WorldWideScience

Sample records for chlorophyll-a fluorescence parameters

  1. [Monitoring of the Moskva River Water Using Microbiological Parameters and Chlorophyll a Fluorescence].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mosharova, I V; Il'inskii, V V; Matorin, D N; Mosharov, S A; Akulova, A Yu; Protopopov, F F

    2015-01-01

    The results of investigations of three Moskva River sites with different degree of pollution using a complex of microbiological characteristics and the parameters of chlorophyll a fluorescence are presented. We determined that the bacterioplankton seasonal dynamics at less polluted waters (Tushino and Vorobyovy Gory) were similar and differed significantly from one in more polluted waters (Dzerzhinskii). The number of bacteria with active electron transport chain, as well as their share in the bacterioplankton structure, was higher in the water of Dzerzhinskii (average annual values of 0.23 x 10(6) cells/mL and 14%), that in the less polluted water of Tushino and Vorobyovy Gory (0.14 x 10(6) cells/mL; 6% and 0.15 x 10(6) cells/mL; 7%, respectively). From April to October, the content of chlorophyll a and its photosynthetic activity were the highest in Tushino. In Dzerzhinskii, during spring the increase in photosynthetic activity commenced earlier and was more intensive that the increase in chlorophyll a content, i.e., the increase in phytoplankton biomass was temporarily suppressed. We suggest association of this phenomenon with suppression of organic matter synthesis by phytoplankton due to the high water pollution in Dzerzhinskii. The second autumn peak of chlorophyll a content, that was typical of clear water and was observed in Tushino, did not occur in Dzerzhinskii. We recommend combined application of these microbiological parameters and characteristics of chlorophyll a fluorescence for a monitoring. PMID:26964361

  2. Modulated Chlorophyll "a" Fluorescence: A Tool for Teaching Photosynthesis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Marques da Silva, Jorge; Bernardes da Silva, Anabela; Padua, Mario

    2007-01-01

    "In vivo" chlorophyll "a" fluorescence is a key technique in photosynthesis research. The recent release of a low cost, commercial, modulated fluorometer enables this powerful technology to be used in education. Modulated chlorophyll a fluorescence measurement "in vivo" is here proposed as a tool to demonstrate basic photosynthesis phenomena to…

  3. Detection of Fluorescence from Single Chlorophyll a Molecules Absorbed on Glass Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Dong-Mei; HUANG Zheng-Xi; XIA An-Dong

    2005-01-01

    @@ We investigate the single molecule spectroscopy of chlorophyll a molecules on glass surface in N2-saturated environment. The basic photodynamic parameters of chlorophyll a molecules, such as fluorescence lifetime,survival time before photobleaching, on-time, and off-time, are reported. A four-level model is employed to describe the possible dynamics and photobleaching of chlorophyll a upon excitation. Broad distributions in fluorescence lifetimes and survival times are mainly due to the heterogeneities of both molecular conformation and local environment.

  4. Chlorophyll a fluorescence to phenotype wheat genotypes for heat tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Sven Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    . Chlorophyll a fluorescence has been a versatile tool in photosynthesis research to measure plant responses to various abiotic stresses that affect PSII. We aim to establish a reproducible protocol to measure response of wheat genotypes to high temperature, based on the physiological marker, maximum quantum......%. Our protocol seems to be stable over environments since interaction between genotypes and the three repeated experiments separated in time was not statistically significant. The chlorophyll a fluorescence protocol may enable identification of wheat lines reliably more or less tolerant to heat stress...

  5. Chlorophyll a fluorescence to phenotype wheat genotypes for heat tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Sven Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto;

    In prospects of global climate change, heat stress is a rising constraint for the productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It is a heat-susceptible crop beyond 17-23oC temperature throughout its phenological stages, flowering phase being the most sensitive stage. Chlorophyll a fluorescence...

  6. Chlorophyll a fluorescence lifetime reveals reversible UV-induced photosynthetic activity in the green algae Tetraselmis

    OpenAIRE

    Kristoffersen, Arne Skodvin; Hamre, Børge; Frette, Øyvind; Erga, Svein Rune

    2015-01-01

    The fluorescence lifetime is a very useful parameter for investigating biological materials on the molecular level as it is mostly independent of the fluorophore concentration. The green alga Tetraselmis blooms in summer, and therefore its response to UV irradiation is of particular interest. In vivo fluorescence lifetimes of chlorophyll a were measured under both normal and UV-stressed conditions of Tetraselmis. Fluorescence was induced by two-photon excitation using a femtosecond laser and ...

  7. Evaluation of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Toxicity Using Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Imaging in Lemna gibba

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    François Perreault

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs, used in antifouling paints of boats, are released in the environment and can induce toxicity to aquatic organisms. In this report, we used chlorophyll a fluorescence imaging to evaluate CuO NPs toxicity in Lemna gibba. This approach allowed to evaluate the differential effect of CuO NPs on photosynthesis of whole L. gibba plants. Exposure to 0.1 to 0.4 g/L CuO NPs during 48h induced strong inhibition of photosynthetic processes resulting in a decrease of plant growth. By using fluorescence imaging, different photosynthetic parameters were evaluated simultaneously in microplate conditions. Imaging of FO fluorescence yield showed the decrease of leaf photosynthetic active surface for whole plants exposed to CuO NPs. This method showed that CuO NPs inhibited photosystem II maximal, photosystem II operational quantum yields, and photochemical quenching of fluorescence associated with electron transport. Nonphotochemical fluorescence quenching as an indicator of energy dissipation not used in photosynthesis was shown to be increased by the effect of CuO NPs. Such approach in microplate conditions provides synchronous high repetition measurements for numerous plants. This study may give a reliable methodological approach to evaluate toxicity risk of NPs in aquatic ecosystems.

  8. From the shape of the vertical profile of in vivo fluorescence to Chlorophyll-a concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mignot, A.; Claustre, H.; D'Ortenzio, F.; Xing, X.; Poteau, A.; Ras, J.

    2011-08-01

    In vivo fluorescence of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) is a potentially useful property to study the vertical distribution of phytoplankton biomass. However the technique is presently not fully exploited as it should be, essentially because of the difficulties in converting the fluorescence signal into an accurate Chl-a concentration. These difficulties arise noticeably from natural variations in the Chl-a fluorescence relationship, which is under the control of community composition as well as of their nutrient and light status. As a consequence, although vertical profiles of fluorescence are likely the most recorded biological property in the open ocean, the corresponding large databases are underexploited. Here with the aim to convert a fluorescence profile into a Chl-a concentration profile, we test the hypothesis that the Chl-a concentration can be gathered from the sole knowledge of the shape of the fluorescence profile. We analyze a large dataset from 18 oceanographic cruises conducted in case-1 waters from the highly stratified hyperoligotrophic waters (surface Chl-a = 0.02 mg m-3) of the South Pacific Gyre to the eutrophic waters of the Benguela upwelling (surface Chl-a = 32 mg m-3) and including the very deep mixed waters in the North Atlantic (Mixed Layer Depth = 690 m). This dataset encompasses more than 700 vertical profiles of Chl-a fluorescence as well as accurate estimations of Chl-a by High Performance Liquid Chromatography (HPLC). Two typical fluorescence profiles are identified, the uniform profile, characterized by a homogeneous layer roughly corresponding to the mixed layer, and the non-uniform profile, characterized by the presence of a Deep Chlorophyll Maximum. Using appropriate mathematical parameterizations, a fluorescence profile is subsequently represented by 3 or 5 shape parameters for uniform or non-uniform profiles, respectively. For both situations, an empirical model is developed to predict the "true" Chl-a concentration from these shape

  9. Chlorophyll a Covalently Bonded to Organo-Modified Translucent Silica Xerogels: Optimizing Fluorescence and Maximum Loading

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. A. García-Sánchez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll is a pyrrolic pigment with important optical properties, which is the reason it has been studied for many years. Recently, interest has been rising with respect to this molecule because of its outstanding physicochemical properties, particularly applicable to the design and development of luminescent materials, hybrid sensor systems, and photodynamic therapy devices for the treatment of cancer cells and bacteria. More recently, our research group has been finding evidence for the possibility of preserving these important properties of substrates containing chlorophyll covalently incorporated within solid pore matrices, such as SiO2, TiO2 or ZrO2 synthesized through the sol-gel process. In this work, we study the optical properties of silica xerogels organo-modified on their surface with allyl and phenyl groups and containing different concentrations of chlorophyll bonded to the pore walls, in order to optimize the fluorescence that these macrocyclic species displays in solution. The intention of this investigation was to determine the maximum chlorophyll a concentration at which this molecule can be trapped inside the pores of a given xerogel and to ascertain if this pigment remains trapped as a monomer, a dimer, or aggregate. Allyl and phenyl groups were deposited on the surface of xerogels in view of their important effects on the stability of the molecule, as well as over the fluorescence emission of chlorophyll; however, these organic groups allow the trapping of either chlorophyll a monomers or dimers. The determination of the above parameters allows finding the most adequate systems for subsequent in vitro or in vivo studies. The characterization of the obtained xerogels was performed through spectroscopic absorption, emission and excitation spectra. These hybrid systems can be employed as mimics of natural systems; the entrapment of chlorophyll inside pore matrices indicates that it is possible to exploit some of the most

  10. Chlorophyll a Covalently Bonded to Organo-Modified Translucent Silica Xerogels: Optimizing Fluorescence and Maximum Loading.

    Science.gov (United States)

    García-Sánchez, M A; Serratos, I N; Sosa, R; Tapia-Esquivel, T; González-García, F; Rojas-González, F; Tello-Solís, S R; Palacios-Enriquez, A Y; Esparza Schulz, J M; Arrieta, A

    2016-01-01

    Chlorophyll is a pyrrolic pigment with important optical properties, which is the reason it has been studied for many years. Recently, interest has been rising with respect to this molecule because of its outstanding physicochemical properties, particularly applicable to the design and development of luminescent materials, hybrid sensor systems, and photodynamic therapy devices for the treatment of cancer cells and bacteria. More recently, our research group has been finding evidence for the possibility of preserving these important properties of substrates containing chlorophyll covalently incorporated within solid pore matrices, such as SiO₂, TiO₂ or ZrO₂ synthesized through the sol-gel process. In this work, we study the optical properties of silica xerogels organo-modified on their surface with allyl and phenyl groups and containing different concentrations of chlorophyll bonded to the pore walls, in order to optimize the fluorescence that these macrocyclic species displays in solution. The intention of this investigation was to determine the maximum chlorophyll a concentration at which this molecule can be trapped inside the pores of a given xerogel and to ascertain if this pigment remains trapped as a monomer, a dimer, or aggregate. Allyl and phenyl groups were deposited on the surface of xerogels in view of their important effects on the stability of the molecule, as well as over the fluorescence emission of chlorophyll; however, these organic groups allow the trapping of either chlorophyll a monomers or dimers. The determination of the above parameters allows finding the most adequate systems for subsequent in vitro or in vivo studies. The characterization of the obtained xerogels was performed through spectroscopic absorption, emission and excitation spectra. These hybrid systems can be employed as mimics of natural systems; the entrapment of chlorophyll inside pore matrices indicates that it is possible to exploit some of the most physicochemical

  11. Chlorophyll a fluorescence as a tool for a study of the Potato virus Y effects on photosynthesis of nontransgenic and transgenic Pssu-ipt tobacco

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Spoustová, Petra; Synková, Helena; Valcke, R.; Čeřovská, Noemi

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 51, č. 2 (2013), s. 191-201. ISSN 0300-3604 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : gas-exchange parameters * cytokinins * chlorophyll a fluorescence imaging Subject RIV: EF - Botanics Impact factor: 1.007, year: 2013

  12. Evaluation of Copper Oxide Nanoparticles Toxicity Using Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Imaging in Lemna gibba

    OpenAIRE

    François Perreault; Abdallah Oukarroum; Laura Pirastru; Louka Sirois; William Gerson Matias; Radovan Popovic

    2010-01-01

    Copper oxide nanoparticles (CuO NPs), used in antifouling paints of boats, are released in the environment and can induce toxicity to aquatic organisms. In this report, we used chlorophyll a fluorescence imaging to evaluate CuO NPs toxicity in Lemna gibba. This approach allowed to evaluate the differential effect of CuO NPs on photosynthesis of whole L. gibba plants. Exposure to 0.1 to 0.4 g/L CuO NPs during 48h induced strong inhibition of photosynthetic processes resulting in a decrease of ...

  13. Alterations in Chlorophyll a Fluorescence and Pigments Concentration in the Leaves of Cauliflower and Broccoli Transplants Subjected to Chilling

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renata WOJCIECHOWSKA

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and photosynthetic pigments content in leaves of broccoli (Brassica oleracea L. var. italica cv. ‘Monaco’ F1 and cauliflower (Brassica oleracea L. var. botrytis cv. ‘Bruce’ F1 transplants were analyzed to investigate the effects of chilling temperatures (6 and 10 °C and the exposure length (1 or 2 weeks on the photosynthetic apparatus condition in 3-year experiment. Data were compared to control plants exposed to 14 °C for 1 and 2 weeks. The lowest values of maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm and the performance index (PI were observed in cauliflower chilled at 6 °C for 2 weeks. This was not accompanied by any substantial reduction in chlorophylls concentration, however, significant correlations between Fv/Fm or PI and chlorophylls content in cauliflower leaves were found. There was no negative effects of chilling on photosynthetic activity and chlorophyll content in broccoli leaves, the amount of carotenoids significantly increased in the broccoli chilled for 2 weeks in 6 °C. The chlorophyll a fluorescence indices and accelerated carotenoids synthesis showed that broccoli had less vulnerable photosynthetic apparatus to stress-induced temperatures and more efficient protection mechanisms in comparison to cauliflower transplants.

  14. Seaglider observations of variability in daytime fluorescence quenching of chlorophyll-a in Northeastern Pacific coastal waters

    OpenAIRE

    B. S. Sackmann; M.J. Perry; C. C. Eriksen

    2008-01-01

    The use of new autonomous and Lagrangian platforms (e.g. gliders, drifters, etc.) has revolutionized sampling of the ocean. The incorporation of in vivo chlorophyll-a fluorometers into these platforms for characterizing chlorophyll-a concentrations and phytoplankton biomass has reinforced the need for a thorough understanding of the variability and biases associated with basic fluorescence measurements. Seaglider, a long-range autonomous glider, has been deployed routinely i...

  15. Xanthophyll cycle-dependent quenching of photosystem II chlorophyll a fluorescence: formation of a quenching complex with a short fluorescence lifetime.

    OpenAIRE

    Gilmore, A M; Hazlett, T. L.; Govindjee

    1995-01-01

    Excess light triggers protective nonradiative dissipation of excitation energy in photosystem II through the formation of a trans-thylakoid pH gradient that in turn stimulates formation of zeaxanthin and antheraxanthin. These xanthophylls when combined with protonation of antenna pigment-protein complexes may increase nonradiative dissipation and, thus, quench chlorophyll a fluorescence. Here we measured, in parallel, the chlorophyll a fluorescence lifetime and intensity to understand the mec...

  16. Variability of the specific fluorescence of chlorophyll in the ocean. Part 2. Fluorometric method of chlorophyll a determination

    OpenAIRE

    Miros³awa Ostrowska; Dimitrii N. Matorin; Dariusz Ficek

    2000-01-01

    Two methods of determining the chlorophyll a concentration in the sea have been formulated on the basis of artificially induced fluorescence measured with the aid of submersible fluorometers. The method of statistical correlation is founded on the empirical relationship between fluorescence and chlorophyll concentration. The theoretical model of fluorescence described in Part 1 of this paper (see Ostrowska et al. 2000, this volume) provides the basis of the other method, the physical...

  17. Geomagnetic and strong static magnetic field effects on growth and chlorophyll a fluorescence in Lemna minor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jan, Luka; Fefer, Dušan; Košmelj, Katarina; Gaberščik, Alenka; Jerman, Igor

    2015-04-01

    The geomagnetic field (GMF) varies over Earth's surface and changes over time, but it is generally not considered as a factor that could influence plant growth. The effects of reduced and enhanced GMFs and a strong static magnetic field on growth and chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence of Lemna minor plants were investigated under controlled conditions. A standard 7 day test was conducted in extreme geomagnetic environments of 4 µT and 100 µT as well as in a strong static magnetic field environment of 150 mT. Specific growth rates as well as slow and fast Chl a fluorescence kinetics were measured after 7 days incubation. The results, compared to those of controls, showed that the reduced GMF significantly stimulated growth rate of the total frond area in the magnetically treated plants. However, the enhanced GMF pointed towards inhibition of growth rate in exposed plants in comparison to control, but the difference was not statistically significant. This trend was not observed in the case of treatments with strong static magnetic fields. Our measurements suggest that the efficiency of photosystem II is not affected by variations in GMF. In contrast, the strong static magnetic field seems to have the potential to increase initial Chl a fluorescence and energy dissipation in Lemna minor plants. PMID:25708622

  18. EFFECTS OF SIMULATED ACID RAIN STRESS ON GAS EXCHANGE AND CHLOROPHYLL A FLUORESCENCE PARAMETERS IN LEAVES OF LONGAN%模拟酸雨对龙眼叶片气体交换和叶绿素a荧光参数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邱栋梁; 刘星辉; 郭素枝

    2002-01-01

    Longan (Dimorcarpus longana Lour. cv. Wulongling) seedlings of two different ages grown in pots were selected to study the effects of acid rain stress on gas exchange, and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters and their recovery. Sulfuric acid and nitric acid were selected for the preparation of artificial acid rain, based on the mole ratio 1:5 of sulfuric acid to nitric acid in the precipitation of southern Fujian. Dilution of reagent grade acid was done with distilled water and determined by Phsj-4 acidity analyzer. A series of solutions of simulated acid rains with pH 5.6, 3.0 and 2.5 were prepared. A sprayer was used to apply the acid solution to young trees. At each application, leaves were thoroughly wetted. Sprays were repeated 12 times in 6 h at 30 min intervals. Gas exchange was detected with an open gas analyzer CID-301PS, and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters with OS5-FL modulated chlorophyll fluorometer.The results showed that photosynthesis was inhibited by acid rain stress, and light compensation point (LCP) of stressed leaves increased. Gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters of leaves were reduced after 6 h stress with acid rain of pH 3.0, and could be recovered to the level of control 72 h after the treatment ended. Net photosynthetic rate (Pn), stomatal conductance (Cs), transpiration rate (Tr), ratio of variable fluorescence to initial fluorescence (Fv/F0), ratio of variable fluorescence to maximum fluorescence (Fv/Fm), quantum yield of PSⅡelectron transport (ΦPSⅡ), ratio of fluorescence decrease (Rfd), nonphotochemical quenching (qN) and photochemical quenching (qP) were reduced after a 6 h stress with acid rain of pH 2.5, and could not be recovered 72 h after the stress ceased. Intercellular CO2 concentration (Ci) decreased under treatment with acid rain of pH 2.5, rose in the first day and surpassed the level of control 72 h after the acid rain spraying stopped. Dark respiration (Rd) was increased by acid rain, and

  19. Method 445.0 In Vitro Determination of Chlorophyll a and Pheophytin ain Marine and Freshwater Algae by Fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    This method provides a procedure for low level determination of chlorophyll a (chl a) and its magnesium free derivative, pheophytin a (pheo a), in marine and freshwater phytoplankton using fluorescence detection.(1,2) Phaeophorbides present in the sample are determined collective...

  20. Modeling of Chlorophyll a fluorescence kinetics in plnat cells: Derřivation of a descriptive algorithm

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vredenberg, W.; Prášil, Ondřej

    Dordrecht: Springer, 2009 - (Laisk, A.; Nedbal, L.; Govindjee), s. 125-149 ISBN 978-1-4020-9236-7 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/05/0335; GA AV ČR 1QS500200570 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Chlorophyll a * variable fluorescence * photosystem II Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  1. On the polyphasic quenching kinetics of chlorophyll a fluorescence in algae after light pulses of variable length

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vredenberg, W.; Prášil, Ondřej

    2013-01-01

    Roč. 117, 1-3 (2013), s. 321-337. ISSN 0166-8595 R&D Projects: GA MŠk(CZ) ED2.1.00/03.0110 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Chlorophyll a fluorescence * Photosystem II * Quenching kinetics Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.185, year: 2013

  2. Remote sensing of chlorophyll a fluorescence of vegetation canopies. 2. Physiological significance of fluorescence signal in response to environmental stresses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Measurements of laser-induced chlorophyll fluorescence of living leaves were compared to ecophysiological parameters, both in near and far field conditions. Near field measurements were carried out with a two-wavelength portable fluorometer, both in the laboratory and in the field. Results show significant changes of the 690 nm and 730 nm chlorophyll fluorescence bands in different environmental conditions. Water stress and carboxylation limitations also affect the fluorescence spectra. Far field measurements from a ground-operated fluorescence LIDAR system confirm those results. The F690 / F730 fluorescence ratio is then demonstrated as a good index for vegetation remote sensing. (author)

  3. Vertical distribution of chlorophyll a concentration and phytoplankton community composition from in situ fluorescence profiles: a first database for the global ocean

    OpenAIRE

    R. Sauzède; Lavigne, H.; Claustre, H.; J. Uitz; C. Schmechtig; F. D'Ortenzio; Guinet, C.; Pesant, S.

    2015-01-01

    In vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence is a proxy of chlorophyll a concentration, and is one of the most frequently measured biogeochemical properties in the ocean. Thousands of profiles are available from historical databases and the integration of fluorescence sensors to autonomous platforms has led to a significant increase of chlorophyll fluorescence profile acquisition. To our knowledge, this important source of environmental data has not yet been included in global analyse...

  4. Estimation of the depth of sunlight penetration in natural waters for the remote sensing of chlorophyll a via in vivo fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, H. R.

    1979-01-01

    In attempting to measure remotely the constituents of the ocean through spectral analysis of diffusely reflected sunlight, it is important to know the depth over which constituent concentrations can be estimated. Recently, considerable interest has been generated in the use of sunlight-excited fluorescence of chlorophyll a contained in photoplankton (in vivo) to determine remotely the chlorophyll a concentration in surface waters. In the present paper an estimate is provided for the depth to which chlorophyll a concentration can be determined from observations of the fluorescence.

  5. Chlorophyll 'a' and particulate organic carbon in relation to some physico-chemical parameters along southwest coast of India

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Devi, K.S.; Balasubramanian, T.; Jayalakshmy, K.V.; Balachandran, K.K.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    ' and environmental parameters except NO sub(2)-N varied spatially, while POC and NO sub(2)-N diurnally. For total and 60 mu m size fractioned chlorophyll 'a' a negative relation of high gradient with salinity while, for 20 mu m size fraction a positive relation...

  6. Relationship between the Fluorescence Lifetime of Chlorophyll 'a' and Primary Productivity within the Mississippi River Plume and Adjacent Shelf Region

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Callie; Miller, Richard L.; Fernandez, Salvador M.; McKee, Brent A.

    2000-01-01

    In situ measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence intensity have been widely used to estimate phytoplankton biomass. However, because the fluorescence quantum yield of chlorophyll a in vivo can be highly variable, measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence intensity cannot be directly correlated with phytoplankton biomass and do not provide information on the physiological state of the phytoplankton under study. Conversely, lifetime-based measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence provide a framework in which photosynthetic rates of phytoplankton can be analyzed according to phytoplankton physiology. Along with the measurement of primary production and ambient nutrient concentrations within the Mississippi River plume in the northern Gulf of Mexico, phytoplankton fluorescence lifetimes were measured using a Fluorescence Lifetime Phytoplankton Analyzer (developed under a NASA Small Business Innovative Research contract to Ciencia, Inc.). Variability of fluorescence lifetimes within the plume can be used as a background from which to interpret variations in the maximum quantum yield of photochemistry. The extent to which nutrient and effluent loading in this dynamic coastal area affect the photosynthetic performance of phytoplankton will be presented as a function of phytoplankton fluorescence lifetimes.

  7. The Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Modulated by All-Trans-β-Carotene in the Process of Photosystem II.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Tianyu; Zhang, Ye; Gong, Nan; Li, Zuowei; Sun, Chenglin; Men, Zhiwei

    2016-01-01

    Modulating the chlorophyll a (Chl-a) fluorescence by all-trans-β-Carotene (β-Car) in the polarity and non-polarity solutions was investigated. The fluorescence intensity of Chl-a decreased as the concentration of β-Car increased. The excited electronic levels of Chl-a and β-Car became much closer owing to the solvent effect, which led to the electron transfer between both two molecules. A electron-separated pair Chl(-)·Chl⁺ that is not luminous was formed due to electron transfer. The solution of Chl-a and β-car in C₃H₆O was similar to the internal environment of chloroplast. We conclude that the polar solvent is good for the fluorescent modulation in photosystem II. PMID:27338363

  8. Diffuse reflectance of the ocean - The theory of its augmentation by chlorophyll a fluorescence at 685 nm

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gordon, H. R.

    1979-01-01

    The radiative transfer equation is modified to include the effect of fluorescent substances and solved in the quasi-single scattering approximation for a homogeneous ocean containing fluorescent particles with wavelength independent quantum efficiency and a Gaussian shaped emission line. The results are applied to the in vivo fluorescence of chlorophyll a (in phytoplankton) in the ocean to determine if the observed quantum efficiencies are large enough to explain the enhancement of the ocean's diffuse reflectance near 685 nm in chlorophyll rich waters without resorting to anomalous dispersion. The computations indicate that the required efficiencies are sufficiently low to account completely for the enhanced reflectance. The validity of the theory is further demonstrated by deriving values for the upwelling irradiance attenuation coefficient at 685 nm which are in close agreement with the observations.

  9. The Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Modulated by All-Trans-β-Carotene in the Process of Photosystem II

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tianyu Li

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Modulating the chlorophyll a (Chl-a fluorescence by all-trans-β-Carotene (β-Car in the polarity and non-polarity solutions was investigated. The fluorescence intensity of Chl-a decreased as the concentration of β-Car increased. The excited electronic levels of Chl-a and β-Car became much closer owing to the solvent effect, which led to the electron transfer between both two molecules. A electron-separated pair Chl−·Chl+ that is not luminous was formed due to electron transfer. The solution of Chl-a and β-car in C3H6O was similar to the internal environment of chloroplast. We conclude that the polar solvent is good for the fluorescent modulation in photosystem II.

  10. Effects of ozone on photosynthetic CO{sub 2} exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence and intioxidant systems in lettuce leaves

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calatayud, A.; Ramirez, J.W.; Barreno, E. [Univ. de Valencia, Inst. Facultad de Ciencias Biologicas, Burjasot (Spain); Iglesias, D.J. [Dpto. Citricultura Inst. Valenciano de Investigaciones Agrarias, Valencia (Spain)

    2002-11-01

    The effects of ozone exposure on lettuce leaves were investigated by means of gas exchange, modulated chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidants systems. High ozone concentration decreased the rate of photosynthesis at light saturation level and changes in stomatal conductance and transpiration rate. However, an increase in intercellular CO{sub 2} concentration indicated a decrease in the carboxylation efficiency. These data agreed with a reduction of non-cyclic electron flow and lower capacity to reduce the quinone pool. Ozone affected the ascorbate pool and decreased ascorbate peroxidase activity, increased lipid peroxidation, altered membrane properties and reduced the development of non-photochemical quenching. (au)

  11. High temperature stress monitoring and detection using chlorophyll a fluorescence and infrared thermography in chrysanthemum (Dendranthema grandiflora)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wakjera, Eshetu Janka; Körner, Oliver; Rosenqvist, Eva;

    2013-01-01

    Modern highly insulated greenhouses are more energy efficient than conventional types. Furthermore applying dynamic greenhouse climate control regimes will increase energy efficiency relatively more in modern structures. However, this combination may result in higher air and crop temperatures. Too...... mol−1 and with a photosynthetic photon flux density (PPFD) of 800 μmol m−2 s−1, net photosynthesis (Pn) reached its maximum at 35 °C. The thermal index (IG), calculated from the leaf temperature and the temperature of a dry and wet reference leaf, showed a strong correlation with gs. We conclude...... that 1) chlorophyll a fluorescence and a combination of fluorescence parameters can be used as early stress indicators as well as to detect the temperature limit of PSII damage, and 2) the strong relation between gs and IG enables gs to be estimated non-invasively, which is an important first step...

  12. Differential responses of seven contrasting species to high light using pigment and chlorophyll a fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mittal S.

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available High light intensity may induce severe photodamage to chloroplast and consequently cause decreases in the yield capacity of plants and destruction of pigments, causing an overall yellowing of the foliage. Thus, study related to light adaptation becomes necessary to understand adaptation processes in higher plants on the basis of which they are characterized as full sunlight or shade plants. Chlorophyll can be regarded as an intrinsic fluorescent probe of the photosynthetic system. The ecophysiological parameter related to plant performance and fitness i.e. in-situ chlorophyll fluorescence measurements were determined for different plant species in the medicinal plant garden of Banasthali University, Rajasthan. Miniaturized Pulse Amplitude Modulated Photosynthetic Yield Analyzers are primarily designed for measuring effective quantum yield (ΔF/Fm’ of photosystem II under momentary ambient light in the field. Photosynthetic yield measurements and light-response curves suggested a gradation of sun-adapted to shade-adapted behaviour of these plants in following order Withania somnifera> Catharanthus roseus> Datura stamonium> Vasica minora> Vasica adulta> Rauwolfia serpentina. As indicated by light response curves and pigment analysis, Datura stramonium, Withania somnifera and Catharanthus roseus competed well photosynthetically and are favoured while Rauwolfia serpentina, Vasica minora, Vasica adulta and Plumbago zeylanica were observed to be less competent photosynthetically. These light response curves and resultant cardinal points study gave insight into the ecophysiological characterization of the photosynthetic capacity of the plant and provides highly interesting parameters like electron transport rate, photo-inhibition, photosynthetically active photon flux density and yield on the basis of which light adaptability was screened for seven medicinally important plants.

  13. Two-photon excited fluorescence from higher electronic states of chlorophylls in photosynthetic antenna complexes a new approach to detect strong excitonic chlorophyll a/b coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Leupold, D; Ehlert, J; Irrgang, K D; Renger, G; Lokstein, H

    2002-01-01

    Stepwise two-photon excitation of chlorophyll a and b in the higher plant main light-harvesting complex (LHC II) and the minor complex CP29 (as well as in organic solution) with 100-fs pulses in the Q/sub y/ region results in a weak blue fluorescence. The dependence of the spectral shape of the blue fluorescence on excitation wavelength offers a new approach to elucidate the long-standing problem of the origin of spectral "chlorophyll forms" in pigment-protein complexes, in particular the characterization of chlorophyll a/b-heterodimers. As a first result we present evidence for the existence of strong chlorophyll a/b-interactions (excitonically coupled transitions at 650 and 680 nm) in LHC II at ambient temperature. In comparison with LHC II, the experiments with CP29 provide further evidence that the lowest energy chlorophyll a transition (at ~680 nm) is not excitonically coupled to chlorophyll b. (22 refs).

  14. Time sequence of the damage to the acceptor and donor sides of photosystem II by UV-B radiation as evaluated by chlorophyll a fluorescence

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rensen, van J.J.S.; Vredenberg, W.J.; Rodrigues, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on photosystem II (PS II) were studied in leaves of Chenopodium album. After the treatment with UV-B the damage was estimated using chlorophyll a fluorescence techniques. Measurements of modulated fluorescence using a pulse amplitude modulated fluoromete

  15. Phenotyping of wheat cultivars for heat tolerance using chlorophyll a fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Svend Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto; Rosenqvist, Eva

    2012-01-01

    Abstract. In view of the global climate change, heat stress is an increasing constraint for the productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). Our aim was to identify contrasting cultivars in terms of heat tolerance by mass screening of 1274 wheat cultivars of diverse origin, based on a...... a milder heat stress of 38Cin 300 mmolm–2 s–1 for 2 h with preheating at 33–35Cfor 19 h in 7–14 mmolm–2 s–1 light showed a genetic determination of 8.52.7%.Aheat treatment of 40Cin 300 mmolm–2 s–1 for 72 h in the second screening with 138 selected cultivars resulted in larger differentiation of...... cultivars with an increased genetic component (15.43.6%), which was further increased to 27.96.8% in the third screening with 41 contrasting cultivars. This contrasting set of cultivars was then used to compare the ability of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters to detect genetic difference in heat tolerance...

  16. Time sequence of the damage to the acceptor and donor sides of photosystem II by UV-B radiation as evaluated by chlorophyll a fluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    Rensen, van, J.J.S.; Vredenberg, W J; Rodrigues, G.C.

    2007-01-01

    The effects of ultraviolet-B (UV-B) radiation on photosystem II (PS II) were studied in leaves of Chenopodium album. After the treatment with UV-B the damage was estimated using chlorophyll a fluorescence techniques. Measurements of modulated fluorescence using a pulse amplitude modulated fluorometer revealed that the efficiency of photosystem II decreased both with increasing time of UV-B radiation and with increasing intensity of the UV-B. Fluorescence induction rise curves were analyzed us...

  17. Remote sensing of chlorophyll a fluorescence of vegetation canopies. 1. Near and far field measurement techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article presents instruments and techniques, used in several vegetation monitoring experiments. Simultaneous monitoring was performed with different approaches, including fluorescence lidar and passive remote sensing, leaf level reflectance, and laser fluorimetry, and compared with physiological measurements. Most of the instrumentation described was designed and built for this application. Experiments were carried out in the laboratory and in the field, to investigate the relationship between chlorophyll fluorescence spectra and plant ecophysiology. Remote sensing, spectroscopy, and ecophysiology data were then collected by an intensive research team, joining different experiences and working in national and international projects

  18. DIFFERENTIAL RESPONSES OF SEVEN CONTRASTING SPECIES TO HIGH LIGHT USING PIGMENT AND CHLOROPHYLL A FLUORESCENCE

    OpenAIRE

    Mittal S; Kumari, N.; Sharma, V.

    2011-01-01

    High light intensity may induce severe photodamage to chloroplast and consequently cause decreases in the yield capacity of plants and destruction of pigments, causing an overall yellowing of the foliage. Thus, study related to light adaptation becomes necessary to understand adaptation processes in higher plants on the basis of which they are characterized as full sunlight or shade plants. Chlorophyll can be regarded as an intrinsic fluorescent probe of the photosynthetic system. The ecophys...

  19. Underwater Optical Fiber Fluorescent System for Measuring Chlorophyll-a Concentration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Using optical fiber fluorescent technology,a new method for measuring alga concentration in water is presented. The system can realize on-line measurement for alga concentration using He-Ne laser as the light source. It can also effectively detect weak signals. The system with a passive sensor head has such advantages as simple structure, high sensitivity and high accuracy. It has been demonstrated that this system can be used to monitor water quality and can also be used to survey some matter.

  20. Vertical distribution of chlorophyll a concentration and phytoplankton community composition from in situ fluorescence profiles: a first database for the global ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sauzède, R.; Lavigne, H.; Claustre, H.; Uitz, J.; Schmechtig, C.; D'Ortenzio, F.; Guinet, C.; Pesant, S.

    2015-10-01

    In vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence is a proxy of chlorophyll a concentration, and is one of the most frequently measured biogeochemical properties in the ocean. Thousands of profiles are available from historical databases and the integration of fluorescence sensors to autonomous platforms has led to a significant increase of chlorophyll fluorescence profile acquisition. To our knowledge, this important source of environmental data has not yet been included in global analyses. A total of 268 127 chlorophyll fluorescence profiles from several databases as well as published and unpublished individual sources were compiled. Following a robust quality control procedure detailed in the present paper, about 49 000 chlorophyll fluorescence profiles were converted into phytoplankton biomass (i.e., chlorophyll a concentration) and size-based community composition (i.e., microphytoplankton, nanophytoplankton and picophytoplankton), using a method specifically developed to harmonize fluorescence profiles from diverse sources. The data span over 5 decades from 1958 to 2015, including observations from all major oceanic basins and all seasons, and depths ranging from the surface to a median maximum sampling depth of around 700 m. Global maps of chlorophyll a concentration and phytoplankton community composition are presented here for the first time. Monthly climatologies were computed for three of Longhurst's ecological provinces in order to exemplify the potential use of the data product. Original data sets (raw fluorescence profiles) as well as calibrated profiles of phytoplankton biomass and community composition are available on open access at PANGAEA, Data Publisher for Earth and Environmental Science. Raw fluorescence profiles: http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.844212 and Phytoplankton biomass and community composition: http://doi.pangaea.de/10.1594/PANGAEA.844485

  1. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress: Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramin Lotfi

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid (0, 300, and 600 mg L− 1 on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed (Brassica napus L. plant under water stress (60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid (FA improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm and performance index (PI of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Fo to Fm and the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  2. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress: Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramin; Lotfi; Mohammad; Pessarakli; Puriya; Gharavi-Kouchebagh; Hossein; Khoshvaghti

    2015-01-01

    The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid(0, 300, and 600 mg L-1) on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed(Brassica napus L.) plant under water stress(60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan) was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid(FA) improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII(Fv/Fm)and performance index(PI) of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Foto Fmand the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species(ROS) is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  3. Physiological responses of Brassica napus to fulvic acid under water stress:Chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidant enzyme activity

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ramin Lotfi; Mohammad Pessarakli; Puriya Gharavi-Kouchebagh; Hossein Khoshvaghti

    2015-01-01

    The ameliorative effect of fulvic acid (0, 300, and 600 mg L−1) on photosystem II and antioxidant enzyme activity of the rapeseed (Brassica napus L.) plant under water stress (60, 100, and 140 mm evaporation from class A pan) was studied using split plots in a randomized complete block design with three replications. Results indicated that application of fulvic acid (FA) improved the maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm) and performance index (PI) of plants under both well-watered and limited-water conditions. The time span from Fo to Fm and the energy necessary for the closure of all reaction centers was significantly increased, but the size of the plastoquinone pool was reduced with increasing water stress levels. Plants treated with FA had higher peroxidase and catalase activities under all irrigation conditions. Activities of ascorbate peroxidase and superoxide dismutase in plants increased with increasing water stress. Malondialdehyde increased under severe water stress, but application of FA significantly decreased lipid peroxidation. Production of reactive oxygen species (ROS) is a common phenomenon in plants under stress. Under this condition, the balance between the production of ROS and the quenching activity of antioxidants is upset, often resulting in oxidative damage. In this study, application of FA significantly increased fluorescence of chlorophyll a, inhibiting ROS production and enhancing antioxidant enzymes activity that destroyed ROS. Thus, ROS in plant cells was reduced under water stress by application of FA and consequently lipid peroxidation was reduced.

  4. Experimental effects of sand-dust storm on tolerance index, percentage phototoxicity and chlorophyll a fluorescence of Vigna radiata L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Alavi

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available In arid and semi-arid parts of the world excessive mineral aerosol carried by air parcels is a common climatic incident with well-known environmental side effects. In this way, we studied the role of sand-dust accumulation on various aspects of productivity of Vigna radiata L. including dry mass (DM, chlorophyll (Chl a, b, Chlorophyll a fluorescence (effective quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ФPSII, maximal quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (Fv/Fm and electron transport rate (ETR. V. radiata was exposed to a gradient of dust concentrations in a dust chamber (0.5 (T1, 1(T2 and 1.5 g/m3 (T3 simulated by a dust generator for a period of 60 days. Results of this experiment indicate that DM and Chl content of shoot are negatively correlated with the intensity of the dust exposure. Exposure of V. radiata to dust compared with the control was caused 5% (T1, 14% (T2 and 27% (T3 reduction in leaf DM (p≤0.05, ANOVA. Also, exposure to the dust induced a significant (p≤0.05 reduction in the Total Chl content in (T3 25%. Also, we showed that ФPSII, ETR and Fv/Fm were affected by increasing of the dust concentrations. Exposure to the dust resulted in a significant reduction in ETR of 15%, 22%, and 43%.

  5. Two-photon excited fluorescence from higher electronic states of chlorophylls in photosynthetic antenna complexes: a new approach to detect strong excitonic chlorophyll a/b coupling.

    OpenAIRE

    Leupold, Dieter; Teuchner, Klaus; Ehlert, Jürgen; Irrgang, Klaus-Dieter; Renger, Gernot; Lokstein, Heiko

    2002-01-01

    Stepwise two-photon excitation of chlorophyll a and b in the higher plant main light-harvesting complex (LHC II) and the minor complex CP29 (as well as in organic solution) with 100-fs pulses in the Q(y) region results in a weak blue fluorescence. The dependence of the spectral shape of the blue fluorescence on excitation wavelength offers a new approach to elucidate the long-standing problem of the origin of spectral "chlorophyll forms" in pigment-protein complexes, in particular the charact...

  6. The Validity Chlorophyll-a Estimation by Sun Induced Fluorescence in Estuarine Waters: An Analysis of Long-term (2003-2011) Water Quality Data from Tampa Bay, Florida (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moreno-Madrinan, Max Jacobo; Fischer, Andrew

    2012-01-01

    Satellite observation of phytoplankton concentration or chlorophyll-a is an important characteristic, critically integral to monitoring coastal water quality. However, the optical properties of estuarine and coastal waters are highly variable and complex and pose a great challenge for accurate analysis. Constituents such as suspended solids and dissolved organic matter and the overlapping and uncorrelated absorptions in the blue region of the spectrum renders the blue-green ratio algorithms for estimating chlorophyll-a inaccurate. Measurement of sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence, on the other hand, which utilizes the near infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum, may provide a better estimate of phytoplankton concentrations. While modelling and laboratory studies have illustrated both the utility and limitations of satellite baseline algorithms based on the sun induced chlorophyll fluorescence signal, few have examined the empirical validity of these algorithms using a comprehensive long term in situ data set. In an unprecedented analysis of a long term (2003-2011) in situ monitoring data from Tampa Bay, Florida (USA), we assess the validity of the FLH product from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) against chlorophyll ]a and a suite of water quality parameters taken in a variety of conditions throughout a large optically complex estuarine system. A systematic analysis of sampling sites throughout the bay is undertaken to understand how the relationship between FLH and in situ chlorophyll-a responds to varying conditions within the estuary including water depth, distance from shore and structures and eight water quality parameters. From the 39 station for which data was derived, 22 stations showed significant correlations when the FLH product was matched with in situ chlorophyll-alpha data. The correlations (r2) for individual stations within Tampa Bay ranged between 0.67 (n=28, pless than 0.01) and-0.457 (n=12, p=.016), indicating that

  7. Study of 660 nm laser-induced photoluminescence of chlorophyll-a and its applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on the phenomenon of chlorophyll a photoluminescence, this paper introduces a new method to measure the chlorophyll a content, using 660nm laser diode as a new kind of light source to stimulate fluorescence as well as combining a fiber and spectrum technique. We analyze the characteristics of laser-induced fluorescence spectrum of chlorophyll a and then put forward the new method using two parameters, the relative fluorescence intensity and fluorescence intensity ratio F685/F735, to measure the chlorophyll a content in the water and green leaves respectively. The experimental results indicate that it is completely feasible to give a visual judgment for chlorophyll a content, according to the fluorescence emission spectrum of chlorophyll a. Subsequently, it is verified by three kinds of typical applications. All of these provide a new kind of light source to develop the chlorophyll a fluorometry and further give a technical foundation of on-spot monitoring the chlorophyll a content in the ocean or in green leaves

  8. Effect of photosystem I inactivation on chlorophyll a fluorescence induction in wheat leaves: Does activity of photosystem I play any role in OJIP rise?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zivcak, Marek; Brestic, Marian; Kunderlikova, Kristyna; Olsovska, Katarina; Allakhverdiev, Suleyman I

    2015-11-01

    Interpretation of the fast chlorophyll a fluorescence induction is still a subject of continuing discussion. One of the contentious issues is the influence of photosystem I (PSI) activity on the kinetics of the thermal JIP-phase of OJIP rise. To demonstrate this influence, we realized a series of measurements in wheat leaves subjected to PSI photoinactivation by the sequence of red saturation pulses (15,000 μmol photons m(-2) s(-1) for 0.3 s, every 10 s) applied in darkness. Such a treatment led to a moderate decrease of maximum quantum efficiency of PSII (by ~8%), but a strong decrease of the number of oxidizable PSI (by ~55%), which considerably limited linear electron transport and CO2 assimilation. Surprisingly, the PSI photoinactivation had low effects on OJIP kinetics of variable fluorescence. In particular, the amplitude of variable fluorescence of IP-step (ΔVIP), which has been considered to be a measure of PSI content, was not decreased, despite the low content of photooxidizable PSI. On the other hand, the slower relaxation of chlorophyll fluorescence after saturation pulse as well as the results of the double-hit method suggest that PSI inactivation treatment led to an increase of the fraction of QB-nonreducing PSII reaction centers. Our results somewhat challenge the mainstream interpretations of JIP-thermal phase, and at least suggest that the IP amplitude cannot serve to estimate reliably the PSI content or the PSI to PSII ratio. Moreover, these results recommend the use of the novel method of PSI inactivation, which might help clarify some important issues needed for the correct understanding of the OJIP fluorescence rise. PMID:26388470

  9. Effects of ozone exposure or fungal pathogen on white lupin leaves as determined by imaging of chlorophyll a fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guidi, Lucia; Mori, Sauro; Degl'Innocenti, Elena; Pecchia, Susanna

    2007-01-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence has been used routinely to investigate photosynthetic activity in plants subjected to both biotic and abiotic stresses. The aim of this work was to compare the perturbations in photosynthesis induced by ozone and by a pathogen. By using a conventional fluorometer a similar response pattern was observed in inoculated and O(3)-fumigated leaves. The application of chlorophyll fluorescence imaging provided further detailed information on the spatial-temporal heterogeneity of the response of white lupin leaves to fungal pathogen or to ozone fumigation. In particular, 48 h after artificial inoculation with the necrotrophic fungal pathogen Pleiochaeta setosa, the leaves showed a remarkable alteration in PSII operating efficiency (Phi(PSII)), which affected the whole surface. Afterwards, the infection site was surrounded by a ring of increased photosynthetic activity. The response of ozonated leaves was quite different. The reduction in Phi(PSII) was already evident 24h after fumigation; moreover, a distinct heterogeneity of the fluorescence yield was observed and the major veins displayed a lowered Phi(PSII). PMID:17900916

  10. Airborne simultaneous spectroscopic detection of laser-induced water Raman backscatter and fluorescence from chlorophyll a and other naturally occurring pigments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoge, F. E.; Swift, R. N.

    1981-01-01

    The airborne laser-induced spectral emission bands obtained simultaneously from water Raman backscatter and the fluorescence of chlorophyll and other naturally occurring waterborne pigments are reported here for the first time. The importance of this type data lies not only in its single-shot multispectral character but also in the application of the Raman line for correction or calibration of the spatial variation of the laser penetration depth without the need for in situ water attenuation measurements. The entire laser-induced fluorescence and Raman scatter emissions resulting from each separate 532-nm 10-nsec laser pulse are collected and spectrally dispersed in a diffraction grating spectrometer having forty photomultiplier tube detectors. Results from field experiments conducted in the North Sea and the Chesapeake Bay/Potomac River are presented. Difficulties involving the multispectral resolution of the induced emissions are addressed, and feasible solutions are suggested together with new instrument configurations and future research directions.

  11. Effects of different concentrations of nitrogen and phosphorus on chlorophyll biosynthesis,chlorophyll a fluorescence,and photosynthesis In Larix olgensis seedlings

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wu Chu; Wang Zhengquan; Sun Hailong; Guo Shenglei

    2006-01-01

    In our experiments,one-year-old Larix olgensis seedlings were cultivated in sand,and supplied with solutions with different concentrations of nitrate or phosphate.The effects of nitrogen and phosphorus supply on chlorophyll biosynthesis,total nitrogen content,and photosynthetic rate were studied.The experimental results are listed below: 1) 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA) synthetic rate increased as nitrate concentrations supplied to larch seedlings increased from 1 to 8 mmol/L.But the rate decreased by 17% when nitrate concentration increased to 16 mmol/L,in contrast to the control.Under phosphate treatments,ALA synthetic rates were similar to those under nitrate treatments.The activities of porphobilinogen (PBG)synthase reached a maximum when larch seedlings were supplied with 8 mmol/L of nitrate or 1 mmol/L of phosphate.2) When larch seedlings were supplied with 8 mmol/L of nitrate and 0.5 mmol/L of phosphate,the contents of chlorophyll a,chlorophyll b,total chlorophyll,and carotenoids reached a maximum.The total nitrogen contents in leaves increased as nitrate concentrations increased.3) When phosphate concentrations increased from 0.125 to 1 mmol/L,the total nitrogen contents in leaves slightly increased;however,continuous increase of phosphate concentrations resulted in the decrease in total nitrogen contents in leaves.When nitrate concentrations increased from 1 to 8 mmol/L,soluble protein contents in leaves increased in general,and continuous increase of nitrate concentrations induced a decrease in soluble protein contents in leaves.Under treatment of 0.25 mmol/L of phosphate,the soluble protein contents reached a maximum.4) In general,Fv/Fm increased as nitrate concentrations increased from 1 to 8 mmol/L,and continuous increase of nitrate concentration resulted in decrease in FvlFm.The similar changes occurred under phosphate treatments.As nitrate concentrations increased from 1 to 8 mmol/L,photosynthetic rates gradually increased,but when nitrate

  12. Air fluorescence yield dependence on atmospheric parameters

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Privitera, P.; Abraham, J.; Abreu, P.; Aglietta, M.; Boháčová, Martina; Hrabovský, Miroslav; Mandát, Dušan; Nožka, Libor; Palatka, Miroslav; Pech, Miroslav; Prouza, Michael; Řídký, Jan; Schovánek, Petr; Šmída, Radomír; Trávníček, Petr

    Mexico : Universidad National Autonóma, 2007, s. 1-4. [International Cosmic Ray Conference /30./. Merida (MX), 03.07.2007-11.07.2007] R&D Projects: GA MŠk LA 134 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100502 Keywords : air fluorescence * AIR FLY Subject RIV: BF - Elementary Particles and High Energy Physics

  13. Effects of ambient versus reduced UV-B radiation on high arctic Salix arctica assessed by measurements and calculations of chlorophyll-a fluorescence parameters from fluorescence transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, Kristian Rost

    2005-01-01

    A UV-B exclusion-experiment was conducted in the high arctic Zackenberg, NE Greenland, in which Salix arctica leaves during most of the growing season were fixed perpendicular to the solar zenith angle, thereby receiving maximal solar radiation. Covered with Teflon and Mylar foil, the leaves...

  14. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Chlorophyll a Flourescence Transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydenvang, Jens

    trustworthy results of a sufficient quality; something that remains a problem for many in-situ methods. In my PhD, I present my work with two such in-situ methods, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and OJIP transients, the rising part of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients from dark-adapted leaves....

  15. Development of Water Quality Parameter Retrieval Algorithms for Estimating Total Suspended Solids and Chlorophyll-A Concentration Using LANDSAT-8 Imagery at Poteran Island Water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laili, N.; Arafah, F.; Jaelani, L. M.; Subehi, L.; Pamungkas, A.; Koenhardono, E. S.; Sulisetyono, A.

    2015-10-01

    The Landsat-8 satellite imagery is now highly developed compares to the former of Landsat projects. Both land and water area are possibly mapped using this satellite sensor. Considerable approaches have been made to obtain a more accurate method for extracting the information of water area from the images. It is difficult to generate an accurate water quality information from Landsat images by using some existing algorithm provided by researchers. Even though, those algorithms have been validated in some water area, but the dynamic changes and the specific characteristics of each area make it necessary to get them evaluated and validated over another water area. This paper aims to make a new algorithm by correlating the measured and estimated TSS and Chla concentration. We collected in-situ remote sensing reflectance, TSS and Chl-a concentration in 9 stations surrounding the Poteran islands as well as Landsat 8 data on the same acquisition time of April 22, 2015. The regression model for estimating TSS produced high accuracy with determination coefficient (R2), NMAE and RMSE of 0.709; 9.67 % and 1.705 g/m3 respectively. Whereas, Chla retrieval algorithm produced R2 of 0.579; NMAE of 10.40% and RMSE of 51.946 mg/m3. By implementing these algorithms to Landsat 8 image, the estimated water quality parameters over Poteran island water ranged from 9.480 to 15.801 g/m3 and 238.546 to 346.627 mg/m3 for TSS and Chl-a respectively.

  16. DEVELOPMENT OF WATER QUALITY PARAMETER RETRIEVAL ALGORITHMS FOR ESTIMATING TOTAL SUSPENDED SOLIDS AND CHLOROPHYLL-A CONCENTRATION USING LANDSAT-8 IMAGERY AT POTERAN ISLAND WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Laili

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The Landsat-8 satellite imagery is now highly developed compares to the former of Landsat projects. Both land and water area are possibly mapped using this satellite sensor. Considerable approaches have been made to obtain a more accurate method for extracting the information of water area from the images. It is difficult to generate an accurate water quality information from Landsat images by using some existing algorithm provided by researchers. Even though, those algorithms have been validated in some water area, but the dynamic changes and the specific characteristics of each area make it necessary to get them evaluated and validated over another water area. This paper aims to make a new algorithm by correlating the measured and estimated TSS and Chla concentration. We collected in-situ remote sensing reflectance, TSS and Chl-a concentration in 9 stations surrounding the Poteran islands as well as Landsat 8 data on the same acquisition time of April 22, 2015. The regression model for estimating TSS produced high accuracy with determination coefficient (R2, NMAE and RMSE of 0.709; 9.67 % and 1.705 g/m3 respectively. Whereas, Chla retrieval algorithm produced R2 of 0.579; NMAE of 10.40% and RMSE of 51.946 mg/m3. By implementing these algorithms to Landsat 8 image, the estimated water quality parameters over Poteran island water ranged from 9.480 to 15.801 g/m3 and 238.546 to 346.627 mg/m3 for TSS and Chl-a respectively.

  17. From chlorophyll a towards bacteriochlorophyll a: Excited-state processes of modified pigments

    OpenAIRE

    Teuchner, K.; Stiel, H.; Leupold, D; Katheder, Ingrid; Scheer, Hugo

    1994-01-01

    By means of fluorescence spectroscopy and nonlinear absorption experiments, excited-state processes of the modified pigments [3-acetyl]-chlorophyll a, [31-OH]-bacteriochlorophyll a and [3-vinyl]-bacteriochlorophyll a were investigated and compared with those of chlorophyll a and bacteriochlorophyll a.

  18. Fluorescence lifetime as a new parameter in analytical cytology measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Steinkamp, John A.; Deka, Chiranjit; Lehnert, Bruce E.; Crissman, Harry A.

    1996-05-01

    A phase-sensitive flow cytometer has been developed to quantify fluorescence decay lifetimes on fluorochrome-labeled cells/particles. This instrument combines flow cytometry (FCM) and frequency-domain fluorescence spectroscopy measurement principles to provide unique capabilities for making phase-resolved lifetime measurements, while preserving conventional FCM capabilities. Cells are analyzed as they intersect a high-frequency, intensity-modulated (sine wave) laser excitation beam. Fluorescence signals are processed by conventional and phase-sensitive signal detection electronics and displayed as frequency distribution histograms. In this study we describe results of fluorescence intensity and lifetime measurements on fluorescently labeled particles, cells, and chromosomes. Examples of measurements on intrinsic cellular autofluorescence, cells labeled with immunofluorescence markers for cell- surface antigens, mitochondria stains, and on cellular DNA and protein binding fluorochromes will be presented to illustrate unique differences in measured lifetimes and changes caused by fluorescence quenching. This innovative technology will be used to probe fluorochrome/molecular interactions in the microenvironment of cells/chromosomes as a new parameter and thus expand the researchers' understanding of biochemical processes and structural features at the cellular and molecular level.

  19. Ultraviolet Fluorescence LiDAR (UFL as a Measurement Tool for Water Quality Parameters in Turbid Lake Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heiko Balzter

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Despite longstanding contributions to oceanography, similar use of fluorescence light detection and ranging (LiDAR in lake settings is not routine. The potential for ship-mounted, multispectral Ultraviolet Fluorescence LiDAR (UFL to provide rapid, high-resolution data in variably turbid and productive lake conditions are investigated here through a series of laboratory tank and field measurements carried out on Lake Balaton, Hungary. UFL data, calibrated empirically to a set of coinciding conventionally-analyzed samples, provide simultaneous estimates of three important parameters-chlorophyll a(chla, total suspended matter (TSM and colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM. Successful UFL retrievals from both laboratory and field measurements were achieved for chla (0.01–378 mg∙m−3; R = 0.83–0.92, TSM (0.1–130 g∙m−3; R = 0.90–0.96 and CDOM (0.003–0.125 aCDOM(440; R = 0.80–0.97. Fluorescence emission at 685 nm is shown through tank measurements to display robust but distinct relationships with chla concentration for the two cultured algae species investigated (cyanobacteria, Cylindrospermopsis raciborskii, and chlorophyta, Scenedesmus armatus. The ratio between fluorescence emissions measured at 650 nm, related to the phycocyanin fluorescence maximum, to that at 685 nm is demonstrated to effectively distinguish these two species. Validation through both laboratory measurements and field measurements confirmed that site specific calibration is necessary. This study presents the first known assessment and application of ship-mounted fluorescence LiDAR in freshwater lake conditions and demonstrates the use of UFL in measuring important water quality parameters despite the more complicated hydro-optic conditions of inland waters.

  20. Análise dos transientes da fluorescência da clorofila a de plantas jovens de Carapa guianensis e de Dipteryx odorata submetidas a dois ambientes de luz Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients of young plants of Carapa guianensis and Dipteryx odorata submitted to two light environments

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    José Francisco de Carvalho Gonçalves

    2010-03-01

    odorata (Aublet Willd exposed to two light environments (shade and sunlight. The experiment was carried in Manaus-AM, Brazil (3º8'S, 59º52'W. Analysis of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients were obtained in intact and healthy leaves between 10:00 to 12:00 am. The curve OJIP indicated that the species high irradiance exposed presented photoinhibition after 45 days of experiment. Andiroba and cumaru plants exposed to sunlight exhibited low values of TRo/ABS (7.17 and 20.4%, respectively, ETo/TRo (14.5 and 27.2%, respectively and ETo/ABS (20.6 and 42.2%, respectively and high values of DIo/ABS (26.9 and 43.0%, respectively, compared with plants exposed to the shadow with 45 days of experiment. As for phenomenological flux, most of the parameters, low values were observed for both exposed species in the sunlight. Andiroba and cumaru plants exposed in the sunlight exhibited low values of PIABS (63.3 and 78.7%, respectively compared with exposed plants to the shadow at the end of the experiment. Although the species have suffered with the stress for high irradiance andiroba specie presented better performance than cumaru being indicated for use in production planting or degraded area restoration.

  1. Probing of chlorophyll a with pulsed tunable laser

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Probing with a tunable pulsed dye laser of a solution of chlorophyll a in pyridine is reported. Transmission studies at fixed wavelengths as function of laser intensity reveal that various levels within the singlet and triplet system become populated and the life-time of these excited states is determined. Fluorescence in the blue part of the electromagnetic spectrum is recorded and the spectrum is induced as a result of the consecutive absorption of two red photons. Using time resolved spectroscopical detection methods, the fluorescence spectra of dimers, free from interference of that due to the monomer, are recorded. (orig.)

  2. Seasonal changes of photosynthetic assimilation and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters of Norway spruce under the impact of enhanced UV-B radiation

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šprtová, Miroslava; Marek, Michal V.

    Ljubljana: The Slovenian forestry institute a littera picta d.o.o., Lubljana, 1999 - (Žitnik, S.; Bogotaj, B.), s. 32-32 ISBN 961-90316-4-4. [Root-soil interactions in trees. Gozd Martuljek (SI), 09.09.1999-13.09.1999] Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour

  3. Chlorophyll 'a' particulate organic carbon and suspended load from the mangrove areas of Cochin backwaters

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sheeba, P.; Devi, K.S.; Balasubramanian, T.; Sankaranarayanan, V.N.

    Chlorophyll 'a' Particulate Organic Carbon and suspended load were estimated for one year from two distinct mangrove areas of Cochin backwaters, viz. Puthuvypeen and Nettoor. Environmental parameters like tau degrees C, S ppt and pH were also...

  4. Spectral luminescence and photochemical properties of chlorophyll a in solution containing carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies were conducted on photophysical and photochemical processes in chlorophyll a in carbon tetrachloride and ether by means of flash photolysis, electron spin resonance, and fluorescence spectroscopy. Lifetimes and quenching of triplet states were analyzed and absorption spectra and fluorescence decay times are given. The kinetics of triplet-triplet absorption and hyperfine structure were determined. An absolute quantum yield of the photochemical reaction was measured within the range of linear dependence of the optical density on the time of chlorophyll a irradiation by a krypton laser and the excitation wavelength of 647.1 nm

  5. Chloroplastid pigment contents and chlorophyll a fluorescence in Amazonian tropical three species Concentração de pigmentos cloroplastídicos e fluorescência da clorofila a em espécies arbóreas tropicais da Amazônia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Ribeiro de Morais

    2007-10-01

    Full Text Available Plants react to changes in light and hydrological conditions in terms of quantity and composition of chloroplastidic pigments, which affects the photosynthetic properties and consequently the accumulation of plant biomass. Thus, the chloroplastidic pigment concentration and chlorophyll a fluorescence of three Amazonian species (Bertholletia excelsa, Carapa guianensis e Dipteryx odorata were investigated in sun and shade leaves form the tree crown collected during two distinct periods of precipitation (dry and rainy seasons. Pigment contents were determined by spectrophotometry and fluorescence variables were determined using a portable fluorometer. The results demonstrated that the species showed high concentrations of Chl a, Chl b e Chl total during the wet season in relation to the dry season, especially in shade leaves. A higher concentration of carotenoids was found in B. excelsa, when compared with leaves of C. guianensis and D. odorata. In leaves of B. excelsa and D. odorata no significant difference was found in relation to the photochemistry of photosystem II (Fv/Fm between the wet and dry seasons. In conclusion, the three species react differently to variations in the light and precipitation conditions regarding light capture, aspects that might be considered in the management of forest plantations.As plantas respondem a mudanças nas condições de luz e na disponibilidade hídrica em termos da quantidade e composição dos pigmentos cloroplastídicos, o que afeta as propriedades fotossintéticas e, conseqüentemente, o acúmulo de biomassa das espécies. Assim, a concentração de pigmentos cloroplastídicos e a fluorescência da clorofila a de três espécies arbóreas (Bertholletia excelsa, Carapa guianensis e Dipteryx odorata da Amazônia foi investigada em folhas sombreadas e não-sombreadas da copa das árvores e em dois períodos distintos de precipitação (chuvoso e seco. As concentrações de pigmentos foram determinadas por

  6. The chlorophyll a fluorescence induction curve in the green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis: further insight into the nature of the P-S-M fluctuation and its relationship with the "low-wave" phenomenon at steady-state.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fratamico, Anthony; Tocquin, Pierre; Franck, Fabrice

    2016-06-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence is an information-rich signal which provides an access to the management of light absorbed by PSII. A good example of this is the succession of fast fluorescence fluctuations during light-induced photosynthetic induction after dark-adaptation. During this period, the fluorescence trace exhibits several inflexion points: O-J-I-P-S-M-T. Whereas the OJIP part of this kinetics has been the subject of many studies, the processes that underly the PSMT transient are less understood. Here, we report an analysis of the PSMT phase in the green microalga Haematococcus pluvialis in terms of electron acceptors and light use by photochemistry, fluorescence and non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). We identify additional sub-phases between P and S delimited by an inflexion point, that we name Q, found in the second time scale. The P-Q phase expresses a transient photochemical quenching specifically due to alternative electron transport to oxygen. During the transition from Q to S, the NPQ increases and then relaxes during the S-M phase in about 1 min. It is suggested that this transient NPQ observed during induction is a high energy state quenching (qE) dependent on the alternative electron transport to molecular oxygen. We further show that this NPQ is of the same nature than the NPQ, known as the low-wave phenomenon, which is transiently observed after a saturating light pulse given at steady-state. In both cases, the NPQ is oxygen-dependent. This NPQ is observed at external pH 6.0, but not at pH 7.5, which seems correlated with faster saturation of the PQ pool at pH 6.0. PMID:26980274

  7. Quantitative Estimation of Fluorescence Parameters for Crop Leaves with Bayesian Inversion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng Zhao

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In this study, backward and forward fluorescence radiance within the emission spectrum of 640–850 nm were measured for leaves of soybean, cotton, peanut and wheat using a hyperspectral spectroradiometer coupled with an integration sphere. Fluorescence parameters of crop leaves were retrieved from the leaf hyperspectral measurements by inverting the FluorMODleaf model, a leaf-level fluorescence model able to simulate chlorophyll fluorescence spectra for both sides of leaves. This model is based on the widely used and validated PROSPECT (leaf optical properties model. Firstly, a sensitivity analysis of the FluorMODleaf model was performed to identify and quantify influential parameters to assist the strategy for the inversion. Implementation of the Extended Fourier Amplitude Sensitivity Test (EFAST method showed that the leaf chlorophyll content and the fluorescence lifetimes of photosystem I (PSI and photosystem II (PSII were the most sensitive parameters among all eight inputs of the FluorMODleaf model. Based on results of sensitivity analysis, the FluorMODleaf model was inverted using the leaf fluorescence spectra measured from both sides of crop leaves. In order to achieve stable inversion results, the Bayesian inference theory was applied. The relative absorption cross section of PSI and PSII and the fluorescence lifetimes of PSI and PSII of the FluorMODleaf model were retrieved with the Bayesian inversion approach. Results showed that the coefficient of determination (R2 and root mean square error (RMSE between the fluorescence signal reconstructed from the inverted fluorescence parameters and measured in the experiment were 0.96 and 3.14 × 10−6 W·m−2·sr−1·nm−1, respectively, for backward fluorescence, and 0.92 and 3.84 × 10−6 W·m−2·sr−1·nm−1 for forward fluorescence. Based on results, the inverted values of the fluorescence parameters were analyzed, and the potential of this method was investigated.

  8. Analyzing the performance of fluorescence parameters in the monitoring of leaf nitrogen content of paddy rice

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Jian; Gong, Wei; Shi, Shuo; Du, Lin; Sun, Jia; Song, Shalei; Chen, Biwu; Zhang, Zhenbing

    2016-01-01

    Leaf nitrogen content (LNC) is a significant factor which can be utilized to monitor the status of paddy rice and it requires a reliable approach for fast and precise quantification. This investigation aims to quantitatively analyze the correlation between fluorescence parameters and LNC based on laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) technology. The fluorescence parameters exhibited a consistent positive linear correlation with LNC in different growing years (2014 and 2015) and different rice cultivars. The R2 of the models varied from 0.6978 to 0.9045. Support vector machine (SVM) was then utilized to verify the feasibility of the fluorescence parameters for monitoring LNC. Comparison of the fluorescence parameters indicated that F740 is the most sensitive (the R2 of linear regression analysis of the between predicted and measured values changed from 0.8475 to 0.9226, and REs ranged from 3.52% to 4.83%) to the changes in LNC among all fluorescence parameters. Experimental results demonstrated that fluorescence parameters based on LIF technology combined with SVM is a potential method for realizing real-time, non-destructive monitoring of paddy rice LNC, which can provide guidance for the decision-making of farmers in their N fertilization strategies. PMID:27350029

  9. 铜胁迫对苋菜叶片叶绿素a荧光诱导动力学的影响%Effects of Copper Stress on the Chlorophyll a Fluorescence Induction Kinetics of Amaranthus mangostanus L.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    林碧英; 谢秋梅; 林义章; 朱海生; 李永裕

    2011-01-01

    The effect of Cu-added nutrient fluid on the root of A rnaranthus mangostanus L. was investigated in this experiment. Also, the function changes of the photosystem Ⅱ (PS Ⅱ ) reaction center in A maranthus mangostanus L.,and the influences of copper in donor and acceptor sides of this system were investigated by the method of fluorescence induction kinetics. The results showed that copper stress inactivated the PS Ⅱ reaction center in the leaves of Amaranthus mangostanus L., decreased the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ (FV/FM), and damaged the acceptor side of PS Ⅱ seriously and inhibited the transfer of linear electrons, and also did harm to the oxygen evolving complexes (OEC) of the donor side of PS Ⅱ. It could be concluded that the damage of copper stress in Amaranthus mangostanus L. was begun from the donor and acceptor sides of PsⅡin leaves.%以苋菜(Amaranthus mangostanus L.)为材料,采用营养液中添加铜的培养方法,观测了根部生长变化:运用叶绿素荧光分析技术研究了铜胁迫下苋菜光系统Ⅱ(PSⅡ)反应中心结构和功能的变化以及PSⅡ反应中心供体侧和受体侧氧化还原状态的影响.结果表明:铜胁迫使苋菜根部生长受到抑制,叶片PSⅡ反应中心失活:最大光化学效率(FV/FM)下降;叶片PSⅡ受体侧产生严重的伤害,线性电子传递受阻;PSⅡ供体侧的放氧复合体(0EC)受损;铜胁迫对苋菜叶片PSⅡ的伤害从PSⅡ供体侧和受体侧开始.

  10. Quantitative estimation of the fluorescent parameters for crop leaves with the Bayesian inversion

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, the fluorescent parameters of crop leaves were retrieved from the leaf hyperspectral measurements by inverting the FluorMODleaf model, which is a leaf-level fluorescence model that is based on the widely used and validated PROSPECT (leaf optical properties) model and can simulate the ...

  11. GIS based spatial distribution of Temperature and Chlorophyll-a along Kalpakkam, southeast coast of India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthulakshmi.AL

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available This paper briefly describes the status of Temperature and Chlorophyll-a trend in Kalpakkam Coast, discusses its ecological and temperature impacts recommending measures to achieve long term sustainability using advanced tools like Geographic Information System (GIS. Present study reveals the monthly spatial distribution of Temperature and Chlorophyll-a at Kalpakkam. Transect based in-situ Temperature and Chlorophyll-a collected at 200m, 500m and 1 km distance into the sea was interpolated using the Inverse Distance Weightage (IDW method in ARC GIS. Data revealed the extent of spatial distribution of thermal effluent in Kalpakkam. It could be found that temperature range of 26.2 – 31.9°C provided substantial Chlorophyll-a concentration between 0.8 – 2.9 mg/m3 for surface and bottom waters. Further, increase of Chlorophyll-a levels did not lead to higher productivity. Combined temperature and chlorophyll a showed little synergistic effects. It is concluded that the effect of thermal discharge from the power plant into the receiving water body is quite localized and productivity of the coastal waters are not affected. From the results obtained, the spatial data has been found to be useful in determining zones of safe use of seawater and to understand the extent of relationship between the relatable parameters.

  12. Retrieval of aerosol parameters from the oxygen A band in the presence of chlorophyll fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. F. J. Sanders

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available We have investigated the precision of retrieved aerosol parameters for a generic aerosol retrieval algorithm over vegetated land using the O2 A band. Chlorophyll fluorescence is taken into account in the forward model. Fluorescence emissions are modeled as isotropic contributions to the upwelling radiance field at the surface and they are retrieved along with aerosol parameters. Precision is calculated by propagating measurement errors and a priori errors, including model parameter errors, using the forward model's derivatives. Measurement errors consist of noise and calibration errors. The model parameter errors considered are related to the single scattering albedo, surface pressure and temperature profile. We assume that measurement noise is dominated by shot noise; thus, results apply to grating spectrometers in particular. We describe precision for various atmospheric states, observation geometries and spectral resolutions of the instrument in a number of retrieval simulations. These precision levels can be compared with user requirements. A comparison of precision estimates with the literature and an analysis of the dependence on the a priori error in the fluorescence emission indicate that aerosol parameters can be retrieved in the presence of chlorophyll fluorescence: if fluorescence is present, fluorescence emissions should be included in the state vector to avoid biases in retrieved aerosol parameters.

  13. Retrieval of aerosol parameters from the oxygen A band in the presence of chlorophyll fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sanders, A. F. J.; de Haan, J. F.

    2013-10-01

    We have investigated the precision of retrieved aerosol parameters for a generic aerosol retrieval algorithm over vegetated land using the O2 A band. Chlorophyll fluorescence is taken into account in the forward model. Fluorescence emissions are modeled as isotropic contributions to the upwelling radiance field at the surface and they are retrieved along with aerosol parameters. Precision is calculated by propagating measurement errors and a priori errors, including model parameter errors, using the forward model's derivatives. Measurement errors consist of noise and calibration errors. The model parameter errors considered are related to the single scattering albedo, surface pressure and temperature profile. We assume that measurement noise is dominated by shot noise; thus, results apply to grating spectrometers in particular. We describe precision for various atmospheric states, observation geometries and spectral resolutions of the instrument in a number of retrieval simulations. These precision levels can be compared with user requirements. A comparison of precision estimates with the literature and an analysis of the dependence on the a priori error in the fluorescence emission indicate that aerosol parameters can be retrieved in the presence of chlorophyll fluorescence: if fluorescence is present, fluorescence emissions should be included in the state vector to avoid biases in retrieved aerosol parameters.

  14. Validation of MODIS FLH and In Situ Chlorophyll a from Tampa Bay, Florida (USA)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andrew; MorenoMadrinan, Max J.

    2012-01-01

    Satellite observation of phytoplankton concentration or chlorophyll-a (chla) is an important characteristic, critically integral to monitoring coastal water quality. However, the optical properties of estuarine and coastal waters are highly variable and complex and pose a great challenge for accurate analysis. Constituents such as suspended solids and dissolved organic matter and the overlapping and uncorrelated absorptions in the blue region of the spectrum renders the blue-green ratio algorithms for estimating chl-a inaccurate. Measurement of suninduced chlorophyll fluorescence, on the other hand, which utilizes the near infrared portion of the electromagnetic spectrum may, provide a better estimate of phytoplankton concentrations. While modelling and laboratory studies have illustrated both the utility and limitations of satellite algorithms based on the sun induced chlorophyll fluorescence signal, few have examined the empirical validity of these algorithms or compared their accuracy against bluegreen ratio algorithms . In an unprecedented analysis using a long term (2003-2011) in situ monitoring data set from Tampa Bay, Florida (USA), we assess the validity of the FLH product from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer against a suite of water quality parameters taken in a variety of conditions throughout this large optically complex estuarine system. . Overall, the results show a 106% increase in the validity of chla concentration estimation using FLH over the standard chla estimate from the blue-green OC3M algorithm. Additionally, a systematic analysis of sampling sites throughout the bay is undertaken to understand how the FLH product responds to varying conditions in the estuary and correlations are conducted to see how the relationships between satellite FLH and in situ chlorophyll-a change with depth, distance from shore, from structures like bridges, and nutrient concentrations and turbidity. Such analysis illustrates that the correlations between

  15. Effects of ambient versus reduced UV-B radiation on high arctic ¤Salix arctica¤ assessed by measurements and calculations of chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters from fluorescence transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albert, K.R.; Mikkelsen, Teis Nørgaard; Ro-Poulsen, H.

    2005-01-01

    A UV-B exclusion-experiment was conducted in the high Arctic Zackenberg, NE Greenland, in which Salix arctica leaves during most of the growing season were fixed perpendicular to the solar zenith angle, thereby receiving maximal solar radiation. Covered with Teflon and Mylar foil, the leaves...

  16. Measurement of chlorophyll a fluorescence with an airborne fluorosensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jarrett, O., Jr.; Brown, C. A., Jr.; Campbell, J. W.; Houghton, W. M.; Poole, L. R.

    1979-01-01

    Phytoplankton biomass and diversity among various algal species are important for marine productivity assessments. The spatial heterogeneity of phytoplankton in coastal and estuarine environments complicates estimates of total biomass using conventional surface sampling techniques. Since synoptic or near-synoptic data can be quite useful in these studies, this area is a natural focal point for development of remote sensors. However, it is very difficult to sense phytoplankton density and diversity with spacecraft-borne passive sensors primarily because modulation in the signal due to phytoplankton is of the same order as that of atmospheric effects. The same sensors mounted on aircraft may be able to detect and quantify high concentrations of phytoplankton (blooms), but the current lack of knowledge about the spectral reflectance signatures of the major phytoplankton color groups rules out any diversity measurements by this type of sensor. An active fluorosensor mounted on a low-flying aircraft or helicopter is not limited by any of these constraints. A brief survey of the four currently active systems is presented.

  17. Chlorophyll a + b content and chlorophyll fluorescence in avocado

    Science.gov (United States)

    One Tonnage (T) and one Simmonds (S) avocado tree and four TxS crosses were evaluated for differences in chlorophyll content and maximal quantum yield of photosystem II in sun and shade-type leaves. Total chlorophyll content by area (Chl a+bar) ranged from 981 mg m-2 in TxS240 to 4339 mg m-2 in Simm...

  18. Time-resolved interaction investigations of carbocyanine dyes and chlorophyll a in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Using a Nd:YAG laser/streak camera system of 30 ps time resolution the quenching of the fluorescence of the carbocyanine dye ICC by chlorophyll a in methanolic solution was investigated. The fluorescence lifetime of ICC decreased within the chlorophyll concentration range 0 - 9x10-5 mol/l from 170 ps to 135 ps. The observed very effective fluorescence quenching process suggests that the formation of heteroaggregates from ICC and chlorophyll is responsible for the rapid energy transfer. (author)

  19. Photogeneration of charges in microcrystalline chlorophyll a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electric-field and temperature dependence of hole photogeneration in chlorophyll a (Chla) have been analyzed in terms of electric-field assisted thermal dissociation of charge pairs based on Onsager theory. An excellent agreement between the experimental and theoretical values of the slope-to-intercept ratio, S/I, for the plot of photogeneration efficiency vs. electric field at low field strengths provides a proof for the applicability of the Onsager approach to the photogeneration of charges in Chla. A value of 19 nm has been obtained for Coulomb capture radius, rc, from S/I. From the temperature dependence of photogeneration, the initial separation, r0, of photogenerated electron-hole has been evaluated, and has a value of 1.24 nm. This smaller r0 compared to rc leads to a feeble dissociation probability of electron-hole pairs into free carriers, and may, among other factors, explain the low power conversion efficiencies of Chla photovoltaic cells.

  20. Optimization of tube parameters in a tube excited X-ray fluorescence (TEXRF) system using secondary fluorescers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A study of the optimization of excitation parameters in a tube excited X-ray fluorescence system (TEXRF) having Mo as the primary target has been carried out for biological matrix. Fe, Zn and Mo were used as the secondary fluorecers. For the present investigation a cellulose based synthetic standard containing K, Cr, Ni, Zn, Se and Y was excited with the TEXRF system. All experiments were carried out under the same experimental conditions except the tube potential. For each fluorescer the minimum detection limits (MDL) of excited elements were calculated for the corresponding tube voltage. The MDLs were found to be increasing with decreasing atomic number and it was also observed that the maximum sensitivity with Fe and Zn secondary fluorescers for elements analyzed occurred around 35 kV of the excitation potential. For Mo secondary fluorescer maximum sensitivity was found at higher excitation potential. In most cases MDLs were minimum at 40-45 kV of the excitation potential. 5 refs., 12 figs

  1. Validation of photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters as biomarkers for isoproturon toxic effect on alga Scenedesmus obliquus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters were investigated to be used as valid biomarkers of toxicity when alga Scenedesmus obliquus was exposed to isoproturon [3-(4-isopropylphenyl)-1,1-dimethylurea] effect. Chlorophyll fluorescence induction of algal cells treated with isoproturon showed inactivation of photosystem II (PSII) reaction centers and strong inhibition of PSII electron transport. A linear correlation was found (R2 ≥ 0.861) between the change of cells density affected by isoproturon and the change of effective PSII quantum yield (ΦM'), photochemical quenching (qP) and relative photochemical quenching (qP(rel)) values. The cells density was also linearly dependent (R2 = 0.838) on the relative unquenched fluorescence parameter (UQF(rel)). Non-linear correlation was found (R2 = 0.937) only between cells density and the energy transfer efficiency from absorbed light to PSII reaction center (ABS/RC). The order of sensitivity determined by the EC-50% was: UQF(rel) > ΦM' > qP > qP(rel) > ABS/RC. Correlations between cells density and those photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters provide supporting evidence to use them as biomarkers of toxicity for environmental pollutants. - Photosynthetic-fluorescence parameters are reliable biomarkers of isoproturon toxicity

  2. Assessment of remotely sensed chlorophyll-a concentration in Guanabara Bay, Brazil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oliveira, Eduardo N.; Fernandes, Alexandre M.; Kampel, Milton; Cordeiro, Renato C.; Brandini, Nilva; Vinzon, Susana B.; Grassi, Renata M.; Pinto, Fernando N.; Fillipo, Alessandro M.; Paranhos, Rodolfo

    2016-04-01

    The Guanabara Bay (GB) is an estuarine system in the metropolitan region of Rio de Janeiro (Brazil), with a surface area of ˜346 km2 threatened by anthropogenic pressure. Remote sensing can provide frequent data for studies and monitoring of water quality parameters, such as chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a). Different combination of Medium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) remote sensing reflectance band ratios were used to estimate Chl-a. Standard algorithms such as Ocean Color 3-band, Ocean Color-4 band, fluorescence line height, and maximum chlorophyll index were also tested. The MERIS Chl-a estimates were statistically compared with a dataset of in situ Chl-a (2002 to 2012). Good correlations were obtained with the use of green, red, and near-infrared bands. The best performing algorithm was based on the red (665 nm) and green (560 nm) band ratio, named "RG3" algorithm (r2=0.71, chl-a=62,565*x1.6118). The RG3 was applied to a time series of MERIS images (2003- to 2012). The GB has a high temporal and spatial variability of Chl-a, with highest values found in the wet season (October to March) and in some of the most internal regions of the estuary. Lowest concentrations are found in the central circulation channel due to the flushing of ocean water masses promoted by pumping tide.

  3. Photogeneration of charges in microcrystalline chlorophyll a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kassi, Hassan [Scientech R and D, Inc., 2200 Rue Didbec S., Bureau 203, Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, QC, G8Z 4H1 (Canada); Barazzouk, Said, E-mail: barazzos@uqtr.c [Groupe de Recherche en Biologie Vegetale, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, QC, G9A 5H7 (Canada); Brullemans, Marc [Groupe de Recherche en Biologie Vegetale, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, QC, G9A 5H7 (Canada); Leblanc, Roger M. [Department of Chemistry, University of Miami, P.O. Box 249118, Coral Gables, FL 33124-0431 (United States); Hotchandani, Surat [Groupe de Recherche en Biologie Vegetale, Universite du Quebec a Trois-Rivieres, Trois-Rivieres, QC, G9A 5H7 (Canada)

    2010-07-01

    The electric-field and temperature dependence of hole photogeneration in chlorophyll a (Chla) have been analyzed in terms of electric-field assisted thermal dissociation of charge pairs based on Onsager theory. An excellent agreement between the experimental and theoretical values of the slope-to-intercept ratio, S/I, for the plot of photogeneration efficiency vs. electric field at low field strengths provides a proof for the applicability of the Onsager approach to the photogeneration of charges in Chla. A value of 19 nm has been obtained for Coulomb capture radius, r{sub c}, from S/I. From the temperature dependence of photogeneration, the initial separation, r{sub 0}, of photogenerated electron-hole has been evaluated, and has a value of 1.24 nm. This smaller r{sub 0} compared to r{sub c} leads to a feeble dissociation probability of electron-hole pairs into free carriers, and may, among other factors, explain the low power conversion efficiencies of Chla photovoltaic cells.

  4. Statistical characteristics of chlorophyll-a concentration in Hong Kong′s coastal waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    In this paper seven of the ten Water Control Zones (WCZs) in Hong Kong′s coastal waters with monthly or bi-weekly sampling data of 17 parameters collected at 37 monitoring stations from 1988 to 1999 were selected to analyze the spatial and temporal variations of chlorophyll-a and its influencing factors. Cluster analysis was employed to group the monitoring stations based on the structure of the data set. Multiple step regression was employed to determine the significant influencing factors of chlorophyll-a level. The results suggest that all the monitoring stations could be grouped into two clusters. Cluster I with frequent red tide incidents comprises two WCZs which aresemi-enclosed bays. Cluster II with less red tide occurrence comprises the other five WCZs in an estuarine environment in the west. For both clusters, the organic contents indicator, BOD5, was a common significant influencing factor of the chlorophyll-a level. Nitrogen and light penetration condition related to turbidity, total volatile solids and suspended solids had more influence on the cholophyll-a level in Cluster I than in Cluster II, while phosphorus and oceanographic conditions associated with salinity, temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH were more important in Cluster II than in Cluster 1. Generally, there was a higher average chlorophyll-a level in winter and autumn in a year.The chlorophyll-a level was much higher in Cluster I than in Cluster II among all seasons. Although the chlorophyll-a concentration had great variations from place to place in Hong Kong′s coastal waters, it seemed to have a common long term fluctuation period of 8-10 years with a high-low-high variation in the period in the whole region, which might be influenced by other factors of global scale.

  5. Photosynthetic activity, chlorophyll-fluorescence parameters and pigment content of differently damaged spruces at the Schoellkopf (Northern Black Forest). Photosyntheseaktivitaet, Chlorophyllfluoreszenzparameter und Pigmentgehalt unterschiedlich geschaedigter Fichten am Schoellkopf (Nordschwarzwald)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lichtenthaler, H.K.; Rinderle, U.; Burkart, S.; Hak, R. (Karlsruhe Univ. (T.H.) (Germany, F.R.). Botanisches Inst. 2)

    1990-04-01

    At the new PEF-site Schoellkopf (840 m above see level) various physiological parameters were determined from one relatively healthy (tree No. 13) and two differently damaged spruces (tree No. 17 and 2): The netto assimilation rate P{sub N} (on a needle area and a chlorophyl basis), respiration, transpiration and stomata conductivity (gH{sub 2}O), the content of photosynthetic pigments (chlorophyll a+b, carotenoids x+c), the pigment ratios (a/b; a+b/x+c) and various parameters of the in vivo chlorophyll fluorescence (Rfd-values at 690 and 730 nm, the fluorescence ratio F690/F730; quenching-coefficients qP and qNP, the ratio Fm/Fo and Fv/Fm). Stress and damage are preferentially indicated by lower values of the chlorophyll content, the pigment ratio a+b/x+c, the assimilation rate P{sub N} and the hight of the saturation pulse spikes (g-h) as well as increased values of the coefficient qNP and the fluorescence ratio F690/F730. The differential dynamics of the chlorophyll content and the photosynthetic activity between the needles of 'healthy' and damaged spruces during the year 1989 (4 sampling dates) are presented. (orig.).

  6. Optimal parameters for near infrared fluorescence imaging of amyloid plaques in Alzheimer's disease mouse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Amyloid-β plaques are an Alzheimer's disease biomarker which present unique challenges for near-infrared fluorescence tomography because of size (<50 μm diameter) and distribution. We used high-resolution simulations of fluorescence in a digital Alzheimer's disease mouse model to investigate the optimal fluorophore and imaging parameters for near-infrared fluorescence tomography of amyloid plaques. Fluorescence was simulated for amyloid-targeted probes with emission at 630 and 800 nm, plaque-to-background ratios from 1-1000, amyloid burden from 0-10%, and for transmission and reflection measurement geometries. Fluorophores with high plaque-to-background contrast ratios and 800 nm emission performed significantly better than current amyloid imaging probes. We tested idealized fluorophores in transmission and full-angle tomographic measurement schemes (900 source-detector pairs), with and without anatomical priors. Transmission reconstructions demonstrated strong linear correlation with increasing amyloid burden, but underestimated fluorescence yield and suffered from localization artifacts. Full-angle measurements did not improve upon the transmission reconstruction qualitatively or in semi-quantitative measures of accuracy; anatomical and initial-value priors did improve reconstruction localization and accuracy for both transmission and full-angle schemes. Region-based reconstructions, in which the unknowns were reduced to a few distinct anatomical regions, produced highly accurate yield estimates for cortex, hippocampus and brain regions, even with a reduced number of measurements (144 source-detector pairs).

  7. Ratiometric fluorescence polarization as a cytometric functional parameter: theory and practice

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yishai, Yitzhak; Fixler, Dror; Cohen-Kashi, Meir; Zurgil, Naomi; Deutsch, Mordechai [The Biophysical Interdisciplinary Jerome Schottenstein Center for the Research and the Technology of the Cellome, Department of Physics, Bar-Ilan University, Ramat-Gan 52900 (Israel)

    2003-08-07

    The use of ratiometric fluorescence polarization (RFP) as a functional parameter in monitoring cellular activation is suggested, based on the physical phenomenon of fluorescence polarization dependency on emission wavelengths in multiple (at least binary) solutions. The theoretical basis of this dependency is thoroughly discussed and examined via simulation. For simulation, aimed to imitate a fluorophore-stained cell, real values of the fluorescence spectrum and polarization of different single fluorophore solutions were used. The simulation as well as the experimentally obtained values of RFP indicated the high sensitivity of this measure. Finally, the RFP parameter was utilized as a cytometric measure in three exemplary cellular bioassays. In the first, the apoptotic effect of oxLDL in a human Jurkat FDA-stained T cell line was monitored by RFP. In the second, the interaction between cell surface membrane receptors of human T lymphocyte cells was monitored by RFP measurements as a complementary means to the fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) technique. In the third bioassay, cellular thiol level of FDA- and CMFDA-labelled Jurkat T cells was monitored via RFP.

  8. CHANGES IN CHLOROPHYLL A FLOURESCENCE AND PIGMENT RATIOS DURING DIFFERENT GROWTH PHASES OF A UNICELLULAR MARINE CHAETOCEROS (BACILLAROPHYCEAE) IN BATCH CULTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Interpretations of chlorophyll a fluorescence data are based largely on application with green algae and higher plants. This study evaluated the interpretation of fluorescence data for a unicellular marine diatom. Chaetoceros sp. was grown in 4-liter batch cultures on a 16:8, L:D...

  9. Relationship between chlorophyll-a and column primary production

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dalal, S.G.; Bhargava, R.M.S.

    Relationship between surface chlorophyll a and column primary production has been established to help in estimating the latter more quickly and accurately. The equation derived is Primary Production, y = 0.54 Ln Chl a - 0.6. The relationship...

  10. Remote sensing of tidal chlorophyll-a variations in estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catts, Glenn P.; Khorram, Siamak; Cloern, James E.; Knight, Allen W.; Degloria, Stephen D.

    1985-01-01

    Simultaneous acquisition of surface chlorophyll-a concentrations for 39 samples from boats and Daedalus 1260 Multispectral Scanner data from a U-2 aircraft was conducted in the northern reaches of San Francisco Bay on 28 August 1980. These data were used to develop regression models for predicting surface chlorophyll-a concentrations over the study area for ebb-tide (8.40 a.m. P.D.T. (Pacific Daylight Time)) and flood-tide (3.10 p.m. P.D.T.) conditions. After selection of a single ‘best fitting’ model for both morning and afternoon data sets, the chlorophyll-a concentration was predicted for ebb and flood tide for the entire study area at approximately 40m × 40m resolution. The predicted spatial display of chlorophyll-a revealed a localized area of high phytoplankton biomass that has been inferred from field surveys and appears to be a common summer phenomenon.

  11. Behavior of Sethoxydim Alone or in Combination with Turnip Oils on Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hossein HAMMAMI

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Sethoxydim is an acetyl-coenzyme A carboxylase (ACCase inhibitor that changed the shape of the chlorophyll fluorescence curve (kautsky curve in wild oat (Avena ludoviciana Durieu. in greenhouse experiment. This experiment was conducted as completely randomized factorial design with three replications at the College of Agriculture, Ferdowsi University of Mashhad, Iran, during 2012. Results of this study revealed that sethoxydim only and plus emulsifiable turnip oil changed the shape of the chlorophyll fluorescence curve (kautsky curve 7 days after spraying. Sethoxydim plus emulsifiable turnip oil changed the shape of the kautsky curve more than for sethoxydim only. We found that in our study the fv/fm (maximum quantum efficiency was closely linked to the fresh and dry weight dose-response. Sethoxydim plus emulsifiable turnip oil proved more rapidly effect on fv/fm in comparison with sethoxydim only. The fresh and dry weight dose-response relationship with fv/fm showed a similar behavior. This study revealed a good relation between fresh and dry weight according with values of 28 DAS and fv/fm 7 DAS. In general, the findings of this study revealed that Fv/Fm is a good parameter for evaluating effect of sethoxydim little time after spraying. Also, this research showed that 4 folds more time for classical screening methods comparing to chlorophyll fluorescence method. Thereupon, classical screening methods may be replaced by chlorophyll fluorescence method in future.

  12. Distribution patterns of bacterioplankton and chlorophyll-a in the German Wadden Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poremba, K.; Tillmann, U.; Hesse, K.-J.

    1999-08-01

    In a first synoptic evaluation, the temporal and spatial distribution of bacterioplankton and chlorophyll-a were determined in the German Wadden Sea. Three surveys were undertaken in winter, spring, and summer of 1994 using up to eight ships simultaneously between the river Ems and Sylt island. Despite intensive hydrodynamic mixing of the Wadden Sea water, spatial gradients were obvious. The abundance of bacterioplankton ranged from 0.4 to 26×105 ml-1 and chlorophyll-a varied between <0.1 and 79 µg l-1. In winter, relatively homogeneous distribution patterns of both parameters with small gradients were found. Highest chlorophyll-a values connected with a highly patchy structure were observed in spring, while in summer both total chlorophyll-a values and the complexity of the distribution pattern had decreased. In contrast, bacterial numbers increased steadily from January to July with the highest bacterial densities and greatest patchiness observed in summer. Moreover, in some regions of the Wadden Sea, a trophic succession of algae as carbon producers and bacteria as consumers was evident. Correlation analysis verified the relationship between bacteria and chlorophyll a, indicating bottom-up control of bacterial abundance in the northern part of the German Wadden Sea. Since the observed regression slope is remarkably low (0.12-0.46) compared to literature values (0.5-0.8), we suggest that the link between phytoplankton and bacteria found here is a special characteristic of the Wadden Sea as a transition zone between the coastal region and the outer North Sea.

  13. Variation of phytoplankton biomass as Chlorophyll a in Banglang Reservoir, Yala Province

    OpenAIRE

    Reungchai Tansakul; Pimpan Tansakul; Chalinda Ariyadej1

    2008-01-01

    Environmental variables and phytoplankton biomass as chlorophyll a in Banglang Reservoir were investigated. Phytoplankton were collected monthly from May 2000 to April 2001 from four sampling sites including the inflow from Pattani River (from Betong District), the inflow site from Balahala Forest, the middle of the reservoir, and at the spillway that helds the water before drain. Samples were taken at three levels: water surface,10 meter, and 30 meter depth. Physicochemical parameters were r...

  14. Photophysical parameters and fluorescence quenching of 7-diethylaminocoumarin (DEAC) laser dye

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Mossalamy, E. H.; Obaid, A. Y.; El-Daly, S. A.

    2011-10-01

    The optical properties including electronic absorption spectrum, emission spectrum, fluorescence quantum yield, and dipole moment of electronic transition of 7-diethylaminocoumarin (DEAC) laser dye have been measured in different solvents. Both electronic absorption and fluorescence spectra are red shifted as the polarity of the medium increases, indicating that the dipole moment of molecule increases on excitation. The fluorescence quantum yield of DEAC decreases as the polarity of solvent increases, a result of the role of solvent polarity in stabilization of the twisting of the intramolecular charge transfer (TICT) in excited state, which is a non-emissive state, as well as hydrogen bonding with the hetero-atom of dye. The emission spectrum of DEAC has also been measured in cationic (CTAC) and anionic (SDS) micelles, the intensity increases as the concentration of surfactant increases, and an abrupt change in emission intensity is observed at critical micelle concentration (CMC) of surfactant. 2×10 -3 mol dm -3 of DEAC gives laser emission in the blue region on pumping with nitrogen laser ( λex=337.1 nm). The laser parameters such as tuning range, gain coefficient ( α), emission cross section ( σe), and half-life energy have been calculated in different solvents, namely acetone, dioxane , ethanol, and dimethyforamide (DMF). The photoreactivity of DEAC has been studied in CCl 4 at a wavelength of 366 nm. The values of photochemical yield ( ϕc) and rate constant ( k) are determined. The interaction of organic acceptors such as picric acid (PA), tetracyanoethylene (TCNE), and 7,7,8,8-tetracynoquinonedimethane (TCNQ) with DEAC is also studied using fluorescence measurements in acetonitrile (CH 3CN); from fluorescence quenching study we assume the possible electron transfer from excited donor DEAC to organic acceptor forming non-emissive exciplex.

  15. The Effect of Field Dodder (Cuscuta campestris Yunck. on Morphological and Fluorescence Parameters of Giant Ragweed (Ambrosia trifida L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sava Vrbničanin

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The effect of the parasitic flowering plant known as field dodder (Cuscuta campestrisYunck. on morphological and fluorescence parameters of infested giant ragweed(Ambrosia trifida L. plants was examined under controlled conditions. The parameters ofchlorophyll fluorescence (Fo, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII, Fv, Fm, ETR and IF were measured on infested (Iand non-infested (N A. trifida plants over a period of seven days, beginning with the day ofinfestation. Morphological parameters (plant height, dry and fresh weight were measuredon the last day of fluorescence measurements. C. campestris was found to affect the height,fresh and dry weight of the infested A. trifida plants, causing significant reduction in plantheight and dry weight. Field dodder also affected several parameters of chlorophyll fluorescence(Fo, Fv/Fm, ΦPSII and Fv in infested A. trifida plants.

  16. Influence of Geometrical Parameters of Fluorescent Lamps on Their Electrical and Lighting Characteristics at Gradual Change of Voltage Supply Frequency

    OpenAIRE

    Tarasenko, N; K. Kozak

    2014-01-01

    The paper considers an influence of geometrical parameters of discharge tubes (diameter and length) on electrical and lighting characteristics of fluorescent lamps at a gradual continuous change in voltage supply frequency.

  17. Development of laser induced fluorescence diagnostic for measuring the parameters of plasma containing rare gas species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser induced fluorescence (LIF) technique development activity for measurement of plasma parameters in ITER divertor plasma is described. Helium density is the task of priority, but Doppler measurement of ion (atom) temperatures is also the aim of the program. The concept of ITER scenarios includes injection of ''extrinsic'' impurities (Ne, Ar, and Kr). It is possible to use the species as tracing elements for measurement of Ti, Ta. The program included modeling experiments on PNX-U (a multicusp trap with microwave argon plasma). Helium was added by puffing into discharge. Temperatures Ti(Ar1+) and Ta(He0) have been measured by scanning laser line across absorption line of species. Summarizing of fluorescence signals provided input data for estimation of Ar1+ and He0 densities via interpretative collisional-radiative models. Besides, the collisional-radiative model has been used for estimation of electron density using the ratio of fluorescence signals at 388.9 and 706.5 nm helium lines.

  18. Modeling of estuarne chlorophyll a from an airborne scanner

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khorram, Siamak; Catts, Glenn P.; Cloern, James E.; Knight, Allen W.

    1987-01-01

    Near simultaneous collection of 34 surface water samples and airborne multispectral scanner data provided input for regression models developed to predict surface concentrations of estuarine chlorophyll a. Two wavelength ratios were employed in model development. The ratios werechosen to capitalize on the spectral characteristics of chlorophyll a, while minimizing atmospheric influences. Models were then applied to data previously acquired over the study area thre years earlier. Results are in the form of color-coded displays of predicted chlorophyll a concentrations and comparisons of the agreement among measured surface samples and predictions basedon coincident remotely sensed data. The influence of large variations in fresh-water inflow to the estuary are clearly apparent in the results. The synoptic view provided by remote sensing is another method of examining important estuarine dynamics difficult to observe from in situ sampling alone.

  19. Phytoplankton carbon biomass and specific growth rates determined with the labeled chlorophyll a technique

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The labeled chlorophyll a technique, based on the incorporation of H14CO-3 into chlorophyll a (chl a) gives accurate determinations of both phytoplankton carbon biomass (Csub(p)) and specific growth rate (μ). Csub(P) and μ, derived from the labeled chl a method, exhibited a diel periodicity and the mean μ over 24 h compared well with the dilution rate for an oceanic microflagellate in NH+sub(4-) limited continuous culture. The specific activity of carbon in Csub(P) (Rsup(*)sub(CP)) and in chl a (Rsup(*)sub(chl) sub(a)) were equal after only 2 h and remained the same through 24 h. This supports the main assumption of the technique that within a useful time scale, the specific activities are equal. Values of Csub(P) and phytoplankton POC measured with a CHN analyser were the same for the microflagellate in continuous culture. Estimates of phytoplankton carbon derived from several indirect methods were either greater than (methods based on measurement of adenosine triphosphate and microscopic examination of cell counts and volumes) or less than (methods based on measurement of particulate organic carbon and chlorophyll a concentrations) values determined with the labeled chl a technique. Time course 14C incubations indicate that both Csub(P) and μ exhibit diel variability through 24 h in the fluorescence maximum layer and overlying water column in the Southern California Bight. Phytoplankton populations in the fluorescence maximum layer grew with generation times of 2 to 3 d, while generation times in the water column above averaged less than 1 d. (orig.)

  20. Measuring chlorophyll a and 14C-labeled photosynthate in aquatic angiosperms by the use of a tissue solubilizer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A compound that quantitatively correlated with chlorophyll a could be measured fluorometrically in the extracts of leaves of three aquatic angiosperms (Myriophyllum heterophyllum Michx., Potamogeton crispus L., Elodea canadensis Michx.) treated with the tissue solubilizer BTS-450. Fluorescent characteristics of the solubilized plant tissues were stable for several weeks in the dark at temperatures up to 600C but rapidly degraded in sunlight or when acidified. 14C-Labeled photosynthate, which had been fixed by leaf discs during 1- to 10-hour exposure to H14CO3, was also readily extracted by the tissue solubilizer. Solubilizer extraction can, therefore, be use to determine both chlorophyll a content and 14C incorporation rates in the same leaf sample. The method is practical, because no grinding is required, the fluorescent characteristics of the extracts are stable, and analyses can be performed with very little plant material

  1. L shell X-ray fluorescence parameters of Pb in phthalocyanine complexes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The L shell X-ray intensity ratios Li/Lα (i=l, β and γ), the production cross-sections σLi (i=l, α, β and γ) and the L3 subshell fluorescence yields ωL3 have been investigated for the element Pb in the phthalocyanine complexes. The measurements have been performed using an 241Am annular radioactive source and an Ultra-LEGe detector with a resolution of 150 eV at 5.9 keV. The experimental values have been compared with the theoretical values of pure Pb element. - Highlights: • The L shell XRF parameters of Pb in the phthalocyanine complexes were investigated. • These parameters were obtained using EDXRF method. • The results are agreement with the theoretical values

  2. Direct reconstruction of pharmacokinetic parameters in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography by the augmented Lagrangian method

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Dianwen; Zhang, Wei; Zhao, Yue; Li, Changqing

    2016-03-01

    Dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) has the potential to quantify physiological or biochemical information, known as pharmacokinetic parameters, which are important for cancer detection, drug development and delivery etc. To image those parameters, there are indirect methods, which are easier to implement but tend to provide images with low signal-to-noise ratio, and direct methods, which model all the measurement noises together and are statistically more efficient. The direct reconstruction methods in dynamic FMT have attracted a lot of attention recently. However, the coupling of tomographic image reconstruction and nonlinearity of kinetic parameter estimation due to the compartment modeling has imposed a huge computational burden to the direct reconstruction of the kinetic parameters. In this paper, we propose to take advantage of both the direct and indirect reconstruction ideas through a variable splitting strategy under the augmented Lagrangian framework. Each iteration of the direct reconstruction is split into two steps: the dynamic FMT image reconstruction and the node-wise nonlinear least squares fitting of the pharmacokinetic parameter images. Through numerical simulation studies, we have found that the proposed algorithm can achieve good reconstruction results within a small amount of time. This will be the first step for a combined dynamic PET and FMT imaging in the future.

  3. Prediction of chlorophyll-a concentration by HJ-1 satellite imagery for Xiangxi Bay in Three Gorges Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dong-xing FAN

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Since the impoundment of the Three Gorges Reservoir in 2003, algal blooms have frequently been observed in it. The chlorophyll a concentration is an important parameter for evaluating algal blooms. In this study, the chlorophyll a concentration in Xiangxi Bay, in the Three Gorges Reservoir, was predicted using HJ-1 satellite imagery. Several models were established based on a correlation analysis between in situ measurements of the chlorophyll a concentration and the values obtained from satellite images of the study area from January 2010 to December 2011. Chlorophyll a concentrations in Xiangxi Bay were predicted based on the established models. The results show that the maximum correlation is between the reflectance of the band combination of B4/(B2+B3 and in situ measurements of chlorophyll a concentration. The root mean square errors of the predicted values using the linear and quadratic models are 18.49 mg/m3 and 18.52 mg/m3, respectively, and the average relative errors are 37.79% and 36.79%, respectively. The results provide a reference for water bloom prediction in typical tributaries of the Three Gorges Reservoir and contribute to large-scale remote sensing monitoring and water quality management.

  4. Environmental factors associated with long-term changes in chlorophyll-a concentration in the Amazon floodplain

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Ometto

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Long-term environmental time series of continuously collected data are fundamental to identify and classify pulses and determine their role in aquatic systems. This paper presents in situ daily mean chlorophyll-a concentration time series, key information for the current understanding of carbon fluxes in and out of the Amazonian floodplain system. This paper also investigates how seasonal fluctuations in water level affect the relationship between chlorophyll-a concentration and some of its controlling limnological (water level, water surface temperature, pH and turbidity and meteorological (wind intensity, relative humidity and short wave radiation variables provided by an automatic monitoring system (Integrated System for Environmental Monitoring-SIMA deployed at Curai Lake. The data are collected in preprogrammed time interval (1 h and are transmitted by satellite in quasi-real time for any user in a range of 2500 km from the acquisition point. We used Pearson correlation to determine the quantitative relationship between chlorophyll-a time series and others environmental parameters. Fourier power spectrum analyses were applied to identify periods of high variability in chlorophyll-a time series and wavelet power spectrum analyses helped to characterize their time-frequency structure. To further investigate the relationship between chlorophyll-a and the statistically significant variable highlighted by Pearson's correlation, the set of time series was submitted to cross wavelet analysis. The time series of chlorophyll-a shows two high peaks (47 μg L−1 and 53.30 μg L−1 of concentration during a year: first during the rising water and second during the low water level. A small peak was observed during the high water level (10 μg L−1. For the most part of rising, high and receding water level, the chlorophyll-a concentration is often low (from 2.20 μg L−1 to 9.10 μg L−1. chlorophyll-a concentration displays periodicities ranging

  5. A light-harvesting siphonaxanthin-chlorophyll a/b-protein complex of marine green alga,Bryopsis corticulans

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHEN Hui; SHEN Shihua; HE Junfang; LENG Jing; LI Liangbi; KUANG Tingyun

    2004-01-01

    A light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-protein complex (LHCP) was isolated directly from thylakoid membranes of marine green alga, Bryopsis corticulans, by two consecutive runs of liquid chromatography. The trimeric form of the light-harvesting complex has been obtained by sucrose gradient ultracentrifugation. The result of SDSPAGE shows that the light-harvesting complex is composed of at least five apoproteins in which a protein with apparent molecular weight of about 31 kD was never found in the major light-harvesting complex (LHC Ⅱ) from higher plants.The isolated Bryopsis corticulans light-harvesting complex contains a specific carotenoid, siphonaxanthin, as well as chlorophyll (Chl) a, Chl b, neoxanthin and violaxanthin. Siphonaxanthin which is present in the light-harvesting siphonaxanthin-chlorophyll a/b-protein complex of Bryopsis corticulans is responsible for enhanced absorption in the blue-green region (530 nm). Efficient energy transfer from both siphonaxanthin and Chl b to Chl a in Bryopsis corticulans LHCP, which has similar absorption and fluorescence emission spectra to those of the lutein-chlorophyll a/b-protein of higher plants, proved that molecular arrangement of the light-harvesting pigments was highly ordered in the Bryopsis corticulans LHCP. The siphonaxanthin-chlorophyll a/b-proteins allow enhanced absorption of blue-green light, the predominant light available in deep ocean waters or shaded subtidal marine habitats.

  6. Alloying effect on K-shell fluorescence parameters of porous NiTi shape memory alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The Kα,β shell production cross-sections and Kβ/Kα intensity ratios of porous NiTi SMAs were determined by ED-XRF. • To analyze the changes in the structures due to the preheating and solution heat treatment processes, XRD and XPS measurements were also performed. • The deviations between the experimental and theoretical were interpreted to charge transfer phenomena. - Abstract: The Kα,β shell production cross-sections and Kβ/Kα intensity ratios of porous Ni −49 at% Ti shape memory alloys were determined using energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence (EDXRF) technique. Also, the alloying effect on the K shell fluorescence parameters was investigated. The samples were excited by 59.5 keV γ-rays from an 241Am annular radioactive source. The K X-rays emitted by the samples were counted by an Ultra-LEGe detector with a resolution of 150 eV at 5.9 keV. The structure analyses of the samples were also made using X-ray diffraction (XRD) and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). The deviations between the present results and theoretical values, calculated for pure Ti and Ni, were attributed to charge transfer phenomena and/or rearrangement of valance shell electrons and porosity

  7. Full-direct method for imaging pharmacokinetic parameters in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Images of pharmacokinetic parameters (also known as parametric images) in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) can provide three-dimensional metabolic information for biological studies and drug development. However, the ill-posed nature of FMT and the high temporal variation of fluorophore concentration together make it difficult to obtain accurate parametric images in small animals in vivo. In this letter, we present a method to directly reconstruct the parametric images from the boundary measurements based on hybrid FMT/X-ray computed tomography (XCT) system. This method can not only utilize structural priors obtained from the XCT system to mitigate the ill-posedness of FMT but also make full use of the temporal correlations of boundary measurements to model the high temporal variation of fluorophore concentration. The results of numerical simulation and mouse experiment demonstrate that the proposed method leads to significant improvements in the reconstruction quality of parametric images

  8. Full-direct method for imaging pharmacokinetic parameters in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guanglei; Pu, Huangsheng; He, Wei; Liu, Fei; Luo, Jianwen; Bai, Jing

    2015-02-01

    Images of pharmacokinetic parameters (also known as parametric images) in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) can provide three-dimensional metabolic information for biological studies and drug development. However, the ill-posed nature of FMT and the high temporal variation of fluorophore concentration together make it difficult to obtain accurate parametric images in small animals in vivo. In this letter, we present a method to directly reconstruct the parametric images from the boundary measurements based on hybrid FMT/X-ray computed tomography (XCT) system. This method can not only utilize structural priors obtained from the XCT system to mitigate the ill-posedness of FMT but also make full use of the temporal correlations of boundary measurements to model the high temporal variation of fluorophore concentration. The results of numerical simulation and mouse experiment demonstrate that the proposed method leads to significant improvements in the reconstruction quality of parametric images.

  9. A new approach to the evaluation of the discharge parameters of the electrodeless fluorescent lamps

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new model was developed for the characterization and quantification of the 'inaccessible' discharge parameters in closed tube high power electrodeless fluorescent lamps. The results obtained applying the model are verifiable by means of a simple comparison of the primary equivalent resistance and reactance as a result of the measured V1, I1, ψ1 with the equivalent primary resistance and reactance inferred from the proposed model. The results are in good agreement at all operating lamp power levels. What is unexpected is the capacitive behaviour of the inductive coupled plasma at lower powers. The investigation method is suitable for the optimization of high power electrodeless lamps with a long discharge path operated at low frequencies, in order to improve the efficiency and the system stability, especially if the lamp has to be dimmed

  10. Full-direct method for imaging pharmacokinetic parameters in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Guanglei, E-mail: guangleizhang@bjtu.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Computer and Information Technology, Beijing Jiaotong University, Beijing 100044 (China); Pu, Huangsheng; Liu, Fei; Bai, Jing [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); He, Wei [China Institute of Sport Science, Beijing 100061 (China); Luo, Jianwen, E-mail: luo-jianwen@tsinghua.edu.cn [Department of Biomedical Engineering, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China); Center for Biomedical Imaging Research, School of Medicine, Tsinghua University, Beijing 100084 (China)

    2015-02-23

    Images of pharmacokinetic parameters (also known as parametric images) in dynamic fluorescence molecular tomography (FMT) can provide three-dimensional metabolic information for biological studies and drug development. However, the ill-posed nature of FMT and the high temporal variation of fluorophore concentration together make it difficult to obtain accurate parametric images in small animals in vivo. In this letter, we present a method to directly reconstruct the parametric images from the boundary measurements based on hybrid FMT/X-ray computed tomography (XCT) system. This method can not only utilize structural priors obtained from the XCT system to mitigate the ill-posedness of FMT but also make full use of the temporal correlations of boundary measurements to model the high temporal variation of fluorophore concentration. The results of numerical simulation and mouse experiment demonstrate that the proposed method leads to significant improvements in the reconstruction quality of parametric images.

  11. Chlorophyll a and primary production in the northeastern Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEN Xingqun; LIN Rongeheng

    2008-01-01

    The primary production and chlorophyll a concentration of picoplankton (0.2~2μm),nanoplankton (2~20 μm) and micro- plankton (20~200 μm) are described in the northeastern Pacific Ocean near the Hawaii Islands during the six survey cruises from 1996 to 2003:DY85-4,DY95-7,DY95-8,DY95-10,DY105-11 and DY105-12.14.The primary production of carbon was in range from 76.8 to 191.9 mg/(m2·d) with an average of 116.1 mg/( m2·d) in the east region,and from 73.1 to 222.5 mg/(m2·d) with an average of 127.1 mg/( m2·d) in the west region,similar to the other oligotrophic regions of the Pacific Ocean investigated.The chlorophyll a concentration was about 0.1 mg/m3 from the surface to the 50 m depth,about 0.2-0.4 mg/m3from 50 to 100 m,and gradually decreased below the 100 m depth.The picoplankton accounted for more than 70% of the total chlorophyll a in the upper layer (surface to 125 m),but it decreased to less than 50% in depth below 125 m.The na- noplankton and microplankton combined only accounted for less than 30% of the total chlorophyll a in the upper layer,but showed a more even vertical distribution.

  12. Associations between chlorophyll a and various microcystin health advisory concentrations

    OpenAIRE

    Hollister, Jeffrey W.; Kreakie, Betty J.

    2016-01-01

    Archived source code (as an R package), data for the manuscript "Associations between chlorophyll a and various microcystin health advisory concentrations"  published in F1000Research (http://f1000research.com/articles/5-151/)  Abstract:  Cyanobacteria harmful algal blooms (cHABs) are associated with a wide range of adverse health effects that stem mostly from the presence of cyanotoxins. To help protect against these impacts, several health advisory levels ha...

  13. Paths of deactivation of excitation of chlorophyll a in various model systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frackowiak, Danuta; Zelent, Bogumil; Malak, Henryk M.; Cegielski, Roman; Planner, Alfons; Goc, Jacek; Niedbalska, Malgorzata

    1994-08-01

    Chlorophyll a (Chl) in most model systems (monolayers, fluid solvents, adsorbed layers, and polymer films) occurs in three forms: `dry monomers' (isolated from interaction with water), hydrated dimers and oligomers built from such dimers; but in nematic liquid crystal (LC) cell `dry monomers' are predominant. It is a competition between the various paths of deactivation of excited Chl. Excitation energy can be emitted as fluorescence, or delayed luminescence, transferred to other forms of Chl (ET), thermally deactivated or used for photochemical reactions. In order to compare the efficiency of these various paths the following measurements were done and analyzed: absorption, fluorescence, fluorescence excitation, photoacoustic spectra, and lifetime of fluorescence in ps range. There are some important differences between Chl in LC cell and polymer films: Chl in LC cell has a much lower concentration of aggregated forms and the pigment molecules are more uniformly distributed as compared to the Chl in polymer samples. To explain ET in polymer films the fractals model has to be used, whereas mean distances between solvated Chl molecules in LC can be obtained from dye concentration. In order to establish the interaction between Chl a and (beta) -carotene the LC cell with both pigments were also investigated.

  14. Decomposition of protein tryptophan fluorescence spectra into log-normal components. III. Correlation between fluorescence and microenvironment parameters of individual tryptophan residues.

    OpenAIRE

    Reshetnyak, Y K; Koshevnik, Y; Burstein, E A

    2001-01-01

    In our previous paper (Reshetnyak, Ya. K., and E. A. Burstein. 2001. Biophys. J. 81:1710-1734) we confirmed the existence of five statistically discrete classes of emitting tryptophan fluorophores in proteins. The differences in fluorescence properties of tryptophan residues of these five classes reflect differences in interactions of excited states of tryptophan fluorophores with their microenvironment in proteins. Here we present a system of describing physical and structural parameters of ...

  15. Integrating Biology into the General Chemistry Laboratory: Fluorometric Analysis of Chlorophyll "a"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wesolowski, Meredith C.

    2014-01-01

    A laboratory experiment that introduces fluorometry of chlorophyll "a" at the general chemistry level is described. The use of thin-layer chromatography to isolate chlorophyll "a" from spirulina and leaf matter enables quantification of small amounts of chlorophyll "a" via fluorometry. Student results were reasonably…

  16. 旱稻×稗草杂交后代YF2-1光合作用气体交换、叶绿素荧光和抗氧化酶系统对渗透胁迫的响应%Response of Gas Exchange, Chlorophyll a Fluorescence and Anti-oxidation Enzymes Activities to Osmotic Stress in an Upland Rice Progeny YF2-1 Derived from Oryza sativa x Echinochloa caudata

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    丁在松; 王春艳; 关东明; 赵凤悟; 赵明

    2011-01-01

    为了明确旱稻×稗草杂交后代YF2-1对渗透胁迫的耐性是否得到了改善,以YF2-1及其母本旱稻品种H65为材料,在苗期采用PEG-6000进行渗透胁迫处理,研究它们的气体交换参数、叶绿素荧光参数及抗氧化酶活性对渗透胁迫的响应.结果表明,在渗透胁迫处理下,YF2-1更能维持较高的净光合速率(Pn)和气孔导度(Gs).这可能与YF2-1具有更好的持水能力,并能有效地通过热耗散(NPQ高)消耗过剩光能,通过高活性的抗氧化酶诱导来清除活性氧,从而避免活性氧伤害相关.旱稻与稗草的远源杂交提高了旱稻对渗透胁迫的抗性.%Wild species generally have higher stress resistance than cultivated crops and are utilized as the sources of stress resistance genes in stress resistance improvement of crops.In rice, its wild relatives have been used to improve photosynthesis, yield and stress resistance.YF2-1 is obtained by distant cross between Oryza sativa and Echinochloa caudate.In order to assess its osmotic stress resistance on physiological level, gas exchange, chlorophyll a fluorescence and antioxidation enzyme activities under osmotic stress simulated by PEG-6000 were studied in seedlings of upland rice YF2-1 and H65.The results showed that YF2-1 maintained higher net photosynthetic rate and stomatal conductance under osmotic stress condition, indicating YF2-1 suffered less inhibition in photosynthesis.This may be related to its higher water retaining capacity and its effective functions for high excessive light energy dispersing (higher NPQ) and higher activities of anti-oxidation enzymes SOD, POD, and CAT, effectively clearing active oxygen species (AOS) produced by excessive light energy.Thc result shows that the distant crossing may increase the resistance to osmotic stress in rice.

  17. Electrical characteristics of chlorophyll-a polyvinyl alcohol photovoltaic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN, Yun-Yu(韩允雨); DIAO, Zhao-Yu*(刁兆玉); LI, Huai-Xiang(李怀祥); CHI, Yan-Hui(迟颜辉)

    2000-01-01

    A type of photovoltaic cell was made by sandwiching microcrystalline chlorophyll-a (chla) layer and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film between two semiconductive optical transparent SnO2 electrodes, such as SnO2/chla/PVA/SnO2. The cell showed a dark rectifying effect and presented photovaltaic properties on illumination, which was illustrated by the charge distribution in the cell. It was suggested that the SnO2/chla junction might be responsible for photovaltage and the chla/PVA for the charge separation upon irradiation of visible light. The equivalent electric circuit was discussed and its equivalent component values were calculated.

  18. [Flag leaf photosynthetic characteristics, change in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters, and their relationships with yield of winter wheat sowed in spring].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Lan; Gao, Zhi-qang; An, Wei; Li, Yan-liang; Jiao, Xiong-fei; Wang, Chuang-yun

    2016-01-01

    With five good winter wheat cultivars selected from the middle and lower reaches of Yangtze River and Southwest China as test materials, a field experiment in Xinding basin area of Shanxi Province was conducted to study the photosynthetic characteristics, chlorophyll content, and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of flag leaf at different sowing dates, as well as the correlations between these indices and yield for two years (2013-2014). The results showed that the difference in most fluorescence parameters except chlorophyll content among cultivars was significant. The correlations between these fluorescence parameters and yield were significant. The variation coefficient of chlorophyll (Chl) content was low (0.12-0.17), and that of performance index based on absorption (PIabs) was high (0.32-0.39), with the partial correlation coefficients of them with grain yield from 2013 to 2014 ranged in 0.70-0.81. Under the early sowing condition, the grain yield positively correlated with PIabs at flowering and filling stages and chlorophyll content at grain filling stage, but negatively correlated with the relative variable fluorescence at I point (Vi) at grain filling stage. About 81.1%-82.8% of grain yield were determined by the variations of PIabs, Chl, and Vi. Wheat cultivars had various performances in the treatments with different sowing dates and a consistent trend was observed in the two experimental years. Among these 5 cultivars, Yangmai 13 was suitable for early sowing, with the flag leaf photosynthetic rate (Pn), Chl, most fluorescence parame-ters, and grain yield showed obviously high levels. In conclusion, under early sowing condition chlorophyll content at grain filling stages, PIabs at flowering and filling stages, and Pn were important indices for selecting wheat cultivars with high photosynthetic efficiency. PMID:27228602

  19. The shower size parameter as estimator of extensive air shower energy in fluorescence telescopes

    OpenAIRE

    de Souza, Vitor; Medina-Tanco, Gustavo; Ortiz, Jeferson A.; Sanchez, Federico

    2005-01-01

    The fluorescence technique has been successfully used to detect ultrahigh energy cosmic rays by indirect measurements. The underlying idea is that the number of charged particles in the atmospheric shower, i.e, its longitudinal profile, can be extracted from the amount of emitted nitrogen fluorescence light. However the influence of shower fluctuations and the very possible presence of different nuclear species in the primary cosmic ray spectrum makes the estimate of the shower energy from th...

  20. Spatiotemporal Mapping Of Fluorescence Parameters In Cells Treated With Toxic Chemicals: The Cell's Detoxification Apparatus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohen, Elli; Kohen, Cahide; Hirschberg, Joseph G.; Fried, Marek; Prince, Jeffrey

    1989-03-01

    We have used a grating microspectrofluorometer equipped with phase and fluorescence microscopy to study the intracellular localization and processing of fluorescent compounds that are not part of the natural cell chemistry (xenobiotics) and of fluorescent carcinogens. Our topographic and spectral observations, in conjunction with ultrastructural analysis, lead to the hypothesis of a dynamically organized multiorganelle complex involved in the cell's detoxification processes and possible protection of the cell's genetic apparatus. Our studies with quinacrine derivatives and benzo(a)pyrene suggest that the organelle complex involves the endoplasmic reticulum, the Golgi apparatus, the lysosomes, and the nuclear membrane, with a fine microchannel network interconnecting the different organelles. We have indications that there is not only a trapping of fluorescent carcinogens in the cytoplasmic components of the complex but also a possible "nuclear pump" (powered by the substrates of the hexose monophosphate shunt pathway) involved in ejection of xenobiotics from the nucleus. The instrumental performance allows the in situ pixel-by-pixel study of extranuclear and nuclear energy metabolism related to these processes in parallel to the blue and red spectral shifts associated with metabolites of fluorescent carcinogens. Recording of fluorescence emission spectra at different excitation wavelengths in human fibroblasts and rat liver cells allows the application of multivariate statistical methods to analyze multicomponent spectra. Elucidation of mechanisms involved in the organization and activity of the organelle complex is relevant to the interpretation of drug sensitivity or resistance and should result in better targeting of cancer chemotherapeutics and gene modifiers toward their expected sites of action.

  1. Toxicological effects of chlorpyrifos on growth, enzyme activity and chlorophyll a synthesis of freshwater microalgae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Shangchao; Chen, Mindong; Wang, Zhuang; Qiu, Weijian; Wang, Junfeng; Shen, Yafei; Wang, Yajun; Ge, Shun

    2016-07-01

    This paper aims to acquire the experimental data on the eco-toxicological effects of agricultural pollutants on the aquatic plants and the data can support the assessment of toxicity on the phytoplankton. The pesticide of Chlorpyrifos used as a good model to investigate its eco-toxicological effect on the different microalgae in freshwater. In order to address the pollutants derived from forestry and agricultural applications, freshwater microalgae were considered as a good sample to investigate the impact of pesticides such as Chlorpyrifos on aquatic life species. Two microalgae of Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Merismopedia sp. were employed to evaluate toxicity of Chlorpyrifos in short time and long time by means of measuring the growth inhibition rate, the redox system and the content of chlorophyll a, respectively. In this study, the results showed that EC50 values ranging from 7.63 to 19.64mg/L, indicating the Chlorpyrifos had a relatively limited to the growth of algae during the period of the acute toxicity experiment. Moreover, when two kinds of algae were exposed to a medium level of Chlorpyrifos, SOD and CAT activities were importantly advanced. Therefore, the growth rate and SOD and CAT activities can be highly recommended for the eco-toxicological assessment. In addition, chlorophyll a also could be used as a targeted parameter for assessing the eco-toxicity of Chlorpyrifos on both Chlorella pyrenoidosa and Merismopedia sp. PMID:27314761

  2. Genotypic response of detached leaves versus intact plants for chlorophyll fluorescence parameters under high temperature stress in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Fernández, Juan Olivares; Rosenqvist, Eva;

    2014-01-01

    The genotypic response of wheat cultivars as affected by two methods of heat stress treatment (treatment of intact plants in growth chambers versus treatment of detached leaves in test tubes) in a temperature controlled water bath were compared to investigate how such different methods of heat...... responses of the same cultivars to heat stress were compared between the two methods of heat treatment. The results showed that in detached leaves, all of the fluorescence parameters remained almost unaffected in control (20°C at all durations tested), indicating that the detachment itself did not affect...... treatment affect chlorophyll fluorescence parameters. A set of 41 spring wheat cultivars differing in their maximum photochemical efficiency of photosystem (PS) II (Fv/Fm) under heat stress conditions was used. These cultivars were previously evaluated based on the heat treatment of intact plants. The...

  3. Changes in chlorophyll content and fluorescence and fruit yield contributing traits in different genotypes of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa DUCH.)

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Kaczmarska; Władysław Michałek

    2014-01-01

    Analysis of changes in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in strawberry leaves was based on a field experiment performed in the years 2009–2010. Ten genotypes including 5 cultivars: ‘Kent’, ‘Teresa’, ‘Senga Sengana’, ‘Chandler’ and the breeding clone 1387 as well as their inbred progeny, were the object of the study. During the experiment the following indicators were evaluated: chlorophyll a and b content in fresh leaf mass as well as fluorescence parameters: minimum (F0) and maximum fluore...

  4. Reconstitution of Photosystem Ⅱ Reaction Center with Cu-Chlorophyll a

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shuang Liu; Feng-Qin Dong; Chun-Hong Yang; Chong-Qin Tang; Ting-Yun Kuang

    2006-01-01

    An isolated photosystem (PS) Ⅱ reaction center (RC) with altered pigment content was obtained by chemical exchange of native chlorophyll a (Chl) with externally added Cu-Chl a (Cu-Chl). Pigment composition and spectroscopic properties of the RC exchanged with Cu-Chl were compared with native RC and RC treated with Chl in the same way. High-performance liquid chromatography analysis showed approximately 0.5 Cu-Chl per two pheophytin in the Cu-Chl-reconstituted RC preparation. Insertion of Cu-Chl resulted in a decrease in absorption at 670 nm and an increase at 660 nm, suggesting that the peripheral Chl may have been displaced. Fluorescence emission spectra of the Cu-Chl-reconstituted RC displayed a marked decrease in fluorescence yield and a blue shift of the band maximum, accompanied by the appearance of a broad peak at a shorter wavelength, indicating that energy transfer in the modified RC was disturbed by Cu-Chl, a quencher of the excited state. However, there were few differences in the circular dichroism (CD) spectra,suggesting that the arrangement of pigments and proteins responsible for the CD signal was not significantly affected. In addition, no obvious change in peptide components was found after the exchange procedure.

  5. Strong enhancement of chlorophyll a concentration by a weak typhoon

    CERN Document Server

    SUN, Liang; Xian, Tao; Lu, Zhu-min; Fu, Yun-Fei; 10.3354/meps08477

    2010-01-01

    Recent studies demonstrate that chlorophyll a (chl a) concentrations in the surface ocean can be significantly enhanced due to typhoons. The present study investigated chl a concentrations in the middle of the South China Sea (SCS) from 1997-2007. Only the Category1 (minimal) Typhoon Hagibis (2007) had a notable effect on the chl a concentrations. Typhoon Hagibis had a strong upwelling potential due to its location near the equator, and the forcing time of the typhoon (>82 h) was much longer than the geostrophic adjustment time (~63 h). The higher upwelling velocity and the longer forcing time increased the depth of the mixed-layer, which consequently induced a strong phytoplankton bloom that accounted for about 30% of the total annual chl a concentration in the middle of the SCS. The implication is that the forcing time of a typhoon should be long enough to establish a strong upwelling and consequently for the induction of significant upper ocean responses.

  6. [Retrieving for chlorophyll-a concentration and suspended substance concentration based on HJ-1A HIS image].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Ting; Zhang, Hui; Wang, Qiao; Zhao, Qiao-Hua

    2011-11-01

    Based on geometry correction using ERDAS software and radiation correction using 6S model for HJ-1A hyper-spectrum image (HSI) on May 2 in 2010 and the analysis of spectrum for water data and spectral data of hyper-spectrum image, this paper processes original spectrum data of 28 sample points using method of normalization and method of first-order derivation. Single-band and band combination are selected to establish inversion models of the concentration of chlorophyll-a and solid suspensions. Choosing the model with biggest correlation coefficient, the spatial distribution map of the concentration of chlorophyll-a and solid suspensions content in Taihu Lake is acquired. The research results show: Band-73 of hyper-spectrum image which has been normalized shows the biggest correlation coefficient of the concentration of chlorophyll-a, remote sensing sediment parameter shows the biggest correlation coefficient of the concentration of solid suspensions, the result is consistent with analysis of spectral data of hyper-spectrum image. Average relative errors of predicted and measured values are within 30 percent. Spatial distribution map of water quality is consistent with the result of field surveys. Therefore, based on reference of the analysis of sensitive band of spectrum for water data, HJ-1A hyper-spectrum image can give quantitative estimation of water quality parameters in Taihu Lake. PMID:22295614

  7. Control of electron transport processes in photosystem II by chlorophyll fluorescence parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work the opportunity of the electron photosynthetic transport control in plant leaves by means of the prompt and delayed chlorophyll fluorescence are shown. Influence of environment conditions (temperature, water provision) is considered in respect to their limiting role in efficiency of the energy-transmutation processes in the photosynthetic apparatus. (author)

  8. Chlorophyll fluorescence emission spectrum inside a leaf

    OpenAIRE

    Pedrós Esteban, Roberto; Moya, Ismael; Goulas, Yves; Jacquemoud, Stéphane

    2008-01-01

    Chlorophyll a fluorescence can be used as an early stress indicator. Fluorescence is also connected to photosynthesis so it can be proposed for global monitoring of vegetation status from a satellite platform. Nevertheless, the correct interpretation of fluorescence requires accurate physical models. The spectral shape of the leaf fluorescence free of any re-absorption effect plays a key role in the models and is difficult to measure. We present a vegetation fluorescence emission spectrum fre...

  9. Correction for photobleaching in dynamic fluorescence microscopy: application in the assessment of pharmacokinetic parameters in ultrasound-mediated drug delivery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Derieppe, M.; Bos, C.; de Greef, M.; Moonen, C.; de Senneville, B. Denis

    2016-01-01

    We have previously demonstrated the feasibility of monitoring ultrasound-mediated uptake of a hydrophilic model drug in real time with dynamic confocal fluorescence microscopy. In this study, we evaluate and correct the impact of photobleaching to improve the accuracy of pharmacokinetic parameter estimates. To model photobleaching of the fluorescent model drug SYTOX Green, a photobleaching process was added to the current two-compartment model describing cell uptake. After collection of the uptake profile, a second acquisition was performed when SYTOX Green was equilibrated, to evaluate the photobleaching rate experimentally. Photobleaching rates up to 5.0 10-3 s-1 were measured when applying power densities up to 0.2 W.cm-2. By applying the three-compartment model, the model drug uptake rate of 6.0 10-3 s-1 was measured independent of the applied laser power. The impact of photobleaching on uptake rate estimates measured by dynamic fluorescence microscopy was evaluated. Subsequent compensation improved the accuracy of pharmacokinetic parameter estimates in the cell population subjected to sonopermeabilization.

  10. Distribution characteristics of size-fractionated chlorophyll a,primary production and new production in the Laizhou Bay,July 1997

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    蔡煜明; 宁修仁; 刘子琳; 刘诚刚

    2002-01-01

    The distributions of chlorophyll a concentration, primary production and new production were observed in the Laizhou Bay of the Bohai Sea in both spring and neap tides during July 1997. The results showed that there were marked features of spatial zonation in the surveyed area, due to the differences between the geographic environment and the hydrological conditions. Chlorophyll a, primary production and new production were all higher in spring tides than that in neap tides in the Laizhou Bay.The highest values of these parameters were encountered in the central regions of the bay. At most stations, chlorophyll a concentrations at the bottom were higher than that at the surface. The results of size-fractionated chlorophyll a and primary production showed that contributions of nano-combining picoplankton (< 20 μm) to total chlorophyll a and primary production were dominant in phytoplankton community biomass and production of the Laizhou Bay. The environmental factors, primary production and new production in the Laizhou Bay are compared with other sea areas.

  11. Interaction of fisetin with human serum albumin by fluorescence, circular dichroism spectroscopy and DFT calculations: binding parameters and conformational changes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matei, Iulia; Ionescu, Sorana [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Bucharest, Bd. Regina Elisabeta 4-12, 030018 Bucharest (Romania); Hillebrand, Mihaela, E-mail: mihh@gw-chimie.math.unibuc.ro [Department of Physical Chemistry, Faculty of Chemistry, University of Bucharest, Bd. Regina Elisabeta 4-12, 030018 Bucharest (Romania)

    2011-08-15

    The interaction between fisetin, an antioxidant and neuroprotective flavonoid, and human serum albumin (HSA) is investigated by means of fluorescence (steady-state, synchronous, time-resolved) and circular dichroism (CD) spectroscopy. The formation of a 1:1 complex with a constant of about 10{sup 5} M{sup -1} was evidenced. Foerster's resonance energy transfer and competitive binding with site markers warfarin and ibuprofen were considered and discussed. Changes in the CD band of HSA indicate a decrease in the {alpha}-helix content upon binding. An induced CD signal for bound fisetin was observed and rationalized in terms of density functional theory calculations. - Highlights: > Fisetin-BSA system was studied by fluorescence spectroscopy. > Binding parameters, association constant and number of sites were estimated. > Binding site of fisetin was identified by competitive experiments. > Conformational changes in HSA and fisetin were evidenced by circular dichroism. > TDDFT calculated CD spectra supported the experimental data.

  12. Decadal variability of chlorophyll a in the South China Sea:a possible mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fenfen; CHEN Chuqun; ZHAN Haigang

    2012-01-01

    Four climatologies on a monthly scale (January,April,May and November) of chlorophyll a within the South China Sea (SCS) were calculated using a Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) (1979-1983) and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) (1998-2002).We analyzed decadal variability of chlorophyll a by comparing the products of the two observation periods.The relationships of variability in chlorophyll a with sea surface wind speed (SSW),sea surface temperature (SST),wind stress (WS),and mixed layer depth (MLD) were determined.The results indicate that there is obvious chlorophyll a decadal variability in the SCS.The decadal chlorophyll a presents distinct seasonal variability in characteristics,which may be as a result of various different dynamic processes.The negative chlorophyll a concentration anomaly in January was associated with the warming of SST and a shallower MLD.Generally,there were higher chlorophyll a concentrations in spring during the SeaWiFS period compared with the CZCS period.However,the chlorophyll a concentration exhibits some regional differences during this season,leading to an explanation being difficult.The deepened MLD may have contributed to the positive chlorophyll a concentration anomalies from the northwestern Luzon Island to the northeastern region of Vietnam during April and May.The increases of chlorophyll a concentration in northwestem Borneo during May may be because the stronger SSW and higher WS produce a deeper mixed layer and convective mixing,leading to high levels of nutrient concentrations.The higher chlorophyll a off southeastem Vietnam may be associated with the advective transport of the colder water extending from the Karimata Strait to southeastem Vietnam.

  13. Electron transfer reactions involving porphyrins and chlorophyll a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electron transfer reactions involving porphyrins (P) and quinones (Q) have been studied by pulse radiolysis. The porphyrins used were tetraphenylporphyrin (H2TPP), its tetracarboxy derivative (H2TCPP), the sodium and zinc compounds (Na2TPP and ZnTPP), and chlorophyll a (Chl a). These compounds were found to be rapidly reduced by electron transfer from (CH3)2CO-. Reduction by (CH3)2COH was rapid in aqueous solutions but relatively slow in i-PrOH solutions. Transient spectra of the anion radicals were determined and, in the case of H2TCPP-., a pK = 9.7 was derived for its protonation. Electron-transfer reactions from the anion radical of H2TCPP to benzoquinone, duroquinone, 9,10-anthraquinone 2-sulfonate, and methylviologen occur in aqueous solutions with rate constants approx. 107-109 M-1 s-1 which depend on the pH and the quinone reduction potential. Reactions of Na2TPP-., ZnTPP-., and Chl a-. with anthraquinone in basic i-PrOH solutions occur with rate constants approx. 109 M-1 s-1. The spectral changes associated with these electron-transfer reactions as observed over a period of approx. 1 ms indicated, in some cases, the formation of an intermediate complex [P...Q-.]. 8 figures, 2 tables

  14. The algorithms of chlorophyll-a concentration for CMODIS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    The algorithms of extracting chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration have been established for Chinese moderate resolution imaging spectrometer (CMODIS) mounted on Shenzhou-3 spaceship launched on 25 March 2002. The CMODIS is an ocean color sensor with 30 visible channels and 4 infrared channels, much different from other ocean color satellites and needs new algorithms to process data. Three models of Chl-a concentration were established based on Chl-a data retrieved from sea-viewing wide field-of-view sensor (SeaWiFS), with the average relative errors of 26.6%, 24%.0% and 33.5%, respectively. This practical and economic approach can be used for developing the algorithms of Chinese ocean color and temperature sensor (COCTS) on the satellite Haiyang-1 to derive the Chl-a concentration concentration distribution.The applicability of the algorithms was analyzed using some in situ measurements. Suspended sediment is the main factor influencing the accuracy of the spectral ratio algorithms of Chl-a concentration. The algorithms are suitable to using in the regions where suspended sediment concentrations (SSC) are less than 5 g/m3 under the condition of relative error of Chl-a concentration retrieval within 35%. High concentration of suspended sediment leads to the overestimate remote sensing retrieval of concentration of Chl-a, while low-middle SSCs lead to the low Chl-a concentration values using the spectral ratio algorithms. Since the accuracy of Chl-a concentration by the spectral ratio algorithms is limited to waters of Case 2, it is necessary to develop semi-analytical models to improve the performance of satellite ocean color remote sensing in turbid coastal waters.

  15. Non-photochemical quenching in cryptophyte alga Rhodomonas salina is located in chlorophyll a/c antennae.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaňa, Radek; Kotabová, Eva; Sobotka, Roman; Prášil, Ondřej

    2012-01-01

    Photosynthesis uses light as a source of energy but its excess can result in production of harmful oxygen radicals. To avoid any resulting damage, phototrophic organisms can employ a process known as non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), where excess light energy is safely dissipated as heat. The mechanism(s) of NPQ vary among different phototrophs. Here, we describe a new type of NPQ in the organism Rhodomonas salina, an alga belonging to the cryptophytes, part of the chromalveolate supergroup. Cryptophytes are exceptional among photosynthetic chromalveolates as they use both chlorophyll a/c proteins and phycobiliproteins for light harvesting. All our data demonstrates that NPQ in cryptophytes differs significantly from other chromalveolates - e.g. diatoms and it is also unique in comparison to NPQ in green algae and in higher plants: (1) there is no light induced xanthophyll cycle; (2) NPQ resembles the fast and flexible energetic quenching (qE) of higher plants, including its fast recovery; (3) a direct antennae protonation is involved in NPQ, similar to that found in higher plants. Further, fluorescence spectroscopy and biochemical characterization of isolated photosynthetic complexes suggest that NPQ in R. salina occurs in the chlorophyll a/c antennae but not in phycobiliproteins. All these results demonstrate that NPQ in cryptophytes represents a novel class of effective and flexible non-photochemical quenching. PMID:22235327

  16. Instrumental parameters' determination in a fluorescences X-ray Philips PW 1400 equipment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The instrumental parameters of a Philips PW 1400 equipment wavelengths dispersive are determined; fundamentally, those related to the equipment's accuracy (stability at a very short, short and long term drift) as well as to those related to the detection system (dead time, detector's cleaning and detection limit). (S.M.)

  17. Evaluation of Chlorophyll Content and Fluorescence Parameters as Indicators of Drought Tolerance in Barley

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Rong-hua; GUO Pei-guo; Michael Baum; Stefania Grando; Salvatore Ceccarelli

    2006-01-01

    Drought is a major abiotic stress that severely affects food production worldwide. Agronomic and physiological traits associated with drought tolerance are suitable indicators for selection of drought tolerance genotypes to reduce the impact of water deficit on crop yield in breeding program. The objective of this study was to identify indicators related to drought tolerance through analysis of photosynthetic traits in barley (Hordeum vulgare L.). These traits included chlorophyll content, initial fluorescence (Fo), maximum primary yield of photochemistry of pho tosystem Ⅱ (Fv / Fo) and maximum quantum yield of photosystem Ⅱ (Fv/Fm). Four genotypes (Tadmor, Arta, Morocco9-75 and WI2291) variable in drought tolerance were used to investigate the correlation between these traits and drought tolerance. The results reflected that all of these traits were affected negatively in the four genotypes at different levels of post-anthesis drought stress, but the decrease in drought tolerant genotypes was much less than that of drought sensitive genotypes. The results further revealed that the components of the photosynthetic apparatus could be damaged significantly in drought sensitive genotypes, while drought tolerant genotypes were relatively less affected. On the other hand, the values of chlorophyll content, Fo, Fv/Fo and Fv/Fm in drought tolerance genotypes were significantly higher than those in drought sensitive genotypes under drought stress. It was concluded that chlorophyll content, Fo, Fv / Fo and Fv / Fm could be considered as reliable indicators in screening barley germplasm for drought tolerance.

  18. New approach in multipurpose optical diagnostics: fluorescence based assay for simultaneous determination of physicochemical parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Moczko, Ewa

    2009-01-01

    The development of sensors assays for comprehensive characterisation of biological samples and effective minimal-invasive diagnostics is highly prioritised. Last decade this research area has been actively developing due to possibility of simultaneous, real- time, in vivo detection and monitoring of diverse physicochemical parameters and analytes. The new approach which has been introduced in this thesis was to develop and examine an optical diagnostic assay consisting of a ...

  19. Two-color two-photon excited fluorescence of indole: Determination of wavelength-dependent molecular parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present a detailed study of two-color two-photon excited fluorescence in indole dissolved in propylene glycol. Femtosecond excitation pulses at effective wavelengths from 268 to 293.33 nm were used to populate the two lowest indole excited states 1La and 1Lb and polarized fluorescence was then detected. All seven molecular parameters and the two-photon polarization ratio Ω containing information on two-photon absorption dynamics, molecular lifetime τf, and rotation correlation time τrot have been determined from experiment and analyzed as a function of the excitation wavelength. The analysis of the experimental data has shown that 1Lb–1La inversion occurred under the conditions of our experiment. The two-photon absorption predominantly populated the 1La state at all excitation wavelengths but in the 287–289 nm area which contained an absorption hump of the 1Lb state 0-0 origin. The components of the two-photon excitation tensor S were analyzed giving important information on the principal tensor axes and absorption symmetry. The results obtained are in a good agreement with the results reported by other groups. The lifetime τf and the rotation correlation time τrot showed no explicit dependence on the effective excitation wavelength. Their calculated weighted average values were found to be τf = 3.83 ± 0.14 ns and τrot = 0.74 ± 0.06 ns

  20. Relationship between the Water Body Chlorophyll-a and Water Quality Factors of Wetlands Baiguishan Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Oiu-sheng; TIAN Xun; WANG Guo-zhen; JI Xiao-cun; LI Jiu-xuan; ZHAO Zhen

    2011-01-01

    [ Objective] The aim was to explore the relationship between water body Chlorophyll-a and water quality factors of wetlands Baiguishan reservoir. [ Method] Chlorophyll-a and water quality factors of water quality of Wetlands BaiGuishan Reservoir was studied, the analysis of the relationship on water quality of Wetlands Baiguishan Reservoir was made by use of trophic status indices and SPSS17.0 statistical analysis.[ Result] Total phosphorus was an irnportant factor of influence Chlorophyll-a in reservoir, water body had slight eutrophication phenomenon in reservoir of July to October in 2010. [ Conclusion] Comprehensive management should be strengthened so as to improve the water quality of Baiguishan wetland.

  1. Excitation energy transfer between chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b obtained from fluorescence meaeurment's

    OpenAIRE

    Szurkowski, J.; Hotchandanl, S.; Leblanc, R M; Frąckowiak, D.

    1986-01-01

    Zadanie pt. „Digitalizacja i udostępnienie w Cyfrowym Repozytorium Uniwersytetu Łódzkiego kolekcji czasopism naukowych wydawanych przez Uniwersytet Łódzki” nr 885/P-DUN/2014 dofinansowane zostało ze środków MNiSW w ramach działalności upowszechniającej naukę.

  2. Chlorophyll a Covalently Bonded to Organo-Modified Translucent Silica Xerogels: Optimizing Fluorescence and Maximum Loading

    OpenAIRE

    García-Sánchez, M. A.; I. N. Serratos; R. Sosa; T. Tapia-Esquivel; F. González-García; F. Rojas-González; S. R. Tello-Solís; A. Y. Palacios-Enriquez; J. M. Esparza Schulz; A. Arrieta

    2016-01-01

    Chlorophyll is a pyrrolic pigment with important optical properties, which is the reason it has been studied for many years. Recently, interest has been rising with respect to this molecule because of its outstanding physicochemical properties, particularly applicable to the design and development of luminescent materials, hybrid sensor systems, and photodynamic therapy devices for the treatment of cancer cells and bacteria. More recently, our research group has been finding evidence for the ...

  3. Field Detection of Chlorophyll-a Concentration in the Sea Surface Layer by an Airborne Oceanographic Lidar

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    An airborne oceanographic lidar, with a frequency-tripled Q-switched Nd: YAG laser of 355 nm, has been designed to measure chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration in the sea surface layer by the Ocean Remote Sensing Institute, OUC. The field experiment was carried out in the bay which is located south of the Liaodong Peninsula on the 10th of September 2005. After the flight, the raw data were processed and analyzed by the fluorescence-to-Raman ratio method with seawater attenuation coefficients calculated from signal profiles. The results of Chl-a concentration measurements by lidar are shown. The measurements in clear sea water were also compared with those of Chl-a concentration by a Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS).

  4. Feasibility of U-curve method to select the regularization parameter for fluorescence diffuse optical tomography in phantom and small animal studies

    OpenAIRE

    Chamorro-Servent, Judit; Aguirre, Juan; Ripoll, Jorge; Vaquero, Juan José; Desco, Manuel

    2011-01-01

    When dealing with ill-posed problems such as fluorescence diffuse optical tomography (fDOT) the choice of the regularization parameter is extremely important for computing a reliable reconstruction. Several automatic methods for the selection of the regularization parameter have been introduced over the years and their performance depends on the particular inverse problem. Herein a U-curve-based algorithm for the selection of regularization parameter has been applied for the first time to fDO...

  5. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, East US, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  6. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, OSU DB, 0.0125 degrees, West US

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua satellite. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  7. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.025 degrees, Pacific Ocean, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  8. Chlorophyll-a, Terra MODIS, OSU DB, 0.0125 degrees, West US, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Terra satellite. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  9. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Indonesia

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  10. Chlorophyll-a, Aqua MODIS, NPP, 0.0125 degrees, Gulf of Mexico, EXPERIMENTAL

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration data from NASA's Aqua Spacecraft. Measurements are gathered by the Moderate Resolution Imaging...

  11. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis using fundamental parameter approach of Catha edulis and other related plant samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaltout, Abdallah A.; Moharram, Mohammed A.; Mostafa, Nasser Y.

    2012-01-01

    This work is the first attempt to quantify trace elements in the Catha edulis plant (Khat) with a fundamental parameter approach. C. edulis is a famous drug plant in east Africa and Arabian Peninsula. We have previously confirmed that hydroxyapatite represents one of the main inorganic compounds in the leaves and stalks of C. edulis. Comparable plant leaves from basil, mint and green tea were included in the present investigation as well as trifolium leaves were included as a non-related plant. The elemental analyses of the plants were done by Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) spectroscopy. Standard-less quantitative WDXRF analysis was carried out based on the fundamental parameter approaches. According to the standard-less analysis algorithms, there is an essential need for an accurate determination of the amount of organic material in the sample. A new approach, based on the differential thermal analysis, was successfully used for the organic material determination. The obtained results based on this approach were in a good agreement with the commonly used methods. Depending on the developed method, quantitative analysis results of eighteen elements including; Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Na, Ni, Mg, Mn, P, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti and Zn were obtained for each plant. The results of the certified reference materials of green tea (NCSZC73014, China National Analysis Center for Iron and Steel, Beijing, China) confirmed the validity of the proposed method.

  12. Estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Zhujiang Estuary from SeaWiFS data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Chen Chuqun(陈楚群); Shi Ping(施平); Magnus Larson; Lennart Jonsson

    2002-01-01

    The chlorophyll-a concentration is generally overestimated for the southem China coastal waters if the default algorithm of the SeaDAS is employed. An algorithm is developed for retrieval of chlorophyll-a concentration in the Zhujiang Estuary, Guangdong Province, China, by using simulated reflectance data. The simulated reflectance is calculated corresponding to the SeaWiFS wavelength bands, via a general model by inputting measured water components, I.e., the suspended sediment,chlorophyll-a, and yellow substance (DOC) concentration data of 130 samples. Empirical relationships of the chlorophyll-a concentration to 240 different band combinations are investigated based on the simulated reflectance data, and the band combination, R5R6/R3R4, is found to be the optimum one for the development of an algorithm valid for the Zhujiang Estuary. This algorithm is then employed to determine the chlorophyll-a concentration from SeaWiFS data. The estimated concentrations have a better accuracy than those obtained from the SeaDAS default algorithm when comnpared with sea truth data. The new algorithm is demonstrated to work well and is used to derive a series of image maps of the chlorophyll-a concentration distribution for the Zhujiang Estuary and adjacent coastal areas.

  13. Comparison of green and variegated foliage plant species based on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters under different light intensities

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    To compare green and variegated foliage plants namely; Hedera helix, Ardisia pusilla and Scindapsus aureus were treated under three different light intensities (2, 10 and 20 micro mol-m-2-s-1) using florescent lights for three months, and photosynthetic characteristics and chlorophyll content were measured. IMAGING-PAM chlorophyll fluorescence system was used to determine photosynthetic characteristics. The results showed that Fv/Fm (maximal PS-II quantum yield) and Y (II) (effective PS-II quantum yield) values were lower in variegated species compared to those in green species at 2 micro mol-m-2-s-1 light intensity. Although, Fv/Fm and Y (II) values in variegated S. aureus was lower than variegated H. helix, but variegated S. aureus survived and Hedera helix plants died after low light treatment. In contrast, Fv/Fm and Y (II) values were increased in green and variegated species with increasing the light intensity, except Fv/Fm value for variegated S. aureus which was slightly decreased at 20 micro mol-m-2-s-1 light intensity. The ETR (electron transport rate) value was also lower in both green and variegated species at 2 micro mol-m-2-s-1 intensity. ETR values saturated in green and variegated plants with increasing the light intensity. Higher level of chlorophyll was obtained in green species compared to variegated species for both low and high light intensity treatments. Chlorophyll content in green species decreased at 20 micro mol-m-2-s-1 light intensity, whereas in variegated species, chlorophyll content increased with increasing the light intensities. The results of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters showed that especially low light intensity created stress condition in variegated foliage plants compared to green plants, and affected the normal growth and development. (author)

  14. Analysis of MERIS Reflectance Algorithms for Estimating Chlorophyll-a Concentration in a Brazilian Reservoir

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pétala B. Augusto-Silva

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll-a (chl-a is a central water quality parameter that has been estimated through remote sensing bio-optical models. This work evaluated the performance of three well established reflectance based bio-optical algorithms to retrieve chl-a from in situ hyperspectral remote sensing reflectance datasets collected during three field campaigns in the Funil reservoir (Rio de Janeiro, Brazil. A Monte Carlo simulation was applied for all the algorithms to achieve the best calibration. The Normalized Difference Chlorophyll Index (NDCI got the lowest error (17.85%. The in situ hyperspectral dataset was used to simulate the Ocean Land Color Instrument (OLCI spectral bands by applying its spectral response function. Therefore, we evaluated its applicability to monitor water quality in tropical turbid inland waters using algorithms developed for MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS data. The application of OLCI simulated spectral bands to the algorithms generated results similar to the in situ hyperspectral: an error of 17.64% was found for NDCI. Thus, OLCI data will be suitable for inland water quality monitoring using MERIS reflectance based bio-optical algorithms.

  15. Temporal variation of surface chlorophyll a in the Romanian near-shore waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D. VASILIU

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll a (Chl a dynamics in the near-shore waters of the NW Black Sea was investigated between 2002 and 2010 in the Mamaia Bay (north of Constanta, Romania in relation to some physical-chemical parameters. Chl a ranged from values below detection limit (0.17 μg.l–1 to 76.13 μg.l–1, and showed large temporal variability (CV = 142.3%, strongly related to the Danube’s discharges, meteorological conditions, and anthropogenic pressures. Seasonally, Chl a showed a winter/early spring maximum, sometimes followed by a stronger one in April/early May, closely linked to the Danube’s higher discharges in spring. After significantly lower concentrations in late spring/early summer, Chl a exhibited its strongest maximum in summer (July-August, followed by another one in autumn (late September–October. Interannual variation of Chl a seems to be controlled by the hydrometeorological conditions in summer. Thus, the highest annual Chl a means were observed in 2006 (8.56 ± 8.35 μg.l–1 and 2010 (9.20 ± 11.72 μg.l -1, when, also, the summer Chl a concentrations were maximal due to the large riverine discharges. The lowest annual Chl a mean was observed in 2004 (4.57 ± 9.81μg.l–1, closely linked to minimal summer Chl a resulted from a strong P limitation during summertime.

  16. Variation of phytoplankton biomass as Chlorophyll a in Banglang Reservoir, Yala Province

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Reungchai Tansakul2

    2008-03-01

    Full Text Available Environmental variables and phytoplankton biomass as chlorophyll a in Banglang Reservoir were investigated. Phytoplankton were collected monthly from May 2000 to April 2001 from four sampling sites including the inflow from Pattani River (from Betong District, the inflow site from Balahala Forest, the middle of the reservoir, and at the spillway that helds the water before drain. Samples were taken at three levels: water surface,10 meter, and 30 meter depth. Physicochemical parameters were recorded such as nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorus, Secchi depth, alkalinity, temperature, pH, and turbidity. The results show that the average values of phytoplankton biomass at 10 meter depth were higher than that of the other depths. The maximum phytoplankton biomass was found at 10 meter depth at the inflow from the Balahala Forest sampling site in August, with a value of 12.57 mg/m3. The minimum value was found at 30 meter depth in the middle of the reservoir in July. Factors affecting the variation of phytoplankton biomass in the Banglang Reservior were ammonia, alkalinity and turbidity.

  17. Empirical and semi-empirical interpolation of L X-ray fluorescence parameters for elements in the atomic range 50≤Z≤92

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, interpolations (empirical and semi-empirical) of L sub-shell fluorescence yield and L shell Coster–Kronig transition probability values and the measured L X-ray production cross-sections, intensity ratios and L sub-shell fluorescence yield values of elements have been performed in the range of 50≤Z≤92. In this experimental setup, two sources (50 mCi 55Fe and 50 mCi 241Am) were used. L X-rays emitted by samples were counted by an Ultra-LEGe detector with a resolution of 150 eV at 5.9 keV. - Highlights: • This work was performed for the elements having the atomic numbers between 50 and 92. • Experimental L-shell fluorescence parameters were investigated. • New fit values of L subshell fluorescence and Coster–Kronig yield were presented

  18. Influence of different water-ethanol solvent systems on the spectroscopic and physico-chemical properties of the macrocyclic compounds pheophytin and chlorophyll a

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work focus on the influence of solvent on the photophysical properties of chlorophyll a and pheophytin. Both compounds are related to the photosynthesis process and are considered prototypes of photosensitizers in Photodynamic Therapy. Fluorescence measurements were developed using water/ethanol mixtures at different compositions, since both solvents could be employed in biological applications. The spectroscopic properties of these compounds undergo profound changes depending on water content in the ethanol due to auto-aggregation processes. The major hydrophobicity and the lower dielectric constant of ethanol when compared with water precluded significantly the auto-aggregation process of these compounds. (author)

  19. LASER BIOLOGY AND MEDICINE: Application of laser fluorimetry for determining the influence of a single amino-acid substitution on the individual photophysical parameters of a fluorescent form of a fluorescent protein mRFP1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banishev, A. A.; Vrzheshch, E. P.; Shirshin, E. A.

    2009-03-01

    Individual photophysical parameters of the chromophore of a fluorescent protein mRFP1 and its two mutants (amino-acid substitution at position 66 - mRFP1/ Q66C and mRFP1/Q66S proteins) are determined. For this purpose, apart from conventional methods of fluorimetry and spectrophotometry, nonlinear laser fluorimetry is used. It is shown that the individual extinction coefficients of the chromophore of proteins correlate (correlation coefficient above 0.9) with the volume of the substituted amino-acid residue at position 66 (similar to the positions of the absorption, fluorescence excitation and emission maxima).

  20. An Excel tool for deriving key photosynthetic parameters from combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellasio, Chandra; Beerling, David J; Griffiths, Howard

    2016-06-01

    Combined photosynthetic gas exchange and modulated fluorometres are widely used to evaluate physiological characteristics associated with phenotypic and genotypic variation, whether in response to genetic manipulation or resource limitation in natural vegetation or crops. After describing relatively simple experimental procedures, we present the theoretical background to the derivation of photosynthetic parameters, and provide a freely available Excel-based fitting tool (EFT) that will be of use to specialists and non-specialists alike. We use data acquired in concurrent variable fluorescence-gas exchange experiments, where A/Ci and light-response curves have been measured under ambient and low oxygen. From these data, the EFT derives light respiration, initial PSII (photosystem II) photochemical yield, initial quantum yield for CO2 fixation, fraction of incident light harvested by PSII, initial quantum yield for electron transport, electron transport rate, rate of photorespiration, stomatal limitation, Rubisco (ribulose 1·5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase) rate of carboxylation and oxygenation, Rubisco specificity factor, mesophyll conductance to CO2 diffusion, light and CO2 compensation point, Rubisco apparent Michaelis-Menten constant, and Rubisco CO2 -saturated carboxylation rate. As an example, a complete analysis of gas exchange data on tobacco plants is provided. We also discuss potential measurement problems and pitfalls, and suggest how such empirical data could subsequently be used to parameterize predictive photosynthetic models. PMID:25923517

  1. Deriving C4 photosynthetic parameters from combined gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence using an Excel tool: theory and practice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bellasio, Chandra; Beerling, David J; Griffiths, Howard

    2016-06-01

    The higher photosynthetic potential of C4 plants has led to extensive research over the past 50 years, including C4 -dominated natural biomes, crops such as maize, or for evaluating the transfer of C4 traits into C3 lineages. Photosynthetic gas exchange can be measured in air or in a 2% Oxygen mixture using readily available commercial gas exchange and modulated PSII fluorescence systems. Interpretation of these data, however, requires an understanding (or the development) of various modelling approaches, which limit the use by non-specialists. In this paper we present an accessible summary of the theory behind the analysis and derivation of C4 photosynthetic parameters, and provide a freely available Excel Fitting Tool (EFT), making rigorous C4 data analysis accessible to a broader audience. Outputs include those defining C4 photochemical and biochemical efficiency, the rate of photorespiration, bundle sheath conductance to CO2 diffusion and the in vivo biochemical constants for PEP carboxylase. The EFT compares several methodological variants proposed by different investigators, allowing users to choose the level of complexity required to interpret data. We provide a complete analysis of gas exchange data on maize (as a model C4 organism and key global crop) to illustrate the approaches, their analysis and interpretation. © 2015 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. PMID:26286697

  2. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis using fundamental parameter approach of Catha edulis and other related plant samples

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is the first attempt to quantify trace elements in the Catha edulis plant (Khat) with a fundamental parameter approach. C. edulis is a famous drug plant in east Africa and Arabian Peninsula. We have previously confirmed that hydroxyapatite represents one of the main inorganic compounds in the leaves and stalks of C. edulis. Comparable plant leaves from basil, mint and green tea were included in the present investigation as well as trifolium leaves were included as a non-related plant. The elemental analyses of the plants were done by Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) spectroscopy. Standard-less quantitative WDXRF analysis was carried out based on the fundamental parameter approaches. According to the standard-less analysis algorithms, there is an essential need for an accurate determination of the amount of organic material in the sample. A new approach, based on the differential thermal analysis, was successfully used for the organic material determination. The obtained results based on this approach were in a good agreement with the commonly used methods. Depending on the developed method, quantitative analysis results of eighteen elements including; Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Na, Ni, Mg, Mn, P, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti and Zn were obtained for each plant. The results of the certified reference materials of green tea (NCSZC73014, China National Analysis Center for Iron and Steel, Beijing, China) confirmed the validity of the proposed method. - Highlights: ► Quantitative analysis of Catha edulis was carried out using standardless WDXRF. ► Differential thermal analysis was used for determination of the loss of ignition. ► The existence of hydroxyapatite in Catha edulis plant has been confirmed. ► The CRM results confirmed the validity of the developed method.

  3. Wavelength dispersive X-ray fluorescence analysis using fundamental parameter approach of Catha edulis and other related plant samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaltout, Abdallah A., E-mail: shaltout_a@hotmail.com [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, El Behooth Str., 12622 Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Faculty of science, Taif University, 21974 Taif, P.O. Box 888 (Saudi Arabia); Moharram, Mohammed A. [Spectroscopy Department, Physics Division, National Research Center, El Behooth Str., 12622 Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Mostafa, Nasser Y. [Faculty of science, Taif University, 21974 Taif, P.O. Box 888 (Saudi Arabia); Chemistry Department, Faculty of Science, Suez Canal University, Ismailia (Egypt)

    2012-01-15

    This work is the first attempt to quantify trace elements in the Catha edulis plant (Khat) with a fundamental parameter approach. C. edulis is a famous drug plant in east Africa and Arabian Peninsula. We have previously confirmed that hydroxyapatite represents one of the main inorganic compounds in the leaves and stalks of C. edulis. Comparable plant leaves from basil, mint and green tea were included in the present investigation as well as trifolium leaves were included as a non-related plant. The elemental analyses of the plants were done by Wavelength Dispersive X-Ray Fluorescence (WDXRF) spectroscopy. Standard-less quantitative WDXRF analysis was carried out based on the fundamental parameter approaches. According to the standard-less analysis algorithms, there is an essential need for an accurate determination of the amount of organic material in the sample. A new approach, based on the differential thermal analysis, was successfully used for the organic material determination. The obtained results based on this approach were in a good agreement with the commonly used methods. Depending on the developed method, quantitative analysis results of eighteen elements including; Al, Br, Ca, Cl, Cu, Fe, K, Na, Ni, Mg, Mn, P, Rb, S, Si, Sr, Ti and Zn were obtained for each plant. The results of the certified reference materials of green tea (NCSZC73014, China National Analysis Center for Iron and Steel, Beijing, China) confirmed the validity of the proposed method. - Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Quantitative analysis of Catha edulis was carried out using standardless WDXRF. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer Differential thermal analysis was used for determination of the loss of ignition. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The existence of hydroxyapatite in Catha edulis plant has been confirmed. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The CRM results confirmed the validity of the developed method.

  4. Fluorescent intercalator displacement replacement (FIDR) assay: determination of relative thermodynamic and kinetic parameters in triplex formation—a case study using triplex-forming LNAs

    OpenAIRE

    Sau, Sujay P.; Kumar, Pawan; Sharma, Pawan K.; Hrdlicka, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) are the most commonly used approach for site-specific targeting of double stranded DNA (dsDNA). Important parameters describing triplex formation include equilibrium binding constants (K eq) and association/dissociation rate constants (k on and k off). The ‘fluorescent intercalator displacement replacement’ (FIDR) assay is introduced herein as an operationally simple approach toward determination of these parameters for triplexes involving TC-motif TFOs...

  5. Relationships between nutrients and chlorophyll a concentration in the international Alma Gol Wetland, Iran

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saeed Balali

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the relationships between nutrients and chlorophyll, a concentration in the International Alma Gol Wetland. Chlorophyll a is the major photosynthetic pigment in lots of phytoplanktons and has been used as a trophy index in aquatic ecosystems. Water samples were collected fortnightly from five stations in the wetland during summer and autumn. Chlorophyll-a ranged between 4.38 to 156.55 mg/m3, sulfate ranged between 138 to 190 mg/l, total alkalinity ranged between 80 to 280 mg/l, silica ranged between 3.80 to 35.00 mg/l, phosphate ranged between 0.02 to 3.70 mg/l, ammonia ranged between 0.10 to 11.90 mg/l, nitrate ranged between 0.01 to 2.75 mg/l and nitrite ranged between 0.01 to 0.39 mg/l. There was a significant correlation between chlorophyll a and nitrate, nitrite and ammonia but there was no significant correlation between chlorophyll a and silica, total alkalinity, sulfate and phosphorus.

  6. On the vertical distribution of the chlorophyll a concentration in the Mediterranean Sea: a basin-scale and seasonal approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lavigne, H.; D'Ortenzio, F.; Ribera D'Alcalà, M.; Claustre, H.; Sauzède, R.; Gacic, M.

    2015-08-01

    The distribution of the chlorophyll a concentration ([Chl a]) in the Mediterranean Sea, mainly obtained from satellite surface observations or from scattered in situ experiments, is updated by analyzing a database of fluorescence profiles converted into [Chl a]. The database, which includes 6790 fluorescence profiles from various origins, was processed with a specific quality control procedure. To ensure homogeneity between the different data sources, 65 % of fluorescence profiles have been intercalibrated on the basis of their concomitant satellite [Chl a] estimation. The climatological pattern of [Chl a] vertical profiles in four key sites of the Mediterranean Sea has been analyzed. Climatological results confirm previous findings over the range of existing [Chl a] values and throughout the principal Mediterranean trophic regimes. They also provide new insights into the seasonal variability in the shape of the vertical [Chl a] profile, inaccessible through remote-sensing observations. An analysis based on the recognition of the general shape of the fluorescence profile was also performed. Although the shape of [Chl a] vertical distribution characterized by a deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM) is ubiquitous during summer, different forms are observed during winter, thus suggesting that factors affecting the vertical distribution of the biomass are complex and highly variable. The [Chl a] spatial distribution in the Mediterranean Sea mimics, on smaller scales, what is observed in the global ocean. As already evidenced by analyzing satellite surface observations, midlatitude- and subtropical-like phytoplankton dynamics coexist in the Mediterranean Sea. Moreover, the Mediterranean DCM variability appears to be characterized by patterns already observed on the global scale.

  7. Chlorophyll a and chlorophyllide a inside liposomes made of saturated and unsaturated lipids: A possible impact of the lipids microenvironment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petrović Sanja M.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work was to examine a possible impact of liposomes lipids microenvironment, dictated by a chemical composition of the fatty acid branches, on incorporation and spectral behaviour of chlorophyll a, and its derivative, chlorophyllide a inside small liposomes. The liposomes with the incorporated chlorophylls were made of dimirystoyl phosphatidylcholine (DMPC, and unsaturated phosphatidylcholine (PC, containing significant fractions of unsaturated fatty acid moieties. In order to achieve the goal, both absorption and fluorescence polarization spectroscopy were applied, and the obtained data for the two incorporated pigments, which play a role of molecular sensors, were compared. In addition, quercetin, a well-known antioxidant, was used as the (chlorophylls emission quencher, in order to estimate the type of environment sensed by the two pigments for the two liposomes that differ in chemical composition. The results, based primarily on fluorescence polarization data have shown that the emissions as well as the emission quenching were notably affected by a change in the lipids’ chemical composition. That is an indirect proof of the impact of the liposomes microenvironment on the incorporated pigments’ spectral behaviour.[ Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-34012 i br. OI-172044

  8. Determination of double decker sanwich structured La—substituted chlorophyll a by EXAFS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    W.Chen; Z.Wei; F.Hong; Y.Tao; G.Zhao; J.Yang; S.lkeda; J.Jiang; T.Hu

    2001-01-01

    As a representative naural porphyrin derivative,it is interesting to know the chemical form of lanthanide in chlorophyll a.We select the natural fern dicranopteris dichotoma,the most lanthanide-concentrated plant known,to isolate the chlorophyll a for our study. It is found by EXAFS that lanthanum substutes in the magnesium position in chorophyll and coordinates with the porphyrin ring.The lanthanum is seen to have a similar coordination structure to a sandwich-type lanthanide complex,with the La surrounded by eight nitrogen atoms from two porphyrin rings with average La-N bond length of 2.65A.

  9. Determination of chlorophyll a and total phosphorus abundance in organic manured fish ponds

    OpenAIRE

    Kelvin M. Chanda; Confred G. Musuka

    2012-01-01

    An experiment was conducted for 6 weeks (between August and September 2010) with 4treatments (T1: poultry manure, T2: cattle manure, T3: poultry and cattle manure and T4: control-nomanure) assigned to 8 concrete ponds at random to determine chlorophyll a and total phosphorusabundance in organic manured fish ponds. Results of the study suggest that T1, T2, and T3 had an effecton chlorophyll a and total phosphorus abundance in organic manured ponds. The final mean average forchlorophyll a range...

  10. Chlorophyll a reconstruction from in situ measurements: 2. Marked carbon uptake decrease in the last century

    OpenAIRE

    Fründt, B.; Dippner, J.W.; Schulz-Bull, D. E.; Joanna J Waniek

    2015-01-01

    A chlorophyll a hindcast in the Madeira Basin from 1871 to 2008 was used to analyze the long-term variability in the oligotrophic, subtropical gyres in relation to the climate change of the last century. The deep chlorophyll maximum (DCM), as dominant pattern of the chlorophyll a field, showed a fast decrease in its strength in the 1940s. An absolute minimum was reached between 1967 and 1973 when no DCM established with a recovering to the end of the time series. Long-term variability of the ...

  11. An estimate of the environmental status of Lebanese littoral waters using nutrients and chlorophyll-a as indicators

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the aim to estimate the environmental status and to detect the signs of eutrophication in the Lebanese coastal waters using nutrients and chlorophyll-a as indicators, surface water analysis was run monthly for a period of 12 months, from March 2005 till February 2006, along 18 stations that extend from Tripoli in the north, to Naqoura in the south. Physico-chemical and biological parameters of the water samples were also studied. During this period, the temperature followed its normal cycle usually noted in the Lebanese waters; whereas salinity varied spatially and temporally presenting sometimes low values due to the rivers inputs. Significant fluctuations of nutrients and chl-a concentrations were observed in most of the stations and during year cycle. High levels of nitrate (30.68μM/L) were observed at stations located near river and sewers, whereas high levels of orthophosphates (5.17 μM/L) were detected in zones around the Selaata factory. However the high values of phosphate and nitrate at some sites have caused an important increase in the primary production as shown by high chlorophyll-a concentrations (15.02 mg/m3). According to the results and in relation with continental input and the first trophic level which react to this man-made disturbance, stations can be divided into 5 categories: reference (mean values of P-PO4 <0.15 μM/L, N-NO2 < 0.05 μM/L, N-NO3 < 0.34 μM/L and chl-a < 0.12 mg/m3), slightly enriched, enriched indirectly by river input or phosphorus input, directly by river input and directly by sewage input stations. Three stations are classified as moderately eutrophied whereas the other stations present a weak eutrophication. The principal component analysis confirms this result by showing the factors influencing on the various parameters and determining the existing correlation among them. Consequently, the concentrations of nutrients and chlorophyll-a biomass can be considered good indicators to assess the environmental status of

  12. Ultraviolet Fluorescence LiDAR (UFL) as a Measurement Tool for Water Quality Parameters in Turbid Lake Conditions

    OpenAIRE

    Heiko Balzter; Viktor R. Tóth; Virginia Nicolás-Perea; Hajnalka Horváth; Mátyás Présing; András Zlinszky; Attila W. Kovács; Igor Goncharenko; Pelevin, Vadim V.; Stephanie C.J. Palmer

    2013-01-01

    Despite longstanding contributions to oceanography, similar use of fluorescence light detection and ranging (LiDAR) in lake settings is not routine. The potential for ship-mounted, multispectral Ultraviolet Fluorescence LiDAR (UFL) to provide rapid, high-resolution data in variably turbid and productive lake conditions are investigated here through a series of laboratory tank and field measurements carried out on Lake Balaton, Hungary. UFL data, calibrated empirically to a set of coinciding c...

  13. Cross-system comparison of factors influencing chlorophyll-a concentration in Oregon estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water column chlorophyll-a (chla) is a proxy for phytoplankton biomass and is often used as a biological response indicator of eutrophication. Although watershed nutrient loading may influence chla concentration in estuaries, factors such as freshwater inflow, residence time, and...

  14. Effect of different temperature regimes on the chlorophyll a concentration in four species of Antarctic macroalgae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dhargalkar, V.K.

    from beneath the sea-ice from the coast of the Vestfold Hills, Antarctica were cultured under different temperature regimes (- 4, -1.8, +4, +12, +20°C). The algae were cultured at each of these temperatures and Chlorophyll a concentrations of the algae...

  15. PREDICTING CONCENTRATION OF TOTAL PHOSPHORUS AND CHLOROPHYLL 'A' IN A LAKE WITH SHORT HYDRAULIC RESIDENCE TIME

    Science.gov (United States)

    The relationship between total phosphorus and chlorophyll a concentration was determined for Skinner Lake, Indiana over an annual cycle in 1978-79. Total nitrogen: total phosphorus ratios in the epilimnion ranged from 19 to 220 suggesting a phosphorus-dependent algal yield in the...

  16. Chlorophyll-a, Orbview-2 SeaWiFS, 0.0125 degrees, West US

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NOAA CoastWatch distributes chlorophyll-a concentration images from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on the Orbview-2 satellite. Because data is...

  17. Influence of a tropical cyclone on chlorophyll-a concentration in the Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Subrahmanyam, B; Rao, K.H.; Rao, N.S.; Murty, V.S.N.

    The effect of a tropical cyclone on the variation of phytoplankton biomass in terms of surface chlorophyll-a is brought out based on satellite observations and mixed layer model simulations in the Arabian Sea during 21 May-3 June 2001. Along...

  18. Chlorophyll-a, Orbview-2 SeaWiFS, 0.1 degrees, Global

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — NASA GSFC Ocean Color Web distributes science-quality chlorophyll-a concentration data from the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) on the Orbview-2...

  19. Effect of discharge on the chlorophyll a distribution in the tidally-influenced Potomac River

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bennett, J.P.; Woodward, J.W.; Shultz, D.J.

    1986-01-01

    In the tidal Potomac River, high river discharges during the spring are associated with high chlorophyll a concentrations in the following in the following summer, assuming that summertime light and temperature conditions are favorable. Spring floods deliver large loads of particulate N and P to the tidal river. This particulate N and P could be mineralized by bacteria to inorganic N and P and released to the water column where it is available for phytoplankton use during summertime. However, during the study period relatively low concentrations of chlorophyll a (less than 50 ??g l-1 occurred in the tidal river if average monthly discharge during July or August exceeded 200 m3s-1. Discharge and other conditions combined to produce conditions favorable for nuisance levels of chlorophyll a (greater than 100 ??g l-1 approximately one year out of four. Chlorophyll a maxima occurred in the Potomac River transition zone and estuary during late winter (dinoflagellates) and spring (diatoms). Typical seasonal peak concentrations were achieved at discharges as high as 970 m3 s-1, but sustained discharges greater than 1,100 m3 s-1 retarded development. Optimum growth conditions occurred following runoff events of 10 to 15 d duration which produced transit times to the transition zone of 7 to 10 d. Wet years with numerous moderate-sized runoff events, such as 1980, tend to produce greater biomass in the transition zone and estuary than do dry years such as 1981. ?? 1986 Estuarine Research Federation.

  20. Effect of modified montmorillonite and polyacrylamide on growth parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence of corn in Cd- and Pb-polluted soils

    OpenAIRE

    Hosseini, H; H. Shirani; M. Hamidpour; Shamshiri, H; H. Dashti; R. Ranjbar-Karimi

    2012-01-01

    Heavy metals decrease plant growth due to disorder in enzyme activities and destroying of protein structure. Since corn is an important crop in human and poultry nutrition, in this greenhouse experiment, the effect of modified polyacrylamide and montmorillonite on growth parameters and chlorophyll fluorescence of corn (Zea mays L.) grown in two polluted soils with Cd and Pb (sandy and sandy loam) was investigated. This experiment was performed using completely randomized design with four repl...

  1. Determination of chlorophyll a and total phosphorus abundance in organic manured fish ponds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kelvin M. Chanda

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available An experiment was conducted for 6 weeks (between August and September 2010 with 4treatments (T1: poultry manure, T2: cattle manure, T3: poultry and cattle manure and T4: control-nomanure assigned to 8 concrete ponds at random to determine chlorophyll a and total phosphorusabundance in organic manured fish ponds. Results of the study suggest that T1, T2, and T3 had an effecton chlorophyll a and total phosphorus abundance in organic manured ponds. The final mean average forchlorophyll a ranged from 0.0105mg/m3 to 0.045mg/m3 and that of total phosphorus ranged from0.024mg/50mL to 0.522mg/50mL. Chlorophyll a and phosphorus were positively correlated with acoefficient of 0.92 and it was significant (p ≤ 0.05. However, weekly performance of chlorophyll a andtotal phosphorus was higher in T3 compared to other treatments. The treatments also showeddifferences in the number of plankton species available. Phytoplankton species in T3 increased from 888in week three to 933 in week six. However, the zooplankton species reduced from 10 in week three to 4in week six compared to other treatments. These results indicate that animal manure varied ininfluencing the production of chlorophyll a, planktons and phosphorus. The variation may be attributed tofeed nutritive value of the animals to which they were fed. Farmers should therefore be encouraged touse a combination of poultry and cattle manure to obtain maximum benefits in increasing chlorophyll aand total phosphorus.

  2. Decomposing the effects of ocean warming on chlorophyll a concentrations into physically and biologically driven contributions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recently compiled observational data suggest a substantial decline in the global median chlorophyll a concentration over the 20th century, a trend that appears to be linked to ocean warming. Several modelling studies have considered changes in the ocean’s physical structure as a possible cause, while experimental work supports a biological mechanism, namely an observed increase in zooplankton grazing rate that outpaces phytoplankton production at higher temperatures. Here, we present transient simulations derived from a coupled ocean general circulation and carbon cycle model forced by atmospheric fields under unabated anthropogenic global warming (IPCC SRES A1FI scenario). The simulations account for both physical and biological mechanisms, and can reproduce about one quarter of the observed chlorophyll a decline during the 20th century, when using realistically parameterized temperature sensitivity of zooplankton metabolism (Q10 between 2 and 4) and phytoplankton growth (Q10 ∼ 1.9). Therefore, we have employed and re-calibrated the standard ecosystem model which assumes a lower temperature sensitivity of zooplankton grazing (Q10 = 1.1049) by re-scaling phytoplankton growth rates and zooplankton grazing rates. Our model projects a global chlorophyll a decline of >50% by the end of the 21st century. While phytoplankton abundance and chlorophyll a experience pronounced negative effects, primary production and zooplankton concentrations are less sensitive to ocean warming. Although changes in physical structure play an important role, much of the simulated change in chlorophyll a and productivity is related to the uneven temperature sensitivity of the marine ecosystem. (letter)

  3. Changes in chlorophyll content and fluorescence and fruit yield contributing traits in different genotypes of strawberry (Fragaria x ananassa DUCH.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elżbieta Kaczmarska

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Analysis of changes in chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in strawberry leaves was based on a field experiment performed in the years 2009–2010. Ten genotypes including 5 cultivars: ‘Kent’, ‘Teresa’, ‘Senga Sengana’, ‘Chandler’ and the breeding clone 1387 as well as their inbred progeny, were the object of the study. During the experiment the following indicators were evaluated: chlorophyll a and b content in fresh leaf mass as well as fluorescence parameters: minimum (F0 and maximum fluorescence yield (Fm, photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm, actual quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (Y, minimum (F0’ and maximum efficiency of fluorescence (Fm’ in the light, coefficient of photochemical (qP and non-photo- chemical (qN fluorescence quenching. In this work, we also examined the effect of repeated inbreeding on strawberry fruit yield and yield components. The analysis of changes of these parameters showed that inbreeding caused a reaction in all tested cultivars. In all inbred progeny, chlorophyll a and b content decreased compared to the cultivars. Generally, the photoche- mical efficiency of photosystem II (Fv/Fm and the parameter ΔF/ Fm’ were not affected by strong inbreeding. In analyzing the values of the coefficients qP and qN, it has been observed that changes in their values depend on the sensitivity of the examined genotypes to self-pollination. The functioning of PS II is the most sensitive indicator of the effect of various factors on plants and is useful, among others, in breeding to select plants with a required genotype. The yield – determining features such as: fruit yield per plant, weight of single fruit, number of fruit per plant and weight of leaves per plant in S3 generation, were lower as compared with parental forms.

  4. Chemical Effect on K Shell X-ray Fluorescence Parameters and Radiative Auger Ratios of Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn Complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cengiz, Erhan; Bıyıklıoğlu, Zekeriya; Küp Aylıkcı, Nuray; Aylıkcı, Volkan; Apaydın, Gökhan; Tıraşoğlu, Engin; Kantekin, Halit

    2010-04-01

    The production cross-sections, intensity ratios, and radiative Auger intensity ratios of Co, Ni, Cu, and Zn elements in different complexes were measured. The chemical effects on the K shell fluorescence parameters and the radiative Auger intensity ratios of these elements were investigated and the changes in these parameters were interpreted according to the charge transfer process. The samples were excited by 59.5 keV γ-rays from a 241Am annular radioactive source. K X-rays emitted by samples were counted by an Ultra-LEGe detector with a resolution of 150 eV at 5.9 keV.

  5. Determination of Cu and Zn elements in lead brass using fundamental parameter method by X-ray fluorescence non-destructive analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    According to fundamental parameter method theory, gained the key parameters such as mass-absorption coefficients and excitation factors and wrote the calculation procedure. In experiment, a series of lead brass alloy standard samples were analyzed with an energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectrometer and calculated the contents of Cu, Zn of the samples via the fundamental parameter calculation procedure. The result shows the fundamental parameter method can overcome the absorption-enhancement effect between Cu and Zn elements well. The measured contents of Cu and Zn is respectively 54%-64% and 33%-45%, the precision of the method is 0.10% and 0.15% respectively for Cu and Zn. (authors)

  6. Spectral Feature Analysis for Quantitative Estimation of Cyanobacteria Chlorophyll-A

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lin, Yi; Ye, Zhanglin; Zhang, Yugan; Yu, Jie

    2016-06-01

    In recent years, lake eutrophication caused a large of Cyanobacteria bloom which not only brought serious ecological disaster but also restricted the sustainable development of regional economy in our country. Chlorophyll-a is a very important environmental factor to monitor water quality, especially for lake eutrophication. Remote sensed technique has been widely utilized in estimating the concentration of chlorophyll-a by different kind of vegetation indices and monitoring its distribution in lakes, rivers or along coastline. For each vegetation index, its quantitative estimation accuracy for different satellite data might change since there might be a discrepancy of spectral resolution and channel center between different satellites. The purpose this paper is to analyze the spectral feature of chlorophyll-a with hyperspectral data (totally 651 bands) and use the result to choose the optimal band combination for different satellites. The analysis method developed here in this study could be useful to recognize and monitor cyanobacteria bloom automatically and accrately. In our experiment, the reflectance (from 350nm to 1000nm) of wild cyanobacteria in different consistency (from 0 to 1362.11ug/L) and the corresponding chlorophyll-a concentration were measured simultaneously. Two kinds of hyperspectral vegetation indices were applied in this study: simple ratio (SR) and narrow band normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI), both of which consists of any two bands in the entire 651 narrow bands. Then multivariate statistical analysis was used to construct the linear, power and exponential models. After analyzing the correlation between chlorophyll-a and single band reflectance, SR, NDVI respetively, the optimal spectral index for quantitative estimation of cyanobacteria chlorophyll-a, as well corresponding central wavelength and band width were extracted. Results show that: Under the condition of water disturbance, SR and NDVI are both suitable for quantitative

  7. The effect of UV-B radiation on the chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of the husked and the naked oat

    OpenAIRE

    Elżbieta Skórska

    2013-01-01

    Naked oat variety of STH296 showed higher tolerance than traditional variety Bajka on short-term UV-B radiation (UV-BBE=1 1 kJ·m-2) on the stage of primary photosynthesis reaction recorded using chlorophyll fluorescence induction of the leaves.

  8. Vertical distribution of chlorophyll a concentration and phytoplankton community composition from in situ fluorescence profiles: a first database for the global ocean

    OpenAIRE

    R. Sauzède; Lavigne, H.; Claustre, H.; J. Uitz; C. Schmechtig; F. D'Ortenzio; Guinet, C.; Pesant, S.

    2015-01-01

    In vivo chlorophyll a fluorescence is a proxy of chlorophyll a concentration, and is one of the most frequently measured biogeochemical properties in the ocean. Thousands of profiles are available from historical databases and the integration of fluorescence sensors to autonomous platforms led to a significant increase of chlorophyll fluorescence profile acquisition. To our knowledge, this important source of environmental data has not yet been included in global analyses. A total o...

  9. The Characterization of Chlorophyll-A and Microalgae Isolation Process of Wastewater Collected at Sembrong Dam

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wellson, R.; Othman, N.; Matias-Peralta, H. M.

    2016-07-01

    Recently, there has been an increasing number of river water quality deterioration that has brought into water quality disruptions that entering dams including in Johor and one of them is occurred in Sembrong Dam in Johor. Sembrong Dam is a major water source for some 120,000 people in the districts of Kluang and parts of Batu Pahat. The quality of water in Sembrong should be well-monitored in ensuring the continuous distribution of clean and safe water supply to peoples. Based on the news reported by The Star news dated on 11 May 2015, the water bodies in Sembrong Dam are polluted by the algae blooms which has started to cause problems in treating water phase by clogging up the filters and causing the production to be reduced and finally resulting in frequent water disruptions to residents. Therefore, there is a need to study the water quality of the dam water prior to further water treatment. One of important characterizations is by measuring chlorophyll-a and the isolation of the dominant microalgae species in the water body in which they are able to indicate the level of water pollution. This paper presents the determination of chlorophyll-a and the isolation of microalgae strains collected from Sembrong Dam. Chlorophyll-a is a photosynthetic pigment present in all species of phytoplankton, including algae and in some photosynthetic bacteria, known as cyanobacteria. The method used in measuring the chlorophyll-a is based on the standard method of IS0 10 260. The average chlorophyll-a concentration measured at Sembrong Dam is 175.9 µg L-1 and it is responsible for the appearance of green color in the sample and it is categorized into hypereutrophic state which is highly polluted. The technique used for isolation of microalgae strains is traditional method which is by spreading the sample on agar. The pure isolate indicated that the genus Botryococcus is the dominant algae species which is characterized morphologically. Both chlorophyll-a and microalgae

  10. Application of Bayesian regularized BP neural network model for analysis of aquatic ecological data--A case study of chlorophyll-a prediction in Nanzui water area of Dongting Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Min; ZENG Guang-ming; XU Xin-yi; HUANG Guo-he; SUN Wei; JIANG Xiao-yun

    2005-01-01

    Bayesian regularized BP neural network(BRBPNN) technique was applied in the chlorophyll-a prediction of Nanzui water area in Dongting Lake. Through BP network interpolation method, the input and output samples of the network were obtained. After the selection of input variables using stepwise/multiple linear regression method in SPSS 11.0 software, the BRBPNN model was established between chlorophyll-a and environmental parameters, biological parameters. The achieved optimal network structure was 3-11-1 with the correlation coefficients and the mean square errors for the training set and the test set as 0.999 and 0.00078426, 0.981 and 0.0216 respectively. The sum of square weights between each input neuron and the hidden layer of optimal BRBPNN models of different structures indicated that the effect of individual input parameter on chlorophyll-a declined in the order of alga amount > secchi disc depth(SD) > electrical conductivity (EC) . Additionally, it also demonstrated that the contributions of these three factors were the maximal for the change of chlorophyll-a concentration, total phosphorus(TP) and total nitrogen(TN) were the minimal. All the results showed that BRBPNN model was capable of automated regularization parameter selection and thus it may ensure the excellent generation ability and robustness. Thus, this study laid the foundation for the application of BRBPNN model in the analysis of aquatic ecological data(chlorophyll-a prediction) and the explanation about the effective eutrophication treatment measures for Nanzui water area in Dongting Lake.

  11. Chlorophyll-a thin layers in the Magellan fjord system: The role of the water column stratification

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ríos, Francisco; Kilian, Rolf; Mutschke, Erika

    2016-08-01

    Fjord systems represent hotspots of primary productivity and organic carbon burial. However, the factors which control the primary production in mid-latitude fjords are poorly understood. In this context, results from the first fine-scale measurements of bio-oceanographic features in the water column of fjords associated with the Strait of Magellan are presented. A submersible fluorescence probe (FP) was used to measure the Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentration in situ, along with conductivity, temperature, hydrostatic pressure (depth) and dissolved oxygen (CTD-O2) of the water column. The Austral spring results of 14 FP-CTD-O2 profiles were used to define the vertical and horizontal patches of the fluorescent pigment distribution and their spatial relations with respect to the observed hydrographic features. Three zones with distinct water structures were defined. In all zones, the 'brown' spectral group (diatoms and dinoflagellates) predominated accounting for >80 wt% of the phytoplankton community. Thin layers with high Chl-a concentration were detected in 50% of the profiles. These layers harbored a substantial amount (30-65 wt%) of the phytoplankton biomass. Stratification was positively correlated to the occurrence of Chl-a thin layers. In stable and highly stratified water columns the integrated Chl-a concentration was higher and frequently located within thin layers whereas well mixed water columns displayed lower values and more homogeneous vertical distribution of Chl-a. These results indicate that mixing/stability processes are important factors accounting to the vertical distribution of Chl-a in Magellan fjords.

  12. Effect of chirality on cellular uptake, imaging and photodynamic therapy of photosensitizers derived from chlorophyll-a.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivatsan, Avinash; Pera, Paula; Joshi, Penny; Wang, Yanfang; Missert, Joseph R; Tracy, Erin C; Tabaczynski, Walter A; Yao, Rutao; Sajjad, Munawwar; Baumann, Heinz; Pandey, Ravindra K

    2015-07-01

    We have previously shown that the (124)I-analog of methyl 3-(1'-m-iodobenzyloxy) ethyl-3-devinyl-pyropheophorbide-a derived as racemic mixture from chlorophyll-a can be used for PET (positron emission tomography)-imaging in animal tumor models. On the other hand, as a non-radioactive analog, it showed excellent fluorescence and photodynamic therapy (PDT) efficacy. Thus, a single agent in a mixture of radioactive ((124)I-) and non-radioactive ((127)I) material can be used for both dual-imaging and PDT of cancer. Before advancing to Phase I human clinical trials, we evaluated the activity of the individual isomers as well as the impact of a chiral center at position-3(1) in directing in vitro/in vivo cellular uptake, intracellular localization, epithelial tumor cell-specific retention, fluorescence/PET imaging, and photosensitizing ability. The results indicate that both isomers (racemates), either as methyl ester or carboxylic acid, were equally effective. However, the methyl ester analogs, due to subcellular deposition into vesicular structures, were preferentially retained. All derivatives containing carboxylic acid at the position-17(2) were noted to be substrate for the ABCG2 (a member of the ATP binding cassette transporters) protein explaining their low retention in lung tumor cells expressing this transporter. The compounds in which the chirality at position-3 has been substituted by a non-chiral functionality showed reduced cellular uptake, retention and lower PDT efficacy in mice bearing murine Colon26 tumors. PMID:25936263

  13. The evaluation of fish farming impact by nutrient content and chlorophyll A in Mala Lamljana bay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelic-Mrcelic Gorana

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper offers a brief review of the impacts of fish farming on the nutrient content and chlorophyll a in Mala Lamljana Bay, Croatia. Local loading of nitrogen and phosphorous compounds in fish farms can be very significant and can represent the largest source of N and P in a given area. Low N and P concentrations, low chlorophyll a concentration and a great variety of phytoplankton species were found in the bay, despite the high nutrient loading during the long history of farming in the bay. The phytoplankton community consisted mostly of diatoms and partly of dinoflagellates. Skeletonema costatum and Chaetoceros compressus were the dominant species (90% in summer chlorophyll, which is typical for Middle Adriatic oligotrophic coastal waters. Nevertheless, further studies are required to determine changes in water column factors and planktonic communities in this area.

  14. Effects of water stress and light intensity on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and pigments of Aloe vera L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hazrati, Saeid; Tahmasebi-Sarvestani, Zeinolabedin; Modarres-Sanavy, Seyed Ali Mohammad; Mokhtassi-Bidgoli, Ali; Nicola, Silvana

    2016-09-01

    Aloe vera L. is one of the most important medicinal plants in the world. In order to determine the effects of light intensity and water deficit stress on chlorophyll (Chl) fluorescence and pigments of A. vera, a split-plot in time experiment was laid out in a randomized complete block design with four replications in a research greenhouse. The factorial combination of three light intensities (50, 75 and 100% of sunlight) and four irrigation regimes (irrigation after depleting 20, 40, 60 and 80% of soil water content) were considered as main factors. Sampling time was considered as sub factor. The first, second and third samplings were performed 90, 180 and 270 days after imposing the treatments, respectively. The results demonstrated that the highest light intensity and the severe water stress decreased maximum fluorescence (Fm), variable fluorescence (Fv)/Fm, quantum yield of PSII photochemistry (ФPSII), Chl and photochemical quenching (qP) but increased non-photochemical quenching (NPQ), minimum fluorescence (F0) and Anthocyanin (Anth). Additionally, the highest Fm, Fv/Fm, ФPSII and qP and the lowest NPQ and F0 were observed when 50% of sunlight was blocked and irrigation was done after 40% soil water depletion. Irradiance of full sunlight and water deficit stress let to the photoinhibition of photosynthesis, as indicated by a reduced quantum yield of PSII, ФPSII, and qP, as well as higher NPQ. Thus, chlorophyll florescence measurements provide valuable physiological data. Close to half of total solar radiation and irrigation after depleting 40% of soil water content were selected as the most efficient treatments. PMID:27161580

  15. Correlation of tryptophan fluorescence intensity decay parameters with sup 1 H NMR-determined rotamer conformations: (tryptophan sup 2 )oxytocin

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, J.B.A.; Schwartz, G.P.; Laws, W.R. (Mount Sinai, New York, NY (United States)); Wyssbrod, H.R.; Porter, R.A. (Univ. of Louisville, KY (United States)); Michaels, C.A. (Swarthmore Coll., PA (United States))

    1992-02-18

    While the fluorescence decay kinetics of tyrosine model compounds can be explained in terms of heterogeneity derived from the three ground-state {chi}{sup 1} rotamers, a similar correlation has yet to be directly observed for a tryptophan residue. In addition, the asymmetric indole ring might also lead to heterogeneity from {chi}{sup 2} rotations. In this paper, the time-resolved and steady-state fluorescence properties of (tryptophan{sup 2})oxytocin at pH 3 are presented and compared with {sup 1}H NMR results. According to the unrestricted analyses of individual fluorescence decay curves taken as a function of emission wavelength-independent decay constants, only three exponential terms are required. In addition, the preexponential weighting factors (amplitudes) have the same relative relationship (weights) as the {sup 1}H NMR-determined {chi}{sup 1} rotamer populations of the indole side chain. {sup 15}N was used in heteronuclear coupling experiments to confirm the rotamer assignments. Inclusion of a linked function restricting the decay amplitudes to the {chi}{sup 1} rotamer populations in the individual decay curve analyses and in the global analysis confirms this correlation. According to qualitative nuclear Overhauser data, there are two {chi}{sup 2} populations.

  16. Distribution of nutrients and chlorophyll a in the Three-Gorges Reservoir,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Chongming; ZHANG Sheng; LIU Jinghong; WEI Shiqiang; ZHANG Yong; GAO Jixi

    2006-01-01

    The Three-Gorges Reservoir (TGR) is one of the largest water conservancy projects in the world. The status of nutrients and phytoplankton biomass has changed since the Three-Gorges Reservoir started water storage on June 1,2003. The distribution features of nutrients and chlorophyll a were deter mined by cruise monitoring during September 8 - 15, 2003. The results showed that the concentrations of dissolved total nitrogen (DTN) range from 1.01 to 1.35 mg · L-1, those of dissolved total phosphorus (DTP) from 0.028 to 0.054 mg · L-1. The concentrations of dissolved nitrogen and phosphorus exceed the eutrophication standards of OECD, and the ratio of DTN to DTP is over 16: 1. It is shown that phos phorus is an eutrophication-limiting element in the water body. The concentrations of potassium range from 2.80 to 3.44 mg · L-1; those of total organic carbon from 1.92 to 2.59 mg · L -1; those of chlorophyll a from 1.58 to 7.53 mg · m-3 with an average value of 4.69 mg · m-3 at surface layer. Atrophic gradient could be observed from the oligotropher to the mesotropher in the flow direction. Phytoplankton biomass in creased significantly in the reservoir area than before. A significant positive correlation (p < 0.05, r = 0. 728 ) between chlorophyll a and NO3-N and a significant negative correlation (p < 0. 01, r = -0.9207) between chlorophyll a and turbidity were also observed. Distribution features could be well divided into three clusters in terms of systematic cluster analyses, including the upper-stream area cluster, the middle stream area cluster and the down-stream area cluster.

  17. MERIS imagery of Belgian coastal waters: mapping of suspended particulate matter and chlorophyll-a

    OpenAIRE

    Ruddick, K.; PARK, Y.; B. Nechad

    2003-01-01

    This paper describes a first application-oriented analysis of MERIS products for Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM) and Chlorophyll-a (CHL) concentration in Belgian coastal waters. Regional algorithms designed for Belgian waters have been implemented and compared with the standard MERIS products, termed Total Suspended Matter and Algal2 respectively. The standard and regional SPM products seem robust and give similar data. Notwithstanding a more complete match-up validation analysis, these pr...

  18. Sensitized Triplet Formation of Chlorophyll-A and beta-Carotene

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Nina Mejlhede; Wilbrandt, Robert Walter; Pagsberg, Palle Bjørn

    1980-01-01

    The naphthalene-sensitized formation of triplet excited chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and all-transß-carotene has been studied by pulse radiolysis. The rate constants for transfer of triplet energy from naphthalene to Chl-a and all-transß-carotene in benzene at 25°C are (3.6 ± 0.6)·109M-1 s-1 and (10.7 ±...

  19. Monolayers and multilayers of chlorophyll [correction of chlorophyl] a on a mercury electrode.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moncelli, M R; Becucci, L; Dolfi, A; Tadini Buoninsegni, F; Agostiano, A

    2002-05-15

    A novel experimental technique used to investigate chlorophyll films on a hanging mercury drop electrode is described. Two different procedures are employed to prepare self-assembled chlorophyll monolayers and multilayers on the mercury electrode. Upon illuminating the chlorophyll a (Chl)-coated mercury electrode with an appropriate light source, the photocurrents generated by the Chl aggregates are measured under short-circuit conditions in the absence of photoartefacts. The preliminary results obtained by this novel technique are presented. PMID:12009465

  20. Effect of Different Norms of Under-Mulch-Drip Irrigation on Diurnal Changes of Photosynthesis and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameter in High Yield Cotton of Xinjiang

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Wang-feng; REN Li-tong; WANG Zhen-lin; LI Shao-kun; GOU Ling; YU Songlie; CAO Lian-pu

    2003-01-01

    Under-mulch-drip irrigation is an advanced irrigation technique, which combines plastic-film-covered cultivation with drip irrigation. The influence of different norms of under-mulch-drip irrigation on di-urnal changes of photosynthetic rates and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of cotton was studied, in orderto understand the physiological mechanisms of water-saving and high-yielding farming in Xinjiang. Results in-dicated that limited drip irrigation, which supplies 2/3 of 375 m3 ha-1 , the widely-used irrigation norm in cot-ton cultivation in Xinjiang, caused a water deficit in cotton field. Compared with the proper drip irrigation,the leaf photosynthetic rate under limited drip irrigation decreased during 9:00 to 11:00 a. m., and was sig-nificantly suppressed at midday, and then recovered afterwards. Using the chlorophyll fluorescence method,the absorption, transfer and transformation features of solar radiation by cotton leaf were investigated. Underlimited drip irrigation, the variable fluorescence (Fy) and primary light transfer efficiency of PSII (Fv/Fm)in cotton leaves were reduced because of the high light intensities and high temperatures at noon, and the de-crease in Xinluzao8 was greater than that in Xinluzao6. Therefore, it could be concluded that Xinluzao6 has ahigher drought-tolerance, and the Fv/Fm ratio could be used as a drought-resistance index for cotton.

  1. Retrieval of chlorophyll a and suspended solid concentrations by hyperspectral remote sensing in Taihu Lake,China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Dingtian; PAN Delu; ZHANG Xiaoyu; ZHANG Xiaofeng; HE Xianqiang; LI Shujing

    2006-01-01

    Chlorophyll a (chl-a) and suspended solid concentrations are two frequently used water quality parameters for monitoring a lake. Traditional measurement of chl-a and suspended solids, requiring laborious laboratory work, which is often expensive and time consuming. Hyperspectral remote-sensing measurement provides a fast and easy tool for estimating water trophic status. In situ hyperspectral data on March 7-8, July 6-7, September 20 and December 7-8, 2004 and the corresponding water chemical data were used to regress the algorithm of water quality parameters. Results showed that the peak of water leaving radiance around 700 nm (R700) varied proportionally with chl-a concentration,and moved to infrared when algal bloom occurred. The reflectance ratio of R702/R685 was well correlated with chl-a when water surface in no algal bloom case and the correlation coefficient was better if absorption of phycocyanin was considered. The reflectance ratio R620/R531 was highly correlated to the concentration of suspended solids. The relationship between suspended solids and other band groups were also compared. Secchi disk depth could be calculated by non-linear correlation with suspended solids concentration.

  2. Water chlorophyll-a retrieval index based on hyperspectral data%基于高光谱数据的水体叶绿素a指数反演模型的建立

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王金梁; 秦其明; 李军; 林丛; 徐若风; 高中灵

    2014-01-01

    水体叶绿素a含量是反映水体质量的重要指标之一,利用遥感技术监测其含量具有众多优势。该研究利用2012年7月在广西壮族自治区桂林市漓江流域实地采集的水体高光谱数据和实验室化验分析数据,借鉴陆表植被叶绿素a的遥感反演模型,发展了一种新的水体叶绿素a提取指数(water chlorophyll-a index,WCI)。通过与反射率敏感波段法、波段比值法和半分析方法对比分析发现,新提出的WCI指数使用650、685、696 nm波段,波段稳定,决定系数R2可达0.58,均方根误差最小为0.24,受水体悬浮物影响小,在天津海河区域的验证效果也表明了该模型可以有效地提取水体叶绿素 a 含量。该方法扩展了水体叶绿素 a 监测的建模思路,对水体叶绿素 a监测建模有一定的指导作用。%Water chlorophyll-a is one of the most important indices for water quality monitoring. Remote sensing technology has strong advantages in monitoring both water and vegetation chlorophyll-a concentrations. Most of the current study on water chlorophyll-a monitoring chose the sensitive band based on the water chlorophyll-a spectral characteristics, and then established the inversion model. Some researchers established the water parameters inversion model based on an analytical physical mechanism, which are more complex and difficult to use in practice. And we also noticed that a vertical comparative analysis was needed for all these different inversion methods in the same area, and a few researchers used the water chlorophyll-a absorption similarity with leaf to build the water chlorophyll-a retrieval model. In this paper, a new water chlorophyll-a retrival index WCI (Water Chlorophyll-a Index) was built from the land surface vegetation chlorophyll retrieval index MTCI (MERIS terrestrial chlorophyll index), based on the in-situ water hyperspectral data and water chlorophyll-a content results in the laboratory

  3. Fluorescent intercalator displacement replacement (FIDR) assay: determination of relative thermodynamic and kinetic parameters in triplex formation—a case study using triplex-forming LNAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sau, Sujay P.; Kumar, Pawan; Sharma, Pawan K.; Hrdlicka, Patrick J.

    2012-01-01

    Triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) are the most commonly used approach for site-specific targeting of double stranded DNA (dsDNA). Important parameters describing triplex formation include equilibrium binding constants (Keq) and association/dissociation rate constants (kon and koff). The ‘fluorescent intercalator displacement replacement’ (FIDR) assay is introduced herein as an operationally simple approach toward determination of these parameters for triplexes involving TC-motif TFOs. Briefly described, relative rate constants are determined from fluorescence intensity changes upon: (i) TFO-mediated displacement of pre-intercalated and fluorescent ethidium from dsDNA targets (triplex association) and (ii) Watson–Crick complement-mediated displacement of the TFO and replacement with ethidium (triplex dissociation). The assay is used to characterize triplexes between purine-rich dsDNA targets and TC-motif TFOs modified with six different locked nucleic acid (LNA) monomers, i.e. conventional and C5-alkynyl-functionalized LNA and α-L-LNA pyrimidine monomers. All of the studied monomers increase triplex stability by decreasing the triplex dissociation rate. LNA-modified TFOs form more stable triplexes than α-L-LNA-modified counterparts owing to slower triplex dissociation. Triplexes modified with C5-(3-aminopropyn-1-yl)-LNA-U monomer Z are particularly stable. The study demonstrates that three affinity-enhancing features can be combined into one high-affinity TFO monomer: conformational restriction of the sugar ring, expansion of the pyrimidine π-stacking surface and introduction of an exocyclic amine. PMID:22855561

  4. Fluorescent intercalator displacement replacement (FIDR) assay: determination of relative thermodynamic and kinetic parameters in triplex formation--a case study using triplex-forming LNAs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sau, Sujay P; Kumar, Pawan; Sharma, Pawan K; Hrdlicka, Patrick J

    2012-11-01

    Triplex forming oligonucleotides (TFOs) are the most commonly used approach for site-specific targeting of double stranded DNA (dsDNA). Important parameters describing triplex formation include equilibrium binding constants (K(eq)) and association/dissociation rate constants (k(on) and k(off)). The 'fluorescent intercalator displacement replacement' (FIDR) assay is introduced herein as an operationally simple approach toward determination of these parameters for triplexes involving TC-motif TFOs. Briefly described, relative rate constants are determined from fluorescence intensity changes upon: (i) TFO-mediated displacement of pre-intercalated and fluorescent ethidium from dsDNA targets (triplex association) and (ii) Watson-Crick complement-mediated displacement of the TFO and replacement with ethidium (triplex dissociation). The assay is used to characterize triplexes between purine-rich dsDNA targets and TC-motif TFOs modified with six different locked nucleic acid (LNA) monomers, i.e. conventional and C5-alkynyl-functionalized LNA and α-L-LNA pyrimidine monomers. All of the studied monomers increase triplex stability by decreasing the triplex dissociation rate. LNA-modified TFOs form more stable triplexes than α-L-LNA-modified counterparts owing to slower triplex dissociation. Triplexes modified with C5-(3-aminopropyn-1-yl)-LNA-U monomer Z are particularly stable. The study demonstrates that three affinity-enhancing features can be combined into one high-affinity TFO monomer: conformational restriction of the sugar ring, expansion of the pyrimidine π-stacking surface and introduction of an exocyclic amine. PMID:22855561

  5. Spatiotemporal chlorophyll-a dynamics on the Louisiana continental shelf derived from a dual satellite imagery algorithm

    Science.gov (United States)

    A monthly time series of remotely sensed chlorophyll-a (Chlars) over the Louisiana continental shelf (LCS) was developed and examined for its relationship to river discharge, nitrate concentration, total phosphorus concentration, photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), wind...

  6. Improving the Algae Bloom Prediction through the Assimilation of the Remotely Sensed Chlorophyll-A Data in a Generic Ecological Model in the North Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Serafy, Ghada

    2010-05-01

    Harmful algae can cause damage to co-existing organisms, tourism and farmers. Accurate predictions of algal future composition and abundance as well as when and where algal blooms may occur could help early warning and mitigating. The Generic Ecological Model, GEM, [Blauw et al 2008] is an instrument that can be applied to any water system (fresh, transitional or coastal) to calculate the primary production, chlorophyll-a concentration and phytoplankton species composition. It consists of physical, chemical and ecological model components which are coupled together to build one generic and flexible modeling tool. For the North Sea, the model has been analyzed to assess sensitivity of the simulated chlorophyll-a concentration to a subset of ecologically significant set of factors. The research led to the definition of the most significant set of parameters to the algae blooming process in the North Sea [Salacinska et al 2009]. In order to improve the prediction of the model, the set of parameters and the chlorophyll-a concentration can be further estimated through the use of data assimilation. In this research, the Ensemble Kalman Filter (EnKF) data assimilation technique is used to assimilate the chlorophyll-a data of the North Sea, retrieved from MEdium Resolution Imaging Sensor (MERIS) spectrometer data [Peters et al 2005], in the GEM model. The chlorophyll-a data includes concentrations and error information that enable their use in data assimilation. For the same purpose, the uncertainty of the ecological generic model, GEM has been quantified by means of Monte Carlo approach. Through a study covering the year of 2003, the research demonstrates that both data and model are sufficiently robust for a successful assimilation. The results show that through the assimilation of the satellite data, a better description of the algae bloom has been achieved and an improvement of the capability of the model to predict the algae bloom for the North Sea has been confirmed

  7. On extreme atmospheric and marine nitrogen fluxes and chlorophyll-a levels in the Kattegat Strait

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasager, C.B.; Carstensen, J.; Ellermann, T.; Gustafson, B.G.; Hertel, O.; Johnsson, M.; Markager, S.; Skjøth, C.A.

    2003-01-01

    A retrospective analysis is carried out to investigate the importance of the vertical fluxes of nitrogen to the marine sea surface layer in which high chlorophyll a levels may cause blooms of harmful algae and subsequent turn over and oxygen depletion at the bottom of the sea. Typically nitrogen ...... buoy observations from an experimental period in the Kattegat Strait. It is recommended to sample in-situ chlorophyll observation collocated in time to the satellite overpasses of e. g. SeaWiFS and ENVISAT MERIS to ensure improved mapping of the chlorophyll levels in the Danish waters....

  8. A bio-optical algorithm for the remote estimation of the chlorophyll-a concentration in case 2 waters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of this work was to test the performance of a recently developed three-band model and its special case, a two-band model, for the remote estimation of the chlorophyll- a (chl-a) concentration in turbid productive case 2 waters. We specifically focused on (a) determining the ability of the models to estimate chl- a -3, typical for coastal and estuarine waters, and (b) assessing the potential of MODIS and MERIS to estimate chl-a concentrations in turbid productive waters, using red and near-infrared (NIR) bands. Reflectance spectra and water samples were collected in 89 stations over lakes in the United States with a wide variability in optical parameters (i.e. 2.1-3; 0.5-1). The three-band model, using wavebands around 670, 710 and 750 nm, explains more than 89% of the chl- a variation for chl- a ranging from 2 to 20 mg m-3 and can be used to estimate chlorophyll-a concentrations with a root mean square error (RMSE) of -3. MODIS (bands 13 and 15) and MERIS (bands 7, 9, and 10) red and NIR reflectances were simulated from the collected reflectance spectra and potential estimation errors were assessed. The MODIS two-band model is able to estimate chl- a concentrations with a RMSE of-3 for chl-a ranging from 2 to 50 mg m-3; however, the model loses its sensitivity for chl- a-3. Benefiting from the higher spectral resolution of the MERIS data, the MERIS three-band model accounts for 93% of chl- a variation and is able to estimate chl-a concentrations with a RMSE of-3 for chl-a ranging from 2 to 50 mg m-3, and a RMSE of-3 for chl-a ranging from 2 to 20 mg m-3. These findings imply that, provided that an atmospheric correction scheme specific to the red and NIR spectral region is available, the extensive database of MODIS and MERIS images could be used to quantitatively monitor chl- a in case 2 waters.

  9. Locality of Chlorophyll-A Distribution in the Intensive Study Area of the Ariake Sea, Japan in Winter Seasons based on Remote Sensing Satellite Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Mechanism of chlorophyll-a appearance and its locality in the intensive study area of the Ariake Sea, Japan in winter seasons is clarified by using remote sensing satellite data. Through experiments with Terra and AQUA MODIS data derived chlorophyll-a concentration and truth data of chlorophyll-a concentration together with meteorological data and tidal data which are acquired for 6 years (winter 2010 to winter 2015, it is found that strong correlation between the chlorophyll-a concentration and tidal height changes. Also it is found that the relations between ocean wind speed and chlorophyll-a concentration. Meanwhile, there is a relatively high correlation between sunshine duration a day and chlorophyll-a concentration. Furthermore, it is found that there are different sources of chlorophyll-a in the three different sea areas of Ariake Sea area in the back, Isahaya bay area, and Kumamoto offshore area.

  10. Effect of arsenic on reflectance spectra and chlorophyll fluorescence of aquatic plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriel, Analia; Dundas, Gavin; Fernández Cirelli, Alicia; Lagorio, Maria G

    2015-01-01

    Arsenic pollution of groundwater is a serious problem in many regions of Latin America that causes severe risks to human health. As a consequence, non-destructive monitoring methodologies, sensitive to arsenic presence in the environment and able to perform a rapid screening of large polluted areas, are highly sought-after. Both chlorophyll - a fluorescence and reflectance of aquatic plants may be potential indicators to sense toxicity in water media. In this work, the effects of arsenic on the optical and photophysical properties of leaves of different aquatic plants (Vallisneria gigantea, Azolla filiculoides and Lemna minor) were evaluated. Reflectance spectra were recorded for the plant leaves from 300 to 2400 nm. The spectral distribution of the fluorescence was also studied and corrected for light re-absorption processes. Photosynthetic parameters (Fv/Fm and ΦPSII) were additionally calculated from the variable chlorophyll fluorescence recorded with a pulse amplitude modulated fluorometer. Fluorescence and reflectance properties for V. gigantea and A. filiculoides were sensitive to arsenic presence in contrast to the behaviour of L. minor. Observed changes in fluorescence spectra could be interpreted in terms of preferential damage in photosystem II. The quantum efficiency of photosystem II for the first two species was also affected, decreasing upon arsenic treatment. As a result of this research, V. gigantea and A. filiculoides were proposed as bioindicators of arsenic occurrence in aquatic media. PMID:25150973

  11. Seasonal variability of seasurface chlorophyll-a of waters around Sri Lanka

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kanthi K A S Yapa

    2000-12-01

    Remotely sensed data on ocean colour of waters surrounding Sri Lanka received from the Coastal Zone Colour Scanner (CZCS) are processed and analyzed. Raw data of 1 km resolution on relatively cloud free days during 1978-1986 are processed to produce sea surface chlorophyll maps within latitudes 4.5N-11N and longitudes 78E-85E, a region in the Indian Ocean surrounding Sri Lanka. The processed data include about 110 single day maps and composite averages for each month and season. The months of July, August and September are omitted in the calculation of averages due to insufficient data. The waters in the Gulf of Mannar and Palk Bay areas show high chlorophyll-a concentrations throughout the year. However, these high values may represent other suspended particles and dissolved organic matter besides chlorophyll-a as this region is shallow (< 100 m). Regions with high chlorophyll concentrations (>0:5 mg m-3) along the coast and western ocean region can be seen in the months of October and November, after the southwest monsoon period. As high surface chlorophyll concentrations may indicate high productivity, these regions need extensive measurements of primary production and also continuous monitoring of fish catches, during and after the southwest monsoon. Studies of particle composition in shallow water areas, in particular waters in Palk Bay and Gulf of Mannar, should be carried out in order to elucidate the effect of non-phytogenic.

  12. Temporal variability in chlorophyll fluorescence of back-reef corals in Ofu, American Samoa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piniak, G.A.; Brown, E.K.

    2009-01-01

    Change in the yield of chlorophyll a fluorescence is a common indicator of thermal stress in corals. The present study reports temporal variability in quantum yield measurements for 10 coral species in Ofu, American Samoa - a place known to experience elevated and variable seawater temperatures. In winter, the zooxanthellae generally had higher dark-adapted maximum quantum yield (F v/Fm), higher light- adapted effective quantum yield (??F/F'm), and lower relative electron transport rates (rETR) than in the summer. Temporal changes appeared unrelated to the expected bleaching sensitivity of corals. All species surveyed, with the exception of Montipora grisea, demonstrated significant temporal changes in the three fluorescence parameters. Fluorescence responses were influenced by the microhabitat - temporal differences in fluorescence parameters were usually observed in the habitat with a more variable temperature regime (pool 300), while differences in Fv/Fm between species were observed only in the more environmentally stable habitat (pool 400). Such species-specific responses and microhabitat variability should be considered when attempting to determine whether observed in situ changes are normal seasonal changes or early signs of bleaching. ?? 2009 Marine Biological Laboratory.

  13. Effects of Chilling Stress on Photosynthetic Rate and Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameter in Seedlings of Two Rice Cultivars Differing in Cold Tolerance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guo-li; GUO Zhen-fei

    2005-01-01

    A cold-tolerant cultivar, Xiangnuo 1, and a cold-sensitive cultivar, IR50, were used to study the influence of chilling on photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in rice seedlings. The photosynthetic rates declined dramatically during chilling, and decreased by 48.7% and 67.5% in Xiangnuo 1 and IR50 seedlings, respectively, after being subjected to chilling treatment for two days. Chlorophyll fluorescence measurements showed that relatively higher qP and qNP in Xiangnuo 1 were maintained to dissipate the redundant excitation energy and protect the reaction centers from chill injury; accordingly, redundant excitation energy accumulated less in the reaction centers, and antenna systems were less injured by chilling in Xiangnuo 1. On the contrary, in IR50, qP and qNP declined rapidly while Ex increased, as the chilling persisted. This result indicated that the reaction centers and antenna systems in IR50 were damaged severely by chilling, which led to the lower photosynthetic rate.

  14. Determination of K shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios in the elements between Tm( Z = 69) and Os( Z = 76) by measuring K shell fluorescence parameters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaya, N.; Tıraşoğlu, E.; Apaydın, G.

    2008-04-01

    The K shell absorption jump factors and jump ratios have been measured in the elements between Tm ( Z = 69) and Os( Z = 76) without having any mass attenuation coefficient at the upper and lower energy branch of the K absorption edge. The jump factors and jump ratios for these elements have been determined by measuring K shell fluorescence parameters such as the total atomic absorption cross-sections, the K α X-ray production cross-sections, the intensity ratio of the K β and K α X-rays and the K shell fluorescence yields. We have performed the measurements for the calculations of these values in attenuation and direct excitation experimental geometry. The K X-ray photons are excited in the target using 123.6 keV gamma-rays from a strong 57Co source, and detected with an Ultra-LEGe solid state detector with a resolution 0.15 keV at 5.9 keV. The measured values have been compared with theoretical and others' experimental values. The results have been plotted versus atomic number.

  15. Comparison of two semi-absolute methods. k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis and fundamental parameter method X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for Ni-based alloys

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nickel based alloys play important role in nuclear, mechanical and chemical industry. Two semi-absolute standardless methods, k0-instrumental neutron activation analysis (k0-INAA) and fundamental parameter X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (FP-XRF) were used for the characterization of certified nickel based alloys. The optimized experimental conditions for NAA provided results for 18 and XRF for 15 elements. Both techniques were unable to quantify some important alloy making elements. However, both reported results of other elements as information values. The techniques were analyzed for their sensitivity and accuracy. Sensitivity was evaluated by the number of elements determined by each technique. Accuracy was ascertained by using the linear regression analysis and the average root mean squared error.

  16. Photochemical and photoelectrochemical quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence in photosystem II

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Vredenberg, W.; Durchan, M.; Prášil, Ondřej

    2009-01-01

    Roč. 1787, č. 12 (2009), s. 1468-1478. ISSN 0005-2728 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA206/08/1683 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : Chlorophyll a fluorescence * Photosystem II * Heterogeneity Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 3.688, year: 2009

  17. Effects of NaCl Stress on Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters in Cinnamomum japonicum var. chenii%NaCl胁迫对普陀樟叶绿素荧光参数的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李影丽; 汪奎宏; 杜国坚; 许利群; 杨华; 肖纪军

    2008-01-01

    [Objective] Study on the changes of chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in Cinnamomum japonicum var. chenii under NaCl stress. [Method] The seedling growth increment, chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters in leaves of 1-year old Cinnamomum japonicum var. chenii were investigated in field experiment. [Result] Under NaCl stress, seedling growth increment reduced and the chlorophyll content decreased to a stable value; changes of Fv/Fm and Fv/Fo showed identical increasing trend and double peak type. With the aggravation of salt stress, most variations were ob- served in Fo, correlations among chlorophyll fluorescence parameters presented "rise-drop" trend (in the treatment of 7 g/L NaCl). [Condusion] Cinna-momum japonicum var. chenii is endowed with strong salt resistance and wide adaptability.

  18. Tracing the evolution of the light-harvesting antennae in chlorophyll a/b-containing organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koziol, Adam G; Borza, Tudor; Ishida, Ken-Ichiro; Keeling, Patrick; Lee, Robert W; Durnford, Dion G

    2007-04-01

    The light-harvesting complexes (LHCs) of land plants and green algae have essential roles in light capture and photoprotection. Though the functional diversity of the individual LHC proteins are well described in many land plants, the extent of this family in the majority of green algal groups is unknown. To examine the evolution of the chlorophyll a/b antennae system and to infer its ancestral state, we initiated several expressed sequence tag projects from a taxonomically broad range of chlorophyll a/b-containing protists. This included representatives from the Ulvophyceae (Acetabularia acetabulum), the Mesostigmatophyceae (Mesostigma viride), and the Prasinophyceae (Micromonas sp.), as well as one representative from each of the Euglenozoa (Euglena gracilis) and Chlorarachniophyta (Bigelowiella natans), whose plastids evolved secondarily from a green alga. It is clear that the core antenna system was well developed prior to green algal diversification and likely consisted of the CP29 (Lhcb4) and CP26 (Lhcb5) proteins associated with photosystem II plus a photosystem I antenna composed of proteins encoded by at least Lhca3 and two green algal-specific proteins encoded by the Lhca2 and 9 genes. In organisms containing secondary plastids, we found no evidence for orthologs to the plant/algal antennae with the exception of CP29. We also identified PsbS homologs in the Ulvophyceae and the Prasinophyceae, indicating that this distinctive protein appeared prior to green algal diversification. This analysis provides a snapshot of the antenna systems in diverse green algae, and allows us to infer the changing complexity of the antenna system during green algal evolution. PMID:17307901

  19. Varietal differences in photosynthetic characters and chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics parameters among intergeneric progeny derived from Oryza×Sorghum, its parents, and hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A comparative study on the photosynthetic parameters among intergeneric progenies derived from Oryza sativa L.×Sorghum vulgare L., its maternal parent Gui 630 and commercial 3-line hybrid rice Shanyou 63 in pot experiment in greenhouse was conducted. The morphological and photosynthetic characters of canopy leaves and chlorophyll fluorescence kinetic parameters including Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, photochemical quenching coefficient and non-photochemical coefficient of canopy leaves of 3 varieties were measured. The results showed the progeny, Yuanyou 1, derived from an intergeneric cross of rice and sorghum possesses better canopy spatial architecture with thicker, heavier and bigger canopy leaf than its maternal parent Gui 630. Higher photosynthetic rate due to higher chlorophyll content, higher primary energy transformation efficiency, potential of PSII and non-photochemical quenching coefficient (qE) were also measured in Yuanyou 1. These explain partly why the intergeneric progeny has higher biomass production, and better tolerance to adverse conditions and higher field yields even under stress conditions.

  20. Evaluating Chlorophyll-a Changes During Algal Bloom in Three Gorges Reservoir Using an Extended WASP Model

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jian Li

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Algal bloom in Three Gorges Reservoir (TGR and one of its tributaries, Xiangxi River (XR, have become major concerns and the dynamic changes of such events were investigated using the hydrodynamic model SELFE and the extended Water Quality Analysis Simulation Program (WASP model to address nutrient and biomass dynamics. The model has taken into consideration the surface wind, heat fluxes, oxygen exchanges, solar radiations and boundary conditions from main river channel and tributaries. As an extension to our previous work, this study aimed to report in more detailed the result of chlorophyll-a simulations, where the field observed data of algal blooms in TGR in 2007 was used for calibration and the horizontal and vertical distributions of phytoplankton biomass (based on chlorophyll-a were presented. It was found that the chlorophyll-a concentration characterized as algal biomass was influenced by many complex factors. Further study results are yet to be reported.

  1. Measurement of X-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks at various stages of the cell cycle using the total fluorescence as a comet assay parameter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Attia, Atef M. M.; Nabil, Ghada M.; Frankenberg, Dieter; Frankenberg-Schwager, M.

    2011-11-01

    The aim of the study was to develop a protocol for both estimating cell cycle position and the level of ionizing radiation-induced DNA dsb using the neutral comet assay. Using DNA histograms, cell cycle positions were determined for human dermal fibroblasts. The tail intensity was used to estimate the level of DNA damage induced by X-rays, at different positions of the cell cycle. The results of tail intensity versus DNA content bivariate analysis of exponentially growing cells showed a remarkable decrease in tail intensity with transition of cells from G1 to S-phase and increases slightly with transition to G2/M phase. This effect is observed at all doses including unirradiated cells, indicating that the effect is not caused by X-rays and the comet assay based on the current tail parameters is not relevant to measure DNA damage at various stages of the cell cycle. The results of dose response curves showed a linear decrease in the comet fluorescence with the X-ray dose. This observation provides a basis for estimating the fraction of damaged DNA, based on the fluorescence decrement induced by ionizing radiation. The results of this new approach showed a linear increase in DNA damage with dose, at various stages of the cell cycle, with rates, which vary in the following order G0>G2/M>S/G1 cells.These results suggest that G0 and G2/M cells are the most sensitive to X-rays among all phases of the cell cycle and suggest synchronization of cells at these phases to increase the cellular radiosensitivity during radiotherapy.

  2. Measurement of X-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks at various stages of the cell cycle using the total fluorescence as a comet assay parameter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the study was to develop a protocol for both estimating cell cycle position and the level of ionizing radiation-induced DNA dsb using the neutral comet assay. Using DNA histograms, cell cycle positions were determined for human dermal fibroblasts. The tail intensity was used to estimate the level of DNA damage induced by X-rays, at different positions of the cell cycle. The results of tail intensity versus DNA content bivariate analysis of exponentially growing cells showed a remarkable decrease in tail intensity with transition of cells from G1 to S-phase and increases slightly with transition to G2/M phase. This effect is observed at all doses including unirradiated cells, indicating that the effect is not caused by X-rays and the comet assay based on the current tail parameters is not relevant to measure DNA damage at various stages of the cell cycle. The results of dose response curves showed a linear decrease in the comet fluorescence with the X-ray dose. This observation provides a basis for estimating the fraction of damaged DNA, based on the fluorescence decrement induced by ionizing radiation. The results of this new approach showed a linear increase in DNA damage with dose, at various stages of the cell cycle, with rates, which vary in the following order G0>G2/M>S/G1 cells. These results suggest that G0 and G2/M cells are the most sensitive to X-rays among all phases of the cell cycle and suggest synchronization of cells at these phases to increase the cellular radiosensitivity during radiotherapy. - Display Omitted Highlights: → Increase in DNA damage with dose. → Introduction of a new technique for measuring DNA damage using a new approach of the neutral comet assay. → Estimation of DNA damage in mammalian cells.

  3. Measurement of X-ray-induced DNA double-strand breaks at various stages of the cell cycle using the total fluorescence as a comet assay parameter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Attia, Atef M.M. [Department of Biochemistry, Biophysical laboratory, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Nabil, Ghada M., E-mail: gmnabilnooh@hotmail.com [Department of Biochemistry, Biophysical laboratory, National Research Center, Dokki, Cairo (Egypt); Frankenberg, Dieter; Frankenberg-Schwager, M. [Abteilung Klinische Strahlenbiologie und Klinische Strahlenphysik, Zentrum, Radiologie, Georg-August-Universitaet Goettingen, Von-Siebold-Str.3 (Germany)

    2011-11-15

    The aim of the study was to develop a protocol for both estimating cell cycle position and the level of ionizing radiation-induced DNA dsb using the neutral comet assay. Using DNA histograms, cell cycle positions were determined for human dermal fibroblasts. The tail intensity was used to estimate the level of DNA damage induced by X-rays, at different positions of the cell cycle. The results of tail intensity versus DNA content bivariate analysis of exponentially growing cells showed a remarkable decrease in tail intensity with transition of cells from G1 to S-phase and increases slightly with transition to G2/M phase. This effect is observed at all doses including unirradiated cells, indicating that the effect is not caused by X-rays and the comet assay based on the current tail parameters is not relevant to measure DNA damage at various stages of the cell cycle. The results of dose response curves showed a linear decrease in the comet fluorescence with the X-ray dose. This observation provides a basis for estimating the fraction of damaged DNA, based on the fluorescence decrement induced by ionizing radiation. The results of this new approach showed a linear increase in DNA damage with dose, at various stages of the cell cycle, with rates, which vary in the following order G0>G2/M>S/G1 cells. These results suggest that G0 and G2/M cells are the most sensitive to X-rays among all phases of the cell cycle and suggest synchronization of cells at these phases to increase the cellular radiosensitivity during radiotherapy. - Display Omitted Highlights: > Increase in DNA damage with dose. > Introduction of a new technique for measuring DNA damage using a new approach of the neutral comet assay. > Estimation of DNA damage in mammalian cells.

  4. Combining Principal Component Regression and Artificial Neural Network to Predict Chlorophyll-a Concentration of Yuqiao Reservoir’s Outflow

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张旋; 王启山; 于淼; 吴京

    2010-01-01

    In order to investigate the eutrophication degree of Yuqiao Reservoir, a hybrid method, combining principal component regression (PCR) and artificial neural network (ANN), was adopted to predict chlorophyll-a concentration of Yuqiao Reservoir’s outflow. The data were obtained from two sampling sites, site 1 in the reservoir, and site 2 near the dam. Seven water variables, namely chlorophyll-a concentration of site 2 at time t and that of both sites 10 days before t, total phosphorus(TP), total nitrogen(TN),...

  5. Realization of a four-step molecular switch in scanning tunneling microscope manipulation of single chlorophyll-a molecules

    OpenAIRE

    Iancu, Violeta; Hla, Saw-Wai

    2006-01-01

    Single chlorophyll-a molecules, a vital resource for the sustenance of life on Earth, have been investigated by using scanning tunneling microscope manipulation and spectroscopy on a gold substrate at 4.6 K. Chlorophyll-a binds on Au(111) via its porphyrin unit while the phytyl-chain is elevated from the surface by the support of four CH3 groups. By injecting tunneling electrons from the scanning tunneling microscope tip, we are able to bend the phytyl-chain, which enables the switching of fo...

  6. A Structurally Simplified Hybrid Model of Genetic Algorithm and Support Vector Machine for Prediction of Chlorophyll a in Reservoirs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jieqiong Su

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available With decreasing water availability as a result of climate change and human activities, analysis of the influential factors and variation trends of chlorophyll a has become important to prevent reservoir eutrophication and ensure water supply safety. In this paper, a structurally simplified hybrid model of the genetic algorithm (GA and the support vector machine (SVM was developed for the prediction of monthly concentration of chlorophyll a in the Miyun Reservoir of northern China over the period from 2000 to 2010. Based on the influence factor analysis, the four most relevant influence factors of chlorophyll a (i.e., total phosphorus, total nitrogen, permanganate index, and reservoir storage were extracted using the method of feature selection with the GA, which simplified the model structure, making it more practical and efficient for environmental management. The results showed that the developed simplified GA-SVM model could solve nonlinear problems of complex system, and was suitable for the simulation and prediction of chlorophyll a with better performance in accuracy and efficiency in the Miyun Reservoir.

  7. Relationship of fouling diatom number and chlorophyll-a value from Zuari estuary, Goa (west coast of India)

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Redekar, P.D.; Wagh, A.B.

    of cell biomass of fouling diatoms and the chlorophyll -a value observed over a period of 4 days of immersion of glass slide panel in 1 m depth in the estuarine environment in Zuari estuary. Generally. diatom number showed increasing trend from 1st to 4th...

  8. Varietal differences in photosynthetic characters and chlorophyll fluorescence induction kinetics parameters among intergeneric progeny derived from Oryza×Sorghum, its parents, and hybrid rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    KatsuyoshiShimizu; 唐建军; 陈欣

    2002-01-01

    A comparative study on the photosynthetic parameters among intergeneric progenies derived from Oryza sativa L.× Sorghum vulgare L. , its maternal parent Gui 630 and commercial 3-line hybrid rice Shanyou 63 in pot experiment in greenhouse was conducted. The morphological and photosynthetic characters of canopy leaves and chlorophyll fluorescence kinetic pm'mneters including Fv/Fm, Fv/F0, photochemical quenching coefficient and non-photochemical coefficient of canopy leaves of 3 varieties were measured. The results showed the progeny, Yuanyou 1, derived from an intergeneric cross of rice and sorghum possesses better canopy spatial architecture with thicker, heavier and bigger canopy leaf than its maternal parent Gui 630.Higher photosynthetic rate due to higher chlorophyll content, higher primary energy transformation efficiency,potential of PSII and non-photochemieal quenching coefficient (qE) were also measured in Yuanyou 1. These explain partly why the intergeneric progeny has higher biomass production, and better tolerance to adverse conditions and higher field yields even under stress conditions.

  9. NW Adriatic Sea variability in relation to chlorophyll-a dynamics in the last 20 years (1986–2005

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Acri

    2007-02-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a long-term time series (1986–2005 of hydrological and biogeochemical data, both published and unpublished. Data were collected in the north-western area of the Adriatic Sea, at two stations that are considered hydrodynamically and trophically different. The time series have been statistically and graphically investigated on a monthly scale in order to find not only possible chlorophyll-a trends over time, but also links between the concentrations of chlorophyll-a and the variability in the environment, as well as trophic differences between the two areas. Basically, in both cases the statistical test results show no significant trends in either the average chlorophyll-a values or in dispersion of the data, in contrast with significant trends in temperature and salinity. The two areas have similar hydrological features, yet they present significant differences in the amount of nutrient inputs: these are in fact higher at the coastal site, which is characterized by a prevalence of surface blooms, while they are lower at the offshore station, which is mainly affected by intermediate blooms. Nonetheless, throughout the whole water column, chlorophyll-a concentrations are only slightly different. Both areas are affected by riverine discharge, though in the first case considered chlorophyll-a concentrations are also driven strongly by the seasonal cycle. Finally, the results show that the two stations are not trophically different, although some controlling factors, such as zooplankton grazing in one case and light attenuation in the other, may regulate the growth of phytoplankton.

  10. Detailed investigation of ROS arisen from chlorophyll a/Chitosan based-biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizzi, Vito; Fini, Paola; Semeraro, Paola; Cosma, Pinalysa

    2016-06-01

    The aim of this work is to study the nature of reactive oxygen species, ROS, arisen from Chitosan/2-HP-β-Cyclodextrin/Chlorophyll a (CH/CD/Chla) blended biofilm under a photodynamic activity. Suitable molecules, called primary acceptors, able to react selectively with ROS, in turn generated by the photosensitizer (PS), herein Chla, are used to attempt this purpose. The changes of the absorption and the emission spectra of these acceptors after the irradiation of aqueous solution containing the active biofilm have provided the specific nature of ROS and thus the main pathway of reaction followed by PS, in our condition. The (1)O2 formation was unveiled using Uric Acid (UA) and 9,10-diphenilanthracene (DPA). On the other hand, 2,7- dichlorofluorescin and Ferricytochrome c (Cyt-c) were used to detect the formation of hydrogen peroxide and superoxide radical anion, respectively. Results suggest that among the possible pathways of reaction, namely Type I and Type II, potentially followed by PSs, in our condition the hybrid biofilm CH/CD/Chla follows mainly Type II mechanism with the formation of (1)O2. However, the latter is involved in subsequent pathway of reaction involving Chla inducing, in addition, the formation of O2(-) and H2O2. PMID:26966998

  11. Distribution of chlorophyll-a off the Changjiang River and its dynamic cause interpretation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jianrong

    2005-01-01

    An interdisciplinary comprehensive survey was conducted in August 2000 with the modern measurement instruments off the Changjiang River. The analysis of the observation data shows that there exist two sources of phytoplankton blooms off the Changjiang River. The one with wider spatial extent and stronger intensity appears in the surface plume due to photosynthesis produced by the eutrophication brought by a huge amount of nutrient load via the Changjiang River and well light penetration because of lower turbidity seawater. Photosynthesis produces chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), meanwhile releases oxygen and absorbs carbon dioxide, so the high Chl-a concentration distribution corresponds to the distribution of high dissolved oxygen and pH.The other with smaller spatial extent and weaker intensity exists in the thermocline in the Taiwan Warm Current (TWC), but the high Chl-a concentration does not correspond to the high dissolved oxygen and pH, which may be a result of long distance advection by the TWC. The eutrophication associated with the huge amount of nutrient flowing into the sea via the Changjiang River is the main cause of the red tide bloom in the area off the Changjiang River, the red tide that occurred along the Fujian and Zhejiang coast can influence the area off the Changjiang River possibly via the TWC. The distributions of current simulated by a three-dimension numerical model support the above conclusion.

  12. Photodynamic efficiency of a chlorophyll-a derivative in vitro and in vivo.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Xiang-Hua; Zhang, Li-Jun; Sun, Jing-Jian; Yan, Yi-Jia; Zhang, Li-Xin; Chen, Na; Chen, Zhi-Long

    2016-07-01

    This paper reports the antitumor activity of a chlorophyll-a derivative, 2-[1-hydroxyethyl]-2-devinylpyropheophorbide-a (HEPa). Photophysical characteristics of HEPa were measured. And its cytotoxicity, intracellular localization, biodistribution, efficiency of photodynamic therapy (PDT), histological analysis were investigated using human bile duct carcinoma cells (QBC-939) and QBC-939 tumor bearing BABL/c nude mice as animal model. The results showed that HEPa was localized mainly within the cytoplasmic region and partially in lysosome. Biodistribution of HEPa in QBC-939 tumor bearing BABL/c nude mice showed its fast rate of clearance and high tumor selectivity. In vitro, HEPa had low dark toxicity and high photoxicity against QBC-939 cells. The inhibition rate of QBC-939 tumor could increase up to 92.3%, and H&E staining confirmed that HEPa could cause serious damage to the tumor with light dose of 100J/cm(2), implying that HEPa has potential to be a new antitumor candidate for photodynamic therapy (PDT). PMID:27261603

  13. Enzyme-catalyzed organic syntheses: transesterification reactions of chlorophyl a, bacteriochlorophyll a, and derivatives with chlorophyllase

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Michalski, T.J.; Hunt, J.E.; Bradshaw, C.; Wagner, A.M.; Norris, J.R.; Katz, J.J.

    1988-08-17

    The green plant enzyme chlorophyllase (EC 3.1.1.14, chlorophyll chlorophyllido-hydroase) has been used for the synthesis of a variety of primary alcohol and diol esters of chlorophyll a, bacteriochlorophyll a, and pyrobacteriochlorophyll a. Green plant chlorophyllase accepts a much larger range of alcohol and chlorophyll substrates than had previously been realized. Thus, chlorophyllide and bacteriochlorophyllide esters of primary alcohols such as retinol and the detergent Triton X-100 and of dihydric alcohols such as ethylene glycol, butanediol, or 2-hydroxyethyl disulfide can readily be obtained by enzyme-assisted transesterification. The diol chlorophyllide esters are valuable intermediates for the synthesis of reaction center special pair models. Chlorophyllase-assisted reactions can be carried out in media containing up to 95% of organic solvents without the concomitant side reactions that important chlorophyll functional groups readily undergo even under mild conditions in conventional chemical synthetic procedures. In competitive chlorophyllase-catalyzed transesterification reactions, long-chain alcohols such as farnesol and retinol vs simple aliphatic alcohols and diols, the enzyme shows a definite preference for the long-chain alcohol. 37 references, 1 figure, 2 tables.

  14. Alterations in chlorophyll a/b binding proteins in Solanaceae cybrids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Babiychuk, E; Schantz, R; Cherep, N; Weil, J H; Gleba, Y; Kushnir, S

    1995-12-20

    In this study we have constructed a number of plants (cybrids), in which the nuclear genome of Nicotiana plumbaginifolia is combined with the plastome of Atropa belladonna, or the nuclear genome of N. tabacum with plastomes of Lycium barbarum, Scopolia carniolica, Physochlaine officinalis or Nolana paradoxa. Our biochemical and immunological analyses prove that in these cybrids the biogenesis of the chlorophyll a/b binding proteins (CAB) of the light harvesting complex II (LHCII) is altered. Besides normal sized CAB polypeptides of 27, 25.5 and 25 kDa, which become less abundant, the cybrids analyzed have additional polypeptides of 26, 24.5 and 24 kDa. Direct protein micro-sequencing showed that at least two truncated 26 kDa CAB polypeptides in plant cells containing a nucleus of N. plumbaginifolia and plastids of A. belladonna are encoded by the type 1 Lhcb genes. These polypeptides are 11-12 amino acids shorter at the N-terminus than the expected size. Based on the available data we conclude that the biogenesis of the LHCII in vivo may depend on plastome-encoded factor(s). These results suggest that plastome-encoded factors that cause specific protein degradation and/or abnormal processing might determine compartmental genetic incompatibility in plants. PMID:8544830

  15. An overview of remote sensing of chlorophyll fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xing, Xiao-Gang; Zhao, Dong-Zhi; Liu, Yu-Guang; Yang, Jian-Hong; Xiu, Peng; Wang, Lin

    2007-03-01

    Besides empirical algorithms with the blue-green ratio, the algorithms based on fluorescence are also important and valid methods for retrieving chlorophyll-a concentration in the ocean waters, especially for Case II waters and the sea with algal blooming. This study reviews the history of initial cognitions, investigations and detailed approaches towards chlorophyll fluorescence, and then introduces the biological mechanism of fluorescence remote sensing and main spectral characteristics such as the positive correlation between fluorescence and chlorophyll concentration, the red shift phenomena. Meanwhile, there exist many influence factors that increase complexity of fluorescence remote sensing, such as fluorescence quantum yield, physiological status of various algae, substances with related optical property in the ocean, atmospheric absorption etc. Based on these cognitions, scientists have found two ways to calculate the amount of fluorescence detected by ocean color sensors: fluorescence line height and reflectance ratio. These two ways are currently the foundation for retrieval of chlorophyl l - a concentration in the ocean. As the in-situ measurements and synchronous satellite data are continuously being accumulated, the fluorescence remote sensing of chlorophyll-a concentration in Case II waters should be recognized more thoroughly and new algorithms could be expected.

  16. An assessment of phytoplankton primary productivity in the Arctic Ocean from satellite ocean color/in situ chlorophyll-a based models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Younjoo J.; Matrai, Patricia A.; Friedrichs, Marjorie A. M.; Saba, Vincent S.; Antoine, David; Ardyna, Mathieu; Asanuma, Ichio; Babin, Marcel; Bélanger, Simon; Benoît-Gagné, Maxime; Devred, Emmanuel; Fernández-Méndez, Mar; Gentili, Bernard; Hirawake, Toru; Kang, Sung-Ho; Kameda, Takahiko; Katlein, Christian; Lee, Sang H.; Lee, Zhongping; Mélin, Frédéric; Scardi, Michele; Smyth, Tim J.; Tang, Shilin; Turpie, Kevin R.; Waters, Kirk J.; Westberry, Toby K.

    2015-09-01

    We investigated 32 net primary productivity (NPP) models by assessing skills to reproduce integrated NPP in the Arctic Ocean. The models were provided with two sources each of surface chlorophyll-a concentration (chlorophyll), photosynthetically available radiation (PAR), sea surface temperature (SST), and mixed-layer depth (MLD). The models were most sensitive to uncertainties in surface chlorophyll, generally performing better with in situ chlorophyll than with satellite-derived values. They were much less sensitive to uncertainties in PAR, SST, and MLD, possibly due to relatively narrow ranges of input data and/or relatively little difference between input data sources. Regardless of type or complexity, most of the models were not able to fully reproduce the variability of in situ NPP, whereas some of them exhibited almost no bias (i.e., reproduced the mean of in situ NPP). The models performed relatively well in low-productivity seasons as well as in sea ice-covered/deep-water regions. Depth-resolved models correlated more with in situ NPP than other model types, but had a greater tendency to overestimate mean NPP whereas absorption-based models exhibited the lowest bias associated with weaker correlation. The models performed better when a subsurface chlorophyll-a maximum (SCM) was absent. As a group, the models overestimated mean NPP, however this was partly offset by some models underestimating NPP when a SCM was present. Our study suggests that NPP models need to be carefully tuned for the Arctic Ocean because most of the models performing relatively well were those that used Arctic-relevant parameters.

  17. CHANGES IN CHLOROPHYLL A FLUORENSCENCE AND PIGMENT RATIOS DURING DIFFERENT GROWTH PHASES OF A UNICELLULAR MARINE CHEATOSEROS (BACILLARIOPHYCEAE) IN BATCH CULTURE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Photosystem II reaction centers per cell decreased as the cultures began to decline. The degree of inactivation increased daily as the cell numbers continued to decrease. The concentration of chlorophyll a per cell and the ratio of the major accessory pigments to chlorophyll a (e...

  18. Method 446.0: In Vitro Determination of Chlorophylls a, b, c + c and Pheopigments in 1 2Marine And Freshwater Algae by Visible Spectrophotometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    This method provides a procedure for determination of chlorophylls a (chl a), b (chl b), c + c 1 2 (chl c + c ) and pheopigments of chlorophyll a (pheo a) 1 2 found in marine and freshwater phytoplankton. Chlorophyllide a is determined as chl a. Visible wavelength spectrophotomet...

  19. Assessing the influence of watershed characteristics on chlorophyll a in waterbodies at global and regional scales

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woelmer, Whitney; Kao, Yu-Chun; Bunnell, David; Deines, Andrew M.; Bennion, David; Rogers, Mark W.; Brooks, Colin N.; Sayers, Michael J.; Banach, David M.; Grimm, Amanda G.; Shuchman, Robert A.

    2016-01-01

    Prediction of primary production of lentic water bodies (i.e., lakes and reservoirs) is valuable to researchers and resource managers alike, but is very rarely done at the global scale. With the development of remote sensing technologies, it is now feasible to gather large amounts of data across the world, including understudied and remote regions. To determine which factors were most important in explaining the variation of chlorophyll a (Chl-a), an indicator of primary production in water bodies, at global and regional scales, we first developed a geospatial database of 227 water bodies and watersheds with corresponding Chl-a, nutrient, hydrogeomorphic, and climate data. Then we used a generalized additive modeling approach and developed model selection criteria to select models that most parsimoniously related Chl-a to predictor variables for all 227 water bodies and for 51 lakes in the Laurentian Great Lakes region in the data set. Our best global model contained two hydrogeomorphic variables (water body surface area and the ratio of watershed to water body surface area) and a climate variable (average temperature in the warmest model selection criteria to select models that most parsimoniously related Chl-a to predictor variables quarter) and explained ~ 30% of variation in Chl-a. Our regional model contained one hydrogeomorphic variable (flow accumulation) and the same climate variable, but explained substantially more variation (58%). Our results indicate that a regional approach to watershed modeling may be more informative to predicting Chl-a, and that nearly a third of global variability in Chl-a may be explained using hydrogeomorphic and climate variables.

  20. Ultrastructure, molecular phylogenetics, and chlorophyll a content of novel cyanobacterial symbionts in temperate sponges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Erwin, Patrick M; López-Legentil, Susanna; Turon, Xavier

    2012-10-01

    Marine sponges often harbor photosynthetic symbionts that may enhance host metabolism and ecological success, yet little is known about the factors that structure the diversity, specificity, and nature of these relationships. Here, we characterized the cyanobacterial symbionts in two congeneric and sympatric host sponges that exhibit distinct habitat preferences correlated with irradiance: Ircinia fasciculata (higher irradiance) and Ircinia variabilis (lower irradiance). Symbiont composition was similar among hosts and dominated by the sponge-specific cyanobacterium Synechococcus spongiarum. Phylogenetic analyses of 16S-23S rRNA internal transcribed spacer (ITS) gene sequences revealed that Mediterranean Ircinia spp. host a specific, novel symbiont clade ("M") within the S. spongiarum species complex. A second, rare cyanobacterium related to the ascidian symbiont Synechocystis trididemni was observed in low abundance in I. fasciculata and likewise corresponded to a new symbiont clade. Symbiont communities in I. fasciculata exhibited nearly twice the chlorophyll a concentrations of I. variabilis. Further, S. spongiarum clade M symbionts in I. fasciculata exhibited dense intracellular aggregations of glycogen granules, a storage product of photosynthetic carbon assimilation rarely observed in I. variabilis symbionts. In both host sponges, S. spongiarum cells were observed interacting with host archeocytes, although the lower photosynthetic activity of Cyanobacteria in I. variabilis suggests less symbiont-derived nutritional benefit. The observed differences in clade M symbionts among sponge hosts suggest that ambient irradiance conditions dictate symbiont photosynthetic activity and consequently may mediate the nature of host-symbiont relationships. In addition, the plasticity exhibited by clade M symbionts may be an adaptive attribute that allows for flexibility in host-symbiont interactions across the seasonal fluctuations in light and temperature characteristic of

  1. Relationship of Northeast Atlantic albacore juveniles with surface thermal and chlorophyll-a fronts

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sagarminaga, Y.; Arrizabalaga, H.

    2014-09-01

    When the spring seasonal warming starts, North Atlantic albacore (Thunnus alalunga) juveniles and pre-adults perform a trophic migration to the northeastern Atlantic, to the Bay of Biscay, and to the southeast of Ireland. During this migration, albacore juveniles are mainly exploited by Spanish trolling and baitboat fleets. The present study analyzes the relationship between the albacore spatio-temporal distribution and the upper surface horizontal fronts in their migration paths and destinations. For this, albacore catches from personal fishing logbooks from Basque trolling and live-bait fleets and daily MODIS AQUA Chlorophyll-a and SST products covering the period 2003-2005 have being used. Gradients have been calculated with the front algorithm proposed by Belkin and O'Reilly (2009). The approach used to study the relationship of catches location with frontal areas is based in the comparison of distributions of gradient magnitude around catch locations versus gradient magnitudes in a Monthly Occupation Area. The results obtained show that there is a high spatio- temporal variability of SST and Chl-a fronts in the area. SST and Chl-a fronts are not coincident in time or in space. However, there is a clear seasonal pattern of SST and Chl-a frontal activity in the area with a peak in July for SST gradient magnitudes and a peak in April for Chl-a gradient magnitudes. The relationship of albacore juvenile catches with high gradient magnitude areas is different according to the months and fleets analysed. In general, there is no evidence of consistent adherence of albacore catches to areas with higher SST gradients. However, results suggest a potential association between both fleets catches and Chl-a high gradient magnitude areas in August and September.

  2. Chemical determination of particulate nitrogen in San Francisco Bay. Nitrogen: chlorophyll a ratios in plankton

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hager, S.W.; Harmon, D.D.; Alpine, A.E.

    1984-01-01

    Particulate nitrogen (PN) and chlorophyll a (Chla) were measured in the northern reach of San Francisco Bay throughout 1980. The PN values were calculated as the differences between unfiltered and filtered (0??4 ??m) samples analyzed using the UV-catalyzed peroxide digestion method. The Chla values were measured spectrophotometrically, with corrections made for phaeopigments. The plot of all PN Chla data was found to be non-linear, and the concentration of suspended particulate matter (SPM) was found to be the best selector for linear subsets of the data. The best-fit slopes of PN Chla plots, as determined by linear regression (model II), were interpreted to be the N: Chla ratios of phytoplankton. The Y-intercepts of the regression lines were considered to represent easily-oxidizable detrital nitrogen (EDN). In clear water ( < 10 mg l-1 SPM), the N: Chla ratio was 1??07 ??g-at N per ??g Chla. It decreased to 0??60 in the 10-18 mg l-1 range and averaged 0??31 in the remaining four ranges (18-35, 35-65, 65-155, and 155-470 mg l-1). The EDN values were less than 1 ??g-at N l-1 in the clear water and increased monotonically to almost 12 ??g-at N l-1 in the highest SPM range. The N: Chla ratios for the four highest SPM ranges agree well with data for phytoplankton in light-limited cultures. In these ranges, phytoplankton-N averaged only 20% of the PN, while EDN averaged 39% and refractory-N 41%. ?? 1984.

  3. Interannual variability in chlorophyll-a on the southern Queensland continental shelf and its relationship to ENSO

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tran, Dien V.; Gabric, Albert; Cropp, Roger

    2015-12-01

    Coastal phytoplankton blooms can result from upwelling of colder nutrient-rich water, seasonal fluvial or anthropogenic point sources of nutrient. Here we analyze 15-year time series of monthly mean and 8-day satellite-derived chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and sea surface temperature (SST) on the southern Queensland continental shelf (24.25-28.25°S) from March 2000 to February 2015. We examine the interannual variability in these parameters and its relationship to algal bloom dynamics. Seasonal climatological means are computed and analyzed. Empirical orthogonal function (EOF) analysis is applied to these time series. Cross-correlation and spatial correlation analyses are used to investigate the relationship between the multivariate ENSO index (MEI), Chl-a and SST. Computed eigenvectors of the time series of Chl-a and SST present a strong seasonal variability on the first EOF modes. Thus, the seasonal variability was removed by computing monthly and 8-day Chl-a and SST anomalies. The EOF analysis was then applied to the anomaly time series. Correlation analysis results show a positive correlation between MEI and the eigenvector of the first EOF of the monthly Chl-a anomaly with time lag of three to four months. We find a negative correlation between MEI and the eigenvector of the second EOF of the monthly Chl-a anomaly with time lag of three to four months. There is no correlation between MEI and eigenvectors of the monthly SST anomaly. There are significant correlations between eigenvectors of the first and second EOF modes of 8-day Chl-a and the first and second EOF modes of 8-day SST respectively. Negative correlation coefficients between 8-day anomalies of Chl-a and SST are found on the continental shelf to the east of Fraser Island and Stradbroke Island. Analysis of a particular algal bloom event indicates a negative SST anomaly and negative curl of wind stress in the waters to the southeast of Fraser Island suggesting that wind stress is possibly a secondary but

  4. Spatial Heterogeneity of Ice Cover Sediment and Thickness and Its Effects on Photosynthetically Active Radiation and Chlorophyll-a Distribution: Lake Bonney, Antarctica

    Science.gov (United States)

    Obryk, M.; Doran, P. T.; Priscu, J. C.; Morgan-Kiss, R. M.; Siebenaler, A. G.

    2012-12-01

    The perennially ice-covered lakes in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, Antarctica have been extensively studied under the Long Term Ecological Research project. But sampling has been spatially restricted due to the logistical difficulty of penetrating the 3-6 m of ice cover. The ice covers restrict wind-driven turbulence and its associated mixing of water, resulting in a unique thermal stratification and a strong vertical gradient of salinity. The permanent ice covers also shade the underlying water column, which, in turn, controls photosynthesis. Here, we present results of a three-dimensional record of lake processes obtained with an autonomous underwater vehicle (AUV). The AUV was deployed at West Lake Bonney, located in Taylor Valley, Dry Valleys, to further understand biogeochemical and physical properties of the Dry Valley lakes. The AUV was equipped with depth, conductivity, temperature, under water photosynthetically active radiation (PAR), turbidity, chlorophyll-and-DOM fluorescence, pH, and REDOX sensors. Measurements were taken over the course of two years in a 100 x 100 meter spaced horizontal sampling grid (and 0.2 m vertical resolution). In addition, the AUV measured ice thickness and collected 200 images looking up through the ice, which were used to quantify sediment distribution. Comparison with high-resolution satellite QuickBird imagery demonstrates a strong correlation between aerial sediment distribution and ice cover thickness. Our results are the first to show the spatial heterogeneity of lacustrine ecosystems in the McMurdo Dry Valleys, significantly improving our understanding of lake processes. Surface sediment is responsible for localized thinning of ice cover due to absorption of solar radiation, which in turn increases total available PAR in the water column. Higher PAR values are negatively correlated with chlorophyll-a, presenting a paradox; historically, long-term studies of PAR and chlorophyll-a have shown positive trends. We hypothesized

  5. Spectral absorption coefficient of phytoplankton and its relation to chlorophyll a and remote sensing reflectance in coastal waters of southern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CAO Wenxi; YANG Yuezhong; LIU Sheng; XU Xiaoqiang; YANG Dingtian; ZHANG Jianlin

    2005-01-01

    The spectral absorption coefficient of phytoplankton in coastal waters of southern China is investigated. Large variations in the absorption coefficient of phytoplankton are found. The absorption coefficient of phytoplankton at 443 nm ranged from 0. 006 m- 1 to 0. 484 m - 1, with an average value of 0. 067 m - 1. The chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficient of phytoplankton is also a bio-optical varito pigment composition of phytoplankton and package effect. The chlorophyll-specific absorption coefficient of phytoplankton decreases with the increasing of chlorophyll a concentration. This relationship can be described by a power law function, with the parameters and the coefficient of determination r2 as functions of wavelength, but the parameters describing the relationships in present study differed from that in Case 1 waters, thus the regional adjustment of model parameters was of particular significance for improving the accuracy of bio-optical algorithms for estimation of Chl-a concentration and primary production from remotely sensed data. Regression analysis of reflectance (R rs) ratio and absorption coefficient of phytoplankton (a ph) indicates a close correlation between them, which means that it is possible to retrieve absorption coefficient of phytoplankton using ocean color remote sensing data in optically complex coastal waters.

  6. Phytoplankton size class derived from phytoplankton absorption and chlorophyll-a concentrations in the northern South China Sea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Guoqing; CAO Wenxi; WANG Guifen; ZHOU Wen

    2013-01-01

    A previously developed model was modified to derive three phytoplankton size classes (micro-,nano-,and pico-phytoplankton) from the overall chlorophyll-a concentration,assuming that each class has a specific absorption coefficient.The modified model performed well using in-situ data from the northern South China Sea,and the results were reliable and accurate.The relative errors of the size-fractioned chlorophyll-a concentration for each size class were:micro-:21%,nano-:41%,pico-:26%,and nano+pico:23%.The model was then applied on ocean color remote sensing data to examine the distribution and variation of phytoplankton size classes in northern South China Sea on a large scale.

  7. Effect of Chlorophyll-a Spatial Distribution on Upper Ocean Temperature in the Central and Eastern Equatorial Pacific

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Pengfei; LIU Hailong; ZHANG Xuehong

    2008-01-01

    Effect of the spatial distributions of chlorophyll-a concentration on upper ocean temperature and currents in the equatorial Pacific is investigated through a set of numerical experiments by using an ocean general circulation model. This study indicates that enhanced meridional gradient of chlorophylloa between the equator and off-equatorial regions can strengthen zonal circulation and lead to a decrease in equatorial sea surface temperature (SST). However, the circulation changes by themselves are not effective enough to affect SST in the equatorial cold tongue (CT) region. The comparison between the experiments indicates that the CT SST are more sensitive to chlorophyll-a distribution away from the equator. The off-equatorial chlorophyll-a traps more solar radiation in the mixed layer, therefore, the temperature in the thermocline decreases. The cold water can then be transported to the equator by the meridional circulation within the mixed layer. Furthermore, the relation among CT SST, the surface heat flux, and the equatorial upwelling are discussed. The study implies the simulation biases of temperature on the equator are not only related to the local ocean dynamics but also related to some deficiency in simulating off-equatorial processes.

  8. Evaluation of the physicochemical and chlorophyll-a conditions of a subtropical aquaculture in Lake Nasser area, Egypt

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmed Mohamed El-Otify

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Water quality, nutritional characteristics and phytoplankton biomass in aquaculture of Oreochromis niloticus (L. simultaneously with its water source supply (Lake Nasser, were monthly investigated over a one-year period (July 2009–2010. Analysis of the results showed that application of fertilizers and environmental conditions appeared to be the principal factors influencing the spatio-temporal variations of water quality and productivity. The data obtained revealed differences between the fish pond and its water supply. Monthly fluctuations in the availability of the major nutrients reflected the occasional supply of the fish pond with different nutrients. Phytoplankton biomass in terms of chlorophyll-a concentrations were always of relatively higher values in the fish pond than those in Lake Nasser's water. Elevation of pH values and dissolved oxygen saturation levels appeared concomitantly with the increase of chlorophyll-a concentrations due to the phytoplankton photosynthetic assimilation activities. The observations of the present study highlighted the chlorophyll-a concentrations as an indicator of phytoplankton biomass reflecting water quality in the Nile tilapia aquaculture ecosystem.

  9. Complex interactions among nutrients, chlorophyll-a, and microcystins in three stormwater wet detention basins with floating treatment wetlands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartshorn, Nicholas; Marimon, Zachary; Xuan, Zhemin; Cormier, Jessica; Chang, Ni-Bin; Wanielista, Martin

    2016-02-01

    Stormwater wet detention ponds hold a permanent pool of water and offer many beneficial uses including flood mitigation, pollution prevention, downstream erosion control, increased aesthetics, and recreational uses. Although the removal of nutrients is generally low for stormwater wet detention ponds in urban areas, floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) can be installed to offer an innovative solution toward naturally removing excess nutrients and aiding in stormwater management. To improve the stormwater reuse potential, this study assessed nutrient, microcystin, and chlorophyll-a interactions in three Florida stormwater wet detention ponds with recently implemented FTWs. Both episodic (storm events) and routine (non-storm events) sampling campaigns were carried out at the three ponds located in Ruskin, Gainesville, and Orlando. The results showed a salient negative correlation between total phosphorus and microcystin concentrations for both storm and non-storm events across all three ponds. The dominant nutrient species in correlation seemed to be total phosphorus, which correlated positively with chlorophyll-a concentrations at all ponds and sampling conditions, with the exception of Orlando non-storm events. These results showed a correlation conditional to the candidate pond and sampling conditions for microcystin and chlorophyll-a concentrations. PMID:26386430

  10. Variability in the correlation between Asian dust storms and chlorophyll a concentration from the North to Equatorial Pacific.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Sai-Chun; Yao, Xiaohong; Gao, Hui-Wang; Shi, Guang-Yu; Yue, Xu

    2013-01-01

    A long-term record of Asian dust storms showed seven high-occurrence-frequency centers in China. The intrusion of Asian dust into the downwind seas, including the China seas, the Sea of Japan, the subarctic North Pacific, the North Pacific subtropical gyre, and the western and eastern Equatorial Pacific, has been shown to add nutrients to ocean ecosystems and enhance their biological activities. To explore the relationship between the transported dust from various sources to the six seas and oceanic biological activities with different nutrient conditions, the correlation between monthly chlorophyll a concentration in each sea and monthly dust storm occurrence frequencies reaching the sea during 1997-2007 was examined in this study. No correlations were observed between dust and chlorophyll a concentration in the dust sources and many sea areas, suggesting a link between dust and chlorophyll a concentration in those seas. However, the correlation coefficients were highly variable. In general, the correlation coefficients (0.54-0.63) for the Sea of Japan were highest, except for that between the subarctic Pacific and the Taklimakan Desert, where it was as high as 0.7. For the >50 m China seas and the North Pacific subtropical gyre, the correlation coefficients were in the range 0.32-0.57. The correlation coefficients for the western and eastern Equatorial Pacific were relatively low (dust sources, the transport pathways, the dust deposition, the nutrient conditions of oceans, and the probability of dust storms reaching the seas. PMID:23460892

  11. Primary marine aerosol emissions from the Mediterranean Sea during pre-bloom and oligotrophic conditions: correlations to seawater chlorophyll a from a mesocosm study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. N. Schwier

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The effect of ocean acidification and changing water conditions on primary marine aerosol emissions is not well understood on a regional or a global scale. To investigate this effect as well as the indirect effect on aerosol that changing biogeochemical parameters can have, ~52 m3 pelagic mesocosms were deployed for several weeks in the Mediterranean Sea during both winter pre-bloom and summer oligotrophic conditions and were subjected to various levels of CO2 to simulate the conditions foreseen in this region for the coming decades. After seawater sampling, primary bubble-bursting aerosol experiments were performed using a plunging water jet system to test both chemical and physical aerosol parameters. Comparing results obtained during pre-bloom and oligotrophic conditions, we find the same four log-normal modal diameters (18.5, 37.5, 91.5, 260 nm describing the aerosol size distribution during both campaigns, yet pre-bloom conditions significantly increased the number fraction of the second (Aitken mode, with an amplitude correlated to virus-like particles, heterotrophic prokaryotes, TEPs, chlorophyll a and other pigments. Organic fractions determined from κ closure calculations for Dp ~50 nm were much larger during the pre-bloom period (64% than during the oligotrophic period (38%, and the organic fraction increased as the particle size decreased. Combining data from both campaigns together, strong positive correlations were found between the organic fraction of the aerosol and chlorophyll a concentrations, heterotrophic and autotrophic bacteria abundance, and dissolved organic carbon (DOC concentrations. As a consequence of the changes in the organic fraction and the size distributions between pre-bloom and oligotrophic periods, we find that the ratio of cloud condensation nuclei (CCN to condensation nuclei (CN slightly decreased during the pre-bloom period. The enrichment of the seawater samples with microlayer samples did not have any

  12. An improved algorithm for retrieving chlorophyll-a from the Yellow River Estuary using MODIS imagery.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jun; Quan, Wenting

    2013-03-01

    In this study, an improved Moderate-Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) ocean chlorophyll-a (chla) 3 model (IOC3M) algorithm was developed as a substitute for the MODIS global chla concentration estimation algorithm, OC3M, to estimate chla concentrations in waters with high suspended sediment concentrations, such as the Yellow River Estuary, China. The IOC3M algorithm uses [Formula: see text] to substitute for switching the two-band ratio of max [R (rs) (443 nm), R (rs) (488 nm)]/R (rs) (551 nm) of the OC3M algorithm. In the IOC3M algorithm, the absorption coefficient of chla can be isolated as long as reasonable bands are selected. The performance of IOC3M and OC3M was calibrated and validated using a bio-optical data set composed of spectral upwelling radiance measurements and chla concentrations collected during three independent cruises in the Yellow River Estuary in September of 2009. It was found that the optimal bands of the IOC3M algorithm were λ(1) = 443 nm, λ(2) = 748 nm, λ(3) = 551 nm, and λ(4) = 870 nm. By comparison, the IOC3M algorithm produces superior performance to the OC3M algorithm. Using the IOC3M algorithm in estimating chla concentrations from the Yellow River Estuary decreases 1.03 mg/m(3) uncertainty from the OC3M algorithm. Additionally, the chla concentration estimated from MODIS data reveals that more than 90 % of the water in the Yellow River Estuary has a chla concentration lower than 5.0 mg/m(3). The averaged chla concentration is close to the in situ measurements. Although the case study presented herein is unique, the modeling procedures employed by the IOC3M algorithm can be useful in remote sensing to estimate the chla concentrations of similar aquatic environments. PMID:22707149

  13. Salinity predicts the distribution of chlorophyll a spring peak in the southern North Sea continental waters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Desmit, Xavier; Ruddick, Kevin; Lacroix, Geneviève

    2015-09-01

    In the North Sea, the coastal waters of Belgium and The Netherlands regularly exhibit intense spring phytoplankton blooms where species such as Phaeocystis recurrently form a potential ecological nuisance. In the Belgian and Dutch continental shelves (BCS and DCS), we observe a direct correlation between the chlorophyll a spring maximum (Chlmax) and the nutrients (DIN and DIP) available for the bloom. As the nutrients are themselves strongly correlated with salinity, a rationale is developed to predict Chlmax from winter salinity. The proposed rationale is first tested in a theoretical case with a 3D-biogeochemical model (3D-MIRO&CO). The method is then applied to independent sets of in situ observations over 20 years in the BCS and the DCS, and to continuous FerryBox data in April 2008. Linear regressions explain the relationships between winter nutrients and winter salinity (R2 = 0.88 to 0.97 with model results, and R2 = 0.83 to 0.96 with in situ data). The relationship between Chlmax and the available nutrients across the salinity gradient is also explained by yearly linear regressions (R2 = 0.82 to 0.94 with model results, and R2 = 0.46 to 0.98 with in situ data). Empirical 'DIP requirement' and 'DIN requirement' for the spring biomass bloom formation are derived from the latter relationships. They depend i.a. on the losses from phytoplankton during the spring bloom formation, and therefore show some interannual variability (8-12% for DIP and 13-20% for DIN). The ratio between nutrient requirements allows predicting in winter which nutrient will eventually limit the spring biomass bloom along the salinity gradient. DIP will generally be limiting in the coastal zone, whereas DIN will generally be limiting offshore, the switch occurring typically at salinity 33.5 in the BCS and 33.6 in the DCS. N reduction should be prioritized to limit Phaeocystis in the coastal zone, with target winter DIN:DIP ratios below 34.4 molN molP-1 in the BCS, or 28.6 molN molP- 1 in

  14. Size-fractionated Chlorophyll a biomass in the northern South China Sea in summer 2014

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Haijiao; Xue, Bing; Feng, Yuanyuan; Zhang, Rui; Chen, Mianrun; Sun, Jun

    2016-07-01

    Spatial distribution of phaeopigment and size-fractionated chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentrations were examined in relation to hydrographic conditions in the northern South China Sea (NSCS) during a survey from 20 August to 12 September, 2014. The total Chl a concentration varied from 0.006 to 1.488 µg/L with a mean value of 0.259±0.247 (mean±standard deviation) µg/L. Chl a concentration was generally higher in shallow water (200 m), with mean values of 0.364±0.311 µg/L and 0.206±0.192 µg/L respectively. Vertically, the maximum total Chl a concentration appeared at depths of 30-50 m and gradually decreased below 100 m. The size-fractionated Chl a concentrations of grid stations and time-series stations (SEATS and J4) were determined, with values of pico- (0.7-2 µm), nano- (2-20 µm) and micro-plankton (20-200 µm) ranging from 0.001-0.287 (0.093±0.071 µg/L), 0.004-1.149 (0.148±0.192 µg/L) and 0.001-0.208 (0.023±0.036 µg/L), respectively. Phaeopigment concentrations were determined at specific depths at ten stations, except for at station A9, and varied from 0.007 to 0.572 (0.127±0.164) µg/L. Nano-and pico-plankton were the major contributors to total phytoplankton biomass, accounting for 50.99%±15.01% and 39.30%±15.41%, respectively, whereas microplankton only accounted for 9.39%±8.66%. The results indicate that the contributions of microplankton to total Chl a biomass were less important than picoplankton or nanoplankton in the surveyed NSCS. Different sized-Chl a had similar spatial patterns, with peak values all observed in subsurface waters (30-50 m). The summer monsoon, Kuroshio waters, Zhujiang (Pearl) River plume, and hydrological conditions are speculated to be the factors controlling the abundance and spatial heterogeneity of Chl a biomass in the NSCS.

  15. Synoptic relationships between surface Chlorophyll-a and diagnostic pigments specific to phytoplankton functional types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Noguchi-Aita

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available Error-quantified, synoptic-scale relationships between chlorophyll-a (Chl-a and phytoplankton pigment groups at the sea surface are presented. A total of ten pigment groups were considered to represent three Phytoplankton Size Classes (PSCs, micro-, nano- and picoplankton and seven Phytoplankton Functional Types (PFTs, i.e. diatoms, dinoflagellates, green algae, prymnesiophytes (haptophytes, pico-eukaryotes, prokaryotes and Prochlorococcus sp.. The observed relationships between Chl-a and PSCs/PFTs were well-defined at the global scale to show that a community shift of phytoplankton at the basin and global scales is reflected by a change in Chl-a of the total community. Thus, Chl-a of the total community can be used as an index of not only phytoplankton biomass but also of their community structure. Within these relationships, we also found non-monotonic variations with Chl-a for certain pico-sized phytoplankton (pico-eukaryotes, Prokaryotes and Prochlorococcus sp. and nano-sized phytoplankton (Green algae, prymnesiophytes. The relationships were quantified with a least-square fitting approach in order to enable an estimation of the PFTs from Chl-a where PFTs are expressed as a percentage of the total Chl-a. The estimated uncertainty of the relationships depends on both PFT and Chl-a concentration. Maximum uncertainty of 31.8% was found for diatoms at Chl-a = 0.49 mg m−3. However, the mean uncertainty of the relationships over all PFTs was 5.9% over the entire Chl-a range observed in situ (0.02 < Chl-a < 4.26 mg m−3. The relationships were applied to SeaWiFS satellite Chl-a data from 1998 to 2009 to show the global climatological fields of the surface distribution of PFTs. Results show that microplankton are present in the mid and high latitudes, constituting only ~10.9% of the entire phytoplankton community in the mean field for 1998–2009, in which diatoms explain ~7.5%. Nanoplankton are ubiquitous throughout the global surface oceans

  16. Synoptic relationships quantified between surface Chlorophyll-a and diagnostic pigments specific to phytoplankton functional types

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Y. Yamanaka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Error-quantified, synoptic-scale relationships between chlorophyll-a (Chla and phytoplankton pigment groups at the sea surface are presented. A total of nine pigment groups were considered to represent nine phytoplankton functional types (PFTs including microplankton, nanoplankton, picoplankton, diatoms, dinoflagellates, green algae, picoeukaryotes, prokaryotes and Prochlorococcus sp. The observed relationships between Chla and pigment groups were well-defined at the global scale to show that Chla can be used as an index of not only phytoplankton abundance but also community structure; large (micro phytoplankton monotonically increase as Chla increases, whereas the small (pico phytoplankton community generally decreases. Within these relationships, we also found non-monotonic variations with Chla for certain pico-plankton (pico-eukaryotes, Prokaryotes and Prochlorococcus sp. and for Green Algae and nano-sized phytoplankton. The relationships were quantified with a least-square fitting approach in order to estimate the PFTs from Chla alone. The estimated uncertainty of the relationships quantified depends on both phytoplankton types and Chla concentration. Maximum uncertainty over all groups (34.7% Chla was found from diatom at approximately Chla = 1.07 mg m−3. However, the mean uncertainty of the relationships over all groups was 5.8 [% Chla] over the entire Chla range observed (0.02 < Chla < 6.84 mg m−3. The relationships were applied to SeaWiFS satellite Chla data from 1998 to 2009 to show the global climatological fields of the surface distribution of PFTs. Results show that microplankton are present in the mid and high latitudes, constituting ~9.0 [% Chla] of the phytoplankton community at the global surface, in which diatoms explain ~6.0 [% Chla]. Nanoplankton are ubiquious throught much of the global surface oceans except subtropical gyres, acting as a background population, constituting ~44.2 [% Chla]. Picoplankton are mostly limited

  17. Relative impact of seasonal and oceanographic drivers on surface chlorophyll a along a Western Boundary Current

    Science.gov (United States)

    Everett, Jason D.; Baird, Mark E.; Roughan, Moninya; Suthers, Iain M.; Doblin, Martina A.

    2014-01-01

    Strengthening Western Boundary Currents (WBCs) advect warm, low nutrient waters into temperate latitudes, displacing more productive waters. WBCs also influence phytoplankton distribution and growth through current-induced upwelling, mesoscale eddy intrusion and seasonal changes in strength and poleward penetration. Here we examine dynamics of chlorophyll a (Chl. a) in the western Pacific Ocean, a region strongly influenced by the East Australian Current (EAC). We interpreted a spatial and temporal analysis of satellite-derived surface Chl. a, using a hydrodynamic model, a wind-reanalysis product and an altimetry-derived eddy-census. Our analysis revealed regions of persistently elevated surface Chl. a along the continental shelf and showed that different processes have a dominant effect in different locations. In the northern and central zones, upwelling events tend to regulate surface Chl. a patterns, with peaks in phytoplankton biomass corresponding to two known upwelling locations south of Cape Byron (28.5°S) and Smoky Cape (31°S). Within the central EAC separation zone, positive surface Chl. a anomalies occurred 65% of the time when both wind-stress (τw) and bottom-stress (τB) were upwelling-favourable, and only 17% of the time when both were downwelling-favourable. The interaction of wind and the EAC was a critical driver of surface Chl. a dynamics, with upwelling-favourable τW resulting in a 70% increase in surface Chl. a at some locations, when compared to downwelling-favourable τW . In the southern zone, surface Chl. a was driven by a strong seasonal cycle, with phytoplankton biomass increasing up to 152% annually each spring. The Stockton Bight region (32.25-33.25°S) contained ⩾20% of the total shelf Chl. a on 27% of occasions due to its location downstream of upwelling locations, wide shelf area and reduced surface velocities. This region is analogous to productive fisheries regions in the Aghulus Current (Natal Bight) and Kuroshio Current

  18. Study on the Relationship between Chlorophyll-a and Environmental Impact Factors in Deep Reservoir in Karst Areas——Taking Aha Reservoir for Example

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to study the relationship between chlorophyll-a and environmental impact factors in deep reservoir in Karst Areas.[Method] Taking Aha Reservoir for example,the changes of chlorophyll-a content and its relationship with environmental impact factors were researched,and the water quality of Aha Reservoir was assessed by means of modified Carlson trophic state index.[Result] Chlorophyll-a content in Aha Reservoir was higher in March,April,May and September and lower from June to August,a...

  19. Enhanced chlorophyll a and primary production in the northern Arabian Sea during the spring intermonsoon due to green Noctiluca scintillans bloom

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Madhu, N.V.; Jyothibabu, R.; Maheswaran, P.A.; Jayaraj, K.A.; Achuthankutty, C.T.

    IRS-P4 could substantiate the increased chlorophyll a in the northern AS towards the end of March (Sarangi et al., 2005; Dwivedi et al., 2006). Even though the satellite sensors are widely used to study the distribution of chlorophyll a, the in... estimated from the above mentioned depths. The incubation for primary productivity experiments were extended up to 12 hours (06.00 to 18.00hrs). Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor’s (SeaWiFS) monthly mean images of chlorophyll a (9-km resolution data...

  20. Influence of alloying effect on X-ray fluorescence parameters of Co and Cu in CoCuAg alloy films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aylikci, Nuray Kup; Tiraşoğlu, Engin; Apaydin, Gökhan; Cengiz, Erhan; Aylikci, Volkan; Bakkaloğlu, Ömer Faruk

    2009-06-01

    In this study, K β/K α X-ray intensity ratios, σ, σ production cross-sections and ωK fluorescence yields of Co and Cu and L β/L α X-ray intensity ratios, σ, σ production cross-sections and ϖ average fluorescence yields of Ag in pure metals and in different alloy compositions were measured. In this study, alloying effects on the σ production cross-sections of Co and Cu were investigated and changes interpreted according to the rearrangement of valance state electrons and the charge transfer process between the 3d elements (Co and Cu) and Ag.

  1. Effect of Methanol on Photosynthesis and Chlorophyll Fluorescence of Flag Leaves of Winter Wheat

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Yue-jin; YANG Yue-qin; LIANG Shan-shan; YI Xian-feng

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthesis and chlorophyll a fluorescence parameters, photochemical efficiency of PS II (Fv/Fm), photochemical quenching of PS II (qP), nonphotochemical quenching of PS II (NPQ), maximum activity of PS II (Fv/Fo) as well as electron transport rate (ETR), and quantum yield of PS II (ΦPS II) were measured on flag leaves of the winter wheat treated by methanol at different concentrations. The results revealed that photosynthesis was greatly improved by methanol, as indicated by higher photosynthetic rates and stomatal conductance. The enhancement effect of methanol on photosynthesis was maintained for 3-4 days. Different methanol concentration treatments also increased intercellular CO2 concentration and transpiration rates. No significant decline was found in Fv/Fm, Fv/Fo, and ΦPS II, which revealed no photoinhibition during methanol application in different methanol concentrations. Methanol showing no apparent inhibitory effects indicated higher potential photosynthetic capacity of flag leaves of winter wheat. However, the increase in photosynthesis was not followed by an increase in the photosynthetic activity (Fv/Fm), and fluorescence parameters did not indicate an improvement in intercellular CO2 concentration and PS II photochemical efficiency compared with the control, thereby encouraging us to propose that lower leaf temperatures caused by applied methanol would reduce both dark respiration and photorespiration (most importantly), thus, increasing net CO2 uptake and photosynthetic rates.

  2. HPLC Analysis of Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, and Beta-Carotene in Collard Greens: A Project for a Problem-Oriented Laboratory Course.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; And Others

    1984-01-01

    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used to separate and quantitate beta-carotene, chlorophyll a, and chlorophyll b originating from collard greens. Experimental procedures used and typical results obtained are discussed. (JN)

  3. Retrieval and Validation of Chlorophyll-a Concentrations in the Coastal Waters Off Yanam and Kakinada (Godavari) Basin Along East Coast of India.

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Latha, T.P.; Nagamani, P.V.; Rao, K.H.; Dash, S.K.; Choudhury, S.B.; Rehman, A.; Sarma, V.V.S.S.; Babu, M.N.; Amarendra, P.; Rao, B.S.; Prasad, T.D.V.

    depth) using Underwater radiometer (Hyperpro-II). In-vivo chlorophyll profiles were collected using wet labs fluorometer integrated with underwater Hyperspectral radiometer. Chlorophyll-a concentrations were estimated using HPLC by collecting the water...

  4. Extracted chlorophyll-a and phaeopigment concentrations and other data from R/V Endeavor from 1995-01-11 to 1995-06-16 (NODC Accession 9900026)

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This accession contains "extracted chlorophyll-a and phaeopigment" concentrations collected for the GLOBEC Georges Bank project by Dr. Dian Gifford, Univ. of Rhode...

  5. The influence of Phaeocystis globosa on microscale spatial patterns of chlorophyll a and bulk-phase seawater viscosity

    OpenAIRE

    Seuront, L.; Lacheze, C.; Doubell, M.J.; Seymour, J.R.; Van Dongen-Vogels, V.; Newton, K; Alderkamp, A.-C.; J. G. Mitchell

    2007-01-01

    A two-dimensional microscale (5 cm resolution) sampler was used over the course of a phytoplankton spring bloom dominated by Phaeocystis globosa to investigate the structural properties of chlorophyll a and seawater excess viscosity distributions. The microscale distribution patterns of chlorophyll a and excess viscosity were never uniform nor random. Instead they exhibited different types and levels of aggregated spatial patterns that were related to the dynamics of the bloom. The chlorophyl...

  6. The size-fractionated chlorophyll a and primary productivity in the Bering Sea during the summer of 2003

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Zilin; CHEN Jianfang; CHEN Zhongyuan; ZHANG Tao; ZHANG Haisheng

    2005-01-01

    Investigations of chlorophyll a and primary productivity were carried out in the Bering Sea along the BR line and the BS line during the Second Chinese National Arctic Research Expedition in the summer of 2003. The results showed that the surface chlorophyll a concentrations were 0.199~1.170 μg/dm3, and the average value was 0.723 μg/dm3 on the BR line. For the BS line, the surface chlorophyll a concentrations were 0.519~4.644 μg/dm3 (average 1.605 μg/dm3) and 0.568~14.968 μg/dm3 (average 5.311 μg/dm3)during the early and late summer, respectively. The average value in the late summer was much higher than that in the early summer.The high values (more than 4.0 μg/dm3) occurred at stations of the BS line in the southern Bering Strait. The chlorophyll a concentrations in the subsurface layer were higher than those in the surface layer. The results of the size-fractionated chlorophyll a showed that the contribution of the picoplankton to total chlorophyll a was the predominance at the early summer and the contribution of the netplankton was the predominance at the late summer. The carbon potential primary productivities varied between 0.471 and 1.147 mg/(m3·h) on the BR line, with average rates of 0.728 mg/(m3·h). The primary productivities on the BS line were much higher than those of the BR line, ranging from 1.227 mg/(m3·h) at the early summer to 19.046 mg/(m3·h) at the late summer. The results of 1.147 mg/(m3·h) on the BR line, with average rates of 0.728 mg/(m3·h). The primary productivities on the BS line were much higher than those of the BR line, ranging from 1.227 mg/(m3·h) at the early summer to 19.046 mg/(m3·h) at the late summer. The results of the size-fractionated primary productivity showed that the contribution of the nanoplankton to total productivity was the predominance at the early summer and the contribution of the netplankton was predominance at the late summer. The assimilation number of photosynthesis was 0.45~2.80 mg

  7. Isolation, characterization and evolutionary relatedness of three members from the soybean multigene family encoding chlorophyll a/b binding proteins.

    OpenAIRE

    Walling, L L; Chang, Y.C.; Demmin, D S; Holzer, F M

    1988-01-01

    The soybean light-harvesting complex II (LHC II) was composed of one major and three minor chlorophyll a/b (Cab) binding proteins. This study demonstrated that the soybean genome contained at least 11 genes that code for these Cab proteins. Three members of the soybean Cab gene family were characterized. Cab 3 coded for a 25.7 kD mature apoprotein with a 32 amino acid transit peptide. Comparisons with previously published Cab protein sequences indicated that Cab 3 coded for the major Cab prot...

  8. Contrasting seasonal patterns in dimethylsulfide, dimethylsulfoniopropionate, and chlorophyll a in a shallow North Carolina estuary and the Sargasso Sea

    OpenAIRE

    Sunda, William G.; Hardison, D. Ransom

    2008-01-01

    Time series measurements of dimethylsulfide (DMS), particulate dimethylsulfoniopropionate (DMSPp), chlorophyll a (chl a), algal pigments, major nutrients, and the potential activity of DMSP lyase enzymes were made over a 2 yr period (6 March 2003 to 28 March 2005) near the mouth of the shallow, tidally mixed Newport River estuary, North Carolina, USA. DMSPp had a mean of 43 ± 20 nM (range = 10.5 to 141 nM, n = 85) and DMS a mean of 2.7 ± 1.2 nM (range = 0.9 to 7.0 nM). The mean DMS in Gallant...

  9. Early alterations on photosynthesis-related parameters in Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells exposed to atrazine: A multiple approach study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Esperanza, Marta; Seoane, Marta; Rioboo, Carmen; Herrero, Concepción; Cid, Ángeles

    2016-06-01

    Chlamydomonas reinhardtii cells were exposed to a sublethal concentration of the widespread herbicide atrazine for 3h. Physiological cellular parameters, such as chlorophyll a fluorescence and oxidative stress monitored by flow cytometry and pigments levels were altered in microalgal cells exposed to 0.25μM of atrazine. Furthermore, the effects of this herbicide on C. reinhardtii were explored using "omics" techniques. Transcriptomic analyses, carried out by RNA-Seq technique, displayed 9 differentially expressed genes, related to photosynthesis, between control cultures and atrazine exposed cultures. Proteomic profiles were obtained using iTRAQ tags and MALDI-MS/MS analysis, identifying important changes in the proteome during atrazine stress; 5 proteins related to photosynthesis were downexpressed. The results of these experiments advance the understanding of photosynthetic adjustments that occur during an early herbicide exposure. Inhibition of photosynthesis induced by atrazine toxicity will affect the entire physiological and biochemical states of microalgal cells. PMID:26950638

  10. Effect of 2,4-dichlorophenoxyacetic acid on growth, protein and chlorophyll-a content of Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saygideger, Saadet Demirors; Okkay, Ozlem

    2008-03-01

    In this study, effect of different 2,4 -dichlorophenoxyacetic acid (2,4-D) concentrations (0.0, 9.10(-5), 9.10(-4), 9.10(-3) and 9.10(-2) mM) on growth rate, content of protein and chlorophyll-a in Chlorella vulgaris and Spirulina platensis cells was investigated. The most stimulatory effect on growth rate, protein and pigment ratio of C. vulgaris and S. platensis was observed at 9.10(-4) mM concentrations of 2,4-D. The results show that low concentrations of 2,4-D have hormonal effect due to being a synthetic auxin. Cell number protein and pigment rates were inhibited at 9.10(-2) mM concentration in C. vulgaris. Such parameters were inhibited in S. platensis, both at 9.10(-3) and 9.10(-2) mM 2,4-D concentrations. This is due to herbicidal effect of high concentrations of 2,4-D. S. platensis was found to be more sensitive than S. vulgaris to 2,4-D applications. The use of algae as bio-indicators in herbicide contaminated fresh water habitats, was discussed. PMID:18831369

  11. 应用Landsat TM影像估算渤海叶绿素a和总悬浮物浓度%Quantitative Estimation of Chlorophyll-a and Total Suspended Matter Concentration with Landsat TM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邬明权; 韩松; 赵永清; 牛铮

    2012-01-01

    利用23个实测样点的渤海叶绿素a和总悬浮物浓度数据及同步Landsat TM影像数据,分别分析了Landsat TM离水辐射亮度对渤海叶绿素a和总悬浮物浓度的敏感性,选择合适的波段,通过回归分析构建了基于Landsat TM离水辐射亮度的渤海叶绿素a和总悬浮物浓度反演模型.结果表明,TM1、TM2和TM3波段对叶绿素a的敏感性较高,以TM4/TM1和TM3/TM2的对数为自变量,以叶绿素a浓度的对数为因变量的线性估算模型可以有效反演渤海叶绿素a浓度,决定系数R2达到0.97 ;TM3波段对悬浮物的敏感性最高,以TM2、TM3和TM3/TM2为自变量,以总悬浮物浓度的以10为底的对数为因变量的多元线性模型获得的结果最佳,决定系数R2达到0.91.%In order to meet the demand for high spatial resolution water quality parameters in land-sourced sewage outfalls monitoring,a novel chlorophyll-a and total suspended matter concentration extracting method based on Landsat TM images and field sample data was studied. With 23 field sample data of chlorophyll-a and total suspended matter concentration and six synchronized Landsat TM5 images in Bohai. some linear model of chlorophyll-a and total suspended matter concentration extracting method were built by linear regression analysis technology. First .sensitive bands were selected by sensitivity analysis between Landsat TM reflectance images and chlorophyll-a and total suspended matter concentration. Then quantitative estimation model of chlorophyll-a and total suspended matter concentration with Landsat TM reflectance was built by regression analysis. The results showed that,TMl,TM2 and TM3 bands have a higher sensitivity to CHL. Chlorophyll-a can be highly estimated by the power function model and multiple regression model with TM4/TM1 and TM3/TM2 as independent variables. A high coefficient of determination (R2) of 0. 97 was acquired with the power function model. TM3 band had a higher sensitivity to SS. Total

  12. Development of empirical potential functions for the study of molecular geometry, and applications to chlorophyll a dimers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oie, Tetsuro

    1980-07-28

    A purpose of the present studies is twofold: (1) development of an empirical potential function (EDF) and (2) application of it to the studies of photoreaction center chlorophyll a dimer. The reliable estimate of geometric structures and energies of large molecules by quantum mechanical methods is not possible at the present time. An alternative method is, therefore, needed for the studies of large molecular systems, and Chapter I is dedicated to the development of this tool, i.e., an empirical potential function, which could suffice this purpose. Because of a large number of variable chemical compositions and functional groups characteristically present in a large molecule, it is important to include a large number of structurally diverse molecules in the development of the EPF. In Chapter II, the EPF is applied to study the geometrical structure of a chlorophyll a (Ch1 a) dimer, which is believed to exist at the photoreaction center of green plants and is known to play an essential role in photosynthetic energy conversion. Although various models have been proposed for this dimer structure, there is still a great need for information concerning the detailed geometric structure of this dimer. Therefore, in this chapter the structural stabilities of various dimer models are examined by the EPF, and detailed and quantitative information on the structure and stability of these models is provided.

  13. Development of empirical potential functions for the study of molecular geometry, and applications to chlorophyll a dimers. [Dissertation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Oie, Tetsuro

    1980-01-01

    A purpose of the present studies is twofold: (1) development of an empirical potential function (EPF) and (2) application of it to the studies of photoreaction center chlorophyll a dimer. The reliable estimate of geometric structures and energies of large molecules by quantum mechanical methods is not possible at the present time. An alternative method is, therefore, needed for the studies of large molecular systems, and Chapter I is dedicated to the development of this tool, i.e., an empirical potential function, which could suffice this purpose. Because of a large number of variable chemical compositions and functional groups characteristically present in a large molecule, it is important to include a large number of structurally diverse molecules in the development of the EPF. In Chapter II, the EPF is applied to study the geometrical structure of a chlorophyll a (Chl a) dimer, which is believed to exist at the photoreaction center of green plants and is known to play an essential role in photosynthetic energy conversion. Although various models have been proposed for this dimer structure, there is still a great need for information concerning the detailed geometric structure of this dimer. Therefore, in this chapter the structural stabilities of various dimer models are examined by the EPF, and detailed and quantitative information on the structure and stability of these models is provided.

  14. Comparison of Chlorophyll-A Algorithms for the Transition Zone Between the North Sea and Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huber, Silvia; Hansen, Lars B.; Rasmussen, Mads O.; Kaas, Hanne

    2015-12-01

    Monitoring water quality of the transition zone between the North Sea and Baltic Sea from space is still a challenge because of the optically complex waters. The presence of suspended sediments and dissolved substances often interfere with the phytoplankton signal and thus confound conventional case-1 algorithms developed for the open ocean. Specific calibration to case-2 waters may compensate for this. In this study we compared chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentrations derived with three different case-2 algorithms: C2R, FUB/WeW and CoastColour using MERIS data as basis. Default C2R and FUB clearly underestimate higher chl-a concentrations. However, with local tuning we could significantly improve the fit with in-situ data. For instance, the root mean square error is reduced by roughly 50% from 3.06 to 1.6 μ g/L for the calibrated C2R processor as compared to the default C2R. This study is part of the FP7 project AQUA-USERS which has the overall goal to provide the aquaculture industry with timely information based on satellite data and optical in-situ measurements. One of the products is chlorophyll-a concentration.

  15. Spectral difference method applied in determination of beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and b from irradiated seeds of Calendula Officinalis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beta-carotene is part of the class of the carotenoid pigments that have a special function in the pigmentation of flowers and fruits. These pigments are essential in photosynthesis where they are retaining energy and are photoprotectors by forming the redox system. They are also precursors of vitamin A, pigments involved in the process of seeing. Beta-carotene is responsible for the growth and development of organisms, for the protection and recovery of epithelial tissue, etc. Next to chlorophyll, carotenoids are the major components of the complex pigment-protein from the thylacoide membrane, and some of them, such as beta-carotene, were for a long time considered to be protecting the membrane against destructive events caused by the over excitement of the chlorophyll. This paper presents spectral difference method for physico-chemical characterisation of three components (beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and b) from Calendula officinalis leaves and stalks, after irradiation of germinated seeds. The germinated seeds of Calendula officinalis has been irradiated at 8 different doses ( 1 k Rad, 3 k Rad, 5 k Rad, 10 k Rad, 20 k Rad, 50 k Rad, 100 k Rad, 500 krad), one set of seeds remaining unirradiated for comparison. The plants had been grown in the same conditions of light, temperature and humidity. The identification of beta-carotene was performed through thin layer chromatography. The chemical concentrations of beta-carotene, chlorophyll a and b were determined by spectral difference method. (authors)

  16. Variability in the correlation between Asian dust storms and chlorophyll a concentration from the North to Equatorial Pacific.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sai-Chun Tan

    Full Text Available A long-term record of Asian dust storms showed seven high-occurrence-frequency centers in China. The intrusion of Asian dust into the downwind seas, including the China seas, the Sea of Japan, the subarctic North Pacific, the North Pacific subtropical gyre, and the western and eastern Equatorial Pacific, has been shown to add nutrients to ocean ecosystems and enhance their biological activities. To explore the relationship between the transported dust from various sources to the six seas and oceanic biological activities with different nutrient conditions, the correlation between monthly chlorophyll a concentration in each sea and monthly dust storm occurrence frequencies reaching the sea during 1997-2007 was examined in this study. No correlations were observed between dust and chlorophyll a concentration in the 50 m China seas and the North Pacific subtropical gyre, the correlation coefficients were in the range 0.32-0.57. The correlation coefficients for the western and eastern Equatorial Pacific were relatively low (<0.36. These correlation coefficients were further interpreted in terms of the geographical distributions of dust sources, the transport pathways, the dust deposition, the nutrient conditions of oceans, and the probability of dust storms reaching the seas.

  17. Influence of different water-ethanol solvent systems on the spectroscopic and physico-chemical properties of the macrocyclic compounds pheophytin and chlorophyll a; Influencia de diferentes sistemas de solvente agua-etanol sobre as propriedades fisico-quimicas e espectroscopicas dos compostos macrociclicos feofitina e clorofila a

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moreira, Leonardo M.; Rodrigues, Maira R.; Oliveira, Hueder P. M. de [Universidade Camilo Castelo Branco, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Lima, Adriana [Universidade do Vale do Paraiba, Sao Jose dos Campos, SP (Brazil); Soares, Rafael R. S.; Batistela, Vagner R.; Gerola, Adriana P.; Hioka, Noboru [Universidade Estadual de Maringa (UEM), PR (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Severino, Divinomar; Baptista, Mauricio S. [Universidade de Sao Paulo, (USP), SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica; Machado, Antonio Eduardo da Hora [Universidade Federal de Uberlandia (UFU), MG (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica

    2010-07-01

    This work focus on the influence of solvent on the photophysical properties of chlorophyll a and pheophytin. Both compounds are related to the photosynthesis process and are considered prototypes of photosensitizers in Photodynamic Therapy. Fluorescence measurements were developed using water/ethanol mixtures at different compositions, since both solvents could be employed in biological applications. The spectroscopic properties of these compounds undergo profound changes depending on water content in the ethanol due to auto-aggregation processes. The major hydrophobicity and the lower dielectric constant of ethanol when compared with water precluded significantly the auto-aggregation process of these compounds. (author)

  18. Remote sensing of phytoplankton using laser-induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of remote laser sensing of brackish-water phytoplankton on board a research vessel are presented. Field data of laser-induced fluorescence of phytoplankton obtained during the several cruises in the mouth of tile Gulf of Finland are compared with the results of standard chlorophyll a analysis of water samples and phytoplankton species determination by microscopy. The approach of fluorescence excitation by tunable laser radiation is applied to study the spatial distribution of a natural phytoplankton community. The remote analysis of the pigment composition of a phytoplankton community using the method of selective pigment excitation is described. The possibility of elaborating methods of quantitative laser remote biomonitoring is discussed

  19. Characterisation of estuarine intertidal macroalgae by laser-induced fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gameiro, Carla; Utkin, Andrei B.; Sousa Dias Cartaxana, Paulo Jorge

    2015-01-01

    The article reports the application of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for the assessment of macroalgae communities of estuarine intertidal areas. The method was applied for the characterisation of fifteen intertidal macroalgae species of the Tagus estuary, Portugal, and adjacent coastal area...... spectra were determined by differences in the main fluorescing pigments: phycoerythrin, phycocyanin and chlorophyll a (Chl a). In the green and brown macroalgae groups, the relative significance of the two emission maxima seems to be related to the thickness of the photosynthetic layer. In thick...

  20. The molecular photophysics of chlorophyl : a study of its triplet state

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kleibeuker, J.F.

    1977-01-01

    The lowest excited triplet state T 0 of chlorophyll a , chlorophyll b , bacteriochlorophyll and corresponding pheophytins has been studied by magnetic resonance and optical spectroscopy. Zero field splitting (US) parameters D and E, populating rates, a

  1. Investigation of features of processes Raman and fluorescence sea water depending on the time characteristics of the excitation radiation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mayor, A. Yu.; Bukin, O. A.; Proschenko, D. Yu.; Golik, S. S.

    2015-11-01

    The forms and intensities of Raman lines and chlorophyll A fluorescence have been researched when excited at 532 nm, depending on the duration of the pulses of the exciting radiation. The duration of continuous operation ranged from emission to 120 fs.

  2. Effects of temperature and irradiance on a benthic microalgal community: A combined two-dimensional oxygen and fluorescence imaging approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancke, Kasper; Sorrell, Brian Keith; Lund-Hansen, Lars Chresten; Larsen, Morten; Hancke, Torunn; Glud, Ronnie

    2014-01-01

    The effects of temperature and light on both oxygen (O2) production and gross photosynthesis were resolved in a benthic microalgae community by combining two-dimensional (2D) imaging of O2 and variable chlorophyll a (Chl a) fluorescence. Images revealed a photosynthetically active community with...

  3. Primary productivity and chlorophyll a in Prydz Bay and its mouth in Antarctica during the austral summer of 1999/2000

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The investigation of phytoplankton standing stock, euphotic layer and photosynthesis rate were carried out in 19 - 27 of January, 2000 at three longitudinal sections (70°30'E, 73°00'E and 75°30'E). The results showed that the high value of chlorophyll a concentration was in inshore bay, polynya and the continental slope of the investigated sea area. At various investigated stations, average chlorophyll a concentration at sub-surface layer (25 m) was higher than that at surface layer; its concentration at the deeper layers of over 50 m decreased with increasing depth. At anchor station, the maximum chlorophyll az concentration appeared at surface layer in Antarctic summer's afternoon while the minimum value appeared in the morning; chlorophyll a concentration at water layer of 0 - 25 m was obviously higher than that at deep water layer, being related to the releasing of ice-algae. High productivity was in inshore bay and polynya of continental shelf. Chlorophyll a concentration at surface layer is closely correlated to the dissolved oxygen concentration in seawater. The sea ares with chlorophyll a concentration of over 1.0ag/dms may be the convergence of CO2 and that of below 1.0 μg/dms may be the source of CO2.

  4. Effect of some important sample parameters on the X-ray fluorescence determination of impurities in pure materials: determination of Ca, Y, Gd and Th in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calibration standards obtained by dry mixing of the components in appropriate proportions may be compositionally accurate but they can be a major source of error in the x-ray fluorescence analytical results owing to the mismatch in the degree of their homogeneity with that of the sample. An in-depth study has been made on the above aspect taking U3O8 as a matrix and Ca, Y, Gd and Th in the low concentration range (0-1500 ppm) as representative impurities. This study clearly illustrates the incompatibility of the truly homogeneous standards with the standards obtained by dry mixing and grinding. This incompatibility is dependent on the analytical line wavelength, being large for soft x-ray lines and small for harder x-rays. The effect of binding material which is often required for briquetting the sample into a pellet form and is necessarily to be mixed with the sample by dry mixing is discussed. (author)

  5. One-electron oxidation of chlorophyll a and (tetraphenylporphyrinato)cobalt(II) by various metalloporphyrin cation radicals. Kinetic spectrophotometric studies

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    One-electron oxidations of various metalloporphyrins in dichloroethane solutions were studied by kinetic spectrophotometric pulse radiolysis. Co/sup II/TPP (TPP = tetraphenylporphyrin) was found to produce Co/sup III/TPP while the Cd(II), Cu(II), Pb(II), and VO complexes, like the ZnTPP and MgTPP, yield the cation radicals. Ni/sup II/TPP is oxidized at the metal center in the presence of pyridine but at the ligand in its absence. The subsequent one-electron oxidation of chlorophyll a and Co/sup II/TPP by the above cation radicals was also followed. The rate constants for these reactions were found to be mostly in the range of 3 x 108-5 x 108 M-1 s-1, much lower than the expected diffusion-controlled rates

  6. The distribution feature of size-fractionated chlorophyll a and primary productivity in Prydz Bay and its north sea area during the austral summer

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘子琳; 陈忠元

    2003-01-01

    The investigation of size-fractionated chlorophyll a and primary productivity were carried out in three longitudinal sections (63°-69°12′S, 70°30′E, 73°E and 75(30′E) at December 18 -26, 1998 and January 12 -18, 1999 in Prydz Bay and its north sea area, Antarctica. The results showed that surface chlorophyll a concentration were 0.16 - 3.99 μg dm -3. The high values of chlorophyll a concentration ( more than 3.5 μg dm -3 ) were in Prydz Bay and in the west Ladies Bank. The average chlorophyll a concentration at sub-surface layer was higher than that at surface layer; its concentration at the deeper layers of 50 m decreased with increasing depth and that at 200 m depth was only 0.01 -0.95 μg dm-3. The results of size-fractionated chlorophyll a showed that the contribution of the netplanktion to total chlorophyll a was 56% , those of the nanoplankton and the picoplankton were 24% and 20% respectively in the surveyed area. The potential primary productivity at the euphotic zone in the surveyed area was 0. 11 - 11.67 mgC m-3 h -1 and average value was 2.00 ±2.80 mgC m-3h-1. The in-situ productivity in the bay and the continental shelf was higher and that in the deep-sea area was lower. The assimilation number of ted primary productivity show that the contribution of the netplanktion to total productivity was 58% , those of the nanoplankton and the picoplankton were 26% and 16% respectively. The cell abundance of phytoplankton was 1. 6 + 103 - 164. 8 + 103 cell dm-3 in the surface water.

  7. Empirical model for chlorophyll-a determination in inland waters from the forthcoming Sentinel-2 and 3. Validation from HICO images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Delegido

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll-a concentration is one of the main indicators of inland waters quality. Using CHRIS/PROBA images and in situ data obtained in four lakes in Colombia and Spain, we obtained empirical models for the estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration, which can be directly applied to future images of MSI Sentinel-2 and OLCI Sentinel-3 sensors. The models, based on spectral band indices, were validated with data from the hyperspectral sensor HICO, onboard of the International Space Station.

  8. Near infrared-red models for the remote estimation of chlorophyll- a concentration in optically complex turbid productive waters: From in situ measurements to aerial imagery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gurlin, Daniela

    Today the water quality of many inland and coastal waters is compromised by cultural eutrophication in consequence of increased human agricultural and industrial activities and remote sensing is widely applied to monitor the trophic state of these waters. This study explores near infrared-red models for the remote estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in turbid productive waters and compares several near infrared-red models developed within the last 35 years. Three of these near infrared-red models were calibrated for a dataset with chlorophyll-a concentrations from 2.3 to 81.2 mg m -3 and validated for independent and statistically significantly different datasets with chlorophyll-a concentrations from 4.0 to 95.5 mg m-3 and 4.0 to 24.2 mg m-3 for the spectral bands of the MEdium Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MERIS) and Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS). The developed MERIS two-band algorithm estimated chlorophyll-a concentrations from 4.0 to 24.2 mg m-3, which are typical for many inland and coastal waters, very accurately with a mean absolute error 1.2 mg m-3. These results indicate a high potential of the simple MERIS two-band algorithm for the reliable estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration without any reduction in accuracy compared to more complex algorithms, even though more research seems required to analyze the sensitivity of this algorithm to differences in the chlorophyll-a specific absorption coefficient of phytoplankton. Three near infrared-red models were calibrated and validated for a smaller dataset of atmospherically corrected multi-temporal aerial imagery collected by the hyperspectral airborne imaging spectrometer for applications (AisaEAGLE). The developed algorithms successfully captured the spatial and temporal variability of the chlorophyll-a concentrations and estimated chlorophyll- a concentrations from 2.3 to 81.2 mg m-3 with mean absolute errors from 4.4 mg m-3 for the AISA two band algorithm to 5.2 mg m-3

  9. Performance Analysis of MODIS 500-m Spatial Resolution Products for Estimating Chlorophyll-a Concentrations in Oligo- to Meso-Trophic Waters Case Study: Itumbiara Reservoir, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Igor Ogashawara

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Monitoring chlorophyll-a (chl-a concentrations is important for the management of water quality, because it is a good indicator of the eutrophication level in an aquatic system. Thus, our main purpose was to develop an alternative technique to monitor chl-a in time and space through remote sensing techniques. However, one of the limitations of remote sensing is the resolution. To achieve a high temporal resolution and medium space resolution, we used the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS 500-m reflectance product, MOD09GA, and limnological parameters from the Itumbiara Reservoir. With these data, an empirical (O14a and semi-empirical (O14b algorithm were developed. Algorithms were cross-calibrated and validated using three datasets: one for each campaign and a third consisting of a combination of the two individual campaigns. Algorithm O14a produced the best validation with a root mean square error (RMSE of 30.4%, whereas O14b produced an RMSE of 32.41% using the mixed dataset calibration. O14a was applied to MOD09GA to build a time series for the reservoir for the year of 2009. The time-series analysis revealed that there were occurrences of algal blooms in the summer that were likely related to the additional input of nutrients caused by rainfall runoff. During the winter, however, the few observed algal blooms events were related to periods of atmospheric meteorological variations that represented an enhanced external influence on the processes of mixing and stratification of the water column. Finally, the use of remote sensing techniques can be an important tool for policy makers, environmental managers and the scientific community with which to monitor water quality.

  10. Estimation of Chlorophyll-a Concentration and the Trophic State of the Barra Bonita Hydroelectric Reservoir Using OLI/Landsat-8 Images.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fernanda Sayuri Yoshino; Alcântara, Enner; Rodrigues, Thanan Walesza Pequeno; Imai, Nilton Nobuhiro; Barbosa, Cláudio Clemente Faria; Rotta, Luiz Henrique da Silva

    2015-09-01

    Reservoirs are artificial environments built by humans, and the impacts of these environments are not completely known. Retention time and high nutrient availability in the water increases the eutrophic level. Eutrophication is directly correlated to primary productivity by phytoplankton. These organisms have an important role in the environment. However, high concentrations of determined species can lead to public health problems. Species of cyanobacteria produce toxins that in determined concentrations can cause serious diseases in the liver and nervous system, which could lead to death. Phytoplankton has photoactive pigments that can be used to identify these toxins. Thus, remote sensing data is a viable alternative for mapping these pigments, and consequently, the trophic. Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) is present in all phytoplankton species. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of images of the sensor Operational Land Imager (OLI) onboard the Landsat-8 satellite in determining Chl-a concentrations and estimating the trophic level in a tropical reservoir. Empirical models were fitted using data from two field surveys conducted in May and October 2014 (Austral Autumn and Austral Spring, respectively). Models were applied in a temporal series of OLI images from May 2013 to October 2014. The estimated Chl-a concentration was used to classify the trophic level from a trophic state index that adopted the concentration of this pigment-like parameter. The models of Chl-a concentration showed reasonable results, but their performance was likely impaired by the atmospheric correction. Consequently, the trophic level classification also did not obtain better results. PMID:26322489

  11. Estimation of Chlorophyll-a Concentration and the Trophic State of the Barra Bonita Hydroelectric Reservoir Using OLI/Landsat-8 Images

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernanda Sayuri Yoshino Watanabe

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available Reservoirs are artificial environments built by humans, and the impacts of these environments are not completely known. Retention time and high nutrient availability in the water increases the eutrophic level. Eutrophication is directly correlated to primary productivity by phytoplankton. These organisms have an important role in the environment. However, high concentrations of determined species can lead to public health problems. Species of cyanobacteria produce toxins that in determined concentrations can cause serious diseases in the liver and nervous system, which could lead to death. Phytoplankton has photoactive pigments that can be used to identify these toxins. Thus, remote sensing data is a viable alternative for mapping these pigments, and consequently, the trophic. Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a is present in all phytoplankton species. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of images of the sensor Operational Land Imager (OLI onboard the Landsat-8 satellite in determining Chl-a concentrations and estimating the trophic level in a tropical reservoir. Empirical models were fitted using data from two field surveys conducted in May and October 2014 (Austral Autumn and Austral Spring, respectively. Models were applied in a temporal series of OLI images from May 2013 to October 2014. The estimated Chl-a concentration was used to classify the trophic level from a trophic state index that adopted the concentration of this pigment-like parameter. The models of Chl-a concentration showed reasonable results, but their performance was likely impaired by the atmospheric correction. Consequently, the trophic level classification also did not obtain better results.

  12. Estimation of Chlorophyll-a Concentration and the Trophic State of the Barra Bonita Hydroelectric Reservoir Using OLI/Landsat-8 Images

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watanabe, Fernanda Sayuri Yoshino; Alcântara, Enner; Rodrigues, Thanan Walesza Pequeno; Imai, Nilton Nobuhiro; Barbosa, Cláudio Clemente Faria; Rotta, Luiz Henrique da Silva

    2015-01-01

    Reservoirs are artificial environments built by humans, and the impacts of these environments are not completely known. Retention time and high nutrient availability in the water increases the eutrophic level. Eutrophication is directly correlated to primary productivity by phytoplankton. These organisms have an important role in the environment. However, high concentrations of determined species can lead to public health problems. Species of cyanobacteria produce toxins that in determined concentrations can cause serious diseases in the liver and nervous system, which could lead to death. Phytoplankton has photoactive pigments that can be used to identify these toxins. Thus, remote sensing data is a viable alternative for mapping these pigments, and consequently, the trophic. Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) is present in all phytoplankton species. Therefore, the aim of this work was to evaluate the performance of images of the sensor Operational Land Imager (OLI) onboard the Landsat-8 satellite in determining Chl-a concentrations and estimating the trophic level in a tropical reservoir. Empirical models were fitted using data from two field surveys conducted in May and October 2014 (Austral Autumn and Austral Spring, respectively). Models were applied in a temporal series of OLI images from May 2013 to October 2014. The estimated Chl-a concentration was used to classify the trophic level from a trophic state index that adopted the concentration of this pigment-like parameter. The models of Chl-a concentration showed reasonable results, but their performance was likely impaired by the atmospheric correction. Consequently, the trophic level classification also did not obtain better results. PMID:26322489

  13. FluorMODgui V3.0: A graphic user interface for the spectral simulation of leaf and canopy chlorophyll fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zarco-Tejada, P. J.; Miller, J. R.; Pedrós, R.; Verhoef, W.; Berger, M.

    2006-06-01

    The FluorMODgui Graphic User Interface (GUI) software package developed within the frame of the FluorMOD project Development of a Vegetation Fluorescence Canopy Model is presented in this manuscript. The FluorMOD project was launched in 2002 by the European Space Agency (ESA) to advance the science of vegetation fluorescence simulation through the development and integration of leaf and canopy fluorescence models based on physical methods. The design of airborne or space missions dedicated to the measurement of solar-induced chlorophyll fluorescence using remote-sensing instruments require physical methods for quantitative feasibility analysis and sensor specification studies. The FluorMODgui model developed as part of this project is designed to simulate the effects of chlorophyll fluorescence at leaf and canopy levels using atmospheric inputs, running the leaf model, FluorMODleaf, and the canopy model, FluorSAIL, independently, through a coupling scheme, and by a multiple iteration protocol to simulate changes in the viewing geometry and atmospheric characteristics. Inputs for the FluorMODleaf model are the number of leaf layers, chlorophyll a+ b content, water equivalent thickness, dry matter content, fluorescence quantum efficiency, temperature, species type, and stoichiometry. Inputs for the FluorSAIL canopy model are a MODTRAN-4 6-parameter spectra or measured direct horizontal irradiance and diffuse irradiance spectra, a soil reflectance spectrum, leaf reflectance & transmittance spectra and a excitation-fluorescence response matrix in upward and downward directions (all from FluorMODleaf), 2 PAR-dependent coefficients for the fluorescence response to light level, relative azimuth angle and viewing zenith angle, canopy leaf area index, leaf inclination distribution function, and a hot spot parameter. Outputs available in the 400-1000 nm spectral range from the graphical user interface, FluorMODgui, are the leaf spectral reflectance and transmittance, and the

  14. J Fluorescence

    OpenAIRE

    Resch-Genger, U.; Hoffmann, K.; Nietfeld, W; A. Engel; Neukammer, J.; Nitschke, R.; Ebert, P.; Macdonald, R

    2005-01-01

    The scope of this paper is to illustrate the need for an improved quality assurance in fluorometry. For this purpose, instrumental sources of error and their influences on the reliability and comparability of fluorescence data are highlighted for frequently used photoluminescence techniques ranging from conventional macro- and microfluorometry over fluorescence microscopy and flow cytometry to microarray technology as well as in vivo fluorescence imaging. Particularly, the need for and requir...

  15. Fluorescence spectral properties of outer antenna LHC II

    CERN Document Server

    He Jun Fang; Zhang, Shu; He Fang Tao; Ren Zhao You; Li Liang Bi; Kuang Ting Yun

    2002-01-01

    Outer antenna LHC II acts to absorb and transfer energy for photosynthesis. The authors studied the fluorescence properties of LHC II of spinach with scanning imaging fluorescence spectroscopy. After it had been excited by 514.5 nm laser, the integral fluorescence spectrum of LHC II was detected. It was shown that energy transfer existed between carotenoid and chlorophyll. Seven bands of LHC II fluorescence emission were resolved by Gauss combination, viz. 656.7, 664.6, 671.5, 677.2, 683.5, 689.6, 695.3 nm, and the percentages of them were 3.0%, 13.1%,13.3%, 21.1%, 13.2%, 33.3%, 3.0% respectively. The emission of 658.7 nm was attributed to chlorophyll b, the other emission bands were produced by chlorophyll a molecules with the maximum absorption 662, 670/671, 676, 680 nm and over 690 nm. The band 656.7 nm, whose percentage was 3.0%, shows that the most energy was absorbed by chlorophyll a. The percentage of band 689.6 nm was the most, which was possibly correlated with one type of self protective mechanism o...

  16. Toxic Effects of Ethyl Cinnamate on the Photosynthesis and Physiological Characteristics of Chlorella vulgaris Based on Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Flow Cytometry Analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yang Jiao

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The toxic effects of ethyl cinnamate on the photosynthetic and physiological characteristics of Chlorella vulgaris were studied based on chlorophyll fluorescence and flow cytometry analysis. Parameters, including biomass, Fv/Fm (maximal photochemical efficiency of PSII, ФPSII (actual photochemical efficiency of PSII in the light, FDA, and PI staining fluorescence, were measured. The results showed the following: (1 The inhibition on biomass increased as the exposure concentration increased. 1 mg/L ethyl cinnamate was sufficient to reduce the total biomass of C. vulgaris. The 48-h and 72-h EC50 values were 2.07 mg/L (1.94–2.20 and 1.89 mg/L (1.82–1.97. (2 After 24 h of exposure to 2–4 mg/L ethyl cinnamate, the photosynthesis of C. vulgaris almost ceased, manifesting in ФPSII being close to zero. After 72 h of exposure to 4 mg/L ethyl cinnamate, the Fv/Fm of C. vulgaris dropped to zero. (3 Ethyl cinnamate also affected the cellular physiology of C. vulgaris, but these effects resulted in the inhibition of cell yield rather than cell death. Exposure to ethyl cinnamate resulted in decreased esterase activities in C. vulgaris, increased average cell size, and altered intensities of chlorophyll a fluorescence. Overall, esterase activity was the most sensitive variable.

  17. Zinc fixation preserves flow cytometry scatter and fluorescence parameters and allows simultaneous analysis of DNA content and synthesis, and intracellular and surface epitopes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Uffe Birk; Owens, David; Pedersen, Søren;

    2010-01-01

    Zinc salt-based fixation (ZBF) has proved advantageous in histochemical analyses conducted on intact tissues but has not been exploited in flow cytometry procedures that focus on quantitative analysis of individual cells. Here, we show that ZBF performs equally well to paraformaldehyde in the...... preservation of surface epitope labeling and forward and side scatter parameters as measured by flow cytometry. ZBF-fixed mouse epithelial keratinocytes exhibit a staining pattern for the surface markers Sca-1, CD34 and alpha6 integrin that is highly analogous to live cells. Furthermore, ZBF also preserves DNA...

  18. Comparison of two semi-absolute methods. k{sub 0}-instrumental neutron activation analysis and fundamental parameter method X-ray fluorescence spectrometry for Ni-based alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wasim, Mohammad [Pakistan Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, Islamabad (Pakistan). Chemistry Div.; Ahmad, Sajjad [Quaid-i-Azam Univ., Islamabad (Pakistan). Dept. of Chemistry

    2015-07-01

    Nickel based alloys play important role in nuclear, mechanical and chemical industry. Two semi-absolute standardless methods, k{sub 0}-instrumental neutron activation analysis (k{sub 0}-INAA) and fundamental parameter X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (FP-XRF) were used for the characterization of certified nickel based alloys. The optimized experimental conditions for NAA provided results for 18 and XRF for 15 elements. Both techniques were unable to quantify some important alloy making elements. However, both reported results of other elements as information values. The techniques were analyzed for their sensitivity and accuracy. Sensitivity was evaluated by the number of elements determined by each technique. Accuracy was ascertained by using the linear regression analysis and the average root mean squared error.

  19. Influences of different environmental parameters on the sorption of trivalent metal ions on bentonite: batch sorption, fluorescence, EXAFS and EPR studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Verma, P K; Pathak, P N; Mohapatra, P K; Godbole, S V; Kadam, R M; Veligzhanin, A A; Zubavichus, Y V; Kalmykov, S N

    2014-04-01

    The presence of long-lived radionuclides in natural aquatic systems is of great environmental concern in view of their possible migration into biospheres of mankind. Trivalent actinides such as (241/243)Am can contribute a great deal to radioactivity for several thousand years. This migration is significantly influenced by various factors such as pH, complexing ions present in aquatic environments, and the sorption of species involving radionuclides by sediments around water bodies. Clay minerals such as bentonite are known to be highly efficient in radionuclide retention and hence are suitable candidates for backfill materials. This study presents experimental results on the interaction of Eu(iii) and Gd(iii) (chemical analogs of Am(iii) and Cm(iii)) with bentonite clay under varying experimental conditions of contact time, pH, and the presence of complexing anions such as humic acid (HA) and citric acid (cit). The sorption of HA on bentonite decreased with increasing the pH from 2 to 8, which was attributed to electrostatic interactions between HA and the bentonite surfaces. The sorption of Eu(iii) on bentonite colloids showed marginal variation with pH (>95%). However, a decrease in Eu(iii) sorption was observed in the presence of HA beyond pH 5 due to the increased aqueous complexation of Eu(iii) with deprotonated HA in the aqueous phase. The complexation of Eu(iii) with citrate ions was studied using Time Resolved Laser induced Fluorescence Spectroscopy (TRLFS) to explain the sorption data. Extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) and electron paramagnetic resonance (EPR) investigations were carried out to understand the local chemical environment surrounding Eu(iii) and Gd(iii) (EPR probe) sorbed on bentonite under different experimental conditions. Surface complexation modelling shows the predominant formation of ≡XOEu(+2) (silanol) up to pH < 7, and beyond which ≡YOEu(OH)(+) (aluminol) is responsible for the quantitative sorption of Eu(iii) onto

  20. Response of Sea Surface Temperature to Chlorophyll-a Concentration in the Tropical Pacific: Annual Mean,Seasonal Cycle, and Interannual Variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIN Pengfei; LIU Hailong; YU Yongqiang; ZHANG Xuehong

    2011-01-01

    The response of the upper-ocean temperatures and currents in the tropical Pacific to the spatial distribution of chlorophyll-a and its seasonal cycle is investigated using a coupled atmosphere-ocean model and a stand-alone oceanic general circulation model. The spatial distribution of chlorophyll-a significantly influences the mean state of models in the tropical Pacific. The annual mean SST in the eastern equatorial Pacific decreases accompanied by a shallow thermocline and stronger currents because of shallow penetration depth of solar radiation. Equatorial upwelling dominates the heat budget in that region. Atmosphere-ocean interaction processes can further amplify such changes.The seasonal cycle of chlorophyll-a can dramatically change ENSO period in the coupled model. After introducing the seasonal cycle of chlorophyll-a concentration, the peak of the power spectrum becomes broad, and longer periods (>3 years) are found. These changes led to ENSO irregularities in the model.The increasing period is mainly due to the slow speed of Rossby waves, which are caused by the shallow mean thermocline in the northeastern Pacific.

  1. Satellite remote sensing of chlorophyll a in support of nutrient management in the Neuse and Tar-Pamlico River (North Carolina) estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    The North Carolina Environmental Management Commission (EMC) has adopted as a water quality standard that chlorophyll a concentration should not exceed 40 ug/L in sounds, estuaries and other slow-moving waters. Exceedances require regulators to develop a Total Maximum Daily Limit...

  2. Chlorophyll-a concentration estimation with three bio-optical algorithms: correction for the low concentration range for the Yiam Reservoir, Korea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bio-optical algorithms have been applied to monitor water quality in surface water systems. Empirical algorithms, such as Ritchie (2008), Gons (2008), and Gilerson (2010), have been applied to estimate the chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentrations. However, the performance of each algorithm severely degr...

  3. Response of Sea Surface Temperature to Chlorophyll-a Concentration in the Tropical Pacific:Annual Mean,Seasonal Cycle,and Interannual Variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    The response of the upper-ocean temperatures and currents in the tropical Pacific to the spatial distribution of chlorophyll-a and its seasonal cycle is investigated using a coupled atmosphere-ocean model and a stand-alone oceanic general circulation model.The spatial distribution of chlorophyll-a significantly influences the mean state of models in the tropical Pacific.The annual mean SST in the eastern equatorial Pacific decreases accompanied by a shallow thermocline and stronger currents because of shallow penetration depth of solar radiation.Equatorial upwelling dominates the heat budget in that region.Atmosphere-ocean interaction processes can further amplify such changes. The seasonal cycle of chlorophyll-a can dramatically change ENSO period in the coupled model.After introducing the seasonal cycle of chlorophyll-a concentration,the peak of the power spectrum becomes broad,and longer periods(〉3 years) are found.These changes led to ENSO irregularities in the model. The increasing period is mainly due to the slow speed of Rossby waves,which are caused by the shallow mean thermocline in the northeastern Pacific.

  4. Chlorophyll_a algorithms for MODIS and MERIS full resolution imagery: a comparison between Case 1 and Case 2 Ligurian and North Tyrrhenian waters

    OpenAIRE

    C. Lapucci; M. Ampolo Rella; Brandini, C.; N. Ganzin; Gozzini, B.; Maselli, F.; L. Massi; Nuccio, C. De; A. Ortolani; C. Trees

    2012-01-01

    Sono presentati i risultati di un lavoro basato sui dasti satellitari MODIS e MERIS, per stimare le concentrazioni di clorofilla a nei mari Ligure e Tirreno. The results of a work based on MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometry) and MERIS (medium resolution imaging spectrometer) full resolution satellite data were presented, to estimate concentrations of chlorophyll a in the Ligurian and Tyrrhenian Sea

  5. Normal-Phase Open Column versus Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography: Separation of Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b from their Diastereomers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schaber, Peter M.

    1985-01-01

    Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment involving the separation of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b from their diastereomers. Reasons why the experiment can be easily integrated into most laboratory curricula where high-performance liquid chromatography capabilities exist are given. (JN)

  6. Relation Between Chlorophyll-A Concentration and Red Tide in the Intensive Study Area of the Ariake Sea, Japan in Winter Seasons by using MODIS Data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kohei Arai

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Relation between chlorophyll-a concentration and red tide in the intensive study area of the back of Ariake Sea, Japan in the recent winter seasons is investigated by using MODIS data. Mechanism of red tide appearance is not so clarified. On the other hand, chlorophyll-a concentration can be estimated with satellite remote sensing data. An attempt is made for estimation of the location and size of red tide appearance. In particular, severe damage due to red tide is suspected in the winter seasons now a day. Therefore, 6 years (winter 2010 to winter 2015 data of MODIS data derived chlorophyll-a concentration and truth data of red tide appearance (the location and the volume which are provided by Saga Prefectural Fishery Promotion Center: SPFPC (once/10 days of shipment data have been investigated. As the results of the investigation, it is found that a strong correlation between the chlorophyll-a concentration and red tide appearance together with the possible sources of the red tide.

  7. The relative influence of local and regional environmental drivers of algal biomass (chlorophyll-a) varies by estuarine location

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wainger, Lisa; Yu, Hao; Gazenski, Kim; Boynton, Walter

    2016-09-01

    A major question in restoring estuarine water quality is whether local actions to manage excess nutrients can be effective, given that estuaries are also responding to tidal inputs from adjacent water bodies. Several types of statistical analysis were used to examine spatially-detailed and long-term water quality monitoring data in eight sub-estuaries of Chesapeake Bay. These sub-estuaries are likely to be similar to other shallow systems with moderate to long water residence times. Statistical cluster analysis of spatial water quality data suggested that estuaries had spatially distinct water quality zones and that the peak algal biomass (as measured by chlorophyll-a) was most often controlled by local watershed inputs in all but one estuary, although mainstem inputs affected most estuaries at some times and places. An elasticity indicator that compared inter-annual changes in sub-estuaries to parallel changes in the mainstem Chesapeake Bay supported the idea that water quality in sub-estuaries was not strongly coupled to the mainstem. A cross-channel zonation of water quality observed near the mouth of estuaries suggested that Bay influences were stronger on the right side of the lower channel (looking up estuary) at times in all estuaries, and was most common in small estuaries closest to the mouth of the primary water source to the estuary. Where Bay influences were strong, estuarine water quality would be expected to be less responsive to nutrient reductions made in the local watershed. Regression analysis was used to evaluate hypothesized relationships between environmental driver variables and average chlorophyll-a (chl-a) concentrations. Chl-a values were calculated from unusually detailed levels of spatial sampling, potentially providing a more comprehensive view of system conditions than that provided by traditional sparse sampling networks. The univariate models with the best data support to explain variability in averaged chl-a concentration were those

  8. Chlorophyll a Fluorescence as a Tool in Evaluating the Effects of ABA Content and Ethylene Inhibitors on Quality of Flowering Potted Bougainvillea

    OpenAIRE

    Antonio Ferrante; Alice Trivellini; Eva Borghesi; Paolo Vernieri

    2012-01-01

    Flowering potted plants during the postproduction stage are usually stored in inadequate environmental conditions. We evaluated the effect of the most common storage conditions and treatments on two Bougainvillea cultivars after harvest and during recovery. Flowering potted Bougainvillea plants were treated with 100 mL 2 mM amino-oxyacetic acid (AOA) or 500 ppb 1-methylcyclopropene (1-MCP) prior storage in dark at 14°C for simulating transport or storage conditions and, subsequently, transfer...

  9. Spectral and Temporal Laser Fluorescence Analysis Such as for Natural Aquatic Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chekalyuk, Alexander (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    An Advanced Laser Fluorometer (ALF) can combine spectrally and temporally resolved measurements of laser-stimulated emission (LSE) for characterization of dissolved and particulate matter, including fluorescence constituents, in liquids. Spectral deconvolution (SDC) analysis of LSE spectral measurements can accurately retrieve information about individual fluorescent bands, such as can be attributed to chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), phycobiliprotein (PBP) pigments, or chromophoric dissolved organic matter (CDOM), among others. Improved physiological assessments of photosynthesizing organisms can use SDC analysis and temporal LSE measurements to assess variable fluorescence corrected for SDC-retrieved background fluorescence. Fluorescence assessments of Chl-a concentration based on LSE spectral measurements can be improved using photo-physiological information from temporal measurements. Quantitative assessments of PBP pigments, CDOM, and other fluorescent constituents, as well as basic structural characterizations of photosynthesizing populations, can be performed using SDC analysis of LSE spectral measurements.

  10. Characterizing the sea ice algae chlorophyll a-snow depth relationship over Arctic spring melt using transmitted irradiance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Campbell, K.; Mundy, C. J.; Barber, D. G.; Gosselin, M.

    2015-07-01

    The bottom ice algae chlorophyll a (chl a)-snow depth (HS) relationship was investigated for first-year sea ice in Allen Bay, Nunavut, from 27 April to 13 June 2011. A transmitted irradiance technique was used to estimate ice algae chl a throughout the period at time series locations covered and cleared of snow. Furthermore, chl a was estimated along transects perpendicular to dominant snowdrift orientation, and at short-term snow clear experimental sites. The association between chl a and most snow depths was characterized by four phases over the spring; light limitation (negative relationship), a transitional period (no relationship), chl a decline associated with higher transmitted irradiance (positive relationship), and a final phase of chl a decline independent from HS (no relationship). Algal chl a under areas cleared of snow was lower, reached zero chl a earlier and declined faster than snow-covered control sites. Results indicated that snow removal caused these chl a responses through photoinhibition, as well as ice melt later in the spring. Based on this research we propose that weather events that can rapidly melt the snowpack could significantly deplete bottom ice chl a and cause early termination of the bloom if they occur late in the spring.

  11. Estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in case II waters using MODIS and MERIS data-successes and challenges

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moses, W J; Gitelson, A A [Center for Advanced Land Management Information Technologies (CALMIT), School of Natural Resources, University of Nebraska-Lincoln (United States); Berdnikov, S; Povazhnyy, V, E-mail: wmoses@calmit.unl.ed [Southern Scientific Center of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Rostov-on-Don (Russian Federation)

    2009-10-15

    We present and discuss here the results of our work using MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer) and MERIS (medium resolution imaging spectrometer) satellite data to estimate the concentration of chlorophyll- a (chl-a) in reservoirs of the Dnieper River and the Sea of Azov, which are typical case II waters, i.e., turbid and productive. Our objective was to test the potential of satellite remote sensing as a tool for near-real-time monitoring of chl- a distribution in these water bodies. We tested the performance of a recently developed three-band model, and its special case, a two-band model, which use the reflectance at red and near-infrared wavelengths for the retrieval of chl- a concentration. The higher spatial resolution and the availability of a spectral band at around 708 nm with the MERIS data offered great promise for these models. We compared results from several different atmospheric correction procedures available for MODIS and MERIS data. No one particular procedure was consistently and systematically better than the rest. Nevertheless, even in the absence of a perfect atmospheric correction procedure, both the three-band and the two-band models showed promising results when compared with in situ chl- a measurements. The challenges and limitations involved in satellite remote monitoring of the chl- a distribution in turbid productive waters are discussed.

  12. Interannual variability of remotely sensed chlorophyll a during an autumn monsoon transitional period in the Taiwan Strait

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Caiyun; HONG Huasheng

    2014-01-01

    The time series of multiple sources of satellite data are used to examine the interannual variability of chlo-rophyll a concentration (Chl a) and its relation to the physical environment during the autumn monsoon transitional period in the Taiwan Strait (TWS). The satellite data included the Chl a concentration and sea surface temperature (SST) derived from the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS)/Aqua as well as the multi-sensors merged wind products from 2002 to 2012. The results show that the aver-age Chl a concentration of the whole TWS is mainly contributed by the northern TWS. The average Chl a in the northern TWS is 3.6 times that in the southern TWS. The maximum variability of Chl a is located in the frontal regions between the cold Zhe-Min Coastal Water and the strait warm water. The temporal change of Chl a concentration is different in the northern and southern TWS. The changes in the relative strength of the cold and warm water masses is suggested to be the dominant processes in controlling the phytoplankton growth in the northern TWS, while there is wind-induced mixing in the southern TWS. Additionally, La Niña events exhibited complex effects on the interannual variability of Chl a concentration in autumn. The long-term time series of physical and biological observations are especially needed to better understand how the TWS complex ecosystem responds to climate variations.

  13. Estimation of chlorophyll-a concentration in case II waters using MODIS and MERIS data-successes and challenges

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We present and discuss here the results of our work using MODIS (moderate resolution imaging spectroradiometer) and MERIS (medium resolution imaging spectrometer) satellite data to estimate the concentration of chlorophyll- a (chl-a) in reservoirs of the Dnieper River and the Sea of Azov, which are typical case II waters, i.e., turbid and productive. Our objective was to test the potential of satellite remote sensing as a tool for near-real-time monitoring of chl- a distribution in these water bodies. We tested the performance of a recently developed three-band model, and its special case, a two-band model, which use the reflectance at red and near-infrared wavelengths for the retrieval of chl- a concentration. The higher spatial resolution and the availability of a spectral band at around 708 nm with the MERIS data offered great promise for these models. We compared results from several different atmospheric correction procedures available for MODIS and MERIS data. No one particular procedure was consistently and systematically better than the rest. Nevertheless, even in the absence of a perfect atmospheric correction procedure, both the three-band and the two-band models showed promising results when compared with in situ chl- a measurements. The challenges and limitations involved in satellite remote monitoring of the chl- a distribution in turbid productive waters are discussed.

  14. Probing of the local environment and calculation of J.O. parameters for Eu{sup 3+} CMPO functionalized pillararene complexes by time resolved fluorescence spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sengupta, Arijit, E-mail: arijita@barc.gov.in [Radiochemistry Division, Bhabha Atomic Research Centre, Mumbai 400085 (India); Fang, Yuyu; Yuan, Xiangyang; Yuan, Lihua [Key Laboratory for Radiation Physics and Technology of Ministry of Education, Institute of Nuclear Science and Technology, College of Chemistry, Sichuan University, Chengdu 610064 (China)

    2015-10-15

    An attempt was made to understand the complexation of Eu{sup 3+} with structurally modified CMPO-functionalized pillararenes by luminescence spectroscopy. Formation of single species with different numbers of inner sphere water molecules was found to be present for all the complexes. On increasing spacer length between ligating moieties and supramolecular pillararenes, the stereo-chemical crowding around ligating oxygen decreased. Therefore, strong covalent metal–oxygen bond was formed which was reflected in the increasing trend of the computed Ω{sub 2} values (Judd–Offelt parameter): LI (4.66×10{sup −20})LII (3.19 ms)>LIII (2.94 ms) while the branching ratio values for all three complexes followed the same trend as β{sub 2}>β{sub 4}>β{sub 1}. The other photo-physical constants like asymmetric factor, quantum efficiency, magnetic and electric dipole transition probabilities were also computed. - Highlights: • Probing of the local environment of Eu{sup 3+} complex with three structurally modified CMPO functionalized pillararenes. • J.O. parameter Ω{sub 2} followed the trend: LI (4.66E−20)

  15. Chlorophyll fluorescence emission can screen cold tolerance of cold acclimated Arabidopsis thaliana accessions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Mishra, Anamika; Heyer, A. G.; Mishra, Kumud

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 10, č. 38 (2014). ISSN 1746-4811 R&D Projects: GA MŠk EE2.3.20.0246; GA MŠk 7E12047 Institutional support: RVO:67179843 Keywords : high-throughput screening * chlorophyll a fluorescence transients * cold tolerance * cold acclimation * whole plant * Arabidopsis thaliana Subject RIV: EH - Ecology, Behaviour Impact factor: 3.102, year: 2014

  16. Fluorescent refrigeration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Epstein, Richard I.; Edwards, Bradley C.; Buchwald, Melvin I.; Gosnell, Timothy R.

    1995-01-01

    Fluorescent refrigeration is based on selective radiative pumping, using substantially monochromatic radiation, of quantum excitations which are then endothermically redistributed to higher energies. Ultimately, the populated energy levels radiatively deexcite emitting, on the average, more radiant energy than was initially absorbed. The material utilized to accomplish the cooling must have dimensions such that the exciting radiation is strongly absorbed, but the fluorescence may exit the material through a significantly smaller optical pathlength. Optical fibers and mirrored glasses and crystals provide this requirement.

  17. Generating a Long-Term Series of SST and Chlorophyll-A for the Coast of Ireland

    Science.gov (United States)

    Casal, G.; Furey, T.; Dabrowski, T.; Nolan, G.

    2015-04-01

    The use of remote sensing has increased greatly in recent years due to technological advances and its advantages in comparison with traditional methods. In the case of Ireland however the use of these techniques is not well established and only 17% of remote sensing studies are related to marine and coastal environments. As a first step, and taking into account that fisheries and aquaculture plays an important economic and social role in Ireland, a database of Sea Surface Temperature (SST) and Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) relating to the ICES fisheries management areas is being generated. Up to now three different products have been produced. These products correspond to the annual SST Climatology and annual SST Anomalies from 1982 to 2014, as well as the annual Chl-a Climatology taking into account the different life span of CZCS (1982-1986), SeaWIFS (1997-2010), MERIS (2002-2012) and MODIS-Aqua (2002-2014). Initially, the Chl-a Climatology was produced for each sensor individually while the creation of a continuous Chl-a series will be investigated in the future. Analysing the SST trends highlighted an increasing trend in SST values in Irish waters, a trend which was more pronounced in the northern areas (+0.54 °C in the last 10 years). Although there are differences between sensors, Chl-a concentration seems to present higher values in the Celtic Sea since 2009. Analysing the ICES Divisions individually highlighted that coastal areas presented the highest Chl-a concentrations, involving a clear differentiation in the optical properties of coastal and oceanic waters.

  18. Remote Estimation of Chlorophyll-a in Inland Waters by a NIR-Red-Based Algorithm: Validation in Asian Lakes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gongliang Yu

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Satellite remote sensing is a highly useful tool for monitoring chlorophyll-a concentration (Chl-a in water bodies. Remote sensing algorithms based on near-infrared-red (NIR-red wavelengths have demonstrated great potential for retrieving Chl-a in inland waters. This study tested the performance of a recently developed NIR-red based algorithm, SAMO-LUT (Semi-Analytical Model Optimizing and Look-Up Tables, using an extensive dataset collected from five Asian lakes. Results demonstrated that Chl-a retrieved by the SAMO-LUT algorithm was strongly correlated with measured Chl-a (R2 = 0.94, and the root-mean-square error (RMSE and normalized root-mean-square error (NRMS were 8.9 mg∙m−3 and 72.6%, respectively. However, the SAMO-LUT algorithm yielded large errors for sites where Chl-a was less than 10 mg∙m−3 (RMSE = 1.8 mg∙m−3 and NRMS = 217.9%. This was because differences in water-leaving radiances at the NIR-red wavelengths (i.e., 665 nm, 705 nm and 754 nm used in the SAMO-LUT were too small due to low concentrations of water constituents. Using a blue-green algorithm (OC4E instead of the SAMO-LUT for the waters with low constituent concentrations would have reduced the RMSE and NRMS to 1.0 mg∙m−3 and 16.0%, respectively. This indicates (1 the NIR-red algorithm does not work well when water constituent concentrations are relatively low; (2 different algorithms should be used in light of water constituent concentration; and thus (3 it is necessary to develop a classification method for selecting the appropriate algorithm.

  19. A Study on Concentrations of Dissolved Oxygen and Chlorophyll-a in the Coastal Waters of Babolsar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Siamak Jamshidi

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Problem statement: Dissolved Oxygen (DO and Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a are two vital requirements for marine ecosystems. Nowadays, discharge of large amounts of industrial, agricultural and urban wastes threats the Caspian Sea (CS environment. With regard to the elevation of nutrient contents, average of DO concentrations in the deeper layers of the CS is reducing. On the other hand, increased amounts of phytoplankton in water bodies in reaction to the enhancement of nutrient supply can have severely damaging effects on the marine environment. According to the importance of DO and Chl-a in marine ecosystems of the Caspian, we attempted to investigate the distributions of DO and Chl-a in the southern coastal waters of the CS in present study. Approach: DO and Chl-a concentrations were analyzed using field measurements data over the southern continental shelf near Iranian coasts. The data were collected at 13 stations along three transects down to 42 m depth in east part of the southern coasts of the CS, off Babolsar in autumn 2008. Results: In the time of measurements, the DO concentrations ranged between 8.4 and 11.2 mg L-1 in the area. Amounts of the Chl-a were varied between 1.3-4.2 mg m-3 with the maximal levels at 15 m depth. The formation and destruction of seasonal thermocline affect the DO and Chl-a concentrations in vertical direction. Conclusion: The collected data present useful knowledge about distributions of DO and Chl-a in the coastal waters of Babolsar and near mouth of Babolrood River. Amounts of DO and Chl-a in the region were under effects of Babolrood River discharge, stratification of water column (seasonal thermocline and atmospheric processes. The results indicate the need of serious efforts for reducing entrance of human activities wastes and pollutants into the Caspian environment.

  20. Femtosecond Nonlinear Optical Studies of Radiationless Decay in Carotenoids and in the Peridinin-Chlorophyll a Protein

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roscioli, Jerome D.; Ghosh, Soumen; Bishop, Michael M.; Beck, Warren F.; Frank, Harry A.

    2014-06-01

    Femtosecond transient-grating spectroscopy with optical heterodyne detection was employed to observe separately the time evolution of the absorption and dispersion components of the third-order nonlinear optical signal following resonant excitation of the S_2 (^1B_u^+) states of β-carotene in benzonitrile and peridinin in methanol using 40-fs pulses centered at 520 nm. The absorption and dispersion components exhibit distinctively different time profiles owing to the population of intermediate states. An initial intermediate state is populated on an ultrashort (carotenoids. Owing to the fast red-shifting of the stimulated emission part of the S_2-state transient grating signal, we suggest that the intermediate state arises from vibrational displacements on the S_2-state potential surface that eventually yield twisted or bent conformations. Motions of the molecule of this type in the S_2-state would contribute to a mixing of the diabatic S_2 and S_1 electronic states and would promote the formation of intramolecular charge-transfer character. Both of these effects would enhance the efficiency of energy transfer from the S_1 state to the (B)Chl Q_y state in photosynthetic light-harvesting proteins. The time-resolved transient-grating spectra obtained for peridinin in the peridinin-chlorophyll a protein from Amphidinium carterae suggest a more rapid formation of the intermediate than for peridinin in methanol. This finding suggests that the conformation of the peridinin chromophore is controlled in the binding site to optimize the formation of the twisted intermediate upon excitation of the S_2 state. (Supported by grant DE-SC0010847 from the Department of Energy, Office of Basic Energy Sciences, Photosynthetic Systems program.)

  1. Cytokinins modulate the expression of genes encoding the protein of the light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    de la Serve, B T; Axelos, M; Péaud-Lenoël, C

    1985-05-01

    Tobacco cell suspension cultures responded to cytokinins (for instance kinetin) by full chloroplast differentiation. The hormone had the effect of stimulating the appearance of a few prominent plastid proteins. Synthesis of the light-harvesting chlorophyl a/b-binding protein (LHCP) in response to kinetin was noteworthy (Axelos M. et al.: Plant Sci Lett 33:201-212, 1984).Poly(A)(+)RNAs were prepared from cells grown in the presence of or without added kinetin. Poly(A)(+)RNA recovery and translation activity were not quantitatively altered by the hormone treatment. In vitro translation of polyadenylated mRNA into precursor polypeptides of LHCP (pLHCP) was quantified by immunoprecipitation and SDS-PAGE fractionation of pLHCP immunoprecipitates: pLHCP-mRNA translating activity was found to be stimulated in parallel to mature LHCP accumulation by kinetin-induced cells.Dot-blot and northern-blot hybridizations of poly(A)(+)RNA were carried out, using as a probe a pea LHCP-cDNA clone (Broglie R. et al.: Proc Natl Acad Sci USA 78: 7304-7308, 1981). A ten-fold increase of the level of pLHCP-encoding sequences was observed in poly(A)(+)RNA prepared from 9-d kinetin-stimulated cells, compared to control cells. Oligo(dT)-cellulose-excluded RNA fractions exhibited very low hybridization levels, in the same ratios as those obtained with poly(A)(+)RNA.Thus, the expression of LHCP-gene activity, in response to kinetin addition to tobacco cell suspension cultures, is regulated by the level of pLHCP-encoding mRNA rather than by translational or post-translational controls. re]19850218 rv]19850605 ac]19850613. PMID:24306651

  2. Distributions of chlorophyll a and carbon fixed strength of phytoplankton in autumn of the southern Huanghai Sea waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHENG Guoxia; SONG Jinming; DAI Jicui; WANG Yiming

    2006-01-01

    Chlorophyll a (Chl a) concentration and primary productivity (PP), namely, carbon fixed strength of phytoplankton along four transects in the southern Huanghai Sea (SHS) were studied for their distribution features and controlling mechanisms based on the investigations from 17 October to 3 November 2005. The Chl a concentration in the study waters dynamically changed spatially.Surface Chl a concentrations ranged from 0.11 to 2.38 mg/m3 with higher and lower values observed in the nutrient-laden inshore waters and central part of the SHS occupied by oligotrophic current, respectively. The vertical distribution of Chl a concentration showed a predominant pattern of subsurface concentration maximum profile. It followed the previous result of the deep dissolved oxygen concentration maximum profile, which was significantly correlated with phytoplankton and regional water mass. The primapecially phosphate concentration in seawater and hydrological condition. Furthermore, associating the present study results together with previous studies, the annual value of carbon fixed production of phytoplankton in the entire marginal seas of East China(including the Bohai Sea, the Huanghai Sea and the East China Sea) was estimated to be 222 Mt, which accounted for 2% of that in the global margins. Besides, it was as 16.2 times as the annual value of apparent carbon sink strength ( 13.96 Mt) in the marginal seas of East China. This multiple was different in different sea areas (3.0 in the Bohai Sea, 6.7 in the Huanghai Sea and 81.6 in the East China Sea).

  3. Evaluating bio-optical models to determine chlorophyll a from hyper spectral data in the turbid coastal waters of South Carolina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hames, J. B.; Ali, K.

    2013-12-01

    Millions of people visit the beaches of South Carolina every year and the increasing utilization of the coastal waters is leading to the deterioration of water quality and the marine ecosystem. Ecological stress on these environments is reflected by the increase in the frequency and severity of Harmful Algal Blooms (HABs). This was evident during recent summer seasons particularly in the shallow nearshore waters of Long Bay, South Carolina, an open coast embayment on the South Atlantic Bight. These aspects threaten human and marine life. The early detection of HABs in the coastal waters requires more efficient and accurate monitoring tools. Remote sensing provides synoptic view of the entire Long Bay waters at high temporal coverage and allows resource managers to effectively map and monitor algal bloom development, near real time. Various remote sensing (RS) algorithms have been developed but were mostly calibrated to low resolution global data and or other specific sites. In the summer of 2013, a suite of measurements and water samples were collected from 15 locations along the nearshore waters of Long Bay using the Grice Laboratory R/V. In this study, we evaluate the efficiency of 10 bio-optical blue-green and NIR-red based RS models applied to GER 1500 hyper spectral reflectance data to predict chlorophyll a, a proxy for phytoplankton density, in the Long Bay waters of SC. Efficiency of the algorithms performance in the study site were tested through a least squares regression and residual analysis. Results show that among the selected suite of algorithms the blue green models by Darecki and Stramski (2004) produced R2 of 0.68 with RMSE=0.39μg/l, Oc4v4 model by O'Reilly et al. (2000) gave R2 of 0.62 with RMSE=0.73ug/l, and the Oc2v4 also by O'Reilly et al (2000) gave R2 of 0.69 with RMSE=0.65. Among the NIR-red models, Moses et al (2009) two-band algorithm produced R2 of 0.75 and RMSE=1.79, and the three-band version generated R2 of 0.81 and RMSE=2.25ug

  4. Development and application of a remote sensing-based Chlorophyll-a concentration prediction model for complex coastal waters of Hong Kong

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nazeer, Majid; Nichol, Janet E.

    2016-01-01

    Despite recent advances in estimation of water quality parameters using satellite remote sensing, the estimation of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) has remained problematic due to optical complexity of coastal waters and imprecise atmospheric correction of imagery. Local environmental agencies require frequent measurement and monitoring of Chl-a over coastal regions at detailed level, for water quality assessment and control. To monitor Chl-a around the complex coastal waters of Hong Kong using remote sensing, 27 Landsat Thematic Mapper (TM) and Enhanced Thematic Mapper Plus (ETM+) images over a 13-year period from January 2000 to December 2012, were used, along with 120 in situ Chl-a samples. Atmospherically corrected Landsat TM/ETM+ bands 1-4 along with in situ Chl-a data were used to develop and validate regression models for a Chl-a concentration range of 0.3-13.0 μg/l. Validation results indicated that the ratio of band 3 (red, 0.63-0.69 μm) and the square of band 1 (blue, 0.45-0.52 μm), with correlation coefficient (R) of 0.89, Root Mean Square Error (RMSE) of 2.53 μg/l and Mean Absolute Error (MAE) of 1.02 μg/l was most capable of representing actual Chl-a concentrations. This is attributed to the differential response of the red and blue wavebands to the Chl-a signal. The study is considered more robust than previous studies of Chl-a retrieval, due to the much larger number of images and in situ samples used for model development and validation, as well as the different times of year, water quality zones, and wide range of Chl-a concentrations which were investigated. The robustness of the developed model was also tested by its application to monitoring an extensive red tide event. The results indicate that the developed model is capable of routine monitoring of such algal blooms which frequently occur from late summer to early autumn in Hong Kong and its adjacent coastal waters.

  5. Instrumental fundamental parameters and selected applications of the microfocus X-ray fluorescence analysis at a scanning electron microscope; Instrumentelle Fundamentalparameter und ausgewaehlte Anwendungen der Mikrofokus-Roentgenfluoreszenzanalyse am Rasterelektronenmikroskop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rackwitz, Vanessa

    2012-05-30

    For a decade X-ray sources have been commercially available for the microfocus X-ray fluorescence analysis ({mu}-XRF) and offer the possibility of extending the analytics at a scanning electron microscope (SEM) with an attached energy dispersive X-ray spectrometer (EDS). By using the {mu}-XRF it is possible to determine the content of chemical elements in a microscopic sample volume in a quantitative, reference-free and non-destructive way. For the reference-free quantification with the XRF the Sherman equation is referred to. This equation deduces the intensity of the detected X-ray intensity of a fluorescence peak to the content of the element in the sample by means of fundamental parameters. The instrumental fundamental parameters of the {mu}-XRF at a SEM/EDS system are the excitation spectrum consisting of X-ray tube spectrum and the transmission of the X-ray optics, the geometry and the spectrometer efficiency. Based on a calibrated instrumentation the objectives of this work are the development of procedures for the characterization of all instrumental fundamental parameters as well as the evaluation and reduction of their measurement uncertainties: The algorithms known from the literature for the calculation of X-ray tube spectrum are evaluated with regard to their deviations in the spectral distribution. Within this work a novel semi-empirical model is improved with respect to its uncertainties and enhanced in the low energy range as well as extended for another three anodes. The emitted X-ray tube spectrum is calculated from the detected one, which is measured at an especially developed setup for the direct measurement of X-ray tube spectra. This emitted X-ray tube spectrum is compared to the one calculated on base of the model of this work. A procedure for the determination of the most important parameters of an X-ray semi-lens in parallelizing mode is developed. The temporal stability of the transmission of X-ray full lenses, which have been in regular

  6. Herbicide impact on Hormosira banksii gametes measured by fluorescence and germination bioassays

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The innovative bioassay described here involves chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements of gametes from the macroalgae, Hormosira banksii, where gametes (eggs) were exposed to Diuron, Irgarol and Bromacil. Response was assessed as percent inhibition from control of effective quantum yield (ΔF/Fm') of photosystem II, herein referred to as % PSII Inhibition. This was measured with the dual-channelled pulse amplitude modulated (PAM) fluorometer, ToxY-PAM. The fluorescence bioassay was run simultaneously with an established H. banksii germination bioassay to compare sensitivity, precision, and time-to-result. The fluorescence bioassay gave highly sensitive results evidenced by EC5s (% PSII Inhibition) for Diuron, Irgarol and Bromacil being three, four and three orders of magnitude (respectively) lower than EC5s generated from the germination bioassays. Precision of the fluorescence bioassay was demonstrated with low coefficient of variations (<30%) for all three toxicants. With regard to time, the fluorescence bioassay gave results within 6 h, as opposed to more than 50 h for the germination bioassay. - Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements form the basis of a macroalgal bioassay with many advantages over germination-based methods

  7. Standardization of a protocol to extract and analyze chlorophyll a and carotenoids in Gracilaria tenuistipitata Var. Liui. Zhang and Xia (Rhodophyta)

    OpenAIRE

    Priscila Bezerra Torres; Fungyi Chow; Cláudia Maria Furlan; Fernanda Mandelli; Adriana Mercadante; Déborah Yara Alves Cursino dos Santos

    2014-01-01

    Chlorophyll a and carotenoids are important pigments in photosynthesis. Several studies have been published describing extraction and analysis protocols of these pigments, mainly in vascular plant species. This study standardizes an extraction and analysis protocol of these substances in Gracilaria tenuistipitata var. liui, a red seaweed. Apical portions grown in vitro were triturated in liquid nitrogen. Extracts were prepared in 1.5 mL solvent and centrifuged. Quantitative and qualitative an...

  8. Physical Forcing Mechanisms Controlling the Variability of Chlorophyll-a over the Royal-Charlotte and Abrolhos Banks—Eastern Brazilian Shelf

    OpenAIRE

    Ghisolfi, Renato David; Pereira da Silva, Meyre; Thomaz dos Santos, Felipe; Servino, Ricardo Nogueira; Cirano, Mauro; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes

    2015-01-01

    The Abrolhos Bank is part of the so-called Eastern Brazilian Shelf and is an area of high ecological and economic importance. The bank supports the largest and richest coral reefs in the South Atlantic and the largest rhodolith bed in the world. The spatial and seasonal variation of phytoplankton concentration, however, and the dynamic processes controlling that variability have remained poorly known. The present study investigates the seasonal and spatial distributions of chlorophyll-a (Chl-...

  9. Novel type of red-shifted chlorophyll a antenna complex from Chromera velia: II. Biochemistry and spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Bína, David; Gardian, Zdenko; Herbstová, Miroslava; Kotabová, Eva; Koník, P.; Litvín, Radek; Prášil, Ondřej; Tichý, Josef; Vácha, František

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1837, č. 6 (2014), s. 802-810. ISSN 0005-2728 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP501/12/G055 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 ; RVO:61388971 Keywords : Chromera velia * red-shifted chlorophyll * Chlorophyll fluorescence Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry; CE - Biochemistry (MBU-M) Impact factor: 5.353, year: 2014

  10. Ab initio calculation of UV-absorption spectra of chlorophyll a: Comparison study between RHF/CIS, TDDFT, and semi-empirical methods

    CERN Document Server

    Suendo, Veinardi

    2011-01-01

    Chlorophyll a is one the most abundant pigment on Earth, which is responsible for trapping the light energy to perform the photosynthesis process in green plants. This molecule is a metal-complex compound that consists of a porphyrins ring with high symmetry that acts as ligands with magnesium as the central ion. Chlorophyll a has been studied for many years from different point of views for both experimental and theoretical interests. In this study, the restricted Hartree-Fock configuration interaction single (RHF/CIS), time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT) and some semi-empirical methods (CNDO/s and ZINDO) calculations were carried out and compared to reconstruct the UV-Vis absorption spectra of chlorophyll a. In some extend, the calculation results based on a single molecule calculation were succeeded to reconstruct the absorption spectra but required to be scaling and broaden to match the experimental one. Different computational methods (ab initio and semi-empirical) exhibits the differences i...

  11. Distribution of chroococcoid cyanobacteria and size-fractionated chlorophyll a biomass in the central and southern north sea waters during June/July 1989

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iriarte, Arantza; Purdie, Duncan A.

    The spatial and vertical distribution of phycoerythrin(PE)-containing chroococcoid cyanobacteria and the contribution of the <3 μm size fraction to overall phytoplankton chlorophyll a biomass were investigated in the central and southern North Sea during June and July 1989. PE-containing chroococcoid cyanobacteria cell numbers ranged between 6×10 5 and 4.4×10 7 cells·dm -3 and was typically between 0.5×10 7 and 3×10 7 cells·dm -3, lowest numbers being recorded near the British coast in central North Sea waters. The vertical distribution of these cyanobacteria showed no evidence to suggest a preferential accumulation deep in the euphotic zone. The <3 μm size fraction accounted for 6.6 to 57.5% of the total phytoplankton chlorophyll a biomass (mean 19.7%). In general, the relative significance of the <3 μm size fraction decreased with increasing total chlorophyll a biomass.

  12. Seasonal and interannual variability of chlorophyll-a and associated physical synchronous variability in the western tropical Pacific

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Xueyan; Dong, Qing; Xue, Cunjin; Wu, Shuchao

    2016-06-01

    Based on long-term satellite-derived ocean data sets and methods of empirical orthogonal function and singular value decomposition, we investigated the spatiotemporal variability of the chlorophyll-a concentration (CHL) on seasonal and interannual timescales in the western tropical Pacific associated with physical ocean variables of sea surface temperature (SST), sea level anomaly (SLA) and sea surface wind (SSW), and the El Niño Southern Oscillation (ENSO) index. The bio-physical synchronous variation on interannual timescale was also confirmed in terms of the scales of variability and oscillation periods in the time-frequency space using the methods of Fourier transform, Morlet wavelet transform, and wavelet coherence analysis. On a seasonal timescale, the first two modes of the monthly mean CHL fields described the consecutive spatiotemporal variation in CHL in the western tropical Pacific. CHL reached the maximum during late winter-early spring and minimum during summer-early autumn with the exception of the northeast of Papua New Guinea and the Solomon Islands. The CHL bloom in boreal winter-spring was closely associated with cold SST, high sea level along the North Equatorial Countercurrent meanders, and strong wind. On an interannual timescale, the variability of CHL exhibited a close correlation with SST, SLA, SSW, and ENSO. During El Niño, CHL increased in the oligotrophic western basin of the warm pool associated with cold SST, low SLA, and strong westerly winds but decreased in the mesotrophic eastern basin of the warm pool in association with warm SST, high SLA, and weak easterly trade winds. There may exist time-lag for the bio-physical covariation, i.e., CHL and SST varied simultaneously within 1 month, and CHL variations led SLA by approximately 0-3 months but lagged wind speed by about 1 month. In the time-frequency domain, the interannual variability in CHL and physical ocean variables had high common power, indicating that the variability scales

  13. Small-scale variability of chlorophyll, CDOM, and suspended matter in the Lake Balaton as obtained by shipborne UV fluorescent lidar

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pelevin, Vadim; Palmer, Stephanie; Khymchenko, Lisa

    2015-04-01

    Despite a long history in oceanography, few attempts have been made to use fluorescent lidars to evaluate water quality in lakes. We report lidar measurements taken on the Lake Balaton over the period of five days in August, 2012. Lake Balaton, the largest lake in Central Europe in area (597 km2), is very shallow (average depth of 3.5m). The lake is mesotrophic exhibiting a strong trophic gradient from SW to NE. The UV fluorescent lidar UFL-9 used in this study was developed at the Shirshov Institute of Oceanology. It can be used for CDOM, organic pollutants, chlorophyll, and suspended matter concentrations measurements at very high spatial resolution (up to ~1 m). The data were collected continuously during daytime while the boat was travelling. The entire area of the lake was covered by the measurement. The lidar data were calibrated against those obtained in situ through water sampling and then converted from the optical units into the mass concentrations of the above mentioned constituents. Based on this data set, we mapped and investigated in detail the small-scale spatial variability of CDOM, chlorophyll-a, and suspended matter concentrations. In particular, the characteristics of patchiness for the selected parameters were quantified and inter-compared, and their relations with the background forcing conditions were analyzed. We also discuss the applicability of lidar techniques for assessing the hydrological and ecological conditions in shallow inland water bodies. The study was partly supported by the Russian Science Foundation, Grant 14-50-00095.

  14. Association of chlorophyll a/c(2) complexes to photosystem I and photosystem II in the cryptophyte Rhodomonas CS24

    OpenAIRE

    Kereihe, Sami; Kouril, Roman; Oostergetel, Gert T.; Fusetti, Fabrizia; Boekema, Egbert J.; Doust, Alexander B.; van der Weij-de Wit, Chantal D.; Dekker, Jan P; Kereïche, Sami; Kouřil, Roman

    2008-01-01

    Photosynthetic supercomplexes from the cryptophyte Rhodomonas CS24 were isolated by a short detergent treatment of membranes from the cryptophyte Rhodomonas CS24 and studied by electron microscopy and low-temperature absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. At least three different types of supercomplexes of photosystem I (PSI) monomers and peripheral Chl a/c(2) proteins were found. The most common complexes have Chl a/c(2) complexes at both sides of the PSI core monomer and have dimensions ...

  15. Modelled quantum yields and energy efficiency of fluorescence, photosynthesis and heat production by phytoplankton in the World Ocean

    OpenAIRE

    Mirosława Ostrowska; Bogdan Woźniak; Jerzy Dera

    2012-01-01

    The paper discusses the utilization budgets of the excitation energy ofphytoplankton pigment molecules activated on absorbing solar radiation undervarious typical conditions obtaining in the World Ocean. The deactivation of these molecules following the conversion ofthe excitation energy to the fluorescence of chlorophyll a, the photosynthesis of organic matter and heat is takeninto account. To this end, a great many model computations were performed;these made use of the authors' earlier mod...

  16. Eutrophication study at the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system, northern Hebei Province, People's Republic of China: Chlorophyll-a model and sources of phosphorus and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, J.; Lin, C.; Luo, Y.; Kang, Jie; Wang, Shaoming; Brown, L.R.; Munn, M.D.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations, loads, and sources of nitrate and total phosphorus were investigated at the Panjiakou and Daheiting Reservoir system in northern Hebei Province, People's Republic of China. The Luan He River is the primary source of water to these reservoirs, and the upstream watershed has a mix of land uses including agriculture, forest, and one large urban center. The reservoirs have a primary use for storage of drinking water and partially supply Tianjin City with its annual needs. Secondary uses include flood control and aqua culture (fish cages). The response of the reservoir system from phosphorus input, with respect to chlorophyll-a production from algae, was fitted to a model of normalized phosphorus loading that regresses the average summer-time chlorophyll-a concentration to the average annual phosphorus concentration of the reservoir. Comparison of the normalized phosphorus loading and chlorophyll-a response of this system to other reservoirs throughout the world indicate a level of eutrophication that will require up to an approximate 5-10-fold decrease in annual phosphorus load to bring the system to a more acceptable level of algal productivity. Isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in dissolved nitrate were measured from the headwater streams and at various locations along the major rivers that provide the majority of water to these reservoirs. Those isotopic measurements indicate that the sources of nitrate change from natural background in the rivers to animal manure and septic waste upstream of the reservoir. Although the isotopic measurements suggest that animal and septic wastes are a primary source of nutrients, measurements of the molar ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus are more indicative of row-cropping practices. Options for reduction of nutrient loads include changing the management practices of the aqua culture, installation of new sewage treatment systems in the large urbanized area of the upper watershed, and agricultural management practices

  17. Eutrophication Study at the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir System, Northern Hebei Province, People's Republic of China: Chlorophyll-a Model and Sources of Phosphorus and Nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, J.; Lin, C.; Luo, Y.; Kang, J.; Wang, S.; Brown, L.; Munn, M.

    2007-05-01

    Concentrations, loads, and sources of nitrate and total phosphorus were investigated at the Panjiakou and Daheiting Reservoir system in northern Hebei Province, People's Republic of China. The Luan He River is the primary source of water to these reservoirs, and the upstream watershed has a mix of land uses including agriculture, forest, with one large urban center. The reservoirs have a primary use for storage of drinking water and partially supply Tianjin City with its annual needs. Secondary uses include flood control and aqua culture (fish cages). The response of the reservoir system from phosphorus input, with respect to chlorophyll-a production from algae, was fitted to a model of normalized phosphorus loading that regresses the average summer-time chlorophyll-a concentration to the average annual phosphorus concentration of the reservoir. Comparison of the normalized phosphorus loading and chlorophyll-a response of this system to other reservoirs throughout the world indicate a level of eutrophication that will require up to an approximate 10-fold decrease in annual phosphorus load to bring the system to a more acceptable level of algal productivity. Isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in dissolved nitrate were measured from the headwater streams and at various locations along the major rivers that provide the majority of water to these reservoirs. Those isotopic measurements indicate that the sources of nitrate change from natural background in the rivers to animal manure and septic waste upstream of the reservoir. Although the isotopic measurements suggest that animal and septic wastes are a primary source of nutrients, measurements of the molar ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus are more indicative of row-cropping practices. Options for reduction of nutrient loads include changing the management practices of the aqua culture, installation of new sewage treatment systems, especially in the one major urbanized area of the upper watershed, and agricultural

  18. 太湖浮藻类的后向散射分离及其叶绿素浓度反演%Phytoplankton Backscattering Coefficients Partitioning and Its Applications in Retrieving Chlorophyll-a Concentrations in Taihu Lake

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    阎福礼; 刘韶菲; 王世新; 周艺

    2014-01-01

    浮游藻类的后向散射是水体光谱构成的重要组成部分,作为水体辐射传输模型中的重要参数,高精度的藻类后向散射系数对水体叶绿素a浓度的遥感反演精度至关重要。本文以简化的辐射传输模型-生物光学模型为基础,尝试性分离了太湖浮游藻类的后向散射系数。通过藻类后向散射规律分析,建立了浮游藻类吸收、后向散射特征的叶绿素a反演模型,改善了叶绿素a浓度的遥感反演精度。分析表明:藻类颗粒物的后向散射系数与吸收系数之间存在反比关系,且在560 nm、700 nm附近存在明显的散射峰,与叶绿素a浓度之间相关性显著;低密度藻类水体总悬浮颗粒的后向散射以非色素颗粒为主导,适合采用经典的指数模型模拟后向散射系数,而藻类密度较高的富营养化水体,水体总悬浮颗粒的后向散射以藻类颗粒为主导,传统的指数模型已不适用;采用分离藻类后向散射系数的方法,使得叶绿素a浓度的反演值与真实值相关系数从0.66提高到0.98,相对误差从55%降低到38%,均方根误差(RMSE)也由60.95μg/L降低至13.98μg/L。其真实性检验表明,与经典指数模型方法相比,利用藻类颗粒后向散射分离方法反演叶绿素a浓度,能够显著改善反演精度。%As key parameters in bio-optical model, the backscattering coefficients of phytoplankton plays an im-portant role in modelling the reflectance spectra and retrieving chlorophyll-a (CHL-a) concentrations from eutro-phic water. An exponential model is usually used to simulate the total backscattering coefficients by omitting the phytoplankton backscattering in inland water characterized by lower concentrations of CHL-a. However, the ex-ponential model is not valid for inland water with high CHL-a concentrations, and high relative errors and resi-dues may exist in retrieving the CHL-a concentrations in the algae

  19. Long-term trends in suspended chlorophyll a and vertical particle flux with respect to changing physical conditions in eastern Fram Strait, Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöthig, Eva-Maria; Bauerfeind, Eduard; Beszczynska-Möller, Agnieszka; Kraft, Angelina; Bracher, Astrid; Cherkasheva, Alexandra; Fahl, Kirsten; Hardge, Kristin; Kaleschke, Lars; Lalande, Catherine; Metfies, Katja; Peeken, Ilka; Klages, Michael; Soltwedel, Thomas

    2014-05-01

    The Fram Strait is the main gateway for water, heat, sea ice and plankton exchanges between the Arctic Ocean and the North Atlantic. The abundance and composition of phyto- and zooplankton communities is governed to a large extent by key physical factors such as water temperature, salinity, currents, stratification of the water column and the presence or absence of sea ice. With our study we aim at tracing effects of environmental changes in pelagic system structure and impacts on the fate of organic matter produced in the upper water column in a region that is anticipated to react rapidly to climate change. Chlorophyll a, an indicator of biomass standing stock of phytoplankton, has been measured in the upper 100 m of the water column since 1991 during several summer cruises (with RV 'Polarstern') across Fram Strait. Chlorophyll a measurements are used to validate productivity estimates by remote sensing from space. The quantity and composition of export fluxes of organic matter including biomarker have been measured since 2000 by annually moored sediment traps deployed at 200-300m at the AWI long-term observatory HAUSGARTEN in eastern Fram Strait (79°/4°E). Along with sinking particles, zooplankton (so-called 'swimmers') was also caught in the traps. Analyses of the material collected by the sediment traps allowed us to track seasonal and inter-annual changes in the surface waters at HAUSGARTEN. We present temporal trends in the chlorophyll a distribution (1991-2012), in swimmer composition in the traps (2000-2009), and in the export of biomarker (2000-2008), particulate organic carbon, particulate biogenic silica, calcium carbonate, and the protist composition (2000-2012), in relation to the changing sea ice cover and water temperature. Whereas chlorophyll a (integrated values 0-100m) showed only a slight increase, the swimmer composition and the composition of the annual particle flux changed after a warm water event occurring from 2005-2007. The warm anomaly

  20. Structural and transcription analysis of two homologous genes for the P700 chlorophyll a-apoproteins in Chlamydomonas reinhardii: evidence for in vivo trans-splicing

    OpenAIRE

    Kück, Ulrich; Choquet, Yves; Schneider, Michel; Dron, Michel; Bennoun, Pierre

    1987-01-01

    The two homologous genes for the P700 chlorophyll a-apoproteins (ps1A1 and ps1A2) are encoded by the plastom in the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardii. The structure and organization of the two genes were determined by comparison with the homologous genes from maize using data from heterologous hybridizations as well as from DNA and RNA sequencing. While the ps1A2 (736 codons) gene shows a continuous gene organization, the ps1A1 (754 codons) gene possesses some unusual features. The disconti...

  1. 营养液对鸭儿芹幼苗生长、抗氧化酶活性及叶绿素荧光参数的影响%Effects of nutrient solution on growth, antioxidase activities and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of Cryptotaenia japonica seedling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴晓艳; 周守标; 程龙玲; 王欣; 常琳琳

    2012-01-01

    japonica seedlings were investigated.The results show that the highest Cryptotaenia japonica seedlings’ growth factors(plant height,leaf area,stem diameter,fresh and dry weights of shoots,fresh and dry weights of roots,fresh and dry weights of plants) are observed in the 1/8s nutrient solution.The seedling indexes are increased firstly and then declined with the increase of the nutrient solution concentration,and the maximal values of the seeding indexes are observed in the 1/8s nutrient solution,which are significantly higher than those of the other concentrations.When the concentrations of nutrient solution are between 1/12s-1/8s,the activities of POD,CAT and SOD are increased gradually with the increase of the nutrient concentration,while the MDA content is gradually decreased.However,the trends of the POD,CAT and SOD activities and as well as MDA content are contrary under the 1/8s-1s nutrient concentrations.When the concentration of the nutrient solution is close to 1/8s,the activities of POD,CAT and SOD are highest,while the MDA content was the lowest.The contents of chlorophyll a,chlorophyll b and total chlorophyll are increased under the lower nutrient concentrations and decreased under the higher concentrations,and the physiological parameters are highest under the 1/8s nutrient solution.Under the 1/4s-1s nutrient solution,the initial fluorescence(Fo) values are higher than those under the 1/12s-1/10s,while the maximal fluorescence(Fm),potential activity of PSⅡ(Fv/Fo),and the maximal photochemical efficiency of PSⅡ(Fv/Fm) are lower than those under the 1/12s-1/10s.The Fo value is lowest under the 1/8s nutrient concentration,while the values of Fm,Fv/Fo,Fv/Fm are the highest.Our findings suggest that the nutrient concentration plays dual roles on Cryptotaenia japonica seedlings,i.e.at the lower nutrient concentrations,seedling growths are accelerated with the increase of the concentrations due to alleviated nutrient stress,while seedling

  2. An advanced fluorescence LIDAR system for the acquisition of interleaved active (LIF) and passive (SIF) fluorescence measurements on vegetation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raimondi, Valentina; Palombi, Lorenzo; Di Ninni, Paola

    2015-10-01

    Fluorescence is regarded as a valuable tool to investigate the eco-physiological status of vegetation. Chlorophyll a, which emits a typical fluorescence in the red/far-red region of the e.m. spectrum, plays a key role in the photosynthetic process and its fluorescence is considered an effective proxy of photosynthetic activity of plants. Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) has been studied for several decades both at leaf- and canopy-level by means of optical fibers-coupled instrumentation and fluorescence LIDAR systems. On the other hand, Solar-Induced Fluorescence (SIF) has been the object of several scientific studies quite recently, with the aim to investigate the feasibility of measuring the fluorescence of vegetation using passive spectroradiometers in view of global scale monitoring from satellite platforms. This paper presents the main technical features and preliminary tests of a fluorescence LIDAR, recently upgraded to acquire maps of interleaved LIF and SIF measurements at canopy level. In-house developed electronics and software permits the acquisition of interleaved LIF and SIF spectra by switching on/off the laser, the selection of the suitable grating, the setting of the integration time and the synchronization of the Intensified CCD (ICCD) gate opening time. For each pixel of the map, a fluorescence dataset can be acquired containing a LIF spectrum - from 570 nm to 830 nm with a spectral resolution of 0.5 nm - and radiance spectra from 685.53 nm to 690.30 nm with subnanometric spectral resolution containing the molecular oxygen O2-B telluric absorption band. The latter can be exploited for polynomial regression data fit and SIF retrieval.

  3. Radioluminescence : A simple model for fluorescent layers

    OpenAIRE

    Lindström, Jan

    2011-01-01

    The aim of this thesis is to present a simple model for the radiation to light conversion processes in fluorescent layers as an aid in future developments and applications. Optimisation between sensitivity and spatial resolution for fluorescent layers in digital radiology is a delicate task where the extrinsic efficiency for various phosphors needs to be established for varying parameters. The extrinsic efficiency of a fluorescent layer can be expressed as the ratio of the light energy per un...

  4. Investigating the impact of NaCl salinity on growth, β-carotene, and chlorophyll a in the content life of halophytes of algae Chlorella sp.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mojtaba Fathi

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available Algae are used for many purposes as: food industry, animal feeding, soil enrichment andbiodiesel production. Chlorella is widely cultivated from microalgae species as it is rich in nutrients andhas its implementation as a healthy food use. In this study, the impact of NaCl salinity on growth, betacarotene,and chlorophyll a of Chlorella sp. has been investigated. This study results in three salinities(10, 30, 50 g L-1, respectively have shown that 30 g L-1 concentration has the highest value of cellnumber in day 15th and there was no significant difference between salinities on day 15th (p>0.05. Βetacaroteneresult has shown 50 g L-1 salinity and the highest value of beta-carotene did not indicate anystatistically significant differences between treatments (p>0.05. Chlorophyll a result has shown highestvalue in all treatments (it was in 50 g L-1. However, there was no significant difference betweensalinities on day 5th (p>0.05.

  5. Assessing spatial and temporal variability in phytoplankton concentration through chlorophyll-a satellite data: a case study of northern arabian sea

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study focuses on applying remote sensing technology to identify and assess seasonal and intra-annual variation of phytoplankton availability. A standard MODIS algorithm for Chlorophyll-a, is used to obtain a variation of phytoplankton with the help of MODIS time series images from April 2011 to March 2012 that describe the situation for a whole year, we also used periodical data for each three months, i.e., from April 2011 to June 2011, July 2011 to September 2011, October 2011 to December 2011 and finally January 2012 to March 2012. Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a), products were retrieved from the sensor data that demonstrates the spatio-temporal variability of phytoplankton concentration in the northern Arabian sea near the coastline and open sea water of Pakistan, India, Iran and Oman. High concentration of Chl-a, were observed during two periods August to September and February to March respectively. It was also revealed that Chl-a, concentration was almost identical between the latitude 20 and 21 degrees N throughout the year. (author)

  6. Ab initio calculation of UV-absorption spectra of chlorophyll a: Comparison study between RHF/CIS, TDDFT, and semi-empirical methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Veinardi Suendo

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll a is one the most abundant pigment on Earth that responsible for trapping the light energy to perform photosynthesis in green plants. This molecule has been studied for many years from different point of views in both experimental and theoretical interests. In this study, the restricted Hartree-Fock configuration interaction single (RHF/CIS, time-dependent density functional theory (TDDFT and several semi-empirical methods (CNDO/s and ZINDO calculations were carried out to reconstruct the UV-Vis absorption spectra of chlorophyll a. In some extend, the calculation results based on single molecule approach were succeeded to reconstruct the absorption spectra but required to be rescaled to fit the experimental one. In general, the semi-empirical methods provide better energy scaling factor that closer to unity. However, they lack of vertical transition fine features with respect to the spectrum obtained experimentally. Here, the ab initio calculations provide more complete features, especially the TDDFT at high level of basis sets that also has a good accuracy in the transition energies. The contribution of ground states and excited states orbitals in the main vertical transitions is discussed based on delocalization nature of the wavefunctions and the presence of solvent through polarizable continuum model (PCM.

  7. Photoprotection in the lichen Parmelia sulcata: the origins of desiccation-induced fluorescence quenching.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, John; Vasil'ev, Sergej; Paton, Gavin D; Ramanauskas, Justin; Bruce, Doug

    2007-11-01

    Lichens, a symbiotic relationship between a fungus (mycobiont) and a photosynthetic green algae or cyanobacteria (photobiont), belong to an elite group of survivalist organisms termed resurrection species. When lichens are desiccated, they are photosynthetically inactive, but upon rehydration they can perform photosynthesis within seconds. Desiccation is correlated with both a loss of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence and a decrease in overall fluorescence yield. The fluorescence quenching likely reflects photoprotection mechanisms that may be based on desiccation-induced changes in lichen structure that limit light exposure to the photobiont (sunshade effect) and/or active quenching of excitation energy absorbed by the photosynthetic apparatus. To separate and quantify these possible mechanisms, we have investigated the origins of fluorescence quenching in desiccated lichens with steady-state, low temperature, and time-resolved chlorophyll fluorescence spectroscopy. We found the most dramatic target of quenching to be photosystem II (PSII), which produces negligible levels of fluorescence in desiccated lichens. We show that fluorescence decay in desiccated lichens was dominated by a short lifetime, long-wavelength component energetically coupled to PSII. Remaining fluorescence was primarily from PSI and although diminished in amplitude, PSI decay kinetics were unaffected by desiccation. The long-wavelength-quenching species was responsible for most (about 80%) of the fluorescence quenching observed in desiccated lichens; the rest of the quenching was attributed to the sunshade effect induced by structural changes in the lichen thallus. PMID:17827268

  8. Photoprotection in the Lichen Parmelia sulcata: The Origins of Desiccation-Induced Fluorescence Quenching1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veerman, John; Vasil'ev, Sergej; Paton, Gavin D.; Ramanauskas, Justin; Bruce, Doug

    2007-01-01

    Lichens, a symbiotic relationship between a fungus (mycobiont) and a photosynthetic green algae or cyanobacteria (photobiont), belong to an elite group of survivalist organisms termed resurrection species. When lichens are desiccated, they are photosynthetically inactive, but upon rehydration they can perform photosynthesis within seconds. Desiccation is correlated with both a loss of variable chlorophyll a fluorescence and a decrease in overall fluorescence yield. The fluorescence quenching likely reflects photoprotection mechanisms that may be based on desiccation-induced changes in lichen structure that limit light exposure to the photobiont (sunshade effect) and/or active quenching of excitation energy absorbed by the photosynthetic apparatus. To separate and quantify these possible mechanisms, we have investigated the origins of fluorescence quenching in desiccated lichens with steady-state, low temperature, and time-resolved chlorophyll fluorescence spectroscopy. We found the most dramatic target of quenching to be photosystem II (PSII), which produces negligible levels of fluorescence in desiccated lichens. We show that fluorescence decay in desiccated lichens was dominated by a short lifetime, long-wavelength component energetically coupled to PSII. Remaining fluorescence was primarily from PSI and although diminished in amplitude, PSI decay kinetics were unaffected by desiccation. The long-wavelength-quenching species was responsible for most (about 80%) of the fluorescence quenching observed in desiccated lichens; the rest of the quenching was attributed to the sunshade effect induced by structural changes in the lichen thallus. PMID:17827268

  9. Fluorescence lifetime heterogeneity in aggregates of LHCII revealed by time-resolved microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barzda, V; de Grauw, C J; Vroom, J; Kleima, F J; van Grondelle, R; van Amerongen, H; Gerritsen, H C

    2001-01-01

    Two-photon excitation, time-resolved fluorescence microscopy was used to investigate the fluorescence quenching mechanisms in aggregates of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b pigment protein complexes of photosystem II from green plants (LHCII). Time-gated microscopy images show the presence of large heterogeneity in fluorescence lifetimes not only for different LHCII aggregates, but also within a single aggregate. Thus, the fluorescence decay traces obtained from macroscopic measurements reflect an average over a large distribution of local fluorescence kinetics. This opens the possibility to resolve spatially different structural/functional units in chloroplasts and other heterogeneous photosynthetic systems in vivo, and gives the opportunity to investigate individually the excited states dynamics of each unit. We show that the lifetime distribution is sensitive to the concentration of quenchers contained in the system. Triplets, which are generated at high pulse repetition rates of excitation (>1 MHz), preferentially quench domains with initially shorter fluorescence lifetimes. This proves our previous prediction from singlet-singlet annihilation investigations (Barzda, V., V. Gulbinas, R. Kananavicius, V. Cervinskas, H. van Amerongen, R. van Grondelle, and L. Valkunas. 2001. Biophys. J. 80:2409-2421) that shorter fluorescence lifetimes originate from larger domains in LHCII aggregates. We found that singlet-singlet annihilation has a strong effect in time-resolved fluorescence microscopy of connective systems and has to be taken into consideration. Despite that, clear differences in fluorescence decays can be detected that can also qualitatively be understood. PMID:11423435

  10. Trocas gasosas e fluorescência da clorofila a em variedades de cana-de-açúcar submetidas à deficiência hídrica Gas exchange and chlorophyll a fluorescence of sugarcane varieties submitted to water stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo R. Gonçalves

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available O estresse hídrico afeta grande parte da agricultura mundial, razão por que se propôs, através deste trabalho, avaliar o comportamento, em casa-de-vegetação, de quatro variedades de cana-de-açúcar (SP79-1011, RB72454, RB98710 e RB92579 submetidas a déficit hídrico durante a fase inicial de crescimento vegetativo. As plantas foram cultivadas em vasos plásticos contendo 15 kg de solo. O estudo foi um fatorial (4 variedades x 3 níveis de água disponível no solo, em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com cinco repetições. Os níveis de água no solo foram baseados na capacidade de água disponível (CAD ficando assim definidos: controle (80 a 100% da CAD, estresse hídrico moderado (40 a 60% da CAD e estresse hídrico severo (0 a 20% da CAD. A deficiência hídrica provocou reduções significativas na condutância estomática (gs, transpiração foliar (E, fotosíntese líquida (A e na eficiênca de uso da água de produção (EUAp, independente da variedade. As variedades SP79-1011 e RB98710 apresentaram maior sensibilidade estomática, reduzindo gs e E aos 71 dias após início do estresse, mesmo sob condições controle; entretanto, em tais condições A foi pouco afetada, indicando que as plantas são capazes de manter a taxa fotossintética, mesmo com os estômatos parcialmente fechados. O estresse hídrico provocou pouca redução na eficiência fotoquímica potencial das variedades estudadas.Water stress affects a great part of the world's agriculture. Thus, this work was conducted to evaluate photosynthetic traits in four varieties of sugarcane (SP79-1011, RB72454, RB98710 and RB92579 submitted to water stress during the early stage of the vegetative period. The plants were cultivated in plastic pots (15 kg of soil. The study was a factorial (4 varieties x 3 levels of soil water content based on available water capacity (AWC, in a completely randomized design with 5 replications. The levels of water content in the soil were as follows: control (80 to 100% of AWC, moderate water stress (40 to 60% of AWC and severe water stress (0 to 20% of AWC. Water stress provoked a significant reduction in stomatic condutance (gs, foliar transpiration (E, net photosynthesis (A and in the water use efficiency of production (WUEy, irrespective of varieties. The varieties SP79-1011 and RB98710 showed greater stomatal sensitivity, reducing gs and E by the 71 days after the beginning of the water stress treatments, even in the control. However, under such conditions A was little affected, indicating that the plants are capable to fixing CO2 with stomata partially closed. Water stress caused a small reduction in the potential photochemical efficiency (Fv/Fm ratio in the studied varieties.

  11. The photochemical and fluorescence properties of whole cells, spheroplasts and spheroplast particles from the blue-green alga Phormidium luridum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tel-or, E; Malkin, S

    1977-02-01

    The photochemical activities and fluorescence properties of cells, spheroplasts and spheroplast particles from the blue-green alga Phormidium luridum were compared. The photochemical activities were measured in a whole range of wavelengths and expressed as quantum yield spectra (quantum yield vs. wavelength). The following reactions were measured. Photosynthesis (O2 evolution) in whole cells; Hill reaction (O2 evolution) with Fe(CN)63- and NADP as electron acceptors (Photosystem II and photosystem II + Photosystem I reactions); electron transfer from reduced 2,6-dichlorophenolindophenol to diquat (Photosystem I reaction). The fluorescence properties were emission spectra, quantum yield spectra and the induction pattern. On the basis of comparison between the quantum yield spectra and the pigments compositions the relative contribution of each pigment to each photosystem was estimated. In normal cells and spheroplasts it was found that Photosystem I (Photosystem II) contains about 90% (10%) of the chlorophyll a, 90% (10%) of the carotenoids and 15% (85%) of the phycocyanin. In spheroplast particles there is a reorganization of the pigments; they loose a certain fraction (about half) of the phycocyanin but the remaining phycocyanin attaches itself exclusively to Photosystem I (!). This is reflected by the loss of Photosystem II activity, a flat quantum yield vs. wavelength dependence and a loss of the fluorescence induction. The fluorescence quantum yield spectra conform qualitatively to the above conclusion. More quantitative estimation shows that only a fraction (20--40%) of the chlorophyll of Photosystem II is fluorescent. Total emission spectrum and the ratio of variable to constant fluorescence are in agreement with this conclusion. The fluorescence emission spectrum shows characteristic differences between the constant and variable components. The variable fluorescence comes exclusively from chlorophyll a; the constant fluorescence is contributed, in addition

  12. Fluorescence detection: SPIE volume 743

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book contains proceedings arranged into four sessions. They are: Fluorescence spectroscopic techniques; Fluorescence in analysis and materials characterization; Fluorescence in medicine and biochemistry; and Fluorescence in criminalistics

  13. Fluorescence detection: SPIE volume 743

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Menzel, E.R.

    1987-01-01

    This book contains proceedings arranged into four sessions. They are: Fluorescence spectroscopic techniques; Fluorescence in analysis and materials characterization; Fluorescence in medicine and biochemistry; and Fluorescence in criminalistics.

  14. Association of chlorophyll a/c(2) complexes to photosystem I and photosystem II in the cryptophyte Rhodomonas CS24.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kereïche, Sami; Kouril, Roman; Oostergetel, Gert T; Fusetti, Fabrizia; Boekema, Egbert J; Doust, Alexander B; van der Weij-de Wit, Chantal D; Dekker, Jan P

    2008-09-01

    Photosynthetic supercomplexes from the cryptophyte Rhodomonas CS24 were isolated by a short detergent treatment of membranes from the cryptophyte Rhodomonas CS24 and studied by electron microscopy and low-temperature absorption and fluorescence spectroscopy. At least three different types of supercomplexes of photosystem I (PSI) monomers and peripheral Chl a/c(2) proteins were found. The most common complexes have Chl a/c(2) complexes at both sides of the PSI core monomer and have dimensions of about 17x24 nm. The peripheral antenna in these supercomplexes shows no obvious similarities in size and/or shape with that of the PSI-LHCI supercomplexes from the green plant Arabidopsis thaliana and the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii, and may be comprised of about 6-8 monomers of Chl a/c(2) light-harvesting complexes. In addition, two different types of supercomplexes of photosystem II (PSII) dimers and peripheral Chl a/c(2) proteins were found. The detected complexes consist of a PSII core dimer and three or four monomeric Chl a/c(2) proteins on one side of the PSII core at positions that in the largest complex are similar to those of Lhcb5, a monomer of the S-trimer of LHCII, Lhcb4 and Lhcb6 in green plants. PMID:18513489

  15. Determination of chlorophyll a concentrations and phytoplankton primary production in New England estuarine waters using ocean color remote sensing from low-flying aircraft

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keith, Darryl Joel

    The response of coastal systems to the addition of nutrients (especially nitrogen) is generally to stimulate phytoplankton biomass, measured using the concentration of chlorophyll a as a surrogate. However, the concentration and distribution of chlorophyll in the aquatic environment is variable in space and time. Historically, random to systematic design strategies have collected samples from specific locations in space (i.e. a point measurement). These strategies also are limited in sampling intra-annual, seasonal, and episodic events. Therefore, in order to sample on all time scales of interest over large geographic areas, a large number of point measurements and resources are required. With their ability to provide extensive spatial and temporal coverage from watershed to global scales, satellites and aircraft are ideally suited to provide cost-effective temporal and spatial coverage to estimate chlorophyll concentrations. Previous research has shown that chlorophyll a concentrations in coastal and ocean surface waters could be estimated from aircraft- and space-based based sensors from the "color" of surface waters. The "color" of surface waters has been found to be principally dependent on water column optical properties. The concentration of colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) is a primary factor affecting the absorption of incident sunlight in coastal and estuarine waters. In Chapter I, the temporal and spatial variability of CDOM absorption is characterized over an annual cycle in Narragansett Bay and Block Island Sound (Rhode Island). Results suggested that the magnitude of CDOM absorption is related to the seasonal input of freshwater from surrounding watersheds, the salinity regime of the bay, and new CDOM production from in situ biologic activity. In Chapter II, the chlorophyll concentrations predicted by several ocean color models were compared with field measurements concurrent with aircraft overflights to identify an algorithm which accurately

  16. The phenomenon of fluorescence in immunosensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kłos-Witkowska, Aleksandra

    2016-01-01

    The phenomenon of fluorescence in immunosensors is described in this paper. Both structure and characteristics of biosensors and immunosensors are presented. Types of immunosensors and the response of bioreceptor layers to the reaction with analytes as well as measurements of electrochemical, piezoelectric and optical parameters in immunosensors are also presented. In addition, detection techniques used in studies of optical immunosensors based on light-matter interactions (absorbance, reflectance, dispersion, emission) such as: UV/VIS spectroscopy, reflectometric interference spectroscopy (RIfs), surface plasmon resonance (SPR), optical waveguide light-mode spectroscopy (OWLS), fluorescence spectroscopy. The phenomenon of fluorescence in immunosensors and standard configurations of immunoreactions between an antigen and an antibody (direct, competitive, sandwich, displacement) is described. Fluorescence parameters taken into account in analyses and fluorescence detection techniques used in research of immunosensors are presented. Examples of immunosensor applications are given. PMID:27192088

  17. In situ Measurements of Phytoplankton Fluorescence Using Low Cost Electronics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dana L. Wright

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll a fluorometry has long been used as a method to study phytoplankton in the ocean. In situ fluorometry is used frequently in oceanography to provide depth-resolved estimates of phytoplankton biomass. However, the high price of commercially manufactured in situ fluorometers has made them unavailable to some individuals and institutions. Presented here is an investigation into building an in situ fluorometer using low cost electronics. The goal was to construct an easily reproducible in situ fluorometer from simple and widely available electronic components. The simplicity and modest cost of the sensor makes it valuable to students and professionals alike. Open source sharing of architecture and software will allow students to reconstruct and customize the sensor on a small budget. Research applications that require numerous in situ fluorometers or expendable fluorometers can also benefit from this study. The sensor costs US$150.00 and can be constructed with little to no previous experience. The sensor uses a blue LED to excite chlorophyll a and measures fluorescence using a silicon photodiode. The sensor is controlled by an Arduino microcontroller that also serves as a data logger.

  18. 农药胁迫对生菜叶片叶绿素荧光图像参数的影响%Effects of Pesticides on Chlorophyll Fluorescence Image Parameters of Lettuce Leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙俊; 宋彩惠; 毛罕平; 金夏明; 方敏; 张梅霞

    2014-01-01

    对生菜(Lactuca sativa)分别均匀喷洒浓度为70、140、280μg/L的杀虫剂氰戊菊酯,以清水为对照,以意大利全年耐抽薹生菜为试材,结果表明,随着农药浓度的增加,光系统Ⅱ的最大光化学效率、实际光化学效率、光化学淬灭系数和相对电子传递速率均下降,非光化学淬灭系数、非调节性能量耗散的量子产额和调节性能量耗散的量子产额上升,综合影响造成光系统Ⅱ的中心活性区域缩小、光合速率下降。另外生菜叶片自身的光化合保护机制能在一定程度上减轻农药的胁迫作用。与对照相比,光系统Ⅱ的实际光化学效率受农药影响最大,喷洒浓度为280μg/L的杀虫剂会对生菜光合作用过程产生持续性的、不可逆转的影响。%The Italy lettuce samples were sprayed evenly with water and pesticide fenvalerate with concentrations of 70,140,280 μg/L to study the adverse effect of pesticide on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters of lettuce leaves.With the increase of concentration of pesticide sprayed on the lettuce leaves,the biggest photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem Ⅱ(Fv/Fm),actual photosynthetic efficiency YI,photochemical quenching coefficient (qP) and relative electron transport rate declined and showed a clear decrease,meanwhile the non-photochemical quenching coefficient (qN),regulatory quantum yield of energy dissipation (Y NPQ) and non-regulatory quantum yield of energy dissipation (Y NO) increased significantly. Because of these disturbances,centre activity area of photosystem Ⅱ and actual photochemical efficiency was reduced. Light protection mechanisms of the lettuce leaves alleviated the impact of pesticides to a certain extent.Compared with control group,the actual photosynthetic efficiency of photosystem Ⅱ was one of the most exposed to effects from pesticide.The influence of 280μg/L pesticides on lettuce photosynthesis was continuous and irreversible.

  19. Implementation of the DINEOF ArcGIS Toolbox: Case study of reconstruction of Chlorophyll-a missing data over the Mediterranean using MyOcean satellite data products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nikolaidis, Andreas; Stylianou, Stavros; Georgiou, Georgios; Hadjimitsis, Diofantos; Akylas, Evangelos

    2014-05-01

    ArcGIS® is a well known standard on Geographical Information Systems, used over the years for various remote sensing procedures. During the last decade, Rixen (2003) and Azcarate (2011) presented the DINEOF (Data Interpolating Empirical Orthogonal Functions) method, a EOF-based technique to reconstruct missing data in satellite images. The recent results of the DINEOF method in various experimental trials (Wang and Liu, 2013; Nikolaidis et al., 2013;2014) showed that this computationally affordable method leads to effective reconstruction of missing data from geophysical fields, such as chlorophyll-a, sea surface temperatures or salinities and geophysical fields derived from satellite data. Implementing the method in a GIS system will lead to a complete and integrated approach, enhancing its applicability. The inclusion of statistical tools within the GIS, will multiply the effectiveness, providing interoperability with other sources in the same application environment. This may be especially useful in studies where various different kinds of data are of interest. For this purpose, in this study we have implemented a new GIS toolbox that aims at automating the usage of the algorithm, incorporating the DINEOF codes provided by GHER (GeoHydrodynamics and Environment Research Group of University of Liege) into the ArcGIS®. A case-study of filling the chlorophyll-a missing data in the Mediterranean Sea area, for a 18-day period is analyzed, as an example for the effectiveness and simplicity of the toolbox. More specifically, we focus on chlorophyll-a MODIS satellite data collected by CNR-ISAC (Italian National Research Council, Institute of Atmospheric Sciences and Climate), from the respective products of MyOcean2® organization, that provides free online access to Level 3, with 1 km resolution. All the daily products with an initial level of only 27% data coverage were successfully reconstructed over the Mediterranean Sea. [1] Alvera-Azcárate A., Barth A

  20. Eutrophication study at the Panjiakou-Daheiting Reservoir system, northern Hebei Province, People’s Republic of China: Chlorophyll-a model and sources of phosphorous and nitrogen

    Science.gov (United States)

    Domagalski, Joseph L.; Lin, Chao; Luo, Yang; Kang, Jie; Wang, Shaoming; Brown, Larry R.; Munn, Mark D.

    2007-01-01

    Concentrations, loads, and sources of nitrate and total phosphorus were investigated at the Panjiakou and Daheiting Reservoir system in northern Hebei Province, People's Republic of China. The Luan He River is the primary source of water to these reservoirs, and the upstream watershed has a mix of land uses including agriculture, forest, and one large urban center. The reservoirs have a primary use for storage of drinking water and partially supply Tianjin City with its annual needs. Secondary uses include flood control and aqua culture (fish cages). The response of the reservoir system from phosphorus input, with respect to chlorophyll-a production from algae, was fitted to a model of normalized phosphorus loading that regresses the average summer-time chlorophyll-aconcentration to the average annual phosphorus concentration of the reservoir. Comparison of the normalized phosphorus loading and chlorophyll-a response of this system to other reservoirs throughout the world indicate a level of eutrophication that will require up to an approximate 5–10-fold decrease in annual phosphorus load to bring the system to a more acceptable level of algal productivity. Isotopes of nitrogen and oxygen in dissolved nitrate were measured from the headwater streams and at various locations along the major rivers that provide the majority of water to these reservoirs. Those isotopic measurements indicate that the sources of nitrate change from natural background in the rivers to animal manure and septic waste upstream of the reservoir. Although the isotopic measurements suggest that animal and septic wastes are a primary source of nutrients, measurements of the molar ratio of nitrogen to phosphorus are more indicative of row-cropping practices. Options for reduction of nutrient loads include changing the management practices of the aqua culture, installation of new sewage treatment systems in the large urbanized area of the upper watershed, and agricultural management practices

  1. Relative importance of phosphorus, invasive mussels and climate for patterns in chlorophyll a and primary production in Lakes Michigan and Huron

    Science.gov (United States)

    Warner, David M.; Lesht, Barry M.

    2015-01-01

    1. Lakes Michigan and Huron, which are undergoing oligotrophication after reduction of phosphorus loading, invasion by dreissenid mussels and variation in climate, provide an opportunity to conduct large-scale evaluation of the relative importance of these changes for lake productivity. We used remote sensing, field data and an information-theoretic approach to identify factors that showed statistical relationships with observed changes in chlorophyll a (chla) and primary production (PP). 2. Spring phosphorus (TP), annual mean chla and PP have all declined significantly in both lakes since the late 1990s. Additionally, monthly mean values of chla have decreased in many but not all months, indicating altered seasonal patterns. The most striking change has been the decrease in chla concentration during the spring bloom. 3. Mean chlorophyll a concentration was 17% higher in Lake Michigan than in Lake Huron, and total production for 2008 in Lake Michigan (9.5 tg year 1 ) was 10% greater than in Lake Huron (7.8 tg year 1 ), even though Lake Michigan is slightly smaller (by 3%) than Lake Huron. Differences between the lakes in the early 1970s evidently persisted to 2008. 4. Invasive mussels influenced temporal trends in spring chla and annual primary production. However, TP had a greater effect on chla and primary production than did the mussels, and TP varied independently from them. Two climatic variables (precipitation and air temperature in the basins) influenced annual chla and annual PP, while the extent of ice cover influenced TP but not chla or primary production. Our results demonstrate that observed temporal patterns in chla and PP are the result of complex interactions of P, climate and invasive mussels.

  2. Latent manganese deficiency in barley can be diagnosed and remediated on the basis of chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Schmidt, Sidsel Birkelund; Pedas, Pai; Laursen, Kristian Holst;

    2013-01-01

    Background and aims: Manganese (Mn) deficiency represents a major plant nutritional disorder in winter cereals. The deficiency frequently occurs latently and the lack of visual symptoms prevents timely remediation and cause significant yield reductions. These problems prompted us to investigate....... Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements constitute a powerful and valuable tool for diagnosis and remediation of latent Mn deficiency. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht....

  3. Ship-of-opportunity based phycocyanin fluorescence monitoring of the filamentous cyanobacteria bloom dynamics in the Baltic Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seppälä, J.; Ylöstalo, P.; Kaitala, S.; Hällfors, S.; Raateoja, M.; Maunula, P.

    2007-07-01

    Distribution of cyanobacteria cannot be evaluated using chlorophyll a (Chl a) in vivo fluorescence, as most of their Chl a is located in non-fluorescing photosystem I. Phycobilin fluorescence, in turn, is noted as a useful tool in the detection of cyanobacterial blooms. We applied phycocyanin (PC) fluorometer in the monitoring of the filamentous cyanobacterial bloom in the Baltic Sea. For the bloom forming filamentous cyanobacteria Aphanizomenon flos-aquae and Nodularia spumigena, PC fluorescence maximum was identified using the excitation-emission fluorescence matrix. Consequently, the optical setup of our instrument was noted to be appropriate for the detection of PC, and with minor or no interference from Chl a and phycoerythrin fluorescence, respectively. During summer 2005, the instrument was installed on a ferryboat commuting between Helsinki (Finland) and Travemünde (Germany), and data were collected during 32 transects providing altogether 200 000 fluorescence records. PC in vivo fluorescence was compared with Chl ain vivo fluorescence and turbidity measured simultaneously, and with Chl a concentration and biomass of the bloom forming filamentous cyanobacteria determined from discrete water samples. PC fluorescence showed a linear relation to the biomass of the bloom forming filamentous cyanobacteria, and the other sources of PC fluorescence are considered minor in the open Baltic Sea. Estimated by PC fluorescence, cyanobacterial bloom initiated late June at the Northern Baltic Proper, rapidly extended to the central Baltic Proper and the Gulf of Finland, and peaked in the mid-July with values up to 10 mg l -1 (fresh weight). In late July, bloom vanished in most areas. During single transects, or for the whole summer, the variability in Chl a concentrations was explained more by PC fluorescence than by Chl a fluorescence. Thus, filamentous cyanobacteria dominated the overall variability in phytoplankton biomass. Consequently, we show that during the

  4. Detection of potassium deficiency on palm oil tree (Elaeis guineensis (jacq)) by laser induced fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The potassium is the main nutrient element which plays a significant role on oil palm tree (Elaeis guineensis (jacq)) production and its resistance to the dry season. One can observe 30% decrease of the production in case of potassium deficiency. The potassium nutrition control of an oil palm tree field is a very important activity and leads to the fertilization policy. The Laser Induced Fluorescence (L.I.F.) is a fast and simple method compared to the classical one, ''Diagnostic Foliaire'', usually used in agronomy. We used the L.I.F. method to detect the oil palm tree stress caused by potassium deficiency, analysing the fluorescence spectrum of the chlorophyll a. We proved that the intensity ratio of the fluorescence spectrum R=F690/F73S is superior to 0.5 when the tree is under stress and its value is around 0.4 in case of intact tree. (author)

  5. Improved Accuracy of Chlorophyll-a Concentration Estimates from MODIS Imagery Using a Two-Band Ratio Algorithm and Geostatistics: As Applied to the Monitoring of Eutrophication Processes over Tien Yen Bay (Northern Vietnam

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nguyen Thi Thu Ha

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Sea eutrophication is a natural process of water enrichment caused by increased nutrient loading that severely affects coastal ecosystems by decreasing water quality. The degree of eutrophication can be assessed by chlorophyll-a concentration. This study aims to develop a remote sensing method suitable for estimating chlorophyll-a concentrations in tropical coastal waters with abundant phytoplankton using Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS/Terra imagery and to improve the spatial resolution of MODIS/Terra-based estimation from 1 km to 100 m by geostatistics. A model based on the ratio of green and blue band reflectance (rGBr is proposed considering the bio-optical property of chlorophyll-a. Tien Yen Bay in northern Vietnam, a typical phytoplankton-rich coastal area, was selected as a case study site. The superiority of rGBr over two existing representative models, based on the blue-green band ratio and the red-near infrared band ratio, was demonstrated by a high correlation of the estimated chlorophyll-a concentrations at 40 sites with values measured in situ. Ordinary kriging was then shown to be highly capable of predicting the concentration for regions of the image covered by clouds and, thus, without sea surface data. Resultant space-time maps of concentrations over a year clarified that Tien Yen Bay is characterized by natural eutrophic waters, because the average of chlorophyll-a concentrations exceeded 10 mg/m3 in the summer. The temporal changes of chlorophyll-a concentrations were consistent with average monthly air temperatures and precipitation. Consequently, a combination of rGBr and ordinary kriging can effectively monitor water quality in tropical shallow waters.

  6. Quality assessment of urban trees using growth visual and chlorophyll fluorescence indicators

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Uhrin Peter

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available Urbanised landscape represents composed structures of technical and biotic elements where social and economy activities create living space for human society but with strongly changed environment. To dominant characters belong climate changes with increased air temperature, drought and emission load, which has developed wide spectrum of stress factors influencing the urban vegetation. For the assessment of plant growth and adaptation response, we have used Sycamore maple (Acer pseudoplatanus L. as study model woody plant. In the framework of visual characters, we assessed the following indicators: (a assimilation organs (leaf necrosis; (b crown quality (degree of foliage and degree of dead tree crown; (c trunk and branch quality (mechanical damage, incidence of wood destroying fungus and trunk cavities and callus healing of trunk wounds. Each indicator was assessed in five-point scale, and in the end, the common index of quality was calculated. The quality index achieved 9.33 points in the first and 10.33 in the second evaluation periods in the Nitra city and 2.66 at the both assessed periods in the comparable rural park. In the group of physiological indicators, chlorophyll a fluorescence marker and its Fv/Fm parameter were used. Within three repeating assessment during growing season (June, August and September, the average values reached Fv/Fm = 0.814 in the city and Fv/Fm = 0.829 in rural park. The results confirmed statistical significances between loaded city conditions and relatively clean rural locality. Used markers have shown as appropriate tools for growth response measurements of street trees in a changed urban environment.

  7. Gut fluorescence analysis of barnacle larvae: An approach to quantify the ingested food

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaonkar, Chetan A.; Anil, Arga Chandrashekar

    2012-10-01

    Gut fluorescence analysis can provide a snapshot of ingested food and has been employed in feeding studies of various organisms. In this study we standardised the gut fluorescence method using laboratory-reared barnacle larvae (Balanus amphitrite) fed with mono-algal diet Chaetoceros calcitrans, a unicellular diatom at a cell concentration of 2 × 105 cells ml-1. The gut fluorescence of IV-VI instar nauplii was found to be 370(±12) ng chlorophyll a larva-1 and in faecal pellets it was 224(±63) ng chlorophyll a larva-1. A phaeopigment concentration in larval gut was found to be 311(±13) ng larva-1 and in faecal pellets it was 172(±61) ng larva-1. The study also analysed larval samples collected from the field during different seasons from a tropical environment influenced by monsoons (Dona Paula bay, Goa, west coast of India), with characteristic temporal variations in phytoplankton abundance and diversity. Gut fluorescence of larvae obtained during the post-monsoon season was consistently higher when compared to the pre-monsoon season, suggesting the predominance of autotrophic forms in the larval gut during the post-monsoon season. Whereas, the low gut fluorescence obtained during the pre-monsoon season indicated the ingestion of food sources other than autotrophs. Such differences observed in the feeding behaviour of larvae could be due to differential availability of food for the larvae during different seasons and indicate the capability of larvae to feed on wide range of food sources. This study shows the value of the fluorescence method in feeding studies of planktotrophic organisms and in the evaluation of ecosystem dynamics.

  8. Fundamentals of fluorescence and fluorescence microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wolf, David E

    2013-01-01

    This chapter discusses the fundamental physics of fluorescence. The application of fluorescence to microscopy represents an important transition in the development of microscopy, particularly as it applies to biology. It enables quantitating the amounts of specific molecules within a cell, determining whether molecules are complexing on a molecular level, measuring changes in ionic concentrations within cells and organelles, and measuring molecular dynamics. This chapter also discusses the issues important to quantitative measurement of fluorescence and focuses on four of quantitative measurements of fluorescence--boxcar-gated detection, streak cameras, photon correlation, and phase modulation. Although quantitative measurement presents many pitfalls to the beginner, it also presents significant opportunities to one skilled in the art. This chapter also examines how fluorescence is measured in the steady state and time domain and how fluorescence is applied in the modern epifluorescence microscope. PMID:23931503

  9. Characterisation of estuarine intertidal macroalgae by laser-induced fluorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gameiro, Carla; Utkin, Andrei B.; Cartaxana, Paulo

    2015-12-01

    The article reports the application of laser-induced fluorescence (LIF) for the assessment of macroalgae communities of estuarine intertidal areas. The method was applied for the characterisation of fifteen intertidal macroalgae species of the Tagus estuary, Portugal, and adjacent coastal area. Three bands characterised the LIF spectra of red macroalgae with emission maxima in the ranges 577-583 nm, 621-642 nm and 705-731 nm. Green and brown macroalgae showed one emission maximum in the red region (687-690 nm) and/or one in the far-red region (726-732 nm). Characteristics of LIF emission spectra were determined by differences in the main fluorescing pigments: phycoerythrin, phycocyanin and chlorophyll a (Chl a). In the green and brown macroalgae groups, the relative significance of the two emission maxima seems to be related to the thickness of the photosynthetic layer. In thick macroalgae, like Codium tomentosum or Fucus vesiculosus, the contribution of the far-red emission fluorescence peak was more significant, most probably due to re-absorption of the emitted red Chl a fluorescence within the dense photosynthetic layer. Similarly, an increase in the number of layers of the thin-blade green macroalgae Ulva rigida caused a shift to longer wavelengths of the red emission maximum and the development of a fluorescence peak at the far-red region. Water loss from Ulva's algal tissue also led to a decrease in the red/far-red Chl fluorescence ratio (F685/F735), indicating an increase in the density of chloroplasts in the shrinking macroalgal tissue during low tide exposure.

  10. Determining Photosynthetic Parameters from Leaf CO2 Exchange and Chlorophyll Fluorescence (Ribulose-1,5-Bisphosphate Carboxylase/Oxygenase Specificity Factor, Dark Respiration in the Light, Excitation Distribution between Photosystems, Alternative Electron Transport Rate, and Mesophyll Diffusion Resistance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laisk, A.; Loreto, F.

    1996-03-01

    Using simultaneous measurements of leaf gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence, we determined the excitation partitioning to photosystem II (PSII), the CO2/O2 specificity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase, the dark respiration in the light, and the alternative electron transport rate to acceptors other than bisphosphoglycerate, and the transport resistance for CO2 in the mesophyll cells for individual leaves of herbaceous and tree species. The specificity of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase for CO2 was determined from the slope of the O2 dependence of the CO2 compensation point between 1.5 and 21% O2. Its value, on the basis of dissolved CO2 and O2 concentrations at 25.5[deg]C, varied between 86 and 89. Dark respiration in the light, estimated from the difference between the CO2 compensation point and the CO2 photocompensation point, was about 20 to 50% of the respiration rate in the dark. The excitation distribution to PSII was estimated from the extrapolation of the dependence of the PSII quantum yield on F/Fm to F = 0, where F is steady-state and Fm is pulse-satuarated fluorescence, and varied between 0.45 and 0.6. The alternative electron transport rate was found as the difference between the electron transport rates calculated from fluorescence and from gas exchange, and at low CO2 concentrations and 10 to 21% O2, it was 25 to 30% of the maximum electron transport. The calculated mesophyll diffusion resistance accounted for about 20 to 30% of the total mesophyll resistance, which also includes carboxylation resistance. Whole-leaf photosynthesis is limited by gas phase, mesophyll diffusion, and carboxylation resistances in nearly the same proportion in both herbaceous species and trees. PMID:12226229

  11. Long-term investigations of summertime chlorophyll a, particulate organic carbon and continuously observations of vertical particle flux in Fram Strait and the central Arctic Ocean

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nöthig, Eva-Maria; Bauerfeind, Eduard; Bracher, Astrid; Cherkasheva, Alexandra; Fahl, Kirsten; Lalande, Catherine; Metfies, Katja; Peeken, Ilka; Salter, Ian; Boetius, Antje; Soltwedel, Thomas

    2016-04-01

    The Arctic Ocean is one of the key regions where the effect of climate change is most pronounced due to massive reduction of sea ice volume and extent. Most of the sea ice is transported out of the Arctic Ocean with the cold East Greenland Current (EGC) in the western Fram Strait, while warm Atlantic water enters the Arctic Ocean with the West Spitsbergen Current (WSC) in the eastern Fram Strait. In this scenario we conducted several cruises to Fram Strait and the central Arctic Ocean (CAO) between 1991 and 2015 to monitor phytoplankton biomass, particulate organic carbon standing stocks during summer at discrete depth using water bottle samples, and the sedimentation of organic matter by means of moored sediment traps throughout the year. With our study we aim at tracing effects of environmental changes in the pelagic system and impacts on the fate of organic matter produced in the upper water column in a region that is anticipated to react rapidly to climate change. We will present data sets of phytoplankton biomass (chlorophyll a) and particulate organic carbon (POC) from the upper 100 m of the water column as well as results from vertical particle flux measurements with yearly deployed sediment traps at the LTER (Long-Term Ecological Research) observatory HAUSGARTEN in eastern Fram Strait (79°/4°E) between 2000 and 2012 and from two locations in the CAO close to the Lomonosov Ridge (1995/96) and the Gakkel Ridge (2011/12). Analyses of the material collected by the sediment traps allowed us to track seasonal and inter-annual changes in the upper water column at HAUSGARTEN and in the CAO. Whereas chlorophyll a (integrated values 0 -100 m) showed only a slight increase in eastern Fram Strait, it stayed more or less constant in the CAO and western Fram Strait, with the exception of 2015 exhibiting less biomass during late summer in the CAO. Highest biomass was found in the eastern Fram Strait and lowest in the heavily ice-covered regions. POC distribution

  12. The Evaluation for Alterations of DOM Components from Upstream to Downstream Flow of Rivers in Toyama (Japan Using Three-Dimensional Excitation-Emission Matrix Fluorescence Spectroscopy

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hideki Kuramitz

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available The dissolved organic matter (DOM is one of the important factors for controlling water quality. The behavior and constitutions of DOM is related to the risk of human health because it is able to directly or indirectly affect the behavior, speciation and toxicity of various environmental pollutants. However, it is not easy to know the contents of DOM components without using various complicated and time consuming analytical methods because DOM is a complex mixture and usually exists at low concentration. Here, we describe the fluorescence properties of DOM components in water samples collected from four rivers in Toyama, Japan by means of the three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix (3DEEM fluorescence spectroscopy. In order to evaluate the alterations of DOM components in each of the river during the flow from upstream to downstream, the patterns of relative fluorescence intensity (RFI at six peaks which are originated from fluorophores including humic-like and protein-like components were investigated. The changes in the patterns of RFI values at each of the peak and the concentration of dissolved organic carbon (DOC for each river water sample were discussed in connection with the differences of land use managements and basic water quality parameters, such as pH, EC, turbidity, Fe3+, T-N, NO3-N, T-P, PO4-P, chlorophyll a, DOC and N/P ratio. The DOC concentrations in the water samples collected from these rivers were relatively low (0.63–1.16 mg/L. Two main peaks which have a strong RFI value expressed a positive correlation with the DOC concentration (r = 0.557, 0.535. However, the correlations between the RFI values for other four peaks and the DOC concentration were below 0.287. The alterations of DOM components during the flow of a river from upstream to downstream were investigated from the changes in the patterns of RFI values for six fluorescent peaks. It was clarified that the great increase of RFI values in peak A and peak T

  13. Separate introns gained within short and long soluble peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein genes during radiation of Symbiodinium (Dinophyceae) clade A and B lineages - PLoS One

    Science.gov (United States)

    Here we document introns in two Symbiodinium clades that were most likely gained following divergence of this genus from other peridinin-containing dinoflagellate lineages. Soluble peridinin-chlorophyll a-proteins (sPCP) occur in short and long forms in different species, and all...

  14. Method 447.0 - Determination of Chlorophylls a and b and Identification of Other Pigments of Interest in Marine and Freshwater Algae Using High Performance Liquid Chromatography with Visible Wavelength Detection

    Science.gov (United States)

    This method provides a procedure for determination of chlorophylls a (chl a) and b (chl b) found in marine and freshwater phytoplankton. Reversed phase high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with detection at 440 nm is used to separate the pigments from a complex pigment ...

  15. Spatio-temporal variability of phytoplankton (Chlorophyll-a) in relation to salinity, suspended sediment concentration, and light intensity in a macrotidal estuary

    Science.gov (United States)

    Azhikodan, Gubash; Yokoyama, Katsuhide

    2016-09-01

    The influences of environmental gradients on the spatio-temporal variability of phytoplankton (Chlorophyll-a) in the macrotidal Chikugo River Estuary were studied during a two-week period of September 2010. Vertical profiles of salinity, turbidity, and light intensity were measured at 18 stations separated by a 1-km interval. Water samples for the determination of suspended sediment concentration (SSC), concentration of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and Pheophytin-a (Pheo-a) were collected from the surface layer at all stations. The estuarine water column was vertically well mixed with high SSC (100-2000 mg L-1) during spring tide and the photic depth (zp) was less than 0.2 m. The mixing depth (zm) was more than 10 times the photic depth for the major part of the estuary. The estuary gradually changed to partially mixed with decrease in SSC (≤400 mg L-1) during the intermediate tide. The estuary became stratified with low SSC (20-50 mg L-1) during neap tide and the zp reached 4 m. The zm was less than 0.5 times the zp for the whole estuary. Light attenuation was dominated by SSC and the zp varied according to semidiurnal and semilunar tidal cycle. The zp: zm ratio did not show any relationship with Chl-a in the Chikugo river estuary. This is because the Chl-a concentration reached maximum two to three days after the neap tide. The peak concentration of Chl-a was located near the low salinity region and that of Pheo-a was located in the Estuarine Turbidity Maximum (ETM) zone. The Pheo-a concentration reached maximum during the spring tide. A good relation between zp: zm ratio and Pheo-a indicates that the increase in Pheo-a was caused by the light limitation due to suspended sediment and the responses of the Pheo-a on the light condition was instantaneous. These phenomena were remarkably found in the interface between freshwater and saltwater. Light availability driven by mixing and ETM process during semidiurnal and semilunar tidal cycle is the controlling factor of the

  16. Intra- and interspecific differences of 10 barley and 10 tomato cultivars in response to short-time UV-B radiation: A study analysing thermoluminescence, fluorescence, gas-exchange and biochemical parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The impact of UV-B radiation on 10 genotypically different barley and tomato cultivars was tested in a predictive study to screen for potentially UV-tolerant accessions and to analyze underlying mechanisms for UV-B sensitivity. Plant response was analyzed by measuring thermoluminescence, fluorescence, gas exchange and antioxidant status. Generally, barley cultivars proved to be much more sensitive against UV-B radiation than tomato cultivars. Statistical cluster analysis could resolve two barley groups with distinct differences in reaction patterns. The UV-B sensitive group showed a stronger loss in PSII photochemistry and a lower gas-exchange performance and regulation after UV-B radiation compared to the more tolerant group. The results indicate that photosynthetic light and dark reactions have to play optimally in concert to render plants more tolerant against UV-B radiation. Hence, measuring thermoluminescence/fluorescence and gas exchange in parallel will have much higher potential in identifying tolerant cultivars and will help to understand the underlying mechanisms. - Mechanisms of UV-B tolerance and sensitivity in crop plants.

  17. Principles of fluorescence techniques

    CERN Document Server

    2016-01-01

    Fluorescence techniques are being used and applied increasingly in academics and industry. The Principles of Fluorescence Techniques course will outline the basic concepts of fluorescence techniques and the successful utilization of the currently available commercial instrumentation. The course is designed for students who utilize fluorescence techniques and instrumentation and for researchers and industrial scientists who wish to deepen their knowledge of fluorescence applications. Key scientists in the field will deliver theoretical lectures. The lectures will be complemented by the direct utilization of steady-state and lifetime fluorescence instrumentation and confocal microscopy for FLIM and FRET applications provided by leading companies.

  18. Reviews in fluorescence 2010

    CERN Document Server

    Geddes, Chris D

    2011-01-01

    ""Reviews in Fluorescence 2010"", the seventh volume of the book serial from Springer, serves as a comprehensive collection of current trends and emerging hot topics in the field of fluorescence and closely related disciplines. It summarizes the year's progress in fluorescence and its applications, with authoritative analytical reviews specialized enough to be attractive to professional researchers, yet also appealing to the wider audience of scientists in related disciplines of fluorescence. ""Reviews in Fluorescence"" offers an essential reference material for any lab working in the fluoresc

  19. Holograms preparation using commercial fluorescent benzyl

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorantes-GarcIa, V; Olivares-Perez, A; Ordonez-Padilla, M J; Mejias-Brizuela, N Y, E-mail: valdoga@Hotmail.com, E-mail: olivares@inaoep.mx [Instituto Nacional de Astrofisica, Optica y Electronica (INAOE), Coordinacion de Optica, Calle Luis Enrique Erro N0 1, Santa Maria Tonantzintla, Puebla (Mexico)

    2011-01-01

    We have been able to make holograms with substances such as fluorescence thought of light blue laser to make transmissions holograms, using ammonium dichromate as photo-sensitizer and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as matrix. Ammonium dichromate inhibit the fluorescence properties of inks, both mixed in a (PVA) matrix, but we avoid this chemical reaction and we show the results to use the method of painting hologram with fluorescents ink and we describe how the diffraction efficiency parameter changes as a function of the ink absorbed by the emulsion recorded with the gratings, we got good results, making holographic gratings with a blue light from laser diode 470 nm. And we later were painting with fluorescent ink, integrating fluorescence characteristics to the hologram.

  20. Holograms preparation using commercial fluorescent benzyl

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have been able to make holograms with substances such as fluorescence thought of light blue laser to make transmissions holograms, using ammonium dichromate as photo-sensitizer and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) as matrix. Ammonium dichromate inhibit the fluorescence properties of inks, both mixed in a (PVA) matrix, but we avoid this chemical reaction and we show the results to use the method of painting hologram with fluorescents ink and we describe how the diffraction efficiency parameter changes as a function of the ink absorbed by the emulsion recorded with the gratings, we got good results, making holographic gratings with a blue light from laser diode 470 nm. And we later were painting with fluorescent ink, integrating fluorescence characteristics to the hologram.

  1. Optical Reflectance and Fluorescence for Detecting Nitrogen Needs in Zea mays L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McMurtrey, J. E.; Middleton, E. M.; Corp. L. A.; Campbell, P. K. Entcheva; Butcher, L. M.; Daughtry, C. S. T.

    2003-01-01

    Nitrogen (N) status in field grown corn (Zea mays L.) was assessed using spectral techniques. Passive reflectance remote sensing and, both passive and active fluorescence sensing methods were investigated. Reflectance and fluorescence methods are reported to detect changes in the primary plant pigments (chlorophylls a and b; carotenoids) in higher plant species. As a general rule, foliar chlorophyll a (Chl a) and chlorophyll b (Chl b) usually exist in approx.3:l ratio. In plants under stress, Chl b content is affected before Chl a reductions occur. For reflectance, a version of the chlorophyll absorption in reflectance index (CARI) method was tested with narrow bands from the Airborne Imaging Spectroradiometer for Applications (ASIA). CARI minimizes the effects of soil background on the signal from green canopies. A modified CARI (MCARI) was used to track total Chl a levels in the red dip of the spectrum from the corn canopy. A second MCARI was used to track the auxiliary plant pigments (Chl b and the carotenoids) in the yellow/orange/red edge part of the reflectance spectrum. The difference between these two MCARI indices detected variations in N levels across the field plot canopies using ASIA data. At the leaf level, ratios of fluorescence emissions in the blue, green, red and far-red wavelengths sensed responses that were associated with the plant pigments, and were indicative of energy transfer in the photosynthetic process. N stressed corn stands could be distinguish from those with optimally applied N with fluorescence emission spectra obtained from individual corn leaves. Both reflectance and fluorescence methods are sensitive in detecting corn N needs and may be especially powerful in monitoring crop conditions if both types of information can be combined.

  2. Colloidal nanocrystal ZnO- and TiO2-modified electrodes sensitized with chlorophyll a and carotenoids: a photoelectrochemical study

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Heterostructures formed of films of organic-capped ZnO and TiO2 nanocrystals (both with the size of ca. 6 nm) and photosynthetic pigments were prepared and characterized. The surface of optically transparent electrodes (Indium Tin Oxide) was modified with nanocrystals and prepared by colloidal synthetic routes. The nanostructured electrodes were sensitized by a mixture of chlorophyll a and carotenoids. The characterization of the hybrid structures, carried out by means of steady-state optical measurements, demonstrated such class of dyes able to extend the photoresponse of the large band-gap semiconductors. The charge-transfer processes between the components of the heterojunction were investigated, and photoelectrochemical measurements taken on the sensitized ZnO and TiO2 nanocrystals electrodes elucidated the photoactivity of the heterojunctions as a function of the dyes and of the red–ox mediator used in solution. The effect of methyl viologen as different red–ox mediator was also evaluated in order to show its effect on the heterojunction photoactivity. The overall results contributed to describe the photoelectrochemical potential of the investigated heterojunctions, highlighting a higher response of the dye-sensitized ZnO nanocrystals, and then provided the TiO2-modified counterparts.

  3. Spatial-Temporal Variations of Chlorophyll-a in the Adjacent Sea Area of the Yangtze River Estuary Influenced by Yangtze River Discharge

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ying Wang

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Carrying abundant nutrition, terrigenous freshwater has a great impact on the spatial and temporal heterogeneity of phytoplankton in coastal waters. The present study analyzed the spatial-temporal variations of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a concentration under the influence of discharge from the Yangtze River, based on remotely sensed Chl-a concentrations. The study area was initially zoned to quantitatively investigate the spatial variation patterns of Chl-a. Then, the temporal variation of Chl-a in each zone was simulated by a sinusoidal curve model. The results showed that in the inshore waters, the terrigenous discharge was the predominant driving force determining the pattern of Chl-a, which brings the risk of red tide disasters; while in the open sea areas, Chl-a was mainly affected by meteorological factors. Furthermore, a diversity of spatial and temporal variations of Chl-a existed based on the degree of influences from discharge. The diluted water extended from inshore to the east of Jeju Island. This process affected the Chl-a concentration flowing through the area, and had a potential impact on the marine environment. The Chl-a from September to November showed an obvious response to the discharge from July to September with a lag of 1 to 2 months.

  4. Water quality of the tidal Potomac River and Estuary; hydrologic data report, 1981 water year, with a section on collection and analysis of chlorophyll-a

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blanchard, Stephen F.; Coupe, Richard H.; Woodward, Joan C.

    1982-01-01

    This report contains data on the physical and chemical properties measured in the Tidal Potomac River and Estuary during the 1981 water year. Data were collected at least weekly at five stations, and periodically at 15 stations and at two other stations near the mouth of the Potomac River in Chesapeake Bay. Each of the five stations represent a cross section at which the transport of selected dissolved and suspended materials can be computed. The remaining 17 stations are locations at which data were collected for special studies of selected phenomena, such as salt water migration and dissolved oxygen dynamics. Samples were routinely analyzed for chlorophyll-a, nitrogen, pheophytin, phosphorus, silica and suspended sediment. Additional samples were analyzed for adenosine triphosphate, algal growth potential, alkalinity, calcium, chloride, dissolved-solids residue, fluoride, iron, manganese, magnesium, nitrifying bacteria, organic carbon, potassium, seston, sodium, and sulfate. In addition, in-situ measurements of dissolved oxygen, specific conductance, pH, temperature, solar radiation, and secchi disk transparency were made. (USGS)

  5. Monitoring the effect of upwelling on the chlorophyll a distribution in the Gulf of Finland (Baltic Sea using remote sensing and in situ data

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Laura Raag

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The spatio-temporal variability of chlorophyl a (Chl a caused by a sequence of upwelling events in the Gulf of Finland in July-August 2006 was studied using remote sensing data and field measurements. Spatial distributions of sea surface temperature (SST and Chl a concentration were examined using MODIS and MERIS data respectively. The MERIS data were processed with an algorithm developed by the Free University of Berlin (FUB for case 2 waters. Evaluation of MERIS Chl a versus in situ Chl a showed good correlation (r2 = 0.67, but the concentration was underestimated. The linear regression for a 2 h window was applied to calibrate MERIS Chl a. The spatio-temporal variability exhibited the clear influence of upwelling events and related filaments on Chl a distribution in the western and central Gulf. The lowest Chl a concentrations were recorded in the upwelled water, especially at the upwelling centres, and the highest concentrations (13 mg m-3 were observed about two weeks after the upwelling peak along the northern coast. The areas along the northern coast of upwelled water (4879 km2 on the SST map, and increased Chl a (5526 km2 two weeks later, were roughly coincident. The effect of upwelling events was weak in the eastern part of the Gulf, where Chl a concentration was relatively consistent throughout this period.

  6. Photoinduced Charge and Energy Transfer within meta- and para-Linked Chlorophyll a-Perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) Donor-Acceptor Dyads.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Guan-Jhih; Harris, Michelle A; Krzyaniak, Matthew D; Margulies, Eric A; Dyar, Scott M; Lindquist, Rebecca J; Wu, Yilei; Roznyatovskiy, Vladimir V; Wu, Yi-Lin; Young, Ryan M; Wasielewski, Michael R

    2016-02-01

    Connecting electron donors and acceptors to a benzene ring in a meta or para relationship results in quantum interference effects that can strongly influence charge separation (CS) and charge recombination (CR) processes in these systems. We report on the energy and electron transfer behavior of chlorophyll-based para- and meta-linked donor-bridge-acceptor (D-B-A) dyads, where the semisynthetic chlorophyll a derivative, zinc methyl 3-ethyl-pyrochlorophyllide a (D), is covalently attached at its 20-position to the para position of one phenyl of diphenylacetylene (B). The meta or para position of the phenyl in B distal to the donor is in turn attached to perylene-3,4:9,10-bis(dicarboximide) (PDI) (A). Photoexcitation of the D-B-A dyads produces long-lived radical ion pairs D(•+)-B-A(•-), which recombine to the ground state and to both (3*)D-B-A and D-B-(3*)A. Time-resolved optical and electron paramagnetic resonance spectroscopies were used to monitor the charge transfer and triplet energy transfer (TEnT) processes. At longer times, TEnT occurs from (3*)D-B-A to D-B-(3*)A. Surprisingly, the D-B-A molecules linked via the meta linkage exhibit faster CS, CR, and TEnT rates than do those with the para linkage in contrast to most other meta/para-linked D-B-A molecules previously examined. PMID:26731377

  7. Fluorescent optical position sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weiss, Jonathan D.

    2005-11-15

    A fluorescent optical position sensor and method of operation. A small excitation source side-pumps a localized region of fluorescence at an unknown position along a fluorescent waveguide. As the fluorescent light travels down the waveguide, the intensity of fluorescent light decreases due to absorption. By measuring with one (or two) photodetectors the attenuated intensity of fluorescent light emitted from one (or both) ends of the waveguide, the position of the excitation source relative to the waveguide can be determined by comparing the measured light intensity to a calibrated response curve or mathematical model. Alternatively, excitation light can be pumped into an end of the waveguide, which generates an exponentially-decaying continuous source of fluorescent light along the length of the waveguide. The position of a photodetector oriented to view the side of the waveguide can be uniquely determined by measuring the intensity of the fluorescent light emitted radially at that location.

  8. Fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M.A. Hink

    2015-01-01

    Fluorescence fluctuation spectroscopy techniques allow the quantification of fluorescent molecules present at the nanomolar concentration level. After a brief introduction to the technique, this chapter presents a protocol including background information in order to measure and quantify the molecul

  9. Fluorescent fingerprints of endolithic phototrophic cyanobacteria living within halite rocks in the Atacama Desert.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roldán, M; Ascaso, C; Wierzchos, J

    2014-05-01

    Halite deposits from the hyperarid zone of the Atacama Desert reveal the presence of endolithic microbial colonization dominated by cyanobacteria associated with heterotrophic bacteria and archaea. Using the λ-scan confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) option, this study examines the autofluorescence emission spectra produced by single cyanobacterial cells found inside halite rocks and by their photosynthetic pigments. Photosynthetic pigments could be identified according to the shapes of the emission spectra and wavelengths of fluorescence peaks. According to their fluorescence fingerprints, three groups of cyanobacterial cells were identified within this natural extreme microhabitat: (i) cells producing a single fluorescence peak corresponding to the emission range of phycobiliproteins and chlorophyll a, (ii) cells producing two fluorescence peaks within the red and green signal ranges, and (iii) cells emitting only low-intensity fluorescence within the nonspecific green fluorescence signal range. Photosynthetic pigment fingerprints emerged as indicators of the preservation state or viability of the cells. These observations were supported by a cell plasma membrane integrity test based on Sytox Green DNA staining and by transmission electron microscopy ultrastructural observations of cyanobacterial cells. PMID:24610843

  10. Fluorescent Fingerprints of Endolithic Phototrophic Cyanobacteria Living within Halite Rocks in the Atacama Desert

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ascaso, C.; Wierzchos, J.

    2014-01-01

    Halite deposits from the hyperarid zone of the Atacama Desert reveal the presence of endolithic microbial colonization dominated by cyanobacteria associated with heterotrophic bacteria and archaea. Using the λ-scan confocal laser scanning microscopy (CLSM) option, this study examines the autofluorescence emission spectra produced by single cyanobacterial cells found inside halite rocks and by their photosynthetic pigments. Photosynthetic pigments could be identified according to the shapes of the emission spectra and wavelengths of fluorescence peaks. According to their fluorescence fingerprints, three groups of cyanobacterial cells were identified within this natural extreme microhabitat: (i) cells producing a single fluorescence peak corresponding to the emission range of phycobiliproteins and chlorophyll a, (ii) cells producing two fluorescence peaks within the red and green signal ranges, and (iii) cells emitting only low-intensity fluorescence within the nonspecific green fluorescence signal range. Photosynthetic pigment fingerprints emerged as indicators of the preservation state or viability of the cells. These observations were supported by a cell plasma membrane integrity test based on Sytox Green DNA staining and by transmission electron microscopy ultrastructural observations of cyanobacterial cells. PMID:24610843

  11. Applications of MODIS Fluorescent Line Height Measurements to Monitor Water Quality Trends and Algal Bloom Activity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fischer, Andrew; Moreno-Mardinan, Max; Ryan, John P.

    2012-01-01

    Recent advances in satellite and airborne remote sensing, such as improvements in sensor and algorithm calibrations, processing techniques and atmospheric correction procedures have provided for increased coverage of remote-sensing, ocean-color products for coastal regions. In particular, for the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer (MODIS) sensor calibration updates, improved aerosol retrievals and new aerosol models has led to improved atmospheric correction algorithms for turbid waters and have improved the retrieval of ocean color in coastal waters. This has opened the way for studying ocean phenomena and processes at finer spatial scales, such as the interactions at the land-sea interface, trends in coastal water quality and algal blooms. Human population growth and changes in coastal management practices have brought about significant changes in the concentrations of organic and inorganic, particulate and dissolved substances entering the coastal ocean. There is increasing concern that these inputs have led to declines in water quality and have increase local concentrations of phytoplankton, which cause harmful algal blooms. In two case studies we present MODIS observations of fluorescence line height (FLH) to 1) assess trends in water quality for Tampa Bay, Florida and 2) illustrate seasonal and annual variability of algal bloom activity in Monterey Bay, California as well as document estuarine/riverine plume induced red tide events. In a comprehensive analysis of long term (2003-2011) in situ monitoring data and satellite imagery from Tampa Bay we assess the validity of the MODIS FLH product against chlorophyll-a and a suite of water quality parameters taken in a variety of conditions throughout a large optically complex estuarine system. A systematic analysis of sampling sites throughout the bay is undertaken to understand how the relationship between FLH and in situ chlorophyll-a responds to varying conditions and to develop a near decadal trend in

  12. Seasonal changes of selected parameters of CO{sub 2} fixation biochemistry of Norway spruce under the long-term impact of elevated CO{sub 2}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Urban, O.; Marek, M.V. [Academy of Sciences of the Czech Republic, Brno (Czech Republic). Inst. of Landscape Ecology

    1999-07-01

    Twelve-year-old Norway spruce (Picea abies (L) Karat.) trees were exposed to ambient (AC) or elevated (EC) (ambient + 350{mu}mol(CO{sub 2}) mol{sup -1})CO{sub 2} concentrations: in open-top-chamber (OTC) experiment under the field conditions of a mountain stand. Short-term (4 weeks, beginning of the vegetation season) and longterm (4 growing seasons, end of the vegetation season) effects of this treatment on biochemical parameters of CO{sub 2} assimilation were evaluated. A combination of gas exchange, fluorescence of chlorophyll a, and application of a mathematical model of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase/oxygenase (RuBPCO) activity was used. The analysis showed that the depression of photosynthetic activity by long-term impact of elevated CO{sub 2} was mainly caused by decreased RuBPCO carboxylation rate. The electron transport rate as well as the rate of ribulose-1, 5-bisphosphate (RuBP) formation were also modified. These modifications to photosynthetic assimilation depended on time during the growing season. Changes in the spring were caused mainly by local deficiency of nitrogen in the assimilating tissue. However, the strong depression of assimilation observed in the autumn months was the result of insufficient carbon sink capacity.

  13. On the absolute value of the air-fluorescence yield

    OpenAIRE

    Rosado Vélez, Jaime; Blanco Ramos, Francisco; Arqueros Martínez, Fernando

    2014-01-01

    The absolute value of the air-fluorescence yield is a key parameter for the energy reconstruction of extensive air showers registered by fluorescence telescopes. In previous publications, we reported a detailed Monte Carlo simulation of the air-fluorescence generation that allowed the theoretical evaluation of this parameter. This simulation has been upgraded in the present work. As a result, we determined an updated absolute value of the fluorescence yield of 7.9 +/- 2.0 ph/MeV for the band ...

  14. Using combined measurements of gas exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence to estimate parameters of a biochemical C3 photosynthesis model: a critical appraisal and a new integrated approach applied to leaves in a wheat (Triticum aestivum) canopy

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yin, X.; Struik, P.C.; Romero, P.; Harbinson, J.; Evers, J.B.; Putten, van der P.E.L.; Vos, J.

    2009-01-01

    We appraised the literature and described an approach to estimate the parameters of the Farquhar, von Caemmerer and Berry model using measured CO2 assimilation rate (A) and photosystem II (PSII) electron transport efficiency (F2). The approach uses curve fitting to data of A and F2 at various levels

  15. Predicting Water Quality by Relating Secchi-Disk Transparency and Chlorophyll a Measurements to Landsat Satellite Imagery for Michigan Inland Lakes, 2001-2006

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuller, L.M.; Minnerick, R.J.

    2007-01-01

    The State of Michigan has more than 11,000 inland lakes; approximately 3,500 of these lakes are greater than 25 acres. The USGS, in cooperation with the Michigan Department of Environmental Quality (MDEQ), has been monitoring the quality of inland lakes in Michigan through the Lake Water Quality Assessment monitoring program. Approximately 100 inland lakes will be sampled per year from 2001 to 2015. Volunteers coordinated by MDEQ started sampling lakes in 1974, and continue to sample to date approximately 250 inland lakes each year through the Cooperative Lakes Monitoring Program (CLMP), Michigan's volunteer lakes monitoring program. Despite this sampling effort, it is still impossible to physically collect the necessary water-quality measurements for all 3,500 Michigan inland lakes. Therefore, a technique was used by USGS, modeled after Olmanson and others (2001), in cooperation with MDEQ that uses satellite remote sensing to predict water quality in unsampled inland lakes greater than 25 acres. Water-quality characteristics that are associated with water clarity can be predicted for Michigan inland lakes by relating sampled measurements of secchi-disk transparency (SDT) and chlorophyll a concentrations (Chl-a), to satellite imagery. The trophic state index (TSI) which is an indicator of the biological productivity can be calculated based on SDT measurements, Chl-a concentrations, and total phosphorus (TP) concentrations measured near the lake's surface. Through this process, unsampled inland lakes within the fourteen Landsat satellite scenes encompassing Michigan can be translated into estimated TSI from either predicted SDT or Chl-a (fig. 1).

  16. Summer Monsoon Impacts on Chlorophyll-a Concentration in the Middle of the South China Sea: Climatological Mean and Annual Variability

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Yuan-Jian; XIAN Tao; SUN Liang; FU Yun-Fei

    2012-01-01

    Climatological mean and annual variations of Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) distribution, sea surface wind (SSW), and sea surface temperature (SST) from 1998 to 2008 were analyzed in the middle of the South China Sea (SCS), focusing on the typical region off the east coast of Vietnam (8.5-14°N, 109.5-114°E). Based on remote sensing data and SCS summer monsoon index (SCSSMI) data, high Chl-a concentrations in the middle of the SCS in the southwest summer monsoon season (June-September) may be related to strong Ekman pumping and strong wind stress. The maximum of the monthly averaged cli- matological Chl-a in the summer appeared in August. According to the annual variation, there was a significant negative correlation (r = -0.42) between the SCSSMI and SST, a strongly positive correlation (r=0.61) between the SCSSMI and Chl-a, and a strongly negative correlation (r = -0.74) between the SST and Chl-a in the typical region off the east coast of Vietnam during 1998-2008. Due to the E1 Nifio event specifically, the phenomena of a low Chl-a concentration, high SST and weak SCSSMI were extremely predominant in the summer of 1998. These relationships imply that the SCSSMI associated with the SST could be used to predict the annual variability of summer Chl-a in the SCS.

  17. Comparing springtime ice-algal chlorophyll a and physical properties of multi-year and first-year sea ice from the Lincoln Sea.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Benjamin A Lange

    Full Text Available With near-complete replacement of Arctic multi-year ice (MYI by first-year ice (FYI predicted to occur within this century, it remains uncertain how the loss of MYI will impact the abundance and distribution of sea ice associated algae. In this study we compare the chlorophyll a (chl a concentrations and physical properties of MYI and FYI from the Lincoln Sea during 3 spring seasons (2010-2012. Cores were analysed for texture, salinity, and chl a. We identified annual growth layers for 7 of 11 MYI cores and found no significant differences in chl a concentration between the bottom first-year-ice portions of MYI, upper old-ice portions of MYI, and FYI cores. Overall, the maximum chl a concentrations were observed at the bottom of young FYI. However, there were no significant differences in chl a concentrations between MYI and FYI. This suggests little or no change in algal biomass with a shift from MYI to FYI and that the spatial extent and regional variability of refrozen leads and younger FYI will likely be key factors governing future changes in Arctic sea ice algal biomass. Bottom-integrated chl a concentrations showed negative logistic relationships with snow depth and bulk (snow plus ice integrated extinction coefficients; indicating a strong influence of snow cover in controlling bottom ice algal biomass. The maximum bottom MYI chl a concentration was observed in a hummock, representing the thickest ice with lowest snow depth of this study. Hence, in this and other studies MYI chl a biomass may be under-estimated due to an under-representation of thick MYI (e.g., hummocks, which typically have a relatively thin snowpack allowing for increased light transmission. Therefore, we suggest the on-going loss of MYI in the Arctic Ocean may have a larger impact on ice-associated production than generally assumed.

  18. Comparing springtime ice-algal chlorophyll a and physical properties of multi-year and first-year sea ice from the Lincoln Sea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lange, Benjamin A; Michel, Christine; Beckers, Justin F; Casey, J Alec; Flores, Hauke; Hatam, Ido; Meisterhans, Guillaume; Niemi, Andrea; Haas, Christian

    2015-01-01

    With near-complete replacement of Arctic multi-year ice (MYI) by first-year ice (FYI) predicted to occur within this century, it remains uncertain how the loss of MYI will impact the abundance and distribution of sea ice associated algae. In this study we compare the chlorophyll a (chl a) concentrations and physical properties of MYI and FYI from the Lincoln Sea during 3 spring seasons (2010-2012). Cores were analysed for texture, salinity, and chl a. We identified annual growth layers for 7 of 11 MYI cores and found no significant differences in chl a concentration between the bottom first-year-ice portions of MYI, upper old-ice portions of MYI, and FYI cores. Overall, the maximum chl a concentrations were observed at the bottom of young FYI. However, there were no significant differences in chl a concentrations between MYI and FYI. This suggests little or no change in algal biomass with a shift from MYI to FYI and that the spatial extent and regional variability of refrozen leads and younger FYI will likely be key factors governing future changes in Arctic sea ice algal biomass. Bottom-integrated chl a concentrations showed negative logistic relationships with snow depth and bulk (snow plus ice) integrated extinction coefficients; indicating a strong influence of snow cover in controlling bottom ice algal biomass. The maximum bottom MYI chl a concentration was observed in a hummock, representing the thickest ice with lowest snow depth of this study. Hence, in this and other studies MYI chl a biomass may be under-estimated due to an under-representation of thick MYI (e.g., hummocks), which typically have a relatively thin snowpack allowing for increased light transmission. Therefore, we suggest the on-going loss of MYI in the Arctic Ocean may have a larger impact on ice-associated production than generally assumed. PMID:25901605

  19. Identification of light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein genes of Zostera marina L. and their expression under different environmental conditions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kong, Fanna; Zhou, Yang; Sun, Peipei; Cao, Min; Li, Hong; Mao, Yunxiang

    2016-02-01

    Photosynthesis includes the collection of light and the transfer of solar energy using light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding (LHC) proteins. In high plants, the LHC gene family includes LHCA and LHCB sub-families, which encode proteins constituting the light-harvesting complex of photosystems I and II. Zostera marina L. is a monocotyledonous angiosperm and inhabits submerged marine environments rather than land environments. We characterized the Lhca and Lhcb gene families of Z. marina from the expressed sequence tags (EST) database. In total, 13 unigenes were annotated as ZmLhc, 6 in Lhca family and 7 in ZmLhcb family. ZmLHCA and ZmLHCB contained the conservative LHC motifs and amino acid residues binding chlorophyll. The average similarity among mature ZmLHCA and ZmLHCB was 48.91% and 48.66%, respectively, which indicated a high degree of divergence within ZmLHChc gene family. The reconstructed phylogenetic tree showed that the tree topology and phylogenetic relationship were similar to those reported in other high plants, suggesting that the Lhc genes were highly conservative and the classification of ZmLhc genes was consistent with the evolutionary position of Z. marina. Real-time reverse transcription (RT) PCR analysis showed that different members of ZmLhca and ZmLhcb responded to a stress in different expression patterns. Salinity, temperature, light intensity and light quality may affect the expression of most ZmLhca and ZmLhcb genes. Inorganic carbon concentration and acidity had no obvious effect on ZmLhca and ZmLhcb gene expression, except for ZmLhca6.

  20. Seasonal variability of chlorophyll-a and oceanographic conditions in Sabah waters in relation to Asian monsoon--a remote sensing study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abdul-Hadi, Alaa; Mansor, Shattri; Pradhan, Biswajeet; Tan, C K

    2013-05-01

    A study was conducted to investigate the influence of Asian monsoon on chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) content in Sabah waters and to identify the related oceanographic conditions that caused phytoplankton blooms at the eastern and western coasts of Sabah, Malaysia. A series of remote sensing measurements including surface Chl-a, sea surface temperature, sea surface height anomaly, wind speed, wind stress curl, and Ekman pumping were analyzed to study the oceanographic conditions that lead to large-scale nutrients enrichment in the surface layer. The results showed that the Chl-a content increased at the northwest coast from December to April due to strong northeasterly wind and coastal upwelling in Kota Kinabalu water. The southwest coast (Labuan water) maintained high concentrations throughout the year due to the effect of Padas River discharge during the rainy season and the changing direction of Baram River plume during the northeast monsoon (NEM). However, with the continuous supply of nutrients from the upwelling area, the high Chl-a batches were maintained at the offshore water off Labuan for a longer time during NEM. On the other side, the northeast coast illustrated a high Chl-a in Sandakan water during NEM, whereas the northern tip off Kudat did not show a pronounced change throughout the year. The southeast coast (Tawau water) was highly influenced by the direction of the surface water transport between the Sulu and Sulawesi Seas and the prevailing surface currents. The study demonstrates the presence of seasonal phytoplankton blooms in Sabah waters which will aid in forecasting the possible biological response and could further assist in marine resource managements. PMID:22930185

  1. Stressor-response modeling using the 2D water quality model and regression trees to predict chlorophyll-a in a reservoir system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, Yongeun; Pachepsky, Yakov A.; Cho, Kyung Hwa; Jeon, Dong Jin; Kim, Joon Ha

    2015-10-01

    To control algal blooms, the stressor-response relationships between water quality metrics, environmental variables, and algal growth need to be better understood and modeled. Machine-learning methods have been suggested as means to express the stressor-response relationships that are found when applying mechanistic water quality models. The objective of this work was to evaluate the efficiency of regression trees in the development of a stressor-response model for chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) concentrations, using the results from site-specific mechanistic water quality modeling. The 2-dimensional hydrodynamic and water quality model (CE-QUAL-W2) model was applied to simulate water quality using four-year observational data and additional scenarios of air temperature increases for the Yeongsan Reservoir in South Korea. Regression tree modeling was applied to the results of these simulations. Given the well-expressed seasonality in the simulated Chl-a dynamics, separate regression trees were developed for months from May to September. The regression trees provided a reasonably accurate representation of the stressor-response dependence generated by the CE-QUAL-W2 model. Different stressors were then selected as split variables for different months, and, in most cases, splits by the same stressor variable yielded the same correlation sign between the variable and the Chl-a concentration. Compared to physical variables, nutrient content appeared to better predict Chl-a responses. The highest Chl-a temperature sensitivities were found for May and June. Regression tree splits based on ammonium concentration resulted in a consistent trend of greater sensitivity in the groups of samples with higher ammonium concentrations. Regression tree models provided a transparent visual representation of the stressor-response relationships for Chl-a and its sensitivity. Overall, the representation of relationships using classification and regression tools can be considered a useful

  2. The potential impact of an inter-basin water transfer project on nutrients (nitrogen and phosphorous) and chlorophyll a of the receiving water system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Qinghui; Qin, Lihuan; Li, Xuyong

    2015-12-01

    Any inter-basin water transfer project would cause complex physical, chemical, hydrological and biological changes to the receiving system. The primary channel of the middle route of the South-to-North Water Transfer Project has a total length of 1267 km. There is a significant difference between the physical, chemical and biological characteristics of the originating and receiving drinking water conservation districts. To predict the impacts of this long-distance inter-basin water transfer project on the N&P (nitrogen and phosphorus) concentrations and eutrophication risk of the receiving system, an environmental fluid dynamics code (EFDC) model was applied. The calibrated model accurately reproduced the hydrodynamic, water quality and the entire algal bloom process. Thirteen scenarios were defined to fully understand the N&P and chlorophyll a (Chl a) variation among different hydrological years, different quantity and timing of water transfer, and different inflows of N&P concentrations. The results showed the following: (a) The water transfer project would not result in a substantial difference to the trophic state of the Miyun reservoir in any of the hydrological years. (b) The area affected by the water transfer did not involve the entire reservoir. To minimize the impact of water transfer on N&P nutrients and Chl a, water should be transferred as uniform as possible with small discharge. (c) The variation in Chl a was more sensitive to an increase in P than an increase in N for the transferred water. The increased percentages of the average Chl a concentration when water was transferred in the spring, summer and autumn were 7.76%, 16.67% and 16.45%. Our findings imply that special attention should be given to prevent P increment of the transferred water from May to October to prevent algal blooms. The results provide useful information for decision makers about the quantity and timing of water transfers. PMID:26247693

  3. Evaluation of Hyperspectral Multi-Band Indices to Estimate Chlorophyll-A Concentration Using Field Spectral Measurements and Satellite Data in Dianshan Lake, China

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Linna Li

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Chlorophyll-a (Chl-a concentration is considered as a key indicator of the eutrophic status of inland water bodies. Various algorithms have been developed for estimating Chl-a in order to improve the accuracy of predictive models. The objective of this study is to assess the potential of hyperspectral multi-band indices to estimate the Chl-a concentration in Dianshan Lake, which is the largest lake in Shanghai, an international metropolis of China. Based on field spectral measurements and in-situ Chl-a concentration collected on 7–8 September 2010, hyperspectral multi-band indices were calibrated to estimate the Chl-a concentration with optimal wavelengths selected by model tuning. A three-band index accounts for 87.36% (R2 = 0.8736 of the Chl-a variation. A four-band index, which adds a wavelength in the near infrared (NIR region, results in a higher R2 (0.8997 by removing the absorption and backscattering effects of suspended solids. To test the applicability of the proposed indices for routinely monitoring of Chl-a in inland lakes, simulated Hyperion and real HJ-1A satellite data were selected to estimate the Chl-a concentration. The results show that the explanatory powers of these satellite hyperspectral multi-band indices are relatively high with R2 = 0.8559, 0.8945, 0.7969, and 0.8241 for simulated Hyperion and real HJ-1A satellite data, respectively. All of the results provide strong evidence that hyperspectral multi-band indices are promising and applicable to estimate Chl-a in eutrophic inland lakes.

  4. Allelic variations of a light harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein gene (Lhcb1 associated with agronomic traits in barley.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yanshi Xia

    Full Text Available Light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b-binding protein (LHCP is one of the most abundant chloroplast proteins in plants. Its main function is to collect and transfer light energy to photosynthetic reaction centers. However, the roles of different LHCPs in light-harvesting antenna systems remain obscure. Exploration of nucleotide variation in the genes encoding LHCP can facilitate a better understanding of the functions of LHCP. In this study, nucleotide variations in Lhcb1, a LHCP gene in barley, were investigated across 292 barley accessions collected from 35 different countries using EcoTILLING technology, a variation of the Targeting Induced Local Lesions In Genomes (TILLING. A total of 23 nucleotide variations were detected including three insert/deletions (indels and 20 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs. Among them, 17 SNPs were in the coding region with nine missense changes. Two SNPs with missense changes are predicted to be deleterious to protein function. Seventeen SNP formed 31 distinguishable haplotypes in the barley collection. The levels of nucleotide diversity in the Lhcb1 locus differed markedly with geographic origins and species of accessions. The accessions from Middle East Asia exhibited the highest nucleotide and haplotype diversity. H. spontaneum showed greater nucleotide diversity than H. vulgare. Five SNPs in Lhcb1 were significantly associated with at least one of the six agronomic traits evaluated, namely plant height, spike length, number of grains per spike, thousand grain weight, flag leaf area and leaf color, and these SNPs may be used as potential markers for improvement of these barley traits.

  5. Fluorescent Approaches to High Throughput Crystallography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pusey, Marc L.; Forsythe, Elizabeth; Achari, Aniruddha

    2006-01-01

    We have shown that by covalently modifying a subpopulation, less than or equal to 1%, of a macromolecule with a fluorescent probe, the labeled material will add to a growing crystal as a microheterogeneous growth unit. Labeling procedures can be readily incorporated into the final stages of purification, and the presence of the probe at low concentrations does not affect the X-ray data quality or the crystallization behavior. The presence of the trace fluorescent label gives a number of advantages when used with high throughput crystallizations. The covalently attached probe will concentrate in the crystal relative to the solution, and under fluorescent illumination crystals show up as bright objects against a dark background. Non-protein structures, such as salt crystals, will not incorporate the probe and will not show up under fluorescent illumination. Brightly fluorescent crystals are readily found against less bright precipitated phases, which under white light illumination may obscure the crystals. Automated image analysis to find crystals should be greatly facilitated, without having to first define crystallization drop boundaries as the protein or protein structures is all that shows up. Fluorescence intensity is a faster search parameter, whether visually or by automated methods, than looking for crystalline features. We are now testing the use of high fluorescence intensity regions, in the absence of clear crystalline features or "hits", as a means for determining potential lead conditions. A working hypothesis is that kinetics leading to non-structured phases may overwhelm and trap more slowly formed ordered assemblies, which subsequently show up as regions of brighter fluorescence intensity. Preliminary experiments with test proteins have resulted in the extraction of a number of crystallization conditions from screening outcomes based solely on the presence of bright fluorescent regions. Subsequent experiments will test this approach using a wider

  6. Localizing Proteins in Fixed Giardia lamblia and Live Cultured Mammalian Cells by Confocal Fluorescence Microscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyindodo-Ogari, Lilian; Schwartzbach, Steven D; Skalli, Omar; Estraño, Carlos E

    2016-01-01

    Confocal fluorescence microscopy and electron microscopy (EM) are complementary methods for studying the intracellular localization of proteins. Confocal fluorescence microscopy provides a rapid and technically simple method to identify the organelle in which a protein localizes but only EM can identify the suborganellular compartment in which that protein is present. Confocal fluorescence microscopy, however, can provide information not obtainable by EM but required to understand the dynamics and interactions of specific proteins. In addition, confocal fluorescence microscopy of cells transfected with a construct encoding a protein of interest fused to a fluorescent protein tag allows live cell studies of the subcellular localization of that protein and the monitoring in real time of its trafficking. Immunostaining methods for confocal fluorescence microscopy are also faster and less involved than those for EM allowing rapid optimization of the antibody dilution needed and a determination of whether protein antigenicity is maintained under fixation conditions used for EM immunogold labeling. This chapter details a method to determine by confocal fluorescence microscopy the intracellular localization of a protein by transfecting the organism of interest, in this case Giardia lamblia, with the cDNA encoding the protein of interest and then processing these organisms for double label immunofluorescence staining after chemical fixation. Also presented is a method to identify the organelle targeting information in the presequence of a precursor protein, in this case the presequence of the precursor to the Euglena light harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein of photosystem II precursor (pLHCPII), using live cell imaging of mammalian COS7 cells transiently transfected with a plasmid encoding a pLHCPII presequence fluorescent protein fusion and stained with organelle-specific fluorescent dyes. PMID:27515076

  7. Photocontrol of the expression of genes encoding chlorophyll a/b binding proteins and small subunit of ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in etiolated seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum (L. ) and Nicotiana tabacum (L. )

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wehmeyer, B. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA) Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, Freiburg (West Germany)); Cashmore, A.R. (Univ. of Pennsylvania, Philadelphia (USA)); Schaefer, E. (Albert-Ludwigs-Universitaet, Freiburg (West Germany))

    1990-07-01

    Phytochrome and the blue ultraviolet-A photoreceptor control light-induced expression of genes encoding the chlorophyll a/b binding protein of photosystem II and photosystem I and the genes for the small subunit of the ribulose-1,5-bisphosphate carboxylase in etiolated seedlings of Lycopersicon esculentum (tomato) and Nicotiana tabacum (tobacco). A high irradiance response also controls the induction of these genes. Genes encoding photosystem II- and I-associated chlorophyll a/b binding proteins both exhibit a transient rapid increase in expression in response to light pulse or to continuous irradiation. In contrast, genes encoding the small subunit exhibit a continuous increase in expression in response to light. These distinct expression characteristics are shown to reflect differences at the level of transcription.

  8. Parameter Estimation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sales-Cruz, Mauricio; Heitzig, Martina; Cameron, Ian;

    2011-01-01

    In this chapter the importance of parameter estimation in model development is illustrated through various applications related to reaction systems. In particular, rate constants in a reaction system are obtained through parameter estimation methods. These approaches often require the application...... of optimisation techniques coupled with dynamic solution of the underlying model. Linear and nonlinear approaches to parameter estimation are investigated. There is also the application of maximum likelihood principles in the estimation of parameters, as well as the use of orthogonal collocation to...... generate a set of algebraic equations as the basis for parameter estimation.These approaches are illustrated using estimations of kinetic constants from reaction system models....

  9. Fluorescent fiber diagnostics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Toeppen, John S.

    1994-01-01

    A fluorescent fiber (13) having a doped core (16) is pumped (11) by light (18) of a relatively short wavelength to produce fluorescence at a longer wavelength that is detected by detector (24). The level of fluorescence is monitored (26) and evaluated to provide information as to the excitation of the fiber (13) or the environment thereof. In particular, the level of intensity of the detected fluorescence may be used to measure the intensity of a light beam (18) passing axially through an optical fiber system (12) (FIG. 1 ), or the intensity of a light beam (46) passing radially through a fluorescent fiber (13) (FIG. 2 ), or the level of a fluid (32) in a tank (31) (FIG. 3 ), or a scintillation event (37) in a fluorescent fiber (13) pumped to produce amplification of the scintillation event (FIG. 4 ).

  10. Fluorescence of anthocyanin pigments in plant extracts at various pH

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pliszka, Barbara; Olszewska, Teresa; Drabent, Regina

    2001-07-01

    The fluorescence properties of anthocyanin pigments in extracts of red cabbage, Brassica oleracea, have been studied. The fluorescence spectra and fluorescence excitation spectra have been measured with absorption spectra of anthocyanins in extracts at pH 2 and pH 7. The results of the researches show that kinds of fluorescent anthocyanins (or/and other compounds) depend on pH conditions of red cabbage extracts. The properly chosen parameters of fluorescence measurement allow to distinguish spectrally two different fluorescent anthocyanin compounds in extract at pH 2 in comparison to pH 7, where three fluorescent compounds have been found.

  11. A Transformer Partial Discharge Measurement System Based on Fluorescent Fiber

    OpenAIRE

    Fan Liu; Ju Tang; Jiabin Zhou; Xiaoxing Zhang

    2012-01-01

    Based on the physical phenomena of optical effects produced by the partial discharge (PD) and on the characteristics of fluorescent fiber sensing of weak fluorescent signals, a PD measurement system using a fluorescent fiber sensor was designed. The main parameters of the sensing system were calculated, an experimental testing platform for PD simulation in the lab was established, and PD signals were then detected through ultra-high frequency (UHF) and optical methods under a needle-plate dis...

  12. Zooplankton community composition of high mountain lakes in the Tatra Mts., the Alps in North Tyrol, and Scotland: relationship to pH, depth, organic carbon, and chlorophyll-a concentration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Skála Ivan

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The European EMERGE (European Mountain lake Ecosystems: Regionalisation, diaGnostic & socio-economic Evaluation project was a survey of high mountain lakes (above treeline across Europe using unified methods of sampling and analysis. The sampling was carried out in summer or autumn 2000, and comprised biological samples, and samples for chemical analysis. Data from three lake districts are used in this paper: the Tatra Mts. in Slovakia and Poland (45 lakes, the Alps in Tyrol in Austria (22 lakes, and Scotland (30 lakes. As it is shown by multiple regression analysis, DTOC (dissolved or total organic carbon is the key variable for most groups of zooplankton. With increasing DTOC and mostly with chlorophyll-a decreasing, pH increasing and depth decreasing, macrofitrators with coarse filter meshes are replaced by microfiltrators with fine filter meshes. Higher DTOC may increase bacterioplankton production and advantage species able to consume bacteria (microfiltrators. Other zooplankton species also differ in their preference for DTOC, chlorophyll-a, pH and depth, but DTOC being positively correlated with chlorophyll-a and pH positively correlated with depth. It may be caused by their different preference for food quality in terms of C:P ratio.

  13. Interannual variability in temporal patterns of Chlorophyll-a and their potential influence on the supply of mussel larvae to inner waters in northern Patagonia (41-44°S)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lara, Carlos; Saldías, Gonzalo S.; Tapia, Fabian J.; Iriarte, José Luis; Broitman, Bernardo R.

    2016-03-01

    Environmental forcing of biophysical processes can have deep influences on patterns of supply of planktonic larvae to benthic communities in coastal marine ecosystems. We investigated the role of environmental forcing following a recent interannual decrease in larval supply in the Inner Sea of Chiloé (41-45°S) using direct observations and environmental time series over the period 2003-2014. To examine the temporal structure of larval supply and potential associations with environmental forcing (approximated using satellite chlorophyll-a and sea surface temperature), we used wavelet analysis and lagged correlations to test the hypothesis of an association between larval availability and changes in the seasonal cycle of chlorophyll-a concentration, sea surface temperature, and relevant climate variability (Pacific Decadal Oscillation, El Niño-Southern Oscillation and Southern Annular Mode). Our results indicate that a weakening in the annual cycle of chlorophyll-a concentration and abnormally cold sea surface temperature during 2009-2010 can be related to the observed disruption in larval supply to the Inner Sea of Chiloé starting during the 2010-2011 season. The potential influence of climate variability is further discussed as the spatial extent and temporal persistence observed suggest that other ecological processes might have also been affected, and consequently, we suggest a link to transient large-scale climatic forcing.

  14. Fluorescent minerals, a review

    Science.gov (United States)

    Modreski, P.J.; Aumente-Modreski, R.

    1996-01-01

    Fluorescent minerals are more than just an attractive novelty, and collecting them is a speciality for thousands of individuals who appreciate their beauty, rarity, and scientific value. Fluorescent properties can be used as an aid to mineral identification, locality determination, and distinction between natural and synthetic gemstones. This article gives an overview of those aspects of fluorescence that are of most interest to collectors, hobbyists, and mineralogists. -from Authors

  15. Secondary emission influenced fluorescence decay of a homogeneous fluorophore solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An analytical expression is found allowing the calculation of the secondary emission influenced fluorescence decay of a homogeneous fluorophore solution. Before starting the calculation one has to know the shape of the primary fluorescence decay of the fluorophore and the value of the parameter κ denoting the ratio of the secondary to primary steady-state fluorescence intensities. The method elaborated by Budó and Ketskeméty is recommended for evaluation of the parameter κ. The main importance of the obtained expression is that it can be used to recover parameters characterizing the fluorescence decay in the absence of secondary emission. The cases of monoexponential, biexponential and multiexponential primary fluorescence decays are discussed in detail. (paper)

  16. Effect of carbon and nitrogen assimilation on chlorophyll fluorescence emission by the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Romero, J.M.; Lara, C. (Instituto de Bioquimica Vegetal y Fotosintesis, Univ. de Sevilla y CSIC, Sevilla (ES)); Sivak, M.N. (Dept. of Biochemistry, Michigan State Univ., East Lansing (US))

    1992-01-01

    O{sub 2} evolution and chlorophyll A fluorescence emission have been monitored in intact cells of the cyanobacterium Anacystis nidulans 1402-1 to study the influence of carbon and nitrogen assimilation on the operation of the photosynthetic apparatus. The pattern of fluorescence induction in dark-adapted cyanobacterial cells was different from that of higher plants. Cyanobacteria undergo large, rapid state transitions upon illumination, which lead to marked changes in the fluorescence yield, complicating the estimation of quenching coefficients. The Kautsky effect was not evident, although it could be masked by a state II-state I transition, upon illumination with actinic light. The use of inhibitors of carbon assimilation such as D,L-glyceraldehyde or iodoacetamide allowed us to relate changes in variable fluorescence to active CO{sub 2} fixation. Ammonium, but not nitrate, induced non-photochemical fluorescence quenching, in agreement with a previous report on green algae, indicative of an ammonium-induced state i transition. (au).

  17. A Novel approach to monitor chlorophyll-a concentration using an adaptive model from MODIS data at 250 metres spatial resolution

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Alem, A.; Chokmani, K.; Laurion, I.; El Adlouni, S.

    2013-12-01

    Occurrence and extent of Harmful Algal Bloom (HAB) has increased in inland water bodies around the world. The appearance of these blooms reflects the advanced state of eutrophication of several aquatic systems caused by urban, agricultural, and industrial development. Algal blooms, especially those cyanobacterial origins, are capable to produce and release toxins, threatening human and animal health, quality of drinking water, and recreational water bodies. Conventional monitoring networks, based on infrequent sampling in a few fixed monitoring stations, cannot provide the information needed as HABs are spatially and temporally heterogeneous. Remote sensing represents an interesting alternative to provide the required spatial and temporal coverage. The usefulness of air-borne and satellite remote sensing data to detect HABs was demonstrated since three decades ago, and since several empirical and semi-empirical models, using satellite imagery, were developed to estimate chlorophyll-a concentration [Chl-a] as a proxy to detect bloom proliferations. However, most of those models presented several weaknesses that are generally linked to the range of [Chl-a] to be estimated. Indeed, models originally calibrated for high [Chl-a] fail to estimate low concentrations and vice versa. In this study, an adaptive model to estimate [Chl-a], spread over a wide range of concentrations, is developed for optically complex inland water bodies based on combination of water spectral response classification and three developed semi-empirical algorithms using a multivariate regression. Three distinct water types (low, medium, and high [Chl-a]) are first identified using the Classification and Regression Tree (CART) method performed on remote sensing reflectance over a dataset of 44 [Chl-a] samples collected from Lakes over Quebec province. Based on the water classification, a specific multivariate model to each water type is developed using the same dataset and the MODIS data at 250-m

  18. Physical forcing mechanisms controlling the variability of chlorophyll-a over the Royal-Charlotte and Abrolhos Banks-Eastern Brazilian Shelf.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Renato David Ghisolfi

    Full Text Available The Abrolhos Bank is part of the so-called Eastern Brazilian Shelf and is an area of high ecological and economic importance. The bank supports the largest and richest coral reefs in the South Atlantic and the largest rhodolith bed in the world. The spatial and seasonal variation of phytoplankton concentration, however, and the dynamic processes controlling that variability have remained poorly known. The present study investigates the seasonal and spatial distributions of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a and water conditions by analyzing nine years (2003-2011 of level-3 Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS derived Chl-a, National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP/ETA model-derived winds, NCEP model-derived heat fluxes, thermohaline and velocity results from the Hybrid Circulation Ocean Model (HYCOM 1/12o assimilated simulation. The results show that low/high concentrations occurred in austral spring-summer (wet season/autumn-winter (dry season, with the highest values observed in the northern portion of the Abrolhos Bank. The typical meteorological and oceanographic conditions during austral summer favor the development of strong stratification. These conditions are 1 N-NE winds that favor an upwelling-type Ekman circulation; 2 coupling between the open ocean and the continental shelf through the western boundary current, which promotes cooler subsurface water to rise onto the shelf break; and 3 positive net heat flux. In contrast, the S-SE winds during autumn are in the opposite direction of the predominant current system over the Abrolhos Bank, thus reducing their speed and inducing an inverse shear. The warmer ocean and a somewhat cool and dry atmosphere promote the evaporative cooling of the surface layer. The above processes drive mixed layer cooling and deepening that reaches its maximum in winter. The blooming of phytoplankton in the Abrolhos Bank waters appears to be regulated by changes in the mixed layer depth, with Chl

  19. Physical Forcing Mechanisms Controlling the Variability of Chlorophyll-a over the Royal-Charlotte and Abrolhos Banks—Eastern Brazilian Shelf

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisolfi, Renato David; Pereira da Silva, Meyre; Thomaz dos Santos, Felipe; Servino, Ricardo Nogueira; Cirano, Mauro; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes

    2015-01-01

    The Abrolhos Bank is part of the so-called Eastern Brazilian Shelf and is an area of high ecological and economic importance. The bank supports the largest and richest coral reefs in the South Atlantic and the largest rhodolith bed in the world. The spatial and seasonal variation of phytoplankton concentration, however, and the dynamic processes controlling that variability have remained poorly known. The present study investigates the seasonal and spatial distributions of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and water conditions by analyzing nine years (2003–2011) of level-3 Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived Chl-a, National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/ETA model-derived winds, NCEP model-derived heat fluxes, thermohaline and velocity results from the Hybrid Circulation Ocean Model (HYCOM) 1/12o assimilated simulation. The results show that low/high concentrations occurred in austral spring-summer (wet season)/autumn-winter (dry season), with the highest values observed in the northern portion of the Abrolhos Bank. The typical meteorological and oceanographic conditions during austral summer favor the development of strong stratification. These conditions are 1) N-NE winds that favor an upwelling-type Ekman circulation; 2) coupling between the open ocean and the continental shelf through the western boundary current, which promotes cooler subsurface water to rise onto the shelf break; and 3) positive net heat flux. In contrast, the S-SE winds during autumn are in the opposite direction of the predominant current system over the Abrolhos Bank, thus reducing their speed and inducing an inverse shear. The warmer ocean and a somewhat cool and dry atmosphere promote the evaporative cooling of the surface layer. The above processes drive mixed layer cooling and deepening that reaches its maximum in winter. The blooming of phytoplankton in the Abrolhos Bank waters appears to be regulated by changes in the mixed layer depth, with Chl-a levels

  20. Physical forcing mechanisms controlling the variability of chlorophyll-a over the Royal-Charlotte and Abrolhos Banks-Eastern Brazilian Shelf.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisolfi, Renato David; Pereira da Silva, Meyre; Thomaz dos Santos, Felipe; Servino, Ricardo Nogueira; Cirano, Mauro; Thompson, Fabiano Lopes

    2015-01-01

    The Abrolhos Bank is part of the so-called Eastern Brazilian Shelf and is an area of high ecological and economic importance. The bank supports the largest and richest coral reefs in the South Atlantic and the largest rhodolith bed in the world. The spatial and seasonal variation of phytoplankton concentration, however, and the dynamic processes controlling that variability have remained poorly known. The present study investigates the seasonal and spatial distributions of chlorophyll-a (Chl-a) and water conditions by analyzing nine years (2003-2011) of level-3 Moderate-resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) derived Chl-a, National Centers for Environmental Prediction (NCEP)/ETA model-derived winds, NCEP model-derived heat fluxes, thermohaline and velocity results from the Hybrid Circulation Ocean Model (HYCOM) 1/12o assimilated simulation. The results show that low/high concentrations occurred in austral spring-summer (wet season)/autumn-winter (dry season), with the highest values observed in the northern portion of the Abrolhos Bank. The typical meteorological and oceanographic conditions during austral summer favor the development of strong stratification. These conditions are 1) N-NE winds that favor an upwelling-type Ekman circulation; 2) coupling between the open ocean and the continental shelf through the western boundary current, which promotes cooler subsurface water to rise onto the shelf break; and 3) positive net heat flux. In contrast, the S-SE winds during autumn are in the opposite direction of the predominant current system over the Abrolhos Bank, thus reducing their speed and inducing an inverse shear. The warmer ocean and a somewhat cool and dry atmosphere promote the evaporative cooling of the surface layer. The above processes drive mixed layer cooling and deepening that reaches its maximum in winter. The blooming of phytoplankton in the Abrolhos Bank waters appears to be regulated by changes in the mixed layer depth, with Chl-a levels

  1. Fluorescence: a diagnostic tool for the detection of stress in plants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chappelle, Emmett W.; Corp, Lawrence A.; McMurtrey, James E., III; Kim, Moon S.; Daughtry, Craig S. T.

    1997-01-01

    of excitation. Moreover, by comparing the ratio spectrum of a healthy versus nitrogen deficient leaf, one finds areas of crossover where trends can be completely reversed by changing excitation wavelength. As a result, the success of studies involving the measurement of chlorophyll a fluorescence depend greatly on the appropriate selection of excitation wavelength. Fluorescence sensing systems based on the above emission bands are being proposed or developed for ground based mobile vans, helicopters, and small aircraft. The goals of these efforts were to better define the origins of fluorescence and to improve our understanding of these light emissions in relationship to the physiological status of the plant.

  2. Fluorescence of atopic allergens

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berrens, L.

    1967-01-01

    Purified atopic allergens have been found to emit flue fluorescence upon irradiation with ultraviolet light of 365 mμ wavelength. The maximum of fluorescence is in the region 445–490 mμ and the intensity is of the same order of magnitude for different atopic allergens. Synthetic model compounds, inc

  3. Membranes and Fluorescence microscopy

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bagatolli, Luis

    2009-01-01

    Fluorescence spectroscopy-based techniques using conventional fluorimeters have been extensively applied since the late 1960s to study different aspects of membrane-related phenomena, i.e., mainly relating to lipid-lipid and lipid-protein (peptide) interactions. Even though fluorescence...

  4. Size-dependent fluorescence of bioaerosols: Mathematical model using fluorescing and absorbing molecules in bacteria

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper uses a mathematical model of fluorescent biological particles composed of bacteria and/or proteins (mostly as in Hill et al., 2013 [23]) to investigate the size-dependence of the total fluorescence emitted in all directions. The model applies to particles which have negligible reabsorption of fluorescence within the particle. The specific particles modeled here are composed of ovalbumin and of a generic Bacillus. The particles need not be spherical, and in some cases need not be homogeneous. However, the results calculated in this paper are for spherical homogeneous particles. Light absorbing and fluorescing molecules included in the model are amino acids, nucleic acids, and several coenzymes. Here the excitation wavelength is 266 nm. The emission range, 300 to 370 nm, encompasses the fluorescence of tryptophan. The fluorescence cross section (CF) is calculated and compared with one set of published measured values. We investigate power law (Ady) approximations to CF, where d is diameter, and A and y are parameters adjusted to fit the data, and examine how y varies with d and composition, including the fraction as water. The particle's fluorescence efficiency (QF=CF/geometric-cross-section) can be written for homogeneous particles as QabsRF, where Qabs is the absorption efficiency, and RF, the fraction of the absorbed light emitted as fluorescence, is independent of size and shape. When QF is plotted vs. mid or mi(mr−1)d, where m=mr+imi is the complex refractive index, the plots for different fractions of water in the particle tend to overlap. - Highlights: • Size dependence of the total fluorescence from bacteria and proteins is modeled. • The approach is applicable to nonspherical and inhomogeneous particles. • Size dependent fluorescence cross sections (CF) of homogeneous spheres are shown. • Particles composed of water and either protein or bacterial solids are studied. • The slopes y in Ady approximations CF are investigated where d

  5. Fluorescence and Spectral Imaging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ralph S. DaCosta

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Early identification of dysplasia remains a critical goal for diagnostic endoscopy since early discovery directly improves patient survival because it allows endoscopic or surgical intervention with disease localized without lymph node involvement. Clinical studies have successfully used tissue autofluorescence with conventional white light endoscopy and biopsy for detecting adenomatous colonic polyps, differentiating benign hyperplastic from adenomas with acceptable sensitivity and specificity. In Barrett's esophagus, the detection of dysplasia remains problematic because of background inflammation, whereas in the squamous esophagus, autofluorescence imaging appears to be more dependable. Point fluorescence spectroscopy, although playing a crucial role in the pioneering mechanistic development of fluorescence endoscopic imaging, does not seem to have a current function in endoscopy because of its nontargeted sampling and suboptimal sensitivity and specificity. Other point spectroscopic modalities, such as Raman spectroscopy and elastic light scattering, continue to be evaluated in clinical studies, but still suffer the significant disadvantages of being random and nonimaging. A recent addition to the fluorescence endoscopic imaging arsenal is the use of confocal fluorescence endomicroscopy, which provides real-time optical biopsy for the first time. To improve detection of dysplasia in the gastrointestinal tract, a new and exciting development has been the use of exogenous fluorescence contrast probes that specifically target a variety of disease-related cellular biomarkers using conventional fluorescent dyes and novel potent fluorescent nanocrystals (i.e., quantum dots. This is an area of great promise, but still in its infancy, and preclinical studies are currently under way.

  6. A comparative study of chlorophyll-a concentration during different tropical cyclones in the Bay of Bengal based on measurements and model simulations

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pandey, Suchita; Bhagawati, Chirantan; Patel, Ramkrushnbhai; Chakraborty, Arun; Jayanarayanan, Kuttippurath

    2016-04-01

    Chlorophyll-a (chl-a) pigments derived from ocean color can be used as a tool for estimating phytoplankton distribution in the observed oceanic region. This study aims at providing new insights on the variability of chl-a concentration during the occurrences of different cyclones in the Bay of Bengal (BoB). We consider two tropical cyclones of different intensities observed in the BOB; MALA and NILAM. MALA was a cyclonic storm and was formed on 24 April 2006 and dissipated by 30 April 2006. The wind speed and lowest pressure during the MALA have been recorded as 185‒220 Km/h and 950 hp, respectively. Multi-satellite observations are used for chl-a (SeaWiFS, MODIS, OCM-2), winds (QuickSCAT) and sea surface height (SSH) (TOPEX/POSEIDON) analyses in this study. Argo data taken from CORIOLIS (along the cyclone track) are used for temperature and salinity, from which Mixed Layer Depth (MLD), Isothermal Layer Depth (ILD), Barrier Layer Thickness (BLT) is calculated. A case study for MALA cyclone using daily forcing of winds and surface net heat flux in 'Regional Ocean Modeling System' (ROMS) with NPCHLZD (Nitrate, Phytoplankton, Chlorophyll, Zooplankton and Detritus), five components ecosystem model is used for study the chl-a variability during the cyclone. The results show high chl-a concentration along the track as well as in the right side of the track of the cyclone. The daily variations of MLD, BLT, SSH and wind stress curl (WSC) are compared with the daily time series of chl-a for pre-cyclone, during cyclone and post cyclone period. During and after the passage of cyclone average chl-a values increased from 0.2 mg/l to 0.4 mg/l and greater. It shows good agreement with MLD (30‒40 m), negligible BLT and strong WSC (4*10-6n/m3). It implies the strong winds has initiated upwelling, which subsequently triggered phytoplankton bloom during and after the cyclonic storm. The cyclone NILAM was formed on 28 October 2012 and dissipated by 1 November 2012, which had a

  7. Spectral characteristics and a possible topological assignment of blue green fluorescence excited by UV laser on leaves of untreated species

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For a number of years it has been known that a relatively strong fluorescence emission is produced by leaves when using UV radiation for excitation (Chappelle et al., 1984a); the apparent bandwidth is larger than 150 nm starting from 400 nm and includes several peaks; under excitation at 337 nm, their integrated energy is 6-11 times the energy released by chlorophyll (a) bands. The problem of bands assignment concerns relative contribution balance as several different emitters are located in chloroplasts, vacuoles, mitochondria, nuclei, cell wall, and epidermis. Within the sensitivity of a 4-lambda synchronous pulse amplified N2 laser photometer, and the experimental limits Of a continuous spectrofluorimeter, the conclusion we present here is that: a) The blue-green fluorescence emission comes mainly from other epidermal layers; b) it is transferable on a quartz lamina by quick dipping the leaves in organic solvents and subsequent solvent evaporation; c) it shows atypical diffusion controlled quenching of fluorescence intensity within a thermal window between 277 K (high fluorescence) and 310 K (low fluorescence); d) the fluorescence emissivity is not linked to short-term metabolic arrangements, but tends to follow long-term epidermis adaptations to drought, and excessive radiation

  8. The effects of particles and dissolved materials on in situ algal pigment fluorescence sensors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saraceno, J.; Bergamaschi, B. A.; Downing, B. D.

    2013-12-01

    Field deployable sensors that measure algal pigment fluorescence (APF), such as chlorophyll-a (excitation/emission ca. 470/685 nm), and phycocyanin (ca. 590/685 nm), have been used to estimate algal biomass and study food-web dynamics in coastal and oceanic waters for many years. There is also widespread use of these sensors in real time river-observing networks. However, freshwater systems often possess elevated levels of suspended solids and dissolved organic material that can interfere with optical measurements. Data collected under conditions that result in interferences may not be comparable across time and between sites unless the data are appropriately corrected. Using standard reference materials and a surrogate for algal fluorescence (Rhodamine WT), lab experiments were conducted on several commercially available sensors to quantify sensitivity to interferences over a range of naturally occurring surface water conditions (DOC : 0-30 mg/L and turbidity: 0- 1000 FNU ). Chlorophyll-a sensors exhibited a slight but significant positive bias (2 mg/L, with signal quenching reaching a maximum of 15% at 30 mg/L DOC. All phycocyanin sensors displayed a positive non-linear bias with DOC concentration, reaching a maximum of 40% difference at 30 mg/L DOC. Both chlorophyll-a and phycocyanin sensors showed a positive linear relationship with suspended solids concentration (as indicated by turbidity).The effect of suspended solids on APF output can be explained by the detection of scattered excitation light (leaking through emission filters). Similar qualitative effects were observed for the sensors tested, though the magnitude of the effect varied among sensor type. This indicates that differences in sensor designs such as geometry, wavelength and signal post processing techniques is related to its sensitivity to interferences. Although sensors exhibited significant cross sensitivity to interferences, our results indicate that simple corrections can largely remove

  9. Highly thermostable fluorescent proteins

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bradbury, Andrew M.; Waldo, Geoffrey S.; Kiss, Csaba

    2011-03-22

    Thermostable fluorescent proteins (TSFPs), methods for generating these and other stability-enhanced proteins, polynucleotides encoding such proteins, and assays and method for using the TSFPs and TSFP-encoding nucleic acid molecules are provided. The TSFPs of the invention show extremely enhanced levels of stability and thermotolerance. In one case, for example, a TSFP of the invention is so stable it can be heated to 99.degree. C. for short periods of time without denaturing, and retains 85% of its fluorescence when heated to 80.degree. C. for several minutes. The invention also provides a method for generating stability-enhanced variants of a protein, including but not limited to fluorescent proteins.

  10. The fluorescence properties and NMR analysis of protopine and allocryptopine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The fluorescence properties of protopine and allocryptopine in aqueous and organic environments are described for the first time. The fluorescence of alkaloids and their pH-dependent interconversion to cationic forms (transannular interaction) were studied using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. For the analysis of tricyclic base and cis/trans tetracyclic cations of the alkaloids, NMR and X-ray crystallography were used. - Highlights: → We describe fundamental fluorescence characteristics of alkaloids protopine and allocryptopine. → We analyzed the pH-dependent transitions and cis/trans isomerization. → These two alkaloids can be better distinguished by their fluorescence decay characteristics. → The fluorescence parameters are related to the NMR and crystallographic structural data.

  11. The fluorescence properties and NMR analysis of protopine and allocryptopine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kubala, Martin, E-mail: mkubala@prfnw.upol.c [Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, tr. 17. listopadu 12, CZ-77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Vacek, Jan [Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Hnevotinska 3, CZ-77515 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Popa, Igor [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, tr. 17. listopadu 12, CZ-77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Janovska, Marika [Department of Biophysics, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, tr. 17. listopadu 12, CZ-77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Kosina, Pavel; Ulrichova, Jitka [Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Hnevotinska 3, CZ-77515 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Travnicek, Zdenek [Department of Inorganic Chemistry, Faculty of Science, Palacky University, tr. 17. listopadu 12, CZ-77146 Olomouc (Czech Republic); Simanek, Vilim [Department of Medical Chemistry and Biochemistry, Faculty of Medicine and Dentistry, Palacky University, Hnevotinska 3, CZ-77515 Olomouc (Czech Republic)

    2011-07-15

    The fluorescence properties of protopine and allocryptopine in aqueous and organic environments are described for the first time. The fluorescence of alkaloids and their pH-dependent interconversion to cationic forms (transannular interaction) were studied using steady-state and time-resolved fluorescence techniques. For the analysis of tricyclic base and cis/trans tetracyclic cations of the alkaloids, NMR and X-ray crystallography were used. - Highlights: {yields} We describe fundamental fluorescence characteristics of alkaloids protopine and allocryptopine. {yields} We analyzed the pH-dependent transitions and cis/trans isomerization. {yields} These two alkaloids can be better distinguished by their fluorescence decay characteristics. {yields} The fluorescence parameters are related to the NMR and crystallographic structural data.

  12. Study of seasonal plankton communities changes in the Karoun dam reservoir and their relationship with water quality parameters

    OpenAIRE

    Mousavi, Seyed Abdolmajid

    2014-01-01

    This study was under taken at Karoun Lake Dam No.4. (Southwest of Iran). Water samples were collected from March 2012 to February 2013 in three selected silts. Environmental parameters and chlorophyll a concentration were measured, as well as identification and abundance of Phytoplankton communities were studied. According to this study, 30 species of Phytoplankton were identified at four seasons. Most abundance was related to the phyla Bcillariphyta (17 species), Chlorophyta (6 species), Cry...

  13. The Use of Chlorophyll Fluorescence Lifetime to Assess Phytoplankton Physiology within a River-Dominated Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hall, Callie M.; Miller, Richard L.; Redalje, Donald G.; Fernandez, Salvador M.

    2002-01-01

    Chlorophyll a fluorescence lifetime was measured for phytoplankton populations inhabiting the three physical zones surrounding the Mississippi River's terminus in the Gulf of Mexico. Observations of river discharge volume, nitrate + nitrite, silicate, phosphate, PAR (Photosynthetically Active Radiation) diffuse attenuation within the water column, salinity, temperature, SPM, and chl a concentration were used to characterize the distribution of chl fluorescence lifetime within a given region within restricted periods of time. 33 stations extending from the Mississippi River plume to the shelf break of the Louisiana coast were surveyed for analysis of chlorophyll fluorescence lifetime during two cruises conducted March 31 - April 6, 2000, and October 24 - November 1, 2000. At each station, two to three depths were chosen for fluorescence lifetime measurement to represent the vertical characteristics of the water column. Where possible, samples were taken from just below the surface and from just above and below the pycnocline. All samples collected were within the 1% light level of the water column (the euphotic zone). Upon collection, samples were transferred to amber Nalgene bottles and left in the dark for at least 15 minutes to reduce the effects of non-photochemical quenching and to insure that photosynthetic reaction centers were open. Before measurements within the phase fluorometer were begun, the instrument was allowed to warm up for no less than one hour.

  14. Fluorescent filtered electrophosphorescence

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forrest, Stephen R.; Sun, Yiru; Giebink, Noel; Thompson, Mark E.

    2009-01-06

    The present invention relates to organic light emitting devices (OLEDs), and more specifically to OLEDS that emit light using a combination of fluorescent emitters and phosphorescent emitters for the efficient utilization of all of the electrically generated excitons.

  15. Fluorescence fluctuation immunoassay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Elings, V B; Nicoli, D F; Briggs, J

    1983-01-01

    The homogeneous fluorescent immunoassay described above allows one to measure the brightness of fluorescently tagged carrier particles that are suspended in a background of free, unbound fluorescent sources. We have demonstrated the feasibility of our technique using a gentamicin competitive assay as well as idealized model systems. We have seen that the fluctuation-correlation method is able to discriminate against free background sources because each fluorescing particle in solution contributes to the correlation peak [Eq. (4)] with a weighting equal to the square of its respective intensity. Hence, a few very bright sources contribute disproportionately to the "signal" relative to many weak ones. To take advantage of this property, one would therefore design an assay that uses relatively larger carrier particles, each of which is capable of binding on the order of 10(3) to 10(4) tagged antibodies or antigens. Unfortunately, the nonlinear dependence of the correlation peak on the brightness of the fluorescing species causes the technique to be perturbed by carrier particle aggregation; the apparent bound fluorescence intensity increases with the extent of aggregation. The latter may be an unavoidable consequence of performing assays using raw blood serum, for example. The ultimate usefulness of this method will depend on its sensitivity and speed when applied to "real" assays of clinical significance. These characteristics will be influenced by a number of technical details. Given our limited experience with the method thus far, it would appear that its principal drawback is its relatively slow speed. In order to decrease the time needed for a reliable measurement, one must average the random fluctuations in the fluorescent intensity to zero more quickly. In principle, this can be accomplished by decreasing the shot noise by collecting a larger fraction of the fluorescent light, and increasing the sampling rate. The method requires rather complicated

  16. Investigating the impact of NaCl salinity on growth, β-carotene, and chlorophyll a in the content life of halophytes of algae Chlorella sp.

    OpenAIRE

    Mojtaba Fathi; Alireza Asem

    2013-01-01

    Algae are used for many purposes as: food industry, animal feeding, soil enrichment andbiodiesel production. Chlorella is widely cultivated from microalgae species as it is rich in nutrients andhas its implementation as a healthy food use. In this study, the impact of NaCl salinity on growth, betacarotene,and chlorophyll a of Chlorella sp. has been investigated. This study results in three salinities(10, 30, 50 g L-1, respectively) have shown that 30 g L-1 concentration has the highest value ...

  17. Evaluation the vigour of urban green lawn grown under long-term shade conditions by the use of chlorophyll fluorescence technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dąbrowski Piotr

    2015-09-01

    Full Text Available Unfavorable light conditions in urban areas are one of the most important cause of inappropriate grass communities condition. The possibility to detect the plant stress caused by shade is an important element in shaping the environment. The answer to following questions: what is the ability to detect the stress caused by shade in chosen lawn varieties of Perennial ryegrass by using the chlorophyll a fluorescence (O-J-I-P test and which of tested varieties has the best properties to create grasslands in reduced light conditions is the aim of this work. Two-factor experimental micro-plot was conducted with three varieties and three different shadowing variants. Chlorophyll a fluorescence measurements were provided and were compared to leaf density. Our results explored significant difference between selected varieties in the terms of their photosynthetic apparatus adaption to light conditions. During May, all tested varieties were characterized by the rise of all fluorescence curve points under lower light intensity. The largest changes under shade conditions were noticed for the variety ‘Taya’. During next months a declining trend of photosynthetic efficiency for this variety was observed. On the basis of our results, we assume that each variety has unique threshold and needs of light intensity.

  18. Fluorescence intensities ratio F685/F740 for maple leaves during seasonal color changes and with fungal infection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kharcheva, Anastasia V.

    2014-01-01

    The work is devoted to the spectral measurements of maple leaves. Fresh green leaves of maple were investigated in spring and summer, healthy leaves and leaves affected by fungal diseases - during the fall color change. F685/F740 parameter values for healthy and diseased maple leaves were found, as well as the change of this parameter during the growing season. The concentration of chlorophylls a and b and carotenoids in ethanol extracts of maple leaves with different pigmentation were calculated by absorption spectroscopy and the ratio of Chl a / Chl b was found.

  19. Laser-induced fluorescence for medical diagnostics

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Laser-induced fluorescence as a tool for tissue diagnostics is discussed. Both spectrally and time-resolved fluorescence signals are studied to optimize the demarcation of diseased lesions from normal tissue. The presentation is focused on two fields of application: the identification of malignant tumours and atherosclerotic plaques. Tissue autofluorescence as well as fluorescence from administered drugs have been utilized in diseased tissue diagnosis. The fluorescence criterion for tissue diagnosis is, as far as possible, chosen to be independent of unknown fluorescence parameters, which are not correlated to the type of tissue investigated. Both a dependence on biological parameters, such as light absorption in blood, and instrumental characteristics, such as excitation pulse fluctuations and detection geometry, can be minimized. Several chemical compounds have been studied in animal experiments after intraveneous injection to verify their capacity as malignant tumour marking drugs under laser excitation and fluorescence detection. Another objective of these studies was to improve our understanding of the mechanism and chemistry behind the retention of the various drugs in tissue. The properties of a chemical which maximize its selective retention in tumours are discussed. In order to utilize this diagnostic modality, three different clinically adapted sets of instrumentation have been developed and are presented. Two of the systems are nitrogen-laser-based fluorosensors; one is a point-monitoring system with full spectral resolution and the other one is an imaging system with up to four simultaneously recorded images in different spectral bands. The third system is a low-cost point-monitoring mercury-lamp-based fluoroscence emission as well as reflection characteristics of tissue. (author)

  20. Fluorescence spectroscopy for wastewater monitoring: A review.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carstea, Elfrida M; Bridgeman, John; Baker, Andy; Reynolds, Darren M

    2016-05-15

    Wastewater quality is usually assessed using physical, chemical and microbiological tests, which are not suitable for online monitoring, provide unreliable results, or use hazardous chemicals. Hence, there is an urgent need to find a rapid and effective method for the evaluation of water quality in natural and engineered systems and for providing an early warning of pollution events. Fluorescence spectroscopy has been shown to be a valuable technique to characterize and monitor wastewater in surface waters for tracking sources of pollution, and in treatment works for process control and optimization. This paper reviews the current progress in applying fluorescence to assess wastewater quality. Studies have shown that, in general, wastewater presents higher fluorescence intensity compared to natural waters for the components associated with peak T (living and dead cellular material and their exudates) and peak C (microbially reprocessed organic matter). Furthermore, peak T fluorescence is significantly reduced after the biological treatment process and peak C is almost completely removed after the chlorination and reverse osmosis stages. Thus, simple fluorometers with appropriate wavelength selectivity, particularly for peaks T and C could be used for online monitoring in wastewater treatment works. This review also shows that care should be taken in any attempt to identify wastewater pollution sources due to potential overlapping fluorophores. Correlations between fluorescence intensity and water quality parameters such as biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and total organic carbon (TOC) have been developed and dilution of samples, typically up to ×10, has been shown to be useful to limit inner filter effect. It has been concluded that the following research gaps need to be filled: lack of studies on the on-line application of fluorescence spectroscopy in wastewater treatment works and lack of data processing tools suitable for rapid correction and extraction of

  1. Biological applications of confocal fluorescence polarization microscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bigelow, Chad E.

    Fluorescence polarization microscopy is a powerful modality capable of sensing changes in the physical properties and local environment of fluorophores. In this thesis we present new applications for the technique in cancer diagnosis and treatment and explore the limits of the modality in scattering media. We describe modifications to our custom-built confocal fluorescence microscope that enable dual-color imaging, optical fiber-based confocal spectroscopy and fluorescence polarization imaging. Experiments are presented that indicate the performance of the instrument for all three modalities. The limits of confocal fluorescence polarization imaging in scattering media are explored and the microscope parameters necessary for accurate polarization images in this regime are determined. A Monte Carlo routine is developed to model the effect of scattering on images. Included in it are routines to track the polarization state of light using the Mueller-Stokes formalism and a model for fluorescence generation that includes sampling the excitation light polarization ellipse, Brownian motion of excited-state fluorophores in solution, and dipole fluorophore emission. Results from this model are compared to experiments performed on a fluorophore-embedded polymer rod in a turbid medium consisting of polystyrene microspheres in aqueous suspension. We demonstrate the utility of the fluorescence polarization imaging technique for removal of contaminating autofluorescence and for imaging photodynamic therapy drugs in cell monolayers. Images of cells expressing green fluorescent protein are extracted from contaminating fluorescein emission. The distribution of meta-tetrahydroxypheny1chlorin in an EMT6 cell monolayer is also presented. A new technique for imaging enzyme activity is presented that is based on observing changes in the anisotropy of fluorescently-labeled substrates. Proof-of-principle studies are performed in a model system consisting of fluorescently labeled bovine

  2. Geometry reconstruction of fluorescence detectors revisited

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    High-energy cosmic rays with energies exceeding 1017 eV are observed by measurements of the fluorescence light induced by air showers. In the fluorescence technique, the geometry of the shower is reconstructed from the correlation between arrival time and incident angle of the signals detected by the telescope. The calculation of the expected light arrival time used so far in shower reconstruction codes is based on several assumptions. Particularly, it is assumed that fluorescence photons are produced instantaneously during the passage of the shower front and that the fluorescence photons propagate on a straight line with vacuum speed of light towards the telescope.We investigate the validity of these assumptions, how to correct them, and the impact on reconstruction parameters when adopting realistic conditions. Depending on the relative orientation of the shower to the telescope, corrections can reach 100 ns in expected light arrival time, 0.1 grad in arrival direction and 5 g cm-2 in depth of shower maximum. The findings are relevant also for the case of 'hybrid' observations where the shower is registered simultaneously by fluorescence and surface detectors. (authors)

  3. Spatial heterogeneity in active chlorophyll fluorescence and PSII activity of coral tissues

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ralph, P.J.; Gademann, R.; Larkum, A.W.D.;

    2002-01-01

    Chlorophyll-a fluorescence was measured in six species of coral, using pulse-amplitude-modulated fluorometers employing fibre-optic probes with diameters of 8 mm, 1 mm and 140 µm. The 8-mm probe integrated responses over a large area, giving more weight to coenosarc than polyp tissue for Acropora...... down-regulation at higher irradiances. Coenosarc and polyp tissue (both containing zooxanthellae) showed a wide range of responses in the other corals. Down-regulation of photosynthesis in a single polyp of Pocillopora damicornis was followed after exposure to moderate irradiance, with recovery...... occurring over a further 4 h of shade conditions. All the corals (Acropora millepora, A. nobilis, Cyphastrea serailia, Montipora tuberculosa, Pocillopora damicornis and Porites cylindrica) showed evidence of strong down-regulation of photosynthesis under high irradiance, and little evidence of...

  4. FAA Fluorescent Penetrant Laboratory Inspections

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WINDES,CONNOR L.; MOORE,DAVID G.

    2000-08-02

    The Federal Aviation Administration Airworthiness Assurance NDI Validation Center currently assesses the capability of various non-destructive inspection (NDI) methods used for analyzing aircraft components. The focus of one such exercise is to evaluate the sensitivity of fluorescent liquid penetrant inspection. A baseline procedure using the water-washable fluorescent penetrant method defines a foundation for comparing the brightness of low cycle fatigue cracks in titanium test panels. The analysis of deviations in the baseline procedure will determine an acceptable range of operation for the steps in the inspection process. The data also gives insight into the depth of each crack and which step(s) of the inspection process most affect penetrant sensitivities. A set of six low cycle fatigue cracks produced in 6.35-mm thick Ti-6Al-4V specimens was used to conduct the experiments to produce sensitivity data. The results will document the consistency of the crack readings and compare previous experiments to find the best parameters for water-washable penetrant.

  5. Fluorescent image tracking velocimeter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaffer, Franklin D.

    1994-01-01

    A multiple-exposure fluorescent image tracking velocimeter (FITV) detects and measures the motion (trajectory, direction and velocity) of small particles close to light scattering surfaces. The small particles may follow the motion of a carrier medium such as a liquid, gas or multi-phase mixture, allowing the motion of the carrier medium to be observed, measured and recorded. The main components of the FITV include: (1) fluorescent particles; (2) a pulsed fluorescent excitation laser source; (3) an imaging camera; and (4) an image analyzer. FITV uses fluorescing particles excited by visible laser light to enhance particle image detectability near light scattering surfaces. The excitation laser light is filtered out before reaching the imaging camera allowing the fluoresced wavelengths emitted by the particles to be detected and recorded by the camera. FITV employs multiple exposures of a single camera image by pulsing the excitation laser light for producing a series of images of each particle along its trajectory. The time-lapsed image may be used to determine trajectory and velocity and the exposures may be coded to derive directional information.

  6. Bomb parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The reconstruction of neutron and gamma-ray doses at Hiroshima and Nagasaki begins with a determination of the parameters describing the explosion. The calculations of the air transported radiation fields and survivor doses from the Hiroshima and Nagasaki bombs require knowledge of a variety of parameters related to the explosions. These various parameters include the heading of the bomber when the bomb was released, the epicenters of the explosions, the bomb yields, and the tilt of the bombs at time of explosion. The epicenter of a bomb is the explosion point in air that is specified in terms of a burst height and a hypocenter (or the point on the ground directly below the epicenter of the explosion). The current reassessment refines the energy yield and burst height for the Hiroshima bomb, as well as the locations of the Hiroshima and Nagasaki hypocenters on the modern city maps used in the analysis of the activation data for neutrons and TLD data for gamma rays. (J.P.N.)

  7. Fluorescence uranium determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An equipment for analysis of uranium by fluorescence was developed in order to determine it at such a low concentration that it can not be determined by the most sensible analytical methods. this new fluorimeter was adapted to measure the fluorescence emitted by the phosphorus sodium fluoride-sodium carbonate-potasium carbonate-uranyl, being excited by ultraviolet light of 3,650 A the intensity of the light emitted was measure with a photomultiplicator RCA 5819 and the adequate electronic equipment. (Author) 19 refs

  8. Nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article is a summary of a short course lecture given in conjunction with the 1984 Nuclear Science Symposium. Measuring systems for nanosecond fluorescence spectroscopy using single-photon counting techniques are presented. These involve systems based on relaxation-type spark gap light pulser and synchronously pumped mode-locked dye lasers. Furthermore, typical characteristics and optimization of operating conditions of the critical components responsible for the system time resolution are discussed. A short comparison of the most important deconvolution methods for numerical analysis of experimental data is given particularly with respect to the signal-to-noise ratio of the fluorescence signal. 22 refs., 8 figs

  9. Fluorescence activated cell sorting.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bonner, W. A.; Hulett, H. R.; Sweet, R. G.; Herzenberg, L. A.

    1972-01-01

    An instrument has been developed for sorting biological cells. The cells are rendered differentially fluorescent and incorporated into a small liquid stream illuminated by a laser beam. The cells pass sequentially through the beam, and fluorescent light from the cells gives rise to electrical signals. The stream is broken into a series of uniform size drops downstream of the laser. The cell signals are used to give appropriate electrostatic charges to drops containing the cells. The drops then pass between two charged plates and are deflected to appropriate containers. The system has proved capable of providing fractions containing large numbers of viable cells highly enriched in a particular functional type.

  10. SIMULTANEOUS MEASUREMENT OF CIRCULAR DICHROISM AND FLUORESCENCE POLARIZATION ANISOTROPY.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    SUTHERLAND,J.C.

    2002-01-19

    Circular dichroism and fluorescence polarization anisotropy are important tools for characterizing biomolecular systems. Both are used extensively in kinetic experiments involving stopped- or continuous flow systems as well as titrations and steady-state spectroscopy. This paper presents the theory for determining circular dichroism and fluorescence polarization anisotropy simultaneously, thus insuring the two parameters are recorded under exactly the same conditions and at exactly the same time in kinetic experiments. The approach to measuring circular dichroism is that used in almost all conventional dichrographs. Two arrangements for measuring fluorescence polarization anisotropy are described. One uses a single fluorescence detector and signal processing with a lock-in amplifier that is similar to the measurement of circular dichroism. The second approach uses classic ''T'' format detection optics, and thus can be used with conventional photon-counting detection electronics. Simple extensions permit the simultaneous measurement of the absorption and excitation intensity corrected fluorescence intensity.

  11. 基于实测光谱分析和MODIS数据鄱阳湖叶绿素a浓度估算%ESTIMATING CHLOROPHYLL-A CONCENTRATION IN POYANG LAKE USING MODIS BASED ON MEASURED REFLECTANCE SPECTRA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张永杰; 王卷乐; 冉盈盈; 杨飞; 曹晓明; 郭海会

    2013-01-01

    基于遥感的大面积水体监测技术为水环境监测提供了一种有效手段.以鄱阳湖为研究区,以反映水体营养状态的重要指标叶绿素a为研究对象,在测定研究区水体光谱及叶绿素a浓度和收集了相应时间的MODIS数据的基础上,采用浮游藻类指数法(Floating Algae Index,FAI)提取鄱阳湖水体范围,对鄱阳湖水体实测光谱数据进行剔除异常、归一化及光谱微分处理,构建波段差值、比值、归一化差值等光谱指数,利用最小二乘原理迭代分析水体叶绿素光谱响应特征,得出敏感波段范围:673~680 nm与650~665 nm、680~710 nm与650~670 nm、662~671 nm与700~720 nm光谱区间组合.选择最佳通道组合,建立基于MODIS影像的鄱阳湖叶绿素a浓度反演模型,相关系数为0.67.应用该模型得到2011年秋季鄱阳湖的叶绿素浓度估算值,反演结果显示湖区水体叶绿素浓度总体不高,且在空间分布上湖区水体周边与陆地交界处比湖中心区浓度偏高.分析认为:通过对实测光谱的定量分析,获得对鄱阳湖地区水体叶绿素浓度的光谱特征认识,揭示出其反射光谱的长波漂移现象,为鄱阳湖这一富营养化程度底,且水体分布不均匀区域建立一种叶绿素浓度反演方法,可为该区域长期的水环境管理提供方法借鉴.%It is an efficient method of water environment survey to using remote sensing data for large area water quality monitoring.The Poyang Lake was selected as the research area in this research.The chlorophyll-a content which gives an important index to eutrophic state of water was chosen as the study object.The water reflectance spectra were acquired with an ASD FieldSpec HH (350-1050nm) and the MODIS data collected during the same period.Based on MODIS data,the range of the Poyang Lake was extracted by a approach named Floating Algae Index (FAI).After the measured spectra were preprocessed with deleted abnormal data

  12. Ultraviolet fluorescence monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hargis, P.J. Jr.; Preppernau, B.L.; Aragon, B.P. [Sandia National Labs., Albuquerque, NM (United States). Laser, Optics and Remote Sensing Dept.

    1997-05-01

    A multispectral ultraviolet (UV) fluorescence imaging fluorometer and a pulsed molecular beam laser fluorometer were developed to detect volatile organic compounds of interest in environmental monitoring and drug interdiction applications. The UV fluorescence imaging fluorometer is a relatively simple instrument which uses multiple excitation wavelengths to measure the excitation/emission matrix for irradiated samples. Detection limits in the high part-per-million to low part-per-million range were measured for a number of volatile organic vapors in the atmosphere. Detection limits in the low part-per-million range were obtained using cryogenic cooling to pre-concentrate unknown samples before introducing them into the imaging fluorometer. A multivariate analysis algorithm was developed to analyze the excitation/emission matrix and used to determine the relative concentrations of species in computer synthesized mixtures containing up to five organic compounds. Analysis results demonstrated the utility of multispectral UV fluorescence in analytical measurements. A transportable UV fluorescence imaging fluorometer was used in two field tests. Field test results demonstrated that detection limits in the part-per-billion range were needed to reliably identify volatile organic compounds in realistic field test measurements. The molecular beam laser fluorometer, a more complex instrument with detection limits in the part-per-billion to part-per-trillion range, was therefore developed to satisfy detection sensitivity requirements for field test measurements. High-resolution spectroscopic measurements made with the molecular beam laser fluorometer demonstrated its utility in identifying volatile organic compounds in the atmosphere.

  13. Yeast fluorescence microscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hašek, Jiří

    New Jersey : Humana Press, 2005, s. 85-96. ISBN 1-59259-958-3 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA5020102; GA ČR GA204/02/1424 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50200510 Keywords : yeast * fluorescence microscopy * immunofluorescence Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology

  14. Biomass,cadmium accumulation and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters response of Ageratum conyzoides to different concentrations of cadmium stress%藿香蓟的镉积累、生物量及叶绿素荧光参数对不同梯度镉胁迫的响应

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孙园园; 徐玲玲; 冯旭东; 关萍

    2015-01-01

    通过盆栽试验,研究藿香蓟(Ageratum conyzoides)的地上部和地下部Cd含量、干重、转运系数、根冠比及叶片叶绿素荧光参数对不同梯度Cd胁迫的响应.结果表明:随 Cd胁迫浓度增加,藿香蓟转运系数逐渐降低,地上部和地下部Cd含量随Cd胁迫浓度的增加而逐渐升高,在 Cd(300 mg•kg-1)胁迫下,植株地上部Cd含量为125.50 mg•kg-1,这一结果已超过Cd超富集植物的临界值(100 mg•kg-1);植株地上部及地下部干重随Cd胁迫浓度的增加均逐渐降低,且中、高浓度Cd胁迫对植物的生长具有显著的抑制作用,各处理间的根冠比呈上升趋势并比对照高,可见高浓度Cd胁迫可阻碍根系的生长,从而影响植物地上部对营养和水分的吸收,最终抑制植株生长及生物产量的提高;PSⅡ的最大光化学效率(Fv/Fm)、PSⅡ的潜在光化学效率(Fv/Fo)随着Cd胁迫浓度的增加均逐渐升高,初始荧光(Fo)和最大荧光(Fm)均逐渐降低,光量子产量(ФPSⅡ)、电子传递效率(ETR)、光化学猝灭系数(qP )及非光化学猝灭系数(qN )均出现先升后降的趋势;Cd胁迫扰乱叶片正常时期的光合特性及延缓植株衰老,但各处理间的叶绿素荧光动力学参数差异不显著,Cd胁迫对叶片PSⅡ反应中心的电子传递、光化学反应及散热能力影响较弱;高浓度 Cd胁迫明显抑制植株的生长,但植株地上部及地下部的Cd积累能力较强,可作为植物修复重金属污染土壤的备选植物并用来治理Cd污染的土壤.%The pot experiments was conducted to investigate the above ground Cd content,below ground Cd content, transfer factor,above ground dry weight,below ground dry weight,ratio of root to shoot and chlorophyll fluorescence parameters response of Ageratum conyzoides to different concentrations of Cd stress.The results showed that the transfer factor of A.conyzoides decreased gradually with Cd concentration increasing.However,the above

  15. Comparative studies on the interaction of cefixime with bovine serum albumin by fluorescence quenching spectroscopy and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Lihui; Liu, Baosheng; Li, Zhiyun; Guo, Ying

    2015-08-01

    Under simulated physiological conditions, the reaction mechanism between cefixime and bovine serum albumin at different temperatures (293, 303 and 310 K) was investigated using a fluorescence quenching method and synchronous fluorescence method, respectively. The results indicated that the fluorescence intensity and synchronous fluorescence intensity of bovine serum albumin decreased regularly on the addition of cefixime. In addition, the quenching mechanism, binding constants, number of binding sites, type of interaction force and energy-transfer parameters of cefixime with bovine serum albumin obtained from two methods using the same equation were consistent. The results indicated that the synchronous fluorescence spectrometry could be used to study the binding mechanism between drug and protein, and was a useful supplement to the conventional method. PMID:25351241

  16. Statistical filtering in fluorescence microscopy and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Macháň, Radek; Kapusta, Peter; Hof, Martin

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 406, č. 20 (2014), s. 4797-4813. ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA ČR GBP208/12/G016 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : Filtered fluorescence correlation spectroscopy * Fluorescence lifetime correlation spectroscopy * Fluorescence spectral correlation spectroscopy Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.436, year: 2014

  17. Fluorescence enhancement with the optical (bi-) conical antenna

    CERN Document Server

    Mohammadi, Ahmad; Sandoghdar, Vahid; Agio, Mario

    2010-01-01

    We investigate the properties of finite gold nanocones as optical antennas for enhancing molecular fluorescence. We compute the modification of the excitation rate, spontaneous emission rate, and quantum efficiency as a function of the nanocone base and length, showing that the maximum field and fluorescence enhancements do not occur for the same nanocone parameters. We compare the results with those for nanorods and nanospheroids and find that nanocones perform better.

  18. Manipulation of the atomic localization via resonance fluorescence

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The possibility of manipulating the position of atoms dressed in the standing field of the cavity, based on the resonance fluorescence emission, is discussed. Stark dynamics modification and the strong coupling between two undistinguishable radiators situated in non-symmetric positions of the anti-nodes are investigated. The fluorescent spectrum is shown versus the second atom localization and external field parameters. We describe the conditions in which the Rabi frequencies of atoms change their correlations and cooperative emission. (paper)

  19. Monitoring Gramicidin Conformations in Membranes: A Fluorescence Approach

    OpenAIRE

    RAWAT, SATINDER S.; Kelkar, Devaki A.; Chattopadhyay, Amitabha

    2004-01-01

    We have monitored the membrane-bound channel and nonchannel conformations of gramicidin utilizing red-edge excitation shift (REES), and related fluorescence parameters. In particular, we have used fluorescence lifetime, polarization, quenching, chemical modification, and membrane penetration depth analysis in addition to REES measurements to distinguish these two conformations. Our results show that REES of gramicidin tryptophans can be effectively used to distinguish conformations of membran...

  20. Quantum dots fluorescence quantum yield measured by Thermal Lens Spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Estupiñán-López, Carlos; Dominguez, Christian Tolentino; Cabral Filho, Paulo E; Fontes, Adriana; de Araujo, Renato E

    2014-01-01

    An essential parameter to evaluate the light emission properties of fluorophores is the fluorescence quantum yield, which quantify the conversion efficiency of absorbed photons to emitted photons. We detail here an alternative nonfluorescent method to determine the absolute fluorescence quantum yield of quantum dots (QDs). The method is based in the so-called Thermal Lens Spectroscopy (TLS) technique, which consists on the evaluation of refractive index gradient thermally induced in the fluorescent material by the absorption of light. Aqueous dispersion carboxyl-coated cadmium telluride (CdTe) QDs samples were used to demonstrate the Thermal Lens Spectroscopy technical procedure. PMID:25103802

  1. Pollution detection using the spectral fluorescent signatures (SFS technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mª Del Carmen Martín

    2014-06-01

    was adopted as the ligand owing to its ability to react with Al3+ ion to form the stoichiometric 1:3 complex (Figure 4 with excellent fluorescent properties. On the other hand the microalgae Chlorella vulgaris was tested for growth in a photobioreactor (Figure 5 with controlled growth conditions. The system is monitored throughout software developed by the Remote Sensing laboratory (University of Vigo. It allows checking in real time all system variables, to connect a pH sensor as well and to register temperature. Besides each one of its 8 columns can be individually controlled. The SFS in BIO mode of a sample of C. vulgaris and aluminum complex are shown in Figure 6. In this image, maximum intensity value corresponds to the 465.0/690.0 nm excitation/emission wavelength for C. vulgaris and to 415.0/530.0 nm for the aluminum complex. Figure 7 shows (in UV mode the comparison between the SFS of C. vulgaris and the aluminum complex fluorescence. Maximum value for the aluminum complex appears at 360/495 nm excitation/emission for this complex. SFSs of C. vulgaris and the aluminum complex are both, clearly different (in BIO or in UV mode and the region of the image where the maximum value appears is also visibly characteristic. Besides, UV and BIO images can be used in a complementary manner when it comes to the discrimination of compounds.Finally, a study between absorption measurements and chlorophyll-a (through SFS has been carried out. A total of 14 samples (obtained by a series of dilutions of a C. vulgaris culture with an initial concentration of 2.70E+07 cell/mL (Figure 8 have been examined with the SFS analyzer Instant Screener. For absorbance measurements (Figure 9, a PX-2 lamp has been used as the exclusive source of light. The same volume (50 mL of the sample has been used for each measurement. The signal has been obtained with a USB4000-FL spectrophotometer.

  2. Green fluorescent protein: A perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Remington, S James

    2011-01-01

    A brief personal perspective is provided for green fluorescent protein (GFP), covering the period 1994–2011. The topics discussed are primarily those in which my research group has made a contribution and include structure and function of the GFP polypeptide, the mechanism of fluorescence emission, excited state protein transfer, the design of ratiometric fluorescent protein biosensors and an overview of the fluorescent proteins derived from coral reef animals. Structure-function relationship...

  3. Rainbow Vectors for Broad-Range Bacterial Fluorescence Labeling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barbier, Mariette; Damron, F Heath

    2016-01-01

    Since their discovery, fluorescent proteins have been widely used to study protein function, localization or interaction, promoter activity and regulation, drug discovery or for non-invasive imaging. They have been extensively modified to improve brightness, stability, and oligomerization state. However, only a few studies have focused on understanding the dynamics of fluorescent proteins expression in bacteria. In this work, we developed a set plasmids encoding 12 fluorescent proteins for bacterial labeling to facilitate the study of pathogen-host interactions. These broad-spectrum plasmids can be used with a wide variety of Gram-negative microorganisms including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Shigella flexneri or Klebsiella pneumoniae. For comparison, fluorescent protein expression and physical characteristics in Escherichia coli were analyzed using fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and in vivo imaging. Fluorescent proteins derived from the Aequorea Victoria family showed high photobleaching, while proteins form the Discosoma sp. and the Fungia coccina family were more photostable for microscopy applications. Only E2-Crimson, mCherry and mKeima were successfully detected for in vivo applications. Overall, E2-Crimson was the fastest maturing protein tested in E. coli with the best overall performance in the study parameters. This study provides a unified comparison and comprehensive characterization of fluorescent protein photostability, maturation and toxicity, and offers general recommendations on the optimal fluorescent proteins for in vitro and in vivo applications. PMID:26937640

  4. Rainbow Vectors for Broad-Range Bacterial Fluorescence Labeling.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariette Barbier

    Full Text Available Since their discovery, fluorescent proteins have been widely used to study protein function, localization or interaction, promoter activity and regulation, drug discovery or for non-invasive imaging. They have been extensively modified to improve brightness, stability, and oligomerization state. However, only a few studies have focused on understanding the dynamics of fluorescent proteins expression in bacteria. In this work, we developed a set plasmids encoding 12 fluorescent proteins for bacterial labeling to facilitate the study of pathogen-host interactions. These broad-spectrum plasmids can be used with a wide variety of Gram-negative microorganisms including Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Burkholderia cepacia, Bordetella bronchiseptica, Shigella flexneri or Klebsiella pneumoniae. For comparison, fluorescent protein expression and physical characteristics in Escherichia coli were analyzed using fluorescence microscopy, flow cytometry and in vivo imaging. Fluorescent proteins derived from the Aequorea Victoria family showed high photobleaching, while proteins form the Discosoma sp. and the Fungia coccina family were more photostable for microscopy applications. Only E2-Crimson, mCherry and mKeima were successfully detected for in vivo applications. Overall, E2-Crimson was the fastest maturing protein tested in E. coli with the best overall performance in the study parameters. This study provides a unified comparison and comprehensive characterization of fluorescent protein photostability, maturation and toxicity, and offers general recommendations on the optimal fluorescent proteins for in vitro and in vivo applications.

  5. Synthesis and Fluorescence Spectra of Triazolylcoumarin Fluorescent Dyes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    PENG Xian-fu; LI Hong-qi

    2009-01-01

    Much attention is devoted to fluorescent dyes especially those with potential in versatile applications. Reactions under "click" conditions between nonfluorescent 3 - azidocoumarins and terminal alkynes produced 3 -(1, 2, 3- triazol- 1 - yl)cournarins, a novel type of fluorescent dyes with intense fluorescence. The structures of the new coumarins were characterized by 1H NMR, MS, and IR spectra. Fluorescence spectra measurement demonstrated excellent fluorescence performance of the triazolylcoumarins and this click reaction is a promising candidate for bioconjugation and bioimaging applications since both azide and alkynes are quite inert to biological systems.

  6. Fluorescence nanoscopy. Methods and applications

    OpenAIRE

    Requejo-Isidro, Jose

    2013-01-01

    Fluorescence nanoscopy refers to the experimental techniques and analytical methods used for fluorescence imaging at a resolution higher than conventional, diffraction-limited, microscopy. This review explains the concepts behind fluorescence nanoscopy and focuses on the latest and promising developments in acquisition techniques, labelling strategies to obtain highly detailed super-resolved images and in the quantitative methods to extract meaningful information from them.

  7. Fluorescence spectroscopy of dental calculus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of the present study was to investigate the fluorescence properties of dental calculus in comparison with the properties of adjacent unaffected tooth structure using both lasers and LEDs in the UV-visible range for fluorescence excitation. The influence of calculus color on the informative signal is demonstrated. The optimal spectral bands of excitation and registration of the fluorescence are determined

  8. Physiological parameters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The physiological characteristics of man depend on the intake, metabolism and excretion of stable elements from food, water, and air. The physiological behavior of natural radionuclides and radionuclides from nuclear weapons testing and from the utilization of nuclear energy is believed to follow the pattern of stable elements. Hence information on the normal physiological processes occurring in the human body plays an important role in the assessment of the radiation dose received by man. Two important physiological parameters needed for internal dose determination are the pulmonary function and the water balance. In the Coordinated Research Programme on the characterization of Asian population, five participants submitted data on these physiological characteristics - China, India, Japan, Philippines and Viet Nam. During the CRP, data on other pertinent characteristics such as physical and dietary were simultaneously being collected. Hence, the information on the physiological characteristics alone, coming from the five participants were not complete and are probably not sufficient to establish standard values for the Reference Asian Man. Nonetheless, the data collected is a valuable contribution to this research programme

  9. Characterization of DNA sequences that mediate nuclear protein binding to the regulatory region of the Pisum sativum (pea) chlorophyl a/b binding protein gene AB80: identification of a repeated heptamer motif.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Argüello, G; García-Hernández, E; Sánchez, M; Gariglio, P; Herrera-Estrella, L; Simpson, J

    1992-05-01

    Two protein factors binding to the regulatory region of the pea chlorophyl a/b binding protein gene AB80 have been identified. One of these factors is found only in green tissue but not in etiolated or root tissue. The second factor (denominated ABF-2) binds to a DNA sequence element that contains a direct heptamer repeat TCTCAAA. It was found that presence of both of the repeats is essential for binding. ABF-2 is present in both green and etiolated tissue and in roots and factors analogous to ABF-2 are present in several plant species. Computer analysis showed that the TCTCAAA motif is present in the regulatory region of several plant genes. PMID:1303797

  10. Remote sensing of chlorophyll fluorescence with GOSAT

    Science.gov (United States)

    Somkuti, Peter; Boesch, Hartmut; Parker, Robert

    2015-04-01

    Sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (Fs) emitted by plants as a by-product during photosynthesis carries information about their photosynthetic activity. It is possible to exploit space-based remote sensing measurements to retrieve the fluorescence signal and thus indirectly study carbon fluxes on a global scale. We implement a fluorescence retrieval based on the method pioneered by Frankenberg et al. (2011) into the framework of the University of Leicester Full-Physics GOSAT CO2 retrieval (UoL-FP). This physically-based approach is applied to high-resolution spectra at the edges of the O2 A-Band in the red to NIR range, that feature strong solar as well as a few weak O2 absorption lines. The fluorescence signal, which acts as an additional source, results in an in-filling of the measured solar absorption lines that are used to distinguish Fs from reflectance effects. By analysing GOSAT soundings from 2009 onwards, we examine global and regional long-term trends of Fs and compare them with parameters related to plant physiology, such as spectral vegetation indices and MODIS-derived model GPP values. Following Guanter et al. (2012) and Frankenberg et al. (2011), different regions and biomes are considered and we find that seasonal trends of both model GPP data as well as greenness indicators are well reproduced by our GOSAT-retrieved Fs.

  11. Chlorophyll a and inorganic suspended solids in backwaters of the upper Mississippi River system: Backwater lake effects and their associations with selected environmental predictors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rogala, James T.; Gray, Brian R.

    2006-01-01

    The Long Term Resource Monitoring Program (LTRMP) uses a stratified random sampling design to obtain water quality statistics within selected study reaches of the Upper Mississippi River System (UMRS). LTRMP sampling strata are based on aquatic area types generally found in large rivers (e.g., main channel, side channel, backwater, and impounded areas). For hydrologically well-mixed strata (i.e., main channel), variance associated with spatial scales smaller than the strata scale is a relatively minor issue for many water quality parameters. However, analysis of LTRMP water quality data has shown that within-strata variability at the strata scale is high in off-channel areas (i.e., backwaters). A portion of that variability may be associated with differences among individual backwater lakes (i.e., small and large backwater regions separated by channels) that cumulatively make up the backwater stratum. The objective of the statistical modeling presented here is to determine if differences among backwater lakes account for a large portion of the variance observed in the backwater stratum for selected parameters. If variance associated with backwater lakes is high, then inclusion of backwater lake effects within statistical models is warranted. Further, lakes themselves may represent natural experimental units where associations of interest to management may be estimated.

  12. Magnetic fluorescent lamp

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berman, S.M.; Richardson R.W.

    1983-12-29

    The radiant emission of a mercury-argon discharge in a fluorescent lamp assembly is enhanced by providing means for establishing a magnetic field with lines of force along the path of electron flow through the bulb of the lamp assembly, to provide Zeeman splitting of the ultraviolet spectral line. Optimum results are obtained when the magnetic field strength causes a Zeeman splitting of approximately 1.7 times the thermal line width.

  13. Plasmonic fluorescent quantum dots

    OpenAIRE

    Jin, Yongdong; Gao, Xiaohu

    2009-01-01

    Combining multiple discrete components into a single multifunctional nanoparticle could be useful in a variety of applications. Retaining the unique optical and electrical properties of each component after nanoscale integration is, however, a long-standing problem1,2. It is particularly difficult when trying to combine fluorophores such as semiconductor quantum dots with plasmonic materials such as gold, because gold and other metals can quench the fluorescence3,4. So far, the combination of...

  14. Fluorescent nanodiamond for biomedicine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    NV centers in diamond have gained strong interest as a novel tool for quantum information processing, quantum computing and quantum photonics. These applications are based on fluorescent and spin properties of NV-centres. However, in some conditions NV- can lose an electron and turn to NV0. The occupation of NV0 and NV- charge states depend on the position of their ground states with respect to the Fermi level and the mechanism of the charge transfer. Interestingly, that the charge switch has important implications on applications of fluorescent nanodiamond (fND) to nano-biology and nano-medicine. fND can be used for bio-marking and bio-tracking but also for the monitoring of targeted delivery to the cells. In this presentation we review the current state-of-the art for using fND particles for fluorescent bio imaging in cells and discuss the charge transfer and its luminescence stability by using ultra high sensitive spectroscopy methods to study the NV0 and NV- state occupation. (author)

  15. Spectrally resolved multidepth fluorescence imaging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Yuan; Zervantonakis, Ioannis K.; Oh, Se Baek; Kamm, Roger D.; Barbastathis, George

    2011-09-01

    We present a multicolor fluorescence imaging modality to visualize in real-time tissue structures emitting multispectral fluorescent light from different focal depths. Each designated spectrum of fluorescent emission from a specific depth within a volumetric tissue is probed by a depth-spectrum selective holographic grating. The grating for each fluorescent color are multiplexed within a volume hologram, which enables simultaneously obtaining multicolored fluorescent information at different depths within a biological tissue sample. We demonstrate the imaging modality's ability to obtain laser-induced multicolored fluorescence images of a biological sample from different depths without scanning. We also experimentally demonstrate that the imaging modality can be simultaneously operated at both fluorescent and bright field modes to provide complementary information of volumetric tissue structures at different depths in real-time.

  16. Effects of Reduced Solar Radiation on Chlorophyll Fluorescence Parameters and Gas Exchange in Winter Wheat of Grain Filling Periods%太阳辐射减弱对冬小麦灌浆期叶绿素荧光及气体交换的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郑有飞; 倪艳利; 麦博儒; 冯妍; 孙健; 李健; 徐静馨

    2011-01-01

    In the recent years, global dimming of solar irradiance is growing due to the increase of aerosols, air pollutants and population density. In order to elucidate the effects of reduced solar irradiance on chlorophyll fluorescence parameters and gas exchange of winter wheat cultivar, we conducted a field experiment in Nanjing city by using the Triticum aestivum L. (cv.Yang mai 13) as the experimental plants. Five reduced solar radiation treatments were set up in the experiments, including 15%(T4), 20%(T3), 40%(T2), 60%(T1 )and 100%(CK)of natural solar radiation, while using Diving-PAM chlorophyll fluorometer and Lcpro+ photosynthesis to measured at different grain filling stages of crop chlorophyll fluorescence and gas exchange of the dynamic changes. The results showed that reducing solar radiation significantly increased chlorophyll and lutein content of winter wheat in the grain filling stage, but the Chla/Chlb and photosynthetic rate( Pn) continued to decrease. Fv/Fm, qP, Y( NO), ( 1 -qP)INPQ and the actual photochemical efficiency(Yield) increased with solar radiation intensity decreased, and show a downward trend, but NPQ, Y (NPQ) and L (PFD) rised. Visible, less solar radiationis cut in winter wheat leaves, when the primary photochemical reaction of PS II electron transfers efficiency met the energy shortage of stress( a decline in photochemical quenching qP). Meanwhile, reducing the electronic delivery of the body (PQ) activity (quantum efficiency Yield was lower), was to increase the heat dissipation leaves, resulting in reduced photosynthetic capacity.%以冬小麦为供试材料,在大用试验条件下研究了模拟太阳辐射减弱对冬小麦旗叶光合色素、叶绿素荧光参数及气体交换的影响.试验中设计了15%、20% 、40% 、60%和100%(CK)自然太阳总辐射5种太阳总辐射处理,同时采用Diving-PAM叶绿素荧光仪和LCpro+光合仪测定了不同灌浆阶段作物叶绿素荧光及气体交换参数的动态

  17. Photosensitive holographic material with a medium of fluorescent ink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivares-Pérez, A.; Toxqui-López, S.; Fuentes-Tapia, I.; Ortiz-Gutiérrez, M.; Mellado-Villaseñor, G.

    2012-03-01

    Recent researches have been reported that is possible increase the diffraction efficiency parameter from holographic gratings when photosensitive material (PVA with ammonium dichromate) it is painted after register the hologram with commercial fluorescent ink. In this research we shown that PVA as a binder, with the fluorescent ink and ammonium dichromate, this mixed can be used as recording medium. We characterize this material by implementing holographic films in which holographic gratings are recorded with a He- Cd laser at 442nm, and measuring holographic parameters such as diffraction efficiency. We get increased the diffraction efficiency and also the lifetime of the film.

  18. A Comprehensive Review on Water Quality Parameters Estimation Using Remote Sensing Techniques.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholizadeh, Mohammad Haji; Melesse, Assefa M; Reddi, Lakshmi

    2016-01-01

    Remotely sensed data can reinforce the abilities of water resources researchers and decision makers to monitor waterbodies more effectively. Remote sensing techniques have been widely used to measure the qualitative parameters of waterbodies (i.e., suspended sediments, colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM), chlorophyll-a, and pollutants). A large number of different sensors on board various satellites and other platforms, such as airplanes, are currently used to measure the amount of radiation at different wavelengths reflected from the water's surface. In this review paper, various properties (spectral, spatial and temporal, etc.) of the more commonly employed spaceborne and airborne sensors are tabulated to be used as a sensor selection guide. Furthermore, this paper investigates the commonly used approaches and sensors employed in evaluating and quantifying the eleven water quality parameters. The parameters include: chlorophyll-a (chl-a), colored dissolved organic matters (CDOM), Secchi disk depth (SDD), turbidity, total suspended sediments (TSS), water temperature (WT), total phosphorus (TP), sea surface salinity (SSS), dissolved oxygen (DO), biochemical oxygen demand (BOD) and chemical oxygen demand (COD). PMID:27537896

  19. Estimating phytoplankton photosynthesis by active fluorescence

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falkowski, P.G.; Kolber, Z.

    1992-10-01

    Photosynthesis can be described by target theory, At low photon flux densities, photosynthesis is a linear function of irradiance (I), The number of reaction centers (n), their effective absorption capture cross section {sigma}, and a quantum yield {phi}. As photosynthesis becomes increasingly light saturated, an increased fraction of reaction centers close. At light saturation the maximum photosynthetic rate is given as the product of the number of reaction centers (n) and their maximum electron transport rate (I/{tau}). Using active fluorometry it is possible to measure non-destructively and in real time the fraction of open or closed reaction centers under ambient irradiance conditions in situ, as well as {sigma} and {phi} {tau} can be readily, calculated from knowledge of the light saturation parameter, I{sub k} (which can be deduced by in situ by active fluorescence measurements) and {sigma}. We built a pump and probe fluorometer, which is interfaced with a CTD. The instrument measures the fluorescence yield of a weak probe flash preceding (f{sub 0}) and succeeding (f{sub 0}) a saturating pump flash. Profiles of the these fluorescence yields are used to derive the instantaneous rate of gross photosynthesis in natural phytoplankton communities without any incubation. Correlations with short-term simulated in situ radiocarbon measurements are extremely high. The average slope between photosynthesis derived from fluorescence and that measured by radiocarbon is 1.15 and corresponds to the average photosynthetic quotient. The intercept is about 15% of the maximum radiocarbon uptake and corresponds to the average net community respiration. Profiles of photosynthesis and sections showing the variability in its composite parameters reveal a significant effect of nutrient availability on biomass specific rates of photosynthesis in the ocean.

  20. Annual cycles of chlorophyll-a, non-algal suspended particulate matter, and turbidity observed from space and in-situ in coastal waters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. Gohin

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available Sea surface temperature, chlorophyll, and turbidity are three variables of the coastal environment commonly measured by monitoring networks. The observation networks are often based on coastal stations, which do not provide a sufficient coverage to validate the model outputs or to be used in assimilation over the continental shelf. Conversely, the products derived from satellite reflectance generally show a decreasing quality shoreward, and an assessment of the limitation of these data is required. The annual cycle, mean, and percentile 90 of the chlorophyll concentration derived from MERIS/ESA and MODIS/NASA data processed with a dedicated algorithm have been compared to in-situ observations at twenty-six selected stations from the Mediterranean Sea to the North Sea. Keeping in mind the validation, the forcing, or the assimilation in hydrological, sediment-transport, or ecological models, the non-algal Suspended Particulate Matter (SPM is also a parameter which is expected from the satellite imagery. However, the monitoring networks measure essentially the turbidity and a consistency between chlorophyll, representative of the phytoplankton biomass, non-algal SPM, and turbidity is required. In this study, we derive the satellite turbidity from chlorophyll and non-algal SPM with a common formula applied to in-situ or satellite observations. The distribution of the satellite-derived turbidity exhibits the same main statistical characteristics as those measured in-situ, which satisfies the first condition to monitor the long-term changes or the large-scale spatial variation over the continental shelf and along the shore. For the first time, climatologies of turbidity, so useful for mapping the environment of the benthic habitats, are proposed from space on areas as different as the southern North Sea or the western Mediterranean Sea, with validation at coastal stations.

  1. A continuous water sampling and multi-parameter measurement system for estuaries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schemel, Laurence E.; Dedini, Lee A.

    1979-01-01

    Salinity, temperature, light transmissivity, oxygen saturation, turbidity, pH, pCO2, and chlorophyll a fluorescence of a pumped water sample are continuously measured with a system designed primarily for estuarine studies. Near-surface water from a depth of 2 m is sampled continuously while the vessel is underway or water at depths to 100 m can be collected with an in situ pump, in which case the sampling depth and temperature are measured by an in situ probe. The system is comprised of commercially available instruments, equipment, and components, and of specialized items designed and fabricated by the authors. Data can be read from digital displays and analog strip-chart recorders. Tables and figures describing specialized items are included.

  2. The development of attenuation compensation models of fluorescence spectroscopy signals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dremin, Victor V.; Zherebtsov, Evgeny A.; Rafailov, Ilya E.; Vinokurov, Andrey Y.; Novikova, Irina N.; Zherebtsova, Angelina I.; Litvinova, Karina S.; Dunaev, Andrey V.

    2016-04-01

    This study examines the effect of blood absorption on the endogenous fluorescence signal intensity of biological tissues. Experimental studies were conducted to identify these effects. To register the fluorescence intensity, the fluorescence spectroscopy method was employed. The intensity of the blood flow was measured by laser Doppler flowmetry. We proposed one possible implementation of the Monte Carlo method for the theoretical analysis of the effect of blood on the fluorescence signals. The simulation is constructed as a four-layer skin optical model based on the known optical parameters of the skin with different levels of blood supply. With the help of the simulation, we demonstrate how the level of blood supply can affect the appearance of the fluorescence spectra. In addition, to describe the properties of biological tissue, which may affect the fluorescence spectra, we turned to the method of diffuse reflectance spectroscopy (DRS). Using the spectral data provided by the DRS, the tissue attenuation effect can be extracted and used to correct the fluorescence spectra.

  3. Fluorescence analyzer for lignin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berthold, John W.; Malito, Michael L.; Jeffers, Larry

    1993-01-01

    A method and apparatus for measuring lignin concentration in a sample of wood pulp or black liquor comprises a light emitting arrangement for emitting an excitation light through optical fiber bundles into a probe which has an undiluted sensing end facing the sample. The excitation light causes the lignin concentration to produce fluorescent emission light which is then conveyed through the probe to analyzing equipment which measures the intensity of the emission light. Measures a This invention was made with Government support under Contract Number DOE: DE-FC05-90CE40905 awarded by the Department of Energy (DOE). The Government has certain rights in this invention.

  4. Fluorescent temperature sensor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baker, Gary A [Los Alamos, NM; Baker, Sheila N [Los Alamos, NM; McCleskey, T Mark [Los Alamos, NM

    2009-03-03

    The present invention is a fluorescent temperature sensor or optical thermometer. The sensor includes a solution of 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane within a 1-butyl-1-1-methylpyrrolidinium bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide ionic liquid solvent. The 1,3-bis(1-pyrenyl)propane remains unassociated when in the ground state while in solution. When subjected to UV light, an excited state is produced that exists in equilibrium with an excimer. The position of the equilibrium between the two excited states is temperature dependent.

  5. The effect of storage temperature of cucumber fruit on chlorophyll fluorescence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ryszard Kosson

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available The effect of three storage temperature levels: 12,5°C, 20°C, and 1,5°C on basic indexes of chlorophyll fluorescence of cucumber fruits was studied. The greenhouse grown cucumber fruits cv. Wiktor F1 were stored in perforated polyethylene bags or without packages. The minimum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fo, maximum chlorophyll fluorescence (Fm, variable chlorophyll fluorescence (Fv and relative variable fluorescence (Fv/Fm of the cucumber peel were measured. Relative variable fluorescence was decTeasing when cucumbers were stored at temperature lower or higher than optimum level. The chlorophyll fluorescence measurements can be helpful for determination of appropriate temperature parameters of cucumber storage.

  6. [Study on interaction of caffeine with myoglobin by fluorescence spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, He-Yong; Gu, Xiao-Tian; Ding, Yan; Zhou, Jia-Hong; Feng, Yu-Ying

    2009-10-01

    The interaction of caffein and myoglobin was investigated by fluorescence spectroscopy and synchronous fluorescence spectroscopy. The intrinsic fluorescence of myoglobin was significantly quenched by caffein under the physiological condition (pH 7.4). The results indicated that caffeine was capable of binding with myoglobin to form a 1:1 complex and the quenching mechanism of myoglobin affected by caffeine was shown to be a static quenching procedure by calculating quenching constant, binding sites and binding constant. According to the thermodynamic parameters, the main binding force of the interaction is electrostatic force and hydrophobic force. The change in the micro-circumstance of aminos of myoglobin was analyzed by synchronous fluorescence spectrometry. The result indicated that caffeine can change the conformation of the protein, leading to the change in the micro-environment of tryptophane and tyrosine residues from hydrophobic environment to hydrophilic environment to different extent. PMID:20038063

  7. [Fluorescence fingerprint transformation of municipal wastewater caused by aerobic treatment].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Jing; Cui, Shuo; Xie, Chao-bo; Cao, Zhi-ping; Chen, Mao-fu; Lü, Yan-li

    2011-12-01

    The conventional parameters such as COD and BOD only could represent information about total organic content. Fluorescence spectrum can display organic composition and it is unique for each sample, so it is referred as "fluorescence fingerprint". In the present study transformation of excitation-emission matrix of municipal wastewater with sewage as major components after aerobic treatment was investigated and then the zones of biodegradable and non-biodegradable organic matters were figured out: the fluorescence at excitation wavelength/emission wavelength of about 280/340 nm and 225/240 nm derived from biodegradable organics and those of the zone of excitation wavelength above 300 nm and the zone of excitation wavelength below 300 nm and emission wavelength above 400 nm were mainly related with non-biodegradable organics. The above-mentioned results indicated that fluorescence fingerprint could be used to evaluate the performance and instruct design and operation of aerobic systems. PMID:22295782

  8. Characterization of diatom-derived lipids and chlorophyll within Holocene laminites, Saanich Inlet, British Columbia, using conventional and laser scanning fluorescence microscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stasiuk, L.D. [Natural Resources Canada, Geological Survey of Canada, Calgary, AB (Canada); Sanei, H. [University of Victoria, BC (Canada). School of Earth and Ocean Sciences

    2001-07-01

    Conventional fluorescence microscopy and visible light region fluorescence microspectrometry have been combined with laser scanning fluorescence microscopy (LSFM) to examine and characterize soluble sedimentary organic matter (SOM) in Holocene diatomaceous laminites from ODP core 1034, Saanich Inlet, British Columbia, Canada. Microscopic SOM in the laminites is dominated by two components: red-fluorescing chlorophyllinite, and yellow-fluorescing, diatom-derived oils. Both are commonly preserved within the interior of siliceous diatom auxospores and appear as an abundant and intense stain on mineral matter throughout the laminites. The mineral stain is classified as matrix chlorophyllinite and matrix oil, respectively. Accessory insoluble SOM consists of dinoflagellate, prasinophyte and coccoidal alginites, and rare woody huminite, funginite, and sporinite. Visible light region fluorescence microspectrometry of chlorophyllinite reveals a predominance at {lambda} max 670-675 nm, which is consistent with a chlorophyll a source based on comparison with reference samples of chlorophyll a and b. The consistency in {lambda}max and spectral character of chlorophyllinite with increasing depth in Saanich Inlet correlates with a high degree of chlorophyll preservation. Its distribution in the laminites is readily imaged by LSFM using either UV (363 nm) or blue (488 nm) laser excitation and >665 nm emission. Yellow-fluorescing diatom oils have {lambda}max ranging from 485 to 520 nm, suggesting that they may comprise up to 70 per cent saturates. The distribution of entrapped yellow-fluorescing diatom oils as well as matrix oils is also readily imaged with LSFM using a combination of UV laser excitation (363 nm) and 510{+-}40 nm emission. Laminae on the Saanich Inlet samples which are highly enriched in both diatom oils and 'reproductive' auxospore cells are interpreted as recording intense episodic spring diatom blooms. The observations reported here document

  9. Application of a partial least-squares regression model to retrieve chlorophyll- a concentrations in coastal waters using hyper-spectral data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, Kimberly; Ali, Khalid

    2016-03-01

    Coastal and inland waters represent a diverse set of resources that support natural habitats and provide valuable ecosystem services to the human population. Monitoring the quality of these waters is essential to maintaining the resources they provide, and long-term monitoring may offer a better understanding of the relationship between human development and the health of these resource producers. The implementation of conventional monitoring is typically time-intensive and limited in geographic scale. Alternatively, the use of airborne and spaceborne remote sensors provides a synoptic view of water quality with better spatial coverage to more accurately identify dynamic and unique parameters. Concentrations of optically active constituents (OACs) such as suspended sediments and the phytoplankton pigment chlorophylla (CHL a), act as proxies for water quality and can be detected by optical sensors. Traditional remote sensing techniques were developed using multispectral sensors, and employ band ratio algorithms that seek to predict the concentrations of OACs in relation to water quality. In complex coastal waters, overlapping spectral signatures of OACs often confound these algorithms and reduce their predictive capacity. The objective of this study was to develop a dataset to test the predictive capabilities of partial least-squares regression, a multivariate statistical method, for hyperspectral remote sensing and in situ CHL a concentrations. This paper presents the model performance for a dataset developed in Long Bay, a ~160 km arcuate bay that spans the border between North and South Carolina. The model uses multivariate-based statistical modeling to capitalize on the spectral advantage gained by hyperspectral sensors when observing such waters. Following this approach, a multivariate-based monitoring tool for the prediction of CHL a concentrations is presented with a partial least-squares regression (PLSR) method using hyperspectral and laboratory

  10. A fluorescence scanning electron microscope

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Takaaki Kanemaru

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Fluorescence techniques are widely used in biological research to examine molecular localization, while electron microscopy can provide unique ultrastructural information. To date, correlative images from both fluorescence and electron microscopy have been obtained separately using two different instruments, i.e. a fluorescence microscope (FM and an electron microscope (EM. In the current study, a scanning electron microscope (SEM (JEOL JXA8600 M was combined with a fluorescence digital camera microscope unit and this hybrid instrument was named a fluorescence SEM (FL-SEM. In the labeling of FL-SEM samples, both Fluolid, which is an organic EL dye, and Alexa Fluor, were employed. We successfully demonstrated that the FL-SEM is a simple and practical tool for correlative fluorescence and electron microscopy.

  11. Stark Spectroscopy of Rubrene. II. Stark Fluorescence Spectroscopy and Fluorescence Quenching Induced by an External Electric Field.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Iimori, Toshifumi; Ito, Ryuichi; Ohta, Nobuhiro

    2016-07-21

    We report Stark fluorescence spectroscopy investigation of rubrene dispersed in a poly(methyl methacrylate) film. The features of the fluorescence spectrum are analogous to those in solutions. In the Stark fluorescence spectrum, the decrease of the fluorescence quantum yield in the presence of an external electric field is observed. This result shows that the yield of nonradiative decay processes is increased by the application of an external electric field. It is known that the fluorescence quantum yield for rubrene, which is nearly unity at room temperature, depends on temperature, and a major nonradiative decay process in photoexcited rubrene is ascribed to a thermally activated intersystem crossing (ISC). Equations that express the field-induced fluorescence quenching in terms of the molecular parameters are derived from the ensemble average of electric field effects on the activation energy of the reaction rate constant in random orientation systems. The molecular parameters are then extracted from the observed data. It is inferred that the field-induced increase in the yield of other intramolecular and intermolecular photophysical processes in addition to the ISC should be taken into account. PMID:27341859

  12. Phenoplant: a web resource for the exploration of large chlorophyll fluorescence image datasets

    OpenAIRE

    Rousseau, Céline; Hunault, Gilles; Gaillard, Sylvain; Bourbeillon, Julie; Montiel, Gregory; Simier, Philippe; Campion, Claire; Jacques, Marie Agnes; Belin, Etienne; Boureau, Tristan

    2015-01-01

    Background Image analysis is increasingly used in plant phenotyping. Among the various imaging techniques that can be used in plant phenotyping, chlorophyll fluorescence imaging allows imaging of the impact of biotic or abiotic stresses on leaves. Numerous chlorophyll fluorescence parameters may be measured or calculated, but only a few can produce a contrast in a given condition. Therefore, automated procedures that help screening chlorophyll fluorescence image datasets are needed, especiall...

  13. Bark and leaf chlorophyll fluorescence are linked to wood structural changes in Eucalyptus saligna

    OpenAIRE

    Johnstone, Denise; Tausz, Michael; Moore, Gregory; Nicolas, Marc

    2014-01-01

    Wood structure and wood anatomy are usually considered to be largely independent of the physiological processes that govern tree growth. This paper reports a statistical relationship between leaf and bark chlorophyll fluorescence and wood density. A relationship between leaf and bark chlorophyll fluorescence and the quantity of wood decay in a tree is also described. There was a statistically significant relationship between the leaf chlorophyll fluorescence parameter F v/F m and wood density...

  14. Chemiluminescence characteristics of cumarin derivatives as blue fluorescers in peroxyoxalate-hydrogen peroxide system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaichi, Mohammad Javad; Karami, Ali Reza; Shockravi, Abbas; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2003-04-01

    The chemiluminescence characteristics of seven different cumarin derivatives were studied in detail. The fluorescence and chemiluminescence spectra were compared; all cumarins used were found to act as blue fluorescers. The intensity and kinetic parameters for the chemiluminescent systems were evaluated from computer fitting of the resulting intensity-time plots. Among different cumarin derivatives used, 7-amino-4-trifluoromethylcumarin revealed the most promising characteristics as an efficient blue fluorescent emitter.

  15. Discrimination of Dental Caries Using Colorimetric Characteristics of Fluorescence Spectrum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Qingguang; Zhu, Haihua; Xu, Ying; Lin, Bin; Chen, Hui

    2015-01-01

    The feasibility of colorimetric parameters for the discrimination of the stages of dental caries based on a light-induced autofluorescence spectrum at a 405-nm excitation wavelength was investigated. The fluorescence spectra of 4 groups of tooth samples (10 sound, 10 early-stage decay, 14 established decay, and 10 severe decay), which were classified by the International Caries Detection and Assessment System, were experimentally measured in vitro. The carious lesion samples had an additional fluorescence peak at around 627 nm. The mathematical relation of the fluorescence spectrum and human color perception was established and computed. With increasing severity, the fluorescence color changed from green to yellow according to the colorimetric parameters of the CIE 1931 (x, y) chromaticity coordinates and dominant wavelengths. The results from a one-way ANOVA of the dominant wavelength showed a statistically significant difference among the 4 classified groups. The colorimetric parameters of the light-induced fluorescence spectrum can potentially be applied to evaluate the various carious levels. PMID:26112288

  16. Spectral analysis on origination of the bands at 437 nm and 475.5 nm of chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectrum in Arabidopsis chloroplasts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Lizhang; Wang, Yongqiang; Zhou, Jun

    2016-05-01

    Chlorophyll fluorescence has been often used as an intrinsic optical molecular probe to study photosynthesis. In this study, the origin of bands at 437 and 475.5 nm in the chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectrum for emission at 685 nm in Arabidopsis chloroplasts was investigated using various optical analysis methods. The results revealed that this fluorescence excitation spectrum was related to the absorption characteristics of pigment molecules in PSII complexes. Moreover, the excitation band centred at 475.5 nm had a blue shift, but the excitation band at 437 nm changed relatively less due to induction of non-photochemical quenching (NPQ). Furthermore, fluorescence emission spectra showed that this blue shift occurred when excitation energy transfer from both chlorophyll b (Chl b) and carotenoids (Cars) to chlorophyll a (Chl a) was blocked. These results demonstrate that the excitation band at 437 nm was mainly contributed by Chl a, while the excitation band at 475.5 nm was mainly contributed by Chl b and Cars. The chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectrum, therefore, could serve as a useful tool to describe specific characteristics of light absorption and energy transfer between light-harvesting pigments. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd. PMID:26358732

  17. The slow S to M fluorescence rise in cyanobacteria is due to a state 2 to state 1 transition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kaňa, Radek; Kotabová, Eva; Komárek, Ondřej; Sedivá, Barbora; Papageorgiou, George C; Govindjee; Prášil, Ondřej

    2012-08-01

    In dark-adapted plants and algae, chlorophyll a fluorescence induction peaks within 1s after irradiation due to well documented photochemical and non-photochemical processes. Here we show that the much slower fluorescence rise in cyanobacteria (the so-called "S to M rise" in tens of seconds) is due to state 2 to state 1 transition. This has been demonstrated in particular for Synechocystis PCC6803, using its RpaC(-) mutant (locked in state 1) and its wild-type cells kept in hyperosmotic suspension (locked in state 2). In both cases, the inhibition of state changes correlates with the disappearance of the S to M fluorescence rise, confirming its assignment to the state 2 to state 1 transition. The general physiological relevance of the SM rise is supported by its occurrence in several cyanobacterial strains: Synechococcus (PCC 7942, WH 5701) and diazotrophic single cell cyanobacterium (Cyanothece sp. ATCC 51142). We also show here that the SM fluorescence rise, and also the state transition changes are less prominent in filamentous diazotrophic cyanobacterium Nostoc sp. (PCC 7120) and absent in phycobilisome-less cyanobacterium Prochlorococcus marinus PCC 9511. Surprisingly, it is also absent in the phycobiliprotein rod containing Acaryochloris marina (MBIC 11017). All these results show that the S to M fluorescence rise reflects state 2 to state 1 transition in cyanobacteria with phycobilisomes formed by rods and core parts. We show that the pronounced SM fluorescence rise may reflect a protective mechanism for excess energy dissipation in those cyanobacteria (e.g. in Synechococcus PCC 7942) that are less efficient in other protective mechanisms, such as blue light induced non-photochemical quenching. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial. PMID:22402228

  18. The correlation of the maximum intensity of fluorescence with pigment characteristics of leaves of Betula pendula

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zavoruev, V. V.; Zavorueva, E. N.

    2015-11-01

    Using fluorimeter Junior PAM (Heinz Walz GmbH, Germany) the fluorescence parameters of leaves of Betula pendula are investigated. A linear dependence of the maximum fluorescence (Fm) of leaves from the ratio of total chlorophylls concentration to concentration of carotenoids is obtained. Such dependence is found for samples collected during the period of vegetation and for simultaneous selection of colored leaves.

  19. All Fiber-optic Fluorescent Spectral Measurement and Analysis on Alga Chla/c Characteristics

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The fluorescent principle used for measuring alga characteristic parameters and the optimum structure design of the instrument are discussed. The fluorescent spectrum of Chla/c and the time-resolved different spectrum ΔA(λ,t) are given. The research provides an effective method for considering the density and the classification of algae, which will be helpful to monitor sea pollution.

  20. Molecular Iodine Fluorescence Using a Green Helium-Neon Laser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Williamson, J. Charles

    2011-01-01

    Excitation of molecular iodine vapor with a green (543.4 nm) helium-neon laser produces a fluorescence spectrum that is well suited for the upper-level undergraduate physical chemistry laboratory. Application of standard evaluation techniques to the spectrum yields ground electronic-state molecular parameters in good agreement with literature…