WorldWideScience

Sample records for chlorothiazide

  1. 21 CFR 520.420 - Chlorothiazide tablets and boluses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Chlorothiazide tablets and boluses. 520.420... Chlorothiazide tablets and boluses. (a)(1) Specifications. Each tablet contains 0.25 gram of chlorothiazide. (2...) Specifications. Each bolus contains 2 grams of chlorothiazide. (2) Sponsor. See No. 000006 in § 510.600(c)...

  2. Influence of thiazide on salt hypertension. [Chlorothiazide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Iwai, J.; Ohanian, E.V.; Dahl, L.K.

    1977-05-01

    This study was undertaken to evaluate the effect of chronic diuretic therapy with chlorothiazide on the course of salt hypertension in hypertension-resistant (R) and hypertension-sensitive (S) strains of rats. Investigation of the effects of chlorothiazide on blood pressure, 24-hour urinary /sup 24/Na and aldosterone excretion, and plasma renin activity (PRA) produced the following observations: (1) Chlorothiazide failed to prevent the development of salt hypertension in S rats. (2) After 12 weeks, S rats on high salt plus chlorothiazide exhibited a rapid fall in blood pressure to levels indistinguishable from those of S rats on low salt. (3) Chlorothiazide significantly increased urinary /sup 24/Na excretion only in S rats on high salt (P < 0.01). (4) Chlorothiazide significantly increased PRA and urinary aldosterone excretion in both strains on low or high salt diets (P < 0.001). (5) Morbidity and mortality of salt hypertension were alleviated by chlorothiazide treatment. The unique aspect of this study is the finding that chlorothiazide did not abolish the hypertensinogenic action of salt in S rats.

  3. Chlorothiazide

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... insipidus and certain electrolyte disturbances and to prevent kidney stones in patients with high levels of calcium in ... doctor prescribes a low-salt or low-sodium diet, or to eat or drink increased amounts of ...

  4. Relative Bioavailability of Chlorothiazide from Mucoadhesive Compacts in Pigs

    OpenAIRE

    Neelam, Karunakar; Mahalingam, Ravichandran; Birudaraj, Raj; Alfredson, Tom; Anne, Pratap; Li, Xiaoling; Jasti, Bhaskara R.

    2009-01-01

    The relative bioavailability of chlorothiazide from mucoadhesive polymeric compacts is compared to commercial oral suspension in pigs. A single-dose randomized study was conducted in 12 healthy pigs that are 9–10 weeks old. After overnight fasting, pigs were divided into two groups of six animals. To the first group, a reference product containing 50 mg of chlorothiazide suspension, and in the second group, test product (mucoadhesive compacts) chlorothiazide (50 mg) was administered with 75 m...

  5. Antihypertensive efficacy of alpha-methyldopa, chlorothiazide and Supres-150 (alpha-methyldopa-chlorothiazide).

    OpenAIRE

    Fernandez, P G; Zachariah, P. K.; Bryant, D G; Missan, S S

    1980-01-01

    Twenty-two white men and two white women with uncomplicated essential hypertension participated in a randomized double-blind trial comparing placebo with alpha-methyldopa (750 mg/d orally) and chlorothiazide (450 mg/d orally), alone or in combination. There were no significant differences in blood pressures as measured with the patients lying down; however, with the patients standing the systolic, diastolic and mean arterial blood pressures were significantly lower (P < 0.05) after treatment ...

  6. Preparation and solid state characterisation of chlorothiazide sodium intermolecular self assembly suprastructure

    OpenAIRE

    Tajber, Lidia; MC CABE, THOMAS; Healy, Anne Marie; O'BRIEN, JOHN EUGENE; Corrigan, Owen,; Paluch, Krzysztof ,

    2010-01-01

    PUBLISHED Chlorothiazide (CTZ), unlike other thiazide diuretics, can form salts. An injectable formulation containing the sodium salt is available; however neither the physicochemical characteristics of the salt nor its solid state form have been previously reported. This work reports on the crystal structure of chlorothiazide sodium. The structure was investigated by single crystal X-ray and nuclear magnetic spectroscopy (NMR) analyses and compared to chlorothiazide, while the solid state...

  7. Complexes With Biologically Active Ligands. Part 4. Coordination Compounds of Chlorothiazide With Transition Metal Ions Behave as Strong Carbonic Anhydrase Inhibitors

    OpenAIRE

    Supuran, Claudiu T.

    1996-01-01

    Complexes of the diuretic benzothiadiazine derivative chlorothiazide (6-chloro-7-sulfamoyl- 1,2,4-benzothiadiazine-1,1-dioxide) with V(IV); Fe(II); Co(II); Ni(II); Cu(II), Ag(I) and U(VI) were prepared and characterized by elemental analysis, spectroscopic, thermogravimetric, magnetic and conductimetric measurements. The complexes behave as effective inhibitors for two isozymes (I and II) of carbonic anhydrase (CA).

  8. Bioadhesive polymers as platforms for oral controlled drug delivery III: oral delivery of chlorothiazide using a bioadhesive polymer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Longer, M A; Ch'ng, H S; Robinson, J R

    1985-04-01

    Bioadhesive polymers that bind to the gastric mucin or epithelial cell surface are useful in drug delivery for the purposes of (a) retaining a dosage from in the GI tract and (b) increasing the intimacy and duration of contact of drug with the absorbing membrane. Polycarbophil has previously been shown to have bioadhesive properties in the rat stomach and small intestine and was employed in the present study with a sustained-release delivery system to demonstrate improved drug delivery. Using chlorothiazide as the model drug, drug containing albumin beads were prepared and used as the sustained-release system. The beads were physically mixed with equally sized particles of polycarbophil and placed in a capsule to produce a bioadhesive dosage form. When the dosage form contacts the stomach, the gelatin capsule dissolves, exposing the polycarbophil to the bathing fluid. The bioadhesive polymer rapidly hydrates, retaining the albumin beads and attaching to the mucin coating of the stomach. Plasma drug levels in rats showed a longer duration of action and greater bioavailability for the bioadhesive dosage form than for either albumin beads or drug powder alone. The results suggest that the principle of bioadhesion can significantly improve therapy, due to a reduced rate of gastric emptying, an increase in contact time, and the intimacy of contact of the drug with the absorbing membrane.

  9. Thiazide overdose

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medicines are in parentheses: Bendroflumethiazide (Naturetin) Benzthiazide (Exna) Chlorothiazide (Diuril, Diurigen) Chlorthalidone (Thalitone, Hygroton) Hydrochlorothiazide (Esidrix, HydroDiuril, ...

  10. RP-HPLC METHOD FOR SIMULTATANEOUS DETERMINATION OF IRBESARTAN, LOSARTAN, HYDRO-CHLOROTHIAZIDE AND CHLORTHALIDONE–APPLICATION TO COMMERCIALLY AVAILABLE DRUG PRODUCTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. A. Mhaske et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available A simple, precise and stability-indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of anti-hypertensive drugs Irbesartan, Losartan, diuretics Hydrochlorothiazide and Chlorthalidone. The separation was achieved on Hypersil BDS (Length 250 mm × Diameter 4.6 mm Particle size 5 μm column with gradient flow. The mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1 consisted of 0.05 M sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer and acetonitrile (Gradient ratio. The UV detection was carried out at 220 nm. The method was successfully validated in accordance to ICH guidelines. Further, the validated method was applied for commercially available pharmaceutical dosage form.

  11. Effectiveness of Captopril in Combination with Low-Dose Hydro-chlorothiazide for Systemic Hypertension%卡托普利与小剂量氢氯噻嗪合用治疗高血压疗效观察

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    龚铭; 叶向阳; 陈锡刚

    2000-01-01

    目的:研究卡托普利与小剂量氢氯噻嗪合用对高血压患者的疗效及对代谢的影响.方法:50例原发性高血压患者随机分为两组,第1组:单用卡托普利12.5 mg~7 5 mg,每日2~3次.第2组:卡托普利12.5 mg,每日2次,加服氢氯噻嗪12.5 mg,每日1次,两组治疗时间均为8周,测定治疗前后的基础血压,空腹血糖、血脂、血钾、血尿酸、尿素氮、肌酐, 以及治疗前后的24小时动态血压.结果:卡托普利加小剂量氢氯噻嗪组的总有效率及24小时动态血压结果均明显优于单用卡托普利组,而且两组治疗前后的代谢指标均无明显改变.结论:卡托普利与小剂量氢氯噻嗪合用治疗高血压较单用卡托普利更有效,而且对代谢无明显影响.

  12. Determination of Sibutramine, Indapamide, Bumetanide and Chlorothiazide in Mass- reducing Tonic by Micellar Electrokinetic Capillary Chromatography%胶束电动毛细管色谱法测定减肥保健品中的西布曲明、吲达帕胺、丁脲胺和氯噻嗪

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐远金; 许桂苹

    2005-01-01

    目的:建立了胶束电动毛细管色谱法同时测定减肥保健品中的西布曲明、吲达帕胺、丁脲胺和氯噻嗪的方法.方法:以10.0mmol·L-1磷酸盐缓冲溶液-15.0 mmol·L-1SDS(含35%乙腈,V/V,pH7.5)为电泳介质,未涂层弹性石英毛细管(50μm×48 cm,有效长度为40cm)为分离通道,检测波长为210 nm,压力进样(5 kPa×10 s).结果:西布曲明、吲达帕胺、丁脲胺和氯噻嗪的线性范围分别为4.0~100.0 mg·L-1,2.0~80.0 mg·L-1,2.0~80.0 mg·L-1,2.0~80.0 mg·L-1,检出限分别为1.0,0.5,0.5,0.5 mg·L-1,5次重复测定的相对偏差为2.8%~4.5%;样品加标回收率为89%~103%.结论:该法简便快捷,准确可靠,用于中药成分减肥保健品分析,结果令人满意.

  13. Clinical Effect and Hemodynamics Improvement of Metoprolol Combined with Compound Hydro chlorothiazide in the Treatment of Elderly Patients with Severe Heart Failure%美托洛尔联合复方氢氯噻嗪治疗老年重症心力衰竭临床疗效及血流动力学的改善作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2016-01-01

    目的 探讨美托洛尔联合复方氢氯噻嗪治疗老年重症心力衰竭临床疗效及对血流动力学的影响.方法 将2012年1月至2014年12月解放军第九七医院收治的106例老年重症心力衰竭患者按照随机数字表法分为观察组和对照组,各53例.对照组口服酒石酸美托洛尔片起始剂量12.5 mg/次,2次/d,单次最大剂量≤50 mg.观察组在对照组基础上口服厄贝沙坦氢氯噻嗪,每日1片,治疗3个月为1个疗程.比较两组患者临床疗效和治疗前后心脏结构情况、血流动力学变化情况;并记录两组患者不良反应发生率.结果 观察组总有效率显著高于对照组[98.1% (52/53)比83.0% (44/53),P<0.05];两组患者治疗后左心室射血分数(LVEF)均显著升高,其中观察组LVEF显著高于对照组[(34.8±9.7)%比(31.6±8.4)%,P<0.05];而治疗前后及两组间左心室舒张期末径(LVEDD)、左心室收缩期末径(LVESD)、左心室每搏量(LVSV)比较差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).两组患者治疗后肺动脉楔压(PAWP)、肺动脉平均压(PAMP)、右心房压(RAP)、体循环血管阻力(SVR)均显著降低,心排血量(CO)、心脏指数(CI)显著升高,与治疗前比较差异均有统计学意义(P <0.05);其中治疗后观察组PAWP、PAMP、RAP、SVR显著低于对照组[(14.6±3.1)mmHg(1 mmHg=0.133 kPa)比(18.4±3.7) mmHg,(23.8±6.7) mmHg比(27.2±8.7) mmHg,(6.5±1.1) mmHg比(6.8±0.8) mmHg,(125.9±11.0) kPa·s/L比(142.2±9.6) kPa· s/L],CO、CI显著高于对照组[(5.3±1.1) L/min比(4.4±1.2) L/min,(2.9±0.7)L/(min· m2)比(2.5 ±0.7)L/(min·m2)],差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).治疗期间,观察组总不良反应发生率与对照组比较差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 美托洛尔联合厄贝沙坦氢氯噻嗪治疗老年重症心力衰竭,其临床疗效好,对血流动力学改善作用明显,且不良反应发生率低,值得临床推广.

  14. Spironolactone therapy in infants with congestive heart failure secondary to congenital heart disease.

    OpenAIRE

    Hobbins, S M; Fowler, R. S.; Rowe, R D; Korey, A G

    1981-01-01

    The efficacy of treatment with spironolactone for congestive heart failure secondary to congenital heart disease was studied in 21 infants under 1 year of age. All received digoxin and chlorothiazide. In addition, group A (n = 10) was given supplements of potassium and group B (n = 11) received spironolactone. Daily clinical observations of vital signs, weight, hepatomegaly, and vomiting were recorded. Paired t test analysis showed significant reduction in liver size and weight (P less than 0...

  15. Impact of alternative solid state forms and specific surface area of high-dose, hydrophilic active pharmaceutical ingredients on tabletability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paluch, Krzysztof J; Tajber, Lidia; Corrigan, Owen I; Healy, Anne Marie

    2013-10-01

    In order to investigate the effect of using different solid state forms and specific surface area (TBET) of active pharmaceutical ingredients on tabletability and dissolution performance, the mono- and dihydrated crystalline forms of chlorothiazide sodium and chlorothiazide potassium (CTZK) salts were compared to alternative anhydrous and amorphous forms, as well as to amorphous microparticles of chlorothiazide sodium and potassium which were produced by spray drying and had a large specific surface area. The tablet hardness and tensile strength, porosity, and specific surface area of single-component, convex tablets prepared at different compression pressures were characterized. Results confirmed the complexity of the compressibility mechanisms. In general it may be concluded that factors such as solid-state form (crystalline vs amorphous), type of hydration (presence of interstitial molecules of water, dehydrates), or specific surface area of the material have a direct impact on the tabletability of the powder. It was observed that, for powders of the same solid state form, those with a larger specific surface area compacted well, and better than powders of a lower surface area, even at relatively low compression pressures. Compacts prepared at lower compression pressures from high surface area porous microparticles presented the shortest times to dissolve, when compared with compacts made of equivalent materials, which had to be compressed at higher compression pressures in order to obtain satisfactory compacts. Therefore, materials composed of nanoparticulate microparticles (NPMPs) may be considered as suitable for direct compaction and possibly for inclusion in tablet formulations as bulking agents, APIs, carriers, or binders due to their good compactibility performance. PMID:23961942

  16. 液相色谱-串联质谱法测定生鲜乳中氯噻嗪残留量%Determination of Residue in Raw Milk by Liquid Chromatography-Electrospray Tandem Mass Spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田素润; 蒋俊树; 丁磊

    2013-01-01

      A new method of ultra-performance liquid chromatography–electrospray ionization tandem mass spectrometry (LC–ESI–MS/MS) for the analysis of chlorothiazide in raw milk was developed. After degreasing purification, the sample was extracted by ethyl acetate, and then chlorothiazide in which was determined by LC–ESI–MS/MS. Separated analytes were determined using multiple reaction monitoring (MRM). The quantitative analysis of target compounds was performed by the external standard method. The result indicated that the calibration curves were linear in the range of 5–100μg/L for chlorothiazide. The correlation coefficients was 0.999. The quantification limit was 5μg/L (S/N=10). The recoveries of chlorothiazide at three spiked levels of 0.01,0.05,0.1 mg/kg were in the range of 86%–105%with RSDs (n=6) less than 8%.This method shortened the time of pre-treatment process, and the result was credible. It could satisfy the requirement of mass and fast analysis in the laboratory.%  采用液相色谱–串联质谱(HPLC–ESI–MS/MS)法测定生鲜乳中氯噻嗪含量。样品经去脂净化后,用乙酸乙酯提取,采用液相色谱–串联质谱法分析,多反应监测模式下(MRM)外标法定量。结果表明氯噻嗪的质量浓度与定量离子的峰面积在5~100μg/L范围内线性良好,线性相关系数为r=0.999,定量限为5μg/kg(S/N=10),在0.01,0.05,0.1 mg/kg的添加水平下,回收率在86%~105%之间,测定结果的相对标准偏差小于8%(n=6)。该方法前处理过程简便快捷,可满足实验室大量、快速分析的需求。

  17. Releasing the flood waters: diuril and the reshaping of hypertension.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greene, Jeremy A

    2005-01-01

    This article narrates the development and promotion in the 1950s and 1960s of Merck, Sharp & Dohme's Diuril (chlorothiazide), an antihypertensive drug, which played a significant role in the redefinition of high blood pressure as a widespread target for chronic pharmaceutical consumption. The joined careers of Diuril and hypertension in the late twentieth century demonstrate the connections between the clinical research, clinical practice, and marketing practices through which pharmaceuticals and disease categories come to define one another. By examining a series of internal documents preserved in the Merck Archives alongside a careful reading of the clinical literature and industry journals of the time, this article explores how the ambitions of marketers, physicians, and public health advocates found convergence in the expanding pharmaceutical prevention of chronic diseases. PMID:16327086

  18. Effect of certain drugs used in the treatment of cardiovascular disease on the 'in vitro' labelling of red blood cells with sup(99m)Tc

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zanelli, G.D. (Medical Research Council, Harrow (UK). Clinical Research Centre)

    1982-06-01

    The effects of stannous ion concentration on the 'in vitro' labelling yield of sup(99m)Tc-labelled human red blood cells (RBC) used in cardiac imaging was studied; optimum labelling yields were achieved with 0.03-0.15 micrograms Sn/sup 2 +//ml blood. The effects of heart drugs on the 'in vitro' labelling yield of sup(99m)Tc-labelled RBC were also investigated at various times after the addition of Sn/sup 2 +/. Digoxin and Verapamil accelerated and chlorothiazide and propranolol slowed down the labelling process; Frusemide had no evident effect. Thus heart drugs could influence the results of cardiac imaging studies using sup(99m)Tc-labelled RBC.

  19. Parameterization of small intestinal water volume using PBPK modeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maharaj, Anil; Fotaki, Nikoletta; Edginton, Andrea

    2015-01-25

    To facilitate accurate predictions of oral drug disposition, mechanistic absorption models require optimal parameterization. Furthermore, parameters should maintain a biological basis to establish confidence in model predictions. This study will serve to calculate an optimal parameter value for small intestinal water volume (SIWV) using a model-based approach. To evaluate physiologic fidelity, derived volume estimates will be compared to experimentally-based SIWV determinations. A compartmental absorption and transit (CAT) model, created in Matlab-Simulink®, was integrated with a whole-body PBPK model, developed in PK-SIM 5.2®, to provide predictions of systemic drug disposition. SIWV within the CAT model was varied between 52.5mL and 420mL. Simulations incorporating specific SIWV values were compared to pharmacokinetic data from compounds exhibiting solubility induced non-proportional changes in absorption using absolute average fold-error. Correspondingly, data pertaining to oral administration of acyclovir and chlorothiazide were utilized to derive estimates of SIWV. At 400mg, a SIWV of 116mL provided the best estimates of acyclovir plasma concentrations. A similar SIWV was found to best depict the urinary excretion pattern of chlorothiazide at a dose of 100mg. In comparison, experimentally-based estimates of SIWV within adults denote a central tendency between 86 and 167mL. The derived SIWV (116mL) represents the optimal parameter value within the context of the developed CAT model. This result demonstrates the biological basis of the widely utilized CAT model as in vivo SIWV determinations correspond with model-based estimates.

  20. Effects of Three Commonly-used Diuretics on the Urinary Proteome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xundou Li; Mindi Zhao; Menglin Li; Lulu Jia; Youhe Gao

    2014-01-01

    Biomarker is the measurable change associated with a physiological or pathophysiolog-ical process. Unlike blood which has mechanisms to keep the internal environment homeostatic, urine is more likely to reflect changes of the body. As a result, urine is likely to be a better biomarker source than blood. However, since the urinary proteome is affected by many factors, including diuretics, careful evaluation of those effects is necessary if urinary proteomics is used for biomarker discovery. Here, we evaluated the effects of three commonly-used diuretics (furosemide, F;hydro-chlorothiazide, H; and spirolactone, S) on the urinary proteome in rats. Urine samples were col-lected before and after intragastric administration of diuretics at therapeutic doses and the proteomes were analyzed using label-free liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Based on the criteria of P 6 0.05, a fold change P2, a spectral count P5, and false positive rate (FDR) 61%, 14 proteins (seven for F, five for H, and two for S) were identified by Progenesis LC-MS. The human orthologs of most of these 14 proteins are stable in the healthy human urinary proteome, and ten of them are reported as disease biomarkers. Thus, our results suggest that the effects of diuretics deserve more attention in future urinary protein biomarker studies. Moreover, the distinct effects of diuretics on the urinary proteome may provide clues to the mechanisms of diuretics.

  1. [Massive natriuresis and polyuria after triple craniocervical subarachnoid hemorrhage: cerebral salt wasting syndrome?].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berendes, E; Scherer, R; Schuricht, G; Rol, R; Hengst, K

    1992-11-01

    A thirty-year-old male patient suffered subarachnoidal haemorrhage from an angioma positioned in the cranio-cervical transition. After rebleeding twice the patient developed a hydrocephalus internus malresorptivus and excessive natriuresis and polyuria, accompanied by depressed renin activity and extremely low aldosterone plasma levels. Neither fluid restriction and sodium substitution, nor administration of hydro-chlorothiazide/indomethacin affected natriuresis and polyuria. It was only after treatment with fludrocortisone-acetate/hydrocortisone that hyponatraemia and polyuria were resolved. At the same time a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was applied. Differential diagnosis excluded the syndromes of inadequate antidiuretic hormone secretion, renal and cerebral diabetes insipidus, osmotic receptor hypofunction, chronic renal dysfunction and tubular necrosis. Natriuresis and polyuria developed under dexamethasone therapy. Since patient history, physical examination and laboratory criteria could not explain the electrolyte and fluid imbalance, this might be attributed to the hydrocephalus. Similar disturbances have been reported from other patients with intracranial disorders. Mechanical pressure exercised on the hypothalamus might cause the disturbance of fluid and sodium balance. Assuming a cerebral salt wasting syndrome, a putative natriuretic factor coming from the brain or an imbalance in the cerebral renin-angiotensin-system, as described in rats and dogs, must be discussed.

  2. A role for ATP-sensitive potassium channels in the anticonvulsant effects of triamterene in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shafaroodi, Hamed; Barati, Saghar; Ghasemi, Mehdi; Almasirad, Ali; Moezi, Leila

    2016-03-01

    There are reports indicating that diuretics including chlorothiazide, furosemide, ethacrynic acid, amiloride and bumetanide can have anticonvulsant properties. Intracellular acidification appears to be a mechanism for the anticonvulsant action of some diuretics. This study was conducted to investigate whether or not triamterene, a K(+)-sparing diuretic, can generate protection against seizures induced by intravenous or intraperitoneal pentylenetetrazole (PTZ) models. And to see if, triamterene can withstand maximal electroshock seizure (MES) in mice. We also investigated to see if there is any connection between triamterene's anti-seizure effect and ATP-sensitive K(+) (KATP) channels. Five days triamterene oral administration (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg), significantly increased clonic seizure threshold which was induced by intravenous pentylenetetrazole. Triamterene (10, 20 and 40 mg/kg) treatment also increased the latency of clonic seizure and decreased its frequency in intraperitoneal PTZ model. Administration of triamterene (20 mg/kg) also decreased the incidence of tonic seizure in MES-induced seizure. Co-administration of a KATP sensitive channel blocker, glibenclamide, in the 6th day, 60 min before intravenous PTZ blocked triamterene's anticonvulsant effect. A KATP sensitive channel opener, diazoxide, enhanced triamterene's anti-seizure effect in both intravenous PTZ or MES seizure models. At the end, triamterene exerts anticonvulsant effect in 3 seizure models of mice including intravenous PTZ, intraperitoneal PTZ and MES. The anti-seizure effect of triamterene probably is induced through KATP channels. PMID:26855365

  3. Oxidation of cetirizine, fexofenadine and hydrochlorothiazide during ozonation: Kinetics and formation of transformation products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borowska, Ewa; Bourgin, Marc; Hollender, Juliane; Kienle, Cornelia; McArdell, Christa S; von Gunten, Urs

    2016-05-01

    The efficiency of wastewater ozonation for the abatement of three nitrogen-containing pharmaceuticals, two antihistamine drugs, cetirizine (CTR) and fexofenadine (FXF), and the diuretic drug, hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ), was investigated. Species-specific second-order rate constants for the reactions of the molecular, protonated (CTR, FXF) or deprotonated (HCTZ) forms of these compounds with ozone were determined. All three compounds are very reactive with ozone (apparent second order rate constants at pH 7: kO3,pH7 = 1.7·10(5) M(-1)s(-1), 8.5·10(4) M(-1)s(-1) and 9.0·10(3) M(-1)s(-1) for CTR, HCTZ and FXF, respectively). Transformation product (TP) structures were elucidated using liquid chromatography coupled with high-resolution tandem mass spectrometry, including isotope-labeled standards. For cetirizine and hydrochlorothiazide 8 TPs each and for fexofenadine 7 TPs were identified. The main TPs of cetirizine and fexofenadine are their respective N-oxides, whereas chlorothiazide forms to almost 100% from hydrochlorothiazide. In the bacteria bioluminescence assay the toxicity was slightly increased only during the ozonation of cetirizine at very high cetirizine concentrations. The main TPs detected in bench-scale experiments were also detected in full-scale ozonation of a municipal wastewater, for >90% elimination of the parent compounds. PMID:26971810

  4. Ambulatory Blood Pressure Monitoring to Evaluate the Effect of Coaprovel in the Treatment of Young and Middle-Age Hypert%动态血压评价安博诺对中青年高血压治疗效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘腊平

    2011-01-01

    Objective To evaluate the effects of Coaprovel(Irbesantan 150 mg +hydro-chlorothiazide 12.5 mg tablet) in the treatment of young and middle-age hypertensives and its metabolic influence.Methods 64 patients were treated with coaprovel one tablet per day fo%目的评价复方制剂安博诺治疗中青年原发性高血压的效果及其对代谢的影响。方法未经药物治疗的中青年原发性高血压患者64例,每日服用安博诺(厄贝沙坦150 mg双氢克尿噻12.5 mg)1片,共4周,监测服药前后24 h动态血压和生化指标。结果服药后总有效率90.2%;治疗后24 h,白昼和夜间平均收缩压和舒张压与治疗前比较,差异有统计学意义,治疗前后生化指标无明显改变,未观察到严重不良反应。结论安博诺治疗中青年高血压有效,不良反应少。

  5. Fluoxetine: clinical pharmacology and physiologic disposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lemberger, L.; Bergstrom, R.F.; Wolen, R.L.; Farid, N.A.; Enas, G.G.; Aronoff, G.R.

    1985-03-01

    Fluoxetine (30 mg), administered for 7 days to normal volunteers, produced a 66% inhibition of tritiated serotonin uptake into platelets. Plasma concentrations of fluoxetine correlated positively with inhibition of serotonin uptake. Fluoxetine is well absorbed after oral administration in both the fed and fasted states and demonstrates dose proportionality. Fluoxetine disappears from plasma with a half-life of 1-3 days; its metabolite norfluoxetine has a plasma half-life of 7-15 days. After administration of /sup 14/C-fluoxetine, approximately 65% of the administered dose of radioactivity is recovered in urine and about 15% in feces. Fluoxetine, given as a single dose or in multiple doses over 8 days, did not produce significant effects on the plasma disappearance of warfarin, diazepam, tolbutamide, or chlorothiazide. Coadministration of fluoxetine and ethanol did not result in an increase from control values in the blood ethanol levels, nor did it produce significant changes in physiologic, psychometric, or psychomotor activity. Pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine in the elderly and normal volunteers appear to be similar. In addition, pharmacokinetic analyses in patients with varying degrees of renal impairment did not show significant differences from healthy subjects.

  6. Demographic characteristics and metabolic risk factors in Croatian children with urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milošević, Danko; Batinić, Danica; Turudić, Daniel; Batinić, Danko; Topalović-Grković, Marija; Gradiški, Ivan Pavao

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess demographic data, clinical presentation, metabolic features, and treatment in 76 children with urolithiasis presented from 2002 to 2011. Urolithiasis is responsible for 2.5/1,000 pediatric hospitalizations, with new cases diagnosed in 1.1/1,000 admissions. From the observed period, two-fold rise of incidence rate was observed. Compiling the data from other pediatric institutions in our country, we estimated present overall incidence rate in Croatia as 6.5/100,000 children under 18 years. There were 41 boys and 35 girls (ratio 1.17:1). The mean age at diagnosis was 9.7 (range 0.8-16) years and follow-up duration was 5.3 (range 1.8-10) years. Renal colic (75.0 %) and hematuria (57.89 %) were the main symptoms. In 65.78 % of children, stones were unilateral. Stones were located in kidney in 52.63 %, in the ureter in 26.32 %, and in bladder in 6.58 % cases. Stone analysis showed calcium oxalate in 75.0 % of the cases. Associated urinary tract abnormalities were found in 19.73 % children. Most common metabolic disturbances were hypercalciuria (47.37 %) and idiopathic or mild hyperoxaluria (18.42 %). Urine saturation (EQUIL2) was elevated in 61.84 % cases. Spontaneous stone evacuation occurred in 51.21 % children. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, surgical evacuation, and endoscopic removal of calculi were performed in 21.0, 6.58, and 5.26 % of cases, respectively. Follow-up conservative therapy, consisting of fluid/diet recommendations and additional potassium citrate and/or chlorothiazide in children with increased risk, was sufficient for stone recurrence prevention in 92.1 % of children. In conclusion, the study gave insight in epidemiology and metabolic disturbances of urinary stone disease in Croatian children.

  7. The role of calbindin-D28k on renal calcium and magnesium handling during treatment with loop and thiazide diuretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Te; Ng, Hwee-Yeong; Lee, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Li-Wen; Lien, Yeong-Hau H

    2016-02-01

    Calbindin-D28k (CBD-28k) is a calcium binding protein located in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and plays an important role in active calcium transport in the kidney. Loop and thiazide diuretics affect renal Ca and Mg handling: both cause Mg wasting, but have opposite effects on Ca excretion as loop diuretics increase, but thiazides decrease, Ca excretion. To understand the role of CBD-28k in renal Ca and Mg handling in response to diuretics treatment, we investigated renal Ca and Mg excretion and gene expression of DCT Ca and Mg transport molecules in wild-type (WT) and CBD-28k knockout (KO) mice. Mice were treated with chlorothiazide (CTZ; 50 mg · kg(-1) · day(-1)) or furosemide (FSM; 30 mg · kg(-1) · day(-1)) for 3 days. To avoid volume depletion, salt was supplemented in the drinking water. Urine Ca excretion was reduced in WT, but not in KO mice, by CTZ. FSM induced similar hypercalciuria in both groups. DCT Ca transport molecules, including transient receptor potential vanilloid 5 (TRPV5), TRPV6, and CBD-9k, were upregulated by CTZ and FSM in WT, but not in KO mice. Urine Mg excretion was increased and transient receptor potential subfamily M, member 6 (TRPM6) was upregulated by both CTZ and FSM in WT and KO mice. In conclusion, CBD-28k plays an important role in gene expression of DCT Ca, but not Mg, transport molecules, which may be related to its being a Ca, but not a Mg, intracellular sensor. The lack of upregulation of DCT Ca transport molecules by thiazides in the KO mice indicates that the DCT Ca transport system is critical for Ca conservation by thiazides.

  8. Drug-Induced Acute Pancreatitis in a Cohort of 328 Patients. A Single-Centre Experience from Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savio G Barreto

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Context Acute pancreatitis is associated with risk of morbidity and even mortality. Routine prescription drugs have been linked to the causation of acute pancreatitis. Objective To determine the incidence, presentation, course and outcome of drug-induced acute pancreatitis amongst patients admitted to a public hospital. Design/setting A retrospective analysis of patients presenting with acute pancreatitis to the Modbury Hospital, South Australia from January 2006 to April 2011. Main outcome measure Each admission was reviewed within the electronic database for patient details as well as to determine the aetiological factor. In patients with druginduced acute pancreatitis, the WHO Probability Scale was used to evaluate causality relationship. Results Three-hundreds and 28 patients were treated for acute pancreatitis during the study period. Biliary and alcohol-induced acute pancreatitis accounted for 80.8% of cases. Eleven patients (2 male and 9 female patients; median age: 59 years were diagnosed with drug-induced acute pancreatitis. These included 5 cases of codeine-, 2 cases of azathioprine-, and 1 case each of chlorothiazide-, valproic acid-, oestradiol- and rosuvastatin-induced acute pancreatitis. Nine patients had a mild disease while 2 patients had severe acute pancreatitis with a median hospital stay of 4 days. Withdrawal of the drug resulted in cessation of the attacks in all patients over a median follow-up of 24 months. Conclusions Routine prescription drugs, as an aetiological factor, accounted for 3.4% of cases of acute pancreatitis. The disease appeared to be more common in middle-aged women. It is likely that the overall incidence of this entity is under-reported owing to the stringent criteria needed to conclusively determine a causal relationship.

  9. PRESCRIBING PATTERN OF ANTIHYPERTENSIVES IN INDIVIDUALS WITH HYPERTENSION ALONE AND WITH COEXISTING DIABETES MELLITUS – A COMPARATIVE STUDY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Keerthi Sagar*, S. Narendranath, H.S. Somashekar, S.R. Reshma, Susheela Somappa Halemani and Prabhakar Adake

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Analysis of prescribing pattern of antihypertensives in patients with hypertension alone and with coexisting diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in an outpatient and inpatient department of general medicine at JJM Medical College hospital for a period of 3 months (July 2011 to September 2011. Prescriptions of the patients were collected and relevant data was entered in the preformed proforma and analyzed.Results: A total of 210 prescriptions were analyzed using chi square test. Out of which 126 prescriptions were of patients with hypertension alone which contain calcium channel blockers (30%, beta blockers (26%, angiotensin receptor blockers (15%, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (4% and fixed dose combinations of angiotensin receptor blockers with hydrochlorothiazide (11% and combination of amlodipine with hydro-chlorothiazide (2.5%.84 Prescriptions of hypertension with coexisting diabetes mellitus had calcium channel blockers (24%, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (19%, angiotensin receptor blockers (13%, beta blockers (13%, and fixed dose combinations of angiotensin receptor blockers with hydrochlorothiazide (18% and combination of amlodipine with hydrochlorothiazide (6%.[χ2=17.01, p=o.oo4] Conclusion- The present study shows that angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors because of its beneficial effects which are well known are more commonly prescribed drugs in individuals with hypertension with coexisting diabetes mellitus. Calcium channel blockers and newly introduced angiotensin receptor blockers alone or in combination with hydrochlorothiazide are preferred drugs in both the study groups. Beta blockers are less preferred in patients of hypertension with coexisting diabetes mellitus for obvious reasons.

  10. The role of calbindin-D28k on renal calcium and magnesium handling during treatment with loop and thiazide diuretics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Te; Ng, Hwee-Yeong; Lee, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Li-Wen; Lien, Yeong-Hau H

    2016-02-01

    Calbindin-D28k (CBD-28k) is a calcium binding protein located in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and plays an important role in active calcium transport in the kidney. Loop and thiazide diuretics affect renal Ca and Mg handling: both cause Mg wasting, but have opposite effects on Ca excretion as loop diuretics increase, but thiazides decrease, Ca excretion. To understand the role of CBD-28k in renal Ca and Mg handling in response to diuretics treatment, we investigated renal Ca and Mg excretion and gene expression of DCT Ca and Mg transport molecules in wild-type (WT) and CBD-28k knockout (KO) mice. Mice were treated with chlorothiazide (CTZ; 50 mg · kg(-1) · day(-1)) or furosemide (FSM; 30 mg · kg(-1) · day(-1)) for 3 days. To avoid volume depletion, salt was supplemented in the drinking water. Urine Ca excretion was reduced in WT, but not in KO mice, by CTZ. FSM induced similar hypercalciuria in both groups. DCT Ca transport molecules, including transient receptor potential vanilloid 5 (TRPV5), TRPV6, and CBD-9k, were upregulated by CTZ and FSM in WT, but not in KO mice. Urine Mg excretion was increased and transient receptor potential subfamily M, member 6 (TRPM6) was upregulated by both CTZ and FSM in WT and KO mice. In conclusion, CBD-28k plays an important role in gene expression of DCT Ca, but not Mg, transport molecules, which may be related to its being a Ca, but not a Mg, intracellular sensor. The lack of upregulation of DCT Ca transport molecules by thiazides in the KO mice indicates that the DCT Ca transport system is critical for Ca conservation by thiazides. PMID:26582761

  11. Linear support vector regression and partial least squares chemometric models for determination of Hydrochlorothiazide and Benazepril hydrochloride in presence of related impurities: A comparative study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naguib, Ibrahim A.; Abdelaleem, Eglal A.; Draz, Mohammed E.; Zaazaa, Hala E.

    2014-09-01

    Partial least squares regression (PLSR) and support vector regression (SVR) are two popular chemometric models that are being subjected to a comparative study in the presented work. The comparison shows their characteristics via applying them to analyze Hydrochlorothiazide (HCZ) and Benazepril hydrochloride (BZ) in presence of HCZ impurities; Chlorothiazide (CT) and Salamide (DSA) as a case study. The analysis results prove to be valid for analysis of the two active ingredients in raw materials and pharmaceutical dosage form through handling UV spectral data in range (220-350 nm). For proper analysis a 4 factor 4 level experimental design was established resulting in a training set consisting of 16 mixtures containing different ratios of interfering species. An independent test set consisting of 8 mixtures was used to validate the prediction ability of the suggested models. The results presented indicate the ability of mentioned multivariate calibration models to analyze HCZ and BZ in presence of HCZ impurities CT and DSA with high selectivity and accuracy of mean percentage recoveries of (101.01 ± 0.80) and (100.01 ± 0.87) for HCZ and BZ respectively using PLSR model and of (99.78 ± 0.80) and (99.85 ± 1.08) for HCZ and BZ respectively using SVR model. The analysis results of the dosage form were statistically compared to the reference HPLC method with no significant differences regarding accuracy and precision. SVR model gives more accurate results compared to PLSR model and show high generalization ability, however, PLSR still keeps the advantage of being fast to optimize and implement.

  12. Demographic characteristics and metabolic risk factors in Croatian children with urolithiasis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milošević, Danko; Batinić, Danica; Turudić, Daniel; Batinić, Danko; Topalović-Grković, Marija; Gradiški, Ivan Pavao

    2014-03-01

    The aim of this study was to assess demographic data, clinical presentation, metabolic features, and treatment in 76 children with urolithiasis presented from 2002 to 2011. Urolithiasis is responsible for 2.5/1,000 pediatric hospitalizations, with new cases diagnosed in 1.1/1,000 admissions. From the observed period, two-fold rise of incidence rate was observed. Compiling the data from other pediatric institutions in our country, we estimated present overall incidence rate in Croatia as 6.5/100,000 children under 18 years. There were 41 boys and 35 girls (ratio 1.17:1). The mean age at diagnosis was 9.7 (range 0.8-16) years and follow-up duration was 5.3 (range 1.8-10) years. Renal colic (75.0 %) and hematuria (57.89 %) were the main symptoms. In 65.78 % of children, stones were unilateral. Stones were located in kidney in 52.63 %, in the ureter in 26.32 %, and in bladder in 6.58 % cases. Stone analysis showed calcium oxalate in 75.0 % of the cases. Associated urinary tract abnormalities were found in 19.73 % children. Most common metabolic disturbances were hypercalciuria (47.37 %) and idiopathic or mild hyperoxaluria (18.42 %). Urine saturation (EQUIL2) was elevated in 61.84 % cases. Spontaneous stone evacuation occurred in 51.21 % children. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, surgical evacuation, and endoscopic removal of calculi were performed in 21.0, 6.58, and 5.26 % of cases, respectively. Follow-up conservative therapy, consisting of fluid/diet recommendations and additional potassium citrate and/or chlorothiazide in children with increased risk, was sufficient for stone recurrence prevention in 92.1 % of children. In conclusion, the study gave insight in epidemiology and metabolic disturbances of urinary stone disease in Croatian children. PMID:24096520

  13. HPLC法同时测定依普罗沙坦/氢氯噻嗪片的两组分含量%Simultaneous Determination of Eprosartan/Hydrochlorothiazide Tablets by HPLC

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李旸; 谢向阳; 陈晨; 韩亮; 廖祥茹; 陈鹰

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To establish an HPLC method for the simultaneous determination of eprosartan/hydrochlorothiazide tablets. Methods:Isocratic separation was achieved on a Phenomenex C18 column(250 mm × 4. 6 mm, 5 μm) using the mobile phase com-posed of 0. 5% formic acid-acetonitrile(60∶40, pH 2. 80). The flow rate was 1. 0 ml·min-1, the detection wavelength was 272nm, the column temperature was 30℃ and the injection volume was 20μl. Results:The linearity between peak area and concentration was observed within the range of 60. 0-1 200. 0 mg·L-1(r=0. 999 9) for eprosartan and 1. 25-25. 00 mg·L-1(r=0. 999 9) for hydro-chlorothiazide. The mean recovery of eprosartan and hydrochlorothiazide was 100. 02%(RSD=0. 35%, n=9) and 97. 93%(RSD=1. 54%, n=9), respectively. Conclusion:The method is simple, sensitive and accurate, and can be applied in the determination of eprosartan/hydrochlorothiazide tablets.%目的:建立 HPLC 法测定复方依普罗沙坦/氢氯噻嗪片含量的方法。方法:采用菲罗门 C18色谱柱(250 mm ×4.6 mm,5μm),以0.5%甲酸水溶液-乙腈(60∶40, pH 2.80)为流动相,流速1.0 ml·min-1,检测波长272 nm,柱温30℃,进样量20μl。结果:依普罗沙坦质量浓度在60.0~1200.0 mg·L-1范围内(r=0.9999),氢氯噻嗪质量浓度在1.25~25.00 mg· L-1范围内与峰面积呈良好的线性关系(r=0.9999),平均回收率分别为100.02%(RSD=0.35%,n=9)、97.93%(RSD=1.54%, n=9)。结论:本方法简便、快速、准确,重复性好,可用于复方依普罗沙坦/氢氯噻嗪片中两组分的含量测定。

  14. 替米沙坦联合氢氯噻嗪治疗高血压的临床疗效观察%Clinical efficacy observation of telmisartan combined with hydrochlorothiazide in the treatment of hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    牛旭萍

    2014-01-01

    目的:探究替米沙坦联合氢氯噻嗪治疗高血压的临床疗效。方法选择确诊的原发性高血压患者116例,随机分为观察组与对照组各58例。对照组给予单纯替米沙坦治疗,观察组在此基础上联合氢氯噻嗪治疗,观察对比2组临床疗效。结果观察组总有效率为89.7%明显高于对照组的70.7%;观察组 SBP 和 DBP 下降程度明显大于对照组,组间比较差异具有统计学意义(P <0.05)。2组均未发生严重不良反应。结论2药联用治疗高血压的降压效果显著,降压平稳,且用药安全。%Objective To explore the efficacy of telmisartan combined with hydrochlorothiazide in the treatment of hy-pertension. Methods 116 cases of patients with essential hypertension were randomly divided into observation group and con-trol group,each of 58 cases. The control group was treated with telmisartan,while the observation group was added with hydro-chlorothiazide based on the control group. The clinical curative effect of 2 groups was compared. Results The total effective rate of observation group was 89. 7% ,which was significantly higher than 70. 7% in control group;The decreased degree of SBP and DBP in observation group was significantly greater than of that of the control group;the differences were statistically significant(P < 0. 05). The two groups were no serious adverse reactions. Conclusion The combination of 2 drugs has signifi-cant effect in the treatment of hypertension,with smooth step-down,and safety.

  15. 依那普利联合氢氯噻嗪治疗老年单纯收缩期高血压疗效观察%Observation of the efficacy of enalapril joint hydrochlorothiazidethe in the treatment of elderly patients with isolated systolic hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐薇

    2013-01-01

    Objective To analysis of the enalapril joint hydrogen chlorothiazide elderly patients with isolated systolic hypertension clinical effect and safety. Methods Hospital treatment of 78 patients over the age of 60 with isolated systolic hypertension were randomly divided into two groups, the control group, 38 patients treated with enalapril treatment, the observation group of 40 patients were treated with enalapril hydrochlorothiazide treatment were observed therapeutic effects and adverse reactions. Results The treatment of the total effective rate for the control group, the therapeutic effect of the observation group than the control group (P 0.05). Conclusion enalapril joint hydrochlorothiazide therapy, systolic blood pressure is well controlled, adverse reactions, safe and reliable clinical application to extend the application of elderly patients with isolated systolic hypertension.%目的 分析依那普利联合氢氯噻嗪对老年单纯收缩期高血压的临床疗效及安全性.方法 将到本院治疗的78例60岁以上单纯收缩期高血压患者按随机数字表法分为两组,对照组38例单纯给予依那普利治疗,观察组40例给予依那普利联合氢氯噻嗪治疗,观察两组疗效及不良反应发生情况.结果 观察组疗效优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);观察组治疗后收缩压为(134.5±16.4)mmHg,对照组为(143.7±18.9)mmHg,观察组血压控制优于对照组,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);两组不良反应发生率比较,差异无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 对老年单纯性收缩期高血压患者采用依那普利联合氢氯噻嗪治疗,收缩压控制良好,不良反应少,安全可靠,临床应推广使用.

  16. 厄贝沙坦联合氢氯噻嗪对原发性高血压患者左心室肥厚的影响%Effect of Irbesartan and Hydrochlorothiazide on Blood Pressure in Patients with Essential Hypertension and Left Ventricular Hypertrophy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张云; 梅松柳; 郭红霞

    2011-01-01

    目的 观察厄贝沙坦联合氢氯噻嗪对原发性高血压患者左心室肥厚的逆转效果.方法 56例原发性高血压伴左心室肥厚患者随机分成两组,各28例.对照组给予厄贝沙坦150 mg/d,观察组在此基础上加氢氯噻嗪12.5 mg/d,治疗6个月后,观察治疗前后两组患者血压变化,并计算左心室心肌重量(LVM)、左心室重量指数(LVMI).结果 两组患者治疗后收缩压及舒张压与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).两组患者治疗后LVM、LVMI与对照组比较差异有统计学意义(P<0.05).两组治疗后血钾水平分别与本组治疗前比较,差异均无统计学意义(P>0.05).结论 厄贝沙坦联合氢氯噻嗪降压以及逆转左心室肥厚的临床效果比单用厄贝沙坦更好.%Objective To observe the reversal effect of irbesartan and hydrochlorothiazide on blood pressure in patients with essential hypertension and left ventricular hypertrophy.Methods 56 cases of essential hypertension with left ventricular hypertrophy were randomly divided into two groups, treated with irbesartan 150 mg/d, plus hydrogenation chlorothiazide 12.5 mg/d in the observation group,for 6 months,observed before and after treatment of blood pressure change and calculate left ventricular myocardial weight measurement( LVM ),left ventricular mass index( LVMI ).Results The two groups after treatment compared with those before treatment significantly reduced SBP and DBP, and the observation group was lower than the control group after treatment ( P < 0.05 ).LVM, LVMI were significantly lower in both groups of patients after treatment,and the observation group was lower than the control group( P < 0.05 ).No significant difference was observed in serum potassium levels after treatment( P > 0.05 ).Conclusion Irbesartan combined with hydrochlorothiazide effect on lowering the blood pressure and reversing of left ventricular hypertrophy is better than the single - use.

  17. The Metabolic Profile and Detection Window of Hydrochlorthiazide in Human Urine%用液相色谱-串联质谱技术研究禁用物质氢氯噻嗪在人尿中的代谢情况

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    马艳华; 闫宽; 董颖

    2016-01-01

    目的:使用液相色谱-串联质谱法研究口服利尿剂氢氯噻嗪(Hydrochlorothiazide)后,尿样中药物原形、其代谢物氯噻嗪(Chlorothiazide)和降解产物4-氨基-6-氯-1,3苯二磺酰氯(4-Amino-6-chlorobenzene-1,3-disulphonamide)的代谢规律和检测窗口期.方法:选取男女各1名年龄为26岁和27岁的健康志愿者,进行氢氯噻嗪人体受试实验,收集服药前的空白尿和服药后3天内的所有尿样,以及之后14天的晨尿.尿样经同等体积的5%醋酸铅水溶液沉淀蛋白质后,上清液用多反应离子监测模式(MRM)直接进行检测.结果:氢氯噻嗪、氯噻嗪和4-氨基-6-氯-1,3苯二磺酰氯的检测限分别为2.5、1和5 ng/ml;定量限分别为10、3和15 ng/ml;3种药物在低、中和高3个浓度的日内和日间精密度均小于10%;准确度均介于88%至110%之间;平均基质效应在75%~120%范围内.对受试者的尿样进行分析后,发现氢氯噻嗪原形的检测窗口期为7天,代谢物氯噻嗪的检测窗口期为3天,降解产物ACB的检出时间为13天.结论:该检测方法对氢氯噻嗪原形、其代谢物氯噻嗪和降解产物ACB具有前处理简单、灵敏度高、准确可靠和重现性好等特点.与之前的文献相比,3种禁用物质的检测窗口期都有不同程度的延长.

  18. Effects of compliance in patients with antihypertensive therapy using two ways of admistration%两种给药方式对高血压患者依从性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    苏贻洲; 王莉; 王正忠

    2016-01-01

    Objective To compare the effects of compliance in patients with antihypertensive therapy between Single -pill combination ( SPC) and free combination .Methods 200 patients with hypertension were randomly divided into observa-tion group and control group ,each of 100 cases.Observation group were treated with irbesartan and hydro-chlorothiazide tab-lets,control group were treated with irbesartan tablets and hydrochlorothiazide tablets .The two groups of patients received the same dose of drug and the number of times per day .The intervention lasted for 12 months.Calculated the compliance of two groups,systolic blood pressure ,diastolic blood pressure were measured before and after the treatment .Results In observation group,1 cases of 100 cases of drug allergy withdrawal test ,1 cases was lost ,in control group of 100 cases,1 cases died due to sudden cerebral hemorrhage rescue .12 months after treatment ,the blood pressure levels in two groups were lower than those be-fore treatment ,the level of blood pressure in observation group was significantly lower than that of control group ,the differences were statistically significant ( P<0.05).Conclusion SPC improve the compliance of hypertension patients more obviously than free combination ,increase blood pressure in patients with success rate .%目的 比较单片联合制剂( SPC)与自由联合治疗对高血压患者依从性的影响. 方法 将200例高血压患者随机分为观察组和对照组各100例. 观察组给予厄贝沙坦/氢氯噻嗪片治疗,对照组给予厄贝沙坦片和氢氯噻嗪片治疗. 2组患者每天接受药物的剂量和服药次数均相同. 12个月后统计2组的依从性,测量治疗前后2组的收缩压、舒张压. 结果 观察组100例中因药物过敏退出试验1例,失访1例,剩余98例,对照组100例中因突发脑出血抢救无效死亡1例,剩余99例. 随访12个月,观察组依从性明显优于对照组;2组患者经12个月治疗后血压水平均低于治疗

  19. Evaluation of tablets splitting in NAH treatment for hypertensive patients in primary clinic unit%基层高血压NAH治疗方案片剂分剂量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘元江; 缪经纬; 詹金陶; 刘其东

    2012-01-01

    AIM To evaluate accuracy and rationality of tablets splitting in nifedipine, atenolol, hydro-chlorothiazide and captopril ( NAH) treatment for hypertensive patients in primary clinical unit. METHODS Tablet cutter was utilized to split these pills into quarter or one eighth, and then European Pharmacopoeia (EP) and other standards was adopted to evaluate the accuracy of tablets spittin, expected weight (EW) and real wegtht (RW), mean weight loss percentage, and friability. RESULTS When these tablets split into quarter, they could not meet the accuracy subdivision of EP standards. There was significant difference when compared EW1/4 with RW1/4, such as nifedipine tablets produced by Xiangxue Pharmaceutical Company, atenolol tablets produced by Zhongyang Pharmaceutical Company or Wanraa Pharmaceutical Company, and hydrochlorothiazide tablets produced by Yunpeng Pharmaceutical Company. All tablets met the mean weight loss percentage ≤3%, however part of tablets could not meet the requirement of friability. When these tablets split into one eighth, they could not meet the accuracy subdivision of EP standards. There was significant difference when compared EW1/8 with RW^, such as nifedipine tablets produced by Xiangxue Pharmaceutical Company and atenolol tablets produced by Wanma Pharmaceutical Company. Meanwhile, mean weight loss percentage and friability could not meet the related regulation. CONCLUSION In the NAH treatment for hypertensive patients in primary clinical unit, the accuracy of tablets spitting and other indicators can not meet the requirements. It should be solved urgently to improve rational drug use.%目的 评价基层高血压硝苯地平、阿替洛尔、氢氯噻嗪和卡托普利(NAH)治疗方案片剂分剂量的准确性、合理性.方法 采用药片切割器对4种片剂四等分和(或)八等分,参照《欧洲药典》及相关参考文献评价分剂量准确性、期望重量(EW)与实际重量(RW)的比较、平均损失百分

  20. 复方地巴唑氢氯噻嗪胶囊中磷酸氯喹的杂质定性分析%The Qualitative Analysis of Impurities by Chloroquine Phosphate in Compound Bendazol and Hydrochlorothiazide Capsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓英

    2015-01-01

    The impurities of chloroquine phosphate in Compound bendazol and hydrochlorothiazide capsules, were identi⁃fied using high performance liquid chromatography(UV detector and two diode array detector)and mass spectrometry. Us⁃ing Luna C18 column with the mobile phase of methanol and acetic acid-2%,(υ/υ10∶90), with flow rate of 0.5 ml/min, col⁃umn temperature at room temperature,the injection volume was 20μl, the UV detection wavelength was 324nm and the DAD detection wavelength range was 200~400nm, by high performance liquid chromatography. In mass spectrometry, ESI electro⁃spray ionization was used, atomization gas pressure was 45 psi, with drying air flow rate 10 L/min and temperature 350℃and capillary voltage 3.5 kV, scaning MS. And then the second scan was carried out to the first target ion with voltage 20eV and collection range of 100-1000 m/z. UV detection results showed that the impurity peak in Compound bendazol and hydro⁃chlorothiazide capsules was similar to that in chloroquine phosphate. And the DAD detection result of the impuritie was simi⁃lar to chloroquine. The second mass scan result showed that the molecular fragments were similar to chloroquine. The impuri⁃ties generated by chloroquine phosphate in Compound bendazol and hydrochlorothiazide capsules is N-deethylation chloro⁃quine.%采用高效液相色谱法(HPLC)(紫外检测器UV和二级管阵列检测器DAD)和质谱法MS)对复方地巴唑氢氯噻嗪胶囊中磷酸氯喹所产生的杂质进行定性鉴别与归属.实验使用Luna C18色谱柱,以甲醇-2%醋酸(υ/υ10∶90)为流动相,流速0.5 mL/min,柱温为室温,进样量为20μl ,紫外检测波长为324 nm,DAD检测波长扫描范围为200~400 nm,进行高效液相色谱.质谱法则使用ESI电喷雾离子化源,雾化气压力为45 psi,干燥气流速为10 L/min,干燥气温度350℃,毛细管电压3.5 kV,扫描方式采用一级质谱全扫描,再对目标离子进

  1. 不同降压药物联合治疗对老年高血压患者血压变异性的影响%Effects of combined treatment of different anti-hypertensive drugs on blood pressure variability in elderly patients with hypertension

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王磊; 魏新伟; 于芳

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the impacts of valsartan combined with amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide regimen on blood pressure variability (BPV) in elderly hypertensive patients.Methods Eighty elderly patients with hypertension were randomized into valsartan and amlodipine (the amlodipine group, n=38) or valsartan and hydrochlorothiazide (the hydro-chlorothiazide group,n=37) group.The 24-hour dynamic blood pressure was monitored at baseline, 6-week and 12-week after treatment for the blood pressure and blood pressure variability. The control rate of blood pressure was calculated at 6-week after treatment, and side effects were observed during the treatment.Results Values of 24 h systolic blood pressure (SBP), daytime SBP, nighttime SBP, morning SBP and 24 h systolic blood pressure variability (SBPV) were significantly low-er at 6-week and 12-week than those of baseline in both two groups(P<0.05). There was an interaction between the group-ing factors and time on 24 h SBP, daytime SBP, nighttime SBP, 24 h SBPV and daytime SBPV (P<0.05). At the 6 and 12-week treatment, 24 h SBP, daytime SBP, nighttime SBP and daytime SBPV were significantly lower in amlodipine group than those in hydrochlorothiazide group (P<0.05). At 12-week treatment, 24 h SBPV was significantly lower in amlodipine group than tjat in hydrochlorothiazide group (P<0.01). There were no significant differences in control rate of blood pressure and side effects between two groups. Conclusion Valsartan in combination with amlodipine or hydrochlorothiazide can both ef-fectively control BPV in elderly hypertensive patients, and valsartan conbined with amlodipine has better effects on lowering blood pressure and BPV.%目的 比较缬沙坦联合氨氯地平或氢氯噻嗪对老年高血压患者血压变异性的治疗作用.方法 80例老年高血压患者随机分为2组,分别给予缬沙坦联合氨氯地平(氨氯地平组)或缬沙坦联合氢氯噻嗪(氢氯噻嗪组)降压治疗,监测2组24 h动态血