for HSVd and GYSVd-1 by RT-qPCR. Regardless of HSVd or GYSVd-1, SMPs method outperforms other methods on both positive rate and the viroid load. In conclusion, SMPs method was able to efficiently extract the nucleic acid of RNA viruses or viroids, especially grapevine viroids, from lily-leaf or grapevine-leaf samples for RT-qPCR detection.

  15. Molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses in virus-induced asthma

    OpenAIRE

    HiroyukiTsukagoshi; TaiseiIshioka

    2013-01-01

    Acute respiratory illness (ARI) due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV), human rhinovirus (HRV), human metapneumovirus (HMPV), human parainfluenza virus (HPIV), and human enterovirus (HEV) infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it ...

  16. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Transmission

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  17. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Prevention

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  18. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  19. Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease): Diagnosis

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Search The CDC Cancel Submit Search The CDC Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) Note: Javascript is disabled or is ... message, please visit this page: About CDC.gov . Ebola (Ebola Virus Disease) About Ebola Questions & Answers 2014 ...

  20. Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Millichap, J Gordon

    2016-01-01

    A Task Force established by the Brazil Ministry of Health investigated the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for microcephaly cases among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

  1. Epstein-Barr virus test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/ency/article/003513.htm Epstein-Barr virus antibody test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. Epstein-Barr virus antibody test is a blood test to detect ...

  2. Special Issue: Honey Bee Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sebastian Gisder

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Pollination of flowering plants is an important ecosystem service provided by wild insect pollinators and managed honey bees. Hence, losses and declines of pollinating insect species threaten human food security and are of major concern not only for apiculture or agriculture but for human society in general. Honey bee colony losses and bumblebee declines have attracted intensive research interest over the last decade and although the problem is far from being solved we now know that viruses are among the key players of many of these bee losses and bumblebee declines. With this special issue on bee viruses we, therefore, aimed to collect high quality original papers reflecting the current state of bee virus research. To this end, we focused on newly discovered viruses (Lake Sinai viruses, bee macula-like virus, or a so far neglected virus species (Apis mellifera filamentous virus, and cutting edge technologies (mass spectrometry, RNAi approach applied in the field.

  3. Avian influenza viruses in humans.

    OpenAIRE

    Malik Peiris, J S

    2009-01-01

    Past pandemics arose from low pathogenic avian influenza (LPAI) viruses. In more recent times, highly pathogenic avian influenza (HPAI) H5N1, LPAI H9N2 and both HPAI and LPAI H7 viruses have repeatedly caused zoonotic disease in humans. Such infections did not lead to sustained human-to-human transmission. Experimental infection of human volunteers and seroepidemiological studies suggest that avian influenza viruses of other subtypes may also infect humans. Viruses of the H7 subtype appear to...

  4. Enhanced transgene expression in sugarcane by co-expression of virus-encoded RNA silencing suppressors.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    San-Ji Gao

    Full Text Available Post-transcriptional gene silencing is commonly observed in polyploid species and often poses a major limitation to plant improvement via biotechnology. Five plant viral suppressors of RNA silencing were evaluated for their ability to counteract gene silencing and enhance the expression of the Enhanced Yellow Fluorescent Protein (EYFP or the β-glucuronidase (GUS reporter gene in sugarcane, a major sugar and biomass producing polyploid. Functionality of these suppressors was first verified in Nicotiana benthamiana and onion epidermal cells, and later tested by transient expression in sugarcane young leaf segments and protoplasts. In young leaf segments co-expressing a suppressor, EYFP reached its maximum expression at 48-96 h post-DNA introduction and maintained its peak expression for a longer time compared with that in the absence of a suppressor. Among the five suppressors, Tomato bushy stunt virus-encoded P19 and Barley stripe mosaic virus-encoded γb were the most efficient. Co-expression with P19 and γb enhanced EYFP expression 4.6-fold and 3.6-fold in young leaf segments, and GUS activity 2.3-fold and 2.4-fold in protoplasts compared with those in the absence of a suppressor, respectively. In transgenic sugarcane, co-expression of GUS and P19 suppressor showed the highest accumulation of GUS levels with an average of 2.7-fold more than when GUS was expressed alone, with no detrimental phenotypic effects. The two established transient expression assays, based on young leaf segments and protoplasts, and confirmed by stable transgene expression, offer a rapid versatile system to verify the efficiency of RNA silencing suppressors that proved to be valuable in enhancing and stabilizing transgene expression in sugarcane.

  5. Hendra virus and Nipah virus animal vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Broder, Christopher C; Weir, Dawn L; Reid, Peter A

    2016-06-24

    Hendra virus (HeV) and Nipah virus (NiV) are zoonotic viruses that emerged in the mid to late 1990s causing disease outbreaks in livestock and people. HeV appeared in Queensland, Australia in 1994 causing a severe respiratory disease in horses along with a human case fatality. NiV emerged a few years later in Malaysia and Singapore in 1998-1999 causing a large outbreak of encephalitis with high mortality in people and also respiratory disease in pigs which served as amplifying hosts. The key pathological elements of HeV and NiV infection in several species of mammals, and also in people, are a severe systemic and often fatal neurologic and/or respiratory disease. In people, both HeV and NiV are also capable of causing relapsed encephalitis following recovery from an acute infection. The known reservoir hosts of HeV and NiV are several species of pteropid fruit bats. Spillovers of HeV into horses continue to occur in Australia and NiV has caused outbreaks in people in Bangladesh and India nearly annually since 2001, making HeV and NiV important transboundary biological threats. NiV in particular possesses several features that underscore its potential as a pandemic threat, including its ability to infect humans directly from natural reservoirs or indirectly from other susceptible animals, along with a capacity of limited human-to-human transmission. Several HeV and NiV animal challenge models have been developed which have facilitated an understanding of pathogenesis and allowed for the successful development of both active and passive immunization countermeasures. PMID:27154393

  6. Rhabdomyolysis Associated with Parainfluenza Virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miltiadis Douvoyiannis

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Influenza virus is the most frequently reported viral cause of rhabdomyolysis. A 7-year-old child is presented with rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza type 2 virus. Nine cases of rhabdomyolysis associated with parainfluenza virus have been reported. Complications may include electrolyte disturbances, acute renal failure, and compartment syndrome.

  7. An introduction to computer viruses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, D.R.

    1992-03-01

    This report on computer viruses is based upon a thesis written for the Master of Science degree in Computer Science from the University of Tennessee in December 1989 by David R. Brown. This thesis is entitled An Analysis of Computer Virus Construction, Proliferation, and Control and is available through the University of Tennessee Library. This paper contains an overview of the computer virus arena that can help the reader to evaluate the threat that computer viruses pose. The extent of this threat can only be determined by evaluating many different factors. These factors include the relative ease with which a computer virus can be written, the motivation involved in writing a computer virus, the damage and overhead incurred by infected systems, and the legal implications of computer viruses, among others. Based upon the research, the development of a computer virus seems to require more persistence than technical expertise. This is a frightening proclamation to the computing community. The education of computer professionals to the dangers that viruses pose to the welfare of the computing industry as a whole is stressed as a means of inhibiting the current proliferation of computer virus programs. Recommendations are made to assist computer users in preventing infection by computer viruses. These recommendations support solid general computer security practices as a means of combating computer viruses.

  8. Computer Bytes, Viruses and Vaccines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmore, Teddy B.

    1989-01-01

    Presents a history of computer viruses, explains various types of viruses and how they affect software or computer operating systems, and describes examples of specific viruses. Available vaccines are explained, and precautions for protecting programs and disks are given. (nine references) (LRW)

  9. Protecting Your Computer from Viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Descy, Don E.

    2006-01-01

    A computer virus is defined as a software program capable of reproducing itself and usually capable of causing great harm to files or other programs on the same computer. The existence of computer viruses--or the necessity of avoiding viruses--is part of using a computer. With the advent of the Internet, the door was opened wide for these…

  10. Archaeal virus-host interactions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Quax, T.E.F.

    2013-01-01

      The work presented in this thesis provides novel insights in several aspects of the molecular biology of archaea, bacteria and their viruses. Three fundamentally different groups of viruses are associated with the three domains of life. Archaeal viruses are characterized by a particularly

  11. Ipomoviruses: Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus, Cassava brown streak virus, and Ugandan cassava brown streak virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ipomoviruses including Squash vein yellowing virus, Cucumber vein yellowing virus and Cassava brown streak virus are currently causing significant economic impact on crop production in several regions of the world. Only recently have results of detailed characterization of their whitefly transmissi...

  12. Elucidating virus uptake and fusion by single virus tracing

    OpenAIRE

    Schupp, Dorothee Carolin

    2012-01-01

    Viruses are known to cause many diseases, from the common cold and cold sores to more serious diseases such as the Ebola virus disease and AIDS. Viruses have evolved different strategies to enter and infect cells. In order to infect a cell, viruses have to overcome the cell membrane barrier to deliver their genome to the site of replication. Enveloped viruses can either fuse directly at the plasma membrane or with an endosomal membrane after endocytic uptake. In this work, I studied the early...

  13. Zucchini yellow mosaic virus: biological properties, detection procedures and comparison of coat protein gene sequences.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coutts, B A; Kehoe, M A; Webster, C G; Wylie, S J; Jones, R A C

    2011-12-01

    Between 2006 and 2010, 5324 samples from at least 34 weed, two cultivated legume and 11 native species were collected from three cucurbit-growing areas in tropical or subtropical Western Australia. Two new alternative hosts of zucchini yellow mosaic virus (ZYMV) were identified, the Australian native cucurbit Cucumis maderaspatanus, and the naturalised legume species Rhyncosia minima. Low-level (0.7%) seed transmission of ZYMV was found in seedlings grown from seed collected from zucchini (Cucurbita pepo) fruit infected with isolate Cvn-1. Seed transmission was absent in >9500 pumpkin (C. maxima and C. moschata) seedlings from fruit infected with isolate Knx-1. Leaf samples from symptomatic cucurbit plants collected from fields in five cucurbit-growing areas in four Australian states were tested for the presence of ZYMV. When 42 complete coat protein (CP) nucleotide (nt) sequences from the new ZYMV isolates obtained were compared to those of 101 complete CP nt sequences from five other continents, phylogenetic analysis of the 143 ZYMV sequences revealed three distinct groups (A, B and C), with four subgroups in A (I-IV) and two in B (I-II). The new Australian sequences grouped according to collection location, fitting within A-I, A-II and B-II. The 16 new sequences from one isolated location in tropical northern Western Australia all grouped into subgroup B-II, which contained no other isolates. In contrast, the three sequences from the Northern Territory fitted into A-II with 94.6-99.0% nt identities with isolates from the United States, Iran, China and Japan. The 23 new sequences from the central west coast and two east coast locations all fitted into A-I, with 95.9-98.9% nt identities to sequences from Europe and Japan. These findings suggest that (i) there have been at least three separate ZYMV introductions into Australia and (ii) there are few changes to local isolate CP sequences following their establishment in remote growing areas. Isolates from A-I and B

  14. Relationship of lychnis ringspot virus to barley stripe mosaic virus and poa semilatent virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunter, B G; Smith, J; Fattouh, F; Jackson, A O

    1989-01-01

    Barley stripe mosaic virus (BSMV), poa semilatent virus (PSLV), and lychnis ringspot virus (LRSV) have previously been assigned to the hordeivirus group because of similarities in their particle morphology, physicochemical properties and serological analyses. However, the serological relationships of the three viruses have not been determined by direct comparison. The present study evaluated the relatedness of these viruses by Western and dot immunoblotting and by nucleic acid hybridizations. Serological analyses of the coat proteins separated by gel electrophoresis and of intact virus particles bound to nitrocellulose membranes revealed that BSMV and PSLV are distantly related, but that they are more closely related to each other than to LRSV. The genomic RNAs of the viruses failed to cross-hybridize in northern hybridization tests conducted at different temperatures. These comparisons showed that BSMV, PSLV and LRSV are distinct viruses with little nucleotide sequence relatedness. Thus our data provide additional support for their inclusion as separate members of the hordeivirus group. PMID:2722469

  15. Deep cleaning--valid or publicity stunt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baillie, Jonathan

    2008-03-01

    While deep cleaning is not new--hospitals have undertaken deep cleans ward-by-ward for some time, often following a "superbug" outbreak, Health Secretary Alan Johnson and Prime Minister Gordon Brown both emphasised on announcing the mandate that this was the first time all English NHS hospitals had been asked to deep clean their entire site, "restoring surfaces and fabrics to as close as possible as their original condition". PMID:18411818

  16. Zika virus: Indian perspectives.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourya, Devendra T; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N; Yadav, Pragya D

    2016-05-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective. PMID:27487998

  17. Virus en Endodoncia

    OpenAIRE

    Hernández Vigueras, Scarlette; Salazar Navarrete, Luis; Pérez Tomás, Ricardo E.; Segura Egea, Juan José; Viñas, Miquel; López López, José

    2014-01-01

    La infección endodóntica es la infección que afecta al sistema de conductos radiculares y, sin duda, es el principal agente etiológico de las periodontitis apicales. Además, de las bacterias patógenas endodónticas, se ha buscado en los últimos años asociar la presencia de virus en distintos tipos de patología endodóntica. Los virus que más se han buscado y asociado son los pertenecientes a la familia herpesvirus, los cuales se han encontrado presentes en patologías periapicales principalmente...

  18. Tenosinovitis por virus Chikungunya

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alfredo Seijo

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Se presenta a la consulta un hombre proveniente de la República Dominicana con una tenosinovitis del extensor del dedo medio derecho; en la convalecencia inmediata, segunda curva febril luego de 48 horas de permanecer asintomático de una enfermedad febril aguda, y marcada astenia, exantema pruriginoso, poliartralgias con impotencia funcional y rigidez articular generalizada. Los exámenes bioquímicos no aportaron datos de interés para el diagnóstico. La serología para virus dengue fue negativa. La detección de IgM y de anticuerpos neutralizantes para virus Chikungunya (CHIKV fueron positivos.

  19. Zika virus: Indian perspectives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Devendra T Mourya

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV, a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN and chikungunya (CHIK, in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective.

  20. Zika virus: Indian perspectives

    OpenAIRE

    Mourya, Devendra T.; Pratip Shil; Sapkal, Gajanan N.; Yadav, Pragya D

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global sce...

  1. Zika virus: Indian perspectives

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mourya, Devendra T.; Shil, Pratip; Sapkal, Gajanan N.; Yadav, Pragya D.

    2016-01-01

    The emergence of Zika virus (ZiV), a mosquito borne Flavivirus like dengue (DEN) and chikungunya (CHIK), in Brazil in 2014 and its spread to various countries have led to a global health emergency. Aedes aegypti is the major vector for ZiV. Fast dissemination of this virus in different geographical areas posses a major threat especially to regions where the population lacks herd immunity against the ZiV and there is abundance of Aedes mosquitoes. In this review, we focus on current global scenario, epidemiology, biology, diagnostic challenges and remedial measures for ZiVconsidering the Indian perspective. PMID:27487998

  2. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection.

  3. [ZIKA--VIRUS INFECTION].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Velev, V

    2016-01-01

    This review summarizes the knowledge of the scientific community for Zika-virus infection. It became popular because of severe congenital damage causes of CNS in newborns whose mothers are infected during pregnancy, as well as the risk of pandemic distribution. Discusses the peculiarities of the biology and ecology of vectors--blood-sucking mosquitoes Aedes; stages in the spread of infection and practical problems which caused during pregnancy. Attention is paid to the recommendations that allow leading national and international medical organizations to deal with the threat Zika-virus infection. PMID:27509655

  4. Bovine Virus Diarrhea (BVD)

    OpenAIRE

    Hoar, Bruce R.

    2004-01-01

    Bovine virus diarrhea (BVD) is a complicated disease to discuss as it can result in a wide variety of disease problems from very mild to very severe. BVD can be one of the most devastating diseases cattle encounter and one of the hardest to get rid of when it attacks a herd. The viruses that cause BVD have been grouped into two genotypes, Type I and Type II. The disease syndrome caused by the two genotypes is basically the same, however disease caused by Type II infection is often more severe...

  5. Sensing of RNA viruses

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Søren; Thomsen, Allan Randrup

    2012-01-01

    Our knowledge regarding the contribution of the innate immune system in recognizing and subsequently initiating a host response to an invasion of RNA virus has been rapidly growing over the last decade. Descriptions of the receptors involved and the molecular mechanisms they employ to sense viral...... pathogen-associated molecular patterns have emerged in great detail. This review presents an overview of our current knowledge regarding the receptors used to detect RNA virus invasion, the molecular structures these receptors sense, and the involved downstream signaling pathways....

  6. Human Immunodeficiency Virus Prevention.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Teaniese Latham; DiClemente, Ralph

    2016-04-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. Surveillance data from 2012 indicate an estimated 1.2 million people aged 13 years and older were living with HIV infection in the United States, and 12.8% do not know their status. There are approximately 50,000 new HIV infections annually. With no available cure for HIV, primary prevention to reduce incident cases of HIV is essential. Strategies to prevent HIV transmission include reducing sexual risk behavior and needle sharing. The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has multiple resources available for primary and secondary prevention to reduce disease transmission and severity. PMID:26980130

  7. VHS virus - present situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Olesen, Niels Jørgen; Skall, Helle Frank

    themselves for VHS, several countries are still struggling with the disease. An update on the recent VHS outbreaks in rainbow trout in Iran, in olive flounder in Korea, in wrasse in Scotland, in turbot in Turkey, in a number of fish species in the great lakes in USA and Canada, and a general overview...... of the worldwide distribution of the disease will be given. Virus evolution: Recent studies indicate that only a few amino acid changes in the structural proteins of VHSV can change the virulence patterns significantly, thereby coming closer to assessing the risk of none to low virulent viruses becoming high...

  8. VHS virus - present situation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Skall, Helle Frank; Olesen, Niels Jørgen

    2015-01-01

    themselves for VHS, several countries are still struggling with the disease. An update on the recent VHS outbreaks in rainbow trout in Iran, in olive flounder in Korea, in wrasse in Scotland, in turbot in Turkey, in a number of fish species in the great lakes in USA and Canada, and a general overview...... of the worldwide distribution of the disease will be given. Virus evolution: Recent studies indicate that only a few amino acid changes in the structural proteins of VHSV can change the virulence patterns significantly, thereby coming closer to assessing the risk of none to low virulent viruses becoming high...

  9. Research on computer virus database management system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qi, Guoquan

    2011-12-01

    The growing proliferation of computer viruses becomes the lethal threat and research focus of the security of network information. While new virus is emerging, the number of viruses is growing, virus classification increasing complex. Virus naming because of agencies' capture time differences can not be unified. Although each agency has its own virus database, the communication between each other lacks, or virus information is incomplete, or a small number of sample information. This paper introduces the current construction status of the virus database at home and abroad, analyzes how to standardize and complete description of virus characteristics, and then gives the information integrity, storage security and manageable computer virus database design scheme.

  10. Viruses, Artificial Viruses and Virus-Based Structures for Biomedical Applications

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Rijn, Patrick; Schirhagl, Romana

    2016-01-01

    Nanobiomaterials such as virus particles and artificial virus particles offer tremendous opportunities to develop new biomedical applications such as drug- or gene-delivery, imaging and sensing but also improve understanding of biological mechanisms. Recent advances within the field of virus-based s

  11. Viruses and febrile seizures

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zeijl, J.H. van

    2004-01-01

    We conclude that viral infections are the main cause of febrile seizures, with an important role for influenza A, HHV-6 and HHV-7. We showed that several viral infections not only contribute to initial febrile seizures, but also to recurrences. Viruses could not be detected in the CSF of children wi

  12. The virus of management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kjær, Peter; Frankel, Christian

    2003-01-01

    of concrete management knowledge and practice. The article isstructured as follows. After the introduction, we first develop the notion of organizational virus asinto an analytical approach. Second, we discern in the work of Frederick Taylor on scientificmanagement and Max Weber on bureaucracy, two quite...

  13. Viruses of Haloarchaea

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alison W. S. Luk

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages. Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems.

  14. Virus spread in networks

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mieghem, P. van; Omic, J.; Kooij, R.E.

    2009-01-01

    The influence of the network characteristics on the virus spread is analyzed in a new-the N-intertwined Markov chain-model, whose only approximation lies in the application of mean field theory. The mean field approximation is quantified in detail. The N-intertwined model has been compared with the

  15. The Virus Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The Panda, a computer infection that wreaked havoc on computers across China, brought attention to the country’s underground computer virus business, but it was just the tip of a growing iceberg The cute and cuddly panda, a nation- al treasure of China

  16. Viruses of haloarchaea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luk, Alison W S; Williams, Timothy J; Erdmann, Susanne; Papke, R Thane; Cavicchioli, Ricardo

    2014-01-01

    In hypersaline environments, haloarchaea (halophilic members of the Archaea) are the dominant organisms, and the viruses that infect them, haloarchaeoviruses are at least ten times more abundant. Since their discovery in 1974, described haloarchaeoviruses include head-tailed, pleomorphic, spherical and spindle-shaped morphologies, representing Myoviridae, Siphoviridae, Podoviridae, Pleolipoviridae, Sphaerolipoviridae and Fuselloviridae families. This review overviews current knowledge of haloarchaeoviruses, providing information about classification, morphotypes, macromolecules, life cycles, genetic manipulation and gene regulation, and host-virus responses. In so doing, the review incorporates knowledge from laboratory studies of isolated viruses, field-based studies of environmental samples, and both genomic and metagenomic analyses of haloarchaeoviruses. What emerges is that some haloarchaeoviruses possess unique morphological and life cycle properties, while others share features with other viruses (e.g., bacteriophages). Their interactions with hosts influence community structure and evolution of populations that exist in hypersaline environments as diverse as seawater evaporation ponds, to hot desert or Antarctic lakes. The discoveries of their wide-ranging and important roles in the ecology and evolution of hypersaline communities serves as a strong motivator for future investigations of both laboratory-model and environmental systems. PMID:25402735

  17. Bat flight and zoonotic viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Shea, Thomas; Cryan, Paul M.; Cunningham, Andrew A.; Fooks, Anthony R.; Hayman, David T.S.; Luis, Angela D.; Peel, Alison J.; Plowright, Raina K.; Wood, James L.N.

    2014-01-01

    Bats are sources of high viral diversity and high-profile zoonotic viruses worldwide. Although apparently not pathogenic in their reservoir hosts, some viruses from bats severely affect other mammals, including humans. Examples include severe acute respiratory syndrome coronaviruses, Ebola and Marburg viruses, and Nipah and Hendra viruses. Factors underlying high viral diversity in bats are the subject of speculation. We hypothesize that flight, a factor common to all bats but to no other mammals, provides an intensive selective force for coexistence with viral parasites through a daily cycle that elevates metabolism and body temperature analogous to the febrile response in other mammals. On an evolutionary scale, this host–virus interaction might have resulted in the large diversity of zoonotic viruses in bats, possibly through bat viruses adapting to be more tolerant of the fever response and less virulent to their natural hosts.

  18. Molecular epidemiology of respiratory viruses in virus-induced asthma

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hiroyuki eTsukagoshi

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Acute respiratory illness (ARI due to various viruses is not only the most common cause of upper respiratory infection in humans but is also a major cause of morbidity and mortality, leading to diseases such as bronchiolitis and pneumonia. Previous studies have shown that respiratory syncytial virus (RSV, human rhinovirus (HRV, human metapneumovirus (HMPV, human parainfluenza virus (HPIV, and human enterovirus (HEV infections may be associated with virus-induced asthma. For example, it has been suggested that HRV infection is detected in the acute exacerbation of asthma and infection is prolonged. Thus it is believed that the main etiological cause of asthma is ARI viruses. Furthermore, the number of asthma patients in most industrial countries has greatly increased, resulting in a morbidity rate of around 10-15% of the population. However, the relationships between viral infections, host immune response, and host factors in the pathophysiology of asthma remain unclear. To gain a better understanding of the epidemiology of virus-induced asthma, it is important to assess both the characteristics of the viruses and the host defense mechanisms. Molecular epidemiology enables us to understand the pathogenesis of microorganisms by identifying specific pathways, molecules, and genes that influence the risk of developing a disease. However, the epidemiology of various respiratory viruses associated with virus-induced asthma is not fully understood. Therefore, in this article, we review molecular epidemiological studies of RSV, HRV, HPIV, and HMPV infection associated with virus-induced asthma.

  19. Comparison between dot-immunoblotting assay and clinical sign determination method for quantifying avian infectious bronchitis virus vaccine by titration in embryonated eggs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuk, Seong-su; Kwon, Jung-Hoon; Noh, Jin-Yong; Hong, Woo-tack; Gwon, Gyeong-Bin; Jeong, Jei-Hyun; Jeong, Sol; Youn, Ha-Na; Heo, Yong-Hwan; Lee, Joong-Bok; Park, Seung-Yong; Choi, In-Soo; Song, Chang-Seon

    2016-04-01

    A sensitive and specific method for measuring the vaccine titer of infectious bronchitis virus (IBV) is important to commercial manufacturers for improving vaccine quality. Typically, IBV is titrated in embryonated chicken eggs, and the infectivity of the virus dilutions is determined by assessing clinical signs in the embryos as evidence of viral propagation. In this study, we used a dot-immunoblotting assay (DIA) to measure the titers of IBV vaccines that originated from different pathogenic strains or attenuation methods in embryonated eggs, and we compared this assay to the currently used method, clinical sign evaluation. To compare the two methods, we used real-time reverse transcription-PCR, which had the lowest limit of detection for propagated IBV. As a clinical sign of infection, dwarfism of the embryo was quantified using the embryo: egg (EE) index. The DIA showed 9.41% higher sensitivity and 15.5% higher specificity than the clinical sign determination method. The DIA was particularly useful for measuring the titer of IBV vaccine that did not cause apparent stunting but propagated in embryonated chicken eggs such as a heat-adapted vaccine strain. The results of this study indicate that the DIA is a rapid, sensitive, reliable method for determining IBV vaccine titer in embryonated eggs at a relatively low cost.

  20. Serological and molecular detection of Prune dwarf virus infecting stone fruits of Charmahal-va-Bakhtiari province, a central region of Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nourolah Soltani

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Prune dwarf virus (PDV is one of the major positive RNA viruses which cause economical damages in stone fruit trees. The symptoms of PDV vary between different stone fruits namely sour and sweet cherry, almond, peach, apricot and plum including leaf narrowing, leaf chlorosis, vein clearing, mosaic, leaf whitening, leathery leaf, bushy branches and stunt trees. During the years 2011 and 2012, 251 leaf samples were collected for detection of PDV in stone fruit orchards of Charmahal-va-Bakhtiari province. DAS-ELISA test proved PDV presence serologically. Then, total RNA were extracted and tested by two-step RT-PCR which replicated partial and full coat protein sequence of PDV. One hundred and eighty one out of total samples (251 samples showed PDV infection using serological and two-step RT-PCR assays, hence, incidence of PDV in Charmahal-va-Bakhtiari province was confirmed. This is the first report of PDV in stone fruit orchards of Charmahal-va-Bakhtiari province and in Iran.

  1. Identification of amino acid residues of the coat protein of Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus affecting symptom production and viral titer in Nicotiana benthamiana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelkar, Vaishali; Kushawaha, Akhilesh Kumar; Dasgupta, Indranil

    2016-06-01

    Sri Lankan cassava mosaic virus (SLCMV) is bipartite begomovirus infecting cassava in India and Sri Lanka. Interestingly, the DNA-A component of the SLCMV alone is able to infect Nicotiana benthamiana causing symptoms of upward leaf rolling and stunting. One of the differences between monopartite and bipartite begomoviruses is the requirement of Coat Protein (CP) for infectivity; CP being essential for the former, but dispensable in the latter. This investigation was aimed to determine the importance of CP in the infectivity of the bipartite SLCMV, behaving as a monopartite virus in N. benthamiana. We tested CP-null mutants, single amino acid replacement mutants and double, triple and quadruple combinations of the above in SLCMV DNA-A, for infectivity, symptom development and viral DNA accumulation in N. benthamiana. While CP-null mutants were non-infectious, a majority of the single amino acid replacement mutants and their combinations retained infectivity, some with attenuated symptoms and reduced viral titers. Some of the combined mutations restored the attenuated symptoms to wild type levels. Some of the mutations were predicted to cause changes in the secondary structure of the CP, which roughly correlated with the attenuation of symptoms and the reduction in viral titers. PMID:26948262

  2. Identification and Molecular Characterization of Nuclear Citrus leprosis virus, a Member of the Proposed Dichorhavirus Genus Infecting Multiple Citrus Species in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Avijit; Stone, Andrew L; Shao, Jonathan; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Wei, Gang; Choudhary, Nandlal; Achor, Diann; Levy, Laurene; Nakhla, Mark K; Hartung, John S; Schneider, William L; Brlansky, Ronald H

    2015-04-01

    Citrus leprosis is one of the most destructive diseases of Citrus spp. and is associated with two unrelated virus groups that produce particles primarily in either the cytoplasm or nucleus of infected plant cells. Symptoms of leprosis, including chlorotic spots surrounded by yellow haloes on leaves and necrotic spots on twigs and fruit, were observed on leprosis-affected mandarin and navel sweet orange trees in the state of Querétaro, Mexico. Serological and molecular assays showed that the cytoplasmic types of Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV-C) often associated with leprosis symptomatic tissues were absent. However, using transmission electron microscopy, bullet-shaped rhabdovirus-like virions were observed in the nuclei and cytoplasm of the citrus leprosis-infected leaf tissues. An analysis of small RNA populations from symptomatic tissue was carried out to determine the genome sequence of the rhabdovirus-like particles observed in the citrus leprosis samples. The complete genome sequence showed that the nuclear type of CiLV (CiLV-N) present in the samples consisted of two negative-sense RNAs: 6,268-nucleotide (nt)-long RNA1 and 5,847-nt-long RNA2, excluding the poly(A) tails. CiLV-N had a genome organization identical to that of Orchid fleck virus (OFV), with the exception of shorter 5' untranslated regions in RNA1 (53 versus 205 nt) and RNA2 (34 versus 182 nt). Phylogenetic trees constructed with the amino acid sequences of the nucleocapsid (N) and glycoproteins (G) and the RNA polymerase (L protein) showed that CiLV-N clusters with OFV. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses of N protein established CiLV-N as a member of the proposed genus Dichorhavirus. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction primers for the detection of CiLV-N were designed based on the sequence of the N gene and the assay was optimized and tested to detect the presence of CiLV-N in both diseased and symptom-free plants. PMID:25423071

  3. Identification and Molecular Characterization of Nuclear Citrus leprosis virus, a Member of the Proposed Dichorhavirus Genus Infecting Multiple Citrus Species in Mexico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Avijit; Stone, Andrew L; Shao, Jonathan; Otero-Colina, Gabriel; Wei, Gang; Choudhary, Nandlal; Achor, Diann; Levy, Laurene; Nakhla, Mark K; Hartung, John S; Schneider, William L; Brlansky, Ronald H

    2015-04-01

    Citrus leprosis is one of the most destructive diseases of Citrus spp. and is associated with two unrelated virus groups that produce particles primarily in either the cytoplasm or nucleus of infected plant cells. Symptoms of leprosis, including chlorotic spots surrounded by yellow haloes on leaves and necrotic spots on twigs and fruit, were observed on leprosis-affected mandarin and navel sweet orange trees in the state of Querétaro, Mexico. Serological and molecular assays showed that the cytoplasmic types of Citrus leprosis virus (CiLV-C) often associated with leprosis symptomatic tissues were absent. However, using transmission electron microscopy, bullet-shaped rhabdovirus-like virions were observed in the nuclei and cytoplasm of the citrus leprosis-infected leaf tissues. An analysis of small RNA populations from symptomatic tissue was carried out to determine the genome sequence of the rhabdovirus-like particles observed in the citrus leprosis samples. The complete genome sequence showed that the nuclear type of CiLV (CiLV-N) present in the samples consisted of two negative-sense RNAs: 6,268-nucleotide (nt)-long RNA1 and 5,847-nt-long RNA2, excluding the poly(A) tails. CiLV-N had a genome organization identical to that of Orchid fleck virus (OFV), with the exception of shorter 5' untranslated regions in RNA1 (53 versus 205 nt) and RNA2 (34 versus 182 nt). Phylogenetic trees constructed with the amino acid sequences of the nucleocapsid (N) and glycoproteins (G) and the RNA polymerase (L protein) showed that CiLV-N clusters with OFV. Furthermore, phylogenetic analyses of N protein established CiLV-N as a member of the proposed genus Dichorhavirus. Reverse-transcription polymerase chain reaction primers for the detection of CiLV-N were designed based on the sequence of the N gene and the assay was optimized and tested to detect the presence of CiLV-N in both diseased and symptom-free plants.

  4. Presence and Distribution of Tobacco Viruses in Serbia

    OpenAIRE

    Nataša Duduk; Aleksandra Bulajić; Janoš Berenji; Ivana Đekić; Bojan Duduk; Branka Krstić

    2006-01-01

    Infection with a large number of plant viruses could imperil tobacco yield and quality. Tobacco is a natural host for more than 20 viruses, among which the most important and economically harmful are tobacco mosaic virus (TMV), tomato spotted wilt virus (TSWV), cucumber mosaic virus (CMV), potato virus Y (PVY), alfalfa mosaic virus (AMV), tobacco ringspot virus (TRSV), tobacco each virus (TEV) and tobacco vein mottling virus (TVMV).The occurence and distribution of tobacco viruses were invest...

  5. Neuroteratogenic Viruses and Lessons for Zika Virus Models.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Kenneth; Shresta, Sujan

    2016-08-01

    The Centers for Disease Control and Prevention has confirmed that Zika virus (ZIKV) causes congenital microcephaly. ZIKV now joins five other neuroteratogenic (NT) viruses in humans and ZIKV research is in its infancy. In addition, there is only one other NT human arbovirus (Venezuelan equine encephalitis virus), which is also poorly understood. But further insight into ZIKV can be found by evaluating arboviruses in domestic animals, of which there are at least seven NT viruses, three of which have been well studied. Here we review two key anatomical structures involved in modeling transplacental NT virus transmission: the placenta and the fetal blood-brain barrier. We then survey major research findings regarding transmission of NT viruses for guidance in establishing a mouse model of Zika disease that is crucial for a better understanding of ZIKV transmission and pathogenesis. PMID:27387029

  6. Rapid Detection and Quantification of RNA of Ebola and Marburg Viruses, Lassa Virus, Crimean-Congo Hemorrhagic Fever Virus, Rift Valley Fever Virus, Dengue Virus, and Yellow Fever Virus by Real-Time Reverse Transcription-PCR

    OpenAIRE

    Drosten, Christian; Göttig, Stephan; Schilling, Stefan; Asper, Marcel; Panning, Marcus; Schmitz, Herbert; Günther, Stephan

    2002-01-01

    Viral hemorrhagic fevers (VHFs) are acute infections with high case fatality rates. Important VHF agents are Ebola and Marburg viruses (MBGV/EBOV), Lassa virus (LASV), Crimean-Congo hemorrhagic fever virus (CCHFV), Rift Valley fever virus (RVFV), dengue virus (DENV), and yellow fever virus (YFV). VHFs are clinically difficult to diagnose and to distinguish; a rapid and reliable laboratory diagnosis is required in suspected cases. We have established six one-step, real-time reverse transcripti...

  7. Vade retro virus

    OpenAIRE

    Bardini, Thierry

    2015-01-01

    Avec l’aide de récents résultats de la virologie, le présent article se concentre sur les virus en tant que participants d’une possible redéfinition de la frontière inférieure de la vie, en tant que vie minimale. À l’heure du triomphe de la viralité dans la cyberculture contemporaine, l’auteur avance que l’on devrait considérer les virus comme les premières formes d’entités convergentes, c’est-à-dire existant par-delà la division du monde en deux phases distinctes et incompatibles, numérique ...

  8. [Ebola virus disease: Update].

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Calle-Prieto, Fernando; Arsuaga-Vicente, Marta; Mora-Rillo, Marta; Arnalich-Fernandez, Francisco; Arribas, Jose Ramon

    2016-01-01

    The first known Ebola outbreak occurred in 1976. Since then, 24 limited outbreaks had been reported in Central Africa, but never affecting more than 425 persons. The current outbreak in Western Africa is the largest in history with 28,220 reported cases and 11,291 deaths. The magnitude of the epidemic has caused worldwide alarm. For the first time, evacuated patients were treated outside Africa, and secondary cases have occurred in Spain and the United States. Since the start of the current epidemic, our knowledge about the epidemiology, clinical picture, laboratory findings, and virology of Ebola virus disease has considerably expanded. For the first time, experimental treatment has been tried, and there have been spectacular advances in vaccine development. A review is presented of these advances in the knowledge of Ebola virus disease. PMID:26774254

  9. Use of recombinant tobacco mosaic virus to achieve RNA interference in plants against the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arif Muhammad Khan

    Full Text Available The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, is an important plant pest with a very broad plant host range. P. citri is a phloem feeder and loss of plant vigor and stunting are characteristic symptoms induced on a range of host plants, but P. citri also reduces fruit quality and causes fruit drop leading to significant yield reductions. Better strategies for managing this pest are greatly needed. RNA interference (RNAi is an emerging tool for functional genomics studies and is being investigated as a practical tool for highly targeted insect control. Here we investigated whether RNAi effects can be induced in P. citri and whether candidate mRNAs could be identified as possible targets for RNAi-based P. citri control. RNAi effects were induced in P. citri, as demonstrated by specific target reductions of P. citri actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs after injection of the corresponding specific double-stranded RNA inducers. We also used recombinant Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV to express these RNAi effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We found that P. citri showed lower fecundity and pronounced death of crawlers after feeding on recombinant TMV-infected plants. Taken together, our data show that actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs are potential targets for RNAi against P. citri, and that recombinant TMV is an effective tool for evaluating candidate RNAi effectors in plants.

  10. Use of recombinant tobacco mosaic virus to achieve RNA interference in plants against the citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Arif Muhammad; Ashfaq, Muhammad; Kiss, Zsofia; Khan, Azhar Abbas; Mansoor, Shahid; Falk, Bryce W

    2013-01-01

    The citrus mealybug, Planococcus citri, is an important plant pest with a very broad plant host range. P. citri is a phloem feeder and loss of plant vigor and stunting are characteristic symptoms induced on a range of host plants, but P. citri also reduces fruit quality and causes fruit drop leading to significant yield reductions. Better strategies for managing this pest are greatly needed. RNA interference (RNAi) is an emerging tool for functional genomics studies and is being investigated as a practical tool for highly targeted insect control. Here we investigated whether RNAi effects can be induced in P. citri and whether candidate mRNAs could be identified as possible targets for RNAi-based P. citri control. RNAi effects were induced in P. citri, as demonstrated by specific target reductions of P. citri actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs after injection of the corresponding specific double-stranded RNA inducers. We also used recombinant Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) to express these RNAi effectors in Nicotiana benthamiana plants. We found that P. citri showed lower fecundity and pronounced death of crawlers after feeding on recombinant TMV-infected plants. Taken together, our data show that actin, chitin synthase 1 and V-ATPase mRNAs are potential targets for RNAi against P. citri, and that recombinant TMV is an effective tool for evaluating candidate RNAi effectors in plants.

  11. Ebola, the killer virus

    OpenAIRE

    Ghazanfar, Haider; Orooj, Fizza; Abdullah, Muhammad Ahmed; Ghazanfar, Ali

    2015-01-01

    Ebola virus disease (EVD) has mostly affected economically deprived countries as limited resources adversely affect a country’s infrastructure and administration. Probing into the factors that led to the widespread outbreak, setting forth plans to counter EVD cases in developing countries, and devising definitive measures to limit the spread of the disease are essential steps that must be immediately taken. In this review we summarize the pathogenesis of EVD and the factors that led to its sp...

  12. Ebola Virus Disease

    Centers for Disease Control (CDC) Podcasts

    2014-08-08

    This podcast provides general information about Ebola virus disease and the outbreak in West Africa. The program contains remarks from CDC Director Dr. Tom Frieden, as well as a brief description of CDC’s response efforts.  Created: 8/8/2014 by National Center for Emerging and Zoonotic Infectious Diseases (NCEZID).   Date Released: 8/8/2014.

  13. Viruses and drinking water

    OpenAIRE

    Cartwright, R Y

    1997-01-01

    There is no evidence to indicate that there is a risk of acquiring a virus infection through the consumption of properly treated drinking water, provided the integrity of the distribution system is maintained and there is no post-treatment contamination. The consumption of inadequately treated, untreated or post-treatment contaminated water is, however, associated with a risk of hepatitis A, hepatitis E and viral gastroenteritis. The use of the standard bacterial indicators for water monitori...

  14. Geographic distribution of Bhanja virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hubálek, Z

    1987-01-01

    A review on the geographic distribution, vectors and hosts of Bhanja virus (Bunyaviridae) is based on reports about: isolations of the virus; antibody surveys. Bhanja virus has been isolated in 15 countries of Asia, Africa and Europe, and antibodies against it have been detected in 15 additional countries. Vector range includes ticks of the family Ixodidae (subfam. Amblyomminae; not subfam. Ixodinae): 13 species of 6 genera (Haemaphysalis, Dermacentor, Hyalomma, Amblyomma, Rhipicephalus and Boophilus) yielded the virus. Bhanja virus has only rarely been isolated from vertebrates (Atelerix, Xerus, Ovis, Bos; possibly bats), though antibodies have been detected frequently in a wide range of mammals (Ruminantia being the major hosts), in several species of birds (Passeriformes, Galliformes) and even reptiles (Ophisaurus apodus). Natural foci of the Bhanja virus infections are of the boskematic type (sensu Rosický), associated closely with pastures of domestic ruminants infested by ticks in the regions of tropical, subtropical and partly temperate climatic zones. PMID:3108117

  15. Parainfluenza Virus Infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Branche, Angela R; Falsey, Ann R

    2016-08-01

    Human parainfluenza viruses (HPIVs) are single-stranded, enveloped RNA viruses of the Paramyoviridaie family. There are four serotypes which cause respiratory illnesses in children and adults. HPIVs bind and replicate in the ciliated epithelial cells of the upper and lower respiratory tract and the extent of the infection correlates with the location involved. Seasonal HPIV epidemics result in a significant burden of disease in children and account for 40% of pediatric hospitalizations for lower respiratory tract illnesses (LRTIs) and 75% of croup cases. Parainfluenza viruses are associated with a wide spectrum of illnesses which include otitis media, pharyngitis, conjunctivitis, croup, tracheobronchitis, and pneumonia. Uncommon respiratory manifestations include apnea, bradycardia, parotitis, and respiratory distress syndrome and rarely disseminated infection. Immunity resulting from disease in childhood is incomplete and reinfection with HPIV accounts for 15% of respiratory illnesses in adults. Severe disease and fatal pneumonia may occur in elderly and immunocompromised adults. HPIV pneumonia in recipients of hematopoietic stem cell transplant (HSCT) is associated with 50% acute mortality and 75% mortality at 6 months. Though sensitive molecular diagnostics are available to rapidly diagnose HPIV infection, effective antiviral therapies are not available. Currently, treatment for HPIV infection is supportive with the exception of croup where the use of corticosteroids has been found to be beneficial. Several novel drugs including DAS181 appear promising in efforts to treat severe disease in immunocompromised patients, and vaccines to decrease the burden of disease in young children are in development. PMID:27486735

  16. Lagos Bat Virus in Kenya▿

    OpenAIRE

    Kuzmin, Ivan V.; Niezgoda, Michael; Franka, Richard; Agwanda, Bernard; Markotter, Wanda; Beagley, Janet C.; Urazova, Olga Y.; Breiman, Robert F.; Rupprecht, Charles E.

    2008-01-01

    During lyssavirus surveillance, 1,221 bats of at least 30 species were collected from 25 locations in Kenya. One isolate of Lagos bat virus (LBV) was obtained from a dead Eidolon helvum fruit bat. The virus was most similar phylogenetically to LBV isolates from Senegal (1985) and from France (imported from Togo or Egypt; 1999), sharing with these viruses 100% nucleoprotein identity and 99.8 to 100% glycoprotein identity. This genome conservancy across space and time suggests that LBV is well ...

  17. Photoreactivation of a Cytoplasmic Virus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pfefferkorn, E. R.; Boyle, Mary K.

    1972-01-01

    Ultraviolet light-inactivated frog virus 3 is efficiently photoreactivated by chick embryo cells. A cellular enzyme is presumably responsible for this repair of viral deoxyribonucleic acid, for the phenomenon is insensitive to an inhibitor of protein synthesis and is not seen in mammalian cells that are known to lack photoreactivating enzyme. Since frog virus 3 is a cytoplasmic virus, functionally significant amounts of photoreactivating enzyme are probably present in the cytoplasm of chick embryo cells. PMID:5062749

  18. Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Past Newsletters Variant (Swine Origin) Influenza Viruses in Humans Language: English Español Recommend on Facebook Tweet ... Page Background Reporting Additional Information Key Facts about Human Infections with Variant Viruses (Swine Origin Influenza Viruses ...

  19. Zika Virus and Complications: Questions and Answers

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Feed Youtube Twitter Facebook Google + iTunes Play Store Zika virus and complications: Questions and answers Online Q& ... a cause of microcephaly and Guillain-Barré syndrome. Zika virus Updated! How do people catch Zika virus? ...

  20. Dengue Virus May Bolster Zika's Attack

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... dengue fever virus may increase the severity of Zika virus, a new study says. Early stage laboratory findings ... Services, or federal policy. More Health News on: Zika Virus Recent Health News Related MedlinePlus Health Topics Dengue ...

  1. Chikungunya Virus: What You Need to Know

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chikungunya Virus: What you need to know Chikungunya (pronunciation: \\chik-en-gun-ye) is: A virus spread through Aedes species mosquito bites. Aedes mosquitoes also spread dengue and Zika viruses. A risk to anyone traveling to a region ...

  2. A baixa estatura leve está associada ao aumento da pressão arterial em adolescentes com sobrepeso La baja estatura leve está asociada al aumento de la presión arterial en adolescentes con sobrepeso Mild stunting is associated with higher blood pressure in overweight adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Paula Grotti Clemente

    2012-01-01

    de baja estatura leve con sobrepeso presentaron mayor PAS que los de estatura normal y sobrepeso. Esos hallazgos confirman que la baja estatura leve aumenta el riesgo futuro de hipertensión y esas alteraciones son evidentes en individuos jóvenes.BACKGROUND: Studies have shown that pre/postnatal undernutrition leads to higher risk of non communicable diseases such as diabetes, hypertension and obesity in adulthood. OBJECTIVE: To determine whether overweight adolescents with mild stunting [height-for-age Z scores (HAZ in the range -2] have higher blood pressure than overweight individuals with normal stature (HAZ >-1. MEHTODS: Participants were classified as mildly stunted or of normal stature, and further stratified according to body mass index-for-age percentiles as overweight, normal or underweight. Systolic (SBP and diastolic (DPB blood pressures were determined according to guidelines, and abdominal fat was analyzed by dual energy X-ray absorptiometry. RESULTS: Mild stunted overweight individuals showed higher DBP values (p=0.001 than their underweight counterparts (69.75 ± 12.03 and 54.46±11.24 mmHg, respectively, but similar to those of normal BMI. No differences were found in DBP values of normal, overweight and underweight individuals among the normal stature groups. An increase in SBP (p=0.01 among mild stunted individuals was found when those with overweight were compared to their underweight and normal BMI counterparts (114.70 ± 15.46, 97.38 ± 10.87 and 104.72 ± 12.24 mmHg, respectively. Although no differences were observed in the means of SBP between mild stunting and normal stature groups, a significant intercept was found (p=0.01, revealing higher SBP among stunted individuals. There was a correlation between SBP and abdominal fat (r=0.42, ρ=0.02 in the stunted group. CONCLUSION: Stunted individuals with overweight showed higher SBP than those of normal stature and overweight. These findings confirm that mild stunting increase the risk of future

  3. Computer virus information update CIAC-2301

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orvis, W.J.

    1994-01-15

    While CIAC periodically issues bulletins about specific computer viruses, these bulletins do not cover all the computer viruses that affect desktop computers. The purpose of this document is to identify most of the known viruses for the MS-DOS and Macintosh platforms and give an overview of the effects of each virus. The authors also include information on some windows, Atari, and Amiga viruses. This document is revised periodically as new virus information becomes available. This document replaces all earlier versions of the CIAC Computer virus Information Update. The date on the front cover indicates date on which the information in this document was extracted from CIAC`s Virus database.

  4. Zika virus : epidemiology, clinical features and host-virus interactions

    OpenAIRE

    Hamel, Rodolphe; Liégeois, Florian; Wichit, S.; Pompon, J.; Diop, F.; Talignani, L.; Thomas, F; Desprès, P; Yssel, H; Missé, Dorothée

    2016-01-01

    Very recently, Zika virus (ZIKV) has gained a medical importance following the large-scale epidemics in South Pacific and Latin America. This paper reviews information on the epidemiology and clinical features of Zika disease with a particular emphasis on the host-virus interactions that contribute to the pathogenicity of ZIKV in humans.

  5. Reverse genetics with animal viruses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Reverse genetics of negative-strand RNA viruses (NSV), which allows generation of recombinant viruses entirely from cloned cDNA, has progressed rapidly in the past decade. NSV are a large and diverse group of enveloped viruses of both medical and veterinary importance. They differ widely in morphology, genome structure and host interactions. The first NSV that was completely amenable to genetic manipulation is the neurotropathogenic rabies virus of the rhabdovirus family. In subsequent years, vesicular stomatitis virus and a number of viruses belonging to the family Paramyxoviridae, including viruses causing important animal diseases such as rinderpest virus, canine distemper virus, bovine respiratory syncytial virus, bovine parainfluenza virus and Newcastle disease virus (NDV), succumbed to genetic engineering. The ability to genetically manipulate NSV opens a wide range of possibilities to study the virus biology and develop improved vaccines. Identification and analysis of attenuating mutations using the recombinant system could lead to generation of safe vaccine strains. Introduction of one of the previously studied mutation into an infectious rabies virus (RV) clone by replacing the arginine at position 333 of RV glycoprotein (G-protein) by an aspartic acid resulted in a dramatic attenuation. Combination of this mutation with a deletion that eliminates the interaction between RV P-protein and the cytoplasmic dynein light chain (LC8), which is presumably involved in retrograde transport of RV, further attenuates the rabies virus by 30-fold after intramuscular inoculation. Since extreme attenuation may adversely affect immunogenicity, reverse genetics was used to introduce an additional Gprotein to the step-wise attenuated RV to increase its effectiveness. The resultant recombinant virus may be helpful in developing a highly safe and effective live RV vaccine for oral immunizations of animals. Reverse genetics of NSV has also helped in providing

  6. Oncolytic virus therapy for cancer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldufsky, Joe; Sivendran, Shanthi; Harcharik, Sara; Pan, Michael; Bernardo, Sebastian; Stern, Richard H; Friedlander, Philip; Ruby, Carl E; Saenger, Yvonne; Kaufman, Howard L

    2013-01-01

    The use of oncolytic viruses to treat cancer is based on the selection of tropic tumor viruses or the generation of replication selective vectors that can either directly kill infected tumor cells or increase their susceptibility to cell death and apoptosis through additional exposure to radiation or chemotherapy. In addition, viral vectors can be modified to promote more potent tumor cell death, improve the toxicity profile, and/or generate host antitumor immunity. A variety of viruses have been developed as oncolytic therapeutics, including adenovirus, vaccinia virus, herpesvirus, coxsackie A virus, Newcastle disease virus, and reovirus. The clinical development of oncolytic viral therapy has accelerated in the last few years, with several vectors entering clinical trials for a variety of cancers. In this review, current strategies to optimize the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of the major oncolytic viruses are discussed, and a summary of current clinical trials is provided. Further investigation is needed to characterize better the clinical impact of oncolytic viruses, but there are increasing data demonstrating the potential promise of this approach for the treatment of human and animal cancers.

  7. Ebola Virus-Related Encephalitis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Greslan, Thierry; Billhot, Magali; Rousseau, Claire; Mac Nab, Christine; Karkowski, Ludovic; Cournac, Jean-Marie; Bordes, Julien; Gagnon, Nicolas; Dubrous, Philippe; Duron, Sandrine; Moroge, Sophie; Quentin, Benoit; Koulibaly, Fassou; Bompaire, Flavie; Renard, Jean-Luc; Cellarier, Gilles

    2016-10-15

    Ebola patients frequently exhibit behavioral modifications with ideation slowing and aggressiveness, sometimes contrasting with mild severity of Ebola disease. We performed lumbar punctures in 3 patients with this presentation and found Ebola virus in all cerebrospinal fluid samples. This discovery helps to discuss the concept of a specific Ebola virus encephalitis. PMID:27418576

  8. Zika Virus Infection and Microcephaly

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Gordon Millichap

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A Task Force established by the Brazil Ministry of Health investigated the possible association of microcephaly with Zika virus infection during pregnancy and a registry for microcephaly cases among women suspected to have had Zika virus infection during pregnancy.

  9. El virus del zika

    OpenAIRE

    Sáez García, Cristina

    2016-01-01

    El propósito de este trabajo es hacer una revisión sobre los datos conocidos actualmente relacionados con la infección por el virus Zika y sus consecuencias a nivel neurológico en el desarrollo fetal. La prevención se vuelve esencial contra esta enfermedad: Al no existir vacuna disponible, la actuación debe centrarse en evitar la picadura del mosquito, especialmente aquellas mujeres embarazadas. Las cifras actuales de infectados, y las de bebés nacidos con microcefalia resultan...

  10. Feline immunodeficiency virus infection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, N C; Yamamoto, J K; Ishida, T; Hansen, H

    1989-05-01

    Feline immunodeficiency virus (FIV) (formerly feline T-lymphotropic lentivirus or FTLV) was first isolated from a group of cats in Petaluma, California in 1986. The virus is a typical lentivirus in gross and structural morphology. It replicates preferentially but not exclusively in feline T-lymphoblastoid cells, where it causes a characteristic cytopathic effect. The major structural proteins are 10, 17 (small gag), 28 (major core), 31 (endonuclease?), 41 (transmembrane?), 52 (core precursor polyprotein), 54/62 (reverse transcriptase?), and 110/130 (major envelope) kilodaltons in size. The various proteins are antigenically distinguishable from those of other lentiviruses, although serum from EIAV-infected horses will cross-react with some FIV antigens. Kittens experimentally infected with FIV manifest a transient (several days to 2 weeks) fever and neutropenia beginning 4 to 8 weeks after inoculation. This is associated with a generalized lymphadenopathy that persists for up to 9 months. Most cats recover from this initial phase of the disease and become lifelong carriers of the virus. Complete recovery does not occur to any extent in nature or in the laboratory setting. One experimentally infected cat died from a myeloproliferative disorder several months after infection. The terminal AIDS-like phase of the illness has been seen mainly in naturally infected cats. It appears a year or more following the initial infection in an unknown proportion of infected animals. FIV has been identified in cats from all parts of the world. It is most prevalent in high density populations of free roaming cats (feral and pet), and is very uncommon in closed purebred catteries. Male cats are twice as likely to become infected as females. Older male cats adopted as feral or stray animals are at the highest risk of infection, therefore. The infection rate among freely roaming cats rises throughout life, and reaches levels ranging from less than 1% to 12% or more depending on the

  11. [Classification of viruses by computer].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ageeva, O N; Andzhaparidze, O G; Kibardin, V M; Nazarova, G M; Pleteneva, E A

    1982-01-01

    The study used the information mass containing information on 83 viruses characterized by 41 markers. The suitability of one of the variants of cluster analysis for virus classification was demonstrated. It was established that certain stages of automatic allotment of viruses into groups by the degree of similarity of their properties end the formation of groups which consist of viruses sufficiently close to each other by their properties and are sufficiently isolated. Comparison of these groups with the classification proposed by the ICVT established their correspondence to individual families. Analysis of the obtained classification system permits sufficiently grounded conclusions to be drawn with regard to the classification position of certain viruses, the classification of which has not yet been completed by the ICVT.

  12. O recordatório de 24 horas como instrumento na avaliação do consumo alimentar de cálcio, fósforo e vitamina D em crianças e adolescentes de baixa estatura The 24-hour recall for the assessment of dietary calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D intakes in stunted children and adolescents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aline Lopes Bueno

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Verificar em que medida o Recordatório Alimentar de 24 horas como instrumento de avaliação do consumo alimentar contribui para a avaliação de parâmetros biológicos envolvidos no metabolismo de cálcio, fósforo e vitamina D em crianças e adolescentes de baixa estatura. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados 59 crianças e adolescentes com baixa estatura do Ambulatório de Baixa Estatura do Serviço de Endocrinologia do Hospital das Clínicas de Porto Alegre. Causas orgânicas, genéticas e endócrinas de baixa estatura foram excluídas da avaliação. Foram dosados cálcio, fósforo, creatinina, vitamina D, paratormônio fosfatase alcalina no soro e cálcio, fósforo, creatinina e sódio em urina de Recordatório Alimentar de 24h foi empregado para estimar o consumo dietético. RESULTADOS: Foi constatada ingestão reduzida de cálcio e vitamina D, em relação ao recomendado para idade e sexo. Verificou-se correlação negativa entre paratormônio e vitamina D dietética (r= -0,46; pOBJECTIVE: The objective of this study was to verify the extent to which the 24 hour recall, used as a tool to assess dietary intake, contributes to the assessment of biological parameters involved in the metabolism of calcium, phosphorus and vitamin D in stunted children and adolescents. METHODS: A total of 59 stunted children and adolescents seen at the outpatient clinic that specializes in stunting of the Endocrinology Service of Hospital das Clínicas in Porto Alegre, were assessed. Organic, genetic and endocrine causes of stunting were excluded from the assessment. Serum calcium, phosphorus, creatinine, vitamin D, parathormone and alkaline phosphatase and urine calcium, phosphorus, creatinine and sodium were measured. The 24 hour recall was used to determine dietary intake of these nutrients. RESULTS: Calcium and vitamin D intakes were low according to the values recommended for the two genders and studied age groups. There was a negative correlation

  13. Deep sequencing-based transcriptome profiling reveals comprehensive insights into the responses of Nicotiana benthamiana to beet necrotic yellow vein virus infections containing or lacking RNA4.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Huiyan Fan

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Beet necrotic yellow vein virus (BNYVV, encodes either four or five plus-sense single stranded RNAs and is the causal agent of sugar beet rhizomania disease, which is widely distributed in most regions of the world. BNYVV can also infect Nicotiana benthamiana systemically, and causes severe curling and stunting symptoms in the presence of RNA4 or mild symptoms in the absence of RNA4. RESULTS: Confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM analyses showed that the RNA4-encoded p31 protein fused to the red fluorescent protein (RFP accumulated mainly in the nuclei of N. benthamiana epidermal cells. This suggested that severe RNA4-induced symptoms might result from p31-dependent modifications of the transcriptome. Therefore, we used next-generation sequencing technologies to analyze the transcriptome profile of N. benthamiana in response to infection with different isolates of BNYVV. Comparisons of the transcriptomes of mock, BN3 (RNAs 1+2+3, and BN34 (RNAs 1+2+3+4 infected plants identified 3,016 differentially expressed transcripts, which provided a list of candidate genes that potentially are elicited in response to virus infection. Our data indicate that modifications in the expression of genes involved in RNA silencing, ubiquitin-proteasome pathway, cellulose synthesis, and metabolism of the plant hormone gibberellin may contribute to the severe symptoms induced by RNA4 from BNYVV. CONCLUSIONS: These results expand our understanding of the genetic architecture of N. benthamiana as well as provide valuable clues to identify genes potentially involved in resistance to BNYVV infection. Our global survey of gene expression changes in infected plants reveals new insights into the complicated molecular mechanisms underlying symptom development, and aids research into new strategies to protect crops against viruses.

  14. Scientific Opinion on the assessment of the risk of solanaceous pospiviroids for the EU territory and the identification and evaluation of risk management options

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, R.; Candresse, T.; Dormannsné Simon, E.;

    2011-01-01

    (PSTVd). The risk assessment included PSTVd, Citrus exocortis viroid, Columnea latent viroid, Mexican papita viroid, Tomato apical stunt viroid, Tomato chlorotic dwarf viroid, Tomato planta macho viroid, Chrysanthemum stunt viroid and Pepper chat fruit viroid. Four entry pathways were identified, three......, with exception of spread to potato, rated as unlikely. The probability of long distance spread within vegetatively propagated crops was estimated as likely/very likely. The direct consequences were expected to be major in potato and tomato, moderate in pepper, minimal/minor in other vegetables and minimal...

  15. Ebola Virus Antibodies in Fruit Bats, Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Kevin J Olival; Islam, Ariful; Yu, Meng; Anthony, Simon J.; Jonathan H Epstein; Khan, Shahneaz Ali; Khan, Salah Uddin; Crameri, Gary; Wang, Lin-Fa; Lipkin, W. Ian; Luby, Stephen P.; Daszak, Peter

    2013-01-01

    To determine geographic range for Ebola virus, we tested 276 bats in Bangladesh. Five (3.5%) bats were positive for antibodies against Ebola Zaire and Reston viruses; no virus was detected by PCR. These bats might be a reservoir for Ebola or Ebola-like viruses, and extend the range of filoviruses to mainland Asia.

  16. Safe Computing: An Overview of Viruses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wodarz, Nan

    2001-01-01

    A computer virus is a program that replicates itself, in conjunction with an additional program that can harm a computer system. Common viruses include boot-sector, macro, companion, overwriting, and multipartite. Viruses can be fast, slow, stealthy, and polymorphic. Anti-virus products are described. (MLH)

  17. The IFITMs Inhibit Zika Virus Replication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    George Savidis

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Zika virus has emerged as a severe health threat with a rapidly expanding range. The IFITM family of restriction factors inhibits the replication of a broad range of viruses, including the closely related flaviruses West Nile virus and dengue virus. Here, we show that IFITM1 and IFITM3 inhibit Zika virus infection early in the viral life cycle. Moreover, IFITM3 can prevent Zika-virus-induced cell death. These results suggest that strategies to boost the actions and/or levels of the IFITMs might be useful for inhibiting a broad range of emerging viruses.

  18. The IFITMs Inhibit Zika Virus Replication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Savidis, George; Perreira, Jill M; Portmann, Jocelyn M; Meraner, Paul; Guo, Zhiru; Green, Sharone; Brass, Abraham L

    2016-06-14

    Zika virus has emerged as a severe health threat with a rapidly expanding range. The IFITM family of restriction factors inhibits the replication of a broad range of viruses, including the closely related flaviruses West Nile virus and dengue virus. Here, we show that IFITM1 and IFITM3 inhibit Zika virus infection early in the viral life cycle. Moreover, IFITM3 can prevent Zika-virus-induced cell death. These results suggest that strategies to boost the actions and/or levels of the IFITMs might be useful for inhibiting a broad range of emerging viruses. PMID:27268505

  19. Defining Life: The Virus Viewpoint

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forterre, Patrick

    2010-04-01

    Are viruses alive? Until very recently, answering this question was often negative and viruses were not considered in discussions on the origin and definition of life. This situation is rapidly changing, following several discoveries that have modified our vision of viruses. It has been recognized that viruses have played (and still play) a major innovative role in the evolution of cellular organisms. New definitions of viruses have been proposed and their position in the universal tree of life is actively discussed. Viruses are no more confused with their virions, but can be viewed as complex living entities that transform the infected cell into a novel organism—the virus—producing virions. I suggest here to define life (an historical process) as the mode of existence of ribosome encoding organisms (cells) and capsid encoding organisms (viruses) and their ancestors. I propose to define an organism as an ensemble of integrated organs (molecular or cellular) producing individuals evolving through natural selection. The origin of life on our planet would correspond to the establishment of the first organism corresponding to this definition.

  20. Defective interfering particles of Sindbis virus do not interfere with the homologous virus obtained from persistently infected BHK cells but do interfere with Semliki Forest virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Weiss, B; Schlesinger, S

    1981-01-01

    Defective interfering particles derived from wild-type Sindbis virus no longer interfere with the infectious virus cloned from BHK cells persistently infected with Sindbis virus for 16 months. These particles do interfere with the replication of Semliki Forest virus.

  1. Oncolytic virus therapy for cancer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Goldufsky J

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Joe Goldufsky,1 Shanthi Sivendran,3 Sara Harcharik,4 Michael Pan,4 Sebastian Bernardo,4 Richard H Stern,5 Philip Friedlander,4 Carl E Ruby,1,2 Yvonne Saenger,4 Howard L Kaufman1,2 Departments of 1Immunology & Microbiology and 2Surgery, Rush University Medical Center, Chicago IL, USA 3Hematology/Oncology Medical Specialists, Lancaster General Health, Lancaster, PA, USA, and Departments of 4Medical Oncology and 5Radiology, Tisch Cancer Institute, The Mount Sinai School of Medicine, New York, NY, USA Abstract: The use of oncolytic viruses to treat cancer is based on the selection of tropic tumor viruses or the generation of replication selective vectors that can either directly kill infected tumor cells or increase their susceptibility to cell death and apoptosis through additional exposure to radiation or chemotherapy. In addition, viral vectors can be modified to promote more potent tumor cell death, improve the toxicity profile, and/or generate host antitumor immunity. A variety of viruses have been developed as oncolytic therapeutics, including adenovirus, vaccinia virus, herpesvirus, coxsackie A virus, Newcastle disease virus, and reovirus. The clinical development of oncolytic viral therapy has accelerated in the last few years, with several vectors entering clinical trials for a variety of cancers. In this review, current strategies to optimize the therapeutic effectiveness and safety of the major oncolytic viruses are discussed, and a summary of current clinical trials is provided. Further investigation is needed to characterize better the clinical impact of oncolytic viruses, but there are increasing data demonstrating the potential promise of this approach for the treatment of human and animal cancers. Keywords: cancer, gene therapy, oncolytic therapy, virus, treatment

  2. A new looming of Zika virus

    OpenAIRE

    Nirav R. Soni

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus (ZIKV) is a member of the virus family Flaviviridae and the genus Flavivirus, transmitted by daytime-active Aedes mosquitoes, such as A. aegypti. ZIKV will continue to spread and it will be difficult to determine how the virus will spread over time. Sign and symptoms of ZIKAVD (Zika virus disease) were conjunctivitis (red eyes), back pain, birth defect-abnormal brain development known as microcephaly and it is diagnosed through PCR (polymerase chain reaction) and virus isolation fr...

  3. Towards the Epidemiological Modeling of Computer Viruses

    OpenAIRE

    Xiaofan Yang; Lu-Xing Yang

    2012-01-01

    Epidemic dynamics of computer viruses is an emerging discipline aiming to understand the way that computer viruses spread on networks. This paper is intended to establish a series of rational epidemic models of computer viruses. First, a close inspection of some common characteristics shared by all typical computer viruses clearly reveals the flaws of previous models. Then, a generic epidemic model of viruses, which is named as the SLBS model, is proposed. Finally, diverse generalizations of ...

  4. Zika Virus: the Latest Newcomer

    OpenAIRE

    Saiz, Juan-Carlos; Vázquez-Calvo, Ángela; Blázquez, Ana B.; Merino-Ramos, Teresa; Escribano-Romero, Estela; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of this century, humanity has been facing a new emerging, or re-emerging, virus threat almost every year: West Nile, Influenza A, avian flu, dengue, Chikungunya, SARS, MERS, Ebola, and now Zika, the latest newcomer. Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and later on in humans in Nigeria. The virus was mainly confined to the African continent until it was detected in south-east Asia the 1980’s...

  5. Zika virus: the latest newcomer

    OpenAIRE

    Juan-Carlos eSaiz; Angela eVazquez-Calvo; Ana Belen Blazquez; Teresa eMerino-Ramos; Estela eEscribano-Romero; Martín-Acebes, Miguel A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the beginning of this century, humanity has been facing a new emerging, or re-emerging, virus threat almost every year: West Nile, Influenza A, avian flu, dengue, Chikungunya, SARS, MERS, Ebola, and now Zika, the latest newcomer. Zika virus (ZIKV), a flavivirus transmitted by Aedes mosquitoes, was identified in 1947 in a sentinel monkey in Uganda, and later on in humans in Nigeria. The virus was mainly confined to the African continent until it was detected in south-east Asia the 1980´s...

  6. New insights of Sacbrood virus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mingxiao; Ma

    2014-01-01

    <正>Over the last several years,major efforts have been expended to study viral infection of honeybees mainly due to colony losses around the world(Allen M,et al.,1996).It seems that honeybees are infected with numerous viruses mounting to 18so far.Infection may be asymptomatic but could still have adverse effects on the bee and may even cause death resulting in colony collapse.Sacbrood virus(SBV)is the most widely distributed of all honey bee viruses.

  7. Marburg Virus Reverse Genetics Systems

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kristina Maria Schmidt

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The highly pathogenic Marburg virus (MARV is a member of the Filoviridae family and belongs to the group of nonsegmented negative-strand RNA viruses. Reverse genetics systems established for MARV have been used to study various aspects of the viral replication cycle, analyze host responses, image viral infection, and screen for antivirals. This article provides an overview of the currently established MARV reverse genetic systems based on minigenomes, infectious virus-like particles and full-length clones, and the research that has been conducted using these systems.

  8. Zika virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de Laval, F; Leparc-Goffart, I; Meynard, J-B; Daubigny, H; Simon, F; Briolant, S

    2016-05-01

    Since its discovery in 1947 in Uganda, the Zika virus (ZIKV) remained in the shadows emerging in 2007 in Micronesia, where hundreds of dengue-like syndromes were reported. Then, in 2013-2014, it was rife in French Polynesia, where the first neurological effects were observed. More recently, its arrival in Brazil was accompanied by an unusually high number of children with microcephaly born to mothers infected with ZIKV during the first trimester of pregnancy. In 2016, the World Health Organization declared ZIKV infection to be a public health emergency and now talks about a ZIKV pandemic. This review aims to summarize the current knowledge about ZIKV infection, successively addressing its transmission, epidemiology, clinical aspects, diagnosis, treatment, and prevention before discussing some perspectives. PMID:27412976

  9. Human immunodeficiency virus endocrinopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uma Sinha

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV endocrinopathy encompasses a broad spectrum of disorders. Almost all the endocrine organs are virtually affected by HIV infection. HIV can directly alter glandular function. More commonly secondary endocrine dysfunction occurs due to opportunistic infections and neoplasms in immunocompromised state. The complex interaction between HIV infection and endocrine system may be manifested as subtle biochemical and hormonal perturbation to overt glandular failure. Antiretroviral therapy as well as other essential medications often result in adverse endocrinal consequences. Apart from adrenal insufficiency, hypogonadism, diabetes and bone loss, AIDS wasting syndrome and HIV lipodystrophy need special reference. Endocrinal evaluation should proceed as in other patients with suspected endocrine dysfunction. Available treatment options have been shown to improve quality of life and long-term mortality in AIDS patients.

  10. Cryptovirology: Virus Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shivale Saurabh Anandrao

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Traditionally, "Cryptography" is a benediction to information processing and communications, it helps people to store information securely and the private communications over long distances. Cryptovirology is the study of applications of cryptography to build the malicious software. It is an investigation, how modern cryptographic tools and paradigms can be used to strengthen, develop and improve new malicious software attacks. Cryptovirology attacks have been categorized as : give malware enhanced privacy andbe more robust against reverse-engineering, secondly give the attacker enhanced anonymity while communicating with deployed malware. This paper presents the idea of ``Cryptovirology'' which introduce a twist on how cryptography can also be used offensively. Being offensive means, it can be used to mount extortion based attacks that cause loss of access to information, loss of confidentiality, and information leakage, tasks which cryptography usually prevents. Also analyze threats and attacks that misuse of cryptography can cause when combined with fraudulent software (viruses, Trojans. Public-keycryptography is very essential for the attacks that based on cryptovirology. This paper also suggest some of the countermeasures, mechanisms to cope with and prevent such attacks. Even if the attackers actions on the host machine are being monitored, it still cannot be proven beyond reasonable doubt that he or she is the attacker; and it is an “originator-concealing attack”. Evidence should be collected from the “author’s own system which was used for the attack”. These attacks have implications on how the use ofcryptographic tools and techniques should be audited and managed in general purpose computing environments, and imply that access to the cryptographic tools should be in well control of the system(such as API routines. The experimental virus would demonstrate how cryptographic packages can be packed into a small space, which may

  11. Responses of twenty-two apple cultivars and rootstocks to thermotherapy for virus elimination in vitro%22个苹果品种和砧木试管苗对热处理脱毒效应的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    晏娜; 孙建设; 邵建柱; 高仪; 李玲

    2009-01-01

    3 latent viruses in 22 apple cultivars and rootstocks were detected by RT - PCR technology, and their responses to alternating heat therapy in combination with shoot tip culture for virus elimination in vitro were studied. The results showed that the heat resistance was different among these 22 apple cultivars and rootstocks, of which 'Orin', 'Jonagold', 'Gala', 'Golden Delicious', 'Zumi' and 'P_(22)' exhibited the highest heat resistance,' Huimin spur Fuji',' Deep red Fuji', ' Tianhong No. 1', ' B_9', ' M_9 ', ' P_(59)', ' 77-34 ', ' Tianhong No. 2' and 'Jazz' presented the moderate heat resistance,and that of 'GM_(256)',' Hirosaki' and 'SH' series was the lowest. The apple latent virus elimination rate of different apple genotypes under the same treatment was different. The virus elimination rate of ' Huimin Spur Fuji', ' SH_(17) ', 'M_9','GM_(256)' and 'Hirosakis' was the highest, followed by '77-34','P_(59)','P_(22)' and 'Tianhong No. 1',and that of 'Jonagold', 'SH_(40) ', 'SH_(38)' and 'Deep Red Fuji' was the lowest. The availability of virus elimination depended on its species. The apple chlorotic leaf spot virus (ACLSV) was the easiest to eliminate,followed by apple stem pitting virus(ASPV) ,and apple stem grooving virus (ASGV) was the most difficult .%用RT-PCR对22个苹果品种和砧木携带3种潜隐性病毒的情况进行了检测,并用变温热处理结合茎尖培养对22个苹果品种和砧木组培苗脱除潜隐性病毒的效应进行了研究.结果表明:不同的苹果品种和砧木耐热性不同.其中'王林'、'乔纳金'、'嘎啦'、'金冠'、'珠美海棠'、'P22'的耐热性最强;'GM256'、'弘前'、'SH'系耐热性最差;'惠民短枝富士'、'浓红富士'、'天红1号'、'B_9'、'M_9'、'P_(59)'、'77-34'、'天红2号'、'Jazz'的耐热性居中.在相同处理条件下,不同的苹果基因型脱毒率存在差异.'惠民短枝富士'、'SH_(17)'、'M_9'、'GM_(256)'、'弘前'脱毒率最高,'77-34'、'P_(59)'、'P_(22

  12. Vírus da mancha anular do cafeeiro (Coffee ringspot virus - CoRSV: influência na qualidade da bebida e na produção de grãos de café Coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV: influence on the beverage quality and yield of coffee beans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alessandra de Jesus Boari

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available A mancha anular do cafeeiro, causada pelo Coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV que é transmitido pelo ácaro Brevipalpus phoenicis (Geijskes (Acari: Tenuipalpidae, tem sido observada em altas incidências em várias regiões cafeeiras do Estado de Minas Gerais. O CoRSV causa manchas cloróticas arrendondadas ou irregulares nas folhas, caules e frutos. Foi feita uma avaliação do efeito da infecção de frutos do cafeeiro pelo CoRSV na qualidade da bebida por meio de teste bioquímico e de degustação, e também na eventual perda de peso nos grãos. Testes revelaram que grãos provenientes de frutos de café infectados pelo CoRSV apresentavam menor teor de açúcares redutores e maior condutividade elétrica. Houve também depreciação na qualidade de bebida gerada pelos frutos infectados por meio do teste de degustação (teste de xícara. O peso médio dos grãos provenientes de frutos manchados foi cerca de 5% menor do que dos grãos de frutos sem sintomas.Coffee ringspot virus (CoRSV, transmitted by the tenuipalpid mite Brevipalpus phoenicis, has been found in high incidences in several regions of the state of Minas Gerais. It induces chlorotic spots on the leaves and fruits and may induce severe fall of the leaves with implication in the yield. An evaluation was made on the effects of CoRSV-infected coffee berries on the beverage quality as well as on the weight of the beans. Infected beans had less reducing sugars and presented an increase in the electrical conductivity. The quality of the beverage prepared from infected fruits was lower than that of healthy fruits. There was a reduction of about 5% in the weight of beans from infected fruits.

  13. Neoplastic transformation of chimpanzee cells induced by adenovirus type 12--simian virus 40 hybrid virus.

    OpenAIRE

    Rhim, J S; Trimmer, R; Arnstein, P; Huebner, R J

    1981-01-01

    The adenovirus 12--simian virus 40 hybrid virus produced neoplastic transformation of chimpanzee skin fibroblasts in vitro. The transformed fibroblasts showed morphological alteration and became permanent lines. The transformed cells contained both adenovirus 12 and simian virus 40 large tumor antigens and were virus producers. However at passage 9, one line (WES) was found to be a nonproducer, producing neither infectious virus nor virus-specific antigen detectable by the complement fixation...

  14. Transfection by DNAs of avian erythroblastosis virus and avian myelocytomatosis virus strain MC29.

    OpenAIRE

    Copeland, N G; Cooper, G M

    1980-01-01

    Chicken embryo fibroblasts and NIH 3T3 mouse cells were transformable by DNAs of chicken cells infected with avian myelocytomatosis virus strain MC29 or with avian erythroblastosis virus. Transfection of chicken cells appeared to require replication of MC29 or avian erythroblastosis virus in the presence of a nontransforming helper virus. In contrast, NIH 3T3 cells transformed by MC29 or avian erythroblastosis virus DNA contained only replication-defective transforming virus genomes.

  15. Varicella-zoster virus vaccine DNA differs from the parental virus DNA.

    OpenAIRE

    Ecker, J R; Hyman, R W

    1981-01-01

    The DNAs of a varicella-zoster virus vaccine and its parental virus were compared by CsCl buoyant density centrifugation and restriction enzyme cleavage analysis. The varicella-zoster virus vaccine DNA showed a heterogeneous buoyant profile and altered restriction enzyme cleavage patterns. These changed properties are probably the result of the accumulation of virus containing defective varicella-zoster virus DNA during extensive cell culture passage of the vaccine virus.

  16. Single Assay Detection of Acute Bee Paralysis Virus, Kashmir Bee Virus and Israeli Acute Paralysis Virus

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Francis, Roy Mathew; Kryger, Per

    2012-01-01

    A new RT-PCR primer pair designed to identify Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (ABPV), Kashmir Bee Virus (KBV) or Israeli Acute Bee Paralysis Virus (IAPV) of honey bees (Apis mellifera L.) in a single assay is described. These primers are used to screen samples for ABPV, KBV, or IAPV in a single RT-PCR ......-PCR reaction saving time and money. The primers are located in the predicted overlapping gene (pog/ORFX) which is highly conserved across ABPV, KBV, IAPV and other dicistroviruses of social insects. This study has also identified the first case of IAPV in Denmark....

  17. Peste des Petits Ruminants Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baron, M D; Diallo, A; Lancelot, R; Libeau, G

    2016-01-01

    Peste des petits ruminants virus (PPRV) causes a severe contagious disease of sheep and goats and has spread extensively through the developing world. Because of its disproportionately large impact on the livelihoods of low-income livestock keepers, and the availability of effective vaccines and good diagnostics, the virus is being targeted for global control and eventual eradication. In this review we examine the origin of the virus and its current distribution, and the factors that have led international organizations to conclude that it is eradicable. We also review recent progress in the molecular and cellular biology of the virus and consider areas where further research is required to support the efforts being made by national, regional, and international bodies to tackle this growing threat. PMID:27112279

  18. Crenarchaeal Viruses: Morphotypes and Genomes,

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Prangishvili, P.; Basta, P.; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2008-01-01

    not been observed among viruses from the other two domains of life, the Bacteria and the Eukarya. Also the sequences of circular and linear genomes of crenarchaeal viruses are remarkable because the vast majority of predicted genes have no homologs in the public sequence databases. Viruses...... of the Crenarchaeota generally do not cause the lysis of the host cells during release of viral progeny and they persist in infected cells in stable carrier state. In accordance with this rather unsophisticated virus-host relationship, the studies of transcription of genes in rudiviruses and fusellovirus SSV1...... demonstrated a simple transcriptional pattern with minimal temporal control. The replication of viral genomes has not been studied experimentally. Nevertheless, some plausible predictions about possible replication strategies could be made based on specific features of several viral genomes. The comparative...

  19. Archaeal viruses of the sulfolobales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Erdmann, Susanne; Garrett, Roger Antony

    2015-01-01

    Infection of archaea with phylogenetically diverse single viruses, performed in different laboratories, has failed to activate spacer acquisition into host CRISPR loci. The first successful uptake of archaeal de novo spacers was observed on infection of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2 with an environm......Infection of archaea with phylogenetically diverse single viruses, performed in different laboratories, has failed to activate spacer acquisition into host CRISPR loci. The first successful uptake of archaeal de novo spacers was observed on infection of Sulfolobus solfataricus P2...... in CRISPR loci of Sulfolobus species from a second coinfecting conjugative plasmid or virus (Erdmann and Garrett, Mol Microbiol 85:1044-1056, 2012; Erdmann et al. Mol Microbiol 91:900-917, 2014). Here we describe, firstly, the isolation of archaeal virus mixtures from terrestrial hot springs...

  20. Validation of Plant Virus Detection

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schadewijk, van A.R.; Meekes, E.T.M.; Verbeek, M.; Verhoeven, J.Th.J.

    2011-01-01

    Validation of test methods is required for laboratories seeking ISO 17025 accreditation. Recently developed manuals help choosing relevant performance characteristics to be studied for qualitative tests common in plant virus detection. For routine testing in certification schemes additional informat

  1. Dengue Virus Infection in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Amarasinghe, Ananda; Kuritsky, Joel N.; Letson, G. William; Margolis, Harold S

    2011-01-01

    Reported incidence of dengue has increased worldwide in recent decades, but little is known about its incidence in Africa. During 1960–2010, a total of 22 countries in Africa reported sporadic cases or outbreaks of dengue; 12 other countries in Africa reported dengue only in travelers. The presence of disease and high prevalence of antibody to dengue virus in limited serologic surveys suggest endemic dengue virus infection in all or many parts of Africa. Dengue is likely underrecognized and u...

  2. Hepatitis virus vaccines: present status.

    OpenAIRE

    Krugman, S.

    1982-01-01

    During the past decade there has been extraordinary progress toward the development of vaccines for the prevention of type A and type B hepatitis. The successful propagation of hepatitis A virus in cell culture in 1979 was followed by the preparation of experimental live attenuated hepatitis A vaccines that have been shown to induce antibody in marmosets and chimpanzees and protect immunized marmosets against challenge with hepatitis A virus. The first human immunization trials will begin in ...

  3. Hendra Virus Re-visited

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hume Field

    2009-01-01

    Hendra virus, a novel member of the family Paramyxovirus that has emerged from bats in Australia, causes fatal disease in livestock and humans. Eleven spillover events have been identified since the first description of the virus in 1994, resulting in a total of 37 equine cases and six human cases. All human cases have been attributed to exposure to infected horses; there is no evidence of bat-to-human or human-to-human transmission. Low infectivity and a high case fatality rate are features of Hendra virus infection in both horses and humans. The temporal pattern of spillover events suggests seasonal factors (plausibly be environmental, biological or ecological) as the proximate triggers for spillover. Minimisation of the future occurrence and impact of Hendra virus infections requires an understanding of the ecology of flying foxes, of virus infection dynamics in flying foxes, and of the factors that promote spillover. Management strategies seek to minimize the opportunity for effective contact between bats and horses, and limit potential horse-to-horse and horse-to-human transmission. Incomplete knowledge of the ecology of the virus, of the proximate factors associated with spillover, and the inherent difficulties of effectively managing wild populations, preclude a management approach targeted at bats.

  4. Viral RNase3 Co-Localizes and Interacts with the Antiviral Defense Protein SGS3 in Plant Cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isabel Weinheimer

    Full Text Available Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV; family Closteroviridae encodes a Class 1 RNase III endoribonuclease (RNase3 that suppresses post-transcriptional RNA interference (RNAi and eliminates antiviral defense in sweetpotato plants (Ipomoea batatas. For RNAi suppression, RNase3 cleaves double-stranded small interfering RNAs (ds-siRNA and long dsRNA to fragments that are too short to be utilized in RNAi. However, RNase3 can suppress only RNAi induced by sense RNA. Sense-mediated RNAi involves host suppressor of gene silencing 3 (SGS3 and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6. In this study, subcellular localization and host interactions of RNase3 were studied in plant cells. RNase3 was found to interact with SGS3 of sweetpotato and Arabidopsis thaliana when expressed in leaves, and it localized to SGS3/RDR6 bodies in the cytoplasm of leaf cells and protoplasts. RNase3 was also detected in the nucleus. Co-expression of RNase3 and SGS3 in leaf tissue enhanced the suppression of RNAi, as compared with expression of RNase3 alone. These results suggest additional mechanisms needed for efficient RNase3-mediated suppression of RNAi and provide new information about the subcellular context and phase of the RNAi pathway in which RNase3 realizes RNAi suppression.

  5. Viral RNase3 Co-Localizes and Interacts with the Antiviral Defense Protein SGS3 in Plant Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinheimer, Isabel; Haikonen, Tuuli; Ala-Poikela, Marjo; Moser, Mirko; Streng, Janne; Rajamäki, Minna-Liisa; Valkonen, Jari P T

    2016-01-01

    Sweet potato chlorotic stunt virus (SPCSV; family Closteroviridae) encodes a Class 1 RNase III endoribonuclease (RNase3) that suppresses post-transcriptional RNA interference (RNAi) and eliminates antiviral defense in sweetpotato plants (Ipomoea batatas). For RNAi suppression, RNase3 cleaves double-stranded small interfering RNAs (ds-siRNA) and long dsRNA to fragments that are too short to be utilized in RNAi. However, RNase3 can suppress only RNAi induced by sense RNA. Sense-mediated RNAi involves host suppressor of gene silencing 3 (SGS3) and RNA-dependent RNA polymerase 6 (RDR6). In this study, subcellular localization and host interactions of RNase3 were studied in plant cells. RNase3 was found to interact with SGS3 of sweetpotato and Arabidopsis thaliana when expressed in leaves, and it localized to SGS3/RDR6 bodies in the cytoplasm of leaf cells and protoplasts. RNase3 was also detected in the nucleus. Co-expression of RNase3 and SGS3 in leaf tissue enhanced the suppression of RNAi, as compared with expression of RNase3 alone. These results suggest additional mechanisms needed for efficient RNase3-mediated suppression of RNAi and provide new information about the subcellular context and phase of the RNAi pathway in which RNase3 realizes RNAi suppression. PMID:27391019

  6. Kinetics of virus production from single cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timm, Andrea; Yin, John

    2012-03-01

    The production of virus by infected cells is an essential process for the spread and persistence of viral diseases, the effectiveness of live-viral vaccines, and the manufacture of viruses for diverse applications. Yet despite its importance, methods to precisely measure virus production from cells are lacking. Most methods test infected-cell populations, masking how individual cells behave. Here we measured the kinetics of virus production from single cells. We combined simple steps of liquid-phase infection, serial dilution, centrifugation, and harvesting, without specialized equipment, to track the production of virus particles from BHK cells infected with vesicular stomatitis virus. Remarkably, cell-to-cell differences in latent times to virus release were within a factor of two, while production rates and virus yields spanned over 300-fold, highlighting an extreme diversity in virus production for cells from the same population. These findings have fundamental and technological implications for health and disease.

  7. Hepatitis C Virus Genotypes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kayhan Azadmanesh

    2005-09-01

    Full Text Available IntroductionHepatitis C virus (HCV is an important cause of chronic liver disease. HCV causes 20% of acute hepatitis cases, 70% of all chronic hepatitis cases, 40% of all cases of liver cirrhosis, 60% of hepatocellular carcinomas, and 30% of liver transplants in Europe(1. It is also recognized as the leading cause of liver transplantation in the world(2. Only 20% of infected individuals will recover from this viral infection, while the rest become chronically infected(3. While the majority of chronically infected individuals never exhibit symptoms, approximately 10-30% of these patients will eventually develop cirrhosis or hepatocellular carcinoma, both of which are associated with significant morbidity and mortality(4.More than 170 million people worldwide are chronically infected with HCV. According to WHO report in 2002, chronic liver diseases were responsible for 1.4 million deaths, including 796,000 due to cirrhosis and 616,000 due to primary liver cancer. At least 20% of these deaths are probably attributable to HCV infection- more than 280,000 deaths(5, 6. The prevalence of chronic HCV infection in general population varies greatly in different parts of the world, being estimated between 0.1 and 5%, with a peak prevalence of 20- 25% in Egypt. HCV prevalence seems to be less than 1% in Iran, which is much lower than most of the neighboring countries(7. HCV was the first virus discovered by molecular cloning method without the direct use of biologic or biophysical methods. This was accomplished by extracting, copying into cDNA, and cloning all the nucleic acid from the plasma of a chimpanzee infected with non- A, non-B hepatitis by contaminated factor XIII concentrate(8. The HCV genome is a positive-sense, singlestranded RNA genome approximately 10 kb long. It has marked similarities to those of members of the genera Pestivirus and Flavivirus. Different HCV isolates from around the world show substantial nucleotide sequence variability

  8. Fatores associados ao declínio do déficit estatural em crianças e adolescentes em Pernambuco Factores asociados a la disminución del déficit de estatura en niños y adolescentes en Pernambuco, Brasil Factors associated with the decline in stunting among children and adolescents in Pernambuco, Northeastern Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vanessa Sá Leal

    2012-04-01

    ón estudiada fue de, respectivamente, 1.853 y 1.484 niños y adolescentes de cinco a 19 años. El análisis de regresión múltiple con selección jerarquizada fue utilizado para evaluar la asociación de las variables explicativas sobre el déficit de estatura. RESULTADOS: La prevalencia del déficit de estatura presentó reducción significativa de 43% (de 16,9% en 1997 a 9,6% en 2006. Las variables socioeconómicas y la estatura materna estuvieron asociadas a esta disminución, con reducciones variando de 39% a 60% entre los estratos analizados. En el análisis de los determinantes del déficit de estatura, en el año 2006, permanecieron como significativos: la renta familiar per capita (OBJECTIVE: To analyze the evolution of stunting among children and adolescents and identify their associated factors. METHODS: This was a cross-sectional study using data from the state health and nutrition surveys that were conducted in Pernambuco (Northeastern Brazil in 1997 and 2006. The sample was probabilistic (random and stratified and was representative of urban and rural strata of the state. Questionnaires containing precoded questions relating to information on socioeconomic, demographic and anthropometric variables (of the mothers, children and adolescents were used for data gathering. The population studied comprised 1853 children and 1484 adolescents between the ages of five and 19 years. Multiple regression analysis with hierarchical selection was used to evaluate associations between explanatory variables relating to stunting. RESULTS: The prevalence of stunting presented a significant reduction of 43% (from 16.9% in 1997 to 9.6% in 2006. Socioeconomic variables and maternal height were associated with this decline. The reductions ranged from 39% to 60% among the strata analyzed. Analysis on determinants of stunting showed that in 2006, the following remained significant: per capita family income (< 0.25 minimum salary, possession of domestic goods (< three, greater number of

  9. Zika Virus Infection and Zika Fever: Frequently Asked Questions

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Frequently asked questions Updated: 25 March 2016 ABOUT ZIKA What is Zika virus infection? Zika virus infection is caused by ... possible to characterize the disease better. How is Zika virus transmitted? Zika virus is transmitted to people ...

  10. Quantitative nanoscale electrostatics of viruses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hernando-Pérez, M.; Cartagena-Rivera, A. X.; Lošdorfer Božič, A.; Carrillo, P. J. P.; San Martín, C.; Mateu, M. G.; Raman, A.; Podgornik, R.; de Pablo, P. J.

    2015-10-01

    Electrostatics is one of the fundamental driving forces of the interaction between biomolecules in solution. In particular, the recognition events between viruses and host cells are dominated by both specific and non-specific interactions and the electric charge of viral particles determines the electrostatic force component of the latter. Here we probe the charge of individual viruses in liquid milieu by measuring the electrostatic force between a viral particle and the Atomic Force Microscope tip. The force spectroscopy data of co-adsorbed φ29 bacteriophage proheads and mature virions, adenovirus and minute virus of mice capsids is utilized for obtaining the corresponding density of charge for each virus. The systematic differences of the density of charge between the viral particles are consistent with the theoretical predictions obtained from X-ray structural data. Our results show that the density of charge is a distinguishing characteristic of each virus, depending crucially on the nature of the viral capsid and the presence/absence of the genetic material.Electrostatics is one of the fundamental driving forces of the interaction between biomolecules in solution. In particular, the recognition events between viruses and host cells are dominated by both specific and non-specific interactions and the electric charge of viral particles determines the electrostatic force component of the latter. Here we probe the charge of individual viruses in liquid milieu by measuring the electrostatic force between a viral particle and the Atomic Force Microscope tip. The force spectroscopy data of co-adsorbed φ29 bacteriophage proheads and mature virions, adenovirus and minute virus of mice capsids is utilized for obtaining the corresponding density of charge for each virus. The systematic differences of the density of charge between the viral particles are consistent with the theoretical predictions obtained from X-ray structural data. Our results show that the density of

  11. Advances in Research of Garlic Virus Diseases

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2010-01-01

    Garlic virus infection is an important disease which affects garlic production,with the increasing years of planting,harm of virus is serious year by year,which seriously affect yield and quality of garlic.In order to know the garlic virus effectively,the paper reviewed the research situation of several important garlic virus in virus species,origin,distribution,host range,symptom,route of transmission,classification,genome and detection technique and the prevention technology of garlic viruses.At the same ...

  12. The Mode of Net-Virus Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ShanXiuming; LiYing; JiaoJian; LiuYang; RenYong; QiuBen; CaoYiqun

    2004-01-01

    The computer network is not only of benefit to people, but also helpful for the spreading of viruses. The net-viruses spread more widely and rapidly than the traditional viruses, and network has become the major path of the virus spreading. The author analyzes the mode of the net-virus spreading, including E-mail spreading, positive scanning spreading and through-server spreading. Then some defense strategies in the anti-virus field are introduced, and some countermeasures of the net computer users are discussed.

  13. The IFITMs Inhibit Zika Virus Replication

    OpenAIRE

    George Savidis; Jill M. Perreira; Jocelyn M. Portmann; Paul Meraner; Zhiru Guo; Sharone Green; Abraham L. Brass

    2016-01-01

    Zika virus has emerged as a severe health threat with a rapidly expanding range. The IFITM family of restriction factors inhibits the replication of a broad range of viruses, including the closely related flaviruses West Nile virus and dengue virus. Here, we show that IFITM1 and IFITM3 inhibit Zika virus infection early in the viral life cycle. Moreover, IFITM3 can prevent Zika-virus-induced cell death. These results suggest that strategies to boost the actions and/or levels of the IFITMs mig...

  14. Unusual Influenza A Viruses in Bats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrew Mehle

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Influenza A viruses infect a remarkably diverse number of hosts. Two completely new influenza A virus subtypes were recently discovered in bats, dramatically expanding the host range of the virus. These bat viruses are extremely divergent from all other known strains and likely have unique replication cycles. Phylogenetic analysis indicates long-term, isolated evolution in bats. This is supported by a high seroprevalence in sampled bat populations. As bats represent ~20% of all classified mammals, these findings suggests the presence of a massive cryptic reservoir of poorly characterized influenza A viruses. Here, we review the exciting progress made on understanding these newly discovered viruses, and discuss their zoonotic potential.

  15. Towards the Epidemiological Modeling of Computer Viruses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaofan Yang

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Epidemic dynamics of computer viruses is an emerging discipline aiming to understand the way that computer viruses spread on networks. This paper is intended to establish a series of rational epidemic models of computer viruses. First, a close inspection of some common characteristics shared by all typical computer viruses clearly reveals the flaws of previous models. Then, a generic epidemic model of viruses, which is named as the SLBS model, is proposed. Finally, diverse generalizations of the SLBS model are suggested. We believe this work opens a door to the full understanding of how computer viruses prevail on the Internet.

  16. Presence and Distribution of Tobacco Viruses in Montenegro

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Zindović; Nataša Dukić; Aleksandra Bulajić; Jelena Latinović; Ivana Đekić; Bojan Duduk; Branka Krstić

    2007-01-01

    Seven important tobacco viruses were investigated in Montenegro in 2005: Tobacco Mosaic Virus (TMV), Tomato Spotted Wilt Virus (TSWV), Cucumber Mosaic Virus (CMV), Potato Virus Y (PVY), Alfalfa Mosaic Virus (AMV), Tobacco Ring Spot Virus (TRSV) and Potato Virus X(PVX). This investigation included sample collection from four tobacco growing regions in Montenegro and their serological testing by DAS-ELISA test. Presence of different strains of PVY was investigated as well using DAS ELISA test w...

  17. Production of cattle immunotolerant to bovine viral diarrhea virus.

    OpenAIRE

    McClurkin, A W.; Littledike, E T; Cutlip, R C; Frank, G H; Coria, M F; Bolin, S R

    1984-01-01

    Inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into 58 to 125 day old fetuses of bovine virus diarrhea virus seropositive pregnant cows, or inoculation of bovine virus diarrhea virus into seronegative cows 42 to 114 days pregnant, may produce clinically normal calves which are persistently infected with the specific isolate of bovine virus diarrhea virus yet seronegative to the homologous and heterologous isolates. Reinoculation of these persistently infected cattle with their homologous isolate ...

  18. 一个豇豆上的番茄黄化曲叶病毒分离物的分子鉴定及其基因组全序列%Molecular Identification and Complete Nucleotide Sequence of a Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus Isolated from Vigna sinensis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾蓉; 陈文俊; 陆金萍; 戴富明

    2011-01-01

    In the fall of 2008,the cowpea growing in a greenhouse in Shanghai suburban suffered a disease characterized by chlorotic and yellowing leaves.The complete nucleotide sequence of a tomato yellow leaf curl virus was amplified from DNA extracted from diseased plants.The sequence comparisons and phylogenetic analysis revealed that the pathogen was Tomato yellow leaf curl virus-Israel(TYLCV-IL),a member of the genus Begomovirus.The genome consisted of circular ssDNA with 2781 nucleotides,which has the typical characteristic of Old World monopartite begomoviruses with six ORFs corresponding to V2 and V1 (Capsid Protein gene)on the viral strand,and C3,C2,C1 and C4 on the complementary strand.This is the first report that a natural Tomato yellow leaf curl virus infected V.sinensis.%2008年秋,在上海郊区大棚栽培的豇豆上发现一种叶片褪绿和黄化病害症状.通过PCR从感病的植株叶片中扩增出番茄黄化曲叶病毒的全序列.序列比较及系统进化分析表明,这种病毒是菜豆金色黄花叶病毒属成员之一的Tomato Yellow Leaf Curl Virus-Israel(TYLCV-IL).基因组是由2781个核苷酸组成的环状单链DNA,具有典型的旧世界单组分菜豆金色黄花叶病毒属病毒的特征,有6个开放阅读框,V2和V1(外壳蛋白基因)在病毒链上,而C3、C2、C1和C4在互补链上.这是国内番茄黄化曲叶病毒侵染豇豆的首次报道.

  19. Oncolytic virus therapies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buonaguro, Franco Maria; Tornesello, Maria Lina; Izzo, Francesco; Buonaguro, Luigi

    2012-11-01

    Oncolytic virus (OV) therapy currently represents one of the most promising approaches to cancer treatment for their dual anticancer mechanisms: direct lysis of cancer cells (oncolytic feature) and activation of the immunosystem (cancer vaccine aspect). The latter demonstrates the advantage of a multi-target approach against multiple tumor-associated antigens. Since the 2005 SFDA (the Chinese FDA) approval for the clinical use of Oncorine™, the first human OV-based cancer treatment, more than 200 patents have been filed worldwide and several Phase I/II studies have been conducted. This patent review analyzes patents and clinical studies of the most promising OV products to highlight the pros and cons of this innovative anticancer approach, which is currently being tested in several cancers (i.e., hepatocellular carcinoma, melanoma and glioblastoma) by systemic as well as intratumoral injection. Clinical results, although effective only for a limited period of time, are encouraging. Combined treatments with radio or chemotherapeutic protocols are also in progress. PMID:24236929

  20. Hepatitis B virus morphogenesis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The hepatitis B virus (HBV) particle consists of an envelope containing three related surface proteins and probably lipid and an icosahedral nucleocapsid of approximately 30 nm diameter enclosing the viral DNA genome and DNA polymerase. The capsid is formed in the cytosol of the infected cell during packaging of an RNA pregenome replication complex by multiple copies of a 21-kDa C protein. The capsid gains the ability to bud during synthesis of the viral DNA genome by reverse transcription of the pregenome in the lumen of the particle. The three envelope proteins S,M, and L shape a complex transmembrane fold at the endoplasmic reticulum, and form disulfide-linked homoand heterodimers. The transmembrane topology of a fraction of the large envelope protein L changes posttranslationally, therefore, the N terminal domain of L (preS) finally appears on both sides of the membrane.During budding at an intracellular membrane, a short linear domain in the cytosolic preS region interacts with binding sites on the capsid surface. The virions are subsequently secreted into the blood. In addition, the surface proteins can bud in the absence of capsids and form subviral lipoprotein particles of 20 nm diameter which are also secreted.

  1. Hepatitis C virus proteins

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jean Dubuisson

    2007-01-01

    Hepatitis C virus (HCV) encodes a single polyprotein,which is processed by cellular and viral proteases to generate 10 polypeptides. The HCV genome also contains an overlapping +1 reading frame that may lead to the synthesis of an additional protein. Until recently,studies of HCV have been hampered by the lack of a productive cell culture system. Since the identification of HCV genome approximately 17 years ago, structural,biochemical and biological information on HCV proteins has mainly been obtained with proteins produced by heterologous expression systems. In addition, some functional studies have also been confirmed with replicon systems or with retroviral particles pseudotyped with HCV envelope glycoproteins. The data that have accumulated on HCV proteins begin to provide a framework for understanding the molecular mechanisms involved in the major steps of HCV life cycle. Moreover,the knowledge accumulated on HCV proteins is also leading to the development of antiviral drugs among which some are showing promising results in early-phase clinical trials. This review summarizes the current knowledge on the functions and biochemical features of HCV proteins.

  2. Hepatitis B virus replication

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Hepadnaviruses, including human hepatitis B virus (HBV), replicate through reverse transcription of an RNA intermediate, the pregenomic RNA (pgRNA). Despite this kinship to retroviruses, there are fundamental differences beyond the fact that hepadnavirions contain DNA instead of RNA. Most peculiar is the initiation of reverse transcription: it occurs by protein-priming, is strictly committed to using an RNA hairpin on the pgRNA,ε, as template, and depends on cellular chaperones;moreover, proper replication can apparently occur only in the specialized environment of intact nucleocapsids.This complexity has hampered an in-depth mechanistic understanding. The recent successful reconstitution in the test tube of active replication initiation complexes from purified components, for duck HBV (DHBV),now allows for the analysis of the biochemistry of hepadnaviral replication at the molecular level. Here we review the current state of knowledge at all steps of the hepadnaviral genome replication cycle, with emphasis on new insights that turned up by the use of such cellfree systems. At this time, they can, unfortunately,not be complemented by three-dimensional structural information on the involved components. However, at least for the s RNA element such information is emerging,raising expectations that combining biophysics with biochemistry and genetics will soon provide a powerful integrated approach for solving the many outstanding questions. The ultimate, though most challenging goal,will be to visualize the hepadnaviral reverse transcriptase in the act of synthesizing DNA, which will also have strong implications for drug development.

  3. Ebola virus: recommendations

    CERN Multimedia

    CERN Medical Service

    2014-01-01

    The CERN Medical Service has been closely following, in particular via the WHO, the development of the Ebola virus outbreak currently affecting some African countries. This infectious disease may be passed on through direct contact with the bodily fluids of a sick person.   Based on the recommendations of the WHO and the two Host States, Switzerland and France, as updated on their respective websites, so far there has been no ban on travel to the countries concerned. However, unless it is absolutely essential, you are advised not to visit any of the countries affected by Ebola (Guinea, Republic of Sierra Leone, Liberia, Nigeria). The two Host States have established an alert system, and a check is carried out on departure from the airports of those countries. It is strongly recommended that you contact the Medical Service if you are travelling to those countries. We remind you to observe the basic rules of hygiene such as frequent hand washing, whatever your destination. The Medical Service is...

  4. Vitamina A: nível sérico e ingestão dietética em crianças e adolecentes com déficit estatural de causa não hormonal Vitamin A: blood level and dietetics intake in stunted children and adolescents without hormonal disease

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ROSELI S. SARNI

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVOS: Determinar a ingestão dietética de vitamina A e os níveis séricos de carotenóides e retinol em crianças e adolescentes com déficit estatural sem causa hormonal, atendidos no Ambulatório de Endocrinopediatria do Núcleo de Nutrição (NUNADI da Secretaria de Estado da Saúde de São Paulo. MÉTODOS: Foram avaliados de maneira prospectiva 47 pacientes pré-púberes, entre 4 e 14 anos, com relação a: antropometria, idade óssea, inquérito alimentar, bioimpedanciometria e nível sérico de retinol e carotenóides. RESULTADOS: A média do escore Z da estatura foi de -2,4; 20% dos pacientes eram desnutridos, 25,5% tinham inadequação da massa gorda e maior atraso da idade óssea. Os níveis séricos de retinol e carotenóides foram inadequados em 21% dos pacientes, sendo que foi maior o percentual de inadequação dos carotenóides nos pacientes que apresentavam déficit estatural mais acentuado. Não houve relação dos níveis séricos de retinol e carotenóides com a velocidade de crescimento. Em 82,9% dos inquéritos alimentares realizados, houve ingestão de vitamina A inferior a 50% do estabelecido na Pirâmide de Alimentos. CONCLUSÃO: Baseados nestes resultados, concluímos que há uma elevada prevalência de desnutrição, comprometimento da idade óssea, inadequação no nível sérico de carotenóides e ingestão de vitamina A em crianças com comprometimento estatural.OBJECTIVES: To determine the vitamin A intake and the blood levels of carotenoids and retinol in stunted children and adolescents without hormonal disease, assisted in the Clinic of Pediatric Endocrinology of the Center for Nutrition and Child Development - Department of Health, State of São Paulo, Brazil. METHODS: We evaluated, in a prospective and randomized trial, 47 prepubertal patients between 4 and 14 years old. All patients were submitted to anthropometric evaluation, bone age, bioelectric impedance and serum retinol and carotenoid levels

  5. Immune based computer virus detection approaches

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TAN Ying; ZHANG Pengtao

    2013-01-01

    The computer virus is considered one of the most horrifying threats to the security of computer systems worldwide.The rapid development of evasion techniques used in virus causes the signature based computer virus detection techniques to be ineffective.Many novel computer virus detection approaches have been proposed in the past to cope with the ineffectiveness,mainly classified into three categories:static,dynamic and heuristics techniques.As the natural similarities between the biological immune system (BIS),computer security system (CSS),and the artificial immune system (AIS) were all developed as a new prototype in the community of anti-virus research.The immune mechanisms in the BIS provide the opportunities to construct computer virus detection models that are robust and adaptive with the ability to detect unseen viruses.In this paper,a variety of classic computer virus detection approaches were introduced and reviewed based on the background knowledge of the computer virus history.Next,a variety of immune based computer virus detection approaches were also discussed in detail.Promising experimental results suggest that the immune based computer virus detection approaches were able to detect new variants and unseen viruses at lower false positive rates,which have paved a new way for the anti-virus research.

  6. Acute otitis media and respiratory virus infections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuskanen, O; Arola, M; Putto-Laurila, A; Mertsola, J; Meurman, O; Viljanen, M K; Halonen, P

    1989-02-01

    We studied the association of acute otitis media with different respiratory virus infections in a pediatric department on the basis of epidemics between 1980 and 1985. Altogether 4524 cases of acute otitis media were diagnosed. The diagnosis was confirmed by tympanocentesis in 3332 ears. Respiratory virus infection was diagnosed during the same period in 989 patients by detecting viral antigen in nasopharyngeal mucus. There was a significant correlation between acute otitis media and respiratory virus epidemics, especially respiratory syncytial virus epidemics. There was no significant correlation between outbreaks of other respiratory viruses and acute otitis media. Acute otitis media was diagnosed in 57% of respiratory syncytial virus, 35% of influenza A virus, 33% of parainfluenza type 3 virus, 30% of adenovirus, 28% of parainfluenza type 1 virus, 18% of influenza B virus and 10% of parainfluenza type 2 virus infections. These observations show a clear association of respiratory virus infections with acute otitis media. In this study on hospitalized children Haemophilus influenzae strains were the most common bacteriologic pathogens in middle ear fluid, occurring in 19% of cases. Streptococcus pneumoniae was present in 16% and Branhamella catarrhalis in 7% of cases. There was no association between specific viruses and bacteria observed in this study.

  7. 9 CFR 113.311 - Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 9 Animals and Animal Products 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. 113.311... Virus Vaccines § 113.311 Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine. Bovine Virus Diarrhea Vaccine shall be prepared... virus dose from the lot of Master Seed Virus shall be established as follows: (1) Twenty-five...

  8. Autophagic machinery activated by dengue virus enhances virus replication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Autophagy is a cellular response against stresses which include the infection of viruses and bacteria. We unravel that Dengue virus-2 (DV2) can trigger autophagic process in various infected cell lines demonstrated by GFP-LC3 dot formation and increased LC3-II formation. Autophagosome formation was also observed under the transmission electron microscope. DV2-induced autophagy further enhances the titers of extracellular and intracellular viruses indicating that autophagy can promote viral replication in the infected cells. Moreover, our data show that ATG5 protein is required to execute DV2-induced autophagy. All together, we are the first to demonstrate that DV can activate autophagic machinery that is favorable for viral replication

  9. [Bats and Viruses: complex relationships].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodhain, F

    2015-10-01

    With more than 1 200 species, bats and flying foxes (Order Chiroptera) constitute the most important and diverse order of Mammals after Rodents. Many species of bats are insectivorous while others are frugivorous and few of them are hematophagous. Some of these animals fly during the night, others are crepuscular or diurnal. Some fly long distances during seasonal migrations. Many species are colonial cave-dwelling, living in a rather small home range while others are relatively solitary. However, in spite of the importance of bats for terrestrial biotic communities and ecosystem ecology, the diversity in their biology and lifestyles remain poorly known and underappreciated. More than sixty viruses have been detected or isolated in bats; these animals are therefore involved in the natural cycles of many of them. This is the case, for instance, of rabies virus and other Lyssavirus (Family Rhabdoviridae), Nipah and Hendra viruses (Paramyxoviridae), Ebola and Marburg viruses (Filoviridae), SARS-CoV and MERS-CoV (Coronaviridae). For these zoonotic viruses, a number of bat species are considered as important reservoir hosts, efficient disseminators or even directly responsible of the transmission. Some of these bat-borne viruses cause highly pathogenic diseases while others are of potential significance for humans and domestic or wild animals; so, bats are an important risk in human and animal public health. Moreover, some groups of viruses developed through different phylogenetic mechanisms of coevolution between viruses and bats. The fact that most of these viral infections are asymptomatic in bats has been observed since a long time but the mechanisms of the viral persistence are not clearly understood. The various bioecology of the different bat populations allows exchange of virus between migrating and non-migrating conspecific species. For a better understanding of the role of bats in the circulation of these viral zoonoses, epidemiologists must pay attention to

  10. Coping with Computer Viruses: General Discussion and Review of Symantec Anti-Virus for the Macintosh.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Primich, Tracy

    1992-01-01

    Discusses computer viruses that attack the Macintosh and describes Symantec AntiVirus for Macintosh (SAM), a commercial program designed to detect and eliminate viruses; sample screen displays are included. SAM is recommended for use in library settings as well as two public domain virus protection programs. (four references) (MES)

  11. Generation of virus like particles for epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forzan, Mario; Maan, Sushila; Mazzei, Maurizio; Belaganahalli, Manjunatha N; Bonuccelli, Lucia; Calamari, Monica; Carrozza, Maria Luisa; Cappello, Valentina; Di Luca, Mariagrazia; Bandecchi, Patrizia; Mertens, Peter P C; Tolari, Francesco

    2016-08-01

    Epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus (EHDV) is a distinct species within the genus Orbivirus, within the family Reoviridae. The epizootic hemorrhagic disease virus genome comprises ten segments of linear, double stranded (ds) RNA, which are packaged within each virus particle. The EHDV virion has a three layered capsid-structure, generated by four major viral proteins: VP2 and VP5 (outer capsid layer); VP7 (intermediate, core-surface layer) and VP3 (innermost, sub-core layer). Although EHDV infects cattle sporadically, several outbreaks have recently occurred in this species in five Mediterranean countries, indicating a potential threat to the European cattle industry. EHDV is transmitted by biting midges of the genus Culicoides, which can travel long distances through wind-born movements (particularly over water), increasing the potential for viral spread in new areas/countries. Expression systems to generate self-assembled virus like particles (VLPs) by simultaneous expression of the major capsid-proteins, have been established for several viruses (including bluetongue virus). This study has developed expression systems for production of EHDV VLPs, for use as non-infectious antigens in both vaccinology and serology studies, avoiding the risk of genetic reassortment between vaccine and field strains and facilitating large scale antigen production. Genes encoding the four major-capsid proteins of a field strain of EHDV-6, were isolated and cloned into transfer vectors, to generate two recombinant baculoviruses. The expression of these viral genes was assessed in insect cells by monitoring the presence of specific viral mRNAs and by western blotting. Electron microscopy studies confirmed the formation and purification of assembled VLPs. PMID:27473984

  12. Droplet Microfluidics for Virus Discovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotem, Assaf; Cockrell, Shelley; Guo, Mira; Pipas, James; Weitz, David

    2012-02-01

    The ability to detect, isolate, and characterize an infectious agent is important for diagnosing and curing infectious diseases. Detecting new viral diseases is a challenge because the number of virus particles is often low and/or localized to a small subset of cells. Even if a new virus is detected, it is difficult to isolate it from clinical or environmental samples where multiple viruses are present each with very different properties. Isolation is crucial for whole genome sequencing because reconstructing a genome from fragments of many different genomes is practically impossible. We present a Droplet Microfluidics platform that can detect, isolate and sequence single viral genomes from complex samples containing mixtures of many viruses. We use metagenomic information about the sample of mixed viruses to select a short genomic sequence whose genome we are interested in characterizing. We then encapsulate single virions from the same sample in picoliter volume droplets and screen for successful PCR amplification of the sequence of interest. The selected drops are pooled and their contents sequenced to reconstruct the genome of interest. This method provides a general tool for detecting, isolating and sequencing genetic elements in clinical and environmental samples.

  13. Dot immunobinding assay for simultaneous detection of specific immunoglobulin G antibodies to measles virus, mumps virus, and rubella virus.

    OpenAIRE

    F. Condorelli; Ziegler, T.

    1993-01-01

    A dot immunobinding assay was used to detect antibodies to measles virus, mumps virus, and rubella virus antigens. Filter paper soaked with serum or whole blood was directly applied to the antigen-coated nitrocellulose sheets. The test was easy to perform, and its results agreed very well with those obtained by standard enzyme immunoassay.

  14. A Literature Review of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, Anna R; Bloch, Evan M

    2016-07-01

    Zika virus is a mosquitoborne flavivirus that is the focus of an ongoing pandemic and public health emergency. Previously limited to sporadic cases in Africa and Asia, the emergence of Zika virus in Brazil in 2015 heralded rapid spread throughout the Americas. Although most Zika virus infections are characterized by subclinical or mild influenza-like illness, severe manifestations have been described, including Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults and microcephaly in babies born to infected mothers. Neither an effective treatment nor a vaccine is available for Zika virus; therefore, the public health response primarily focuses on preventing infection, particularly in pregnant women. Despite growing knowledge about this virus, questions remain regarding the virus's vectors and reservoirs, pathogenesis, genetic diversity, and potential synergistic effects of co-infection with other circulating viruses. These questions highlight the need for research to optimize surveillance, patient management, and public health intervention in the current Zika virus epidemic. PMID:27070380

  15. Virus Discovery Using Tick Cell Lines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell-Sakyi, Lesley; Attoui, Houssam

    2016-01-01

    While ticks have been known to harbor and transmit pathogenic arboviruses for over 80 years, the application of high-throughput sequencing technologies has revealed that ticks also appear to harbor a diverse range of endogenous tick-only viruses belonging to many different families. Almost nothing is known about these viruses; indeed, it is unclear in most cases whether the identified viral sequences are derived from actual replication-competent viruses or from endogenous virus elements incorporated into the ticks’ genomes. Tick cell lines play an important role in virus discovery and isolation through the identification of novel viruses chronically infecting such cell lines and by acting as host cells to aid in determining whether or not an entire replication-competent, infective virus is present in a sample. Here, we review recent progress in tick-borne virus discovery and comment on the actual and potential applications for tick cell lines in this emerging research area. PMID:27679414

  16. Bats and Viruses: a Brief Review

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin-Fa Wang

    2009-01-01

    Bats, probably the most abundant, diverse and geographically dispersed vertebrates on earth, have recently been shown to be the reservoir hosts of a number of emerging viruses responsible for severe human and livestock disease outbreaks. Flying foxes have been demonstrated to be the natural reservoir for Hendra and Nipah viruses. Evidence supporting the possibility of bats as potential reservoirs for SARS coronavirus (SARS-CoV) and Ebola virus has also been reported. The recent discovery of these viruses and other viruses occurring naturally in the bat population provides a unique insight into a diverse pool of potentially emergent and pathogenic viruses. The factors which influence the ability of zoonotic viruses to effectively cross the species barrier from bats to other animal populations are poorly understood. A brief review is provided here on the recently emerged bat viruses and on current and future strategies for research in this area.

  17. West Nile Virus Cases, 2006-present

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Department of Health & Human Services — This dataset contains positive cases of West Nile virus found in humans by county of residence, 2006-present. Humans usually become infected with West Nile virus by...

  18. A Literature Review of Zika Virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plourde, Anna R; Bloch, Evan M

    2016-07-01

    Zika virus is a mosquitoborne flavivirus that is the focus of an ongoing pandemic and public health emergency. Previously limited to sporadic cases in Africa and Asia, the emergence of Zika virus in Brazil in 2015 heralded rapid spread throughout the Americas. Although most Zika virus infections are characterized by subclinical or mild influenza-like illness, severe manifestations have been described, including Guillain-Barre syndrome in adults and microcephaly in babies born to infected mothers. Neither an effective treatment nor a vaccine is available for Zika virus; therefore, the public health response primarily focuses on preventing infection, particularly in pregnant women. Despite growing knowledge about this virus, questions remain regarding the virus's vectors and reservoirs, pathogenesis, genetic diversity, and potential synergistic effects of co-infection with other circulating viruses. These questions highlight the need for research to optimize surveillance, patient management, and public health intervention in the current Zika virus epidemic.

  19. Nucleocytoplasmic Shuttling of Influenza A Virus Proteins

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jing Li

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Influenza viruses transcribe and replicate their genomes in the nuclei of infected host cells. The viral ribonucleoprotein (vRNP complex of influenza virus is the essential genetic unit of the virus. The viral proteins play important roles in multiple processes, including virus structural maintenance, mediating nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of the vRNP complex, virus particle assembly, and budding. Nucleocytoplasmic shuttling of viral proteins occurs throughout the entire virus life cycle. This review mainly focuses on matrix protein (M1, nucleoprotein (NP, nonstructural protein (NS1, and nuclear export protein (NEP, summarizing the mechanisms of their nucleocytoplasmic shuttling and the regulation of virus replication through their phosphorylation to further understand the regulation of nucleocytoplasmic shuttling in host adaptation of the viruses.

  20. Influenza Type A Viruses and Subtypes

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Research Making a Candidate Vaccine Virus Related Links Influenza Types Seasonal Avian Swine Variant Pandemic Other Get ... this? Submit What's this? Submit Button Past Newsletters Influenza Type A Viruses Language: English Español Recommend ...