Sample records for chlorophyll meters aid

  1. Optimal leaf positions for chlorophyll meter measurement in rice

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    Zhaofeng eYuan


    Full Text Available The Soil Plant Analysis Development (SPAD chlorophyll meter is one of the most commonly used diagnostic tools to measure crop nitrogen status. However, the measurement method of the meter could significantly affect the accuracy of the final estimation. Thus, this research was undertaken to develop a new methodology to optimize SPAD meter measurements in rice (Oryza sativa L.. A flatbed color scanner was used to map the dynamic chlorophyll distribution and irregular leaf shapes. Calculus algorithm was adopted to estimate the potential positions for SPAD meter measurement along the leaf blade. Data generated by the flatbed color scanner and SPAD meter were analysed simultaneously. The results suggested that a position 2/3 of the distance from the leaf base to the apex (2/3 position could represent the chlorophyll content of the entire leaf blade, as indicated by the relatively low variance of measurements at that positon. SPAD values based on di-positional leaves and the extracted chlorophyll a and b contents were compared. This comparison showed that the 2/3 position on the lower leaves tended to be more sensitive to changes in chlorophyll content. Finally, the 2/3 position and average SPAD values of the fourth fully expanded leaf from the top were compared with leaf nitrogen concentration. The results showed the 2/3 position on that leaf was most suitable for predicting the nitrogen status of rice. Based on these results, we recommend making SPAD measurements at the 2/3 position on the fourth fully expanded leaf from the top. The coupling of dynamic chlorophyll distribution and irregular leaf shapes information can provide a promising approach for the calibration of SPAD meter measurement, which can further benefit the in situ nitrogen management by providing reliable estimation of crops nitrogen nutrition status.

  2. Low-cost chlorophyll meter (LCCM): portable measuring device for leaf chlorophyll (United States)

    Hutomo E. P., Evan; Adibawa, Marcelinus Alfasisurya S.; Prilianti, Kestrilia R.; Heriyanto, Heriyanto; Brotosudarmo, Tatas H. P.


    Portable leaf chlorophyll meter, named low-cost chlorophyll meter (LCCM), has been created. This device was created to help farmer determining the health condition of plant based on the greenness level of leaf surface. According to previous studies, leaf greenness with a certain amount of chlorophyll level has a direct correlation with the amount of nitrogen in the leaf that indicates health of the plant and this fact needed to provide an estimate of further measures to keep the plants healthy. Device that enables to measure the leaf color change is soil plant analysis development (SPAD) meter 502 from Konica Minolta but it is relatively expensive. To answer the need of low-cost chlorophyll scanner device, this research conducted experiment using light reflectance as the base mechanism. Reflectance system from LCCM consists of near-infrared light emitting diode (LED) and red LED as light resources and photodiode. The output from both of light resources calculated using normalized difference vegetation index (NDVI) formula as the results fetched and displayed on the smartphone application using Bluetooth communication protocol. Finally, the scanner has been made as well as the Android application named NDVI Reader. The LCCM system which has been tested on 20 sample of cassava leaf with SPAD meter as a variable control showed coefficient of determination 0.9681 and root-mean-square error (RMSE) 0.014.

  3. Anthocyanin contribution to chlorophyll meter readings and its correction. (United States)

    Hlavinka, Jan; Nauš, Jan; Špundová, Martina


    Leaf chlorophyll content is an important physiological parameter which can serve as an indicator of nutritional status, plant stress or senescence. Signals proportional to the chlorophyll content can be measured non-destructively with instruments detecting leaf transmittance (e.g., SPAD-502) or reflectance (e.g., showing normalized differential vegetation index, NDVI) in red and near infrared spectral regions. The measurements are based on the assumption that only chlorophylls absorb in the examined red regions. However, there is a question whether accumulation of other pigments (e.g., anthocyanins) could in some cases affect the chlorophyll meter readings. To answer this question, we cultivated tomato plants (Solanum lycopersicum L.) for a long time under low light conditions and then exposed them for several weeks (4 h a day) to high sunlight containing the UV-A spectral region. The senescent leaves of these plants evolved a high relative content of anthocyanins and visually revealed a distinct blue color. The SPAD and NDVI data were collected and the spectra of diffusive transmittance and reflectance of the leaves were measured using an integration sphere. The content of anthocyanins and chlorophylls was measured analytically. Our results show that SPAD and NDVI measurement can be significantly affected by the accumulated anthocyanins in the leaves with relatively high anthocyanin content. To describe theoretically this effect of anthocyanins, concepts of a specific absorbance and a leaf spectral polarity were developed. Corrective procedures of the chlorophyll meter readings for the anthocyanin contribution are suggested both for the transmittance and reflectance mode.

  4. Chlorophyll Meters Aid Plant Nutrient Management (United States)


    On December 7, 1972, roughly 5 hours and 6 minutes after launch, the crew of Apollo 17 took one of history s most famous photographs. The brilliant image of the fully illuminated Earth, the African and Antarctic continents peering out from behind swirling clouds, came to be known as the Blue Marble. Today, Earth still sometimes goes by the Blue Marble nickname, but as the satellites comprising NASA s Earth Observing System (EOS) scan the planet daily in ever greater resolutions, it is often the amount of green on the planet that is a focus of researchers attention. Earth s over 400,000 known plant species play essential roles in the planet s health: They absorb carbon dioxide and release the oxygen we breathe, help manage the Earth s temperature by absorbing and reflecting sunlight, provide food and habitats for animals, and offer building materials, medication, and sustenance for humans. As part of NASA s efforts to study our own planet along with the universe around it, the Agency s EOS satellites have been accumulating years of valuable data about Earth s vegetation (not to mention its land features, oceans, and atmosphere) since the first EOS satellite launched in 1997. Among the powerful sensors used is the Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectroradiometer (MODIS) on board the NASA Terra and Aqua satellites. MODIS sweeps the entire Earth every few days, beaming back information gathered across 36 bands of visible and infrared light, yielding images that let scientists track how much of Earth is green over the course of seasons and years. Monitoring the density and distribution of vegetation on Earth provides a means of determining everything from the impact of natural and human-induced climate change to the potential outbreak of disease. (Goddard Space Flight Center and U.S. Department of Defense researchers have determined, for example, that vegetation density can be used to pinpoint regions of heavy rainfall in Africa regions ripe for outbreaks of rainfall-correlated diseases like mosquito-borne Rift Valley fever.) While the Space Agency is continually seeking to upgrade the power and scope of its satellite sensors, it is also finding ways to bring that potent information-gathering capacity down to Earth. Scientists at Stennis Space Center developed one such tool that is placing some of those sensor capabilities in the hands of farmers and agricultural researchers on the ground.

  5. The Use of a Chlorophyll Meter (SPAD-502) for Field Determinations of Red Mangrove (Rhizophora Mangle L.) Leaf Chlorophyll Amount (United States)

    Connelly, Xana M.


    The red mangrove Rhizophora mangle L., is a halophytic woody spermatophyte common to the land-sea interface of tropical and subtropical intertidal zones. It has been reported that 60 to 75% of the coastline of the earth's tropical regions are lined with mangroves. Mangroves help prevent shoreline erosion, provide breeding, nesting and feeding areas for many marine animals and birds. Mangroves are important contributors of primary production in the coastal environment, and this is largely proportional to the standing crop of leaf chlorophylls. Higher intensities of ultraviolet radiation, resulting from stratospheric ozone depletion, can lead to a reduction of chlorophyll in terrestrial plants. Since the most common method for determining chlorophyll concentration is by extraction and this is labor intensive and time consuming, few studies on photosynthetic pigments of mangroves have been reported. Chlorophyll meter readings have been related to leaf chlorophyll content in apples and maples. It has also been correlated to nitrogen status in corn and cotton. Peterson et al., (1993) used a chlorophyll meter to detect nitrogen deficiency in crops and in determining the need for additional nitrogen fertilizer. Efforts to correlate chlorophyll meter measurements to chlorophyll content of mangroves have not been reported. This paper describes the use of a hand-held chlorophyll meter (Minolta SPAD-502) to determine the amount of red mangrove foliar chlorophyll present in the field.

  6. Evaluation of nitrogen status and total chlorophyll in longkong (Aglaia dookkoo Griff. leaves under water stress using a chlorophyll meter

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    Sdoodee, S.


    Full Text Available A chlorophyll meter (SPAD-502 was used to assess nitrogen status and total chlorophyll in longkong leaves, leaves from twelve of 10-year-old trees grown in the experimental plot at Prince of Songkla University, Songkhla province. The relationship between SPAD-502 meter reading and nitrogen status and total chlorophyll content analyzed in the laboratory was evaluated during 8 months (May-December 2003. It was found that the trend of the relationships in each month was similar. There was no significant differenceamong regression linears of all months. The data of 8 months showed that SPAD-reading and nitrogen content, and SPAD-reading and total chlorophyll content were related in a positive manner. They were Y = 0.19X+10.10, r = 0.76** (n = 240, and Y = 0.43X-7.89, r = 0.79** (n = 400, respectively. The SPAD-502 was then used to assess total nitrogen and total chlorophyll content during imposed water stress. Fifteen 4-yearold plants were grown in pots (each pot containing 50 kg soil volume. The experiment was arranged in acompletely randomized design with 3 treatments: (1 daily watering (2 once watering on day 7 (3 no watering with 5 replications during 14 days of the experimental period. Measurements showed a continuous decrease of SPAD-reading in the treatment of no watering. On day 14, a significant difference of SPAD- reading values between the treatment of daily watering and no watering was found. Then, the values of nitrogen content and total chlorophyll were assessed by using the linear regression equations. From the result, it is suggested that the measurement by chlorophyll meter is a rapid technique for the evaluation of total chlorophyll and nitrogen status in longkong leaves during water stress.

  7. Portable chlorophyll meter (PCM-502) values are related to total chlorophyll concentration and photosynthetic capacity in papaya (Carica papaya L.) (United States)

    This study was carried out to verify the practical use of the portable chlorophyll meter-PCM502 (PCM) in two papaya cultivars with contrasting green coloring of the leaf blade (‘Golden’: yellowish-green; ‘Solo’: dark green). The relationship was studied between the photosynthetic process and leaf n...

  8. SPAD chlorophyll meter reading can be pronouncedly affected by chloroplast movement. (United States)

    Nauš, Jan; Prokopová, Jitka; Rebíček, Jiří; Spundová, Martina


    Non-destructive assessment of chlorophyll content has recently been widely done by chlorophyll meters based on measurement of leaf transmittance (e.g. the SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter measures the leaf transmittance at 650 and 940 nm). However, the leaf transmittance depends not only on the content of chlorophylls but also on their distribution in leaves. The chlorophyll distribution within leaves is co-determined by chloroplast arrangement in cells that depends on light conditions. When tobacco leaves were exposed to a strong blue light (about 340 μmol of photons m⁻² s⁻¹), a very pronounced increase in the leaf transmittance was observed as chloroplasts migrated from face position (along cell walls perpendicular to the incident light) to side position (along cell walls parallel to the incoming light) and the SPAD reading decreased markedly. This effect was more pronounced in the leaves of young tobacco plants compared with old ones; the difference between SPAD values in face and side position reached even about 35%. It is shown how the chloroplast movement changes a relationship between the SPAD readings and real chlorophyll content. For an elimination of the chloroplast movement effect, it can be recommended to measure the SPAD values in leaves with a defined chloroplasts arrangement.

  9. The comparison for leaf nitrogen estimating in rice by chlorophyll meters and reflectance spectroscopy (United States)

    Lin, Fenfang; Wang, Ke

    Handheld chlorophyll sensors is a very important technique to determine the timing and number of N applications, which can improve the fertilizer-N use efficiency and monitor leaf N status of irrigated rice. One solution-culture and two field experiments with four rice genotypes were conducted to obtain variables reflecting nitrogen (N) status at different developmental stages. The paper systemically compared SPAD indices calculated from the SPAD readings of various leaf positions and hyperspectral vegetation indices. The results showed that the indices RSI and RDSI were more reliable SPAD indices for estimating foliar N status in rice plant; In addition, from view of quickness and cheapness, chlorophyll meters are more suitable for estimating foliar N status in rice than reflectance spectroscopy on the basis of meeting accuracy requirements.

  10. Establishing dynamic thresholds for potato nitrogen status diagnosis with the SPAD chlorophyll meter

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    ZHENG Hong-li; LIU Yan-chun; QIN Yong-lin; CHEN Yang; FAN Ming-shou


    The hand-held soil plant analysis development (SPAD) chlorophyl meter has proved to be a promising tool in evaluating the nitrogen status of the potato and guiding fertilization recommendations. In the process of N evaluation of potato plants and N recommendation, it is critical to establish the threshold SPAD value (SPAD reading), below which nitrogen supplement is required. And taking convenient using into account, the threshold needs to be dynamic throughout the potato growing season so that the users can test their potato plants and make fertilization decision at any growing time of potato. To complete this goal, ifeld experiments with different nitrogen supply levels were conducted in different sites in northern China from 2009 to 2011. The results showed that threshold SPAD values decrease as the growing season progresses for al cultivars and planting sites. By statistical analysis, the threshold regression models were established respectively as:y=−0.003x2−0.0507x+58.213 (y, threshold SPAD value;x, days after emergence) for the potato cultivar Kexin 1, and y=−0.003x2+0.017x+52.489 (y, threshold SPAD value;x, days after emergence) for the cultivar Shepody, from which, the threshold SPAD value at any day after emergence can be calculated.

  11. Using a Chlorophyll Meter to Evaluate the Nitrogen Leaf Content in Flue-Cured Tobacco (Nicotiana tabacum L.

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    Renato Contillo


    Full Text Available In flue-cured tobacco N fertilizer is commonly applied during pre-planting, and very often applied again later as a growth-starter. It is generally held that the efficiency of N-fertilizer use can be improved by evaluating the leaf Nstatus after transplanting and until flowering stage. N use efficiency in this context does not refer merely to the yield but also to the quality, in the meanwhile minimizing the negative effects on the environment. To investigate these aspects, we evaluated the capacity of a Minolta model SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter to estimate the N-status in flue-cured tobacco. The aims was to verify if a relationship exists between SPAD readings and leaf N content, and if a single leaf, in a well defined stalk position, could represent the nitrogen content of the whole plant. During the years 1995 and 1996, a pot experiment was conducted using two flue-cured tobacco varieties. SPAD values, total chlorophyll, total N contents and leaf area were measured throughout the growing season, on each odd leaf stalk position. SPAD values were well-correlated with both total chlorophyll and total N leaf concentration, and the regression coefficients were higher when relationships were calculated on a leaf-area basis. For both relationships, SPAD-total chlorophyll and SPAD-total N, the best fittings were obtained with quadratic equations. One leaf stalk position alone is able to monitor the N-status of the whole plant during the first six weeks after transplanting, without distinction of year and variety effects. The SPAD measurement of one leaf per plant, throughout the vegetative growing season, is therefore a valid tool to test the N-status of the crop in a period when a required N supply is still effective.

  12. Um novo clorofilômetro para estimar os teores de clorofila em folhas do capim Tifton 85 A new chlorophyll meter to estimate chlorophyll contents in leaves of Tifton 85 bermudagrass

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    Élio Barbieri Junior


    Full Text Available O propósito deste trabalho foi verificar o desempenho de um novo clorofilometro portátil, em parcelas experimentais vegetadas com o capim-Tifton 85 (Cynodon spp.. Para tal, foi utilizado um experimento de curta duração, em que três doses de N (0,75 e 150kg de N ha-1 foram combinadas com quatro datas de amostragem (8, 16, 24 e 28 dias após um corte de uniformização. As análises foram feitas em lâminas da folha mais nova totalmente expandida. Os teores das clorofilas a, b e a+b foram quantificados espectrofotometricamente após a extração com acetona 80%, enquanto que o clorofilômetro forneceu os correspondentes valores de Índice de Clorofila Falker (ICF. As leituras do aparelho foram sensíveis tanto às doses de N quanto às datas de amostragem. Foram obtidas correlações positivas entre ambos os métodos de quantificação (clorofila a: r=0,646; b: r=0,797; e total: r=0,721, que evidenciaram a utilidade desse novo clorofilometro na determinação indireta dos teores de clorofila foliar no capim-Tifton 85.The purpose of this research was to evaluate the performance of a new portable chlorophyll meter in the indirect determination of chlorophyll contents in Tifton 85 bermudagrass leaves. In a field trial of short duration, three N doses (0, 75 and 150kg ha-1 were combined with four sampling dates (8, 16, 24 e 28 days after a cut for sward uniformity in completely randomized blocks, with treatments arranged in a split-plot design. Analyses were performed in the youngest fully expanded leaf blade. Contents of chlorophylls a, b and total were quantified spectrophotometrically, after extraction with acetone 80%, while chlorophyll meter readings, expressed as Falker Chlorophyll Index (FCI units, provided the same information. Chlorophyll meter readings were sensitive to both N rates and sampling dates. It were obtained significant positive correlations between both methods (chlorophyll a: r=0.646, chlorophyll b: r=0.797 and for total


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    Gulyaev Valeriy Genrihovich


    Full Text Available The article covers the issues of development and the results of the pilot testing of the contact-free meter of the two-phase flow of loose construction materials in the course of their pneumatic transportation. The flow meter designed by the author is based on the method of registration of polarization currents caused by the motion of the dielectric material within the electric field of a measurement unit integrated into the pneumatic transportation line. The registration unit is the implementation of the original technology. Its functional concept is based on the Pockels transverse effect inside the lithium niobate crystal. This electro-optical effect is characterized by minimal persistence, as the phase of the optical wave varies within the time period of 10 second, and this effect makes it possible to improve the accuracy of measurements. The flow rates is identified on the basis of one variable integral parameter, the intensity of an optical wave passing through the Pockels cell simulated by the currents of polarization of the material. The paper contains the structural pattern of the computer-aided meter of loose dielectric materials in the course of their pneumatic transportation, the system of visualization of the mass flow, and the results of the pilot testing of the proposed meter. The proposed system may represent an unbiased system of management of construction materials, consumption procedures, and warehouse processing of materials.

  14. The Development of Chlorophyll Meter Based on MTK Platform%基于MTK平台的叶绿素检测仪开发

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾高威; 潘大宇; 朱大洲; 曾钢; 王成


    利用华禹旋风001MTK手机开发模块作为主控设备实现叶绿素仪的硬件开发.MTK手机平台采用Nucleus嵌入式实时操作系统,集成了ARM处理器、GPRS Modem等,并且还提供了总线扩展接口,比如并口、串口等.本文通过JNI实现Java 控制硬件,在MTK的Java平台下使用低级UI(User Interface)编写仪器的配套程序,实现了对硬件的控制、数据和图像的采集、数据的存储和浏览等功能.MTK平台的高度集成性和稳定性为开发工作创造了一个高效、稳定的平台.基于MTK平台的拍照功能,在获取植物叶片SPAD值的同时,还可拍摄对应的叶片或植株的照片,从而有助于对作物的形态参数、氮素营养成分及病虫害信息进行综合对比分析.%Huayu cyclone 001 mobile phone development module was used as the master system to develop the chlorophyll meter.MTK mobile phone platform used a real-time operating system called Nucleus,which integrated ARM processor,GPRS Modem,and also provided bus expansion interface,such as parallel port and serial port.In this study,the control of hardware was achieved by Java Native Interface (JNI).The corresponding software was developed at the Java platform of MTK with low-level User Interface (UI).Thus it realized the control of hardware,the collection and storage and browse of data and images.The high integration and stability of MTK provided an effective and stable platform for the development of chlorophyll meter.Based on the camera attachment of MTK,the chlorophyll meter could measure the SPAD value,and collect the images of plant leaf simultaneously.This function is benefit for comprehensive analysis of crop phenotypic parameters,nutritional parameters,and the plant diseases and insect pests.

  15. Use of an inexpensive chlorophyll meter to predict Nitrogen levels in leaf tissues of water hyacinth (Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms (United States)

    Tissue nitrogen is also an important indicator of plant health and can be a useful predictor of plant vigor and susceptibility to disease and pests. Hence, knowing nitrogen content may aid in determining establishment success of plants used in restoration programs, including those destined for aqua...

  16. Evaluation of Leaf Total Nitrogen Content for Nitrogen Management in a Malaysian Paddy Field by Using Soil Plant Analysis Development Chlorophyll Meter

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    A. Gholizadeh


    Full Text Available Problem statement: Laboratory plant testing is usually time-consuming and high-costing. Hence, plant nutrient variability must be measured rapidly and the information made known to the farmers before the new season starts. Site-specific crop management, well-established in some developed countries, is now being considered in other places such as Malaysia. Approach: The application of site-specific management principles and techniques to diverse crops and small-scale farming systems in Malaysia will present new challenges. Describing within-field variability in typical Malaysian production settings is a fundamental first step toward determining the size of management zones and the inter-relationships between limiting factors, for establishment of site-specific management strategies. Results: Measurements of rice SPAD readings and nitrogen content were obtained in a Malaysian rice paddy field. SPAD reading data was manually collected on 80DAT and measured using a Minolta SPAD 502. Leaf samples were collected at 60 points at the same time to compare results from sampling with SPAD reading values. Samples nitrogen content was analyzed in a laboratory. Analysis of variance, variogram and kriging were conducted to determine the variability of the measured parameters and also their relationship. SPAD reading and nitrogen content maps were created on the interpretation of the data was investigated. Conclusion/Recommendations: Finally the research indicated that SPAD readings are closely related to leaf N content which means the potential for technology of precision farming to understand and control variation in Malaysian production fields and also SPAD chlorophyll meter ability to monitor the N status of rice and recommend the amount of N fertilization. Additional research is needed to confirm the results with data from other fields and crops.

  17. Spectroscopic properties of chlorophyll f. (United States)

    Li, Yaqiong; Cai, Zheng-Li; Chen, Min


    The absorption and fluorescence spectra of chlorophyll f (newly discovered in 2010) have been measured in acetone and methanol at different temperatures. The spectral analysis and assignment are compared with the spectra of chlorophyll a and d under the same experimental conditions. The spectroscopic properties of these chlorophylls have further been studied by the aid of density functional CAM-B3LYP and high-level symmetric adapted coupled-cluster configuration interaction calculations. The main Q and Soret bands and possible sidebands of chlorophylls have been determined. The photophysical properties of chlorophyll f are discussed.

  18. Sensibilidade do clorofilômetro para diagnóstico nutricional de nitrogênio no milho Sensitivity of the chlorophyll meter for nutritional diagnostic of nitrogen in corn (Zea mays L.

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    Sandro Manuel Carmelino Hurtado


    becomes difficult considering the varying capacity of Brazilian soils to supply N. In this sense, the relative contents of chlorophyll are a tool which helps to improve soil N management. The study aimed to evaluate the sensitivity of the chlorophyll meter to predict the nutrient status of corn in response to N applied in the soil with contracting clay contents and under different conditions of N supply. To that end, experiments were carried out under both controlled and field conditions. Under controlled conditions, three soils with contracting clay contents and five doses of N were tested. 55 days after emergence (before the VT period, the relative contents of chlorophyll, leaf N and the weight of the dry matter of the shoot were evaluated. Under crop conditions, six treatments, resulting from the combination of three doses of nitrogen topdressing, in the presence and absence of limestone, were evaluated, the highest dose of N corresponding to the ideal condition of N supply for corn. Nitrogen nutrition was monitored weekly with a chlorophyll meter. The contents of N in leaf, in grain, mineral N in soil, shoot dry matter and grain yield were also evaluated. The results allow concluding that there is a sensitivity of the chlorophyll meter to detect differences in the nutritional status of corn in response to different characteristics of soil and N supply, acting as an indicator of the need for nitrogen topdressing.

  19. AIDS (United States)

    ... page: // HIV/AIDS To use the sharing features on this page, ... immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is the virus that causes AIDS. When a person becomes infected with HIV, the ...

  20. Indicators: Chlorophyll a (United States)

    Chlorophyll allows plants (including algae) to photosynthesize, i.e., use sunlight to convert simple molecules into organic compounds. Chlorophyll a is the predominant type of chlorophyll found in green plants and algae.

  1. Teores de clorofila determinados por medidor portátil e sua relação com formas de nitrogênio em folhas de tomateiro cultivados em dois tipos de solo Relations among chlorophyll contents determined by a portable meter and nitrogen forms in leaves of tomatoes cultivated in two soil types

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    das leituras obtidas no medidor SPAD, permitiu o ajuste de equação linear (CP = -77,233 + 3,54725** SPAD R2 = 0,766.This work aimed to determine chlorophyll concentrations of tomato (Lycopersicon esculentum Mill. plants cv. Santa Clara fertilized with five nitrogen (N rates by means of conventional laboratory methodology and by the SPAD-502 portable chlorophyll meter. The relationship between chlorophyll and N values was determined by these two methods. Tomato plants were grown in pots with a clay soil classified as Cambic Red-Yellow Podsol (CRP and a sand-course soil classified as Quartzic Sand (QS, and received five N rates (25, 125, 225, 325 and 425 mg. dm-3 sidedressed as nutrient solutions. At the onset of 3rd cluster anthesis, chlorophyll concentrations were determined in leaves opposite to this cluster by the portable chlorophyll meter SPAD-502 and at laboratory by Arnon's methodology. NO3-N was determined in petiole sap and in dry matter, while NO3-N, org-N and total-N were determined in leaf blade dry matter. Chlorophyll concentrations increased with N rates irrespective of method of determination, in both soils. Critical levels in soils CRP and QS were, respectively, 77.3 and 83.6 mg. cm-2 by laboratory methodology and 45.5 and 43.8 SPAD units by the portable meter. Correlation coefficients of chlorophyll concentrations with top dry weight and N forms were greater for the SPAD method. Both methods of chlorophyll determination presented greatest correlation with sap NO3-N in soil CRP, and with org-N and total-N in soil QS. The estimative of chlorophyll concentrations (laboratory method by means of SPAD readings allowed the adjustment of a linear equation (CP = -77.233 + 3.54725** SPAD R2 = 0.766.

  2. Chlorophylls - natural solar cells

    CERN Document Server

    Jantschi, Lorentz; Balan, Mugur C; Sestras, Radu E


    A molecular modeling study was conducted on a series of six natural occurring chlorophylls. Quantum chemistry calculated orbital energies were used to estimate frequency of transitions between occupied molecular orbital and unoccupied molecular orbital energy levels of chlorophyll molecules in vivo conditions in standard (ASTMG173) environmental conditions. Obtained results are in good agreement with energies necessary to fix the Magnesium atom by chlorophyll molecules and with occurrence of chlorophylls in living vegetal organisms.

  3. Multi-meter fiber-delivery and pulse self-compression of milli-Joule femtosecond laser and fiber-aided laser-micromachining. (United States)

    Debord, B; Alharbi, M; Vincetti, L; Husakou, A; Fourcade-Dutin, C; Hoenninger, C; Mottay, E; Gérôme, F; Benabid, F


    We report on damage-free fiber-guidance of milli-Joule energy-level and 600-femtosecond laser pulses into hypocycloid core-contour Kagome hollow-core photonic crystal fibers. Up to 10 meter-long fibers were used to successfully deliver Yb-laser pulses in robustly single-mode fashion. Different pulse propagation regimes were demonstrated by simply changing the fiber dispersion and gas. Self-compression to ~50 fs, and intensity-level nearing petawatt/cm(2) were achieved. Finally, free focusing-optics laser-micromachining was also demonstrated on different materials.

  4. Estimate of Leaf Chlorophyll and Nitrogen Content in Asian Pear (Pyrus serotina Rehd. by CCM-200

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    Mostafa GHASEMI


    Full Text Available In many cases evaluation of chlorophyll and nitrogen content in plants need to destructive methods, more time and organic solvents. Application of chlorophyll meters save time and resources. The aim of this study was estimating of chlorophyll and nitrogen content in Asian pear leaves using non-destructive method and rapid quantification of chlorophyll by chlorophyll content meter (CCM-200. This study was conducted on 8 years old Asian pear trees during June 2008 in Tehran, Iran. To develop our regression model, the chlorophyll meter data were correlated with extracted chlorophyll and nitrogen content data obtained from DMSO and Kejeldal methods, respectively. The results showed that, there was positive and linear correlation between CCM-200 data and chlorophyll a (R�=0.7183, chlorophyll b (R�=0.8523, total chlorophyll (R�=0.90, and total nitrogen content (R�=0.76 in Asian pear leaves. Thus, it can be concluded that, CCM-200 can be used in order to predict both chlorophyll and nitrogen content in Asian pear leaves.

  5. In vitro conversion of vinyl to formyl groups in naturally occurring chlorophylls. (United States)

    Loughlin, Patrick C; Willows, Robert D; Chen, Min


    The chemical structural differences distinguishing chlorophylls in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms are either formyl substitution (chlorophyll b, d, and f) or the degree of unsaturation (8-vinyl chlorophyll a and b) of a side chain of the macrocycle compared with chlorophyll a. We conducted an investigation of the conversion of vinyl to formyl groups among naturally occurring chlorophylls. We demonstrated the in vitro oxidative cleavage of vinyl side groups to yield formyl groups through the aid of a thiol-containing compound in aqueous reaction mixture at room temperature. Heme is required as a catalyst in aqueous solution but is not required in methanolic reaction mixture. The conversion of vinyl- to formyl- groups is independent of their position on the macrocycle, as we observed oxidative cleavages of both 3-vinyl and 8-vinyl side chains to yield formyl groups. Three new chlorophyll derivatives were synthesised using 8-vinyl chlorophyll a as substrate: 8-vinyl chlorophyll d, [8-formyl]-chlorophyll a, and [3,8-diformyl]-chlorophyll a. The structural and spectral properties will provide a signature that may aid in identification of the novel chlorophyll derivatives in natural systems. The ease of conversion of vinyl- to formyl- in chlorophylls demonstrated here has implications regarding the biosynthetic mechanism of chlorophyll d in vivo.

  6. Chlorophyll_Master (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This data set included chlorophyll for each subregion in the study (Georges Bank, Gulf of Maine, Southern New England, Middle Atlantic Bight) . The data came from...

  7. OSU Chlorophyll Bloom Product (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — This product was developed for the Oregon coast based on the observed change between running 8-day composite chlorophyll-a (CHL) data obtained by the MODerate...

  8. SPAD-502 readings in response to photon fluence in leaves with different chlorophyll content

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helena Cristina Santos Nascimento


    Full Text Available The chlorophyll meter (SPAD-502 is widely used to estimate chlorophyll content, but non-uniform chloroplast distribution can affect its accuracy. This study aimed to assess the effect of photon fluence (F, irradiance x time of illumination in leaves with different chlorophyll content and determine the effect of chlorophyll a/b on SPAD values of four tropical tree species (Croton draconoides Müll. Arg., Hevea guianensis Aubl., Hymenaea courbaril L. and Matisia cordata H.B.K.. There were also determined calibration equations for the chlorophyll meter and assessed the effect of F on SPAD values between 07:00 h and 17:00 h. Calibration equations were obtained after determining leaf chlorophyll content in the laboratory. Increases in F with time caused a reduction in SPAD values in species with a high chlorophyll content, with reductions of 20% in M. cordata and 10% in H. guianensis. Leaves of C. draconoides and H. courbaril had lower chlorophyll content and showed no changes in SPAD values with increase in F. The chlorophyll a/b ratio increased with SPAD values and the SPAD/chlorophyll relationship was best described by an exponential equation. It seems that F may affect SPAD values in leaves with high chlorophyll content, probably due to non-uniform chloroplast distribution at high irradiance. This indicates that SPAD values tend to be more accurate if recorded early in morning when irradiance is low.

  9. Chlorophyll: The wonder pigment

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bhat, S.R.

    body cannot manufacture antioxidants. Their deficiency increases vulnerability to various diseases. Vegetables and fruits, particularly deep green, bright yellow and red ones, are very rich in phytochemicals. Adding them to our diet in combinations... is like fortifying our body against diseases and ill health. Chlorophyll's Effect on Cancer Cancer research exploring cures and prevention measures has been trying the effects of chlorophyll on cancer cells. In the mid 1980s, Dr. Roderick Dashwood...

  10. In situ measurement of leaf chlorophyll concentration: analysis of the optical/absolute relationship. (United States)

    Parry, Christopher; Blonquist, J Mark; Bugbee, Bruce


    In situ optical meters are widely used to estimate leaf chlorophyll concentration, but non-uniform chlorophyll distribution causes optical measurements to vary widely among species for the same chlorophyll concentration. Over 30 studies have sought to quantify the in situ/in vitro (optical/absolute) relationship, but neither chlorophyll extraction nor measurement techniques for in vitro analysis have been consistent among studies. Here we: (1) review standard procedures for measurement of chlorophyll; (2) estimate the error associated with non-standard procedures; and (3) implement the most accurate methods to provide equations for conversion of optical to absolute chlorophyll for 22 species grown in multiple environments. Tests of five Minolta (model SPAD-502) and 25 Opti-Sciences (model CCM-200) meters, manufactured from 1992 to 2013, indicate that differences among replicate models are less than 5%. We thus developed equations for converting between units from these meter types. There was no significant effect of environment on the optical/absolute chlorophyll relationship. We derive the theoretical relationship between optical transmission ratios and absolute chlorophyll concentration and show how non-uniform distribution among species causes a variable, non-linear response. These results link in situ optical measurements with in vitro chlorophyll concentration and provide insight to strategies for radiation capture among diverse species.

  11. Chlorophyll formation and phytochrome

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Raven, C.W.


    The rôle of phytochrome in the regeneration of protochlorophyll (Pchl) in darkness following short exposures to light, as well as in the accumulation of chlorophyll- a (Chl- a ) in continuous light in previously dark-grown seedlings of pea, bean, and maize has been the subject of the present investi

  12. Pulse amplitude modulated chlorophyll fluorometer

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Greenbaum, Elias; Wu, Jie


    Chlorophyll fluorometry may be used for detecting toxins in a sample because of changes in micro algae. A portable lab on a chip ("LOAC") based chlorophyll fluorometer may be used for toxin detection and environmental monitoring. In particular, the system may include a microfluidic pulse amplitude modulated ("PAM") chlorophyll fluorometer. The LOAC PAM chlorophyll fluorometer may analyze microalgae and cyanobacteria that grow naturally in source drinking water.

  13. Your Glucose Meter (United States)

    ... Devices Radiation-Emitting Products Vaccines, Blood & Biologics Animal & Veterinary Cosmetics Tobacco ... Tips for Testing Your Blood Sugar and Caring for Your Meter Glucose meters test and record how much sugar (called glucose) is in your ...

  14. As clorofilas The chlorophylls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nivia Maria Streit


    Full Text Available As clorofilas são pigmentos verdes, comuns em todas as células fotossintéticas. Por sua estrutura química ser instável, são facilmente degradadas, resultando em produtos de decomposição que modificam a percepção e qualidade dos alimentos. Esta revisão trata dos vários fatores que interferem na degradação das clorofilas, como a luz, radiação, calor, ácidos, oxigênio, alteração enzimática e interação com outros pigmentos. Também, outro aspecto a ser abordado é a utilização das clorofilas como corantes, através da formação de complexos que tornam esses pigmentos mais estáveis à decomposição.The Chlorophylls are a common green pigment to all photosynthetic cells. They are easily degraded, because of their unstable chemical structure. Degradation results in products alter the perception and quality of foods. This review discusses the various factors, that interfere on chlorophyll degradation such as light, irradiation, heat, acids, oxygen, enzymatical alteration and the interaction with other pigments. Also, the other topic that was mentioned the utilization of the chlorophylls as dyes through a complex formation that make this pigment more stable to degradation.

  15. Extinction coefficient for red-shifted chlorophylls: chlorophyll d and chlorophyll f. (United States)

    Li, Yaqiong; Scales, Nicholas; Blankenship, Robert E; Willows, Robert D; Chen, Min


    Both chlorophyll f and chlorophyll d are red-shifted chlorophylls in oxygenic photosynthetic organisms, which extend photon absorbance into the near infrared region. This expands the range of light that can be used to drive photosynthesis. Quantitative determination of chlorophylls is a crucial step in the investigation of chlorophyll-photosynthetic reactions in the field of photobiology and photochemistry. No methods have yet been worked out for the quantitative determination of chlorophyll f. There is also no method available for the precise quantitative determination of chlorophyll d although it was discovered in 1943. In order to obtain the extinction coefficients (ε) of chlorophyll f and chlorophyll d, the concentrations of chlorophylls were determined by Inductive Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry according to the fact that each chlorophyll molecule contains one magnesium (Mg) atom. Molar extinction coefficient ε(chl f) is 71.11×10(3)Lmol(-1)A(707nm)cm(-1) and ε(chl d) is 63.68×10(3)Lmol(-1)A(697nm)cm(-1) in 100% methanol. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Photosynthesis Research for Sustainability: from Natural to Artificial.

  16. Avaliação da libertação de azoto a partir de correctivos orgânicos utilizando membranas de troca aniónica e um medidor de clorofila SPAD-502 Nitrogen release from organic amendments assessed by using anion exchange membranes and the SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Pereira


    senescência por falta de azoto.Results from pot experiments where anion exchange membranes (MTA were inserted into the soil to monitor soil nitrate levels over time, and the plant N nutritional status assessed with a SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter, are reported in this work. Maize was grown in the summer season and turnip and rye in the winter period. Maize was sown on June 5, 2004, and turnip and rye on September 23, 2004. The plants were subjected to the following treatments: Nutrisoil (Nut; Beiraadubo (Bei; Phenix (Phe; Vegethumus (Veg; cow manure (EB; chestnut fruit bark (CC; ammonium nitrate (NA; and control treatment, without N fertilization (T. Two weeks after the maize was sown, soil nitrate levels extracted by MTA ranged between 18.9 and 239.0 mg L-1 in the CC and Bei treatments, respectively. In the first week of August mean soil nitrate values ranged between 12.9 and 52.3 mg L-1 in the CC and Bei treatments. In September, the last sampling date, mean soil nitrate levels were found to be in the range of 9.7 and 67.9 mg L-1 in the CC and Nut treatments. Relationships between MTA and SPAD results with dry matter yield and N uptake were established. The MTA were able to differentiate well as the organic amendments released their N during the season and this aspect influenced N uptake and plant growth. SPAD readings were also a good index of plant N nutritional status. SPAD values were linearly related with dry matter yield and N uptake. In this study, where the pots were managed to avoid nitrate leaching and denitrification, winter grown species recovered the residual N of maize fertilization. At the end of experiment the plants showed senescent leaves with deep N deficiency symptoms.

  17. Avaliação do estado nutricional azotado de pés-mãe de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus com recurso a um medidor portátil de clorofila Evaluation of nitrogen status of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus mother plants with a portable chlorophyll meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. M. Ribeiro


    Full Text Available Com o objectivo de avaliar a possibilidade de utilizar as leituras do medidor portátil de clorofila SPAD 502 (leitura SPAD, como um indicador do estado nutricional azotado de pés-mãe de Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus (E. globulus foi instalado, em 1999, um ensaio de fertilização azotada de pés-mãe desta espécie. Utilizaram-se 2 clones (HD161 e CN5 aos quais se aplicaram 5 soluções nutritivas com diferentes concentrações de azoto (50, 100, 200, 400 e 800 mg N L-1. No primeiro ano os pés-mãe foram sujeitos a uma poda de formação. Nos dois anos seguintes (2000 e 2001 avaliou-se: o número de estacas produzidas por pé-mãe, o enraizamento das estacas obtidas, o teor de azoto na folha mais jovem completamente expandida e as leituras SPAD na mesma folha. Os resultados obtidos indicam a ocorrência de uma relação assimptótica entre a disponibilidade de azoto e a leitura SPAD e a existência de uma relação linear, positiva e altamente significativa, entre o teor foliar de azoto (x e as leituras SPAD (y: y=23,27+0,75x; r=0,94; n=150. Na avaliação da possibilidade de utilização da leitura SPAD como indicador do estado nutricional azotado dos pés-mãe, observou-se um bom ajustamento do modelo quadrático à relação entre as leituras SPAD e as “produções relativas” (estacas e enraizamento, com coeficientes de determinação elevados e idênticos aos obtidos com o teor foliar de azoto. Desta forma, nestas condições experimentais, a “qualidade” da avaliação do estado nutricional azotado, utilizando as leituras SPAD, foi idêntica à conseguida com o teor foliar de azoto, o que sugere a sua utilização, com bons resultados, como indicador do estado nutricional azotado de pésmãe de E. globulus.With the aim of evaluating the use of the portable chlorophyll meter “Minolta SPAD 502” readings (SPAD readings as an indicator of the nitrogen status of Eucalyptus globulus Labill. ssp. globulus (E. globulus

  18. Uso do clorofilômetro no manejo da adubação nitrogenada para milho em sucessão a pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens Use of chlorophyll meter in nitrogen fertilizing management to corn after Brachiaria decumbens pasture

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leandro José Grava de Godoy


    Full Text Available A resposta do milho à adubação nitrogenada em cultivo após pastagem depende da espécie, da quantidade de palha, da relação C:N, da população microbiana, das condições climáticas e de outros fatores. O objetivo desta pesquisa foi avaliar a utilização da intensidade da cor verde da folha (ICV, medida pelo clorofilômetro, como indicativo para o manejo da adubação nitrogenada em cobertura, na cultura do milho, em sucessão a pastagem de Brachiaria decumbens Stapf. O experimento foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, em vasos com 29 litros de um Latossolo Vermelho distrófico, com três plantas por vaso. Foi utilizado o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, em esquema fatorial 4 x 4, com cinco repetições, constituído por quatro níveis de nitrogênio (0, 50, 100 e 150mg dm-3 e quatro de níveis de palhada de B. decumbens (0, 5, 10 e 15Mg ha-1, aplicados em cobertura. As doses de N foram parceladas em três épocas: a1/3 na semeadura; b1/3 no estádio de 4-5 folhas e c1/3 no estádio de 7-8 folhas. As determinações da ICV da folha foram efetuadas um dia antes e uma semana após a adubação nitrogenada em cobertura. As quantidades de fitomassa seca de braquiária influenciaram a ICV da folha somente no estádio de 7-8 folhas. A manutenção de maiores ICV da folha do estádio de 4-5 (46,6 unidades SPAD até o estádio de 8-9 folhas (53,0 unidades SPAD possibilitou o maior acúmulo da fitomassa seca na parte aérea do milho. O monitoramento da ICV da folha pode auxiliar na avaliação da disponibilidade de N para a planta do milho durante o ciclo.The corn response to the nitrogen fertilizing cultivated after pasture depends on of the species, straw amount, C: N rate, microbial population, climatic conditions and other factors. The study was aimed at evaluating the use of the green color intensity of the leaf (GCI, measured by the chlorophyll meter, as indicative for nitrogen fertilizing management sidedress in the corn crop, after B

  19. Optical cycle power meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)


    A bicycle power meter for measuring power generated when riding a bicycle, the power meter comprising a position-sensitive radiation detector (409) attachable to a component of a crank set (404) of bicycle, and a radiation source (408) attachable to the component of the crank set and configured t...

  20. Chlorophyll d: the puzzle resolved

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Larkum, Anthony W D; Kühl, Michael


    Chlorophyll a (Chl a) has always been regarded as the sole chlorophyll with a role in photochemical conversion in oxygen-evolving phototrophs, whereas chlorophyll d (Chl d), discovered in small quantities in red algae in 1943, was often regarded as an artefact of isolation. Now, as a result...... of discoveries over the past year, it has become clear that Chl d is the major chlorophyll of a free-living and widely distributed cyanobacterium that lives in light environments depleted in visible light and enhanced in infrared radiation. Moreover, Chl d not only has a light-harvesting role but might also...... replace Chl a in the special pair of chlorophylls in both reactions centers of photosynthesis. Udgivelsesdato: 2005-Aug...

  1. Researches Regarding the Influence of Cold Storage on the Chlorophyll Content in Lettuce

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iuliana Cretescu


    Full Text Available The aim of the present investigations was to determine the effect of the cold storage period on the content of chlorophylls in the leaves of lettuce and arugula (rucola. The research material consisted in two types of lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. capitata; Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa and arugula (Eruca sativa purchased from supermarkets in Timisoara. The quantitative determination of chlorophyll pigments in leaves (SPAD was made by chlorophyll meter (SPAD 502 Konica-Minolta. During the few days cold storage at a temperature of 4ºC, the content of chlorophyll in the leaf significantly decreased, compared with that in the control group. After 3 days of cold storage arugula and lettuce (Lactuca sativa var. capitata values of chlorophyll content differ statistically very significantly (p<0.001 from the values found in the control group which for lettuce (Lactuca sativa L. var. crispa differs statistically significant (p < 0.05.

  2. Chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence in tomato leaves infested with an invasive mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae). (United States)

    Huang, Jun; Zhang, Peng-Jun; Zhang, Juan; Lu, Yao-Bin; Huang, Fang; Li, Ming-Jiang


    Herbivore injury has indirect effects on the growth and performance of host plants through photosynthetic suppression. It causes uncertain reduction in photosynthesis, which likely depends on the degree of infestation. Rapid light curves provide detailed information on the saturation characteristics of electron transport as well as the overall photosynthetic performance of a plant. We examined the effects of different intensities of infestation of the invasive mealybug, Phenacoccus solenopsis Tinsley (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae), on the relative chlorophyll content and rapid light curves of tomato Solanum lycopersicum L. leaves using a chlorophyll meter and chlorophyll fluorescence measurement system, respectively, under greenhouse conditions. After 38 d of P. solenopsis feeding, relative chlorophyll content of tomato plants with initial high of P. solenopsis was reduced by 57.3%. Light utilization efficiency (α) for the initial high-density treatment was reduced by 42.4%. However, no significant difference between initial low-density treatment and uninfested control was found. The values of the maximum electron transport rate and minimum saturating irradiance for initial high-density treatment were reduced by 82.0 and 69.7%, respectively, whereas the corresponding values for low-density treatment were reduced by 55.9 and 58.1%, respectively. These data indicated that changes were induced by P. solenopsis feeding in the relative chlorophyll content and chlorophyll fluorescence of infested tomato plants. The results indicating that low initial infestation by P. solenopsis caused no change in relative leaf chlorophyll content or light utilization efficiency could have been because the plants rapidly adapted to P. solenopsis feeding or because of compensatory photosynthesis.

  3. Spontaneous chlorophyll mutants of Pennisetum americanum: Genetics and chlorophyll quantities. (United States)

    Koduru, P R; Rao, M K


    Thirteen spontaneously occurring chlorophyll deficient phenotypes have been described and their genetic basis was established. Ten of these - 'white', 'white tipped green', 'patchy white', 'white virescent', 'white striping 1', 'white striping 2', 'white striping 4', 'fine striping', 'chlorina' and 'yellow virescent' showed monogenic recessive inheritance and the remaining three - 'yellow striping', 'yellow green' and 'light green' seedling phenotypes showed digenic recessive inheritance. The genes for (i) 'white tipped green' (wr) and 'yellow virescent' (yv) and (ii) 'patchy white' (pw) and 'white striping 1' (wst 1) showed independent assortment. Further, the genes for 'white' (w), 'white tipped green' (wr) and 'yellow virescent' (yv) were inherited independently of the gene for hairy leaf margin (Hm).In the mutants - 'white tipped green', 'patchy white', 'white striping 1', 'white striping 2', 'fine striping', 'chlorina', 'yellow virescent', 'yellow striping', 'yellow green' and 'light green' phenotypes total quantity of chlorophyll was significantly less than that in the corresponding controls, while in 'white virescent' there was no reduction in the mature stage. For nine of the mutants the quantity of chlorophyll was also estimated in F1's (mutant x control green). In F1's of six of the mutants - 'white tip', 'patchy white', 'chlorina', 'yellow virescent', 'fine striping' and 'yellow striping' the quantity of chlorophyll was almost equal to the wild type. In the F1's of three of the mutants - 'white striping 1', 'white striping 2' and 'light green' an intermediate value between the mutant and wild types was observed. In 'yellow virescent' retarded synthesis of chlorophyll, particularly chlorophyll a was observed in the juvenile stage. Reduced quantity of chlorophyll was associated with defective chloroplasts. In the mutants - 'white tipped green, 'white virescent', 'fine striping', 'chlorina', 'yellow striping', 'yellow green' and 'light green' defective

  4. Ride-Quality Meter (United States)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Dempsey, T. K.; Clevenson, S. A.; Stephens, D. G.


    Single- and combined-Axis discomfort are corrected by effects of noise and vibration to yield measure of total discomfort experienced by rider. Three modules transform mathematically-weighted rms accelerations, which represent physical vibration characteristics, into subjective discomfort units. Portable "ride-quality" meter measures passenger discomfort and acceptability of vehicle interior noise and vibration. Meter especially suited for determining vehicle comfort and design tradeoffs and for comparing ride quality of vehicles.

  5. Arrival Metering Precision Study (United States)

    Prevot, Thomas; Mercer, Joey; Homola, Jeffrey; Hunt, Sarah; Gomez, Ashley; Bienert, Nancy; Omar, Faisal; Kraut, Joshua; Brasil, Connie; Wu, Minghong, G.


    This paper describes the background, method and results of the Arrival Metering Precision Study (AMPS) conducted in the Airspace Operations Laboratory at NASA Ames Research Center in May 2014. The simulation study measured delivery accuracy, flight efficiency, controller workload, and acceptability of time-based metering operations to a meter fix at the terminal area boundary for different resolution levels of metering delay times displayed to the air traffic controllers and different levels of airspeed information made available to the Time-Based Flow Management (TBFM) system computing the delay. The results show that the resolution of the delay countdown timer (DCT) on the controllers display has a significant impact on the delivery accuracy at the meter fix. Using the 10 seconds rounded and 1 minute rounded DCT resolutions resulted in more accurate delivery than 1 minute truncated and were preferred by the controllers. Using the speeds the controllers entered into the fourth line of the data tag to update the delay computation in TBFM in high and low altitude sectors increased air traffic control efficiency and reduced fuel burn for arriving aircraft during time based metering.

  6. Retrieval of spruce leaf chlorophyll content from airborne image data using continuum removal and radiative transfer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Malenovsky, Z.; Homolova, L.; Zurita-Milla, R.; Lukes, P.; Kaplan, V.; Hanus, J.; Gastellu-Etchegorry, J.P.; Schaepman, M.E.


    We investigate combined continuum removal and radiative transfer (RT) modeling to retrieve leaf chlorophyll a & b content (Cab) from the AISA Eagle airborne imaging spectrometer data of sub-meter (0.4 m) spatial resolution. Based on coupled PROSPECT-DART RT simulations of a Norway spruce (Picea

  7. Chlorophylls, Symmetry, Chirality, and Photosynthesis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mathias O. Senge


    Full Text Available Chlorophylls are a fundamental class of tetrapyrroles and function as the central reaction center, accessory and photoprotective pigments in photosynthesis. Their unique individual photochemical properties are a consequence of the tetrapyrrole macrocycle, the structural chemistry and coordination behavior of the phytochlorin system, and specific substituent pattern. They achieve their full potential in solar energy conversion by working in concert in highly complex, supramolecular structures such as the reaction centers and light-harvesting complexes of photobiology. The biochemical function of these structures depends on the controlled interplay of structural and functional principles of the apoprotein and pigment cofactors. Chlorophylls and bacteriochlorophylls are optically active molecules with several chiral centers, which are necessary for their natural biological function and the assembly of their supramolecular complexes. However, in many cases the exact role of chromophore stereochemistry in the biological context is unknown. This review gives an overview of chlorophyll research in terms of basic function, biosynthesis and their functional and structural role in photosynthesis. It highlights aspects of chirality and symmetry of chlorophylls to elicit further interest in their role in nature.

  8. Ride quality meter (United States)

    Leatherwood, J. D.; Dempsey, T. K.; Clevenson, S. A.; Stephens, D. G. (Inventor)


    A ride quality meter is disclosed that automatically transforms vibration and noise measurements into a single number index of passenger discomfort. The noise measurements are converted into a noise discomfort value. The vibrations are converted into single axis discomfort values which are then converted into a combined axis discomfort value. The combined axis discomfort value is corrected for time duration and then summed with the noise discomfort value to obtain a total discomfort value.

  9. Digital Receiver Phase Meter (United States)

    Marcin, Martin; Abramovici, Alexander


    The software of a commercially available digital radio receiver has been modified to make the receiver function as a two-channel low-noise phase meter. This phase meter is a prototype in the continuing development of a phase meter for a system in which radiofrequency (RF) signals in the two channels would be outputs of a spaceborne heterodyne laser interferometer for detecting gravitational waves. The frequencies of the signals could include a common Doppler-shift component of as much as 15 MHz. The phase meter is required to measure the relative phases of the signals in the two channels at a sampling rate of 10 Hz at a root power spectral density digital receiver. The input RF signal is first fed to the input terminal of an analog-to-digital converter (ADC). To prevent aliasing errors in the ADC, the sampling rate must be at least twice the input signal frequency. The sampling rate of the ADC is governed by a sampling clock, which also drives a digital local oscillator (DLO), which is a direct digital frequency synthesizer. The DLO produces samples of sine and cosine signals at a programmed tuning frequency. The sine and cosine samples are mixed with (that is, multiplied by) the samples from the ADC, then low-pass filtered to obtain in-phase (I) and quadrature (Q) signal components. A digital signal processor (DSP) computes the ratio between the Q and I components, computes the phase of the RF signal (relative to that of the DLO signal) as the arctangent of this ratio, and then averages successive such phase values over a time interval specified by the user.

  10. Improvised Energy Meter Supporting Wireless Data Transfer

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Aravind


    Full Text Available The purpose of the study is to design a prototype model of an energy meter which has the ability of wireless data transfer such as sending emails and SMS. In the current energy monitoring scenario, manual energy meter monitoring is a cumbersome and tedious process for the electricity boards. It involves huge manpower and higher expenditure for a simple task. Manual energy meter monitoring is highly erroneous and amounts to great losses for both the consumers and the electricity boards. In this conventional technique, losing the bills and delay in the arrival of the official to note down the reading are common affairs. Complete digitalization of bill delivery and transaction processes eliminates such uneventful circumstances. The manual reading method is inefficient to meet the raising power demands. The invention described here has the potential to wipe of manual energy meter reading from the scene and replace it with a sophisticated automated system facilitating remote monitoring of energy consumption. In this proposed system, the Raspberry Pi performs all the essential functions of a microcontroller and supports features like sending emails and SMS with the aid of Wi-Fi dongle and GSM modem. This automated system enables continuous monitoring of energy consumption.

  11. Control of quantum interference of an excitonic wave in a chlorophyll chain with a chlorophyll ring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hong, Suc-Kyoung; Nam, Seog-Woo [Korea University, Jochiwon, Chungnam (Korea, Republic of); Yeon, Kyu-Hwang [Chungbuk National University, Cheonju (Korea, Republic of)


    The quantum interference of an excitonic wave and its coherent control in a nanochain with a nanoring are studied. The nanochain is comprised of six chlorophylls, where four chlorophylls compose the nanoring and two chlorophylls are attached at two opposite sites on the nanoring. The exciton dynamics and the correlation of the excitation between chlorophylls are analyzed for a given configurational arrangement and dipolar orientation of the chlorophylls. The results of this study show that the excitation at specified chlorophylls is suppressed or enhanced by destructive or constructive interference of the excitonic wave in the chlorophyll nanochain.

  12. Smart metering design and applications

    CERN Document Server

    Weranga, K S K; Chandima, D P


    Taking into account the present day trends and the requirements, this Brief focuses on smart metering of electricity for next generation energy efficiency and conservation. The contents include discussions on the smart metering concepts and existing technologies and systems as well as design and implementation of smart metering schemes together with detailed examples.

  13. QTLs for Rice Leaf Chlorophyll Content Under Low N Stress

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Ping; YU Xiao-Min; ZHU Ri-Qing; WU Ping


    Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for chlorophyll content of a rice leaf were mapped on to the molecular marker linkage nutrient solution and soil culture experiments to detect rice nitrogen nutrition status under low N stress. A chlorophyll meter was used to measure the soil plant analysis development (SPAD) value of the topmost fully expanded leaf as the index of chlorophyll content that expressed nitrogen status in rice plants. Totally 3 QTLs for SPAD values, two on chromosome 3 located at interval RG179-CDO337 and RG348-RZ329, respectively, and one on chromosome 10 at interval RZ500-RG134, were detected under stressed conditions of low N in the soil and/or nutrient solution culture experiments.One QTL located at interval RG179-CDO337 on chromosome 3 associated with a relative change in SPAD value from a high N level to a low N level in the soil culture experiment was also detected. Based on the different responses to low N stress between the two parents, it was supposed that the QTLs identified in this study associated with nitrogen efficiency in rice at low N levels might be useful in applying marker technology to rice breeding programs.

  14. Direct reading inductance meter (United States)

    Kolby, R. B. (Inventor)


    A direct reading inductance meter comprised of a crystal oscillator and an LC tuned oscillator is presented. The oscillators function respectively to generate a reference frequency, f(r), and to generate an initial frequency, f(0), which when mixed produce a difference equal to zero. Upon connecting an inductor of small unknown value in the LC circuit to change its resonant frequency to f(x), a difference frequency (f(r)-f(x)) is produced that is very nearly a linear function of the inductance of the inductor. The difference frequency is measured and displayed on a linear scale in units of inductance.

  15. The Curing Meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede


    Curing technology concerns adjustment and control of temperature and moisture conditions in hardening structures and elements of concrete. The curing technology comprises e.g. measurement, adjustment and control of the moisture conditions during the early hardening phase of the concrete to achiev...... from concrete surfaces in the early hardening phase. The Concrete Curing Meter is designed for simple and reliable monitoring of water loss from a wet surface of fresh concrete. This new measuring technique has been tested with several prototypes of the Curing Meter.......Curing technology concerns adjustment and control of temperature and moisture conditions in hardening structures and elements of concrete. The curing technology comprises e.g. measurement, adjustment and control of the moisture conditions during the early hardening phase of the concrete to achieve...... an optimal development of properties in the hardening concrete – so-called "moisture curing". Proper moisture curing is vital to concrete but laborious to accomplish and difficult to control at the construction site with present methods. This paper concerns a new method for site measurement of evaporation...

  16. The Thermocline Layer and Chlorophyll-a Concentration Variability during Southeast Monsoon in the Banda Sea (United States)

    Pusparini, Nikita; Prasetyo, Budi; Ambariyanto; Widowati, Ita


    Thermocline layer and chlorophyll-a concentration can be used to investigate the upwelling region. This investigation is focused in the Banda Sea because the upwelling event in this area is quite large and has a longer upwelling duration than other waters in Indonesia. In addition, Banda Sea is also influenced by climatic factors such as monsoon. The aim of this research is to determine the validation of secondary data (from satellite imagery data and model) and in situ observation data (from research cruise) and to determine the variability of thermocline layer and chlorophyll-a concentration during Southeast Monsoon in the Banda Sea. The data used in this study were chlorophyll-a concentration, seawater vertical temperature at depths 0-400 meters, and sea surface temperature from remote sensing and in situ data. Spatial and temporal analysis of all parameters was conducted by quantitative descriptive method. The results showed that the variability of thermocline layer and the chlorophyll-a distribution were strongly related to seasonal pattern. In most cases, the estimates of thermocline layer and chlorophyll-a concentration using remote sensing algorithm were higher than in situ measured values. The greatest variability occurred in the eastern Banda Sea during the Southeast Monsoon with shallower thermocline layer, more abundance of chlorophyll-a concentration, and lower sea surface temperature.

  17. Nonlinear Optical Properties of Carotenoid and Chlorophyll Harmonophores (United States)

    Tokarz, Danielle Barbara

    incorporated liposomes. In addition, Drosophila melanogaster larvae muscle as well as keratin structures in the hair cortex were labeled with beta-carotene. Polarization-dependent THG studies may be particularly useful in understanding the structural organization that occurs within biological structures containing carotenoids and chlorophylls such as photosynthetic pigment-protein complexes and carotenoid aggregates in plants and alga. Further, artificial labeling with carotenoids and chlorophylls may be useful in clinical applications since they are nontoxic, nutritionally valuable, and they can aid in visualizing structural changes in cellular components.

  18. How to use your peak flow meter (United States)

    Peak flow meter - how to use; Asthma - peak flow meter; Reactive airway disease - peak flow meter; Bronchial asthma - peak flow meter ... If your airways are narrowed and blocked due to asthma, your peak flow values drop. You can ...

  19. Micro-gen metering solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elland, J.; Dickson, J.; Cranfield, P.


    This report summarises the results of a project to investigate the regulation of domestic electricity metering work and identify the most economic options for micro-generator installers to undertake work on electricity meters. A micro-generation unit is defined as an energy conversion system converting non-electrical energy into electrical energy and can include technologies such as photovoltaic systems, small-scale wind turbines, micro-hydroelectric systems, and combined heat and power systems. Details of six tasks are given and cover examination of the existing framework and legal documentation for metering work, the existing technical requirements for meter operators, meter operator personnel accreditation, appraisal of options for meter changes and for micro-generation installation, document change procedures, industry consultation, and a review of the costs implications of the options.

  20. Streamlining Smart Meter Data Analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts


    with the complexity of data processing and data analytics. The system offers an information integration pipeline to ingest smart meter data; scalable data processing and analytic platform for pre-processing and mining big smart meter data sets; and a web-based portal for visualizing data analytics results. The system......Today smart meters are increasingly used in worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social......-economic metrics such as the geographic information of meters, the information about users and their property, geographic location and others, which make the data management very complex. On the other hand, data-mining and the emerging cloud computing technologies make the collection, management, and analysis...

  1. A more intelligent meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siuru, B.


    A utility systems analyst viewing a multicolor graph on a computer screen sees something awry in a customer`s home. The furnace is running in the midst of summer. The customer is notified and finds the problem, an air conditioner vent blowing on a thermostat. Next the analyst finds a refrigerator using excessive amounts of electricity. This time it was a leaky gasket and clogged heat exchanger fins. Later a flooded basement is avoided by discovering a faulty sump pump. The analyst was using the Non-Intrusive Appliance Load Monitoring System (NIALMS). As the name implies, NIALMS allows utilities to learn more about where and when customers use electrical power and how much without entering their homes to install monitoring devices on each appliance. It was developed under the sponsorship of the Electric Power Research Institute with assistance from Empire State Electric Energy Research Corp., New York State Energy Research and Development Authority, Consolidated Edison Co. and Rochester Gas & Electric Co. The meter is described.

  2. Acoustic Ground-Impedance Meter (United States)

    Zuckerwar, A. J.


    Helmoltz resonator used in compact, portable meter measures acoustic impedance of ground or other surfaces. Earth's surface is subject of increasing acoustical investigations because of its importance in aircraft noise prediction and measurment. Meter offers several advantages. Is compact and portable and set up at any test site, irrespective of landscape features, weather or other environmental condition.

  3. Wireless MSEB Meter Reading Vehicle

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pooja U.Shinde


    Full Text Available The electricity is very essential in day to day life. Most of industries are running with electricity. In commercial areas also electricity plays very vital role and hence electricity is backbone of any developing nation. To measure the consumed electricity and generate Electricity bill, the energy meters are provided to each and every consumer. This project is use to take meter reading wirelessly by using transceiver which provides accuracy and speed in MSEB meter reading. In this work, Micro controller plays the main role. This circuit contains the LCD, RF transmitter, RF receiver, Energy meter, switch, RS 232 etc. This project uses one Microcontroller, LCD, RF transceiver module, energy meter and relay for connecting load. Meter reading is the technology of automatically collecting data from energy meter and transferring that data to a central database for billing and/or analyzing. This saves employee trips and means that billing can be based on actual consumption rather than on an estimate based on previous consumption, giving customers better control of their use of electric energy. The Transmitter is connected to the meter and it counts the pulses from it and displays it over the LCD. It transmits the data over radio frequency. This network technology overcome all the difficulties of earlier billing system and become more advantageous and accurate.

  4. X-ray structures of the peridinin-chlorophyll-protein reconstituted with different chlorophylls. (United States)

    Schulte, Tim; Hiller, Roger G; Hofmann, Eckhard


    The peridinin-chlorophyll a-protein (PCP) from dinoflagellates is a soluble light harvesting antenna which gathers incoming photons mainly by the carotenoid peridinin. In PCPs reconstituted with different chlorophylls, the peridinin to chlorophyll energy transfer rates are well predicted by a Förster-like theory, but only if the pigment arrangements are identical in all PCPs. We have determined the X-ray structures of PCPs reconstituted with Chlorophyll-b (Chl-b), Chlorophyll-d (Chl-d) and Bacteriochlorophyll-a (BChl-a) to resolutionschlorophylls over Chl-a.

  5. Decadal Changes in Global Ocean Chlorophyll (United States)

    Gregg, Watson W.; Conkright, Margarita E.; Koblinsky, Chester J. (Technical Monitor)


    The global ocean chlorophyll archive produced by the Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) was revised using compatible algorithms with the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWIFS), and both were blended with in situ data. This methodology permitted a quantitative comparison of decadal changes in global ocean chlorophyll from the CZCS (1979-1986) and SeaWiFS (Sep. 1997-Dec. 2000) records. Global seasonal means of ocean chlorophyll decreased over the two observational segments, by 8% in winter to 16% in autumn. Chlorophyll in the high latitudes was responsible for most of the decadal change. Conversely, chlorophyll concentrations in the low latitudes increased. The differences and similarities of the two data records provide evidence of how the Earth's climate may be changing and how ocean biota respond. Furthermore, the results have implications for the ocean carbon cycle.

  6. Smart Metering System for Microgrids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Palacios-Garcia, Emilio; Guan, Yajuan; Savaghebi, Mehdi


    Smart meters are the cornerstone in the new conception of the electrical network or Smart Grid (SG), providing detailed information about users' energy consumption and allowing the suppliers to remotely collect data for billing. Nevertheless, their features are not only useful for the energy...... will expose an example of Smart Meters integration in a Microgrid scenario, which is the Intelligent Microgrid Lab of Aalborg University (AAU). To do this, first the installation available in the Microgrid Lab will be introduced. Then, three different test scenarios and their respective results...... will be presented, regarding the capabilities of this system and the advantages of integration the Smart Meters information in the Microgrid control....

  7. The Portable Metal Detecting Meter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Using backscatter principle of ray, one kind of the portable metal detecting meters, which comprises five parts, i.e., a ray-emitter, a ray acceptor, discriminating and forming pulse circuits, storing and processing data units, a light and sound alarm device, and a power supply, had been invented. It can judge existence of danger articles as weapons and daggers hided inside luggages, pracels, or clothing of passengers or persons without opening packing. The detecting distance between the meter and danger objects, at present, is about one meter, but can be extended adopting improvement for key parts. For comparison, up to now, in the whole world, known information

  8. Quantifying mangrove chlorophyll from high spatial resolution imagery

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Heenkenda, M.K.; Joyce, K.E.; Maier, S.W.; Bruin, de S.


    Lower than expected chlorophyll concentration of a plant can directly limit photosynthetic activity, and resultant primary production. Low chlorophyll concentration may also indicate plant physiological stress. Compared to other terrestrial vegetation, mangrove chlorophyll variations are poorly unde

  9. Effects of foliar fertilizers on grain quality by using SPAD chlorophyll meter


    Drexler, Dora; Hegedus, Boglarka; Garret, Ed; Jung , Andras; Csaba GYURICZA; Sardi, Katalin


    On-farm field experiments were conducted in 2013 around Hungary to evaluate the effect of natural foliar fertilizer applications on spelt yield and grain quality. Four different  foliar  applications  and  a  control  field  were  compared  to  monitor  the  efficiancy  of  the treatments.

  10. In situ estimates of waterhyacinth leaf tissue nitrogen using a SPAD-502 chlorophyll meter (United States)

    An important component of plant quality as perceived by herbivores is leaf nitrogen content. Traditional methods for assessing leaf nitrogen are time-consuming and destructive, thus making them unsuitable for studies of in situ plant quality. We evaluated the suitability of using a hand-held chlorop...

  11. The One-Meter Dash (United States)

    Brooks, Mattie J.


    A game for two teams employs dice, meter sticks, and Cuisenaire rods. The game gives practice in number facts, regrouping, and use of rods; it can also serve as an introduction to the metric system. (SD)

  12. Healthcare Energy Metering Guidance (Brochure)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)


    This brochure is intended to help facility and energy managers plan and prioritize investments in energy metering. It offers healthcare-specific examples of metering applications, benefits, and steps that other health systems can reproduce. It reflects collaborative input from the U.S. Department of Energy national laboratories and the health system members of the DOE Hospital Energy Alliance's Benchmarking and Measurement Project Team.

  13. The Savonius Water Current Meter (United States)


    the author visited the David Taylor Model Basin for the purpose of calibrating five (5) Savonius water current ,meter rotors in the range of .1 to 1...Iastitution of Oceanography. Figure 1 is a block diagram of the water current meter and its associated equipment. The details of the Savonius rotor amplifier. The Savonius rotor functions as a salt water switch which varies the r-. coupling of the transformer thus it awplitude modulates the 100

  14. Identification of genes associated with chlorophyll accumulation in flower petals. (United States)

    Ohmiya, Akemi; Hirashima, Masumi; Yagi, Masafumi; Tanase, Koji; Yamamizo, Chihiro


    Plants have an ability to prevent chlorophyll accumulation, which would mask the bright flower color, in their petals. In contrast, leaves contain substantial amounts of chlorophyll, as it is essential for photosynthesis. The mechanisms of organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation are unknown. To identify factors that determine the chlorophyll content in petals, we compared the expression of genes related to chlorophyll metabolism in different stages of non-green (red and white) petals (very low chlorophyll content), pale-green petals (low chlorophyll content), and leaves (high chlorophyll content) of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.). The expression of many genes encoding chlorophyll biosynthesis enzymes, in particular Mg-chelatase, was lower in non-green petals than in leaves. Non-green petals also showed higher expression of genes involved in chlorophyll degradation, including STAY-GREEN gene and pheophytinase. These data suggest that the absence of chlorophylls in carnation petals may be caused by the low rate of chlorophyll biosynthesis and high rate of degradation. Similar results were obtained by the analysis of Arabidopsis microarray data. In carnation, most genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis were expressed at similar levels in pale-green petals and leaves, whereas the expression of chlorophyll catabolic genes was higher in pale-green petals than in leaves. Therefore, we hypothesize that the difference in chlorophyll content between non-green and pale-green petals is due to different levels of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Our study provides a basis for future molecular and genetic studies on organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation.

  15. Simultaneous extraction and quantitation of carotenoids, chlorophylls, and tocopherols in Brassica vegetables. (United States)

    Guzman, Ivette; Yousef, Gad G; Brown, Allan F


    Brassica oleracea vegetables, such as broccoli (B. oleracea L. var. italica) and cauliflower (B. oleracea L. var. botrytis), are known to contain bioactive compounds associated with health, including three classes of photosynthetic lipid-soluble compounds: carotenoids, chlorophylls, and tocopherols. Carotenoids and chlorophylls are photosynthetic pigments. Tocopherols have vitamin E activity. Due to genetic and environmental variables, the amounts present in vegetables are not constant. To aid breeders in the development of Brassica cultivars with higher provitamin A and vitamin E contents and antioxidant activity, a more efficient method was developed to quantitate carotenoids, chlorophylls, and tocopherols in the edible portions of broccoli and cauliflower. The novel UPLC method separated five carotenoids, two chlorophylls, and two tocopherols in a single 30 min run, reducing the run time by half compared to previously published protocols. The objective of the study was to develop a faster, more effective extraction and quantitation methodology to screen large populations of Brassica germplasm, thus aiding breeders in producing superior vegetables with enhanced phytonutrient profiles.

  16. Organization of chlorophyll biosynthesis and insertion of chlorophyll into the chlorophyll-binding proteins in chloroplasts. (United States)

    Wang, Peng; Grimm, Bernhard


    Oxygenic photosynthesis requires chlorophyll (Chl) for the absorption of light energy, and charge separation in the reaction center of photosystem I and II, to feed electrons into the photosynthetic electron transfer chain. Chl is bound to different Chl-binding proteins assembled in the core complexes of the two photosystems and their peripheral light-harvesting antenna complexes. The structure of the photosynthetic protein complexes has been elucidated, but mechanisms of their biogenesis are in most instances unknown. These processes involve not only the assembly of interacting proteins, but also the functional integration of pigments and other cofactors. As a precondition for the association of Chl with the Chl-binding proteins in both photosystems, the synthesis of the apoproteins is synchronized with Chl biosynthesis. This review aims to summarize the present knowledge on the posttranslational organization of Chl biosynthesis and current attempts to envision the proceedings of the successive synthesis and integration of Chl into Chl-binding proteins in the thylakoid membrane. Potential auxiliary factors, contributing to the control and organization of Chl biosynthesis and the association of Chl with the Chl-binding proteins during their integration into photosynthetic complexes, are discussed in this review.

  17. Mediterranean Ocean Colour Chlorophyll Trends (United States)

    Colella, Simone; Falcini, Federico; Rinaldi, Eleonora; Sammartino, Michela; Santoleri, Rosalia


    In being at the base of the marine food web, phytoplankton is particularly important for marine ecosystem functioning (e.g., biodiversity). Strong anthropization, over-exploitation of natural resources, and climate change affect the natural amount of phytoplankton and, therefore, represent a continuous threat to the biodiversity in marine waters. In particular, a concerning risks for coastal waters is the increase in nutrient inputs of terrestrial/anthropogenic origin that can lead to undesirable modifications of phytoplankton concentration (i.e., eutrophication). Monitoring chlorophyll (Chl) concentration, which is a proxy of phytoplankton biomass, is an efficient tool for recording and understanding the response of the marine ecosystem to human pressures and thus for detecting eutrophication. Here, we compute Chl trends over the Mediterranean Sea by using satellite data, also highlighting the fact that remote sensing may represent an efficient and reliable solution to synoptically control the “good environmental status” (i.e., the Marine Directive to achieve Good Environmental Status of EU marine waters by 2020) and to assess the application of international regulations and environmental directives. Our methodology includes the use of an ad hoc regional (i.e., Mediterranean) algorithm for Chl concentration retrieval, also accounting for the difference between offshore (i.e., Case I) and coastal (i.e., Case II) waters. We apply the Mann-Kendall test and the Sens’s method for trend estimation to the Chl concentration de-seasonalized monthly time series, as obtained from the X-11 technique. We also provide a preliminary analysis of some particular trends by evaluating their associated inter-annual variability. The high spatial resolution of our approach allows a clear identification of intense trends in those coastal waters that are affected by river outflows. We do not attempt to attribute the observed trends to specific anthropogenic events. However, the

  18. Arduino based radiation survey meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd, E-mail:; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee [Malaysian Nuclear Agency, 43000, Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia); Muzakkir, Amir [Sinaran Utama Teknologi Sdn Bhd, 43650, Bandar Baru Bangi, Selangor (Malaysia)


    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr{sup −1}). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr{sup −1} determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  19. Arduino based radiation survey meter (United States)

    Rahman, Nur Aira Abd; Lombigit, Lojius; Abdullah, Nor Arymaswati; Azman, Azraf; Dolah, Taufik; Muzakkir, Amir; Jaafar, Zainudin; Mohamad, Glam Hadzir Patai; Ramli, Abd Aziz Mhd; Zain, Rasif Mohd; Said, Fazila; Khalid, Mohd Ashhar; Taat, Muhamad Zahidee


    This paper presents the design of new digital radiation survey meter with LND7121 Geiger Muller tube detector and Atmega328P microcontroller. Development of the survey meter prototype is carried out on Arduino Uno platform. 16-bit Timer1 on the microcontroller is utilized as external pulse counter to produce count per second or CPS measurement. Conversion from CPS to dose rate technique is also performed by Arduino to display results in micro Sievert per hour (μSvhr-1). Conversion factor (CF) value for conversion of CPM to μSvhr-1 determined from manufacturer data sheet is compared with CF obtained from calibration procedure. The survey meter measurement results are found to be linear for dose rates below 3500 µSv/hr.

  20. Metering in the gas supply sector; Metering in der Gasversorgung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wernekinck, U. [RWE Westfalen-Weser-Ems, Recklinghausen (Germany)


    The new conditions of competition in the gas supply sector have strongly increased the requirements on gas grid operators. Mainly an exact gas metering and -accouting will become more and more important. The systems and procedures are presented in detail in this contribution. (GL)

  1. Distinguishing between chlorophyll-a and suspended solids in lake water using hyperspectral data (United States)

    Atkinson, Samuel F.; Acevedo, Miguel F.; Dickson, Kenneth L.; Rolbecki, David A.


    Classifying surface water bodies according to trophic status by remote sensing techniques has had limited success in lakes with relatively high nonalgal turbidity levels. Since the trophic status of a lake is typically defined based on its chlorophyll-a concentration, and since relatively high suspended solids concentrations masks chlorophyll absorption and reflectance peaks, determining trophic status remotely is typically only partially successful. Hoer, we were interested in exploring hyperspectral data analysis for estimating trophic status. Hyperspectral data (10 nm resolution between 262 and 850 nm) of light attenuation were measured in Lake Texoma, USA) at the surface, 0.1, 0.5, 1.0 and 1.5 meters in depth, while simultaneously analyzing the water column for chlorophyll-a and suspended solids concentration. Data were collected at five sampling stations, each representative of a major zone in the 36,000 hectare lake, approximately monthly, during 1996/97 hydrologic year. Downwelling and upwelling vertical attenuation coefficients were calculated using Bouger-Lambert's law. First and second order derivatives, as well as higher order derivatives were applied to the spectral data. The results showed a clear correlation between first order derivatives and turbidity, while the second order derivatives were correlated to chlorophyll-a concentrations.

  2. Photoelectrochemical Behavior of Chlorophyll a in Thin Films (United States)

    Tugulea, Laura


    Chlorophyll a is the major pigment in higher plant photosynthesis, being responsible for both light absorption and light induced charge separation. The photoelectrochemical behavior of chlorophyll a species P740 (polymerized water adduct of chlorophyll a, absorbing at 740nm) was investigated using chlorophyll a thin films, electrodeposited on both Sn02 and Sn02/Ti02 electrodes. Anodic photocurrents have been observed at both Sn02 and Sn02/Ti02 electrodes with chlorophyll a film electrodeposited, under potential-controlled condition...

  3. Chlorophyll content of spring wheat flag leaves grown under elevated CO2 concentrations and other environmental stresses within the 'ESPACE-wheat' project

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ommen, O.E.; Donnelly, A.; Vanhoutvin, S.; Oijen, van M.; Manderscheid, R.


    Spring wheat cv. Minaret was grown in open-top chambers at four sites across Europe. The effect of different treatments (CO2 enrichment, O3 fumigation, drought stress and temperature) on the chlorophyll content of the flag leaf was investigated using the MINOLTA SPAD-502 meter. Under optimum growth

  4. Hearing Aids (United States)

    ... more in both quiet and noisy situations. Hearing aids help people who have hearing loss from damage ... your doctor. There are different kinds of hearing aids. They differ by size, their placement on or ...

  5. AIDS (image) (United States)

    AIDS (acquired immune deficiency syndrome) is caused by HIV (human immunodeficiency virus), and is a syndrome that ... life-threatening illnesses. There is no cure for AIDS, but treatment with antiviral medicine can suppress symptoms. ...

  6. Automated monitoring of milk meters

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Mol, de R.M.; Andre, G.


    Automated monitoring might be an alternative for periodic checking of electronic milk meters. A computer model based on Dynamic Linear Modelling (DLM) has been developed for this purpose. Two situations are distinguished: more milking stands in the milking parlour and only one milking stand in the m

  7. Direct-reading inductance meter (United States)

    Kolbly, R. B.


    Meter indicates from 30 nH to 3 micro H. Reference inductor of 15 micro H is made by winding 50 turns of Number 26 Formvar wire on Micrometal type 50-2 (or equivalent) core. Circuit eliminates requirement for complex instrument compensation prior to taking coil inductance measurement and thus is as easy to operate as common ohmmeter.

  8. Smart metering. Conformance tests for electricity meters; Smart Metering. Konformitaetstests an Stromzaehlern

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bormann, Matthias; Pongratz, Siegfried [VDE Pruef- und Zertifizierungsinstitut, Offenbach (Germany)


    Introduction of communication technologies into today's energy network enables the interworking between the domains of smart metering, smart grid, smart home and e-mobility as well as the creation and provisioning of new innovative services such as efficient load adjustment. Due to this convergence the new energy networks are becoming increasingly complex. Ensuring the interworking between all network elements (e.g. electricity meters, gateways) in these smart energy networks is of utmost importance. To this end conformance and interoperability tests have to be defined to ensure that services work as expected. (orig.)

  9. Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    Controversy over the aggregate impact of foreign aid has focused on reduced form estimates of the aid-growth link. The causal chain, through which aid affects developmental outcomes including growth, has received much less attention. We address this gap by: (i) specifying a structural model of th...

  10. QTL Mapping of Chlorophyll Contents in Rice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHEN Bo; ZHUANG Jie-yun; ZHANG Ke-qin; DAI Wei-min; LU Ye; FU Li-qing; DING Jia-ming; ZHENG Kang-le


    The objectives of this study were to investigate the genetic factors controlling the chlorophyll content of rice leaf using QTL analysis. A linkage map consisting of 207 DNA markers was constructed by using 247 recombinant inbred lines (RILs) derived from an indica-indica rice cross of Zhenshan97B×Milyang 46. In 2002 and 2003, the contents of chlorophyll a and b of the parents and the 247 RILs were measured on the top first leaf, top second leaf, and top third leaf, respectively. The software QTLMapper 1.6 was used to detect quantitative trait loci (QTLs), additive by environment (AE) interactions, and epistatic by environment (AAE) interactions. A total of eight QTLs in four intervals were detected to have significant additive effects on chlorophyll a and b contents at different leaf positions, with 1.96-9.77% of phenotypic variation explained by a single QTL, and two QTLs with significant AE interactions were detected. Epistasis analysis detected nine significant additive-by-additive interactions on chlorophyll a and b contents, and one pair of QTLs with significant AAE interactions was detected. On comparison with QTLs for yield traits detected in the same population, it was found in many cases that the QTLs for chlorophyll a and b contents and those for yield traits were located in the same chromosome intervals.

  11. Chlorophyll modifications and their spectral extension in oxygenic photosynthesis. (United States)

    Chen, Min


    Chlorophylls are magnesium-tetrapyrrole molecules that play essential roles in photosynthesis. All chlorophylls have similar five-membered ring structures, with variations in the side chains and/or reduction states. Formyl group substitutions on the side chains of chlorophyll a result in the different absorption properties of chlorophyll b, chlorophyll d, and chlorophyll f. These formyl substitution derivatives exhibit different spectral shifts according to the formyl substitution position. Not only does the presence of various types of chlorophylls allow the photosynthetic organism to harvest sunlight at different wavelengths to enhance light energy input, but the pigment composition of oxygenic photosynthetic organisms also reflects the spectral properties on the surface of the Earth. Two major environmental influencing factors are light and oxygen levels, which may play central roles in the regulatory pathways leading to the different chlorophylls. I review the biochemical processes of chlorophyll biosynthesis and their regulatory mechanisms.

  12. The spontaneous chlorophyll mutation frequency in barley

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jørgensen, Jørgen Helms; Jensen, Hans Peter


    A total of 1866 barley plants were progeny tested in the greenhouse. Twenty-five plants segregated for newly arisen, spontaneous chlorophyll mutant genes. Among the total of 470,129 seedlings screened there were 79 mutants (1.7 .+-. 0.6 .times. 10-4). The data are added to data from three similar...... materials and the resulting estimate of the chlorophyll mutant frequency is 1.6 .times. 10-4 in about 1.43 million seedlings. The estimate of the chlorophyll mutation rate per generation is close to 67.3 .times. 10-4 per diploid genome or in the order of 6 .times. 10-7 per locus and haploid genome....

  13. Recent Trends in Global Ocean Chlorophyll (United States)

    Gregg, Watson; Casey, Nancy


    Recent analyses of SeaWiFS data have shown that global ocean chlorophyll has increased more than 5% since 1998. The North Pacific ocean basin has increased nearly 19%. To understand the causes of these trends we have applied the newly developed NASA Ocean Biogeochemical Assimilation Model (OBAM), which is driven in mechanistic fashion by surface winds, sea surface temperature, atmospheric iron deposition, sea ice, and surface irradiance. The mode1 utilizes chlorophyll from SeaWiFS in a daily assimilation. The model has in place many of the climatic variables that can be expected to produce the changes observed in SeaWiFS data. Ths enables us to diagnose the model performance, the assimilation performance, and possible causes for the increase in chlorophyll.

  14. Unique chlorophylls in picoplankton Prochlorococcus sp. "Physicochemical properties of divinyl chlorophylls, and the discovery of monovinyl chlorophyll b as well as divinyl chlorophyll b in the species Prochlorococcus NIES-2086". (United States)

    Komatsu, Hirohisa; Wada, Katsuhiro; Kanjoh, Terumitsu; Miyashita, Hideaki; Sato, Mayumi; Kawachi, Masanobu; Kobayashi, Masami


    In this review, we introduce our recent studies on divinyl chlorophylls functioning in unique marine picoplankton Prochlorococcus sp. (1) Essential physicochemical properties of divinyl chlorophylls are compared with those of monovinyl chlorophylls; separation by normal-phase and reversed-phase high-performance liquid chromatography with isocratic eluent mode, absorption spectra in four organic solvents, fluorescence information (emission spectra, quantum yields, and life time), circular dichroism spectra, mass spectra, nuclear magnetic resonance spectra, and redox potentials. The presence of a mass difference of 278 in the mass spectra between [M+H](+) and the ions indicates the presence of a phytyl tail in all the chlorophylls. (2) Precise high-performance liquid chromatography analyses show divinyl chlorophyll a' and divinyl pheophytin a as the minor key components in four kinds of Prochlorococcus sp.; neither monovinyl chlorophyll a' nor monovinyl pheophytin a is detected, suggesting that the special pair in photosystem I and the primary electron acceptor in photosystem II are not monovinyl but divinyl-type chlorophylls. (3) Only Prochlorococcus sp. NIES-2086 possesses both monovinyl chlorophyll b and divinyl chlorophyll b, while any other monovinyl-type chlorophylls are absent in this strain. Monovinyl chlorophyll b is not detected at all in the other three strains. Prochlorococcus sp. NIES-2086 is the first example that has both monovinyl chlorophyll b as well as divinyl chlorophylls a/b as major chlorophylls.

  15. Squid based beam current meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kuchnir, M.


    A SQUID based beam current meter has the capability of measuring the current of a beam with as little as 30 x 155 antiprotons (with a signal to noise ratio of 2). If low noise dc current is used to cancel most of the beam or an up-down counter is used to count auto-resets this sensitivity will be available at any time in the acumulation process. This current meter will therefore be a unique diagnostic tool for optimizing the performance of several Tev I components. Besides requiring liquid helium it seems that its only drawback is not to follow with the above sensitivity a sudden beam change larger than 16, something that could be done using a second one in a less sensitive configuration.

  16. Federal Building Metering Guidance (per 42 U.S.C. 8253(e), Metering of Energy Use)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    Guidance defines which federal buildings are appropriate to meter, provides metering prioritization recommendations for agencies with limited resources, and discusses the requirement for agencies to submit metering implementation plans to the U.S. Department of Energy.

  17. Chlorophyll b degradation by chlorophyll b reductase under high-light conditions. (United States)

    Sato, Rei; Ito, Hisashi; Tanaka, Ayumi


    The light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b binding protein complex of photosystem II (LHCII) is the main antenna complex of photosystem II (PSII). Plants change their LHCII content depending on the light environment. Under high-light conditions, the content of LHCII should decrease because over-excitation damages the photosystem. Chlorophyll b is indispensable for accumulating LHCII, and chlorophyll b degradation induces LHCII degradation. Chlorophyll b degradation is initiated by chlorophyll b reductase (CBR). In land plants, NON-YELLOW COLORING 1 (NYC1) and NYC1-Like (NOL) are isozymes of CBR. We analyzed these mutants to determine their functions under high-light conditions. During high-light treatment, the chlorophyll a/b ratio was stable in the wild-type (WT) and nol plants, and the LHCII content decreased in WT plants. The chlorophyll a/b ratio decreased in the nyc1 and nyc1/nol plants, and a substantial degree of LHCII was retained in nyc1/nol plants after the high-light treatment. These results demonstrate that NYC1 degrades the chlorophyll b on LHCII under high-light conditions, thus decreasing the LHCII content. After the high-light treatment, the maximum quantum efficiency of the PSII photochemistry was lower in nyc1 and nyc1/nol plants than in WT and nol plants. A larger light-harvesting system would damage PSII in nyc1 and nyc1/nol plants. The fluorescence spectroscopy of the leaves indicated that photosystem I was also damaged by the excess LHCII in nyc1/nol plants. These observations suggest that chlorophyll b degradation by NYC1 is the initial reaction for the optimization of the light-harvesting capacity under high-light conditions.

  18. Dry calibration of ultrasonic gas flow meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Boer, G.; Lansing, J.


    At present in most European countries it is customary that turbine meters, or the newer ultrasonic gas flow meters, when used in fiscal metering or custody transfer metering applications, are calibrated in a test facility by comparison to standards or reference devices. For reason of practical and operational drawbacks, costs involved and availability of only a limited number of calibration facilities, another way of meter verification is advantageous. For orifice metering the practice of dry calibration is well established; that is, meter verification is based upon examination of the geometry and installation of the orifice plate and a function check of the read out devices. Although for turbine meters a flow (wet) calibration may be a necessity, it will be shown that ultrasonic gas flow meters can be dry calibrated in the same way as orifice meters. As a basis for the acceptance of a dry calibration procedure for ultrasonic gas flow meters, a sensitivity analysis of the relevant variables with respect to the meter's accuracy is presented. Further test results are presented that demonstrate the feasibility of the concept of dry calibration applied to ultrasonic gas flow meters. (author)

  19. Identification of genes associated with chlorophyll accumulation in flower petals.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Akemi Ohmiya

    Full Text Available Plants have an ability to prevent chlorophyll accumulation, which would mask the bright flower color, in their petals. In contrast, leaves contain substantial amounts of chlorophyll, as it is essential for photosynthesis. The mechanisms of organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation are unknown. To identify factors that determine the chlorophyll content in petals, we compared the expression of genes related to chlorophyll metabolism in different stages of non-green (red and white petals (very low chlorophyll content, pale-green petals (low chlorophyll content, and leaves (high chlorophyll content of carnation (Dianthus caryophyllus L.. The expression of many genes encoding chlorophyll biosynthesis enzymes, in particular Mg-chelatase, was lower in non-green petals than in leaves. Non-green petals also showed higher expression of genes involved in chlorophyll degradation, including STAY-GREEN gene and pheophytinase. These data suggest that the absence of chlorophylls in carnation petals may be caused by the low rate of chlorophyll biosynthesis and high rate of degradation. Similar results were obtained by the analysis of Arabidopsis microarray data. In carnation, most genes related to chlorophyll biosynthesis were expressed at similar levels in pale-green petals and leaves, whereas the expression of chlorophyll catabolic genes was higher in pale-green petals than in leaves. Therefore, we hypothesize that the difference in chlorophyll content between non-green and pale-green petals is due to different levels of chlorophyll biosynthesis. Our study provides a basis for future molecular and genetic studies on organ-specific chlorophyll accumulation.

  20. 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model specification (United States)

    Arundel, Samantha T.; Archuleta, Christy-Ann M.; Phillips, Lori A.; Roche, Brittany L.; Constance, Eric W.


    In January 2015, the U.S. Geological Survey National Geospatial Technical Operations Center began producing the 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model data product. This new product was developed to provide high resolution bare-earth digital elevation models from light detection and ranging (lidar) elevation data and other elevation data collected over the conterminous United States (lower 48 States), Hawaii, and potentially Alaska and the U.S. territories. The 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model consists of hydroflattened, topographic bare-earth raster digital elevation models, with a 1-meter x 1-meter cell size, and is available in 10,000-meter x 10,000-meter square blocks with a 6-meter overlap. This report details the specifications required for the production of the 1-Meter Digital Elevation Model.

  1. Chinese Meter in Translating English Poetry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    <正>Translation is not easy and poetry translation is troublesome,while meter poetry translation is the most difficult. This paper will focus on the meter in translating English poetry into Chinese. From the review of translation history to

  2. Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) of Chlorophyll Pigments. (United States)

    Foote, Jerry


    Background information, list of materials needed, procedures used, and discussion of typical results are provided for an experiment on the thin layer chromatography of chlorophyll pigments. The experiment works well in high school, since the chemicals used are the same as those used in paper chromatography of plant pigments. (JN)

  3. Phytoplankton productivity quantified from chlorophyll fluorescence

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hancke, Kasper; Dalsgaard, Tage; Sejr, Mikael Kristian

    Phytoplankton are the main food source for marine life, and accurate uantification of its productivity is essential for understanding how marine food webs function. As a novel non-invasive technology, chlorophyll fluorescence can be used to assess in situ primary production in phytoplankton...

  4. Localisation of chlorophyll within the chloroplast

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Thomas, J.B.; Post, L.C.; Vertregt, N.


    Silver nitrate reduction was shown to occur in illuminated suspensions of Hibiscus grana. The action spectrum of this reduction, the reaction, proved to coincide satisfactorily with the chlorophyll absorption spectrum. Electron micrographs reveal that this reaction occurs in single lamellae. From

  5. Afterglow of chlorophyll in vivo and photosynthesis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedheer, J.C.


    Two pigment systems are involved in the afterglow of chlorophyll a-containing cells. Absorption in only one of these systems (promoting or “p” system) is effective in producing luminescence. If light is absorbed simultaneously by the other (quenching or “q” system), a decrease in luminescence result

  6. Relative binding affinities of chlorophylls in peridinin-chlorophyll-protein reconstituted with heterochlorophyllous mixtures. (United States)

    Brotosudarmo, T H P; Mackowski, S; Hofmann, E; Hiller, R G; Bräuchle, C; Scheer, H


    Peridinin-chlorophyll-protein (PCP), containing differently absorbing chlorophyll derivatives, are good models with which to study energy transfer among monomeric chlorophylls (Chls) by both bulk and single-molecule spectroscopy. They can be obtained by reconstituting the N-terminal domain of the protein (N-PCP) with peridinin and chlorophyll mixtures. Upon dimerization of these "half-mers", homo- and heterochlorophyllous complexes are generated, that correspond structurally to monomeric protomers of native PCP from Amphidinium carterae. Heterochlorophyllous complexes contain two different Chls in the two halves of the complete structure. Here, we report reconstitution of N-PCP with binary mixtures of Chl a, Chl b, and [3-acetyl]-Chl a. The ratios of the pigments were varied in the reconstitution mixture, and relative binding constants were determined from quantification of these pigments in the reconstituted PCPs. We find higher affinities for both Chl b and [3-acetyl]-Chl a than for the native pigment, Chl a.

  7. The preparation, identification and properties of chlorophyll derivatives (United States)

    Katz, J. J.; Pennington, F. C.; Strain, H. H.; Svec, W. A.


    In the investigation of 10-hydroxy chlorophylls a and b novel techniques included modification of chromatography and the use of fully-deuterated compounds isolated from fully-deuterated autotropic algae to determine the molecular structure of the chlorophylls.

  8. Embedded solution for a microwave moisture meter (United States)

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter is based on the free-space transmission measurement technique and uses low-intensity microwaves to measure the attenuation and p...

  9. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano

    A critical account of the rise of celebrity-driven “compassionate consumption” Cofounded by the rock star Bono in 2006, Product RED exemplifies a new trend in celebrity-driven international aid and development, one explicitly linked to commerce, not philanthropy. Brand Aid offers a deeply informed...

  10. Foreign aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn


    Foreign aid has evolved significantly since the Second World War in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. This article (a) reviews this process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of foreign aid; (b) reviews the goals, principles...

  11. Multitasking metering enhances generation, transmission operations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sullivan, E.


    The Dairyland Power Cooperative (DPC) which operates from La Crosse, Wisconsin has the capacity to generate and transmit 1000 MW of power to 25 member cooperatives and 20 municipalities who serve over 500,000 customers. When DPC was experiencing diminished service within its analog cellular-based data communications system, it was presented with an opportunity to install a new automated telecommunications system that would provide secure collection of meter readings from all of its substations. DPC decided to evaluate an advanced multifunctional digital meter from Schweitzer Engineering Laboratories (SEL). The SEL-734 Revenue Metering System offers complete instantaneous metering functions, including voltages, currents, power, energy and power factor. Other capabilities include predictive demand, time-of-use metering, automatic voltage monitoring, harmonics metering and synchrophasor measurement. From a metering perspective, DPC wanted to perform daily load profiles and interval-by-interval metering of their delivery points for billing purposes. They also wanted to provide real-time monitoring of electricity being delivered for both generation and transmission purposes and to make that information available to a distribution SCADA system for their members. The SEL-734 Revenue Meter was well suited to those needs. The SEL-734 provides very high-accuracy energy metering, load profile data collection, instantaneous power measurements, power quality monitoring, and communicates simultaneously over a modem, serial ports, and wide area networks (WAN). The meter is backed with a ten-year warranty as well as field support engineers. 5 figs.

  12. Reflectance variation within the in-chlorophyll centre waveband for robust retrieval of leaf chlorophyll content. (United States)

    Zhang, Jing; Huang, Wenjiang; Zhou, Qifa


    The in-chlorophyll centre waveband (ICCW) (640-680 nm) is the specific chlorophyll (Chl) absorption band, but the reflectance in this band has not been used as an optimal index for non-destructive determination of plant Chl content in recent decades. This study develops a new spectral index based solely on the ICCW for robust retrieval of leaf Chl content for the first time. A glasshouse experiment for solution-culture of one chlorophyll-deficient rice mutant and six wild types of rice genotypes was conducted, and the leaf reflectance (400-900 nm) was measured with a high spectral resolution (1 nm) spectrophotometer and the contents of chlorophyll a (Chla), chlorophyll b (Chlb) and chlorophyll a+b (Chlt) of the rice leaves were determined. It was found that the reflectance curves from 640 nm to 674 nm and from 675 nm to 680 nm of the low-chlorophyll mutant leaf were drastically steeper than that of the wild types in the ICCW. The new index based on the reflectance variation within ICCW, the difference of the first derivative sum within the ICCW (DFDS_ICCW), was highly sensitive (r = -0.77, n = 93, P0.05) to Chlt when the leaf Chlt was higher than 200 mg/m(2). The best equations of R-ICCW and DFDS_ICCW yielded an RMSE of 78.7, 32.9 and 107.3 mg/m(2), and an RMSE of 37.4, 16.0 and 45.3 mg/m(-2), respectively, for predicting Chla, Chlb and Chlt. The new index could rank in the top 10 for prediction of Chla and Chlt as compared with the 55 existing indices. Additionally, most of the 55 existing Chl-related VIs performed robustly or strongly in simultaneous prediction of leaf Chla, Chlb and Chlt.

  13. Chlorophyll and carotenoid pigments of prochloron (prochlorophyta) (United States)

    Paerl, H. W.; Lewin, R. A.; Cheng, L.


    High-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) with a gradient-elution technique was utilized to separate and quantify chlorophylls a and b as well as major carotenoid pigments present in freeze-dried preprations of prochloron-didemnid associations and in Prochloron cells separated from host colonies. Results confirm earlier spectrophotometric evidence for both chlorophylls a and b in this prokaryote. Chlorophyll a:b ratios range from 4.14 to 19.71; generally good agreement was found between ratios determined in isolated cell preprations and in symbiotic colonies (in hospite). These values are 1.5 to 5-fold higher than ratios determined in a variety of eukaryotic green plants. The carotenoids in Prochloron are quantitatively and qualitatively similar to those found in various freshwater and marine blue-green algae (cyanopbytes) from high-light environments. However, Prochloron differs from cyanophytes by the absence of myxoxanthophyll and related glycosidic carotenoids. It pigment characteristics are considered sufficiently different from those of cyanophytes to justify its assignment to a separate algal division.

  14. Hearing Aid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    A man realized that he needed to purchase ahearing aid, but he was unwilling to spend muchmoney. "How much do they run?"he asked theclerk. "That depends," said. the salesman. "Theyrun from 2 to 2000."

  15. Hearing Aids (United States)

    ... slightly different from the ITC and is nearly hidden in the ear canal. Both canal hearing aids ... Privacy Policy & Terms of Use Visit the Nemours Web site. Note: All information on TeensHealth® is for ...

  16. Chlorophyllase in Piper betle L. has a role in chlorophyll homeostasis and senescence dependent chlorophyll breakdown. (United States)

    Gupta, Supriya; Gupta, Sanjay Mohan; Sane, Aniruddha P; Kumar, Nikhil


    Total chlorophyll content and chlorophyllase (chlorophyll-chlorophyllido hydrolase EC activity in fresh leaves of Piper betle L. landrace KS was, respectively, twofold higher and eight fold lower than KV, showing negative correlation between chlorophyll and chlorophyllase activity. Specific chlorophyllase activity was nearly eightfold more in KV than KS. ORF of 918 nt was found in cloned putative chlorophyllase cDNAs from KV and KS. The gene was present as single copy in both the landraces. The encoded polypeptide of 306 amino acids differed only at two positions between the KV and KS; 203 (cysteine to tyrosine) and 301 (glutamine to glycine). Difference in chlorophyllase gene expression between KV and KS was evident in fresh and excised leaves. Up regulation of chlorophyllase gene by ABA and down regulation by BAP was observed in both the landraces; however, there was quantitative difference between KV and KS. Data suggests that chlorophyllase in P. betle is involved in chlorophyll homeostasis and chlorophyll loss during post harvest senescence.

  17. Balanced Flow Meters without Moving Parts (United States)

    Kelley, Anthony R.; VanBuskirk, Paul


    Balanced flow meters are recent additions to an established class of simple, rugged flow meters that contain no moving parts in contact with flow and are based on measurement of pressure drops across objects placed in flow paths. These flow meters are highly accurate, minimally intrusive, easily manufacturable, and reliable. A balanced flow meter can be easily mounted in a flow path by bolting it between conventional pipe flanges. A balanced flow meter can be used to measure the flow of any of a variety of liquids or gases, provided that it has been properly calibrated. Relative to the standard orifice-plate flow meter, the balanced flow meter introduces less turbulence and two times less permanent pressure loss and is therefore capable of offering 10 times greater accuracy and repeatability with less dissipation of energy. A secondary benefit of the reduction of turbulence is the reduction of vibration and up to 15 times less acoustic noise generation. Both the balanced flow meter and the standard orifice-plate flow meter are basically disks that contain holes and are instrumented with pressure transducers on their upstream and downstream faces. The most obvious difference between them is that the standard orifice plate contains a single, central hole while the balanced flow meter contains multiple holes. The term 'balanced' signifies that in designing the meter, the sizes and locations of the holes are determined in an optimization procedure that involves balancing of numerous factors, including volumetric flow, mass flow, dynamic pressure, kinetic energy, all in an effort to minimize such undesired effects as turbulence, pressure loss, dissipation of kinetic energy, and non-repeatability and nonlinearity of response over the anticipated range of flow conditions. Due to proper balancing of these factors, recent testing demonstrated that the balanced flow-meter performance was similar to a Venturi tube in both accuracy and pressure recovery, but featured reduced

  18. Hardware Design of a Smart Meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ganiyu A. Ajenikoko


    Full Text Available Smart meters are electronic measurement devices used by utilities to communicate information for billing customers and operating their electric systems. This paper presents the hardware design of a smart meter. Sensing and circuit protection circuits are included in the design of the smart meter in which resistors are naturally a fundamental part of the electronic design. Smart meters provides a route for energy savings, real-time pricing, automated data collection and eliminating human errors due to manual readings which would ultimately reduce labour costs, diagnosis and instantaneous fault detection. This allows for predictive maintenance resulting in a more efficient and reliable distribution network.

  19. Off-level corrections for gravity meters (United States)

    Niebauer, T. M.; Blitz, Thomas; Constantino, Andy


    Gravity meters must be aligned with the local gravity at any location on the surface of the earth in order to measure the full amplitude of the gravity vector. The gravitational force on the sensitive component of the gravity meter decreases by the cosine of the angle between the measurement axis and the local gravity vector. Most gravity meters incorporate two horizontal orthogonal levels to orient the gravity meter for a maximum gravity reading. In order to calculate a gravity correction it is often necessary to estimate the overall angular deviation between the gravity meter and the local gravity vector using two measured horizontal tilt meters. Typically this is done assuming that the two horizontal angles are independent and that the product of the cosines of the horizontal tilts is equivalent to the cosine of the overall deviation. These approximations, however, break down at large angles. This paper derives analytic formulae to transform angles measured by two orthogonal tilt meters into the vertical deviation of the third orthogonal axis. The equations can be used to calibrate the tilt sensors attached to the gravity meter or provide a correction for a gravity meter used in an off-of-level condition.

  20. Types of Hearing Aids (United States)

    ... Devices Consumer Products Hearing Aids Types of Hearing Aids Share Tweet Linkedin Pin it More sharing options ... some features for hearing aids? What are hearing aids? Hearing aids are sound-amplifying devices designed to ...

  1. Salt stress change chlorophyll fluorescence in mango

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cicero Cartaxo de Lucena


    Full Text Available This study evaluated the tolerance of mango cultivars 'Haden', 'Palmer', 'Tommy Atkins' and 'Uba' grafted on rootstock 'Imbú' to salt stress using chlorophyll fluorescence. Plants were grown in modified Hoagland solution containing 0, 15, 30, and 45 mmol L-1 NaCl. At 97 days the parameters of the chlorophyll fluorescence (F0, Fm, Fv, F0/Fm, Fv/Fm, Fv'/Fm', ΦPSII = [(Fm'-Fs/(Fm'], D = (1- Fv'/Fm' and ETR = (ΦPSII×PPF×0,84×0,5 were determined. At 100 days, the leaf emission and leaf area, toxicity and leaf abscission indexes were determined. In all cultivars evaluated, in different degree, there were decreases in photochemical efficiency of photosystem II, enhanced concentrations from 15 mmol L-1 NaCl. The decreases in the potential quantum yield of photosystem II (Fv/Fm were 27.9, 18.7, 20.5, and 27.4%, for cultivars 'Haden', 'Palmer', 'Tommy Atkins', and 'Uba', respectively, when grown in 45 mmol L-1 NaCl. It was found decreases in leaf emission and mean leaf area in all cultivars from 15 mmol L-1 NaCl. There were increases in leaf toxicity of 33.0, 67.5, 41.6 and 80.8% and in leaf abscission of 71.8, 29.2, 32.5, and 67.9% for the cultivars 'Haden', 'Palmer', 'Tommy Atkins', and 'Uba' respectively, when grown in 45 mmol L-1 NaCl. Leaf toxicity and leaf abscission were not observed in 15 mmol L-1 NaCl. The decrease in Fv/Fm ratio were accompanied by decreasing in leaf emission and increased leaf toxicity index, showing, therefore, the potential of chlorophyll fluorescence in the early detection of salt stress in mango tree.

  2. Chlorophyll a fluorescence analysis in forests


    M. Pollastrini; Holland, V; Brüggemann, W.; F. Bussotti


    A European-wide assessment of chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF, prompt fluorescence on dark-adapted samples) parameters in forest ecosystems was carried out in the years 2012-2013, within the 7FP FunDivEUROPE project. A total of 1596 trees growing in 209 stands distributed in six countries, from Mediterranean to boreal sites, were sampled. This paper shows the applicability of the ChlF in forest ecology surveys, the protocols adopted for leaf sampling and ChlF measurements, the variability of...



    M. Pollastrini; Holland, V; Brüggemann, W.; F. Bussotti


    A European-wide assessment of chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF, prompt fluorescence on dark-adapted samples) parameters in forest ecosystems was carried out in the years 2012-2013, within the 7FP FunDivEUROPE project. A total of 1596 trees growing in 209 stands distributed in six countries, from Mediterranean to boreal sites, were sampled. This paper shows the applicability of the ChlF in forest ecology surveys, the protocols adopted for leaf sampling and ChlF measurements, the variability of...

  4. Simplified Processing Method for Meter Data Analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fowler, Kimberly M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Colotelo, Alison H. A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Downs, Janelle L. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Ham, Kenneth D. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Montgomery, Sadie A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Vernon, Christopher R. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Parker, Steven A. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Simple/Quick metered data processing method that can be used for Army Metered Data Management System (MDMS) and Logistics Innovation Agency data, but may also be useful for other large data sets. Intended for large data sets when analyst has little information about the buildings.

  5. The effects of meter orientation downstream of a short radius elbow on electromagnetic flow meters (United States)

    Justensen, Jared C.

    Electromagnetic flowmeters (known as magnetic flow meters) are a widely used type of flowmeter. The accuracy of magnetic flow meters are a function of several factors, not the least of which is the flow condition inside the pipe. It has been shown that disturbances in the velocity profile affects the accuracy of a magnetic flow meter (Luntta, 1998). Accordingly, manufacturers of magnetic flow meters give installation guidelines. These guidelines help prevent the user from installing the meter in a pipe configuration that is likely to cause the meter to produce inaccurate results. Although most manufacturers provide recommendations about the amount of straight pipe that is necessary upstream of the meter, little is said about the orientation of the meter in relation to upstream disturbances. This study examines the performance of magnetic flow meters when positioned at two different orientations: EIP (electrodes in plane with an upstream 90-degree short radius elbow) and EOP (electrodes out of plane). Four different meters were included in the study in which a baseline straight pipe test was first performed using over fifty diameters of straight pipe upstream of each meter. The straight pipe test was used to determine the baseline accuracy of each of the meters over a velocity range that is typical for the size and function of the meters. Meters were then installed at five different locations downstream from a 90-degree short-radius elbow. At each location the meters were tested in two orientations at five different flow rates. The intent of the research is to show that the orientation of a magnetic flow meter affects the meter's ability to produce accurate flow readings when it is installed downstream of a flow disturbance. The results from this research showed a significant shift in measurement accuracy when the meter was in EIP and EOP orientations. All of the meters in the study produced accuracy readings at one point of another that were outside the specified

  6. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano


    activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how...

  7. Chlorophyll content retrieval from hyperspectral remote sensing imagery. (United States)

    Yang, Xiguang; Yu, Ying; Fan, Wenyi


    Chlorophyll content is the essential parameter in the photosynthetic process determining leaf spectral variation in visible bands. Therefore, the accurate estimation of the forest canopy chlorophyll content is a significant foundation in assessing forest growth and stress affected by diseases. Hyperspectral remote sensing with high spatial resolution can be used for estimating chlorophyll content. In this study, the chlorophyll content was retrieved step by step using Hyperion imagery. Firstly, the spectral curve of the leaf was analyzed, 25 spectral characteristic parameters were identified through the correlation coefficient matrix, and a leaf chlorophyll content inversion model was established using a stepwise regression method. Secondly, the pixel reflectance was converted into leaf reflectance by a geometrical-optical model (4-scale). The three most important parameters of reflectance conversion, including the multiple scattering factor (M 0 ), and the probability of viewing the sunlit tree crown (P T ) and the background (P G ), were estimated by leaf area index (LAI), respectively. The results indicated that M 0 , P T , and P G could be described as a logarithmic function of LAI, with all R (2) values above 0.9. Finally, leaf chlorophyll content was retrieved with RMSE = 7.3574 μg/cm(2), and canopy chlorophyll content per unit ground surface area was estimated based on leaf chlorophyll content and LAI. Chlorophyll content mapping can be useful for the assessment of forest growth stage and diseases.

  8. Antimutagenic activities of common vegetables and their chlorophyll content

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lai, C.N.; Butler, M.A.; Matney, T.S.


    Aqueous and acetone extractions of some common vegetables inhibited the activation of 3-methylcholanthrene and benzo(a)pyrene in the Ames Salmonella gene reversion mutagenesis/mammalian microsomal activation assay. The potency of the inhibitory activity was correlated with the chlorophyll content of the acetone extracts. The aqueous fractions contained sufficient histidine to interfere with the interpretation of the result. However, grouping the aqueous extracts from vegetables yielding low, medium, and high levels of histidine allowed comparison between antimutagenic activity and chlorophyll content. Increasing chlorophyll contents corresponded to increasing antimutagenic activities in all 3 groups. Sodium copper chlorophyllin demonstrated comparable inhibitory activity when compared at the same chlorophyll level.

  9. The magnesium chelation step in chlorophyll biosynthesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weinstein, J.D.


    The biogenesis of energy transducing membranes requires the coordinate synthesis of prosthetic groups, proteins and lipids. Two of the major prosthetic groups, chlorophyll and heme, share a common biosynthetic pathway that diverges at the point of metal insertion into protoporphyrin IX. Insertion of iron leads to heme, while insertion of magnesium leads to chlorophyll. The Mg-chelatase from intact cucumber chloroplasts has been characterized with regard to substrate specificity, regulation, ATP requirement, and a requirement for intact chloroplasts. Mg-chelatase was isolated from maize, barley and peas and characterized in order to circumvent the intact chloroplast requirement of cucumber Mg-chelatase. Pea Mg-chelatase activity is higher than cucumber Mg-chelatase activity, and lacks the requirement for intact chloroplasts. Studies on isolated pea Mg-chelatase have shown more cofactors are required for the reaction than are seen with ferrochelatase, indicating a greater opportunity for regulatory control of this pathway. Two of the cofactors are proteins, and there appears to be a requirement for a protease-sensitive component which is outside the outer envelope. We are developing a continuous spectrophotometric assay for Mg-chelatase activity, and an assay for free heme which has shown heme efflux from intact chloroplasts. 18 refs. (MHB)

  10. Tactile Aids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohtaramossadat Homayuni


    Full Text Available Tactile aids, which translate sound waves into vibrations that can be felt by the skin, have been used for decades by people with severe/profound hearing loss to enhance speech/language development and improve speechreading.The development of tactile aids dates from the efforts of Goults and his co-workers in the 1920s; Although The power supply was too voluminous and it was difficult to carry specially by children, it was too huge and heavy to be carried outside the laboratories and its application was restricted to the experimental usage. Nowadays great advances have been performed in producing this instrument and its numerous models is available in markets around the world.

  11. Negotiating Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Whitfield, Lindsay; Fraser, Alastair


    This article presents a new analytical approach to the study of aid negotiations. Building on existing approaches but trying to overcome their limitations, it argues that factors outside of individual negotiations (or the `game' in game-theoretic approaches) significantly affect the preferences...... of actors, the negotiating strategies they fashion, and the success of those strategies. This approach was employed to examine and compare the experiences of eight countries: Botswana, Ethiopia, Ghana, Mali, Mozambique, Rwanda, Tanzania and Zambia. The article presents findings from these country studies...... which investigated the strategies these states have adopted in talks with aid donors, the sources of leverage they have been able to bring to bear in negotiations, and the differing degrees of control that they have been able to exercise over the policies agreed in negotiations and those implemented...

  12. Oxidation-reduction potentials of different chlorophylls in methanol

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Goedheer, J.C.; Horreus de Haas, G.H.; Schuller, P.


    It was found that the reversible decolorisation of some chlorophylls upon the subsequent addition of ferric and ferrous salts, as originally measured by Rabinowtich and Weiss for chlorophyll a, proceeded at a reproducible oxidation-reduction potential. A marked difference was found to occur between

  13. Modulated Chlorophyll "a" Fluorescence: A Tool for Teaching Photosynthesis (United States)

    Marques da Silva, Jorge; Bernardes da Silva, Anabela; Padua, Mario


    "In vivo" chlorophyll "a" fluorescence is a key technique in photosynthesis research. The recent release of a low cost, commercial, modulated fluorometer enables this powerful technology to be used in education. Modulated chlorophyll a fluorescence measurement "in vivo" is here proposed as a tool to demonstrate basic…

  14. An Integrated Protein Chemistry Laboratory: Chlorophyll and Chlorophyllase (United States)

    Arkus, Kiani A. J.; Jez, Joseph M.


    Chlorophyll, the most abundant pigment in nature, is degraded during normal plant growth, when leaves change color, and at specific developmental stages. Chlorophyllase catalyzes the first chemical reaction in this process, that is, the hydrolysis of chlorophyll into chlorophyllide. Here, we describe a series of laboratory sessions designed to…

  15. Investigating the control of chlorophyll degradation by genomic correlation mining (United States)

    Chlorophyll degradation is an intricate process that is critical in a variety of plant tissues at different times during the plant life cycle. Many of the photoactive chlorophyll degradation intermediates are exceptionally cytotoxic necessitating that the pathway be carefully coordinated and regulat...

  16. Modulated Chlorophyll "a" Fluorescence: A Tool for Teaching Photosynthesis (United States)

    Marques da Silva, Jorge; Bernardes da Silva, Anabela; Padua, Mario


    "In vivo" chlorophyll "a" fluorescence is a key technique in photosynthesis research. The recent release of a low cost, commercial, modulated fluorometer enables this powerful technology to be used in education. Modulated chlorophyll a fluorescence measurement "in vivo" is here proposed as a tool to demonstrate basic photosynthesis phenomena to…

  17. Chlorophyll in tomato seeds: marker for seed performance?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Suhartanto, M.R.


    Using Xe-PAM, laser induced fluorometry and high performance liquid chromatography we found that chlorophyll was present in young tomato (cv. Moneymaker) seeds and was degraded during maturation. Fluorescence microscopy and imaging showed that the majority of chlorophyll is located in the seed coat

  18. A model for chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis at leaf scale

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tol, van der C.; Verhoef, W.; Rosema, A.


    This paper presents a leaf biochemical model for steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence and photosynthesis of C3 and C4 vegetation. The model is a tool to study the relationship between passively measured steady-state chlorophyll fluorescence and actual photosynthesis, and its evolution during the da

  19. Spatial and temporal variability of chlorophyll in Bay of Bengal. (United States)

    Jutla, A.; Akanda, S.; Islam, S.


    The Bay of Bengal (BoB) receives approximately 628 km3/ year of freshwater discharge from the Ganges and Brahmaputra rivers. Freshwater discharge from rivers increases the nutrient load and thereby enhances phytoplankton production in the BoB. Cholera, an infectious water-borne disease caused by bacterium Vibrio cholerae, remains endemic in the BoB region. Phytoplankton provides favorable environment for survival of cholera bacteria. Therefore, for development of any predictive model for cholera, it is important to quantify the spatial and temporal variability of phytoplankton in the BoB. Satellite remote sensing is the most effective way to quantify this variability over a range of space and time scales. Using ten years (1998-2007) of daily, weekly and monthly SeaWiFs chlorophyll, a surrogate variable for measuring phytoplankton, imagery we explore the spatial pattern and dominant temporal variability of chlorophyll over the BoB region. We find that chlorophyll in the coastal waters has more variability, both in temporal and spatial scales, than the offshore waters. Mechanism of production and space-time variability of coastal chlorophyll is different from those of offshore chlorophyll. While coastal chlorophyll is dominated by influx of terrestrial nutrients through river discharge, chlorophyll in the offshore region is primarily controlled by oceanic processes. We will also explore issues related to dominant space and time scales of chlorophyll variations in the entire bay.

  20. Estimating potato leaf chlorophyll content using ratio vegetation indices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kooistra, Lammert; Clevers, Jan G.P.W.


    Chlorophyll content at leaf level is an important variable because of its crucial role in photosynthesis and in understanding plant functioning. In this study, we tested the hypothesis that the ratio of a vegetation index (VI) for estimating canopy chlorophyll content (CCC) and one for estimating le

  1. Chlorophylls in olive and in olive oil: chemistry and occurrences. (United States)

    Giuliani, Angela; Cerretani, Lorenzo; Cichelli, Angelo


    The chlorophylls are responsible for the characteristic green color of the olive fruits and their products. Virgin olive oil (VOO) is obtained from processing olives only by mechanical and physical means under conditions ensuring that the natural characteristics of the fruit composition are maintained as far as possible. In terms of the total chlorophyll content of oil, the extraction process entails a loss of chlorophyll of up to 80%. Many factors, both agronomical and technological, can affect the presence of green pigments in VOO. The analysis of green pigments in olives and/or oil requires an initial phase of extraction of these compounds from the solid and fluid matrix, followed by the selective separation and subsequent identification of the different components of the chlorophyll fraction. The aim of this review article is to summarize and critically analyze the available information about chlorophylls in VOO.

  2. USGS Digital Orthophoto Quad (DOQ) - 3 meter (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — These data files are a collection of the USGS standard DOQs that have been resampled to a 3-meter cell resolution and mosaiced into quad format vs quarter quad...

  3. EMMNet: sensor networking for electricity meter monitoring. (United States)

    Lin, Zhi-Ting; Zheng, Jie; Ji, Yu-Sheng; Zhao, Bao-Hua; Qu, Yu-Gui; Huang, Xu-Dong; Jiang, Xiu-Fang


    Smart sensors are emerging as a promising technology for a large number of application domains. This paper presents a collection of requirements and guidelines that serve as a basis for a general smart sensor architecture to monitor electricity meters. It also presents an electricity meter monitoring network, named EMMNet, comprised of data collectors, data concentrators, hand-held devices, a centralized server, and clients. EMMNet provides long-distance communication capabilities, which make it suitable suitable for complex urban environments. In addition, the operational cost of EMMNet is low, compared with other existing remote meter monitoring systems based on GPRS. A new dynamic tree protocol based on the application requirements which can significantly improve the reliability of the network is also proposed. We are currently conducting tests on five networks and investigating network problems for further improvements. Evaluation results indicate that EMMNet enhances the efficiency and accuracy in the reading, recording, and calibration of electricity meters.

  4. Bandwidth Analysis of Smart Meter Network Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Balachandran, Kardi; Olsen, Rasmus Løvenstein; Pedersen, Jens Myrup


    Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is a net-work infrastructure in Smart Grid, which links the electricity customers to the utility company. This network enables smart services by making it possible for the utility company to get an overview of their customers power consumption and also control...... devices in their costumers household e.g. heat pumps. With these smart services, utility companies can do load balancing on the grid by shifting load using resources the customers have. The problem investigated in this paper is what bandwidth require-ments can be expected when implementing such network...... to utilize smart meters and which existing broadband network technologies can facilitate this smart meter service. Initially, scenarios for smart meter infrastructure are identified. The paper defines abstraction models which cover the AMI scenarios. When the scenario has been identified a general overview...

  5. SPOT Controlled Image Base 10 meter (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — SPOT Controlled Image Base 10 meter (CIB-10) is a collection of orthorectified panchromatic (grayscale) images. The data were acquired between 1986 and 1993 by the...

  6. New consumer services provided by smart metering

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daminov Ildar


    Full Text Available This paper focuses on the issues of smart metering market and considers different services provided by smart metering from consumer point of view. Firstly, smart metering deployment challenges emerging and conventional tariffs, which modify a consumer behavior and thus, the entire electric energy market can be optimized since the customer is motivated to consume less energy. Secondly, the authors illustrate changes in electricity quality, which have an impact on consumer relations with utility. Additionally, two main indices of grid resilience – SAIDI and SAIFI – are exemplified to reveal the improvement potential of smart metering implementation in certain regions of Russia that also influence the consumer. Finally, in-home display and privacy problem directly reflect the consumer’s behavior, thus the private life rights should not be violated as they are guaranteed by law.

  7. EPA Region 1 - Valley Depth in Meters (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Raster of the Depth in meters of EPA-delimited Valleys in Region 1. Valleys (areas that are lower than their neighbors) were extracted from a Digital Elevation Model...

  8. Informatics Solutions for Smart Metering Systems Integration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simona-Vasilica OPREA


    Full Text Available In this paper different aspects regarding smart metering systems integration have been depicted. Smart metering systems, renewable energy sources integration and advanced tariff systems implementation require informatics solution that could automatically collect and process data, forecast the behavior of electricity consumers, analyze trends regarding electricity prices, optimize the consumption of consumers, provide friendly interfaces, etc. They are advanced technologies that represent solutions for insufficient conventional primary energy sources, gas emissions, dependency on energy sources located outside European Union and issues related to energy efficiency. This paper mainly describes several informatics solutions correlated with operational requirements for smart metering system and our proposal for simplified architecture of smart metering systems, with three distinct levels (base level, middle level and top level and load profile calculation methods.

  9. Solid state recording current meter conversion (United States)

    Cheng, Ralph T.; Wang, Lichen


    The authors describe the conversion of an Endeco-174 current meter to a solid-state recording current meter. A removable solid-state module was designed to fit in the space originally occupied by an 8-track tape cartridge. The module contains a CPU and 128 kilobytes of nonvolatile CMOS memory. The solid-state module communicates with any terminal or computer using an RS-232C interface at 4800 baud rate. A primary consideration for conversion was to keep modifications of the current meter to a minimum. The communication protocol was designed to emulate the Endeco tape translation unit, thus the need for a translation unit was eliminated and the original data reduction programs can be used without any modification. After conversion, the data recording section of the current meter contains no moving parts; the storage capacity of the module is equivalent to that of the original tape cartridge.

  10. Non-destructive Analysis Chlorophyll Content of Different Genotypes of Poplars Based on Hyperspectral Reflectance Data (United States)

    Jin, S.; Dian, Y.; Wang, R.; Peng, L.; Liu, X.; Zhou, Z.; Zhong, S.; Wang, Y.


    Leaf Chlorophyll content (Ct) indicates plant physiological status and can be detected by hyperspectral measurements. However, it is difficult to conclude that different genotypes of same species have the same relationship with the hyperspectral data. The aim of this paper was to test that whether the different genotypes of same species have the similar relationship with hyperspectral reflectance. First of all, spectral reflectance of populus simonii (Populus simonii Carr) and I-72 poplar (Populus euramericana cv. ‘San Martino I-72/58’) were collected by spectrometric meter, and then extract chlorophyll index (CI) and other 11 types of vegetation indices from the hyperspectral reflectance data. At last, relationships between different vegetation indices and Ct of the two genotypes of poplar were compared. Results show that (1) the relationships between SPAD value and Ct are different in the low and high Ct level, we can choose proper vegetation index, REPIG, mSR705 and SDr/SDb et al to predict the Ct value. (2) Meanwhile, we can use PSSRb and PRI to distinguish fine difference between different genotypes.

  11. Crop Ground Cover Fraction and Canopy Chlorophyll Content Mapping using RapidEye imagery (United States)

    Zillmann, E.; Schonert, M.; Lilienthal, H.; Siegmann, B.; Jarmer, T.; Rosso, P.; Weichelt, T.


    Remote sensing is a suitable tool for estimating the spatial variability of crop canopy characteristics, such as canopy chlorophyll content (CCC) and green ground cover (GGC%), which are often used for crop productivity analysis and site-specific crop management. Empirical relationships exist between different vegetation indices (VI) and CCC and GGC% that allow spatial estimation of canopy characteristics from remote sensing imagery. However, the use of VIs is not suitable for an operational production of CCC and GGC% maps due to the limited transferability of derived empirical relationships to other regions. Thus, the operational value of crop status maps derived from remotely sensed data would be much higher if there was no need for reparametrization of the approach for different situations. This paper reports on the suitability of high-resolution RapidEye data for estimating crop development status of winter wheat over the growing season, and demonstrates two different approaches for mapping CCC and GGC%, which do not rely on empirical relationships. The final CCC map represents relative differences in CCC, which can be quickly calibrated to field specific conditions using SPAD chlorophyll meter readings at a few points. The prediction model is capable of predicting SPAD readings with an average accuracy of 77%. The GGC% map provides absolute values at any point in the field. A high R2 value of 80% was obtained for the relationship between estimated and observed GGC%. The mean absolute error for each of the two acquisition dates was 5.3% and 8.7%, respectively.

  12. Science Letters: A modified chlorophyll absorption continuum index for chlorophyll estimation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xiao-hua; HUANG Jing-feng; WANG Fu-min; WANG Xiu-zhen; YI Qiu-xiang; WANG Yuan


    There is increasing interest in using hyperspectral data for quantitative characterization of vegetation m spatial and temporal scopes. Many spectral indices are being developed to improve vegetation sensitivity by minimizing the background influence. The chlorophyll absorption continuum index (CACI) is such a measure to calculate the spectral continuum on which the analyses are based on the area of the troughs spanned by the spectral continuum. However, different values of CACI were obtained in this method because different positions of continuums were determined by different users. Furthermore, the sensitivity of CACI to agronomic parameters such as green leaf chlorophyll density (GLCD) has been reduced because the fixed positions of continuums are determined when the red edge shifted with the change in GLCD. A modified chlorophyll absorption continuum index (MCACI) is presented in this article. The red edge inflection point (REIP) replaces the maximum reflectance point (MRP) in near-infrared (NIR) shoulder on the CACI continuum. This MCACI has been proved to increase the sensitivity and predictive power of GLCD.

  13. Quantifying mangrove chlorophyll from high spatial resolution imagery (United States)

    Heenkenda, Muditha K.; Joyce, Karen E.; Maier, Stefan W.; de Bruin, Sytze


    Lower than expected chlorophyll concentration of a plant can directly limit photosynthetic activity, and resultant primary production. Low chlorophyll concentration may also indicate plant physiological stress. Compared to other terrestrial vegetation, mangrove chlorophyll variations are poorly understood. This study quantifies the spatial distribution of mangrove canopy chlorophyll variation using remotely sensed data and field samples over the Rapid Creek mangrove forest in Darwin, Australia. Mangrove leaf samples were collected and analyzed for chlorophyll content in the laboratory. Once the leaf area index (LAI) of sampled trees was estimated using the digital cover photography method, the canopy chlorophyll contents were calculated. Then, the nonlinear random forests regression algorithm was used to describe the relationship between canopy chlorophyll content and remotely sensed data (WorldView-2 satellite image bands and their spectral transformations), and to estimate the spatial distribution of canopy chlorophyll variation. The imagery was evaluated at full 2 m spatial resolution, as well as at decreased resampled resolutions of 5 m and 10 m. The root mean squared errors with validation samples were 0.82, 0.64 and 0.65 g/m2 for maps at 2 m, 5 m and 10 m spatial resolution respectively. The correlation coefficient was analyzed for the relationship between measured and predicted chlorophyll values. The highest correlation: 0.71 was observed at 5 m spatial resolution (R2 = 0.5). We therefore concluded that estimating mangrove chlorophyll content from remotely sensed data is possible using red, red-edge, NIR1 and NIR2 bands and their spectral transformations as predictors at 5 m spatial resolution.

  14. Intelligent Metering for Urban Water: A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rodney Stewart


    Full Text Available This paper reviews the drivers, development and global deployment of intelligent water metering in the urban context. Recognising that intelligent metering (or smart metering has the potential to revolutionise customer engagement and management of urban water by utilities, this paper provides a summary of the knowledge-base for researchers and industry practitioners to ensure that the technology fosters sustainable urban water management. To date, roll-outs of intelligent metering have been driven by the desire for increased data regarding time of use and end-use (such as use by shower, toilet, garden, etc. as well as by the ability of the technology to reduce labour costs for meter reading. Technology development in the water sector generally lags that seen in the electricity sector. In the coming decade, the deployment of intelligent water metering will transition from being predominantly “pilot or demonstration scale” with the occasional city-wide roll-out, to broader mainstream implementation. This means that issues which have hitherto received little focus must now be addressed, namely: the role of real-time data in customer engagement and demand management; data ownership, sharing and privacy; technical data management and infrastructure security, utility workforce skills; and costs and benefits of implementation.

  15. Smart meters. Smart metering. A solution module for a future-oriented energy system; Intelligente Zaehler. Smart Metering. Ein Loesungsbaustein fuer ein zukunftsfaehiges Energiesystem

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grimm, Nadia; Seidl, Hans (comps.)


    The German Energy Agency GmbH (Berlin, Federal Republic of Germany) reports on smart metering as a solution module for a future-oriented energy system by means of the following contributions: (1) Key role for smart meters; (2) What is smart metering? (3) Implementation of smart metering in Europe; (4) The market development to date in Germany; (5) Practical experiences with smart metering in Germany; (6) Frequently asked questions; (7) Smart metering in intelligent networks; (8) Legal framework conditions; (9) Data security and data protection in the utilisation of smart meters; (10) Ongoing information; (11) Efficient energy systems.

  16. Teaching AIDS. (United States)

    Short, R V


    This article reviews a peer group Acquired Immunodeficiency Syndrome (AIDS) educational program at a university in Australia. Studies in the US have shown that most adolescents, although sexually active, do not believe they are likely to become infected with the Human Immunodeficiency Virus, and therefore do not attempt to modify their sexual behavior. A 1st step in educating students is to introduce them to condoms and impress upon them the fact that condoms should be used at the beginning of all sexual relationships, whether homosexual or heterosexual. In this program 3rd year medical students were targeted, as they are effective communicators and disseminators of information to the rest of the student body. After class members blow up condoms, giving them a chance to handle various brands and observe the varying degrees of strength, statistical evidence about the contraceptive failure rate of condoms (0.6-14.7 per 100 women-years) is discussed. Spermicides, such as nonoxynol-9 used in conjunction with condoms, are also discussed, as are condoms for women, packaging and marketing of condoms, including those made from latex and from the caecum of sheep, the latter condoms being of questionable effectiveness in preventing transmission of the virus. The care of terminal AIDS cases and current global and national statistics on AIDS are presented. The program also includes cash prizes for the best student essays on condom use, the distribution of condoms, condom key rings and T-shirts, and a student-run safe sex stand during orientation week. All of these activities are intended to involve students and attract the interest of the undergraduate community. Questionnaires administered to students at the end of the course revealed that the lectures were received favorably. Questionnaires administered to new medical and English students attending orientation week revealed that 72% of students thought the stand was a good idea and 81% and 83%, respectively found it

  17. Brand Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Richey, Lisa Ann; Ponte, Stefano


    activists, scholars and venture capitalists, discusses the pros and cons of changing the world by ‘voting with your dollars’. Lisa Ann Richey and Stefano Ponte (Professor at Roskilde University and Senior Researcher at DIIS respectively), authors of Brand Aid: Shopping Well to Save the World, highlight how......Can Citizen Consumers Make a Difference? DIIS researcher contributes to a Boston Review - New Democracy Forum In the current issue of Boston Review (November/December 2011), contributors to a ‘New Democracy Forum’ debate whether Citizen Consumers can make a difference in stimulating responsible...

  18. Tuning energy transfer in the peridinin-chlorophyll complex by reconstitution with different chlorophylls. (United States)

    Polívka, Tomás; Pascher, Torbjörn; Sundström, Villy; Hiller, Roger G


    In vitro studies of the carotenoid peridinin, which is the primary pigment from the peridinin chlorophyll-a protein (PCP) light harvesting complex, showed a strong dependence on the lifetime of the peridinin lowest singlet excited state on solvent polarity. This dependence was attributed to the presence of an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state in the peridinin excited state manifold. The ICT state was also suggested to be a crucial factor in efficient peridinin to Chl-a energy transfer in the PCP complex. Here we extend our studies of peridinin dynamics to reconstituted PCP complexes, in which Chl-a was replaced by different chlorophyll species (Chl-b, acetyl Chl-a, Chl-d and BChl-a). Reconstitution of PCP with different Chl species maintains the energy transfer pathways within the complex, but the efficiency depends on the chlorophyll species. In the native PCP complex, the peridinin S1/ICT state has a lifetime of 2.7 ps, whereas in reconstituted PCP complexes it is 5.9 ps (Chl-b) 2.9 ps (Chl-a), 2.2 ps (acetyl Chl-a), 1.9 ps (Chl-d), and 0.45 ps (BChl-a). Calculation of energy transfer rates using the Förster equation explains the differences in energy transfer efficiency in terms of changing spectral overlap between the peridinin emission and the absorption spectrum of the acceptor. It is proposed that the lowest excited state of peridinin is a strongly coupled S1/ICT state, which is the energy donor for the major energy transfer channel. The significant ICT character of the S1/ICT state in PCP enhances the transition dipole moment of the S1/ICT state, facilitating energy transfer to chlorophyll via the Förster mechanism. In addition to energy transfer via the S1/ICT, there is also energy transfer via the S2 and hot S1/ICT states to chlorophyll in all reconstituted PCP complexes.

  19. Effects of biocides on chlorophyll contents of detached basil leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Titima Arunrangsi


    Full Text Available Herbicides and insecticides have been widely and intensively used in agricultural areas worldwide to enhance crop yield. However, many biocides cause serious environmental problems. In addition, the biocides may also have some effects on the treated agricultural crops. To study effects of biocides on chlorophyll content in detached basil leaves, 2,4-D dimethylamine salt (2,4 D-Amine, paraquat, carbosulfan, and azadirachtin, were chosen as representatives of biocide. After applying the chemicals to detached basil leaves overnight in darkness, chlorophyll contents were determined. Only treatment with 2,4 D-Amine resulted in reduction of chlorophyll contents significantly compared to treatment with deionized (DI water. In the case of paraquat and carbosulfan, chlorophyll contents were not significantly changed, while slightly higher chlorophyll contents, compared to DI water, after the treatment with azadirachtin, were observed. The results indicated that 2,4 D-Amine shows an ability to accelerate chlorophyll degradation, but azadirachtin helps to retard chlorophyll degradation, when each biocide is used at the concentration recommended by the manufacturer.

  20. Regional ocean-colour chlorophyll algorithms for the Red Sea

    KAUST Repository

    Brewin, Robert J.W.


    The Red Sea is a semi-enclosed tropical marine ecosystem that stretches from the Gulf of Suez and Gulf of Aqaba in the north, to the Gulf of Aden in the south. Despite its ecological and economic importance, its biological environment is relatively unexplored. Satellite ocean-colour estimates of chlorophyll concentration (an index of phytoplankton biomass) offer an observational platform to monitor the health of the Red Sea. However, little is known about the optical properties of the region. In this paper, we investigate the optical properties of the Red Sea in the context of satellite ocean-colour estimates of chlorophyll concentration. Making use of a new merged ocean-colour product, from the European Space Agency (ESA) Climate Change Initiative, and in situ data in the region, we test the performance of a series of ocean-colour chlorophyll algorithms. We find that standard algorithms systematically overestimate chlorophyll when compared with the in situ data. To investigate this bias we develop an ocean-colour model for the Red Sea, parameterised to data collected during the Tara Oceans expedition, that estimates remote-sensing reflectance as a function of chlorophyll concentration. We used the Red Sea model to tune the standard chlorophyll algorithms and the overestimation in chlorophyll originally observed was corrected. Results suggest that the overestimation was likely due to an excess of CDOM absorption per unit chlorophyll in the Red Sea when compared with average global conditions. However, we recognise that additional information is required to test the influence of other potential sources of the overestimation, such as aeolian dust, and we discuss uncertainties in the datasets used. We present a series of regional chlorophyll algorithms for the Red Sea, designed for a suite of ocean-colour sensors, that may be used for further testing.

  1. Chlorophyll derivatives for pest and disease control: Are they safe?

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Azizullah, Azizullah, E-mail:; Murad, Waheed


    Chlorophyll derivatives are getting widespread acceptance among the researchers as natural photosensitizers for photodynamic control of pests and disease vectors; however, rare attention has been given to evaluation of their toxicity to non-target organisms in the environment. This perspective article highlights that chlorophyll derivatives may not be as safe as believed and can possibly pose risk to non-target organisms in the environment. We invite the attention of environmental biologists, particularly ecotoxicologists, to contribute their role in making the application of chlorophyll derivatives more environmentally friendly and publicly acceptable.

  2. Photoinduced electron transfer of chlorophyll in lipid bilayer system

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    D K Lee; K W Seo; Y S Kang


    Photoinduced electron transfer from chlorophyll- through the interface of dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine (DPPC) headgroup of the lipid bilayers was studied with electron magnetic resonance (EMR). The photoproduced radicals were identified with electron spin resonance (ESR) and radical yields of chlorophyll- were determined by double integration ESR spectra. The formation of vesicles was identified by changes in measured max values from diethyl ether solutions to vesicles solutions indirectly, and observed directly with SEM and TEM images. The efficiency of photosynthesis in model system was determined by measuring the amount of chlorophyll-a radical yields which were obtained from integration of ESR spectra.

  3. Anti-Theft Automatic Metering Interface

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abhijeet Das


    Full Text Available Abstract Electricity is now more than a necessity and its need is increasing day by day resulting in power theft and power scarcity. The purpose of this project is to provide automatic control and monitoring of the Domestic Energy Meter enabling the Electricity Department to read meter readings without anyone visiting each house and also prevent electricity theft .This can be achieved by the use of a Microcontroller Unit that continuously monitors and records the Energy Meter readings in its permanent memory location. This system also makes use of a GSM module for remote monitoring and control of Energy Meter with the help of an interfacing circuitry. The Microcontroller based system continuously records the readings and the live meter reading can be sent to the Electricity department after a count period or on request. This system also can be used to disconnect the power supply to the house in case of non-payment of electricity bills. The Substation will be the receiving end. The data received is fed to a microcontroller at the Substation which will automatically calculate the bill based on tariff provider and display it.

  4. Computation of flow through Venturi meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sattery, J.A.; Reader-Harris, M.J.


    The computational fluid dynamics (CFD) work on Venturi meters reported in this paper was part of a large project for Shell Exploration and Production to investigate the application of Venturi meters to gas flow measurement. The majority of the experimental findings were reported in 'Unpredicted behaviour of Venturi flowmeters in gas at high Reynolds numbers' presented in the 1996 North Sea Flow Metering Workshop. CFD has been used to model the flow through Venturi tubes and thereby gain understanding of how the discharge coefficient is affected by the vital parameters of diameter ratio, pipe Reynolds number and roughness. It has also been used to calculate the effect of manufacturing tolerance. The discharge coefficients obtained from the calibration of Venturi meters have been used to validate the CFD predictions. The CFD results have also been compared with experimental results from the 1950s and 1960s with surprisingly good agreement. This work forms the basis of further possible research using CFD on the effect of upstream and Venturi surface roughness on the performance of these meters. The knowledge gained on the effect of surface roughness may also be applicable to ultrasonic flowmeters. (author)

  5. Diagnostic Flow Metering using Ultrasound Tomography (United States)

    Chun, Sejong; Yoon, Byung-Ro; Lee, Kwang-Bock; Paik, Jong-Seung


    Flow meters, which are used for transferring water or crude oil through pipelines, require well-defined flow conditions for accurate flow rate monitoring. Even though all the installation conditions for the flow meters are satisfied, there could be unexpected flow disturbances, such as abrupt increase of upstream pressure, affecting on the performance of flow meters. To investigate any differences between measured and actual flow rates, flow velocity profiles inside the pipeline must be known. Ultrasound tomography is a means of reconstructing flow profiles from line-averaged velocities by Radon transformation. Diagnostic parameters are then extracted from the reconstructed flow profiles to give information whether the flow conditions are appropriate for accurate flow metering. In the present study, flow profiles downstream of a mass flow meter and a butterfly valve are reconstructed. Flow diagnostic parameters are defined using statistical moments such as mean value, standard deviation, skewness and kurtosis. The measured diagnostic parameters in the above-mentioned flow conditions are compared with those of fully-developed laminar and turbulent flow profiles to validate their usefulness.

  6. Improving the operation of the metering section

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zagoruiko, S.I.


    The metering section of the coal preparation division at OKhMK (Orsk-Khali-lovo Integrated Iron and Steel Works) has 18 silos each with volume of 780 tons, situated in two rows. Each silo is equipped with a type LDA-100 automatic metering device, consisting of an electromagnetic vibratory feeder and a scale belt conveyor. At a capacity of the charge supply system of 400-450 ton/hr and operation on a 4-component charge practically all the silos are in operation. The absence of reserve capacity and the impossibility of shutdown of any metering device for maintenance created certain difficulties in maintaining an uninterrupted supply of coal charge to the coking division. Stabilizing the operation of the metering section posed the problem of increasing the capacity of the existing metering devices. For this purpose a number of changes were made in their design. A new reducer was installed on the drive of the scale belt conveyor with a more powerful electric motor; the rotation speed of the drive drum rose to 35-40 rpm (the diameter of the drive drum was also increased from 220 to 272 mm). This, in turn, permitted an increase in the belt speed by a factor of 1.5-2.0 times, without a change in its active length.

  7. Multiphase flow metering: 4 years on

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Falcone, G.; Hewitt, G.F.; Alimonti, C.; Harrison, B.


    Since the authors' last review in 2001 [1], the use of Multiphase Flow Metering (MFM) within the oil and gas industry continues to grow apace, being more popular in some parts of the world than others. Since the early 1990's, when the first commercial meters started to appear, there have been more than 1,600 field applications of MFM for field allocation, production optimisation and mobile well testing. As the authors predicted, wet gas metering technology has improved to such an extent that its use has rapidly increased worldwide. A ''who's who'' of the MFM sector is provided, which highlights the mergers in the sector and gives an insight into the meters and measurement principles available today. Cost estimates, potential benefits and reliability in the field of the current MFM technologies are revisited and brought up to date. Several measurements technologies have resurfaced, such as passive acoustic energy patterns, infrared wavelengths, Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) and Electrical Capacitance Tomography (ECT), and they are becoming commercial. The concept of ''virtual metering'', integrated with ''classical MFM'', is now widely accepted. However, sometimes the principles of the MFM measurements themselves are forgotten, submerged in the sales and marketing hype. (author) (tk)

  8. Changes of Photosystem Ⅱ Electron Transport in the Chlorophyll-deficient Oilseed Rape Mutant Studied by Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Thermoluminescence

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jun-Wei Guo; Jin-Kui Guo; Yun Zhao; Lin-Fang Du


    The photosystem Ⅱ (PSII) complex of photosynthetic membranes comprises a number of chlorophyll-binding proteins that are important to the electron flow. Here we report that the chlorophyll b-deficient mutant has de creased the amount of light-harvesting complexes with an increased amount of some core polypeptides of PSII,including CP43 and CP47. By means of chlorophyll fluorescence and thermoluminescence, we found that the ratio of Fv/Fm, qP and electron transport rate in the chlorophyll b-deficient mutant was higher compared to the wild type.In the chlorophyll b-deficient mutant, the decay of the primary electron acceptor quinones (QA-) reoxidation was decreased, measured by the fluorescence. Furthermore, the thermolumlnescence studies in the chlorophyll b deficient mutant showed that the B band (S2/S3QB-) decreased slightly and shifted up towards higher temperatures.In the presence of dichlorophenyl-dimethylurea, which is inhibited in the electron flow to the second electron acceptor quinines (QB) at the PSII acceptor side, the maximum of the Q band (S2QA-) was decreased slightly and shifted down to lower temperatures, compared to the wild type. Thus, the electron flow within PSll of the chlorophyll b-deficient mutant was down-regulated and characterized by faster oxidation of the primary electron acceptor quinine QA- via forward electron flow and slower reduction of the oxidation S states.

  9. [Development of chlorophyll concentration nondestructive measurement instrument based on spectral analysis technology]. (United States)

    Li, Qing-Bo; Xu, Yu-Po; Zhang, Chao-Hang; Zhang, Guang-Jun; Wu, Jin-Guang


    A portable nondestructive measuring instrument for plant chlorophyll was developed, which can perform real-time, quick and nondestructive measurement of chlorophyll. The instrument is mainly composed of four parts, including leaves clamp, driving circuit of light source, photoelectric detection and signal conditioning circuit and micro-control system. A new scheme of light source driving was proposed, which can not only achieve constant current, but also control the current by digital signal. The driving current can be changed depending on different light source and measurement situation by actual operation, which resolves the matching problem of output intensity of light source and input range of photoelectric detector. In addition, an integrative leaves clamp was designed, which simplified the optical structure, enhanced the stability of apparatus, decreased the loss of incident light and improved the signal-to-noise ratio and precision. The photoelectric detection and signal conditioning circuit achieve the conversion between optical signal and electrical signal, and make the electrical signal meet the requirement of AD conversion, and the photo detector is S1133-14 of Hamamatsu Company, with a high detection precision. The micro-control system mainly achieves control function, dealing with data, data storage and so on. As the most important component, microprocessor MSP430F149 of TI Company has many advantages, such as high processing speed, low power, high stability and so on. And it has an in-built 12 bit AD converter, so the data-acquisition circuit is simpler. MSP430F149 is suitable for portable instrument. In the calibration experiment of the instrument, the standard value was measured by chlorophyll meter SPAD-502, multiple linear calibration models were built, and the instrument performance was evaluated. The correlation coefficient between chlorophyll prediction value and standard value is 0.97, and the root mean square error of prediction is about 1

  10. An LED-based fluorometer for chlorophyll quantification in the laboratory and in the field. (United States)

    Lamb, Jacob J; Eaton-Rye, Julian J; Hohmann-Marriott, Martin F


    The chlorophyll content is an important experimental parameter in agronomy and plant biology research. In this report, we explore the feasibility of determining total concentration of extracts containing chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b by chlorophyll fluorescence. We found that an excitation at 457 nm results in the same integrated fluorescence emission for a molecule of chlorophyll a and a molecule of chlorophyll b. The fluorescence yield induced by 457 nm is therefore proportional to total molar chlorophyll concentration. Based on this observation, we designed an instrument to determine total chlorophyll concentrations. A single light emitting diode (LED) is used to excite chlorophyll extracts. After passing through a long-pass filter, the fluorescence emission is assessed by a photodiode. We demonstrate that this instrument facilitates the determination of total chlorophyll concentrations. We further extended the functionality of the instrument by including LEDs emitting at 435 and 470 nm wavelengths, thereby preferentially exciting chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b. This instrument can be used to determine chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b concentrations in a variety of organisms containing different ratios of chlorophylls. Monte-Carlo simulations are in agreement with experimental data such that a precise determination of chlorophyll concentrations in carotenoid-containing biological samples containing a concentration of less than 5 nmol/mL total chlorophyll can be achieved.

  11. IMPORTANT: Fluke is recalling Digital Clamp Meters

    CERN Multimedia


    Fluke is voluntarily recalling four models of Digital Clamp Meters: Fluke 373, 374, 375 and 376. If you own one of these clamp meters, please stop using it and send it back to Fluke for repair even if you have not experienced problems.   Description of the problem: "The printed circuit assembly may not be properly fastened to the test lead input jack. This may result in inaccurate voltage readings, including a low or no-voltage reading on a circuit energised with a hazardous voltage, presenting a shock, electrocution or thermal burn hazard." To determine if your clamp meter is affected by this recall notice, and for more information, click here.

  12. Investigation and Comparison of Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out Control Strategies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Henrik C.; Andersen, Torben Ole; Skoubo, Tobias;


    multivariable control strategies for SMISMO control of a single axis hydraulic system with a differential cylinder, when not taking other measures to improve performance. The paper first presents an experimentally verified model of the system considered, from which a linear model is derived. Based on the model......In the later years, there has been an increased focus on new valve types, which yield the possibility to do Separate Meter-In Separate Meter-Out (SMISMO) control. This includes both digital valves, but proportional valves with separate metering spools and build in pressure sensors are also emerging....... The possibility to independently control the meter-in and meter-out side not only increase the functionality of the system, but also opens up for better performance and/or lowered energy consumption. The focus of the current paper is therefore on investigation and comparison of what may be obtained using...

  13. The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Project (United States)

    Sanders, G.; TMT Project


    The Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT) Project is engaged in a design and development phase. TMT is proposed as a private-public partnership of the California Institute of Technology and the University of California (partners in the earlier CELT design study), AURA (designers of the earlier GSMT concept), and the Canadian ACURA consortium (designers of the VLOT concept). The partners are developing a 30 meter diameter, finely segmented filled aperture telescope with seeing-limited and diffraction-limited capabilities to address the broad range of GSMT science goals. The paper will present the status of the project development and telescope and instrument design.

  14. Liquid metal Flow Meter - Final Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andersen, C.; Hoogendoom, S.; Hudson, B.; Prince, J.; Teichert, K.; Wood, J.; Chase, K.


    Measuring the flow of liquid metal presents serious challenges. Current commercially-available flow meters use ultrasonic, electromagnetic, and other technologies to measure flow, but are inadequate for liquid metal flow measurement because of the high temperatures required by most liquid metals. As a result of the reactivity and high temperatures of most liquid metals, corrosion and leakage become very serious safety concerns. The purpose of this project is to develop a flow meter for Lockheed Martin that measures the flow rate of molten metal in a conduit.

  15. Assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll (United States)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.


    Remote measurement of chlorophyll concentrations to determine extent of water pollution is discussed. Construction and operation of radiometer to provide measurement capability are explained. Diagram of equipment is provided.

  16. Endolithic chlorophyll d-containing phototrophs

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Behrendt, Lars; Larkum, Anthony W D; Norman, Anders


    hyperspectral and variable chlorophyll fluorescence imaging, scanning electron microscopy, photopigment analysis and DNA sequencing to show that Acaryochloris-like cyanobacteria thrive underneath crustose coralline algae in a widespread endolithic habitat on coral reefs. This finding suggests an important role...

  17. Relationship between chlorophyll-a and column primary production

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Dalal, S.G.; Bhargava, R.M

    Relationship between surface chlorophyll a and column primary production has been established to help in estimating the latter more quickly and accurately. The equation derived is Primary Production, y = 0.54 Ln Chl a - 0.6. The relationship...

  18. Remote measurement of turbidity and chlorophyll through aerial photography (United States)

    Schwebel, M. D.; James, W. P.; Clark, W. J.


    Studies were conducted utilizing six different film and filter combinations to quantitatively detect chlorophyll and turbidity in six farm ponds. The low range of turbidity from 0-35 JTU correlated well with the density readings from the green band of normal color film and the high range above 35 JTU was found to correlate with density readings in the red band of color infrared film. The effect of many of the significant variables can be reduced by using standardized procedures in taking the photography. Attempts to detect chlorophyll were masked by the turbidity. The ponds which were highly turbid also had high chlorophyll concentrations; whereas, the ponds with low turbidity also had low chlorophyll concentrations. This prevented a direct correlation for this parameter. Several suggested approaches are cited for possible future investigations.

  19. A comparative study on the metering accuracy for given installation conditions of metering facility

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Her, Jae Young; Lee, Seung Jun; Ha, Young Cheol; Ahn, Seung Hee; Lee, Cheol Gu [R and D Center, Korea Gas Co., (Korea)


    The object of this study is to improve metering facilities of Korea Gas Corporation(KOGAS) metering station which are being operated in unfavorable straight pipe length condition (metropolitan area). For experiment, a test facilities was modeled based on Dogsan metering station (one of KOGAS metering stations) which has the most unfavorable conditions in metropolitan area. The test facilities was set up in Jungdong metering station (one of KOGAS metering stations) supplying natural gas to a power plant and city gas companies. The tests were performed with flowconditioner which was installed in the former straight pipe of a turbine meter and an Orifice meter, and the tests keep going with changing both diameter ratio({beta} = d/D) and flowrate(Q{sub v}). In other words, the tests were performed according to flowrate change for fixed diameter ratio. After the test was completed, the diameter ratio was increased by 0.1 and the same procedures were conducted again. The test was conducted for diameter ratio from 0.3 to 0.7. For Orifice meter, the error showed 0.4 %(Test maximum flowrate=3,030 Nm{sup 3}/h) and 0.8 %(Test maximum flowrate=9,204 Nm{sup 3}/h) for {beta}=0.3 and 0.7, respectively. For Turbine meter, the error showed -0.5 %(Test maximum flowrate=3,030 Nm{sup 3}/h) and -0.1 %(Test maximum flowrate=9,204 Nm{sup 3}/h) for {beta}=0.3 and 0.7, respectively. 44 refs., 32 figs., 27 tabs.

  20. Consistency Between Sun-Induced Chlorophyll Fluorescence and Gross Primary Production of Vegetation in North America (United States)

    Zhang, Yao; Xiao, Xiangming; Jin, Cui; Dong, Jinwei; Zhou, Sha; Wagle, Pradeep; Joiner, Joanna; Guanter, Luis; Zhang, Yongguang; Zhang , Geli; Qin, Yuanwei; Wang, Jie; Moore, Berrien, III


    Accurate estimation of the gross primary production (GPP) of terrestrial ecosystems is vital for a better understanding of the spatial-temporal patterns of the global carbon cycle. In this study,we estimate GPP in North America (NA) using the satellite-based Vegetation Photosynthesis Model (VPM), MODIS (Moderate Resolution Imaging Spectrometer) images at 8-day temporal and 500 meter spatial resolutions, and NCEP-NARR (National Center for Environmental Prediction-North America Regional Reanalysis) climate data. The simulated GPP (GPP (sub VPM)) agrees well with the flux tower derived GPP (GPPEC) at 39 AmeriFlux sites (155 site-years). The GPP (sub VPM) in 2010 is spatially aggregated to 0.5 by 0.5-degree grid cells and then compared with sun-induced chlorophyll fluorescence (SIF) data from Global Ozone Monitoring Instrument 2 (GOME-2), which is directly related to vegetation photosynthesis. Spatial distribution and seasonal dynamics of GPP (sub VPM) and GOME-2 SIF show good consistency. At the biome scale, GPP (sub VPM) and SIF shows strong linear relationships (R (sup 2) is greater than 0.95) and small variations in regression slopes ((4.60-5.55 grams Carbon per square meter per day) divided by (milliwatts per square meter per nanometer per square radian)). The total annual GPP (sub VPM) in NA in 2010 is approximately 13.53 petagrams Carbon per year, which accounts for approximately 11.0 percent of the global terrestrial GPP and is within the range of annual GPP estimates from six other process-based and data-driven models (11.35-22.23 petagrams Carbon per year). Among the seven models, some models did not capture the spatial pattern of GOME-2 SIF data at annual scale, especially in Midwest cropland region. The results from this study demonstrate the reliable performance of VPM at the continental scale, and the potential of SIF data being used as a benchmark to compare with GPP models.

  1. (United States)

    ... concerns. Search Services Share This Help National HIV/AIDS Strategy Check out NHAS's latest progress in the ... from Read more tweets HIV/AIDS Basics • Federal Resources • Using New ...

  2. Aids for Handicapped Readers. (United States)

    Library of Congress, Washington, DC. Div. for the Blind and Physically Handicapped.

    The reference circular provides information on approximately 50 reading and writing aids intended for physically or visually handicapped individuals. Described are low vision aids, aids for holding a book or turning pages, aids for reading in bed, handwriting aids, typewriters and accessories, braille writing equipment, sound reproducers, and aids…

  3. Effect of LED lamping on the chlorophylls of leaf mustard (United States)

    Wu, Shiqiang; Zhu, Liang; Zhao, Fuli; Yang, Bowen; Chen, Zuxin; Cai, Ruhai; Chen, Jiansheng

    The absorption coefficients of chloroplast of leaf mustard were measured by a spectrophotometer. The leaves were collected from seven treatments with different lighting. The chlorophyll content was calculated following Arnon equation. LEDs for filling the light source can increase the conduction of plants. Compared with other treatments, Chlorophyll in the leaves got an higher concentration under the lamping of red LEDS to blue LEDS for 7:1 .

  4. Macroeconomic Issues in Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjertholm, Peter; Laursen, Jytte; White, Howard

    foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,......foreign aid, macroeconomics of aid, gap models, aid fungibility, fiscal response models, foreign debt,...

  5. Molecular environments of divinyl chlorophylls in Prochlorococcus and Synechocystis: differences in fluorescence properties with chlorophyll replacement. (United States)

    Mimuro, Mamoru; Murakami, Akio; Tomo, Tatsuya; Tsuchiya, Tohru; Watabe, Kazuyuki; Yokono, Makio; Akimoto, Seiji


    A marine cyanobacterium, Prochlorococcus, is a unique oxygenic photosynthetic organism, which accumulates divinyl chlorophylls instead of the monovinyl chlorophylls. To investigate the molecular environment of pigments after pigment replacement but before optimization of the protein moiety in photosynthetic organisms, we compared the fluorescence properties of the divinyl Chl a-containing cyanobacteria, Prochlorococcus marinus (CCMP 1986, CCMP 2773 and CCMP 1375), by a Synechocystis sp. PCC 6803 (Synechocystis) mutant in which monovinyl Chl a was replaced with divinyl Chl a. P. marinus showed a single fluorescence band for photosystem (PS) II at 687nm at 77K; this was accompanied with change in pigment, because the Synechocystis mutant showed the identical shift. No fluorescence bands corresponding to the PS II 696-nm component and PS I longer-wavelength component were detected in P. marinus, although the presence of the former was suggested using time-resolved fluorescence spectra. Delayed fluorescence (DF) was detected at approximately 688nm with a lifetime of approximately 29ns. In striking contrast, the Synechocystis mutant showed three fluorescence bands at 687, 696, and 727nm, but suppressed DF. These differences in fluorescence behaviors might not only reflect differences in the molecular structure of pigments but also differences in molecular environments of pigments, including pigment-pigment and/or pigment-protein interactions, in the antenna and electron transfer systems.

  6. Water-Soluble Chlorophyll Protein (WSCP) Stably Binds Two or Four Chlorophylls. (United States)

    Palm, Daniel M; Agostini, Alessandro; Tenzer, Stefan; Gloeckle, Barbara M; Werwie, Mara; Carbonera, Donatella; Paulsen, Harald


    Water-soluble chlorophyll proteins (WSCPs) of class IIa from Brassicaceae form tetrameric complexes containing one chlorophyll (Chl) per apoprotein but no carotenoids. The complexes are remarkably stable toward dissociation and protein denaturation even at 100 °C and extreme pH values, and the Chls are partially protected against photooxidation. There are several hypotheses that explain the biological role of WSCPs, one of them proposing that they function as a scavenger of Chls set free upon plant senescence or pathogen attack. The biochemical properties of WSCP described in this paper are consistent with the protein acting as an efficient and flexible Chl scavenger. At limiting Chl concentrations, the recombinant WSCP apoprotein binds substoichiometric amounts of Chl (two Chls per tetramer) to form complexes that are as stable toward thermal dissociation, denaturation, and photodamage as the fully pigmented ones. If more Chl is added, these two-Chl complexes can bind another two Chls to reach the fully pigmented state. The protection of WSCP Chls against photodamage has been attributed to the apoprotein serving as a diffusion barrier for oxygen, preventing its access to triplet excited Chls and, thus, the formation of singlet oxygen. By contrast, the sequential binding of Chls by WSCP suggests a partially open or at least flexible structure, raising the question of how WSCP photoprotects its Chls without the help of carotenoids.

  7. Chlorophyll-Protein Complexes from Euglena gracilis and Mutants Deficient in Chlorophyll b: II. Polypeptide Composition. (United States)

    Cunningham, F X; Schiff, J A


    Chlorophyll-protein complexes (CPs) obtained from thylakoids of Euglena gracilis Klebs var bacillaris Cori contain the following polypeptides (listed in parentheses in order of prominence after Coomassie R-250 staining of polyacrylamide gels): CP Ia (66, 18, 22, 22.5, 27.5, 21, 28, 24, 25.5, and 26 kilodaltons [kD]); CP I (66 kD); CPx (41 kD); LHCP(2) (an oligomer of LHCP) (26.5, 28, and 26 kD); CPy (27 and 19 kD); CPa (54 kD); and LHCP (26.5, 28, and 26 kD). Mutants of bacillaris low in chlorophyll b (Gr(1)BSL, G(1)BU, and O(4)BSL; Chl a/b [mol/mol] = 50-100) which lack CP Ia, LHCP(2), and LHCP also lack or are deficient in polypeptides associated with these complexes in wild-type cells. Mutants G(1) and O(4), which also lack CPy, lack the CPy-associated polypeptides found in wild-type and Gr(1). Using an antiserum which was elicited by and reacts strongly and selectively with the SDS-treated major polypeptide (26.5 kD) of the LHCP complexes of wild-type, this polypeptide is undetectable in the mutants (saturation, consistent with the selective loss of major antenna components but not CP I or CPa from the mutants.

  8. Detection of chlorophylls in spores of seven ferns. (United States)

    Tseng, Mei-Hwei; Lin, Kuei-Huei; Huang, Yi-Jia; Chang, Ya-Lan; Huang, Sheng-Cih; Kuo, Li-Yaung; Huang, Yao-Moan


    Fern spores were traditionally classified into chlorophyllous (green) and nonchlorophyllous (nongreen) types based on the color visible to the naked eye. Recently, a third type, "cryptochlorophyllous spores", is recognized, and these spores are nongreen under white light but contain chlorophylls. Epifluorescence microscopy was previously used to detect chlorophylls in cryptochlorophyllous spores. In addition to epifluorescence microscopy, current study performed some other approaches, including spore-squash epifluorescence, absorption spectra, laser-induced fluorescence emission spectra, thin layer chromatography (TLC), and ultra-high performance liquid chromatography with ultraviolet and mass spectrometric detection (UHPLC-UV-MS) in order to detect chlorophylls of spores of seven ferns (Sphaeropteris lepifera, Ceratopteris thalictroides, Leptochilus wrightii, Leptochilus pothifolius, Lepidomicrosorum buergerianum, Osmunda banksiifolia, and Platycerium grande). Destructive methods, such as TLC and UHPLC-UV-MS, successfully detected chlorophylls inside the spores when their signals of red fluorescence under epifluorescence microscope were masked by spore wall. Although UHPLC-UV-MS analysis was the most sensitive and reliable for determining the chlorophylls of spores, spore-squash epifluorescence is not only reliable but also cost- and time-effective one among our study methods. In addition, we first confirmed that Lepidomicrosorium buergerianum, Leptochilus pothifolius, Leptochilus wrightii, and Platycerium grande, produce cryptochlorophyllous spores.

  9. Tomato seeds maturity detection system based on chlorophyll fluorescence (United States)

    Li, Cuiling; Wang, Xiu; Meng, Zhijun


    Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity can be used as seed maturity and quality evaluation indicator. Chlorophyll fluorescence intensity of seed coats is tested to judge the level of chlorophyll content in seeds, and further to judge the maturity and quality of seeds. This research developed a detection system of tomato seeds maturity based on chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum technology, the system included an excitation light source unit, a fluorescent signal acquisition unit and a data processing unit. The excitation light source unit consisted of two high power LEDs, two radiators and two constant current power supplies, and it was designed to excite chlorophyll fluorescence of tomato seeds. The fluorescent signal acquisition unit was made up of a fluorescence spectrometer, an optical fiber, an optical fiber scaffolds and a narrowband filter. The data processing unit mainly included a computer. Tomato fruits of green ripe stage, discoloration stage, firm ripe stage and full ripe stage were harvested, and their seeds were collected directly. In this research, the developed tomato seeds maturity testing system was used to collect fluorescence spectrums of tomato seeds of different maturities. Principal component analysis (PCA) method was utilized to reduce the dimension of spectral data and extract principal components, and PCA was combined with linear discriminant analysis (LDA) to establish discriminant model of tomato seeds maturity, the discriminant accuracy was greater than 90%. Research results show that using chlorophyll fluorescence spectrum technology is feasible for seeds maturity detection, and the developed tomato seeds maturity testing system has high detection accuracy.

  10. Crawling Aid (United States)


    The Institute for the Achievement of Human Potential developed a device known as the Vehicle for Initial Crawling (VIC); the acronym is a tribute to the crawler's inventor, Hubert "Vic" Vykukal; is an effective crawling aid. The VIC is used by brain injured children who are unable to crawl due to the problems of weight-bearing and friction, caused by gravity. It is a rounded plywood frame large enough to support the child's torso, leaving arms and legs free to move. On its underside are three aluminum discs through which air is pumped to create an air-bearing surface that has less friction than a film of oil. Upper side contains the connection to the air supply and a pair of straps which restrain the child and cause the device to move with him. VIC is used with the intent to recreate the normal neurological connection between brain and muscles. Over repetitive use of the device the child develops his arm and leg muscles as well as coordination. Children are given alternating therapy, with and without the VIC until eventually the device is no longer needed.

  11. Pico meter metrology for the GAIA mission

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Meijer, E.A.; Nijenhuis, J.N.; Vink, R.J.P.; Kamphues, F.G.; Gielesen, W.L.M.; Coatantiec, C.


    To measure the relative motions of GAIA's telescopes, the angle between the telescopes is monitored by an all Silicon Carbide Basic Angle Monitoring subsystem (BAM OMA). TNO is developing this metrology system. The stability requirements for this metrology system go into the pico meter and pico radi

  12. Numerical modeling of fluidic flow meters (United States)

    Choudhury, D.; Patel, B. R.


    The transient fluid flow in fluidic flow meters has been modeled using Creare.x's flow modeling computer program FLUENT/BFC that solves the Navier-Stokes equations in general curvilinear coordinates. The numerical predictions of fluid flow in a fluidic flow meter have been compared with the available experimental results for a particular design, termed the PC-4 design. Overall flow structures such as main jet bending, and primary and secondary vortices predicted by FLUENT/BFC are in excellent agreement with flow visualization results. The oscillation frequencies of the PC-4 design have been predicted for a range of flow rates encompassing laminar and turbulent flow and the results are in good agreement with experiments. The details of the flow field predictions reveal that an important factor that determines the onset of oscillations in the fluidic flow meter is the feedback jet momentum relative to the main jet momentum. The insights provided by the analysis of the PC-4 fluidic flow meter design have led to an improved design. The improved design has sustained oscillations at lower flow rates compared with the PC-4 design and has a larger rangeability.

  13. Microcontroller Based Single Phase Digital Prepaid Energy Meter for Improved Metering and Billing System

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Mejbaul Haque


    Full Text Available This paper presents a single phase digital prepaid energy meter based on two microcontrollers and a single phase energy meter IC. This digital prepaid energy meter does not have any rotating parts. The energy consumption is calculated using the output pulses of the energy meter chip and the internal counter of microcontroller (ATmega32. A microcontroller (ATtiny13 is used as a smart card and the numbers of units recharged by the consumers are written in it. A relay system has been used which either isolates or establishes the connection between the electrical load and energy meter through the supply mains depending upon the units present in the smart card.Energy consumption (kWh, maximum demand (kW, total unit recharged (kWh and rest of the units (kWh are stored in the ATmega32 to ensure the accurate measurement even in the event of an electrical power outage that can be easily read from a 20×4 LCD. As soon as the supply is restored, energy meter restarts with the stored values. A single phase prepaid energy meter prototype has been implemented to provide measurement up to 40A load current and 230V line to neutral voltage.Necessary program for microcontrollers are written in c-language and compiled by Win-AVR libc compiler.

  14. BCM6: New Generation of Boron Meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pirat, P. [Rolls-Royce Civil Nuclear SAS (France)


    Full text of publication follows: Rolls-Royce has developed a new generation of boron meter, based on more than 30 years of experience. The Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter provides Nuclear Power Plant (NPP) operators with the boron concentration of the primary circuit. The meter provides continuous and safe measurements with no manual sampling and no human contact. In this paper, technical features, advantages and customer benefits of the use of the new generation of Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter will be detailed. Values and associated alarms are provides over different media: 4-20 mA outputs, relays, displays in the main control room and in the chemical lab, and digital links. A special alarm avoids unexpected homogeneous dilution of the primary circuit, which is a critical operational parameter. The Rolls-Royce BCM6 boron meter is fully configurable over a set of parameters allowing adaptation to customer needs. It has a differential capability, thus eliminating neutronic noise and keeping measurements accurate, even in the case of fuel clad rupture. Measurements are accurate, reliable, and have a quick response time. Equipment meets state-of-the-art qualification requests. Designed in 2008, the BCM6 boron meter is the newest equipment of Rolls-Royce boron meters product line. It has been chosen to equip the French EPR NPP and complies with the state-of-the-art of the technology. Rolls-Royce has more than 30 years of experience in Instrumentation and Controls with more than 75 NPP units operating worldwide. All of this experience return has been put in this new generation of equipment to provide the customer with the best operation. About Rolls-Royce Rolls-Royce is a global business providing integrated power systems for use on land, at sea and in the air. The Group has a balanced business portfolio with leading market positions. Rolls-Royce has a broad range of civil nuclear expertise, including work related to licensing and safety reviews, engineering design

  15. HIV and AIDS (United States)

    ... Emergency Room? What Happens in the Operating Room? HIV and AIDS KidsHealth > For Kids > HIV and AIDS ... actually the virus that causes the disease AIDS. HIV Hurts the Immune System People who are HIV ...

  16. Heart attack first aid (United States)

    First aid - heart attack; First aid - cardiopulmonary arrest; First aid - cardiac arrest ... A heart attack occurs when the blood flow that carries oxygen to the heart is blocked. The heart muscle ...

  17. Breathing difficulties - first aid (United States)

    Difficulty breathing - first aid; Dyspnea - first aid; Shortness of breath - first aid ... Breathing difficulty is almost always a medical emergency. An exception is feeling slightly winded from normal activity, ...

  18. Structures of chlorophyll catabolites in bananas (Musa acuminata) reveal a split path of chlorophyll breakdown in a ripening fruit. (United States)

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Kräutler, Bernhard


    The disappearance of chlorophyll is a visual sign of fruit ripening. Yet, chlorophyll breakdown in fruit has hardly been explored; its non-green degradation products are largely unknown. Here we report the analysis and structure elucidation of colorless tetrapyrrolic chlorophyll breakdown products in commercially available, ripening bananas (Musa acuminata, Cavendish cultivar). In banana peels, chlorophyll catabolites were found in an unprecedented structural richness: a variety of new fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (FCCs) and nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were detected. As a rule, FCCs exist only "fleetingly" and are hard to observe. However, in bananas several of the FCCs (named Mc-FCCs) were persistent and carried an ester function at the propionate side-chain. NCCs were less abundant, and exhibited a free propionic acid group, but functional modifications elsewhere. The modifications of NCCs in banana peels were similar to those found in NCCs from senescent leaves. They are presumed to be introduced by enzymatic transformations at the stage of the mostly unobserved, direct FCC-precursors. The observed divergent functional group characteristics of the Mc-FCCs versus those of the Mc-NCCs indicated two major "late" processing lines of chlorophyll breakdown in ripening bananas. The "last common precursor" at the branching point to either the persistent FCCs, or towards the NCCs, was identified as a temporarily abundant "secondary" FCC. The existence of two "downstream" branches of chlorophyll breakdown in banana peels, and the striking accumulation of persistent Mc-FCCs call for attention as to the still-elusive biological roles of the resulting colorless linear tetrapyrroles.

  19. Structures of Chlorophyll Catabolites in Bananas (Musa acuminata) Reveal a Split Path of Chlorophyll Breakdown in a Ripening Fruit (United States)

    Moser, Simone; Müller, Thomas; Holzinger, Andreas; Lütz, Cornelius; Kräutler, Bernhard


    Abstract The disappearance of chlorophyll is a visual sign of fruit ripening. Yet, chlorophyll breakdown in fruit has hardly been explored; its non-green degradation products are largely unknown. Here we report the analysis and structure elucidation of colorless tetrapyrrolic chlorophyll breakdown products in commercially available, ripening bananas (Musa acuminata, Cavendish cultivar). In banana peels, chlorophyll catabolites were found in an unprecedented structural richness: a variety of new fluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (FCCs) and nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) were detected. As a rule, FCCs exist only "fleetingly" and are hard to observe. However, in bananas several of the FCCs (named Mc-FCCs) were persistent and carried an ester function at the propionate side-chain. NCCs were less abundant, and exhibited a free propionic acid group, but functional modifications elsewhere. The modifications of NCCs in banana peels were similar to those found in NCCs from senescent leaves. They are presumed to be introduced by enzymatic transformations at the stage of the mostly unobserved, direct FCC-precursors. The observed divergent functional group characteristics of the Mc-FCCs versus those of the Mc-NCCs indicated two major "late" processing lines of chlorophyll breakdown in ripening bananas. The "last common precursor" at the branching point to either the persistent FCCs, or towards the NCCs, was identified as a temporarily abundant "secondary" FCC. The existence of two "downstream" branches of chlorophyll breakdown in banana peels, and the striking accumulation of persistent Mc-FCCs call for attention as to the still-elusive biological roles of the resulting colorless linear tetrapyrroles. PMID:22807397

  20. Photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence characteristics, and chlorophyll content of soybean seedlings under combined stress of bisphenol A and cadmium. (United States)

    Hu, Huiqing; Wang, Lihong; Wang, Qingqing; Jiao, Liya; Hua, Weiqi; Zhou, Qing; Huang, Xiaohua


    Bisphenol A (BPA) is ubiquitous in the environment because of its continual application in plastics and the epoxy resin industry. Cadmium (Cd) is a highly toxic heavy metal element mainly used in smelting, electroplating, and plastic and dye manufacturing. Pollution as a result of BPA and Cd exists simultaneously in many agricultural regions. However, little information is available regarding the combined effects of BPA and Cd on plants. The combined effects of BPA and Cd on the photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, and chlorophyll content of soybean seedlings were investigated using noninvasive technology. Combined treatment with 1.5 mg/L BPA and 0.2 mg/L Cd synergistically improved the net photosynthetic rate (Pn ), initial fluorescence (F0 ), maximal photochemical efficiency (Fv /Fm ), effective quantum yield of photosystem II (ΦPSII ), photosynthetic electron transport rate (ETR), and chlorophyll content. Combined treatment with 1.5 mg/L BPA and 3.0 mg/L Cd increased the F0 and decreased the Pn , Fv /Fm , ΦPSII , and ETR, whereas BPA and Cd exhibited an antagonistic effect. Furthermore, combined treatment with 17.2/50.0 mg/L BPA and 3.0/10.0 mg/L Cd synergistically decreased the Pn , Fv /Fm , ΦPSII , ETR, and chlorophyll content, although it increased the F0 . Finally, the effects of BPA and Cd on photosynthesis, chlorophyll fluorescence, and chlorophyll content ceased when BPA stress was stopped.

  1. Light regulation to chlorophyll synthesis and plastid development of the chlorophyll-less golden-leaf privet. (United States)

    Yuan, Ming; Xu, Mo-Yun; Yuan, Shu; Chen, Yang-Er; Du, Jun-Bo; Xu, Fei; Zhang, Zhong-Wei; Guo, Zi-Chan; Zhao, Zhong-Yi; Lin, Hong-Hui


    Ligustrum vicaryi L. is a hybrid of Ligustrum ovalifolium Hassk. var. aureo-marginatum and Ligustrum vulgale L., and displays a chlorophyll-less phenotype. Therefore it is widely used as a horticultural shrub because of its golden-color leaves. Its putative mechanism, light responses, chlorophyll synthesis and plastid development were studied. L. vicaryi has a higher level of 5-aminolevulinic acid (ALA), but lower levels of chlorophylls compared with L. quihoui. The yellowish phenotype of L. vicaryi upper leaves could be attributed to their hampered conversion from chlorophyllide into chlorophyll a. Despite the enhanced ALA level and the decreased thylakoid stacking in plastids, L. vicaryi golden leaves contain normal levels of Lhcb transcripts and photosystem apoproteins. Furthermore, reactive oxygen species (ROS) accumulation is almost the same in L. vicaryi and L. quihoui. The golden leaves often turn green and the contents of chlorophylls increase with decreasing light intensity. Dynamic changes of chlorophyll-synthesis-system under the light transition were also analyzed.

  2. HPLC Analysis of Chlorophyll a, Chlorophyll b, and Beta-Carotene in Collard Greens: A Project for a Problem-Oriented Laboratory Course. (United States)

    Silveira, Augustine, Jr.; And Others


    High performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) is used to separate and quantitate beta-carotene, chlorophyll a, and chlorophyll b originating from collard greens. Experimental procedures used and typical results obtained are discussed. (JN)


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Pollastrini


    Full Text Available A European-wide assessment of chlorophyll a fluorescence (ChlF, prompt fluorescence on dark-adapted samples parameters in forest ecosystems was carried out in the years 2012-2013, within the 7FP FunDivEUROPE project. A total of 1596 trees growing in 209 stands distributed in six countries, from Mediterranean to boreal sites, were sampled. This paper shows the applicability of the ChlF in forest ecology surveys, the protocols adopted for leaf sampling and ChlF measurements, the variability of the ChlF parameters within and between trees, their dependence to environmental factors and the relationships with other functional leaf traits. The most relevant findings were as follows: (i The least variable ChlF parameter within and between the trees was the maximum quantum yield of primary photochemistry (FV/FM, whereas the performance indices (PIABS and PITOT showed the highest variability; (ii for a given tree, the ChlF parameters measured at two heights of the crown (top and bottom leaves were correlated and, in coniferous species, the ChlF parameters were correlated between different needle age classes (from the current year and previous year; (iii the ChlF parameters showed a geographical pattern, and the photochemical performance of the forest trees was higher in central Europe than in the edge sites (northernmost and southernmost; and (iv ChlF parameters showed different sensitivity to specific environmental factors: FV/FM increased with the increase of the leaf area index of stands and soil fertility; ΔVIP was reduced under high temperature and drought. The photochemical responses of forest tree species, analyzed with ChlF parameters, were influenced by the ecology of the trees (i.e. their functional groups, continental distribution, successional status, etc., tree species’ richness and composition of the stands. Our results support the applicability and usefulness of the ChlF in forest monitoring investigations on a large spatial scale and


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Guidi


    Full Text Available Chlorophyll (Chl a fluorescence is a widely used tool to monitor the photosynthetic process in plants subjected to environmental stresses.this review reports the theoretical bases of Chl fluorescence, and the significance of the most important Chl fluorescence parameters. it also reportshow these parameters can be utilised to estimate changes in photosystem ii (PSII photochemistry, linear electron flux and energy dissipationmechanisms. the relation between actual PSII photochemistry and CO2 assimilation is discussed, as is the role of photochemical andnon-photochemical quenching in inducing changes in PSII activity. the application of Chl fluorescence imaging to study heterogeneity on leaflamina is also considered. this review summarises only some of the results obtained by this methodology to study the effects of differentenvironmental stresses, namely water and nutrients availability, pollutants, temperature and salinity.

  5. Aids to School Bus Design (United States)


    Navistar International Transportation Corporation, Chicago, IL, used three separate NASA-developed technologies in the design and testing of their 3000 Series Bus Chassis which was developed expressly for school bus applications. For structural analysis, they used the MSC/NASTRAN program which mathematically analyzes a design and predicts how it will hold up under stress. They also used the SPATE 9000 system for non-contact measurement of stress, load transfer mechanisms, detection of hidden flaws, and monitoring structural changes during fatigue testing. SPATE 9000 was based on infrared stress measurement technology developed by Langley Research Center. They also employed the Wyle Ride Quality Meter, which was developed by Langley to aid in passenger aircraft design by providing an accurate measurement of ride vibration and sound level. These numbers translate into a subjective discomfort level index. These technologies contribute to the company's 45-48 percent share of the school bus chassis market.

  6. Quest for minor but key chlorophyll molecules in photosynthetic reaction centers - unusual pigment composition in the reaction centers of the chlorophyll d-dominated cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina. (United States)

    Akiyama, Machiko; Miyashita, Hideaki; Kise, Hideo; Watanabe, Tadashi; Mimuro, Mamoru; Miyachi, Shigetoh; Kobayashi, Masami


    A short overview, based on our own findings, is given of the minor pigments that function as key components in photosynthesis. Recently, we found the presence of chlorophyll a, chlorophyll d' and pheophytin a as minor pigments in the chlorophyll d-dominated cyanobacterium Acaryochloris marina.

  7. Spectrophotometric and chromatographic assessment of contributions of carotenoids and chlorophylls to the total antioxidant capacities of plant foods. (United States)

    Sözgen Başkan, Kevser; Tütem, Esma; Özer, Nihat; Apak, Reşat


    Carotenoids and chlorophylls are photosynthetic compounds and also efficient antioxidants. This study aims to identify and quantify carotenoids and chlorophylls in some vegetables (carrot, tomato, spinach), to measure the total antioxidant capacity (TAC) of these samples with two spectrophotometric methods, to correlate TAC data with carotenoid structure, and to compare the TAC results with HPLC findings. Separation of the individual antioxidant pigments was achieved on a C30 column using a developed gradient elution program involving methanol-acetonitrile (50:50, v/v) with 0.1% (v/v) triethylamine (TEA) (A) and acetone (B) mobile phases. Total antioxidant capacities of the acetone extracts of studied samples, in trolox and β-carotene equivalents, were in the order: spinach > tomato > carrot by both CUPRAC and ABTS methods. CUPRAC responded favorably to both chlorophylls a and b. The TAC calculated with aid of combined HPLC-spectrophotometry was very close to the spectrophotometric value (93-108%) for real samples and synthetic mixtures.

  8. Complex interactions among nutrients, chlorophyll-a, and microcystins in three stormwater wet detention basins with floating treatment wetlands. (United States)

    Hartshorn, Nicholas; Marimon, Zachary; Xuan, Zhemin; Cormier, Jessica; Chang, Ni-Bin; Wanielista, Martin


    Stormwater wet detention ponds hold a permanent pool of water and offer many beneficial uses including flood mitigation, pollution prevention, downstream erosion control, increased aesthetics, and recreational uses. Although the removal of nutrients is generally low for stormwater wet detention ponds in urban areas, floating treatment wetlands (FTWs) can be installed to offer an innovative solution toward naturally removing excess nutrients and aiding in stormwater management. To improve the stormwater reuse potential, this study assessed nutrient, microcystin, and chlorophyll-a interactions in three Florida stormwater wet detention ponds with recently implemented FTWs. Both episodic (storm events) and routine (non-storm events) sampling campaigns were carried out at the three ponds located in Ruskin, Gainesville, and Orlando. The results showed a salient negative correlation between total phosphorus and microcystin concentrations for both storm and non-storm events across all three ponds. The dominant nutrient species in correlation seemed to be total phosphorus, which correlated positively with chlorophyll-a concentrations at all ponds and sampling conditions, with the exception of Orlando non-storm events. These results showed a correlation conditional to the candidate pond and sampling conditions for microcystin and chlorophyll-a concentrations.

  9. Mark IVA DSN 26-meter Subnet (United States)

    Gordon, D. D.


    The Office of Space Tracking and Data Systems' Networks Consolidation Program (NCP), managed by the Jet Propulsion Laboratory (JPL), includes the implementation of a 26-meter Tracking and Communications Subnet as a part of the Mark IV A Deep Space Network (DSN). The incorporatin of this subnet into the DSN will contribute to the NCP goal of consolidating the two NASA ground tracking networks into one tracking network. The 26-meter Tracking and Communication Subnet was designed to provide the capability to support, at each Deep Space Communication Complex, the tracking and data communication requirements of the earth-orbital missions that cannot be supported by the Tracking and Data Relay Satellite System when it becomes operational. Implementation activities and planned capabilities of the subnet are discussed.

  10. Cubic meter volume optical coherence tomography (United States)



    Optical coherence tomography (OCT) is a powerful three-dimensional (3D) imaging modality with micrometer-scale axial resolution and up to multi-GigaVoxel/s imaging speed. However, the imaging range of high-speed OCT has been limited. Here, we report 3D OCT over cubic meter volumes using a long coherence length, 1310 nm vertical-cavity surface-emitting laser and silicon photonic integrated circuit dual-quadrature receiver technology combined with enhanced signal processing. We achieved 15 µm depth resolution for tomographic imaging at a 100 kHz axial scan rate over a 1.5 m range. We show 3D macroscopic imaging examples of a human mannequin, bicycle, machine shop gauge blocks, and a human skull/brain model. High-bandwidth, meter-range OCT demonstrates new capabilities that promise to enable a wide range of biomedical, scientific, industrial, and research applications. PMID:28239628

  11. Numerical simulation of flow through orifice meters (United States)

    Barry, J. J.; Sheikholeslami, M. Z.; Patel, B. R.


    The FLUENT and FLUENT/BFC computer programs have been used to numerically model turbulent flow through orifice meters. These simulations were based on solution of the Navier-Stokes equations incorporating a k-epsilon turbulence model. For ideal installations, trends in the discharge coefficient with Reynolds number, beta ratio, and surface roughness have been reproduced, and the value of the discharge coefficient has been computed to within 2 percent. Nonideal installations have also been simulated, including the effects of expanders, reducers, valves, and bends. Detailed modeling of flow through a bend has yielded results in good agreement with experimental data. The trend in discharge coefficient shifts for orifice meters downstream of bends has been predicted reasonably well.

  12. Mechanism of lanthanum effect on chlorophyll of spinach

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HONG; Fashui(洪法水); WEI; Zhenggui(魏正贵); ZHAO; Guiwen(赵贵文)


    The mechanism of La3+ effect on chlorophyll (chl) of spinach in solution culture has been studied. The results show that La3+ can obviously promote growth, increase chlorophyll contents and photosynthetic rate of spinach. La3+ may substitute Mg2+ for chlorophyll formation of spinach when there is no Mg2+ in solution. La3+ improves significantly PSII formation and enhances electron transport rate of PSII. By ICP-MS and atom absorption spectroscopy methods, it has been revealed that rare earth elements (REEs) can enter chloroplasts and increase Mg2+-chl contents; and REEs bind to chlorophyll and also form REE-chl. REE-chl is about 72% in total chlorophyll with La3+ treatment and without Mg2+ in solution. By UV-Vis, FT-IR and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) methods, it has been found that La3+ coordinates with nitrogen of porphyrin rings with the average La-N bond length of 0.253 nm.

  13. Understanding chlorophylls: central magnesium ion and phytyl as structural determinants. (United States)

    Fiedor, Leszek; Kania, Agnieszka; Myśliwa-Kurdziel, Beata; Orzeł, Łukasz; Stochel, Grazyna


    Phytol, a C20 alcohol esterifying the C-17(3) propionate, and Mg2+ ion chelated in the central cavity, are conservative structural constituents of chlorophylls. To evaluate their intramolecular structural effects we prepared a series of metal- and phytyl-free derivatives of bacteriochlorophyll a and applied them as model chlorophylls. A detailed spectroscopic study on the model pigments reveals meaningful differences in the spectral characteristics of the phytylated and non-phytylated pigments. Their analysis in terms of solvatochromism and axial coordination shows how the central Mg and phytyl residue shape the properties of the pigment. Surprisingly, the presence/absence of the central Mg has no effect on the solvatochromism of (bacterio)chlorophyll pi-electron system and the hydrophobicity of phytyl does not interfere with the first solvation shell of the chromophore. However, both residues significantly influence the conformation of the pigment macrocycle and the removal of either residue increases the macrocycle flexibility. The chelation of Mg has a flattening effect on the macrocycle whereas bulky phytyl residue seems to control the conformation of the chromophore via steric interactions with ring V and its substituents. The analysis of spectroscopic properties of bacteriochlorophyllide (free acid) shows that esterification of the C-17(3) propionate is necessary in chlorophylls because the carboxyl group may act as a strong chelator of the central Mg. These observations imply that the truncated chlorophylls used in theoretical studies are not adequate as models of native chromophores, especially when fine effects are to be modeled.

  14. Nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites in loquat fruits (Eriobotrya japonica Lindl.). (United States)

    Ríos, José Julián; Roca, María; Pérez-Gálvez, Antonio


    Nonfluorescent chlorophyll catabolites (NCCs) and nonfluorescent dioxobilane chlorophyll catabolites (NDCCs) are the terminal compounds of the chlorophyll degradation pathway that may display beneficial properties to human health related to their antioxidant properties, which were recently shown. A profile of NCCs/NDCC of the loquat fruit Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. is described. From the 13 known different NCC structures described to date, three have been identified in loquats. Two new structures not defined so far were characterized in loquat fruits: Ej-NCC2, which corresponds to the methyl ester at C13(2) of Bn-NCC1 and in very low amount Ej-NDCC1, the only NDCC found in loquats. Keto-enol tautomerism at the C13(1) position in NCCs is described for the first time as a regular process in chlorophyll catabolism, probably through a nonspecific mechanism since almost all the chlorophyll catabolites structures detected in fruits of loquat present keto and enol tautomers. The results obtained have been possible through a high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization ion trap and quadropole time-of-flight mass spectrometry fitted with a powerful postprocessing software.

  15. An overview of remote sensing of chlorophyll fluorescence (United States)

    Xing, Xiao-Gang; Zhao, Dong-Zhi; Liu, Yu-Guang; Yang, Jian-Hong; Xiu, Peng; Wang, Lin


    Besides empirical algorithms with the blue-green ratio, the algorithms based on fluorescence are also important and valid methods for retrieving chlorophyll-a concentration in the ocean waters, especially for Case II waters and the sea with algal blooming. This study reviews the history of initial cognitions, investigations and detailed approaches towards chlorophyll fluorescence, and then introduces the biological mechanism of fluorescence remote sensing and main spectral characteristics such as the positive correlation between fluorescence and chlorophyll concentration, the red shift phenomena. Meanwhile, there exist many influence factors that increase complexity of fluorescence remote sensing, such as fluorescence quantum yield, physiological status of various algae, substances with related optical property in the ocean, atmospheric absorption etc. Based on these cognitions, scientists have found two ways to calculate the amount of fluorescence detected by ocean color sensors: fluorescence line height and reflectance ratio. These two ways are currently the foundation for retrieval of chlorophyl l - a concentration in the ocean. As the in-situ measurements and synchronous satellite data are continuously being accumulated, the fluorescence remote sensing of chlorophyll-a concentration in Case II waters should be recognized more thoroughly and new algorithms could be expected.

  16. Definition and Verification of Shape Meter Method

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Two experimental methods were adopted to verify the correctness and practicability of the shape meter method: one is to roll aluminum plate, calculate the shape stiffness of mill and rolled piece, and then measure aluminum plate crown to verify shape stiffness equation; the other is to calculate the measured off-line data of hot continuous roll and verify the shape mathematical model for measuring and controlling by self-adaptation method.

  17. From Smart Metering to Smart Grid (United States)

    Kukuča, Peter; Chrapčiak, Igor


    The paper deals with evaluation of measurements in electrical distribution systems aimed at better use of data provided by Smart Metering systems. The influence of individual components of apparent power on the power loss is calculated and results of measurements under real conditions are presented. The significance of difference between the traditional and the complex evaluation of the electricity consumption efficiency by means of different definitions of the power factor is illustrated.

  18. Resonant speed meter for gravitational wave detection

    CERN Document Server

    Nishizawa, Atsushi; Sakagami, Masa-aki


    Gravitational-wave detectors have been well developed and operated with high sensitivity. However, they still suffer from mirror displacement noise. In this paper, we propose a resonant speed meter, as a displacement noise-canceled configuration based on a ring-shaped synchronous recycling interferometer. The remarkable feature of this interferometer is that, at certain frequencies, gravitational-wave signals are amplified, while displacement noises are not.

  19. Effluent metering and liquid gas ratio analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Conrad, L.M. [EnCana Corp., Calgary, AB (Canada); Howell, K. [Intricate Group, Calgary, AB (Canada)


    The Industry Measurement Group (IMG) launched a 2 year initiative in 2007 focused on creating technically based regulations to improve the economics on low pressure, low liquid gas plays in western Canada. The IMG is the liaison between the petroleum industry and regulatory agencies in the development of industry accepted standards for measuring activities. The Canadian Association of Petroleum Producers (CAPP) supported the IMG's initiative, which led to a joint CAPP/IMG review of effluent metering applications and the associated testing requirements for gas wells in British Columbia and Alberta. The primary objectives of the joint CAPP/IMG review were to bring all parties together to form a common framework for effluent metering application and testing expectations, based on a risk and volumetric approach; and to support an economical approach to the continued development of unconventional gas resource plays in Alberta and British Columbia, with a focus on well-site infrastructure and operational cost optimization. This paper focused primarily on the well testing requirements and discussed the benefits of creating technically based, pragmatic regulations. Existing regulations were used to help the CAPP/IMG project team to develop a new practical and pragmatic regulatory framework and policy for effluent metering and well testing. 1 ref., 2 tabs., 15 figs.

  20. Measurement strategies for downhole multiphase metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hammer, Erling A.; Johansen, Geir Anton; Tollefsen, Jarle; Aabro, Eirik [Bergen Univ.(Norway)


    There will be an increasing demand for multiphase subsea and downhole meters in the future. Both at the sea bottom and downhole the flow regimes in the production pipes or in the manifolds at the templates, may differ from the ideal homogeneous mixture. Further, in line mixers should be avoided to reduce pressure drops and maintenance costs. The next generation multiphase meters will therefore call for flow regime independent and non-intrusive sensor systems. Since all sensor principles used in multiphase flowmeters today are highly dependent on the distribution of the components in the mixture, and thus make the measurement range limited, multi-sensor principles may be the solution to obtain better accuracy for larger ranges of component fractions and applications. Both the capacitance-, conductance-, microwave- and gamma-principles can be used in multi-sensor arrangement to provide cross-sectional information about the component distribution. Hence, the meter can be used at all types of flow regimes and at any position without mixers or separators. (author)

  1. A study of the Lute Metering Structure (United States)

    Foreman, James W.


    Two Metering Structure configurations were investigated. The first case was the traditional style metering structure which is larger than the outside diameter of the primary mirror. The second case investigated was the center support concept in which the outside diameter of the structure is less than the inside diameter of the primary mirror. Beryllium was used as the baseline material for this study. Four other materials were considered as candidates for the metering structure. These materials are: Graphite Epoxy, Aluminum, Titanium, and Invar. The loading conditions used for this study were estimated to be: Quasi Static: 6.0 G (all three directions); and Random Vibration: 30.0 G (applied 1 axis at a time). Taking advantage of symmetry, it was necessary to apply the lateral loading to only one axis. These loads were applied to both concepts and to all material configurations. The loadings as described above were based on the best available information and is felt to be adequate for this study since it was consistently used for all configurations. A load factor 2.00 was applied to both quasi static and random vibration loads. The allowable stresses are conservatively based yield strength of the material, except for the struts which are controlled by elastic stability. The stresses determined from each individual loading direction were conservatively combined by the absolute sum method.

  2. Home Health Aides (United States)

    ... specifications Help to keep clients engaged in their social networks and communities Home health aides, unlike personal care aides , typically work ... self-care and everyday tasks. They also provide social supports and assistance that enable clients to participate in their ... more information about home health aides, including voluntary credentials for aides, visit ...

  3. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...... evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has...... for aid in the future...

  4. Types of Foreign Aid

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bjørnskov, Christian

    Foreign aid is given for many purposes and different intentions, yet most studies treat aid flows as a unitary concept. This paper uses factor analysis to separate aid flows into different types. The main types can be interpreted as aid for economic purposes, social purposes, and reconstruction......; a residual category captures remaining purposes. Estimating the growth effects of separable types of aid suggests that most aid has no effects while reconstruction aid has direct positive effects. Although this type only applies in special circumstances, it has become more prevalent in more recent years....

  5. Modeling of estuarne chlorophyll a from an airborne scanner (United States)

    Khorram, Siamak; Catts, Glenn P.; Cloern, James E.; Knight, Allen W.


    Near simultaneous collection of 34 surface water samples and airborne multispectral scanner data provided input for regression models developed to predict surface concentrations of estuarine chlorophyll a. Two wavelength ratios were employed in model development. The ratios werechosen to capitalize on the spectral characteristics of chlorophyll a, while minimizing atmospheric influences. Models were then applied to data previously acquired over the study area thre years earlier. Results are in the form of color-coded displays of predicted chlorophyll a concentrations and comparisons of the agreement among measured surface samples and predictions basedon coincident remotely sensed data. The influence of large variations in fresh-water inflow to the estuary are clearly apparent in the results. The synoptic view provided by remote sensing is another method of examining important estuarine dynamics difficult to observe from in situ sampling alone.

  6. E-Park: Automated-Ticketing Parking Meter System


    Kulesza, Mateusz J.


    E-Park is an electronic parking meter system which enables real-time ticketing of illegally parked vehicles. The system is a drop-in replacement for existing curb-side parking meters. It consists of lowpower front-end parking meter hardware and a back-end server that handles the information database management. Wireless network communication enables the parking meter to accept electronic payment, enforce parking regulation, and ticket parking violators by capturing an image of the vehicle lic...

  7. Calibration of Results of Water Meter Test Facility


    Andrius Bončkus; Gediminas Gediminas


    The results of water meter test facility calibration are presented. More than 30 test facilities are used in Lithuania nowadays. All of them are certificated for water meter of class 2 verification. The results of inter-laboratory comparison of multi-jet water meter calibration at flow rate Q = 5 m3/h are presented. Lithuanian Energy Institute was appointed as reference laboratory for the comparison. Twelve water meter verification and calibration laboratories from Lithuania participated in t...

  8. Carotenoid to chlorophyll energy transfer in the peridinin–chlorophyll-a–protein complex involves an intramolecular charge transfer state (United States)

    Zigmantas, Donatas; Hiller, Roger G.; Sundström, Villy; Polívka, Tomáš


    Carotenoids are, along with chlorophylls, crucial pigments involved in light-harvesting processes in photosynthetic organisms. Details of carotenoid to chlorophyll energy transfer mechanisms and their dependence on structural variability of carotenoids are as yet poorly understood. Here, we employ femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy to reveal energy transfer pathways in the peridinin–chlorophyll-a–protein (PCP) complex containing the highly substituted carotenoid peridinin, which includes an intramolecular charge transfer (ICT) state in its excited state manifold. Extending the transient absorption spectra toward near-infrared region (600–1800 nm) allowed us to separate contributions from different low-lying excited states of peridinin. The results demonstrate a special light-harvesting strategy in the PCP complex that uses the ICT state of peridinin to enhance energy transfer efficiency. PMID:12486228

  9. Consecutive binding of chlorophylls a and b during the assembly in vitro of light-harvesting chlorophyll-a/b protein (LHCIIb). (United States)

    Horn, Ruth; Grundmann, Götz; Paulsen, Harald


    The apoprotein of the major light-harvesting chlorophyll a/b complex (LHCIIb) is post-translationally imported into the chloroplast, where membrane insertion, protein folding, and pigment binding take place. The sequence and molecular mechanism of the latter steps is largely unknown. The complex spontaneously self-organises in vitro to form structurally authentic LHCIIb upon reconstituting the unfolded recombinant protein with the pigments chlorophyll a, b, and carotenoids in detergent micelles. Former measurements of LHCIIb assembly had revealed two apparent kinetic phases, a faster one (tau1) in the range of 10 s to 1 min, and a slower one (tau2) in the range of several min. To unravel the sequence of events we analysed the binding of chlorophylls into the complex by using time-resolved fluorescence measurements of resonance energy transfer from chlorophylls to an acceptor dye attached to the apoprotein. Chlorophyll a, offered in the absence of chlorophyll b, bound with the faster kinetics (tau1) exclusively whereas chlorophyll b, in the absence of chlorophyll a, bound predominantly with the slower kinetics (tau2). In double-jump experiments, LHCIIb assembly could be dissected into a faster chlorophyll a and a subsequent, predominantly slower chlorophyll b-binding step. The assignment of the faster and the slower kinetic phase to predominantly chlorophyll a and exclusively chlorophyll b binding, respectively, was verified by analysing the assembly kinetics with a circular dichroism signal in the visible domain presumably reflecting the establishment of pigment-pigment interactions. We propose that slow chlorophyll binding is confined to the exclusively chlorophyll b binding sites whereas faster binding occurs to the chlorophyll a binding sites. The latter sites can bind both chlorophylls a and b but in a reversible fashion as long as the complex is not stabilised by proper occupation of the chlorophyll b sites. The resulting two-step model of LHCIIb assembly is

  10. Integrating an Embedded System within a Microwave Moisture Meter (United States)

    In this paper, the conversion of a PC or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter uses low-power microwaves to measure the attenuation and phase shift of the sample, from which the dielectric properties are cal...

  11. Integrating an embedded system in a microwave moisture meter (United States)

    The conversion of a PC- or laptop-controlled microwave moisture meter to a stand-alone meter hosting its own embedded system is discussed. The moisture meter measures the attenuation and phase shift of low power microwaves traversing the sample, from which the dielectric properties are calculated. T...

  12. Static energy meter errors caused by conducted electromagnetic interference

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Leferink, Frank; Keyer, Cees; Melentjev, Anton


    Static, or electronic, energy meters are replacing the conventional electromechanical meters. Consumers are some-times complaining about higher energy readings and billing after the change to a static meter, but there is not a clear common or root cause at present. Electromagnetic interference has b

  13. Dynamic range meter for radiofrequency amplifiers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Drozd S. S.


    Full Text Available The new measurement setup having increased on 20…30 dB the own dynamic range in comparison with the standard circuit of the dynamic range meter is offered and the rated value of an error bringing by setup in the worst case does not exceed ± 2,8 dB. The measurement setup can be applied also to determinate levels of intermodulation components average power amplifiers and powerful amplifiers of a low-frequency at replacement of the quartz filter on meeting low-frequency the LC-filter and the spectrum analyzer.

  14. Weak measurements with a qubit meter

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wu, Shengjun; Mølmer, Klaus


    We derive schemes to measure the so-called weak values of quantum system observables by coupling of the system to a qubit meter system. We highlight, in particular, the meaning of the imaginary part of the weak values, and show how it can be measured directly on equal footing with the real part...... of the weak value. We present compact expressions for the weak value of single qubit observables and of product observables on qubit pairs. Experimental studies of the results are suggested with cold trapped ions....

  15. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn


    This paper examines the relationship between foreign aid and growth in real GDP per capita as it emerges from simple augmentations of popular cross country growth specifications. It is shown that aid in all likelihood increases the growth rate, and this result is not conditional on ‘good’ policy....... There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid is highly sensitive to the choice of estimator and the set of control variables. When investment and human capital are controlled for, no positive effect of aid is found. Yet, aid continues to impact on growth via...

  16. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn

    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has......Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...

  17. Aid and development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn


    evolved since World War II in response to a dramatically changing global political and economic context. I review the aid process and associated trends in the volume and distribution of aid and categorize some of the key goals, principles and institutions of the aid system. The evidence on whether aid has......Foreign aid looms large in the public discourse; and international development assistance remains squarely on most policy agendas concerned with growth, poverty and inequality in Africa and elsewhere in the developing world. The present review takes a retrospective look at how foreign aid has...

  18. Smart metering: strategy and implementation in Germany; Smart-Metering: Strategie und Umsetzung in Deutschland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dorn, Torsten [Logica Deutschland (Germany). Energy and Utilities; Energie-Service-Alliance (ENSEA e.V.) (Germany)


    While a number of publications and lectures on smart metering have already provided detailed coverage of the legal requirements, this is not the case for its implementation strategies. Coherent concepts for this task are still virtually inexistent. Any promising strategy to this end must take account of the fact that there are motives and interests involved which go far beyond the views currently prevailing in the sector. Despite the national differences, experiences gained in other European countries can offer important insights for the implementation of smart metering in Germany.

  19. Energy saving by smart metering with consumption feedback; Energieeinsparung durch Smart Metering mit Verbrauchs-Feedback

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hoffmann, Patrick [Institut fuer ZukunftsEnergieSysteme (IZES), Saarbruecken (Germany); Friedrich, Malte [Institut fuer Soziologische Meinungsforschung (IsoMe), Berlin (Germany); Kerber-Clasen, Stefan [Institut fuer Sozialforschung und Sozialwirtschaft e.V., Saarbruecken (Germany); Frey, Guenther


    While the German legislative, e.g. in the EnWG (Power Industry Act) assumes that electricity consumption metering will contribute to energy conservation in any case, many studies have arrived at a different contribution: Only a combination of consumption metering and direct feedback methods will result in significant energy savings. A recent research project (''Moderne Energiesparsysteme fuer Haushalte'') analysed an energy conservation system of this type. The findings will provide socio-economic insight into the background of successful energy conservation, and they will show how feedback methods can be optimised.

  20. A factor from spinach leaves interacting with chlorophylls

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Terpstra, Willemke


    A factor has been isolated from spinach leaves that interacts with chlorophyll. This interaction is measurable as an increased light sensitivity and fluorescence capacity of the pigment in an aqueous medium. The factor is probably a protein. Interaction was also observed with bacteriochlorophyll an

  1. Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy and Chlorophyll a Flourescence Transients

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frydenvang, Jens

    of a sufficient quality; something that remains a problem for many in-situ methods. In my PhD, I present my work with two such in-situ methods, Laser-Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) and OJIP transients, the rising part of chlorophyll a fluorescence transients from dark-adapted leaves....

  2. Linking chlorophyll biosynthesis to a dynamic plastoquinone pool. (United States)

    Steccanella, Verdiana; Hansson, Mats; Jensen, Poul Erik


    Chlorophylls are essential cofactors in photosynthesis. All steps in the chlorophyll pathway are well characterized except for the cyclase reaction in which the fifth ring of the chlorophyll molecule is formed during conversion of Mg-protoporphyrin IX monomethyl ester into Protochlorophyllide. The only subunit of the cyclase identified so far, is AcsF (Xantha-l in barley and Chl27 in Arabidopsis). This subunit contains a typical consensus di-iron-binding sequence and belongs to a subgroup of di-iron proteins, such as the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) in the chloroplast and the alternative oxidase (AOX) found in mitochondria. In order to complete the catalytic cycle, the irons of these proteins need to be reduced from Fe(3+) to Fe(2+) and either a reductase or another form of reductant is required. It has been reported that the alternative oxidase (AOX) and the plastid terminal oxidase (PTOX) utilize the di-iron center to oxidise ubiquinol and plastoquinol, respectively. In this paper, we have used a specific inhibitor of di-iron proteins as well as Arabidopsis and barley mutants affected in regulation of photosynthetic electron flow, to show that the cyclase step indeed is directly coupled to the plastoquinone pool. Thus, plastoquinol might act as an electron donor for the cyclase reaction and thereby fulfil the role of a cyclase reductase. That would provide a functional connection between the redox status of the thylakoids and the biosynthesis of chlorophyll.


    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvin, Melvin


    The solution photochemistry of chlorophyll and chlorophyll analogs is described. Many cases of electron transfer to or from the porphyrin macrocycle have been found, but in no case has any very large degree of energy storage been achieved. Because of the very rapid back-reaction for products with a {Delta}F of approximately -30 kcal, some solid state models in which such an energy storage might be achieved are described and their possible relation to the natural photosynthetic apparatus is given. We can see that while the solid state model (phthalocyanine) allows an approach from a somewhat different point of view, the net result is the same as what was sought, but so far not found, when we looked at the solution chemistry of chlorophyll (and chlorophyll model substances), namely, the transfer of an electron, or hydrogen atom, from the excited porphyrin to an electron acceptor at a high reduction level which can be used to reduce the ultimate carbon dioxide reducers, followed by the donation of an electron ultimately from water to the remaining radical ion, or lattice, which produces the net results of the transfer of the hydrogen from water to carbon dioxide.

  4. [Hyperspectral estimation models of chlorophyll content in apple leaves]. (United States)

    Liang, Shuang; Zhao, Geng-xing; Zhu, Xi-cun


    The present study chose the apple orchard of Shandong Agricultural University as the study area to explore the method of apple leaf chlorophyll content estimation by hyperspectral analysis technology. Through analyzing the characteristics of apple leaves' hyperspectral curve, transforming the original spectral into first derivative, red edge position and leaf chlorophyll index (LCI) respectively, and making the correlation analysis and regression analysis of these variables with the chlorophyll content to establish the estimation models and test to select the high fitting precision models. Results showed that the fitting precision of the estimation model with variable of LCI and the estimation model with variable of the first derivative in the band of 521 and 523 nm was the highest. The coefficients of determination R2 were 0.845 and 0.839, the root mean square errors RMSE were 2.961 and 2.719, and the relative errors RE% were 4.71% and 4.70%, respectively. Therefore LCI and the first derivative are the important index for apple leaf chlorophyll content estimation. The models have positive significance to guide the production of apple cultivation.

  5. Enzyme-assisted extraction of stabilized chlorophyll from spinach. (United States)

    Özkan, Gülay; Ersus Bilek, Seda


    Zinc complex formation with chlorophyll derivatives in spinach pulp was studied by adding 300ppm Zn(2+) for production of stable food colorant, followed by the heating at 110°C for 15min. Zinc complex formation increased at pH values of 7.0 or greater. Pectinex Ultra SP-L was selected for enzyme-assisted release of zinc-chlorophyll derivatives from spinach pulp. Effect of enzyme concentration (1-9%), treatment temperature (30-60°C), and time (30-210min) on total chlorophyll content (TCC) were optimized using response surface methodology. A quadratic regression model (R(2)=0.9486) was obtained from the experimental design. Optimum treatment conditions were 8% enzyme concentration, 45°C, and 30min, which yielded a 50.747mgTCC/100g spinach pulp. Enzymatic treatment was followed by solvent extraction with ethanol at a solvent-to-sample ratio of 2.5:1 at 60°C for 45min for the highest TCC recovery. Pretreatment with enzyme and extraction in ethanol resulted in 39% increase in Zn-chlorophyll derivative yield.

  6. Incorporating Uncertainties in Satellite-Derived Chlorophyll into Model Forecasts (United States)


    radiances in the seven visible MODIS channels used in the estimation of the bio-optical products, such as chlorophyll, absorption and backscattering...grazers, nitrate, silicate, ammonium, and two detritus pools. Phytoplankton photosynthesis in the biochemical model is driven by Photosynthetically

  7. Automatic ranging circuit for a digital panel meter (United States)

    Mueller, Theodore R.; Ross, Harley H.


    This invention relates to a range changing circuit that operates in conjunction with a digital panel meter of fixed sensitivity. The circuit decodes the output of the panel meter and uses that information to change the gain of an input amplifier to the panel meter in order to insure that the maximum number of significant figures is always displayed in the meter. The circuit monitors five conditions in the meter and responds to any of four combinations of these conditions by means of logic elements to carry out the function of the circuit.

  8. Portable fluorescence meter with reference backscattering channel (United States)

    Kornilin, Dmitriy V.; Grishanov, Vladimir N.; Zakharov, Valery P.; Burkov, Dmitriy S.


    Methods based on fluorescence and backscattering are intensively used for determination of the advanced glycation end products (AGE) concentration in the biological tissues. There are strong correlation between the AGE concentration and the severity of such diseases like diabetes, coronary heart disease and renal failure. This fact can be used for diagnostic purposes in medical applications. Only few investigations in this area can be useful for development of portable and affordable in vivo AGE meter because the most of them are oriented on using spectrometers. In this study we describe the design and the results of tests on volunteers of portable fluorescence meter based on two photodiodes. One channel of such fluorimeter is used for measurement of the autofluorescence (AF) intensity, another one - for the intensity of elastically scattered radiation, which can be used as a reference. This reference channel is proposed for normalization of the skin autofluorescence signal to the human skin photo type. The fluorimeter, that was developed is relatively compact and does not contain any expensive optical and electronic components. The experimental results prove that proposed tool can be used for the AGE estimation in human skin.

  9. Subsurface chlorophyll maxima in the north-western Bay of Bengal

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Sarma, V.V.; Aswanikumar, V.

    The depth profiles of phytoplankton pigments in the north-western Bay of Bengal are generally characterizEd. by a subsurface chlorophyll maximum. The occurrence of subsurface chlorophyll maxima is discussed in relation to other information on water...

  10. ECOHAB: Tester_P - Gulf of Mexico Chlorophyll - 1998-09 (NODC Accession 0000536) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chlorophyll a is a standard measure for phytoplankton biomass. Routinely, samples for extracted chlorophyll a values are filtered at sea, stored in liquid nitrogen,...

  11. ECOHAB: Tester_P - Gulf of Mexico Chlorophyll - 1998-09 (NODC Accession 0000537) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Chlorophyll a is a standard measure for phytoplankton biomass. Routinely, samples for extracted chlorophyll a values are filtered at sea, stored in liquid nitrogen,...

  12. Global NOAA CoastWatch Chlorophyll Frontal Product from MODIS/Aqua (NCEI Accession 0110333) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — MODIS/Aqua chlorophyll frontal products: the NOAA Okeanos operational production system produces near real-time chlorophyll frontal products (magnitude and...

  13. Effects of sulfite ions on water-soluble chlorophyll proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sugahara, K.; Uchida, S.; Takimoto, M.


    To clarify the mechanisms and processes of chlorophyll destruction and the relation to the appearance of visible symptoms in SO/sub 2/-injured plants, model experiments were carried out by utilizing the peculiar properties of a water-soluble chlorophyll protein from Chenopodium album. The acceleration of chlorophyll destruction by sulfite ions under aerobic and illuminated conditions, reported previously in organic solvent, was not observed for the water-soluble pigment-protein complex, even in 4 x 10/sup -2/ M sulfite. This indicates that pigments are stabilized by combining with protein molecules. On comparison of pigment destruction between the reconstituted chlorophyll a- and chlorophyllide a-proteins in the presence of sulfite ions, the former was slightly sensitive to sulfite ions. On the other hand, it was demonstrated that photoconversion of water-soluble chlorophyll protein was inhibited by denaturation of the protein moiety caused by sulfite ions in the presence of light. In addition it was shown that it was necessary for the pigment absorbing the light energy to be structurally related to the protein moiety for inhibition of photoconversion. From these results, the inhibition processes of photoconversion are inferred as follows: conformational changes of apoprotein molecules were induced by light energy absorbed by the pigments and which allowed sulfite ions to attack the apoprotein molecules. The mechanism of the sulfite action on the apoprotein is the breakdown of disulfide bonds in proteins, the disulfide bonds having important functions in the photoconversion process. From the present model experiments, it is suggested that the breakdown of disulfide bonds occurred and induced damage to the chloroplast lamellae or physiological functions in the SO/sub 2/-injured plant tissues. 17 references, 8 figures.

  14. Long Island Smart Metering Pilot Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None


    The Long Island Power Authority (LIPA) Smart Meter Pilots provided invaluable information and experience for future deployments of Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI), including the deployment planned as part of LIPA's Smart Grid Demonstration Project (DE-OE0000220). LIPA will incorporate lessons learned from this pilot in future deployments, including lessons relating to equipment performance specifications and testing, as well as equipment deployment and tracking issues. LIPA ultimately deployed three AMI technologies instead of the two that were originally contemplated. This enabled LIPA to evaluate multiple systems in field conditions with a relatively small number of meter installations. LIPA experienced a number of equipment and software issues that it did not anticipate, including issues relating to equipment integration, ability to upgrade firmware and software over the air (as opposed to physically interacting with every meter), and logistical challenges associated with tracking inventory and upgrade status of deployed meters. In addition to evaluating the technology, LIPA also piloted new Time-of-Use (TOU) rates to assess customer acceptance of time-differentiated pricing and to evaluate whether customers would respond by adjusting their activities from peak to non-peak periods. LIPA developed a marketing program to educate customers who received AMI in the pilot areas and to seek voluntary participation in TOU pricing. LIPA also guaranteed participating customers that, for their initial year on the rates, their electricity costs under the TOU rate would not exceed the amount they would have paid under the flat rates they would otherwise enjoy. 62 residential customers chose to participate in the TOU rates, and every one of them saved money during the first year. 61 of them also elected to stay on the TOU rate without the cost guarantee at the end of that year. The customer who chose not to continue on the rate was also the one who achieved the

  15. A hybrid ICT-solution for smart meter data analytics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts


    Smart meters are increasingly used worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring energy consumption at a fine-grained time interval, e.g., every 15 min. Smart meter data are typically bundled with social economic data in analytics, such as meter geographic locations, weather...... conditions and user information, which makes the data sets very sizable and the analytics complex. Data mining and emerging cloud computing technologies make collecting, processing, and analyzing the so-called big data possible. This paper proposes an innovative ICT-solution to streamline smart meter data...... analytics. The proposed solution offers an information integration pipeline for ingesting data from smart meters, a scalable platform for processing and mining big data sets, and a web portal for visualizing analytics results. The implemented system has a hybrid architecture of using Spark or Hive for big...

  16. HIV/AIDS Coinfection (United States)

    ... Laotian Mongolian Spanish Turkish Vietnamese Hindi Subscribe HIV/AIDS Coinfection Approximately 10% of the HIV-infected population ... Control and Prevention website to learn about HIV/AIDS and Viral Hepatitis guidelines and resources. Home About ...

  17. HIV/AIDS Basics (United States)

    ... Partner Spotlight Awareness Days Get Tested Find an HIV testing site near you. Enter ZIP code or ... AIDS Get Email Updates on AAA Anonymous Feedback HIV/AIDS Media Infographics Syndicated Content Podcasts Slide Sets ...

  18. Neurological Complications of AIDS (United States)

    ... in recent years has improved significantly because of new drugs and treatments. AIDS clinicians often fail to recognize ... in recent years has improved significantly because of new drugs and treatments. AIDS clinicians often fail to recognize ...

  19. Assembly of water-soluble chlorophyll-binding proteins with native hydrophobic chlorophylls in water-in-oil emulsions. (United States)

    Bednarczyk, Dominika; Takahashi, Shigekazu; Satoh, Hiroyuki; Noy, Dror


    The challenges involved in studying cofactor binding and assembly, as well as energy- and electron transfer mechanisms in the large and elaborate transmembrane protein complexes of photosynthesis and respiration have prompted considerable interest in constructing simplified model systems based on their water-soluble protein analogs. Such analogs are also promising templates and building blocks for artificial bioinspired energy conversion systems. Yet, development is limited by the challenge of introducing the essential cofactors of natural proteins that are highly water-insoluble into the water-soluble protein analogs. Here we introduce a new efficient method based on water-in-oil emulsions for overcoming this challenge. We demonstrate the effectiveness of the method in the assembly of native chlorophylls with four recombinant variants of the water-soluble chlorophyll-binding protein of Brassicaceae plants. We use the method to gain new insights into the protein-chlorophyll assembly process, and demonstrate its potential as a fast screening system for developing novel chlorophyll-protein complexes.

  20. Aid and growth regressions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Henrik; Tarp, Finn


    . There are, however, decreasing returns to aid, and the estimated effectiveness of aid is highly sensitive to the choice of estimator and the set of control variables. When investment and human capital are controlled for, no positive effect of aid is found. Yet, aid continues to impact on growth via...... investment. We conclude by stressing the need for more theoretical work before this kind of cross-country regressions are used for policy purposes....

  1. Designing State Aid Formulas (United States)

    Zhao, Bo; Bradbury, Katharine


    This paper designs a new equalization-aid formula based on fiscal gaps of local communities. When states are in transition to a new local aid formula, the issue of whether and how to hold existing aid harmless poses a challenge. The authors show that some previous studies and the formulas derived from them give differential weights to existing and…

  2. Determinants of State Aid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Buiren, K.; Brouwer, E.


    From economic theory we derive a set of hypotheses on the determination of state aid. Econometric analysis on EU state aid panel data is carried out to test whether the determinants we expect on the basis of theory, correspond to the occurrence of state aid in practice in the EU. We find that politi

  3. Fever: First Aid (United States)

    First aid Fever: First aid Fever: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A fever is a rise in body temperature. It's usually a sign of infection. The ... 2 C) or higher Should I treat a fever? When you or your child is sick, the ...

  4. Stroke: First Aid (United States)

    First aid Stroke: First aid Stroke: First aid By Mayo Clinic Staff A stroke occurs when there's bleeding into your brain or when normal blood flow to ... next several hours. Seek immediate medical assistance. A stroke is a true emergency. The sooner treatment is ...

  5. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...

  6. Integrating Biology into the General Chemistry Laboratory: Fluorometric Analysis of Chlorophyll "a" (United States)

    Wesolowski, Meredith C.


    A laboratory experiment that introduces fluorometry of chlorophyll "a" at the general chemistry level is described. The use of thin-layer chromatography to isolate chlorophyll "a" from spirulina and leaf matter enables quantification of small amounts of chlorophyll "a" via fluorometry. Student results were reasonably…

  7. Effect of automobile pollution on chlorophyll content of roadside urban trees

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Iqbal


    Full Text Available The effect of automobile pollution was determined on chlorophyll content of four different tree species viz. Azadirachta indica L., Conocarpus erectus L., Guiacum officinale L.and Eucalyptus sp. growing along the roads of the city.  Significant changes in the level of chlorophyll “a”, chlorophyll “b” and total chlorophyll “a+b” were found in the leaves of four tree species (A. indica, C. erectus, G.officinale and Eucalyptus sp. collected from polluted sites (Airport, Malir Halt, Quaidabad as compared to control site (Karachi University Campus. Lowest concentration of chlorophyll “a”, chlorophyll “b” and chlorophyll “a+b” was recorded in the leaf samples of all tree species collected from Quaidabad site when compared with the leaf samples collected from control site. The highest levels of chlorophyll pigment were recorded in all tree species leave samples collected from Karachi University Campus.  Similarly, better levels of chlorophyll “a”, chlorophyll “b” and total chlorophyll “a+b” was observed in all tree species growing at Airport site as compared to plants growing at Malir Halt and Quaidabad sites.  This study clearly indicated that the vehicular activities induced air pollution problem and affected on the level of chlorophyll pigments in trees which were exposed to road side pollution.

  8. Long Term Dinoflagellate Bioluminescence, Chlorophyll, And Their Environmental Correlates In Southern California Coastal Waters (United States)


    1 Long Term Dinoflagellate Bioluminescence, Chlorophyll, and Their Environmental Correlates in Southern California Coastal Waters David Lapota...2012 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE Long Term Dinoflagellate Bioluminescence, Chlorophyll, And Their Environmental Correlates In Southern California... dinoflagellates were identified to the species level when possible. Chlorophyll a was extracted from the seawater samples using standard methods (APHA 1981) and

  9. Two-photon excited fluorescence from higher electronic states of chlorophylls in photosynthetic antenna complexes a new approach to detect strong excitonic chlorophyll a/b coupling

    CERN Document Server

    Leupold, D; Ehlert, J; Irrgang, K D; Renger, G; Lokstein, H


    Stepwise two-photon excitation of chlorophyll a and b in the higher plant main light-harvesting complex (LHC II) and the minor complex CP29 (as well as in organic solution) with 100-fs pulses in the Q/sub y/ region results in a weak blue fluorescence. The dependence of the spectral shape of the blue fluorescence on excitation wavelength offers a new approach to elucidate the long-standing problem of the origin of spectral "chlorophyll forms" in pigment-protein complexes, in particular the characterization of chlorophyll a/b-heterodimers. As a first result we present evidence for the existence of strong chlorophyll a/b-interactions (excitonically coupled transitions at 650 and 680 nm) in LHC II at ambient temperature. In comparison with LHC II, the experiments with CP29 provide further evidence that the lowest energy chlorophyll a transition (at ~680 nm) is not excitonically coupled to chlorophyll b. (22 refs).

  10. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015

    CERN Document Server

    Skidmore, Warren; Fukugawa, Misato; Goswami, Aruna; Hao, Lei; Jewitt, David; Laughlin, Greg; Steidel, Charles; Hickson, Paul; Simard, Luc; Schöck, Matthias; Treu, Tommaso; Cohen, Judith; Anupama, G C; Dickinson, Mark; Harrison, Fiona; Kodama, Tadayuki; Lu, Jessica R; Macintosh, Bruce; Malkan, Matt; Mao, Shude; Narita, Norio; Sekiguchi, Tomohiko; Subramaniam, Annapurni; Tanaka, Masaomi; Tian, Feng; A'Hearn, Michael; Akiyama, Masayuki; Ali, Babar; Aoki, Wako; Bagchi, Manjari; Barth, Aaron; Bhalerao, Varun; Bradac, Marusa; Bullock, James; Burgasser, Adam J; Chapman, Scott; Chary, Ranga-Ram; Chiba, Masashi; Cooray, Asantha; Crossfield, Ian; Currie, Thayne; Das, Mousumi; Dewangan, G C; de Grijs, Richard; Do, Tuan; Dong, Subo; Evslin, Jarah; Fang, Taotao; Fang, Xuan; Fassnacht, Christopher; Fletcher, Leigh; Gaidos, Eric; Gal, Roy; Ghez, Andrea; Giavalisco, Mauro; Grady, Carol A; Greathouse, Thomas; Gogoi, Rupjyoti; Guhathakurta, Puragra; Ho, Luis; Hasan, Priya; Herczeg, Gregory J; Honda, Mitsuhiko; Imanishi, Masa; Inanmi, Hanae; Iye, Masanori; Kamath, U S; Kane, Stephen; Kashikawa, Nobunari; Kasliwal, Mansi; Kirby, Vishal KasliwalEvan; Konopacky, Quinn M; Lepine, Sebastien; Li, Di; Li, Jianyang; Liu, Junjun; Liu, Michael C; Lopez-Rodriguez, Enrigue; Lotz, Jennifer; Lubin, Philip; Macri, Lucas; Maeda, Keiichi; Marchis, Franck; Marois, Christian; Marscher, Alan; Martin, Crystal; Matsuo, Taro; Max, Claire; McConnachie, Alan; McGough, Stacy; Melis, Carl; Meyer, Leo; Mumma, Michael; Muto, Takayuki; Nagao, Tohru; Najita, Joan R; Navarro, Julio; Pierce, Michael; Prochaska, Jason X; Oguri, Masamune; Ojha, Devendra K; Okamoto, Yoshiko K; Orton, Glenn; Otarola, Angel; Ouchi, Masami; Packham, Chris; Padgett, Deborah L; Pandey, Shashi Bhushan; Pilachowsky, Catherine; Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Primack, Joel; Puthiyaveettil, Shalima; Ramirez-Ruiz, Enrico; Reddy, Naveen; Rich, Michael; Richter, Matthew J; Schombert, James; Sen, Anjan Ananda; Shi, Jianrong; Sheth, Kartik; Srianand, R; Tan, Jonathan C; Tanaka, Masayuki; Tanner, Angelle; Tominaga, Nozomu; Tytler, David; U, Vivian; Wang, Lingzhi; Wang, Xiaofeng; Wang, Yiping; Wilson, Gillian; Wright, Shelley; Wu, Chao; Wu, Xufeng; Xu, Renxin; Yamada, Toru; Yang, Bin; Zhao, Gongbo; Zhao, Hongsheng


    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the Universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ),...

  11. Thirty Meter Telescope Site Testing I: Overview

    CERN Document Server

    Schoeck, M; Riddle, R; Skidmore, W; Travouillon, T; Blum, R; Bustos, E; Chanan, G; Djorgovski, S G; Gillett, P; Gregory, B; Nelson, J; Otarola, A; Seguel, J; Vasquez, J; Walker, A; Walker, D; Wang, L


    As part of the conceptual and preliminary design processes of the Thirty Meter Telescope (TMT), the TMT site testing team has spent the last five years measuring the atmospheric properties of five candidate mountains in North and South America with an unprecedented array of instrumentation. The site testing period was preceded by several years of analyses selecting the five candidates, Cerros Tolar, Armazones and Tolonchar in northern Chile; San Pedro Martir in Baja California, Mexico and the 13 North (13N) site on Mauna Kea, Hawaii. Site testing was concluded by the selection of two remaining sites for further consideration, Armazones and Mauna Kea 13N. It showed that all five candidates are excellent sites for an extremely large astronomical observatory and that none of the sites stands out as the obvious and only logical choice based on its combined properties. This is the first article in a series discussing the TMT site testing project.

  12. Portable fluorescence meter for medical applications (United States)

    Kornilin, Dmitriy V.; Grishanov, Vladimir N.


    Recently, there are great deals of skin fluorescence studies for diagnostic purposes in medicine. Measurement of the intensity of autofluorescence (AF) is suitable method for diagnostic, because it does not require traumatic procedures. Skin AF is widely used by doctors in order to assess the concentration of advanced glycation endproduct (AGE). There are no in vivo fluorescence meters made in Russia, which are affordable, portable, easy-to-use and easily replicable. This paper is devoted to study of the fluorimeter and its mathematical model of spectral characteristics that were developed by authors. Fluorimeter and its software are fully operational and they were given to doctors for testing in the real clinic conditions in order to get a set of AF statistics for patients.

  13. Handheld Multi-Gas Meters Assessment Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, Gustavious [Brigham Young Univ., Provo, UT (United States); Wald-Hopkins, Mark David [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Obrey, Stephen J. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Akhadov, Valida Dushdurova [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)


    Handheld multi-gas meters (MGMs) are equipped with sensors to monitor oxygen (O2) levels and additional sensors to detect the presence of combustible or toxic gases in the environment. This report is limited to operational response-type MGMs that include at least four different sensors. These sensors can vary by type and by the monitored chemical. In real time, the sensors report the concentration of monitored gases in the atmosphere near the MGM. In April 2016 the System Assessment and Validation for Emergency Responders (SAVER) Program conducted an operationally-oriented assessment of MGMs. Five MGMs were assessed by emergency responders. The criteria and scenarios used in this assessment were derived from the results of a focus group of emergency responders with experience in using MGMs. The assessment addressed 16 evaluation criteria in four SAVER categories: Usability, Capability, Maintainability, and Deployability.

  14. Light Absorption in Arctic Sea Ice - Black Carbon vs Chlorophyll (United States)

    Ogunro, O. O.; Wingenter, O. W.; Elliott, S.; Hunke, E. C.; Flanner, M.; Wang, H.; Dubey, M. K.; Jeffery, N.


    The fingerprint of climate change is more obvious in the Arctic than any other place on Earth. This is not only because the surface temperature there has increased at twice the rate of global mean temperature but also because Arctic sea ice extent has reached a record low of 49% reduction relative to the 1979-2000 climatology. Radiation absorption through black carbon (BC) deposited on Arctic snow and sea ice surface is one of the major hypothesized contributors to the decline. However, we note that chlorophyll-a absorption owing to increasing biology activity in this region could be a major competitor during boreal spring. Modeling of sea-ice physical and biological processes together with experiments and field observations promise rapid progress in the quality of Arctic ice predictions. Here we develop a dynamic ice system module to investigate discrete absorption of both BC and chlorophyll in the Arctic, using BC deposition fields from version 5 of Community Atmosphere Model (CAM5) and vertically distributed layers of chlorophyll concentrations from Sea Ice Model (CICE). To this point, our black carbon mixing ratios compare well with available in situ data. Both results are in the same order of magnitude. Estimates from our calculations show that sea ice and snow around the Canadian Arctic Archipelago and Baffin Bay has the least black carbon absorption while values at the ice-ocean perimeter in the region of the Barents Sea peak significantly. With regard to pigment concentrations, high amounts of chlorophyll are produced in Arctic sea ice by the bottom microbial community, and also within the columnar pack wherever substantial biological activity takes place in the presence of moderate light. We show that the percentage of photons absorbed by chlorophyll in the spring is comparable to the amount attributed to BC, especially in areas where the total deposition rates are decreasing with time on interannual timescale. We expect a continuous increase in

  15. Topside and subsea experience with the Framo Multiphase Flow Meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Torkildsen, B.H.; Helmers, P.B.; Kanstad, S.K. [Framo Engineering A/S, (Norway); Letton, W.


    Multiphase flow meters have been in regular service onshore and offshore for several years, and operators are achieving some level of comfort with the technology. A significant amount of experience has been gained with the Framo Multiphase Flow Meter both topside and subsea. Typical applications are well testing, well management and allocation metering. For topside applications, the principal advantage of the meter remains the elimination of the test separator and all its associated hardware and maintenance. For subsea applications, the advantage is even greater as separate test lines and in some cases even entire platforms can be eliminated. The Framo Multiphase Flow Meter concept which combines the Framo Flow Mixer with a Multi Energy Gamma Meter and a Venturi Meter offer the optimum in precise estimation of oil, water and gas flow rates and has at the same time proved to be a particular robust concept. True reproducibility and high accuracy combined with built-in features such as simple calibration and a separate gas and liquid sampling arrangement solve many of the operational problems that are encountered with alternative methods. Operational experience with Framo Multiphase Flow Meters installed around the world, both topside and subsea, will be reviewed. Special attention will be paid to the difficult issues peculiar to subsea meters, such as their remote installation, retrieval, calibration, and maintenance. Finally, future trends in multiphase metering will be explored, particular will the challenges of introducing this technology into more routine applications be addressed. (author)

  16. Two laboratory methods for the calibration of GPS speed meters (United States)

    Bai, Yin; Sun, Qiao; Du, Lei; Yu, Mei; Bai, Jie


    The set-ups of two calibration systems are presented to investigate calibration methods of GPS speed meters. The GPS speed meter calibrated is a special type of high accuracy speed meter for vehicles which uses Doppler demodulation of GPS signals to calculate the measured speed of a moving target. Three experiments are performed: including simulated calibration, field-test signal replay calibration, and in-field test comparison with an optical speed meter. The experiments are conducted at specific speeds in the range of 40-180 km h-1 with the same GPS speed meter as the device under calibration. The evaluation of measurement results validates both methods for calibrating GPS speed meters. The relative deviations between the measurement results of the GPS-based high accuracy speed meter and those of the optical speed meter are analyzed, and the equivalent uncertainty of the comparison is evaluated. The comparison results justify the utilization of GPS speed meters as reference equipment if no fewer than seven satellites are available. This study contributes to the widespread use of GPS-based high accuracy speed meters as legal reference equipment in traffic speed metrology.

  17. Radiation survey meters used for environmental monitoring

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjerke, H. (ed.) (Norwegian Radiation Protection Authority, NRPA (Norway)); Sigurdsson, T. (Icelandic Radiation Safety Authority, Geislavarnir Rikisins, GR (IS)); Meier Pedersen, K. (National Board of Health, Statens Institut for Straalebeskyttelse (SIS) (Denmark)); Grindborg, J.-E.; Persson, L. (Swedish Radiation Safety Authority, Straalsaekerhetsmyndigheten (SSM) (Sweden)); Siiskonen, T.; Hakanen, A.; Kosunen, A. (Radiation and Nuclear Safety Authority, Saeteilyturvakeskus (STUK) (Finland))


    The Nordic dosimetry group set up the GammaRate project to investigate how its expertise could be used to assure appropriate usage of survey meters in environmental monitoring. Considerable expertise in calibrating radiation instruments exists in the Nordic radiation protection authorities. The Swedish, Finnish, Danish and Norwegian authorities operate Secondary Standard Dosimetry Laboratories (SSDLs) that provide users with calibration traceable to internationally recognised primary standards. These authorities together with the Icelandic authorities have formally cooperated since 2002 in the field of radiation dosimetry. Dosimetry is the base for assesment of risk from ionising radiation and calibration of instruments is an imported part in dosimetry. The Nordic dosimetry group has been focused on cancer therapy. This work extends the cooperation to the dosimetry of radiation protection and environmental monitoring. This report contains the formal, theoretical and practical background for survey meter measurements. Nordic standards dosimetry laboratories have the capability to provide traceable calibration of instruments in various types of radiation. To verify and explore this further in radiation protection applications a set of survey instruments were sent between the five Nordic countries and each of the authority asked to provide a calibration coefficient for all instruments. The measurement results were within the stated uncertainties, except for some results from NRPA for the ionchamber based instrument. The comparison was shown to be a valuable tool to harmonize the calibration of radiation protection instruments in the Nordic countries. Dosimetry plays an important role in the emergency situations, and it is clear that better traceability and harmonised common guidelines will improve the emergency preparedness and health. (Author)

  18. Conditional Aid Effectiveness

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) studies the effect of development aid using econometrics on macro data. It contains about 100 papers of which a third analyzes conditional models where aid effectiveness depends upon z, so that aid only works for a certain range of the variable. The key term...... in this family of AEL models is thus an interaction term of z times aid. The leading candidates for z are a good policy index and aid itself. In this paper, meta-analysis techniques are used (i) to determine whether the AEL has established the said interaction terms, and (ii) to identify some of the determinants...... of the differences in results between studies. Taking all available studies in consideration, we find no support for conditionality with respect to policy, while conditionality regarding aid itself is dubious. However, the results differ depending on the authors’ institutional affiliation....

  19. Aid and Development

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel

    This paper considers the relationship between external aid and development in Mozambique from 1980 to 2004. The main objective is to identify the specific mechanisms through which aid has influenced the developmental trajectory of the country and whether one can plausibly link outcomes to aid...... inputs. We take as our point of departure a growth accounting analysis and review both intended and unintended effects of aid. Mozambique has benefited from sustained aid inflows in conflict, post-conflict and reconstruction periods. In each of these phases aid has made an unambiguous, positive...... contribution both enabling and supporting rapid growth since 1992. At the same time, the proliferation of donors and aid-supported interventions has burdened local administration and there is a distinct need to develop government accountability to its own citizens rather than donor agencies. In ensuring...

  20. China vs. AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    CHINA's first HIV positive diagnosis was in 1985, the victim an ArgentineAmerican. At that time most Chinese,medical workers included, thought of AIDS as a phenomenon occurring outside of China. Twenty years later, the number of HIV/AIDS patients has risen alarmingly. In 2003, the Chinese Ministry of Health launched an AIDS Epidemiological Investigation across China with the support of the WHO and UN AIDS Program. Its results show that there are currently 840,000 HIV carriers, including 80,000 people with full-blown AIDS, in 31 Chinese provinces, municipalities and autonomous regions. This means China has the second highest number of HIV/AIDS cases in Asia and 14th highest in the world. Statistics from the Chinese Venereal Disease and AIDS Prevention Association indicate that the majority of Chinese HIV carriers are young to middle aged, more than half of them between the ages of 20 and 29.

  1. Aid Effectiveness on Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL (aid effectiveness literature) is econo¬metric studies of the macroeconomic effects of development aid. It contains about 100 papers of which 68 are reduced form estimates of theeffect of aid on growth in the recipient country. The raw data show that growth is unconnected to aid......, but the AEL has put so much structure on the data that all results possible have emerged. The present meta study considers both the best-set of the 68 papers and the all-set of 543 regressions published. Both sets have a positive average aid-growth elasticity, but it is small and insignificant: The AEL has...... betweenstudies is real. In particular, the aid-growth association is stronger for Asian countries, and the aid-growth association is shown to have been weaker in the 1970s....

  2. Chlorophyll revisited: anti-inflammatory activities of chlorophyll a and inhibition of expression of TNF-α gene by the same. (United States)

    Subramoniam, Appian; Asha, Velikkakathu V; Nair, Sadasivan Ajikumaran; Sasidharan, Sreejith P; Sureshkumar, Parameswaran K; Rajendran, Krishnan Nair; Karunagaran, Devarajan; Ramalingam, Krishnan


    In view of the folklore use of green leaves to treat inflammation, the anti-inflammatory property of chlorophylls and their degradation products were studied. Chlorophyll a and pheophytin a (magnesium-free chlorophyll a) from fresh leaves showed potent anti-inflammatory activity against carrageenan-induced paw edema in mice and formalin-induced paw edema in rats. Chlorophyll a inhibited bacterial lipopolysaccharide-induced TNF-α (a pro-inflammatory cytokine) gene expression in HEK293 cells, but it did not influence the expression of inducible nitric acid synthase and cyclooxygenase-2 genes. Chlorophyll b only marginally inhibited both inflammation and TNF-α gene expression. But both chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b showed the same level of marginal inhibition on 12-O-tetradecanoyl-phorbol-13-acetate-induced NF-κB activation. Chlorophylls and pheophytins showed in vitro anti-oxidant activity. The study shows that chlorophyll a and its degradation products are valuable and abundantly available anti-inflammatory agents and promising for the development of phytomedicine or conventional medicine to treat inflammation and related diseases.

  3. Cylindrical aggregates of chlorophylls studied by small-angle neutron scatter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Worcester, D.L. [Univ. of Missouri, Columbus, MO (United States); Katz, J.J. [Argonne National Laboratory, IL (United States)


    Neutron small-angle scattering has demonstrated tubular chlorophyll aggregates formed by self-assembly of a variety of chlorophyll types in nonpolar solvents. The size and other properties of the tubular aggregates can be accounted for by stereochemical properties of the chlorophyll molecules. Features of some of the structures are remarkably similar to light harvesting chlorophyll complexes in vivo, particularly for photosynthetic bacteria. These nanotube chlorophyll structures may have applications as light harvesting biomaterials where efficient energy transfer occurs from an excited state which is highly delocalized.

  4. Modelling chlorophyll fluorescence of kiwi fruit (Actinidia deliciosa). (United States)

    Novo, Johanna Mendes; Iriel, Analia; Lagorio, M Gabriela


    Kiwi fruit displays chlorophyll fluorescence. A physical model was developed to reproduce the observed original fluorescence for the whole fruit, from the emission of the different parts of the kiwi fruit. The spectral distribution of fluorescence in each part of the fruit, was corrected to eliminate distortions due to light re-absorption and it was analyzed in relation to photosystem II-photosystem I ratio. Kiwi fruit also displays variable chlorophyll-fluorescence, similar to that observed from leaves. The maximum quantum efficiency of photosystem II photochemistry (F(v)/F(m)), the quantum efficiency of photosystem II (Φ(PSII)), and the photochemical and non-photochemical quenching coefficients (q(P) and q(NP) respectively) were determined and discussed in terms of the model developed. The study was extended by determining the photosynthetic parameters as a function of the storage time, at both 4 °C and room temperature for 25 days.

  5. Primitive life outside the solar system: generalized chlorophylls (United States)

    Coliolo, Fiorella; Schneider, Jean; Labeyrie, Antoine; Gastellu, Jean Philippe


    Suppose an Earth-like planet is discovered in the habitable zone of its parent star: it will then be possible to detect spectroscopic signatures of what is perhaps due to complex organic chemistry. A broad class of living organisms take their energy from the light of the parent star of their home planet. Whatever the physiological details are (including production or not of oxygen), this photosynthesis of organic material must result in the "pumping" of photons in the stellar spectrum. It must therefore lead to absorption bands in the star's spectrum reflected by the planet. We call these features "generalized chlorophylls", as they generalize the green color of terrestrial plants. The basic idea of our work is to estimate the existence or absence of this chlorophyll outside the solar system, leaving from the global spectrum of the Earth with wavelength between 400-2000 nm (Vis-Near IR).

  6. Design and Implementation of Intel ligent Water Meter Reading System

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XU Tao-tao


    With the rise of intelligent residential housing project and the implement of intelligent meter reading system, the four become the typical representative at the same time , they also become the short board of the old residential intelligent direction and constraints .As one of the four meter is an important measurement tool to save water resources .In the process of the development of society and technology , different types of meter reading methods have been derived , but there are still many problems , such as difficulty , time consuming , error copy , misreading .With the current mature image processing technology , the Internet technology and the rapid development of handheld intelligent terminal , the paper develop a meter reading system base on the Android system.The system can reduce the work intensity and the cost of meter reading , and it can make up the blank which old district and the mechanical meter reading can not be intelligent .

  7. Method and apparatus for reading meters from a video image

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lewis, T.J.; Ferguson, J.J.


    A method and system enable acquisition of data about an environment from one or more meters using video images. One or more meters are imaged by a video camera and the video signal is digitized. Then, each region of the digital image which corresponds to the indicator of the meter is calibrated and the video signal is analyzed to determine the value indicated by each meter indicator. Finally, from the value indicated by each meter indicator in the calibrated region, a meter reading is generated. The method and system offer the advantages of automatic data collection in a relatively non-intrusive manner without making any complicated or expensive electronic connections, and without requiring intensive manpower.

  8. Advanced Metering Installations – A Perspective from Federal Sites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Earni, Shankar [Lawrence Berkeley National Lab. (LBNL), Berkeley, CA (United States). Energy Technologies Area


    This report is intended to provide guidance to the United States Department of Energy (DOE) and other federal agencies to highlight some of the existing practices related to advanced building metering systems. This study identified some of the existing actions related to advanced meter data and proposes how advanced metered data can be employed to develop robust cost effective measurement and verification (M&V) strategies. This report proposes an integrated framework on how advanced meter data can be used to identify energy conservation opportunities and to develop proactive M&V strategies to ensure that the savings for energy projects are being realized. This information will help improve metering, feedback, and dashboard implementations for reducing energy use at DOE facilities, based on lessons learned from various advanced metering implementations.

  9. De Minimis Thresholds for Federal Building Metering Appropriateness

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is required by statute and Presidential Memorandum to establish guidelines for agencies to meter their Federal buildings for energy (electricity, natural gas, and steam) and water. See 42 U.S.C. § 8253(e). DOE issued guidance in February 2006 on the installation of electric meters in Federal buildings. A recent update to the 2006 guidance accounts for more current metering practices within the Federal Government. The updated metering guidance specifies that all Federal buildings shall be considered “appropriate” for energy or water metering unless identified for potential exclusion. In developing the updated guidance to carry out the statue, Congress also directed DOE to (among other things) establish exclusions from the metering requirements based on the de minimis quantity of energy use of a Federal building, industrial process, or structure. This paper discusses the method used to identify de minimis values.

  10. Automatic Meter Reading and Theft Control System by Using GSM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P. Rakesh Malhotra


    Full Text Available This paper deals with automatic meter reading and theft control system in energy meter. Current transformer is used to measure the total power consumption for house or industrial purpose. This recorded reading is transmitted to the electricity board for every 60 days once. For transmitting the reading of energy meter GSM module is used. To avoid theft, infrared sensor is placed in the screw portion of energy meter seal. If the screw is removed from the meter a message is sent to the electricity board. The measuring of energy meter and monitoring of IR sensor is done with a PIC microcontroller.The informative system will be helpful for the electricity board to monitor the entire supply and the correct billing accordingly without any mishap. This model reduces the manual manipulation work andtheft control.

  11. Chlorophyll fluorescence imaging of cadmium-treated white cabbage plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Borek M.


    Full Text Available The chlorophyll fluorescence imaging technique is a valuable tool to study the impact of heavy metal stress in plants. The aim of this paper was to investigate the influence of Cd on photosynthetic apparatus of white cabbage (Brassica oleracea subsp. capitata f. alba plants. Two cabbage cultivars ‘Ditmarska Najwcześniejsza’ (‘DN’; early and ‘Amager Polana’ (‘AP’; late were used. Cd was applied before planting seedlings (10 mg Cd kg−1 DM of soil.. Measurements were performed at the 3rd leaf after 2 weeks of planting. The level of Cd-induced stress to plants was estimated by chlorophyll (Chl content (photometrically and analyses of images and numeric values of the major fluorescence parameters of Chl (Chl fluorescence imaging system FluorCam. Cd negatively affected the chlorophyll content and Fv/Fm, Fv’/Fm’, Φ PSII and qP in leaves of early cultivar of white cabbage. However, in the case of late cv. we did not observe such distinct changes. It suggests that late cultivars. are more resistant to Cd than the early ones. Considering methodological aspect of the study, Chl fluorescence imaging can better reveal some alterations within the leaf, because numeric values of specific parameters, which are the averaged data collected from the whole leaf, cannot reflect the tissue specificity. Abbreviations: HM – heavy metal, Cd – cadmium, Chl – chlorophyll, Fv/Fm – photochemical efficiency of PSII in the dark-adapted state, F‘v’/F‘m’ – PSII maximum efficiency, Φ PSII – quantum efficiency of PSII electron transport, NPQ – nonphotochemical quenching of maximal Chl fluorescence, qP – photochemical quenching coefficient.

  12. Regional variability among nonlinear chlorophyll-phosphorus relationships in lakes (United States)

    Filstrup, Christopher T.; Wagner, Tyler; Soranno, Patricia A.; Stanley, Emily H.; Stow, Craig A.; Webster, Katherine E.; Downing, John A.


    The relationship between chlorophyll a (Chl a) and total phosphorus (TP) is a fundamental relationship in lakes that reflects multiple aspects of ecosystem function and is also used in the regulation and management of inland waters. The exact form of this relationship has substantial implications on its meaning and its use. We assembled a spatially extensive data set to examine whether nonlinear models are a better fit for Chl a—TP relationships than traditional log-linear models, whether there were regional differences in the form of the relationships, and, if so, which regional factors were related to these differences. We analyzed a data set from 2105 temperate lakes across 35 ecoregions by fitting and comparing two different nonlinear models and one log-linear model. The two nonlinear models fit the data better than the log-linear model. In addition, the parameters for the best-fitting model varied among regions: the maximum and lower Chl aasymptotes were positively and negatively related to percent regional pasture land use, respectively, and the rate at which chlorophyll increased with TP was negatively related to percent regional wetland cover. Lakes in regions with more pasture fields had higher maximum chlorophyll concentrations at high TP concentrations but lower minimum chlorophyll concentrations at low TP concentrations. Lakes in regions with less wetland cover showed a steeper Chl a—TP relationship than wetland-rich regions. Interpretation of Chl a—TP relationships depends on regional differences, and theory and management based on a monolithic relationship may be inaccurate.

  13. Chlorophyll a and primary production in the northeastern Pacific Ocean

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HEN Xingqun; LIN Rongeheng


    The primary production and chlorophyll a concentration of picoplankton (0.2~2μm),nanoplankton (2~20 μm) and micro- plankton (20~200 μm) are described in the northeastern Pacific Ocean near the Hawaii Islands during the six survey cruises from 1996 to 2003:DY85-4,DY95-7,DY95-8,DY95-10,DY105-11 and DY105-12.14.The primary production of carbon was in range from 76.8 to 191.9 mg/(m2·d) with an average of 116.1 mg/( m2·d) in the east region,and from 73.1 to 222.5 mg/(m2·d) with an average of 127.1 mg/( m2·d) in the west region,similar to the other oligotrophic regions of the Pacific Ocean investigated.The chlorophyll a concentration was about 0.1 mg/m3 from the surface to the 50 m depth,about 0.2-0.4 mg/m3from 50 to 100 m,and gradually decreased below the 100 m depth.The picoplankton accounted for more than 70% of the total chlorophyll a in the upper layer (surface to 125 m),but it decreased to less than 50% in depth below 125 m.The na- noplankton and microplankton combined only accounted for less than 30% of the total chlorophyll a in the upper layer,but showed a more even vertical distribution.

  14. The Luminescence of Chlorophyll-Containing Plant Material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tollin, Gordon; Calvin, Melvin


    The luminescence of various chlorophyll-containing plant materials has been investigated under a variety of conditions. The results have been shown to be consistent with a mechanism involving the recombination of electrons and holes trapped in a quasi-crystalline lattice. Some details of such a mechanism have been proposed which suggest the mode of entry of the light energy into the photosynthetic pathway.

  15. Human serum albumin complexes with chlorophyll and chlorophyllin. (United States)

    Ouameur, A Ahmed; Marty, R; Tajmir-Riahi, H A


    Porphyrins and their metal derivatives are strong protein binders. Some of these compounds have been used for radiation sensitization therapy of cancer and are targeted to interact with cellular DNA and protein. The presence of several high-affinity binding sites on human serum albumin (HSA) makes it possible target for many organic and inorganic molecules. Chlorophyll a and chlorophyllin (a food-grade derivative of chlorophyll), the ubiquitous green plant pigment widely consumed by humans, are potent inhibitors of experimental carcinogenesis and interact with protein and DNA in many ways. This study was designed to examine the interaction of HSA with chlorophyll (Chl) and chlorophyllin (Chln) in aqueous solution at physiological conditions. Fourier transform infrared, UV-visible, and CD spectroscopic methods were used to determine the pigment binding mode, the binding constant, and the effects of porphyrin complexation on protein secondary structure. Spectroscopic results showed that chlorophyll and chlorophyllin are located along the polypeptide chains with no specific interaction. Stronger protein association was observed for Chl than for Chln, with overall binding constants of K(Chl) = 2.9 x 10(4)M(-1) and K(Chln) = 7.0 x 10(3)M(-1). The protein conformation was altered (infrared data) with reduction of alpha-helix from 55% (free HSA) to 41-40% and increase of beta-structure from 22% (free HSA) to 29-35% in the pigment-protein complexes. Using the CDSSTR program (CD data) also showed major reduction of alpha-helix from 66% (free HSA) to 58 and 55% upon complexation with Chl and Chln, respectively.

  16. [Vegetation index estimation by chlorophyll content of grassland based on spectral analysis]. (United States)

    Xiao, Han; Chen, Xiu-Wan; Yang, Zhen-Yu; Li, Huai-Yu; Zhu, Han


    Comparing the methods of existing remote sensing research on the estimation of chlorophyll content, the present paper confirms that the vegetation index is one of the most practical and popular research methods. In recent years, the increasingly serious problem of grassland degradation. This paper, firstly, analyzes the measured reflectance spectral curve and its first derivative curve in the grasslands of Songpan, Sichuan and Gongger, Inner Mongolia, conducts correlation analysis between these two spectral curves and chlorophyll content, and finds out the regulation between REP (red edge position) and grassland chlorophyll content, that is, the higher the chlorophyll content is, the higher the REIP (red-edge inflection point) value would be. Then, this paper constructs GCI (grassland chlorophyll index) and selects the most suitable band for retrieval. Finally, this paper calculates the GCI by the use of satellite hyperspectral image, conducts the verification and accuracy analysis of the calculation results compared with chlorophyll content data collected from field of twice experiments. The result shows that for grassland chlorophyll content, GCI has stronger sensitivity than other indices of chlorophyll, and has higher estimation accuracy. GCI is the first proposed to estimate the grassland chlorophyll content, and has wide application potential for the remote sensing retrieval of grassland chlorophyll content. In addition, the grassland chlorophyll content estimation method based on remote sensing retrieval in this paper provides new research ideas for other vegetation biochemical parameters' estimation, vegetation growth status' evaluation and grassland ecological environment change's monitoring.

  17. The Impact of Sub-Metering on Condominium Electricity Demand


    Donald N. Dewees; Trevor Tombe


    Growing concern about the environmental effects of electricity generation is renewing demands for electricity conservation and efficient usage. With a substantial fraction of the population insulated from energy price signals in bulk-metered apartment and condominium buildings, some jurisdictions are considering mandatory metering of individual suites. This study analyses data from a Toronto condominium building to assess the impacts of suite (or sub-) metering. We estimate the aggregate redu...


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K.V. Santhosh


    Full Text Available This paper proposes a technique for measurement of liquid flow using venturi and ultrasonic flow meter(UFM to have following objectives a to design a multi-sensor data fusion (MSDF architecture for using both the sensors, b improve sensitivity and linearity of venturi and ultrasonic flow meter, and c detect and diagnosis of faults in sensor if any. Fuzzy logic algorithm is used to fuse outputs of both the sensor and train the fuzzy block to produces output which has an improved characteristics in terms of both sensitivity and linearity. For identification of sensor faults a comparative test algorithm is designed. Once trained proposed technique is tested in real life, results show successful implementation of proposed objectives.

  19. How today's USM diagnostics solve metering problems[Ultrasonic meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lansing, John


    This paper discusses both basic and advanced diagnostic features of gas ultrasonic meters (USM), and how capabilities built into today's electronics can identify problems that often may not have been identified in the past. It primarily discusses fiscal-quality, multi-path USMs and does not cover issues that may be different with non-fiscal meters. Although USMs basically work the same, the diagnostics for each manufacturer does vary. All brands provide basic features as discussed in AGA 9. However, some provide advanced features that can be used to help identify issues such as blocked flow conditioners and gas compositional errors. This paper is based upon the Daniel USM design and the information presented here may or may not be applicable to other manufacturers. (author) (tk)

  20. Phyllobilins--the abundant bilin-type tetrapyrrolic catabolites of the green plant pigment chlorophyll. (United States)

    Kräutler, Bernhard


    The seasonal disappearance of the green plant pigment chlorophyll in the leaves of deciduous trees has long been a fascinating biological puzzle. In the course of the last two and a half decades, important aspects of the previously enigmatic breakdown of chlorophyll in higher plants were elucidated. Crucial advances in this field were achieved by the discovery and structure elucidation of tetrapyrrolic chlorophyll catabolites, as well as by complementary biochemical and plant biological studies. Phyllobilins, tetrapyrrolic, bilin-type chlorophyll degradation products, are abundant chlorophyll catabolites, which occur in fall leaves and in ripe fruit. This tutorial review outlines 'how' chlorophyll is degraded in higher plants, and gives suggestions as to 'why' the plants dispose of their valuable green pigments during senescence and ripening. Insights into chlorophyll breakdown help satisfy basic human curiosity and enlighten school teaching. They contribute to fundamental questions in plant biology and may have practical consequences in agriculture and horticulture.

  1. Radiofrequency energy exposure from the Trilliant smart meter. (United States)

    Foster, Kenneth R; Tell, Richard A


    This paper reviews radiofrequency (RF) field levels produced by electric utility meters equipped with RF transceivers (so-called Smart Meters), focusing on meters from one manufacturer (Trilliant, Redwood City, CA, USA, and Granby, QC, Canada). The RF transmission levels are summarized based on publicly available data submitted to the U.S. Federal Communications Commission supplemented by limited independent measurements. As with other Smart Meters, this meter incorporates a low powered radiofrequency transceiver used for a neighborhood mesh network, in the present case using ZigBee-compliant physical and medium access layers, operating in the 2.45 GHz unlicensed band but with a proprietary network architecture. Simple calculations based on a free space propagation model indicate that peak RF field intensities are in the range of 10 mW m or less at a distance of more than 1-2 m from the meters. However, the duty cycle of transmission from the meters is very low (Smart Meter technology. The RF transmitters in wireless-equipped Smart Meters operate at similar power levels and in similar frequency ranges as many other digital communications devices in common use, and their exposure levels are very far below U.S. and international exposure limits.

  2. Calibration of Results of Water Meter Test Facility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrius Bončkus


    Full Text Available The results of water meter test facility calibration are presented. More than 30 test facilities are used in Lithuania nowadays. All of them are certificated for water meter of class 2 verification. The results of inter-laboratory comparison of multi-jet water meter calibration at flow rate Q = 5 m3/h are presented. Lithuanian Energy Institute was appointed as reference laboratory for the comparison. Twelve water meter verification and calibration laboratories from Lithuania participated in the ILC. The deviations from reference values were described by the normalized deviation En.Article in Lithuanian

  3. Collaborative Outbound Taxi Metering for Environmental Benefits Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — This proposal addresses the concept of Collaborative Outbound Taxi Metering (COTM), which provides environmental benefits without sacrificing throughput. In current...

  4. Application of Intelligent Agents in Wireless Prepaid Energy Meter

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Suresh Sankaranarayanan


    Full Text Available Prepaid meter (PM is getting very popular especially in developing countries. There are many advantages to use prepaid meter as opposed to postpaid meter both to the utility provider and to the consumer. Brunei has adopted PM but it is not intelligent and not wireless enabled. Reading meters and topping up balance are still done manually. Utility provider does not have information on the usage statistics and has only limited functionalities in the grid control. So accordingly an intelligent agent based wireless prepaid energy meter been developed using JADE-LEAP Agent development kit allowing agent from utility provider to query wireless energy meter for energy values for every household. These statistics can be used for statistical computation of the power consumed and for policy and future planning. Agent from consumers’ mobile devices can query the energy meter to study the power consumed and for topping up the balance. When the meter reaches the threshold, agent at energy meter would also send messages to alert consumers for topping up through mobile handset and failing to do so will lead to power being cut automatically

  5. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn

    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa......, are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  6. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Arndt, Channing; Jones, Edward Samuel; Tarp, Finn


    The micro-macro paradox has been revived. Despite broadly positive evaluations at the micro and meso-levels, recent literature has turned decidedly pessimistic with respect to the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth. Policy implications, such as the complete cessation of aid to Africa......, are being drawn on the basis of fragile evidence. This paper first assesses the aid-growth literature with a focus on recent contributions. The aid-growth literature is then framed, for the first time, in terms of the Rubin Causal Model, applied at the macroeconomic level. Our results show that aid has...... a positive and statistically significant causal effect on growth over the long run with point estimates at levels suggested by growth theory. We conclude that aid remains an important tool for enhancing the development prospects of poor nations....

  7. Thirty Meter Telescope Detailed Science Case: 2015 (United States)

    Skidmore, Warren; TMT International Science Development Teams; Science Advisory Committee, TMT


    The TMT Detailed Science Case describes the transformational science that the Thirty Meter Telescope will enable. Planned to begin science operations in 2024, TMT will open up opportunities for revolutionary discoveries in essentially every field of astronomy, astrophysics and cosmology, seeing much fainter objects much more clearly than existing telescopes. Per this capability, TMT's science agenda fills all of space and time, from nearby comets and asteroids, to exoplanets, to the most distant galaxies, and all the way back to the very first sources of light in the universe. More than 150 astronomers from within the TMT partnership and beyond offered input in compiling the new 2015 Detailed Science Case. The contributing astronomers represent the entire TMT partnership, including the California Institute of Technology (Caltech), the Indian Institute of Astrophysics (IIA), the National Astronomical Observatories of the Chinese Academy of Sciences (NAOC), the National Astronomical Observatory of Japan (NAOJ), the University of California, the Association of Canadian Universities for Research in Astronomy (ACURA) and US associate partner, the Association of Universities for Research in Astronomy (AURA). Cover image: artist's rendition of the TMT International Observatory on Mauna Kea opening in the late evening before beginning operations.

  8. The nasal distribution of metered dose inhalers. (United States)

    Newman, S P; Morén, P F; Clarke, S W


    The intranasal distribution of aerosol from a metered dose inhaler has been assessed using a radiotracer technique. Inhalers were prepared by adding 99Tcm-labelled Teflon particles (simulating the drug particles) to chlorofluorocarbon propellants, and scans of the head (and chest) taken with a gamma camera. Ten healthy subjects (age range 19-29 years) each performed two radioaerosol studies with the inhaler held in two different ways: either in a single position (vial pointing upwards) or in two positions (vial pointing upwards and then tilted by 30 degrees in the sagittal plane). The vast majority of the dose (82.5 +/- 2.8 (mean +/- SEM) per cent and 80.7 +/- 3.1 per cent respectively for one-position and two-position studies) was deposited on a single localized area in the anterior one-third of the nose, the initial distribution pattern being identical for each study. No significant radioaerosol was detected in the lungs. Only 18.0 +/- 4.7 per cent and 15.4 +/- 4.1 per cent of the dose had been removed by mucociliary action after 30 minutes, and it is probable that the remainder had not penetrated initially beyond the vestibule. Since the deposition pattern was highly localized and more than half the dose probably failed to reach the turbinates it is possible that the overall effect of nasal MDIs is suboptimal for the treatment of generalized nasal disorders.

  9. REM meter for pulsed sources of neutrons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thorngate, J.E.; Hunt, G.F.; Rueppel, D.W.


    A rem meter was constructed specifically for measuring neutrons produced by fusion experiments for which the source pulses last 10 ms or longer. The detector is a /sup 6/Li glass scintillator, 25.4 mm in diameter and 3.2 mm thick, surrounded by 11.5 cm of polyethylene. This detector has a sensitivity of 8.5 x 10/sup 4/ counts/mrem. The signals from this fast scintillator are shaped using a shorted delay line to produce pulses that are only 10 ns long so that dose equivalent rates up to 12 mrem/s can be measured with less than a 1% counting loss. The associated electronic circuits store detector counts only when the count rate exceeds a preset level. When the count rate returns to background, a conversion from counts to dose equivalent is made and the results are displayed. As a means of recording the number of source pulses that have occurred, a second display shows how many times the preset count rate has been exceeded. Accumulation of detector counts and readouts can also be controlled manually. The unit will display the integrated dose equilavent up to 200 mrem in 0.01 mrem steps. A pulse-height discriminator rejects gamma-ray interactions below 1 MeV, and the detector size limits the response above that energy. The instrument can be operated from an ac line or will run on rechargeable batteries for up to 12 hours.

  10. On Calibration of pH Meters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Da-Ming Zhu


    Full Text Available The calibration of pH meters including the pH glass electrode, ISE electrodes,buffers, and the general background for calibration are reviewed. Understanding of basicconcepts of pH, pOH, and electrode mechanism is emphasized. New concepts of pH, pOH,as well as critical examination of activity, and activity coefficients are given. Theemergence of new solid state pH electrodes and replacement of the salt bridge with aconducting wire have opened up a new horizon for pH measurements. A pH buffer solutionwith a conducting wire may be used as a stable reference electrode. The misleadingunlimited linear Nernstian slope should be discarded. Calibration curves with 3 nonlinearportions for the entire 0—14 pH range due to the isoelectric point change effect areexplained. The potential measurement with stirring or unstirring and effects by double layer(DL and triple layer (TL will be discussed.

  11. Two-Phase Quality/Flow Meter (United States)

    Moerk, J. Steven (Inventor); Youngquist, Robert C. (Inventor); Werlink, Rudy J. (Inventor)


    A quality and/or flow meter employs a capacitance probe assembly for measuring the dielectric constant of flow stream, particularly a two-phase flow stream including liquid and gas dielectric constant of the flow stream varies depending upon the volume ratios of its liquid and gas components, and capacitance measurements can therefore be employed to calculate the quality of the flow, which is defined as the volume ratio of liquid in the flow to the total volume ratio of gas and liquid in the flow. By using two spaced capacitance sensors, and cross-correlating the time varying capacitance values of each, the velocity of the flow stream can also be determined. A microcontroller-based processing circuit is employed to measure the capacitance of the probe sensors.The circuit employs high speed timer and counter circuits to provide a high resolution measurement of the time interval required to charge each capacitor in the probe assembly. In this manner, a high resolution, noise resistant, digital representation of each of capacitance value is obtained without the need for a high resolution A/D converter, or a high frequency oscillator circuit. One embodiment of the probe assembly employs a capacitor with two ground plates which provide symmetry to insure that accurate measurements are made thereby.

  12. A metering rotary nanopump for microfluidic systems. (United States)

    Darby, Scott G; Moore, Matthew R; Friedlander, Troy A; Schaffer, David K; Reiserer, Ron S; Wikswo, John P; Seale, Kevin T


    We describe the design, fabrication, and testing of a microfabricated metering rotary nanopump for the purpose of driving fluid flow in microfluidic devices. The miniature peristaltic pump is composed of a set of microfluidic channels wrapped in a helix around a central camshaft in which a non-cylindrical cam rotates. The cam compresses the helical channels to induce peristaltic flow as it is rotated. The polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) nanopump design is able to produce intermittent delivery or removal of several nanolitres of fluid per revolution as well as consistent continuous flow rates ranging from as low as 15 nL min(-1) to above 1.0 µL min(-1). At back pressures encountered in typical microfluidic devices, the pump acts as a high impedance flow source. The durability, biocompatibility, ease of integration with soft-lithographic fabrication, the use of a simple rotary motor instead of multiple synchronized pneumatic or mechanical actuators, and the absence of power consumption or fluidic conductance in the resting state all contribute to a compact pump with a low cost of fabrication and versatile implementation. This suggests that the pump design may be useful for a wide variety of biological experiments and point of care devices.

  13. AIDS in South Africa. (United States)

    Ijsselmuiden, C; Evian, C; Matjilla, J; Steinberg, M; Schneider, H


    The National AIDS Convention in South Africa (NACOSA) in October 1992 was the first real attempt to address HIV/AIDS. In Soweto, government, the African National Congress, nongovernmental organizations, and organized industry and labor representatives worked for 2 days to develop a national plan of action, but it did not result in a united effort to fight AIDS. The highest HIV infection rates in South Africa are among the KwaZulu in Natal, yet the Inkatha Freedom Party did not attend NACOSA. This episode exemplifies the key obstacles for South Africa to prevent and control AIDS. Inequality of access to health care may explain why health workers did not diagnose the first AIDS case in blacks until 1985. Migrant labor, Bantu education, and uprooted communities affect the epidemiology of HIV infection. Further, political and social polarization between blacks and whites contributes to a mindset that AIDS is limited to the other race which only diminishes the personal and collective sense of susceptibility and the volition and aptitude to act. The Department of National Health and Population Development's voluntary register of anonymously reported cases of AIDS specifies 1517 cumulative AIDS cases (October 1992), but this number is low. Seroprevalence studies show between 400,000-450,000 HIV positive cases. Public hospitals cannot give AIDS patients AZT and DDI. Few communities provided community-based care. Not all hospitals honor confidentiality and patients' need for autonomy. Even though HIV testing is not mandatory, it is required sometimes, e.g., HIV testing of immigrants. AIDS Training, Information and Counselling Centers are in urban areas, but not in poor areas where the need is most acute. The government just recently developed in AIDS education package for schools, but too many people consider it improper, so it is not being used. The poor quality education provided blacks would make it useless anyhow. Lifting of the academic boycott will allow South African

  14. JPRS Report, Epidemiology, Aids (United States)


    at home. For this they can thank the National Federation of Gays and Lesbians (LBL). -To develop an adequate core of specialists in AIDS prevention... Homosexuality [Vusie Ginindza; Mbabane THE TIMES OF SWAZILAND, 15 May 91] ...................................... 4 JPRS-TEP-91-012 5 June 1991 2 AIDS TANZANIA...sensitivity and not to sensa- tionalize the issue. Health Workers ’Alarmed’ at rise in AIDS, Homosexuality SWAZILAND MB1505085891 Mbabane THE TIMES

  15. Radiographic imaging of aids

    CERN Document Server

    Mahmoud, M B


    The acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) has impacted the civilized world like no other disease. This research aimed to discuss some of the main aids-related complications and their detection by radiology tests, specifically central nervous system and musculoskeletal system disorders. The objectives are: to show specific characteristics of various diseases of HIV patient, to analyze the effect of pathology in patients by radiology, to enhance the knowledge of technologists in aids imaging and to improve communication skills between patient and radiology technologists.

  16. Measuring methods in power metering 2013; Elektrizitaetsmesstechnik 2013

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kahmann, Martin; Zayer, Peter (eds.)


    The book addresses technical and economic issues of power metering, data communication and data processing. Smart metering is the key issue discussed in all 14 contributions: 1. The perspective of Smart Metering in Europe through 2020; 2. Introduction of Smart Metering in Austria; 3. Metering after the amended EnWG 2011; 4. The FNN project ''MessSystem 2020''; 5. Technological requirements of Smart Grid and Smart Market; 6. DIN Spec 33440 ''Ergonomic Aspects of Smart Grids and Electromobility''; 7. Load management as a key element of energy transition; 8. Added value in Smart Metering as a result of Smart Home applications, 9. The main cost factors of the new metering systems; 10. BSI protection profile: Smart Meter Gateway certification; 11. The influence of new boundary conditions in metering on intercompany processes; 12. Reliable time allotment via internet; 13. Recommendations of the EEG Clearing Authority on metering problems; 14. Outline quality management manual for state-authorized test services for electric power, gas, water, and heat. [German] Dieses Buch richtet seinen Blick sowohl auf technische wie auch auf energiewirtschaftliche Themen rund um das Thema Mess- und Zaehltechnik sowie die inzwischen immer bedeutsamer werdende zugehoerige Datenkommunikations- und Datenverarbeitungstechnik. Eine zunehmende Betrachtung des Smart Metering als einen Teilaspekt des grossen Themas Smart Grid bildet die gemeinsame Klammer um die Beitraege. Die Themen der 14 Beitraege sind: 1. Perspektive Smart Metering in Europa bis 2020; 2. Smart-Meter-Einfuehrung in Oesterreich; 3. Das Messwesen nach der EnWG-Novelle 2011; 4. Das FNN-Projekt ''MessSystem 2020''; 5. Anforderungen durch Smart Grid und Smart Market an die intelligente Messtechnik; 6. DIN Spec 33440 ''Ergonomie-Aspekte zu Smart Grid und Elektromobilitaet''; 7. Lastverschiebung als Baustein der Energiewende; 8. Mehrwerte beim Smart

  17. Normal-Phase Open Column versus Reversed-Phase High Performance Liquid Chromatography: Separation of Chlorophyll a and Chlorophyll b from their Diastereomers. (United States)

    Schaber, Peter M.


    Background information, procedures used, and typical results obtained are provided for an experiment involving the separation of chlorophyll a and chlorophyll b from their diastereomers. Reasons why the experiment can be easily integrated into most laboratory curricula where high-performance liquid chromatography capabilities exist are given. (JN)

  18. Music and hearing aids. (United States)

    Madsen, Sara M K; Moore, Brian C J


    The signal processing and fitting methods used for hearing aids have mainly been designed to optimize the intelligibility of speech. Little attention has been paid to the effectiveness of hearing aids for listening to music. Perhaps as a consequence, many hearing-aid users complain that they are not satisfied with their hearing aids when listening to music. This issue inspired the Internet-based survey presented here. The survey was designed to identify the nature and prevalence of problems associated with listening to live and reproduced music with hearing aids. Responses from 523 hearing-aid users to 21 multiple-choice questions are presented and analyzed, and the relationships between responses to questions regarding music and questions concerned with information about the respondents, their hearing aids, and their hearing loss are described. Large proportions of the respondents reported that they found their hearing aids to be helpful for listening to both live and reproduced music, although less so for the former. The survey also identified problems such as distortion, acoustic feedback, insufficient or excessive gain, unbalanced frequency response, and reduced tone quality. The results indicate that the enjoyment of listening to music with hearing aids could be improved by an increase of the input and output dynamic range, extension of the low-frequency response, and improvement of feedback cancellation and automatic gain control systems.

  19. [Estimation of forest canopy chlorophyll content based on PROSPECT and SAIL models]. (United States)

    Yang, Xi-guang; Fan, Wen-yi; Yu, Ying


    The forest canopy chlorophyll content directly reflects the health and stress of forest. The accurate estimation of the forest canopy chlorophyll content is a significant foundation for researching forest ecosystem cycle models. In the present paper, the inversion of the forest canopy chlorophyll content was based on PROSPECT and SAIL models from the physical mechanism angle. First, leaf spectrum and canopy spectrum were simulated by PROSPECT and SAIL models respectively. And leaf chlorophyll content look-up-table was established for leaf chlorophyll content retrieval. Then leaf chlorophyll content was converted into canopy chlorophyll content by Leaf Area Index (LAD). Finally, canopy chlorophyll content was estimated from Hyperion image. The results indicated that the main effect bands of chlorophyll content were 400-900 nm, the simulation of leaf and canopy spectrum by PROSPECT and SAIL models fit better with the measured spectrum with 7.06% and 16.49% relative error respectively, the RMSE of LAI inversion was 0. 542 6 and the forest canopy chlorophyll content was estimated better by PROSPECT and SAIL models with precision = 77.02%.

  20. Liquid Flow Meter based on a Thermal Anemometer Microsensor


    Oleg Sazhin


    An analytical model of a thermal anemometer sensor is developed. A thermal anemometer microsensor utilizing doped polycrystalline silicon is created. A liquid flow meter prototype based on a thermal anemometer microsensor is designed. Results of the flow meter testing are presented.

  1. Integration of auditory and tactile inputs in musical meter perception. (United States)

    Huang, Juan; Gamble, Darik; Sarnlertsophon, Kristine; Wang, Xiaoqin; Hsiao, Steven


    Musicians often say that they not only hear but also "feel" music. To explore the contribution of tactile information to "feeling" music, we investigated the degree that auditory and tactile inputs are integrated in humans performing a musical meter-recognition task. Subjects discriminated between two types of sequences, "duple" (march-like rhythms) and "triple" (waltz-like rhythms), presented in three conditions: (1) unimodal inputs (auditory or tactile alone); (2) various combinations of bimodal inputs, where sequences were distributed between the auditory and tactile channels such that a single channel did not produce coherent meter percepts; and (3) bimodal inputs where the two channels contained congruent or incongruent meter cues. We first show that meter is perceived similarly well (70-85 %) when tactile or auditory cues are presented alone. We next show in the bimodal experiments that auditory and tactile cues are integrated to produce coherent meter percepts. Performance is high (70-90 %) when all of the metrically important notes are assigned to one channel and is reduced to 60 % when half of these notes are assigned to one channel. When the important notes are presented simultaneously to both channels, congruent cues enhance meter recognition (90 %). Performance dropped dramatically when subjects were presented with incongruent auditory cues (10 %), as opposed to incongruent tactile cues (60 %), demonstrating that auditory input dominates meter perception. These observations support the notion that meter perception is a cross-modal percept with tactile inputs underlying the perception of "feeling" music.

  2. Real time Aanderaa current meter data collection system

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    AshokKumar, K.; Diwan, S.G.

    in laboratory. In this paper a method is described to read the real time current meter data and display/print/store on cartridge. For this, binary coded electrical signal available at the top end plate of the current meter is connectEd. by underwater cable...

  3. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen


    With the prevalence of cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decisionmaking...

  4. 40 CFR 1065.225 - Intake-air flow meter. (United States)


    ... CONTROLS ENGINE-TESTING PROCEDURES Measurement Instruments Flow-Related Measurements § 1065.225 Intake-air... § 1065.205. This may include a laminar flow element, an ultrasonic flow meter, a subsonic venturi, a... 40 Protection of Environment 32 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Intake-air flow meter....

  5. Design and Development of Electrochemical Oxygen Meter in Liquid Sodium

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG; Mi; DONG; Jing-ya; MI; Zheng-feng; FU; Xiao-gang


    Dissolved oxygen concentration is of particular importance in characterizing sodium attack,so an accurate means of measuring and controlling oxygen is crucial.China Institute of Atomic Energy has been developing online oxygen meter for liquid sodium since last year.Oxygen meter can

  6. Microwave moisture meter for in-shell peanut kernels (United States)

    . A microwave moisture meter built with off-the-shelf components was developed, calibrated and tested in the laboratory and in the field for nondestructive and instantaneous in-shell peanut kernel moisture content determination from dielectric measurements on unshelled peanut pod samples. The meter ...

  7. Development of a novel vortex flow meter for downhole use

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Schiferli, W.; Cheng, L.K.


    Due to the increasing complexity of oil and gas wells, the demand for instrumentation to measure conditions inside well tubing below the surface is growing rapidly. A robust meter was designed to measure liquid flows at downhole conditions. The meter is based on a specially-designed bluff body to de

  8. The Early Development of Electronic pH Meters (United States)

    Hines, Wallis G.; de Levie, Robert


    A 19-year-old undergraduate at the University of Chicago, Kenneth Goode, in 1921 came up with the idea of an electronic pH meter, worked out some of its initial problems, and set in motion an international scientific effort that culminated in the current, wide availability of electronic pH meters. Except for the replacement of vacuum tubes by…

  9. Quantificação da área e do teor de clorofilas em folhas de plantas jovens de videira 'Cabernet Sauvignon' mediante métodos não destrutivos Non-destructive quantification of area and chlorophyll content in the leaves of young 'Cabernet Sauvignon' grapevines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cassandro Vidal Talamini do Amarante


    small to large, followed by leaf area measurement with an electronic leaf area integrator. For the quantification of chlorophylls, leaves with tonalities varying from yellow green (chlorotic to dark green were evaluated individually with a chlorophyll meter (Minolta SPAD-502 and with a colorimeter (Minolta CR-400, at the L, C and hº color space, at the abaxial (inferior and adaxial (superior faces, and, thereafter, destructively assessed for total chlorophyll and chlorophylls a and b. The main vein length measure provided a good estimate of leaf area. The value representing the sum of the two secondary veins length, as well this value plus the main vein length provided a very small increase in the power to estimate leaf area. The chlorophyll meter reading and the hº/ (LxC ratio for the chroma meter, measured in both leaf faces, increased with the increment of chlorophylls content. The adjusted models between chlorophylls content versus chlorophyll meter readings and the hº/ (LxC ratio for the chroma meter had similar R². However, the hº/(LxC ratio for the chroma meter, measured on the adaxial (superior leaf face, provided the best estimate of chlorophylls content, expressed in terms of µ of leaf.

  10. Magnetic Implants Aid Hearing

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)



    The next generation of hearing aids may use tiny magnets that fit inside the ear. Researchersat a California company and an engineer at the University of Virginia are both developing systems that rely on magnets to convey sounds. Conventional hearing aids have three components:a microphone, an amplifier, and a speaker. The microphone picks up sounds and sends them to the am-

  11. Genetic Immunity to AIDS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    In an article on genetic immunity to AIDS published in Science magazine, American and Chinese scientists claim to have discovered why certain HIV carriers do not develop full-blown AIDS. They say that the key to this conundrum lies in a particular protein in the endocrine system that inhibits development of HIV.

  12. Aid and sectoral growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Selaya, Pablo; Thiele, Rainer


    This article examines empirically the proposition that aid to poor countries is detrimental for external competitiveness, giving rise to Dutch disease type effects. At the aggregate level, aid is found to have a positive effect on growth. A sectoral decomposition shows that the effect is (i...

  13. International Aid to Education (United States)

    Benavot, Aaron


    Recent evidence highlights several worrisome trends regarding aid pledges and disbursements, which have been exacerbated by the global financial crisis. First, while overall development assistance rose in 2008, after 2 years of decline, the share of all sector aid going to the education sector has remained virtually unchanged at about 12 percent…

  14. AIDS Epidemiological models (United States)

    Rahmani, Fouad Lazhar


    The aim of this paper is to present mathematical modelling of the spread of infection in the context of the transmission of the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) and the acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). These models are based in part on the models suggested in the field of th AIDS mathematical modelling as reported by ISHAM [6].

  15. Aid and Income

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lof, Matthijs; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn


    to nonrandom omission of a large proportion of observations. Furthermore, we show that NDHKM’s use of co-integrated regressions is not a suitable empirical strategy for estimating the causal effect of aid on income. Evidence from a Panel VAR model estimated on the dataset of NDHKM, suggests a positive...... and statistically significant long-run effect of aid on income....

  16. First Aid: Burns (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild ...

  17. The Aid Effectiveness Literature

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Doucouliagos, Hristos; Paldam, Martin

    The AEL consists of empirical macro studies of the effects of development aid. At the end of 2004 it had reached 97 studies of three families, which we have summarized in one study each using meta-analysis. Studies of the effect on investments show that they rise by 1/3 of the aid – the rest is c...

  18. First Aid: Diaper Rash (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Diaper Rash KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Diaper Rash A A A Diaper rash is a common skin condition in babies. ... rash is due to irritation caused by the diaper, but it can have other causes not related ...

  19. First Aid: Burns (United States)

    ... Old Feeding Your 8- to 12-Month-Old Feeding Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Burns KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Burns Print A A A Scald burns from hot water and other liquids are the most common burns in early childhood. Because burns range from mild to life threatening, ...

  20. Aid, Development, and Education (United States)

    Klees, Steven J.


    The world faces pervasive poverty and inequality. Hundreds of billions of dollars in international aid have been given or loaned to developing countries though bilateral and multilateral mechanisms, at least, ostensibly, in order to do something about these problems. Has such aid helped? Debates around this question have been ongoing for decades,…

  1. HIV and AIDS (United States)

    ... one HIV test by the time they are teens. If you are having sex, have had sex in the past, or shared ... reviewed: October 2015 previous 1 • 2 • ... STDs How Do People Get AIDS? Can You Get HIV From Having Sex With Someone Who Has AIDS? Can Someone Get ...

  2. First Aid: Falls (United States)

    ... Your 1- to 2-Year-Old First Aid: Falls KidsHealth > For Parents > First Aid: Falls Print A A A en español Folleto de instructiones: Caídas (Falls) With all the running, climbing, and exploring kids ...

  3. AIDS as Metaphor. (United States)

    McMillen, Liz


    Scholarly interest in Acquired Immune Deficiency Syndrome (AIDS) has spread throughout the humanities, attracting the attention of historians of medicine, political scientists, sociologists, public health scholars, and anthropologists. Most theorists hope their research will aid in policymaking or change understanding of the epidemic. (MSE)

  4. Combining smart metering with successful marketing; Smart Metering mit erfolgreichem Marketing verbinden

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Luckhardt, Sina [EVB Energie AG, Velbert (Germany)


    Smart metering can be implemented in various ways. Apart from data transmission via powerline cables, also teletransmission via GPRS may be advantageous. A current project investigates both communication strategies which can also be used in parallel, especially by major utilities with the appropriate infrastructure. In the case of concrete implementation, it has been found that the communication with users must be clear in order to give them an idea of the advantages of the new technologies, and that an appropriate marketing strategy must be developed for successful rollout. (orig.)

  5. Estimating global chlorophyll changes over the past century (United States)

    Boyce, Daniel G.; Dowd, Michael; Lewis, Marlon R.; Worm, Boris


    Marine phytoplankton account for approximately half of the production of organic matter on earth, support virtually all marine ecosystems, constrain fisheries yields, and influence climate and weather. Despite this importance, long-term trajectories of phytoplankton abundance or biomass are difficult to estimate, and the extent of changes is unresolved. Here, we use a new, publicly-available database of historical shipboard oceanographic measurements to estimate long-term changes in chlorophyll concentration (Chl; a widely used proxy for phytoplankton biomass) from 1890 to 2010. This work builds upon an earlier analysis (Boyce et al., 2010) by taking published criticisms into account, and by using recalibrated data, and novel analysis methods. Rates of long-term chlorophyll change were estimated using generalized additive models within a multi-model inference framework, and post hoc sensitivity analyses were undertaken to test the robustness of results. Our analysis revealed statistically significant Chl declines over 62% of the global ocean surface area where data were present, and in 8 of 11 large ocean regions. While Chl increases have occurred in many locations, weighted syntheses of local- and regional-scale estimates confirmed that average chlorophyll concentrations have declined across the majority of the global ocean area over the past century. Sensitivity analyses indicate that these changes do not arise from any bias between data types, nor do they depend upon the method of spatial or temporal aggregation, nor the use of a particular statistical model. The wider consequences of this long-term decline of marine phytoplankton are presently unresolved, but will need to be considered in future studies of marine ecosystem structure, geochemical cycling, and fishery yields.

  6. EU data protection and smart metering. Legal boundary conditions; EU-Datenschutz und Smart Metering. Rechtliche Rahmenbedingungen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hladjk, Joerg [Praxisgruppe European Data Protection and Privacy, Hunton and Williams, Bruessel (Belgium)


    With the introduction of smart metering, the problem of data protection arises. The independent Article 29 Data Protection Group of the European Commission drew up an expert opinion with the intention of explaining the applicable EU data protection regulations for the smart metering technology in the power supply sector. (orig.)

  7. Influence of water-based ferrofluid upon chlorophylls in cereals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Racuciu, Mihaela [Lucian Blaga University, Faculty of Science, 10 Blvd. Victoriei, Sibiu, 550012 (Romania)]. E-mail:; Creanga, Dorina-Emilia [Al. I. Cuza University, Faculty of Physics, 11A Blvd.Copou, Iasi, 700506 (Romania)


    The present experimental investigation was focused on the study of the simultaneous influence of the water-based ferrofluid and static magnetic field exposure on young cereal plants. Water-based ferrofluid, stabilized with citric acid was added daily in various concentrations, ranging between 10 and 250 {mu}L/L, in the culture medium of maize (Zea mays) plants in their early ontogenetic stages. The used static magnetic field was about 50 mT. In order to investigate the biochemical changes of chlorophylls and total carotenoids, spectrophotometric measurements were carried out, that revealed stimulatory effects of ferrofluid and magnetic exposure upon the studied plant species.

  8. Spectral shift mechanisms of chlorophylls in liquids and proteins. (United States)

    Renge, Indrek; Mauring, Koit


    Origins of non-excitonic spectral shifts of chlorophylls that can reach -1,000 cm(-1) in pigment-protein complexes are actively debated in literature. We investigate possible shift mechanisms, basing on absorption and fluorescence measurements in large number of liquids. Transition wavelength in solvent-free state was estimated (±2 nm) for chlorophyll a (Chl a, 647 nm), Chl b (624 nm), bacteriochlorophyll a (BChl a, 752 nm), and pheophytines. The dispersive-repulsive shift is a predominating mechanism. It depends on polarizability difference between the ground and the excited state Δα and the Lorenz-Lorentz function of refractive index of solvent (n). The approximate (± 2Å(3)) increase of polarizability Δα is close to 15Å(3) for S(1) bands of Chl a, BChl a, and BPheo a, slightly larger for Chl b (18Å(3)), and less for Pheo a (11Å(3)). The effect of solvent polarity, expressed in terms of static dielectric permittivity (ε) is relatively minor, but characteristic for different pigments and transitions. Remarkably, maximum influence of ε on S(1) band of BChl a is less (-20 ± 10 cm(-1)) than that for Chl a (-50 ± 10 cm(-1)), and not correlated with dipole moment changes on excitation Δμ (∼2D and 0.1 ± 0.1D, respectively). Hydrogen bonding in protic solvents produces red shifts in Chl a (-60 cm(-1)) and BChl a (-100 cm(-1)), but not in Chl b. Second axial ligand of BChl a has no influence on the S(1) band, whereas the S(2) transition suffers a -400 to -600 cm(-1) down shift. Aromatic character of solvent is responsible for a ∼-100 cm(-1) red shift of both Q transitions in BChl a. The S(1) bands in chlorophylls are relatively insensitive with respect to dielectric properties and specific solvation. Therefore, nontrivial mechanisms, yielding large site-energy shifts are expected in photosynthetic chlorophyll-proteins.

  9. Chlorophyll a fluorescence to phenotype wheat genotypes for heat tolerance

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sharma, Dew Kumari; Andersen, Sven Bode; Ottosen, Carl-Otto

    In prospects of global climate change, heat stress is a rising constraint for the productivity of wheat (Triticum aestivum L.). It is a heat-susceptible crop beyond 17-23oC temperature throughout its phenological stages, flowering phase being the most sensitive stage. Chlorophyll a fluorescence...... for 72h was appropriate to induce genotype dependent variation in Fv/Fm. This standardized protocol was used to phenotype wheat genotypes until the variation in the genotypes was consistently high with increased heritability for the trait, Fv/Fm. Mass screening of 1273 wheat genotypes in a milder stress...

  10. Electrical characteristics of chlorophyll-a polyvinyl alcohol photovoltaic cells

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HAN, Yun-Yu(韩允雨); DIAO, Zhao-Yu*(刁兆玉); LI, Huai-Xiang(李怀祥); CHI, Yan-Hui(迟颜辉)


    A type of photovoltaic cell was made by sandwiching microcrystalline chlorophyll-a (chla) layer and polyvinyl alcohol (PVA) film between two semiconductive optical transparent SnO2 electrodes, such as SnO2/chla/PVA/SnO2. The cell showed a dark rectifying effect and presented photovaltaic properties on illumination, which was illustrated by the charge distribution in the cell. It was suggested that the SnO2/chla junction might be responsible for photovaltage and the chla/PVA for the charge separation upon irradiation of visible light. The equivalent electric circuit was discussed and its equivalent component values were calculated.

  11. Substratum as a driver of variation in periphyton chlorophyll and productivity in lakes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vadeboncoeur, Y.; Kalff, J.; Christoffersen, Kirsten Seestern


    Quantifying periphyton (attached algal) contributions to autotrophic production in lakes is confounded by properties of substratum that affect community biomass (as chlorophyll content) and productivity. We compared chlorophyll content and productivity of natural algal communities (phytoplankton......, epipelon, epilithon, epixylon, and epiphyton) experiencing high (>10%) incident radiation in lakes in the US, Greenland, and Quebec, Canada. Chlorophyll content and productivity differed significantly among regions, but they also differed consistently among communities independent of region. Chlorophyll...... content of periphyton on hard substrata (rocks and wood) was positively related to water-column total P (TP), whereas chlorophyll content of algae on sediment (epipelon) and TP were not significantly related. Chlorophyll content was up to 100× higher on sediments than on hard substrata. Within regions...

  12. A Saponification Method for Chlorophyll Removal from Microalgae Biomass as Oil Feedstock (United States)

    Li, Tao; Xu, Jin; Wu, Hualian; Wang, Guanghua; Dai, Shikun; Fan, Jiewei; He, Hui; Xiang, Wenzhou


    Microalgae oil is an optimal feedstock for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biodiesel production, but its high levels of chlorophyll limit its large-scale application. To date, few effective approaches have been developed to remove chlorophyll from microalgae oil. The main purpose of this study was to present a preprocessing method of algae oil feedstock (Scenedesmus) to remove chlorophyll by saponification. The results showed that 96% of chlorophyll in biomass was removed. High quality orange transparent oil could be extracted from the chlorophyll reduced biomass. Specifically, the proportion of neutral lipids and saturation levels of fatty acids increased, and the pigments composition became carotenoids-based. The critical parameters of chlorophyll reduced biodiesel conformed to the standards of the USA, China and EU. Sodium copper chlorophyllin could be prepared from the bleaching effluent. The results presented herein offer a useful pathway to improve the quality of microalgae oil and reduce the cost of microalgae biodiesel. PMID:27618070

  13. A Saponification Method for Chlorophyll Removal from Microalgae Biomass as Oil Feedstock

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tao Li


    Full Text Available Microalgae oil is an optimal feedstock for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biodiesel production, but its high levels of chlorophyll limit its large-scale application. To date, few effective approaches have been developed to remove chlorophyll from microalgae oil. The main purpose of this study was to present a preprocessing method of algae oil feedstock (Scenedesmus to remove chlorophyll by saponification. The results showed that 96% of chlorophyll in biomass was removed. High quality orange transparent oil could be extracted from the chlorophyll reduced biomass. Specifically, the proportion of neutral lipids and saturation levels of fatty acids increased, and the pigments composition became carotenoids-based. The critical parameters of chlorophyll reduced biodiesel conformed to the standards of the USA, China and EU. Sodium copper chlorophyllin could be prepared from the bleaching effluent. The results presented herein offer a useful pathway to improve the quality of microalgae oil and reduce the cost of microalgae biodiesel.

  14. A Saponification Method for Chlorophyll Removal from Microalgae Biomass as Oil Feedstock. (United States)

    Li, Tao; Xu, Jin; Wu, Hualian; Wang, Guanghua; Dai, Shikun; Fan, Jiewei; He, Hui; Xiang, Wenzhou


    Microalgae oil is an optimal feedstock for nutraceutical, pharmaceutical and biodiesel production, but its high levels of chlorophyll limit its large-scale application. To date, few effective approaches have been developed to remove chlorophyll from microalgae oil. The main purpose of this study was to present a preprocessing method of algae oil feedstock (Scenedesmus) to remove chlorophyll by saponification. The results showed that 96% of chlorophyll in biomass was removed. High quality orange transparent oil could be extracted from the chlorophyll reduced biomass. Specifically, the proportion of neutral lipids and saturation levels of fatty acids increased, and the pigments composition became carotenoids-based. The critical parameters of chlorophyll reduced biodiesel conformed to the standards of the USA, China and EU. Sodium copper chlorophyllin could be prepared from the bleaching effluent. The results presented herein offer a useful pathway to improve the quality of microalgae oil and reduce the cost of microalgae biodiesel.

  15. 3种小檗科植物叶片SPAD值与叶绿素的相关性及通径分析%Study on correlation and path analysis between SPAD values and chlorophyll concentrations in three species of Berberidaceae leaves

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢晓萍; 杨丙贤; 徐婵娟; 田景奎; 张琳


      阔叶十大功劳、狭叶十大功劳及南天竹同为小檗科植物,其叶片表观性状存在较大差异。为了考察上述3种植物叶片SPAD值与叶绿素的相关性,运用SPAD‐502Plus叶绿素仪和分光光度法分别测定这3种植物叶片的叶绿素含量,并引入叶鲜质量与叶面积比( ratio of leaf fresh mass and leaf area ,SLW)作为叶片厚薄的特征参数;再应用通径分析进一步探讨叶片特征参数和各叶绿素参数对SPAD值的直接或间接影响,最后建立SPAD值与叶绿素a及叶绿素b和总叶绿素的线性函数、二次多项式函数、指数函数及乘幂函数的拟合方程,并根据决定系数( R2)确定最佳拟合曲线。研究表明:SPAD值与叶绿素含量在单位叶鲜质量表示下相关性不强,但在单位叶面积表示下成极显著相关;通过通径分析发现在考察的各参数中对SPAD值影响最大的是叶绿素a含量,说明SPAD‐502Plus叶绿素仪有效地消除了叶片厚度等对测量结果的影响;在所建立的拟合方程中,SPAD值与叶绿素含量的非线性拟合效果要优于线性,并且不同种植物的最佳数学模型各有不同。上述分析说明,利用SPAD‐502Plus叶绿素仪快速、无损地评估在体植物叶片的叶绿素含量是可行的。%Determination of chlorophyll concentration has significance for photosynthesis and stress physiology since it is the main photosynthetic pigment in higher plant leaves . Previous researches have shown high correlation between leaf chlorophyll concentration and SPAD values , obtained by SPAD‐502Plus chlorophyll meter . Path analysis also has been used for analyzing the direct effect and indirect effect among various independent variables and dependent variable . There exist large differences in leaf characteristics among three species of Berberidaceae i .e Mahonia bealei ( Fort .) Carr . , Mahonia f ortunei ( Lindl .) Fedde , and Nandina

  16. Justification of the Utility of Introducing Smart Meters in Latvia (United States)

    Kunickis, M.; Dandens, A.; Bariss, U.


    Automatic data reading from smart meters is being developed in many parts of the world, including Latvia. The key drivers for that are developments of smart technologies and economic benefits for consumers. Deployment of smart meters could be launched in a massive scale. Several pilot projects were implemented to verify the feasibility of smart meters for individual consumer groups. Preliminary calculations indicate that installation of smart meters for approximately 23 % of electricity consumers would be economically viable. Currently, the data for the last two years is available for an in-depth mathematical analysis. The continuous analysis of consumption data would be established, when more measurements from smart meters are available. The extent of introduction of smart meters should be specified during this process in order to gain the maximum benefit for the whole society (consumers, grid companies, state authorities), because there are still many uncertain and variable factors. For example, it is necessary to consider statistical load variations by hour, dependence of electricity consumption on temperature fluctuations, consumer behaviour and demand response to market signals to reduce electricity consumption in the short and long term, consumer's ambitions and capability to install home automation for regulation of electricity consumption. To develop the demand response, it is necessary to analyse the whole array of additional factors, such as expected cost reduction of smart meters, possible extension of their functionality, further development of information exchange systems, as well as standard requirements and different political and regulatory decisions regarding the reduction of electricity consumption and energy efficiency.

  17. Chlorophyll-a Algorithms for Oligotrophic Oceans: A Novel Approach Based on Three-Band Reflectance Difference (United States)

    Hu, Chuanmin; Lee, Zhongping; Franz, Bryan


    A new empirical algorithm is proposed to estimate surface chlorophyll-a concentrations (Chl) in the global ocean for Chl less than or equal to 0.25 milligrams per cubic meters (approximately 77% of the global ocean area). The algorithm is based on a color index (CI), defined as the difference between remote sensing reflectance (R(sub rs), sr(sup -1) in the green and a reference formed linearly between R(sub rs) in the blue and red. For low Chl waters, in situ data showed a tighter (and therefore better) relationship between CI and Chl than between traditional band-ratios and Chl, which was further validated using global data collected concurrently by ship-borne and SeaWiFS satellite instruments. Model simulations showed that for low Chl waters, compared with the band-ratio algorithm, the CI-based algorithm (CIA) was more tolerant to changes in chlorophyll-specific backscattering coefficient, and performed similarly for different relative contributions of non-phytoplankton absorption. Simulations using existing atmospheric correction approaches further demonstrated that the CIA was much less sensitive than band-ratio algorithms to various errors induced by instrument noise and imperfect atmospheric correction (including sun glint and whitecap corrections). Image and time-series analyses of SeaWiFS and MODIS/Aqua data also showed improved performance in terms of reduced image noise, more coherent spatial and temporal patterns, and consistency between the two sensors. The reduction in noise and other errors is particularly useful to improve the detection of various ocean features such as eddies. Preliminary tests over MERIS and CZCS data indicate that the new approach should be generally applicable to all existing and future ocean color instruments.

  18. HIV/AIDS and Alcohol (United States)

    ... Psychiatric Disorders Other Substance Abuse HIV/AIDS HIV/AIDS Human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) targets the body’s immune ... and often leads to acquired immune deficiency syndrome (AIDS). Each year in the United States, between 55, ...

  19. HIV, AIDS, and the Future (United States)

    Skip Navigation Bar Home Current Issue Past Issues HIV / AIDS HIV, AIDS, and the Future Past Issues / Summer 2009 ... turn Javascript on. Photo: The NAMES Project Foundation HIV and AIDS are a global catastrophe. While advances ...

  20. Long-wavelength chlorophylls in photosystem I of cyanobacteria: origin, localization, and functions. (United States)

    Karapetyan, N V; Bolychevtseva, Yu V; Yurina, N P; Terekhova, I V; Shubin, V V; Brecht, M


    The structural organization of photosystem I (PSI) complexes in cyanobacteria and the origin of the PSI antenna long-wavelength chlorophylls and their role in energy migration, charge separation, and dissipation of excess absorbed energy are discussed. The PSI complex in cyanobacterial membranes is organized preferentially as a trimer with the core antenna enriched with long-wavelength chlorophylls. The contents of long-wavelength chlorophylls and their spectral characteristics in PSI trimers and monomers are species-specific. Chlorophyll aggregates in PSI antenna are potential candidates for the role of the long-wavelength chlorophylls. The red-most chlorophylls in PSI trimers of the cyanobacteria Arthrospira platensis and Thermosynechococcus elongatus can be formed as a result of interaction of pigments peripherally localized on different monomeric complexes within the PSI trimers. Long-wavelength chlorophylls affect weakly energy equilibration within the heterogeneous PSI antenna, but they significantly delay energy trapping by P700. When the reaction center is open, energy absorbed by long-wavelength chlorophylls migrates to P700 at physiological temperatures, causing its oxidation. When the PSI reaction center is closed, the P700 cation radical or P700 triplet state (depending on the P700 redox state and the PSI acceptor side cofactors) efficiently quench the fluorescence of the long-wavelength chlorophylls of PSI and thus protect the complex against photodestruction.

  1. Chlorophyll bleaching by UV-irradiation in vitro and in situ: Absorption and fluorescence studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zvezdanovic, Jelena [Faculty of Technology, University of Nish, Bulevar oslobodjenja 124, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia)], E-mail:; Cvetic, Tijana [Faculty of Biology, University of Belgrade, Takovska 43, Belgrade 11000 (Serbia); Veljovic-Jovanovic, Sonja [Center for Multidisciplinary Studies, University of Belgrade, Kneza Viseslava la, Belgrade 11030 (Serbia); Markovic, Dejan [Faculty of Technology, University of Nish, Bulevar oslobodjenja 124, 16000 Leskovac (Serbia)], E-mail:


    Chlorophyll bleaching by UV-irradiation has been studied by absorbance and fluorescence spectroscopy in extracts containing mixtures of photosynthetic pigments, in acetone and n-hexane solutions, and in aqueous thylakoid suspensions. Chlorophyll undergoes destruction (bleaching) accompanied by fluorescent transient formation obeying first-order kinetics. The bleaching is governed by UV-photon energy input, as well as by different chlorophyll molecular organizations in solvents of different polarities (in vitro), and in thylakoids (in situ). UV-C-induced bleaching of chlorophylls in thylakoids is probably caused by different mechanisms compared to UV-A- and UV-B-induced bleaching.

  2. Rapid assessment of water pollution by airborne measurement of chlorophyll content. (United States)

    Arvesen, J. C.; Weaver, E. C.; Millard, J. P.


    Present techniques of airborne chlorophyll measurement are discussed as an approach to water pollution assessment. The differential radiometer, the chlorophyll correlation radiometer, and an infrared radiometer for water temperature measurements are described as the key components of the equipment. Also covered are flight missions carried out to evaluate the capability of the chlorophyll correlation radiometer in measuring the chlorophyll content in water bodies with widely different levels of nutrients, such as fresh-water lakes of high and low eutrophic levels, marine waters of high and low productivity, and an estuary with a high sediment content. The feasibility and usefulness of these techniques are indicated.

  3. The effect of light on chlorophyll loss in senescing leaves of sycamore (Acer pseudoplatanus L.). (United States)

    Maunders, M J; Brown, S B


    Breakdown of chlorophylls in attached senescing sycamore leaves held in darkness was significantly less over a 14-d period than that occurring in leaves exposed to natural light. Chlorophyll a declined more rapidly than chlorophyll b in both situations, the stability of the latter being particularly increased in darkness. The differences between dark-maintained leaves and those exposed to light with respect to soluble protein, cytoplasmic RNA, and free amino-nitrogen were much less marked. The data indicate that chlorophyll loss during senescence is, at least in part, the result of a direct photochemical degradation of the pigment.

  4. Political dimensions of AIDS. (United States)

    Blewett, N


    World political aspects and the example of Australia as a national political response to AIDS are presented. Global policy on AIDS is influenced by the fact that the AIDS epidemic is the 1st to be largely predictable, that long lag times occur between intervention and measurable events, and by the prompt, professional leadership of WHO, lead by Dr. J. Mann. WHO began a Global Programme on AIDS in 1987, modelled on the responses of Canada and Australia. A world summit of Ministers of Health was convened in January 1988. These moves generated a response qualified by openness, cooperation, hope and common sense. The AIDS epidemic calls for unprecedented involvement of politicians: they must coordinate medical knowledge with community action, deal with public fear, exert strong, rational leadership and avoid quick, appealing counterproductive responses. 3 clear directions must be taken to deal with the epidemic: 1) strong research and education campaigns; 2) close contact with political colleagues, interest groups and the community; 3) a national strategy which enjoins diverse interest groups, with courage, rationality and compassion. In Australia, the AIDS response began with the unwitting infection of 3 infants by blood transfusion. A public information campaign emphasizing a penetrating TV ad campaign was instituted in 1987. Policy discussions were held in all parliamentary bodies. The AIDS epidemic demands rapid, creative responses, a break from traditions in health bureaucracy, continual scrutiny of funding procedures and administrative arrangements. In practical terms in Australia, this meant establishing a special AIDS branch within the Health Advancement Division of the Community Health Department. AIDS issues must remain depoliticized to defuse adversary politics and keep leaders in a united front.

  5. Chlorophyll catabolites in conditioned media of green microalga Desmodesmus subspicatus. (United States)

    Grabski, Krzysztof; Baranowski, Natalia; Skórko-Glonek, Joanna; Tukaj, Zbigniew

    Although the appearance of coloured chlorophyll degradation products of higher plants is well known, knowledge about such compounds produced and released particularly by planktonic algae is still limited. Colourless conditioned media (CM) obtained from autotrophic cultures of unicellular green alga Desmosdemus subspicatus turn red after acidification. The accumulation of red pigments in the medium and the growth rate of algae were inversely correlated. The red, crude solution isolated from CM by dialysis and ion exchange chromatography, and next purified by means of high-performance liquid chromatography, appeared to be a mixture of three compounds with characteristic UV/VIS absorption maxima near 330 and 505 nm. Electrospray ionization (ESI) mass spectrometry analysis revealed that the molecular mass of the most polar and most abundant compound was 637 Da and molecular masses of two other ones were 641 and 607 Da. Addition of (15) N isotope to the culture medium and subsequent mass spectrometry measurements revealed the occurrence of four nitrogen atoms per each molecule. The data suggest that red pigments isolated from algal-conditioned media are chlorophyll degradation compounds, the production of which depends on light intensity, and are released mainly during the stationary phase of growth.

  6. Dynamics of the Special Pair of Chlorophylls of Photosystem II. (United States)

    Narzi, Daniele; Bovi, Daniele; De Gaetano, Pietro; Guidoni, Leonardo


    Cholophylls are at the basis of the photosynthetic energy conversion mechanisms in algae, plants, and cyanobacteria. In photosystem II, the photoproduced electrons leave a special pair of chlorophylls (namely, P(D1) and P(D2)) that becomes cationic. This oxidizing pair [P(D1),P(D2)](+), in turn, triggers a cascade of oxidative events, eventually leading to water splitting and oxygen evolution. In the present work, using quantum mechanics/molecular mechanics calculations, we investigate the electronic structure and the dynamics of the P(D1)P(D2) special pair in both its oxidized and reduced states. In agreement with previously reported static calculations, the symmetry between the two chlorophylls was found to be broken, the positive charge being preferentially located on P(D1). Nevertheless, this study reveals for the first time that large charge fluctuations occur along dynamics, temporarily inverting the charge preference for the two branches. Finally, a vibrational analysis pinpointed that such charge fluctuations are strongly coupled to specific modes of the special pair.

  7. Chlorophyll f-driven photosynthesis in a cavernous cyanobacterium. (United States)

    Behrendt, Lars; Brejnrod, Asker; Schliep, Martin; Sørensen, Søren J; Larkum, Anthony W D; Kühl, Michael


    Chlorophyll (Chl) f is the most recently discovered chlorophyll and has only been found in cyanobacteria from wet environments. Although its structure and biophysical properties are resolved, the importance of Chl f as an accessory pigment in photosynthesis remains unresolved. We found Chl f in a cyanobacterium enriched from a cavernous environment and report the first example of Chl f-supported oxygenic photosynthesis in cyanobacteria from such habitats. Pigment extraction, hyperspectral microscopy and transmission electron microscopy demonstrated the presence of Chl a and f in unicellular cyanobacteria found in enrichment cultures. Amplicon sequencing indicated that all oxygenic phototrophs were related to KC1, a Chl f-containing cyanobacterium previously isolated from an aquatic environment. Microsensor measurements on aggregates demonstrated oxygenic photosynthesis at 742 nm and less efficient photosynthesis under 768- and 777-nm light probably because of diminished overlap with the absorption spectrum of Chl f and other far-red absorbing pigments. Our findings suggest the importance of Chl f-containing cyanobacteria in terrestrial habitats.

  8. Molluscicidal activity of chlorophyll extraction against the freshwater snails

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mona Said Mahmoud


    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate the molluscicidal activity of chlorophyll extract as a photodynamic substance against the snails Lymnaea stagnalis, Biomphalaria spp. and Physa marmorata. Methods: Chlorophyllin was extracted from deep-frozen spinach. Snails were incubated in chlorophyllin containing water with 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 µg/mL. All samples were kept in darkness overnight for incubation. After incubation, three samples were irradiated with simulated solar radiation for 3 h. After irradiation, the vitality of the organisms was determined. Results: The photodynamically active chlorophyllin, at low concentrations, was able to kill snails within a few hours under exposure of solar radiation. Besides, it had a killing effect by about 70% and 100% on the snails’ eggs and the newly hatched snails, respectively, after 3 h exposure to solar radiation. Conclusion: The derivates of chlorophyll was a very interesting substance for photodynamic freshwater snail control. Hence, it might be a promising and cheap new strategy which probably had the potential to replace the synthetic molluscicides for snail control.

  9. Molluscicidal activity of chlorophyll extraction against the freshwater snails

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mona Said Mahmoud; Peter Richter; Hatem Abdel Mawgoud Shalaby; Omnia Mohamed Kandil; Donat-Peter Hder


    Objective: To evaluate the molluscicidal activity of chlorophyll extract as a photodynamic substance against the snails Lymnaea stagnalis, Biomphalaria spp. and Physa marmorata.Methods:Chlorophyllin was extracted from deep-frozen spinach. Snails were incubated in chlorophyllin containing water with 2.5, 5.0, 10.0 and 15.0 µg/mL. All samples were kept in darkness overnight for incubation. After incubation, three samples were irradiated with simulated solar radiation for 3 h. After irradiation, the vitality of the organisms was determined. Results: The photodynamically active chlorophyllin, at low concentrations, was able to kill snails within a few hours under exposure of solar radiation. Besides, it had a killing effect by about 70%and 100% on the snails’ eggs and the newly hatched snails, respectively, after 3 h exposure to solar radiation.Conclusion:The derivates of chlorophyll was a very interesting substance for photodynamic freshwater snail control. Hence, it might be a promising and cheap new strategy which probably had the potential to replace the synthetic molluscicides for snail control.

  10. Dual-frequency feed system for 26-meter antenna conversion (United States)

    Hartop, R. W.


    New cassegrain feed cone assemblies were designed as part of the upgrade of three 26-meter diameter antennas to 34-meter diameter with improved performance. The new dual-frequency feed cone (SXD) will provide both S- and X-band feed systems and traveling wave masers, with a reflex reflector system to permit simultaneous operation analogous to the 64-meter antennas. Tasks involved in adding the X-band receiving capability and improving the S-band feed performance in support of Voyager and later missions described in.

  11. Hybrid TLC-pair meter for the Sphinx Project (United States)

    Wada, T.; Yamamoto, I.; Takahashi, N.; Misaki, A.


    The chief aims in THE SPHINX PROJECT are research of super lepton physics and new detector experiments. At the second phase of THE SPHINX PROJECT, a hybrid TLC-PAIR METER was designed for measuring high energy neutrino sources (E upsilon * TeV), searching high energy muon sources (E mu TeV) and measuring muon group (E mu 1 TeV). The principle of PAIR METER has been already proposed. In this TLC-PAIR METER, electromagnetic shower induced by cosmic ray muons are detected using TL (Thermoluminescence) sheets with position counters.

  12. Metering Wheel-Wire Track Wire Boom Deployment Mechanism (United States)

    Granoff, Mark S.


    The NASA MMS Spin Plane Double Probe (SDP) Deployer utilizes a helical path, rotating Metering Wheel and a spring loaded Wire "Holding" Track to pay out a "fixed end" 57 meter x 1.5 mm diameter Wire Boom stored between concentric storage cylinders. Unlike rotating spool type storage devices, the storage cylinders remain stationary, and the boom wire is uncoiled along the length of the cylinder via the rotation of the Metering Wheel. This uncoiling action avoids the need for slip-ring contacts since the ends of the wire can remain stationary. Conventional fixed electrical connectors (Micro-D type) are used to terminate to operational electronics.

  13. Federal metering data analysis needs and existing tools

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Henderson, Jordan W. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Fowler, Kimberly M. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)


    Agencies have been working to improve their metering data collection, management, and analysis efforts over the last decade (since EPAct 2005) and will continue to address these challenges as new requirements and data needs come into place. Unfortunately there is no “one-size-fits-all” solution. As agencies continue to expand their capabilities to use metered consumption data to reducing resource use and improve operations, the hope is that shared knowledge will empower others to follow suit. This paper discusses the Federal metering data analysis needs and some existing tools.

  14. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tarp, Finn; Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh


    Recent litterature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This article assesses what meta-analysis has to contribute to the litterature on the effectiveness...... of foreign aid in terms of growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  15. Aid Supplies Over Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jones, Edward Samuel


    What determines how much foreign aid donors provide? Existing answers to this question point to a complex range of influences. However, the tasks of distinguishing between long- and short-run factors, as well as differences between donors, have not been adequately addressed. Taking advantage...... of data spanning nearly 50 years, this paper uses panel cointegration techniques to consider these issues. The analysis provides clear evidence for heterogeneity both between donors and over time, bandwagon effects, and a growing influence of security considerations in aid provision. Domestic...... macroeconomic shocks have a moderate but delayed effect on aid disbursements....

  16. Aid and Growth

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Mekasha, Tseday Jemaneh; Tarp, Finn

    Some recent literature in the meta-analysis category where results from a range of studies are brought together throws doubt on the ability of foreign aid to foster economic growth and development. This paper assesses what meta-analysis has to say about the effectiveness of foreign aid in terms...... of the growth impact. We re-examine key hypotheses, and find that the effect of aid on growth is positive and statistically significant. This significant effect is genuine, and not an artefact of publication selection. We also show why our results differ from those published elsewhere....

  17. Pulmonary complications of AIDS: radiologic features. [AIDS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cohen, B.A.; Pomeranz, S.; Rabinowitz, J.G.; Rosen, M.J.; Train, J.S.; Norton, K.I.; Mendelson, D.S.


    Fifty-two patients with pulmonary complications of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) were studied over a 3-year period. The vast majority of the patients were homosexual; however, a significant number were intravenous drug abusers. Thirteen different organisms were noted, of which Pneumocystis carinii was by far the most common. Five patients had neoplasia. Most patients had initial abnormal chest films; however, eight patients subsequently shown to have Pneumocystis carinii pneumonia had normal chest films. A significant overlap in chest radiographic findings was noted among patients with different or multiple organisms. Lung biopsy should be an early consideration for all patients with a clinical history consistent with the pulmonary complications of AIDS. Of the 52 patients, 41 had died by the time this report was completed.

  18. HIV/AIDS (United States)

    ... equity (covering the populations in need of services). Financing for sustainability (covering the costs of services). Innovation for acceleration (looking towards the future). WHO is a cosponsor of the Joint United Nations Programme on AIDS (UNAIDS). Within UNAIDS, WHO leads ...

  19. First Aid: Croup (United States)

    ... Development Infections Diseases & Conditions Pregnancy & Baby Nutrition & Fitness Emotions & Behavior School & Family Life First Aid & Safety Doctors & ... with each breath has a pale or bluish color around the mouth drools or has difficulty swallowing ...

  20. Buying a Hearing Aid (United States)

    ... Contact Us Calendar ENTCareers Marketplace ENT Careers Marketplace Log in b Log in Toggle navigation b Join Now Donate Now ... using your hearing aids in quiet surroundings, gradually building up to noisier environments. Then eventually work up ...

  1. HIV/AIDS (United States)

    HIV stands for human immunodeficiency virus. It harms your immune system by destroying the white blood cells ... It is the final stage of infection with HIV. Not everyone with HIV develops AIDS. HIV most ...

  2. AidData (United States)

    US Agency for International Development — AidData is a research and innovation lab making information on development finance more accessible and actionable. Tracking more than $6 trillion dollars from 90+...

  3. Convulsions - first aid - slideshow (United States)

    ... this page: // Convulsions - first aid - series—Procedure, part 1 To use ... slide 2 out of 2 Overview When a seizure occurs, the main goal is to protect the ...

  4. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen


    With the prevalence of cloud computing and Internet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decisionmaking....... Now-a-days, smart meter analytics systems consist of analytical algorithms that process massive amounts of data. These analytics algorithms require ample amounts of realistic data for testing and verification purposes. However, it is usually difficult to obtain adequate amounts of realistic data......, mainly due to privacy issues. This paper proposes a smart meter data generator that can generate realistic energy consumption data by making use of a small real-world data set as seed. The generator generates data using a prediction-based method that depends on historical energy consumption patterns...

  5. A Prediction-based Smart Meter Data Generator

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Iftikhar, Nadeem; Liu, Xiufeng; Nordbjerg, Finn Ebertsen

    With the prevalence of cloud computing and In-ternet of Things (IoT), smart meters have become one of the main components of smart city strategy. Smart meters generate large amounts of fine-grained data that is used to provide useful information to consumers and utility companies for decision......-making. Now-a-days, smart meter analytics systems consist of analytical algorithms that process massive amounts of data. These analytics algorithms require ample amounts of realistic data for testing and verification purposes. However, it is usually difficult to obtain adequate amounts of realistic data......, mainly due to privacy issues. This paper proposes a smart meter data generator that can generate realistic energy consumption data by making use of a small real-world dataset as seed. The generator generates data using a prediction-based method that depends on historical energy consumption patterns along...

  6. 100-Meter Resolution Tree Canopy of Hawaii - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains tree canopy data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The tree canopy data were derived...

  7. 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Hawaii - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The impervious surface data...

  8. 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of Hawaii - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of Hawaii, with relief shading added to accentuate terrain...

  9. 100-Meter Resolution Color Shaded Relief of Alaska - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Color Shaded Relief of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution color-sliced elevation image of Alaska, with relief shading added to accentuate terrain...

  10. 100-Meter Resolution Impervious Surface of Alaska - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains impervious surface data for Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The impervious surface data...

  11. 100-Meter Resolution Grayscale Shaded Relief of Hawaii - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Grayscale Shaded Relief of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution grayscale shaded relief image of Hawaii, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Shaded...

  12. Smart Meter Data Analytics: Systems, Algorithms and Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Golab, Lukasz; Golab, Wojciech


    Smart electricity meters have been replacing conventional meters worldwide, enabling automated collection of fine-grained (e.g., every 15 minutes or hourly) consumption data. A variety of smart meter analytics algorithms and applications have been proposed, mainly in the smart grid literature......-line feature extraction and model building as well a framework for on-line anomaly detection that we propose. Second, since obtaining real smart meter data is difficult due to privacy issues, we present an algorithm for generating large realistic data sets from a small seed of real data. Third, we implement......). We compare the five platforms in terms of application development effort and performance on a multicore machine as well as a cluster of 16 commodity servers....

  13. Tweeting : Smart meters raise awareness of energy consumption in buildings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)



    The University of Mississippi (UM) will monitor, analyze and report on energy consumption in its campus buildings in real-time using SmartSynch Smart Meters. The technology uses smart meter data to help identify a detailed pattern of electricity usage with the objective of finding methods to alter behaviour to reduce electricity usage and carbon emissions. SmartSynch installed 16 Smart Meters on campus with additional deployments being planned. The technology will enable the university to monitor energy consumption, track building power performance over time, compare building energy usage, and review the impact of the weather on energy use while reducing its carbon footprint. Additionally, UM will use Facebook, Twitter and an RSS feed to provide regular public updates on its buildings' energy consumption based on SmartSynch Smart Meter data. Each building will have its own profile on the social networking sites. 1 ref., 1 fig.

  14. Radiofrequency fields associated with the Itron smart meter. (United States)

    Tell, R A; Sias, G G; Vazquez, A; Sahl, J; Turman, J P; Kavet, R I; Mezei, G


    This study examined radiofrequency (RF) emissions from smart electric power meters deployed in two service territories in California for the purpose of evaluating potential human exposure. These meters included transmitters operating in a local area mesh network (RF LAN, ∼250 mW); a cell relay, which uses a wireless wide area network (WWAN, ∼1 W); and a transmitter serving a home area network (HAN, ∼70 mW). In all instances, RF fields were found to comply by a wide margin with the RF exposure limits established by the US Federal Communications Commission. The study included specialised measurement techniques and reported the spatial distribution of the fields near the meters and their duty cycles (typically smart meters as deployed. However, the results are restricted to a single manufacturer's emitters.

  15. Color Hawaii Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The color Hawaii shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Hawaii at a resolution of 200 meters. The NED is...

  16. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of Hawaii - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Hawaii map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Hawaii. Vegetation is generally green, with forests in darker green...

  17. 100-Meter Resolution Satellite View of Alaska - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Satellite View of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution simulated natural-color image of Alaska. Vegetation is generally green, with forests in darker green...

  18. Grayscale Hawaii Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale Hawaii shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Hawaii at a resolution of 200 meters. The...

  19. Color Alaska Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The color Alaska shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Alaska at a resolution of 200 meters. The NED is...

  20. Grayscale Alaska Shaded Relief ? 200-Meter Resolution - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The grayscale Alaska shaded relief data were derived from National Elevation Dataset (NED) data, and show the terrain of Alaska at a resolution of 200 meters. The...

  1. Cloud-Based Software Platform for Smart Meter Data Management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Nielsen, Per Sieverts

    of the so-called big data possible. This can improve energy management, e.g., help utility companies to forecast energy loads and improve services, and help households to manage energy usage and save money. As this regard, the proposed paper focuses on building an innovative software platform for smart......Today smart meters are increasingly used in the worldwide. Smart meters are the advanced meters capable of measuring customer energy consumption at a fine-grained time in- terval, e.g., every 15 minutes. The data are very sizeable, and might be from different sources, along with the other social...... their knowledge; scalable data analytics platform for data mining over big data sets for energy demand forecasting and consumption discovering; data as the service for other applications using smart meter data; and a portal for visualizing data analytics results. The design will incorporate hybrid clouds...

  2. Lightweight Thermally Stable Multi-Meter Aperture Submillimeter Reflectors Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The objective of the Phase II effort will be an affordable demonstrated full-scale design for a thermally stable multi-meter submillimeter reflector. The Phase I...

  3. 100-Meter Resolution Tree Canopy of Alaska - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — This map layer contains tree canopy data for Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection and at a resolution of 100 meters. The tree canopy data were derived...

  4. Electric Power Substitute Meter Management via Mobile Application

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nelson C. Rodelas


    Full Text Available EPSMvMA is composed of Digital Sub-Meter connected to different components namely the GSM module, Bluetooth module, Power Analyzer Module, LCD Module, Relay Module and Main Microcontroller module. The connection via Mobile is made possible by the modules mentioned. The software that the proponents will be dealing with in the study is C++ language, which will be used in programming the Main Microcontroller module and Visual Basic Language for the Android Phones. The Bluetooth module can access the Android Phones and connect to the digital sub-meter in a limited distance. The users will be at ease since a code embedded to the microcontroller will make the utility sub-meter produce the desired value of electricity (KWH and wherein the computed Sub-meter reading can be viewed through the LCD. This project is accommodating to those person that is always on the go and prudent.

  5. Minnesota Digital Elevation Model - Tiled 93 Meter Resolution (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Digital Elevation Model (DEM) at a resolution of 93 meters. Original data resolution was 3 arc seconds which corresponds (approximately) to a matrix of points at a...

  6. 100-Meter Resolution Grayscale Shaded Relief of Alaska - Direct Download (United States)

    U.S. Geological Survey, Department of the Interior — The Grayscale Shaded Relief of Alaska map layer is a 100-meter resolution grayscale shaded relief image of Alaska, in an Albers Equal-Area Conic projection. Shaded...

  7. One-Meter Class Drilling for Planetary Exploration Project (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The purpose of the proposed effort is to understand and characterize the fundamental limitations of drilling one to three meters into challenging materials which may...

  8. Hypophyseal pathology in AIDS


    Mosca, L; Costanzi, G; Antonacci, C.; Boldorini, R; Carboni, N.; Cristina, S; Liberani, C.; Parravicini, C.; Pirolo, A.; Vago, L


    One hundred and eleven pituitary glands of patients (93 males, 18 females; mean age 32 years, 5 months) who died of fully developed AIDS or ARC were examined under light microscopy with the aid of immunohistochemistry. On post mortem (p.m.) examination a wide series of multiorgan alterations was noticed. Microscopically vanous lesions in both adeno- and neurohypophysis were seen. These ranged from vessel damage to secondaries to systemic infections, neoplas...

  9. Plasma-aided manufacturing (United States)

    Shohet, J. L.


    Plasma-aided manufacturing is used for producing new materials with unusual and superior properties, for developing new chemical compounds and processes, for machining, and for altering and refining materials and surfaces. Plasma-aided manufacturing has direct applications to semiconductor fabrication, materials synthesis, welding, lighting, polymers, anti-corrosion coatings, machine tools, metallurgy, electrical and electronics devices, hazardous waste removal, high performance ceramics, and many other items in both the high-technology and the more traditional industries in the United States.

  10. Decadal variability of chlorophyll a in the South China Sea:a possible mechanism

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIU Fenfen; CHEN Chuqun; ZHAN Haigang


    Four climatologies on a monthly scale (January,April,May and November) of chlorophyll a within the South China Sea (SCS) were calculated using a Coastal Zone Color Scanner (CZCS) (1979-1983) and the Sea-viewing Wide Field-of-view Sensor (SeaWiFS) (1998-2002).We analyzed decadal variability of chlorophyll a by comparing the products of the two observation periods.The relationships of variability in chlorophyll a with sea surface wind speed (SSW),sea surface temperature (SST),wind stress (WS),and mixed layer depth (MLD) were determined.The results indicate that there is obvious chlorophyll a decadal variability in the SCS.The decadal chlorophyll a presents distinct seasonal variability in characteristics,which may be as a result of various different dynamic processes.The negative chlorophyll a concentration anomaly in January was associated with the warming of SST and a shallower MLD.Generally,there were higher chlorophyll a concentrations in spring during the SeaWiFS period compared with the CZCS period.However,the chlorophyll a concentration exhibits some regional differences during this season,leading to an explanation being difficult.The deepened MLD may have contributed to the positive chlorophyll a concentration anomalies from the northwestern Luzon Island to the northeastern region of Vietnam during April and May.The increases of chlorophyll a concentration in northwestem Borneo during May may be because the stronger SSW and higher WS produce a deeper mixed layer and convective mixing,leading to high levels of nutrient concentrations.The higher chlorophyll a off southeastem Vietnam may be associated with the advective transport of the colder water extending from the Karimata Strait to southeastem Vietnam.


    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z Khan


    Full Text Available HIV infection and AIDS is increasingly becoming a major public health problem in our country. Currently, the reported cases represent only the 'tip of the iceberg' of the problem. In view of the fact that no cure or vaccine for the disease has yet been found, spreading knowledge and removing misconceptions is about the only way that AIDS can be effectively tackled.This handbook, developed by Prof. Shankar Chowdhury and associates, seeks to address all levels of medical and non-medical AIDS workers, as well as the layman. It deals with topics ranging from biology of the virus, symptoms and transmission of disease, to prevention, counselling for infected persons and action plan for AIDS education.The biology of the virus and the immune system is described in simple terms, as well as methods of testing for HIV, and what these test results mean. The progression of disease in adults and children, development of symptoms, diagnostic criteria for AIDS, treatment and outcome of disease is dealt with. How AIDS spreads between people, and the health risk for health workers and families is examined. The various ways in which transmission of HIV can be prevented is looked at in detail, including public health measures, national and internatonal action, and ethical and human rights issues involved.

  12. Wideband bioimpedance meter with the adaptive selection of frequency grid


    V. S. Mosiychuk; G. V. Timoshenko; O. B. Sharpan


    Introduction. For the diagnosis of functional state and structure of biological objects with weakly expressed irregularities it is important quickly and accurately to determine the amplitude- and phase-frequency characteristics. Therefore, the purpose of the article is a representation of the results of the development of biological objects high-speed impedance meter with the ability to select adaptive grid measuring frequencies in the extended band. Structure of the impedance meter. Develope...

  13. Microwave component time delays for the 70-meter antennas (United States)

    Hartop, R.


    The X-band feed assemblies in the 64 meter antennas were redesigned to accommodate the upgrading to 70 meters and the associated surface reshaping. To maintain time delay data logs, new calculations were made of the microwave component delays for the XRO Mod IV X-band (8.4 to 8.45 GHz) feed assembly that was installed at DSS-63, and will soon be implemented at DSS-43 and DSS-14.

  14. The Efficiency of the Smoke Meter at Characterizing Engine Emissions (United States)

    Paladino, Jonathan D.


    The effectiveness of a smoke meter's ability to characterize the particulate emissions of a jet fuel combustor was evaluated using the University of Missouri-Rolla Mobile Aerosol Sampling System (UMR-MASS). A burner simulating an advanced jet engine combustor design was used to generate typical combustion particulates, which were then analyzed by the smoke meter. The same particulates were then size discriminated to ascertain the effective impact of aerosol diameter on smoke number readings.

  15. The Program of Getting the Data from the Vacuum Meter

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANGYang; CHENLiaoyuan; LIQiang


    In HL-2A tokamak, a program to get the data from the vacuum meter has been developed in 2003. The program is used to read and record the data of the neutral gas pressure during the experiment. So how to communicate between a local computer and the vacuum meter via serial-port communication is introduced in this paper. The architecture of the system is shown in Fig. 1.

  16. Contribution of Chlorophyll Fluorescence to the Apparent Reflectance of Vegetation (United States)

    Campbell, P. K. Entcheva; Middleton, E. M.; Kim, M. S.


    Current strategies for monitoring the physiologic status of terrestrial vegetation rely on remote sensing reflectance (R) measurements, whi ch provide estimates of relative vegetation vigor based primarily on chlorophyll content. Vegetation chlorophyll fluorescence (CF) offers a non-destructive alternative and a more direct approach for diagnosis of vegetation stress before a significant reduction in chlorophyll content has occurred. Thus, monitoring of vegetation vigor based on CF may allow earlier stress detection and more accurate carbon sequestra tion estimates, than is possible using R data alone. However, the observed apparent vegetation reflectance (Ra) in reality includes contrib utions from both the reflected and fluoresced radiation. The aim of t his study is to determine the relative R and CF fractions contributing to Ra from the vegetation in the red to near-infrared region of the spectrum. The practical objectives of the study are to: 1) evaluate t he relationship between CF and R at the foliar level for corn, soybean, maple; and 2) for corn, determine if the relationship established f or healthy (optimal N) vegetation changes under N defiiency. To obtai n generally applicable results, experimental measurements were conducted on unrelated crop and tree species (maple, soybean and corn), unde r controlled conditions and a gradient of inorganic N fertilization l evels. Optical R spectra and actively induced CF emissions were obtained on the same foliar samples, in conjunction with measurements of p hotosynthetic function, pigment levels, and C and N content. The comm on spectral trends or similarities were examined. On average, 10-20% of apparent R at 685 nm was actually due to CF. The spectral trends in steady and maximum F varied significantly, with Fs (especially red) showing higher ability for species and treatment separation. The relative contribution of ChF to R varied significantly among species, with maple emitting much higher F amounts, as

  17. Contribution of chlorophyll fluorescence to the apparent vegetation reflectance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Campbell, P.K. Entcheva [Joint Center for Earth Systems Technology, UMBC, Baltimore, MD 21228 (United States); Biospheric Sciences Branch, Hydrospheric and Biospheric Sciences Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States)], E-mail:; Middleton, E.M. [Biospheric Sciences Branch, Hydrospheric and Biospheric Sciences Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Corp, L.A. [Biospheric Sciences Branch, Hydrospheric and Biospheric Sciences Laboratory, NASA/GSFC, Greenbelt, MD 20771 (United States); Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States); Kim, M.S. [Agricultural Research Service, USDA, Beltsville, MD 20705 (United States)


    Current strategies for monitoring the physiologic status of terrestrial vegetation rely on remote sensing reflectance data, which provide estimates of vigor based primarily on chlorophyll content. Chlorophyll fluorescence (ChlF) measurements offer a non-destructive alternative and a more direct approach for diagnosis of vegetation stress before a significant reduction in chlorophyll content has occurred. Thus, technology based on ChlF may allow more accurate carbon sequestration estimates and earlier stress detection than is possible when using reflectance data alone. However, the observed apparent vegetation reflectance (Ra) in reality includes contributions from both the reflected and fluoresced radiation. The aim of this study is to determine the relative contributions of reflectance and ChlF fractions to Ra in the red to near-infrared region (650-800 nm) of the spectrum. The practical objectives of the study are to: 1) evaluate the relationship between ChlF and reflectance at the foliar level for corn, soybean and maple; and 2) for corn, determine if the relationship established for healthy vegetation changes under nitrogen (N) deficiency. To obtain generally applicable results, experimental measurements were conducted on unrelated crop and tree species (corn, soybean and maple) under controlled conditions and a gradient of inorganic N fertilization levels. Optical reflectance spectra and actively induced ChlF emissions were collected on the same foliar samples, in conjunction with measurements of photosynthetic function, pigment levels, and carbon (C) and N content. The spectral trends were examined for similarities. On average, 10-20% of Ra at 685 nm was actually due to ChlF. The spectral trends in steady state and maximum fluorescence varied significantly, with steady state fluorescence (especially red, 685 nm) showing higher ability for species and treatment separation. The relative contribution of ChlF to Ra varied significantly among species, with maple

  18. Research on the calibration of ultraviolet energy meters (United States)

    Lin, Fangsheng; Yin, Dejin; Li, Tiecheng; Lai, Lei; Xia, Ming


    Ultraviolet (UV) radiation is a kind of non-lighting radiation with the wavelength range from 100nm to 400nm. Ultraviolet irradiance meters are now widely used in many areas. However, as the development of science and technology, especially in the field of light-curing industry, there are more and more UV energy meters or UV-integrators need to be measured. Because the structure, wavelength band and measured power intensity of UV energy meters are different from traditional UV irradiance meters, it is important for us to take research on the calibration. With reference to JJG879-2002, we SIMT have independently developed the UV energy calibration device and the standard of operation and experimental methods for UV energy calibration in detail. In the calibration process of UV energy meter, many influencing factors will affect the final results, including different UVA-band UV light sources, different spectral response for different brands of UV energy meters, instability and no uniformity of UV light source and temperature. Therefore we need to take all of these factors into consideration to improve accuracy in UV energy calibration.

  19. Implementing Project-based Learning in making a weight meter (United States)

    Muliawan, W.; Nahar, W. S.; Sebastian, C. E.; Yuliza, E.; Khairurrijal


    Project-based learning (PjBL) is an activity, which can be done individually or in groups, that goes on over a period of time and its objective can be a product, presentation, or performance. It can make students develop their skills and become more engaged in learning because they can solve problems that are met in real life through a project. The project was a weight meter using a d.c. deflection-type bridge circuit and a VU meter, which was realized by a group of three students (the first three authors). We were of the 2nd year of undergraduate physics program that are taking the Measurement and Data Processing Techniques course in the period of January to April 2015. We worked together with our lecturer and tutor as our advisers. In making the weight meter, we have done the following roles in PjBL: 1. Planning the project and setting a timeline, 2. Doing research, 3. Creating first draft, 4. Rewriting the project report, and 5. Submitting the project. Under the guidance of timeline, the project has been completed timely. A force sensing resistor (FSR) sensor was employed to convert a body mass to resistance of the bridge circuit and the VU meter was modified to be a display of the weight meter. The weight meter could be used to measure a body mass up to 5 kg.

  20. Multilateral Aid | L’aide multilatérale

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)


    Full Text Available Bilateral and Multilateral Aid, DAC Members, 1960–2010 (in million USD constant, 2009Aide bilatérale et multilatérale des pays membres du CAD, 1960-2010 (en millions USD constants de 2009­Bilateral and Multilateral Aid by Recipient Region, DAC Members, 2008 (in percentage of total aid by RegionAide bilatérale et multilatérale des pays membres du CAD par region de destination, 2008 (en pourcentage de l’aide totale par régionSources: OECD (2010 2010 DAC Report on Multilateral Aid (Paris: O...

  1. Analysis of an Arabidopsis heat-sensitive mutant reveals that chlorophyll synthase is involved in reutilization of chlorophyllide during chlorophyll turnover. (United States)

    Lin, Yao-Pin; Lee, Tsung-yuan; Tanaka, Ayumi; Charng, Yee-yung


    Chlorophylls, the most abundant pigments in the photosynthetic apparatus, are constantly turned over as a result of the degradation and replacement of the damage-prone reaction center D1 protein of photosystem II. Results from isotope labeling experiments suggest that chlorophylls are recycled by reutilization of chlorophyllide and phytol, but the underlying mechanism is unclear. In this study, by characterization of a heat-sensitive Arabidopsis mutant we provide evidence of a salvage pathway for chlorophyllide a. A missense mutation in CHLOROPHYLL SYNTHASE (CHLG) was identified and confirmed to be responsible for a light-dependent, heat-induced cotyledon bleaching phenotype. Following heat treatment, mutant (chlg-1) but not wild-type seedlings accumulated a substantial level of chlorophyllide a, which resulted in a surge of phototoxic singlet oxygen. Immunoblot analysis suggested that the mutation destabilized the chlorophyll synthase proteins and caused a conditional blockage of esterification of chlorophyllide a after heat stress. Accumulation of chlorophyllide a after heat treatment occurred during recovery in the dark in the light-grown but not the etiolated seedlings, suggesting that the accumulated chlorophyllides were not derived from de novo biosynthesis but from de-esterification of the existing chlorophylls. Further analysis of the triple mutant harboring the CHLG mutant allele and null mutations of CHLOROPHYLLASE1 (CLH1) and CLH2 indicated that the known chlorophyllases are not responsible for the accumulation of chlorophyllide a in chlg-1. Taken together, our results show that chlorophyll synthase acts in a salvage pathway for chlorophyll biosynthesis by re-esterifying the chlorophyllide a produced during chlorophyll turnover.

  2. Ubiquity and quantitative significance of detoxification catabolism of chlorophyll associated with protistan herbivory. (United States)

    Kashiyama, Yuichiro; Yokoyama, Akiko; Kinoshita, Yusuke; Shoji, Sunao; Miyashiya, Hideaki; Shiratori, Takashi; Suga, Hisami; Ishikawa, Kanako; Ishikawa, Akira; Inouye, Isao; Ishida, Ken-ichiro; Fujinuma, Daiki; Aoki, Keisuke; Kobayashi, Masami; Nomoto, Shinya; Mizoguchi, Tadashi; Tamiaki, Hitoshi


    Chlorophylls are essential components of the photosynthetic apparati that sustain all of the life forms that ultimately depend on solar energy. However, a drawback of the extraordinary photosensitizing efficiency of certain chlorophyll species is their ability to generate harmful singlet oxygen. Recent studies have clarified the catabolic processes involved in the detoxification of chlorophylls in land plants, but little is understood about these strategies in aquatic ecosystem. Here, we report that a variety of heterotrophic protists accumulate the chlorophyll a catabolite 13(2),17(3)-cyclopheophorbide a enol (cPPB-aE) after their ingestion of algae. This chlorophyll derivative is nonfluorescent in solution, and its inability to generate singlet oxygen in vitro qualifies it as a detoxified catabolite of chlorophyll a. Using a modified analytical method, we show that cPPB-aE is ubiquitous in aquatic environments, and it is often the major chlorophyll a derivative. Our findings suggest that cPPB-aE metabolism is one of the most important, widely distributed processes in aquatic ecosystems. Therefore, the herbivorous protists that convert chlorophyll a to cPPB-aE are suggested to play more significant roles in the modern oceanic carbon flux than was previously recognized, critically linking microscopic primary producers to the macroscopic food web and carbon sequestration in the ocean.

  3. Two equilibration pools of chlorophylls in the Photosystem I core antenna of Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. (United States)

    Gibasiewicz, Krzysztof; Ramesh, V M; Lin, Su; Redding, Kevin; Woodbury, Neal W; Webber, Andrew N


    Femtosecond transient absorption spectroscopy was applied for a comparative study of excitation decay in several different Photosystem I (PSI) core preparations from the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. For PSI cores with a fully interconnected network of chlorophylls, the excitation energy was equilibrated over a pool of chlorophylls absorbing at approximately 683 nm, independent of excitation wavelength [Gibasiewicz et al. J Phys Chem B 105:11498-11506, 2001; J Phys Chem B 106:6322-6330, 2002]. In preparations with impaired connectivity between chlorophylls, we have found that the spectrum of chlorophylls connected to the reaction center (i.e., with approximately 20 ps decay time) over which the excitation is equilibrated becomes excitation-wavelength-dependent. Excitation at 670 nm is finally equilibrated over chlorophylls absorbing at approximately 675 nm, whereas excitation at 695 nm or 700 nm is equilibrated over chlorophylls absorbing at approximately 683 nm. This indicates that in the vicinity of the reaction center there are two spectrally different and spatially separated pools of chlorophylls that are equally capable of effective excitation energy transfer to the reaction center. We propose that they are related to the two groups of central PSI core chlorophylls lying on the opposite sides of reaction center.

  4. Effects of LEDs on chlorophyll fluorescence and secondary metabolites in Phalaenopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ouzounis, T.; Fretté, X.; Rosenqvist, Eva


    of the experiment. Chlorophyll fluorescence was also recorded with PAM-2001. Leaf area and total fresh weight were highest in the 40%B/60%R for Phalaenopsis 'Vivien', while 100%R demonstrated the highest leaf area and fresh weight for Phalaenopsis 'Purple star'. Chlorophyll fluorescence for the same treatments...

  5. Measuring surface distribution of carotenes and chlorophyll in ripening tomatoes using imaging spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, G.; Heijden, van der G.W.A.M.; Voet, van der H.; Young, I.T.


    Tomatoes (Lycopersicum esculentum, Mill. cv. Capita F1) were harvested at different ripening stages. Spectral images from 400 to 700 nm with a resolution of 1 nm were recorded. After recording, samples were taken from the fruit wall and the lycopene, lutein, -carotene, chlorophyll-a and chlorophyll-

  6. A case of delayed methotrexate clearance following administration of a complementary medication containing chlorophyll. (United States)

    Brooks, Sally L; Sanders, Julie; Seymour, John F; Mellor, James D


    A 54-year-old male with relapsed primary cerebral lymphoma and normal renal function was treated with methotrexate (MTX) 3 g/m(2) monthly by intravenous infusion. Throughout treatment the patient self-administered a complementary medicine (Jason Winter's chlorophyll®), which he was advised to cease during methotrexate treatment due to the potential for unknown interactions. For the first four cycles, chlorophyll was ceased two days prior to commencement of methotrexate and withheld until clearance. These cycles were administered without complication, and the methotrexate level reduced to chlorophyll was not ceased and there were no changes to concomitant medications. A literature search found no documented interactions between methotrexate and chlorophyll and the chemotherapy was administered without a delay in treatment. The methotrexate level three days post-administration was 0.36 µmol/L and did not reduce to chlorophyll 48 h prior to methotrexate administration until clearance. There were no further episodes of delayed methotrexate clearance. No impurities were detected in a sample of Jason Winter's chlorophyll®. It is therefore likely that the patient's delayed methotrexate clearance was due to an interaction with chlorophyll. It is recommended that such chlorophyll containing preparations be avoided in patients treated with methotrexate.

  7. Presence of a chlorophyll d-like pigment in Chlorella extracts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Michel-Wolwertz, M.R.; Sironval, C.; Goedheer, J.C.


    Three chlorophyll a isomers (a₁, a₂ and a₃) were separated by the chromatography of Chlorella extracts on paper 1. One of these, chlorophyll (a₃) showed additional absorption bands at 688 and 455 mμ in diethyl ether. Chromatographic analysis could not decide whether these bands were due to a₃ or to

  8. Fo-spectra of chlorophyll fluorescence for the determination of zooplankton grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lürling, M.F.L.L.W.; Verschoor, A.M.


    In the PHYTO-PAM phytoplankton analyzer the minimal fluorescence of dark-adapted samples (F-0) was assessed, which gives direct information on the chlorophyll-a content. Clearance rates (CR) of Daphnia and Brachionus were calculated from a decrease in chlorophyll-a concentration using the PHYTO-PAM

  9. FO-spectra of chlorophyll fluorescence for the determination of zooplankton grazing

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lürling, M.; Verschoor, A.M.


    In the PHYTO-PAM phytoplankton analyzer the minimal fluorescence of dark-adapted samples (F0) was assessed, which gives direct information on the chlorophyll- a content. Clearance rates (CR) of Daphnia and Brachionus were calculated from a decrease in chlorophyll-a concentration using the PHYTO-PAM

  10. LAI and chlorophyll estimation for a heterogeneous grassland using hyperspectral measurements

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Darvishzadeh, R.; Skidmore, A.K.; Schlerf, M.; Atzberger, C.; Corsi, F.; Cho, M.A.


    The study shows that leaf area index (LAI), leaf chlorophyll content (LCC) and canopy chlorophyll content (CCC) can be mapped in a heterogeneous Mediterranean grassland from canopy spectral reflectance measurements. Canopy spectral measurements were made in the field using a GER 3700 spectroradiomet

  11. Strong enhancement of chlorophyll a concentration by a weak typhoon

    CERN Document Server

    SUN, Liang; Xian, Tao; Lu, Zhu-min; Fu, Yun-Fei; 10.3354/meps08477


    Recent studies demonstrate that chlorophyll a (chl a) concentrations in the surface ocean can be significantly enhanced due to typhoons. The present study investigated chl a concentrations in the middle of the South China Sea (SCS) from 1997-2007. Only the Category1 (minimal) Typhoon Hagibis (2007) had a notable effect on the chl a concentrations. Typhoon Hagibis had a strong upwelling potential due to its location near the equator, and the forcing time of the typhoon (>82 h) was much longer than the geostrophic adjustment time (~63 h). The higher upwelling velocity and the longer forcing time increased the depth of the mixed-layer, which consequently induced a strong phytoplankton bloom that accounted for about 30% of the total annual chl a concentration in the middle of the SCS. The implication is that the forcing time of a typhoon should be long enough to establish a strong upwelling and consequently for the induction of significant upper ocean responses.

  12. Canopy Level Chlorophyll Fluorescence and the PRI in a Cornfield (United States)

    Middleton, Elizabeth M.; Cheng, Yen-Ben; Corp, Lawrence A.; Campbell, Petya K. E.; Huemmrich, K. Fred; Zhang, Qingyuan; Kustas, William P.


    Two bio-indicators, the Photochemical Reflectance Index (PRI) and solar-induced red and far-red Chlorophyll Fluorescence (SIF), were derived from directional hyperspectral observations and studied in a cornfield on two contrasting days in the growing season. Both red and far-red SIF exhibited higher values on the day when the canopy in the early senescent stage, but only the far-red SIF showed sensitivity to viewing geometry. Consequently, the red/far-red SIF ratio varied greatly among azimuth positions while the largest values were obtained for the "hotspot" at both growth stages. This ratio was lower (approx.0.88 +/- 0.4) in early July than in August when the ratio approached equivalence (near approx.1). In concert, the PRI exhibited stronger responses to both zenith and azimuth angles and different values on the two growth stages. The potential of using these indices to monitor photosynthetic activities needs further investigation

  13. Morphological Analysis and Interaction of Chlorophyll and BSA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Filipe D. S. Gorza


    Full Text Available Interactions between proteins and drugs, which can lead to formation of stable drug-protein complexes, have important implications on several processes related to human health. These interactions can affect, for instance, free concentration, biological activity, and metabolism of the drugs in the blood stream. Here, we report on the UV-Visible spectroscopic investigation on the interaction of bovine serum albumin (BSA with chlorophyll (Chl in aqueous solution under physiological conditions. Binding constants at different temperatures—obtained by using the Benesi-Hildebrand equation—were found to be of the same order of magnitude (~104 M−1 indicating low affinity of Chl with BSA. We have found a hyperchromism, which suggested an interaction between BSA and Chl occurring through conformational changes of BSA caused by exposition of tryptophan to solvent. Films from BSA and Chl obtained at different Chl concentrations showed fractal structures, which were characterized by fractal dimension calculated from microscopic image analysis.

  14. Quenching of chlorophyll fluorescence induced by silver nanoparticles (United States)

    Queiroz, A. M.; Mezacasa, A. V.; Graciano, D. E.; Falco, W. F.; M'Peko, J.-C.; Guimarães, F. E. G.; Lawson, T.; Colbeck, I.; Oliveira, S. L.; Caires, A. R. L.


    The interaction between chlorophyll (Chl) and silver nanoparticles (AgNPs) was evaluated by analyzing the optical behavior of Chl molecules surrounded by different concentrations of AgNPs (10, 60, and 100 nm of diameter). UV-Vis absorption, steady state and time-resolved fluorescence measurements were performed for Chl in the presence and absence of these nanoparticles. AgNPs strongly suppressed the Chl fluorescence intensity at 678 nm. The Stern-Volmer constant (KSV) showed that fluorescence suppression is driven by the dynamic quenching process. In particular, KSV was nanoparticle size-dependent with an exponential decrease as a function of the nanoparticle diameter. Finally, changes in the Chl fluorescence lifetime in the presence of nanoparticles demonstrated that the fluorescence quenching may be induced by the excited electron transfer from the Chl molecules to the metal nanoparticles.

  15. Chlorophyll mediated photodynamic inactivation of blue laser on Streptococcus mutans (United States)

    Astuti, Suryani Dyah; Zaidan, A.; Setiawati, Ernie Maduratna; Suhariningsih


    Photodynamic inactivation is an inactivation method in microbial pathogens that utilize light and photosensitizer. This study was conducted to investigate photodynamic inactivation effects of low intensity laser exposure with various dose energy on Streptococcus mutans bacteria. The photodynamic inactivation was achieved with the addition of chlorophyll as photosensitizers. To determine the survival percentage of Streptococcus mutans bacteria after laser exposure, the total plate count method was used. For this study, the wavelength of the laser is 405 nm and variables of energy doses are 1.44, 2.87, 4.31, 5.74, 7.18, and 8.61 in J/cm2. The results show that exposure to laser with energy dose of 7.18 J/cm2 has the best photodynamic inactivation with a decrease of 78% in Streptococcus

  16. Modeling chlorophyll a fluorescence transient: relation to photosynthesis. (United States)

    Stirbet, A; Riznichenko, G Yu; Rubin, A B; Govindjee


    To honor Academician Alexander Abramovitch Krasnovsky, we present here an educational review on the relation of chlorophyll a fluorescence transient to various processes in photosynthesis. The initial event in oxygenic photosynthesis is light absorption by chlorophylls (Chls), carotenoids, and, in some cases, phycobilins; these pigments form the antenna. Most of the energy is transferred to reaction centers where it is used for charge separation. The small part of energy that is not used in photochemistry is dissipated as heat or re-emitted as fluorescence. When a photosynthetic sample is transferred from dark to light, Chl a fluorescence (ChlF) intensity shows characteristic changes in time called fluorescence transient, the OJIPSMT transient, where O (the origin) is for the first measured minimum fluorescence level; J and I for intermediate inflections; P for peak; S for semi-steady state level; M for maximum; and T for terminal steady state level. This transient is a real signature of photosynthesis, since diverse events can be related to it, such as: changes in redox states of components of the linear electron transport flow, involvement of alternative electron routes, the build-up of a transmembrane pH gradient and membrane potential, activation of different nonphotochemical quenching processes, activation of the Calvin-Benson cycle, and other processes. In this review, we present our views on how different segments of the OJIPSMT transient are influenced by various photosynthetic processes, and discuss a number of studies involving mathematical modeling and simulation of the ChlF transient. A special emphasis is given to the slower PSMT phase, for which many studies have been recently published, but they are less known than on the faster OJIP phase.

  17. Accuracy and functionality of hand held wood moisture content meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Forsen, H.; Tarvainen, V. [VTT Building Technology, Espoo (Finland). Building Materials and Products, Wood Technology


    The main task of VTT in this EU project was to test and improve the reliability and performance of moisture content meters. A total of 16 resistance type and 6 capacitance type hand-held moisture meters were included in the test series. Test samples of the most important European species (pine, spruce, birch, oak, beech, alder, larch) were obtained from all over Europe. The total survey included about 2,700 pieces for comparative testing. The test material was conditioned to three different moisture contents (8 - 10%, 12 - 14% and 16 - 18%). The moisture gradients in the test specimens were small due to the long conditioning time lasting at least 1 year. The effects of various factors, such as moisture content, species, and temperature, on the electrical resistance of conditioned wood were studied. In the laboratory tests, the resistance - moisture content curves for different species from different countries were determined using conditioned wood material. The species corrections (resistance curves) are quite similar for different counties. Only the resistance curve for Maritime Pine differs clearly from the other resistance curves for the pine species originating from the different countries. The wood temperature corrections are about 0.1 - 0.15% units/deg C which has to be considered when the moisture content of wood is measured at temperatures other than 20 deg C. The other properties of wood, such as sapwood/heartwood and density, do not have a significant effect on resistance values. There were no significant resistance differences related to the type of electrodes, distances between electrodes, and different measuring direction. The commercial instruments for the determination of wood moisture content were tested with respect to accuracy, reliability and ergonomy. The moisture meters were tested both under laboratory and industrial conditions. Most of the resistance meters show a systematic deviation from the actual moisture content because of incorrect MC

  18. Diagnosis of Cassava Nitrogen Nutrition Status by Using Chlorophyll Meter SPAD-502%木薯氮素营养状况的SPAD仪诊断

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    柳红娟; 欧燕楠; 刘子凡; 黄洁


    本文以华南8号为材料,研究了不同生育时期木薯叶片SPAD值、鲜薯产量以及淀粉产量随土壤供氮水平的变化规律及其相互关系.结果表明:①在块根形成期和块根膨大期,叶片SPAD值随土壤施氮量表现为线性加平台的模式,而在块根工艺成熟期仅表现为线性模式.②不管是在块根形成期、块根膨大期和块根工艺成熟期,木薯叶片SPAD值与块根鲜薯产量和淀粉产量之间均呈现二次函数关系,据此确定了在块根形成期、块根膨大期和块根工艺成熟期应用叶绿素仪SPAD-502进行木薯推荐施肥的SPAD临界值:鲜薯产量最大时分别为45.19、43.09、40.63,淀粉产量最大分别为44.31、42.49、40.51.③若在块根形成期、块根膨大期和块根工艺成熟期观测SPAD值小于临界SPAD一个单位,且施氮量小于1.98 kg/667m2时,则应增加的施氮量分别为0.42、0.63和1.34 kg/667m2;若施氮量大于1.98 kg/667m2,追氮量则需进一步研究.%In this paper, taken the cassava variety of SC8 as tested materials, the change of cassava leaf SPAD value, fresh cassava yield and starch yield during different growth period were studied with nitrogen supply. The results showed that (i)at the root initiation stage and the root bulking stage, the leaf SPAD value varied with nitrogen fertilization levels in linear-plateau regression modes, and in linear regression modes at the root technical maturity stage; (ii) Fresh cassava yield and starch yield varied with the leaf SPAD value in a quadratic-function modes at root initiation stage, root bulking stage and the root technical maturity stage, and the threshold SPAD values of different growth stages of cassava were obtained by SPAD-502, which were critical for the instruction of nitrogen fertilization in cassava. SPAD values were 45. 19, 43. 09, 40.63, respectively, in the highest fresh cassava yield in above three stages and 44. 31, 42.49, 40. 51, respectively, in starch yield; (iii) when the observed SPAD value was less one unit than the critical SPAD value at the three stages,and the amount of nitrogen application was less than 1.98 kg/667m2 , the increasing amount of nitrogen apply were 0.42, 0.63 and 1. 34 kg/667m2 in the three stages. The amount of nitrogen application was more than 1.98 kg/667 m2 and the additional application amount would be studied in advance.

  19. Role of formation of statistical aggregates in chlorophyll fluorescence concentration quenching. (United States)

    Shi, Wu-Jun; Barber, James; Zhao, Yang


    Using extensive Monte Carlo simulations, a comprehensive investigation has been carried out on the phenomenon of chlorophyll fluorescence concentration quenching. Our results reveal that statistical aggregations of chlorophylls act mainly as trapping sites for excitation energy and lead to fluorescence quenching. Due to transition dipolar-dipolar interactions between the chlorophylls within a statistical aggregate, the associated oscillator strength changes in comparison to a monomer, and excited energy states show splitting. Further, as the lower energy states are more likely associated with lower oscillator strengths, the fluorescence intensity is observed to decrease. Due to the rapid energy transfer between chlorophyll molecules after photoexcitation, the excitonic energy can easily reach a statistical aggregate, where trapping of the exciton and its subsequent decay occur. With an increase in the chlorophyll concentration, the probability of statistical aggregation increases, thereby accentuating the fluorescence quenching effect.

  20. Study on the Correlation Between Chlorophyll Maximum and Remote Sensing Data

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    XIU Peng; LIU Yuguang


    Based on the in situ optical measurements in the Bohai Sea of China, which belongs to a typical case-2 water area, we studied the characteristics of DCM (deep chlorophyll maximum) such as its spatial distribution, vertical profile,etc.We found that when the depth of the chlorophyll maximum is comparatively small, even in turbid coastal water regions,there is always a good correlation between the concentrations of chlorophyll maximum and the satellite-received signals in blue-green spectral bands; the correlation is even better than that between the surface chlorophyll concentrations and the satellite-received signals.The strong correlation existing even in turbid coastal water regions indicates that an ocean color model to retrieve the concentration of DCM can be constructed for coastal waters if a comprehensive knowledge of the vertical distribution of chlorophyll concentration in the Bohai Sea of China is available.

  1. Coherence and population dynamics of chlorophyll excitations in FCP complex: Two-dimensional spectroscopy study. (United States)

    Butkus, Vytautas; Gelzinis, Andrius; Augulis, Ramūnas; Gall, Andrew; Büchel, Claudia; Robert, Bruno; Zigmantas, Donatas; Valkunas, Leonas; Abramavicius, Darius


    Energy transfer processes and coherent phenomena in the fucoxanthin-chlorophyll protein complex, which is responsible for the light harvesting function in marine algae diatoms, were investigated at 77 K by using two-dimensional electronic spectroscopy. Experiments performed on femtosecond and picosecond timescales led to separation of spectral dynamics, witnessing evolutions of coherence and population states of the system in the spectral region of Qy transitions of chlorophylls a and c. Analysis of the coherence dynamics allowed us to identify chlorophyll (Chl) a and fucoxanthin intramolecular vibrations dominating over the first few picoseconds. Closer inspection of the spectral region of the Qy transition of Chl c revealed previously not identified, mutually non-interacting chlorophyll c states participating in femtosecond or picosecond energy transfer to the Chl a molecules. Consideration of separated coherent and incoherent dynamics allowed us to hypothesize the vibrations-assisted coherent energy transfer between Chl c and Chl a and the overall spatial arrangement of chlorophyll molecules.

  2. Thermocline Regulated Seasonal Evolution of Surface Chlorophyll in the Gulf of Aden

    KAUST Repository

    Hoteit, Ibrahim


    The Gulf of Aden, although subject to seasonally reversing monsoonal winds, has been previously reported as an oligotrophic basin during summer, with elevated chlorophyll concentrations only occurring during winter due to convective mixing. However, the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color data reveal that the Gulf of Aden also exhibits a prominent summer chlorophyll bloom and sustains elevated chlorophyll concentrations throughout the fall, and is a biophysical province distinct from the adjacent Arabian Sea. Climatological hydrographic data suggest that the thermocline, hence the nutricline, in the entire gulf is markedly shoaled by the southwest monsoon during summer and fall. Under this condition, cyclonic eddies in the gulf can effectively pump deep nutrients to the surface layer and lead to the chlorophyll bloom in late summer, and, after the transition to the northeast monsoon in fall, coastal upwelling driven by the northeasterly winds produces a pronounced increase in surface chlorophyll concentrations along the Somali coast.

  3. Thermocline regulated seasonal evolution of surface chlorophyll in the Gulf of Aden. (United States)

    Yao, Fengchao; Hoteit, Ibrahim


    The Gulf of Aden, although subject to seasonally reversing monsoonal winds, has been previously reported as an oligotrophic basin during summer, with elevated chlorophyll concentrations only occurring during winter due to convective mixing. However, the Sea-Viewing Wide Field-of-View Sensor (SeaWiFS) ocean color data reveal that the Gulf of Aden also exhibits a prominent summer chlorophyll bloom and sustains elevated chlorophyll concentrations throughout the fall, and is a biophysical province distinct from the adjacent Arabian Sea. Climatological hydrographic data suggest that the thermocline, hence the nutricline, in the entire gulf is markedly shoaled by the southwest monsoon during summer and fall. Under this condition, cyclonic eddies in the gulf can effectively pump deep nutrients to the surface layer and lead to the chlorophyll bloom in late summer, and, after the transition to the northeast monsoon in fall, coastal upwelling driven by the northeasterly winds produces a pronounced increase in surface chlorophyll concentrations along the Somali coast.

  4. Genetic dissection of chlorophyll content at different growth stages in common wheat

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Kunpu Zhang; Zhijun Fang; Yan Liang; Jichun Tian


    Quantitative trait loci (QTLs) for chlorophyll content were studied using a doubled haploid (DH) population with 168 progeny lines, derived from a cross between two elite Chinese wheat cultivars Huapei 3 × Yumai 57. Chlorophyll content was evaluated at the maximum tillering stage (MS), the heading stage (HS), and the grain filling stage (GS), at three different environments in 2005 and 2006 cropping seasons. QTL analyses were performed using a mixed linear model approach. A total of 17 additive QTLs and nine pairs of epistatic QTLs were detected. Ten of 17 additive QTLs for chlorophyll content were persistently expressed at more than two growth stages, which suggest developmentally regulated loci controlling genetics for chlorophyll content in different growth stages in wheat. One novel major QTL for chlorophyll content was closely linked with the PCR marker Xwmc215 and was persistently expressed at three growth stages.

  5. Women and AIDS: introduction. (United States)

    Krieger, N; Margo, G


    Around the world, more and more women--principally poor women of color--are being diagnosed with and are dying of AIDS, the acquired immune deficiency syndrome. Yet, effective and appropriate prevention programs for women are sorely missing from the global program to control AIDS. To help us understand why this gap exists, and what we must do to close it, the three articles in this issue focus on women and AIDS. Examining the situation in such countries as Zimbabwe and South Africa, as well as in other economically underdeveloped and developed regions, the authors argue that women with the least control over their bodies and their lives are at greatest risk of acquiring AIDS. For example, the high rate of infection among women in Africa cannot be understood apart from the legacy of colonialism (including land expropriation and the forced introduction of a migrant labor system) and the insidious combination of traditional and European patriarchal values. Only by recognizing the socioeconomic and cultural determinants of both disease and sexual behavior, and only by incorporating these insights into our AIDS prevention programs, will we be able to curb the spread of this lethal disease.

  6. AIDS in Africa. (United States)

    Mokhobo, D


    Numerous cultural practices and attitudes in Africa represent formidable obstacles to the prevention of the further spread of acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS). Polygamy and concubinage are still widely practiced throughout Africa. In fact, sexual promiscuity on the part of males is traditionally viewed as positive--a reflection of male supremacy and male sexual prowess. The disintegration of the rural African family, brought about by urbanization, the migrant labor system, and poverty, has resulted in widespread premarital promiscuity. Contraceptive practices are perceived by many as a white conspiracy aimed at limiting the growth of the black population and thereby diminishing its political power. Condom use is particularly in disfavor. Thus, AIDS prevention campaigns urging Africans to restrict the number of sexual partners and to use condoms are unlikely to be successful. Another problem is that most Africans cannot believe that AIDS is sexually linked in that the disease does not affect the sex organs as is the case with other sexually transmitted diseases. The degree to which African governments are able to allocate resources to AIDS education will determine whether the epidemic can be controlled. Even with a massive outpouring of resources, it may be difficult to arouse public alarm about AIDS since Africans are so acclimated to living with calamities of every kind.

  7. Determination of chlorophylls and their derivatives in Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino by liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry. (United States)

    Huang, S C; Hung, C F; Wu, W B; Chen, B H


    The objectives of this study were to develop a high performance liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (HPLC-MS) method for determination of chlorophylls and their derivatives in Gynostemma pentaphyllum Makino, a traditional Chinese herb possessing vital biological activities. Chlorophylls were extracted with a quaternary solvent system of hexane-acetone-ethanol-toluene (10:7:6:7, v/v/v/v), followed by separation of a total of 15 chlorophylls and their derivatives within 32 min using a gradient mobile phase of acetone, acetonitrile and methanol and a HyPURITY C18 column, with detection at 660 nm and flow rate at 1 mL/min. Identification was carried out on the basis of retention behavior, absorption spectra and mass spectra using atmospheric pressure chemical ionization (APCI) in positive ion mode for detection. Of the 15 analytes, chlorophyll a, chlorophyll b, pheophytin a and pheophytin b were quantified by using standard calibration curves, with the other 11 being quantified with an internal standard Fast Green FCF. Chlorophyll extracts in G. pentaphyllum were found to contain pheophytin a (2508.3 microg/g), pheophytin a' (111.2 microg/g), chlorophyll a (113.8 microg/g), chlorophyll a' (11.0 microg/g), hydroxypheophytin a (88.6 microg/g), hydroxypheophytin a' (66.5 microg/g), pyropheophytin a (76.0 microg/g), hydroxychlorophyll a (23.8 microg/g), pheophytin b (319.6 microg/g), pheophytin b' (13.2 microg/g), chlorophyll b (287.9 microg/g), chlorophyll b' (11.1 microg/g), hydroxychlorophyll b (15.0 microg/g), hydroxypheophytin b (11.2 microg/g) and hydroxypheophytin b' (8.5 microg/g).


    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)


    Chinese Premier Wen Jiabao visits AIDS orphans in Shangcai County,central China’s Henan Province,on November 30,a day before the 20th World AIDS Day. The region of Shangcai has the highest concentration of people living with HIV/AIDS in China. The Chinese Government has released a package of policies that offer people living with HIV/AIDS free medicine,health checks and consultations,as well as free schooling to AIDS orphans.

  9. Indian Ocean Dipole and El Nino/Southern Oscillation impacts on regional chlorophyll anomalies in the Indian Ocean

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Currie, J; Lengaigne, M.; Vialard, J; Kaplan, D.M.; Aumont, O.; Naqvi, S.W.A.; Maury, O.

    biophysical ocean general circulation model, to disentangle patterns of chlorophyll anomalies driven by these two climate modes. Comparisons with remotely sensed records show that the simulation competently reproduces the chlorophyll seasonal cycle, as well...

  10. AIDS in Colombia. (United States)

    Boshell, J; Gacharná, M G; García, M; Jaramillo, L S; Márquez, G; Fergusson, M M; González, S; Prada, E Y; de Rangel, R; de Cabas, R


    Between January 1984 and December 1987 a total of 178 AIDS cases were reported to the Colombian Ministry of Health. The location of these cases suggests that the human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is widely distributed in Colombia. Most of those afflicted (97%) have been adult males. HIV seroprevalence studies of selected population groups revealed the highest antibody prevalence (5.65% in females, 22.5% in males) among individuals involved in high-risk behaviors who participated in a free AIDS testing program. High prevalences (from 0.6% to 3.9% in females, and 14.6% to 15.9% in males) were also found in patients (primarily female prostitutes and male homosexuals) attending clinics for sexually transmitted diseases in several urban areas. The number of AIDS cases in Colombia has doubled or tripled annually since reporting began in 1984, a pattern similar to that observed worldwide.

  11. [AIDS mortality in France]. (United States)

    Hatton, F; Maguin, P; Nicaud, V; Renaud, G


    A study about mortality by AIDS had been undertaken since July 1st 1983, in the Service of Information on Medical causes of Death (INSERM SC8), which is in charge of developing mortality statistics in France. From July 1st 1983 to September 30th 1985, 243 deaths due to AIDS were recorded. Only the cases where this diagnosis was clearly mentioned were selected; more than 90% were notified by hospitals and mainly by highly specialized services. The number of deaths, which was low and varied rather irregularly at the beginning, then increased by successive stages. The first year, during which a tenth of deaths was recorded every three months, was followed by a great increase, doubling, then tripling the initial numbers. Lastly, a second and sudden rise occurred during the third trimester of 1985, the trimestrial number of deaths due to AIDS reaching 80.

  12. CT reclassification system cuts costs of grid metering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Doig, P. [Schneider Electric, Toronto, ON (Canada)


    New regulatory requirements demand that utilities meter previously un-metered locations on the power network with accurate revenue metering equipment. Utilities are now exploring the possibility of re-using existing relay-class transformers (CTs) for metering applications. However, the true accuracy of the existing CTs is often unknown. This paper presented details of a new CT reclassification system. The system uses a highly accurate current sensor for use in live-line methods in a high voltage environment. The system analyzes the accuracy of an existing CT and calculates its characteristic performance. Corresponding error correction parameters are then obtained and programmed into an advanced revenue meter in order to enable dynamic accuracy reclassification of the existing CT while it is operational. The sensor is based on a split-core active CT design. In a typical installation, 3 primary sensors are installed on the high-side bus in a high voltage substation in series with the circuit breaker containing the existing relay-class CTs under test. The sensors each wirelessly stream data to a computer workstation in a nearby substation control building. The sensors and the advanced revenue meter are equipped with a global positioning system (GPS) receiver that support accurate time-stamping and synchronization of all data sent to the computer for analysis. Software is used to compare data from the sensors to the respective 3-phase data collected from the meter and to calculate the appropriate ratio correction factors and phase angle correction factors for each test point. Correction parameters are then programmed into the revenue meter which provides dynamic correction for the ratio and phase angle errors of the relay-class CT over its operational range. The revenue meter is left in place after the sensors are removed in order to measure highly accurate energy data which is reported back to the utility data collection and billing system. Details of a test conducted

  13. The AGS Ggamma Meter and Calibrating the Gauss Clock

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ahrens, Leif [Brookhaven National Laboratory (BNL), Upton, NY (United States). Collider-Accelerator Dept.


    During AGS Polarized Proton acceleration periods, one output from the AGS Ggamma Meter, namely the energy (or Ggamma) calculated from the magnetic field in the AGS main magnets and the beam radius- both measured in particular instant, is used to figure out the times in the AGS magnet acceleration cycle when the beam passes through a particular set of depolarizing resonances. The resonance set occur whenever a particle’s Ggamma (energy*(G/m) becomes nearly equal to n*Qx (i.e. any integer multiplied by the horizontal betatron tune). This deliverable is why the machinery is referred to as the ''Ggamma Meter'' rather than the AGS energy meter. The Ggamma Meter takes as inputs a set of measurements of frequency (F(t)), radius (r(t)), and gauss clock counts (GCC(t)). The other energy (GgammaBr) assumes the field when the gauss clock starts counting is known. The change in field to time t is given by the measured accumulated gauss clock counts multiplied by the gauss clock calibration (gauss/GCC). In order to deal with experimental data, this calibration factor gets an added ad hoc complication, namely a correction dependent on the rate of change the counting rate. The Ggamma meter takes GCC(t) and together with the past history for this cycle calculates B(t).

  14. Modelling and calibration of a ring-shaped electrostatic meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang Jianyong [University of Teesside, Middlesbrough TS1 3BA (United Kingdom); Zhou Bin; Xu Chuanlong; Wang Shimin, E-mail: [Southeast University, Sipailou 2, Nanjing 210096 (China)


    Ring-shaped electrostatic flow meters can provide very useful information on pneumatically transported air-solids mixture. This type of meters are popular in measuring and controlling the pulverized coal flow distribution among conveyors leading to burners in coal-fired power stations, and they have also been used for research purposes, e.g. for the investigation of electrification mechanism of air-solids two-phase flow. In this paper, finite element method (FEM) is employed to analyze the characteristics of ring-shaped electrostatic meters, and a mathematic model has been developed to express the relationship between the meter's voltage output and the motion of charged particles in the sensing volume. The theoretical analysis and the test results using a belt rig demonstrate that the output of the meter depends upon many parameters including the characteristics of conditioning circuitry, the particle velocity vector, the amount and the rate of change of the charge carried by particles, the locations of particles and etc. This paper also introduces a method to optimize the theoretical model via calibration.

  15. Strategies for Power Line Communications Smart Metering Network Deployment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Sendin


    Full Text Available Smart Grids are becoming a reality all over the world. Nowadays, the research efforts for the introduction and deployment of these grids are mainly focused on the development of the field of Smart Metering. This emerging application requires the use of technologies to access the significant number of points of supply (PoS existing in the grid, covering the Low Voltage (LV segment with the lowest possible costs. Power Line Communications (PLC have been extensively used in electricity grids for a variety of purposes and, of late, have been the focus of renewed interest. PLC are really well suited for quick and inexpensive pervasive deployments. However, no LV grid is the same in any electricity company (utility, and the particularities of each grid evolution, architecture, circumstances and materials, makes it a challenge to deploy Smart Metering networks with PLC technologies, with the Smart Grid as an ultimate goal. This paper covers the evolution of Smart Metering networks, together with the evolution of PLC technologies until both worlds have converged to project PLC-enabled Smart Metering networks towards Smart Grid. This paper develops guidelines over a set of strategic aspects of PLC Smart Metering network deployment based on the knowledge gathered on real field; and introduces the future challenges of these networks in their evolution towards the Smart Grid.

  16. Additional functions of remotely read kWh-meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Vehvilaeinen, S. [Mittrix Oy (Finland); Rantanen, J. [Helsinki Energy Board, Helsinki (Finland)


    In this presentation the possibilities to include new applications into remotely read smart kWh-meters are considered. New electronic meters can measure various electric quantities and have some extra calculating capacity. So they can be used to provide functions that distribution automation and the customer need and thus share the costs. Some applications like monitoring the state of the distribution network or locating faults are only for the utility, but many applications also need an interface to the customer or his automation system. Among those are monitoring the quality of electricity, estimating load curves, applying dynamic tariffs and selling electricity and accounting. As a special item, the continuous monitoring of the quality of electricity is discussed. This includes voltage levels, total distortion, asymmetry and so on. If such a kWh-meter indicates quality problems the situation can be detected with a suitable portable quality meter. The poor quality can be detected before it causes harm to equipment owned by the customers or the power distribution company. This presentation also presents a prototype of such a quality monitoring kWh-meter

  17. Aesthetic and emotional effects of meter and rhyme in poetry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christian eObermeier


    Full Text Available Metrical patterning and rhyme are frequently employed in poetry but also in infant-directed speech, play, rites, and festive events. Drawing on four line-stanzas from 19th and 20th German poetry that feature end rhyme and regular meter, the present study tested the hypothesis that meter and rhyme have an impact on aesthetic liking, emotional involvement, and affective valence attributions. Hypotheses that postulate such effects have been advocated ever since ancient rhetoric and poetics, yet they have barely been empirically tested. More recently, in the field of cognitive poetics, these traditional assumptions have been readopted in a general cognitive framework. In the present experiment, we tested the influence of meter and rhyme as well as their interaction with lexicality in the aesthetic and emotional perception of poetry. Participants listened to stanzas that were systematically modified with regard to meter and rhyme and rated them. Both rhyme and regular meter led to enhanced aesthetic appreciation, higher intensity in processing, and more positively perceived and felt emotions, with latter finding being mediated by lexicality. Together these findings clearly show that both features significantly contribute to the aesthetic and emotional perception of poetry and thus confirm assumptions about their impact put forward by cognitive poetics. The present results are explained within the theoretical framework of cognitive fluency, which links structural features of poetry with aesthetic and emotional appraisal.

  18. An analysis of a QND speed-meter interferometer

    CERN Document Server

    Purdue, P


    In the quest to develop viable designs for third-generation optical interferometric gravitational-wave detectors (e.g. LIGO-III and EURO), one strategy is to monitor the relative momentum or speed of the test-mass mirrors, rather than monitoring their relative position. This paper describes and analyzes the most straightforward design for a {\\it speed meter interferometer} that accomplishes this -- a design (due to Braginsky, Gorodetsky, Khalili and Thorne) that is analogous to a microwave-cavity speed meter conceived by Braginsky and Khalili. A mathematical mapping between the microwave speed meter and the optical interferometric speed meter is developed and is used to show (in accord with the speed being a Quantum Nondemolition [QND] observable) that {\\it in principle} the interferometric speed meter can beat the gravitational-wave standard quantum limit (SQL) by an arbitrarily large amount, over an arbitrarily wide range of frequencies, and can do so without the use of squeezed vacuum or any auxiliary filt...

  19. Dual-Resonator Speed Meter for a Free Test Mass

    CERN Document Server

    Braginsky, V B; Khalili, F Ya; Thorne, K S; Braginsky, Vladimir B.; Gorodetsky, Mikhail L.; Khalili, Farid Ya.; Thorne, Kip S.


    A description and analysis are given of a ``speed meter'' for monitoring a classical force that acts on a test mass. This speed meter is based on two microwave resonators (``dual resonators''), one of which couples evanescently to the position of the test mass. The sloshing of the resulting signal between the resonators, and a wise choice of where to place the resonators' output waveguide, produce a signal in the waveguide that (for sufficiently low frequencies) is proportional to the test-mass velocity (speed) rather than its position. This permits the speed meter to achieve force-measurement sensitivities better than the standard quantum limit (SQL), both when operating in a narrow-band mode and a wide-band mode. A scrutiny of experimental issues shows that it is feasible, with current technology, to construct a demonstration speed meter that beats the wide-band SQL by a factor 2. A concept is sketched for an adaptation of this speed meter to optical frequencies; this adaptation forms the basis for a possib...

  20. Computer aided control engineering

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Szymkat, Maciej; Ravn, Ole


    Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may be speci......Current developments in the field of Computer Aided Control Engineering (CACE) have a visible impact on the design methodologies and the structure of the software tools supporting them. Today control engineers has at their disposal libraries, packages or programming environments that may...

  1. Advanced Metering Implementations - A Perspective from Federal Sector

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eaarni, Shankar


    Federal mandate (EPACT 2005) requires that federal buildings install advanced electrical meters-meters capable of providing data at least daily and measuring the consumption of electricity at least hourly. This work presents selected advanced metering implementations to understand some of the existing practices related to data capture and to understand how the data is being translated into information and knowledge that can be used to improve building energy and operational performance to meet federal energy reduction mandates. This study highlights case studies to represent some of the various actions that are being taken based on the data that are being collected to improve overall energy performance of these buildings. Some of these actions include- individualized tenant billing and energy forecasting, benchmarking, identifying energy conservation measures, measurement and verification.

  2. Smart Meter Data Analytics: Systems, Algorithms and Benchmarking

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Liu, Xiufeng; Golab, Lukasz; Golab, Wojciech;


    the proposed benchmark using five representative platforms: a traditional numeric computing platform (Matlab), a relational DBMS with a built-in machine learning toolkit (PostgreSQL/MADlib), a main-memory column store (“System C”), and two distributed data processing platforms (Hive and Spark/Spark Streaming......Smart electricity meters have been replacing conventional meters worldwide, enabling automated collection of fine-grained (e.g., every 15 minutes or hourly) consumption data. A variety of smart meter analytics algorithms and applications have been proposed, mainly in the smart grid literature......). We compare the five platforms in terms of application development effort and performance on a multicore machine as well as a cluster of 16 commodity servers....

  3. Field tests of a tissue-equivalent beta survey meter

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Martz, D.E.; Johnson, L.O.; Rich, B.L.; Daniel, S.H.


    A tissue-equivalent survey meter for monitoring the (dD/dt)(0.07) and (dD/dt)(10) dose rates produced by betas and photons has been designed and tested. The very thin tissue-equivalent plastic scintillator closely simulates the critical skin tissue layer between 4 -2/ and 9 -2/. The meter is calibrated to read the (dD/dt)(0.07) dose rate directly, and the (dD/dt)(10) dose rate behind a filter. Laboratory measurements of calibrated sources and field tests have demonstrated tissue-equivalent response of the survey meter to betas between 70 keV and 2500 keV and to photons with energies greater than about 30 keV.

  4. A microcomputer based system for current-meter data acquisition (United States)

    Cheng, R.T.; Gartner, J.W.


    The U.S. Geological Survey is conducting current measurements as part of an interdisciplinary study of the San Francisco Bay estuarine system. The current meters used in the study record current speed, direction, temperature, and conductivity in digital codes on magnetic tape cartridges. Upon recovery of the current meters, the data tapes are translated by a tape reader into computer codes for further analyses. Quite often the importance of the data processing phase of a current-measurement program is underestimated and downplayed. In this paper a data-processing system which performs the complete data processing and analyses is described. The system, which is configured around an LSI-11 microcomputer, has been assembled to provide the capabilities of data translation, reduction, and tabulation and graphical display immediately following recovery of current meters. The flexibility inherent in a microcomputer has made it available to perform many other research functions which would normally be done on an institutional computer.

  5. Apparatus for metering the angle of inclination of construction projects

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zaripov, M.F.; Kovshov, G.N.; Lavrov, B.V.


    A design is submitted for an apparatus to be used in metering the inclination angle of construction projects such as wells. This apparatus consists of a hinged universal joint, both internal and external frames, a pendulum with a ferromagnetic probe mounted on the internal frame, two sources for the formation of a controlled magnetic field, magnetic posts which are in-line with the frame axis, and a conversion-metering circuit. A two-phase current generator is mounted on the external frame and a ferromagnetic probe is placed at a 45-degree angle to the rotation axis for the internal frame, perpendicular to the vertical posts. Such a configuration serves to improve the metering accuracy by removing error and instability in the magnetic field source current.

  6. Net Metering and Interconnection Procedures-- Incorporating Best Practices

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jason Keyes, Kevin Fox, Joseph Wiedman, Staff at North Carolina Solar Center


    State utility commissions and utilities themselves are actively developing and revising their procedures for the interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. However, the procedures most often used by regulators and utilities as models have not been updated in the past three years, in which time most of the distributed solar facilities in the United States have been installed. In that period, the Interstate Renewable Energy Council (IREC) has been a participant in more than thirty state utility commission rulemakings regarding interconnection and net metering of distributed generation. With the knowledge gained from this experience, IREC has updated its model procedures to incorporate current best practices. This paper presents the most significant changes made to IREC’s model interconnection and net metering procedures.

  7. The Green Gut: Chlorophyll Degradation in the Gut of Spodoptera littoralis. (United States)

    Badgaa, Amarsanaa; Büchler, Rita; Wielsch, Natalie; Walde, Marie; Heintzmann, Rainer; Pauchet, Yannik; Svatos, Ales; Ploss, Kerstin; Boland, Wilhelm


    Chlorophylls, the most prominent natural pigments, are part of the daily diet of herbivorous insects. The spectrum of ingested and digested chlorophyll metabolites compares well to the pattern of early chlorophyll-degradation products in senescent plants. Intact chlorophyll is rapidly degraded by proteins in the front- and midgut. Unlike plants, insects convert both chlorophyll a and b into the corresponding catabolites. MALDI-TOF/MS imaging allowed monitoring the distribution of the chlorophyll catabolites along the gut of Spodoptera littoralis larvae. The chlorophyll degradation in the fore- and mid-gut is strongly pH dependent, and requires alkaline conditions. Using LC-MS/MS analysis we identified a lipocalin-type protein in the intestinal fluid of S. littoralis homolog to the chlorophyllide a binding protein from Bombyx mori. Widefield and high-resolution autofluorescence microscopy revealed that the brush border membranes are covered with the chlorophyllide binding protein tightly bound via its GPI-anchor to the gut membrane. A function in defense against gut microbes is discussed.

  8. Completing the Feedback Loop: The Impact of Chlorophyll Data Assimilation on the Ocean State (United States)

    Borovikov, Anna; Keppenne, Christian; Kovach, Robin


    In anticipation of the integration of a full biochemical model into the next generation GMAO coupled system, an intermediate solution has been implemented to estimate the penetration depth (1Kd_PAR) of ocean radiation based on the chlorophyll concentration. The chlorophyll is modeled as a tracer with sources-sinks coming from the assimilation of MODIS chlorophyll data. Two experiments were conducted with the coupled ocean-atmosphere model. In the first, climatological values of Kpar were used. In the second, retrieved daily chlorophyll concentrations were assimilated and Kd_PAR was derived according to Morel et al (2007). No other data was assimilated to isolate the effects of the time-evolving chlorophyll field. The daily MODIS Kd_PAR product was used to validate the skill of the penetration depth estimation and the MERRA-OCEAN re-analysis was used as a benchmark to study the sensitivity of the upper ocean heat content and vertical temperature distribution to the chlorophyll input. In the experiment with daily chlorophyll data assimilation, the penetration depth was estimated more accurately, especially in the tropics. As a result, the temperature bias of the model was reduced. A notably robust albeit small (2-5 percent) improvement was found across the equatorial Pacific ocean, which is a critical region for seasonal to inter-annual prediction.

  9. Differential effects of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) on photosynthesis and chlorophyll metabolism in willow plants. (United States)

    Gomes, Marcelo Pedrosa; Le Manac'h, Sarah Gingras; Maccario, Sophie; Labrecque, Michel; Lucotte, Marc; Juneau, Philippe


    We used a willow species (Salix miyabeana cultivar SX64) to examine the differential secondary-effects of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA), the principal glyphosate by-product, on chlorophyll metabolism and photosynthesis. Willow plants were treated with different concentrations of glyphosate (equivalent to 0, 1.4, 2.1 and 2.8kgha(-1)) and AMPA (equivalent to 0, 0.28, 1.4 and 2.8kgha(-1)) and evaluations of pigment contents, chlorophyll fluorescence, and oxidative stress markers (hydrogen peroxide content and antioxidant enzyme activities) in leaves were performed after 12h of exposure. We observed that AMPA and glyphosate trigger different mechanisms leading to decreases in chlorophyll content and photosynthesis rates in willow plants. Both chemicals induced ROS accumulation in willow leaves although only glyphosate-induced oxidative damage through lipid peroxidation. By disturbing chlorophyll biosynthesis, AMPA induced decreases in chlorophyll contents, with consequent effects on photosynthesis. With glyphosate, ROS increases were higher than the ROS-sensitive threshold, provoking chlorophyll degradation (as seen by pheophytin accumulation) and invariable decreases in photosynthesis. Peroxide accumulation in both AMPA and glyphosate-treated plants was due to the inhibition of antioxidant enzyme activities. The different effects of glyphosate on chlorophyll contents and photosynthesis as described in the literature may be due to various glyphosate:AMPA ratios in those plants.

  10. Efficiency of chlorophyll in gross primary productivity: A proof of concept and application in crops. (United States)

    Gitelson, Anatoly A; Peng, Yi; Viña, Andrés; Arkebauer, Timothy; Schepers, James S


    One of the main factors affecting vegetation productivity is absorbed light, which is largely governed by chlorophyll. In this paper, we introduce the concept of chlorophyll efficiency, representing the amount of gross primary production per unit of canopy chlorophyll content (Chl) and incident PAR. We analyzed chlorophyll efficiency in two contrasting crops (soybean and maize). Given that they have different photosynthetic pathways (C3 vs. C4), leaf structures (dicot vs. monocot) and canopy architectures (a heliotrophic leaf angle distribution vs. a spherical leaf angle distribution), they cover a large spectrum of biophysical conditions. Our results show that chlorophyll efficiency in primary productivity is highly variable and responds to various physiological and phenological conditions, and water availability. Since Chl is accessible through non-destructive, remotely sensed techniques, the use of chlorophyll efficiency for modeling and monitoring plant optimization patterns is practical at different scales (e.g., leaf, canopy) and under widely-varying environmental conditions. Through this analysis, we directly related a functional characteristic, gross primary production with a structural characteristic, canopy chlorophyll content. Understanding the efficiency of the structural characteristic is of great interest as it allows explaining functional components of the plant system.

  11. Chlorophyll Blooms in the Oligotropic Gyres: Ocean oases? (United States)

    Wilson, C.; Maximenko, N.


    Ocean color images from the SeaWiFS satellite have revealed that large blooms of chlorophyll sometimes develop in late summer northeast of Hawaii in the oligotrophic Pacific. While these blooms are a recurrent feature, appearing almost every year, their existence was only recently discovered from satellite imagery of ocean color. They have been observed in 11 of 16 years of satellite ocean color data (CZCS, OCTS and SeaWiFS), can last up to 4-5 months, and can get as big as the state of California. Since the blooms have never been purposely sampled, it remains uncertain what species they are composed of, what mechanisms supply nutrients to support the elevated biomass, and what their impacts are on higher trophic levels. However, conventional scenarios of upwelled nutrients or enhanced mixing deepening the mixed layer into the nutricline do not seem to be operable. Instead, research has suggested that the source of new nutrients is biologically mediated, either by nitrogen fixing organisms, or by the vertical migration of diatom mats below the nutricline. Physical dynamics affect the blooms on a basin-wide scale. The blooms only appear in the eastern gyre of the Pacific, a closed anticyclonic gyre that has enhanced convergence relative to the rest of the Pacific, suggesting that blooms develop in part from a large-scale aggregation of the buoyant organisms proposed to be associated with them. While these proposed biological and physical dynamics are speculative, if similar blooms appear in other oceans, analysis of the common features of their physical environments will help to better pinpoint the physical forcings involved. Analysis of the global fields of SeaWiFS satellite chlorophyll shows that while not nearly as common as in the North Pacific, potentially similar blooms occur in the North and South Atlantic, and the North Indian Oceans, but not in the S. Pacific. However, unlike in the N. Pacific, these blooms are not always associated with strong convergence

  12. Development and Evaluation of an Ultrasonic Groundwater Seepage Meter (United States)

    Paulsen, R. J.; Smith, C. F.; O'Rourke, D.; Wong, T.; Bokuniewicz, H.


    Submarine groundwater discharge can influence significantly the near-shore transport and flux of chemicals into the oceans. Quantification of the sources and rates of such discharge requires a groundwater seepage meter that provides continuous measurements at high resolution over an extended period of time. An ultrasonic flow meter has been adapted for such measurements in the submarine environment. Connected to a steel collection funnel, the meter houses two piezoelectric transducers mounted at opposite ends of a cylindrical flow tube. By monitoring the perturbations of fluid flow on the propagation of sound waves inside the flow tube, the ultrasonic meter can measure both forward and reverse fluid flows in real time. Laboratory and field calibrations show that the ultrasonic meter can resolve groundwater discharges on the order of 0.1 μ m/s, and it is sufficiently robust for deployment in the field for several days. Data from West Neck Bay, Shelter Island, New York elucidate the temporal and spatial heterogeneity of submarine groundwater discharge and its interplay with tidal loading. A negative correlation between the discharge and tidal elevation was generally observed. A methodology was also developed whereby data for the sound velocity as a function of temperature can be used to infer the salinity and source of the submarine discharge. Independent measurements of electrical conductance were performed to validate this methodology. This meter has also been deployed as part of an international groundwater seepage intercomparison experiment with Scientific Committee on Oceanic Research (SCOR) / Land-Ocean Interaction in the Coastal Zone (LOICZ) Working Group 112. Results are in good agreement with other methodologies developed to quantify submarine groundwater discharge.

  13. Studying Aid: Some Methods

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    D.R. Gasper (Des)


    textabstractINVESTIGATING IDEAS, IDEOLOGIES AND PRACTICES This paper presents some methods for trying to make sense of international aid and of its study.1 Some of the methods may be deemed ethnographic; the others are important partners to them, but rather different. In the course of discussing q

  14. Hearing Aids Communication

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Globally, hearing loss is the second most frequent disability. About 80% of the persons affected by hearing loss do not use hearing aids. The goal of this edited volume is to present a theoretically founded, interdisciplinary approach geared at understanding and improving social interaction impac...

  15. Parent Hearing Aid Experiences (United States)

    Munoz, Karen; Roberts, Mallory; Mullings, Day; Harward, Richard


    This study addresses parent experiences in obtaining and managing hearing aids for their young child. The purpose was to identify challenges parents encounter to determine what state agencies can do to improve parent access to amplification. Data were collected July through September of 2010; 40 parents of children ages birth to 3 years old…

  16. Hearing Aid Personalization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Jens Brehm; Nielsen, Jakob; Jensen, Bjørn Sand


    Modern digital hearing aids require and offer a great level of personalization. Today, this personalization is not performed based directly on what the user actually perceives, but on a hearing-care professional’s interpretation of what the user explains about what is perceived. In this paper, an...

  17. Computer Aided Lecturing. (United States)

    Van Meter, Donald E.


    Surveyed students taking a natural resource conservation course to determine the effects of computer software that provides tools for creating and managing visual presentations to students. Results indicated that 94% of the respondents believed computer-aided lectures helped them and recommended their continued use; note taking was more effective,…

  18. AIDS and associated malignancies

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Charles WOOD; William HARRINGTON Jr


    AIDS associated malignancies (ARL) is a major complication associated with AIDS patients upon immunosuppression.Chronically immunocompromised patients have a markedly increased risk of developing lymphoproliferative disease. In the era of potent antiretrovirals therapy (ARV), the malignant complications due to HIV- 1 infection have decreased in developed nations where ARV is administered, but still poses a major problem in developing countries where HIV- 1incidence is high and ARV is still not yet widely available. Even in ARV treated individuals there is a concern that the prolonged survival of many HIV- 1 carriers is likely to eventually result in an increased number of malignancies diagnosed.Malignancies that were found to have high incidence in HIV-infected individuals are Kaposi's sarcoma (KS), Hodgkin's disease (HD) and non-Hodgkin's lymphoma (NHL). The incidence of NHL has increased nearly 200 fold in HIV-positive patients, and accounts for a greater percentage of AIDS defining illness in the US and Europe since the advent of HAART therapy. These AIDS related lymphomas are distinct from their counterparts seen in HIV- 1 seronegative patients.For example nearly half of all cases of ARL are associated with the presence of a gamma herpesvirus, Epstein Barr virus (EBV) or human herpesvirus-8 (HHV-8)/Kaposi's sarcoma associated herpesvirus (KSHV). The pathogenesis of ARLs is complex. B-cell proliferation driven by chronic antigenemia resulting in the induction of polyclonal and ultimately monoclonal lymphoproliferation may occur in the setting of severe immunosuppression.

  19. [Post-transfusional AIDS]. (United States)

    Azzini, M; Maccabruni, A; Marcellini, M; Michelone, G; Dei Cas, A


    Two cases of post-transfusional AIDS in two premature babies who received blood of the same seropositive donor, are reported. The risk of the susceptibility to HIV infection of these patients, in relation to the immaturity of immune system and to the transfusional treatment often necessary in premature newborns, is stressed.

  20. The CASPAR finding aids


    Meghini, Carlo; Avancini, Henry; Versienti, Loredana


    One of the CASPAR key components is the FIND Components, which is implementing the Finding Aids of OAIS. According to OAIS, FIND manages Description Information that is associated to Information Packages in order to support the discovery of those Packages. FIND allows defining, creating, persisting, querying, browsing, and accessing both Description Information and the association between Information Packages and Description Information

  1. Coil Welding Aid (United States)

    Wiesenbach, W. T.; Clark, M. C.


    Positioner holds coil inside cylinder during tack welding. Welding aid spaces turns of coil inside cylinder and applies contact pressure while coil is tack-welded to cylinder. Device facilitates fabrication of heat exchangers and other structures by eliminating hand-positioning and clamping of individual coil turns.

  2. Enteric parasites and AIDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sérgio Cimerman


    Full Text Available OBJECTIVE: To report on the importance of intestinal parasites in patients with AIDS, showing relevant data in the medical literature, with special emphasis on epidemiology, diagnosis and treatment of enteroparasitosis, especially cryptosporidiasis, isosporiasis, microsporidiasis and strongyloidiasis. DESIGN: Narrative review.

  3. Attacks and their Defenses for Advanced Metering Infrastructure

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lighari, Sheeraz Niaz; Hussain, Dil Muhammad Akbar; Bak-Jensen, Birgitte


    The smart grid is the digitized, modernized, updated version of archaic traditional electric grid. Advanced Metering Infrastructure (AMI) is an imperative part of the smart grid. It has replaced legacy metering, as it reports the energy consumption to the utility automatically through communication...... is a very important concern to take real advantage of this technology. In this paper, first we analyze the security threats faced by AMI components and then propose the countermeasures to tackle them. The aim is to visualize the possible threats in the context of confidentiality, integrity and availability...

  4. A New Method for Optimal Harmonic Meter Placement

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Ketabi


    Full Text Available In this research, a new method based on Singular Value Decomposition (SVD is proposed to solve the problem of optimal placement of meters for static estimation of harmonic sources in a power system. Also, the Binary Genetic Algorithm (BGA is used to solve the problem of optimization. IEEE 14-bus test system is provided to validate the measurement placement algorithm. It has been observed that the quality of estimation is improved and the Number of Observable Variable (NOV is increased. Moreover, the BGA-based meter placement strategy yields the same solution as obtained from the complete enumeration technique but in shorter time.

  5. Additional functions of remotely read kWh-meters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koponen, P. [VTT Energy, Espoo (Finland); Vehvilaeinen, S. [Mittrix Oy (Finland); Rantanen, J. [Helsinki Energy Board (Finland)


    In this chapter the possibilities to include new applications into remotely read smart kWh-meters are considered. New electronic meters can measure various electric quantities and have some extra calculating capacity. So they can be used to provide functions that distribution automation and the customer need and thus share the costs. Some applications like monitoring the state of the distribution network or locating faults are only for the utility, but many applications also need an interface to the customers or their automation systems. Among those are monitoring the quality of electricity, estimating load curves, applying dynamic tariffs and selling electricity and accounting. As a special item, the continuous monitoring of the quality of electricity is discussed. This includes voltage levels, total distortion, asymmetry and so on. If such a kWh-meter indicates quality problems it is possible to go there with a portable quality meter that is suitable for the case and inspect the situation. The poor quality can be detected before it causes harm to equipment owned by the customers or the power distribution company. This article also presents a prototype of such a quality monitoring kWh-meter. Dynamic tariffs and free electricity markets require two way communication with the utility and the customer and measurement of the time variations of the energy consumption. The customers or their energy management system must receive the energy prices from the utility and calculate the energy costs and decide upon the energy consumption control actions. Some alternative ways to meet these customer interface requirements are compared. Remote reading of kWh-meters requires a certain investment in meters and their data communication with the utility. Because smart meters can have some additional memory and calculating capacity and are capable of measuring various electric quantities, it is possible to share the costs with other applications that use the same hardware and data

  6. Thermal emissivity analysis of a GEMINI 8-meter telescopes design (United States)

    St. Clair Dinger, Ann


    The GEMINI 8-meter Telescopes Project is designing twin 8-meter telescopes to be located in Hawaii and Chile. The GEMINI telescopes will have interchangeable secondary mirrors for use in the visible and IR. The APART/PADE program is being used to evaluate the effective IR emissivity of the IR configuration plus enclosure as a function of mirror contamination at three IR wavelengths. The goal is to design a telescope whose effective IR emissivity is no more than 2 percent when the mirrors are clean.

  7. Correlation of electronic carotenoid-chlorophyll interactions and fluorescence quenching with the aggregation of native LHC II and chlorophyll deficient mutants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liao, Pen-Nan; Bode, Stefan [Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Department for Biophysical Chemistry, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 10, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Wilk, Laura [Max Planck Institute of Biophysics, Department of Structural Biology, Max-von-Laue-Strasse 3, 60438 Frankfurt am Main (Germany); Hafi, Nour [Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Department for Biophysical Chemistry, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 10, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Walla, Peter J., E-mail: [Technische Universitaet Braunschweig, Institute for Physical and Theoretical Chemistry, Department for Biophysical Chemistry, Hans-Sommer-Strasse 10, 38106 Braunschweig (Germany); Max Planck Institute for Biophysical Chemistry, Department of Spectroscopy and Photochemical Kinetics, Am Fassberg 11, 37077 Goettingen (Germany)


    The aggregation dependent correlation between fluorescence quenching and the electronic carotenoid-chlorophyll interactions, {phi}{sub Coupling}{sup Car S{sub 1}-Chl}, as measured by comparing chlorophyll fluorescence observed after two- and one-photon excitation, has been investigated using native LHC II samples as well as mutants lacking Chl 2 and Chl 13. For native LHC II the same linear correlation between {phi}{sub Coupling}{sup Car S{sub 1}-Chl} and the fluorescence quenching was observed as previously reported for the pH and Zea-dependent quenching of LHC II . In order to elucidate which carotenoid-chlorophyll pair might dominate this correlation we also investigated the mutants lacking Chl 2 and Chl 13. However, also with these mutants the same linear correlation as for native LHC II was observed. This provides indication that these two chlorophylls play only a minor role for the observed effects. Nevertheless, we also conclude that this does not exclude that their neighboured carotenoids, lutein 1 and neoxanthin, might interact electronically with other chlorophylls close by.

  8. Screening for AIDS. (United States)


    Tests to detect serum antibody to human T-lymphotropic virus type III (HTLV-III), based on an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that uses whole disrupted HTLV-III virus antigens, are now commercially available in the US. Recent surveys of groups at high risk for acquired immunodeficiency syndrome (AIDS) have found that 22-65% of homosexual men, 87% of active intravenous drug users, 56-72% of hemophiliacs, and 35% of women who were sexual partners of men with AIDS have had postitive ELISA tests compared with fewer than 1% of those with no known risk factors. A positive ELISA test could be due to subclinical infection, immunity, or cross-reactivity with other viral antigens. Laboratory error can also produce false positive results. Thus, it is recommended that the ELISA test be repeated at least once on all seropositive specimens before the result is reported to the patient. The western blot test appears to be more specific and less sensitive than the ELISA. Studies of asymptomatic seropositive homosexual men followed for 2-5 years have found that over 50% remain asymptomatic, 5-19% develop full blown AIDS, and 25% develop signs suggestive of the AIDS-related complex. Asymptomatic patients with positive ELISA tests should be made aware of early signs and symptoms of AIDS. Other data suggest that seropositive patients have the HTLV-III virus in their blood, semen, and/or saliva and can transmit the infection. Precautions to prevent transmission, such as the use of condoms, should be taken by such patients. Physicians should be sensitive to the fear and anxiety that a positive ELISA test will create.

  9. Detection of Fluorescence from Single Chlorophyll a Molecules Absorbed on Glass Surface

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JI Dong-Mei; HUANG Zheng-Xi; XIA An-Dong


    @@ We investigate the single molecule spectroscopy of chlorophyll a molecules on glass surface in N2-saturated environment. The basic photodynamic parameters of chlorophyll a molecules, such as fluorescence lifetime,survival time before photobleaching, on-time, and off-time, are reported. A four-level model is employed to describe the possible dynamics and photobleaching of chlorophyll a upon excitation. Broad distributions in fluorescence lifetimes and survival times are mainly due to the heterogeneities of both molecular conformation and local environment.

  10. Relationship between the Water Body Chlorophyll-a and Water Quality Factors of Wetlands Baiguishan Reservoir

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SHE Oiu-sheng; TIAN Xun; WANG Guo-zhen; JI Xiao-cun; LI Jiu-xuan; ZHAO Zhen


    [ Objective] The aim was to explore the relationship between water body Chlorophyll-a and water quality factors of wetlands Baiguishan reservoir. [ Method] Chlorophyll-a and water quality factors of water quality of Wetlands BaiGuishan Reservoir was studied, the analysis of the relationship on water quality of Wetlands Baiguishan Reservoir was made by use of trophic status indices and SPSS17.0 statistical analysis.[ Result] Total phosphorus was an irnportant factor of influence Chlorophyll-a in reservoir, water body had slight eutrophication phenomenon in reservoir of July to October in 2010. [ Conclusion] Comprehensive management should be strengthened so as to improve the water quality of Baiguishan wetland.

  11. Studies on induction of chlorophyll mutations in soybean, Glycine max (L.) Merrill

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mudasir Hafiz KHAN; Sunil Dutt TYAGI


    The phenotypic response of two soybean cultivars to a chemical mutagen (ethyl methane sulphonate, EMS), physical mutagen (gamma rays) and their combinations were studied in M1 and M2 generations and the frequency and spectrum of chlorophyll mutations were worked out. Combined treatment was found to be more effective in inducing chlorophyll mutations compared to individual treatments of gamma rays and EMS in both the cultivars. As far as the spectrum of chlorophyll mutations is concerned, a wider spectrum in both the cultivars was observed in 45 kR + 0.2% EMS combined treatment.

  12. Effect of cement industry pollution on chlorophyll content of some crops at Kodinar, Gujarat, India



    Study was carried out to assess the impact of cement industry pollution on some selected plant species around cement industry. Effect of cement dust on chlorophyll was studied in Arachis hypogaea, Sesamum indicum and Triticum species. Sampling was done at different distance like 0.5 km, 1.0 km and 2.0 km from the cement industry. The Chlorophyll pigments were reduced in dust-exposed plant species compared with control site Pransli (15 km away from the cement industry). Changes in chlorophyll ...

  13. [Study on the characters of phytoplankton chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra based on fourth-derivative]. (United States)

    Lu, Lu; Su, Rong-Guo; Wang, Xiu-Lin; Zhu, Chen-Jian


    Chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra of six phytoplankton species, belonging to Bacillariophyta and Dinophyta, were dealt by fourth-derivative analysis with the Matlab program. The results show that between 350 nm and 550 nm six fluorescence peaks were found in the fourth-derivative spectra, which are representatives of non-pigments, chlorophylls and carotenoides respectively. The method makes Bacillariophyta and Dinophyta more distinguishable when the fourth-derivative spectra are compared with the chlorophyll fluorescence excitation spectra. It can be used not only to discriminate the two groups of algaes, but also to reduce the effect of noise. The fluorescence peaks in the fourth-derivative spectra are proved to be stable.

  14. The dynamic of accumulation of carotenoides and chlorophylls during maize leaf development

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)



    Full Text Available A new high performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC method for the rapid separation of carotenoids and chlorophylls in leaves is reported. The method allows the separation of eight pigments in less than 13 minutes and employs a 25 cm C18 column with a flow rate of 1.2 ml/min. Using this method photosynthetic pigment content and composition during, maize leaf development were determined. Correlations between the rate of chlorophyll a and B-carotene biosynthesis and chlorophyll b lutein biosynthesis were established as well as between violaxanthin accumulation and the need of photoprotection in young leaves.

  15. Chlorophyll fluorescence in vivo as a probe for rapid measurement of tolerance to ultraviolet radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smillie, R.M. (Macquarie Univ., North Ryde (Australia). School of Biological Sciences)


    Chlorophyll fluorescence in vivo was progressively lost in pea leaves irradiated with either short or long-wave light. The changes were consistent with the development in the intact leaves of an inhibitory site on the photooxidizing side of photosystem II. In contrast, leaves of two species of Agave, plants regarded as more resistant to UV radiation, showed only minor changes in chlorophyll fluorescence. Agave americana was affected less than A. attenuata. The application of measurements of chlorophyll fluorescence in vivo to screening for tolerance to UV radiation is discussed.

  16. Current meter and temperature profile data from moored current meter casts in the TOGA area - Atlantic Ocean from 10 September 1970 - 27 October 1980 (NODC Accession 8600320) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter and temperature profile data were collected using moored current meter - PCM casts in the TOGA area - Atlantic Ocean from September 10, 1970 to October...

  17. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Northeast Pacific (limit - 180) from 12 June 1992 - 20 June 1994 (NODC Accession 9700237) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Northeast Pacific (limit - 180) from June 12, 1992 to June 20, 1994. Data were submitted by...

  18. Current meter data from moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of California from 12 April 1981 - 01 April 1983 (NODC Accession 8400159) (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — Current meter data were collected using moored current meter casts in the Coastal Waters of California from April 12, 1981 to April 1, 1983. Data were submitted by...

  19. Comparative Analysis of Smart Meters Deployment Business Models on the Example of the Russian Federation Markets (United States)

    Daminov, Ildar; Tarasova, Ekaterina; Andreeva, Tatyana; Avazov, Artur


    This paper presents the comparison of smart meter deployment business models to determine the most suitable option providing smart meters deployment. Authors consider 3 main business model of companies: distribution grid company, energy supplier (energosbyt) and metering company. The goal of the article is to compare the business models of power companies from massive smart metering roll out in power system of Russian Federation.

  20. Chlorophylls and Their Derivatives Used in Food Industry and Medicine. (United States)

    Mysliwa-Kurdziel, Beata; Solymosi, Katalin


    Thylakoids and chloroplasts harbor several vital metabolic processes, but are most importantly associated with photosynthesis. The undisturbed functioning of this process necessitates the ceaseless synthesis of photosynthetic pigments, including closed tetrapyrroles such as chlorophylls (Chls). Chls probably represent the most abundant natural pigment molecules which are via photosynthesis not only crucial for the autotrophic production of food sources for heterotrophic organisms but have also contributed to oxygen production essential for aerobic metabolism. This review first briefly discusses the physico-chemical properties, biosynthesis, occurrence, in vivo localization and roles of the different Chl pigments. Then we provide a detailed overview about their potential applications in the food industry and medicine. These include the use of Chls and their derivatives (different chlorophyllins) as food colorants (identified as E140 and E141 in the European Union). Different sources used for industrial extraction as well as different factors influencing pigment stability during processing are also critically reviewed. The problems surrounding the nomenclature, the production and the composition of different chlorophyllin mixtures are also discussed. Finally, a comprehensive overview of the health benefits and potential medicinal applications of these pigments and the future directions of research in these fields are provided.