Sample records for chlorothiazide

  1. Chlorothiazide (United States)

    ... may also be used to treat patients with diabetes insipidus and certain electrolyte disturbances and to prevent kidney ... doctor prescribes a low-salt or low-sodium diet, or to eat or drink increased amounts of ...

  2. The effects of long-term oral treatment with chlorothiazide or furosemide on hereditary diabetes insipidus in rats. (United States)

    De Groot, C A; Tijssen, A M


    The polyuria of homozygous Brattleboro (BB) female rats is halved when they are given chlorothiazide (about 250 mg/day) or furosemide (about 60 mg/day) orally for one day. The effect of chlorothiazide is still found after 16 days of treatment, whereas the effect of furosemide entirely disappears within 5 days. Both diuretics induce chronically increased plasma renin activity (PRA) and decreased natriuresis as long as they are added to the diet; the effect on Na is more evident during furosemide treatment. Urinary urea content as well as urinary osmolality are increased by chlorothiazide and "free water" output is normalized. Furosemide does not affect urea content and decreases urinary osmolality from the start, as compared to untreated BB homozygotes; it raises "free water" output above BB values.

  3. Bioadhesive polymers as platforms for oral controlled drug delivery III: oral delivery of chlorothiazide using a bioadhesive polymer. (United States)

    Longer, M A; Ch'ng, H S; Robinson, J R


    Bioadhesive polymers that bind to the gastric mucin or epithelial cell surface are useful in drug delivery for the purposes of (a) retaining a dosage from in the GI tract and (b) increasing the intimacy and duration of contact of drug with the absorbing membrane. Polycarbophil has previously been shown to have bioadhesive properties in the rat stomach and small intestine and was employed in the present study with a sustained-release delivery system to demonstrate improved drug delivery. Using chlorothiazide as the model drug, drug containing albumin beads were prepared and used as the sustained-release system. The beads were physically mixed with equally sized particles of polycarbophil and placed in a capsule to produce a bioadhesive dosage form. When the dosage form contacts the stomach, the gelatin capsule dissolves, exposing the polycarbophil to the bathing fluid. The bioadhesive polymer rapidly hydrates, retaining the albumin beads and attaching to the mucin coating of the stomach. Plasma drug levels in rats showed a longer duration of action and greater bioavailability for the bioadhesive dosage form than for either albumin beads or drug powder alone. The results suggest that the principle of bioadhesion can significantly improve therapy, due to a reduced rate of gastric emptying, an increase in contact time, and the intimacy of contact of the drug with the absorbing membrane.

  4. 21 CFR 520.420 - Chlorothiazide tablets and boluses. (United States)


    ...) Indications for use. For use in dogs for treatment of congestive heart failure and renal edema. 1 (iii... countermeasures if this should occur. In some dogs, hypochloremic alkalosis may occur (that is, excretion...


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    R. A. Mhaske et al.


    Full Text Available A simple, precise and stability-indicating HPLC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of anti-hypertensive drugs Irbesartan, Losartan, diuretics Hydrochlorothiazide and Chlorthalidone. The separation was achieved on Hypersil BDS (Length 250 mm × Diameter 4.6 mm Particle size 5 μm column with gradient flow. The mobile phase at a flow rate of 1.0 mL min−1 consisted of 0.05 M sodium dihydrogen phosphate buffer and acetonitrile (Gradient ratio. The UV detection was carried out at 220 nm. The method was successfully validated in accordance to ICH guidelines. Further, the validated method was applied for commercially available pharmaceutical dosage form.

  6. Drug: D03471 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available D03471 Drug Chlorothiazide sodium (USP); Diuril (TN) C7H5ClN3O4S2. Na 316.9308 317....ETICS C03A LOW-CEILING DIURETICS, THIAZIDES C03AA Thiazides, plain C03AA04 Chlorothiazide D03471 Chlorothiaz...ide sodium (USP) USP drug classification [BR:br08302] Cardiovascular Agents Diuretics, Thiazide Chlorothiazide D03471 Chlorot...08310] Transporters Solute carrier family SLC12 SLC12A3 [HSA:6559] [KO:K14426] [TC:2.A.30.4.2] Chlorothiazid...e [ATC:C03AA04] D03471 Chlorothiazide sodium (USP) CAS: 7085-44-1 PubChem: 17397608 DrugBank: DB00880 Ligand

  7. Calcium Supplements: Do They Interfere with Blood Pressure Drugs? (United States)

    ... some blood pressure medications. Interactions may occur with: Thiazide diuretics. Taking 1,500 milligrams (mg) or more of calcium with thiazide diuretics — such as chlorothiazide (Diuril), hydrochlorothiazide (Microzide, Oretic) and ...

  8. Detection of urinary markers for thiazide diuretics after oral administration of hydrochlorothiazide and altizide-relevance to doping control analysis. (United States)

    Deventer, K; Pozo, O J; Van Eenoo, P; Delbeke, F T


    In sports, thiazide diuretics are used to flush out previously taken prohibited substances with forced diuresis and in sports where weight classes are involved to achieve acute weight loss. Thiazide diuretics include compounds which are very unstable and hydrolyse in aqueous media. Because information regarding the urinary detection of the hydrolysis products is limited, urinary excretion profiles for the hydrolysis product 4-amino-6-chloro-1,3-benzenedisulphonamide were established in 6 healthy volunteers after oral administration of altizide (15 mg per tablet) and hydrochlorothiazide (25mg per tablet). Additionally, the excretion profile of chlorothiazide, a metabolite of altizide and hydrochlorothiazide, was also determined. A quantitative liquid-chromatographic tandem mass spectrometric method to detect the 4 substances was developed and validated. The result of this work shows that altizide is eliminated within 48 h in urine whereas hydrochlorothiazide was detectable after 120 h. Chlorothiazide was determined to be a minor metabolite of altizide and hydrochlorothiazide and could be detected up to 120 h. The hydrolysis product, 4-amino-6-chloro-1,3-benzenedisulphonamide, was detectable 120 h after administration, with concentrations at least 10 times higher than the parent drug. Concentrations ranged between 41-239 and 60-287 ng/mL after altizide and hydrochlorothiazide administration, respectively. The study shows that 4-amino-6-chloro-1,3-benzenedisulphonamide is an important target compound for the long time detection of thiazide diuretics in urine.

  9. Releasing the flood waters: diuril and the reshaping of hypertension. (United States)

    Greene, Jeremy A


    This article narrates the development and promotion in the 1950s and 1960s of Merck, Sharp & Dohme's Diuril (chlorothiazide), an antihypertensive drug, which played a significant role in the redefinition of high blood pressure as a widespread target for chronic pharmaceutical consumption. The joined careers of Diuril and hypertension in the late twentieth century demonstrate the connections between the clinical research, clinical practice, and marketing practices through which pharmaceuticals and disease categories come to define one another. By examining a series of internal documents preserved in the Merck Archives alongside a careful reading of the clinical literature and industry journals of the time, this article explores how the ambitions of marketers, physicians, and public health advocates found convergence in the expanding pharmaceutical prevention of chronic diseases.

  10. Parameterization of small intestinal water volume using PBPK modeling. (United States)

    Maharaj, Anil; Fotaki, Nikoletta; Edginton, Andrea


    To facilitate accurate predictions of oral drug disposition, mechanistic absorption models require optimal parameterization. Furthermore, parameters should maintain a biological basis to establish confidence in model predictions. This study will serve to calculate an optimal parameter value for small intestinal water volume (SIWV) using a model-based approach. To evaluate physiologic fidelity, derived volume estimates will be compared to experimentally-based SIWV determinations. A compartmental absorption and transit (CAT) model, created in Matlab-Simulink®, was integrated with a whole-body PBPK model, developed in PK-SIM 5.2®, to provide predictions of systemic drug disposition. SIWV within the CAT model was varied between 52.5mL and 420mL. Simulations incorporating specific SIWV values were compared to pharmacokinetic data from compounds exhibiting solubility induced non-proportional changes in absorption using absolute average fold-error. Correspondingly, data pertaining to oral administration of acyclovir and chlorothiazide were utilized to derive estimates of SIWV. At 400mg, a SIWV of 116mL provided the best estimates of acyclovir plasma concentrations. A similar SIWV was found to best depict the urinary excretion pattern of chlorothiazide at a dose of 100mg. In comparison, experimentally-based estimates of SIWV within adults denote a central tendency between 86 and 167mL. The derived SIWV (116mL) represents the optimal parameter value within the context of the developed CAT model. This result demonstrates the biological basis of the widely utilized CAT model as in vivo SIWV determinations correspond with model-based estimates.

  11. Effects of Three Commonly-used Diuretics on the Urinary Proteome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xundou Li; Mindi Zhao; Menglin Li; Lulu Jia; Youhe Gao


    Biomarker is the measurable change associated with a physiological or pathophysiolog-ical process. Unlike blood which has mechanisms to keep the internal environment homeostatic, urine is more likely to reflect changes of the body. As a result, urine is likely to be a better biomarker source than blood. However, since the urinary proteome is affected by many factors, including diuretics, careful evaluation of those effects is necessary if urinary proteomics is used for biomarker discovery. Here, we evaluated the effects of three commonly-used diuretics (furosemide, F;hydro-chlorothiazide, H; and spirolactone, S) on the urinary proteome in rats. Urine samples were col-lected before and after intragastric administration of diuretics at therapeutic doses and the proteomes were analyzed using label-free liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS). Based on the criteria of P 6 0.05, a fold change P2, a spectral count P5, and false positive rate (FDR) 61%, 14 proteins (seven for F, five for H, and two for S) were identified by Progenesis LC-MS. The human orthologs of most of these 14 proteins are stable in the healthy human urinary proteome, and ten of them are reported as disease biomarkers. Thus, our results suggest that the effects of diuretics deserve more attention in future urinary protein biomarker studies. Moreover, the distinct effects of diuretics on the urinary proteome may provide clues to the mechanisms of diuretics.

  12. Stability of selected chlorinated thiazide diuretics. (United States)

    Deventer, K; Baele, G; Van Eenoo, P; Pozo, O J; Delbeke, F T


    In sports, diuretics are used for two main reasons: to flush previously taken prohibited substances with forced diuresis and in sports where weight classes are involved to achieve acute weight loss. A common property observed for thiazides is hydrolysis in aqueous media resulting in the formation of the degradation product aminobenzenedisulphonamide. This degradation product can be observed for several thiazides. Because there is limited information regarding the effect of pH, temperature and light on the stability of thiazides, these parameters were investigated for chlorothiaizide, hydrochlorothiazide and altizide. For all three compounds the degradation product could be detected after incubation at pH 9.5 for 48h at 60 degrees C. At lower pH and temperature the degradation product could not be detected for all compounds. When samples were exposed to UV-light altizide and hydrochlorothiazide were photodegraded to chlorothiazide. When the degradation rate between the different compounds was compared for a given temperature and pH, altizide is the most unstable compound. This study confirms that thiazide degradation products can be formed in urine during transport. Hence doping control laboratories shall include them into their routine testing methods as required by WADA.

  13. Fluoxetine: clinical pharmacology and physiologic disposition

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    Lemberger, L.; Bergstrom, R.F.; Wolen, R.L.; Farid, N.A.; Enas, G.G.; Aronoff, G.R.


    Fluoxetine (30 mg), administered for 7 days to normal volunteers, produced a 66% inhibition of tritiated serotonin uptake into platelets. Plasma concentrations of fluoxetine correlated positively with inhibition of serotonin uptake. Fluoxetine is well absorbed after oral administration in both the fed and fasted states and demonstrates dose proportionality. Fluoxetine disappears from plasma with a half-life of 1-3 days; its metabolite norfluoxetine has a plasma half-life of 7-15 days. After administration of /sup 14/C-fluoxetine, approximately 65% of the administered dose of radioactivity is recovered in urine and about 15% in feces. Fluoxetine, given as a single dose or in multiple doses over 8 days, did not produce significant effects on the plasma disappearance of warfarin, diazepam, tolbutamide, or chlorothiazide. Coadministration of fluoxetine and ethanol did not result in an increase from control values in the blood ethanol levels, nor did it produce significant changes in physiologic, psychometric, or psychomotor activity. Pharmacokinetics of fluoxetine in the elderly and normal volunteers appear to be similar. In addition, pharmacokinetic analyses in patients with varying degrees of renal impairment did not show significant differences from healthy subjects.

  14. [Massive natriuresis and polyuria after triple craniocervical subarachnoid hemorrhage: cerebral salt wasting syndrome?]. (United States)

    Berendes, E; Scherer, R; Schuricht, G; Rol, R; Hengst, K


    A thirty-year-old male patient suffered subarachnoidal haemorrhage from an angioma positioned in the cranio-cervical transition. After rebleeding twice the patient developed a hydrocephalus internus malresorptivus and excessive natriuresis and polyuria, accompanied by depressed renin activity and extremely low aldosterone plasma levels. Neither fluid restriction and sodium substitution, nor administration of hydro-chlorothiazide/indomethacin affected natriuresis and polyuria. It was only after treatment with fludrocortisone-acetate/hydrocortisone that hyponatraemia and polyuria were resolved. At the same time a ventriculo-peritoneal shunt was applied. Differential diagnosis excluded the syndromes of inadequate antidiuretic hormone secretion, renal and cerebral diabetes insipidus, osmotic receptor hypofunction, chronic renal dysfunction and tubular necrosis. Natriuresis and polyuria developed under dexamethasone therapy. Since patient history, physical examination and laboratory criteria could not explain the electrolyte and fluid imbalance, this might be attributed to the hydrocephalus. Similar disturbances have been reported from other patients with intracranial disorders. Mechanical pressure exercised on the hypothalamus might cause the disturbance of fluid and sodium balance. Assuming a cerebral salt wasting syndrome, a putative natriuretic factor coming from the brain or an imbalance in the cerebral renin-angiotensin-system, as described in rats and dogs, must be discussed.

  15. Simultaneous determination of aliskiren and hydrochlorothiazide from their pharmaceutical preparations using a validated stability-indicating MEKC method. (United States)

    Sangoi, Maximiliano S; Wrasse-Sangoi, Micheli; Oliveira, Paulo R; Rolim, Clarice M B; Steppe, Martin


    A stability-indicating MEKC method was developed and validated for the simultaneous determination of aliskiren (ALI) and hydrochlorothiazide (HCTZ) in pharmaceutical formulations using ranitidine as an internal standard (IS). Optimal conditions for the separation of ALI, HCTZ and its major impurity chlorothiazide (CTZ), IS and degradation products were investigated. The method employed 47 mM Tris buffer and 47 mM anionic detergent SDS solution at pH 10.2 as the background electrolyte. MEKC method was performed on a fused-silica capillary (40 cm) at 28°C. Applied voltage was 26 kV (positive polarity) and photodiode array (PDA) detector was set at 217 nm. The method was validated in accordance with the ICH requirements. The method was linear over the concentration range of 5-100 and 60-1200 μg/mL for HCTZ and ALI, respectively (r(2) >0.9997). The stability-indicating capability of the method was established by enforced degradation studies combined with peak purity assessment using the PDA detection. Precision and accuracy evaluated by RSD were lower than 2%. The method proved to be robust by a fractional factorial design evaluation. The proposed MEKC method was successfully applied for the quantitative analysis of ALI and HCTZ both individually and in a combined dosage tablet formulation to support the quality control.

  16. Hypopituitarism in a patient with Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome due to hypomethylation of KvDMR1. (United States)

    Baiocchi, Michela; Yousuf, Fatimah Sireen; Hussain, Khalid


    Beckwith-Wiedemann syndrome (BWS) is caused by dysregulation of imprinted genes on chromosome 11.p15.5. The syndrome includes overgrowth, macroglossia, organomegaly, abdominal wall defects, hypoglycemia, and long-term malignancy risk. No patient who has BWS has been reported with hypopituitarism. We describe a patient who presented at birth with macrosomia, macroglossia, respiratory distress, jaundice, and hypoglycemia, and who was followed for 4.5 years. Genetic test for BWS was performed, which detected loss of maternal methylation on region KvDMR1 (11p15.5). The hypoglycemia was attributable to hyperinsulinism and was treated with diazoxide and chlorothiazide. She responded well, but the hypoglycemia returned after reducing the diazoxide. It was possible to stop the diazoxide after 2.5 years. On routine follow-up she was noted to be developing short stature. Baseline pituitary and growth hormone (GH) stimulation tests detected GH deficiency and secondary hypothyroidism. A brain MRI showed a small anterior pituitary gland. Thereafter, thyroxine and replacement therapy with GH were started, which resulted in a remarkable improvement in growth velocity. This is the first patient to be reported as having hypopituitarism and BWS. It is unclear if the BWS and the hypopituitarism are somehow connected; however, further investigations are necessary. Hypopituitarism explains the protracted hypoglycemia and the short stature. In our patient, GH therapy seems to be safe, but strict follow-up is required given the increased cancer risk related to BWS.

  17. The role of calbindin-D28k on renal calcium and magnesium handling during treatment with loop and thiazide diuretics. (United States)

    Lee, Chien-Te; Ng, Hwee-Yeong; Lee, Yueh-Ting; Lai, Li-Wen; Lien, Yeong-Hau H


    Calbindin-D28k (CBD-28k) is a calcium binding protein located in the distal convoluted tubule (DCT) and plays an important role in active calcium transport in the kidney. Loop and thiazide diuretics affect renal Ca and Mg handling: both cause Mg wasting, but have opposite effects on Ca excretion as loop diuretics increase, but thiazides decrease, Ca excretion. To understand the role of CBD-28k in renal Ca and Mg handling in response to diuretics treatment, we investigated renal Ca and Mg excretion and gene expression of DCT Ca and Mg transport molecules in wild-type (WT) and CBD-28k knockout (KO) mice. Mice were treated with chlorothiazide (CTZ; 50 mg · kg(-1) · day(-1)) or furosemide (FSM; 30 mg · kg(-1) · day(-1)) for 3 days. To avoid volume depletion, salt was supplemented in the drinking water. Urine Ca excretion was reduced in WT, but not in KO mice, by CTZ. FSM induced similar hypercalciuria in both groups. DCT Ca transport molecules, including transient receptor potential vanilloid 5 (TRPV5), TRPV6, and CBD-9k, were upregulated by CTZ and FSM in WT, but not in KO mice. Urine Mg excretion was increased and transient receptor potential subfamily M, member 6 (TRPM6) was upregulated by both CTZ and FSM in WT and KO mice. In conclusion, CBD-28k plays an important role in gene expression of DCT Ca, but not Mg, transport molecules, which may be related to its being a Ca, but not a Mg, intracellular sensor. The lack of upregulation of DCT Ca transport molecules by thiazides in the KO mice indicates that the DCT Ca transport system is critical for Ca conservation by thiazides.


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    J. Keerthi Sagar*, S. Narendranath, H.S. Somashekar, S.R. Reshma, Susheela Somappa Halemani and Prabhakar Adake


    Full Text Available Objective: Analysis of prescribing pattern of antihypertensives in patients with hypertension alone and with coexisting diabetes mellitus. Materials and Methods: A cross sectional study was conducted in an outpatient and inpatient department of general medicine at JJM Medical College hospital for a period of 3 months (July 2011 to September 2011. Prescriptions of the patients were collected and relevant data was entered in the preformed proforma and analyzed.Results: A total of 210 prescriptions were analyzed using chi square test. Out of which 126 prescriptions were of patients with hypertension alone which contain calcium channel blockers (30%, beta blockers (26%, angiotensin receptor blockers (15%, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (4% and fixed dose combinations of angiotensin receptor blockers with hydrochlorothiazide (11% and combination of amlodipine with hydro-chlorothiazide (2.5%.84 Prescriptions of hypertension with coexisting diabetes mellitus had calcium channel blockers (24%, angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors (19%, angiotensin receptor blockers (13%, beta blockers (13%, and fixed dose combinations of angiotensin receptor blockers with hydrochlorothiazide (18% and combination of amlodipine with hydrochlorothiazide (6%.[χ2=17.01, p=o.oo4] Conclusion- The present study shows that angiotensin converting enzyme inhibitors because of its beneficial effects which are well known are more commonly prescribed drugs in individuals with hypertension with coexisting diabetes mellitus. Calcium channel blockers and newly introduced angiotensin receptor blockers alone or in combination with hydrochlorothiazide are preferred drugs in both the study groups. Beta blockers are less preferred in patients of hypertension with coexisting diabetes mellitus for obvious reasons.

  19. New aspects of human chronopharmacology. (United States)

    Reinberg, A


    Regular and thus predictable changes in biologic susceptibility and response to a large variety of physical as well as chemical agents can now be viewed as a rather common phenomenon. Chronopharmacology involves both the investigation of drug effects as a function of biologic timing and the investigation of drug effects upon rhythm characteristics. Illustrative examples of circadian chronopharmacolgy in man are discussed, keeping in mind that the objective demonstration of chronopharmacologic facts needs the use of an appropriate methodology. Circadian changes in the effects of various chemical agents have been documented: histamine, sodium salicylate, acetylcholine, halothane, prostaglandine F, reserpine, cyproheptadine, ethanol, insulin, chlorothiazide, oxymetholone, orciprenalin and SCH 1000 (bronchodilators), indomethacin, ACTH, cortisol and various synthetic corticosteroids. (three new concepts have to be considered: a. The Chronokinetic of a Drug. This term includes both rhythmic changes in the drug vioavailability, pharmacokinetic and its excretion. b. The Chronesthesy of a Biosystem to a Drug. i.e. circadian changes in the susceptibility of any biosystem to a drug. c. The Chronergy of a Drug, taking into consideration its chronokinetic and the chronesthesies of the involved organismic biosystems. Chronopharmacology is useful to solve problems of drug optimization, i.e. to enhance the desired effeciency or to reduce its undesired effects. In the human organism (among other animal species) the metabolic fate of a pharmacologic agent (as well as that of a nutrient) is not constant as a function of time. Thus, the chronobiologic approach of pharmacologic phenomena involves a lesser risk of errors and/or false information than the conventional homeostatic approach.

  20. Demographic characteristics and metabolic risk factors in Croatian children with urolithiasis. (United States)

    Milošević, Danko; Batinić, Danica; Turudić, Daniel; Batinić, Danko; Topalović-Grković, Marija; Gradiški, Ivan Pavao


    The aim of this study was to assess demographic data, clinical presentation, metabolic features, and treatment in 76 children with urolithiasis presented from 2002 to 2011. Urolithiasis is responsible for 2.5/1,000 pediatric hospitalizations, with new cases diagnosed in 1.1/1,000 admissions. From the observed period, two-fold rise of incidence rate was observed. Compiling the data from other pediatric institutions in our country, we estimated present overall incidence rate in Croatia as 6.5/100,000 children under 18 years. There were 41 boys and 35 girls (ratio 1.17:1). The mean age at diagnosis was 9.7 (range 0.8-16) years and follow-up duration was 5.3 (range 1.8-10) years. Renal colic (75.0 %) and hematuria (57.89 %) were the main symptoms. In 65.78 % of children, stones were unilateral. Stones were located in kidney in 52.63 %, in the ureter in 26.32 %, and in bladder in 6.58 % cases. Stone analysis showed calcium oxalate in 75.0 % of the cases. Associated urinary tract abnormalities were found in 19.73 % children. Most common metabolic disturbances were hypercalciuria (47.37 %) and idiopathic or mild hyperoxaluria (18.42 %). Urine saturation (EQUIL2) was elevated in 61.84 % cases. Spontaneous stone evacuation occurred in 51.21 % children. Extracorporeal shock wave lithotripsy, surgical evacuation, and endoscopic removal of calculi were performed in 21.0, 6.58, and 5.26 % of cases, respectively. Follow-up conservative therapy, consisting of fluid/diet recommendations and additional potassium citrate and/or chlorothiazide in children with increased risk, was sufficient for stone recurrence prevention in 92.1 % of children. In conclusion, the study gave insight in epidemiology and metabolic disturbances of urinary stone disease in Croatian children.

  1. High-speed gas chromatography in doping control: fast-GC and fast-GC/MS determination of beta-adrenoceptor ligands and diuretics. (United States)

    Brunelli, Claudio; Bicchi, Carlo; Di Stilo, Antonella; Salomone, Alberto; Vincenti, Marco


    In official doping controls, about 300 drugs and metabolites have to be screened for each sample. Moreover, the number of determinations to be routinely processed increases continuously as the number of both samples and potential illicit drugs keeps growing. As a consequence, increasingly specific, sensitive, and, above all, fast methods for doping controls are needed. The present study presents an efficient fast-GC/MS approach to the routine screening of two different classes of doping agents, namely beta-adrenoceptor ligands and diuretics (belonging to the S3, P2, and S5 groups of the WADA list of prohibited substances). Narrow bore columns (100 mm id) of different lengths and coated with apolar stationary phases were successfully used to separate the derivatized analytes; preliminary experiments (results not shown) showed better performances with OV-1701 for the separation of beta-adrenoceptor ligands. On the same stationary phase some diuretics required too high a temperature or a long isothermal time for elution, in which case a DB1-MS column was preferred. Two methods of sample preparation, derivatization, and analysis were used on aqueous standard mixtures of, respectively, (i) eight beta-adrenoceptor ligands, including five beta-antagonists (acebutolol, alprenolol, atenolol, metoprolol, pindolol) and three beta2-agonists (salbutamol, clenbuterol, terbutaline) and (ii) seventeen diuretic drugs (acetazolamide, althiazide, bendroflumethiazide, bumethanide, canrenone, chlorothiazide, chlortalidone, clopamide, ethacrinic acid, furosemide, hydrochlorothiazide, hydroflumethiazide, indapamide, indomethacine, spironolactone, triamterene, trichloromethiazide) and one masking agent (probenecid). The mixture of beta-adrenoceptor ligand derivatives was efficiently separated in about 5.6 min, while the one of 18 diuretics and masking agents required less than 5 min for analysis. Limits of detection were from 1 microg/L for pindolol, ethacrinic acid, furosemide

  2. Evaluation of tablets splitting in NAH treatment for hypertensive patients in primary clinic unit%基层高血压NAH治疗方案片剂分剂量评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘元江; 缪经纬; 詹金陶; 刘其东


    AIM To evaluate accuracy and rationality of tablets splitting in nifedipine, atenolol, hydro-chlorothiazide and captopril ( NAH) treatment for hypertensive patients in primary clinical unit. METHODS Tablet cutter was utilized to split these pills into quarter or one eighth, and then European Pharmacopoeia (EP) and other standards was adopted to evaluate the accuracy of tablets spittin, expected weight (EW) and real wegtht (RW), mean weight loss percentage, and friability. RESULTS When these tablets split into quarter, they could not meet the accuracy subdivision of EP standards. There was significant difference when compared EW1/4 with RW1/4, such as nifedipine tablets produced by Xiangxue Pharmaceutical Company, atenolol tablets produced by Zhongyang Pharmaceutical Company or Wanraa Pharmaceutical Company, and hydrochlorothiazide tablets produced by Yunpeng Pharmaceutical Company. All tablets met the mean weight loss percentage ≤3%, however part of tablets could not meet the requirement of friability. When these tablets split into one eighth, they could not meet the accuracy subdivision of EP standards. There was significant difference when compared EW1/8 with RW^, such as nifedipine tablets produced by Xiangxue Pharmaceutical Company and atenolol tablets produced by Wanma Pharmaceutical Company. Meanwhile, mean weight loss percentage and friability could not meet the related regulation. CONCLUSION In the NAH treatment for hypertensive patients in primary clinical unit, the accuracy of tablets spitting and other indicators can not meet the requirements. It should be solved urgently to improve rational drug use.%目的 评价基层高血压硝苯地平、阿替洛尔、氢氯噻嗪和卡托普利(NAH)治疗方案片剂分剂量的准确性、合理性.方法 采用药片切割器对4种片剂四等分和(或)八等分,参照《欧洲药典》及相关参考文献评价分剂量准确性、期望重量(EW)与实际重量(RW)的比较、平均损失百分

  3. [Mercury--a major agent in the history of medicine and alchemy]. (United States)

    Norn, Svend; Permin, Henrik; Kruse, Edith; Kruse, Poul R


    , bismuth and lead. Most important was mercury when the outbreak of syphilis appeared in Europe at the end of the 15th century. The Arabian quicksilver ointment was remembered and used for the treatment of syphilis, but the treatment also included pills and ointments of sublimate and calomel (Hg2Cl2). The breakthrough in science was the discovery of oxygen by Priestley in the late 18th century. Priestley heated the oxide of mercury and examined the gas and thereafter Lavoisier recognized that combustion involves oxidation. All this led to a new understanding of respiration and furthermore established the basis of modern chemistry. The apothecaries of the 19th and 20th century showed many colourful mercurials as calomel, sublimate, cinnober, oxides of mercury and mercury. Calomel pills were used in acute and chronic diseases and furthermore as a diuretic drug before the organomercurials appeared in the 1920s. Skin diseases were treated with ointments or plasters of the mercurials or quicksilver. Antiseptics were introduced by Semmelweis hand-washing with chlorinated water before deliveries in obstetrics and by Lister's antiseptic ritual with carbolic acid during surgical operations. Also organomercurial "antiseptics" were used but unfortunately these agents were bacteriostatic rather than bacteriocidal and allergic contact dermatitis has been observed. Today the problems are solved by sterilization and aseptic conditions. Penicillin appeared in the 1940s and chlorothiazide in 1957 and new effective agents have taken over in the treatment of diseases with mercurials.