WorldWideScience

Sample records for chlorophyllin significantly reduces

  1. Chlorophyllin as a possible measure against vectors of human parasites and fish parasites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Peter Rolf Richter

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Water soluble chlorophyll (chlorophyllin exerts pronounced photodynamic activity. Chlorophyllin is a potential remedy against mosquito larvae and aquatic stages in the life cycle of parasites as well as against ectoparasites in fish. In the recent years it was found that mosquito larvae and other pest organisms can be killed by means of photodynamic substances such as different porphyrin derivates (e.g. hematoporphyrin, meso-tri(N-methylpyridyl, meso-mono(N-tetra-decylpyridyl porphyrine, hematoporphyrin IX, or hermatoporphyrin formula (HPF. It was found that incubation of mosquito larvae in chlorophyllin solution and subsequent irradiation results in photodynamic destruction of the larvae. Incorporation of about 8 ng chlorophyllin per larvae was sufficient to induce its death. In fish mass cultivation ichthyophthiriosis is a severe parasitic protozoan disease caused by the ciliate Ichthyophthirius multifiliis. It was found that incubation of infected fishes in chlorophyllin and subsequent illumination reduced the number of trophonts significantly (more than 50 %. The fishes were not impaired. Chlorophyllin and other photodynamic substances may become a possible countermeasure against I. multifiliis and other ectoparasites in aquaculture. The effectiveness of chlorophyllin depends on light attenuation in the water body.

  2. Effect of chlorophyllin on induction of exchanges in sister chromatids by gamma irradiation in mice spermatogonia in vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Mouse were exposed to different doses of gamma radiation and the effect on Sister Chromatid Exchange (SCE) frequency in spermatogonias was evaluated. The effect was analyzed before and after Bromodeoxyuridine (BrdU) incorporation to determine the interference of such agent with the cellular response induced by radiation. The capacity of chlorophyllin (sodium and Copper salt derivative from chlorophyll) to reduce SCE induction by radiation in normal and BrdU radio sensitized spermatogonia was also determined. The results indicate that there was a significant increase in SCE frequency by gamma radiation exposure in these cells, such effect was higher irradiating after BrdU incorporation than before. This fact confirms previous observations that BrdU sensitizes some cells to SCE induction. With regard to the chlorophyllin effect, it was determined that this salt acts as a radioprotector reducing gamma-rays induced SCE before or after BrdU incorporation Total protection was obtained with 200 μg of chlorophyllin per g of body weight in both protocols. Under the experimental conditions this study there was no evidence of genotoxicity induced by chlorophyllin itself. The results suggest that this agent may act as a radioprotector by scavenging free radicals produced by gamma-radiation which cause DNA lesions that are involved in SCE formation. (Author)

  3. Chlorophyllin Bait Formulation and Exposure to Different Spectrum of Visible Light on the Reproduction of Infected/Uninfected Snail Lymnaea acuminata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Fasciolosis is a waterborne disease, caused by Fasciola species. Snail Lymnaea acuminata is an intermediate host of these flukes. Control of snail population is major tool in reducing the incidences. Variation in light intensity and wavelength caused significant changes in reproduction pattern of snails. Maximum fecundity was noted with bait containing carbohydrate (starch, 468 ± 0.10/20 snails or amino acid (serine, 319 ± 0.29/20 snails as attractant. Sublethal feeding of chlorophyllin bait with starch or serine attractant to infected and uninfected snails caused significant reduction in fecundity, hatchability, and survivability. These significant changes are observed in snails exposed to different spectral band of visible light and sunlight. Maximum fecundity of 536 ± 2.0 and minimum of 89.3 ± 0.4 were noted in snails not fed with bait and exposed to sunlight and red spectral band, respectively. There was complete arrest in the fecundity of infected and uninfected snails and no survivability of uninfected snails after 48 h feeding with bait containing chlorophyllin + attractant. Minimum hatchability (9.25 ± 0.5 was noted in red light exposed, chlorophyllin + starch fed infected snails and hatching period of bait fed snails was prolonged. Conclusively, chlorophyllin bait and red light reduce reproduction capacity in snails.

  4. Evaluation of radioprotective properties of chlorophyllin against the gamma-rays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Several decades ago it had been demonstrated that chlorophyllin, and its water soluble derivates, such as chlorophyllin, have therapeutic values. recently an antimutagenic activity has been observed in several tests. The aim of this work is to investigate if chlorophyllin has some radioprotective effect when the organisms are exposed to gamma-rays. The somatic mutation and recombination test in drosophila was used. This test allows us to detect simultaneously both genetic mutation, chromosomal aberration and mitotic recombination. The conduction of the experiment involved four treatments: 1) 5% sucrose, 2) 5% chlorophyllin, 3) 5% sucrose +20Gyγrays 4) 5% chlorophyllin +20Gyγrays. All the treatments lasted 24 hours and three replicas were performed. The data obtained showed a significant decrease in spot frequency found in the treatment with chlorophyllin and γ rays. From the results we are to conclude that the chlorophyllin has a radioprotective effect, when the drosophila larvae are irradiated with 20 Gy OF γrays. Mitotic recombination was affected in the same way and it is important because genetic recombination process are related to cancer induction. (Author)

  5. Sensitization of Xanthophylls-Chlorophyllin Mixtures on Titania Solar Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Indriana Kartini

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Co-sensitization of natural dyes on TiO2 for dye-sensitized solar cell (DSSC was proposed between chlorophyllin (C and xanthophylls (X at various volume ratios of C/X. Chlorophyllin is chlorophyll derivative providing -COOH groups essential for binding to TiO2. The chlorophyll was extracted from dried spinach (amaranthus viridis leaves in a mixture of methanol-acetone (70%:30%. Chlorophyll extract dye was obtained after partition of the crude extracts in diethyl ether solution. Then, it was hydrolyzed under alkaline condition to get chlorophyllin. Xanthophyll was extracted from fresh petal of chrysanthemum (chrysanthemum indicum flowers. Blending of chlorophyllin and xanthophyll was carried out at various volume ratios of C to X (1:0, 5:1, 1:1, 1:5, 0:1. Titania solar cells were constructed in sandwich system of conducting glass-titania/dyes as the photoanode and conducting glass-platinum as the photocathode. Electrolyte solution containing I-/I3- was inserted between the electrodes by capillary action. All dye extracts and blending solutions were analyzed by UV-Vis spectrophotometer. It is shown that the absorption spectra of blending dyes are complimentary in the visible region resulted in a panchromatic response of the dyes. From the cyclic voltammogram of the dyes and blended-dyes, it is found that the energy level of xanthophyll is the lowest. The I-V test at 100 mw/cm2 irradiation confirmed that the energy conversion efficiency (h of the blended dyes of xanthophyll and chlorophyllin-sensitized solar cell resulted in significant improvement than those of the single dye. Beneficially, the mixed dyes can be adsorbed from solution blend using single dipping step.

  6. Nano-encapsulated chlorophyllin significantly delays progression of lung cancer both in in vitro and in vivo models through activation of mitochondrial signaling cascades and drug-DNA interaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Jayeeta; Samadder, Asmita; Mondal, Jesmin; Abraham, Suresh K; Khuda-Bukhsh, Anisur Rahman

    2016-09-01

    Chlorophyllin (CHL), a sodium-copper-salt derived from chlorophyll, has been widely used as a food-dye, also reportedly having some anti-cancer effect. We tested if PLGA-loaded CHL (NCHL) could have additional protective abilities through its faster and targeted drug delivery in cancer cells. Physico-chemical characterization of NCHL was done through atomic-force microscopy and UV-spectroscopy. NCHL demonstrated greater ability of drug uptake and strong anti-cancer potentials in non-small cell lung cancer cells, A549, as revealed from data of% cell viability, generation of reactive-oxygen-species and expression of bax, bcl2, caspase3, p53 and cytochrome c proteins. Circular dichroic spectral data indicated strong binding of NCHL with calf-thymus-DNA, causing a conformational/structural change in DNA. Further, NCHL could cross the blood-brain-barrier in mice and showed greater efficacy in recovery process of tissue damage, reduction in chromosomal aberrations and% of micronuclei in co-mutagens (Sodiumarsenite+Benzo[a]Pyrene)-treated mice at a much reduced dose, indicating its use in therapeutic oncology.

  7. Amelioration of radiation-induced hematopoietic syndrome by an antioxidant chlorophyllin through increased stem cell activity and modulation of hematopoiesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suryavanshi, Shweta; Sharma, Deepak; Checker, Rahul; Thoh, Maikho; Gota, Vikram; Sandur, Santosh K; Sainis, Krishna B

    2015-08-01

    Hematopoietic stem cells and progenitor cells (HSPC) are low in abundance and exhibit high radiosensitivity and their ability to divide dramatically decreases following exposure to ionizing radiation. Our earlier studies have shown antiapoptotic, immune-stimulatory, and antioxidant effects of chlorophyllin, a constituent of the over the counter drug derifil. Here we describe the beneficial effects of chlorophyllin against radiation-induced hematopoietic syndrome. Chlorophyllin administration significantly enhanced the abundance of HSPC in vivo. It induced a transient cell cycle arrest in lineage-negative cells in the bone marrow. However, the chlorophyllin-treated mice exposed to whole body irradiation (WBI) had a significantly higher proportion of actively dividing HSPC in the bone marrow as compared to only WBI-exposed mice. It significantly increased the number of colony forming units (CFUs) by bone marrow cells in vitro and spleen CFUs in irradiated mice in vivo. Pharmacokinetic study showed that chlorophyllin had a serum half-life of 141.8 min in mice. Chlorophyllin upregulated antiapoptotic genes and antioxidant machinery via activation of prosurvival transcription factors Nrf-2 and NF-κB and increased the survival and recovery of bone marrow cells in mice exposed to WBI. Chlorophyllin stimulated granulocyte production in bone marrow and increased the abundance of peripheral blood neutrophils by enhancing serum levels of granulocyte-colony stimulation factor (GCSF). Most importantly, prophylactic treatment of mice with chlorophyllin significantly abrogated radiation-induced mortality. Chlorophyllin mitigates radiation-induced hematopoietic syndrome by increasing the abundance of hematopoietic stem cells, enhancing granulopoiesis, and stimulating prosurvival pathways in bone marrow cells and lymphocytes.

  8. Gene expression signature of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinomas: modulation by chlorophyllin and ellagic acid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidya Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi; Kumar, Neeraj; Khan, Imran; Thiyagarajan, Paranthaman; Kondaiah, Paturu; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2012-01-01

    Chlorophyllin (CHL), a water-soluble, semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound in berries, grapes, and nuts have been reported to exert anticancer effects in various human cancer cell lines and in animal tumour models. The present study was undertaken to examine the mechanism underlying chemoprevention and changes in gene expression pattern induced by dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis model by whole genome profiling using pangenomic microarrays. In hamsters painted with DMBA, the expression of 1,700 genes was found to be altered significantly relative to control. Dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid modulated the expression profiles of 104 and 37 genes respectively. Microarray analysis also revealed changes in the expression of TGFβ receptors, NF-κB, cyclin D1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) that may play a crucial role in the transformation of the normal buccal pouch to a malignant phenotype. This gene expression signature was altered on treatment with chlorophyllin and ellagic acid. Our study has also revealed patterns of gene expression signature specific for chlorophyllin and ellagic acid exposure. Thus dietary chlorophyllin and ellagic acid that can reverse gene expression signature associated with carcinogenesis are novel candidates for cancer prevention and therapy. PMID:22485181

  9. Gene expression signature of DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch carcinomas: modulation by chlorophyllin and ellagic acid.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramamurthi Vidya Priyadarsini

    Full Text Available Chlorophyllin (CHL, a water-soluble, semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and ellagic acid (EA, a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound in berries, grapes, and nuts have been reported to exert anticancer effects in various human cancer cell lines and in animal tumour models. The present study was undertaken to examine the mechanism underlying chemoprevention and changes in gene expression pattern induced by dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid in the 7,12-dimethylbenz[a]anthracene (DMBA-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP carcinogenesis model by whole genome profiling using pangenomic microarrays. In hamsters painted with DMBA, the expression of 1,700 genes was found to be altered significantly relative to control. Dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid modulated the expression profiles of 104 and 37 genes respectively. Microarray analysis also revealed changes in the expression of TGFβ receptors, NF-κB, cyclin D1, and matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs that may play a crucial role in the transformation of the normal buccal pouch to a malignant phenotype. This gene expression signature was altered on treatment with chlorophyllin and ellagic acid. Our study has also revealed patterns of gene expression signature specific for chlorophyllin and ellagic acid exposure. Thus dietary chlorophyllin and ellagic acid that can reverse gene expression signature associated with carcinogenesis are novel candidates for cancer prevention and therapy.

  10. Experimental application of Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7421 in combination with chlorophyllin in dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strompfová, Viola; Kubašová, Ivana; Farbáková, Jana; Gancarčíková, Soňa; Mudroňová, Dagmar; Maďari, Aladár; Lauková, Andrea

    2015-10-01

    Chlorophyll belongs in a larger class of phytochemical plant pigments currently receiving more attention as a physiologically active dietary component. Although most research has focused on its biological activities such as its antioxidant, antimutagenic, anti-inflammatory or apoptotic effects in humans or rodents, there is limited knowledge at this time about the combinative possibilities of chlorophyll with probiotic bacteria. Our aim was to test the growth characteristics of canine-derived probiotic strain Lactobacillus fermentum CCM 7421 in the presence of different concentrations of chlorophyllin in vitro. Antimicrobial activity of chlorophyllin against canine indicator bacteria was also detected. In the in vivo study, chlorophyllin, L. fermentum CCM 7421 and the combination of both additives on faecal microbiota, faecal organic acid concentrations, haematological and immunological parameters in dogs were tested. Forty dogs were divided into 4 treatment groups; control (C); receiving chlorophyllin (60 mg/day/dog, CH group); L. fermentum CCM 7421 (10(8) CFU/day/dog, LF group); and both additives (CH + LF group), 10 dogs in each group. The experiment lasted for 28 days with a 14-day treatment period (sample collection at days 0, 7, 14 and 28). Results showed no growth inhibition of strain CCM 7421 by 0.05-0.25 % of chlorophyllin in broth after 24 h. Reduced growth of staphylococci, Listeria monocytogenes and Citrobacter freundii was observed at 1 % chlorophyllin (P dogs, lower coliform bacteria numbers and higher concentration of propionic acid in faeces of the CH group during the treatment compared to baseline were detected (P dogs (P < 0.05).

  11. Dietary chlorophyllin inhibits the canonical NF-κB signaling pathway and induces intrinsic apoptosis in a hamster model of oral oncogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiyagarajan, P; Senthil Murugan, R; Kavitha, K; Anitha, P; Prathiba, D; Nagini, S

    2012-03-01

    Chlorophyllin, a water-soluble, semi-synthetic derivative of the ubiquitous green pigment chlorophyll is shown to exert potent anticarcinogenic effects. In the present study, we investigated the chemopreventive effects of chlorophyllin on 7,12-dimethylbenz(a)anthracene (DMBA)-induced hamster buccal pouch (HBP) carcinogenesis by analyzing the expression of NF-κB family members and markers of intrinsic apoptosis. Dietary administration of chlorophyllin (4 mg/kg bw) suppressed the development of HBP carcinomas by inhibiting the canonical NF-κB signaling pathway by downregulating IKKβ, preventing the phosphorylation of IκB-α, and reducing the expression of nuclear NF-κB. Inactivation of NF-κB signaling by chlorophyllin was associated with the induction of intrinsic apoptosis as evidenced by modulation of Bcl-2 family proteins, enforced nuclear localization of survivin, upregulation of apoptogenic molecules, activation of caspases, and cleavage of PARP. The results of the present study demonstrate that chlorophyllin inhibits the development of DMBA-induced HBP carcinogenesis by targeting NF-κB and the intrinsic apoptotic pathway. Thus, dietary agents such as chlorophyllin that simultaneously target divergent pathways of cell survival and cell death are novel candidates for cancer chemoprevention. PMID:22210229

  12. In vitro inhibition of hyaluronidase by sodium copper chlorophyllin complex and chlorophyllin analogs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCook JP

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available John P McCook,1 Peter L Dorogi,2 David B Vasily,3 Dustin R Cefalo4 1Discovery Partners, LLC, Frisco, TX, 2CHL Industries, LLC, Easton, PA, 3Aesthetica Cosmetic and Laser Surgery Center, Bethlehem, PA, 4Frontier Scientific, Inc., Logan, UT, USA Background: Inhibitors of hyaluronidase are potent agents that maintain hyaluronic acid homeostasis and may serve as anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial agents. Sodium copper chlorophyllin complex is being used therapeutically as a component in anti-aging cosmeceuticals, and has been shown to have anti-hyaluronidase activity. In this study we evaluated various commercial lots of sodium copper chlorophyllin complex to identify the primary small molecule constituents, and to test various sodium copper chlorophyllin complexes and their small molecule analog compounds for hyaluronidase inhibitory activity in vitro. Ascorbate analogs were tested in combination with copper chlorophyllin complexes for potential additive or synergistic activity. Materials and methods: For hyaluronidase activity assays, dilutions of test materials were evaluated for hydrolytic activity of hyaluronidase by precipitation of non-digested hyaluronate by measuring related turbidity at 595 nm. High-performance liquid chromatography and mass spectroscopy was used to analyze and identify the primary small molecule constituents in various old and new commercial lots of sodium copper chlorophyllin complex. Results: The most active small molecule component of sodium copper chlorophyllin complex was disodium copper isochlorin e4, followed by oxidized disodium copper isochlorin e4. Sodium copper chlorophyllin complex and copper isochlorin e4 disodium salt had hyaluronidase inhibitory activity down to 10 µg/mL. The oxidized form of copper isochlorin e4 disodium salt had substantial hyaluronidase inhibitory activity at 100 µg/mL but not at 10 µg/mL. Ascorbate derivatives did not enhance the hyaluronidase inhibitory activity of

  13. A 13-week subchronic toxicity study of sodium iron chlorophyllin in F344 rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toyoda, Takeshi; Cho, Young-Man; Mizuta, Yasuko; Akagi, Jun-ichi; Nishikawa, Akiyoshi; Ogawa, Kumiko

    2014-02-01

    Sodium iron chlorophyllin (SIC), a water-soluble chlorophyll derivative, has been used as a food additive for green coloration. In the present study, a subchronic toxicity study of SIC was performed in male and female F344 rats with oral administration in diet at concentrations of 0%, 0.2%, 1.0%, and 5.0% for 13 weeks. No mortalities, abnormal clinical signs, and hematological changes were observed in any of the groups during the experiment. Significant reduction of body weight gain was noted in 5.0% males. In serum biochemistry, serum transferrin levels were significantly increased in 5.0% males and females. Relative spleen weights of both sexes were markedly reduced with 5.0% SIC as compared to the controls, and absolute weights of spleen were also significantly decreased in males. On histopathological assessment, diffuse hypertrophy of acinar cells in the parotid gland was observed in all examined 5.0% males and females, but not in the other groups. Based on the histopathology of the parotid glands, the no-observed-adverse-effect level (NOAEL) of SIC in the present study was estimated to be 1.0% (609 mg/kg bw/day for males and 678 mg/kg bw/day for females).

  14. Pyrolysis of wastewater biosolids significantly reduces estrogenicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoffman, T C; Zitomer, D H; McNamara, P J

    2016-11-01

    Most wastewater treatment processes are not specifically designed to remove micropollutants. Many micropollutants are hydrophobic so they remain in the biosolids and are discharged to the environment through land-application of biosolids. Micropollutants encompass a broad range of organic chemicals, including estrogenic compounds (natural and synthetic) that reside in the environment, a.k.a. environmental estrogens. Public concern over land application of biosolids stemming from the occurrence of micropollutants hampers the value of biosolids which are important to wastewater treatment plants as a valuable by-product. This research evaluated pyrolysis, the partial decomposition of organic material in an oxygen-deprived system under high temperatures, as a biosolids treatment process that could remove estrogenic compounds from solids while producing a less hormonally active biochar for soil amendment. The estrogenicity, measured in estradiol equivalents (EEQ) by the yeast estrogen screen (YES) assay, of pyrolyzed biosolids was compared to primary and anaerobically digested biosolids. The estrogenic responses from primary solids and anaerobically digested solids were not statistically significantly different, but pyrolysis of anaerobically digested solids resulted in a significant reduction in EEQ; increasing pyrolysis temperature from 100°C to 500°C increased the removal of EEQ with greater than 95% removal occurring at or above 400°C. This research demonstrates that biosolids treatment with pyrolysis would substantially decrease (removal>95%) the estrogens associated with this biosolids product. Thus, pyrolysis of biosolids can be used to produce a valuable soil amendment product, biochar, that minimizes discharge of estrogens to the environment. PMID:27344259

  15. Ability of sodium copper chlorophyllin complex to repair photoaged skin by stimulation of biomarkers in human extracellular matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    McCook JP

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available John P McCook,1 Thomas J Stephens,2 Lily I Jiang,2 Robert M Law,3 Vincent Gotz4 1Discovery Partners LLC, Frisco, 2Thomas J. Stephens & Associates, Inc., Richardson, 3ProPath, Dallas, TX, 4MDRejuvena, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA Purpose: To examine the effect of sodium copper chlorophyllin complex on the expression of biomarkers of photoaged dermal extracellular matrix indicative of skin repair.Patients and methods: Following a previously published 12-day clinical assessment model, skin biopsy samples from the forearms of four healthy females with signs of photoaged skin were obtained and samples were analyzed by immunohistochemistry for key biomarkers of aging skin after each subject was treated with a test material consisting of a gel containing a liposomal dispersion of sodium copper chlorophyllin complex 0.05%, a positive control of tretinoin cream 0.025%, and an untreated negative control.Results: There was a statistically significantly greater amount of fibrillin/amyloid P and epidermal mucins found for skin treated with the test material containing 0.05% sodium copper chlorophyllin complex and the reference control tretinoin 0.025% cream compared to the negative control (untreated site. Expression of procollagen 1 and dermal mucin also showed a greater presence in the samples treated with the test material and the reference control compared to the negative control, though the differences were not statistically significant. No adverse events were observed or reported by the subjects during the course of the study.Conclusion: The results of this human biopsy study suggest that both retinoids and sodium copper chlorophyllin complex have beneficial effects on biomarkers of photoaged skin. Products containing both sodium copper chlorophyllin complex and retinols may provide a dual approach to reversing age-related decreases in hyaluronic acid (HA in the skin: inhibition of the breakdown of HA via sodium copper chlorophyllin complex by inhibition

  16. In vitro inhibition of hyaluronidase by sodium copper chlorophyllin complex and chlorophyllin analogs

    OpenAIRE

    McCook JP; Dorogi PL; Vasily DB; Cefalo DR

    2015-01-01

    John P McCook,1 Peter L Dorogi,2 David B Vasily,3 Dustin R Cefalo4 1Discovery Partners, LLC, Frisco, TX, 2CHL Industries, LLC, Easton, PA, 3Aesthetica Cosmetic and Laser Surgery Center, Bethlehem, PA, 4Frontier Scientific, Inc., Logan, UT, USA Background: Inhibitors of hyaluronidase are potent agents that maintain hyaluronic acid homeostasis and may serve as anti-aging, anti-inflammatory, and anti-microbial agents. Sodium copper chlorophyllin complex is being used therapeutically as a compon...

  17. Protective effect of curcumin and chlorophyllin against DNA mutation induced by cyclophosphamide or benzo[a]pyrene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ibrahim, M.A.; Elbehairy, A.M.; Ghoneim, M.A.; Amer, H.A. [Cairo Univ., Giza (Egypt). Biochemistry Dept. and Biotechnology Center

    2007-03-15

    The current study was carried out to evaluate the potency of curcumin and chlorophyllin as natural antioxidants to reduce the oxidative stress markers induced by cyclophosphamide (CP) and benzo[a]pyrene [B(a)P] which were used as free radical inducers. For this purpose, 126 male albino rats were used. The animals were assigned into 4 main groups: negative control group; oxidant-treated group (subdivided into two subgroups: cyclophosphamide- treated group and benzo[a]pyrene-treated group); curcumin-treated group; and chlorophyllin-treated group. Liver samples were collected after two days post the oxidant inoculation and at the end of the experimental period (10 weeks). These samples were examined for determination of liver microsomal malondialdehyde (MDA), DNA fragmentation, restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) and 8-hydroxy deoxyguanosine (8-OHdG) concentration. Both CP and B(a)P caused increments in DNA fragmentation percentages, liver microsomal MDA, concentration of 8-OHdG and induced point mutation. Treatment of rats with either curcumin or chlorophyllin revealed lower DNA fragmentation percentages, liver microsomal MDA concentration, concentration of 8-OHdG and prevented induction of mutations, i. e., reversed the oxidative stress induced by CP and B(a)P and proved that they were capable of protecting rats against the oxidative damage evoked by these oxidants. (orig.)

  18. 21 CFR 73.125 - Sodium copper chlorophyllin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES GENERAL LISTING OF... chlorophyllin may be safely used to color citrus-based dry beverage mixes in an amount not exceeding 0.2 percent.... Certification of this color additive is not necessary for the protection of the public health, and...

  19. Bait Formulations of Chlorophyllin against Infected/Uninfected Lymnaea acuminata in Red and Sunlight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Navneet Kumar

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Control of snail population is an important tool in fasciolosis control programme. In order to achive this objective the method of bait formulation containing an attractant and a molluscicide is an appropriate approach to ensure the death of host snail. Chlorophyllin bait pellets were prepared by addition of attractants starch (10 mM/serine (20 mM and Chlorophyllin 2% agar solution. These baits were used against host snail Lymnaea acuminata. The behavioral response of snail against attractant (starch/serine and chlorophyllin was examined in red and sunlight. The fraction of snail that was in contact with chlorophyllin bait in zone-3 was used as measure of attraction process. Infected snails were more attracted with red light+starch (57.7%. Uninfected snails were more attracted by red light+serine (58.0%. The molluscicidal activity of chlorophyllin against infected snails in red light (96h LC50-1.88% chlorophyllin in bait and sunlight (96h LC50-2.40% chlorophyllin in bait was more pronounced than uninfected snail in red light (96h LC50-1.76% Chlorophyllin in bait and sunlight (96h LC50-3.62% chlorophyllin in bait.

  20. Fe-Chlorophyllin Promotes the Growth of Wheat Roots Associated with Nitric Oxide Generation

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Jiang; Yong Ren; Liefeng Zhang; Yifan Wang; Min Tong

    2010-01-01

    : Effects of Fe-chlorophyllin on the growth of wheat root were investigated in this study. We found that Fe-chlorophyllin can promote root growth. The production of nitric oxide in wheat root was detected using DAF-2DA fluorescent emission. The intensity of fluorescent in the presence of 0.1 mg/L Fe-chlorophyllin was near to that observed with the positive control of sodium nitroprusside (SNP), the nitric oxide donor. IAA oxidase activity decreased with all treatments of Fe-chlorophyllin from...

  1. In vitro bioavailability of iron from the heme analogue sodium iron chlorophyllin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miret, Silvia; Tascioglu, Serpil; van der Burg, Monique; Frenken, Leon; Klaffke, Werner

    2010-01-27

    The use of heme analogues from vegetable origin could provide an alternative iron source of potentially high bioavailability. Sodium iron chlorophyllin is a water-soluble semisynthetic chlorophyll derivative where the magnesium in the porphyrin ring has been substituted by iron. We have used an in vitro model that combines gastric and intestinal digestion followed by intestinal iron uptake in Caco-2 cells to determine the bioavailability of iron from sodium iron chlorophyllin. Our results demonstrate that sodium iron chlorophyllin is stable under simulated gastrointestinal conditions and is able to deliver bioavailable iron to Caco-2 cells. Similar to the heme, the bioavailability of iron from sodium iron chlorophyllin is dependent on the food matrix, and it was inhibited by calcium. Potentially, sodium iron chlorophyllin could be used as an iron fortificant from vegetable origin with high bioavailability.

  2. ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF CHLOROPHYLLIN AGAINST DIFFERENT LARVAL STAGES OF Fasciola gigantica

    Science.gov (United States)

    SINGH, Divya Jyoti; SINGH, Dinesh Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a food borne zoonosis, caused by the digenetic trematode Fasciola. Freshwater lymnaeid snails are the intermediate host of the trematodes. Chlorophyllin, a semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and its formulations obtained from freeze dried cow urine (FCU) had their toxicity tested against redia and cercaria larvae of F. gigantica. The larvicidal activity of chlorophyllin and its formulations were found to depend on both, time and concentration used against the larvae. Toxicity of chlorophyllin + FCU (1:1 ratio) in sunlight against redia larva (8 h LC50: 0.03 mg/mL) was more pronounced than using just chlorophyllin (8 h LC50: 0.06 mg/mL). Toxicity of chlorophyllin + FCU in sunlight against redia (8 h LC50: 0.03 mg/mL) was higher than against cercaria (8 h LC50: 0.06 mg/mL). The larvicidal activity of chlorophyllin in sunlight (redia/cercaria larvae: 8 h LC50: 0.06 mg/mL) was more pronounced than under laboratory conditions (redia: 8 h LC50: 22.21 mg/mL/, cercaria 8 h LC50: 96.21 mg/mL). Toxicity of FCU against both larvae was lower than that of chlorophyllin and chlorophyllin + FCU. Chlorophyllin and its formulations + FCU were 357.4 to 1603.5 times more effective against redia/cercaria larvae in sunlight than under laboratory conditions. The present study has shown that chlorophyllin formulations may be used as potent larvicides against fasciolosis. PMID:27253741

  3. Action of the chlorophyllin on the genetic damage induced by gamma radiation in germinal cells of Drosophila Melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The obtained results using somatic cells, they have evidenced that the chlorophyllin (CHLN) it can act inhibiting or increasing the damage caused by different mutagens. The objective of this investigation is to evaluate the effect of the CHLN on the damage induced by gamma radiation in germinal cells of Drosophila. Two tests were used, the lost of the X chromosome and the conventional test of lethal recessive bound to the sex (LRLS); both with a system of litters. The obtained results in both essays, indicated that the CHLN doesn't reduce the damage induced by the gamma radiation in none of the cellular monitored states. (Author)

  4. Inhibitory action of chlorophyllin of autosome recessive lethals induced by irradiation; Accion inhibidora de la clorofilina de letales recesivos autosonicos inducidos por irradiacion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salceda, V.M.; Pimentel, P.A.E.; Cruces, M.P. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)]. e-mail: vmss@nuclear.inin.mx

    2006-07-01

    chlorophyllin on the damage caused by the radiation, it was into accothe presence of lethal and semi lethals autosomal. One observes this way that even without the use of the radiation the semi lethals frequency is diminished when the chlorophyllin is applied, in this case the decrease was significant and although there was decrease in the case of the irradiated group this it was not significant; in the case of the lethal ones it happened the opposite it was not significant in radiation absence on the contrary elevate the frequency of this type of genes, however, before the radiation and with pre-treatment with chlorophyllin this it reduced the frequency of autosomal recessive lethals significantly. This is important because in the case of bound recessive lethals recessive to the sex this doesn't happen. (Author)

  5. Inhibition of fried meat-induced colorectal DNA damage and altered systemic genotoxicity in humans by crucifera, chlorophyllin, and yogurt.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel T Shaughnessy

    Full Text Available Dietary exposures implicated as reducing or causing risk for colorectal cancer may reduce or cause DNA damage in colon tissue; however, no one has assessed this hypothesis directly in humans. Thus, we enrolled 16 healthy volunteers in a 4-week controlled feeding study where 8 subjects were randomly assigned to dietary regimens containing meat cooked at either low (100°C or high temperature (250°C, each for 2 weeks in a crossover design. The other 8 subjects were randomly assigned to dietary regimens containing the high-temperature meat diet alone or in combination with 3 putative mutagen inhibitors: cruciferous vegetables, yogurt, and chlorophyllin tablets, also in a crossover design. Subjects were nonsmokers, at least 18 years old, and not currently taking prescription drugs or antibiotics. We used the Salmonella assay to analyze the meat, urine, and feces for mutagenicity, and the comet assay to analyze rectal biopsies and peripheral blood lymphocytes for DNA damage. Low-temperature meat had undetectable levels of heterocyclic amines (HCAs and was not mutagenic, whereas high-temperature meat had high HCA levels and was highly mutagenic. The high-temperature meat diet increased the mutagenicity of hydrolyzed urine and feces compared to the low-temperature meat diet. The mutagenicity of hydrolyzed urine was increased nearly twofold by the inhibitor diet, indicating that the inhibitors enhanced conjugation. Inhibitors decreased significantly the mutagenicity of un-hydrolyzed and hydrolyzed feces. The diets did not alter the levels of DNA damage in non-target white blood cells, but the inhibitor diet decreased nearly twofold the DNA damage in target colorectal cells. To our knowledge, this is the first demonstration that dietary factors can reduce DNA damage in the target tissue of fried-meat associated carcinogenesis.ClinicalTrials.gov NCT00340743.

  6. Effects of chlorophyll and chlorophyllin on low-dose aflatoxin B1 pharmacokinetics in human volunteers: A pilot study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jubert, C; Mata, J; Bench, G; Dashwood, R; Pereira, C; Tracewell, W; Turteltaub, K; Williams, D; Bailey, G

    2009-04-20

    Chlorophyll (Chla) and chlorophyllin (CHL) were shown previously to reduce carcinogen bioavailability, biomarker damage, and tumorigenicity in trout and rats. These findings were partially extended to humans (Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 98, 14601-14606 (2001)), where CHL reduced excretion of aflatoxin B{sub 1} (AFB{sub 1})-DNA repair products in Chinese unavoidably exposed to dietary AFB{sub 1}. However, neither AFB{sub 1} pharmacokinetics nor Chla effects were examined. We conducted a small unblinded crossover study to establish AFB{sub 1} pharmacokinetic parameters in human volunteers, and to explore possible effects of CHL or Chla co-treatment on those parameters. For protocol 1, fasted subjects received an IRB-approved dose of 14C-AFB{sub 1} (30 ng, 5 nCi) by capsule with 100 ml water, followed by normal eating and drinking after hr 2. Blood and cumulative urine samples were collected over 72 hr, and {sup 14}C-AFB{sub 1} equivalents were determined by Accelerator Mass Spectrometry. Protocols 2 and 3 were similar except capsules also contained 150 mg of purified Chla, or CHL, respectively. All protocols were repeated 3 times for each of three volunteers. The study revealed rapid human AFB{sub 1} uptake (plasma ka 5.05 {+-} 1.10 hr-1, Tmax 1.0 hr) and urinary elimination (95% complete by 24 hr) kinetics. Chla and CHL treatment each significantly impeded AFB{sub 1} absorption and reduced Cmax and AUC's (plasma and urine) in one or more subjects. These initial results provide AFB{sub 1} pharmacokinetic parameters previously unavailable for humans, and suggest that Chla or CHL co-consumption may limit the bioavailability of ingested aflatoxin in humans, as they do in animal models.

  7. Post-initiation chlorophyllin exposure does not modulate aflatoxin-induced foci in the liver and colon of rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Orner Gayle A

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Chlorophyllin (CHL is a promising chemopreventive agent believed to block cancer primarily by inhibiting carcinogen uptake through the formation of molecular complexes with the carcinogens. However, recent studies suggest that CHL may have additional biological effects particularly when given after the period of carcinogen treatment. This study examines the post-initiation effects of CHL towards aflatoxin B1 (AFB1-induced preneoplastic foci of the liver and colon. The single concentration of CHL tested in this study (0.1% in the drinking water had no significant effects on AFB1-induced foci of the liver and colons of rats.

  8. 叶绿素镁钠盐对液态食品中Staphylococcus aureus 的光动力杀菌研究%Photodynamic Sterilization of Staphylococcus Aureus in Liquid Food by Na-Chlorophyllin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王小情; 刘忠义; 余元善; 徐玉娟; 吴继军; 王威利; 唐道邦

    2013-01-01

    以叶绿素镁钠盐为光敏剂,研究了其对几种液体食品中金黄色葡萄球菌的光动力杀菌效果.结果表明,叶绿素镁钠盐对几种液态食品中的金黄色葡萄球菌具有很强的杀菌效果,其中以10-5 mol/L的叶绿素镁钠盐杀菌效果最佳,10min金黄色葡萄球菌减少了4.5个对数;随着光照时间的延长,液态食品中的金黄色葡萄球菌的致死率明显增加,特别是在起始10 min内;一般透光性好的食品包装材料对液态食品中金黄色葡萄球菌光动力杀菌效率没有影响,但液态食品的pH对其杀菌效率有一定的影响.对于不同的液态食品,在澄清或酸性的食品中叶绿色镁钠盐的光动力杀菌效果较好,但当食品中含固体颗粒或较浑浊时,其杀菌效率显著降低.%The Na-Chlorophyllin photodynamic sterilization of Staphylococcus aureus in liquid food was investigated in this study. Results found Na-Chlorophyllin showed a photodynamic inactivation against Staphylococcus aureus in several liquid foods, and the optimum concentration of Na-Chlorophyllin was 10-5 mol/L for photodynamic inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus. Staphylococcus aureus reduced about 4.5 log in 10 min. The inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus in liquid food was significantly increased with the extension of illumination, especially in the initial 10 min. Moreover, food packing materials with good light transmission had no effect on photodynamic inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus, but the pH of liquid food can affect the photodynamic inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus. In addition, photodynamic inactivation of Staphylococcus aureus in clear liquid foods was greater as compared with cloudy liquid food.

  9. Fe-Chlorophyllin Promotes the Growth of Wheat Roots Associated with Nitric Oxide Generation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui Jiang

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available : Effects of Fe-chlorophyllin on the growth of wheat root were investigated in this study. We found that Fe-chlorophyllin can promote root growth. The production of nitric oxide in wheat root was detected using DAF-2DA fluorescent emission. The intensity of fluorescent in the presence of 0.1 mg/L Fe-chlorophyllin was near to that observed with the positive control of sodium nitroprusside (SNP, the nitric oxide donor. IAA oxidase activity decreased with all treatments of Fe-chlorophyllin from 0.01 to 10 mg/L. At the relatively lower Fe-chlorophyllin concentration of 0.1 mg/L, the activity of IAA oxidase displayed a remarkable decrease, being 40.1% lower than the control. Meanwhile, Fe-chlorophyllin treatment could increase the activities of reactive oxygen scavenging enzymes, such as superoxide dismutase (SOD and peroxidase (POD, as determined using non-denaturing polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. These results indicate that Fe-chlorophyllin contributes to the growth of wheat root associated with nitric oxide generation.

  10. Toxicity of Chlorophyllin against Lymnaea acuminata at Different Wavelengths of Visible Light

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaturvedi, Divya; Singh, Vinay Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Fasciolosis is a water and food-borne disease caused by the liver fluke Fasciola hepatica and Fasciola gigantica. This disease is widespread in different parts of the world. Lymnaeidae and Planorbidae snails are the intermediate hosts of these flukes. Snail population management is a good tool to control fasciolosis because gastropods represent the weakest link in the life-cycle of trematodes. Chlorophyll can be extracted from any green plant. Chlorophyllin was prepared from spinach in 100% ethanol by using different types of chemicals. The chlorophyll obtained from spinach was transformed into water-soluble chlorophyllin. In the present paper, toxicity of chlorophyllin against the snail Lymnaea acuminata was time and concentration dependent. The toxicity of extracted and pure chlorophyllin at continuous 4 h exposure of sunlight was highest with lethal concentration (LC50) of 331.01 mg/L and 2.60 mg/L, respectively, than discontinuous exposure of sunlight up to 8 h with LC50 of 357.04 mg/L and 4.94 mg/L, respectively. Toxicity of extracted chlorophyllin was noted in the presence of different monochromatic visible lights. The highest toxicity was noted in yellow light (96 h, LC50 392.77 mg/L) and the lowest in green light (96 h, LC50 833.02 mg/L). Chlorophyllin in combination with solar radiation or different wavelength of monochromatic visible lights may become a latent remedy against the snail L. acuminata. It was demonstrated that chlorophyllin was more toxic in sunlight. Chlorophyllin is ecologically safe and more economical than synthetic molluscicides which have the potential to control the incidence of fasciolosis in developing countries. PMID:27688849

  11. Effect of probiotic fermented milk and chlorophyllin on gene expressions and genotoxicity during AFB₁-induced hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Manoj; Verma, Vinod; Nagpal, Ravinder; Kumar, Ashok; Gautam, Sanjeev K; Behare, Pradip V; Grover, Chand R; Aggarwal, Praveen K

    2011-12-15

    The aim of this study was to investigate the chemopreventive effect of probiotic fermented milk and chlorophyllin on aflatoxin B₁ (AFB₁) induced hepatocellular carcinoma. In vivo trials were conducted on 200 Wistar rats allocated to eight groups. Rats in the positive control group were given intraperitoneal injection of aflatoxin B₁ at 450 μg/kg body weight twice a week for 6 weeks. The rats were sacrificed and dissected at 25th week of the experiment, and comet assay was carried out in hepatic cells to assess the genotoxicity or DNA damage. The tumour incidence was decreased by approximately one-third than AFB₁ control group. The expression of c-myc bax, bcl-2, cyclin D1, p53 and rasp-21 genes was also studied. A significant (Paflatoxin B₁ control group. The c-myc, bcl-2, cyclin D1 and rasp-21 level was found to be highest in AFB₁ control group as compared to the treatment group. The results advocate the enhanced protective potential of probiotic fermented milk and chlorophyllin against AFB₁-induced molecular alterations in hepatic cells during carcinogenesis. PMID:21963996

  12. Colchicine Significantly Reduces Incident Cancer in Gout Male Patients

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuo, Ming-Chun; Chang, Shun-Jen; Hsieh, Ming-Chia

    2015-01-01

    Abstract Patients with gout are more likely to develop most cancers than subjects without gout. Colchicine has been used for the treatment and prevention of gouty arthritis and has been reported to have an anticancer effect in vitro. However, to date no study has evaluated the relationship between colchicine use and incident cancers in patients with gout. This study enrolled male patients with gout identified in Taiwan's National Health Insurance Database for the years 1998 to 2011. Each gout patient was matched with 4 male controls by age and by month and year of first diagnosis, and was followed up until 2011. The study excluded those who were diagnosed with diabetes or any type of cancer within the year following enrollment. We calculated hazard ratio (HR), aged-adjusted standardized incidence ratio, and incidence of 1000 person-years analyses to evaluate cancer risk. A total of 24,050 male patients with gout and 76,129 male nongout controls were included. Patients with gout had a higher rate of incident all-cause cancers than controls (6.68% vs 6.43%, P = 0.006). A total of 13,679 patients with gout were defined as having been ever-users of colchicine and 10,371 patients with gout were defined as being never-users of colchicine. Ever-users of colchicine had a significantly lower HR of incident all-cause cancers than never-users of colchicine after adjustment for age (HR = 0.85, 95% CI = 0.77–0.94; P = 0.001). In conclusion, colchicine use was associated with a decreased risk of incident all-cause cancers in male Taiwanese patients with gout. PMID:26683907

  13. Comparative proteomic analysis of drug sodium iron chlorophyllin addition to Hep 3B cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Jun; Wang, Wenhai; Yang, Fengying; Zhou, Xinwen; Jin, Hong; Yang, Peng-yuan

    2012-09-21

    The human hepatoma 3B cell line was chosen as an experimental model for in vitro test of drug screening. The drugs included chlorophyllin and its derivatives such as fluo-chlorophyllin, sodium copper chlorophyllin, and sodium iron chlorophyllin. The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyl-tetrazolium bromide (MTT) method was used in this study to obtain the primary screening results. The results showed that sodium iron chlorophyllin had the best LC(50) value. Proteomic analysis was then performed for further investigation of the effect of sodium iron chlorophyllin addition to the Hep 3B cell line. The proteins identified from a total protein extract of Hep 3B before and after the drug addition were compared by two-dimensional-gel-electrophoresis. Then 32 three-fold differentially expressed proteins were successfully identified by MALDI-TOF-TOF-MS. There are 29 unique proteins among those identified proteins. These proteins include proliferating cell nuclear antigen (PCNA), T-complex protein, heterogeneous nuclear protein, nucleophosmin, heat shock protein A5 (HspA5) and peroxiredoxin. HspA5 is one of the proteins which are involved in protecting cancer cells against stress-induced apoptosis in cultured cells, protecting them against apoptosis through various mechanisms. Peroxiredoxin has anti-oxidant function and is related to cell proliferation, and signal transduction. It can protect the oxidation of other proteins. Peroxiredoxin has a close relationship with cancer and can eventually become a disease biomarker. This might help to develop a novel treatment method for carcinoma cancer.

  14. Analysis of the Therapeutic Effect of Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Tablet in Treating 60 Cases of Leukopenia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    GAO Feng; HU Xiu-fen

    2005-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the efficacy and safety of sodium copper chlorophyllin (trademarked and five patients with leukopenia caused by various factors were randomized into 3 groups. The 60 patients in the YBK group took orally YBK Tablets at the dose of 40 mg, three times per day, the 30 patients in the leuthe 15 patients in the placebo group were administered with vitamin C tablets 100 mg, three times per day.All the subjects were treated for 1 month. The change of peripheral leucocytes count after treatment and adverse drug reaction that occurred in patients were studied. Results: In the 60 patients treated with YBK, the treatment proved to be markedly effective in 34 cases, effective in 17 and ineffective in 9, the total effective rate being 85%, which was significantly higher than that in the placebo group (26.7%, P<0.01) and similar to that in the leucogen group (83.3%, P>0.05). No adverse reaction was found in the treatment course.Conclusion: YBK can be used in the treatment of leukopenia caused by various factors, satisfactory in efficacy and safe in use.

  15. Identifying Efficacious Approaches to Chemoprevention with chlorophyllin, purified chlorophylls and freeze-dried spinach in a Mouse Model of Transplacental Carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castro, David J.; Lohr, Christiane V.; Fischer, Kay A.; Waters, Katrina M.; Webb-Robertson, Bobbie-Jo M.; Dashwood, Roderick H.; Bailey, George S.; Williams, David E.

    2009-02-01

    The carcinogenic potential of dibenzo[a,l]pyrene (DBP) has been well characterized in numerous animal models. We have previously documented that a single dose of 15 mg/Kg DBP to pregnant mice late in gestation (GD 17) produces an aggressive T-cell lymphoma as well as lung and liver cancer in offspring. The current study examines the chemopreventative properties of chlorophyllin (CHL) and chlorophyll (Chl) in this transplacental carcinogenesis model. Pregnant B6129SF1 females, bred to 129S1/SvIm males, received purified diets incorporated with either 2000 ppm CHL, 2000 ppm Chl, or 10% freeze-dried spinach beginning at gestation day 9. Lymphoma-dependent mortality was not significantly altered by maternal consumption of any of the diet and little effect on lung tumor burden in mice surviving to 10 months of age was observed. However, co-administration of CHL at 380 mg/Kg with DBP by gavage (molar ratio of 10:1, CHL:DBP) provided significant protection against DBP initiated carcinogenesis. Offspring born to dams receiving CHL co-gavaged with DBP exhibited markedly fewer lymphoma-dependent mortalities (p< 0.001). The degree of protection by CHL, compared to controls dosed with DBP in tricaprylin (TCP) as the vehicle, were less marked, but still significant. Co-administration of CHL (TCP as vehicle) also reduced lung tumor multiplicity in mice by approximately 50% and this was observed throughout the study (p< 0.005). This is the first demonstration that CHL can provide potent chemoprotection in a transplacental carcinogenesis model and supports a mechanism involving complex-mediated reduction of carcinogen uptake.

  16. In vivo suppression of solid Ehrlich cancer via chlorophyllin derivative mediated PDT: an albino mouse tumour model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gomaa, Iman; Saraya, Hend; Zekri, Maha; Abdel-Kader, Mahmoud

    2015-03-01

    In this study, copper chlorophyllin was used as a photosensitizer for photodynamic therapy (PDT) in Ehrlich tumour mouse model. Six groups of animals comprising 5 animals per group were subcutaneously transplanted with 1x106 Ehrlich tumour cells. A single dose of 200 μg/gm body weight chlorophylin derivative was administered by intravenous (IV) or intratumoral (IT) routes. Mice were exposed to monochromatic red laser of 630 nm for 1 h, and tumour regression was followed up for three consecutive months post treatment. Several Biochemical, histological and molecular tests were performed in order to evaluate the efficacy and safety of the applied treatment. An interest has been also directed towards investigating the molecular mechanisms underlying chlorophyllin derivative mediated PDT. PDT-treated animals via either the IV or IT routes showed significant decrease in tumour size 72 h post-treatment. Tumours at the IV-PDT group disappeared totally within a week with no recurrence over three months follow up. In the IT-PDT, the decrease in tumour size at the first week was interrupted by a slight increase; however never reached the original size. Histological examination of tumour tissues of the IV-PDT group at 24 h post treatment demonstrated restoring the normal muscle tissue architecture, and the biochemical assays indicated normal liver functions. The immunohistochemical analysis of caspase-3, and the quantitative PCR results of caspases-8 and 9 proved the presence of extrinsic apoptotic pathway after cholorphyllin derivative-mediated PDT. In conclusion IV-PDT strategy proved better cure rate than the IT-PDT, with no recurrence over three months of follow up.

  17. Effect of chlorophyllin on frequency radiation-induced of sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and other cytogenetic events in mice bone marrow cells In Vivo

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of chlorophyllin on gamma radiation induced Sister chromatid exchanges (SCE) and on the mitotic index (IM) and average generation time was determined. Groups of mice were treated in one of the following regimens: (1) untreated, (2) treated with chlorophyllin only, (3) irradiated and (4) treated with chlorophyllin and irradiated intraperitoneal administration of chlorophyllin preceding gamma radiation exposure protected again SCE induction and diminution of IM. However, radioprotection was not reflected in the average generation time for the chlorophyllin per se acceleration the average generation time. The results suggest that, under the experimental conditions of the study the SCE and IM are caused by free radicals produced by radiation and wat the action mechanics of chlorophyllin is scavenger free radicals. (Author)

  18. Bait Formulations of Chlorophyllin against Infected/Uninfected Lymnaea acuminata in Red and Sunlight

    OpenAIRE

    Navneet Kumar; Vinay Kumar Singh

    2015-01-01

    Control of snail population is an important tool in fasciolosis control programme. In order to achive this objective the method of bait formulation containing an attractant and a molluscicide is an appropriate approach to ensure the death of host snail. Chlorophyllin bait pellets were prepared by addition of attractants starch (10 mM)/serine (20 mM) and Chlorophyllin 2% agar solution. These baits were used against host snail Lymnaea acuminata. The behavioral response of snail against attracta...

  19. Gene Expression Signature of DMBA-Induced Hamster Buccal Pouch Carcinomas: Modulation by Chlorophyllin and Ellagic Acid

    OpenAIRE

    Vidya Priyadarsini, Ramamurthi; Kumar, Neeraj; Khan, Imran; Thiyagarajan, Paranthaman; Kondaiah, Paturu; Nagini, Siddavaram

    2012-01-01

    Chlorophyllin (CHL), a water-soluble, semi-synthetic derivative of chlorophyll and ellagic acid (EA), a naturally occurring polyphenolic compound in berries, grapes, and nuts have been reported to exert anticancer effects in various human cancer cell lines and in animal tumour models. The present study was undertaken to examine the mechanism underlying chemoprevention and changes in gene expression pattern induced by dietary supplementation of chlorophyllin and ellagic acid in the 7,12-dimeth...

  20. Study on Preparation and Stability of Sodium Zinc Chlorophyllin from Mentha Haplocalyx%薄荷叶叶绿素锌钠盐的制备及其稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林燕如; 谢琳洁

    2012-01-01

    以薄荷叶为原料,通过浸提得到叶绿索。经皂化、酸化、锌代等过程,制得叶绿素锌钠盐。结果表明,该产品水溶性好,耐热性、耐氧化还原性较好,但在光照条件下,稳定性差。几种常见的食品添加剂及金属离子对叶绿素锌钠盐的影响小,但Cu^2+、Fe^3+对叶绿索锌钠盐的稳定性有较大的影响。%Chlorophyll was extracted from Mentha haplocalyx. Sodium zinc chlorophyllin was prepared from the chlorophyll extracting through the processes of saponification, acidification and zinc substitution. The product showed high water-solubility, thermal stability, and high resistance abilities to oxidants and reducers. But it was significantly faded down under sunshine. Moreover, it would not be influenced by some common food additives and metal-salts. However, it would be influenced by Cu2^+, Fe^3+.

  1. Action of the chlorophyllin before genetic damage induced by gamma radiation in germinal cells of Drosophila

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chlorophyllin (CHLN) is a porphyrin of nutritious grade and soluble in water, derived of the chlorophyll. It has been reported that this pigment is a good anti mutagen since it reduces the damage to the DNA caused by physical or chemical agents of direct or indirect action. Their anti carcinogenic action has also been demonstrated when it is administered itself during the induced post-initiation phase by aflatoxins and heterocyclic amines. However in the last decade it has been reported that it also has promoter activity against the genetic damage induced by diverse agents like the alkyl ants of direct and indirect action, the gamma radiation and some heterocyclic amines. This effect has been observed in testing systems like Salmonella, Drosophila, rainbow trout and rodents. In the mouse spermatogonia it has been reported that it reduces the damage to the DNA but with the test of lethal dominant in Drosophila increment the damage induced by gamma radiation. The present study consisted on evaluating the effect of the CHLN in the line germinal masculine of Drosophila by means of the lethal recessive test bound to the sex (LRLS) with the stump Muller 5 and a litters system. Its were pretreated wild males with CHLN and 24 h later were irradiated with 0, 10, 20 and 40 Gy of gamma radiation immediately later were crossed with virgin females of the stump Basc and at 72 h the male was transferred to a cultivation media with three new virgin females, this process repeated three times until completing 3 litters. The F1 it was crossed among itself and in the F2 it was analysed the presence or absence of lethals. The results indicated that the CHLN per se incremented the basal frequency of damage due to the pigment can act as an agent that is inserted to the ADN causing pre mutagenic leisure. Nevertheless with the groups treated with the different doses of gamma radiation the CHLN does not present any protector action, neither promoter except in the litter I of the group

  2. Action of the chlorophyllin on the genetic damage induced by gamma radiation in germinal cells of Drosophila Melanogaster; Accion de la clorofilina sobre el dano genetico inducido por radiacion gamma en celulas germinales de Drosophila Melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cruces, M.P.; Pimentel, A.E.; Moreno, A.; Moreno, R. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2003-07-01

    The obtained results using somatic cells, they have evidenced that the chlorophyllin (CHLN) it can act inhibiting or increasing the damage caused by different mutagens. The objective of this investigation is to evaluate the effect of the CHLN on the damage induced by gamma radiation in germinal cells of Drosophila. Two tests were used, the lost of the X chromosome and the conventional test of lethal recessive bound to the sex (LRLS); both with a system of litters. The obtained results in both essays, indicated that the CHLN doesn't reduce the damage induced by the gamma radiation in none of the cellular monitored states. (Author)

  3. Action of the chlorophyllin (CHLN) on the double breaking induced by gamma radiation in germinal cells of Drosophila melanogaster

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chlorophyllin (CHLN) is a derived of the chlorophyll in the one which the atom of Mg is replaced by Cu. It has been broadly used as preservative in those foods, and in the treatment of geriatric patients. The results using different test systems have demonstrated that the CHLN reduces the DNA damage caused by different physical agents or chemical of direct action or insinuation. Another of the properties of the CHLN is it anti carcinogenic action, because it has been that inhibits the carcinogen activity of B1 (AFB1) aflatoxin and it diminishes the incidence of tumors caused for 2-amine-3-methylimidazo [4- 5f] quinoline (IQ) and it inhibits the development of colon cancer during the post-initiation phase. Recently the reports of the activity promoter of the CHLN have been increased on the genetic damage. This effect observed in Salmonella and later on in Drosophila melanogaster using, physical and chemical agents. Presently study determines the action of the CHLN before the genetic effect induced in germinal cells of Drosophila melanogaster by means of the test of the lost one of the X chromosome in ring using two protocols; the first one consisted on pretreatment with CHLN to the male ones and later on to irradiate them and in the second protocol the pretreatment with CHLN administers to the females, in both protocols its were used a litter systems. (Author)

  4. Utilization of UV Curing Technology to Significantly Reduce the Manufacturing Cost of LIB Electrodes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Voelker, Gary [Miltec UV International, LLC, Stevensville, MD (United States); Arnold, John [Miltec UV International, LLC, Stevensville, MD (United States)

    2015-11-30

    Previously identified novel binders and associated UV curing technology have been shown to reduce the time required to apply and finish electrode coatings from tens of minutes to less than one second. This revolutionary approach can result in dramatic increases in process speeds, significantly reduced capital (a factor of 10 to 20) and operating costs, reduced energy requirements, and reduced environmental concerns and costs due to the virtual elimination of harmful volatile organic solvents and associated solvent dryers and recovery systems. The accumulated advantages of higher speed, lower capital and operating costs, reduced footprint, lack of VOC recovery, and reduced energy cost is a reduction of 90% in the manufacturing cost of cathodes. When commercialized, the resulting cost reduction in Lithium batteries will allow storage device manufacturers to expand their sales in the market and thereby accrue the energy savings of broader utilization of HEVs, PHEVs and EVs in the U.S., and a broad technology export market is also envisioned.

  5. Surface-Enhanced Resonance Raman Scattering and Visible Extinction Spectroscopy of Copper Chlorophyllin: An Upper Level Chemistry Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schnitzer, Cheryl S.; Reim, Candace Lawson; Sirois, John J.; House, Paul G.

    2010-01-01

    Advanced chemistry students are introduced to surface-enhanced resonance Raman scattering (SERRS) by studying how sodium copper chlorophyllin (CuChl) adsorbs onto silver colloids (CuChl/Ag) as a function of pH. Using both SERRS and visible extinction spectroscopy, the extent of CuChl adsorption and colloidal aggregation are monitored. Initially at…

  6. Thrombolysis significantly reduces transient myocardial ischaemia following first acute myocardial infarction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mickley, H; Pless, P; Nielsen, J R;

    1992-01-01

    In order to investigate whether thrombolysis affects residual myocardial ischaemia, we prospectively performed a predischarge maximal exercise test and early out-of-hospital ambulatory ST segment monitoring in 123 consecutive men surviving a first acute myocardial infarction (AMI). Seventy...... less than 0.02). Thrombolysis resulted in a non-significant reduction in exercise-induced ST segment depression: prevalence 43% vs 62% in controls. However, during ambulatory monitoring the duration of transient myocardial ischaemia was significantly reduced in thrombolysed patients: 322 min vs 1144...... myocardial ischaemia. This may explain the improvement in myocardial function during physical activities, which was also observed in this study....

  7. Preparation of Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin%叶绿铜钠盐的制备研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭海蓉; 王晓飞; 李媛媛

    2011-01-01

    The filter mud from sugarcane mill was used as the raw material. The preparative condition for sodium copper chlorophyllin was studied. The results showed that the best saponification effect could be obtained by treated at 50℃ for 60 min, and the copper exchanged reaction was carried out in pH 4 buffer for 60 min. The obtained sodium copper chlorophyllin was up to par after evaluated according to GB3262-82.%以甘蔗糖厂滤泥中提取的叶绿素为原料,探索了叶绿素铜钠盐的制备条件,结果表明,叶绿素铜钠盐在50℃下皂化60 min;在pH值为4的酸性条件下铜代60 min效果较好,对制得的叶绿素铜钠盐按GB3262-82进行各项检测,均符合国标要求.

  8. Significantly improved photocurrent response of ZnS-reduced graphene oxide composites

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • ZnS/reduced graphene oxide nanoparticles by hydrothermal method. • ZnS nanoparticles in a gelatin medium without agglomeration. • Support of ZnS shows efficient photocurrent response. • The fabricated solar cell electrode improved in the presence of reduced graphene oxide. - Abstract: ZnS-nanoparticles (NPs) reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composites with a high degree of crystallinity and high dispersity were successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal method in the gelatin medium, during which the formation of ZnS NPs, reduction of graphene oxide and loading of ZnS NPs into the rGO surface occur simultaneously. Gelatin, as a natural capping agent, plays a significant role in controlling the degree of dispersion and coverage of ZnS NPs. The effect of rGO on the crystalline structure and optical properties of ZnS NPs were determined via X-ray diffraction, UV–visible diffused reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The ZnS–rGO composites exhibit excellent potential for photocurrent generation compared with pure ZnS NPs under visible light irradiation, provided that efficient photoinduced charge separation and transportation can be achieved at the interface. The maximum photocurrent response was obtained for ZnS–rGO composite with a 3% mass fraction of rGO, which is 2 times that achieved on pure ZnS NPs

  9. Significantly improved photocurrent response of ZnS-reduced graphene oxide composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sookhakian, M., E-mail: m.sokhakian@gmail.com [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Amin, Y.M. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Zakaria, R. [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Photonics Research Centre, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Basirun, W.J. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Institute of Nanotechnology & Catalysis Research (NanoCat), University Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Mahmoudian, M.R. [Department of Chemistry, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Nasiri-Tabrizi, B.; Baradaran, S. [Department of Mechanical Engineering, Faculty of Engineering, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia); Azarang, Majid [Department of Physics, Faculty of Science, University of Malaya, Kuala Lumpur 50603 (Malaysia)

    2015-05-25

    Highlights: • ZnS/reduced graphene oxide nanoparticles by hydrothermal method. • ZnS nanoparticles in a gelatin medium without agglomeration. • Support of ZnS shows efficient photocurrent response. • The fabricated solar cell electrode improved in the presence of reduced graphene oxide. - Abstract: ZnS-nanoparticles (NPs) reduced graphene oxide (rGO) composites with a high degree of crystallinity and high dispersity were successfully synthesized via a facile solvothermal method in the gelatin medium, during which the formation of ZnS NPs, reduction of graphene oxide and loading of ZnS NPs into the rGO surface occur simultaneously. Gelatin, as a natural capping agent, plays a significant role in controlling the degree of dispersion and coverage of ZnS NPs. The effect of rGO on the crystalline structure and optical properties of ZnS NPs were determined via X-ray diffraction, UV–visible diffused reflectance spectroscopy and photoluminescence spectroscopy. The ZnS–rGO composites exhibit excellent potential for photocurrent generation compared with pure ZnS NPs under visible light irradiation, provided that efficient photoinduced charge separation and transportation can be achieved at the interface. The maximum photocurrent response was obtained for ZnS–rGO composite with a 3% mass fraction of rGO, which is 2 times that achieved on pure ZnS NPs.

  10. Aluminum sulfate significantly reduces the skin test response to common allergens in sensitized patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grier Thomas J

    2006-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Avoidance of allergens is still recommended as the first and best way to prevent allergic illnesses and their comorbid diseases. Despite a variety of attempts there has been very limited success in the area of environmental control of allergic disease. Our objective was to identify a non-invasive, non-pharmacological method to reduce indoor allergen loads in atopic persons' homes and public environments. We employed a novel in vivo approach to examine the possibility of using aluminum sulfate to control environmental allergens. Methods Fifty skin test reactive patients were simultaneously skin tested with conventional test materials and the actions of the protein/glycoprotein modifier, aluminum sulfate. Common allergens, dog, cat, dust mite, Alternaria, and cockroach were used in the study. Results Skin test reactivity was significantly reduced by the modifier aluminum sulfate. Our studies demonstrate that the effects of histamine were not affected by the presence of aluminum sulfate. In fact, skin test reactivity was reduced independent of whether aluminum sulfate was present in the allergen test material or removed prior to testing, indicating that the allergens had in some way been inactivated. Conclusion Aluminum sulfate was found to reduce the in vivo allergic reaction cascade induced by skin testing with common allergens. The exact mechanism is not clear but appears to involve the alteration of IgE-binding epitopes on the allergen. Our results indicate that it may be possible to diminish the allergenicity of an environment by application of the active agent aluminum sulfate, thus producing environmental control without complete removal of the allergen.

  11. Use of preoperative gabapentin significantly reduces postoperative opioid consumption: a meta-analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arumugam, Sudha; Lau, Christine SM; Chamberlain, Ronald S

    2016-01-01

    Objectives Effective postoperative pain management is crucial in the care of surgical patients. Opioids, which are commonly used in managing postoperative pain, have a potential for tolerance and addiction, along with sedating side effects. Gabapentin’s use as a multimodal analgesic regimen to treat neuropathic pain has been documented as having favorable side effects. This meta-analysis examined the use of preoperative gabapentin and its impact on postoperative opioid consumption. Materials and methods A comprehensive literature search was conducted to identify randomized control trials that evaluated preoperative gabapentin on postoperative opioid consumption. The outcomes of interest were cumulative opioid consumption following the surgery and the incidence of vomiting, somnolence, and nausea. Results A total of 1,793 patients involved in 17 randomized control trials formed the final analysis for this study. Postoperative opioid consumption was reduced when using gabapentin within the initial 24 hours following surgery (standard mean difference −1.35, 95% confidence interval [CI]: −1.96 to −0.73; Pfentanyl, and tramadol consumption (P<0.05). While a significant increase in postoperative somnolence incidence was observed (relative risk 1.30, 95% CI: 1.10–1.54, P<0.05), there were no significant effects on postoperative vomiting and nausea. Conclusion The administration of preoperative gabapentin reduced the consumption of opioids during the initial 24 hours following surgery. The reduction in postoperative opioids with preoperative gabapentin increased postoperative somnolence, but no significant differences were observed in nausea and vomiting incidences. The results from this study demonstrate that gabapentin is more beneficial in mastectomy and spinal, abdominal, and thyroid surgeries. Gabapentin is an effective analgesic adjunct, and clinicians should consider its use in multimodal treatment plans among patients undergoing elective surgery. PMID

  12. Incorporation of catalytic dehydrogenation into fischer-tropsch synthesis to significantly reduce carbon dioxide emissions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huffman, Gerald P.

    2012-11-13

    A new method of producing liquid transportation fuels from coal and other hydrocarbons that significantly reduces carbon dioxide emissions by combining Fischer-Tropsch synthesis with catalytic dehydrogenation is claimed. Catalytic dehydrogenation (CDH) of the gaseous products (C1-C4) of Fischer-Tropsch synthesis (FTS) can produce large quantities of hydrogen while converting the carbon to multi-walled carbon nanotubes (MWCNT). Incorporation of CDH into a FTS-CDH plant converting coal to liquid fuels can eliminate all or most of the CO.sub.2 emissions from the water-gas shift (WGS) reaction that is currently used to elevate the H.sub.2 level of coal-derived syngas for FTS. Additionally, the FTS-CDH process saves large amounts of water used by the WGS reaction and produces a valuable by-product, MWCNT.

  13. Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Immobilization onto Hippospongia communis Marine Demosponge Skeleton and Its Antibacterial Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Małgorzata Norman

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In this study, Hippospongia communis marine demosponge skeleton was used as an adsorbent for sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC. Obtained results indicate the high sorption capacity of this biomaterial with respect to SCC. Batch experiments were performed under different conditions and kinetic and isotherms properties were investigated. Acidic pH and the addition of sodium chloride increased SCC adsorption. The experimental data were well described by a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms were determined and the experimental data were analyzed using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The effectiveness of the process was confirmed by 13C Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C CP/MAS NMR, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS and thermogravimetric analysis (TG. This novel SCC-sponge-based functional hybrid material was found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus.

  14. Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Immobilization onto Hippospongia communis Marine Demosponge Skeleton and Its Antibacterial Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Norman, Małgorzata; Bartczak, Przemysław; Zdarta, Jakub; Tomala, Wiktor; Żurańska, Barbara; Dobrowolska, Anna; Piasecki, Adam; Czaczyk, Katarzyna; Ehrlich, Hermann; Jesionowski, Teofil

    2016-01-01

    In this study, Hippospongia communis marine demosponge skeleton was used as an adsorbent for sodium copper chlorophyllin (SCC). Obtained results indicate the high sorption capacity of this biomaterial with respect to SCC. Batch experiments were performed under different conditions and kinetic and isotherms properties were investigated. Acidic pH and the addition of sodium chloride increased SCC adsorption. The experimental data were well described by a pseudo-second order kinetic model. Equilibrium adsorption isotherms were determined and the experimental data were analyzed using both Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The effectiveness of the process was confirmed by 13C Cross Polarization Magic Angle Spinning Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (13C CP/MAS NMR), Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). This novel SCC-sponge-based functional hybrid material was found to exhibit antimicrobial activity against the gram-positive bacterium Staphylococcus aureus. PMID:27690001

  15. Nitrogen and phosphorous limitations significantly reduce future allowable CO2 emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Qian; Wang, Ying-Ping; Matear, Richard; Pitman, Andy; Dai, Yongjiu

    2014-05-01

    Earth System Models (ESMs) can be used to diagnose the emissions of CO2 allowed in order to follow the representative concentration pathways (RCPs) that are consistent with different climate scenarios. By mass balance, the allowable emission is calculated as the sum of the changes in atmospheric CO2, land and ocean carbon pools. Only two ESMs used in the fifth assessment (AR5) of International Panel on Climate Change (IPCC) include nitrogen (N) limitation, and none include phosphorous (P) limitation. In this study we quantified the effects of N and P limitations on the allowable emissions using an ESM simulating land and ocean CO2 exchanges to the atmosphere in RCPs used for IPCC AR5. The model can run with carbon cycle alone (C only), carbon and nitrogen (CN) or carbon, nitrogen and phosphorus (CNP) cycles as its land configurations. We used the simulated land and ocean carbon accumulation rates from 1850 to 2100 to diagnose the allowable emissions for each of three simulations (C only, CN or CNP). These were then compared with the emissions estimated by the Integrated Assessment Models (IAMs) used to generate RCP2.6 and RCP8.5. N and P limitations on land in our ESM led to systematically lower land carbon uptake, and thus reduced allowable emissions by 69 Pg C (21%) for RCP2.6, and by 250 Pg C (13%) for RCP8.5 from 2006 to 2100. Our results demonstrated that including N and P limitations requires a greater reduction in human CO2 emissions than assumed in the IAMs used to generate the RCPs. Reference: Zhang, Q., Y. P. Wang, R. J. Matear, A. J. Pitman, and Y. J. Dai (2014), Nitrogen and phosphorous limitations significantly reduce future allowable CO2 emissions, Geophys. Res. Lett., 41, doi:10.1002/2013GL058352.

  16. Using lytic bacteriophages to eliminate or significantly reduce contamination of food by foodborne bacterial pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2013-10-01

    Bacteriophages (also called 'phages') are viruses that kill bacteria. They are arguably the oldest (3 billion years old, by some estimates) and most ubiquitous (total number estimated to be 10(30) -10(32) ) known organisms on Earth. Phages play a key role in maintaining microbial balance in every ecosystem where bacteria exist, and they are part of the normal microflora of all fresh, unprocessed foods. Interest in various practical applications of bacteriophages has been gaining momentum recently, with perhaps the most attention focused on using them to improve food safety. That approach, called 'phage biocontrol', typically includes three main types of applications: (i) using phages to treat domesticated livestock in order to reduce their intestinal colonization with, and shedding of, specific bacterial pathogens; (ii) treatments for decontaminating inanimate surfaces in food-processing facilities and other food establishments, so that foods processed on those surfaces are not cross-contaminated with the targeted pathogens; and (iii) post-harvest treatments involving direct applications of phages onto the harvested foods. This mini-review primarily focuses on the last type of intervention, which has been gaining the most momentum recently. Indeed, the results of recent studies dealing with improving food safety, and several recent regulatory approvals of various commercial phage preparations developed for post-harvest food safety applications, strongly support the idea that lytic phages may provide a safe, environmentally-friendly, and effective approach for significantly reducing contamination of various foods with foodborne bacterial pathogens. However, some important technical and nontechnical problems may need to be addressed before phage biocontrol protocols can become an integral part of routine food safety intervention strategies implemented by food industries in the USA.

  17. Prognostic significance of hyponatremia among ambulatory patients with heart failure and preserved and reduced ejection fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bavishi, Chirag; Ather, Sameer; Bambhroliya, Arvind; Jneid, Hani; Virani, Salim S; Bozkurt, Biykem; Deswal, Anita

    2014-06-01

    Hyponatremia in heart failure (HF) is an established predictor of adverse outcomes in hospitalized patients with reduced ejection fraction (EF). However, there is a paucity of data in ambulatory patients with HF with preserved ejection fraction (HFpEF). We examined the prevalence, risk factors, and long-term outcomes of hyponatremia (serum sodium ≤135 mEq/L) in ambulatory HFpEF and HF with reduced EF (HFrEF) in a national cohort of 8,862 veterans treated in Veterans Affairs clinics. Multivariable logistic regression models were used to identify factors associated with hyponatremia, and multivariable Cox proportional hazard models were used for analysis of outcomes. The cohort consisted of 6,185 patients with HFrEF and 2,704 patients with HFpEF with a 2-year follow-up. Hyponatremia was present in 13.8% and 12.9% patients in HFrEF and HFpEF, respectively. Hyponatremia was independently associated with younger age, diabetes, lower systolic blood pressure, anemia, body mass index <30 kg/m(2), and spironolactone use, whereas African-American race and statins were inversely associated. In multivariate analysis, hyponatremia remained a significant predictor of all-cause mortality in both HFrEF (hazards ratio [HR] 1.26, 95% confidence interval [CI] 1.11 to 1.44, p <0.001) and HFpEF (HR 1.40, 95% CI 1.12 to 1.75, p = 0.004) and a significant predictor of all-cause hospitalization in patients with HFrEF (HR 1.18, 95% CI 1.07 to 1.31, p = 0.001) but not in HFpEF (HR 1.08, 95% CI 0.92 to 1.27, p = 0.33). In conclusion, hyponatremia is prevalent at a similar frequency of over 10% in ambulatory patients with HFpEF and HFrEF. Hyponatremia is an independent prognostic marker of mortality across the spectrum of patients with HFpEF and HFrEF. In contrast, it is an independent predictor for hospitalization in patients with HFrEF but not in patients with HFpEF. PMID:24837261

  18. Ethanol, not metabolized in brain, significantly reduces brain metabolism, probably via specific GABA(A) receptors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rae, Caroline D.; Davidson, Joanne E.; Maher, Anthony D.; Rowlands, Benjamin D.; Kashem, Mohammed A.; Nasrallah, Fatima A.; Rallapalli, Sundari K.; Cook, James M; Balcar, Vladimir J.

    2014-01-01

    Ethanol is a known neuromodulatory agent with reported actions at a range of neurotransmitter receptors. Here, we used an indirect approach, measuring the effect of alcohol on metabolism of [3-13C]pyruvate in the adult Guinea pig brain cortical tissue slice and comparing the outcomes to those from a library of ligands active in the GABAergic system as well as studying the metabolic fate of [1,2-13C]ethanol. Ethanol (10, 30 and 60 mM) significantly reduced metabolic flux into all measured isotopomers and reduced all metabolic pool sizes. The metabolic profiles of these three concentrations of ethanol were similar and clustered with that of the α4β3δ positive allosteric modulator DS2 (4-Chloro-N-[2-(2-thienyl)imidazo[1,2a]-pyridin-3-yl]benzamide). Ethanol at a very low concentration (0.1 mM) produced a metabolic profile which clustered with those from inhibitors of GABA uptake, and ligands showing affinity for α5, and to a lesser extent, α1-containing GABA(A)R. There was no measureable metabolism of [1,2-13C]ethanol with no significant incorporation of 13C from [1,2-13C]ethanol into any measured metabolite above natural abundance, although there were measurable effects on total metabolite sizes similar to those seen with unlabeled ethanol. The reduction in metabolism seen in the presence of ethanol is therefore likely to be due to its actions at neurotransmitter receptors, particularly α4β3δ receptors, and not because ethanol is substituting as a substrate or because of the effects of ethanol catabolites acetaldehyde or acetate. We suggest that the stimulatory effects of very low concentrations of ethanol are due to release of GABA via GAT1 and the subsequent interaction of this GABA with local α5-containing, and to a lesser extent, α1-containing GABA(A)R. PMID:24313287

  19. Magnitude and significance of the higher-order reduced density matrix cumulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herbert, John M.

    Using full configuration interaction wave functions for Be and LiH, in both minimal and extended basis sets, we examine the absolute magnitude and energetic significance of various contributions to the three-electron reduced density matrix (3-RDM) and its connected (size-consistent) component, the 3-RDM cumulant (3-RDMC). Minimal basis sets are shown to suppress the magnitude of the 3-RDMC in an artificial manner, whereas in extended basis sets, 3-RDMC matrix elements are often comparable in magnitude to the corresponding 3-RDM elements, even in cases where this result is not required by spin angular momentum coupling. Formal considerations suggest that these observations should generalize to higher-order p-RDMs and p-RDMCs (p > 3). This result is discussed within the context of electronic structure methods based on the contracted Schrödinger equation (CSE), as solution of the CSE relies on 3- and 4-RDM ?reconstruction functionals? that neglect the 3-RDMC, the 4-RDMC, or both. Although the 3-RDMC is responsible for at most 0.2% of the total electronic energy in Be and LiH, it accounts for up to 70% of the correlation energy, raising questions regarding whether (and how) the CSE can offer a useful computational methodology.

  20. Sulfide-driven autotrophic denitrification significantly reduces N2O emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Weiming; Zhao, Qing; Lu, Hui; Ding, Zhi; Meng, Liao; Chen, Guang-Hao

    2016-03-01

    The Sulfate reduction-Autotrophic denitrification-Nitrification Integrated (SANI) process build on anaerobic carbon conversion through biological sulfate reduction and autotrophic denitrification by using the sulfide byproduct from the previous reaction. This study confirmed extra decreases in N2O emissions from the sulfide-driven autotrophic denitrification by investigating N2O reduction, accumulation, and emission in the presence of different sulfide/nitrate (S/N) mass ratios at pH 7 in a long-term laboratory-scale granular sludge autotrophic denitrification reactor. The N2O reduction rate was linearly proportional to the sulfide concentration, which confirmed that no sulfide inhibition of N2O reductase occurred. At S/N = 5.0 g-S/g-N, this rate resulted by sulfide-driven autotrophic denitrifying granular sludge (average granule size = 701 μm) was 27.7 mg-N/g-VSS/h (i.e., 2 and 4 times greater than those at 2.5 and 0.8 g-S/g-N, respectively). Sulfide actually stimulates rather than inhibits N2O reduction no matter what granule size of sulfide-driven autotrophic denitrifying sludge engaged. The accumulations of N2O, nitrite and free nitrous acid (FNA) with average granule size 701 μm of sulfide-driven autotrophic denitrifying granular sludge engaged at S/N = 5.0 g-S/g-N were 4.7%, 11.4% and 4.2% relative to those at 3.0 g-S/g-N, respectively. The accumulation of FNA can inhibit N2O reduction and increase N2O accumulation during sulfide-driven autotrophic denitrification. In addition, the N2O gas emission level from the reactor significantly increased from 14.1 ± 0.5 ppmv (0.002% of the N load) to 3707.4 ± 36.7 ppmv (0.405% of the N load) as the S/N mass ratio in the influent decreased from 2.1 to 1.4 g-S/g-N over the course of the 120-day continuous monitoring period. Sulfide-driven autotrophic denitrification may significantly reduce greenhouse gas emissions from biological nutrient removal when sulfur conversion processes are applied. PMID

  1. Environmental program with operational cases to reduce risk to the marine environment significantly

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper Amoco Norway Oil Company's environmental program is detailed, followed by example operational programs and achievements aimed to minimize environmental risks to the marine environment at Valhall platform. With a corporate goal to be a leader in protecting the environment, the appropriate strategies and policies that form the basis of the environmental management system are incorporated in the quality assurance programs. Also, included in the program are necessary organizational structures, responsibilities of environmental affairs and line organization personnel, compliance procedures and a waste task force obliged to implement operations improvements. An internal environmental audit system has been initiated, in addition to corporate level audits, which, when communicated to the line organization closes the environmental management loop through experience feed back. Environmental projects underway are significantly decreasing the extent and/or risk of pollution from offshore activities. The cradle to grave responsibility is assumed with waste separated offshore and onshore followed by disposal in audited sites. A $5 MM program is underway to control produced oily solids and reduce oil in produced water aiming to less than 20 ppm. When oil-based mud is used in deeper hole sections, drill solids disposed at sea average less than 60 g oil/kg dry cuttings using appropriate shaker screens, and a washing/centrifuge system to remove fines. Certain oily liquid wastes are being injected down hole whereas previously they were burned using a mud burner. Finally, a program is underway with a goal to eliminate sea discharge of oil on cuttings through injection disposal of oily wastes, drilling with alternative muds such as a cationic water base mud, and/or proper onshore disposal of oily wastes

  2. Performance evaluation of hydrological models: Statistical significance for reducing subjectivity in goodness-of-fit assessments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ritter, Axel; Muñoz-Carpena, Rafael

    2013-02-01

    SummarySuccess in the use of computer models for simulating environmental variables and processes requires objective model calibration and verification procedures. Several methods for quantifying the goodness-of-fit of observations against model-calculated values have been proposed but none of them is free of limitations and are often ambiguous. When a single indicator is used it may lead to incorrect verification of the model. Instead, a combination of graphical results, absolute value error statistics (i.e. root mean square error), and normalized goodness-of-fit statistics (i.e. Nash-Sutcliffe Efficiency coefficient, NSE) is currently recommended. Interpretation of NSE values is often subjective, and may be biased by the magnitude and number of data points, data outliers and repeated data. The statistical significance of the performance statistics is an aspect generally ignored that helps in reducing subjectivity in the proper interpretation of the model performance. In this work, approximated probability distributions for two common indicators (NSE and root mean square error) are derived with bootstrapping (block bootstrapping when dealing with time series), followed by bias corrected and accelerated calculation of confidence intervals. Hypothesis testing of the indicators exceeding threshold values is proposed in a unified framework for statistically accepting or rejecting the model performance. It is illustrated how model performance is not linearly related with NSE, which is critical for its proper interpretation. Additionally, the sensitivity of the indicators to model bias, outliers and repeated data is evaluated. The potential of the difference between root mean square error and mean absolute error for detecting outliers is explored, showing that this may be considered a necessary but not a sufficient condition of outlier presence. The usefulness of the approach for the evaluation of model performance is illustrated with case studies including those with

  3. Soil nitrate reducing processes – drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation, and significance for nitrous oxide production

    OpenAIRE

    Giles, Madeline; Morley, Nicholas; Baggs, Elizabeth M; Daniell, Tim J.

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate ( NO 3 − ) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O). A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH, and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There...

  4. Soil nitrate reducing processes – drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation and significance for nitrous oxide production

    OpenAIRE

    TimJohnDaniell; MadelineEleanoreGiles

    2012-01-01

    The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA) are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate (NO3-¬) and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O). A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. Ther...

  5. Activity of the protector chlorophyllin or promoter of the genetic damage induced by the 1,2 dimethyl hydrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chlorophyllin (CHLN) it is a porphyrin of soluble nutritious grade in water, derived of the chlorophyll that includes in their structure a copper atom. It has been reported that this pigment can act as anti mutagen, reducing the damage to the DNA caused by physical or chemical agents of direct or indirect action. Their anti carcinogen action has also been studied during the initiation phase induced for carcinogen as the aflatoxins and heterocyclic amines. In contrast the reports have increased on a probable promoter activity of the CHLN on the induced genetic damage. This effect was seen for the first time before the damage induced by alkylating agents in Salmonella. Recently it has been observed with the damage induced by gamma radiation, ENU and CrO3 in somatic cells of the wing of Drosophila and in the induction of tumors for 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in mice. Presently study is evaluated the protective effect or promoter of the CHLN before the genetic damage induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, by means of the bioassay mutation and somatic recombination (SMART) in the wing of Drosophila melanogaster. Its were pretreated with CHLN or SAC to transheterocygotes larvas for two locus of the chromosome three mwh+/+flr3; later on they are retarded the chronic treatment with DMH 0, 1, 2 and 3 days. It was measured the toxicity and the speed of development of the treated individuals. The wings of those adults that emerged were analyzed to register the number and the size of stains. The results indicated: differences in the viability of the individuals of the groups SAC + DMH vs CHLN + DMH only in the treated immediately after the pretreatment (DRT-0) that the CHLN doesn't modify the rate of the treated individuals development. The results of somatic mutation indicated that the CHLN has a protective effect only immediately after the pretreatment (DRT-0) however in DRT-1, 2 and 3 showed a promoter effect of genetic damage. (Author)

  6. Pegasus project. DLC coating and low viscosity oil reduce energy losses significantly

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doerwald, Dave; Jacobs, Ruud [Hauzer Techno Coating (Netherlands). Tribological Coatings

    2012-03-15

    Pegasus, the flying horse from Greek mythology, is a suitable name for the research project initiated by a German automotive OEM with participation of Hauzer Techno Coating and several automotive suppliers. It will enable future automotive vehicles to reduce fuel consumption without losing power. The project described in this article focuses on the rear differential, because reducing friction here can contribute considerably to efficiency improvement of the whole vehicle. Surfaces, coating and oil viscosity have been investigated and interesting conclusions have been reached. (orig.)

  7. Mindfulness significantly reduces self-reported levels of anxiety and depression

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Würtzen, Hanne; Dalton, Susanne Oksbjerg; Elsass, Peter;

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: As the incidence of and survival from breast cancer continue to raise, interventions to reduce anxiety and depression before, during and after treatment are needed. Previous studies have reported positive effects of a structured 8-week group mindfulness-based stress reduction program...

  8. Soil nitrate reducing processes – drivers, mechanisms for spatial variation and significance for nitrous oxide production

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madeline Eleanore Giles

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The microbial processes of denitrification and dissimilatory nitrate reduction to ammonium (DNRA are two important nitrate reducing mechanisms in soil, which are responsible for the loss of nitrate (NO3-¬ and production of the potent greenhouse gas, nitrous oxide (N2O. A number of factors are known to control these processes, including O2 concentrations and moisture content, N, C, pH and the size and community structure of nitrate reducing organisms responsible for the processes. There is an increasing understanding associated with many of these controls on flux through the nitrogen cycle in soil systems. However, there remains uncertainty about how the nitrate reducing communities are linked to environmental variables and the flux of products from these processes. The high spatial variability of environmental controls and microbial communities across small sub cm areas of soil may prove to be critical in determining why an understanding of the links between biotic and abiotic controls has proved elusive. This spatial effect is often overlooked as a driver of nitrate reducing processes. An increased knowledge of the effects of spatial heterogeneity in soil on nitrate reduction processes will be fundamental in understanding the drivers, location and potential for N2O production from soils.

  9. Defibrillator charging before rhythm analysis significantly reduces hands-off time during resuscitation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, L. K.; Folkestad, L.; Brabrand, M.

    2013-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Our objective was to reduce hands-off time during cardiopulmonary resuscitation as increased hands-off time leads to higher mortality. METHODS: The European Resuscitation Council (ERC) 2005 and ERC 2010 guidelines were compared with an alternative sequence (ALT). Pulseless ventricular...

  10. Topical Treatment With Liposomal Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin Complex in Subjects With Facial Redness and Erythematotelangiectatic Rosacea: Case Studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vasily, David B

    2015-10-01

    Physicians are often presented with patients complaining of facial redness and difficult to control rosacea. The water soluble sodium copper chlorophyllin complex has been shown to have anti-oxidant, anti-inflammatory, and anti-bacterial activities in vitro and anti-redness, pore reduction, and anti-acne activities in pilot clinical studies. In these case studies, the safety and efficacy of a topical gel containing a liposomal suspension of sodium copper chlorophyllin complex was assessed in subjects with facial redness and erythematotelangiectatic rosacea. PMID:26461829

  11. Reducing dysfunctional beliefs about sleep does not significantly improve insomnia in cognitive behavioral therapy.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Isa Okajima

    Full Text Available The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the baseline and at the end of treatment. The results showed that although cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia greatly reduced individuals' scores on both scales, the decrease in dysfunctional beliefs and attitudes about sleep with treatment did not seem to mediate improvement in insomnia. The findings suggest that sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs endorsed by patients with chronic insomnia may be attenuated by cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia, but changes in such beliefs are not likely to play a crucial role in reducing the severity of insomnia.

  12. Sealing of the hepatic resection area using fibrin glue reduces significant amount of postoperative drain fluid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Frank Eder; Frank Meyer; Gerd Nestler; Zuhir Halloul; Hans Lippert

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate whether the routine use of fibrin glue applied onto the hepatic resection area can diminish postoperative volume of bloody or biliary fluids drained via intraoperatively placed perihepatic tubes and can thus lower the complication rate.METHODS: Two groups of consecutive patients with a comparable spectrum of recent hepatic resections were compared: (1) 13 patients who underwent application of fibrin glue immediately after resection of liver parenchyma;(2) 12 patients who did not. Volumes of postoperative drainage fluid were determined in 4-h intervals through 24 h indicating the intervention caused bloody and biliary segregation.RESULTS: Through the first 8 h postoperatively, there was a tendency of higher amounts of fluids in patients with no additional application of fibrin glue while through the following intervals, a significant increase of drainage volumes was documented in comparison with the first two 4-h intervals, e.g., after 12 h, 149.6 mL +/-110 mL vs 63.2 mL +/-78 mL. Using fibrin glue, postoperative fluid amounts were significantly lower through the postoperative observation period of 24 h (851 mL +/-715 mL vs 315 mL +/-305 mL).CONCLUSION: For hepatic resections, the use of fibrin glue appears to be advantageous in terms of a significant decrease of surgically associated segregation of blood or bile out of the resection area. This might result in a better outcome.

  13. Modifier action of the chlorophyllin of the mutagenesis induced by the ethyl-nitroso-urea (ENU) in germinal cells of Drosophila melanogaster; Accion modificadora de la clorofilina de la mutagenesis inducida por la etil-nitroso-urea (ENU) en celulas germinales de Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morales N, I

    2006-07-01

    The cupro-sodium chlorophyllin (CCS) it is a soluble porphyrin in water that it includes in its it structures a copper atom instead of the magnesium that has the chlorophyll. Diverse experiments have demonstrated that it possesses a potent activity, reducing or inhibiting, the DNA damage caused by physical and chemical agents of direct action or insinuation. Most of the knowledge about their anti genotoxic activity has been obtained using somatic cells of different organisms, on the other hand it is known very little of their effect in germinal cells. At the moment in the Drosophila laboratory of the ININ it is investigating the protective action of the CCS in germinal cells, with these studies has been observed that its administration to females that were crossed with males irradiated with 20 Gy of gamma radiation, promotes the induction of lethal dominant in the embryonic and post-embryonic states causing a diminution in the viability egg-adult. With the test of lethal recessive bound to the sex one has evidence that it increases the basal frequency of lethal recessive and it doesn't reduce those induced by radiation. In contrast, with the present investigation when the CCS was administered to males that later on were treated with ethyl-nitroso-urea (ENU) caused a reduction of the lethal frequency in all the monitored cellular states, but only it was significant in the post-meiotic cells. On the contrary, when the CCS was administered to the female ones and then they crossed with males treaties with ENU, it was observed a tendency to increase the lethal ones in all the cellular types. With both protocols the CCS caused a diminution of the sterility. The fact that the CCS has antagonistic activities, it deserves special attention to investigate with different protocols and systems, the conditions in that this pigment can work as a true antimutagenic and/or anti carcinogenic before being able to him to propose as a chemopreventor. (Author)

  14. A Fast Track Recovery Program Significantly Reduces Hospital Length of Stay Following Uncomplicated Pancreaticoduodenectomy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehrdad Nikfarjam

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Context Factors affecting length of hospital stay after un complicated pancreaticoduodenectomy have not been r eported. We hypothesized that patients undergoing uncomplicated pancreaticoduodenectomy treated by fast track reco very program would have a shorter length of hospital stay compared to those m anaged by a standard program. Methods Patients without surgical or medical complications following pancreaticoduodenectomy man aged by fast track or standard protocols, between 2 005 and 2011, were identified and prognostic predictors for length of hospital stay determined. Results Forty-one patients treated by pancreaticoduodenectomy had no medical or surgical complications during this period. Of these patients , 20 underwent fast track recovery program compared to 21 who underwent stand ard care. Patients in the standard group were more likely to have a feeding jejunostomy tube (P<0.001, pylorus preserving proc edure (P=0.001 and a nasogastric tube in place lon ger than 24 hours postoperatively (P<0.001. The median postoperative length of stay was shorter in the fast track recov ery program group (8 days, range: 7-16 days versus 14 days, range: 8-29 days; P<0.001. There were th ree readmissions in the fast track recovery program related to abdominal pain and none in the standard group. The overall length of stay, accounting for r eadmissions, still remained significantly shorter in the fast track recovery pr ogram group (median 9 days, range: 7-17 days versus median14 days, range: 8-29 days ; P<0.001. There were no significant differen ces in discharge destination between groups. On mul tivariate analysis, the only factor independently associated with postoperative discharge by day 8 was fast track recovery program (OR: 37.1, 95% CI: 4.08- 338; P<0.001. Conclusion Fast track recovery program achieved significantly shorter length of stay following uncomplicated pancreaticoduodenectomy

  15. Cleanroom Maintenance Significantly Reduces Abundance but Not Diversity of Indoor Microbiomes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahnert, Alexander; Vaishampayan, Parag; Probst, Alexander J; Auerbach, Anna; Moissl-Eichinger, Christine; Venkateswaran, Kasthuri; Berg, Gabriele

    2015-01-01

    Cleanrooms have been considered microbially-reduced environments and are used to protect human health and industrial product assembly. However, recent analyses have deciphered a rather broad diversity of microbes in cleanrooms, whose origin as well as physiological status has not been fully understood. Here, we examined the input of intact microbial cells from a surrounding built environment into a spacecraft assembly cleanroom by applying a molecular viability assay based on propidium monoazide (PMA). The controlled cleanroom (CCR) was characterized by ~6.2*103 16S rRNA gene copies of intact bacterial cells per m2 floor surface, which only represented 1% of the total community that could be captured via molecular assays without viability marker. This was in contrast to the uncontrolled adjoining facility (UAF) that had 12 times more living bacteria. Regarding diversity measures retrieved from 16S rRNA Illumina-tag analyzes, we observed, however, only a minor drop in the cleanroom facility allowing the conclusion that the number but not the diversity of microbes is strongly affected by cleaning procedures. Network analyses allowed tracking a substantial input of living microbes to the cleanroom and a potential enrichment of survival specialists like bacterial spore formers and archaeal halophiles and mesophiles. Moreover, the cleanroom harbored a unique community including 11 exclusive genera, e.g., Haloferax and Sporosarcina, which are herein suggested as indicators of cleanroom environments. In sum, our findings provide evidence that archaea are alive in cleanrooms and that cleaning efforts and cleanroom maintenance substantially decrease the number but not the diversity of indoor microbiomes.

  16. Cleanroom Maintenance Significantly Reduces Abundance but Not Diversity of Indoor Microbiomes.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexander Mahnert

    Full Text Available Cleanrooms have been considered microbially-reduced environments and are used to protect human health and industrial product assembly. However, recent analyses have deciphered a rather broad diversity of microbes in cleanrooms, whose origin as well as physiological status has not been fully understood. Here, we examined the input of intact microbial cells from a surrounding built environment into a spacecraft assembly cleanroom by applying a molecular viability assay based on propidium monoazide (PMA. The controlled cleanroom (CCR was characterized by ~6.2*103 16S rRNA gene copies of intact bacterial cells per m2 floor surface, which only represented 1% of the total community that could be captured via molecular assays without viability marker. This was in contrast to the uncontrolled adjoining facility (UAF that had 12 times more living bacteria. Regarding diversity measures retrieved from 16S rRNA Illumina-tag analyzes, we observed, however, only a minor drop in the cleanroom facility allowing the conclusion that the number but not the diversity of microbes is strongly affected by cleaning procedures. Network analyses allowed tracking a substantial input of living microbes to the cleanroom and a potential enrichment of survival specialists like bacterial spore formers and archaeal halophiles and mesophiles. Moreover, the cleanroom harbored a unique community including 11 exclusive genera, e.g., Haloferax and Sporosarcina, which are herein suggested as indicators of cleanroom environments. In sum, our findings provide evidence that archaea are alive in cleanrooms and that cleaning efforts and cleanroom maintenance substantially decrease the number but not the diversity of indoor microbiomes.

  17. Social networking strategies that aim to reduce obesity have achieved significant although modest results.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashrafian, Hutan; Toma, Tania; Harling, Leanne; Kerr, Karen; Athanasiou, Thanos; Darzi, Ara

    2014-09-01

    The global epidemic of obesity continues to escalate. Obesity accounts for an increasing proportion of the international socioeconomic burden of noncommunicable disease. Online social networking services provide an effective medium through which information may be exchanged between obese and overweight patients and their health care providers, potentially contributing to superior weight-loss outcomes. We performed a systematic review and meta-analysis to assess the role of these services in modifying body mass index (BMI). Our analysis of twelve studies found that interventions using social networking services produced a modest but significant 0.64 percent reduction in BMI from baseline for the 941 people who participated in the studies' interventions. We recommend that social networking services that target obesity should be the subject of further clinical trials. Additionally, we recommend that policy makers adopt reforms that promote the use of anti-obesity social networking services, facilitate multistakeholder partnerships in such services, and create a supportive environment to confront obesity and its associated noncommunicable diseases.

  18. Lipid Replacement Therapy Drink Containing a Glycophospholipid Formulation Rapidly and Significantly Reduces Fatigue While Improving Energy and Mental Clarity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Robert Settineri

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Background: Fatigue is the most common complaint of patients seeking general medical care and is often treated with stimulants. It is also important in various physical activities of relatively healthy men and women, such as sports performance. Recent clinical trials using patients with chronic fatigue have shown the benefit of Lipid Replacement Therapy in restoring mitochondrial electron transport function and reducing moderate to severe chronic fatigue. Methods: Lipid Replacement Therapy was administered for the first time as an all-natural functional food drink (60 ml containing polyunsaturated glycophospholipids but devoid of stimulants or herbs to reduce fatigue. This preliminary study used the Piper Fatigue Survey instrument as well as a supplemental questionnaire to assess the effects of the glycophospholipid drink on fatigue and the acceptability of the test drink in adult men and women. A volunteer group of 29 subjects of mean age 56.2±4.5 years with various fatigue levels were randomly recruited in a clinical health fair setting to participate in an afternoon open label trial on the effects of the test drink. Results: Using the Piper Fatigue instrument overall fatigue among participants was reduced within the 3-hour seminar by a mean of 39.6% (p<0.0001. All of the subcategories of fatigue showed significant reductions. Some subjects responded within 15 minutes, and the majority responded within one hour with increased energy and activity and perceived improvements in cognitive function, mental clarity and focus. The test drink was determined to be quite acceptable in terms of taste and appearance. There were no adverse events from the energy drink during the study.Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2011; 8:245-254Conclusions: The Lipid Replacement Therapy functional food drink appeared to be a safe, acceptable and potentially useful new method to reduce fatigue, sustain energy and improve perceptions of mental function.

  19. 铁叶绿酸钠微囊的制备及释放度测定%Study on Preparation and Dissolution of Sodium-iron Chlorophyllin Microcapsules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王丽芸; 刘淑萍

    2011-01-01

    目的:制备铁叶绿酸钠微囊,并考察其体外释放情况.方法:采用优化的溶剂挥发法制备铁叶绿酸钠微囊,以正交试验确定制备工艺.结果:铁叶绿酸钠微囊的最佳制备工艺为EC与内相铁叶绿酸纳比为2:1、以1%PVA为分散剂、EC浓度为3%、搅拌速度为700 r·min-1.结论:铁叶绿酸钠微囊制备方法简单,微囊具有明显的缓释作用.%Objective: To study the preparation and release rate of sodium-iron chlorophyllin microcapsules. Method: Sodium-iron chlorophyllin microcapsules were prepared by solvent evaporation method optimized by orthogonal design. Result: The optimized conditions were as follows: the ratio of EC and sodium-iron chlorophyllin in internal phase was 2:1,1% PVA was used as the dispersion medium ,the concentration of EC was 3% ,and the stirring speed was 700 r·min-1. Conclusion: The preparation procedure is easy to be operated. The microcapsules have promising sustained release property.

  20. Unexpected Significantly Reduced FDG Uptake in the Cerebrum Compared Against Normal Liver Uptake in a Dying Patient

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luke I Sonoda

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available F-18 FDG PET-CT scanning plays an important role in the management of fever of unknown origin (FUO. Some elderly patients with FUO can be in their terminal stage of life. An elderly woman was referred for a PET-CT scan to find the etiology of FUO. The scan was inconclusive but showed significantly reduced FDG uptake in the brain and heart, despite normal physiological uptake in the liver and bowel. The patient deceased within the hour post scan. Contrary to common belief, we have shown that cerebral glucose metabolism via cerebral perfusion may be compromised before hepatic and bowel perfusion in a dying patient. (MIRT 2012;21:88-90

  1. Bacteriophage cocktail significantly reduces or eliminates Listeria monocytogenes contamination on lettuce, apples, cheese, smoked salmon and frozen foods.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perera, Meenu N; Abuladze, Tamar; Li, Manrong; Woolston, Joelle; Sulakvelidze, Alexander

    2015-12-01

    ListShield™, a commercially available bacteriophage cocktail that specifically targets Listeria monocytogenes, was evaluated as a bio-control agent for L. monocytogenes in various Ready-To-Eat foods. ListShield™ treatment of experimentally contaminated lettuce, cheese, smoked salmon, and frozen entrèes significantly reduced (p reduction of L. monocytogenes contamination on apple slices after 24 h at 4 °C. Treatment of smoked salmon from a commercial processing facility with ListShield™ eliminated L. monocytogenes (no detectable L. monocytogenes) in both the naturally contaminated and experimentally contaminated salmon fillets. The organoleptic quality of foods was not affected by application of ListShield™, as no differences in the color, taste, or appearance were detectable. Bio-control of L. monocytogenes with lytic bacteriophage preparations such as ListShield™ can offer an environmentally-friendly, green approach for reducing the risk of listeriosis associated with the consumption of various foods that may be contaminated with L. monocytogenes. PMID:26338115

  2. Significance of common cause failures in level-l PSA and techniques for reducing its impact on core damage frequency

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Failure of multiple components due to a common cause represents one of the most important issues in evaluation of system reliability or unavailability. The frequency of such events has relatively low expectancy, when compared to random failures, which affect individual components. However, in many cases the consequence is a direct loss of safety system or mitigative safety function. For this reason, the modeling of a common cause failure (CCF) and its presentation in fault tree structure is of the uttermost importance in probabilistic safety analyses (PSA). Amongst the different techniques available to reduce the impact of common cause failures, the most important operations related technique, is that of staggered testing. In the TAPP 3,4 Level-1 PSA it was found that the contribution of Common Cause Failures to the Core Damage Frequency (CDF) was significant. The Common Cause Failures were modeled using the Alpha Factor Model. This model is capable of evaluating the impact of staggered testing of components of the redundant standby systems. The NUREG/CR-5801 prescribes a different calculation methodology to evaluate the staggered testing on the Common Cause Failure component group. The proprietary software used for the Level-1 PSA, had a built-in non-staggered testing Alpha factor model. Hence, the factors were modified to introduce the effect of the staggered testing. There was a significant reduction in the CDF due to the introduction of staggered testing. (author)

  3. ZnO nanowire/reduced graphene oxide nanocomposites for significantly enhanced photocatalytic degradation of Rhodamine 6G

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chao; Zhang, Jing; Su, Yanjie; Xu, Minghan; Yang, Zhi; Zhang, Yafei

    2014-02-01

    We have demonstrated a facile and low-cost approach to synthesize ZnO nanowire (NW)/reduced graphene oxide (RGO) nanocomposites, in which ZnO NWs and graphene oxide (GO) were produced in large scale separately and then hybridized into ZnO NW/RGO nanocomposites by mechanical mixing and low-temperature thermal reduction. Rhodamine 6G (Rh6G) was used as a model dye to evaluate the photocatalytic properties of ZnO NW/RGO nanocomposites. The obtained nanocomposites show significantly enhanced photocatalytic performance, which took only 10 min to decompose over 98% Rh6G. Finally the mechanism of the great enhancement about photocatalytic activity of ZnO NW/RGO nanocomposites is studied. It is mainly attributed to that RGO nanosheets can transfer the electrons of ZnO NWs excited by ultraviolet (UV) irradiation, increase electron migration efficiency, and then longer the lifetime of the holes in ZnO NWs. The high charge separation efficiency of photo-generated electron-hole pairs directly leads to the lower recombination rate of ZnO NW/RGO nanocomposites, makes more effective electrons and holes to participate the radical reactions with Rh6G, thus significantly improving the photocatalytic properties. The high degradation efficiency makes the ZnO NW/RGO nanocomposites promising candidates in the application of environmental pollutant and wastewater treatment.

  4. Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: •Long-term hypoxia decreased the size of LDs and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Long-term hypoxia increased basal lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased lipid-associated proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased basal glucose uptake and lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia-mediated lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against obesity. -- Abstract: Background: A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Methods: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O2 for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). Results: HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (p < 0.01). As estimated by glycerol release, isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly lowered by hypoxia, whereas the release of free fatty acids under the basal condition was prominently enhanced with HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Lipolysis-associated proteins, such as perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase, were unchanged, whereas adipose triglyceride lipase and its activator protein CGI-58 were decreased with HL in comparison to NC. Interestingly, such lipogenic proteins as fatty acid synthase, lipin-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of glucose, the major precursor of 3-glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis, was significantly reduced in HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that hypoxia has a direct impact on reducing the triglyceride content and lipid droplet size via

  5. Modest hypoxia significantly reduces triglyceride content and lipid droplet size in 3T3-L1 adipocytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hashimoto, Takeshi, E-mail: thashimo@fc.ritsumei.ac.jp [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Yokokawa, Takumi; Endo, Yuriko [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Iwanaka, Nobumasa [Ritsumeikan Global Innovation Research Organization, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Higashida, Kazuhiko [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan); Faculty of Sport Science, Waseda University, 2-579-15 Mikajima, Tokorozawa, Saitama 359-1192 (Japan); Taguchi, Sadayoshi [Faculty of Sport and Health Science, Ritsumeikan University, 1-1-1 Nojihigashi, Kusatsu, Shiga 525-8577 (Japan)

    2013-10-11

    Highlights: •Long-term hypoxia decreased the size of LDs and lipid storage in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Long-term hypoxia increased basal lipolysis in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased lipid-associated proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia decreased basal glucose uptake and lipogenic proteins in 3T3-L1 adipocytes. •Hypoxia-mediated lipogenesis may be an attractive therapeutic target against obesity. -- Abstract: Background: A previous study has demonstrated that endurance training under hypoxia results in a greater reduction in body fat mass compared to exercise under normoxia. However, the cellular and molecular mechanisms that underlie this hypoxia-mediated reduction in fat mass remain uncertain. Here, we examine the effects of modest hypoxia on adipocyte function. Methods: Differentiated 3T3-L1 adipocytes were incubated at 5% O{sub 2} for 1 week (long-term hypoxia, HL) or one day (short-term hypoxia, HS) and compared with a normoxia control (NC). Results: HL, but not HS, resulted in a significant reduction in lipid droplet size and triglyceride content (by 50%) compared to NC (p < 0.01). As estimated by glycerol release, isoproterenol-induced lipolysis was significantly lowered by hypoxia, whereas the release of free fatty acids under the basal condition was prominently enhanced with HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Lipolysis-associated proteins, such as perilipin 1 and hormone-sensitive lipase, were unchanged, whereas adipose triglyceride lipase and its activator protein CGI-58 were decreased with HL in comparison to NC. Interestingly, such lipogenic proteins as fatty acid synthase, lipin-1, and peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor gamma were decreased. Furthermore, the uptake of glucose, the major precursor of 3-glycerol phosphate for triglyceride synthesis, was significantly reduced in HL compared to NC or HS (p < 0.01). Conclusion: We conclude that hypoxia has a direct impact on reducing the triglyceride content and lipid droplet size via

  6. Action of the chlorophyllin (CHLN) on the double breaking induced by gamma radiation in germinal cells of Drosophila melanogaster; Accion de la clorofilina (CHLN) sobre los dobles rompimientos inducidos por radiacion gamma en celulas germinales de Drosophila melanogaster

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno M, A

    2005-07-01

    The chlorophyllin (CHLN) is a derived of the chlorophyll in the one which the atom of Mg is replaced by Cu. It has been broadly used as preservative in those foods, and in the treatment of geriatric patients. The results using different test systems have demonstrated that the CHLN reduces the DNA damage caused by different physical agents or chemical of direct action or insinuation. Another of the properties of the CHLN is it anti carcinogenic action, because it has been that inhibits the carcinogen activity of B1 (AFB1) aflatoxin and it diminishes the incidence of tumors caused for 2-amine-3-methylimidazo [4- 5f] quinoline (IQ) and it inhibits the development of colon cancer during the post-initiation phase. Recently the reports of the activity promoter of the CHLN have been increased on the genetic damage. This effect observed in Salmonella and later on in Drosophila melanogaster using, physical and chemical agents. Presently study determines the action of the CHLN before the genetic effect induced in germinal cells of Drosophila melanogaster by means of the test of the lost one of the X chromosome in ring using two protocols; the first one consisted on pretreatment with CHLN to the male ones and later on to irradiate them and in the second protocol the pretreatment with CHLN administers to the females, in both protocols its were used a litter systems. (Author)

  7. A commercial PCV2a-based vaccine significantly reduces PCV2b transmission in experimental conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rose, N; Andraud, M; Bigault, L; Jestin, A; Grasland, B

    2016-07-19

    Transmission characteristics of PCV2 have been compared between vaccinated and non-vaccinated pigs in experimental conditions. Twenty-four Specific Pathogen Free (SPF) piglets, vaccinated against PCV2 at 3weeks of age (PCV2a recombinant CAP protein-based vaccine), were inoculated at 15days post-vaccination with a PCV2b inoculum (6⋅10(5) TCID50), and put in contact with 24 vaccinated SPF piglets during 42days post-inoculation. Those piglets were shared in six replicates of a contact trial involving 4 inoculated piglets mingled with 4 susceptible SPF piglets. Two replicates of a similar contact trial were made with non-vaccinated pigs. Non vaccinated animals received a placebo at vaccination time and were inoculated the same way and at the same time as the vaccinated group. All the animals were monitored twice weekly using quantitative real-time PCR and ELISA for serology until 42days post-inoculation. The frequency of infection and the PCV2 genome load in sera of the vaccinated pigs were significantly reduced compared to the non-vaccinated animals. The duration of infectiousness was significantly different between vaccinated and non-vaccinated groups (16.6days [14.7;18.4] and 26.6days [22.9;30.4] respectively). The transmission rate was also considerably decreased in vaccinated pigs (β=0.09 [0.05-0.14] compared to β=0.19 [0.11-0.32] in non-vaccinated pigs). This led to an estimated reproduction ratio of 1.5 [95% CI 0.8 - 2.2] in vaccinated animals versus 5.1 [95% CI 2.5 - 8.2] in non-vaccinated pigs when merging data of this experiment with previous trials carried out in same conditions. PMID:27318416

  8. Taurolidine-citrate lock solution (TauroLock significantly reduces CVAD-associated grampositive infections in pediatric cancer patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fleischhack Gudrun

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Taurolidin/Citrate (TauroLock™, a lock solution with broad spectrum antimicrobial activity, may prevent bloodstream infection (BSI due to coagulase-negative staphylococci (CoNS or 'MRSE' in case of methicillin-resistant isolates in pediatric cancer patients with a long term central venous access device (CVAD, Port- or/Broviac-/Hickman-catheter type. Methods In a single center prospective 48-months cohort study we compared all patients receiving anticancer chemotherapy from April 2003 to March 2005 (group 1, heparin lock with 200 IU/ml sterile normal saline 0.9%; Canusal® Wockhardt UK Ltd, Wrexham, Wales and all patients from April 2005 to March 2007 (group 2; taurolidine 1.35%/Sodium Citrate 4%; TauroLock™, Tauropharm, Waldbüttelbrunn, Germany. Results In group 1 (heparin, 90 patients had 98 CVAD in use during the surveillance period. 14 of 30 (47% BSI were 'primary Gram positive BSI due to CoNS (n = 4 or MRSE (n = 10' [incidence density (ID; 2.30 per 1000 inpatient CVAD-utilization days]. In group 2 (TauroLock™, 89 patients had 95 CVAD in use during the surveillance period. 3 of 25 (12% BSI were caused by CoNS. (ID, 0.45. The difference in the ID between the two groups was statistically significant (P = 0.004. Conclusion The use of Taurolidin/Citrate (TauroLock™ significantly reduced the number and incidence density of primary catheter-associated BSI due to CoNS and MRSE in pediatric cancer patients.

  9. Site-specific integration and expression of an anti-malarial gene in transgenic Anopheles gambiae significantly reduces Plasmodium infections.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janet M Meredith

    Full Text Available Diseases transmitted by mosquitoes have a devastating impact on global health and this is worsening due to difficulties with existing control measures and climate change. Genetically modified mosquitoes that are refractory to disease transmission are seen as having great potential in the delivery of novel control strategies. Historically the genetic modification of insects has relied upon transposable elements which have many limitations despite their successful use. To circumvent these limitations the Streptomyces phage phiC31 integrase system has been successfully adapted for site-specific transgene integration in insects. Here, we present the first site-specific transformation of Anopheles gambiae, the principal vector of human malaria. Mosquitoes were initially engineered to incorporate the phiC31 targeting site at a defined genomic location. A second phase of genetic modification then achieved site-specific integration of Vida3, a synthetic anti-malarial gene. Expression of Vida3, specifically in the midgut of bloodfed females, offered consistent and significant protection against Plasmodium yoelii nigeriensis, reducing average parasite intensity by 85%. Similar protection was observed against Plasmodium falciparum in some experiments, although protection was inconsistent. In the fight against malaria, it is imperative to establish a broad repertoire of both anti-malarial effector genes and tissue-specific promoters for their expression, enabling those offering maximum effect with minimum fitness cost to be identified. In the future, this technology will allow effective comparisons and informed choices to be made, potentially leading to complete transmission blockade.

  10. Overexpression of rice glutaredoxins (OsGrxs) significantly reduces arsenite accumulation by maintaining glutathione pool and modulating aquaporins in yeast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, Pankaj Kumar; Verma, Shikha; Meher, Alok Kumar; Pande, Veena; Mallick, Shekhar; Bansiwal, Amit Kumar; Tripathi, Rudra Deo; Dhankher, Om Parkash; Chakrabarty, Debasis

    2016-09-01

    Arsenic (As) is an acute poison and class I carcinogen, can cause a serious health risk. Staple crops like rice are the primary source of As contamination in human food. Rice grown on As contaminated areas accumulates higher As in their edible parts. Based on our previous transcriptome data, two rice glutaredoxins (OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1) were identified that showed up-regulated expression during As stress. Here, we report OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 from rice involved in the regulation of intracellular arsenite (AsIII). To elucidate the mechanism of OsGrx mediated As tolerance, both OsGrxs were cloned and expressed in Escherichia coli (Δars) and Saccharomyces cerevisiae mutant strains (Δycf1, Δacr3). The expression of OsGrxs increased As tolerance in E. coli (Δars) mutant strain (up to 4 mM AsV and up to 0.6 mM AsIII). During AsIII exposure, S. cerevisiae (Δacr3) harboring OsGrx_C7 and OsGrx_C2.1 have lower intracellular AsIII accumulation (up to 30.43% and 24.90%, respectively), compared to vector control. Arsenic accumulation in As-sensitive S. cerevisiae mutant (Δycf1) also reduced significantly on exposure to inorganic As. The expression of OsGrxs in yeast maintained intracellular GSH pool and increased extracellular GSH concentration. Purified OsGrxs displays in vitro GSH-disulfide oxidoreductase, glutathione reductase and arsenate reductase activities. Also, both OsGrxs are involved in AsIII extrusion by altering the Fps1 transcripts in yeast and protect the cell by maintaining cellular GSH pool. Thus, our results strongly suggest that OsGrxs play a crucial role in the maintenance of the intracellular GSH pool and redox status of the cell during both AsV and AsIII stress and might be involved in regulating intracellular AsIII levels by modulation of aquaporin expression and functions.

  11. Evidence about chlorophyllin can function as an inhibitor or promoter of induced genetic damage by gamma radiation in Drosophila somatic cells; Evidencia de que la clorofilina puede funcionar como un inhibidor o un promotor del dano genetico inducido por radiacion gamma en celulas somaticas de Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pimentel, A.E.; Cruces, M.P.; Zimmering, S.I. [Departamento de Biologia, ININ, A.P. 18-1027, 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The irradiation of the individuals that had been feed during 24 hours with a chlorophyllin solution at 5 % was delayed from 0 until 4 days. The protector effect of chlorophyllin persisted by 3 days and it appears to coincide with the stage when stopping the mitotic divisions in the imagal disk. Within of the same cellular population, it was demonstrated that chlorophyllin can function as an inhibitor, in the case of simple stains mwh or a potentiator in the case of twin stains and the flr type stains. It was planned an explanation for these results. (Author)

  12. Vaccination of pigs two weeks before infection significantly reduces transmission of foot-and-mouth disease virus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Eble, P.L.; Bouma, A.; Bruin, de M.G.M.; Hemert-Kluitenberg, van F.; Oirschot, van J.T.; Dekker, A.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this study was to investigate whether and at what time interval could vaccination reduce transmission of foot-and-Mouth disease virus (FMDV) among pigs. Reduction of virus transmission by vaccination was determined experimentally. Transmission of FMDV was studied in three groups of

  13. Interaction between FOXO1A-209 Genotype and Tea Drinking is Significantly Associated with Reduced Mortality at Advanced Ages

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zeng, Yi; Chen, Huashuai; Ni, Ting;

    2016-01-01

    of the FOXO1A-209 genotype compared to non-carriers, and drinking tea is associated with a reversal of the negative effects of carrying FOXO1A-209 minor alleles, that is, from a substantially increased mortality risk to substantially reduced mortality risk at advanced ages. The impacts are considerably...... stronger among those who carry 2 copies of the FOXO1A minor allele than those who carry 1 copy. Based on previously reported experiments on human cell models concerning FOXO1A-by-tea-compounds interactions, we speculate that results in the present study indicate that tea drinking may inhibit FOXO1A-209...... gene expression and its biological functions, which reduces the negative impacts of FOXO1A-209 gene on longevity (as reported in the literature) and offers protection against mortality risk at oldest-old ages. Our empirical findings imply that the health outcomes of particular nutritional interventions...

  14. The potential for Bayesian compressive sensing to significantly reduce electron dose in high-resolution STEM images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, Andrew; Yang, Hao; Carin, Lawrence; Arslan, Ilke; Browning, Nigel D

    2014-02-01

    The use of high-resolution imaging methods in scanning transmission electron microscopy (STEM) is limited in many cases by the sensitivity of the sample to the beam and the onset of electron beam damage (for example, in the study of organic systems, in tomography and during in situ experiments). To demonstrate that alternative strategies for image acquisition can help alleviate this beam damage issue, here we apply compressive sensing via Bayesian dictionary learning to high-resolution STEM images. These computational algorithms have been applied to a set of images with a reduced number of sampled pixels in the image. For a reduction in the number of pixels down to 5% of the original image, the algorithms can recover the original image from the reduced data set. We show that this approach is valid for both atomic-resolution images and nanometer-resolution studies, such as those that might be used in tomography datasets, by applying the method to images of strontium titanate and zeolites. As STEM images are acquired pixel by pixel while the beam is scanned over the surface of the sample, these postacquisition manipulations of the images can, in principle, be directly implemented as a low-dose acquisition method with no change in the electron optics or the alignment of the microscope itself.

  15. Photosynthetic electron sinks in transgenic tobacco with reduced amounts of Rubisco: little evidence for significant Mehler reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruuska, S A; Badger, M R; Andrews, T J; von Caemmerer, S

    2000-02-01

    Transgenic tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L. cv. W38) plants with an antisense gene directed against the mRNA of the small subunit of Rubisco were used to investigate the role of O2 as an electron acceptor during photosynthesis. The reduction in Rubisco has reduced the capacity for CO2-fixation in these plants without a similar reduction in electron transport capacity. Concurrent measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence and CO2 assimilation at different CO2 and O2 partial pressures showed close linear relationships between chloroplast electron transport rates calculated from chlorophyll fluorescence and those calculated from CO2-fixation. These relationships were similar for wild-type and transgenic plants, indicating that the reduced capacity for CO2 fixation in the transgenic plants did not result in extra electron transport not associated with the photosynthetic carbon reduction (PCR) or photorespiratory carbon oxidation (PCO) cycle. This was further investigated with mass spectrometric measurements of 16O2 and 18O2 exchange made concurrently with measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence. In all tobacco lines the rates of 18O2 uptake in the dark were similar to the 18O2 uptake rates at very high CO2 partial pressures in the light. Rates of oxygenase activity calculated from 18O2 uptake at the compensation point were linearly related to the Rubisco content of leaves. The ratios of oxygenase to carboxylase rates were calculated from measurements of 16O2 evolution and 18O2 uptake at the compensation point. These ratios were lower in the transgenic plants, consistent with their higher CO2 compensation points. It is concluded that although there may be some electron transport to O2 to balance conflicting demands of NADPH to ATP requirements, this flux must decrease in proportion with the reduced demand for ATP and NADPH consumption in the transgenic lines. The altered balance between electron transport and Rubisco capacity, however, does not result in rampant electron

  16. eradication does not reduce paraprotein levels in monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS): a prospective cohort study

    OpenAIRE

    Soler, Juan-Alfonso; Güell, Mercé; Bricullé, Meritxell; Gavarró, Antoni; Roig, Imma; Sanchez, Jordi; Gisbert, Javier P; García, Pilar; Villoria, Albert; Calvet, Xavier

    2009-01-01

    Monoclonal gammopathy of unknown significance (MGUS) is a chronic haematological alteration that carries a 1% risk per year of malignant evolution. The origin of this disturbance remains unknown. Previous reports have suggested that a subgroup of patients presenting MGUS might cure after eradication. This study evaluates the effect of eradication in a cohort of 30 patients with MGUS. A 7-day clarithromycin-based triple treatment was prescribed to patients with MGUS infected with . Quantificat...

  17. A novel multi-stage subunit vaccine against paratuberculosis induces significant immunity and reduces bacterial burden in tissues (P4304)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, Claus; Riber, Ulla;

    2013-01-01

    with a MAP protein expressed in latent infection (FET11 vaccine). FET11 vaccine proteins were formulated with CAF01 adjuvant and injected to MAP challenged calves at two different ages. 28 calves divided into two FET11 vaccine groups, a commercial vaccine and a control group were used in the study...... and followed for a year. The FET11 vaccine induced a significant T cell response against constituent vaccine proteins characterized by a high percentage of CD4+ T cells and participation of polyfunctional CD4+ T cells. Of the two different age groups, late FET11 vaccination conferred protective immunity...

  18. Anti-Helicobacter pylori therapy significantly reduces Helicobacter pylori-induced gastric mucosal damage in Mongolian gerbils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Chao Chang; Sheng-Hsuan Chen; Gi-Shih Lien; Yuarn-Jang Lee; Horng-Yuan Lou; Ching-Ruey Hsieh; Chia-Lang Fang; Shiann Pan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To investigate the effectiveness of 4 d' anti-Helicobacter pyloritherapy on the H pylori-infected Mongolian gerbils based on physiological and pathological changes.METHODS: We used 6-wk-old male gerbils orally inoculated with H pylori (ATCC43504, 2x108 CFU/mL).Seven weeks after H pylori inoculation, the animals of study group received 4 d' anti-H pylori triple therapy (H pylorieradicated group). Seven days later, all animals of the H pylori-eradicated and control groups (H pylori-infected& H pylori-uninfected groups) were sacrificed. We examined gastric mucosal lesions macroscopically, studied gastritis microscopically and determined the stomach weight ratio, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity and prostaglandin (PG) E2 level.RESULTS: The results showed that both macroscopic and histological gastric damages were significantly less in H pylori-eradicated group than H pylori-infected group.Stomach weight ratio, MPO activity and PGE2 levels were significantly higher in H pylori-infected group than those in the other two groups.CONCLUSION: Four days' anti-H pylori therapy was effective in the improvement of H pylori-induced gastric lesions in Mongolian gerbils.

  19. Precision feeding can significantly reduce lysine intake and nitrogen excretion without compromising the performance of growing pigs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andretta, I; Pomar, C; Rivest, J; Pomar, J; Radünz, J

    2016-07-01

    This study was developed to assess the impact on performance, nutrient balance, serum parameters and feeding costs resulting from the switching of conventional to precision-feeding programs for growing-finishing pigs. A total of 70 pigs (30.4±2.2 kg BW) were used in a performance trial (84 days). The five treatments used in this experiment were a three-phase group-feeding program (control) obtained with fixed blending proportions of feeds A (high nutrient density) and B (low nutrient density); against four individual daily-phase feeding programs in which the blending proportions of feeds A and B were updated daily to meet 110%, 100%, 90% or 80% of the lysine requirements estimated using a mathematical model. Feed intake was recorded automatically by a computerized device in the feeders, and the pigs were weighed weekly during the project. Body composition traits were estimated by scanning with an ultrasound device and densitometer every 28 days. Nitrogen and phosphorus excretions were calculated by the difference between retention (obtained from densitometer measurements) and intake. Feeding costs were assessed using 2013 ingredient cost data. Feed intake, feed efficiency, back fat thickness, body fat mass and serum contents of total protein and phosphorus were similar among treatments. Feeding pigs in a daily-basis program providing 110%, 100% or 90% of the estimated individual lysine requirements also did not influence BW, body protein mass, weight gain and nitrogen retention in comparison with the animals in the group-feeding program. However, feeding pigs individually with diets tailored to match 100% of nutrient requirements made it possible to reduce (Pproduction more sustainable without compromising growth performance. PMID:26759074

  20. Eradication of Helicobacter pylori significantly reduced gastric damage in nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drug-treated Mongolian gerbils

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chun-Chao Chang; Sheng-Hsuan Chen; Gi-Shih Lien; Horng-Yuan Lou; Ching-Ruey Hsieh; Chia-Lang Fang; Shiann Pan

    2005-01-01

    AIM: To examine the effect of eradication of Helicobacter pyloriprior to usage of NSAIDs, by investigating gastric inflammatory activity, myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity,prostaglandin (PG) E2 synthesis in H pylori-infected, and H pylori-eradicated gerbils followed by administration of indomethacin and rofecoxib.METHODS: Six-week-old male gerbils were orally inoculated with H pylori. Seven weeks later, anti-H pyloritriple therapy and vehicle were given to gerbils respectively and followed for 2 wk. We examined the area of lesions, gastric inflammatory activity, PGE2 synthesis and MPO activity in the stomach.RESULTS: In indomethacin and rofecoxib-treated gerbils,the following results were obtained in H pylori-infected group vs Hpylori-eradicated group respectively: hyperplasia area of the stomach (mm2): 82.4±9.2 vs 13.9±3.5 (P<0.05),30.5±5.1 vs 1.3±0.6 (P<0.05); erosion and ulcer area (mm2):14.4±4.9 vs0.86±0.5 (P<0.05), 1.3±0.6 vs0.4±0.3 (P<0.05);score of gastritis: 7.0±0.0 vs3.6±0.5 (P<0.05), 7.0±0.0 vs2.7±0.5 (P<0.05); MPO activity (μmol H2O2/min/g tissue):104.7±9.2 vs9.0±2.3 (P<0.05), 133.5±15.0 vs2.9±0.7(P<0.05); PGE2 synthesis (pg/mg wet weight/min): 299.2±81.5vs 102.8±26.2 (P<0.05), 321.4±30.3 vs 11.9±4.8 (P<0.05).CONCLUSION: Eradication of H pylori reduced gastric damage of NSAID-treated Mongolian gerbils. Rofecoxib caused less severe gastric damage than indomethacin in H pylori-eradicated gerbils.

  1. Study on Preparation and Stability of Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin from Laver%紫菜叶绿素铜钠盐的制备及其稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赖海涛; 苏国成; 卢华跃; 郑浩兴

    2013-01-01

    Sodium copper chlorophyllin was prepared using laver as material.The technological conditions of preparation of copper chlorophyllin and saponification reaction were optimized by single factor tests and orthogonal experiment; the stability of sodium copper chlorophyllin was also studied.The results showed that the optimal preparation conditions for copper chlorophyllin were 12 h of copper time,acetone-ethanol mixed with Vaoetone∶Vethanr=6∶4 as extraction solvent,extraction temperature at 50 ℃,extraction time for 2 h,solvent to solute ratio Vaoetone∶methanr=60∶l (mL/g); optimal saponification conditions were pH 11.51~11.93,temperature 60 ℃,and saponification time longer than 40 min.According to stability tests,sodium copper chlorophyllin was unstable under light,high temperature above 80 ℃,strong acid or alkali conditions,was stable at room temperature,pH 8~12.Addition of common food additives such as sugar,salt and starch had no obvious effects on sodium copper chlorophyllin.%以紫菜为主要原料制备叶绿素铜钠盐,设计单因素试验和正交试验等优化叶绿素铜代反应条件及皂化条件,并对紫菜叶绿素铜钠盐的稳定性进行研究.结果表明,紫菜叶绿素铜钠盐制备的最佳工艺条件为叶绿素铜化时间12h、浸提温度50℃、浸提时间2h,丙酮与乙醇体积比6∶4的混合液作浸提液溶剂,液料比V溶剂∶m紫菜=60∶1 (mI/g);皂化温度60℃、皂化时间40 min以上、皂化液pH 11.51~11.93.稳定性试验表明紫菜叶绿素铜钠盐耐光性较差,在室温、pH 8~12时稳定性较好,高于80℃的温度和强酸强碱会导致紫菜叶绿素铜钠盐变性,食盐、白砂糖、淀粉等常见食品添加剂对其无不良影响.

  2. Preparation of Sodium Iron chlorophyllin by direct saponification%直接皂化法制备叶绿素铁钠盐

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李祥; 种亚莉; 曹江绒

    2014-01-01

    Sodium iron chlorophyllin was prepared through the reaction of direct saponifica-tion ,using silkworm faeces as raw material .Effects of factors ,such as system pH ,ultrasonic time ,ultrasonic temperature ,dosage of iron ,time on the replacement of sodium by iron ,tem-perature on the replacement of sodium by iron on the yield of sodium iron chlorophyllin were investigated by single factor test and orthogonal experimental design .The optimal process conditions were identified as :Firstly ultrasound 10 g dried silkworm powder for 120 min at 80 ℃ in the system with pH≈12 ;Secondly acidification for 30 min at 65 ℃ in the system with pH≈2~3 ,and after replace sodium with 6 mL 10% FeSO4 solution for 150 min ;Final-ly ,the sodium iron chlorophyllin was obtained by neutralizing at pH≈12 with 10% NaOH-ethanol .Through contrast test ,the yield of sodium iron chlorophyllin by direct saponification was superior to the traditional one ,and the preparation procedure of direct sapinification was less than the traditional one ,so direct saponification was feasible .%以蚕沙为原料,采用直接皂化法制备叶绿素铁钠盐,通过单因素实验和正交试验设计研究了体系pH值、超声时间、超声温度、置铁量、置铁时间、置铁温度对叶绿素铁钠盐产率的影响,其最优工艺条件为:10 g干蚕沙粉先在p H≈12的体系中,80℃下超声120 m in ;再于pH≈2~3的体系中,65℃下酸化30 min ,加入6 mL10% FeSO4溶液,置铁时间150 min ,最后用10% NaOH-CH3CH2OH调节溶液使叶绿素铁酸成盐析出。通过对照实验,直接皂化法叶绿素铁钠盐的得率大于传统制备法叶绿素铁钠盐的得率,而且直接皂化法比传统制备法在制备工艺上还少一道工序,因此直接皂化法是可行的。

  3. Action of the chlorophyllin before genetic damage induced by gamma radiation in germinal cells of Drosophila; Accion de la clorofilina ante el dano genetico inducido por radiacion gamma en celulas germinales de Drosophila

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreno B, R

    2004-07-01

    The chlorophyllin (CHLN) is a porphyrin of nutritious grade and soluble in water, derived of the chlorophyll. It has been reported that this pigment is a good anti mutagen since it reduces the damage to the DNA caused by physical or chemical agents of direct or indirect action. Their anti carcinogenic action has also been demonstrated when it is administered itself during the induced post-initiation phase by aflatoxins and heterocyclic amines. However in the last decade it has been reported that it also has promoter activity against the genetic damage induced by diverse agents like the alkyl ants of direct and indirect action, the gamma radiation and some heterocyclic amines. This effect has been observed in testing systems like Salmonella, Drosophila, rainbow trout and rodents. In the mouse spermatogonia it has been reported that it reduces the damage to the DNA but with the test of lethal dominant in Drosophila increment the damage induced by gamma radiation. The present study consisted on evaluating the effect of the CHLN in the line germinal masculine of Drosophila by means of the lethal recessive test bound to the sex (LRLS) with the stump Muller 5 and a litters system. Its were pretreated wild males with CHLN and 24 h later were irradiated with 0, 10, 20 and 40 Gy of gamma radiation immediately later were crossed with virgin females of the stump Basc and at 72 h the male was transferred to a cultivation media with three new virgin females, this process repeated three times until completing 3 litters. The F1 it was crossed among itself and in the F2 it was analysed the presence or absence of lethals. The results indicated that the CHLN per se incremented the basal frequency of damage due to the pigment can act as an agent that is inserted to the ADN causing pre mutagenic leisure. Nevertheless with the groups treated with the different doses of gamma radiation the CHLN does not present any protector action, neither promoter except in the litter I of the group

  4. CD28⁻ CD8⁺ T cells are significantly reduced and correlate with disease duration in juveniles with type 1 diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yarde, Danielle N; Lorenzo-Arteaga, Kristina; Corley, Kevin P; Cabrera, Monina; Sarvetnick, Nora E

    2014-10-01

    Type 1 diabetes (T1D) is a chronic disease caused by autoimmune destruction of insulin-producing pancreatic β-cells. T1D is typically diagnosed in children, but information regarding immune cell subsets in juveniles with T1D is scarce. Therefore, we studied various lymphocytic populations found in the peripheral blood of juveniles with T1D compared to age-matched controls (ages 2-17). One population of interest is the CD28(-) CD8(+) T cell subset, which are late-differentiated cells also described as suppressors. These cells are altered in a number of disease states and have been shown to be reduced in adults with T1D. We found that the proportion of CD28(-) cells within the CD8(+) T cell population is significantly reduced in juvenile type 1 diabetics. Furthermore, this reduction is not correlated with age in T1D juveniles, although a significant negative correlation between proportion CD28(-) CD8(+) T cells and age was observed in the healthy controls. Finally, correlation analysis revealed a significant and negative correlation between the proportion of CD28(-) CD8(+) T cells and T1D disease duration. These findings show that the CD28(-) CD8(+) T cell population is perturbed following onset of disease and may prove to be a valuable marker for monitoring the progression of T1D.

  5. Prenatal prochloraz treatment significantly increases pregnancy length and reduces offspring weight but does not affect social-olfactory memory in rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dmytriyeva, Oksana; Klementiev, Boris; Berezin, Vladimir;

    2013-01-01

    Metabolites of the commonly used imidazole fungicide prochloraz are androgen receptor antagonists. They have been shown to block androgen-driven development and compromise reproductive function. We tested the effect of prochloraz on cognitive behavior following exposure to this fungicide during...... the perinatal period. Pregnant Wistar rats were administered a 200mg/kg dose of prochloraz on gestational day (GD) 7, GD11, and GD15. The social recognition test (SRT) was performed on 7-week-old male rat offspring. We found an increase in pregnancy length and a significantly reduced pup weight on PND15 and PND...

  6. Activity of the protector chlorophyllin or promoter of the genetic damage induced by the 1,2 dimethyl hydrazine; Actividad de la clorofilina protectora o promotora del dano genetico inducido por la 1,2 dimetil hidrazina

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guerrero M, M.G

    2004-07-01

    The chlorophyllin (CHLN) it is a porphyrin of soluble nutritious grade in water, derived of the chlorophyll that includes in their structure a copper atom. It has been reported that this pigment can act as anti mutagen, reducing the damage to the DNA caused by physical or chemical agents of direct or indirect action. Their anti carcinogen action has also been studied during the initiation phase induced for carcinogen as the aflatoxins and heterocyclic amines. In contrast the reports have increased on a probable promoter activity of the CHLN on the induced genetic damage. This effect was seen for the first time before the damage induced by alkylating agents in Salmonella. Recently it has been observed with the damage induced by gamma radiation, ENU and CrO{sub 3} in somatic cells of the wing of Drosophila and in the induction of tumors for 1,2-dimethylhydrazine (DMH) in mice. Presently study is evaluated the protective effect or promoter of the CHLN before the genetic damage induced by 1,2-dimethylhydrazine, by means of the bioassay mutation and somatic recombination (SMART) in the wing of Drosophila melanogaster. Its were pretreated with CHLN or SAC to transheterocygotes larvas for two locus of the chromosome three mwh+/+flr{sup 3}; later on they are retarded the chronic treatment with DMH 0, 1, 2 and 3 days. It was measured the toxicity and the speed of development of the treated individuals. The wings of those adults that emerged were analyzed to register the number and the size of stains. The results indicated: differences in the viability of the individuals of the groups SAC + DMH vs CHLN + DMH only in the treated immediately after the pretreatment (DRT-0) that the CHLN doesn't modify the rate of the treated individuals development. The results of somatic mutation indicated that the CHLN has a protective effect only immediately after the pretreatment (DRT-0) however in DRT-1, 2 and 3 showed a promoter effect of genetic damage. (Author)

  7. Chlorophyllin inhibits the multiplication of poliovirus in hep-2 cell cultures Clorofilina inibe a multiplicação de poliovírus em cultura de células hep-2

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rosa Elisa Carvalho Linhares

    2008-10-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyllin (CHLN, a semisynthetic derivative of chlorophyll with antimutagenic properties, was assayed for its antiviral effect on the replication of poliovirus in cell culture. The drug was tested for the virucide, prophylactic and therapeutic activities on the replication of the poliovirus in HEp-2 cells cultures, at concentrations of 0.5 and 2.5 µg/mL. Virus titration and an indirect immunofluorescence test were used for the evaluation. The CHLN inhibited poliovirus replication in all treatment protocols; however, it was more effective on virucide treatment, with a 95.7% reduction in viral multiplication at concentration of 2.5 µg/mL. CHLN reduced the number of specifically fluorescent infected cells in both virucide and therapeutic treatments, 8h and 10h post-infection, at both concentrations (0.5 and 2.5 µg/ mL. It is suggested that CHLN either has a direct action on the virus particles or acts on the initial stage of the poliovirus replication. A clorofilina (CHLN, derivado sintético da clorofila com atividade antimutagênica, foi analisada quantoa sua atividade antiviral para o poliovírus em culturas de células HEp-2. A droga foi avaliada quanto às atividades virucida, profilática e terapêutica na multiplicação do poliovirus em culturas de células HEp-2, nas concentrações de 0,5 e 2,5 µg/mL. A inibição do título viral e a reação de imunofluorescência foram utilizadas para avaliação. A CHLN inibiu a multiplicação do poliovírus nos três protocolos de tratamento, porém foi mais efetiva no tratamento virucida inibindo em 95,7% a multiplicação viral na concentração de 2,5 µg/mL. A CHLN reduziu o número de células infectadas com fluorescência específica, nos tratamentos virucida, e terapêutico, 8h e 10h pós-infecção, nas duas concentrações (0,5 e 2,5 µg/mL . Sugere-se que a CHLN tem uma ação direta na partícula viral ou provavelmente age nos estágios iniciais da multiplicação do poliovirus.

  8. A functional variant in the cystathionine β-synthase gene promoter significantly reduces congenital heart disease susceptibility in a Han Chinese population

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jian-Yuan Zhao; Xue-Yan Yang; Kai-Hu Shi; Shu-Na Sun; Jia Hou; Zhi-Zhou Ye; Jue Wang

    2013-01-01

    Homocysteine is an independent risk factor for various cardiovascular diseases.There are two ways to remove homocysteine from embryonic cardiac cells:remethylation to form methionine or transsulfuration to form cysteine.Cystathionine β-synthase (CBS) catalyzes the first step of homocysteine transsulfuration as a rate-limiting enzyme.In this study,we identified a functional variant-4673C>G (rs2850144) in the CBS gene promoter region that significantly reduces the susceptibility to congenital heart disease (CHD) in a Han Chinese population consisting of 2 340 CHD patients and 2 270 controls.Individuals carrying the heterozygous CG and homozygous GG genotypes had a 15% (odds ratio (OR) =0.85,95% confidence interval (CI) =0.75-0.96,P =0.011) and 40% (OR =0.60,95% CI =0.49-0.73,P =1.78 × 10-7) reduced risk to develop CHD than the wild-type CC genotype carriers in the combined samples,respectively.Additional stratified analyses demonstrated that CBS-4673C>G is significantly related to septation defects and conotruncal defects.In vivo detection of CBS mRNA levels in human cardiac tissues and in vitro luciferase assays consistently showed that the minor G allele significantly increased CBS transcription.A functional analysis revealed that both the attenuated transcription suppressor SP1 binding affinity and the CBS promoter hypomethylation specifically linked with the minor G allele contributed to the remarkably upregulated CBS expression.Consequently,the carriers with genetically increased CBS expression would benefit from the protection due to the low homocysteine levels maintained by CBS in certain cells during the critical heart development stages.These results shed light on unexpected role of CBS and highlight the importance of homocysteine removal in cardiac development.

  9. Study on the Quality Standards of Chlorophyllin Copper Sodium%叶绿素铜钠质量标准研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李洁; 朱晓鹏

    2014-01-01

    目的:提高叶绿素铜钠的质量标准。方法:用AAS法测定铅、砷、钠含量;用氮测定法测定氮含量;总铜含量采用微波消解法破坏,以AAS法测定;铁检查采用AAS法比较供试品溶液与对照品溶液吸光度。结果:铅在0~100 ng · mL-1,砷在0~16 ng · mL-1,铜在0~2μg · mL-1,钠在0~0.25μg · mL-1范围内线性关系良好,平均回收率分别为95.2%( RSD=2.6%),88.3%( RSD=4.2%),100.8%( RSD =1.6%),101.4%( RSD=1.7%)。结论:方法的精密度、稳定性和重现性良好,所建方法简便易行,灵敏度高,结果准确,可用于叶绿素铜钠的质量控制。%Objective:To improve the quality standards of chlorophyllin copper sodium.Methods:Lead, arsenic and sodium were de-tected by AAS, nitrogen by nitrogen determination and total copper by AAS after microwave digestion destroyed ;Iron was measured by comparing the AAS absorbance of test solution and reference solution.Results: Lead, arsenic, copper and sodium showed excellent linearity within the range of 0-100 ng· mL-1 , 0-16 ng· mL-1 ,0-2 μg· mL-1 and 0-0.25 μg· mL-1 respectively.The average recoveries were 95.0%( RSD=2.4%) , 89.1%( RSD=3.5%) , 100.7%( RSD=1.1%) and 101.0%( RSD=1.7%) respectively.Conclusion:The methods are accurate , stable with good reproducibility , simple, sensitive and can be used for the quality control of chlorophyllin copper sodium.

  10. Hypoxis hemerocallidea Significantly Reduced Hyperglycaemia and Hyperglycaemic-Induced Oxidative Stress in the Liver and Kidney Tissues of Streptozotocin-Induced Diabetic Male Wistar Rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oluwafemi O. Oguntibeju

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Hypoxis hemerocallidea is a native plant that grows in the Southern African regions and is well known for its beneficial medicinal effects in the treatment of diabetes, cancer, and high blood pressure. Aim. This study evaluated the effects of Hypoxis hemerocallidea on oxidative stress biomarkers, hepatic injury, and other selected biomarkers in the liver and kidneys of healthy nondiabetic and streptozotocin- (STZ- induced diabetic male Wistar rats. Materials and Methods. Rats were injected intraperitoneally with 50 mg/kg of STZ to induce diabetes. The plant extract-Hypoxis hemerocallidea (200 mg/kg or 800 mg/kg aqueous solution was administered (daily orally for 6 weeks. Antioxidant activities were analysed using a Multiskan Spectrum plate reader while other serum biomarkers were measured using the RANDOX chemistry analyser. Results. Both dosages (200 mg/kg and 800 mg/kg of Hypoxis hemerocallidea significantly reduced the blood glucose levels in STZ-induced diabetic groups. Activities of liver enzymes were increased in the diabetic control and in the diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg, whereas the 200 mg/kg dosage ameliorated hepatic injury. In the hepatic tissue, the oxygen radical absorbance capacity (ORAC, ferric reducing antioxidant power (FRAP, catalase, and total glutathione were reduced in the diabetic control group. However treatment with both doses improved the antioxidant status. The FRAP and the catalase activities in the kidney were elevated in the STZ-induced diabetic group treated with 800 mg/kg of the extract possibly due to compensatory responses. Conclusion. Hypoxis hemerocallidea demonstrated antihyperglycemic and antioxidant effects especially in the liver tissue.

  11. Glycophospholipid Formulation with NADH and CoQ10 Significantly Reduces Intractable Fatigue in Western Blot-Positive ‘Chronic Lyme Disease’ Patients: Preliminary Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Garth L. Nicolson

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Background: An open label 8-week preliminary study was conducted in a small number of patients to determine if a combination oral supplement containing a mixture of phosphoglycolipids, coenzyme Q10 and microencapsulated NADH and other nutrients could affect fatigue levels in long-term, Western blot-positive, multi-symptom ‘chronic Lyme disease’ patients (also called ‘post-treatment Lyme disease’ or ‘post Lyme syndrome’ with intractable fatigue. Methods: The subjects in this study were 6 males (mean age = 45.1 ± 12.4 years and 10 females (mean age = 54.6 ± 7.4 years with ‘chronic Lyme disease’ (determined by multiple symptoms and positive Western blot analysis that had been symptomatic with chronic fatigue for an average of 12.7 ± 6.6 years. They had been seen by multiple physicians (13.3 ± 7.6 and had used many other remedies, supplements and drugs (14.4 ± 7.4 without fatigue relief. Fatigue was monitored at 0, 7, 30 and 60 days using a validated instrument, the Piper Fatigue Scale.Results: Patients in this preliminary study responded to the combination test supplement, showing a 26% reduction in overall fatigue by the end of the 8-week trial (p< 0.0003. Analysis of subcategories of fatigue indicated that there were significant improvements in the ability to complete tasks and activities as well as significant improvements in mood and cognitive abilities. Regression analysis of the data indicated that reductions in fatigue were consistent and occurred with a high degree of confidence (R2= 0.998. Functional Foods in Health and Disease 2012, 2(3:35-47 Conclusions: The combination supplement was a safe and effective method to significantly reduce intractable fatigue in long-term patients with Western blot-positive ‘chronic Lyme disease.’

  12. Long-term use of amiodarone before heart transplantation significantly reduces early post-transplant atrial fibrillation and is not associated with increased mortality after heart transplantation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rivinius R

    2016-02-01

    group (P=0.0123. There was no statistically significant difference between patients with and without long-term use of amiodarone prior to HTX in 1-year (P=0.8596, 2-year (P=0.8620, 5-year (P=0.2737, or overall follow-up mortality after HTX (P=0.1049. Moreover, Kaplan–Meier survival analysis showed no statistically significant difference in overall survival (P=0.1786.Conclusion: Long-term use of amiodarone in patients before HTX significantly reduces early post-transplant AF and is not associated with increased mortality after HTX. Keywords: amiodarone, atrial fibrillation, heart failure, heart transplantation, mortality

  13. Studies on Technique of Reducing Methane Emission in a Rice-Duck Ecological System and the Evaluation of Its Economic Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIANG Pin-gan; HUANG Huang; HUANG Mei; GAN De-xin; ZHOU Yan; FU Zhi-qiang

    2006-01-01

    The rice-duck ecological system is one of the major practices of the traditional Chinese agriculture. A study on the effect of reducing methane emission using this practice provided theoretical and practical basis for further development and utilization of this classical agricultural technique. The effect of reducing methane emission and the economic benefits of rice-duck ecological system were studied by carrying out a field experiment and by using economic methodology. The daily variation of CH4 emission in late rice paddy field was basically consistent with the daily variation of atmospheric temperature. The highest emission occurred at the full tillering stage of late rice with a rate of 24.1 or 32.2 or 40.5 mgm-2 h-1 in no-tillage area with duck and no-tillage area without duck and conventional-tillage area without duck, respectively. The inhibition of methane emission was apparently effective in the rice-duck ecological system during the initial tillering stage and the full tillering stage. Compared to the no-tillage area without duck, methane emission decreased by 2.333 g m-2.Compared to the conventional-tillage area without duck, methane emission decreased by 4.723 g m-2. During the production period of late rice, the amount of methane emission in no-tillage area with duck was 3.373 g m-2 lesser than that of no-tillage area without duck, and 5.59 g m-2 less than that of conventional-tillage without duck area. The economic significance was analyzed. Farmers adopting the rice-duck ecological system obtained 2 166 and 4 207 RMB yuan ha-1 more income than those who adopted a no-tillage without duck technique or conventional-tillage without duck technique, respectively. In addition to the reduction of the environmental pollution by methane emission, the farmers who adopted the rice-duck ecological system achieved economic benefits of 5 000 RMB yuan ha-1, which was 2 206 and 4 274 RMB yuan ha-1 more than those who adopted a no-tillage without duck technique and a

  14. TriCalm® hydrogel is significantly superior to 2% diphenhydramine and 1% hydrocortisone in reducing the peak intensity, duration, and overall magnitude of cowhage-induced itch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Papoiu ADP

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available Alexandru DP Papoiu,1 Hunza Chaudhry,2 Erin C Hayes,2 Yiong-Huak Chan,3 Kenneth D Herbst4 1Independent contractor, San Diego, CA, USA: 2Cosmederm Bioscience, Inc., San Diego, CA, USA; 3Biostatistics Unit, Yong Loo Lin School of Medicine, National University of Singapore, Singapore; 4Department of Medicine, University of California, San Diego, San Diego, CA, USA Background: Itch is one of the most frequent skin complaints and its treatment is challenging. From a neurophysiological perspective, two distinct peripheral and spinothalamic pathways have been described for itch transmission: a histaminergic pathway and a nonhistaminergic pathway mediated by protease-activated receptors (PAR2 and 4. The nonhistaminergic itch pathway can be activated exogenously by spicules of cowhage, a tropical plant that releases a cysteine protease named mucunain that binds to and activates PAR2 and PAR4. Purpose: This study was conducted to assess the antipruritic effect of a novel over-the-counter (OTC steroid-free topical hydrogel formulation, TriCalm®, in reducing itch intensity and duration, when itch was induced with cowhage, and compared it with two other commonly used OTC anti-itch drugs. Study participants and methods: This double-blinded, vehicle-controlled, randomized, crossover study recorded itch intensity and duration in 48 healthy subjects before and after skin treatment with TriCalm hydrogel, 2% diphenhydramine, 1% hydrocortisone, and hydrogel vehicle, used as a vehicle control. Results: TriCalm hydrogel significantly reduced the peak intensity and duration of cowhage-induced itch when compared to the control itch curve, and was significantly superior to the two other OTC antipruritic agents and its own vehicle in antipruritic effect. TriCalm hydrogel was eight times more effective than 1% hydrocortisone and almost six times more effective than 2% diphenhydramine in antipruritic action, as evaluated by the reduction of area under the curve

  15. 响应面法优化蚕沙叶绿素锌钾盐的制备工艺%Optimization of Preparation Technology for Potassium Zinc Chlorophyllin by Response Surface Method from Silkworm Faeces

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    包立军; 胡必利; 彭云武

    2011-01-01

    Response surface method (RSM) was used for optimizing the preparation technology of potassium zinc chlorophyllin. Based on single-factor experiment, saponification time, temperature of zinc reaction and time of zinc reaction were selected as influencing factors during extraction. The experiment mathematical model was arranged according to Box-Behnken central composite experiment design. The results showed that the optimum preparation technology for potassium zinc chlorophyllin were saponification time 58 min, zinc reaction temperature 57 XI, zinc reaction time 83 min. The predicted productivity ratio of potassium zinc chlorophyllin was 8. 95%, and the verification productivity ratio was 9. 23%, with relative error of 3.13%.%在单因素试验基础上,选取皂化时间、锌代温度和锌代时间作为影响因子,应用Box-Behnken中心组合设计建立数学模型,以叶绿素锌钾盐产率为响应值,进行响应面分析(RSA).结果表明,叶绿素锌钾盐的最佳制备工艺为皂化时间58 min,锌代温度57℃,锌代时间83 min.响应面模型在此条件下预测的叶绿素锌钾盐产率为8.95%,验证值(9.23%)与预测值相对误差3.13%.

  16. Studies on the Preparation of Sodium Copper Chlorophyllin from Ginkgo Biloba Scraps%银杏叶下脚料制备叶绿素铜钠盐的工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高坤; 丁欢星; 陈艳君; 汪俊; 孙振蛟; 谢继才; 程国才

    2012-01-01

    Many manufacturers will discard the scraps left after the Ginkgo biloba extracted as waste. The Ginkgo biloba scraps contain large amounts of chlorophyll,and it is too wasteful when thrown away directly as the waste. Since sodium copper chlorophyllin has many practical values,it can be made through the use of Ginkgo biloba scraps. This paper investigated systematically the total copper and free copper contents of sodium copper chlorophyllin when prepared in the different conditions of saponification,purification and coppers replacement,and studied the process of the preparation of copper chlorophyllin sodium salt. Finally more effective methods to remove impurities than previous reported in literature and the best process route were obtained.%由于银杏叶下脚料呈膏状,不易溶于水,处理起来比较麻烦,多数厂家将其作为废物弃去,但银杏叶下脚料中含有大量的叶绿素,直接作为废物处理掉太过浪费,而且由于叶绿素铜钠盐具有实用价值,所以可以利用下脚料制成叶绿素铜钠盐。文章对在不同皂化、除杂和铜代条件下制得的叶绿素铜钠盐的总铜和游离铜含量进行了考察,研究了银杏叶下脚料制备叶绿素铜钠盐的工艺,最终得到了比以往的文献报道更有效的去杂质的方法和最佳的工艺路线。

  17. Reduced gastric acid production in burn shock period and its significance in the prevention and treatment of acute gastric mucosal lesions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhu; Zhong Cheng Yang; Ao Li; De Chang Cheng

    2000-01-01

    AIM To investigate the changes of gastric acid production and its mechanism in shock period of severe burn in rats.METHODS A rat model with 30% TBSA fullthickness burn injury was employed and the gastric acid production, together with gastric mucosal blood flow (GMBF) and energy charge ( EC ) were measured serially within 48h postburn.RESULTS The gastric acid production in the acute shock period was markedly inhibited after severe burn injury. At the 3rd h postburn, the gastric juice volume, total acidity and acid output were already significantly decreased (P<0.01), and reached the lowest point,0.63mL/L ± 0.20mL/L, 10.81mmol/L ±2.58mmol/L and 2.23 mmol/h ± 0.73mmol/h respectively, at the 12th h postburn. Although restored to some degree 24 h after thermal injury, the variables above were still statistically lower, compared with those of control animals at the 48th h postburn. The GMBF and EC were also significantly reduced after severe burns, consistent with the trend of gastric acid production changes.CONCLUSION Gastric acid production, as well as GMBF and EC was predominantly decreased in the early postburn stage, suggesting that gastric mucosal ischemia and hypoxia with resultant disturbance in energy metabolism, but not gastric acid proper, might be the decisive factor in the pathogenesis of AGML after thermal injury, and that the preventive use of anti-acid drugs during burn shock period was unreasonable in some respects. Therefore,taking effective measures to improve gastric mucosal blood perfusion as early as possible postburn might be more preferable for the AGML prevention and treatment.

  18. Study on Preparation and Stability of Sodium Manganese Chlorophyllin from Silkworm Faeces%蚕沙叶绿素锰钠盐的制备及其稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李培尊

    2012-01-01

    Chlorophyll was extracted from silkworm faeces by solvent. And sodium manganese chlorophyllin was prepared from the chlorophyll extracted through the processes of saponification, acidification, manganesing and basification. Then it's photostability and thermostability were determined. The results showed that sodium manganese chlorophyllin had stable character on water solubility, the temperature lower than 80℃ and pH (8.0--10.0).%以蚕沙为原料,利用溶剂从中提取得到叶绿素,经过皂化、酸化、锰代及成盐等过程,制备得到叶绿素锰钠盐,并对其稳定性进行初步研究。结果发现,叶绿紊锰钠盐易溶于水,在温度低于80℃,pH为8.0-10.0范围具有较好的稳定性。

  19. Leukocyte-depletion of blood components does not significantly reduce the risk of infectious complications. Results of a double-blinded, randomized study

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Titlestad, I. L.; Ebbesen, L. S.; Ainsworth, A. P.;

    2001-01-01

    Allogeneic blood transfusions are claimed to be an independent risk factor for postoperative infections in open colorectal surgery due to immunomodulation. Leukocyte-depletion of erythrocyte suspensions has been shown in some open randomized studies to reduce the rate of postoperative infection t...

  20. Soluble CD36 and risk markers of insulin resistance and atherosclerosis are elevated in polycystic ovary syndrome and significantly reduced during pioglitazone treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glintborg, Dorte; Højlund, Kurt; Andersen, Marianne;

    2008-01-01

    for 16 weeks. Fourteen weight-matched healthy female subjects were included as control subjects. sCD36, oxidized LDL (oxLDL), high-sensitivity C-reactive protein (hsCRP), interleukin (IL)-6, euglycemic-hyperinsulinemic clamps, and whole-body dual-energy X-ray absorptiometry scans were performed. RESULTS......: sCD36 (2.87 relative units [0.88-9.36] vs. 1.67 relative units [0.72-3.89]), oxLDL (44.9 units/l [26.9-75.1] vs. 36.1 units/l [23.4-55.5]), and hsCRP (0.26 mg/dl [0.03-2.41] vs. 0.12 mg/dl [0.02-0.81]) were significantly increased in PCOS patients versus control subjects (geometric mean +/- 2 SD...... during insulin stimulation in PCOS patients and control subjects (n = 44). sCD36 and oxLDL were significant independent predictors of glucose and lipid metabolism, whereas hsCRP and IL-6 showed no significant contribution. Following pioglitazone treatment, insulin sensitivity increased, whereas sCD36 (3...

  1. Inhibition of fried meat-induced rectal DNA damage and altered systemic genotoxicity in humans by crucifera, chlorophyllin, and yogurt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dietary exposures implicated as reducing or causing risk for colorectal cancer may reduce or cause DNA damage in colon tissue; however, no one has assessed this hypothesis directly in humans. Thus, we enrolled 16 healthy volunteers in a 4-week controlled feeding study where 8 sub...

  2. Mamld1 Deficiency Significantly Reduces mRNA Expression Levels of Multiple Genes Expressed in Mouse Fetal Leydig Cells but Permits Normal Genital and Reproductive Development

    OpenAIRE

    Miyado, Mami; Nakamura, Michiko; Miyado, Kenji; Morohashi, Ken-ichirou; Sano, Shinichiro; Nagata, Eiko; Fukami, Maki; Ogata, Tsutomu

    2012-01-01

    Although mastermind-like domain containing 1 (MAMLD1) (CXORF6) on human chromosome Xq28 has been shown to be a causative gene for 46,XY disorders of sex development with hypospadias, the biological function of MAMLD1/Mamld1 remains to be elucidated. In this study, we first showed gradual and steady increase of testicular Mamld1 mRNA expression levels in wild-type male mice from 12.5 to 18.5 d postcoitum. We then generated Mamld1 knockout (KO) male mice and revealed mildly but significantly re...

  3. Putative floral brood-site mimicry, loss of autonomous selfing, and reduced vegetative growth are significantly correlated with increased diversification in Asarum (Aristolochiaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sinn, Brandon T; Kelly, Lawrence M; Freudenstein, John V

    2015-08-01

    The drivers of angiosperm diversity have long been sought and the flower-arthropod association has often been invoked as the most powerful driver of the angiosperm radiation. We now know that features that influence arthropod interactions cannot only affect the diversification of lineages, but also expedite or constrain their rate of extinction, which can equally influence the observed asymmetric richness of extant angiosperm lineages. The genus Asarum (Aristolochiaceae; ∼100 species) is widely distributed in north temperate forests, with substantial vegetative and floral divergence between its three major clades, Euasarum, Geotaenium, and Heterotropa. We used Binary-State Speciation and Extinction Model (BiSSE) Net Diversification tests of character state distributions on a Maximum Likelihood phylogram and a Coalescent Bayesian species tree, inferred from seven chloroplast markers and nuclear rDNA, to test for signal of asymmetric diversification, character state transition, and extinction rates of floral and vegetative characters. We found that reduction in vegetative growth, loss of autonomous self-pollination, and the presence of putative fungal-mimicking floral structures are significantly correlated with increased diversification in Asarum. No significant difference in model likelihood was identified between symmetric and asymmetric rates of character state transitions or extinction. We conclude that the flowers of the Heterotropa clade may have converged on some aspects of basidiomycete sporocarp morphology and that brood-site mimicry, coupled with a reduction in vegetative growth and the loss of autonomous self-pollination, may have driven diversification within Asarum.

  4. Human Tubal-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Associated with Low Level Laser Therapy Significantly Reduces Cigarette Smoke-Induced COPD in C57BL/6 mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peron, Jean Pierre Schatzmann; de Brito, Auriléia Aparecida; Pelatti, Mayra; Brandão, Wesley Nogueira; Vitoretti, Luana Beatriz; Greiffo, Flávia Regina; da Silveira, Elaine Cristina; Oliveira-Junior, Manuel Carneiro; Maluf, Mariangela; Evangelista, Lucila; Halpern, Silvio; Nisenbaum, Marcelo Gil; Perin, Paulo; Czeresnia, Carlos Eduardo; Câmara, Niels Olsen Saraiva; Aimbire, Flávio; Vieira, Rodolfo de Paula; Zatz, Mayana; de Oliveira, Ana Paula Ligeiro

    2015-01-01

    Cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a very debilitating disease, with a very high prevalence worldwide, which results in a expressive economic and social burden. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches to treat these patients are of unquestionable relevance. The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs) is an innovative and yet accessible approach for pulmonary acute and chronic diseases, mainly due to its important immunoregulatory, anti-fibrogenic, anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic. Besides, the use of adjuvant therapies, whose aim is to boost or synergize with their function should be tested. Low level laser (LLL) therapy is a relatively new and promising approach, with very low cost, no invasiveness and no side effects. Here, we aimed to study the effectiveness of human tube derived MSCs (htMSCs) cell therapy associated with a 30mW/3J-660 nm LLL irradiation in experimental cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thus, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 75 days (twice a day) and all experiments were performed on day 76. Experimental groups receive htMSCS either intraperitoneally or intranasally and/or LLL irradiation either alone or in association. We show that co-therapy greatly reduces lung inflammation, lowering the cellular infiltrate and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and KC), which were followed by decreased mucus production, collagen accumulation and tissue damage. These findings seemed to be secondary to the reduction of both NF-κB and NF-AT activation in lung tissues with a concomitant increase in IL-10. In summary, our data suggests that the concomitant use of MSCs + LLLT may be a promising therapeutic approach for lung inflammatory diseases as COPD. PMID:26322981

  5. Human Tubal-Derived Mesenchymal Stromal Cells Associated with Low Level Laser Therapy Significantly Reduces Cigarette Smoke-Induced COPD in C57BL/6 mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jean Pierre Schatzmann Peron

    Full Text Available Cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease is a very debilitating disease, with a very high prevalence worldwide, which results in a expressive economic and social burden. Therefore, new therapeutic approaches to treat these patients are of unquestionable relevance. The use of mesenchymal stromal cells (MSCs is an innovative and yet accessible approach for pulmonary acute and chronic diseases, mainly due to its important immunoregulatory, anti-fibrogenic, anti-apoptotic and pro-angiogenic. Besides, the use of adjuvant therapies, whose aim is to boost or synergize with their function should be tested. Low level laser (LLL therapy is a relatively new and promising approach, with very low cost, no invasiveness and no side effects. Here, we aimed to study the effectiveness of human tube derived MSCs (htMSCs cell therapy associated with a 30mW/3J-660 nm LLL irradiation in experimental cigarette smoke-induced chronic obstructive pulmonary disease. Thus, C57BL/6 mice were exposed to cigarette smoke for 75 days (twice a day and all experiments were performed on day 76. Experimental groups receive htMSCS either intraperitoneally or intranasally and/or LLL irradiation either alone or in association. We show that co-therapy greatly reduces lung inflammation, lowering the cellular infiltrate and pro-inflammatory cytokine secretion (IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α and KC, which were followed by decreased mucus production, collagen accumulation and tissue damage. These findings seemed to be secondary to the reduction of both NF-κB and NF-AT activation in lung tissues with a concomitant increase in IL-10. In summary, our data suggests that the concomitant use of MSCs + LLLT may be a promising therapeutic approach for lung inflammatory diseases as COPD.

  6. The success of {sup 131}I ablation in thyroid cancer patients is significantly reduced after a diagnostic activity of 40 MBq {sup 131}I

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verburg, F.A. [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands); Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Hospital Wuerzburg (Germany); Verkooijen, R.B.T. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, Leiden Univ. Medical Center (Netherlands); Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Maxima Medical Centre (Netherlands); Stokkel, M.P.M. [Div. of Nuclear Medicine, Dept. of Radiology, Leiden Univ. Medical Center (Netherlands); Isselt, J.W. van [Dept. of Nuclear Medicine, Univ. Medical Center Utrecht (Netherlands)

    2009-07-01

    Objective: Dosimetry studies have shown that activities of {sup 131}I as small as 10-20 MBq may cause a stunning effect. A result of this stunning effect may be a lower success rate of the ablative {sup 131}I therapy for differentiated thyroid carcinoma (DTC). The aim of this study was to determine whether pre-therapeutic uptake measurement with 40 MBq {sup 131}I causes a lower success rate of ablation. Design: retrospective chart review study. Patients, methods: In two hospitals the ablation protocols differed in one respect only: in the one hospital no diagnostic {sup 131}I was applied before ablation (group 1, n = 48), whereas in the other hospital a 24-h uptake-measurement with 40 MBq {sup 131}I was performed (group 2, n = 51). Included were all DTC patients without distant metastases who had undergone {sup 131}I ablation between July 2002 and December 2005, and who had returned for {sup 131}I follow-up. Successful ablation was defined as absence of pathological {sup 131}I uptake on diagnostic whole-body scintigraphy and undetectable thyroglobulin-levels under TSH stimulation. Results: Overall, ablation was successful in 31/48 patients (65%) in group 1 and in 17/51 patients (33%) in group 2 (p=0.002). Multivariate analysis showed that pre-therapeutic uptake measurement using 40 MBq {sup 131}I was an independant determinant for success of ablation (p = 0.002). Conclusions: After applying a diagnostic activity of 40 MBq {sup 131}I before ablation, the success rate of ablation is severely reduced. Consequently, the routine application of {sup 131}I for diagnostic scintigraphy or uptake measurement prior to {sup 131}I ablation is best avoided. (orig.)

  7. The chemical digestion of Ti6Al7Nb scaffolds produced by Selective Laser Melting reduces significantly ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to form biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junka, Adam F; Szymczyk, Patrycja; Secewicz, Anna; Pawlak, Andrzej; Smutnicka, Danuta; Ziółkowski, Grzegorz; Bartoszewicz, Marzenna; Chlebus, Edward

    2016-01-01

    In our previous work we reported the impact of hydrofluoric and nitric acid used for chemical polishing of Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds on decrease of the number of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm forming cells. Herein, we tested impact of the aforementioned substances on biofilm of Gram-negative microorganism, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, dangerous pathogen responsible for plethora of implant-related infections. The Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds were manufactured using Selective Laser Melting method. Scaffolds were subjected to chemical polishing using a mixture of nitric acid and fluoride or left intact (control group). Pseudomonal biofilm was allowed to form on scaffolds for 24 hours and was removed by mechanical vortex shaking. The number of pseudomonal cells was estimated by means of quantitative culture and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The presence of nitric acid and fluoride on scaffold surfaces was assessed by means of IR and rentgen spetorscopy. Quantitative data were analysed using the Mann-Whitney test (P ≤ 0.05). Our results indicate that application of chemical polishing correlates with significant drop of biofilm-forming pseudomonal cells on the manufactured Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds ( p = 0.0133, Mann-Whitney test) compared to the number of biofilm-forming cells on non-polished scaffolds. As X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of fluoride and nitrogen on the surface of scaffold, we speculate that drop of biofilm forming cells may be caused by biofilm-supressing activity of these two elements.

  8. The chemical digestion of Ti6Al7Nb scaffolds produced by Selective Laser Melting reduces significantly ability of Pseudomonas aeruginosa to form biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Junka, Adam F; Szymczyk, Patrycja; Secewicz, Anna; Pawlak, Andrzej; Smutnicka, Danuta; Ziółkowski, Grzegorz; Bartoszewicz, Marzenna; Chlebus, Edward

    2016-01-01

    In our previous work we reported the impact of hydrofluoric and nitric acid used for chemical polishing of Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds on decrease of the number of Staphylococcus aureus biofilm forming cells. Herein, we tested impact of the aforementioned substances on biofilm of Gram-negative microorganism, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, dangerous pathogen responsible for plethora of implant-related infections. The Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds were manufactured using Selective Laser Melting method. Scaffolds were subjected to chemical polishing using a mixture of nitric acid and fluoride or left intact (control group). Pseudomonal biofilm was allowed to form on scaffolds for 24 hours and was removed by mechanical vortex shaking. The number of pseudomonal cells was estimated by means of quantitative culture and Scanning Electron Microscopy. The presence of nitric acid and fluoride on scaffold surfaces was assessed by means of IR and rentgen spetorscopy. Quantitative data were analysed using the Mann-Whitney test (P ≤ 0.05). Our results indicate that application of chemical polishing correlates with significant drop of biofilm-forming pseudomonal cells on the manufactured Ti-6Al-7Nb scaffolds ( p = 0.0133, Mann-Whitney test) compared to the number of biofilm-forming cells on non-polished scaffolds. As X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy revealed the presence of fluoride and nitrogen on the surface of scaffold, we speculate that drop of biofilm forming cells may be caused by biofilm-supressing activity of these two elements. PMID:27150429

  9. 芦笋叶绿素铜钠盐制备过程中提取工艺的研究%Study on extraction process of chlorophyll and preparation of sodium copper chlorophyllin from Asparagus officinalis leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵庆生; 孙健; 肖杰; 赵兵; 黄云祥

    2012-01-01

    The extraction process of chlorophyll and the preparation of sodium copper chlorophyllin from leaves of Asparagus officinalis were studied.The results showed that the extraction solvent was 80% acetone and 95% ethanol with the ratio of 1:4,the ratio of liquid to solid was 10:1,the extraction temperature was 70℃,the extracting time was 60min and ultrasonic power was 160W.Then sodium copper chlorophyllin was made by chemical progressing and the yield was 0.18%.The quality of sodium copper cholorphyllin met the national standard GB 3262-1982.%采用超声法对芦笋叶进行了叶绿素的提取并合成了叶绿素铜钠盐。结果表明,芦笋叶绿素的最佳提取工艺条件为:提取溶剂为80%丙酮与95%乙醇体积比1:4,提取时间60min,提取温度70℃,液固比10:1,超声功率160W。提取的叶绿素溶液,经过皂化、酸化、铜代、成盐等步骤制成叶绿素铜钠盐,得率(以鲜叶计)为0.18%,产品质量符合国家标准GB3262-1982。

  10. Treatment with a belly-board device significantly reduces the volume of small bowel irradiated and results in low acute toxicity in adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer: results of a prospective study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background and purpose: To determine whether treatment prone on a belly-board significantly reduces the volume of small bowel irradiated in women receiving adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer, and to prospectively study acute small bowel toxicity using an accepted recording instrument. Material and methods: Thirty-two gynecologic patients underwent simulation with CT scanning supine and prone. Small bowel was delineated on every CT slice, and treatment was prone on the belly-board using 3-5 fields-typically Anterior, Right and Left Lateral, plus or minus Lateral Boosts. Median prescribed dose was 50.4 Gy and all treatments were delivered in 1.8 Gy fractions. Concomitant Cisplatin was administered in 13 patients with cervical carcinoma. Comparison of small bowel dose-volumes was made between supine and prone, with each subject acting as their own matched pair. Acute small bowel toxicity was prospectively measured using the Common Toxicity Criteria: Version 2.0. Results: Treatment prone on the belly-board significantly reduced the volume of small bowel receiving ≥100; ≥95; ≥90; and ≥80% of the prescribed dose, but not ≥50%. This was found whether volume was defined in cubic centimeters or % of total small bowel volume. Of 29 evaluable subjects, 2 (7%) experienced 1 episode each of grade 3 diarrhoea. All other toxicity events were grade 2 or less and comprised diarrhoea (59%), abdominal pain or cramping (48%), nausea (38%), anorexia (17%), vomiting (10%). There were no Grade 4 events and no treatment days were lost due to toxicity. Conclusions: Treatment prone on a belly-board device results in significant small bowel sparing, during adjuvant radiotherapy for gynecologic cancer. The absence of Grade 4 events or Treatment Days Lost compares favorably with the published literature

  11. Significantly Reduced Genoprevalence of Vaccine-Type HPV-16/18 Infections among Vaccinated Compared to Non-Vaccinated Young Women 5.5 Years after a Bivalent HPV-16/18 Vaccine (Cervarix®) Pilot Project in Uganda

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berggren, Vanja; Wabinga, Henry; Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella; Helenius, Gisela; Kaliff, Malin; Karlsson, Mats; Kirimunda, Samuel; Musubika, Caroline; Andersson, Sören

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and some predictors for vaccine and non-vaccine types of HPV infections among bivalent HPV vaccinated and non-vaccinated young women in Uganda. This was a comparative cross sectional study 5.5 years after a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccination (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) pilot project in western Uganda. Cervical swabs were collected between July 2014-August 2014 and analyzed with a HPV genotyping test, CLART® HPV2 assay (Genomica, Madrid Spain) which is based on PCR followed by microarray for determination of genotype. Blood samples were also tested for HIV and syphilis infections as well as CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte levels. The age range of the participants was 15–24 years and mean age was 18.6(SD 1.4). Vaccine-type HPV-16/18 strains were significantly less prevalent among vaccinated women compared to non-vaccinated women (0.5% vs 5.6%, p 0.006, OR 95% CI 0.08(0.01–0.64). At type-specific level, significant difference was observed for HPV16 only. Other STIs (HIV/syphilis) were important risk factors for HPV infections including both vaccine types and non-vaccine types. In addition, for non-vaccine HPV types, living in an urban area, having a low BMI, low CD4 count and having had a high number of life time sexual partners were also significant risk factors. Our data concurs with the existing literature from other parts of the world regarding the effectiveness of bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine in reducing the prevalence of HPV infections particularly vaccine HPV- 16/18 strains among vaccinated women. This study reinforces the recommendation to vaccinate young girls before sexual debut and integrate other STI particularly HIV and syphilis interventions into HPV vaccination packages. PMID:27482705

  12. Significantly Reduced Genoprevalence of Vaccine-Type HPV-16/18 Infections among Vaccinated Compared to Non-Vaccinated Young Women 5.5 Years after a Bivalent HPV-16/18 Vaccine (Cervarix®) Pilot Project in Uganda.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumakech, Edward; Berggren, Vanja; Wabinga, Henry; Lillsunde-Larsson, Gabriella; Helenius, Gisela; Kaliff, Malin; Karlsson, Mats; Kirimunda, Samuel; Musubika, Caroline; Andersson, Sören

    2016-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the prevalence and some predictors for vaccine and non-vaccine types of HPV infections among bivalent HPV vaccinated and non-vaccinated young women in Uganda. This was a comparative cross sectional study 5.5 years after a bivalent HPV 16/18 vaccination (Cervarix®, GlaxoSmithKline, Belgium) pilot project in western Uganda. Cervical swabs were collected between July 2014-August 2014 and analyzed with a HPV genotyping test, CLART® HPV2 assay (Genomica, Madrid Spain) which is based on PCR followed by microarray for determination of genotype. Blood samples were also tested for HIV and syphilis infections as well as CD4 and CD8 lymphocyte levels. The age range of the participants was 15-24 years and mean age was 18.6(SD 1.4). Vaccine-type HPV-16/18 strains were significantly less prevalent among vaccinated women compared to non-vaccinated women (0.5% vs 5.6%, p 0.006, OR 95% CI 0.08(0.01-0.64). At type-specific level, significant difference was observed for HPV16 only. Other STIs (HIV/syphilis) were important risk factors for HPV infections including both vaccine types and non-vaccine types. In addition, for non-vaccine HPV types, living in an urban area, having a low BMI, low CD4 count and having had a high number of life time sexual partners were also significant risk factors. Our data concurs with the existing literature from other parts of the world regarding the effectiveness of bivalent HPV-16/18 vaccine in reducing the prevalence of HPV infections particularly vaccine HPV- 16/18 strains among vaccinated women. This study reinforces the recommendation to vaccinate young girls before sexual debut and integrate other STI particularly HIV and syphilis interventions into HPV vaccination packages.

  13. 竹叶制备叶绿素铜钠盐的工艺优化研究%Research of optimization of preparation technology of sodium copper chlorophyllin from bamboo leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    纪平雄; 区志豪; 蔡英花; 钟楚茵; 林冰

    2012-01-01

    Bamboo leaves were used as raw material,and the composite solvent of petroleum ether and 95% ethanol was used as extraction solvent of chlorophyll.Chlorophyll extracted directly after the step of saponification,acidification,copper replacement,purification,salt formation and so on were prepared as the sodium copper chlorophyllin.There were two key processes,one was the extraction processesaction which affected the product yield and the other was copper replacement processesaction which affected the quality indicators respectively.The process conditions were optimized by L9(34) orthogonal test.The result showed optimum extraction conditions of the bamboo leaves chlorophyll were 15% of the volume fraction of 95% ethanol in the composite solvent,taking the composite solvent eight times the volume of bamboo leaves as extractant,ratio of liquid to solid 8∶1(v∶w),extraction temperature 55℃,extraction time 2h.Best process conditions of copper replacement were the ethanol volume fraction of 85%,the increase of copper content was two times of the theoretical value,reaction temperature 60℃,pH2.5.The product yield of sodium copper chlorophyllin was 0.38%.Main indicators of the test result were in accordance with the national standards of food additives.%以竹叶为原料,石油醚与95%乙醇复合溶剂为提取溶剂提取叶绿素,叶绿素提取液直接经过皂化、酸化、铜代、净化和成盐等步骤制备叶绿素铜钠盐。对影响产品得率和质量指标的提取、铜代两个关键工艺过程,利用L9(34)正交实验进行工艺条件优化。结果表明,竹叶叶绿素的最佳提取条件为复合溶剂中95%乙醇体积分数为15%、液固比8:1(v:w)、提取温度55℃、提取时间2h;铜代过程最佳条件为乙醇体积分数85%、加铜量为理论值的2倍、反应温度60℃、pH2.5。叶绿素铜钠盐得率0.38%,检验结果主要指标符合食品添加剂国家标准。

  14. 异化Fe(Ⅲ)还原菌及其还原机制的环境意义%Dissimilatory Fe( Ⅲ)-reducing Bacteria and the Environmental Significance of Its Reduction Mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曾洪学; 杨玉泉; 屈兴红; 黄灿

    2012-01-01

    Dissimilatory Fe( IE)-reducing bacteria with the powerful metabolism function, the ability to adapt to the harsh environment and strong reduction function have great importance to the biological remediation of environment and play a decisive role in the eco-eycle of earth. They were capable of using Fe( HI) as the terminal electron acceptor coupled with many kinds of inorganic and organic matter transformation to gain energy under anoxic conditions. Microbial dissimilatory iron reduction has several significant environmental impacts. It can greatly influence the biogeochemical cycles of many metals and plays an important role in the flux of phosphate into water supplies. In addition, it has been proven to have a good application perspective in microbiology fuel batteries, odor control and protecting steel from corrosion. However, whether it is the basic study, or application study, research related to micmbial dissimilatory iron reduction is still close to the blank in China. According to the latest research advances both at home and abroad, the environmental significance of microbial dissimilatory iron reduction is reviewed to attract more attention of the researchers and accelerate this field study in our country.%异化Fe(Ⅲ)还原菌具有强大的代谢功能和适应恶劣环境的能力,其所具有的还原功能对于环境的生物修复具有重要的意义,在地球生态循环过程中具有举足轻重的作用.厌氧条件下,它可以Fe(Ⅲ)为末端电子受体,还原许多有毒重金属,降解利用有机和无机污染物,对土壤中痕量金属元素和磷的释放产生重要影响,在微生物燃料电池、环境除臭、防止钢铁腐蚀等方面有较好的应用前景和研究价值.当前无论是基础还是应用研究方面,国内微生物异化Fe(Ⅲ)还原菌的相关工作仍近空白.结合国外的最新研究进展,介绍了微生物异化Fe(Ⅲ)还原菌特性、还原机制及其还原的环境意义,旨在引起国内相

  15. Declinol, a Complex Containing Kudzu, Bitter Herbs (Gentian, Tangerine Peel) and Bupleurum, Significantly Reduced Alcohol Use Disorders Identification Test (AUDIT) Scores in Moderate to Heavy Drinkers: A Pilot Study

    OpenAIRE

    Kushner, Steven; HAN, DAVID; Oscar-Berman, Marlene; B. William Downs; Margaret A. Madigan; Giordano, John; Beley, Thomas; Jones, Scott; Barh, Debmayla; Simpatico, Thomas; Dushaj, Kristina; Lohmann, Raquel; Braverman, Eric R; Schoenthaler, Stephen; Ellison, David

    2013-01-01

    It is well established that inherited human aldehyde dehydrogenase 2 (ALDH-2) deficiency reduces the risk for alcoholism. Kudzu plants and extracts have been used for 1,000 years in traditional Chinese medicine to treat alcoholism. Kudzu contains daidzin, which inhibits ALDH-2 and suppresses heavy drinking in rodents. Decreased drinking due to ALDH-2 inhibition is attributed to aversive properties of acetaldehyde accumulated during alcohol consumption. However not all of the anti-alcohol prop...

  16. Discussion on Significance and Countermeasures of Reducing Sugar Content in Chinese Medicine%浅论中药制剂含糖比例降低的意义与对策

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    许红莉; 彭瑞松

    2014-01-01

    Sugar is extremely widely used in Chinese medicine, mainly as corrigents, excipients and antiseptics. In recent years, the rationality and necessity of using sugar as recipes in medicine (especially Chinese medicine) has come under questions. This article, base on related documents and daily work practice, gives a systematic survey on the pros and cons of sugar applied in Chinese medicine, the signiifcance of reducing sugar content (including the inlfuence of sugar on human health, efifcacy and quality of medicine), and the countermeasures for reducing sugar content, aims to promote scientiifc rational application of sugar in clinical Chinese medicine.%糖在中药制剂中有着极广泛的用途,主要用作矫味剂、赋形剂和防腐剂。近年来,药品中(尤其中药制剂)以大量蔗糖作为辅料的合理性和必要性备受质疑,本文结合相关资料和日常工作实践,就中药剂中糖的利弊、降低含糖量的意义(包括糖对人体健康的影响,糖对药剂疗效的影响,糖对制剂质量的影响)、以及降低含糖比例的对策进行系统概述,旨在促进糖在临床中药制剂中的科学合理应用。

  17. Histomorphometric Assessment of Cancellous and Cortical Bone Material Distribution in the Proximal Humerus of Normal and Osteoporotic Individuals: Significantly Reduced Bone Stock in the Metaphyseal and Subcapital Regions of Osteoporotic Individuals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sprecher, Christoph M; Schmidutz, Florian; Helfen, Tobias; Richards, R Geoff; Blauth, Michael; Milz, Stefan

    2015-12-01

    Osteoporosis is a systemic disorder predominantly affecting postmenopausal women but also men at an advanced age. Both genders may suffer from low-energy fractures of, for example, the proximal humerus when reduction of the bone stock or/and quality has occurred.The aim of the current study was to compare the amount of bone in typical fracture zones of the proximal humerus in osteoporotic and non-osteoporotic individuals.The amount of bone in the proximal humerus was determined histomorphometrically in frontal plane sections. The donor bones were allocated to normal and osteoporotic groups using the T-score from distal radius DXA measurements of the same extremities. The T-score evaluation was done according to WHO criteria. Regional thickness of the subchondral plate and the metaphyseal cortical bone were measured using interactive image analysis.At all measured locations the amount of cancellous bone was significantly lower in individuals from the osteoporotic group compared to the non-osteoporotic one. The osteoporotic group showed more significant differences between regions of the same bone than the non-osteoporotic group. In both groups the subchondral cancellous bone and the subchondral plate were least affected by bone loss. In contrast, the medial metaphyseal region in the osteoporotic group exhibited higher bone loss in comparison to the lateral side.This observation may explain prevailing fracture patterns, which frequently involve compression fractures and certainly has an influence on the stability of implants placed in this medial region. It should be considered when planning the anchoring of osteosynthesis materials in osteoporotic patients with fractures of the proximal humerus.

  18. Deletions within the 3' Non-Translated Region of Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA4 Do Not Affect Replication but Significantly Reduce Long-Distance Movement of Chimeric Tobacco mosaic virus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vidadi Yusibov

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV RNAs 1 and 2 with deletions in their 3' non‑translated regions (NTRs have been previously shown to be encapsidated into virions by coat protein (CP expressed from RNA3, indicating that the 3' NTRs of RNAs 1 and 2 are not required for virion assembly. Here, we constructed various mutants by deleting sequences within the 3' NTR of AlMV subgenomic (sg RNA4 (same as of RNA3 and examined the effect of these deletions on replication and translation of chimeric Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV expressing AlMV sgRNA4 from the TMV CP sg promoter (Av/A4 in tobacco protoplasts and Nicotiana benthamiana plants. While the Av/A4 mutants were as competent as the wild-type Av/A4 in RNA replication in protoplasts, their encapsidation, long-distance movement and virus accumulation varied significantly in N. benthamiana. These data suggest that the 3' NTR of AlMV sgRNA4 contains potential elements necessary for virus encapsidation.

  19. Deletions within the 3' non-translated region of Alfalfa mosaic virus RNA4 do not affect replication but significantly reduce long-distance movement of chimeric Tobacco mosaic virus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roy, Gourgopal; Fedorkin, Oleg; Fujiki, Masaaki; Skarjinskaia, Marina; Knapp, Elisabeth; Rabindran, Shailaja; Yusibov, Vidadi

    2013-07-01

    Alfalfa mosaic virus (AlMV) RNAs 1 and 2 with deletions in their 3' non‑translated regions (NTRs) have been previously shown to be encapsidated into virions by coat protein (CP) expressed from RNA3, indicating that the 3' NTRs of RNAs 1 and 2 are not required for virion assembly. Here, we constructed various mutants by deleting sequences within the 3' NTR of AlMV subgenomic (sg) RNA4 (same as of RNA3) and examined the effect of these deletions on replication and translation of chimeric Tobacco mosaic virus (TMV) expressing AlMV sgRNA4 from the TMV CP sg promoter (Av/A4) in tobacco protoplasts and Nicotiana benthamiana plants. While the Av/A4 mutants were as competent as the wild-type Av/A4 in RNA replication in protoplasts, their encapsidation, long-distance movement and virus accumulation varied significantly in N. benthamiana. These data suggest that the 3' NTR of AlMV sgRNA4 contains potential elements necessary for virus encapsidation. PMID:23867804

  20. Vaccination with a genotype 1 modified live vaccine against porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus significantly reduces viremia, viral shedding and transmission of the virus in a quasi-natural experimental model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pileri, Emanuela; Gibert, Elisa; Soldevila, Ferran; García-Saenz, Ariadna; Pujols, Joan; Diaz, Ivan; Darwich, Laila; Casal, Jordi; Martín, Marga; Mateu, Enric

    2015-01-30

    The present study assessed the efficacy of vaccination against genotype 1 porcine reproductive and respiratory syndrome virus (PRRSV) in terms of reduction of the transmission. Ninety-eight 3-week-old piglets were divided in two groups: V (n=40) and NV (n=58) that were housed separately. V animals were vaccinated with a commercial genotype 1 PRRSV vaccine while NV were kept as controls. On day 35 post-vaccination, 14 NV pigs were separated and inoculated intranasally with 2 ml of a heterologous genotype 1 PRRSV isolate ("seeder" pigs, SP). The other V and NV animals were distributed in groups of 5 pigs each. Two days later, one SP was introduced into each pen to expose V and NV to PRRSV. Sentinel pigs were allocated in adjacent pens. Follow-up was of 21 days. All NV (30/30) became viremic after contact with SP while only 53% of V pigs were detected so (21/40, p<0.05). Vaccination shortened viremia (12.2±4 versus 3.7±3.4 days in NV and V pigs, respectively, p<0.01). The 50% survival time for becoming infected (Kaplan-Meier) for V was 21 days (CI95%=14.1-27.9) compared to 7 days (CI95%=5.2-8.7) for NV animals (p<0.01). These differences were reflected in the R value as well: 2.78 (CI95%=2.13-3.43) for NV and 0.53 (CI95%=0.19-0.76) for V pigs (p<0.05). All sentinel pigs (10/10) in pens adjacent to NV+SP pens got infected compared to 1/4 sentinel pigs allocated contiguous to a V+SP pen. These data show that vaccination of piglets significantly decrease parameters related to PRRSV transmission. PMID:25439650

  1. Study on significance of application of dexmedetomidine in reducing agitation and throat pain in patients after general anesthesia%右美托咪定预防全麻术后躁动和咽喉疼痛的作用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钟剑平; 何绍旋

    2014-01-01

    time,extubation time and postoperative sore throat werecomparedbetweenbothgroups.Results Therestorationofspontaneousbreathingtimeandextubationtimehadbeencomparedbetweenthese two groups,the difference was not statistically significant( P ﹥0. 05). In postoperative agitation,53 cases in observation group with grade 0,agi-tation rate was 7. 02%;and 34 patients in control group with grade 0,the agitation rate was 40. 35%. Agitation in observation group was signifi-cantly lower than that of control group( P ﹤0. 05). In postoperative sore throat,46 cases in observation group with grade 0,rate of throat pain was 19. 30%;and 30 cases in control group with grade 0,throat pain rate was 47. 37%. The rate of throat pain in observation group was signifi-cantlylowerthanthatofcontrolgroup(P﹤0.05).Conclusion Dexmedetomidinehasagoodpreventiveeffectonagitationandthroatpainafter general anesthesia,and it also does not increase the risk of respiratory depression,hence it is worthy to be used for clinical application.

  2. RDX-based nanocomposite microparticles for significantly reduced shock sensitivity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Hongwei, E-mail: hqiu@stevens.edu [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States); Stepanov, Victor; Di Stasio, Anthony R. [U.S. Army - Armament Research, Development, and Engineering Center, Picatinny, NJ 07806 (United States); Chou, Tsengming; Lee, Woo Y. [Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, Stevens Institute of Technology, Hoboken, NJ 07030 (United States)

    2011-01-15

    Cyclotrimethylenetrinitramine (RDX)-based nanocomposite microparticles were produced by a simple, yet novel spray drying method. The microparticles were characterized by scanning electron microscopy (SEM), transmission electron microscopy (TEM), X-ray diffraction (XRD) and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC), which shows that they consist of small RDX crystals ({approx}0.1-1 {mu}m) uniformly and discretely dispersed in a binder. The microparticles were subsequently pressed to produce dense energetic materials which exhibited a markedly lower shock sensitivity. The low sensitivity was attributed to small crystal size as well as small void size ({approx}250 nm). The method developed in this work may be suitable for the preparation of a wide range of insensitive explosive compositions.

  3. Significantly reducing registration time in IGRT using graphics processing units

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Noe, Karsten Østergaard; Denis de Senneville, Baudouin; Tanderup, Kari;

    2008-01-01

    Purpose/Objective For online IGRT, rapid image processing is needed. Fast parallel computations using graphics processing units (GPUs) have recently been made more accessible through general purpose programming interfaces. We present a GPU implementation of the Horn and Schunck method for deforma......). The processing power of GPUs can be used for many image processing tasks in IGRT making it a useful and cost-effecient tool to help us towards online IGRT....

  4. A=D: SIGNIFICANT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samuel Lincoln Bezerra Lins

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The lacanian concept of significant is a part of the interpretation in psychoanalytic clinics. To get to this word, Lacan did a re-reading on Freud's texts and articulates it to Saussure's Linguistics. The significant is pre-existent in the subject, and its meaning of speech is directly related to the opposition relationship of a significant to another. The analytical listening aims at establishing a relationship among the significants that the subject does, as well as the own effect that it gives to its speech. Therefore, this article has the goal of th correlating the concept of significant and its expression through films, literature and linguistics, once that the many interactions of psychoanalysis with other sciences makes it more interesting and understandable

  5. A Significant Play

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    梁海光; 陈明

    2002-01-01

    Yesterday evening, I went to see a play. It was really significant. It was about Zheng Xiaoyue, a very clever and diligent middle school student. Unfortunately, her mother died when she and her brother were very young. Her father was out of work and,

  6. Significance of Befitting Exercise

    OpenAIRE

    鈴木, 秀雄||スズキ, ヒデオ||Suzuki, Hideo

    2007-01-01

    This study clarifies the importance and significance of “Befitting Exercise" which is necessary for maintaining one's health positively. Usually positive physical exercise is not self-generated where the individual has low psychological motivation. What is at issue for most people seems to be a regime of exercise that suits the wider framework of their lives. Clearly a positive approach to exercise is personally derived and thus needs to fit within the positive image the individual has of exe...

  7. Tales of significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bell, Graham

    2016-01-01

    In this experiment, the authors were interested in testing the effect of a small molecule inhibitor on the ratio of males and females in the offspring of their model Dipteran species. The authors report that in a wild-type population, ~50 % of offspring are male. They then test the effect of treating females with the chemical, which they think might affect the male:female ratio compared with the untreated group. They claim that there is a statistically significant increase in the percentage of males produced and conclude that the drug affects sex ratios. PMID:27338560

  8. A Significant Step Forward

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    Australia officially ratified the Kyoto Protocol on December 3,the first act of its new government under Prime Minister Kevin Rudd.Rudd signed the instrument of ratification the very day he was sworn in by Australia’s Governor General Michael Jeffery. This is a significant step in Australia’s efforts to fight climate change domestically and with the international community,Rudd said in a statement.The Australian Government will do everything in its power to help Australia meet its Kyoto obligations,he added.

  9. Anthropological significance of phenylketonuria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saugstad, L F

    1975-01-01

    The highest incidence rates of phenylketonuria (PKU) have been observed in Ireland and Scotlant. Parents heterozygous for PKU in Norway differ significantly from the general population in the Rhesus, Kell and PGM systems. The parents investigated showed an excess of Rh negative, Kell plus and PGM type 1 individuals, which makes them similar to the present populations in Ireland and Scotlant. It is postulated that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated sub-population of Celtic origin, who came or were brought here, 1ooo years ago. Bronze objects of Western European (Scottish, Irish) origin, found in Viking graves widely distributed in Norway, have been taken as evidence of Vikings returning with loot (including a number of Celts) from Western Viking settlements. The continuity of residence since the Viking age in most habitable parts of Norway, and what seems to be a nearly complete regional relationship between the sites where Viking graves contain western imported objects and the birthplaces of grandparents of PKUs identified in Norway, lend further support to the hypothesis that the heterozygotes for PKU in Norway are descended from a completely assimilated subpopulation. The remarkable resemblance between Iceland and Ireland, in respect of several genetic markers (including the Rhesus, PGM and Kell systems), is considered to be an expression of a similar proportion of people of Celtic origin in each of the two countries. Their identical, high incidence rates of PKU are regarded as further evidence of this. The significant decline in the incidence of PKU when one passes from Ireland, Scotland and Iceland, to Denmark and on to Norway and Sweden, is therefore explained as being related to a reduction in the proportion of inhabitants of Celtic extraction in the respective populations.

  10. Reducing costs by reducing size

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present paper discusses briefly the many factors, including capital cost, which have to be taken into account in determining whether a series of power stations based on a small nuclear plant can be competitive with a series based on traditional large unit sizes giving the guaranteed level of supply. The 320 MWe UK/US Safe Integral Reactor is described as a good example of how the factors discussed can be beneficially incorporated into a design using proven technology. Finally it goes on to illustrate how the overall costs of a generating system can indeed by reduced by use of the 320 MWe Safe Integral Reactor rather than conventional units of around 1200 MWe. (author). 9 figs

  11. Meaning and significance of

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ph D Student Roman Mihaela

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The concept of "public accountability" is a challenge for political science as a new concept in this area in full debate and developement ,both in theory and practice. This paper is a theoretical approach of displaying some definitions, relevant meanings and significance odf the concept in political science. The importance of this concept is that although originally it was used as a tool to improve effectiveness and eficiency of public governance, it has gradually become a purpose it itself. "Accountability" has become an image of good governance first in the United States of America then in the European Union.Nevertheless,the concept is vaguely defined and provides ambiguous images of good governance.This paper begins with the presentation of some general meanings of the concept as they emerge from specialized dictionaries and ancyclopaedies and continues with the meanings developed in political science. The concept of "public accontability" is rooted in economics and management literature,becoming increasingly relevant in today's political science both in theory and discourse as well as in practice in formulating and evaluating public policies. A first conclusin that emerges from, the analysis of the evolution of this term is that it requires a conceptual clarification in political science. A clear definition will then enable an appropriate model of proving the system of public accountability in formulating and assessing public policies, in order to implement a system of assessment and monitoring thereof.

  12. Significant Radionuclides Determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of this calculation is to identify radionuclides that are significant to offsite doses from potential preclosure events for spent nuclear fuel (SNF) and high-level radioactive waste expected to be received at the potential Monitored Geologic Repository (MGR). In this calculation, high-level radioactive waste is included in references to DOE SNF. A previous document, ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' (CRWMS M and O 1999b), calculated the source terms and offsite doses for Department of Energy (DOE) and Naval SNF for use in design basis event analyses. This calculation reproduces only DOE SNF work (i.e., no naval SNF work is included in this calculation) created in ''DOE SNF DBE Offsite Dose Calculations'' and expands the calculation to include DOE SNF expected to produce a high dose consequence (even though the quantity of the SNF is expected to be small) and SNF owned by commercial nuclear power producers. The calculation does not address any specific off-normal/DBE event scenarios for receiving, handling, or packaging of SNF. The results of this calculation are developed for comparative analysis to establish the important radionuclides and do not represent the final source terms to be used for license application. This calculation will be used as input to preclosure safety analyses and is performed in accordance with procedure AP-3.12Q, ''Calculations'', and is subject to the requirements of DOE/RW-0333P, ''Quality Assurance Requirements and Description'' (DOE 2000) as determined by the activity evaluation contained in ''Technical Work Plan for: Preclosure Safety Analysis, TWP-MGR-SE-000010'' (CRWMS M and O 2000b) in accordance with procedure AP-2.21Q, ''Quality Determinations and Planning for Scientific, Engineering, and Regulatory Compliance Activities''

  13. 高压臭氧自体血回输显著减轻干扰素治疗慢性丙型肝炎患者的不良反应%Ozone-enriched autologous blood transfusion significantly reduce adverse reactions in chronic hepatitis C patients receiving interferon-α and ribavirin therapy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏冬丽; 马海林; 石绣江; 希尔娜依·阿不都黑力力; 范晓棠; 何方平

    2014-01-01

    Objective To study the effects of ozone-enriched autologous blood transfusion on the efficacy and adverse reactions in patients with chronic hepatitis C(CHC)receiving interferon-α and ribavirin therapy. Meth-ods One hundred and five CHC patients were divided into control group and treatment group;The patients in control group (n=52) were treated with subcutaneous injection of peginterferon-α and oral administration of rib-avirin,while the patients in treatment group (n=53) were treated with combinational therapy of interferon,and rib-avirin,and ozone-enriched autologous blood transfusion (an average of 10 to 16 times). The regimen lasted for 48 weeks with a 24 week-posttreatment of follow-up. The virologic response rates and adverse reactions were observed. Results The incidence rates of serum high triglycerides levels,hypertension and diabetes in patients of treatment group were 28.3%,28.3% and 28.3%,respectively,significantly higher than those in the control patients(5.8%,7.7%and 7.7%,respectively,P<0.05);No significant differences as respect to gender,average age,liver function tests,HCV RNA load and percentage of cirrhosis were observed between the two groups;The incidence rates of fever, flu-like symptoms and reduction of hemoglobin in patients of the treatment group (50.9%,35.8% and 34.0%,respectively) were significantly lower than those in the control patients (73.1%,x2=5.5,P<0.01;59.6% x2=5.9,P<0.01 and 55.8%, x2=5.0,P<0.05);The rates of early virologic response,virologic response at end of treatment and sustained virologic response in patients in the treatment group(83.0%, 83.0% and 74.4%,respectively) were not significant-ly different from those (88.5%,86.5% and 76.3%, respectively) in the control patients. Conclusions Although some patients having metabolic syndrome, the virologic response rate in patients receiving in-terferon-α and ozone-enriched autologous blood transfusion is very high,with reduced adverse reac-tions. Ozone-enriched autologous

  14. Efectividad de la tecnología Safetac® en la disminución del dolor asociado a las heridas: un factor significativo en la demora de la cicatrización y en el incremento en los costes Effectiveness of Safetac® technology for reducing wound-related pain: a significant factor in delayed healing and increased treatment costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard White

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El dolor es una experiencia común en las personas con heridas tanto agudas como crónicas. El dolor relacionado con las heridas puede ser intenso, afectar adversamente al funcionamiento físico, prolongar el tiempo de cicatrización, causar aflicción psicológica y reducir la calidad de vida del paciente. Los procedimientos de cambio de apósitos son, a menudo, el aspecto más doloroso del cuidado de las heridas. Se sabe que el cambio de algunos apósitos adhesivos y secos causa traumatismo y dolor. La prevención/minimización de estos efectos debería ser un objetivo clave en la provisión del cuidado de las heridas, si bien no lo es siempre. Muchos clínicos parecen ignorar todavía el dolor relacionado con las heridas, el efecto perjudicial que puede tener en la cicatrización y los remedios disponibles. Además, existen también serias implicaciones en relación con el coste que deben considerarse.Pain is a common experience for people with both acute and chronic wounds. Wound-related pain can be intense, adversely affect physical functioning, prolong the time to healing, cause psychological distress and reduce patient quality of life. Dressing change procedures are often the most painful aspect of wound care. The removal of some adhesive dressings and dry dressings are known to cause trauma and pain. The prevention / minimisation of these unwanted effects should be a key objective in the provision of wound care, but this is not always so. Many clinicians remain unaware of wound-related pain, the detrimental effect that it can have on healing, and the available remedies. There are also significant cost implications to consider.

  15. Clinical significance analysis of dental operating microscope reducing omission of molars root canal in elderly patients during the treatment of root canal%口腔显微镜对减少老年根管治疗期间磨牙根管遗漏的临床意义

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李浩萍; 孟媛

    2015-01-01

    目的:探讨口腔显微镜对于减少老年根管治疗期间磨牙根管遗漏的临床意义。方法选取解放军第451医院2011年4月~2014年7月收治的接受根管治疗的老年患者184例,将其随机分为常规组和显微根管治疗组(DOM组),分别进行常规根管治疗和DOM根管治疗,对两组老年患者根管遗漏情况进行统计分析。对所有患者进行1年随访,观察老年患者的磨牙治疗及根管遗漏情况。结果常规组检出4根根管为14例(15.22%),与DOM组28例(30.43%)相比,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05);常规组检出5根根管0例(0.00%),与DOM组4例(4.35%)比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。常规组治疗失败6例(6.52%),DOM组治疗失败2例(2.17%),两组比较,差异有统计学意义(P<0.05)。结论应用DOM对老年磨牙患者进行根管治疗可有效减少磨牙根管遗漏率,值得临床推广使用。%Objective To discuss the clinical effect of dental operating microscope for reducing the omission of molars root canal in elderly patients during the treatment of root canal. Methods 184 cases of elderly patients who had re-ceived molars root canal treatment in the 451st Hospital of People's Liberation Army from April 2011 to July 2014 were selected. All the patients were divided into conventional group and DOM group, the conventional group was treat-ed with normal root canal therapy and the DOM group was treated with DOM root canal therapy. The incidence of root canal omission was analyzed. Then all the patients were followed up for 1 year, treatment of root canal and the inci-dence of root canal omission were observed. Results 14 cases of patients (15.22%) of the conventional group and 28 cases (30.43%) of the DOM group were detected with 4 root canals, which showed a statistically significant difference (P<0.05). None of the patients (0.00%) of conventional group and 4 cases (4.35%) of the DOM group were detected with 5 root canals, which showed a

  16. Reducing rotor weight

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cheney, M.C. [PS Enterprises, Inc., Glastonbury, CT (United States)

    1997-12-31

    The cost of energy for renewables has gained greater significance in recent years due to the drop in price in some competing energy sources, particularly natural gas. In pursuit of lower manufacturing costs for wind turbine systems, work was conducted to explore an innovative rotor designed to reduce weight and cost over conventional rotor systems. Trade-off studies were conducted to measure the influence of number of blades, stiffness, and manufacturing method on COE. The study showed that increasing number of blades at constant solidity significantly reduced rotor weight and that manufacturing the blades using pultrusion technology produced the lowest cost per pound. Under contracts with the National Renewable Energy Laboratory and the California Energy Commission, a 400 kW (33m diameter) turbine was designed employing this technology. The project included tests of an 80 kW (15.5m diameter) dynamically scaled rotor which demonstrated the viability of the design.

  17. 血清 LDL-C 水平与老年射血分数降低性心衰患者预后的关系%Prognostic significance of serum low - density lipoprotein cholesterol levels in elderly patients hospitalized for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田甜; 徐予; 夏长伟; 张新雨

    2016-01-01

    Objective To observe the long - term relationship between levels of low - density lipoprotein cholesterol and post - discharge mortality among elderly patients hospitalized for heart failure with reduced ejection fraction(HFrEF). Methods This study was a single - center retrospective study. A total of 340 elderly HFrEF patients were included from August of 2007 to February of 2012. The cohort was divided into tertiles according to LDL - C levels:the low LDL - C level group(LDL - C≤2. 2667 mmol/ L),the moderate LDL - C level group( LDL - C 2. 873 3 mmol/ L ≤ )and the high LDL - C level group(LDL - C ﹥2. 873 3 mmol/ L). All - cause mortalities were compared. The impact of the different levels of LDL - C on all - cause mortality was analyzed by using multiariable Cox proportional hazards regression model. Results There were 116 all - cause deaths. All - cause mortality in the high LDL - C level group(23. 89%) was significantly lower than the moderate LDL - C level group( 36. 09%)and the low LDL - C level group( 43. 36%). Kaplan - Meier curves showed the all - cause mortality was lower in the high LDL - C level group than in the other two groups. According to the Cox proportional hazards regression model,the patients in the low LDL - C level group had a hazard ratio of all - cause death of 2. 135(95%CI:1. 311 ~3. 477,P = 0. 002)compared to those with high LDL - C level. Conclusion The high LDL - C levels were associated with a reduced post - discharge mortality among elderly patients hospitalized for HFrEF.%目的:研究血清低密度脂蛋白胆固醇(LDL - C)水平对老年住院射血分数降低性心力衰竭(HFrEF)患者长期预后的影响。方法本研究为单中心回顾性研究。选取2007年8月至2012年2月于郑州大学人民医院住院治疗的不同病因的340例老年 HFrEF 患者,依据血清 LDL - C 水平分为3组:低水平 LDL - C 组(LDL - C≤2.2667 mmol/ L),中等水平 LDL - C 组(LDL - C≤2.8733 mmol/ L

  18. Risk-reducing mastectomy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiesa, Federica; Sacchini, Virgilio S

    2016-10-01

    Mastectomy rates have significantly increased over the last decades, likely due to the rising trend of risk-reducing mastectomies (RRM) in the treatment and prevention of breast cancer. Growing evidence suggests that aggressive risk-reducing surgical strategies are only justified in high-risk breast cancer situations. Notably, in this selected cohort of women, prophylactic mastectomies offer evident benefit for local and contralateral disease control, and may also provide a survival benefit. Nevertheless, the extent of the increasing frequency of this operation is not explained by the broadening of the medical indications alone. Here we analyze the current evidence regarding RRM, its clinical practice, and possible explanations for the rising phenomenon of aggressive surgical locoregional control strategies. PMID:26785281

  19. Gradual extinction reduces Reinstatement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Youssef eShiban

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available The current study investigated whether gradually reducing the frequency of aversive stimuli during extinction can prevent the return of fear. Thirty-one participants of a three-stage procedure (acquisition, extinction and a reinstatement test on day two were randomly assigned to a standard extinction (SE and gradual extinction (GE procedure. The two groups differed only in the extinction procedure. While the SE group ran through a regular extinction process without any negative events, the frequency of the aversive stimuli during the extinction phase was gradually reduced for the GE group. The unconditioned stimulus was an air blast (5 bar, 10 ms. A spider and a scorpion were used as conditioned stimuli. The outcome variables were contingency ratings and physiological measures (skin conductance response and startle response. There were no differences found between the two groups for the acquisition and extinction phases concerning contingency ratings, SCR, or startle response. Gradual extinction compared to standard extinction significantly reduced the return of fear in the reinstatement test for the startle response but not for skin conductance response or contingency ratings. This study was successful in translating the findings in rodent to humans. The results suggest that the gradual extinction process is suitable for increasing the efficacy of fear extinction.

  20. Reduced content of chloroatranol and atranol in oak moss absolute significantly reduces the elicitation potential of this fragrance material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Flemming; Andersen, Kirsten H; Bernois, Armand;

    2015-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Oak moss absolute, an extract from the lichen Evernia prunastri, is a valued perfume ingredient but contains extreme allergens. OBJECTIVES: To compare the elicitation properties of two preparations of oak moss absolute: 'classic oak moss', the historically used preparation, and 'new oak...

  1. Historical Significant Volcanic Eruption Locations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Department of Homeland Security — A significant eruption is classified as one that meets at least one of the following criteriacaused fatalities, caused moderate damage (approximately $1 million or...

  2. SIGNIFICANT NATURAL HERITAGE AREAS (NC)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The North Carolina Department of Environment and Natural Resources, Division of Parks and Recreation, Natural Heritage Program in cooperation with the NC Center for Geographic Information & Analysis, developed the Significant Natural Heritage Areas digital data to determine the a...

  3. Statistical Significance vs. Practical Significance: An Exploration through Health Education

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosen, Brittany L.; DeMaria, Andrea L.

    2012-01-01

    The purpose of this paper is to examine the differences between statistical and practical significance, including strengths and criticisms of both methods, as well as provide information surrounding the application of various effect sizes and confidence intervals within health education research. Provided are recommendations, explanations and…

  4. The significance of monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance

    OpenAIRE

    Kyle, Robert A.; Kumar, Shaji

    2009-01-01

    Since it is now well established that all patients with multiple myeloma have a preceding monoclonal gammopathy of undetermined significance (MGUS), identification of potential risk factors for the progression becomes most important. In this perspective article, Drs. Kyle and Kumar highlight the need for a better understanding of the etiology and biology of MGUS. See related paper on page 1714.

  5. THz spectrum of reduced glutathione

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Weining; YAN; Haitao; YUE; Weiwei; ZHAO; Guozhong; Z

    2005-01-01

    The optical characteristics of reduced glutathione molecules between 0.2 THz and 2.4 THz have been investigated by THz time-domain spectroscopy (THz-TDS). The absorption characteristics and optical parameters of the reduced glutathione purged with Nitrogen at room temperature were obtained experimentally. The measured results were fitted well with the theoretical results computed by using Density Functional Theory (DFT) in far-infrared range. Also the conformation of the reduced glutathione molecule was simulated by Gaussian 03. This work has demonstrated significantly that THz-TDS spectroscopy can further be used to study other biological molecules in biological and biomedical engineering.

  6. Significance of irradiation of blood

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Many reports of fatal GVHD occurring in non-immunocompromised patients after blood transfusion have been published in Japan. One explantation is that transfused lymphocytes were simulated and attack the recipient organs recognized as HLA incompatible. That is so called 'one-way matching'. To reduce the risk of post-transfusion GVHD, one of the most convenient methods is to irradiate the donated blood at an appropriate dose for inactivation of lymphocytes. Because no one knows about the late effect of irradiated blood, it is necessary to make the prospective safety control. (author)

  7. The glycemic index: physiological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esfahani, Amin; Wong, Julia M W; Mirrahimi, Arash; Srichaikul, Korbua; Jenkins, David J A; Kendall, Cyril W C

    2009-08-01

    The glycemic index (GI) is a physiological assessment of a food's carbohydrate content through its effect on postprandial blood glucose concentrations. Evidence from trials and observational studies suggests that this physiological classification may have relevance to those chronic Western diseases associated with overconsumption and inactivity leading to central obesity and insulin resistance. The glycemic index classification of foods has been used as a tool to assess potential prevention and treatment strategies for diseases where glycemic control is of importance, such as diabetes. Low GI diets have also been reported to improve the serum lipid profile, reduce C-reactive protein (CRP) concentrations, and aid in weight control. In cross-sectional studies, low GI or glycemic load diets (mean GI multiplied by total carbohydrate) have been associated with higher levels of high-density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C), with reduced CRP concentrations, and, in cohort studies, with decreased risk of developing diabetes and cardiovascular disease. In addition, some case-control and cohort studies have found positive associations between dietary GI and risk of various cancers, including those of the colon, breast, and prostate. Although inconsistencies in the current findings still need to be resolved, sufficient positive evidence, especially with respect to renewed interest in postprandial events, suggests that the glycemic index may have a role to play in the treatment and prevention of chronic diseases.

  8. Significant advancement in algebraic geometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    @@ Supported by a grant for Distinguished Young Scholars of the National Natural Science Foundation of China,Prof.SUN Xiaotao with the CAS Academy of Mathematics and Systems Science has recently achieved a research breakthrough in revealing the deep relationship between stability of vector bundles and Frobenius morphism.It is considered as significant work with important theoretical value.

  9. Significance of Shale Gas Development

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    John Shelton; Mike D. Bumaman; Wenwu Xia; Nathaniel Harding

    2009-01-01

    Natural gas production from shale formations is growing exponentially in the United States. This paper introduces the five major shale formations in the United States and the technologies used to produce them. The Barnett, Haynesville,Fayetteville, Woodford, and Marcellus combined hold an estimated 978 trillion cubic feet of total gas reserves. These findings along with recent technological advances in horizontal drilling and completion methods have transformed the natural gas exploration and production industry in the U.S. and have fundamentally changed the U.S. energy picture. Specifically this paper states that the United States through the utilization of natural gas from shale can reduce its carbon emissions and can become more energy self-sufficient. Finally, the Harding & Shelton Group states in this paper that the opportunity to locate and produce shale gas in China is very similar to that which has taken place in the United States.

  10. Clinical significance of adaptive thermogenesis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Major, G C; Doucet, E; Trayhurn, P; Astrup, A; Tremblay, A

    2007-02-01

    The epidemic of obesity is developing faster than the scientific understanding of an efficient way to overcome it, as reflected by the low success rate of short- and long-term weight loss interventions. From a clinical standpoint, this suggests that the body tends to defend a set point of possible genetic origin in the context of a weight-reducing program. As described in this paper, this limited therapeutic success may depend on adaptive thermogenesis, which represents in this case the decrease in energy expenditure (EE) beyond what could be predicted from the changes in fat mass or fat-free mass under conditions of standardized physical activity in response to a decrease in energy intake. This issue has been documented in recent studies that have shown in obese individuals adhering to a weight reduction program a greater than predicted decrease in EE, which in some cases was quantitatively sufficient to overcome the prescribed energy restriction, suggesting a role for adaptive thermogenesis in unsuccessful weight loss interventions and reduced body weight maintenance. As also discussed in this paper, this 'adaptive thermogenesis' can be influenced by environmental factors, which have not been frequently considered up to now. This is potentially the case for plasma organochlorine concentration and oxygen desaturation in obstructive sleep apnea syndrome. It is concluded that health professionals should be aware that in some vulnerable individuals, adaptive thermogenesis can be multi-causal, and has the capacity to compensate, at least partly, for the prescribed energy deficit, possibly going beyond any good compliance of some patients. PMID:17260010

  11. Significance and Progress of Bionics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yongxiang Lu

    2004-01-01

    The four topics are described including the driving force and source of the scientific and technological creation, the definition and history of the bionics, the important significance of bionics in the development of the human beings, and the leading edge and progress of bionics. The appetency of human for the creation is the essential motivity of the innovation in science and technology. Nature and society are the objects for us to cognize and serve, meanwhile, the best teachers for us to learn from them. It is only 5 million years for human's development, but evolution of life has over 3.5 billion years history. Although, copying the creation from the human being is important, however, it has much more potential and opportunity in imitating the nature, and more possibility to promote the ability of original innovation. The significance and progress of bionics are summarized, in this paper, and the leading edges of bionics, in the near future, are forecasted.

  12. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October - December 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  13. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July - September 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  14. The Energetic Significance of Cooking

    OpenAIRE

    Wrangham, Richard W.; Carmody, Rachel Naomi

    2009-01-01

    While cooking has long been argued to improve the diet, the nature of the improvement has not been well defined. As a result, the evolutionary significance of cooking has variously been proposed as being substantial or relatively trivial. In this paper, we evaluate the hypothesis that an important and consistent effect of cooking food is a rise in its net energy value. The pathways by which cooking influences net energy value differ for starch, protein and lipid, and we therefore consider pla...

  15. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  16. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  17. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  18. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  19. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April-June 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  20. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  1. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1992) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  2. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  3. Where boosted significances come from

    Science.gov (United States)

    Plehn, Tilman; Schichtel, Peter; Wiegand, Daniel

    2014-03-01

    In an era of increasingly advanced experimental analysis techniques it is crucial to understand which phase space regions contribute a signal extraction from backgrounds. Based on the Neyman-Pearson lemma we compute the maximum significance for a signal extraction as an integral over phase space regions. We then study to what degree boosted Higgs strategies benefit ZH and tt¯H searches and which transverse momenta of the Higgs are most promising. We find that Higgs and top taggers are the appropriate tools, but would profit from a targeted optimization towards smaller transverse momenta. MadMax is available as an add-on to MadGraph 5.

  4. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  5. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  6. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (April--June 1990) and includes copies of letters, notices, and orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  7. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1993) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  8. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (July--September 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  9. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1991) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  10. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (January--March 1990) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. Also included are a number of enforcement actions that had been previously resolved but not published in this NUREG. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  11. Enforcement actions: Significant actions resolved

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This compilation summarizes significant enforcement actions that have been resolved during one quarterly period (October--December 1989) and includes copies of letters, Notices, and Orders sent by the Nuclear Regulatory Commission to licensees with respect to these enforcement actions. It is anticipated that the information in this publication will be widely disseminated to managers and employees engaged in activities licensed by the NRC, so that actions can be taken to improve safety by avoiding future violations similar to those described in this publication

  12. Reduced-Dimension Multiuser Detection

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Yao; Goldsmith, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    We explore several reduced-dimension multiuser detection (RD-MUD) structures that significantly decrease the number of required correlation branches at the receiver front-end, while still achieving performance similar to that of the conventional matched-filter (MF) bank. RD-MUD exploits the fact that the number of active users is typically small relative to the total number of users in the system and relies on ideas of analog compressed sensing to reduce the number of correlators. We first develop a general framework for both linear and nonlinear RD-MUD detectors. We then present theoretical performance analysis for two specific detectors: the linear reduced-dimension decorrelating (RDD) detector, which combines subspace projection and thresholding to determine active users and sign detection for data recovery, and the nonlinear reduced-dimension decision-feedback (RDDF) detector, which combines decision-feedback orthogonal matching pursuit for active user detection and sign detection for data recovery. The t...

  13. Robust Simulations and Significant Separations

    CERN Document Server

    Fortnow, Lance

    2010-01-01

    We define and study a new notion of "robust simulations" between complexity classes which is intermediate between the traditional notions of infinitely-often and almost-everywhere, as well as a corresponding notion of "significant separations". A language L has a robust simulation in a complexity class C if there is a language in C which agrees with L on arbitrarily large polynomial stretches of input lengths. There is a significant separation of L from C if there is no robust simulation of L in C. The new notion of simulation is a cleaner and more natural notion of simulation than the infinitely-often notion. We show that various implications in complexity theory such as the collapse of PH if NP = P and the Karp-Lipton theorem have analogues for robust simulations. We then use these results to prove that most known separations in complexity theory, such as hierarchy theorems, fixed polynomial circuit lower bounds, time-space tradeoffs, and the theorems of Allender and Williams, can be strengthened to signifi...

  14. Significance of biofilms in dentistry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wróblewska, Marta; Strużycka, Izabela; Mierzwińska-Nastalska, Elżbieta

    2015-01-01

    In the past decades significant scientific progress has taken place in the knowledge about biofilms. They constitute multilayer conglomerates of bacteria and fungi, surrounded by carbohydrates which they produce, as well as substances derived from saliva and gingival fluid. Modern techniques showed significant diversity of the biofilm environment and a system of microbial communication (quorum sensing), enhancing their survival. At present it is believed that the majority of infections, particularly chronic with exacerbations, are a result of biofilm formation, particularly in the presence of biomaterials. It should be emphasised that penetration of antibiotics and other antimicrobial agents into deeper layers of a biofilm is poor, causing therapeutic problems and necessitating sometimes removal of the implant or prosthesis. Biofilms play an increasing role in dentistry as a result of more and more broad use in dental practice of plastic and implantable materials. Biofilms are produced on the surfaces of teeth as dental plaque, in the para-nasal sinuses, on prostheses, dental implants, as well as in waterlines of a dental unit, constituting a particular risk for severely immunocompromised patients. New methods of therapy and prevention of infections linked to biofilms are under development.

  15. A novel 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Rahnella aquatilis with significantly reduced glyphosate sensitivity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Ri-He; Tian, Yong-Sheng; Xiong, Ai-Sheng; Zhao, Wei; Fu, Xiao-Yan; Han, Hong-Juan; Chen, Chen; Jin, Xiao-Fen; Yao, Quan-Hong

    2012-01-01

    The 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS; EC 2.5.1.19) is a key enzyme in the shikimate pathway for the production of aromatic amino acids and chorismate-derived secondary metabolites in plants, fungi, and microorganisms. It is also the target of the broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate. Natural glyphosate resistance is generally thought to occur within microorganisms in a strong selective pressure condition. Rahnella aquatilis strain GR20, an antagonist against pathogenic agrobacterial strains of grape crown gall, was isolated from the rhizosphere of grape in glyphosate-contaminated vineyards. A novel gene encoding EPSPS was identified from the isolated bacterium by complementation of an Escherichia coli auxotrophic aroA mutant. The EPSPS, named AroA(R. aquatilis), was expressed and purified from E. coli, and key kinetic values were determined. The full-length enzyme exhibited higher tolerance to glyphosate than the E. coli EPSPS (AroA(E. coli)), while retaining high affinity for the substrate phosphoenolpyruvate. Transgenic plants of AroA(R. aquatilis) were also observed to be more resistant to glyphosate at a concentration of 5 mM than that of AroA(E. coli). To probe the sites contributing to increased tolerance to glyphosate, mutant R. aquatilis EPSPS enzymes were produced with the c-strand of subdomain 3 and the f-strand of subdomain 5 (Thr38Lys, Arg40Val, Arg222Gln, Ser224Val, Ile225Val, and Gln226Lys) substituted by the corresponding region of the E. coli EPSPS. The mutant enzyme exhibited greater sensitivity to glyphosate than the wild type R. aquatilis EPSPS with little change of affinity for its first substrate, shikimate-3-phosphate (S3P) and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP). The effect of the residues on subdomain 5 on glyphosate resistance was more obvious.

  16. A novel 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase from Rahnella aquatilis with significantly reduced glyphosate sensitivity.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ri-He Peng

    Full Text Available The 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS; EC 2.5.1.19 is a key enzyme in the shikimate pathway for the production of aromatic amino acids and chorismate-derived secondary metabolites in plants, fungi, and microorganisms. It is also the target of the broad-spectrum herbicide glyphosate. Natural glyphosate resistance is generally thought to occur within microorganisms in a strong selective pressure condition. Rahnella aquatilis strain GR20, an antagonist against pathogenic agrobacterial strains of grape crown gall, was isolated from the rhizosphere of grape in glyphosate-contaminated vineyards. A novel gene encoding EPSPS was identified from the isolated bacterium by complementation of an Escherichia coli auxotrophic aroA mutant. The EPSPS, named AroA(R. aquatilis, was expressed and purified from E. coli, and key kinetic values were determined. The full-length enzyme exhibited higher tolerance to glyphosate than the E. coli EPSPS (AroA(E. coli, while retaining high affinity for the substrate phosphoenolpyruvate. Transgenic plants of AroA(R. aquatilis were also observed to be more resistant to glyphosate at a concentration of 5 mM than that of AroA(E. coli. To probe the sites contributing to increased tolerance to glyphosate, mutant R. aquatilis EPSPS enzymes were produced with the c-strand of subdomain 3 and the f-strand of subdomain 5 (Thr38Lys, Arg40Val, Arg222Gln, Ser224Val, Ile225Val, and Gln226Lys substituted by the corresponding region of the E. coli EPSPS. The mutant enzyme exhibited greater sensitivity to glyphosate than the wild type R. aquatilis EPSPS with little change of affinity for its first substrate, shikimate-3-phosphate (S3P and phosphoenolpyruvate (PEP. The effect of the residues on subdomain 5 on glyphosate resistance was more obvious.

  17. Mutation of NRAS but not KRAS significantly reduces myeloma sensitivity to single-agent bortezomib therapy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    G. Mulligan (George); D.I. Lichter (David); A.D. Bacco (Alessandra Di); S.J. Blakemore (Stephen); A. Berger (Allison); E. Koenig (Erik); H. Bernard (Hugues); W.L. Trepicchio (William); B. Li (Bin); R. Neuwirth (Rachel); N. Chattopadhyay (Nibedita); J.B. Bolen (Joseph); A.J. Dorner (Andrew); H. van de Velde (Helgi); D. Ricci (Deborah); S. Jagannath (Sundar); J.R. Berenson (James); P.G. Richardson (Paul Gerard); E.A. Stadtmauer (Edward); R.Z. Orlowski (Robert); S. Lonial (Sagar); K.C. Anderson (Kenneth Carl); P. Sonneveld (Pieter); J.F. San Miguel (Jesús Fernando); D.-L. Esseltine (Dixie-Lee); M. Schu (Matthew)

    2014-01-01

    textabstractVarious translocations and mutations have been identified in myeloma, and certain aberrations, such as t(4;14) and del17, are linked with disease prognosis. To investigate mutational prevalence in myeloma and associations between mutations and patient outcomes, we tested a panel of 41 kn

  18. Cellular telephone use during free-living walking significantly reduces average walking speed

    OpenAIRE

    Jacob E. Barkley; Lepp, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    Background Cellular telephone (cell phone) use decreases walking speed in controlled laboratory experiments and there is an inverse relationship between free-living walking speed and heart failure risk. The purpose of this study was to examine the impact of cell phone use on walking speed in a free-living environment. Methods Subjects (n = 1142) were randomly observed walking on a 50 m University campus walkway. The time it took each subject to walk 50 m was recorded and subjects were coded i...

  19. Synergy in Sulfur Cycle: The Biogeochemical Significance of Sulfate Reducing Bacteria in Syntrophic Associations

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    LokaBharathi, P.A.

    assemblage of bacteria not only utilizes organic acids, fatty acids, alcohols and hydrogen as electron donors but also more complex compounds (hydrocarbons and sugars). Morphologically and ecologically diverse, the SRB include both gram positive and gram... dioxide either chemoautotrophically or photoautotrophically. Between these two major groups, the SRBs act as important anaerobic terminal oxidizers of organic matter. They trophically link the heterotrophic degradative bacteria to the synthetic ones...

  20. Reducing Dysfunctional Beliefs about Sleep Does Not Significantly Improve Insomnia in Cognitive Behavioral Therapy

    OpenAIRE

    Isa Okajima; Shun Nakajima; Moeko Ochi; Yuichi Inoue

    2014-01-01

    The present study examined to examine whether improvement of insomnia is mediated by a reduction in sleep-related dysfunctional beliefs through cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia. In total, 64 patients with chronic insomnia received cognitive behavioral therapy for insomnia consisting of 6 biweekly individual treatment sessions of 50 minutes in length. Participants were asked to complete the Athens Insomnia Scale and the Dysfunctional Beliefs and Attitudes about Sleep scale both at the...

  1. Rifampicin and rifapentine significantly reduce concentrations of bedaquiline, a new anti-TB drug

    OpenAIRE

    Svensson, Elin M.; Murray, Stephen; Karlsson, Mats O; Dooley, Kelly E

    2014-01-01

    Objectives Bedaquiline is the first drug of a new class approved for the treatment of TB in decades. Bedaquiline is metabolized by cytochrome P450 (CYP) 3A4 to a less-active M2 metabolite. Its terminal half-life is extremely long (5–6 months), complicating evaluations of drug–drug interactions. Rifampicin and rifapentine, two anti-TB drugs now being optimized to shorten TB treatment duration, are potent inducers of CYP3A4. This analysis aimed to predict the effect of repeated doses of rifampi...

  2. Community Health Centers have reduced mortality rates of older Americans at significantly lower cost than Medicare

    OpenAIRE

    Bailey, Martha; Goodman-Bacon, Andrew

    2015-01-01

    Federally-funded Community Health Centers (CHCs) today provide primary care and medication on a sliding pay scale to more than 20 million Americans. In new research, Martha Bailey and Andrew Goodman-Bacon show CHCs had large effects on health at relatively modest costs. The establishment of this program in the 1960s resulted in sharp and persistent reductions in age-adjusted mortality rates–effects concentrated among the most disadvantaged Americans. Reductions in mortality rates through thi...

  3. Foreign Dependence of Aluminum Resources has Difficulty to be Reduced Significantly

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2013-01-01

    <正>Insufficient resource guarantee ability has long been a bottleneck restricting the development of nonferrous metal industry, and aluminum is no exception. According to data from the China Nonferrous Metal Industry Association, during the "Eleventh Five Year" period China’s bauxite import volume presented a spiral upward trend. In 2010 China’s bauxite import volume

  4. Methylphenidate significantly reduces lapses of attention during on-road highway driving in patients with ADHD

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Verster, Joris C; Roth, Thomas

    2014-01-01

    Lapses of attention are characteristic for attention-deficit/hyperactivity disorder (ADHD) and as such may impair performance of daily activities. Data from an on-road driving study were reanalyzed to determine lapses in patients with ADHD after treatment with methylphenidate and placebo.A total of

  5. Clinical significance of monocyte heterogeneity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stansfield, Brian K; Ingram, David A

    2015-01-01

    Monocytes are primitive hematopoietic cells that primarily arise from the bone marrow, circulate in the peripheral blood and give rise to differentiated macrophages. Over the past two decades, considerable attention to monocyte diversity and macrophage polarization has provided contextual clues into the role of myelomonocytic derivatives in human disease. Until recently, human monocytes were subdivided based on expression of the surface marker CD16. "Classical" monocytes express surface markers denoted as CD14(++)CD16(-) and account for greater than 70% of total monocyte count, while "non-classical" monocytes express the CD16 antigen with low CD14 expression (CD14(+)CD16(++)). However, recognition of an intermediate population identified as CD14(++)CD16(+) supports the new paradigm that monocytes are a true heterogeneous population and careful identification of specific subpopulations is necessary for understanding monocyte function in human disease. Comparative studies of monocytes in mice have yielded more dichotomous results based on expression of the Ly6C antigen. In this review, we will discuss the use of monocyte subpopulations as biomarkers of human disease and summarize correlative studies in mice that may yield significant insight into the contribution of each subset to disease pathogenesis. PMID:25852821

  6. Significant biases affecting abundance determinations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesson, Roger

    2015-08-01

    I have developed two highly efficient codes to automate analyses of emission line nebulae. The tools place particular emphasis on the propagation of uncertainties. The first tool, ALFA, uses a genetic algorithm to rapidly optimise the parameters of gaussian fits to line profiles. It can fit emission line spectra of arbitrary resolution, wavelength range and depth, with no user input at all. It is well suited to highly multiplexed spectroscopy such as that now being carried out with instruments such as MUSE at the VLT. The second tool, NEAT, carries out a full analysis of emission line fluxes, robustly propagating uncertainties using a Monte Carlo technique.Using these tools, I have found that considerable biases can be introduced into abundance determinations if the uncertainty distribution of emission lines is not well characterised. For weak lines, normally distributed uncertainties are generally assumed, though it is incorrect to do so, and significant biases can result. I discuss observational evidence of these biases. The two new codes contain routines to correctly characterise the probability distributions, giving more reliable results in analyses of emission line nebulae.

  7. Determining Semantically Related Significant Genes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taha, Kamal

    2014-01-01

    GO relation embodies some aspects of existence dependency. If GO term xis existence-dependent on GO term y, the presence of y implies the presence of x. Therefore, the genes annotated with the function of the GO term y are usually functionally and semantically related to the genes annotated with the function of the GO term x. A large number of gene set enrichment analysis methods have been developed in recent years for analyzing gene sets enrichment. However, most of these methods overlook the structural dependencies between GO terms in GO graph by not considering the concept of existence dependency. We propose in this paper a biological search engine called RSGSearch that identifies enriched sets of genes annotated with different functions using the concept of existence dependency. We observe that GO term xcannot be existence-dependent on GO term y, if x- and y- have the same specificity (biological characteristics). After encoding into a numeric format the contributions of GO terms annotating target genes to the semantics of their lowest common ancestors (LCAs), RSGSearch uses microarray experiment to identify the most significant LCA that annotates the result genes. We evaluated RSGSearch experimentally and compared it with five gene set enrichment systems. Results showed marked improvement.

  8. Statistically significant relational data mining :

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berry, Jonathan W.; Leung, Vitus Joseph; Phillips, Cynthia Ann; Pinar, Ali; Robinson, David Gerald; Berger-Wolf, Tanya; Bhowmick, Sanjukta; Casleton, Emily; Kaiser, Mark; Nordman, Daniel J.; Wilson, Alyson G.

    2014-02-01

    This report summarizes the work performed under the project (3z(BStatitically significant relational data mining.(3y (BThe goal of the project was to add more statistical rigor to the fairly ad hoc area of data mining on graphs. Our goal was to develop better algorithms and better ways to evaluate algorithm quality. We concetrated on algorithms for community detection, approximate pattern matching, and graph similarity measures. Approximate pattern matching involves finding an instance of a relatively small pattern, expressed with tolerance, in a large graph of data observed with uncertainty. This report gathers the abstracts and references for the eight refereed publications that have appeared as part of this work. We then archive three pieces of research that have not yet been published. The first is theoretical and experimental evidence that a popular statistical measure for comparison of community assignments favors over-resolved communities over approximations to a ground truth. The second are statistically motivated methods for measuring the quality of an approximate match of a small pattern in a large graph. The third is a new probabilistic random graph model. Statisticians favor these models for graph analysis. The new local structure graph model overcomes some of the issues with popular models such as exponential random graph models and latent variable models.

  9. Astrobiological Significance of Microbial Extremophiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pikuta, Elena V.; Hoover, Richard B.

    2007-01-01

    The microflora of the cryosphere of planet Earth provides the best analogs for life forms that might be found in the permafrost or polar ice caps of Mars, near the surface of the cometary nuclei, or in the liquid water beneath and the ice crusts of icy moons of Jupiter and Saturn. The importance of study alkaliphilic microorganisms for astrobiology was enhanced by the findings of abundant carbonates and carbonate globules rimmed with possibly biogenic magnetites in association with the putative microfossils in the ALH84001 meteorite. Although the ALH84001 "nanofossils" were to small and simple to be unambiguously recognized as biogenic, they stimulated Astrobiology research and studies of microbial extremophiles and biomarkers in ancient rocks and meteorites. Recent studies of CI and CM carbonaceous meteorites have resulted in the detection of the well-preserved mineralized remains of coccoidal and filamentous microorganisms in cyanobacterial mats. Energy Dispersive X-ray Analysis has shown anomalous biogenic element ratios clearly indicating they are not recent biological contaminants. This paper reviews microbial extremophiles in context of their significance to Astrobiology. The study of halophilic microorganisms was started from work with saline soils and lakes, and one of the record of good growth for Haloferax mediterranei was shown at 30 percent NaC1. Although alkali-tolerant nitrifying bacteria had previously been reported, the first described alkaliphilic microorganism was the bacterium Streptococcus faecalis. Halophilic and alkaliphilic forms are relevant to conditions that might be found in closed impact basins and craters on Mars filled with evaporite deposits. The first obligately acidophilic bacterium described was Acidithiobacillus ferrooxydans (formally Thiobacillus ferrooxidans). Later thermophilic lithotrophic acidophiles were found, and the hyperacidophilic moderately thermophilic species of the genus Picrophilus were found to grow at negative p

  10. Traditional Indian spices and their health significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krishnaswamy, Kamala

    2008-01-01

    India has been recognized all over the world for spices and medicinal plants. Both exhibit a wide range of physiological and pharmacological properties. Current biomedical efforts are focused on their scientific merits, to provide science-based evidence for the traditional uses and to develop either functional foods or nutraceuticals. The Indian traditional medical systems use turmeric for wound healing, rheumatic disorders, gastrointestinal symptoms, deworming, rhinitis and as a cosmetic. Studies in India have explored its anti-inflammatory, cholekinetic and anti-oxidant potentials with the recent investigations focusing on its preventive effect on precarcinogenic, anti-inflammatory and anti atherosclerotic effects in biological systems both under in vitro and in vivo conditions in animals and humans. Both turmeric and curcumin were found to increase detoxifying enzymes, prevent DNA damage, improve DNA repair, decrease mutations and tumour formation and exhibit antioxidative potential in animals. Limited clinical studies suggest that turmeric can significantly impact excretion of mutagens in urine in smokers and regress precancerous palatal lesions. It reduces DNA adducts and micronuclei in oral epithelial cells. It prevents formation of nitroso compounds both in vivo and in vitro. It delays induced cataract in diabetes and reduces hyperlipidemia in obese rats. Recently several molecular targets have been identified for therapeutic / preventive effects of turmeric. Fenugreek seeds, a rich source of soluble fiber used in Indian cuisine reduces blood glucose and lipids and can be used as a food adjuvant in diabetes. Similarly garlic, onions, and ginger have been found to modulate favourably the process of carcinogenesis. PMID:18296352

  11. Determining Reduced Order Models for Optimal Stochastic Reduced Order Models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonney, Matthew S. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States); Brake, Matthew R.W. [Sandia National Lab. (SNL-CA), Livermore, CA (United States)

    2015-08-01

    The use of parameterized reduced order models(PROMs) within the stochastic reduced order model (SROM) framework is a logical progression for both methods. In this report, five different parameterized reduced order models are selected and critiqued against the other models along with truth model for the example of the Brake-Reuss beam. The models are: a Taylor series using finite difference, a proper orthogonal decomposition of the the output, a Craig-Bampton representation of the model, a method that uses Hyper-Dual numbers to determine the sensitivities, and a Meta-Model method that uses the Hyper-Dual results and constructs a polynomial curve to better represent the output data. The methods are compared against a parameter sweep and a distribution propagation where the first four statistical moments are used as a comparison. Each method produces very accurate results with the Craig-Bampton reduction having the least accurate results. The models are also compared based on time requirements for the evaluation of each model where the Meta- Model requires the least amount of time for computation by a significant amount. Each of the five models provided accurate results in a reasonable time frame. The determination of which model to use is dependent on the availability of the high-fidelity model and how many evaluations can be performed. Analysis of the output distribution is examined by using a large Monte-Carlo simulation along with a reduced simulation using Latin Hypercube and the stochastic reduced order model sampling technique. Both techniques produced accurate results. The stochastic reduced order modeling technique produced less error when compared to an exhaustive sampling for the majority of methods.

  12. Reducing Childhood Obesity

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues Reducing Childhood Obesity Past Issues / Summer 2007 Table of Contents For ... Ga. were the first three We Can! cities. Obesity Research: A New Approach The percentage of children ...

  13. Reducing Erosion and Runoff

    OpenAIRE

    Relf, Diane

    2009-01-01

    By caring for and improving your soil, you will help it absorb water more readily, reducing runoff and erosion as well as improving plant health. This publication gives the homeowner tips to help prevent runoff and erosion on their property.

  14. Reducing workers' compensation costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Killian, M J

    1994-01-01

    Employers can reduce their workers' compensation costs by encouraging internal communication and education before and after injuries occur. Comprehensive workers' compensation programs can be developed by integrating the management of employee benefits and workers' compensation claims. PMID:10133659

  15. Reduced Extended MHD

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morrison, P. J.; Abdelhamid, H. M.; Grasso, D.; Hazeltine, R. D.; Lingam, M.; Tassi, E.

    2015-11-01

    Over the years various reduced fluid models have been obtained for modeling plasmas, with the goal of capturing important physics while maintaining computability. Such models have included the physics contained in various generalizations of Ohm's law, including Hall drift and electron inertia. In a recent publication it was shown that full 3D extended MHD is a Hamiltonian system by finding its noncanonical Poisson bracket. Subsequently, this bracket was shown to be derivable from that for Hall MHD by a series of remarkable transformations, which greatly simplifies the proof of the Jacobi identity and allows one to immediately obtain generalizations of the helicity and cross helicity. In this poster we use this structure to obtain exact reduced fluid models with the effects of full two-fluid theory. Results of numerical computations of collisionless reconnection using an exact reduced 4-field model will be presented and analytical comparisons of mode structure of previous reduced models will be made.

  16. Reducible functional differential equations

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. M. Shah

    1985-01-01

    Full Text Available This is the first part of a survey on analytic solutions of functional differential equations (FDE. Some classes of FDE that can be reduced to ordinary differential equations are considered since they often provide an insight into the structure of analytic solutions to equations with more general argument deviations. Reducible FDE also find important applications in the study of stability of differential-difference equations and arise in a number of biological models.

  17. Reduced shear power spectrum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dodelson, Scott; /Fermilab /Chicago U., Astron. Astrophys. Ctr. /Northwestern U.; Shapiro, Charles; /Chicago U. /KICP, Chicago; White, Martin J.; /UC, Berkeley, Astron.

    2005-08-01

    Measurements of ellipticities of background galaxies are sensitive to the reduced shear, the cosmic shear divided by (1-{kappa}) where {kappa} is the projected density field. They compute the difference between shear and reduced shear both analytically and with simulations. The difference becomes more important an smaller scales, and will impact cosmological parameter estimation from upcoming experiments. A simple recipe is presented to carry out the required correction.

  18. Radiological significance of thorium processing in manufacturing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The study of thorium processing in manufacturing comprised monitoring programs at a plant where thorium dioxide was in use and another where the use of thorium nitrate had been discontinued. The measurements of the solubility in simulated lung fluid proved that both materials belonged in the Y Class with dissolution half-times greater than 500 days. Bioassay measurements of 20 subjects from both facilities proved that in vitro monitoring methods, urine, feces, hair and nails analysis were not sufficient indicators of thorium uptake. In vivo monitoring by phoswich and large sodium iodide detectors were proven to be good methods of determining thorium lung burdens. The thoron in breath technique was shown to have a lower limit of sensitivity than lung counting, however, due to lack of information regarding the thoron escape rate from the thorium particles in the lungs the method is not as accurate as lung counting. Two subjects at the thorium dioxide facility had lung burdens of 21+- 16 Bq and 29+- 24 Bq Th232 and one at the thorium nitrate facility had a lung burden of 37+- 13 Bq. Improvements in the procedures and use of a glove box were among the recommendations to reduce the inhalation of thorium by workers at the thorium dioxide facility. Decontamination of several rooms at the thorium nitrate facility and sealing of the walls and floors were recommended in order to reduce the escape of thoron gas into the room air. The risk to non Atomic Radiation Workers was primarily due to thoron daughters in air while gamma radiation and thorium in air were less important. Conversely, at the thorium dioxide facility the inhalation of thorium in air was the most significant exposure pathway

  19. Reducible chiral metamaterials

    CERN Document Server

    Ciattoni, Alessandro; Rizza, Carlo

    2016-01-01

    We introduce the concept of 3D reducible metamaterials whose constituent permittivity can be modelled by a factorized profile. The separated cartesian coordinates dependence, easily achieved in all-optical reconfigurable materials, allows to physically regard a reducible metamaterial as a superposition of three fictitious 1D generating media. We prove that, in the long-wavelength limit, the electromagnetic response of reducible metamaterials can be reconstructed from the properties of the 1D generating media whose interplay provides large freedom to control the electromagnetic chirality. Our approach introduces an unprecedented decomposition strategy in metamaterial science which allows the full ab-initio and flexible design of a complex 3D bianisotropic response by using 1D metamaterials as basic building blocks.

  20. Tank closure reducing grout

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Caldwell, T.B.

    1997-04-18

    A reducing grout has been developed for closing high level waste tanks at the Savannah River Site in Aiken, South Carolina. The grout has a low redox potential, which minimizes the mobility of Sr{sup 90}, the radionuclide with the highest dose potential after closure. The grout also has a high pH which reduces the solubility of the plutonium isotopes. The grout has a high compressive strength and low permeability, which enhances its ability to limit the migration of contaminants after closure. The grout was designed and tested by Construction Technology Laboratories, Inc. Placement methods were developed by the Savannah River Site personnel.

  1. Reduced Multiplication Modules

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Karim Samei

    2011-05-01

    An -module is called a multiplication module if for each submodule of , = for some ideal of . As defined for a commutative ring , an -module is said to be reduced if the intersection of prime submodules of is zero. The prime spectrum and minimal prime submodules of the reduced module are studied. Essential submodules of are characterized via a topological property. It is shown that the Goldie dimension of is equal to the Souslin number of Spec (). Also a finitely generated module is a Baer module if and only if Spec () is an extremally disconnected space; if and only if it is a -module. It is proved that a prime submodule is minimal in if and only if for each $x\\in N,\\mathrm{Ann}(x)\

  2. Coupling Reduces Noise

    OpenAIRE

    Kia, Behnam; Kia, Sarvenaz; Lindner, John. F.; Sinha, Sudeshna; Ditto, William L.

    2014-01-01

    We demonstrate how coupling nonlinear dynamical systems can reduce the effects of noise. For simplicity we investigate noisy coupled map lattices. Noise from different lattice nodes can diffuse across the lattice and lower the noise level of individual nodes. We develop a theoretical model that explains this observed noise evolution and show how the coupled dynamics can naturally function as an averaging filter. Our numerical simulations are in excellent agreement with the model predictions.

  3. Does democracy reduce corruption?

    OpenAIRE

    Ivar Kolstad; Arne Wiig

    2011-01-01

    While democracy is commonly believed to reduce corruption, there are obvious endogeneity problems in measuring the impact of democracy on corruption. This paper addresses the endogeneity of democracy by exploiting the common observation that democracies seldom go to war against each other. We instrument for democracy using a dummy variable reflecting whether a country has been at war with a democracy in the period 1946-2009, while controlling for the extent to which countries have been at war...

  4. Awareness Reduces Racial Bias

    OpenAIRE

    Pope, Devin G.; Price, Joseph; Wolfers, Justin

    2014-01-01

    Can raising awareness of racial bias subsequently reduce that bias? We address this question by exploiting the widespread media attention highlighting racial bias among professional basketball referees that occurred in May 2007 following the release of an academic study. Using new data, we confirm that racial bias persisted in the years after the study's original sample, but prior to the media coverage. Subsequent to the media coverage though, the bias completely disappeared. We examine poten...

  5. Quantum Reduced Loop Gravity

    OpenAIRE

    Alesci, Emanuele; Cianfrani, Francesco

    2015-01-01

    Quantum Reduced Loop Gravity provides a promising framework for a consistent characterization of the early Universe dynamics. Inspired by BKL conjecture, a flat Universe is described as a collection of Bianchi I homogeneous patches. The resulting quantum dynamics is described by the scalar constraint operator, whose matrix elements can be analytically computed. The effective semiclassical dynamics is discussed, and the differences with Loop Quantum Cosmology are emphasized.

  6. Reducing volcanic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Decker, R.; Decker, B.

    1991-01-01

    The last two decades have brought major advances in research on how volcanoes work and how to monitor their changing habits. Geologic mapping as well as studies of earthquake patterns and surface deformation associated with underground movement of magma have given scientists a better view of the inner structure and dynamics of active volcanoes. With the next decade, the time has come to focuses more on applying this knowledge toward reducing the risk from volcanic activity on a worldwide basis. 

  7. Reducing Iatrogenic Risks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ely, E. Wesley; Speroff, Theodore; Pun, Brenda T.; Boehm, Leanne; Dittus, Robert S.

    2010-01-01

    ICUs are experiencing an epidemic of patients with acute brain dysfunction (delirium) and weakness, both associated with increased mortality and long-term disability. These conditions are commonly acquired in the ICU and are often initiated or exacerbated by sedation and ventilation decisions and management. Despite > 10 years of evidence revealing the hazards of delirium, the quality chasm between current and ideal processes of care continues to exist. Monitoring of delirium and sedation levels remains inconsistent. In addition, sedation, ventilation, and physical therapy practices proven successful at reducing the frequency and severity of adverse outcomes are not routinely practiced. In this article, we advocate for the adoption and implementation of a standard bundle of ICU measures with great potential to reduce the burden of ICU-acquired delirium and weakness. Individual components of this bundle are evidence based and can help standardize communication, improve interdisciplinary care, reduce mortality, and improve cognitive and functional outcomes. We refer to this as the “ABCDE bundle,” for awakening and breathing coordination, delirium monitoring, and exercise/early mobility. This evidence-based bundle of practices will build a bridge across the current quality chasm from the “front end” to the “back end” of critical care and toward improved cognitive and functional outcomes for ICU survivors. PMID:21051398

  8. Reduced Google matrix

    CERN Document Server

    Frahm, K M

    2016-01-01

    Using parallels with the quantum scattering theory, developed for processes in nuclear and mesoscopic physics and quantum chaos, we construct a reduced Google matrix $G_R$ which describes the properties and interactions of a certain subset of selected nodes belonging to a much larger directed network. The matrix $G_R$ takes into account effective interactions between subset nodes by all their indirect links via the whole network. We argue that this approach gives new possibilities to analyze effective interactions in a group of nodes embedded in a large directed networks. Possible efficient numerical methods for the practical computation of $G_R$ are also described.

  9. Global warming: the significance of methane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    the concept of Global Warming Potential (GWP) indicates the relative contribution to global warming over a given period (for example 100 years) of a pulse emission at the start of the period of 1 kg of a specific greenhouse gas (GHG) in comparison to the contribution, over the same period, of an emission of 1 kg of CO2. The GWPs calculated for different time intervals take into account the differences in atmospheric lifetimes of the different GHGs. Using the '100-year GWP' to measure non CO2 GHG emissions is not well suited to the case of permanent or long lifetime measures whose effectiveness is to be assessed at a given time horizon. In this context, it contributes to significantly playing down the importance of reducing emissions of GHGs with short atmospheric lifetimes. Thus, for example, methane which is not emitted over the period 2020- 2100 as a result of a landfill site being closed in 2020 will have an impact (as opposed to if the site remained in operation) that would be far greater towards 2100 compared to a CO2 emission source that has also been stopped permanently and whose climate impact is measured in an equivalent manner. Using the GWP is only appropriate if applied year after year to time horizons considered to be of concern or decisive by climate studies, thus in particular 2050, 2100 and 2150. This is all the more significant as climate experts' current concerns lead them not only to advocate long-term stabilisation of GHG concentrations but also to avoid as far as possible intermediate excess of these concentrations over the coming century. Finally, it is noted that CH4 prevention policies implemented in the short term may continue to have a long-term impact greater than merely taking into account the current GWP would imply. To more or less ignore the impact of CH4 as it is unsuitable for accounting purposes affects the exclusive character of the link that may exist between the issue of GHGs and that of energy. Furthermore, if the increase in

  10. The public health significance of Trichuris trichiura.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stephenson, L S; Holland, C V; Cooper, E S

    2000-01-01

    important, particularly for the individuals within a population who harbour heavy worm burdens; this means children, with special attention to girls who will experience increased iron requirements and blood loss due to menstruation, pregnancies, and lactation. Mebendazole and albendazole, both of which are on the WHO Essential Drugs List, are very effective against T. trichiura; multiple doses are needed to attain complete parasitological cure in all cases. However the goal of control programmes in endemic areas is morbidity reduction, which follows when intensity of infection is significantly reduced.

  11. Reducing Outdoor Advertising

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patrice de Rendinger

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The fundamental concept is that public space is not a private property. So, a facade (the outer skin, the last millimeter belongs to the town, not to the owner of the building. Changing the rendering, a window, adding or removing anything from a facade requires a permission delivered by the town's authority.In places like Paris, Bordeaux, Marseilles, Lyon, Strasbourg… everywhere one can find a registrated building such as a cathedral, a castle, or a group of ancient buildings, a national administration is controlling this permission. This administration is called «historical monuments administration» and is locally lead by a specialized architect.In the late seventies, French government decided to reduce advertising on the roads and on the city walls. Advertising on the road was leading to a confusion reducing the efficacy of the roadsigns and direction signs, which is dangerous. The reduction was under control of a national administration: the ministry of equipment in charge of the roads design. Advertising on the walls with publicity boards was under control of the cities. Every city has a townplanning regulation. Many cities included forbidding advertisement boards on the walls in this regulation.A couple of firms, but mainly once (Decaux found clever to give a hand to the cities to control advertising. Decaux developed a line of bus stop shelters including advertisements and advertising panels and paid the cities the right to put rather smaller publicities on the public domain.Now Decaux is no more alone on this market and the cities are comparing offers.Marseille turned to a foreign advertising firm who pays three times the price Decaux paid… for half of the advertising surface. Freiburg erased totally the public domain advertisements, selling the tramways and bus coachwork as advertising spaces. Paris is reopening the advertising market before the end of Deacaux's contract and will pay Deacaux a huge amount

  12. Reduced Order Podolsky Model

    CERN Document Server

    Thibes, Ronaldo

    2016-01-01

    We perform the canonical and path integral quantizations of a lower-order derivatives model describing Podolsky's generalized electrodynamics. The physical content of the model shows an auxiliary massive vector field coupled to the usual electromagnetic field. The equivalence with Podolsky's original model is studied at classical and quantum levels. Concerning the dynamical time evolution we obtain a theory with two first-class and two second-class constraints in phase space. We calculate explicitly the corresponding Dirac brackets involving both vector fields. We use the Senjanovic procedure to implement the second-class constraints and the Batalin-Fradkin-Vilkovisky path integral quantization scheme to deal with the symmetries generated by the first-class constraints. The physical interpretation of the results turns out to be simpler due to the reduced derivatives order permeating the equations of motion, Dirac brackets and effective action.

  13. Reducing client waiting time.

    Science.gov (United States)

    1992-01-01

    This first issues of Family Planning (FP) Manager focuses on how to analyze client waiting time and reduce long waits easily and inexpensively. Client flow analysis can be used by managers and staff to identify organizational factors affecting waiting time. Symptoms of long waiting times are overcrowded waiting rooms, clients not returning for services, staff complaints about rushing and waiting, and hurried counseling sessions. Client satisfaction is very important in order to retain FP users. Simple procedures such as routing return visits differently can make a difference in program effectiveness. Assessment of the number of first visits, the number of revisits, and types of methods and services that the clinic provides is a first step. Client flow analysis involves assigning a number to each client on registration, attaching the client flow form to the medical chart, entering the FP method and type of visit, asking staff to note the time at each station, and summarizing data in a master chart. The staff should be involved in plotting data for each client to show waiting versus staff contact time through the use of color coding for each type of staff contact. Bottlenecks become very visible when charted. The amount of time spent at each station can be measured, and gaps in client's contact with staff can be identified. An accurate measure of total waiting time can be obtained. A quick assessment can be made by recording arrival and departure times for each client in one morning or afternoon of a peak day. The procedure is to count the number of clients waiting at 15-minute intervals. The process should be repeated every 3-6 months to observe changes. If waiting times appear long, a more thorough assessment is needed on both a peak and a typical day. An example is given of a completed chart and graph of results with sample data. Managers need to set goals for client flow, streamline client routes, and utilize waiting time wisely by providing educational talks

  14. Inverse agonism and its therapeutic significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gurudas Khilnani

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available A large number of G-protein-coupled receptors (GPCRs show varying degrees of basal or constitutive activity. This constitutive activity is usually minimal in natural receptors but is markedly observed in wild type and mutated (naturally or induced receptors. According to conventional two-state drug receptor interaction model, binding of a ligand may initiate activity (agonist with varying degrees of positive intrinsic activity or prevent the effect of an agonist (antagonist with zero intrinsic activity. Inverse agonists bind with the constitutively active receptors, stabilize them, and thus reduce the activity (negative intrinsic activity. Receptors of many classes (α-and β-adrenergic, histaminergic, GABAergic, serotoninergic, opiate, and angiotensin receptors have shown basal activity in suitable in vitro models. Several drugs that have been conventionally classified as antagonists (β-blockers, antihistaminics have shown inverse agonist effects on corresponding constitutively active receptors. Nearly all H 1 and H 2 antihistaminics (antagonists have been shown to be inverse agonists. Among the β-blockers, carvedilol and bucindolol demonstrate low level of inverse agonism as compared to propranolol and nadolol. Several antipsychotic drugs (D 2 receptors antagonist, antihypertensive (AT 1 receptor antagonists, antiserotoninergic drugs and opioid antagonists have significant inverse agonistic activity that contributes partly or wholly to their therapeutic value. Inverse agonism may also help explain the underlying mechanism of beneficial effects of carvedilol in congestive failure, naloxone-induced withdrawal syndrome in opioid dependence, clozapine in psychosis, and candesartan in cardiac hypertrophy. Understanding inverse agonisms has paved a way for newer drug development. It is now possible to develop agents, which have only desired therapeutic value and are devoid of unwanted adverse effect. Pimavanserin (ACP-103, a highly selective 5-HT

  15. Reducing maintenance costs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasingly more expensive maintenance measures, cuts in the cost budget, and the loss of know-how on the part of vendors all require a change of policy with respect to maintenance concepts of the part of operators. This also applies to the existing valve concepts, the drives included. Under these aspects, the current drive, which is self-actuated and actuated by outside media, for a parallel-plate valve of a nomial width of 700 was reconsidered. The effort served to reduce maintenance costs and, at the same time, simplify the drive concept as well as cut back on the number of in-service inspections. Moreover, the number of active components were to be minimized and installation conditions in the plant were to be improved. When the boundary conditions to be observed with respect to process technology had been laid down, the competent technical department developed a concept of modification of the drive. A major constituent part was the demonstration of the functioning capability of the new drive under accident conditions. It was achieved mainly by an analytical approach. In the resultant drive concept, the same control valves are employed to actuate a driving cylinder by means of self-actuation or by an outside medium as a function of pressure. (orig.)

  16. Stewarding a Reduced Stockpile

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Goodwin, B T; Mara, G

    2008-04-18

    The future of the US nuclear arsenal continues to be guided by two distinct drivers: the preservation of world peace and the prevention of further proliferation through our extended deterrent umbrella. Timely implementation of US nuclear policy decisions depends, in part, on the current state of stockpile weapons, their delivery systems, and the supporting infrastructure within the Department of Defense (DoD) and the Department of Energy's National Nuclear Security Administration (NNSA). In turn, the present is a product of past choices and world events. Now more than ever, the nuclear weapons program must respond to the changing global security environment and to increasing budget pressures with innovation and sound investments. As the nation transitions to a reduced stockpile, the successes of the Stockpile Stewardship Program (SSP) present options to transition to a sustainable complex better suited to stockpile size, national strategic goals and budgetary realities. Under any stockpile size, we must maintain essential human capital, forefront capabilities, and have a right-sized effective production capacity. We present new concepts for maintaining high confidence at low stockpile numbers and to effectively eliminate the reserve weapons within an optimized complex. We, as a nation, have choices to make on how we will achieve a credible 21st century deterrent.

  17. Reduced discretization error in HZETRN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slaba, Tony C.; Blattnig, Steve R.; Tweed, John

    2013-02-01

    The deterministic particle transport code HZETRN is an efficient analysis tool for studying the effects of space radiation on humans, electronics, and shielding materials. In a previous work, numerical methods in the code were reviewed, and new methods were developed that further improved efficiency and reduced overall discretization error. It was also shown that the remaining discretization error could be attributed to low energy light ions (A astronaut radiation exposure. In this work, modifications to the light particle transport formalism are presented that accurately resolve the spectrum of low energy light ion target fragments. The modified formalism is shown to significantly reduce overall discretization error and allows a physical approximation to be removed. For typical step-sizes and energy grids used in HZETRN, discretization errors for the revised light particle transport algorithms are shown to be less than 4% for aluminum and water shielding thicknesses as large as 100 g/cm2 exposed to both solar particle event and galactic cosmic ray environments.

  18. 23 CFR 630.1010 - Significant projects.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 23 Highways 1 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Significant projects. 630.1010 Section 630.1010 Highways... PRECONSTRUCTION PROCEDURES Work Zone Safety and Mobility § 630.1010 Significant projects. (a) A significant... application of the provisions in § 630.1010(c), but in the judgment of the State they do not cause...

  19. 48 CFR 2110.7003 - Significant events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Significant events. 2110..., AND OTHER PURCHASE DESCRIPTIONS Contract Specifications 2110.7003 Significant events. The contractor is required to inform the contracting officer of all significant events....

  20. Creating Significant Learning Experiences across Disciplines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Levine, Laura E.; Fallahi, Carolyn R.; Nicoll-Senft, Joan M.; Tessier, Jack T.; Watson, Cheryl L.; Wood, Rebecca M.

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this study was to use Fink's (2003) taxonomy of significant learning to redesign courses and assess student learning. Significant improvements were found across the semester for students in the six courses, but there were differences in which taxa showed improvement in each course. The meta-analysis showed significant, positive…

  1. [Acromegaly: reducing diagnostic delay].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Giustina, Andrea

    2016-08-01

    Diagnostic delay of acromegaly is still very relevant (6-8 years on average) without substantial changes in last twenty years. Clinical impact of this diagnostic delay is significant: tumor growth (2/3 of the patients at diagnosis bear a pituitary macroadenoma), development of irreversible complications (arthropathy, sleep apnea) and in all increased mortality. Reasons for this delay are related to the disease itself (facial and acral changes are very slow and subtle) but also to medical unawareness. Simple tools based on a few sufficiently sensitive and specific signs and symptoms which can trigger the diagnostic suspect would be useful in clinical practice. Global evaluation during follow-up (tumor volume, signs and symptoms, complications, circulating levels of growth hormone and its peripheral mediator IGF-I) has become crucial for the therapeutic decision making. In this regard, tools like SAGIT are now under validation and are expected to improve management of acromegaly. In fact, in the last 30 years there has been a relevant growth of the medical options to treat acromegaly and in the near future there will be an expansion of the medical options. This will greatly help the needed personalization of treatment which necessarily should consider patient convenience and preference and control of complications such as diabetes mellitus. PMID:27571562

  2. How do we make sense of significance?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lyhne, Ivar; Kørnøv, Lone

    2013-01-01

    Determination of significance is widely recognised as an important step in environmental assessment (EA) processes. The prescriptive literature and guidance on significance determination is comprehensive within the field of EA, whereas descriptive and explorative studies of how we go about making...... sense, or construct meaning, of actions to determine significance are few. This article makes use of sense-making theory to explore how sense-making among EA researchers and practitioners influence significance determination. Focus is on the situation when persons have their first look at information...... about a strategic choice and as part of this make their initial judgement of significance. An experiment is designed and conducted to investigate how persons make sense of a specific case and determine significance in a screening and scoping context. The experiment indicates patterns in the test persons...

  3. DYNAMICAL BALANCE STUDY OF RING REDUCER

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    The basic structure of epicyclical gear transmission with inner teeth of single-ring, double-ring, three-ring and four-ring reducer are analyzed. The force analysis model of ring reducer is built. Following this, it is concluded that the present ring reducers have the problem that the inertia force or the inertia moment is lopsided. On the base of analysis and calculation the balanced ring reducer which can realize the balance of inertia force and inertia moment is brought forward, and so is its concrete realizing step. The specimen of the balanced ring reducer is designed and manufactured; the experiment is carried out on the gear transmission test bench. Compared with other ring reducer of the same power, the balanced ring reducer has many advantages, such as low vibration noise, low cost and less production difficulty and less heat. It is the substitute of other ring reducer of the same kind. Therefore, it has important theoretic significance and highly practical engineering value.

  4. Regionally Significant Ecological Areas - MLCCS derived 2008

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  5. Central Region Regionally Ecological Significant Areas

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This is an analysis of regionally significant Terrestrial and Wetland Ecological Areas in the seven county metropolitan area. Individual forest, grassland and...

  6. Impact significance determination-Pushing the boundaries

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Impact significance determination practice tends to be highly variable. Too often insufficient consideration is given to good practice insights. Also, impact significance determinations are frequently narrowly defined addressing, for example, only individual, negative impacts, focusing on bio-physical impacts, and not seeking to integrate either the Precautionary Principle or sustainability. This article seeks to extend the boundaries of impact significance determination practice by providing an overview of good general impact significance practices, together with stakeholder roles and potential methods for addressing significance determination challenges. Relevant thresholds, criteria, contextual considerations and support methods are also highlighted. The analysis is then extended to address how impact significance determination practices change for positive as compared with negative impacts, for cumulative as compared with individual impacts, for socio-economic as compared with bio-physical impacts, when the Precautionary Principle is integrated into the process, and when sustainability contributions drive the EIA process and related impact significance determinations. These refinements can assist EIA practitioners in ensuring that the scope and nature of impact significance determinations reflect the broadened scope of emerging EIA requirements and practices. Suggestions are included for further refining and testing of the proposed changes to impact significance determination practice

  7. Addition of Cryoprotectant Significantly Alters the Epididymal Sperm Proteome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yoon, Sung-Jae; Rahman, Md Saidur; Kwon, Woo-Sung; Park, Yoo-Jin; Pang, Myung-Geol

    2016-01-01

    Although cryopreservation has been developed and optimized over the past decades, it causes various stresses, including cold shock, osmotic stress, and ice crystal formation, thereby reducing fertility. During cryopreservation, addition of cryoprotective agent (CPA) is crucial for protecting spermatozoa from freezing damage. However, the intrinsic toxicity and osmotic stress induced by CPA cause damage to spermatozoa. To identify the effects of CPA addition during cryopreservation, we assessed the motility (%), motion kinematics, capacitation status, and viability of epididymal spermatozoa using computer-assisted sperm analysis and Hoechst 33258/chlortetracycline fluorescence staining. Moreover, the effects of CPA addition were also demonstrated at the proteome level using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Our results demonstrated that CPA addition significantly reduced sperm motility (%), curvilinear velocity, viability (%), and non-capacitated spermatozoa, whereas straightness and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa increased significantly (p 3 fold, p ground for sperm cryopreservation. PMID:27031703

  8. The thresholds for statistical and clinical significance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Janus Christian; Gluud, Christian; Winkel, Per;

    2014-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Thresholds for statistical significance are insufficiently demonstrated by 95% confidence intervals or P-values when assessing results from randomised clinical trials. First, a P-value only shows the probability of getting a result assuming that the null hypothesis is true and does...... not reflect the probability of getting a result assuming an alternative hypothesis to the null hypothesis is true. Second, a confidence interval or a P-value showing significance may be caused by multiplicity. Third, statistical significance does not necessarily result in clinical significance. Therefore...... of the probability that a given trial result is compatible with a 'null' effect (corresponding to the P-value) divided by the probability that the trial result is compatible with the intervention effect hypothesised in the sample size calculation; (3) adjust the confidence intervals and the statistical significance...

  9. Reducing Dogmatism among Undergraduate Counselor Trainees.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Parkay, Forrest W.

    Previous research has emphasized the significant negative correlation between counselor effectiveness and dogmatism, or closemindedness. To reduce levels of dogmatism in counselor trainees, a program was developed and tested at Southwest Texas State University. The new course, "Guidance to Meet the Needs of Multicultural Students," gave counseling…

  10. Reducing Research Anxiety among MSW Students

    Science.gov (United States)

    Einbinder, Susan Dana

    2014-01-01

    Research anxiety significantly declined in a diverse sample of 59 MSW students in their first-year hybrid online research course in which the instructor used an array of innovative educational techniques empirically proven to reduce this phenomenon. The pretest/posttest study, the standardized survey instruments used, and a summary of these…

  11. Ways to reduce contamination of foods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiocesium is one of the most important radionuclides released into the environment. Possibilities of study of reducing the content of radionuclides directly in food have been analysed less. However, a significant reduction of content such as radiocesium we can achieve by leaching, marinating, steeping and cooking to allow in selected foods reach acceptable values. Observation was mainly focused on the mushrooms and meat. (author)

  12. Mining significant semantic locations from GPS data

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Cao, Xin; Cong, Gao; Jensen, Christian S.

    2010-01-01

    With the increasing deployment and use of GPS-enabled devices, massive amounts of GPS data are becoming available. We propose a general framework for the mining of semantically meaningful, significant locations, e.g., shopping malls and restaurants, from such data. We present techniques capable...... of extracting semantic locations from GPS data. We capture the relationships between locations and between locations and users with a graph. Significance is then assigned to locations using random walks over the graph that propagates significance among the locations. In doing so, mutual reinforcement between...

  13. Multiclass Reduced-Set Support Vector Machines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tang, Benyang; Mazzoni, Dominic

    2006-01-01

    There are well-established methods for reducing the number of support vectors in a trained binary support vector machine, often with minimal impact on accuracy. We show how reduced-set methods can be applied to multiclass SVMs made up of several binary SVMs, with significantly better results than reducing each binary SVM independently. Our approach is based on Burges' approach that constructs each reduced-set vector as the pre-image of a vector in kernel space, but we extend this by recomputing the SVM weights and bias optimally using the original SVM objective function. This leads to greater accuracy for a binary reduced-set SVM, and also allows vectors to be 'shared' between multiple binary SVMs for greater multiclass accuracy with fewer reduced-set vectors. We also propose computing pre-images using differential evolution, which we have found to be more robust than gradient descent alone. We show experimental results on a variety of problems and find that this new approach is consistently better than previous multiclass reduced-set methods, sometimes with a dramatic difference.

  14. Transdermal drug delivery: approaches and significance

    OpenAIRE

    Murthy, SATHYANARAYANA

    2012-01-01

    S Narasimha MurthyDepartment of Pharmaceutics, The University of Mississippi, USATransdermal drug delivery systems deliver drugs through the skin as an alternative to oral, intravascular, subcutaneous, and transmucosal routes. Potential advantages of transdermal delivery include, but are not limited to, elimination of first-pass metabolism, steady delivery/blood levels, better patient compliance, reduced systemic drug interactions, possible dose intervention, avoidance of medically assisted d...

  15. SIGWX Charts - High Level Significant Weather

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — High level significant weather (SIGWX) forecasts are provided for the en-route portion of international flights. NOAA's National Weather Service Aviation Center...

  16. Significant pneumothorax complicating a fractured clavicle.

    OpenAIRE

    Williams, R. J.

    1995-01-01

    Pneumothorax has been described as a complication of a fractured clavicle only three times. It is an important and potentially serious complication. This case report describes a fractured clavicle complicated by a significant pneumothorax which required chest drain insertion.

  17. SRS Process Facility Significance Fire Frequency

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarrack, A.G. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1995-10-01

    This report documents the method and assumptions of a study performed to determine a site generic process facility significant fire initiator frequency and explains the proper way this value should be used.

  18. Economically Significant Sites - OSPR [ds356

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — This point data set shows locations of Economically Significant Sites along the California coast from Del Norte to San Diego counties. Data for locating these...

  19. Fostering significant learning in graduate nursing education.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marrocco, Geraldine F

    2014-03-01

    Faculty who want to energize graduate students with creative classes that lead to long-lasting learning will benefit by designing course objectives, learning activities, and assessment tools using Fink's taxonomy of significant learning and Wiggins's insights on performance-based or educative assessments. Research shows that course designs relying on content-driven lectures and written examinations do not promote significant learning among adult learners. This article reviews six types of significant learning using Fink's taxonomy and examines Wiggins's "backward" approach to designing courses using performance-based assessments that gauge true learning and learning that promotes a lasting change. When designing courses, educators should ask: "What do I really want students to get out of this course?" The answers will direct the design of objectives, learning activities, and assessment tools. Designing graduate courses using Fink's taxonomy and Wiggins's backward approach can lead to significant learning to better prepare nurse practitioners for the future of health care.

  20. Significant communities in large sparse networks

    CERN Document Server

    Mirshahvalad, Atieh; Derlen, Mattias; Rosvall, Martin

    2011-01-01

    Researchers use community-detection algorithms to reveal large-scale organization in biological and social networks, but community detection is useful only if the communities are significant and not a result of noisy data. To assess the statistical significance of the network communities, or the robustness of the detected structure, one approach is to perturb the network structure by removing links and measure how much the communities change. However, perturbing sparse networks is challenging because they are inherently sensitive; they shatter easily if links are removed. Here we propose a simple method to perturb sparse networks and assess the significance of their communities. We generate resampled networks by adding extra links based on local information, then we aggregate the information from multiple resampled networks to find a coarse-grained description of significant clusters. In addition to testing our method on benchmark networks, we use our method on the sparse network of the European Court of Just...

  1. Significant Drivers of Growth in Africa

    OpenAIRE

    Oleg Badunenko; Daniel J. Henderson; Romain Houssa

    2012-01-01

    We employ bootstrap techniques in a production frontier framework to provide statistical inference for each component in the decomposition of labor productivity growth, which has essentially been ignored in this literature. We show that only two of the four components have significantly contributed to growth in Africa. Although physical capital accumulation is the largest force, it is not statistically significant. Thus, ignoring statistical inference would falsely identify physical capital a...

  2. Significance tests and sample homogeneity loophole

    OpenAIRE

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2015-01-01

    In their recent comment, published in Nature, Jeffrey T.Leek and Roger D.Peng discuss how P-values are widely abused in null hypothesis significance testing . We agree completely with them and in this short comment we discuss the importance of sample homogeneity tests. No matter with how much scrutiny data are gathered if homogeneity tests are not performed the significance tests suffer from sample homogeneity loophole and the results may not be trusted. For example sample homogeneity loophol...

  3. Significance of Studies of Stylistics and Rhetoric

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙越

    2015-01-01

    Stylistics is a scientific study of style. It is a mode of encoding and decoding language and can be associated with various fields. In this paper,we talk about the great significances of stylistic and rhetoric studies. It refers to great help in expressing and understanding languages;in combining the linguistics and literary criticism and linguistics;great help in promoting and developing computer science and information technology;great significance in sharing heritage of human civilizations.

  4. Neuromuscular Adaptations to Reduced Use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ploutz-Snyder, Lori

    2009-01-01

    This viewgraph presentation reviews the studies done to reduce neuromuscular strength loss during unilateral lower limb suspension (ULLS). Since there are animals that undergo fairly long periods of muscular disuse without any or minimal muscular atrophy, there is an answer to that might be applicable to human in situations that require no muscular use to diminish the effects of muscular atrophy. Three sets of ULLS studies were reviewed indicated that muscle strength decreased more than the muscle mass. The study reviewed exercise countermeasures to combat the atrophy, including: ischemia maintained during Compound muscle action potential (CMAP), ischemia and low load exercise, Japanese kaatsu, and the potential for rehabilitation or situations where heavy loading is undesirable. Two forms of countermeasures to unloading have been successful, (1) high-load resistance training has maintained muscle mass and strength, and low load resistance training with blood flow restriction (LL(sub BFR)). The LL(sub BFR) has been shown to increase muscle mass and strength. There has been significant interest in Tourniquet training. An increase in Growth Hormone(GH) has been noted for LL(sub BFR) exercise. An experimental study with 16 subjects 8 of whom performed ULLS, and 8 of whom performed ULLS and LL(sub BFR) exercise three times per week during the ULLS. Charts show the results of the two groups, showing that performing LL(sub BFR) exercise during 30 days of ULLS can maintain muscle size and strength and even improve muscular endurance.

  5. Reduced surround inhibition in musicians.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shin, Hae-Won; Kang, Suk Y; Hallett, Mark; Sohn, Young H

    2012-06-01

    To investigate whether surround inhibition (SI) in the motor system is altered in professional musicians, we performed a transcranial magnetic stimulation (TMS) study in 10 professional musicians and 15 age-matched healthy non-musicians. TMS was set to be triggered by self-initiated flexion of the index finger at different intervals ranging from 3 to 1,000 ms. Average motor evoked potential (MEP) amplitudes obtained from self-triggered TMS were normalized to average MEPs of the control TMS at rest and expressed as a percentage. Normalized MEP amplitudes of the abductor digiti minimi (ADM) muscles were compared between the musicians and non-musicians with the primary analysis being the intervals between 3 and 80 ms (during the movement). A mixed-design ANOVA revealed a significant difference in normalized ADM MEPs during the index finger flexion between groups, with less SI in the musicians. This study demonstrated that the functional operation of SI is less strong in musicians than non-musicians, perhaps due to practice of movement synergies involving both muscles. Reduced SI, however, could lead susceptible musicians to be prone to develop task-specific dystonia.

  6. Yolk androgens reduce offspring survival.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sockman, K W; Schwabl, H

    2000-07-22

    Females may favour some offspring over others by differential deposition of yolk hormones. In American kestrels (Falco sparverius), we found that yolks of eggs laid late in the sequence of a clutch had more testosterone (T) and androstenedione (A4) than yolks of first-laid eggs. To investigate the effects of these yolk androgens on nestling 'fitness', we injected both T and A4 into the yolks of first-laid eggs and compared their hatching time, nestling growth and nestling survival with those of first-laid eggs in which we injected vehicle as a control. Compared to controls, injection of T and A4 at a dose intended to increase their levels to those of later-laid eggs delayed hatching and reduced nestling growth and survival rates. Yolk androgen treatment of egg 1 had no effect on survival of siblings hatching from subsequently laid eggs. The adverse actions of yolk androgen treatment in the kestrel are in contrast to the favourable actions of yolk T treatment found previously in canaries (Serinus canaria). Additional studies are necessary in order to determine whether the deposition of yolk androgens is an adaptive form of parental favouritism or an adverse by-product of endocrine processes during egg formation. Despite its adaptive significance, such 'transgenerational' effects of steroid hormones may have helped to evolutionarily shape the hormonal mechanisms regulating reproduction. PMID:10983830

  7. Reduced Basis Method for Nanodevices Simulation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pau, George Shu Heng

    2008-05-23

    Ballistic transport simulation in nanodevices, which involves self-consistently solving a coupled Schrodinger-Poisson system of equations, is usually computationally intensive. Here, we propose coupling the reduced basis method with the subband decomposition method to improve the overall efficiency of the simulation. By exploiting a posteriori error estimation procedure and greedy sampling algorithm, we are able to design an algorithm where the computational cost is reduced significantly. In addition, the computational cost only grows marginally with the number of grid points in the confined direction.

  8. Reducing parametric backscattering by polarization rotation

    CERN Document Server

    Barth, Ido

    2016-01-01

    When a laser passes through underdense plasmas, Raman and Brillouin Backscattering can reflect a substantial portion of the incident laser energy. This is a major loss mechanism, for example, in inertial confinement fusion. However, by slow rotation of the incident linear polarization, the overall reflectivity can be reduced significantly. Particle in cell simulations show that, for parameters similar to those of indirect drive fusion experiments, polarization rotation reduces the reflectivity by a factor of $5$. A general, fluid-model based, analytical estimation for the reflectivity reduction agrees with simulations.

  9. Experimental knee pain reduces muscle strength

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Marius; Mortensen, Sara Rosager; Aaboe, Jens;

    2011-01-01

    experimental knee pain in healthy volunteers, and if these changes were associated with the pain intensities. In a crossover study, 18 healthy subjects were tested on 2 different days. Using an isokinetic dynamometer, maximal muscle strength in knee extension and flexion was measured at angular velocities 0....... Knee pain reduced the muscle strength by 5 to 15% compared to the control conditions (P <.001) in both knee extension and flexion at all angular velocities. The reduction in muscle strength was positively correlated to the pain intensity. Experimental knee pain significantly reduced knee extension and...

  10. Restricted fish feeding reduces cod otolith opacity

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høie, H.; Folkvord, A.; Mosegaard, Henrik;

    2008-01-01

    The purpose of this work was to examine the effect of reduced feeding and constant temperature on cod otolith opacity. Three groups of juvenile cod were given restricted food rations at different times for 4 months, resulting in depressed somatic growth. Otolith opacity was measured on pictures...... in otolith opacity were found between individual fish both within groups and between groups. In two of the three groups significantly more translucent otolith material was deposited in response to reduced feeding. Our results show that variations in feeding and hence fish growth resulted in variation...

  11. Discovering the Significance of Scientific Design Practice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pries-Heje, Jan; Baskerville, Richard

    This paper aims at discussing and defining what it is that makes design science research significant. First it reviews the values and processes of old science and how this attacks complexity through analysis. It then shows how new science attacks complexity through synthesis. Then the paper argue...

  12. Significance tests and sample homogeneity loophole

    CERN Document Server

    Kupczynski, Marian

    2015-01-01

    In their recent comment, published in Nature, Jeffrey T.Leek and Roger D.Peng discuss how P-values are widely abused in null hypothesis significance testing . We agree completely with them and in this short comment we discuss the importance of sample homogeneity tests. No matter with how much scrutiny data are gathered if homogeneity tests are not performed the significance tests suffer from sample homogeneity loophole and the results may not be trusted. For example sample homogeneity loophole was not closed in the experiment testing local realism in which a significant violation of Eberhard inequality was found. We are not surprised that Bell type inequalities are violated since if the contextual character of quantum observables is properly taken into account these inequalities cannot be proven. However in order to trust the significance of the violation sample homogeneity loophole must be closed. Therefore we repeat after Jeffrey T.Leek and Roger D.Peng that sample homogeneity loophole is probably just the ...

  13. The geometrical significance of the Laplacian

    Science.gov (United States)

    Styer, Daniel F.

    2015-12-01

    The Laplacian operator can be defined, not only as a differential operator, but also through its averaging properties. Such a definition lends geometric significance to the operator: a large Laplacian at a point reflects a "nonconformist" (i.e., different from average) character for the function there. This point of view is used to motivate the wave equation for a drumhead.

  14. Encounter Probability of Significant Wave Height

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Z.; Burcharth, H. F.

    The determination of the design wave height (often given as the significant wave height) is usually based on statistical analysis of long-term extreme wave height measurement or hindcast. The result of such extreme wave height analysis is often given as the design wave height corresponding to a c...

  15. Formal conditions for the significance-effect

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thellefsen, Torkild Leo; Sørensen, Bent; Thellefsen, Martin;

    2006-01-01

    The significance-effect is the right effect of meaning caused upon an interpreting mind. The right effect is understood as the right interpretation of an intended meaning caused by a sign communicated by an utterer. In the article, which is inspired by Charles S. Peirce's doctrine of signs, his s...

  16. Scope and Significance of Eating Disorders.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mitchell, James E.; Eckert, Elke D.

    1987-01-01

    Describes the increasing prevalence of anorexia nervosa and bulimia in many industrialized societies, and their association with significant morbidity and mortality. Discusses the genetic risks for the development of anorexia nervosa, and treatment strategies. Of these, pharmacotherapy and psychotherapy, particularly those incorporating…

  17. Bullying in Academe: Prevalent, Significant, and Incessant

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cassell, Macgorine A.

    2011-01-01

    This paper examines the top-down perspective of bullying and mobbing of professors by analyzing why it is prevalent, significant, and incessant and then proposes a framework to produce a caring, respectful, and safe environment for professors to engage in their teaching, scholarship, and service. The author suggests that the failure of…

  18. The empirical significance of econometric models

    OpenAIRE

    Mayer, Thomas

    2006-01-01

    This essay discusses some, but by no means all the important problems that arise in econometric testing of econometric models. Specifically, it disusses the reliabilty of the underlying data and their processing, the problem of relating theories and data, ceteris paribus conditions and testability, data mining and the misuse of significance test.

  19. Significance of Literature in Foreign Language Teaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babaee, Ruzbeh; Yahya, Wan Roselezam Bt Wan

    2014-01-01

    This research aims to consider literature as a significant tool for teaching fundamental language skills including speaking, listening, reading and writing. Reasons for the use of literature in language classrooms and major factors for choosing appropriate kinds of literary texts in such classes should be highlighted in order to make readers aware…

  20. Surface characterization based upon significant topographic features

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Blanc, J; Grime, D; Blateyron, F, E-mail: fblateyron@digitalsurf.fr [Digital Surf, 16 rue Lavoisier, F-25000 Besancon (France)

    2011-08-19

    Watershed segmentation and Wolf pruning, as defined in ISO 25178-2, allow the detection of significant features on surfaces and their characterization in terms of dimension, area, volume, curvature, shape or morphology. These new tools provide a robust way to specify functional surfaces.

  1. Mycotoxins: significance to global economics and health

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mycotoxins are fungal metabolites produced my micro-fungi (molds and mildews) that have significant impacts on global economics and health. Some of these metabolites are beneficial, but most are harmful and have been associated with well-known epidemics dating back to medieval times. The terms ‘myco...

  2. Oxygen-reducing catalyst layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    O'Brien, Dennis P.; Schmoeckel, Alison K.; Vernstrom, George D.; Atanasoski, Radoslav; Wood, Thomas E.; Yang, Ruizhi; Easton, E. Bradley; Dahn, Jeffrey R.; O'Neill, David G.

    2011-03-22

    An oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, and a method of making the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer, where the oxygen-reducing catalyst layer includes a catalytic material film disposed on a substrate with the use of physical vapor deposition and thermal treatment. The catalytic material film includes a transition metal that is substantially free of platinum. At least one of the physical vapor deposition and the thermal treatment is performed in a processing environment comprising a nitrogen-containing gas.

  3. Nutritional significance of lectins and enzyme inhibitors from legumes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lajolo, Franco M; Genovese, Maria Inés

    2002-10-23

    Legumes have natural components, such as lectins, amylase, and trypsin inhibitors, that may adversely affect their nutritional properties. Much information has already been obtained on their antinutritional significance and how to inactivate them by proper processing. Chronic ingestion of residual levels is unlikely to pose risks to human health. On the other hand, the ability of these molecules to inhibit some enzymes such as trypsin, chymotrypsin, disaccharidases, and alpha-amylases, to selectively bind to glycoconjugates, and to enter the circulatory system may be a useful tool in nutrition and pharmacology. Trypsin inhibitors have also been studied as cancer risk reducing factors. These components seem to act as plant defense substances. However, increased contents may represent an impairment of the nutritional quality of legumes because these glycoproteins and the sulfur-rich protease inhibitors have been shown to be poorly digested and to participate in chemical reactions during processing reducing protein digestibility, a still unsolved question. PMID:12381157

  4. Significance of primary irradiation creep in graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Erasmus, Christiaan, E-mail: christiaan.erasmus@gmail.com [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Proprietary) Limited, PO Box 9396, Centurion 0046 (South Africa); Kok, Schalk [Advanced Mathematical Modelling, CSIR Modelling and Digital Science, Pretoria 0001 (South Africa); Hindley, Michael P. [Pebble Bed Modular Reactor (Proprietary) Limited, PO Box 9396, Centurion 0046 (South Africa)

    2013-05-15

    Traditionally primary irradiation creep is introduced into graphite analysis by applying the appropriate amount of creep strain to the model at the initial time-step. This is valid for graphite components that are subjected to high fast neutron flux fields and constant stress fields, but it does not allow for the effect of movement of stress locations around a graphite component during life, nor does it allow primary creep to be applied rate-dependently to graphite components subject to lower fast neutron flux. This paper shows that a differential form of primary irradiation creep in graphite combined with the secondary creep formulation proposed by Kennedy et al. performs well when predicting creep behaviour in experimental samples. The significance of primary irradiation creep in particular in regions with lower flux is investigated. It is shown that in low flux regions with a realistic operating lifetime primary irradiation creep is significant and is larger than secondary irradiation creep.

  5. Urban building recognition during significant temporal variations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nguyen, Phuong Giang; Andersen, Hans Jørgen

    2008-01-01

    features (Multi-scale Oriented Patches) in [2], which extract features of patches around interest points. To speed up the searching process, we employ the vocabulary tree based search technique in [12]. Our final system shows high performance in recognizing buildings under significant temporal variations......In literature, existing researches on building recognition mainly concentrate on scales, rotations, and viewpoints variance. In urban environment, large temporal variations of weather and lighting conditions should also be considered as major challenges for robust recognition. For instances......, there are differences between images captured during daytime and nighttime, especially significant changes in building appearances between seasons because of the differences in light setting. To date, these large temporal variation issues have not been fully investigated. In this paper, we therefore focus...

  6. Hockey sticks, principal components, and spurious significance

    Science.gov (United States)

    McIntyre, Stephen; McKitrick, Ross

    2005-02-01

    The ``hockey stick'' shaped temperature reconstruction of Mann et al. (1998, 1999) has been widely applied. However it has not been previously noted in print that, prior to their principal components (PCs) analysis on tree ring networks, they carried out an unusual data transformation which strongly affects the resulting PCs. Their method, when tested on persistent red noise, nearly always produces a hockey stick shaped first principal component (PC1) and overstates the first eigenvalue. In the controversial 15th century period, the MBH98 method effectively selects only one species (bristlecone pine) into the critical North American PC1, making it implausible to describe it as the ``dominant pattern of variance''. Through Monte Carlo analysis, we show that MBH98 benchmarks for significance of the Reduction of Error (RE) statistic are substantially under-stated and, using a range of cross-validation statistics, we show that the MBH98 15th century reconstruction lacks statistical significance.

  7. Significant incidents in nuclear fuel cycle facilities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In contrast to nuclear power plants, events in nuclear fuel cycle facilities are not well documented. The INES database covers all the nuclear fuel cycle facilities; however, it was developed in the early 1990s and does not contain information on events prior to that. The purpose of the present report is to collect significant events and analyze them in order to give a safety related overview of nuclear fuel cycle facilities. Significant incidents were selected using the following criteria: release of radioactive material or exposure to radiation; degradation of items important to safety; and deficiencies in design, quality assurance, etc. which include criticality incidents, fire, explosion, radioactive release and contamination. This report includes an explanation, where possible, of root causes, lessons learned and action taken. 4 refs, 4 tabs

  8. EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yu-Jia Hu

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having the shopping experience for digital camera. The findings supported the hypothesis that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk have significant and positive relationship to customer involvement. The findings identified the predictors of customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk on the customer involvement and generated the recommendations for corporate operations and future scholar studies.

  9. Clodronate treatment significantly depletes macrophages in chickens

    OpenAIRE

    Kameka, Amber M.; Haddadi, Siamak; Jamaldeen, Fathima Jesreen; Moinul, Prima; He, Xiao T.; Nawazdeen, Fathima Hafsa P.; Bonfield, Stephan; Sharif, Shayan; van Rooijen, Nico; Abdul-Careem, Mohamed Faizal

    2014-01-01

    Macrophages function as phagocytes and antigen-presenting cells in the body. As has been demonstrated in mammals, administration of clodronate [dichloromethylene bisphosphonate (Cl2MBP)] encapsulated liposomes results in depletion of macrophages. Although this compound has been used in chickens, its effectiveness in depleting macrophages has yet to be fully determined. Here, we show that a single administration of clodronate liposomes to chickens results in a significant depletion of macropha...

  10. EXPLORE SIGNIFICANT FACTORS TO AFFECT CUSTOMER INVOLVEMENT

    OpenAIRE

    Yu-Jia Hu

    2012-01-01

    Although literature review supported the concept that customer loyalty, brand equity and perceived risk are significant factors to affect customer involvement, very limited studies have extensively examined the relationship among those variables. This research applied quantitative study to comprehensively explore the relationship between customer loyalty, brand equity, perceived risk and customer involvement for consumers. The population for this research was identified as consumers having th...

  11. The significance of hermeneutics to child psychotherapy.

    OpenAIRE

    Mook, B

    1991-01-01

    Increasingly the philosophical discipline of hermeneutics is being applied to a systematic study of the human sciences. Yet a hermeneutic approach to psychotherapy has barely been considered. In this paper, the possible significance of a hermeneutic approach to the field of child psychotherapy is explored. Despite the fundamental differences between the two disciplines, both are faced with the task of understanding and interpreting the meaning of human expressions through words and images. Bo...

  12. Significance of duon mutations in cancer genomes

    OpenAIRE

    Vinod Kumar Yadav; Smith, Kyle S.; Colin Flinders; Mumenthaler, Shannon M.; De, Subhajyoti

    2016-01-01

    Functional mutations in coding regions not only affect the structure and function of the protein products, but may also modulate their expression in some cases. This class of mutations, recently dubbed “duon mutations” due to their dual roles, can potentially have major impacts on downstream pathways. However their significance in diseases such as cancer remain unclear. In a survey covering 4606 samples from 19 cancer types, and integrating allelic expression, overall mRNA expression, regulat...

  13. The Significance of Bradycardia in Anorexia Nervosa

    OpenAIRE

    Yahalom, Malka; Spitz, Marcelo; Sandler, Ludmila; Heno, Nawaf; Roguin, Nathan; Turgeman, Yoav

    2013-01-01

    Anorexia nervosa (AN) is a life-threatening condition, with a significant risk for death, due to cardiovascular complications. It is characterized by abnormal eating behavior and has the highest mortality rate of all psychiatric disorders. It has been associated with bradycardia (a heart rate [HR] of less than 60 beats per minute) (up to 95%), hypotension, mitral valve prolapse, and heart failure. The diagnosis of AN can be elusive, and more than half of all cases are undetected. The purpose ...

  14. [Onset and significance of postoperative bacteriuria].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Riss, P; Schieder, K; Bartl, W

    1984-06-01

    In 52 patients an indwelling transurethral catheter was inserted after gynaecological surgery for 5 days; no patient received antibiotics. At the time of removal of the catheter on the 6th postoperative day and 2 days later (8th postoperative day) a urine culture was set up. At the time of removal of the catheter on the 6th day, 26/52 patients (50%) had significant bacteriuria greater than or equal to 10(5)/ml. In 11 out of the 26 patients with bacteriuria the urine cleared spontaneously within 2 days; on the other hand, 10/26 patients with a negative culture at the time of removal of the catheter had significant bacteriuria 2 days later. As a group these women also had delayed spontaneous onset of voiding and persistence of residual urine. Younger patients (less than 45 years) had significantly fewer bacteriurias on the 6th day than older patients. A positive urine culture at the time of removal of the catheter should be treated with antibiotics; a negative urine culture should be repeated whenever spontaneous voiding is delayed, when there is persistent residual urine, or when the clinical signs of urinary tract infection are present.

  15. Least significant qubit algorithm for quantum images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sang, Jianzhi; Wang, Shen; Li, Qiong

    2016-08-01

    To study the feasibility of the classical image least significant bit (LSB) information hiding algorithm on quantum computer, a least significant qubit (LSQb) information hiding algorithm of quantum image is proposed. In this paper, we focus on a novel quantum representation for color digital images (NCQI). Firstly, by designing the three qubits comparator and unitary operators, the reasonability and feasibility of LSQb based on NCQI are presented. Then, the concrete LSQb information hiding algorithm is proposed, which can realize the aim of embedding the secret qubits into the least significant qubits of RGB channels of quantum cover image. Quantum circuit of the LSQb information hiding algorithm is also illustrated. Furthermore, the secrets extracting algorithm and circuit are illustrated through utilizing control-swap gates. The two merits of our algorithm are: (1) it is absolutely blind and (2) when extracting secret binary qubits, it does not need any quantum measurement operation or any other help from classical computer. Finally, simulation and comparative analysis show the performance of our algorithm.

  16. Significance testing testate amoeba water table reconstructions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Payne, Richard J.; Babeshko, Kirill V.; van Bellen, Simon; Blackford, Jeffrey J.; Booth, Robert K.; Charman, Dan J.; Ellershaw, Megan R.; Gilbert, Daniel; Hughes, Paul D. M.; Jassey, Vincent E. J.; Lamentowicz, Łukasz; Lamentowicz, Mariusz; Malysheva, Elena A.; Mauquoy, Dmitri; Mazei, Yuri; Mitchell, Edward A. D.; Swindles, Graeme T.; Tsyganov, Andrey N.; Turner, T. Edward; Telford, Richard J.

    2016-04-01

    Transfer functions are valuable tools in palaeoecology, but their output may not always be meaningful. A recently-developed statistical test ('randomTF') offers the potential to distinguish among reconstructions which are more likely to be useful, and those less so. We applied this test to a large number of reconstructions of peatland water table depth based on testate amoebae. Contrary to our expectations, a substantial majority (25 of 30) of these reconstructions gave non-significant results (P > 0.05). The underlying reasons for this outcome are unclear. We found no significant correlation between randomTF P-value and transfer function performance, the properties of the training set and reconstruction, or measures of transfer function fit. These results give cause for concern but we believe it would be extremely premature to discount the results of non-significant reconstructions. We stress the need for more critical assessment of transfer function output, replication of results and ecologically-informed interpretation of palaeoecological data.

  17. A Recombinant Multi-Stage Vaccine against Paratuberculosis Significantly Reduces Bacterial Level in Tissues without Interference in Diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jungersen, Gregers; Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, C.;

    A new (FET11) recombinant vaccine against paratuberculosis was developed based on recombinant antigens from acute and latent stages of Mycobacterium avium subsp. paratuberculosis (Map) infection. In two experiments 28 calves and 15 goats were orally inoculated with live Map in their third week...... of life and post-exposure vaccinated at different times after inoculation or with different vaccine constructs. In contrast to common whole-cells vaccination, the FET11 vaccine did not interfere with tests for paratuberculosis or bovine tuberculosis as no measurable antibody responses by ID Screen® ELISA......, PPDj-specific IFN-γ responses or positive PPDa or PPDb skin tests developed in vaccinees. Antibodies and cell-mediated immune responses were developed against FET11 antigens, however. At necropsy 8 or 12 months of age, relative Map burden was determined in a number of gut tissues by quantitative IS900...

  18. Radiation dose is significantly reduced by use of contact force sensing catheter during circumferential pulmonary vein isolation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Giuseppe Stabile; Antonio De Simone; Francesco Solimene; Assunta Iuliano, Vincenzo La Rocca; Vincenzo Schillaci; Alfonso Panella; Gergana Shopova; Felice Nappi; Francesco Urraro; Giovanni Russo; Giovanni Napolitano; Paola Chiariello

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available The creation of a durable radiofrequency (RF lesion depends on several parameters, including catheter tip electrode size and composition, tip orientation, temperature, RF pulse duration, power, blood flow, and catheter to tissue contact. The development of new contact force (CF sensor catheters has allowed the measurement of the tip to tissue CF during the RF ablation procedure. Here, we describe the clinical experience obtained using CF catheters for atrial fibrillation ablation, with a specific focus on the impact of CF technology on acute procedural data (procedure and fluoroscopy time.

  19. A computerised sampling strategy for therapeutic drug monitoring of lithium provides precise estimates and significantly reduces dose-finding time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Høgberg, Lotte Christine Groth; Jürgens, Gesche; Zederkof, Vivian Wederking;

    2012-01-01

    The clinical benefit of implementing Bayesian approach for lithium drug monitoring was evaluated. Intervention group (N = 42) and historical control group (N = 55) patients were each divided into two groups: Dosage with immediate-release lithium carbonate or a sustained-release formulation, lithium...... citrate. Bayesian approach was performed in the intervention groups, and estimation of lithium steady-state trough concentration was obtained from non-steady-state blood sample, collected about 12 hr after the first lithium study dose. The estimate was compared with the actually measured steady.......96 ± 11.24 days (mean ± S.D.) (p = 0.0003). Bayesian approach was an advantage for the clinicians as a fast and safe aid to obtain the optimal lithium treatment dose....

  20. Bovine type III interferon significantly delays and reduces the severity of foot-and-mouth disease in cattle

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interferons (IFNs) are the first line of defense against viral infections. Although type I and II IFNs have proven effective to inhibit foot-and-mouth disease virus (FMDV) replication in swine, a similar approach has had only limited efficacy in cattle. Recently, a new family of IFNs, type III IFN o...

  1. Post-exposure vaccination with multi-stage vaccine significantly reduce map level in tissues without interference in diagnostics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thakur, Aneesh; Aagaard, Claus; Melvang, Heidi Mikkelsen;

    of life and randomly assigned to four groups of seven calves each. One group was left unvaccinated, while other calves were post-exposure vaccinated with either a whole-cell vaccine at 16 weeks, or Fet11 vaccine at 3 and 7, or 16 and 20 weeks of age, respectively. Antibody responses were measured by ID...... to non-vaccinated calves. All 14 Fet11 vaccinated calves were negative in both single and comparative tuberculin testing. All whole-cell vaccinated calves seroconverted after vaccination, and four and one animal tested positive in the single and comparative tuberculin skin test, respectively...

  2. Crossing the Telemedicine Chasm: Have the U.S. Barriers to Widespread Adoption of Telemedicine Been Significantly Reduced?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cynthia LeRouge

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Barriers have challenged widespread telemedicine adoption by health care organizations for 40 years. These barriers have been technological, financial, and legal and have also involved business strategy and human resources. The article canvasses recent trends—events and activities in each of these areas as well as US health reform activities that might help to break down these barriers. The key to telemedicine success in the future is to view it as an integral part of health care services and not as a stand-alone project. Telemedicine must move from experimental and separate to integrated and equivalent to other health services within health care organizations. Furthermore, telemedicine serves as vital connective tissue for expanding health care organization networks.

  3. Immediate treatment with bicalutamide 150mg as adjuvant therapy significantly reduces the risk of PSA progression in early prostate cancer

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    See, W; Iversen, P; Wirth, M;

    2003-01-01

    To evaluate the effect of bicalutamide ('Casodex') 150mg (in addition to standard care), on the risk of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression, in patients with early prostate cancer.......To evaluate the effect of bicalutamide ('Casodex') 150mg (in addition to standard care), on the risk of prostate-specific antigen (PSA) progression, in patients with early prostate cancer....

  4. 26 CFR 54.4980F-1 - Notice requirements for certain pension plan amendments significantly reducing the rate of future...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... stock bonus plans and contracts under section 403(b) of the Internal Revenue Code, are not applicable... annual benefit commencing at normal retirement age (or at actual retirement age, if later) for benefits accruing for a year. For this purpose, the annual benefit commencing at normal retirement age is...

  5. Nevirapine Significantly Reduces the Levels of Racemic Methadone and (R)-Methadone in Human Immunodeficiency Virus-Infected Patients

    OpenAIRE

    Stocker, Hartmut; Kruse, Guido; Kreckel, Peter; Herzmann, Christian; Arastéh, Keikawus; Claus, Jörg; Jessen, Heiko; Cordes, Christiane; Hintsche, Bettina; Schlote, Frank; Schneider, Lothar; Kurowski, Michael

    2004-01-01

    Methadone is metabolized by various isoforms of the cytochrome P450 family, which can be induced by many drugs, including nevirapine. The objective of the present study was to determine the effects of coadministration of nevirapine and methadone on the dose-adjusted areas under the concentration-time curves (AUCs) of racemic and (R)-methadone. Twenty-five human immunodeficiency virus-infected subjects taking stable single daily doses of racemic methadone or (R)-methadone were included in this...

  6. Moral elevation reduces prejudice against gay men.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Calvin K; Haidt, Jonathan; Nosek, Brian A

    2014-01-01

    Disgust is linked to social evaluation. People with higher disgust sensitivity exhibit more sexual prejudice, and inducing disgust increases sexual prejudice. We tested whether inducing moral elevation, the theoretical opposite of disgust, would reduce sexual prejudice. In four studies (N = 3622), we induced elevation with inspiring videos and then measured sexual prejudice with implicit and explicit measures. Compared to control videos that elicited no particular affective state, we found that elevation reduced implicit and explicit sexual prejudice, albeit very slightly. No effect was observed when the target of social evaluation was changed to race (Black-White). Inducing amusement, another positive emotion, did not significantly affect sexual prejudice. We conclude that elevation weakly but reliably reduces prejudice towards gay men.

  7. Arbuscular mycorrhizas reduce nitrogen loss via leaching.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hamid R Asghari

    Full Text Available The capacity of mycorrhizal and non-mycorrhizal root systems to reduce nitrate (NO₃⁻ and ammonium (NH₄⁺ loss from soils via leaching was investigated in a microcosm-based study. A mycorrhiza defective tomato mutant and its mycorrhizal wildtype progenitor were used in this experiment in order to avoid the indirect effects of establishing non-mycorrhizal control treatments on soil nitrogen cycling and the wider soil biota. Mycorrhizal root systems dramatically reduced nitrate loss (almost 40 times less via leaching, compared to their non-mycorrhizal counterparts, following a pulse application of ammonium nitrate to experimental microcosms. The capacity of AM to reduce nutrient loss via leaching has received relatively little attention, but as demonstrated here, can be significant. Taken together, these data highlight the need to consider the potential benefits of AM beyond improvements in plant nutrition alone.

  8. Reduced herbicide rates: present and future

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kudsk, Per

    2014-01-01

    rates will result in maximum effects, 2) that the conditions at and around the time of application, e.g. growth stage of weeds, crop vigour and climatic condition are optimum promoting the activity of the herbicide and thus allows for the use of reduced herbicides rates, or 3) that less than maximum......Applying herbicides at rates lower than the label recommendation has been the rule rather than the exception in Denmark since the late 1980’s. Justifications for reducing herbicide rates can be 1) that the dominant weed species in the field are very susceptible to the herbicide, i.e. even reduced...... effects are accepted because the weed flora is not considered to have a significant effect on crop yield. “Crop Protection Online-Weed” (CPO-Weed) is a web-based decision support system that was developed to support farmers in their choice of herbicide and herbicide rate. CPOWeed will, based...

  9. Nature of Reduced Carbon in Martian Meteorites

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibson, Everett K., Jr.; McKay, D. S.; Thomas-Keprta, K. L.; Clemett, S. J.; White, L. M.

    2012-01-01

    Martian meteorites provide important information on the nature of reduced carbon components present on Mars throughout its history. The first in situ analyses for carbon on the surface of Mars by the Viking landers yielded disappointing results. With the recognition of Martian meteorites on Earth, investigations have shown carbon-bearing phases exist on Mars. Studies have yielded presence of reduced carbon, carbonates and inferred graphitic carbon phases. Samples ranging in age from the first approximately 4 Ga of Mars history [e.g. ALH84001] to nakhlites with a crystallization age of 1.3 Ga [e.g. Nakhla] with aqueous alteration processes occurring 0.5-0.7 Ga after crystallizaton. Shergottites demonstrate formation ages around 165-500 Ma with younger aqueous alterations events. Only a limited number of the Martian meteorites do not show evidence of significance terrestrial alterations. Selected areas within ALH84001, Nakhla, Yamato 000593 and possibly Tissint are suitable for study of their indigenous reduced carbon bearing phases. Nakhla possesses discrete, well-defined carbonaceous phases present within iddingsite alteration zones. Based upon both isotopic measurements and analysis of Nakhla's organic phases the presence of pre-terrestrial organics is now recognized. The reduced carbon-bearing phases appear to have been deposited during preterrestrial aqueous alteration events that produced clays. In addition, the microcrystalline layers of Nakhla's iddingsite have discrete units of salt crystals suggestive of evaporation processes. While we can only speculate on the origin of these unique carbonaceous structures, we note that the significance of such observations is that it may allow us to understand the role of Martian carbon as seen in the Martian meteorites with obvious implications for astrobiology and the pre-biotic evolution of Mars. In any case, our observations strongly suggest that reduced organic carbon exists as micrometer- size, discrete structures

  10. Significance of Jane Eyre' s Independence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘文涛

    2008-01-01

    Jane Eyre, by far the best known of Charlotte Bronte' s literary production, published 1847. Jane, the heroine, a governess's rebelliousness, her hate ot servility, her insistence on equality with her master, and her declaration that she has a right to feelings and passions that impresses me most. This paper, from what Jane Eyre experiences and what she thinks about the happenings, analyses Jane Eyreg independent characters and spirits in five segments each with its own setting: Gateshead, Lowood, Thnmfield, Moor House, Femdean, points out the significance of Jane Eyre's independence in her ages.

  11. Significance of Conflict Talk in interpersonal Relationships

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柯建华; 罗丹

    2016-01-01

    Conflict talks occur in almost every field of human life such as medicine, school, court, and some other social organizations where the interaction results are of much significance to the conversationalists, or in others words, to their status in the organization and honor in the society. A lot of conflicts go unresolved. Oppositional exchanges in a conflict may be used by participants to achieve certain goals, for instance, exploring and developing verbal skills as candidates in a debate competition do, and maintaining social hierarchies within groups or organizations such as leaders giving orders in an institution. Dealing with conflict helps to promote interpersonal relationships.

  12. Os odontoideum: a significant radiographic finding

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Choit, Rachel L.; Reilly, Christopher W. [BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Orthopaedics, Vancouver, BC (Canada); Jamieson, Douglas H. [BC Children' s Hospital, Department of Radiology, Vancouver (Canada)

    2005-08-01

    Os odontoideum can lead to instability of the atlantoaxial joint and places the spinal cord at significant risk for acute catastrophic events after minor trauma or chronic neurological change. We present two cases of os odontoideum in pediatric patients that were not appreciated at earlier remote imaging but were, in retrospect, detectable. One patient presented with an acute spinal cord injury. Incorporating assessment of dens integrity into the evaluation algorithm for all pediatric cervical spine studies should lead to early detection of os odontoideum lesions and allow referral to appropriate clinical spinal services for evaluation, surveillance and possible surgery to prevent future complications. (orig.)

  13. Significant Results from SUMER/SOHO

    CERN Document Server

    Dwivedi, B N

    2006-01-01

    We briefly outline recent observations by solar spacecraft such as Yohkoh, SOHO, TRACE, and RHESSI, which have revolutionized what we know and don't know about the Sun. We then present some significant results, mainly from SUMER/SOHO but also complimentary from the other SOHO's experiments, such as CDS, EIT, UVCS, and LASCO. In particular, we present density-temperature structures, explosive events, velocity anisotropy, wave activity, coronal holes and the solar wind etc. These results have provided valuable clues to a better understanding of the two of the SOHO's principal scientific objectives namely, how the Sun's magnetic energy heats its million-degree corona, and feeds the solar wind.

  14. Capturing clinically significant eating pathology in adolescence

    OpenAIRE

    Rasmus Isomaa; Anna-Lisa Isomaa; Mauri Marttunen; Riittakerttu Kaltiala-Heino

    2013-01-01

    Background and Objectives: Several large-scale studies on adolescent mental health have used questionnaire items derived from DSM-IV criteria to assess eating disorders. The aim of the present brief report was to analyse the capacity of self-reported eating disorder symptoms to capture clinically significant eating disorders. Methods: All pupils in the ninth grade (N = 606, response rate 98.2%, mean age = 15.4) of comprehensive school in a defined area were invited to participate in the study...

  15. Thermodynamic Significance of Human Basal Metabolism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WangCuncheng

    1993-01-01

    The human basal state,a non-equilibrium steady state,is analysed in this paper in the light of the First and Second Laws of Thermodynamics whereby the thermodynamic significance of the basal metabolic rate and its distinction to the dissipation function and exergy loss are identified.The analysis demonstrates the correct expression of the effects of the blood flow on the heat balance in a human-body bio-heat model and the relationship between the basal metabolic rate and the blood perfusion.

  16. Clinical significance of HIV-1 coreceptor usage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lusso Paolo

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The identification of phenotypically distinct HIV-1 variants with different prevalence during the progression of the disease has been one of the earliest discoveries in HIV-1 biology, but its relevance to AIDS pathogenesis remains only partially understood. The physiological basis for the phenotypic variability of HIV-1 was elucidated with the discovery of distinct coreceptors employed by the virus to infect susceptible cells. The role of the viral phenotype in the variable clinical course and treatment outcome of HIV-1 infection has been extensively investigated over the past two decades. In this review, we summarize the major findings on the clinical significance of the HIV-1 coreceptor usage.

  17. Significant exposures to isoeugenol derivatives in perfumes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rastogi, S.C.; Johansen, Jeanne Duus

    2008-01-01

    in perfumes/aftershaves. Materials and Methods: 29 international brand perfumes/aftershaves were analysed for the target fragrance ingredient by gas chromatography-mass spectrometery. All samples were analysed in duplicate at detection levels of 1-5 p.p.m. Results: 16 products (55%) contained isoeugenol...... was not detected in any of the investigated products. Conclusions: Isoeugenyl acetate is present in perfumes/aftershaves, in some products in significant amounts. This may lead to elicitation of contact allergy in isoeugenol-sensitized individuals and may contribute to unchanged levels of isoeugenol sensitization...

  18. Detecting significant changes in protein abundance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Kammers

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available We review and demonstrate how an empirical Bayes method, shrinking a protein's sample variance towards a pooled estimate, leads to far more powerful and stable inference to detect significant changes in protein abundance compared to ordinary t-tests. Using examples from isobaric mass labelled proteomic experiments we show how to analyze data from multiple experiments simultaneously, and discuss the effects of missing data on the inference. We also present easy to use open source software for normalization of mass spectrometry data and inference based on moderated test statistics.

  19. [Rheumatoid arthritis: problems and significance of personalized medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The last decade is prominent for significant progress in research in the field of mechanisms underlying development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) opening new prospects in pathogenetic treatment of this disease. A great success of RA pharmacotherapy during the last 10 year period is design of novel genetically engineered biological medicines. Achievements of molecular biology, pharmacological genetics and biological infornmation science promote an individual approach to treatment of RA patients within a new conception of individual medicine which considers personal aspects of genomic and proteomic sciences. This novel approach to treatment of RA patients can improve RA outcomes and noticeably reduce cost of the treatmnent.

  20. [Rheumatoid arthritis: problems and significance of personalized medicine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-01-01

    The last decade is prominent for significant progress in research in the field of mechanisms underlying development of rheumatoid arthritis (RA) opening new prospects in pathogenetic treatment of this disease. A great success of RA pharmacotherapy during the last 10 year period is design of novel genetically engineered biological medicines. Achievements of molecular biology, pharmacological genetics and biological infornmation science promote an individual approach to treatment of RA patients within a new conception of individual medicine which considers personal aspects of genomic and proteomic sciences. This novel approach to treatment of RA patients can improve RA outcomes and noticeably reduce cost of the treatmnent. PMID:22830204

  1. Leveraging Technology to Reduce Patient Transaction Costs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Edlow, Richard C

    2015-01-01

    Medical practices are under significant pressure to provide superior customer service in an environment of declining or flat reimbursement. The solution for many practices involves the integration of a variety of third-party technologies that conveniently interface with one's electronic practice management and medical records systems. Typically, the applications allow the practice to reduce the cost of each patient interaction. Drilling down to quantify the cost of each individual patient interaction helps to determine the practicality of implementation. PMID:26665478

  2. Improved regularization from Quantum Reduced Loop Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Alesci, Emanuele

    2016-01-01

    The choice of the regularization scheme in Loop Quantum Cosmology (LQC) is crucial for the predicted phenomenology. We outline how the improved scheme can be naturally realized in Quantum Reduced Loop Gravity, describing the Universe as an ensemble of microstates labeled by different graphs. The new effective dynamics presents corrections to LQC, which do not significantly affect the bouncing scenario for the most relevant kinds of matter fields in cosmology $(w \\leq 1)$.

  3. Dietary Polyphenols and Their Biological Significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hongxiang Lou

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Dietary polyphenols represent a wide variety of compounds that occur in fruits,vegetables, wine, tea, extra virgin olive oil, chocolate and other cocoa products. They aremostly derivatives and/or isomers of flavones, isoflavones, flavonols, catechins andphenolic acids, and possess diverse biological properties such as antioxidant, antiapoptosis,anti-aging, anticarcinogen, anti-inflammation, anti-atherosclerosis, cardiovascularprotection, improvement of the endothelial function, as well as inhibition of angiogenesisand cell proliferation activity. Most of these biological actions have been attributed to theirintrinsic reducing capabilities. They may also offer indirect protection by activatingendogenous defense systems and by modulating cellular signaling processes such asnuclear factor-kappa B (NF-кB activation, activator protein-1(AP-1 DNA binding,glutathione biosynthesis, phosphoinositide 3 (PI3-kinase/protein kinase B (Akt pathway,mitogen-activated protein kinase (MAPK proteins [extracellular signal-regulated proteinkinase (ERK, c-jun N-terminal kinase (JNK and P38 ] activation, and the translocationinto the nucleus of nuclear factor erythroid 2 related factor 2 (Nrf2. This paper covers themost recent literature on the subject, and describes the biological mechanisms of action andprotective effects of dietary polyphenols.

  4. Cerebrospinal fluid stasis and its clinical significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Whedon, James M; Glassey, Donald

    2009-01-01

    We hypothesize that stasis of the cerebrospinal fluid (CSF) occurs commonly and is detrimental to health. Physiologic factors affecting the normal circulation of CSF include cardiovascular, respiratory, and vasomotor influences. The CSF maintains the electrolytic environment of the central nervous system (CNS), influences systemic acid-base balance, serves as a medium for the supply of nutrients to neuronal and glial cells, functions as a lymphatic system for the CNS by removing the waste products of cellular metabolism, and transports hormones, neurotransmitters, releasing factors, and other neuropeptides throughout the CNS. Physiologic impedance or cessation of CSF flow may occur commonly in the absence of degenerative changes or pathology and may compromise the normal physiologic functions of the CSF. CSF appears to be particularly prone to stasis within the spinal canal. CSF stasis may be associated with adverse mechanical cord tension, vertebral subluxation syndrome, reduced cranial rhythmic impulse, and restricted respiratory function. Increased sympathetic tone, facilitated spinal segments, dural tension, and decreased CSF flow have been described as closely related aspects of an overall pattern of structural and energetic dysfunction in the axial skeleton and CNS. Therapies directed at affecting CSF flow include osteopathic care (especially cranial manipulation), craniosacral therapy, chiropractic adjustment of the spine and cranium, Network Care (formerly Network Chiropractic), massage therapy (including lymphatic drainage techniques), yoga, therapeutic breath-work, and cerebrospinal fluid technique. Further investigation into the nature and causation of CSF stasis, its potential effects upon human health, and effective therapies for its correction is warranted. PMID:19472865

  5. Toxicological Significance of Silicon-protein Interaction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farhat N. Jaffery

    1987-04-01

    Full Text Available In order to understand the molecular mechanism of the toxicity of Si containing particulate air pollutants, the interaction between silicate anion and proteins was studied. On the basis of molecular sieving profile, the presence of a protein fraction capable of binding silicic acid was detected in rat lung and serum. The binding is firm being able to withstand dialysis, Si-binding by Bovine Serum Albumin (BSA follows stoichiometric principles indicating true chemical reaction in terms of effects of pH, temperature and period of incubation. Fluorescence spectrum of the BSA-Si complex decreased with an increase in Si concentration. Effect of Si-binding on trypsin activity against albumin showed that proteins other than albumin could also interact with Si-trypsin containing silica showed distinctly low, catalytic activity against native BSA. When both the substrate and enzyme contained bound Si, the activity further reduced by 36 per cent as compared to both pure trypsin and pure BSA, clearly indicating that binding of Si with substrate or enzyme proteins can adversely effect the biological activity. Complexing with proteins is likely to play a role in pathogenesis of pneumoconiosis, elimination of dusts, formation of silicate stones in plants and animals, and possibly in the reported role of Si in nutrition, cardiovascular diseases and ageing.

  6. Origin and significance of defects in welds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the past 10 to 15 years significant advances have taken place in the understanding of the origin and nature of weld discontinuities. The furthering of the knowledge of hot cracking, cold cracking, lamellar tearing and porosity formation is due to the development and utilization of sophisticated techniques for microscopy and microanalysis and the concerted efforts of many researchers in the U.S. and abroad. Concurrent with the progress toward better definition of the metallurgical mechanisms for discontinuity formation, the development of the fracture mechanics approach for the assessment of the significance of the discontinuities was brought into focus. It is the marriage of the metallurgical understanding of formation and the mechanics assessment of relevance that permits discontinuities to be treated with a new degree of sophistication. The many types of cracking and porosity formation were the subjects of numerous studies in the intervening years. This presentation will treat the various types of weld discontinuities which have their origin closely related to a metallurgical mechanism. Emphasis will be placed on hot cracking, and porosity formation with information presented on cold cracking, reheat cracking and lamellar tearing. The employment of the newer metallurgical tools will be discussed in terms of their utilization in determining the cause of discontinuity formation

  7. Clinical significance of granuloma in Crohn's disease

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tamás Molnár; László Tiszlavicz; Csaba Gyulai; Ferenc Nagy; János Lonovics

    2005-01-01

    AIM: Granuloma is considered the hallmark of microscopic diagnosis in Crohn's disease (CD), but granulomas can be detected in only 21-60% of CD patients. The aim of this studywas to evaluate the frequency of granulomas by multiple endoscopic biopsies in patients with CD and to examine whether group of patients with or without granuloma exhibit a different clinical course.METHODS: Fifty-six patients with newly diagnosed Cdwere included in the study. Jejunoscopy, enteroclysis and ileo-colonoscopy were performed in all patients. At least two biopsy specimens from each examined gastrointestinal segment were examined microscopically searching granuloma. The clinical course was followed in all patients, and extraintestinal manifestations as well as details of any immunosuppressive therapy and surgical intervention were noted.RESULTS: Granuloma was found in 44.6% of the cases (25 patients). Patients with granuloma had higher activity parameters at the time of the biopsies. Extraintestinal manifestations were observed and surgical interventions were performed more often in the granuloma group. The need of immunosuppressive therapy was significantly more frequent in the patients with granuloma. Granuloma formation is more often seen in younger patients, and mainly in the severe, active penetrating disease. CONCLUSION: The significantly higher frequency of surgical interventions and immunosuppressive therapy suggests that granuloma formation is associated with a more severe disease course during the first years of CD.

  8. Adaptive significance of root grafting in trees

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Loehle, C.; Jones, R.

    1988-12-31

    Root grafting has long been observed in forest trees but the adaptive significance of this trait has not been fully explained. Various authors have proposed that root grafting between trees contributes to mechanical support by linking adjacent root systems. Keeley proposes that this trait would be of greatest advantage in swamps where soils provide poor mechanical support. He provides as evidence a greenhouse study of Nyssa sylvatica Marsh in which seedlings of swamp provenance formed between-individual root grafts more frequently than upland provenance seedlings. In agreement with this within-species study, Keeley observed that arid zone species rarely exhibit grafts. Keeley also demonstrated that vines graft less commonly than trees, and herbs never do. Since the need for mechanical support coincides with this trend, these data seem to support his model. In this paper, the authors explore the mechanisms and ecological significance of root grafting, leading to predictions of root grafting incidence. Some observations support and some contradict the mechanical support hypothesis.

  9. IMAGE STEGANOGRAPHY DENGAN METODE LEAST SIGNIFICANT BIT (LSB

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Miftakul Amin

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Security in delivering a secret message is an important factor in the spread of information in cyberspace. Protecting that message to be delivered to the party entitled to, should be made a message concealment mechanism. The purpose of this study was to hide a secret text message into digital images in true color 24 bit RGB format. The method used to insert a secret message using the LSB (Least Significant Bit by replacing the last bit or 8th bit in each RGB color component. RGB image file types option considering that messages can be inserted capacity greater than if use a grayscale image, this is because in one pixel can be inserted 3 bits message. Tests provide results that are hidden messages into a digital image does not reduce significantly the quality of the digital image, and the message has been hidden can be extracted again, so that messages can be delivered to the recipient safely.

  10. Arcuate foramen and its clinical significance

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present study determines the degree of ossification of the posterior atlanto-occipital membrane in dry bone, plane lateral cervical spine radiographs and computer tomography (CT). The average length, width and the area of the arcuate foramen were measured on dry bone and on cervical CT. Further, age, gender and complaints of the patients of shoulder and arm pain, neck pain, headache, vertigo, and lacrimation in relation to the presence of bony complete or incomplete arcuate foramen were evaluated. From February 2004 to January 2005 60 dry atlases were obtained from the Anatomy Department, University of Marmara, Istanbul, Turkey and 416 lateral cervical spine radiographs were obtained from the Radiology department for neurological and orthopedic evaluations. Each complete arcuate foramen was calculated with the aid of Clemex Vision PE demo version computer program. Among the 60 dry atlases examined 7 (11.7%) had complete and 2 (3.3 %) had incomplete bony bridge formation. Of the 416 plane lateral cervical spine radiographs examined, 30 (7.2%) had complete and 26 (6.25%) had incomplete bony bridge formation. Of the 30 complete arcuate foramen 24 (80%) were females and 6 (20%) were males. The frequency of having a complete arcuate foramen in females was 8.45%, and in males it was 4.55%. Further, of the 26 incomplete arcuate foramen 20 (76.9%) were females and 6 (23.1%) were males. The frequency of having an incomplete arcuate foramen in females was 7%, and in males was 4.55%. The statistical evaluations showed that patients with complete arcuate foramen had significant complaints of shoulder-arm pain (p=0.0072), neck pain (p=0.0072) and vertigo (p=0.0598) compared to patients with incomplete arcuate foramen. The patients with complete arcuate foramen had a headache ratio of 12:30 and this ratio was 2:26 in patients with incomplete arcuate foramen and the difference between complete and incomplete arcuate foramen was statistically significant (p=0.0062). Further

  11. Significant determinants of mouse pain behaviour.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael S Minett

    Full Text Available Transgenic mouse behavioural analysis has furthered our understanding of the molecular and cellular mechanisms underlying damage sensing and pain. However, it is not unusual for conflicting data on the pain phenotypes of knockout mice to be generated by reputable groups. Here we focus on some technical aspects of measuring mouse pain behaviour that are often overlooked, which may help explain discrepancies in the pain literature. We examined touch perception using von Frey hairs and mechanical pain thresholds using the Randall-Selitto test. Thermal pain thresholds were measured using the Hargreaves apparatus and a thermal place preference test. Sodium channel Nav1.7 knockout mice show a mechanical deficit in the hairy skin, but not the paw, whilst shaving the abdominal hair abolished this phenotype. Nav1.7, Nav1.8 and Nav1.9 knockout mice show deficits in noxious mechanosensation in the tail, but not the paw. TRPA1 knockout mice, however, have a loss of noxious mechanosensation in the paw but not the tail. Studies of heat and cold sensitivity also show variability depending on the intensity of the stimulus. Deleting Nav1.7, Nav1.8 or Nav1.9 in Nav1.8-positive sensory neurons attenuates responses to slow noxious heat ramps, whilst responses to fast noxious heat ramps are only reduced when Nav1.7 is lost in large diameter sensory neurons. Deleting Nav1.7 from all sensory neurons attenuates responses to noxious cooling but not extreme cold. Finally, circadian rhythms dramatically influence behavioural outcome measures such as von Frey responses, which change by 80% over the day. These observations demonstrate that fully characterising the phenotype of a transgenic mouse strain requires a range of behavioural pain models. Failure to conduct behavioural tests at different anatomical locations, stimulus intensities, and at different points in the circadian cycle may lead to a pain behavioural phenotype being misinterpreted, or missed altogether.

  12. The significance of numerical coincidences in nature

    CERN Document Server

    Carter, Brandon

    2007-01-01

    This is the first part of a survey whose ultimate purpose is to clarify the significance of the famous coincidence between the Hubble age of the universe and a certain combination of microphysical parameters. In this part the way is prepared by a discussion of the manner in which familiar local phenomena depend qualitatively, and in order of magnitude, quantitatively on the fundamental parameters of microphysics. In order to keep the account concise while remaining self contained, only the barest essentials of the standard nuclear physical and astrophysical calculations involved are given. Only six of the fundamental parameters play a dominant part, namely the coupling constants of the strong, electromagnetic, and gravitational forces, and the mass ratios of the proton, neutron, electron and pi-meson. Attention is drawn to the important consequences of three coincidental relationships between these parameters. It is shown that most of the principle limiting masses of astrophysics arise (in fundamental units) ...

  13. Significance of salmonella in pork production chain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karabasil Neđeljko

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Animals, feed, meat and meat products are often transported across long distances, being an important part of international trade, which enables a dissemination of salmonella, including even of some resistant strains. Pigs are animals which are difficult to manipulate because of their temperament, build, sharp teeth, irritability, good sense of smell, bad sight and their sensitivity to stress. Animals coming from different farms should be separated in stock yards to prevent both contamination with pathogens such as salmonella and their irritation and aggressiveness caused by contacts with other pigs. These animals are usually a significant reservoir of salmonella which are 'inside' the gastrointestinal tract and gut associated lymph tissue. In contrast to our country, in the EU, even countries which have always had low salmonella prevalence, e.g. Finland, have a control program. The program has to be based on a guarantee that all relevant factors will participate in the prevention of salmonella contamination.

  14. The Symbolic Significance of The Scarlet Letter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张力

    2007-01-01

    As a great romantic novelist in America in 19th century, Hawthorne was outstanding in handling the application of symbolism. The Scarlet Letter is Hawthorne's most important symbolic novel, which stands as the best work of Hawthorne and one of the indubitable masterpieces of American literature. This thesis aims at the exploration of the usage of the symbolism in the novel. It mainly discusses the deep symbolic significance of the scarlet letter "A" and the little pearl. The scarlet letter is the central symbol of the novel. Its symbolic meaning changes from 'adultery' to 'able', even 'angelic' in the novel. It also examines the symbolic meanings of little Pearl and some typical natural surroundings such as the jail, the forest, the rosebush and so on.

  15. THRESHOLD OF SIGNIFICANCE IN STRESS MANAGEMENT

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena RUSE

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Stress management is the individual's ability to handle any situation, external conditions, to match the demands of the external environment. The researchers revealed several stages in the stress response. A first phase was called ‘‘alert reaction'' or ‘‘immediate reaction to stress‘‘, phase in which there are physiological modifications and manifestations that occur under psychological aspect. Adaptation phase is the phase in which the reactions from the first phase diminishes or disappears. Exhaustion phase is related to the diversity of stress factors and time and may exceed the resources of the human body to adapt. Influencing factors may be: limited, cognitive, perceptual, and a priori. But there is a threshold of significance in stress management. Once the reaction to external stimuli occurs, awareness is needed. The capability effect occurs, any side effect goes away and comes out the ''I AM'' effect.

  16. Quantifying the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    David J Allsop

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND AND AIMS: Questions over the clinical significance of cannabis withdrawal have hindered its inclusion as a discrete cannabis induced psychiatric condition in the Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders (DSM IV. This study aims to quantify functional impairment to normal daily activities from cannabis withdrawal, and looks at the factors predicting functional impairment. In addition the study tests the influence of functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal on cannabis use during and after an abstinence attempt. METHODS AND RESULTS: A volunteer sample of 49 non-treatment seeking cannabis users who met DSM-IV criteria for dependence provided daily withdrawal-related functional impairment scores during a one-week baseline phase and two weeks of monitored abstinence from cannabis with a one month follow up. Functional impairment from withdrawal symptoms was strongly associated with symptom severity (p=0.0001. Participants with more severe cannabis dependence before the abstinence attempt reported greater functional impairment from cannabis withdrawal (p=0.03. Relapse to cannabis use during the abstinence period was associated with greater functional impairment from a subset of withdrawal symptoms in high dependence users. Higher levels of functional impairment during the abstinence attempt predicted higher levels of cannabis use at one month follow up (p=0.001. CONCLUSIONS: Cannabis withdrawal is clinically significant because it is associated with functional impairment to normal daily activities, as well as relapse to cannabis use. Sample size in the relapse group was small and the use of a non-treatment seeking population requires findings to be replicated in clinical samples. Tailoring treatments to target withdrawal symptoms contributing to functional impairment during a quit attempt may improve treatment outcomes.

  17. Prognostic significance of serum bilirubin in stroke

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Background: Oxidative injury is an important cause of the neurologic lesion in stroke. Serum bilirubin is considered a natural antioxidant that may affect the prognosis of stroke. The purpose of this study was to evaluate the prognostic significance of bilirubin in stroke patients. Methods: A prospective cross-sectional study was conducted in Medical Units of Khyber Teaching Hospital, Peshawar. Inpatients admitted with acute attack of stroke were included in this study. Data regarding serum bilirubin and concurrent cerebrovascular risk factors were collected. National Institutes of Health Stroke Scale (NIHSS) and modified Rankin Scale (mRS) were used to analyse stroke's severity and functional outcomes, respectively. Results: Hypertension, diabetes mellitus and heart diseases were the most common risk factors. Patients were divided into 3 groups on the basis of serum bilirubin, i.e., =0.6 mg/dl (Group-1), 0.7-0.9 mg/dl (Group-2), and =1.0 mg/dl (Group-3). The mean pre-hospitalisation NIHSS score for Groups 1, 2 and 3 was 5.62, 11.66 and 25.33, respectively; and post-hospitalisation score was 0.875, 3.76 and 16.26, respectively. The pre-hospitalisation mRS score was 4 for Group-1, 4.52 for Group-2 and 4.93 for Group-3; while post-hospitalisation Mrs Score was 1.50, 2.38 and 4.26, respectively. Average serum bilirubin level was significantly higher in patients with poor outcomes as compared with good outcomes (p<0.01). Conclusions: This study suggests that higher serum bilirubin levels were associated with increased stroke severity, longer hospitalisation and poor prognosis. (author)

  18. Innovative approaches to reduce animal testing : replace whenever possible, reduce through refinement and mechanistic understanding

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ravenzwaay, van B.

    2013-01-01

    'Many of the in vitro toxicological studies have not been sufficiently validated to determine their applicability domain, even less have gained regulatory acceptance. Major advantage of in vitro testing today is the early identification of significant hazards in compound development and reduced and

  19. Addition of Cryoprotectant Significantly Alters the Epididymal Sperm Proteome.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sung-Jae Yoon

    Full Text Available Although cryopreservation has been developed and optimized over the past decades, it causes various stresses, including cold shock, osmotic stress, and ice crystal formation, thereby reducing fertility. During cryopreservation, addition of cryoprotective agent (CPA is crucial for protecting spermatozoa from freezing damage. However, the intrinsic toxicity and osmotic stress induced by CPA cause damage to spermatozoa. To identify the effects of CPA addition during cryopreservation, we assessed the motility (%, motion kinematics, capacitation status, and viability of epididymal spermatozoa using computer-assisted sperm analysis and Hoechst 33258/chlortetracycline fluorescence staining. Moreover, the effects of CPA addition were also demonstrated at the proteome level using two-dimensional electrophoresis. Our results demonstrated that CPA addition significantly reduced sperm motility (%, curvilinear velocity, viability (%, and non-capacitated spermatozoa, whereas straightness and acrosome-reacted spermatozoa increased significantly (p 3 fold, p < 0.05 after CPA, whereas NADH dehydrogenase flavoprotein 2, f-actin-capping protein subunit beta, superoxide dismutase 2, and outer dense fiber protein 2 were associated with several important signaling pathways (p < 0.05. The present study provides a mechanistic basis for specific cryostresses and potential markers of CPA-induced stress. Therefore, these might provide information about the development of safe biomaterials for cryopreservation and basic ground for sperm cryopreservation.

  20. Advances in Significance Testing for Cluster Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Coleman, Deidra Andrea

    Over the past two decades, much attention has been given to data driven project goals such as the Human Genome Project and the development of syndromic surveillance systems. A major component of these types of projects is analyzing the abundance of data. Detecting clusters within the data can be beneficial as it can lead to the identification of specified sequences of DNA nucleotides that are related to important biological functions or the locations of epidemics such as disease outbreaks or bioterrorism attacks. Cluster detection techniques require efficient and accurate hypothesis testing procedures. In this dissertation, we improve upon the hypothesis testing procedures for cluster detection by enhancing distributional theory and providing an alternative method for spatial cluster detection using syndromic surveillance data. In Chapter 2, we provide an efficient method to compute the exact distribution of the number and coverage of h-clumps of a collection of words. This method involves defining a Markov chain using a minimal deterministic automaton to reduce the number of states needed for computation. We allow words of the collection to contain other words of the collection making the method more general. We use our method to compute the distributions of the number and coverage of h-clumps in the Chi motif of H. influenza.. In Chapter 3, we provide an efficient algorithm to compute the exact distribution of multiple window discrete scan statistics for higher-order, multi-state Markovian sequences. This algorithm involves defining a Markov chain to efficiently keep track of probabilities needed to compute p-values of the statistic. We use our algorithm to identify cases where the available approximation does not perform well. We also use our algorithm to detect unusual clusters of made free throw shots by National Basketball Association players during the 2009-2010 regular season. In Chapter 4, we give a procedure to detect outbreaks using syndromic

  1. Rock avalanches: significance and progress (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, T. R.

    2013-12-01

    1. The probability distribution of landslide volumes follows a power-law indicating that large rock avalanches dominate the terrestrial sediment supply from mountains, and that their source area morphologies dominate mountain topography. 2. Large rock slope failures (~ 106 m3 or greater) often mobilise into rock avalanches, which can travel extraordinarily long distances with devastating effect. This hypermobility has been the subject of many investigations; we have demonstrated that it can be explained quantitatively and accurately by considering the energetics of the intense rock fragmentation that always occurs during motion of a large rock mass. 3. Study of rock avalanche debris psd shows that the energy used in creating new rock surface area during fragmentation is not lost to surface energy, but is recycled generating a high-frequency elastic energy field that reduces the frictional resistance to motion during runout. 4. Rock avalanches that deposit on glaciers can eventually form large terminal moraines that have no connection with any climatic event; unless these are identified as rock-avalanche-influenced they can confuse palaeoclimatic inferences drawn from moraine ages. Rock-avalanche-derived fines, however, can be identified in moraine debris up to ten thousand years old by the characteristic micron-scale agglomerates that form during intense fragmentation, and which are absent from purely climatically-induced moraines; there is thus a strong case for re-examining existing palaeoclimatic databases to eliminate potentially rock-avalanche-influenced moraine ages. 5. Rock avalanches (especially coseismic ones) are a serious hazard, being very destructive in their own right; they also block river valleys, forming landslide dams and potentially devastating dambreak floods, and subsequent severe decade-scale aggradation of downstream fans and floodplains. Rock avalanches falling into lakes or fiords can cause catastrophic tsunami that pose a serious risk to

  2. Assessing statistical significance in causal graphs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chindelevitch Leonid

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Causal graphs are an increasingly popular tool for the analysis of biological datasets. In particular, signed causal graphs--directed graphs whose edges additionally have a sign denoting upregulation or downregulation--can be used to model regulatory networks within a cell. Such models allow prediction of downstream effects of regulation of biological entities; conversely, they also enable inference of causative agents behind observed expression changes. However, due to their complex nature, signed causal graph models present special challenges with respect to assessing statistical significance. In this paper we frame and solve two fundamental computational problems that arise in practice when computing appropriate null distributions for hypothesis testing. Results First, we show how to compute a p-value for agreement between observed and model-predicted classifications of gene transcripts as upregulated, downregulated, or neither. Specifically, how likely are the classifications to agree to the same extent under the null distribution of the observed classification being randomized? This problem, which we call "Ternary Dot Product Distribution" owing to its mathematical form, can be viewed as a generalization of Fisher's exact test to ternary variables. We present two computationally efficient algorithms for computing the Ternary Dot Product Distribution and investigate its combinatorial structure analytically and numerically to establish computational complexity bounds. Second, we develop an algorithm for efficiently performing random sampling of causal graphs. This enables p-value computation under a different, equally important null distribution obtained by randomizing the graph topology but keeping fixed its basic structure: connectedness and the positive and negative in- and out-degrees of each vertex. We provide an algorithm for sampling a graph from this distribution uniformly at random. We also highlight theoretical

  3. Clinical significance of MET in gastric cancer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mikito; Inokuchi; Sho; Otsuki; Yoshitaka; Fujimori; Yuya; Sato; Masatoshi; Nakagawa; Kazuyuki; Kojima

    2015-01-01

    Chemotherapy has become the global standard treatment for patients with metastatic or unresectable gastric cancer(GC),although outcomes remain unfavorable.Many molecular-targeted therapies inhibiting signaling pathways of various tyrosine kinase receptors have been developed,and monoclonal antibodies targeting human epidermal growth factor receptor 2 or vascular endothelial growth factor receptor 2 have become standard therapy for GC.Hepatocyte growth factor and its receptor,c-MET(MET),play key roles in tumor growth through activated signaling pathways from receptor in GC cells.Genomic amplification of MET leads to the aberrant activation found in GC tumors and is related to survival in patients with GC.This review discusses the clinical significance of MET in GC and examines MET as a potential therapeutic target in patients with GC.Preclinical studies in animal models have shown that MET antibodies or smallmolecule MET inhibitors suppress tumor-cell proliferation and tumor progression in MET-amplified GC cells.These drugs are now being evaluated in clinical trials as treatments for metastatic or unresectable GC.

  4. Capturing clinically significant eating pathology in adolescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rasmus Isomaa

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Background and Objectives: Several large-scale studies on adolescent mental health have used questionnaire items derived from DSM-IV criteria to assess eating disorders. The aim of the present brief report was to analyse the capacity of self-reported eating disorder symptoms to capture clinically significant eating disorders. Methods: All pupils in the ninth grade (N = 606, response rate 98.2%, mean age = 15.4 of comprehensive school in a defined area were invited to participate in the study. Adolescents who reported some form of eating pathology (n = 126 were invited to an interview (RAB. Results: Anorexia based on the self-report resulted in a positive predictive value of 60.0% for lifetime and 20% for current eating disorder, when compared to the results in the RAB. No case of BN was detected by the RAB, but self-reported BN symptoms were predictive of both EDNOS and subclinical eating pathology. Conclusions: Self-reported eating disorder symptoms seem to be relatively good predictors of broadly defined eating pathology, but may result in overestimation of clinical conditions.

  5. Novalike Cataclysmic Variables are Significant Radio Emitters

    CERN Document Server

    Coppejans, Deanne L; Miller-Jones, James C A; Rupen, Michael P; Knigge, Christian; Sivakoff, Gregory R; Groot, Paul J

    2015-01-01

    Radio emission from non-magnetic cataclysmic variables (CVs, accreting white dwarfs) could allow detailed studies of outflows and possibly accretion flows in these nearby, numerous and non-relativistic compact accretors. Up to now, however, very few CVs have been detected in the radio. We have conducted a VLA pilot survey of four close and optically-bright novalike CVs at 6 GHz, detecting three, and thereby doubling the number of radio detections of these systems. RW Sex, V603 Aql and the old nova TT Ari were detected in both of the epochs, while V1084 Her was not detected (to a $3\\sigma$ upper-limit of 7.8 $\\mu\\rm{Jy}\\,\\rm{beam}^{-1}$). These observations clearly show that the sensitivity of previous surveys was typically too low to detect these objects and that non-magnetic CVs can indeed be significant radio emitters. The three detected sources show a range of properties, including flaring and variability on both short ($\\sim$200 s) and longer-term (days) time-scales, as well as circular polarization level...

  6. Augustine, his sermons, and their significance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johannes Van Oort

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Augustine’s sermons provide a unique source in explaining his influence from the 5th century onwards as a theologian and pastor, a minister of the Word preached and celebrated in the sacrament. Of particular value in this regard are his sermons on the Psalms. Issues of authenticity are also considered in this article. The influence of Augustine’s sermons was widespread through their tradition and adaptation by others. A substantial and reliable corpus of his sermons is available today. As a pastor, Augustine was anxious to challenge heresy in his preaching, especially to confront the Donatists, Manichaeans and Pelagians. His preaching is considered in the wider context of congregational worship with its origins in the synagogue. Of special importance are his preaching techniques, while his doctrine of ‘the inner teacher’ (magister interior is equally significant. Essential elements of Augustine’s theory and practice became influential in the early days of the Protestant Reformation (Luther, Calvin and others. The author briefly touches on the question of their relevance for today’s congregational worship.

  7. Significance of duon mutations in cancer genomes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yadav, Vinod Kumar; Smith, Kyle S.; Flinders, Colin; Mumenthaler, Shannon M.; de, Subhajyoti

    2016-06-01

    Functional mutations in coding regions not only affect the structure and function of the protein products, but may also modulate their expression in some cases. This class of mutations, recently dubbed “duon mutations” due to their dual roles, can potentially have major impacts on downstream pathways. However their significance in diseases such as cancer remain unclear. In a survey covering 4606 samples from 19 cancer types, and integrating allelic expression, overall mRNA expression, regulatory motif perturbation, and chromatin signatures in one composite index called REDACT score, we identified potential duon mutations. Several such mutations are detected in known cancer genes in multiple cancer types. For instance a potential duon mutation in TP53 is associated with increased expression of the mutant allelic gene copy, thereby possibly amplifying the functional effects on the downstream pathways. Another potential duon mutation in SF3B1 is associated with abnormal splicing and changes in angiogenesis and matrix degradation related pathways. Our findings emphasize the need to interrogate the mutations in coding regions beyond their obvious effects on protein structures.

  8. Pseudogene redux with new biological significance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salmena, Leonardo

    2014-01-01

    The study of pseudogenes, originally dismissed as genomic relics of evolutionary selection, has seen a resurgence in scientific literature, in addition to being a peculiar topic of discussion in theological debates. For a long time, pseudogenes have been touted as a beacon of natural selection and a definitive proof of evolution due to the slow mutation rate that differentiated them from their parental genes and ultimately caused their genetic demise as functional genes. It now seems that "creationists" have co-opted some recent reports identifying unheralded biological functions to pseudogens and other noncoding RNAs as evidence to undermine the existence of evolution and supporting intelligent design. This issue of Methods in Molecular Biology focused on pseudogenes will certainly not end, nor enter this debate; however, scientists who are also genomics and pseudogene enthusiasts will certainly appreciate that many scientists are thinking about these particular genetic elements in new and interesting ways. With this new interest in a biological significance and "non-junk" role for pseudogenes and other noncoding RNAs, new methods and approaches are being developed to unlock the mystery of these ancient artifacts we know as pseudogenes. In this brief introductory chapter we highlight the renewed interest in pseudogenes and review a rationale for intensification of pseudogene-related research.

  9. Measurement and significance of sperm morphology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Roelof Menkveld; Cas AG Holleboom; Johann PT Rhemrev

    2011-01-01

    The measurement or evaluation and clinical significance of human sperm morphology has always been and still is a controversial aspect of the semen analysis for the determination of a male's fertility potential.In this review the background of the development of the evaluation criteria for sperm morphology will be discussed.Aspects of criticism on the strict criteria definition and use of the criteria for sperm morphology evaluation will be discussed as well as possible reasons for the decline in normal sperm morphology values and how we can compromise for this phenomenon resulting in the very low normal reference value as published in the 2010 WHO manual for the Examination and Processing of Human Semen.One of the possible solutions may be to give more attention to a limited number of abnormal sperm morphology categories and the inclusion of sperm morphology patterns.It is concluded in this review that if done correctly and with care and with strict application of existing guidelines as outlined in the 2010 WHO manual,sperm morphology measurement still has a very important role to play in the clinical evaluation of male fertility potential.

  10. Significant Silica Solubility in Geothermal Steam

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    James, Russell

    1986-01-21

    Although it is widely believed that silica solubility in low pressure (5 to 10 bar) geothermal steam is negligible, when one takes into account steam flows exceeding 10 million tonnes a year--at Wairakei, for instance--it is found that the amount transmitted in the vapor has the potential to give significant deposits on turbine nozzles and blades. A 150 MWe power station, when based on flows from a hot water reservoir at (a) 250 C or (b) 315 C, and with separator pressures of 6 bar, is found to carry about 100 and 200 kg/year respectively in the steam phase. In the case of a similar sized station exploiting a dry steam reservoir such as The Geysers, equivalent silica flows are obtained, dissolved in steam and carried as dust--the latter as solid particles precipitating from the vapor en route from source to turbine, and not preexisting in the formations as is commonly considered. Choking or coating of subterranean rock near such dry steam wells due to exsolving silica, may be the principal cause of declining steam discharge under production. Silica from completely dry or superheated steam can also seal the cap and sides of steam reservoirs when expanding below the criticus temperature (236 C) in a way previously thought possible only by hot water or wet steam.

  11. THE SIGNIFICANCE OF STRESS HORMONES IN PSORIASIS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F Z Zangeneh

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available "nPsoriasis is a chronic, non-contagious skin condition characterized by inflamed and scaly lesions of skin. Whilst the pathogenesis of psoriasis is not known, psychological stress has been implicated as a potential trigger in the onset and exacerbation of the condition. Psychiatric and psychological factors play an important role in at least 30% of dermatologic disorder and pathophysiologic link between psychological stress (PS and disease expression remains unclear. Recent studies demonstrated PS-induced alterations in permeability barrier homeostasis, mediated by increased endogenous glucocorticoids. As activation of the hypothalamic pituitary adrenal axis (HPA is critical to a successful stress response, we investigated this in patients with psoriasis. This study was performed on 55 patients (40 females and 15 males visited our clinic for treatment of psoriasis in pharmacology department. We measured the rate of activation of HPA by hormonal changes. These patients displayed higher fasting blood sugar (FBS, epinephrine (Ep, adrenocorticotropin hormone (ACTH, aldosterone, prolactin, growth hormone and estradiol hormones value but diminished cortisol and corticotropin releasing factor (CRF. These results show that HPA and psychoneuroendocrine hormones have a significant role in psoriasis.

  12. Standardising Responsibility? The Significance of Interstitial Spaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wickson, Fern; Forsberg, Ellen-Marie

    2015-10-01

    Modern society is characterised by rapid technological development that is often socially controversial and plagued by extensive scientific uncertainty concerning its socio-ecological impacts. Within this context, the concept of 'responsible research and innovation' (RRI) is currently rising to prominence in international discourse concerning science and technology governance. As this emerging concept of RRI begins to be enacted through instruments, approaches, and initiatives, it is valuable to explore what it is coming to mean for and in practice. In this paper we draw attention to a realm that is often backgrounded in the current discussions of RRI but which has a highly significant impact on scientific research, innovation and policy-namely, the interstitial space of international standardization. Drawing on the case of nanoscale sciences and technologies to make our argument, we present examples of how international standards are already entangled in the development of RRI and yet, how the process of international standardization itself largely fails to embody the norms proposed as characterizing RRI. We suggest that although current models for RRI provide a promising attempt to make research and innovation more responsive to societal needs, ethical values and environmental challenges, such approaches will need to encompass and address a greater diversity of innovation system agents and spaces if they are to prove successful in their aims. PMID:25344842

  13. Origin and significance of chromosomal alterations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The spontaneous frequency of chromsomal changes (structural and numerical aberations) in humans is in the order of 6 in 1,000 newborn. Chromosomal analysis of spontaneous abortuses indicate that about 50% of all spontaneous abortions are chromsomally abnormal. Populations exposed to ionizing radiations (atom bomb survivors) or chemical mutagens (e.g., workers occupational.y exposed to vinyl chloride or benzene) show increased frequencies of chromosomal aberrations in their peripheral blood lymphocytes. Many types of human cancer are associated with specific or non-specific chromosomal aberrations. Several human recessive diseases, such as ataxia telangiectasia (A-T), Faconi's anemia (FA) and Bloom's syndrome (BS) are associated with increased frequencies of chromosomal aberrations. However, no detectable increase in the frequency of spontaneous point mutations in human populations exposed to ionizing radiations or chemical mutagens has been demonstrated so far. These observations point to the importance of understanding the mechanism involved in the origin of chromosomal alterations and their significance, which the author discusses in this paper

  14. Significance of FISH in clinical cytogenetics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gopal Rao, V.V.N.; Harris, S.; Roop, H. [H.A. Chapman Institute of Medical Genetics, Tulsa, OK (United States)] [and others

    1994-09-01

    Ever since its discovery, FISH technology has become an invaluable adjunct to conventional cytogenetics. FISH has been instrumental in resolving previously unresolved cytogenetic dilemmas. FISH has been used to elucidate complex as well as subtle chromosomal translocations, in detection of microdeletions, to confirm duplications and inversions and to identify marker chromosomes. We report a few selected cases where FISH proved to be invaluable in not only confirming the anomaly, but also in arriving at an accurate diagnosis and appropriate counseling of the patients. These include 3 cases of prenatal and 3 cases of postnatal diagnosis. The results clearly demonstrate the significance of FISH in identifying and interpreting the difficult karyotype in clinical cytogenetics. In addition, FISH has been used to rule out microdeletions in Prader-Willi (16), Angelman (3), Miller-Dieker (7), DiGeorge (4) and Smith-Magenis (1) syndrome patients. Without FISH in the majority of these cases, it would not have been possible to accurately identify the karyotype and interpret the results. Hence, we recommend that FISH be used as a powerful adjunct to conventional cytogenetics in order to arrive at an accurate interpretation of the results but not to replace routine cytogenetic studies.

  15. The diagnosis and clinical significance of polyautoimmunity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anaya, Juan-Manuel

    2014-01-01

    Autoimmune diseases (ADs) are chronic and heterogeneous conditions that affect specific target organs or multiple organ systems. The chronic nature of these diseases places a significant burden on the utilization of medical care, direct and indirect economic costs, and quality of life. ADs are observed in genetically susceptible individuals in whom their clinical expression is modified by permissive and protective environments occurring over time. These are complex traits, meaning that their inheritance does not follow a single-gene dominant or single-gene recessive Mendelian law, and thus that they are polygenic. ADs are often diagnosed according to classification criteria, however they share similar subphenotypes including signs and symptoms, non-specific autoantibodies and other immune changes, which are prone to taxonomic problems. Polyautoimmunity is defined as the presence of more than one AD in a single patient. When three or more ADs coexist, this condition is called multiple autoimmune syndrome (MAS), which represents the best example of polyautoimmunity as well as the effect of a single genotype on diverse autoimmune phenotypes. Its study will provide important clues to elucidate the common mechanisms of ADs (i.e., the autoimmune tautology).

  16. Grazer-induced chain lenght plasticity reduces grazing risk in a marine diatom

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bergkvist, Johanna; Thor, Peter; Jakobsen, Hans Henrik;

    2012-01-01

    We show that Skeletonema marinoi suppresses chain formation in response to copepod cues. The presence of three different copepod species (Acartia tonsa, Centropages hamatus, or Temora longicornis) significantly reduced chain length. Furthermore, chain length was significantly reduced when S. mari...

  17. The Textual Significance of Spanish Polyglot Bibles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Spottorno, Mª Victoria

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Within the history of the Biblical text, the 16th century Spanish Polyglot Bibles are monumental productions that do not deserve to fall into oblivion. This article points out the historical and philological aspects that better reveal their significance in the world of the Renaissance and their unquestionable transcendence in Biblical philology. Cardinal Cisneros' tenacity and generosity first, and then Benito Arias Montano's knowledge made possible the edition of these two Spanish Polyglot Bibles, the Complutensian and the Royal. They constitute the point of departure of modern Biblical textual criticism, whose principles keep alive that initial spirit that leads to a wider acquaintance with the text.

    Dentro de la historia del texto bíblico, las Biblias Políglotas españolas del siglo XVI son obras monumentales que no merecen quedar en el olvido. En este artículo se ponen de relieve los aspectos históricos y filológicos que mejor transmiten su significación en el mundo renacentista y su trascendencia indudable para la filología bíblica. El tesón y la generosidad del Cardenal Cisneros primero y la sabiduría de Benito Arias Montano después hicieron posible que estas dos Biblias Políglotas españolas, Complutense y Regia, se llegaran a publicar. Constituyen el punto de partida de la moderna crítica textual bíblica, cuyos principios mantienen vivo aquel espíritu inicial que conduce a un mayor conocimiento del texto.

  18. Municipal actions to reduce mercury

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2005-03-15

    This paper presented proper management practices for products containing mercury. The measures can help reduce mercury releases, occupational exposure and mercury spills, thereby preventing impacts on human health and the environment. Despite mercury's toxic nature, many common products that contain mercury are commercially available. These include thermostats, thermometers, fluorescent lamps, pressure measuring devices, electrical switches and relays, and dental amalgam. Mercury emissions are also associated with base metal smelting, waste incineration and coal-fired power generation. Mercury in the environment is a global issue, because it can travel in the atmosphere on wind currents. The actions taken by municipalities to address the issue include reducing or eliminating mercury releases from internal municipal operations and sources within the community. This document provided guidance on how to develop a Municipal Mercury Elimination Policy and Plan that will help reduce mercury releases. It presented information and case studies that will help municipalities manage mercury-containing products found in municipal buildings and street lighting. Information on sources of mercury from within the community was presented along with case studies that can help municipalities determine where community action is needed to reduce mercury releases. The 5 modules of this document were intended to help municipalities identify priorities, timelines and budget requirements for mercury initiatives. It was emphasized that municipalities that adopt a Municipal Mercury Elimination Policy and Plan formally commit to reducing and eliminating mercury from the environment. tabs., figs.

  19. Reduce air, reduce compliance cost new patented spray booth technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McGinnis, F. [JBI, Inc., Osseo, WI (United States)

    1997-12-31

    A New Paint Spray Booth System that dramatically reduces air volumes normally required for capturing and controlling paint overspray that contains either Volatile Organic Compounds (VOC) or Hazardous Air Pollutants (HAP), or both. In turn, a substantial reduction in capital equipment expenditures for air abatement systems and air make-up heaters as well as related annual operating expenses is realized.

  20. Biological significance of soluble IL-2 receptor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Calogero Caruso

    1993-01-01

    Full Text Available A NUMBER of receptors for growth factors and differentiation antigens have been found to be secreted or released by cells. Following mononuclear cell (MNC activation and interleukin-2 receptor (IL-2R expression, a soluble form of the Alpha;-chain of IL-2R (sIL-2R is released. The sIL-2R has been shown to be present in the culture supernatants of activated MNCs as well as in normal sera and, in higher amounts, in sera from subjects affected by several diseases including neoplastic, infectious and autoimmune ones, and in sera from transplanted patients suffering allograft rejection. The blood sIL-2R levels depend on the number of producing cells and the number of molecules per cell, so that sIL-2R blood values may represent an index of the number and the functional state of producing cells, both normal and neoplastic. Thus, monitoring of the immune system, mostly T-cells and haematological malignancies might be targets for the measurement of sIL-2R. Since many conditions may influence sIL-2R production, little diagnostic use may result from these measurements. However, since blood sIL-2R levels may correlate with disease progression and/or response to therapy, their measurement may be a useful index of activity and extent of disease. The precise biological role of the soluble form of the IL-2R is still a matter of debate. However, we know that increased sIL-2R levels may be observed in association with several immunological abnormalities and that sIL-2R is able to bind IL-2. It is conceivable then that in these conditions the excess sIL-2R released in vivo by activated lymphoid cells or by neoplastic cells may somehow regulate IL-2-dependent processes. On the other hand, it cannot exclude that sIL-2R is a by-product without biological significance. Finally, it is puzzling that in many conditions in which an increase of blood sIL-2R values has been observed, MNCs display a decreased in vitro capacity to produce sIL-2R. These seemingly contrasting

  1. Therapeutic Non Thermal Plasma, Significance and Challenges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wameath Sh. Abdul-Majeed

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Plasma is an electrically neutral, highly ionized gas that consists of several species (electrons, ions, reactive species, and UV light and classified into localized thermal equilibrium (LTE plasmas and non-localized thermal equilibrium (n-LTE plasmas. In LTE plasmas, the electron temperature exists in equilibrium with the gas temperature. In contrast, the electron temperature in (n- LTE plasmas can reach temperatures of 1-10 (eV while the gas temperature is kept as low as room temperature, which makes it useful for a wide range of industrial applications (e.g. ozone generation, surface treatment, .., etc. In the past decade, non thermal (cold atmospheric pressure plasmas were developed and emerged as a promising new tool for medical applications as it’s proved to be more selective in its application (e.g. selective killing of microbes. Accordingly, developments of cold atmospheric plasma devices led to the possibility to apply plasma species to heat-sensitive surfaces (e.g. human skin with precise tuning, controllability and without damage of surrounding tissue. On this basis, medical plasma proved effective for skin sterilization, wound healing and tissue regeneration, cancer treatment, malignant cell apoptosis and blood coagulation. Moreover, cold plasma is known to inactivate a wide range of pathogens such as bacteria, viruses, fungi, spores and biofilms. Therefore it has been considered a very efficient alternative to superficially applied antibiotics or disinfectants. It’s worth noting that histological evaluation for the skin treated with atmospheric cold plasma showed that no morphological changes and no significant degree of necrosis or apoptosis were detectable after plasma treatment. Other studies denoted that a limited increase in the number of DNA double-strand breaks was observed in plasma-treated excised human skin. However, varieties of a new generation handheld and battery-operated devices makes it difficult to interpret the

  2. Power and reduced temporal discounting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Joshi, Priyanka D; Fast, Nathanael J

    2013-04-01

    Decision makers generally feel disconnected from their future selves, an experience that leads them to prefer smaller immediate gains to larger future gains. This pervasive tendency is known as temporal discounting, and researchers across disciplines are interested in understanding how to overcome it. Following recent advances in the power literature, we suggest that the experience of power enhances one's connection with the future self, which in turn results in reduced temporal discounting. In Study 1, we found that participants assigned to high-power roles were less likely than participants assigned to low-power roles to display temporal discounting. In Studies 2 and 3, priming power reduced temporal discounting in monetary and nonmonetary tasks, and, further, connection with the future self mediated the relation between power and reduced discounting. In Study 4, experiencing a general sense of power in the workplace predicted actual lifetime savings. These results have important implications for future research.

  3. Reducing ammonia emissions in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jacobsen, Brian H.

    2011-01-01

    The NEC directive has set targets for the 2010 ammonia emissions from a number of European countries. The target will be reached by most EU-countries and the total emission for EU-27 has been reduced by 22% from 1990 to 2007. Denmark is one of the countries with the largest reductions since 1990...... to the high expectations at the outset. Despite this, the paper concludes that Denmark is likely to reduce emission by 50% from 1990 to 2020 and reach the likely 2020 NEC ceiling....

  4. National compacts to reduce deforestation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santilli, M. [Instituto Socioambiental ISA., Brasilia DF (Brazil); Moutinho, P.; Nepstad, D. [Instituto de Pesquisa Ambiental da Amazonia IPAM, Belem (Brazil)

    2005-07-01

    Finding ways for developing countries with tropical forests to participate more effectively in international efforts to reduce greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions has become central to the success of any future international agreement. The most obvious means would be the reduction of tropical deforestation and the emissions associated with it. Unless tropical deforestation is reduced it will not be possible to avoid 'dangerous anthropogenic interference' in the planet's climate. In this chapter the necessary conditions for these countries to use reduced deforestation, in the context of 'compensated reduction of deforestation', as an internationally recognized, valid form of mitigation of global climate change and, in return, receive compensation for demonstrated reductions. The proposal for compensated reduction suggests that countries that reduce their emissions from tropical deforestation during a Kyoto Protocol commitment period, in relation to an agreed baseline in accordance with historical deforestation rates, be remunerated with credits equivalent to the volume of emissions avoided, tradable in subsequent commitment periods. As we know, under the current terms of the Kyoto Protocol, covering the first commitment period, there are no means to offer incentives for reducing deforestation, which are a recognized factor in global emissions (25%). Eligible forestry projects in the Clean Development Mechanism (CDM) include only carbon sequestration. Since tropical deforestation is a problem occurring in non-Annex 1 developing countries, and is associated with development strategies historically linked to global markets, international instruments to encourage reduction of deforestation emissions should consider the objective conditions of these countries in a manner consistent with the principle of mutual, but differentiated responsibilities. The compensated reduction proposal emerges in this context: more effective participation of these

  5. Role of Permutations in Significance Analysis of Microarray and Clustering of Significant Microarray Gene list

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tejashree Damle

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Microarray is the gene expression data that represent gene in different biological states. Methods are needed to determine the significance of these changes while accounting for the enormous number of genes. Significance analysis of microarrays (SAM is a statistical technique for determining whether changes in gene expression are statistically significant. During the SAM procedure permutation of microarray data is considered to observe the changes in the overall expression level of data. With increasing number of permutations false discovery rate for gene set varies. In our work we took microarray data of Normal Glucose Tolerance (NGT, and Diabetes Mellitus (DM Type II. In this paper we proposed the result of permutations during execution of SAM algorithm. The hierarchical clustering is applied for observing expression levels of significant data and visualize it with heat map.

  6. Reduced TCA Flux in Diabetic Myotubes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gaster, Michael

    2012-01-01

    production in isolated mitochondria from substrates entering the TCA cycle at various points. ATP production was measured by luminescence with or without concomitant ATP utilisation by hexokinase in mitochondria isolated from myotubes established from eight lean and eight type 2 diabetic subjects. The ATP...... production of investigated substrate combinations was significantly reduced in mitochondria isolated from type 2 diabetic subjects compared to lean. However, when ATP synthesis rates at different substrate combinations were normalized to the corresponding individual pyruvate-malate rate, there was no......The diabetic phenotype is complex, requiring elucidation of key initiating defects. Diabetic myotubes express a primary reduced tricarboxylic acid (TCA) cycle flux but at present it is unclear in which part of the TCA cycle the defect is localised. In order to localise the defect we studied ATP...

  7. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henriksen, Jens Henrik; Bendtsen, Flemming; Sørensen, T I;

    1989-01-01

    was inversely correlated to the systemic vascular resistance (r = -0.49, p less than 0.001), the latter being significantly reduced in the patient group. Patients with cirrhosis apparently are unable to maintain a normal central blood volume. This may be due to arteriolar vasodilation, portosystemic collateral......The pathogenesis of ascites formation in cirrhosis is uncertain. It is still under debate whether the effective blood volume is reduced (underfilling theory) or whether the intravascular compartment is expanded (overflow theory). This problem has not yet been solved because of insufficient tools...... for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according...

  8. Eat well, keep well and reduce your risk of cancer

    OpenAIRE

    Public Health Agency

    2010-01-01

    This leaflet highlights Northern Ireland's incidence of cancer as an important public health concern, and explains how eating more fruit, vegetables and other fibre rich foods can significantly reduce our risk of getting the disease.

  9. Kinetics for a membrane reactor reducing perchlorate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Padhye, Lokesh; Rainwater, Ken; Jackson, W Andrew; Morse, Audra

    2007-02-01

    The major objectives of this work were to operate and construct an autohydrogenotrophic reactor and estimate perchlorate degradation kinetics. The results show that autohydrogenotrophic bacteria were cultured in the reactor and capable of removing 3.6 mg/d of perchlorate in the presence of excess hydrogen (99% removal). The reactor was successful in treating the average influent perchlorate concentration of 532 microg/L to the level of 3 microg/L. A first-order relationship was obtained between the concentration of active biomass in the reactor and the hydraulic retention time for the given amount of substrate. During the kinetic loading study, perchlorate removal ranged from 100 to 50%. The kinetic rate of perchlorate degradation observed in this study was 1.62 hr(-1). The significant degradation of perchlorate in these samples indicates the ubiquity of perchlorate-reducing organisms. Additionally, nitrate was simultaneously removed during water treatment (greater than 90% removal). Because of the excess levels of hydrogen, simultaneous removal of nitrate was not believed to significantly affect perchlorate removal. The area of concern was the lack of complete control over biological treatment. The growth of sulfate-reducing organisms in the reactor negatively affected perchlorate removal efficiency. There were no significant effects observed on the dissolved organic carbon and total suspended solids concentration of the effluent, suggesting that the treatment did not produce a large amount of biomass washout.

  10. Reducing cement's CO2 footprint

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Oss, Hendrik G.

    2011-01-01

    The manufacturing process for Portland cement causes high levels of greenhouse gas emissions. However, environmental impacts can be reduced by using more energy-efficient kilns and replacing fossil energy with alternative fuels. Although carbon capture and new cements with less CO2 emission are still in the experimental phase, all these innovations can help develop a cleaner cement industry.

  11. Reducing Smoking among Pregnant Adolescents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duffy, Joanne; Coates, Thomas J.

    1989-01-01

    Describes psychosocial intervention designed to reduce smoking in a group of pregnant teenagers. Five modules are presented, each being designed to heighten awareness of the issue; provide motivational messages; enhance the adolescent's social skills; and teach specific smoking-cessation skills. (Author/NB)

  12. Reduced False Memory after Sleep

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fenn, Kimberly M.; Gallo, David A.; Margoliash, Daniel; Roediger, Henry L., III; Nusbaum, Howard C.

    2009-01-01

    Several studies have shown that sleep contributes to the successful maintenance of previously encoded information. This research has focused exclusively on memory for studied events, as opposed to false memories. Here we report three experiments showing that sleep reduces false memories in the Deese-Roediger-McDermott (DRM) memory illusion. False…

  13. Solitons reduced from Heterotic fivebranes

    CERN Document Server

    La, H S

    1992-01-01

    In view of the expectation that the solitonic sector of the lower dimensional world may be originated from the solitonic sector of string theory, various solitonic solutions are reduced from the heterotic fivebrane solutions in the ten-dimensional heterotic string theory. These solitons in principle can appear after proper compactifications, {\\it e.g.} toroidal compactifications.

  14. Does Microfinance Reduce Income Inequality?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hermes, Niels

    2014-01-01

    This study addresses the question whether participation of the poor in microfinance contributes to reducing a country’s level of income inequality. Using data from 70 developing countries, we show that higher levels of microfinance participation are indeed associated with a reduction of the income g

  15. Reducing Poverty through Preschool Interventions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duncan, Greg J.; Ludwig, Jens; Magnuson, Katherine A.

    2007-01-01

    Greg Duncan, Jens Ludwig, and Katherine Magnuson explain how providing high-quality care to disadvantaged preschool children can help reduce poverty. In early childhood, they note, children's cognitive and socioemotional skills develop rapidly and are sensitive to "inputs" from parents, home learning environments, child care settings, and the…

  16. A reduced-turbulence, reduced-entrainment electrostatic precipitator

    OpenAIRE

    Bahner, Mark A.

    1990-01-01

    This thesis describes testing of an electrostatic precipitator that has a portion of the main precipitator flow drawn through a porous (fabric) collecting surface. Tests investigated effects of flow through the collecting surface (side flow) on precipitator turbulence and particulate removal efficiency. Particulate removal tests were conducted at both ambient temperature and boiler slipstream conditions. Side flow was shown to reduce turbulence in the boundary layers of the collecting plat...

  17. The status of pathogen-reduced plasma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sandler, S Gerald

    2010-12-01

    Efforts to reduce the risk of transfusion-transmitted infectious diseases began more than 4 decades ago with testing donated blood for syphilis. During the subsequent 4 decades, the number of recognized blood-borne transmissible agents and new laboratory tests has proliferated to a logistical breaking point. Further, the number of "emerging agents" which might enter the donor population is increasing continuously. In the search for an alternative to the laboratory testing strategy, pathogen-reduction technologies have emerged as the most promising. The model for this paradigm is pasteurization of a bottle of cow's milk. No matter what infective agent may be present in freshly collected cow's milk, pasteurization, i.e., a generic purification process can eliminate all potential infectivity, while preserving its essential biological properties--and an affordable cost. Several manufacturers have undertaken the challenge of developing a pathogen-reduction technology for blood components. Some novel technologies have proven successful for pooled plasma derivatives such as immune globulins, coagulation factor concentrate concentrates and albumin. The greatest challenge is finding a technology that is suitable for red blood cell and platelet components, whereas significant progress has been made already for pathogen-reduced plasma products. The present review addresses the status of implementation of pathogen-reduced plasma products in the global market. Some blood centers and hospital blood banks in Europe and the Middle East have begun to distribute pathogen-reduced plasma, but no pathogen-reduced plasma product is presently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration. While many observers in the United States focus on the regulatory process as the impediment to widespread implementation, the real challenge will be paying the surcharge for the pathogen-reduction process - an as yet unspecified figure - but likely to add a very substantial amount to the annual

  18. CLINICAL SIGNIFICANCE OF "TREATING VITALITY" AND "RESERVING VITALITY"

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    "Treating vital ity "and" reserving vital ity"are very important manipulations during acupuncture treatment of diseases. "Treating vitality" comprises adjusting and treating both the acupuncture doctor's and the patient's vitality; while "reserving vitality" demands the acupuncture doctor carefully to experience the sponses, and then perform reducing or reinforcing needling manipulations in accordance with the state of excess- or deficiency- syndrome. "Treating vitality" and "reserving vitality" impenetrate the whole process of acupuncture treatment all along. Through years' clinical practice, the author of the present paper discusses the functions of the two aspects in every stage of acupuncture treatment, including before acupuncture, during needle insertion, during retention and withdrawal of the needle. The purpose of this paper is to explain the clinical significance of treating and reserving vitality and arouse many acupuncture doctors' attention.

  19. Clinical significance of scoring system for systemic inflammatory response syndrome

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN Jian; LIANG Hua-ping

    2006-01-01

    The concepts of systemic inflammatory response syndrome (SIRS) and scoring system were defined by the journal of Bone in 1992. SIRS was described as occurrence of two or more clinical criteria in four ones (fever or hypothermia, tachypnea, tachycardia, and leukocytosis).An early diagnosis and estimation of systemic inflammation in patients is helpful for treatment selection. This paper reviews the application of SIRS scoring system, which has been extensively validated for large groups of critical care patients with severe injury and critical surgical diseases.Recent studies have documented SIRS score as a significant predictive parameter of adverse outcome in critical care patients. Furthermore, some studies also give us a suggestion on how to reduce the overload systemic response.

  20. Biomineralization of Uranium:A Simulated Experiment and Its Significance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MIN Maozhong; Huifang XU; L. L. BARTON; WANG Jinping; PENG Xinjian; H. WIATROWSKI

    2005-01-01

    A simulated experimental reduction of UⅥ and the synthesis of uraninite by a sulfate-reducing bacteria,Desulfovibrio desulfuricans DSM 642, are first reported. The simulated physicochemical experimental conditions were:35℃, pH=7.0--7.4, corresponding to the environments of formation of the sandstone-hosted interlayer oxidation-zone type uranium deposits in Xinjiang, NW China. Uraninite was formed on the surface of the host bacteria after a one-week's incubation. Therefore, sulfate-reducing bacteria, which existed extensively in Jurassic sandstone-producing environments,might have participated in the biomineralization of this uranium deposit. There is an important difference in the orderdisorder of the crystalline structure between the uraninite produced by Desulfovibrio desulfuricans and naturally occurring uraninite. Long time and slow precipitation and growth of uraninite in the geological environment might have resulted in larger uraninite crystals, with uraninite nanocrystals arranged in order, whereas the experimentally produced uraninite is composed of unordered uraninite nanocrystals which, in contrast, result from the short time span of formation and rapid precipitation and growth of uraninite. The discovery has important implications for understanding genetic significance in mineralogy, and also indicates that in-situ bioremediation of U-contaminated environments and use of biotechnology in the treatment of radioactive liquid waste is being contemplated.

  1. Environment, Renewable Energy and Reduced Carbon Emissions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sen, S.; Khazanov, G.; Kishimoto, Y.

    2011-01-01

    Increased energy security and reduced carbon emissions pose significant challenges for science and technology. However, they also create substantial opportunities for innovative research and development. In this review paper, we highlight some of the key opportunities and mention public policies that are needed to enable the efforts and to maximize the probability of their success. Climate is among the uttermost nonlinear behaviors found around us. As recent studies showed the possible effect of cosmic rays on the Earth's climate, we investigate how complex interactions between the planet and its environment can be responsible for climate anomalies.

  2. Hydrodynamic approaches to reducing membrane fouling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Davis, R.H. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States)

    1995-12-01

    Membranes are gaining increasing use in a wide variety of liquid and gas separations. A pervasive problem is membrane fouling due to material depositing on the membrane surface and within the membrane pore structure. Professor Georges Belfort has made significant contributions to reducing membrane fouling by hydrodynamic approaches for ultrafiltration and microfiltration. I will review some of his work, as well as related work by myself and others, in this area. Topics which will be discussed include particle migration during crossflow filtration, curved channels which promote centrifugal instabilities, and rapid backpulsing.

  3. Suspensions with reduced violin string modes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, B H; Ju, L; Blair, D G [School of Physics, University of Western Australia, Crawley 6009, WA (Australia)

    2006-03-02

    We discuss the possibility of significantly reducing the number and Q-factor of violin string modes in the mirror suspension. Simulations of a bar-flexure suspension and an orthogonal ribbon have shown a reduction in the number of violin string modes when compared to a normal ribbon suspension. By calculating the expected suspension thermal noise, we find that the orthogonal ribbon provides a promising suspension alternative. A lower number of violin modes oscillating in the direction of the laser and a reduction in violin mode peak values of at least 23dB can be achieved with a slight increase in thermal noise above 40Hz.

  4. Reduced modified Chaplygin gas cosmology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Jianbo; Geng, Danhua; Xu, Lixin; Wu, Yabo; Liu, Molin

    2015-02-01

    In this paper, we study cosmologies containing the reduced modified Chaplygin gas (RMCG) fluid which is reduced from the modified Chaplygin gas p = Aρ - Bρ -α for the value of α = -1 /2. In this special case, dark cosmological models can be realized for different values of model parameter A. We investigate the viabilities of these dark cosmological models by discussing the evolutions of cosmological quantities and using the currently available cosmic observations. It is shown that the special RMCG model ( A = 0 or A = 1) which unifies the dark matter and dark energy should be abandoned. For A = 1 /3, RMCG which unifies the dark energy and dark radiation is the favorite model according to the objective Akaike information criteria. In the case of A , RMCG can achieve the features of the dynamical quintessence and phantom models, where the evolution of the universe is not sensitive to the variation of model parameters.

  5. Ferroelectric capacitor with reduced imprint

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evans, Jr., Joseph T. (13609 Verbena Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112); Warren, William L. (7716 Wm. Moyers Ave., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Tuttle, Bruce A. (12808 Lillian Pl., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87122); Dimos, Duane B. (6105 Innsbrook Ct., NE., Albuquerque, NM 87111); Pike, Gordon E. (1609 Cedar Ridge, NE., Albuquerque, NM 87112)

    1997-01-01

    An improved ferroelectric capacitor exhibiting reduced imprint effects in comparison to prior art capacitors. A capacitor according to the present invention includes top and bottom electrodes and a ferroelectric layer sandwiched between the top and bottom electrodes, the ferroelectric layer comprising a perovskite structure of the chemical composition ABO.sub.3 wherein the B-site comprises first and second elements and a dopant element that has an oxidation state greater than +4. The concentration of the dopant is sufficient to reduce shifts in the coercive voltage of the capacitor with time. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the ferroelectric element comprises Pb in the A-site, and the first and second elements are Zr and Ti, respectively. The preferred dopant is chosen from the group consisting of Niobium, Tantalum, and Tungsten. In the preferred embodiment of the present invention, the dopant occupies between 1 and 8% of the B-sites.

  6. Medical waste: reducing its generation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Belkin, N L

    1993-01-01

    1. Materials that can be recycled have yet to be proven to be a more cost-effective means of reducing medical waste. The literature indicates that the efficacy of reusable textiles is at least equal to that of some disposables--and reusable items reduce the generation of blood-contaminated waste. 2. The perioperative nursing community should consider replacing single-use items with materials intended for multiple uses. 3. "Source reduction" entails the replacement of single-use items with reusable items. Successful source-reduction programs require changes in individual and collective behavior patterns. 4. Recycling of materials renders them suitable for another use in a product similar to that in which they were originally used. On the other hand, reprocessing is an all-descriptive term of what must be done to an item to render it suitable for another identical use.

  7. Breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Baker, Jennifer Lyn; Gamborg, Michael; Heitmann, Berit L;

    2008-01-01

    BACKGROUND: Weight gained during pregnancy and not lost postpartum may contribute to obesity in women of childbearing age. OBJECTIVE: We aimed to determine whether breastfeeding reduces postpartum weight retention (PPWR) in a population among which full breastfeeding is common and breastfeeding...... duration is long. DESIGN: We selected women from the Danish National Birth Cohort who ever breastfed (>98%), and we conducted the interviews at 6 (n = 36 030) and 18 (n = 26 846) mo postpartum. We used regression analyses to investigate whether breastfeeding (scored to account for duration and intensity......) reduced PPWR at 6 and 18 mo after adjustment for maternal prepregnancy body mass index (BMI) and gestational weight gain (GWG). RESULTS: GWG was positively (P Breastfeeding was negatively associated with PPWR in all women but those...

  8. Alcohol reduces aversion to ambiguity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tadeusz eTyszka

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Several years ago, Cohen, Dearnaley, and Hansel [1] demonstrated that under the influence of alcohol drivers became more risk prone, although their risk perception remained unchanged. Research shows that ambiguity aversion is to some extent positively correlated with risk aversion, though not very highly [2]. The question addressed by the present research is whether alcohol reduces ambiguity aversion. Our research was conducted in a natural setting (a restaurant bar, where customers with differing levels of alcohol intoxication were offered a choice between a risky and an ambiguous lottery. We found that alcohol reduced ambiguity aversion and that the effect occurred in men but not women. We interpret these findings in terms of the risk-as-value hypothesis, according to which, people in Western culture tend to value risk, and suggest that alcohol consumption triggers adherence to socially and culturally valued patterns of conduct different for men and women.

  9. Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bonesteel, Nicholas E [Florida State Univ., Tallahassee, FL (United States)

    2015-01-31

    This report summarizes the work accomplished under the support of US DOE grant # DE-FG02-97ER45639, "Correlated Electrons in Reduced Dimensions." The underlying hypothesis of the research supported by this grant has been that studying the unique behavior of correlated electrons in reduced dimensions can lead to new ways of understanding how matter can order and how it can potentially be used. The systems under study have included i) fractional quantum Hall matter, which is realized when electrons are confined to two-dimensions and placed in a strong magnetic field at low temperature, ii) one-dimensional chains of spins and exotic quasiparticle excitations of topologically ordered matter, and iii) electrons confined in effectively ``zero-dimensional" semiconductor quantum dots.

  10. Reduced Deforestation and Economic Growth

    OpenAIRE

    Patrick Doupe

    2014-01-01

    The clearing of forests for agricultural land and other marketable purposes is a well-trodden path of economic development. With these private benefits from deforestation come external costs: emissions from deforestation currently account for 12 per cent of global carbon emissions. A widespread intervention in reducing emissions from deforestation will affect the paths of agricultural expansion and economic growth of lower income nations. To investigate these processes, this paper presents a ...

  11. Numbers for reducible cubic scrolls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Israel Vainsencher

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available We show how to compute the number of reducible cubic scrolls of codimension 2 in (math blackboard symbol Pn incident to the appropriate number of linear spaces.Mostramos como calcular o número de rolos cúbicos redutíveis de codimensão 2 em (math blackboard symbol Pn incidentes a espaços lineares apropriados.

  12. Combined Reduced-Rank Transform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anatoli Torokhti

    2006-04-01

    Full Text Available We propose and justify a new approach to constructing optimal nonlinear transforms of random vectors. We show that the proposed transform improves such characteristics of {rank-reduced} transforms as compression ratio, accuracy of decompression and reduces required computational work. The proposed transform ${mathcal T}_p$ is presented in the form of a sum with $p$ terms where each term is interpreted as a particular rank-reduced transform. Moreover, terms in ${mathcal T}_p$ are represented as a combination of three operations ${mathcal F}_k$, ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ with $k=1,ldots,p$. The prime idea is to determine ${mathcal F}_k$ separately, for each $k=1,ldots,p$, from an associated rank-constrained minimization problem similar to that used in the Karhunen--Lo`{e}ve transform. The operations ${mathcal Q}_k$ and ${oldsymbol{varphi}}_k$ are auxiliary for f/inding ${mathcal F}_k$. The contribution of each term in ${mathcal T}_p$ improves the entire transform performance. A corresponding unconstrained nonlinear optimal transform is also considered. Such a transform is important in its own right because it is treated as an optimal filter without signal compression. A rigorous analysis of errors associated with the proposed transforms is given.

  13. Reducing consumption through communal living

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Herring, Horace [The Open Univ., Milton Keynes (United Kingdom). Energy and Environment Research Unit

    2003-07-01

    This paper examines ways consumers and communities can voluntarily adopt a low consumption (or low carbon) lifestyle, often termed 'voluntary simplicity' or a policy of 'sufficiency'. There is an increasing academic literature within Europe in the last five years on the whole question of 'sustainable consumption', and the relationship between income levels and consumption particularly at the household. This debate has moved beyond 'green consumerism' to look at building 'new concepts of prosperity' through local community actions, or reducing working time to allow more time for the creation of social capital. The paper will concentrate on one aspect of the quest for sustainable communities, the relevance of communal living to reducing consumption through examining energy consumption (both direct and indirect) in one such community in the UK. The results from this preliminary study reveal that it is not the sharing of resources that reduces consumption but the mutual reinforcement of attitudes towards a low consumption lifestyle. Thus it is the creation of social capital in a community that is its key to its ecological lifestyle.

  14. Significant Life Experiences and Environmental Justice: Positionality and the Significance of Negative Social/Environmental Experiences

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ceaser, Donovon

    2015-01-01

    Significant life experiences (SLE) research has been criticized for a disproportionate focus on privileged groups and positive experiences. In this paper, I use textual analysis to examine the SLEs within the Environmental Justice (EJ) literature. Theoretically, I blend feminist theory, the sociology of disaster, and research on EJ motives for…

  15. Effects of Glasswort (Salicornia herbacea L.) Hydrates on Quality Characteristics of Reduced-salt, Reduced-fat Frankfurters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lim, Yun-Bin; Kim, Hyun-Wook; Hwang, Ko-Eun; Song, Dong-Heon; Kim, Yong-Jae; Ham, Youn-Kyung; Jang, Sung-Jin; Lee, Choong-Hee; He, Fu-Yi; Choi, Yun-Sang; Kim, Cheon-Jei

    2015-01-01

    This study evaluated the effects of adding glasswort hydrate containing non-meat ingredient (GM, carboxy methyl cellulose; GC, carrageenan; GI, isolated soy protein; GS, sodium caseinate) on the quality characteristics of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. The pH and color evaluation showed significant differences, depending on the type of glasswort hydrate added (preduction in salt and fat content significantly increased cooking loss and decreased hardness, tenderness and juiciness (p<0.05). Glasswort hydrate containing non-meat ingredient improved cooking loss, water holding capacity, emulsion stability, hardness, and viscosity of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. The GM treatment had the highest myofibiliar protein solubility among all treatments, which was associated with emulsion stability and viscosity. The GC treatment had higher values for all texture parameters than the control. In the sensory evaluation, the addition of glasswort hydrate with non-meat ingredient improved tenderness and juiciness of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. GM, GC, and GI treatments improved not only the physicochemical properties but also the sensory characteristics of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. The results indicated that the use of glasswort hydrate containing non-meat ingredient was improved the quality characteristics of reduced-salt, reduced-fat frankfurters. PMID:26877638

  16. Does Income Inequality Reduce Growth? Does Income Inequality Reduce Growth?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pablo Serra

    1993-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper examines the effects of inequality on the rate of growth of an economy. We assume that it is easier for an individual to achieve a given level of human capiral the higher society's average level of human capiral. Agents with above average human capital find it relatively more costly to acquire additional human capital, while agents with below average human capital find it relatively cheaper to acquire additional human capital. The existence of such an externality implies that even when where is no income inequality agents will behave inefficiently. In order to achieve the optimal growth rate, a lump sum tax must be combined with a subsidy to investment in education. When incomes are heterogenous, we show that income convergence is attained in the long run. We also show that the effect of inequality on the growth rate of an economy depends on the functional form of the externality. When the externality junction is concave, income dispersion reduces the rate of growth. On the other hand, when the externality function is convex, the effect is ambiguous. Does Income Inequality Reduce Growth?

  17. Analytic thinking reduces belief in conspiracy theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Voracek, Martin; Stieger, Stefan; Tran, Ulrich S; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Belief in conspiracy theories has been associated with a range of negative health, civic, and social outcomes, requiring reliable methods of reducing such belief. Thinking dispositions have been highlighted as one possible factor associated with belief in conspiracy theories, but actual relationships have only been infrequently studied. In Study 1, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and a range of measures of thinking dispositions in a British sample (N=990). Results indicated that a stronger belief in conspiracy theories was significantly associated with lower analytic thinking and open-mindedness and greater intuitive thinking. In Studies 2-4, we examined the causational role played by analytic thinking in relation to conspiracist ideation. In Study 2 (N=112), we showed that a verbal fluency task that elicited analytic thinking reduced belief in conspiracy theories. In Study 3 (N=189), we found that an alternative method of eliciting analytic thinking, which related to cognitive disfluency, was effective at reducing conspiracist ideation in a student sample. In Study 4, we replicated the results of Study 3 among a general population sample (N=140) in relation to generic conspiracist ideation and belief in conspiracy theories about the July 7, 2005, bombings in London. Our results highlight the potential utility of supporting attempts to promote analytic thinking as a means of countering the widespread acceptance of conspiracy theories.

  18. Analytic thinking reduces belief in conspiracy theories.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Swami, Viren; Voracek, Martin; Stieger, Stefan; Tran, Ulrich S; Furnham, Adrian

    2014-12-01

    Belief in conspiracy theories has been associated with a range of negative health, civic, and social outcomes, requiring reliable methods of reducing such belief. Thinking dispositions have been highlighted as one possible factor associated with belief in conspiracy theories, but actual relationships have only been infrequently studied. In Study 1, we examined associations between belief in conspiracy theories and a range of measures of thinking dispositions in a British sample (N=990). Results indicated that a stronger belief in conspiracy theories was significantly associated with lower analytic thinking and open-mindedness and greater intuitive thinking. In Studies 2-4, we examined the causational role played by analytic thinking in relation to conspiracist ideation. In Study 2 (N=112), we showed that a verbal fluency task that elicited analytic thinking reduced belief in conspiracy theories. In Study 3 (N=189), we found that an alternative method of eliciting analytic thinking, which related to cognitive disfluency, was effective at reducing conspiracist ideation in a student sample. In Study 4, we replicated the results of Study 3 among a general population sample (N=140) in relation to generic conspiracist ideation and belief in conspiracy theories about the July 7, 2005, bombings in London. Our results highlight the potential utility of supporting attempts to promote analytic thinking as a means of countering the widespread acceptance of conspiracy theories. PMID:25217762

  19. Interferon-α Produces Significant Decreases in HIV Load

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Chiung-Yu; Shen, Jean; Metcalf, Julia A.; Dewar, Robin; Shah, Akram; Vasudevachari, M.B.; Follmann, Dean A.; Herpin, Betsey; Davey, Richard T.; Polis, Michael A.; Kovacs, Joseph; Masur, Henry; Lane, H. Clifford

    2010-01-01

    A randomized, controlled clinical trial was started in the pre-HAART era to compare the efficacy of zidovudine (AZT) and interferon-alpha (IFN-α) either alone or in combination to reduce HIV viremia, maintain CD4+ cell count, and decrease time to AIDS progression and death. The purpose of the current study was to compare the effects of AZT and IFN on HIV load using modern technology. One hundred and eighty patients with CD4+ counts above 500 cells/mm3 were randomized to receive AZT alone, IFN-α alone, or AZT and IFN-α in combination. CD4+ cell count and HIV load at baseline and at the last follow-up visit were compared, and time to AIDS or death was calculated by treatment group. At a mean follow-up of 45 weeks, the mean change in log HIV RNA was −0.06 for the AZT alone group, −0.47 for the AZT plus IFN-α group (P = 0.01 versus AZT group), and −0.35 for the IFN-α alone group (P = 0.02 versus AZT group). There was no significant difference among groups in change in total CD4+ count or in time to AIDS or death. Since treatment with IFN-α produces significant decreases in HIV load, additional studies of IFN-α as part of a combination regimen are warranted. PMID:20235638

  20. Innovative approaches to reduce animal testing : replace whenever possible, reduce through refinement and mechanistic understanding

    OpenAIRE

    Ravenzwaay, van, B.

    2013-01-01

    'Many of the in vitro toxicological studies have not been sufficiently validated to determine their applicability domain, even less have gained regulatory acceptance. Major advantage of in vitro testing today is the early identification of significant hazards in compound development and reduced and targeted animal testing. Replacing complex animal tests may be achieved by a battery of in vitro test addressing the adverse outcome pathway in question. Kinetics models are needed to translate in ...

  1. Novel Reduced-Feedback Wireless Communication Systems

    KAUST Repository

    Shaqfeh, Mohammad Obaidah

    2011-11-20

    Modern communication systems apply channel-aware adaptive transmission techniques and dynamic resource allocation in order to exploit the peak conditions of the fading wireless links and to enable significant performance gains. However, conveying the channel state information among the users’ mobile terminals into the access points of the network consumes a significant portion of the scarce air-link resources and depletes the battery resources of the mobile terminals rapidly. Despite its evident drawbacks, the channel information feedback cannot be eliminated in modern wireless networks because blind communication technologies cannot support the ever-increasing transmission rates and high quality of experience demands of current ubiquitous services. Developing new transmission technologies with reduced-feedback requirements is sought. Network operators will benefit from releasing the bandwidth resources reserved for the feedback communications and the clients will enjoy the extended battery life of their mobile devices. The main technical challenge is to preserve the prospected transmission rates over the network despite decreasing the channel information feedback significantly. This is a noteworthy research theme especially that there is no mature theory for feedback communication in the existing literature despite the growing number of publications about the topic in the last few years. More research efforts are needed to characterize the trade-off between the achievable rate and the required channel information and to design new reduced-feedback schemes that can be flexibly controlled based on the operator preferences. Such schemes can be then introduced into the standardization bodies for consideration in next generation broadband systems. We have recently contributed to this field and published several journal and conference papers. We are the pioneers to propose a novel reduced-feedback opportunistic scheduling scheme that combines many desired features

  2. Energy conservation by reducing process variability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wising, Ulrika; Lafourcade, Sebastien [Pepite S.A., Liege (Belgium); Mack, Philippe [Pepite Technologies Inc., Montreal (Canada)

    2011-12-21

    Energy conservation is becoming an increasingly important instrument to stay competitive in today is increasingly global market. Important investments have been made in infrastructure and personnel in order to improve the management of energy such as increased metering, energy dashboards, energy managers, etc. Despite these investments, the results have not materialized and there is still a significant potential to further reduce energy consumption. In this paper a new methodology will be presented that helps industry better operate existing assets in order to reduce energy consumption, without having to make capital investments. The methodology uses a combination of advanced data analysis tools and a specific implementation scheme that has lead to significant savings in industry. The advanced data analysis tools are used to analyze the variability of the process in order to assess when the plant has been operated well or not so well in the past. By finding the root causes of these variations and the key variables that can explain them, improved operating guidelines and models can be developed and implemented. The specific implementation scheme is an important part of the methodology as it involves the people operating the plant. Several user cases will be presented showing an energy conservation of between 10%-20% without capital investments necessary. (author)

  3. Effect of Jiaosanxian on Reducing Blood Lipid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YIN Ai-wu; TIAN Run; ZHAO Jiao

    2013-01-01

    Objective To investigate the effects of Jiaosanxian (JSX,consisted of stir-baked Hordei Fructus Germinatus-Crataegi Fructus-Massa Fermentata Medicinalis) on reducing blood lipid.Methods The model of hyperlipidemic mice was established by feeding high-fat diet.Kunming mice were randomly divided into six groups:blank,hyperlipidemic,Zhibituo,low-,mid-,and high-dose [100,200,and 400 mg/(kg·d)] JSX groups,and were continuously ig administered for 28 d.The contents of total cholesterol (TC),triglyceride (TG),low-density lipoprotein cholesterol (LDL-C),and high density lipoprotein cholesterol (HDL-C) in serum and liver and liver index were determined.Results The contents of TC,TG,and LDL-C in serum or liver were decreased significantly but the contents of HDL-C were increased more significantly in the mid-and high-dose JSX groups than those in hyperlipemic group.The weight and liver index were decreased significantly with the dose increasing of JSX.The lipid-decreasing effects were improved with the dose increasing.Conclusion These results suggest that JSX has the significant effects on hyperlipidemia.It could provide the experimental basis for the clinical use of JSX for the treatment of hyperlipidemia.

  4. 78 FR 50026 - Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Finding of No Significant Impact

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-08-16

    ... Rural Utilities Service Energy Efficiency and Conservation Loan Program Finding of No Significant Impact... (RUS) has made a finding of no significant impact (FONSI) for implementing its new Energy Efficiency... 12 to authorize energy audits and energy efficiency measures and devices to reduce demand on...

  5. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This note shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare. We explore...

  6. On nonlinear reduced order modeling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    When applied to a model that receives n input parameters and predicts m output responses, a reduced order model estimates the variations in the m outputs of the original model resulting from variations in its n inputs. While direct execution of the forward model could provide these variations, reduced order modeling plays an indispensable role for most real-world complex models. This follows because the solutions of complex models are expensive in terms of required computational overhead, thus rendering their repeated execution computationally infeasible. To overcome this problem, reduced order modeling determines a relationship (often referred to as a surrogate model) between the input and output variations that is much cheaper to evaluate than the original model. While it is desirable to seek highly accurate surrogates, the computational overhead becomes quickly intractable especially for high dimensional model, n ≫ 10. In this manuscript, we demonstrate a novel reduced order modeling method for building a surrogate model that employs only 'local first-order' derivatives and a new tensor-free expansion to efficiently identify all the important features of the original model to reach a predetermined level of accuracy. This is achieved via a hybrid approach in which local first-order derivatives (i.e., gradient) of a pseudo response (a pseudo response represents a random linear combination of original model’s responses) are randomly sampled utilizing a tensor-free expansion around some reference point, with the resulting gradient information aggregated in a subspace (denoted by the active subspace) of dimension much less than the dimension of the input parameters space. The active subspace is then sampled employing the state-of-the-art techniques for global sampling methods. The proposed method hybridizes the use of global sampling methods for uncertainty quantification and local variational methods for sensitivity analysis. In a similar manner to

  7. Challenging and Reducing Cultural Stereotypes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    黄鸣

    2011-01-01

    Abstract:Anyplace where differences are found leaves room for stereotypes.Each of us hears or makes stereotypical comments every day,and although sometimes it is necessary to make stereotypes in foreign language teaching and learning,we should always be aware of the negative effects of stereotyping people from other cultures when we use them to interpret behavior.This paper defines stereotypes,discusses how they impede communication and then focuses on some ways to challenge and reduce stereotypes in cross-cultural communication.

  8. Welfare-Reducing Trade Liberalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schröder, Philipp J.H.; Jørgensen, Jan G.

    Recent literature on the workhorse model of intra-industry trade has explored heterogeneous cost structures at the firm level. These approaches have proven to add realism and predictive power. This paper shows, however, that this added realism also implies that there may exist a positive bilateral...... tariff that maximizes national and world welfare. Applying one of the simplest specifications possible, namely a symmetric two-country intra-industry trade model with fixed export costs that are heterogeneous across firms, we find that the reciprocal reduction of small tariffs reduces welfare....

  9. FIREhose: Reducing Data from FIRE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fica, Haley Diane; Lambrides, Erini; Faherty, Jackie; Cruz, Kelle L.; BDNYC

    2016-01-01

    Brown dwarfs are stellar objects that do not have enough mass to ignite hydrogen fusion in their core. Their mass is between 0.08 solar masses and the mass of our sun. Brown dwarfs are very bright in the near-infrared wavelength band (0.8- 2.5 microns). We reduced data from the Folded-port InfraRed Echellette (FIRE) instrument on the Magellan Telescope at the Las Campanas Observatory. FIRE is a medium-resolution echelle spectrometer, whose data reduction results in a spectrum of a star. When reducing FIRE data, it is important to account for inconsistencies in the data, such as bad pixels, cosmic rays, and the effects of our atmosphere. Using the FIREhose pipeline, these inconsistencies can be accounted for and corrected using a A0 telluric with a known spectrum. After telluric correcting, the data reduction results in a primed spectrum for an object, which can then be used to determine an object's physical properties, such as atmospheric composition, radial velocity, effective temperature and surface gravity.

  10. Soldering Tested in Reduced Gravity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Struk, Peter M.; Pettegrew, Richard D.; Watson, J. Kevin; Down, Robert S.; Haylett, Daniel R.

    2005-01-01

    Whether used occasionally for contingency repair or routinely in nominal repair operations, soldering will become increasingly important to the success of future long-duration human space missions. As a result, it will be critical to have a thorough understanding of the service characteristics of solder joints produced in reduced-gravity environments. The National Center for Space Exploration Research (via the Research for Design program), the NASA Glenn Research Center, and the NASA Johnson Space Center are conducting an experimental program to explore the influence of reduced gravity environments on the soldering process. Solder joint characteristics that are being considered include solder fillet geometry, porosity, and microstructural features. Both through-hole (see the drawing and image on the preceding figure) and surface-mounted devices are being investigated. This effort (the low-gravity portion being conducted on NASA s KC-135 research aircraft) uses the soldering hardware currently available on the International Space Station. The experiment involves manual soldering by a contingent of test operators, including both highly skilled technicians and less skilled individuals to provide a skill mix that might be encountered in space mission crews. The experiment uses both flux-cored solder and solid-core solder with an externally applied flux. Other experimental parameters include the type of flux, gravitational level (nominally zero,

  11. Reduced pallidal output causes dystonia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Atsushi eNambu

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Dystonia is a neurological disorder characterized by sustained or repetitive involuntary muscle contractions and abnormal postures. In the present article, we will introduce our recent electrophysiological studies in hyperkinetic transgenic mice generated as a model of DYT1 dystonia and in a human cervical dystonia patient, and discuss the pathophysiology of dystonia on the basis of these electrophysiological findings. Recording of neuronal activity in the awake state of DYT1 dystonia model mice revealed reduced spontaneous activity with bursts and pauses in both internal (GPi and external (GPe segments of the globus pallidus. Electrical stimulation of the primary motor cortex evoked responses composed of excitation and subsequent long-lasting inhibition, the latter of which was never observed in normal mice. In addition, somatotopic arrangements were disorganized in the GPi and GPe of dystonia model mice. In a human cervical dystonia patient, electrical stimulation of the primary motor cortex evoked similar long-lasting inhibition in the GPi and GPe. Thus, reduced GPi output may cause increased thalamic and cortical activity, resulting in the involuntary movements observed in dystonia.

  12. Natural chlorophyll but not chlorophyllin prevents heme-induced cytotoxic and hyperproliferative effects in rat colon

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vogel, de J.; Jonker-Termont, D.S.M.L.; Katan, M.B.; Meer, van der R.

    2005-01-01

    Diets high in red meat and low in green vegetables are associated with an increased risk of colon cancer. In rats, dietary heme, mimicking red meat, increases colonic cytotoxicity and proliferation of the colonocytes, whereas addition of chlorophyll from green vegetables inhibits these heme-induced

  13. Moral Violations Reduce Oral Consumption.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chan, Cindy; Van Boven, Leaf; Andrade, Eduardo B; Ariely, Dan

    2014-07-01

    Consumers frequently encounter moral violations in everyday life. They watch movies and television shows about crime and deception, hear news reports of corporate fraud and tax evasion, and hear gossip about cheaters and thieves. How does exposure to moral violations influence consumption? Because moral violations arouse disgust and because disgust is an evolutionarily important signal of contamination that should provoke a multi-modal response, we hypothesize that moral violations affect a key behavioral response to disgust: reduced oral consumption. In three experiments, compared with those in control conditions, people drank less water and chocolate milk while (a) watching a film portraying the moral violations of incest, (b) writing about moral violations of cheating or theft, and (c) listening to a report about fraud and manipulation. These findings imply that "moral disgust" influences consumption in ways similar to core disgust, and thus provide evidence for the associations between moral violations, emotions, and consumer behavior.

  14. Variational Integrators for Reduced Magnetohydrodynamics

    CERN Document Server

    Kraus, Michael; Grasso, Daniela

    2015-01-01

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics is a simplified set of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and consequently a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. The resulting integrator preserves important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As the integrator is free of numerical resistivity, spurious reconnection along current sheets is absent in the ideal case. If effects of electron inertia are added, reconnection of magnetic field lines is allowed, although the resulting model still possesses a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. After reviewing the conservation laws of the model equations, the adopted variational principle with the related conservation laws are described both at the continuous and discrete level. We verify...

  15. Reducing catalytic converter pressure loss

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-06-01

    This article examines why approximately 30--40% of total exhaust-system pressure loss occurs in the catalytic converter and what can be done to reduce pressure loss. High exhaust-system backpressure is of concern in the design of power trains for passenger cars and trucks because it penalizes fuel economy and limits peak power. Pressure losses occur due to fluid shear and turning during turbulent flow in the converter headers and in entry separation and developing laminar-flow boundary layers within the substrate flow passages. Some of the loss mechanisms are coupled. For example, losses in the inlet header are influenced by the presence of the flow resistance of a downstream substrate. Conversely, the flow maldistribution and pressure loss of the substrate(s) depend on the design of the inlet header.

  16. Does the Internet Reduce Corruption?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Thomas Barnebeck; Bentzen, Jeanet Sinding; Dalgaard, Carl-Johan Lars;

    2011-01-01

    We test the hypothesis that the Internet is a useful technology for controlling corruption. In order to do so, we develop a novel identification strategy for Internet diffusion. Power disruptions damage digital equipment, which increases the user cost of IT capital, and thus lowers the speed...... of Internet diffusion. A natural phenomenon causing power disruptions is lightning activity, which makes lightning a viable instrument for Internet diffusion. Using ground-based lightning detection censors as well as global satellite data, we construct lightning density data for the contiguous U.S. states...... and a large cross section of countries. Empirically, lightning density is a strong instrument for Internet diffusion and our IV estimates suggest that the emergence of the Internet has served to reduce the extent of corruption across U.S. states and across the world....

  17. Reduced domestic satellite orbit spacing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, G. L.

    The demand for services provided by communications satellites in geostationary orbit is growing, and problems arise with respect to the required increase in capacity. One approach for providing such an increase involves the employment of more satellites operating at smaller orbital spacings. The present investigation is concerned with the results of technical studies conducted by the Federal Communications Commission (FCC) to determine the feasibility of reducing orbital spacings between U.S. 'domestic fixed satellites' (domsats). Attention is given to details regarding the usable orbital arc, an adjacent satellite interference model, antenna sidelobe patterns, a single entry analysis, a 4/6 GHz aggregate analysis, results for the 4/6 GHz bands, results for the 12/14 GHz bands, data services, voice services, video reception, and high power spot beams.

  18. Periocular Recognition Using Reduced Features

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ambika D R,

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available Biometrics is science of measuring and statistically analyzing biological data. Biometric system establishes identity of a person based on unique physical or behavioural characteristic possessed by an individual. Behavioural biometrics measures characteristics which are acquired naturally over time. Physical biometrics measures inherent physical characteristics on a n individual. Over the last few decades enormous attention is drawn towards ocular biometrics. Cues provided by ocular region have led to exploration of newer traits. Feasibility of periocular region as a useful biometric trait has been explored recently. With the promising results of preliminary examination, research towards periocular region is currently gaining lot of prominence. Researchers have analyzed various techniques of feature extraction and classification in the periocular region. The current paper investigates the effect of using Lower Central Periocular Region (LCPR for identification. The results obtained are comparable with those acquired for the entire periocular region with an advantage of reduced periocular area.

  19. Interventions to reduce school bullying.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, Peter K; Ananiadou, Katerina; Cowie, Helen

    2003-10-01

    In the last 2 decades, school bullying has become a topic of public concern and research around the world. This has led to action to reduce the problem. We review interventions targeted at the school level (for example, whole school policy, classroom climate, peer support, school tribunal, and playground improvement), at the class level (for example, curriculum work), and at the individual level (for example, working with specific pupils). Effectiveness of interventions has been sporadically assessed. We review several systematically evaluated, large-scale, school-based intervention programs. Their effectiveness has varied, and we consider reasons for this. We suggest ways to improve the evaluation and comparability of studies, as well as the effectiveness of future interventions. PMID:14631879

  20. Exploiting Data Similarity to Reduce Memory Footprints

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Biswas, S; de Supinski, B R; Schulz, M; Franklin, D; Sherwood, T; Chong, F T

    2011-01-28

    Memory size has long limited large-scale applications on high-performance computing (HPC) systems. Since compute nodes frequently do not have swap space, physical memory often limits problem sizes. Increasing core counts per chip and power density constraints, which limit the number of DIMMs per node, have exacerbated this problem. Further, DRAM constitutes a significant portion of overall HPC system cost. Therefore, instead of adding more DRAM to the nodes, mechanisms to manage memory usage more efficiently - preferably transparently - could increase effective DRAM capacity and thus the benefit of multicore nodes for HPC systems. MPI application processes often exhibit significant data similarity. These data regions occupy multiple physical locations across the individual rank processes within a multicore node and thus offer a potential savings in memory capacity. These regions, primarily residing in heap, are dynamic, which makes them difficult to manage statically. Our novel memory allocation library, SBLLmalloc, automatically identifies identical memory blocks and merges them into a single copy. SBLLmalloc does not require application or OS changes since we implement it as a user-level library. Overall, we demonstrate that SBLLmalloc reduces the memory footprint of a range of MPI applications by 32.03% on average and up to 60.87%. Further, SBLLmalloc supports problem sizes for IRS over 21.36% larger than using standard memory management techniques, thus significantly increasing effective system size. Similarly, SBLLmalloc requires 43.75% fewer nodes than standard memory management techniques to solve an AMG problem.

  1. Combined intravitreal bevacizumab with phacoemulsification in visually significant cataract and visually significant exudative maculopathy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad Mansour

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Purpose : We investigated the visual outcome of combined phacoemulsification with intravitreal bevacizumab, in eyes with dense cataract and visually significant exudative maculopathy. Materials and Methods : Prospective longitudinal pilot study of consecutive patients treated by two surgeons in 2006, using intravitreal bevacizumab at the end of phacoemulsification. The historical control group consisted of consecutive subjects with exudative maculopathy and dense cataract treated by the same surgeons with the help of phacoemulsification without intravitreal bevacizumab prior to 2006. Results : Thirty-one treated patients had the mean (SD logMar best corrected visual acuity improving from - 1.48 (0.50 preoperatively to - 0.67 (0.38 in the first postoperative week ( p < 0.001, to - 0.64 (0.40 in the first postoperative month ( p < 0.001, and to - 0.62 (0.42 ( p < 0.001 on the last follow-up (mean 4.2 months, range 1 - 9 months. Fourteen control patients had the mean (SD logMar best corrected visual acuity improving from - 1.78 (0.79 preoperatively, to - 0.91 (0.53 in the first postoperative week ( p < 0.001, to - 0.86 (0.45 in the first postoperative month ( p < 0.001, and to - 0.90 (0.47 ( p < 0.001 on the last follow- up (mean 19.6 months, range 1 - 49 months. Initial visual acuities, final visual acuities, and percentage of visual improvement at one month were all not significantly better in the intervention compared to the control group at one month. In the study group, the fovea was flattened at the one-month follow-up, by 90-diopter slit lamp examination and / or Optical coherence tomography. Conclusion : The combination of intravitreal bevacizumab and phacoemulsification is beneficial for maximal visual rehabilitation in the first postoperative month.

  2. Chordoma characterization of significant changes of the DNA methylation pattern.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beate Rinner

    Full Text Available Chordomas are rare mesenchymal tumors occurring exclusively in the midline from clivus to sacrum. Early tumor detection is extremely important as these tumors are resistant to chemotherapy and irradiation. Despite continuous research efforts surgical excision remains the main treatment option. Because of the often challenging anatomic location early detection is important to enable complete tumor resection and to reduce the high incidence of local recurrences. The aim of this study was to explore whether DNA methylation, a well known epigenetic marker, may play a role in chordoma development and if hypermethylation of specific CpG islands may serve as potential biomarkers correlated with SNP analyses in chordoma. The study was performed on tumor samples from ten chordoma patients. We found significant genomic instability by Affymetrix 6.0. It was interesting to see that all chordomas showed a loss of 3q26.32 (PIK 3CA and 3q27.3 (BCL6 thus underlining the potential importance of the PI3K pathway in chordoma development. By using the AITCpG360 methylation assay we elucidated 20 genes which were hyper/hypomethylated compared to normal blood. The most promising candidates were nine hyper/hypomethylated genes C3, XIST, TACSTD2, FMR1, HIC1, RARB, DLEC1, KL, and RASSF1. In summary, we have shown that chordomas are characterized by a significant genomic instability and furthermore we demonstrated a characteristic DNA methylation pattern. These findings add new insights into chordoma development, diagnosis and potential new treatment options.

  3. [Significance of regulatory B cells in nosogenesis of immune thrombocytopenia].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Xin; Wang, Fang; Ding, Kai Yang; Dai, Lan

    2014-04-01

    This study was aimed to investigate the role of regulatory B cells (Breg) in pathogenesis of immune thrombocytopenia (ITP) and its clinical significance. A total of 35 ITP patients and 20 normal controls were enrolled in this study. The expression of CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells was detected by flow cytometry and the expression of IL-10 mRNA and TGF-β1 mRNA was assayed by RT-PCR. The results indicated that the expression level of CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells in peripheral blood of newly diagnosed ITP patients was obviously lower than that in normal controls (P < 0.05); the expression level of CD19(+)CD24(hi)CD38(hi) B cells in ITP patients with increased platelet count after treatment was higher than that before treatment (P < 0.05); the expression level of IL-10 mRNA in newly diagnosed ITP patients was significantly lower than that the in normal controls (P < 0.05), the expression level of TGF-β1 mRNA in newly diagnosed ITP patients increases as compared with normal controls (P < 0.05), after treatment with DXM the expression of IL-10 mRNA was enhanced, the expression of TGF-β1 mRNA was reduced as compared with expression level before treatment (P < 0.05). It is concluded that the Breg cells may play an important role in the pathogenesis of ITP via humoral immunity and its regulation of T lymphocytes.

  4. Significant Causes and Effects of Variation Orders in Construction Projects

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aftab Hameed Memon

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Variation Order (VO is a common phenomenon in construction projects. It involves an amendment of the original scope of work as in the contract. VO is caused from various factors. Variations often cause disputes and dissatisfactions among the parties involved in construction projects. Thus, it is very important to control VOs in a construction project. For this, the first step is to uncover and understand the causes and effects of VO. Hence, the aim of this study is to determine the significant causes and effects of VO in construction projects. Data collection involved the survey with a structured questionnaire consisting of 18 causes and 9 effects of variation orders identified through comprehensive literature review. Survey was carried out among client representatives, consultants and contractors involved in handling projects of Malaysian Public Works Department (PWD known as Jabatan Kerja Raya Malaysia (JKR. A total of 101 completed questionnaire sets were collected against 200 questionnaires distributed among the practitioners. Collected questionnaires were analyzed with statistical software package SPSS and Average Index formula. The results of the study showed that in Malaysia’s JKR projects often variation orders are occurred; these VO’s are majorly caused because of unavailability of equipment, poor workmanship and design complexity. While most significant effects of VO on the projects are increased project cost, delay in completion and logistic delays. Early participation of professionals may be beneficial in reducing the occurrence of variations. Also, improved design and avoiding frequent design changes will be very effective in controlling the problem of variations.

  5. Evaluation of cover crop and reduced cultivation for reducing nitrate leaching in Ireland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hooker, K V; Coxon, C E; Hackett, R; Kirwan, L E; O'Keeffe, E; Richards, K G

    2008-01-01

    Nitrate (NO(3)) loss from arable systems to surface and groundwater has attracted considerable attention in recent years in Ireland. Little information exists under Irish conditions, which are wet and temperate, on the effects of winter cover crops and different tillage techniques on NO(3) leaching. This study investigated the efficacy of such practices in reducing NO(3) leaching from a spring barley (Hordeum vulgare L.) system in the Barrow River valley, southeast Ireland. The study compared the effect of two tillage systems (plow-based tillage and noninversion tillage) and two over-winter alternatives (no vegetative cover and a mustard cover crop) on soil solution NO(3) concentrations at 90 cm depth over two winter drainage seasons (2003/04 and 2004/05). Soil samples were taken and analyzed for inorganic N. During both years of the study, the use of a mustard cover crop significantly reduced NO(3) losses for the plowed and reduced cultivation treatments. Mean soil solution NO(3) concentrations were between 38 and 70% lower when a cover crop was used, and total N load lost over the winter was between 18 and 83% lower. Results from this study highlight the importance of drainage volume and winter temperatures on NO(3) concentrations in soil solution and overall N load lost. It is suggested that cover crops will be of particular value in reducing NO(3) loss in temperate regions with mild winters, where winter N mineralization is important and high winter temperatures favor a long growing season.

  6. Clinical significance of computed tomography assessment for third molar surgery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamori, Kenji; Tomihara, Kei; Noguchi, Makoto

    2014-07-28

    Surgical extraction of the third molar is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the clinical practice of oral surgery. Third molar surgery is warranted when there is inadequate space for eruption, malpositioning, or risk for cyst or odontogenic tumor formation. Preoperative assessment should include a detailed morphologic analysis of the third molar and its relationship to adjacent structures and surrounding tissues. Due to developments in medical engineering technology, computed tomography (CT) now plays a critical role in providing the clear images required for adequate assessment prior to third molar surgery. Removal of the maxillary third molar is associated with a risk for maxillary sinus perforation, whereas removal of the mandibular third molar can put patients at risk for a neurosensory deficit from damage to the lingual nerve or inferior alveolar nerve. Multiple factors, including demographic, anatomic, and treatment-related factors, influence the incidence of nerve injury during or following removal of the third molar. CT assessment of the third molar prior to surgery can identify some of these risk factors, such as the absence of cortication between the mandibular third molar and the inferior alveolar canal, prior to surgery to reduce the risk for nerve damage. This topic highlight presents an overview of the clinical significance of CT assessment in third molar surgery. PMID:25071882

  7. [Ecological significance of arbuscular mycorrhiza biotechnology in modern agricultural system].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yong; Zeng, Ming; Xiong, Bingquan; Yang, Xiaohong

    2003-04-01

    Mycorrhiza plays a key role in nutrient cycling in ecosystem, and protects host plant against environmental stress. Under natural condition, plant's mycorrhizal structure is a normal phenomenon, and arbuscular mycorrhiza (AM) association is the commonest mycorrhizal type. If well mycorrhizal structure can be formed during plant root system developing process, the quantity and quality of plant production will be improved in large. Because of its effects on plant growth and health, it is accepted that AM symbiosis can reduce chemical fertilizer and pesticide inputs. Consequently, this will lead to a reduction in harmful chemical substance impact on environment. The key effects of AM symbiosis can be summarized as follows: (1) improving rooting and plant establishment; (2) improving uptake of low mobile ions; (3) improving nutrient cycling; (4) enhancing plant tolerance to (biotic and abiotic) stress; (5) improving quality of soil structure; and (6) enhancing plant community diversity. In this paper, the ecological characteristic of arbuscular mycorrhiza fungi (AMF), effects of AM on host plant, and ecologic significance of AM biotechnology in agricultural system were reviewed.

  8. The Significance of Matrix Metalloproteinases in Oral Diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maciejczyk, Mateusz; Pietrzykowska, Agnieszka; Zalewska, Anna; Knaś, Małgorzata; Daniszewska, Irena

    2016-01-01

    Matrix metalloproteinases (MMPs) belong to a family of structurally related zinc-dependent proteolytic enzymes that are known to play a key role in the catabolic turnover of extracellular matrix (ECM) components. Research studies to date have indicated that MMPs regulate the activity of several non-ECM bioactive substrates, including growth factors, cytokines, chemokines and cell receptors, which determine the tissue microenvironment. Disruption of the balance between the concentration of active matalloproteinases and their inhibitors (TIMPs) may lead to pathological changes associated with uncontrolled ECM turnover, tissue remodeling, inflammatory response, cell growth and migration. This brief review presents some information on MMPs' role in inflammatory, metabolic and cancer abnormalities related to the salivary glands, as well as MMP-related aspects that lead to the formation of human dentinal caries lesions. In oral diseases, the most relevant biological fluid commonly used for diagnosing periodontal diseases is saliva. In diseased patients with significantly higher levels of MMPs in their saliva than healthy people, most extracellular matrix components undergo digestion to lower molecular weight forms. Conventional treatment successfully reduces the levels of MMPs inhibits the progressive breakdown of gingival and periodontal ligament collagens. Beside inflammatory abnormalities like Sjögren's syndrome (SS), a large group of disorders is comprised of cancers, most of them involving the parotid gland. PMID:27627574

  9. Atomic vacancies significantly degrade the mechanical properties of phosphorene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Zhen-Dong; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Zhang, Ying-Yan; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Due to low formation energies, it is very easy to create atomic defects in phosphorene during its fabrication process. How these atomic defects affect its mechanical behavior, however, remain unknown. Here, we report on a systematic study of the effect of atomic vacancies on the mechanical properties and failure behavior of phosphorene using molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that atomic vacancies induce local stress concentration and cause early bond-breaking, leading to a significant degradation of the mechanical properties of the material. More specifically, a 2% concentration of randomly distributed mono-vacancies is able to reduce the fracture strength by ∼40%. An increase in temperature from 10 to 400 K can further deteriorate the fracture strength by ∼60%. The fracture strength of defective phosphorene is also found to be affected by defect distribution. When the defects are patterned in a line, the reduction in fracture strength greatly depends on the tilt angle and the loading direction. Furthermore, we find that di-vacancies cause an even larger reduction in fracture strength than mono-vacancies when the loading is in an armchair direction. These findings provide important guidelines for the structural design of phosphorene in future applications.

  10. Atomic vacancies significantly degrade the mechanical properties of phosphorene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sha, Zhen-Dong; Pei, Qing-Xiang; Zhang, Ying-Yan; Zhang, Yong-Wei

    2016-08-01

    Due to low formation energies, it is very easy to create atomic defects in phosphorene during its fabrication process. How these atomic defects affect its mechanical behavior, however, remain unknown. Here, we report on a systematic study of the effect of atomic vacancies on the mechanical properties and failure behavior of phosphorene using molecular dynamics simulations. It is found that atomic vacancies induce local stress concentration and cause early bond-breaking, leading to a significant degradation of the mechanical properties of the material. More specifically, a 2% concentration of randomly distributed mono-vacancies is able to reduce the fracture strength by ∼40%. An increase in temperature from 10 to 400 K can further deteriorate the fracture strength by ∼60%. The fracture strength of defective phosphorene is also found to be affected by defect distribution. When the defects are patterned in a line, the reduction in fracture strength greatly depends on the tilt angle and the loading direction. Furthermore, we find that di-vacancies cause an even larger reduction in fracture strength than mono-vacancies when the loading is in an armchair direction. These findings provide important guidelines for the structural design of phosphorene in future applications. PMID:27345189

  11. Significant residual fluorinated alcohols present in various fluorinated materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dinglasan-Panlilio, Mary Joyce A; Mabury, Scott A

    2006-03-01

    Polyfluorinated telomer alcohols and sulfonamides are classes of compounds recently identified as precursor molecules to the perfluorinated acids detected in the environment. Despite the detection and quantification of these volatile compounds in the atmosphere, their sources remain unknown. Both classes of compounds are used in the synthesis of various fluorosurfactants and incorporated in polymeric materials used extensively in the carpet, textile, and paper industries. This study has identified the presence of residual unbound fluoro telomer alcohols (FTOHs) in varying chain lengths (C6-C14) in several commercially available and industrially applied polymeric and surfactant materials. NMeFOSE, a perfluoroalkyl sulfonamido alcohol, was also detected in a commercially available carpet protector product. A method was developed to remove these residual compounds from polymeric and surfactant materials by dispersion in water and stripping of the volatiles using a constant flow of air and trapping on XAD resin. Using gas chromatography mass spectrometry analysis, it was determined that the fluorinated materials examined consist of 0.04-3.8% residual alcohols on a fluoro alcohol to dry mass basis. These values indicate that residual alcohols, left unreacted and unbound from the manufacturing process of fluorinated polymers and surfactants, could be a significant source of the polyfluorinated telomer alcohols and sulfonamides released into the environment. This study suggests that elimination or reduction of these residual alcohols from all marketed fluorinated polymers and fluorosurfactants is key in reducing the prevalence of perfluorinated acids formed in the environment.

  12. Clinical significance of computed tomography assessment for third molar surgery

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kenji; Nakamori; Kei; Tomihara; Makoto; Noguchi

    2014-01-01

    Surgical extraction of the third molar is the most commonly performed surgical procedure in the clinical practice of oral surgery.Third molar surgery is warranted when there is inadequate space for eruption,malpositioning,or risk for cyst or odontogenic tumor formation.Preoperative assessment should include a detailed morphologic analysis of the third molar and its relationship to adjacent structures and surrounding tissues.Due to developments in medical engineering technology,computed tomography(CT)now plays a critical role in providing the clear images required for adequate assessment prior to third molar surgery.Removal of the maxillary third molar is associated with a risk for maxillary sinus perforation,whereas removal of the mandibular third molar can put patients at risk for a neurosensory deficit from damage to the lingual nerve or inferior alveolar nerve.Multiple factors,including demographic,anatomic,and treatment-related factors,influence the incidence of nerve injury during or following removal of the third molar.CT assessment of the third molar prior to surgery can identify some of these risk factors,such as the absence of cortication between themandibular third molar and the inferior alveolar canal,prior to surgery to reduce the risk for nerve damage.This topic highlight presents an overview of the clinical significance of CT assessment in third molar surgery.

  13. Parameter and Process Significance in Mechanistic Modeling of Cellulose Hydrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rotter, B.; Barry, A.; Gerhard, J.; Small, J.; Tahar, B.

    2005-12-01

    The rate of cellulose hydrolysis, and of associated microbial processes, is important in determining the stability of landfills and their potential impact on the environment, as well as associated time scales. To permit further exploration in this field, a process-based model of cellulose hydrolysis was developed. The model, which is relevant to both landfill and anaerobic digesters, includes a novel approach to biomass transfer between a cellulose-bound biofilm and biomass in the surrounding liquid. Model results highlight the significance of the bacterial colonization of cellulose particles by attachment through contact in solution. Simulations revealed that enhanced colonization, and therefore cellulose degradation, was associated with reduced cellulose particle size, higher biomass populations in solution, and increased cellulose-binding ability of the biomass. A sensitivity analysis of the system parameters revealed different sensitivities to model parameters for a typical landfill scenario versus that for an anaerobic digester. The results indicate that relative surface area of cellulose and proximity of hydrolyzing bacteria are key factors determining the cellulose degradation rate.

  14. Significances and importance of phytochemical present in Terminalia chebula

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TARIQ A.L

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical are naturally present in the plants and shows biologically significance by playing an essential role in the plants to defend themselves against various pathogenic microbes by showing the antimicrobial activity by inhibition or killing mechanisms. The secretion of these compounds is varying from plant to plant some produce more and some produce in minimal quantity. Sometimes they can be harmful and sometimes they can be very helpful. There is evidence from laboratory studies that phytochemicals in fruits and vegetables may reduce the risk of cancer, possibly due to dietary fibers, polyphenol antioxidants and anti-inflammatory effects. Specific phytochemicals, such as fermentable dietary fibers, are allowed limited health claims by the US Food and Drug Administration The present study was focused to find out the photochemical analysis of Terminalia chebula plant extracts of leaves, fruits, seed, stem and roots. The formation of yellow colour indicated the presence of flavonoids while the brown colour formation indicated the presence alkaloids and terpenoids. The phenol content was maximum in roots (82.13 mg/gdw followed by seed leave, stem and fruit. The sugar content was highest in leaves (8.27 mg/gdw followed by fruits, stem, root and seed. The protein content was maximum in fruits (55.59 mg/dgw followed by seeds leaves, stem and root.

  15. Reduced central blood volume in cirrhosis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bendtsen, F; Henriksen, Jens Henrik Sahl; Sørensen, T I;

    1989-01-01

    The pathogenesis of ascites formation in cirrhosis is uncertain. It is still under debate whether the effective blood volume is reduced (underfilling theory) or whether the intravascular compartment is expanded (overflow theory). This problem has not yet been solved because of insufficient tools...... for measuring the central blood volume. We have developed a method that enables us to determine directly the central blood volume, i.e., the blood volume in the heart cavities, lungs, and central arterial tree. In 60 patients with cirrhosis and 16 control subjects the central blood volume was assessed according...... to the kinetic theory as the product of cardiac output and mean transit time of the central vascular bed. Central blood volume was significantly smaller in patients with cirrhosis than in controls (mean 21 vs. 27 ml/kg estimated ideal body weight, p less than 0.001; 25% vs. 33% of the total blood volume, p less...

  16. Reduced attentional scope in cocaine polydrug users.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lorenza S Colzato

    Full Text Available Cocaine is Europe's second preferred recreational drug after cannabis but very little is known about possible cognitive impairments in the upcoming type of recreational cocaine user (monthly consumption. We asked whether recreational use of cocaine impacts early attentional selection processes. Cocaine-free polydrug controls (n = 18 and cocaine polydrug users (n = 18 were matched on sex, age, alcohol consumption, and IQ (using the Raven's progressive matrices, and were tested by using the Global-Local task to measure the scope of attention. Cocaine polydrug users attended significantly more to local aspects of attended events, which fits with the idea that a reduced scope of attention may be associated with the perpetuation of the use of the drug.

  17. Plasma gelsolin is reduced in trauma patients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, B; Schiødt, F V; Ott, P;

    1999-01-01

    in the circulation can lead to a condition resembling multiple organ dysfunction syndrome (MODS), and we have previously demonstrated that the level of Gc-globulin is decreased after severe trauma. The purpose of the present study was to determine whether the plasma levels of gelsolin were altered in the early phase...... after trauma. Twenty-three consecutive trauma patients were studied. Plasma samples were assayed for gelsolin by immunonephelometry with polyclonal rabbit antihuman gelsolin prepared in our own laboratory. The median time from injury until the time the first blood sample was taken was 52 min (range 20......-110) and the median Injury Severity Score (ISS) was 20 (range 4-50). The gelsolin level on admission was reduced significantly in the trauma patients compared with normal controls. The median level was 51 mg/L (7-967) vs. 207 mg/L (151-621), P

  18. Shrinkage Reducing Measures for Engineering Cementitious Composites

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yingzi; YAO Yan; GAO Xiaojian; DENG Hongwei; YU Pengzhan

    2008-01-01

    Inhibition measurement of shrinkage of engineering cementitious composites(ECC) was investigated due to typical ECC with higher free drying shrinkage.The effects of expanded admixture (EA),shrinkage reducing admixture (SRA),coarse sand+stone powder (CS+SP)and superabsorbent polymer (SAP) on drying shrinkage and mechanical properties were studied.The experimental results show that ECC incorporating EA,SRA and coarse sand can retain around 60% of the typical ECC's free drying shrinkage.Superabsorbent polymerl(SAP) can delay the development of free drying shrinkage of ECC at different ages,and the effect of SAP is not distinct like the actions of EA,superabsorbent polymer(SRA) and coarse sand.Significantly,SAP may act as artificial flaw to form a more homogeneous defect system that increases the potential of saturated multiple cracking,hence the ductility of ECC will be improved greatly.

  19. Reduced thymic output in elite athletes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prieto-Hinojosa, Adria; Knight, Andrea; Compton, Claude; Gleeson, Michael; Travers, Paul J

    2014-07-01

    Athletes undergoing intensive training schedules have chronic exposure to stress-induced hormones such as cortisol that can depress immune function. We compared the circulating levels of T cell receptor excision circles (TREC), a marker of recent thymic emigrants, as well as the levels of naïve and memory subsets in a group of elite endurance athletes and in controls. The athletes showed a reduction in absolute numbers of naïve T cells, particularly in CD4 T cells. In contrast, memory cells were increased. TREC levels in the athletes were significantly reduced compared to age-matched controls. Such changes resemble premature ageing of the T cell component of the immune system. Since thymic production of T cells naturally decline with age, these results raise the concern that prolonging high intensity exercise into the 4th decade of life may have deleterious consequences for athletes' health.

  20. The benefits of reduced morbidity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Morbidity benefits refer to increases in utility arising from reductions in incidents of acute health impairments and from increases in the probability of developing chronic diseases. The impairments would run the gamut from a cough-day to a bed-disability-day, while the chronic diseases include classic pollution-related diseases, such as cancer, to in utero effects and learning disabilities. As with mortality benefits, there could be benefits to oneself and family and friends as well as benefits based on altruism. A major difference between the mortality and morbidity valuation literatures is that while estimates of the former are always based on risk (one is never trying to obtain values for avoiding certain death), estimates of the latter generally are not. That is, most of the theory and empirical estimates are based on models where the effect to be avoided is certain. This assumption holds reasonably well for estimating common acute effects, for example, the willingness to pay (WTP) for one less cough-day. It works less well, if at all, for chronic illness endpoints, where benefits seem to be appropriately expressed in terms of reduced risk of developing a disease or impairment

  1. Variational integrators for reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kraus, Michael; Tassi, Emanuele; Grasso, Daniela

    2016-09-01

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics is a simplified set of magnetohydrodynamics equations with applications to both fusion and astrophysical plasmas, possessing a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure and consequently a number of conserved functionals. We propose a new discretisation strategy for these equations based on a discrete variational principle applied to a formal Lagrangian. The resulting integrator preserves important quantities like the total energy, magnetic helicity and cross helicity exactly (up to machine precision). As the integrator is free of numerical resistivity, spurious reconnection along current sheets is absent in the ideal case. If effects of electron inertia are added, reconnection of magnetic field lines is allowed, although the resulting model still possesses a noncanonical Hamiltonian structure. After reviewing the conservation laws of the model equations, the adopted variational principle with the related conservation laws is described both at the continuous and discrete level. We verify the favourable properties of the variational integrator in particular with respect to the preservation of the invariants of the models under consideration and compare with results from the literature and those of a pseudo-spectral code.

  2. Hamiltonian formulation of reduced magnetohydrodynamics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Reduced magnetohydrodynamics (RMHD) has become a principal tool for understanding nonlinear processes, including disruptions, in tokamak plasmas. Although analytical studies of RMHD turbulence have been useful, the model's impressive ability to simulate tokamak fluid behavior has been revealed primarily by numerical solution. The present work describes a new analytical approach, not restricted to turbulent regimes, based on Hamiltonian field theory. It is shown that the nonlinear (ideal) RMHD system, in both its high-beta and low-beta versions, can be expressed in Hanmiltonian form. Thus a Poisson bracket, [ , ], is constructed such that each RMHD field quantitity, xi/sub i/, evolves according to xi/sub i/ = [xi/sub i/,H], where H is the total field energy. The new formulation makes RMHD accessible to the methodology of Hamiltonian mechanics; it has lead, in particular, to the recognition of new RMHD invariants and even exact, nonlinear RMHD solutions. A canonical version of the Poisson bracket, which requires the introduction of additional fields, leads to a nonlinear variational principle for time-dependent RMHD

  3. Iterative reconstruction reduces abdominal CT dose

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective: In medical imaging, lowering radiation dose from computed tomography scanning, without reducing diagnostic performance is a desired achievement. Iterative image reconstruction may be one tool to achieve dose reduction. This study reports the diagnostic performance using a blending of 50% statistical iterative reconstruction (ASIR) and filtered back projection reconstruction (FBP) compared to standard FBP image reconstruction at different dose levels for liver phantom examinations. Methods: An anthropomorphic liver phantom was scanned at 250, 185, 155, 140, 120 and 100 mA s, on a 64-slice GE Lightspeed VCT scanner. All scans were reconstructed with ASIR and FBP. Four readers evaluated independently on a 5-point scale 21 images, each containing 32 test sectors. In total 672 areas were assessed. ROC analysis was used to evaluate the differences. Results: There was a difference in AUC between the 250 mA s FBP images and the 120 and 100 mA s FBP images. ASIR reconstruction gave a significantly higher diagnostic performance compared to standard reconstruction at 100 mA s. Conclusion: A blending of 50–90% ASIR and FBP may improve image quality of low dose CT examinations of the liver, and thus give a potential for reducing radiation dose.

  4. Explicit information reduces discounting behavior in monkeys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    John ePearson

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Animals are notoriously impulsive in common laboratory experiments, preferring smaller, sooner rewards to larger, delayed rewards even when this reduces average reward rates. By contrast, the same animals often engage in natural behaviors that require extreme patience, such as food caching, stalking prey, and traveling long distances to high quality food sites. One possible explanation for this discrepancy is that standard laboratory delay discounting tasks artificially inflate impulsivity by subverting animals’ common learning strategies. To test this idea, we examined choices made by rhesus macaques in two variants of a standard delay discounting task. In the conventional variant, post-reward delays were uncued and adjusted to render total trial length constant; in the second, all delays were cued explicitly. We found that measured discounting was significantly reduced in the cued task, with discount rates well below those reported in studies using the standard uncued design. When monkeys had complete information, their decisions were more consistent with a strategy of reward rate maximization. These results indicate that monkeys, and perhaps other animals, are more patient than is normally assumed, and that laboratory measures of delay discounting may overstate impulsivity.

  5. Simvastatin Reduces Capsular Fibrosis around Silicone Implants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chung, Kyu Jin; Park, Ki Rin; Lee, Jun Ho; Kim, Tae Gon; Kim, Yong-Ha

    2016-08-01

    Capsular fibrosis and contracture occurs in most breast reconstruction patients who undergo radiotherapy, and there is no definitive solution for its prevention. Simvastatin was effective at reducing fibrosis in various models. Peri-implant capsular formation is the result of tissue fibrosis development in irradiated breasts. The purpose of this study was to examine the effect of simvastatin on peri-implant fibrosis in rats. Eighteen male Sprague-Dawley rats were allocated to an experimental group (9 rats, 18 implants) or a control group (9 rats, 18 implants). Two hemispherical silicone implants, 10 mm in diameter, were inserted in subpanniculus pockets in each rat. The next day, 10-Gy of radiation from a clinical accelerator was targeted at the implants. Simvastatin (15 mg/kg/day) was administered by oral gavage in the experimental group, while animals in the control group received water. At 12 weeks post-implantation, peri-implant capsules were harvested and examined histologically and by real-time polymerase chain reaction. The average capsular thickness was 371.2 μm in the simvastatin group and 491.2 μm in the control group. The fibrosis ratio was significantly different, with 32.33% in the simvastatin group and 58.44% in the control group (P silicone implants in rats. This finding offers an alternative therapeutic strategy for reducing capsular fibrosis and contracture after implant-based breast reconstruction. PMID:27478339

  6. How damage diversification can reduce systemic risk

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholz, Rebekka; Garas, Antonios; Schweitzer, Frank

    2016-04-01

    We study the influence of risk diversification on cascading failures in weighted complex networks, where weighted directed links represent exposures between nodes. These weights result from different diversification strategies and their adjustment allows us to reduce systemic risk significantly by topological means. As an example, we contrast a classical exposure diversification (ED) approach with a damage diversification (DD) variant. The latter reduces the loss that the failure of high degree nodes generally inflict to their network neighbors and thus hampers the cascade amplification. To quantify the final cascade size and obtain our results, we develop a branching process approximation taking into account that inflicted losses cannot only depend on properties of the exposed, but also of the failing node. This analytic extension is a natural consequence of the paradigm shift from individual to system safety. To deepen our understanding of the cascade process, we complement this systemic perspective by a mesoscopic one: an analysis of the failure risk of nodes dependent on their degree. Additionally, we ask for the role of these failures in the cascade amplification.

  7. Robust Optical Richness Estimation with Reduced Scatter

    CERN Document Server

    Rykoff, E S; Rozo, E; Annis, J; Evrard, A E; Hansen, S M; Hao, J; Johnston, D E; McKay, T A; Wechsler, R H

    2011-01-01

    Reducing the scatter between cluster mass and optical richness is a key goal for cluster cosmology from photometric catalogs. We consider various modifications to the red-sequence matched filter richness estimator of Rozo et al. (2009), and evaluate their impact on the scatter in X-ray luminosity at fixed richness. Most significantly, we find that deeper luminosity cuts can reduce the recovered scatter, finding that sigma_lnLX|lambda=0.63+/-0.02 for clusters with M_500c >~ 1.6e14 h_70^-1 M_sun. The corresponding scatter in mass at fixed richness is sigma_lnM|lambda ~ 0.2-0.3 depending on the richness, comparable to that for total X-ray luminosity. We find that including blue galaxies in the richness estimate increases the scatter, as does weighting galaxies by their optical luminosity. We further demonstrate that our richness estimator is very robust. Specifically, the filter employed when estimating richness can be calibrated directly from the data, without requiring a-priori calibrations of the red-sequence...

  8. Lubricin reduces cartilage--cartilage integration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaefer, Dirk B; Wendt, David; Moretti, Matteo; Jakob, Marcel; Jay, Gregory D; Heberer, Michael; Martin, Ivan

    2004-01-01

    Cartilage integration in vivo does not occur, such that even cartilage fissures do not heal. This could be due not only to the limited access of chondrocytes to the wound, but also to exogenous factors. In this paper, we tested the hypothesis that lubricin, a lubricating protein physiologically present in the synovial fluid, reduces the integrative cartilage repair capacity. Disk/ring composites of bovine articular cartilage were prepared using concentric circular blades and cultured for 6 weeks with or without treatment with 250 microg/ml lubricin applied three times per week. Following culture, the percentage of contact area between the disks and the rings, as assessed by light microscopy, were equal in both groups. The adhesive strength of the integration interface, as assessed by push-out mechanical tests, was markedly and significantly lower in lubricin-treated specimens (2.5 kPa) than in the controls (28.7 kPa). Histological observation of Safranin-O stained cross-sections confirmed the reduced integration in the lubricin treated composites. Our findings suggest that the synovial milieu, by providing lubrication of cartilage surfaces, impairs cartilage--cartilage integration. PMID:15299281

  9. How damage diversification can reduce systemic risk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burkholz, Rebekka; Garas, Antonios; Schweitzer, Frank

    2016-04-01

    We study the influence of risk diversification on cascading failures in weighted complex networks, where weighted directed links represent exposures between nodes. These weights result from different diversification strategies and their adjustment allows us to reduce systemic risk significantly by topological means. As an example, we contrast a classical exposure diversification (ED) approach with a damage diversification (DD) variant. The latter reduces the loss that the failure of high degree nodes generally inflict to their network neighbors and thus hampers the cascade amplification. To quantify the final cascade size and obtain our results, we develop a branching process approximation taking into account that inflicted losses cannot only depend on properties of the exposed, but also of the failing node. This analytic extension is a natural consequence of the paradigm shift from individual to system safety. To deepen our understanding of the cascade process, we complement this systemic perspective by a mesoscopic one: an analysis of the failure risk of nodes dependent on their degree. Additionally, we ask for the role of these failures in the cascade amplification.

  10. A Fast Reduced Kernel Extreme Learning Machine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deng, Wan-Yu; Ong, Yew-Soon; Zheng, Qing-Hua

    2016-04-01

    In this paper, we present a fast and accurate kernel-based supervised algorithm referred to as the Reduced Kernel Extreme Learning Machine (RKELM). In contrast to the work on Support Vector Machine (SVM) or Least Square SVM (LS-SVM), which identifies the support vectors or weight vectors iteratively, the proposed RKELM randomly selects a subset of the available data samples as support vectors (or mapping samples). By avoiding the iterative steps of SVM, significant cost savings in the training process can be readily attained, especially on Big datasets. RKELM is established based on the rigorous proof of universal learning involving reduced kernel-based SLFN. In particular, we prove that RKELM can approximate any nonlinear functions accurately under the condition of support vectors sufficiency. Experimental results on a wide variety of real world small instance size and large instance size applications in the context of binary classification, multi-class problem and regression are then reported to show that RKELM can perform at competitive level of generalized performance as the SVM/LS-SVM at only a fraction of the computational effort incurred.

  11. Stopping or reducing dietary fiber intake reduces constipation and its associated symptoms

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Kok-Sun Ho; Charmaine You Mei Tan; Muhd Ashik Mohd Daud; Francis Seow-Choen

    2012-01-01

    AIM:To investigate the effect of reducing dietary fiber on patients with idiopathic constipation.METHODS:Sixty-three cases of idiopathic constipation presenting between May 2008 and May 2010 were enrolled into the study after colonoscopy excluded an organic cause of the constipation.Patients with previous colon surgery or a medical cause of their constipation were excluded.All patients were given an explanation on the role of fiber in the gastrointestinal tract.They were then asked to go on a no fiber diet for 2 wk.Thereafter,they were asked to reduce the amount of dietary fiber intake to a level that they found acceptable.Dietary fiber intake,symptoms of constipation,difficulty in evacuation of stools,anal bleeding,abdominal bloating or abdominal pain were recorded at 1 and 6 mo.RESULTS:The median age of the patients (16 male,47 female) was 47 years (range,20-80 years).At 6 mo,41 patients remained on a no fiber diet,16 on a reduced fiber diet,and 6 resumed their high fiber diet for religious or personal reasons.Patients who stopped or reduced dietary fiber had significant improvement in their symptoms while those who continued on a high fiber diet had no change.Of those who stopped fiber completely,the bowel frequency increased from one motion in 3.75 d (± 1.59 d) to one motion in 1.0 d (± 0.0 d) (P < 0.001);those with reduced fiber intake had increased bowel frequency from a mean of one motion per 4.19 d (± 2.09 d)to one motion per 1.9 d (± 1.21 d) on a reduced fiber diet (P < 0.001); those who remained on a high fiber diet continued to have a mean of one motion per 6.83 d (± 1.03 d) before and after consultation.For no fiber,reduced fiber and high fiber groups,respectively,symptoms of bloating were present in 0%,31.3% and 100% (P < 0.001) and straining to pass stools occurred in 0%,43.8% and 100% (P < 0.001).CONCLUSION:Idiopathic constipation and its associated symptoms can be effectively reduced by stopping or even lowering the intake

  12. Clinical significance of plasma level of AT-Ⅲ determination in sepsis patients

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Chen; Zhi-Hua Hu; Chen-Mian

    2015-01-01

    Objective:Through measure changes of anticoagulant enzyme (AT-Ⅲ) activity in plasma in sepsis patients, this paper discusses the clinical significance of AT-Ⅲ activity changes in predicting sepsis occurrence and prognosis.Methods: The non-sepsis 30 cases, with sepsis 76 cases, including 25 cases of severe sepsis, use method of thrombin gelatum lacuna for determining activity of AT-Ⅲ in plasma, platelet count and APACHEⅢ score simultaneously. Results:Sepsis group, severe sepsis groups contrast with the non-sepsis group respectively, activity of AT-Ⅲ reduced significantly (P<0.01), severe sepsis group lower than sepsis group (P=0.055).Conclusion:AT-Ⅲ activity reduced early in sepsis patients, with patient's condition aggravat, its value further reduced, hints measurement of AT-Ⅲ activity has certainly clinical significance in predicting sepsis occurrence and prognosis.

  13. Reducing the Health Burden of HPV Infection Through Vaccination

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Human papillomavirus (HPV, a sexually transmitted infection and the etiologic cause of genital warts and cervical cancer, is highly prevalent in sexually active men and women. Although cervical screening procedures have significantly reduced the disease burden associated with HPV infection, they are expensive and abnormal results cause significant emotional distress. Therefore, prevention may be an effective strategy for reducing the economic, psychosocial, and disease burden of HPV infection. Multivalent vaccines are now in clinical development. A bivalent vaccine that protects against HPV 16 and 18, and a quadrivalent vaccine which protects against HPV types 6, 11, 16, and 18, have been shown to significantly reduce the occurrence of incident and persistent HPV infections in phase 2 clinical trials; phase 3 trials are currently underway. HPV vaccines will be most effective when administered prior to initiation of sexual activity, and vaccination campaigns should aggressively target preadolescent and adolescent populations.

  14. Reducing carbon-in-ash

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nigel S. Dong [IEA Clean Coal Centre, London (United Kingdom)

    2010-05-15

    High levels of carbon-in-ash lead to reduced power plant efficiency and higher fuel costs, degrade the performance of electrostatic precipitators and increase emissions of particulates. Increased carbon levels in the fly ash can lead to problems with ash use in cement/concrete production. This report reviews current measures and technologies that can be used to prevent excessive carbon-in-ash in pulverised coal combustion (PCC) power plants. These include coal cleaning, coal fineness improvement, reduction of distribution imbalance of coal among burners, increasing coal-air mixing rates at both burner and OFA levels and optimising excess air ratios. A plasma-assisted combustion enhancement technology can help achieve better ignition and more stable flame for coals that are normally difficult to burn. Computer-based combustion optimisation using expert systems, neural network systems and coal combustion simulation is becoming an invaluable means to tackle the carbon-in-ash issue. This report also reviews the regulations in nine major coal-consuming countries, which stipulate the maximum unburnt carbon levels permitted for fly ash for use in concrete/cement production. The Loss on Ignition (LOI) parameter is used in all national standards, although it is considered inadequate and may exclude some usable fly ash from being utilised. Performance-based regulations are more appropriate and have been adopted by Canada and USA. The EU and Canada now permit the use of fly ash produced from co-combustion of coal and biomass. China and Russia allow very high LOI levels for certain fly ash but the other countries require similar LOI limits for fly ash for use in concrete. Finally, this report discusses measures and technologies for reduction of carbon-in-ash, including classification, froth flotation, triboelectrostatic separators, thermal processes and carbon surface modification. 146 refs., 19 figs., 15 tabs.

  15. Meditation Helps Reduce Hardened Arteries

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sue; Pleming; 林兆佩

    2000-01-01

    沉思冥想可以减少人体冠状动脉内壁的厚度、降低心脏病和中风的危险。这话听上去有点玄乎,可是,这是事实。而且,这不是崇尚气功的国人的结论,而是美国医生的实验所证实的事实。 简称为TM(由Transcendental[超然的;超验的]Meditation的首字母所组成)的方法每日进行两次,每次20分钟。同时还得使用所谓a specific sound or“mental vehicle”(精神媒介物)。其目的是:…enabled the person to experiencequieter states of thinking.其背后的原因是:…heart disease was associated withpsychological stress and that meditating could reduce this。以下一句间接告诉我们:所谓TM,并非一两句话就能交代明白: The meditation group was given five to eight hours of tuition on TM tech—niques… 美国的研究人员常运用“对比法”来作下结论。本文也不例外。 本文给我们的重要启示是:…heart disease was associated with psychologicalstress.而quieter states of thinking是强身健体之关键。

  16. Route planning for airport personnel transporting passengers with reduced mobility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Reinhardt, Line Blander; Clausen, Tommy; Pisinger, David

    Major airports have an average throughput of more than 100,000 passengers per day, some of which will need special assistance. The largest airports have a daily average throughput of more than 500 passengers with reduced mobility. A significant number of people and busses are assigned to provide...... transportation for the passengers with reduced mobility. It is often necessary for a passenger with reduced mobility to use several different modes of transport during their journey through the airport. Synchronization occurs at the locations where transport modes are changed as to not leave passengers...

  17. Placebo manipulations reduce hyperalgesia in neuropathic pain.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, Gitte Laue; Finnerup, Nanna Brix; Nørskov, Kathrine Næsted; Grosen, Kasper; Pilegaard, Hans K; Benedetti, Fabrizio; Price, Donald D; Jensen, Troels Staehelin; Vase, Lene

    2012-06-01

    Several studies have shown that placebo analgesia effects can be obtained in healthy volunteers, as well as patients suffering from acute postoperative pain and chronic pain conditions such as irritable bowel syndrome. However, it is unknown whether placebo analgesia effects can be elicited in chronic pain conditions with a known pathophysiology such as a nerve injury. Nineteen patients who had developed neuropathic pain after thoracotomy were exposed to a placebo manipulation in which they received either open or hidden administrations of lidocaine. Before the treatment, the patients rated their levels of spontaneous pain and expected pain and completed a questionnaire on their emotional feelings (Positive Affect Negative Affect Schedule) and went through quantitative sensory testing of evoked pain (brush and cold allodynia, heat pain tolerance, area of pinprick hyperalgesia, wind-up-like pain after pinprick stimulation). The placebo manipulation significantly reduced the area of pinprick hyperalgesia (P=.027), and this placebo effect was significantly related to low levels of negative affect (P=.008; R(2)=0.362) but not to positive affect or expected pain levels. No placebo effect was observed in relation to spontaneous pain or evoked pain, which is most likely due to low pain levels resulting in floor effects. This is the first study to demonstrate a placebo effect in neuropathic pain. The possible mechanisms underlying the placebo effects in hyperalgesia are discussed, and implications for treatment are outlined.

  18. Glutamine facilitates chemotherapy while reducing toxicity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klimberg, V S; Nwokedi, E; Hutchins, L F; Pappas, A A; Lang, N P; Broadwater, J R; Read, R C; Westbrook, K C

    1992-01-01

    Dose intensification of chemotherapy is thought to increase survival. With recent advances in hemopoietic cell modulators such as granulocyte colony stimulating factor, the limiting toxicity of intensifying chemotherapeutic regimens has become the severity of the associated enterocolitis. In animal models, glutamine protects the host from methotrexate-induced enterocolitis. This study evaluates the effects of a glutamine-supplemented diet on the tumoricidal effectiveness of methotrexate. Sarcoma-bearing Fisher 344 rats (n = 30) were pair-fed an isocaloric elemental diet containing 1% glutamine or an isonitrogenous amount of glycine beginning on day 25 of the study. Rats from each group received two intraperitoneal injections of methotrexate (5 mg/kg) or saline on days 26 and 33 of the study. On day 40, rats were killed, tumor volume and weight were recorded, and tumor glutaminase activity and tumor morphometrics were measured. Blood was taken for arterial glutamine content, complete blood count, and blood culture. The gut was processed for glutaminase activity and synthesis phase of the deoxyribonucleic acid. In rats receiving methotrexate, the tumor volume loss was nearly doubled when glutamine was added to the diet. Significant differences in tumor glutaminase activity and morphometrics were not detected. The toxicity to the host was ameliorated. Significantly increased synthesis phase of deoxyribonucleic acid of the whole jejunum, decreased bacteremia, "sepsis," and mortality were demonstrated. Glutamine supplementation enhances the tumoricidal effectiveness of methotrexate while reducing its morbidity and mortality in this sarcoma rat model.

  19. 40 CFR 52.1929 - Significant deterioration of air quality.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... quality. 52.1929 Section 52.1929 Protection of Environment ENVIRONMENTAL PROTECTION AGENCY (CONTINUED) AIR... Significant deterioration of air quality. (a) Regulation for preventing significant deterioration of air... preventing significant deterioration of air quality....

  20. Clinical significance of metallothioneins in cell therapy and nanomedicine

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sharma S

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Sushil Sharma,1 Afsha Rais,1 Ranbir Sandhu,1 Wynand Nel,1 Manuchair Ebadi21Saint James School of Medicine, Bonaire, The Netherlands; 2Department of Pharmacology, Physiology, and Therapeutics, Center of Excellence in Neuroscience, University of North Dakota School of Medicine and Health Sciences, Grand Forks, ND, USAAbstract: Mammalian metallothioneins (MTs are low molecular weight (6–7 kDa cysteine-rich proteins that are specifically induced by metal nanoparticles (NPs. MT induction in cell therapy may provide better protection by serving as antioxidant, anti-inflammatory, antiapoptotic agents, and by augmenting zinc-mediated transcriptional regulation of genes involved in cell proliferation and differentiation. Liposome-encapsulated MT-1 promoter has been used extensively to induce growth hormone or other genes in culture and gene-manipulated animals. MTs are induced as a defensive mechanism in chronic inflammatory conditions including neurodegenerative diseases, cardiovascular diseases, cancer, and infections, hence can serve as early and sensitive biomarkers of environmental safety and effectiveness of newly developed NPs for clinical applications. Microarray analysis has indicated that MTs are significantly induced in drug resistant cancers and during radiation treatment. Nutritional stress and environmental toxins (eg, kainic acid and domoic acid induce MTs and aggregation of multilamellar electron-dense membrane stacks (Charnoly body due to mitochondrial degeneration. MTs enhance mitochondrial bioenergetics of reduced nicotinamide adenine dinucleotide–ubiquinone oxidoreductase (complex-1, a rate-limiting enzyme complex involved in the oxidative phosphorylation. Monoamine oxidase-B inhibitors (eg, selegiline inhibit α-synuclein nitration, implicated in Lewy body formation, and inhibit 1-methyl 4-phenylpyridinium and 3-morpholinosydnonimine-induced apoptosis in cultured human dopaminergic neurons and mesencephalic fetal stem cells. MTs

  1. Ultrasound settings significantly alter arterial lumen and wall thickness measurements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Green Daniel J

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Flow-mediated dilation (FMD and carotid intima-medial thickness (CIMT, measured by ultrasound, are widely used to test the efficacy of cardioprotective interventions. Although assessment methods vary, automated edge-detecting image analysis software is routinely used to measure changes in FMD and CIMT. We aimed to quantify the effect that commonly adjusted ultrasound settings have on arterial lumen and wall thickness measurements made with CIMT measurement software. Methods We constructed phantom arteries from a tissue-mimicking agar compound and scanned them in a water bath with a 10 MHz multi-frequency linear-array probe attached to a high-resolution ultrasound machine. B-mode images of the phantoms were recorded with dynamic range (DR and gain set at five decibel (dB increments from 40 dB to 60 dB and -10 dB to +10 dB respectively. Lumen diameter and wall-thickness were measured off-line using CIMT measurement software. Results Lumen measurements: there was a strong linear relationship between DR and gain and measured lumen diameter. For a given gain level, a 5 dB increase in DR reduced the measured lumen diameter by 0.02 ± 0.004 mm (p CIMT measurements: For a fixed gain level, a 5 dB increase in DR increased measured wall thickness by 0.003 ± 0.002 mm (p Conclusion DR, gain and probe distance significantly alter lumen diameter and CIMT measurements made using image analysis software. When CIMT and FMD are used to test the efficacy of cardioprotective interventions, the DR, gain and probe position used to record baseline scans should be documented and replicated in post-treatment scans in individual trial subjects. If more than one sonographer or imaging centre is used to collect data, the study protocol should document specific DR and gain settings to be used in all subjects.

  2. The prognostic significance of survivin expression in gallbladder carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salman, Tarik; Argon, Asuman; Kebat, Tulu; Vardar, Enver; Erkan, Nazif; Alacacıoğlu, Ahmet

    2016-08-01

    Gallbladder cancers (GBC) are characterized by rapid progression, early metastasis, and poor prognosis; the molecular mechanisms of the various signaling pathways involved should be elucidated to develop effective therapies. Survivin, an apoptosis inhibitor protein expressed in the G2/M phase of the cell cycle, plays a role in cell division and affects both cell survival and proliferation. Survivin has been investigated in many types of cancer, and this study aims to examine the relationship of survivin expression in gallbladder cancer patients with clinicopathological features and prognosis. We evaluated demographic characteristics (age, gender), tumor characteristics (histopathological type, differentiation, perineural, and lymphovascular invasion; serosal invasion, surgical margin positivity and lymphocytic response), and Survivin expression immunohistochemically, and we analysed the relationship between these characteristics and prognosis in 47 gallbladder carcinoma cases from 2000 to 2011. Immunohistochemically, while survivin expression was observed in 36 cases, it was absent in 11 cases. Follow-up data were obtained from 32 patients. Two (8.7%) of 23 cases with a Survivin-positive tumor were alive at 74th and 35th months, whereas 5 (%55.6) of nine cases with Survivin-negative tumor were alive at 50th, 89th, 124th, 126th, 131th months. Survivin expression was correlated with short survival (p = 0.043), and the univariate analysis showed that reduced overall survival was associated with age (p = 0.043), male gender (p = 0.038), infiltrative pattern (p = 0.019), lymphovascular invasion (p = 0.004), perineural invasion (p = 0.009), serosal invasion (p = 0.027), ulcer (p = 0.033), and surgical margin positivity (p = 0.022). Despite the low number of patients in our study, the analysis results suggest that survivin positivity might actually be a significant prognostic factor. This finding could be a reference point for targeted treatment studies. However, further

  3. Shirley Reduced Basis DFT: plane-wave generality and accuracy at reduced computational cost

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutchinson, Maxwell; Prendergast, David

    2014-03-01

    The Shirley Reduced Basis (SRB) provides a means for performing density functional theory electronic structure calculations with plane-wave accuracy and generality in a basis of significantly reduced size. The SRB is comprised of linear combinations of periodic Bloch functions sampled coarsely over the Brillouin zone (BZ) and selected for maximal information content using proper orthogonal decomposition [E. Shirley, Phys. Rev. B 54, 464 (1996)]. A basis produced from only order 10 samples, lying on the BZ boundary, is able to reproduce energies and stresses to sub meV and kbar accuracy, respectively, with order 10 basis functions per electronic band. Unlike other electronic structure bases of similar sizes, the SRB is adaptive and automatic, making no model assumptions beyond the use of pseudopotentials. We provide the first self-consistent implementation of this approach, enabling both relaxations and molecular dynamics. We demonstrate the usefulness of the method on a variety of physical systems, from crystalline solids to reduced dimensional systems under periodic boundary conditions, realizing order of magnitude performance improvements while kept within physically relevant error tolerances. M.H. acknowledges support from the DoE CSGF Program, Grant No. DE-FG02-97ER25308. Work by D.P. was performed at the Molecular Foundry, supported by the Office of Science, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, DoE under Contract No. DE-AC02-05CH11231.

  4. Robust Optical Richness Estimation with Reduced Scatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rykoff, E.S.; /LBL, Berkeley; Koester, B.P.; /Chicago U. /Chicago U., KICP; Rozo, E.; /Chicago U. /Chicago U., KICP; Annis, J.; /Fermilab; Evrard, A.E.; /Michigan U. /Michigan U., MCTP; Hansen, S.M.; /Lick Observ.; Hao, J.; /Fermilab; Johnston, D.E.; /Fermilab; McKay, T.A.; /Michigan U. /Michigan U., MCTP; Wechsler, R.H.; /KIPAC, Menlo Park /SLAC

    2012-06-07

    Reducing the scatter between cluster mass and optical richness is a key goal for cluster cosmology from photometric catalogs. We consider various modifications to the red-sequence matched filter richness estimator of Rozo et al. (2009b), and evaluate their impact on the scatter in X-ray luminosity at fixed richness. Most significantly, we find that deeper luminosity cuts can reduce the recovered scatter, finding that {sigma}{sub ln L{sub X}|{lambda}} = 0.63 {+-} 0.02 for clusters with M{sub 500c} {approx}> 1.6 x 10{sup 14} h{sub 70}{sup -1} M{sub {circle_dot}}. The corresponding scatter in mass at fixed richness is {sigma}{sub ln M|{lambda}} {approx} 0.2-0.3 depending on the richness, comparable to that for total X-ray luminosity. We find that including blue galaxies in the richness estimate increases the scatter, as does weighting galaxies by their optical luminosity. We further demonstrate that our richness estimator is very robust. Specifically, the filter employed when estimating richness can be calibrated directly from the data, without requiring a-priori calibrations of the red-sequence. We also demonstrate that the recovered richness is robust to up to 50% uncertainties in the galaxy background, as well as to the choice of photometric filter employed, so long as the filters span the 4000 {angstrom} break of red-sequence galaxies. Consequently, our richness estimator can be used to compare richness estimates of different clusters, even if they do not share the same photometric data. Appendix A includes 'easy-bake' instructions for implementing our optimal richness estimator, and we are releasing an implementation of the code that works with SDSS data, as well as an augmented maxBCG catalog with the {lambda} richness measured for each cluster.

  5. Citral reduces nociceptive and inflammatory response in rodents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lucindo J. Quintans-Júnior

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Citral (CIT, which contains the chiral enantiomers, neral (cis and geranial (trans, is the majority monoterpene from Lippia alba and Cymbopogon citratus. The present study aimed to evaluate CIT for antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory activities in rodents. Antinociceptive and anti-inflammatory effects were studied by measuring nociception through acetic acid and formalin tests, while inflammation was verified by inducing peritonitis and paw edema with carrageenan. All tested doses of CIT had significant protection (p<0.001 against acetic acid (0.8% induced nociceptive behavior and the effects were also similar to morphine while formalin induced nociception was significantly protected (p<0.05 only at higher dose (200 mg/kg of CIT in the first phase of the test. CIT significantly reduce (p<0.001 nociceptive behavior emanating from inflammation in second phase at all the doses.The pretreatment with CIT (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced the paw edema induced by carrageenan. Moreover, systemic treatment with CIT (100 and 200 mg/kg significantly reduced (p<0.001 the leukocyte migration in the carrageenan-induced migration to the peritoneal cavity. Our investigation shows that CIT possess significant central and peripheral antinociceptive effects. It was also verified an anti-inflammatory activity. All together these results suggest that CIT might represent important tool for treatment of painful conditions.

  6. How significant is the ‘significant other’? Associations between significant others’ health behaviors and attitudes and young adults’ health outcomes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Berge Jerica M

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Having a significant other has been shown to be protective against physical and psychological health conditions for adults. Less is known about the period of emerging young adulthood and associations between significant others’ weight and weight-related health behaviors (e.g. healthy dietary intake, the frequency of physical activity, weight status. This study examined the association between significant others’ health attitudes and behaviors regarding eating and physical activity and young adults’ weight status, dietary intake, and physical activity. Methods This study uses data from Project EAT-III, a population-based cohort study with emerging young adults from diverse ethnic and socioeconomic backgrounds (n = 1212. Logistic regression models examining cross-sectional associations, adjusted for sociodemographics and health behaviors five years earlier, were used to estimate predicted probabilities and calculate prevalence differences. Results Young adult women whose significant others had health promoting attitudes/behaviors were significantly less likely to be overweight/obese and were more likely to eat ≥ 5 fruits/vegetables per day and engage in ≥ 3.5 hours/week of physical activity, compared to women whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Young adult men whose significant other had health promoting behaviors/attitudes were more likely to engage in ≥ 3.5 hours/week of physical activity compared to men whose significant others did not have health promoting behaviors/attitudes. Conclusions Findings suggest the protective nature of the significant other with regard to weight-related health behaviors of young adults, particularly for young adult women. Obesity prevention efforts should consider the importance of including the significant other in intervention efforts with young adult women and potentially men.

  7. Inhibition of human copper trafficking by a small molecule significantly attenuates cancer cell proliferation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Luo, Cheng; Shan, Changliang; You, Qiancheng; Lu, Junyan; Elf, Shannon; Zhou, Yu; Wen, Yi; Vinkenborg, Jan L; Fan, Jun; Kang, Heebum; Lin, Ruiting; Han, Dali; Xie, Yuxin; Karpus, Jason; Chen, Shijie; Ouyang, Shisheng; Luan, Chihao; Zhang, Naixia; Ding, Hong; Merkx, Maarten; Liu, Hong; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Hualiang; He, Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Copper is a transition metal that plays critical roles in many life processes. Controlling the cellular concentration and trafficking of copper offers a route to disrupt these processes. Here we report small molecules that inhibit the human copper-trafficking proteins Atox1 and CCS, and so provide a selective approach to disrupt cellular copper transport. The knockdown of Atox1 and CCS or their inhibition leads to a significantly reduced proliferation of cancer cells, but not of normal cells, as well as to attenuated tumour growth in mouse models. We show that blocking copper trafficking induces cellular oxidative stress and reduces levels of cellular ATP. The reduced level of ATP results in activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase that leads to reduced lipogenesis. Both effects contribute to the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Our results establish copper chaperones as new targets for future developments in anticancer therapies.

  8. Inhibition of human copper trafficking by a small molecule significantly attenuates cancer cell proliferation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Jing; Luo, Cheng; Shan, Changliang; You, Qiancheng; Lu, Junyan; Elf, Shannon; Zhou, Yu; Wen, Yi; Vinkenborg, Jan L.; Fan, Jun; Kang, Heebum; Lin, Ruiting; Han, Dali; Xie, Yuxin; Karpus, Jason; Chen, Shijie; Ouyang, Shisheng; Luan, Chihao; Zhang, Naixia; Ding, Hong; Merkx, Maarten; Liu, Hong; Chen, Jing; Jiang, Hualiang; He, Chuan

    2015-12-01

    Copper is a transition metal that plays critical roles in many life processes. Controlling the cellular concentration and trafficking of copper offers a route to disrupt these processes. Here we report small molecules that inhibit the human copper-trafficking proteins Atox1 and CCS, and so provide a selective approach to disrupt cellular copper transport. The knockdown of Atox1 and CCS or their inhibition leads to a significantly reduced proliferation of cancer cells, but not of normal cells, as well as to attenuated tumour growth in mouse models. We show that blocking copper trafficking induces cellular oxidative stress and reduces levels of cellular ATP. The reduced level of ATP results in activation of the AMP-activated protein kinase that leads to reduced lipogenesis. Both effects contribute to the inhibition of cancer cell proliferation. Our results establish copper chaperones as new targets for future developments in anticancer therapies.

  9. Minocycline reduces reactive gliosis in the rat model of hydrocephalus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xu Hao

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Reactive gliosis had been implicated in injury and recovery patterns associated with hydrocephalus. Our aim is to determine the efficacy of minocycline, an antibiotic known for its anti-inflammatory properties, to reduce reactive gliosis and inhibit the development of hydrocephalus. Results The ventricular dilatation were evaluated by MRI at 1-week post drugs treated, while GFAP and Iba-1were detected by RT-PCR, Immunohistochemistry and Western blot. The expression of GFAP and Iba-1 was significantly higher in hydrocephalic group compared with saline control group (p . Minocycline treatment of hydrocephalic animals reduced the expression of GFAP and Iba-1 significantly (p . Likewise, the severity of ventricular dilatation is lower in minocycline treated hydrocephalic animals compared with the no minocycline group (p . Conclusion Minocycline treatment is effective in reducing the gliosis and delaying the development of hydrocephalus with prospective to be the auxiliary therapeutic method of hydrocephalus.

  10. The effectiveness of dental floss in reducing gingival inflammation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finkelstein, P; Grossman, E

    1979-03-01

    Unwaxed and waxed dental floss were clinically evaluated for effectiveness in reducing gingival inflammation. Two different scoring methods were employed. Both types of floss, when administered by a dental hygienist, were very effective, but no significant differences between them could be found. Both scoring methods led to the same conclusions, but one was more sensitive and provided more detailed information.

  11. How to reduce the risk of purchasing fraud.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mann, Lance

    2013-07-01

    Purchasing fraud leads to significant losses for healthcare entities and damages the reputation of the industry. Designing and implementing an effective internal control environment helps reduce the risk of fraud. An effective control environment includes a variety of policies, procedures, strategies, and tactics.

  12. Motivating Adolescents to Reduce Their Fines in a Token Economy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, Robert P.; And Others

    1990-01-01

    Subjected adolescents on 16-bed token economy ward of state hospital to 4 interventions in 7-phase experiment to reduce number of fines they received each day. No significant differences in average fines per day, number of residents meeting criteria, or mean number of zero-fine days per week were found across phases. (Author/NB)

  13. Significant Learning, Significant Advising

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kelley, Bruce

    2008-01-01

    The acknowledgment that advisees are learners and advisors are teachers may be the most powerful philosophical change in advising in 30 years. This article builds generally on the growing momentum to view academic advising as an extension of student learning, and specifically as an expansion of "Advising as Learning" in which Hemwall and Trachte…

  14. Would Weaker Beer Help Reduce Alcohol's Harms?

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... medlineplus.gov/news/fullstory_160387.html Would Weaker Beer Help Reduce Alcohol's Harms? Researchers say drinkers wouldn' ... 2016 (HealthDay News) -- Lowering the alcohol content in beer and other drinks may help reduce their harmful ...

  15. Generalized Reduced Order Model Generation Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — M4 Engineering proposes to develop a generalized reduced order model generation method. This method will allow for creation of reduced order aeroservoelastic state...

  16. Reduced-dimension multiuser detection: detectors and performance guarantees

    CERN Document Server

    Xie, Yao; Goldsmith, Andrea

    2011-01-01

    We explore several reduced-dimension multiuser detection (RD-MUD) structures that significantly decrease the number of required correlation branches at the receiver front-end, while still achieving performance similar to that of the conventional matched-filter (MF) bank. RD-MUD exploits the fact that the number of active users is typically small relative to the total number of users in the system and relies on ideas of analog compressed sensing to reduce the number of correlators. We first develop a general framework for both linear and nonlinear RD-MUD detectors. We then present theoretical performance analysis for two specific detectors: the linear reduced-dimension decorrelating (RDD) detector, which combines subspace projection and thresholding to determine active users and sign detection for data recovery, and the nonlinear reduced-dimension decision-feedback (RDDF) detector, which combines decision-feedback orthogonal matching pursuit for active user detection and sign detection for data recovery. The t...

  17. Reduced order modeling of some fluid flows of industrial interest

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alonso, D; Terragni, F; Velazquez, A; Vega, J M, E-mail: josemanuel.vega@upm.es [E.T.S.I. Aeronauticos, Universidad Politecnica de Madrid, 28040 Madrid (Spain)

    2012-06-01

    Some basic ideas are presented for the construction of robust, computationally efficient reduced order models amenable to be used in industrial environments, combined with somewhat rough computational fluid dynamics solvers. These ideas result from a critical review of the basic principles of proper orthogonal decomposition-based reduced order modeling of both steady and unsteady fluid flows. In particular, the extent to which some artifacts of the computational fluid dynamics solvers can be ignored is addressed, which opens up the possibility of obtaining quite flexible reduced order models. The methods are illustrated with the steady aerodynamic flow around a horizontal tail plane of a commercial aircraft in transonic conditions, and the unsteady lid-driven cavity problem. In both cases, the approximations are fairly good, thus reducing the computational cost by a significant factor. (review)

  18. Policy interventions to reduce the harm from smoking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, P; Hughes, J R

    2000-01-01

    The other papers in this series on reduced smoking discuss interventions focused on individuals. This paper illustrates possible smoking reduction interventions focused on policies rather than individuals. Target 12 of the new WHO Health For All Policy aims to significantly reduce the harm from addictive substances, including tobacco, in all member states by 2015, and the WHO Third Action Plan for Tobacco-Free Europe focuses on reducing the harm from tobacco. These documents recommend five key policy strategies: market regulation, product liability, smoke-free environments, support for smoking cessation and education, public information and public opinion. Interventions such as price increases, restricting availability, advertising bans and product control could all be used to achieve harm reduction. Research on reducing the harm of smoking needs to include policy as well as treatment research.

  19. Hemodynamic aspects of reduced platelet adhesion on bioinspired microstructured surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pham, Tam Thanh; Wiedemeier, Stefan; Maenz, Stefan; Gastrock, Gunter; Settmacher, Utz; Jandt, Klaus D; Zanow, Jürgen; Lüdecke, Claudia; Bossert, Jörg

    2016-09-01

    Occlusion by thrombosis due to the absence of the endothelial cell layer is one of the most frequent causes of failure of artificial vascular grafts. Bioinspired surface structures may have a potential to reduce the adhesion of platelets contributing to hemostasis. The aim of this study was to investigate the hemodynamic aspects of platelet adhesion, the main cause of thrombosis, on bioinspired microstructured surfaces mimicking the endothelial cell morphology. We tested the hypothesis that platelet adhesion is statistically significantly reduced on bioinspired microstructured surfaces compared to unstructured surfaces. Platelet adhesion as a function of the microstructure dimensions was investigated under flow conditions on polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) surfaces by a combined experimental and theoretical approach. Platelet adhesion was statistically significantly reduced (by up to 78%; p≤0.05) on the microstructured PDMS surfaces compared to that on the unstructured control surface. Finite element method (FEM) simulations of blood flow dynamic revealed a micro shear gradient on the microstructure surfaces which plays a pivotal role in reducing platelet adhesion. On the surfaces with the highest differences of the shear stress between the top of the microstructures and the ground areas, platelet adhesion was reduced most. In addition, the microstructures help to reduce the interaction strength between fluid and surfaces, resulting in a larger water contact angle but no higher resistance to flow compared to the unstructured surface. These findings provide new insight into the fundamental mechanisms of reducing platelet adhesion on microstructured bioinspired surfaces and may lay the basis for the development of innovative next generation artificial vascular grafts with reduced risk of thrombosis. PMID:27239904

  20. Significance of the Coastal Shelf Shape on the Saline Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walther, M.; Yusef, G.; Liedl, R.; Graf, T.; Kolditz, O.; Post, V.

    2015-12-01

    A large number of people live in coastal areas using the available water resources, which in (semi-)arid regions are often taken from groundwater resources. Compared to surface water, these usually provide a safe water supply due to the remediation and retention capabilities of the subsurface, their high yield, and potentially longer term stability. With a water withdrawal from a coastal aquifer, coastal water management, however, has to ensure that seawater intrusion is retained in order to keep the water salinity at an acceptable level for all water users (e.g. agriculture, industry, households).Besides monitoring of water levels and saline intrusion, it has become a common practice to use numerical modeling for evaluating the coastal water resources and projecting future scenarios. When applying a model, it is necessary for the simplifications implied during the conceptualization of the setup to include the relevant processes (here variable-density flow and mass transport) and sensitive parameters (for a steady state commonly hydraulic conductivity, density ratio, dispersivity). Additionally, the model's boundary conditions are essential to the simulation results. In order to reduce the number of elements, and thus, the computational burden, one simplification that is made in most regional scale saltwater intrusion applications, is to represent the shelf with a vertical boundary, contrary to the natural conditions, that usually show a very shallow decent of the interface between the aquifer and the open sea water. We use the scientific open-source modeling toolbox OpenGeoSys [1] to quantify the influence of this simplification on the saline intrusion. Using an ensemble of different shelf shapes for a steady state setup, we identified a significant dependency of saline intrusion length on the geometric parameters of the shelf. With these simplified setups (homogeneous aquifer, steady state), the drawn conclusions provide valuable insight for real

  1. Transient reducing greenhouse warming on early Mars

    CERN Document Server

    Wordsworth, Robin; Lokshtanov, Sergei; Vigasin, Andrei; Ehlmann, Bethany; Head, James; Sanders, Cecilia; Wang, Huize

    2016-01-01

    The evidence for abundant liquid water on early Mars despite the faint young Sun is a long-standing problem in planetary research. Here we present new ab initio spectroscopic and line-by-line climate calculations of the warming potential of reduced atmospheres on early Mars. We show that the strength of both CO2-H2 and CO2-CH4 collision-induced absorption (CIA) has previously been significantly underestimated. Contrary to previous expectations, methane could have acted as a powerful greenhouse gas on early Mars due to CO2-CH4 CIA in the critical 250-500 cm^-1 spectral window region. In atmospheres of 0.5 bar CO2 or more, percent levels of H2 or CH4 raise annual mean surface temperatures by tens of degrees, with temperatures reaching 273 K for pressures of 1.25-2 bar and 2-10% of H2 and CH4. Methane and hydrogen produced following aqueous alteration of Mars' crust could have combined with volcanically outgassed CO2 to form transient atmospheres of this composition 4.5-3.5 Ga. This scenario for the late Noachia...

  2. Reducing tube bundle deposition using alternative amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle deposition rates were measured in a high-temperature loop for magnetite and hematite depositing onto Inconel-600 under flow-boiling conditions with pH controlled, using one of the following amines: morpholine, ammonia, ethanolamine, or dimethylamine. Hematite particles deposited at rates 10 times greater than those measured for magnetite although the hematite deposition rate dropped when the loop was operated under reducing conditions. The magnetite deposition rate was influenced by the amine used to control the pH, with the relative rate decreasing in the following series: morpholine (1) : ethanolamine (0.72) : ammonia (0.51) dimethylamine (0.25). These trends in deposition rate are discussed in terms of the surface chemistry of the corrosion products. Deposition rates for both magnetite and hematite increased significantly once the mixture quality exceeded about 0.3, which may be related to a change in the heat-transfer mechanism from nucleate boiling to 2-phase forced-convection through a thin film. (author)

  3. Reduced distractibility in a remote culture.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan W de Fockert

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: In visual processing, there are marked cultural differences in the tendency to adopt either a global or local processing style. A remote culture (the Himba has recently been reported to have a greater local bias in visual processing than Westerners. Here we give the first evidence that a greater, and remarkable, attentional selectivity provides the basis for this local bias. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: In Experiment 1, Eriksen-type flanker interference was measured in the Himba and in Western controls. In both groups, responses to the direction of a task-relevant target arrow were affected by the compatibility of task-irrelevant distractor arrows. However, the Himba showed a marked reduction in overall flanker interference compared to Westerners. The smaller interference effect in the Himba occurred despite their overall slower performance than Westerners, and was evident even at a low level of perceptual load of the displays. In Experiment 2, the attentional selectivity of the Himba was further demonstrated by showing that their attention was not even captured by a moving singleton distractor. CONCLUSIONS/SIGNIFICANCE: We argue that the reduced distractibility in the Himba is clearly consistent with their tendency to prioritize the analysis of local details in visual processing.

  4. Increasing Immunization Compliance by Reducing Provisional Admittance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davis, Wendy S; Varni, Susan E; Barry, Sara E; Frankowski, Barbara L; Harder, Valerie S

    2016-08-01

    Students in Vermont with incomplete or undocumented immunization status are provisionally admitted to schools and historically had a calendar year to resolve their immunization status. The process of resolving these students' immunization status was challenging for school nurses. We conducted a school-based quality improvement effort to increase student compliance with Vermont immunization regulations using a collaborative learning approach with public health school liaisons and school nurses from public schools to reduce provisional admittance in 2011-2012. Strategies included using a tracking system, accessing the immunization registry, promoting immunization importance, tracking immunization plans, and working with medical homes to update records. Participating school nurses observed decreases in the number of provisionally admitted students, although this reduction was not significantly different than matched comparison schools. We also found the number of provisionally admitted students fluctuated throughout the year and resolving the immunization status of New Americans and exchange students required special attention. Our approach supports the coordinated school health model and demonstrates the critical role school nurses play in improving population health outcomes. PMID:26699951

  5. Acupuncture to Reduce HIV-Associated Inflammation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barbara Swanson

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. HIV infection is associated with systemic inflammation that can increase risk for cardiovascular events. Acupuncture has been shown to have immunomodulatory effects and to improve symptoms in persons with inflammatory conditions. Objective. To test the anti-inflammatory effects of an acupuncture protocol that targets the cholinergic anti-inflammatory pathway (CAIP, a neural mechanism whose activation has been shown to reduce the release of proinflammatory cytokines, in persons with HIV-associated inflammation. Design, Setting, Participants, and Interventions. Double-blind, placebo-controlled clinical trial conducted in an outpatient clinic located in a medically underserved urban neighborhood. Twenty-five clinically-stable HIV-infected persons on antiretroviral therapy were randomized to receive once weekly CAIP-based acupuncture or sham acupuncture. Main Outcome Measures. Outcomes included plasma concentrations of high sensitivity C-reactive protein and D-dimer and fasting lipids. Results. Twenty-five participants completed the protocol (treatment group n=12, control group n=13. No adverse events related to the acupuncture protocol were observed. Compared to baseline values, the two groups did not significantly differ in any outcome measures at the end of the acupuncture protocol. Conclusions. CAIP-based acupuncture did not favorably modulate inflammatory or lipid parameters. Additional studies are warranted of CAIP-based protocols of different frequencies/durations.

  6. Reducing Field Distortion in Magnetic Resonance Imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eom, Byeong Ho; Penanen, Konstantin; Hahn, Inseob

    2010-01-01

    A concept for a magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) system that would utilize a relatively weak magnetic field provides for several design features that differ significantly from the corresponding features of conventional MRI systems. Notable among these features are a magnetic-field configuration that reduces (relative to the conventional configuration) distortion and blurring of the image, the use of a superconducting quantum interference device (SQUID) magnetometer as the detector, and an imaging procedure suited for the unconventional field configuration and sensor. In a typical application of MRI, a radio-frequency pulse is used to excite precession of the magnetic moments of protons in an applied magnetic field, and the decaying precession is detected for a short time following the pulse. The precession occurs at a resonance frequency proportional to the strengths of the magnetic field and the proton magnetic moment. The magnetic field is configured to vary with position in a known way; hence, by virtue of the aforesaid proportionality, the resonance frequency varies with position in a known way. In other words, position is encoded as resonance frequency. MRI using magnetic fields weaker than those of conventional MRI offers several advantages, including cheaper and smaller equipment, greater compatibility with metallic objects, and higher image quality because of low susceptibility distortion and enhanced spin-lattice-relaxation- time contrast. SQUID MRI is being developed into a practical MRI method for applied magnetic flux densities of the order of only 100 T

  7. Reduced order model of draft tube flow

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudolf, P.; Štefan, D.

    2014-03-01

    Swirling flow with compact coherent structures is very good candidate for proper orthogonal decomposition (POD), i.e. for decomposition into eigenmodes, which are the cornerstones of the flow field. Present paper focuses on POD of steady flows, which correspond to different operating points of Francis turbine draft tube flow. Set of eigenmodes is built using a limited number of snapshots from computational simulations. Resulting reduced order model (ROM) describes whole operating range of the draft tube. ROM enables to interpolate in between the operating points exploiting the knowledge about significance of particular eigenmodes and thus reconstruct the velocity field in any operating point within the given range. Practical example, which employs axisymmetric simulations of the draft tube flow, illustrates accuracy of ROM in regions without vortex breakdown together with need for higher resolution of the snapshot database close to location of sudden flow changes (e.g. vortex breakdown). ROM based on POD interpolation is very suitable tool for insight into flow physics of the draft tube flows (especially energy transfers in between different operating points), for supply of data for subsequent stability analysis or as an initialization database for advanced flow simulations.

  8. Gait transitions in simulated reduced gravity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivanenko, Yuri P; Labini, Francesca Sylos; Cappellini, Germana; Macellari, Velio; McIntyre, Joseph; Lacquaniti, Francesco

    2011-03-01

    Gravity has a strong effect on gait and the speed of gait transitions. A gait has been defined as a pattern of locomotion that changes discontinuously at the transition to another gait. On Earth, during gradual speed changes, humans exhibit a sudden discontinuous switch from walking to running at a specific speed. To study the effects of altered gravity on both the stance and swing legs, we developed a novel unloading exoskeleton that allows a person to step in simulated reduced gravity by tilting the body relative to the vertical. Using different simulation techniques, we confirmed that at lower gravity levels the transition speed is slower (in accordance with the previously reported Froude number ∼0.5). Surprisingly, however, we found that at lower levels of simulated gravity the transition between walking and running was generally gradual, without any noticeable abrupt change in gait parameters. This was associated with a significant prolongation of the swing phase, whose duration became virtually equal to that of stance in the vicinity of the walk-run transition speed, and with a gradual shift from inverted-pendulum gait (walking) to bouncing gait (running). PMID:21212248

  9. How Neighborhood Disadvantage Reduces Birth Weight

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emily Moiduddin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available In this analysis we connect structural neighborhood conditions to birth outcomes through their intermediate effects on mothers’ perceptions of neighborhood danger and their tendency to abuse substances during pregnancy. We hypothesize that neighborhood poverty and racial/ethnic concentration combine to produce environments that mothers perceive as unsafe, thereby increasing the likelihood of negative coping behaviors (substance abuse. We expect these behaviors, in turn, to produce lower birth weights. Using data from the Fragile Families and Child Wellbeing Study, a survey of a cohort of children born between 1998 and 2000 and their mothers in large cities in the United States, we find little evidence to suggest that neighborhood circumstances have strong, direct effects on birth weight. Living in a neighborhood with more foreigners had a positive effect on birth weight. To the extent that neighborhood conditions influence birth weight, the effect mainly occurs through an association with perceived neighborhood danger and subsequent negative coping behaviors. Poverty and racial/ethnic concentration increase a mother’s sense that her neighborhood is unsafe. The perception of an unsafe neighborhood, in turn, associates with a greater likelihood of smoking cigarettes and using illegal drugs, and these behaviors have strong and significant effects in reducing birth weight. However, demographic characteristics, rather than perceived danger or substance abuse, mediate the influence of neighborhood characteristics on birth weight.

  10. Reducing tube bundle deposition with alternative amines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Particle deposition rates have been measured in a high-temperature loop for magnetite and hematite depositing onto Inconel-600 under flow-boiling conditions with pH controlled using one of the following amines: morpholine, ammonia, ethanolamine, or dimethylamine. Hematite particles deposited at rates an order of magnitude greater than those measured for magnetite, although the hematite deposition rate dropped when the loop was operated under reducing conditions. The magnetite deposition rate was influenced by the amine used to control the pH, with the relative rate decreasing in the following series: morpholine (1) : ethanolamine (0.72) ammonia (0.51) : dimethylamine (0.25). These trends in deposition rate are discussed in terms of the surface chemistry of the corrosion products. Deposition rates for both magnetite and hematite increased significantly once the mixture quality exceeded about 0.3, which may be related to a change in the heat transfer mechanism from nucleate boiling to two-phase forced convection through a thin film. (author)

  11. Global Significant Earthquake Database, 2150 BC to present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Significant Earthquake Database is a global listing of over 5,700 earthquakes from 2150 BC to the present. A significant earthquake is classified as one that...

  12. 77 FR 18295 - Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-03-27

    ... Culturally Significant Objects Imported for Exhibition Determinations: ``Roy Lichtenstein: A Retrospective... determine that the objects to be included in the exhibition ``Roy Lichtenstein: A Retrospective'' imported from abroad for temporary exhibition within the United States, are of cultural significance....

  13. American Samoa ESI: CASSPT (Coral Areas of Special Significance - Points)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set contains sensitive biological resource data for "Coral Areas of Special Significance" in American Samoa. Coral Areas of Special Significance were...

  14. Global Significant Volcanic Eruptions Database, 4360 BC to present

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The Significant Volcanic Eruptions Database is a global listing of over 600 eruptions from 4360 BC to the present. A significant eruption is classified as one that...

  15. Reducing smoking reduces suicidality among individuals with psychosis: Complementary outcomes from a Healthy Lifestyles intervention study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sankaranarayanan, Anoop; Clark, Vanessa; Baker, Amanda; Palazzi, Kerrin; Lewin, Terry J; Richmond, Robyn; Kay-Lambkin, Frances J; Filia, Sacha; Castle, David; Williams, Jill M

    2016-09-30

    This study sought to explore the impact of smoking reduction on suicidality (suicide ideation and behaviour) among people with a psychotic disorder (n=235) who participated in a randomized trial of a healthy lifestyle intervention trial. Suicidality, measured by item -4 of the Brief Psychiatric Rating Scale (BPRS) was the main variable of interest. Measures were collected by research assistants blind to treatment allocation at baseline, at 15 weeks (mid-intervention) and 12 months after baseline. Mediation analysis, adjusted for confounders, was used to determine the relationship between smoking reduction and suicidality and to explore whether this was mediated through depression. At 12 months, smoking reduction was found to be significantly associated with suicidality change; an association was also seen between smoking reduction and depression and depression and suicidality. After adjusting for depression, the association between smoking reduction and suicidality was attenuated but remained statistically significant; the proportion of the total effect that was mediated through depression was 30%. There was no significant association between suicidality and treatment group (vs. controls) over time. Our study suggests that smoking interventions may have benefits over and above those for improved physical health, by reducing suicidal ideation in people with psychosis. PMID:27450743

  16. 48 CFR 1652.222-70 - Notice of significant events.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... statements. (b) Upon learning of a Significant Event OPM may institute action, in proportion to the... 48 Federal Acquisition Regulations System 6 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 true Notice of significant... of FEHBP Clauses 1652.222-70 Notice of significant events. As prescribed in 1622.103-70,...

  17. Energy-efficient induction motors designing with application of a modified criterion of reduced costs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V.S. Petrushin

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available The paper introduces a modified criterion of reduced costs that employs coefficients of operation significance and priority of ohmic loss accounting to allow matching maximum efficiency with minimum reduced costs. Impact of the inflation factor on the criterion of reduced costs is analyzed.

  18. Energy-efficient induction motors designing with application of a modified criterion of reduced costs

    OpenAIRE

    V.S. Petrushin

    2014-01-01

    The paper introduces a modified criterion of reduced costs that employs coefficients of operation significance and priority of ohmic loss accounting to allow matching maximum efficiency with minimum reduced costs. Impact of the inflation factor on the criterion of reduced costs is analyzed.

  19. Flooded Underground Coal Mines: A Significant Source of Inexpensive Geothermal Energy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Watzlaf, G.R.; Ackman, T.E.

    2007-04-01

    Many mining regions in the United States contain extensive areas of flooded underground mines. The water within these mines represents a significant and widespread opportunity for extracting low-grade, geothermal energy. Based on current energy prices, geothermal heat pump systems using mine water could reduce the annual costs for heating to over 70 percent compared to conventional heating methods (natural gas or heating oil). These same systems could reduce annual cooling costs by up to 50 percent over standard air conditioning in many areas of the country. (Formatted full-text version is released by permission of publisher)

  20. Methods Reduce Cost, Enhance Quality of Nanotubes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-01-01

    For all the challenges posed by the microgravity conditions of space, weight is actually one of the more significant problems NASA faces in the development of the next generation of U.S. space vehicles. For the Agency s Constellation Program, engineers at NASA centers are designing and testing new vessels as safe, practical, and cost-effective means of space travel following the eventual retirement of the space shuttle. Program components like the Orion Crew Exploration Vehicle, intended to carry astronauts to the International Space Station and the Moon, must be designed to specific weight requirements to manage fuel consumption and match launch rocket capabilities; Orion s gross liftoff weight target is about 63,789 pounds. Future space vehicles will require even greater attention to lightweight construction to help conserve fuel for long-range missions to Mars and beyond. In order to reduce spacecraft weight without sacrificing structural integrity, NASA is pursuing the development of materials that promise to revolutionize not only spacecraft construction, but also a host of potential applications on Earth. Single-walled carbon nanotubes are one material of particular interest. These tubular, single-layer carbon molecules - 100,000 of them braided together would be no thicker than a human hair - display a range of remarkable characteristics. Possessing greater tensile strength than steel at a fraction of the weight, the nanotubes are efficient heat conductors with metallic or semiconductor electrical properties depending on their diameter and chirality (the pattern of each nanotube s hexagonal lattice structure). All of these properties make the nanotubes an appealing material for spacecraft construction, with the potential for nanotube composites to reduce spacecraft weight by 50 percent or more. The nanotubes may also feature in a number of other space exploration applications, including life support, energy storage, and sensor technologies. NASA s various