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Sample records for chloroform

  1. Chloroform in the endodontic operatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, M.N.; Vire, D.E. (U.S. Army Dental Corps, Fort Sill, OK (United States))

    1992-06-01

    This article reviews the role chloroform has played in dentistry and describes an occupational health clinical investigation into the possible hazards of chloroform use in the operatory. Due to a Food and Drug Administration ban on drugs and cosmetics containing chloroform, there has been some confusion as to whether the use of chloroform in the practice of dentistry is considered unsafe or has been prohibited. Utilizing common endodontic treatment methods employing chloroform, this study reports no negative health effects to the dentist or assistant and air vapor levels well below Occupational Health and Safety Administration mandated maximum levels. The report concludes that, with careful and controlled use, chloroform can be a useful adjunct in the practice of dentistry. The Food and Drug Administration has no jurisdiction over a dentist's use of chloroform in clinical practice and has not proven that chloroform is a human carcinogen.

  2. Koetjapic acid chloroform hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. D. Nassar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C30H46O4·0.5CHCl3, consists of one koetjapic acid [systematic name: (3R,4aR,4bS,7S,8S,10bS,12aS-7-(2-carboxyethyl-3,4b,7,10b,12a-pentamethyl-8-(prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,9,10,10b,11,12,12a-hexadecahydrochrysene-3-carboxylic acid] molecule and one half-molecule of chloroform solvent, which is disordered about a twofold rotation axis. The symmetry-independent component is further disordered over two sites, with occupancies of 0.30 and 0.20. The koetjapic acid contains a fused four-ring system, A/B/C/D. The A/B, B/C and C/D junctions adopt E/trans/cis configurations, respectively. The conformation of ring A is intermediate between envelope and half-chair and ring B adopts an envelope conformation whereas rings C and D adopt chair conformations. A weak intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. The koetjapic acid molecules are linked into dimers by two pairs of intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The dimers are stacked along the c axis.

  3. Chloroform: An EPA test case.

    OpenAIRE

    Schmidt, C W

    1999-01-01

    In March 1998, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) published a proposal to raise the drinking water maximum contaminant level goal (MCLG) for chloroform, a suspected human carcinogen, from zero to 300 parts per billion. The proposal marked a departure from the agency's traditional reliance on linear dose-response models in performing risk assessment, and reflected the new thinking contained in the 1996 draft update to the agency's cancer risk assessment guidelines. The updated guid...

  4. Subchronic chloroform priming protects mice from a subsequently administered lethal dose of chloroform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection offered by pre-exposure priming with a small dose of a toxicant against the toxic and lethal effects of a subsequently administered high dose of the same toxicant is autoprotection. Although autoprotection has been extensively studied with diverse toxicants in acute exposure regimen, not much is known about autoprotection after priming with repeated exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate this concept following repeated exposure to a common water contaminant, chloroform. Swiss Webster (SW) mice, exposed continuously to either vehicle (5% Emulphor, unprimed) or chloroform (150 mg/kg/day po, primed) for 30 days, were challenged with a normally lethal dose of chloroform (750 mg chloroform/kg po) 24 h after the last exposure. As expected, 90% of the unprimed mice died between 48 and 96 h after administration of the lethal dose in contrast to 100% survival of mice primed with chloroform. Time course studies indicated lower hepato- and nephrotoxicity in primed mice as compared to unprimed mice. Hepatic CYP2E1, glutathione levels (GSH), and covalent binding of 14C-chloroform-derived radiolabel did not differ between livers of unprimed and primed mice after lethal dose exposure, indicating that protection in liver is neither due to decreased bioactivation nor increased detoxification. Kidney GSH and glutathione reductase activity were upregulated, with a concomitant reduction in oxidized glutathione in the primed mice following lethal dose challenge, leading to decreased renal covalent binding of 14C-chloroform-derived radiolabel, in the absence of any change in CYP2E1 levels. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) intervention led to 70% mortality in primed mice challenged with lethal dose. These data suggest that higher detoxification may play a role in the lower initiation of kidney injury observed in primed mice. Exposure of primed mice to a lethal dose of chloroform led to 40% lower chloroform levels (AUC15-360min) in the systemic circulation

  5. Chloroform induction of ornithine decarboxylase activity in rats.

    OpenAIRE

    Savage, R E; Westrich, C; Guion, C; M. A. PEREIRA

    1982-01-01

    Chloroform is a drinking water contaminant that has been demonstrated to be carcinogenic to mice and rats resulting in an increased incidence of liver and kidney tumors, respectively. The mechanism of chloroform carcinogenicity might be by tumor initiation and/or promotion. Since induction of ornithine decarboxylase (ODC) activity has been proposed as a molecular marker for tumor promoters, we have investigated the effect of chloroform on ODC activity in rats. Chloroform induced a dose-depend...

  6. Reactor for Photocatalytic Degradation of Chloroform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Morten Enggrob; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    In the present study a new type of continuous photoreactor is developed in which the TiO2 catalyst is immobilized on the surface of quartz tubes surrounding the UV lamps and on the internal surface of the reactor walls. The study showed that an initial concentration chloroform of 7 mg/l was...... degraded in a period of 500 hour. The kinetics of the degradation of chloroform in the flow reactor was found to obey Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. The investigation also showed that the reactor design has a significant influence on the rate of degradation, as it was observed that the position of the...... coated lamp in the reactor yield different degradation rates....

  7. Formation, fate and leaching of chloroform in coniferous forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Chloroform may be formed in coniferous forest soil. → The formed chloroform may enter the groundwater in μg/L concentrations. → Clear seasonal patterns in chloroform formation in soil are observed. → Sorption and degradation affects the fate of chloroform in forest soil. - Abstract: Chloroform is a common groundwater pollutant but also a natural compound in forest ecosystems. Leaching of natural chloroform from forest soil to groundwater was followed by regular analysis of soil air and groundwater from multilevel wells at four different sites in Denmark for a period of up to 4 a. Significant seasonal variation in chloroform was observed in soil air 0.5 m below surface ranging at one site from 120 ppb by volume in summer to 20 ppb during winter. With depth, the seasonal variation diminished gradually, ranging from 30 ppb in summer to 20 ppb during winter, near the groundwater table. Chloroform in the shallowest groundwater ranged from 0.5-1.5 μg L-1 at one site to 2-5 μg L-1 at another site showing no clear correlation with season. Comparing changes in chloroform in soil air versus depth with on-site recorded meteorological data indicated that a clear relationship appears between rain events and leaching of chloroform. Chloroform in top soil air co-varied with CO2 given a delay of 3-4 weeks providing evidence for its biological origin. This was confirmed during laboratory incubation experiments which further located the fermentation layer as the most chloroform producing soil horizon. Sorption of chloroform to soils, examined using 14C-CHCl3, correlated with organic matter content, being high in the upper organic rich soils and low in the deeper more minerogenic soils. The marked decrease in chloroform in soil with depth may in part be due to microbial degradation which was shown to occur at all depths by laboratory tests using 14C-CHCl3.

  8. Removal of chloroform from biodegradable therapeutic microspheres by radiolysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zielhuis, S W; Nijsen, J F W; Dorland, L; Krijger, G C; van Het Schip, A D; Hennink, W E

    2006-06-01

    Radioactive holmium-166 loaded poly(l-lactic acid) microspheres are promising systems for the treatment of liver malignancies. These microspheres are loaded with holmium acetylacetonate (HoAcAc) and prepared by a solvent evaporation method using chloroform. After preparation the microspheres (Ho-PLLA-MS) are activated by neutron irradiation in a nuclear reactor. It was observed that relatively large amounts of residual chloroform (1000-6000 ppm) remained in the microspheres before neutron irradiation. Since it is known that chloroform is susceptible for high-energy radiation, we investigated whether neutron and gamma irradiation could result in the removal of residual chloroform in HoAcAc-loaded and placebo PLLA-MS by radiolysis. To investigate this, microspheres with relatively high and low amounts of residual chloroform were subjected to irradiation. The effect of irradiation on the residual chloroform levels as well as other microsphere characteristics (morphology, size, crystallinity, molecular weight of PLLA and degradation products) were evaluated. No chloroform in the microspheres could be detected after neutron irradiation. This was also seen for gamma irradiation at a dose of 200 kGy phosgene, which can be formed as the result of radiolysis of chloroform, was not detected with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). A precipitation titration showed that radiolysis of chloroform resulted in the formation of chloride. Gel permeation chromatography and differential scanning calorimetry showed a decrease in molecular weight of PLLA and crystallinity, respectively. However, no differences were observed between irradiated microsphere samples with high and low initial amounts of chloroform. In conclusion, this study demonstrates that neutron and gamma irradiation results in the removal of residual chloroform in PLLA-microspheres. PMID:16549282

  9. CHLOROFORM INDUCTION OF ORNITHINE DECARBOXYLASE ACTIVITY IN RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloroform is a drinking water contaminant that has been demonstrated to be carcinogenic to mice and rats resulting in an increased incidence of liver and kidney tumors, respectively. The mechanism of chloroform carcinogenicity might be by tumor initiation and/or promotion. Since...

  10. Formation, fate and leaching of chloroform in coniferous forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, Christian N., E-mail: calbers@ruc.dk [Dept. Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, O. Voldgade 10, DK-1350, Copenhagen (Denmark); Laier, Troels; Jacobsen, Ole S. [Dept. Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, O. Voldgade 10, DK-1350, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Chloroform may be formed in coniferous forest soil. {yields} The formed chloroform may enter the groundwater in {mu}g/L concentrations. {yields} Clear seasonal patterns in chloroform formation in soil are observed. {yields} Sorption and degradation affects the fate of chloroform in forest soil. - Abstract: Chloroform is a common groundwater pollutant but also a natural compound in forest ecosystems. Leaching of natural chloroform from forest soil to groundwater was followed by regular analysis of soil air and groundwater from multilevel wells at four different sites in Denmark for a period of up to 4 a. Significant seasonal variation in chloroform was observed in soil air 0.5 m below surface ranging at one site from 120 ppb by volume in summer to 20 ppb during winter. With depth, the seasonal variation diminished gradually, ranging from 30 ppb in summer to 20 ppb during winter, near the groundwater table. Chloroform in the shallowest groundwater ranged from 0.5-1.5 {mu}g L{sup -1} at one site to 2-5 {mu}g L{sup -1} at another site showing no clear correlation with season. Comparing changes in chloroform in soil air versus depth with on-site recorded meteorological data indicated that a clear relationship appears between rain events and leaching of chloroform. Chloroform in top soil air co-varied with CO{sub 2} given a delay of 3-4 weeks providing evidence for its biological origin. This was confirmed during laboratory incubation experiments which further located the fermentation layer as the most chloroform producing soil horizon. Sorption of chloroform to soils, examined using {sup 14}C-CHCl{sub 3}, correlated with organic matter content, being high in the upper organic rich soils and low in the deeper more minerogenic soils. The marked decrease in chloroform in soil with depth may in part be due to microbial degradation which was shown to occur at all depths by laboratory tests using {sup 14}C-CHCl{sub 3}.

  11. Occurrence and formation of chloroform at Danish forest sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselmann, K.F.; Ketola, R.A.; Laturnus, F.; Lauritsen, F.R.; Grøn, C.

    2000-01-01

    concentration of chloroform in the top soil-air was in the range of 0.4-2.3 ng 1(-1). Compared to ambient air, the chloroform concentration in the topsoil was 6.7, 4.3 and 4.6 times higher for spruce forest, beech forest and grassland, respectively. For tetrachloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene...... and tetrachloroethene, the concentrations were in the same order of magnitude (0.04-1.2 ng 1(-1)). However, the concentration ratios between soil air and ambient air were close to unity. Release studies in the topsoil of the spruce forest showed an increase of the chloroform concentration of...... approximately 4 times the initial soil air concentration after 38 h, while the concentrations of the other volatile chlorinated compounds investigated remained fairly constant. The observed chloroform concentration profiles and release rates may indicate a biogenic formation of chloroform in the upper soil...

  12. Information draft on the development of air standards for chloroform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Chloroform is used as a grain fumigant and a solvent for pesticides, adhesives, fats, oils, rubbers, alkaloids and waxes. It is also a chemical intermediate for dyes and pesticides, a component of cough syrups, toothpastes, and liniments. It is used in fire extinguishers, in the manufacture of refrigerants, propellants, plastics, anesthetics and pharmaceuticals. Of the releases into the air in 1996 in Ontario (36.7 tonnes), over 96 per cent was attributed to the pulp and paper industry. Chloroform is well absorbed in exposed animals and humans through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Once absorbed, the chloroform distributes throughout the entire body. Metabolism of chloroform involves cytochrome P-450 in an oxidative biotransformation to produce trichloromethanol with phosgene as its intermediate product and finally hydrochloric acid and carbon dioxide. Chloroform is a central nervous system depressant and a gastrointestinal irritant. Exposure to chloroform can cause fainting, vomiting, dizziness, nausea, fatique and headache. Its most universally observed toxic effect is liver damage. Chloroform is not known to be carcinogenic in humans, but there is sufficient evidence to suggest that it is an animal carcinogen. The current Ontario air quality standard and criterion for chloroform was established in 1979. The half-hour interim POI standard is 1,500 microgram/cubic meter, and the 24-hour AAQC is 500 microgram/cubic meter. This document reviews the scientific and technical information relevant to setting an ambient air quality standard for chloroform in Ontario. The information is gathered from standards and guidelines developed by the federal government, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the World Health Organization, Scandinavia, the Netherlands, and various American states. 59 refs., 1 tab., appendix.

  13. Formation of chloroform in soil. A year-round study at a Danish spruce forest site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselmann, K.F.; Laturnus, F.; Grøn, C.

    2002-01-01

    to ambient air concentrations indicated a natural production of chloroform, while the other chlorinated compounds investigated probably originated from non-point source pollution. The seasonal variation of the chloroform concentration suggested a production by microorganisms, as high chloroform...

  14. Tracing tissues with chloroform-metabolizing capacity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats were injected i.v. or i.p. with (14C)chloroform and the localization and binding of metabolites in the tissues were studied by whole-body and microautoradiography. Based on the autoradiographic findings various tissues were tested for their capacity to form 14CO2 and to incorporate 14C into tissue-macromolecules from the (14C) chloroform. Autoradiography in vitro was used to localize the sites of (14C)chloroform metabolism under in vitro conditions. The results of the vitro metabolism studies showed that several tissues had a capacity to metabolise the (14C)chloroform. Further, the results showed that there was a correlation between the ability of various tissues to accumulate metabolites in the rats injected with the (14C)chloroform and the ability of the same tissues to metabolize the (14C)chloroform in vitro. The in vitro autoradiography showed an acculumlation of radioactivity at sites corresponding to the ones acculmulating metabolites in vivo. It is concluded that many tissues have a capacity to metabolize chloroform in vivo and in vitro. The structures identified as having a marked chloroform-metabolizing capacity were, besides the liver, the kidney cortex, the mucosa of the bronchial tree, the tracheal mucosa, the olfactory and respiratory nasal mucosa, Bowman's glands in the olfactory lamina propria mucosae, Steno's gland (the lateral nasal gland), the mucosa of the oesophagus, the larynx, the tongue, the gingiva, the cheek, the naso-pharyngeal duct, the pharynx and the soft palate (but not the hard palate). (Author)

  15. Durability of organobentonite-amended liner for decelerating chloroform transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shichong; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-04-01

    Chloroform is added to landfill for suppressing methane generation, which however may transport through landfill liners and lead to contamination of groundwater. To decelerate chloroform transport, the enhanced sorption ability of clay liners following organobentonite addition was tested. In this study, we used batch sorption to evaluate sorption capacity of chloroform to organobentonite, followed by column tests and model simulations for assessing durability of different liners. Results show that adding 10% CTMAB-bentonite (organobentonite synthesized using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) increased the duration of a bentonite liner by 88.5%. CTMAB-bentonite consistently showed the highest sorption capacity (Qm) among six typical organobentonites under various environmental conditions. The removal rate of chloroform by CTMAB-bentonite was 3.6-23 times higher than that by natural soils. According to the results derived by model simulation, a 70-cm 10% CTMAB-bentonite liner exhibited much better durability than a 100-cm compact clay liner (CCL) and natural bentonite liner evidenced by the delayed and lower peak of eluent concentration. A minimum thickness of 65.8 cm of the 10% CTMAB-bentonite liner could completely sorb the chloroform in a 100-m-high landfill. The 10% CTMAB-bentonite liner exhibiting much better durability has the promise for reducing environmental risk of chloroform in landfill. PMID:26874063

  16. Occurrence and formation of chloroform at Danish forest sites

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselmann, K.F.; Ketola, R.A.; Laturnus, F.; Lauritsen, F.R.; Grøn, C.

    2000-01-01

    Ambient air and soil air of spruce forest, beech forest and grassland from Zealand, Denmark, were investigated for volatile chlorinated compounds by adsorbent tube sampling, thermodesorption, cryo-trapping and analysis by high-resolution gas chromatography with electron capture detection. The mean...... concentration of chloroform in the top soil-air was in the range of 0.4-2.3 ng 1(-1). Compared to ambient air, the chloroform concentration in the topsoil was 6.7, 4.3 and 4.6 times higher for spruce forest, beech forest and grassland, respectively. For tetrachloromethane, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene...... and tetrachloroethene, the concentrations were in the same order of magnitude (0.04-1.2 ng 1(-1)). However, the concentration ratios between soil air and ambient air were close to unity. Release studies in the topsoil of the spruce forest showed an increase of the chloroform concentration of...

  17. Chloroform alters interleaflet coupling in lipid bilayers: an entropic mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigada, Ramon; Sagués, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of the two leaflets of the plasmatic cell membrane is conjectured to play an important role in many cell processes. Experimental and computational studies have investigated the mechanisms that modulate the interaction between the two membrane leaflets. Here, by means of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the addition of a small and polar compound such as chloroform alters interleaflet coupling by promoting domain registration. This is interpreted in terms of an entropic gain that would favour frequent chloroform commuting between the two leaflets. The implication of this effect is discussed in relation to the general anaesthetic action. PMID:25833246

  18. Biological Hydrogen Production Using Chloroform-treated Methanogenic Granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Chen, Shulin

    In fermentative hydrogen production, the low-hydrogen-producing bacteria retention rate limits the suspended growth reactor productivity because of the long hydraulic retention time (HRT) required to maintain adequate bacteria population. Traditional bacteria immobilization methods such as calcium alginate entrapment have many application limitations in hydrogen fermentation, including limited duration time, bacteria leakage, cost, and so on. The use of chloroform-treated anaerobic granular sludge as immobilized hydrogen-producing bacteria in an immobilized hydrogen culture may be able to overcome the limitations of traditional immobilization methods. This paper reports the findings on the performance of fed-batch cultures and continuous cultures inoculated with chloroform-treated granules. The chloroform-treated granules were able to be reused over four fed-batch cultures, with pH adjustment. The upflow reactor packed with chloroform-treated granules was studied, and the HRT of the upflow reactor was found to be as low as 4 h without any decrease in hydrogen production yield. Initial pH and glucose concentration of the culture medium significantly influenced the performance of the reactor. The optimum initial pH of the culture medium was neutral, and the optimum glucose concentration of the culture medium was below 20 g chemical oxygen demand/L at HRT 4 h. This study also investigated the possibility of integrating immobilized hydrogen fermentation using chloroform-treated granules with immobilized methane production using untreated granular sludge. The results showed that the integrated batch cultures produced 1.01 mol hydrogen and 2 mol methane per mol glucose. Treating the methanogenic granules with chloroform and then using the treated granules as immobilized hydrogen-producing sludge demonstrated advantages over other immobilization methods because the treated granules provide hydrogen-producing bacteria with a protective niche, a long duration of an active

  19. Phase equilibrium data for the ternary system (propane + chloroform + oryzanol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Fernanda V.; Comim, Sibele R.R. [EQA/UFSC, Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Cesaro, Aline M. de; Rigo, Aline A.; Mazutti, Marcio A. [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, 99700-000 Erechim, RS (Brazil); Hense, Haiko [EQA/UFSC, Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Oliveira, J. Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir@uricer.edu.b [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, 99700-000 Erechim, RS (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    The compound oryzanol available in the rice bran (oriza sativa) is well known for its antioxidant activity. Phase equilibrium data involving oryzanol in compressed fluids, hardly found in the literature, are important to provide the basis for the extraction and fractionation processes. In this sense, the aim of this work is to report phase equilibrium measurements for the system ({gamma}-oryzanol + chloroform) in compressed propane. Phase equilibrium experiments were performed using the static synthetic method (cloud points transition data) in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell in the temperature range of 303 K to 353 K, pressures up to 17 MPa, for oryzanol overall mass fractions of 2 wt%, 5 wt% and 10 wt% in (propane + chloroform) mixtures. A complex phase behaviour comprising vapour-liquid, liquid-liquid, vapour-liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, solid-liquid-liquid, solid-liquid-liquid-vapour transitions were visually observed for the system studied.

  20. Hypolipidemic Activity of Chloroform Extract of Mimosa pudica Leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Rajendran, Rekha; Krishnakumar, Ekambaram

    2010-01-01

    Mimosa pudica Lin., known as chue Mue, is a stout straggling prostrate shrubby plant, with spinous stipules and globose pinkish flower heads, and grows as weed in almost all parts of the country. It is traditionally used for its various properties and hence in the present study, chloroform extract of Mimosa pudica leaves has been screened for its hypolipidemic activity. Hypolipidemic activity is screened by inducing hyperlipidemia with the help of atherogenic diet in wistar albino rats and se...

  1. Fluoroalkyl chloroformates in treating amino acids for gas chromatographic analysis

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hušek, Petr; Šimek, Petr; Hartvich, Petr; Zahradníčková, Helena

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 1186, 1/2 (2008), s. 391-400. ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA203/04/0192; GA ČR GA303/06/1674 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : amino acids * derivatization * pentafluoropropyl- and heptafluorobutyl chloroformates Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.756, year: 2008

  2. Graphene oxide and adsorption of chloroform: a density functional study

    CERN Document Server

    Kuisma, Elena; Lindberg, Th Benjamin; Gillberg, Christoffer A; Idh, Sebastian; Schroder, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds are of environmental concerns, since they are toxic to humans and other mammals, are widespread, and exposure is hard to avoid. Understanding and improving methods to reduce the amount of the substances is important. We present an atomic-scale calculational study of the adsorption of chlorine-based substance chloroform (CHCl3) on graphene oxide, as a step in estimating the capacity of graphene oxide for filtering out such substances, e.g., from drinking water. The calculations are based on density functional theory (DFT), and the recently developed consistent-exchange functional for the van der Waals density-functional method (vdW-DF-cx) is employed. We obtain values of the chloroform adsorption energy varying from roughly 0.2 to 0.4 eV per molecule. This is comparable to previously found results for chloroform adsorbed directly on clean graphene, using similar calculations. In a wet environment, like filters for drinking water, the graphene will not stay clean and will likel...

  3. Graphene oxide and adsorption of chloroform: A density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuisma, Elena; Hansson, C. Fredrik; Lindberg, Th. Benjamin; Gillberg, Christoffer A.; Idh, Sebastian; Schröder, Elsebeth

    2016-05-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds are of environmental concerns, since they are toxic to humans and other mammals, and are widespread, and exposure is hard to avoid. Understanding and improving methods to reduce the amount of the substances are important. We present an atomic-scale calculational study of the adsorption of chlorine-based substance chloroform (CHCl3) on graphene oxide, as a step in estimating the capacity of graphene oxide for filtering out such substances, e.g., from drinking water. The calculations are based on density functional theory, and the recently developed consistent-exchange functional for the van der Waals density-functional method is employed. We obtain values of the chloroform adsorption energy varying from roughly 0.2 to 0.4 eV per molecule. This is comparable to previously found results for chloroform adsorbed directly on clean graphene, using similar calculations. In a wet environment, like filters for drinking water, the graphene will not stay clean and will likely oxidize, and thus adsorption onto graphene oxide, rather than clean graphene, is a more relevant process to study.

  4. Kinetic Studies of the Solvolyses of Isopropenyl Chloroformate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solvolyses of the isopropenyl chloroformate proceeded rather rapidly at 35.0 .deg. C and the progress of the reaction as a function of time can be conveniently monitored using a rapid-response conductivity technique. For five typical solvents, the activation parameters were determined and the large negative entropies of activation were consistent with a bimolecular process. Application of the extended Grunwald-Winstein equation (equation 2) in 33 solvents led to an l value of 1.42 and an m value of 0.46 (correlation coefficient of 0.949). These values are shown to be similar to the previously determined values for a mechanism involving rate-limiting addition in an addition-elimination pathway. The kinetic solvent isotope effect is also very close to the literature values for the solvolyses of other chloroformate esters and it is consistent with general-base catalysis being super imposed upon a bimolecular process. The mechanism of acyl-transfer reactions have been investigated intensively for many years both experimentally and theoretically. The mechanisms of most of these reactions are, however, still not well established. The bimolecular solvolysis of acyl halides (RCOX) is believed to proceed either through a direct displacement mechanism (SN2) or through an associative addition-elimination mechanism involving a tetrahedral intermediate. For acyl halides with a strong electron donating group, a dissociative mechanism involving an acylium ion intermediate has also been invoked. The two types of mechanism, SN2 and stepwise addition-elimination, are also common for the bimolecular aminolysis of acyl halides. The aminolyses of acetyl chloride, MeCOCl, and methyl chloroformate, MeOCOCl, have been proposed to proceed by rate-limiting breakdown of a zwitterionic tetrahedral intermediate, T±, for weakly basic amines with a change to rate-limiting attack for more basic amines

  5. Carbon nanofibers synthesized by pyrolysis of chloroform and ethanol mixture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Platelet graphite nanofibers (PGNFs) and turbostratic carbon nanofibers (TSCNFs) were synthesized by the pyrolysis of 3 and 10 vol% chloroform in ethanol, respectively, in the presence of Ni catalyst at 700 °C. Auger electron spectrometry analysis reveals that the participation of chloroform in the synthesis led to Ni–Cl bonding on the surface of the catalysts, resulting in a relatively poor crystalline layer and a coarse surface. Furthermore, the Ni–Cl compound affected the melting point and mobility of Ni, changing the morphology and geometrical shape of Ni particles. A low amount of chlorine in the catalyst led to the formation of smaller catalyst particles with a flat surface, resulting in graphene nanosheets stacked perpendicular to the fiber axis, which became PGNFs. In contrast, a high amount of chlorine in the catalyst led to the aggregation of the catalyst and thus the formation of large catalyst particles with a rough surface, resulting in the random stacking of graphene nanosheets, which became TSCNFs. The participation of chlorine was found to be important in the synthesis of the PGNFs and TSCNFs. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The morphology of CNFs changed while different amount of CHCl3 presented. • The interaction of Ni and Cl changed the geometry and morphology of catalysts. • The structure of CNFs formed attributed to the surface morphology of catalysts. • PGNFs and TSCNFs were perpendicular and random stacking of graphene

  6. Carbon nanofibers synthesized by pyrolysis of chloroform and ethanol mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wang-Hua [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, 62102, Taiwan (China); Li, Yuan-Yao, E-mail: chmyyl@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, 62102, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Opto-Mechatronics, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, 62102, Taiwan (China); Advanced Institute of Manufacturing with High-Tech Innovations, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, 62102, Taiwan (China)

    2015-08-01

    Platelet graphite nanofibers (PGNFs) and turbostratic carbon nanofibers (TSCNFs) were synthesized by the pyrolysis of 3 and 10 vol% chloroform in ethanol, respectively, in the presence of Ni catalyst at 700 °C. Auger electron spectrometry analysis reveals that the participation of chloroform in the synthesis led to Ni–Cl bonding on the surface of the catalysts, resulting in a relatively poor crystalline layer and a coarse surface. Furthermore, the Ni–Cl compound affected the melting point and mobility of Ni, changing the morphology and geometrical shape of Ni particles. A low amount of chlorine in the catalyst led to the formation of smaller catalyst particles with a flat surface, resulting in graphene nanosheets stacked perpendicular to the fiber axis, which became PGNFs. In contrast, a high amount of chlorine in the catalyst led to the aggregation of the catalyst and thus the formation of large catalyst particles with a rough surface, resulting in the random stacking of graphene nanosheets, which became TSCNFs. The participation of chlorine was found to be important in the synthesis of the PGNFs and TSCNFs. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The morphology of CNFs changed while different amount of CHCl{sub 3} presented. • The interaction of Ni and Cl changed the geometry and morphology of catalysts. • The structure of CNFs formed attributed to the surface morphology of catalysts. • PGNFs and TSCNFs were perpendicular and random stacking of graphene.

  7. Evaluation of Chloroform Extract and Its Fractions of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn.) Leaves for Cardioprotective Activity

    OpenAIRE

    Dobhal Y

    2013-01-01

    The present study has been designed to investigate the efficacy of active extract and its fraction of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn.) leaves on ischaemia and reperfusion-induced myocardial injury using wister albino rats. Petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone and methanolic extracts of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn.) leaves were prepared and screened for their cardioprotective potential. Among all the extracts chloroform extract reduce myocardial injury. The chloroform extract further purified using col...

  8. Toxicity of Asistolochia brcteolata methanolic and chloroformic extracts in rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Samia H. Abdelrahman,

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available This study was designed to find the toxicological effect of methanolic and chlorformic extract of Aristolochia bracteolata in Swiss albino rats. Methanolic and chlorphormic extracts were given at doses of 250 and 500 mg/kg BW to Swiss albino rats. Oral administration of the extract caused symptoms such as depression, arching of the back and tremors. Serum analysis indicated increase in the activity of Aspartate aminotransferease (AST, Alanine amino transferase (ALT and Alkaline phosphatase (ALP. The concentration of urea, creatinine, ammonia were also increased and the concentration of total protein decreased. The main lesions found were haemorrage in the kidney and congestion of the liver. We concluded that chloroformic extract at the rate of 500 mg/kg was more toxic than all the treatments.

  9. Formation of chloroform in spruce forest soil - results from laboratory incubation studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselmann, K.F.; Laturnus, F.; Svensmark, B.; Grøn, C.

    2000-01-01

    The release of chloroform, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, tetrachloromethane, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene from an organic rich spruce forest soil was studied in laboratory incubation experiments by dynamic headspace analysis, thermodesorption and gas chromatography. Performance parameters are...... presented for the dynamic headspace system. For spruce forest soil, the results showed a significant increase in chloroform concentration in the headspace under aerobic conditions over a period of seven days, whereas the concentration of the other compounds remained fairly constant. A biogenic formation of...... chloroform is suggested, whereas for the other compounds anthropogenic sources are assumed. The addition of trichloroacetic acid to the soil increased the release of chloroform from the soil. It is, therefore, suggested that trichloroacetic acid also contributed to the formation of chloroform. Under the...

  10. Chloroform extraction of ethyl xanthate complexes from sulphuric acid media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chloroform extraction of 30 elements (Fe, Co, Ni, Zn, Cd, Ge, Sn, V, As, Sb, Bi, Cu, Ag, Au, Mn, Re, Ga, In, Tl, Se, Te, Cr, Mo, U, Pt, Pd, Rh, Ir, Ru and Ce) from 0.1 to 8 M sulphuric acid in the presence of potassium ethyl xanthate has been studied. Pd(II), Bi, As(III), Sb(III), Se(IV) and Te(IV) are completely extracted and Au(III) is largely extracted over the range of acid concentration investigated. Fe(II), Tl(I), Rh(III) and Cr(VI) are only slightly extracted and Se(VI), Te(VI), Ru(III), Cr(III), Mn(II), Zn, Ce(IV), Ir(IV) and Ge(IV) are not extracted at all. Depending on the acid concentration, the remaining elements are all partly extracted. Results are compared with those obtained in an earlier study of the extraction of xanthate complexes from hydrochloric acid media. The processes involved in the formation of some xanthate complexes and potential analytical separations are discussed. (author)

  11. Effects of combined UV and chlorine treatment on chloroform formation from triclosan.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ben, Weiwei; Sun, Peizhe; Huang, Ching-Hua

    2016-05-01

    The co-exposure to UV irradiation and free chlorine may occur in certain drinking water and wastewater treatment systems. This study investigated the effects of simultaneous low pressure ultraviolet (LPUV) irradiation and free chlorination on the formation of chloroform from triclosan which is a commonly used antibacterial agent. Different treatment systems (i.e., combined UV/chlorine, UV alone, and chlorine alone) were applied to examine the degradation of triclosan and formation of chloroform. The fate of representative intermediates, including chlorinated triclosan, dechlorinated triclosan intermediates and 2,4-dichlorophenol, were tracked to deduce the effect of combined UV/chlorine on the transformation of chloroform formation precursors. The relation between intermediates degradation and chloroform formation was investigated in depth by conducting stepwise experiments with UV and chlorine in different sequences. Results indicate that the combined UV/chlorine notably enhanced the chloroform formation from triclosan. From the reaction mechanism perspective the combined UV/chlorine, where the direct photolysis may play an important role, could accelerate the decay of intermediates and facilitate the generation of productive chloroform precursors. The radicals had modest influence on the degradation of triclosan and intermediates and partly hindered the formation of chloroform. These results emphasize the necessity of considering disinfection by-products formation in the application of combined UV/chlorine technology during water treatment. PMID:26746417

  12. Chloroform formation in Arctic and Subarctic soils - mechanism and emissions to the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Christian N.; Johnsen, Anders R.; Jacobsen, Ole S.

    2015-04-01

    It is well established that halogenated organic compounds are formed naturally in the terrestrial environment. These compounds include volatiles such as trihalomethanes that may escape to the atmosphere. In deed most of the atmospheric chloroform (and other trihalomethane species) is regarded to have a natural origin. This origin may be both marine and terrestrial. Chloroform formation in soil has been reported in a number of studies, mostly conducted in temperate and (sub-) tropical environments. We hereby report that also colder soils emit chloroform naturally. We measured in situ the fluxes of chloroform from soil to atmosphere in 6 Subarctic and 5 Arctic areas covering different dwarf heath, wetland and forest biotopes in Greenland and Northern Sweden. Emissions were largest from the forested areas, but all areas emitted measurable amounts of chloroform. Also the brominated analog bromodichloromethane was formed in Arctic and Subarctic soils but the fluxes to the atmosphere were much lower than the corresponding chloroform emissions. No other volatile poly-halogenated organic compounds were found to be emitted from the study areas. It has previously been proposed that chloroform is formed in temperate forest soils through trichloroacetyl intermediates formed by unspecific enzymatic chlorination of soil organic matter. We found positive relationships between chloroform emissions and the concentration of trichloroacetyl groups in soil within the various biotopes. The hydrolysis of trichloroacetyl compounds is, however, very pH dependent, excluding a simple relationship between trichloroacetyl concentration and chloroform emission in any given soil. However, our results show that at low pH, turnover time of soil trichloroacetyl compounds may be counted in decades while at pH above 6, turnover time may be just a few months. We found no relationship between trichloroacetyl concentration and total organic chlorine concentration in the soils indicating that more than

  13. Adaptive tolerance in mice upon subchronic exposure to chloroform: Increased exhalation and target tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of the present study were to characterize the subchronic toxicity of chloroform by measuring tissue injury, repair, and distribution of chloroform and to assess the reasons for the development of tolerance to subchronic chloroform toxicity. Male Swiss Webster (SW) mice were given three dose levels of chloroform (150, 225, and 300 mg/kg/day) by gavage in aqueous vehicle for 30 days. Liver and kidney injury were measured by plasma ALT and BUN, respectively, and by histopathology. Tissue regeneration was assessed by 3H-thymidine incorporation into hepato- and nephro-nuclear DNA and by proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining. In addition, GSH and CYP2E1 in liver and kidney were assessed at selected time points. The levels of chloroform were measured in blood, liver, and kidney during the dosing regimen (1, 7, 14, and 30 days). Kidney injury was evident after 1 day with all three doses and sustained until 7 days followed by complete recovery. Mild to moderate liver injury was observed from 1 to 14 days with all three dose levels followed by gradual decrease. Significantly higher regenerative response was evident in liver and kidney at 7 days, but the response was robust in kidney, preventing progression of injury beyond first week of exposure. While the kidney regeneration reached basal levels by 21 days, moderate liver regeneration with two higher doses sustained through the end of the dosing regimen and 3 days after that. Following repeated exposure for 7, 14, and 30 days, the blood and tissue levels of chloroform were substantially lower with all three dose levels compared to the levels observed with single exposure. Increased exhalation of 14C-chloroform after repeated exposures explains the decreased chloroform levels in circulation and tissues. These results suggest that toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics (tissue regeneration) contribute to the tolerance observed in SW mice to subchronic chloroform toxicity. Neither bioactivation nor detoxification

  14. Contribution of natural terrestrial sources to the atmospheric chloroform budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, R. C.; Abel, T.; Pan, D.; Whelan, M.

    2008-12-01

    Chloroform (trichloromethane, CHCl3) is the second largest carrier of natural chlorine in the troposphere after methyl chloride, contributing to the reactive chlorine burden in the troposphere and to ozone destruction in the stratosphere. Our understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of atmospheric CHCl3 has undergone major adjustments recently, including the quantification of the total atmospheric burden of this compound, the estimated global source and sink strengths, and the relative contributions of anthropogenic versus natural contributions. Numerous natural terrestrial sources have been identified, including temperate peatlands, Arctic tundra, termite mounds, salt marshes, grasslands, forests and woodlands. However, the wide variability of fluxes within each ecosystem has complicated efforts to quantify the overall terrestrial source. In addition, the environmental and biogeochemical controls remain largely unknown. We shall present a comparison of recent CHCl3 flux measurements that cover a range of biome types and climatic conditions. To address within-biome variability, flux measurements from the Arctic tundra and temperate grasslands will be compared to common environmental parameters (e.g., temperature, soil moisture, solar insolation) and other trace gas fluxes (CH3Cl, CH4, CCl4). The generally poor correlations demonstrate that the variability of CHCl3 emissions may be affected by site-specific parameters that are not currently measured or by drastic changes in hydrologic conditions. Similar patterns are observed in laboratory incubations of tundra peat and grassland soils. We explore the possibility that the humification of plant material, which has been shown to produce organochlorine compounds through the chlorination of organic matter, may contribute to CHCl3 emissions. If this link exists, then CHCl3 production could potentially act as a proxy for organic matter degradation and carbon sequestration, essential biogeochemical and ecosystem

  15. Kinetic Studies that Evaluate the Solvolytic Mechanisms of Allyl and Vinyl Chloroformate Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm J. D'Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At 25.0 °C the specific rates of solvolysis for allyl and vinyl chloroformates have been determined in a wide mix of pure and aqueous organic mixtures. In all the solvents studied, vinyl chloroformate was found to react significantly faster than allyl chloroformate. Multiple correlation analyses of these rates are completed using the extended (two-term Grunwald-Winstein equation with incorporation of literature values for solvent nucleophilicity (NT and solvent ionizing power (YCl. Both substrates were found to solvolyze by similar dual bimolecular carbonyl-addition and unimolecular ionization channels, each heavily dependent upon the solvents nucleophilicity and ionizing ability.

  16. Enhancement of the Hepatotoxicity of chloroform in B6C3F1 mice by corn oil: implications for chloroform carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bull, R.J.; Brown, J.M.; Meierhenry, E.A.; Jorgenson, T.A.; Robinson, M.; Stober, J.A.

    1986-11-01

    A recent study of the ability of chloroform in drinking water to produce cancer reported that male Osborne-Mendel rats developed renal tumors, but that female B6C3F1 mice failed to develop hepatocellular carcinomas. The results obtained in the male Osborne-Mendel rats were comparable to those observed in an earlier study sponsored by the National Cancer Institute (NCI). On the other hand, the lack of an increased incidence of hepatocellular carcinomas in female B6C3F1 mice was in sharp contrast to previously reported results. The doses of chloroform used were comparable to that which produced an 85% incidence in the NCI study. The authors have investigated the extent to which the vehicle might be responsible for the different results in these two studies by examining the differential effects of chloroform when it was administered by gavage using corn oil versus a 2% Emulphor suspension as the vehicle. Male and female B6C3F1 mice were administered chloroform at 60, 130, and 270 mg/kg per day for 90 days. At sacrifice, body and organ weights were measured, and blood was recovered to perform the following serum chemistry measurements (in order of priority): glutamate oxalacetate transaminase (SGOT), lactate dehydrogenase (LDH), blood urea nitrogen (BUN), and triglyceride (TG) levels. The liver was sectioned for histopathological examination. These data indicate that administration of chloroform by corn oil gavage results in more marked hepatotoxic effects than observed when it is provided in an aqueous suspension. A major difference between two recent carcinogenesis bioassays of chloroform in this same mouse strain was the vehicle used.

  17. Abiotic degradation rates for carbon tetrachloride and chloroform: Final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Russell, Colleen K.; Humphrys, Daniel R.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.

    2012-12-01

    This report documents the objectives, technical approach, and progress made through FY 2012 on a project initiated in FY 2006 to help address uncertainties related to the rates of hydrolysis in groundwater for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF). The project also sought to explore the possible effects of contact with minerals and sediment (i.e., heterogeneous hydrolysis) on these rates. We conducted 114 hydrolysis rate experiments in sealed vessels across a temperature range of 20-93 °C for periods as long as 6 years, and used the Arrhenius equation to estimate activation energies and calculate half-lives for typical Hanford groundwater conditions (temperature of 16 °C and pH of 7.75). We calculated a half-life of 630 years for hydrolysis for CT under these conditions and found that CT hydrolysis was unaffected by contact with sterilized, oxidized minerals or Hanford sediment within the sensitivity of our experiments. In contrast to CT, hydrolysis of CF was generally slower and very sensitive to pH due to the presence of both neutral and base-catalyzed hydrolysis pathways. We calculated a half-life of 3400 years for hydrolysis of CF in homogeneous solution at 16 °C and pH 7.75. Experiments in suspensions of Hanford sediment or smectite, the dominant clay mineral in Hanford sediment, equilibrated to an initial pH of 7.2, yielded calculated half-lives of 1700 years and 190 years, respectively, at 16 °C. Experiments with three other mineral phases at the same pH (muscovite mica, albite feldspar, and kaolinite) showed no change from the homogeneous solution results (i.e., a half-life of 3400 years). The strong influence of Hanford sediment on CF hydrolysis was attributed to the presence of smectite and its ability to adsorb protons, thereby buffering the solution pH at a higher level than would otherwise occur. The project also determined liquid-vapor partition coefficients for CT under the temperatures and pressures encountered in the sealed vessels that

  18. ADSORPTION OF CHLOROFORM AND TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN WATER WITH A NEW KIND OF HYPERCROSSLINKED RESINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-hao Fei; Jin-long Chen; Guan-dao Gao; Chao Long; Ai-min Li; Quan-xing Zhang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper two newly developed hypercrosslinked resins were used to treat micropolluted drinking water and their static and kinetic adsorption were investigated at 293 K. The results show that these two adsorbents are superior to Amberlite XAD-4 for removing chloroform and trichloroethylene in aqueous solutions. The breakthrough capacity and the total capacities from mini-column adsorption studies for chloroform and trichloroethylene on XAD-4, ZH-01 and ZH-00 are calculated respectively under experimental conditions

  19. Phytochemical and Chromatographic Fingerprint Studies on Chloroformic Extracts of Cassia tora L.

    OpenAIRE

    Patil Sahadeo; Wankhade Sushilkumar; Somkuwar Dipali; Kamble Vilas

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To lay down the chromatographic profile of chloroform extracts of Cassia tora L. by HPTLC technique. Methods: Chloroformic extracts prepared from leaf, flower and seed of Cassia tora L. using Soxhlet apparatus. Qualitative phytochemical screening was done and HPTLC analysis was carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with automatic TLC sampler IV, TLC scanner 3, REPROSTAR 3 with 12 bit CCD camera for photo documentation, winCATS Planer Chromatography software. Results: The re...

  20. Hot spot formation of chloroform in forest soils caused pollution of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Ole S.; Albers, Christian N.; Laier, Troels; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    High concentration of chloroform in groundwater is usually attributed to anthropogenic input, but we have found that the groundwater beneath some pristine areas contained chloroform from 1 - 10 µg/L. Groundwater containing chloroform that exceeds 1 µg/L could not be used for drinking water according to Danish regulations. The strict demands on groundwater quality may have to be taken into account when decisions are made regarding the change of land use in order to protect major recharge areas from pollution with nitrate and pesticides resulting from high-yield agriculture production. The terrestrial environment and especially hot spots in forest soils seem to be important contributors to apparent pollution of groundwater with chloroform. We performed a field study to investigate concentration and fluxes of chloroform to the groundwater from in four coniferous forests in order to increase knowledge on the hot spot formation and fate of natural chloroform. We investigated four stations over a period of several years in order to measure the net-formation of chloroform. Field measurements soil air concentrations of chloroform were monitored in five soil profiles down to the groundwater table. Meteorological data were recorded at all stations In the hotspots up to 120 ppbv was found in soil air under the spruce forest, to be compared to an ambient atmospheric concentration of 0.02 ppbv. The concentration of chloroform in soil air showed seasonal variation with a maximum in August-September. The chloroform concentration decreased with depth in all profiles during the summer half-year to about 20 % of concentration in the production layer. However, the concentration is still high enough to give an equilibrium concentration in the upper groundwater of 1-10 µg/L. Stable carbon isotopic analyses of chloroform from the uppermost groundwater in different parts of the forests and from soil water showed values from δ13C = -13 ‰ to -27 ‰, corresponding to the ratio in

  1. Characterization of hot spots for natural chloroform formation: Relevance for groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Ole S.; Albers, Christian N.; Laier, Troels

    2015-04-01

    Chloroform soil hot spot may deteriorate groundwater quality and may even result in chloroform concentration exceeding the Danish maximum limit of 1 µg/L in groundwater for potable use. In order to characterize the soil properties important for the chloroform production, various ecosystems were examined with respect to soil air chloroform and soil organic matter type and content. Coniferous forest areas, responsible for highest chloroform concentrations, were examined on widely different scales from km to cm scale. Furthermore, regular soil gas measurements including chloroform were performed during 4 seasons at various depths, together with various meteorological measurements and soil temperature recordings. Laboratory incubation experiments were also performed on undisturbed soil samples in order to examine the role of various microbiota, fungi and bacteria. To identify hot spots responsible for the natural contamination we have measured the production of chloroform in the upper soil from different terrestrial systems. Field measurements of chloroform in top soil air were used as production indicators. The production was however not evenly distributed at any scale. The ecosystems seem to have quite different net-productions of chloroform from very low in grassland to very high in some coniferous forests. Within the forest ecosystem we found large variation in chloroform concentrations depending on vegetation. In beech forest we found the lowest values, somewhat higher in an open pine forest, but the highest concentrations were detected in spruce forest without any vegetation beneath. Within this ecotype, it appeared that the variation was also large; hot spots with 2-4 decades higher production than the surrounding area. These hot spots were not in any way visually different from the surroundings and were of variable size from 3 to 20 meters in diameter. Besides this, measurements within a seemingly homogenous hot spot showed that there was still high

  2. Evaluation of Chloroform Extract and Its Fractions of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn. Leaves for Cardioprotective Activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dobhal Y

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The present study has been designed to investigate the efficacy of active extract and its fraction of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn. leaves on ischaemia and reperfusion-induced myocardial injury using wister albino rats. Petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone and methanolic extracts of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn. leaves were prepared and screened for their cardioprotective potential. Among all the extracts chloroform extract reduce myocardial injury. The chloroform extract further purified using column chromatographic technique that results four major fractions viz F1, F2, F3 and F4. These fractions screened for myocardial infarct size and LDH and CK-MB release in coronary effluent at dose level of 100mg/kg body weight as compared with that of standard Trimetazidine(35mg/kg body weight. The fraction F4 of chloroform extract significantly prevented myocardial infarct size and LDH and CK-MB release as compared with that of standard trimetazidine. Further, cardioprotective effect of the fraction F4 of chloroform extracts of Ocimum gratissimum (Linn. was significantly (p˂0.05 compared to vehicle control group.

  3. Removal of Chloroform (CHCl3 from Tehran Drinking Water by GAC and Air Stripping Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M T Samadi, S Nasseri, A Mesdaghinia, M R Alizadefard

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The harmful substances, defined as trihalomethanes (THMs, were found to be formed during the disinfection of drinking water when chlorine was used as the disinfectant. In this research, the effectiveness of granular activated carbon (GAC and air stripping (AS packed column for the removal of chloroform (CHCl3 (as THMs basic indicator compound in many resources in range of 50 to300µg/L, from drinking water was studied. Pilots of GAC and air stripping columns were designed and set up. The study was carried out for the two cases of deionized and chlorinated Tehran tap water. Also the effects of flow rate, chloroform and TDS concentrations were considered in both treatment systems. Gas chromatography (GC with electron capture detector (ECD was used for determination of chloroform concentration in inlet and outlet samples. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS and non-parametric Kruskal–Wallis method. Results showed a positive correlation between the flow rate and chloroform concentration, and removal efficiencies. The average of variations of removal efficiencies for AS and GAC columns with deionized water samples were, 89.9%, 71.2% and for chlorinated Tehran tap water were 91.2% and 76.4%, respectively. The removal of feed residual chlorine in these columns with 0.5, 0.8 ppm was 100%, respectively and re-chlorination for finishing water was recommended. Results showed AS to be considered more effective in chloroform removal for conventional water treatment plants as a finishing process.

  4. In Vitro Antioxidant and Enzymes Inhibitory activity of Chloroform Fraction of Hydroalcoholic extract obtained from Argemone mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation antioxidant and alphaamylase inhibitory activity of chloroform fraction of Argemone mexicana were evaluated. The antioxidant activity of chloroform fraction of A. mexicana was evaluated by DPPH, Super oxide radical Scavenging activity, ABTS radical cation scavenging activity and Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity. Alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of chloroform fraction was evaluated by DNS method respectively. The observed resultant antioxidant activity of chloroform fraction in all studied models was moderate as compared with reference standard Ascorbic acid. The chloroform fraction exhibited appreciable α-amylase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value 48.92μg/ml respectively, when compared with acarbose (IC50 value 83.33μg/ml.In conclusion, from the results of present study it is confirmed that antioxidant and alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of chloroform fraction of A. mexicana may contribute in its earlier observed antidiabetic potential.

  5. A study of the sources and sinks of methane and methyl chloroform using a global three-dimensional Lagrangian tropospheric tracer transport model

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, JA; Brasseur, GP; Zimmerman, PR; Cicerone, RJ

    1991-01-01

    By comparison with methyl chloroform observations a global average tropospheric hydroxyl radical concentration of 6.4 × 105 cm-3 was found to be consistent with published methyl chloroform emission data for the year 1980. Published methyl chloroform emissions data for 1981-1984 were found to be inconsistent with the observed methyl chloroform concentration increases. Using the hydroxyl radical field calibrated to the methyl chloroform observations, two source function models of the spatial an...

  6. Mechanism of chloroform-induced renal toxicity: Non-involvement of hepatic cytochrome P450-dependent metabolism

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloroform causes hepatic and renal toxicity in a number of species. In vitro studies have indicated that chloroform can be metabolized by P450 enzymes in the kidney to nephrotoxic intermediate, although direct in vivo evidence for the role of renal P450 in the nephrotoxicity has not been reported. This study was to determine whether chloroform renal toxicity persists in a mouse model with a liver-specific deletion of the P450 reductase (Cpr) gene (liver-Cpr-null). Chloroform-induced renal toxicity and chloroform tissue levels were compared between the liver-Cpr-null and wild-type mice at 24 h following differing doses of chloroform. At a chloroform dose of 150 mg/kg, the levels of blood urea nitrogen (BUN) were five times higher in the exposed group than in the vehicle-treated one for the liver-Cpr-null mice, but they were only slightly higher in the exposed group than in the vehicle-treated group for the wild-type mice. Severe lesions were found in the kidney of the liver-Cpr-null mice, while only mild lesions were found in the wild-type mice. At a chloroform dose of 300 mg/kg, severe kidney lesions were observed in both strains, yet the BUN levels were still higher in the liver-Cpr-null than in the wild-type mice. Higher chloroform levels were found in the tissues of the liver-Cpr-null mice. These findings indicated that loss of hepatic P450-dependent chloroform metabolism does not protect against chloroform-induced renal toxicity, suggesting that renal P450 enzymes play an essential role in chloroform renal toxicity

  7. Chloroform in a pristine aquifer system: Toward an evidence of biogenic origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laturnus, F.; Lauritsen, F.R.; Grøn, C.

    2000-01-01

    chlorinated hydrocarbons were detected. The concentration profiles of chloroform indicated a formation of this compound in the soil. Low concentrations were found in ambient air (0.02 ng L21), higher concentrations in the upper soil layers (9.6 ng L21 at 0.75 m below the surface), and a decrease with...... increasing depth (down to 1.5 ng L21 just above the groundwater table at 7.5 m below the surface). For the other identified chlorinated compounds the concentration profiles were different from those of chloroform and exhibited less systematic variation between ambient air and soil air and with increasing...... depth. In the phreatic groundwater, high concentrations (up to 1.6 mg L21) of chloroform and low concentrations (,0.01 mg L21) of the other chlorinated compounds identified in air were found. Of the seven volatile brominated and iodinated compounds analyzed in ambient air, soil air, and groundwater...

  8. A study on the Removal of Chloroform from Wastewaters by Means of Pervaporation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Pervaporation is a membrane separation process in which the feed liquid mixture to be separated is placed in contact with one side of a dense selective membrane, producing an enriched vapor permeate on the other side of the membrane. One of the applications of pervaporation is the removal and recovery of organic compounds from contaminated industrial wastewaters. In the present work the separation and recovery of chloroform from synthetic wastewaters was investigated. Experiments were conducted in two hollow fiber modules, using polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS) as membrane material. The effect of the volumetric flowrate and the thickness of membrane were investigated. The viability of the removal of chloroform from wastewaters was assessed. The results were analysed according to the continuity mass conservation equation, determining that the design parameter is the diffusion coefficient of chloroform in the aqueous phase. The value of D at 40 1.51*10-9 m2/s

  9. Atomistic study of lipid membranes containing chloroform: looking for a lipid-mediated mechanism of anesthesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Reigada

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanism of general anesthesia is still a controversial issue. Direct effect by linking of anesthetics to proteins and indirect action on the lipid membrane properties are the two hypotheses in conflict. Atomistic simulations of different lipid membranes subjected to the effect of small volatile organohalogen compounds are used to explore plausible lipid-mediated mechanisms. Simulations of homogeneous membranes reveal that electrostatic potential and lateral pressure transversal profiles are affected differently by chloroform (anesthetic and carbon tetrachloride (non-anesthetic. Simulations of structured membranes that combine ordered and disordered regions show that chloroform molecules accumulate preferentially in highly disordered lipid domains, suggesting that the combination of both lateral and transversal partitioning of chloroform in the cell membrane could be responsible of its anesthetic action.

  10. Modeling the interaction of ozone with chloroform and bromoform under conditions close to stratospheric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokova, N. E.; Yagodovskaya, T. V.; Savilov, S. V.; Lukhovitskaya, E. E.; Vasil'ev, E. S.; Morozov, I. I.; Lunin, V. V.

    2013-02-01

    The reactions of ozone with chloroform and bromoform are studied using a flow gas discharge vacuum unit under conditions close to stratospheric (temperature range, 77-250 K; pressure, 10-3-0.1 Torr in the presence of nitrate ice). It is shown that the reaction with bromoform begins at 160 K; the reaction with chloroform, at 190 K. The reaction products are chlorine and bromine oxides of different composition, identified by low-temperature FTIR spectroscopy. The presence of nitrate ice raises the temperature of reaction onset to 210 K.

  11. Stabilization of Au nanoparticles prepared by laser ablation in chloroform with free-base porphyrin molecules

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Šišková, Karolína; Pfleger, Jiří; Procházka, M.

    2010-01-01

    Roč. 256, č. 9 (2010), s. 2979-2987. ISSN 0169-4332 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KAN100500652; GA ČR GA203/07/0717 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40500505 Keywords : Au nanoparticles * laser ablation * chloroform Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 1.795, year: 2010

  12. Chloroform micro-evaporation induced ordered structures of poly(L-lactide) thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaoyong; Li, Hongfei; Shang, Yingrui; Yu, Donghong; Li, Gao; Jiang, Shichun; Chen, Xuesi; An, Lijia

    2013-01-01

    Self-assembly of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) in thin films induced by chloroform micro-evaporation was investigated by microscopic techniques and X-ray diffraction studies. A film-thickness dependent on highly ordered structures has been derived from disordered films. Ring-banded spherulitic and...

  13. "Comparison of Nanofiltration and GAC Adsorption Processes for Chloroform Removal from Drinking Water"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nasseri

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the Chloroform (CHCl3 removal effectiveness of two water treatment systems including membrane technology and granular activated carbon (GAC adsorption were studied. Two bench-scales were designed and set up: 1 Nanofiltration (NF spiral-wound modules and 2 GAC adsorption column. Chloroform was considered as trihalomethanes (THMs basic indicator compound. The inlet and outlet CHCl3 concentrations were detected by gas chromatography (GC with electron capture detector (ECD. The study was carried out for the two cases of spiked deionized water with CHCl3 and chlorinated Tehran tap water. Flow rate, CHCl3 and total dissolved solids (TDS concentrations were considered in both treatment systems and the transmembrane pressures for membrane pilot, as the basic variables affecting removal efficiencies. Results showed that CHCl3 rejection coefficients for NF 300 Da, NF 600 Da and GAC Column, with various operation conditions had a range of 55.2% to 87.8%, 78% to 85% and 41.4% to 74.1%, respectively. It was found that removal efficiencies for NF 600 Da were lower than those of NF 300 Da and GAC column. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS and non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis method. Results showed a positive correlation between the flow rate, CHCl3 concentration and chloroform rejection coefficients and the TDS concentration had no significant effect on chloroform removal efficiencies.

  14. Chemical changes in the chloroform-paraffin system irradiated by 60Co gamma-rays, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been reported that the chloroform-paraffin-dye system have excellent sensitivity for radiation as a solid chemical dosimeter or a phantom. However, the chemical changes in the irradiated system are not examined in detail. In the present study, the effect of paraffin on changes in the above system of a liquid state irradiated by 60Co γ-rays was examined by using various normal paraffin, and the other variable factors on the changes were done. When the chloroform solution and the solution containing 25 per cent of paraffin by volume with 5.0 x 15-5 mol/liter of Methyl Yellow as a dye were irradiated by 2000 R, G values for the formation of hydrogen chloride in the both solutions were 8.4 and 10.8, respectively, and were little affected by the kind of those, from C6 (hexane) to C36 (hexatria-contane). These results suggest that chlorine radical formed by radiolysis of chloroform may react with hydrogen atom from paraffin, thereby increasing the amount of hydrogen chloride. Presence of oxygen increased G value of the chloroform solution from 7.6 to 8.4, but did little that of the solution containing paraffin. (author)

  15. Detection of chloroform in water using an azo dye-modified β-cyclodextrin - Epichlorohydrin copolymer as a fluorescent probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Phendukani; Krause, Rui W. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    Chlorination disinfection by-products (DBPs) in water pose a health threat to humans and the aquatic environment. Their detection in water sources is therefore vital. Herein we present the detection of chloroform, a DBP, using a molecular fluorescent probe. The detection was based on the quenching of fluorescence of the probe by chloroform due to host-guest complex formation between β-cyclodextrin in the probe and the chloroform molecule. The stability constant for the host-guest complex was high at 3.825 × 104 M-1. Chloroform quenched the fluorescence of the copolymer the most compared to the other small chlorinated compounds studied, suggesting that the probe was more sensitive to chloroform, with a sensing factor of 0.35 compared to as low as 0.0073 for dichloromethane. There was no interference from other chloroalkanes on the quenching efficiency of chloroform. The probe was used to detect chloroform in dam water as well as in bottled water. Detection of chloroform in both water samples using the probe was possible without chemically treating the water samples which may introduce other pollutants.

  16. Photocatalytic oxidation of chloroform using immobilized-biogenic TiO2 nanoparticles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Y.; Cho, Y.; Yoo, H.

    2011-12-01

    Although commercial titanium dioxide (TiO2) nanoparticles as a suspension in water are one of the most popular photocatalysts for treatment of chlorinated organic compounds, the reuse and recovery of the nanoscale phtocatalyst is a practical challenge for application in water and groundwater treatment system. As part of efforts to overcome this practical limitation, development of immobilized TiO2 is needed. Diatom Pinnularia sp. were found to be capable of producing nanoscale TiO2 in their microscale silica shells. In order to obtain biogenic TiO2 nanoparticles from Pinnularia sp., soluble Ti was fed to the silicon-starved cells, resulting in deposition of titanium on the microscale features of the silica shells. After thermal treatment at 720 oC for 2 hr, the titanium was eventually converted to nanoscale TiO2. In order to determine the physical and chemical properties of the immobilized TiO2, material characterization such as TEM, STEM-EDS, BET and XRD analysis was carried out. In this study, a novel type of immobilized photocatalytic nanoparticles, biogenic TiO2 on silica shells was used for the mineralization of chloroform in water. Batch tests were conducted to evaluate the chloroform removal efficiency of biogenic and commercial TiO2 nanoparticles. Also, the amount of Cl- ions in water during the mineralization was measured to check mineralization of chloroform by biogenic TiO2 nanoparticles. Kinetic models were used to determine the rate of chloroform mineralization. In addition, the effect of UVA (ultraviolet-A) intensity on chloroform mineralization was investigated. The results obtained from this study could provide useful information for practical application of biogenic TiO2 in the groundwater treatment contaminated with some chlorinated organic compounds.

  17. A very stable complex of a modified marine cyclopeptide with chloroform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberhauer, Gebhard; Pintér, Áron; Woitschetzki, Sascha

    2013-12-01

    Noncovalent interactions play a pivotal role in molecular recognition. These interactions can be subdivided into hydrogen bonds, cation-π interactions, ion pair interactions and London dispersion forces. The latter are considered to be weak molecular interactions and increase with the size of the interacting moieties. Here we show that even the small chloroform molecule forms a very stable complex with a modified marine cyclopeptide. By means of high-level quantum chemical calculations, the size of the dispersive interactions is calculated; the dispersion energy (approximately -40 kcal mol-1) is approximately as high as if the four outer atoms of the guest form four strong hydrogen bonds with the host. This strong binding of chloroform to a modified marine cyclopeptide allows the speculation that the azole-containing cyclopeptides-haloform interaction may play some biological role in marine organisms such as algae.

  18. GC-MS/MS Based Identification of Bioactive principles of Chloroform fraction of Swertia Chirayatia (Chirata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Jilani Khan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize the chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant and anticancer activity of chloroform fraction of Swertia chirata L. (Family Gentianaceae. GC-MS analysis of chloroform fraction of S. chirata (CFSc identified twenty-five compounds belonging to different chemical class. Among these important classes of compounds were tri-terpenoids, phenol, acids, and fatty acids. Our phytochemical analysis of CFSc was well supported by its Total Phenolic Content and antioxidant activity with in vitro anticancer activity which was evaluated by MTT assay also showed that CFSc exhibited anti-proliferative activity against human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. In conclusion; our study revealed an extensive biochemical profile of CFSc as well its potential as a pharmacological agent with respect of its antioxidant and anti-cancer property. More safety and toxicological studies are needed to be addressed to ensure the use of CFSc for medicinal purposes.

  19. Study on the Electrical Conductivity of Au Nanoparticle/ Chloroform and Toluene Suspensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Fang; ZHANG Ya-fei

    2005-01-01

    Au nanoparticles capped by hexadecanethiol and dodecanethiol were chemically synthesized. The characteristics of electrical conductivity for the capped nanoparticles dissolved in chloroform and toluene solvents were investigated. The electrical conductivity of the samples is conspicuously Au nanoparticle concentration dependent.The results show that a rapid conductivity increases when the nanoparticle concentration increases from low value to a moderate value of 5.47 g/L and 11.22 g/L, which is capped by hexadecanethiol and dodecanethiol in chloroform solvent, and 2.77 g/L and 7.88 g/L in toluene solvent. The room-temperature dc conductivity σdc of Au nanoparticle capped by hexadecanethiol is smaller than that capped by dodecanethiol in the whole range of Au nanoparticle concentrations. The conductivity of Au nanoparticle suspensions increases almost linearly in the temperature range in above two solvents.

  20. Tetraiodido[methylenebis(diphenylphosphine oxide-κ2O:O′]tin(IV chloroform solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joseph M. Tanski

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [SnI4(C25H22O2P2]·CHCl3, crystallized from a chloroform solution of SnI4 and the diphosphine CH2(PPh22 exposed to air. The monomeric complex displays a distorted octahedral coordinaton for the tin(IV atom with average Sn—I and Sn—O bond lengths of 2.79 (2 and 2.15 (1 Å, respectively.

  1. Evidence of Hydrogen Bonding in Chloroform and Polyacrylates from NMR Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The presence of hydrogen bonding in chloroform and polyacrylate mixtures was demonstrated by observation of 1H- and 13C-NMR chemical shifts. Comparison of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift in polymer solutions with their low molecular mass analogues showed the effect of steric hindrance on hydrogen bonding. This initial investigation is helpful for understanding the intermolecular interaction in relatively weak hydrogen bonding polymer solutions.

  2. Analysis of phenolic acids as chloroformate derivatives using solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citová, Ivana; Sladkovský, Radek; Solich, Petr

    2006-07-28

    In the presented study, a simple and original procedure of phenolic acids derivatization treated by ethyl and methyl chloroformate performed in an aqueous media consisting of acetonitrile, water, methanol/ethanol and pyridine has been modified and optimized. Seven phenolic acid standards-caffeic, ferulic, gallic, p-coumaric, protocatechuic, syringic and vanillic were derivatized into corresponding methyl/ethyl esters and subsequently determined by the means of gas chromatography connected to the flame-ionisation detector (FID). Some selected validation parameters as linearity, detection and quantitation limits and peak area repeatability were valued. The total time of gas chromatography (GC) analysis was 24 min for methyl chloroformate and 30 min for ethyl chloroformate derivatization. The more suitable methyl chloroformate derivatization was used for further experiments on the possibility of multiple pre-concentration by the direct solid phase microextraction technique (SPME). For this purpose, polyacrylate (PA), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) and polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fibres were tested and the extraction conditions concerning time of extraction, temperature and time of desorption were optimized. The most polar PA fibre gave the best results under optimal extraction conditions (50 min extraction time, 25 degrees C extraction temperature and 10 min desorption time). As a result, the total time of SPME-GC analysis was 74 min and an increase in method sensitivity was reached. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) of p-coumaric, ferulic, syringic and vanillic acid esters after SPME pre-concentration were 0.02, 0.17, 0.2 and 0.2 microg mL(-1), respectively, showing approximately 10 times higher sensitivity in comparison with the original GC method. PMID:17723529

  3. Cytotoxicity activities of chloroform extract of Cichorium intybus seed against HCT-15 and Vero cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant Y Mali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cichorium intybus L., (Asteraceae) is well-known as a coffee substitute but is also widely used medicinally to treat various ailments ranging from wounds to diabetes. Other plant parts are also used for liver and cancer disorder. Objective: The objective was to study the cytotoxic potential of chloroform extract of C. intybus seed against HCT-15 and Vero (normal) cell line. Materials and Methods: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the extract was performed....

  4. Cytotoxicity activities of chloroform extract of Cichorium intybus seed against HCT-15 and Vero cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Y Mali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cichorium intybus L., (Asteraceae is well-known as a coffee substitute but is also widely used medicinally to treat various ailments ranging from wounds to diabetes. Other plant parts are also used for liver and cancer disorder. Objective: The objective was to study the cytotoxic potential of chloroform extract of C. intybus seed against HCT-15 and Vero (normal cell line. Materials and Methods: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis of the extract was performed. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay was used for evaluation of the cytotoxic potential of chloroform extract of C. intybus seed. Doxorubicin was considered as standard reference drug. The concentrations 1000–0.05 μg/ml was used in the experiment. Result and Discussion: FTIR spectrum showed 1025.363, 1083.126, 1291.366, 1389.144, and 1569.294 peaks/centers in the wavelength region of 4,000.00–650.00 cm−1. The chloroform extract of C. intybus seed and doxorubicin was showed 1411.37 μg/ml and 460.13 μg/ml 50% cell growth inhibition (IC50 against the HCT-15 cell line. Both extract and doxorubicin were safe against the Vero (normal cell line. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the chloroform extract of C. intybus seed was not efficient against the HCT-15 cell line at the concentrations used in the experiment. Furthermore, there is no need to explore the said studies by in vivo models.

  5. Effect of Chloroform, Eucalyptol and Orange Oil Solvents on the Microhardness of Human Root Dentin

    OpenAIRE

    Sedigheh Khedmat; Alaleh Hashemi; Fatemeh Dibaji; Mohammad Javad Kharrazifard

    2015-01-01

    Objectives: This study aimed to assess the effect of chloroform, eucalyptol and orange oil solvents on the microhardness of human root dentin. Materials and Methods: Sixty-eight single-rooted single-canal extracted human premolar teeth were used. Tooth crowns were separated from the roots at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ). Roots were buccolingually sectioned into mesial and distal halves. Specimens were randomly divided into 5 groups, with 20 teeth in each solvent group and 4 teeth in each ...

  6. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  7. Comparative analysis of antioxidant and phenolic content of chloroform extract/fraction of Terminalia chebula

    OpenAIRE

    Walia, Harpreet; Kumar, Subodh; Arora, Saroj

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, two chloroform extracts of fruits of Terminalia chebula viz. “CHL1” and “CHL 2” prepared by maceration and sequential method respectively was compared for their antioxidant efficacy and phenolic content. The extraction procedure of plant material plays an important role in the activity of phytochemicals. Also, the assessment of antioxidant capacity of phytochemicals cannot be executed precisely by any single method due to complex nature of phytochemicals as multiple reac...

  8. Acute Toxicity Investigation and Anti-diarrhoeal Effect of the Chloroform-Methanol Extract of the Leaves of Persea americana

    OpenAIRE

    Christian E, Odo; Okwesili FC, Nwodo; Parker E, Joshua; Okechukwu PC, Ugwu

    2014-01-01

    Persea americana is a plant used by traditional medicine practitioners to treat ailments including diarrhoea and diabetes mellitus in Nigeria. Hence, the chloroform and the methanol fractions of the chloroform-methanol extract of the leaves of P. americana were evaluated for their acute toxicity as well as anti-diarrhoeal effects in Wistar rats to substantiate this claim. The chloroform and methanol fractions [at graded doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg body weight (b.w) of each] were studied for th...

  9. The effect of chloroform, orange oil and eucalyptol on root canal transportation in endodontic retreatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karataş, Ertuğrul; Kol, Elif; Bayrakdar, İbrahim Şevki; Arslan, Hakan

    2016-04-01

    The purpose of the present study was to assess the effect of solvents on root canal transportation in endodontic retreatment. Sixty extracted human permanent mandibular first molars with curved root canals were selected. All of the root canals were prepared using Twisted File Adaptive instruments (SybronEndo, Orange, CA, USA) and filled with gutta-percha and AH Plus sealer (Dentsply DeTrey, Konstanz, Germany) using the cold lateral compaction technique. The teeth were assigned to four retreatment groups as follows (n = 15): eucalyptol, chloroform, orange oil and control. The canals were scanned using cone-beam computed tomography scanning before and after instrumentation. The chloroform group showed a significantly higher mean transportation value than the orange oil and control groups at the 3 and 5 mm levels (P = 0.011 and P = 0.003, respectively). There was no significant difference among the orange oil, eucalyptol and control groups in terms of canal transportation (P > 0.61). The chloroform led to more canal transportation than the eucalyptol and orange oil during endodontic retreatment. PMID:26420757

  10. Effect of chloroform, eucalyptol and orange oil solvents on the microhardness of human root dentin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Khedmat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the effect of chloroform, eucalyptol and orange oil solvents on the microhardness of human root dentin.Sixty-eight single-rooted single-canal extracted human premolar teeth were used. Tooth crowns were separated from the roots at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ. Roots were buccolingually sectioned into mesial and distal halves. Specimens were randomly divided into 5 groups, with 20 teeth in each solvent group and 4 teeth in each control group. Primary microhardness of specimens was measured using Vickers microhardness tester. Specimens were exposed to solvents for 15 minutes and were subjected to microhardness testing again. Data were recorded and analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA.No significant difference was found in dentin microhardness before and after exposure to solvents in any of the orange oil, eucalyptol, chloroform or saline groups (P=0.727. None of the experimental groups showed any significant difference in terms of dentin microhardness reduction (P=0.99 and had no significant difference with the negative control group.This study showed that chloroform, eucalyptol and orange oil as gutta percha solvents did not decrease the microhardness of root dentin. Thus, none of the mentioned solvents has any superiority over the others in terms of affecting dentin properties.

  11. Anti-diabetic potential of chloroform extract of flowers of Calotropis gigantea: An in vitro and in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    N K Choudhary; Jha, A. K.; Sharma, S.; Goyal, S.; J Dwivedi

    2011-01-01

    The chloroform extract of Calotropis gigantea flowers was evaluated for anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in vivo and inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. It was also intended to establish correlation between the serum marker antioxidant enzymes and diabetes. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate freshly prepared in a dose of 150 mg/kg. Chloroform extract showing presence of flavonoids was administered orally at ...

  12. The effect of silver nitrate, chloroformic garlic extract and normal saline in induction of sclerosing cholangitis in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to the effects of 0.5% silver nitrate, 20% chloroformic garlic extract and 0.9% normal saline in induction of sclerosing cholangitis in the bile ducts of rabbits. During a 6-months period from April to September 2006 in Shiraz University Laboratory Animal Research Center, we selected 3 equal groups of rabbits. We injected 0.5% silver nitrate, 20% chloroformic garlic extract and 0.9% normal saline into the bile ducts of each group. The animals were euthanized and autopsied after 4 months and the liver and bile ducts were removed and studied histopathologically. Cholangiography was undertaken to evaluate the presence and extent of any sclerosing cholangitis. Animals showed sclerosing cholangitis in silver nitrate group (7 [58%]), one (8%) in chloroformic garlic extract group and one (7%) in normal saline group. The difference between silver nitrate and chloroformic garlic extract groups were statistically significant and similar results were noticed between chloroformic garlic extract and normal saline groups. Twenty percent of chloroformic garlic extract had fewer complications such as sclerosing cholangitis, compared to other materials. (author)

  13. Photochemical reactions of poly(3-butoxythiophene-2,5-diyl) with chloroform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IMIT Mokhtar; YAMAMOTO Takakazu; IMIN Patigul

    2005-01-01

    Photochemical reactions of poly(3-butoxythiophene-2,5-diyl) with chloroform under irradiation with light were studied. The reactions were separately carried out under air, oxygen, and nitrogen. The obtained results showed that this reaction belongs to the pseudo-first-order reaction with a rate constant kobs of 1.4× 10-5 s-1 at room temperature. The presence or absence of air, oxygen, and nitrogen did not have obvious effects on the reaction rate under irradiation with light.

  14. Vasorelaxant effect of diterpenoid lactones from Andrographis paniculata chloroform extract on rat aortic rings

    OpenAIRE

    R.N. Sriramaneni; Omar, Ameer Z.; Salman M Ibrahim; Sadikun Amirin; Asmawi Mohd Zaini

    2010-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the possible mechanism of the vasorelaxant effect of the Andrographis paniculata chloroform extract (APCE) and diterpenoids, such as, 14-deoxyandrographolide (DA) and 14-deoxy-11, 12-didehydroandrographolide (DDA), on rat aortic rings. Methods: DA and DDA (10 μM to 40 μM) induce relaxation in the aortic rings pre-contracted with KCl (80 mM). Results: The IC 50 values are 40.47 ± 1.44 and 37.43 ± 1.41%, respectively, and this inhibition i...

  15. Chloroform and trichloroethylene uptake from water into human skin in vitro: Kinetics and risk implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model recently proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) predicts that short-term dermal uptakes of organic environmental water contaminants are proportional to the square root of exposure time. The model appears to underestimate dermal uptake, based on very limited in vivo uptake data obtained primarily using human subjects. To further assess this model, we examined in vitro dermal uptake kinetics for aqueous organic chemicals using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Specifically, we examined the kinetics of in vitro dermal uptake of 14C-labeled chloroform and trichloroethylene from dilute (5-ppb) aqueous solutions using full-thickness human cadaver skin exposed for (≤1 hr)

  16. Phytochemical and Chromatographic Fingerprint Studies on Chloroformic Extracts of Cassia tora L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Patil Sahadeo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To lay down the chromatographic profile of chloroform extracts of Cassia tora L. by HPTLC technique. Methods: Chloroformic extracts prepared from leaf, flower and seed of Cassia tora L. using Soxhlet apparatus. Qualitative phytochemical screening was done and HPTLC analysis was carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with automatic TLC sampler IV, TLC scanner 3, REPROSTAR 3 with 12 bit CCD camera for photo documentation, winCATS Planer Chromatography software. Results: The results of qualitative phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and terpenoids, but absence of saponins. HPTLC determination of leaf extract showed the presence of 10 components with Rf values ranging from 0.33 - 0.92; seed revealed the presence of 8 components with Rf values in the range of 0.35 – 0.91; flower extract displayed presence of 11 components with Rf values in the range of 0.33 – 0.94. Conclusion: The presence of phytochemicals like flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloid in Cassia tora L. increase the probable role in biological activities and their use in medicine. The HPTLC finger printing of Cassia tora L. may be useful in differentiating the species and act as a biochemical marker for this plant.

  17. Influence of Sulfur for Oxygen Substitution in the Solvolytic Reactions of Chloroformate Esters and Related Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm J. D'Souza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of oxygen within a chloroformate ester (ROCOCl by sulfur can lead to a chlorothioformate (RSCOCl, a chlorothionoformate (ROCSCl, or a chlorodithioformate (RSCSCl. Phenyl chloroformate (PhOCOCl reacts over the full range of solvents usually included in Grunwald-Winstein equation studies of solvolysis by an addition-elimination (A-E pathway. At the other extreme, phenyl chlorodithioformate (PhSCSCl reacts across the range by an ionization pathway. The phenyl chlorothioformate (PhSCOCl and phenyl chlorothionoformate (PhOCSCl react at remarkably similar rates in a given solvent and there is a dichotomy of behavior with the A-E pathway favored in solvents such as ethanol-water and the ionization mechanism favored in aqueous solvents rich in fluoroalcohol. Alkyl esters behave similarly but with increased tendency to ionization as the alkyl group goes from 1° to 2° to 3°. N,N-Disubstituted carbamoyl halides favor the ionization pathway as do also the considerably faster reacting thiocarbamoyl chlorides. The tendency towards ionization increases as, within the three contributing structures of the resonance hybrid for the formed cation, the atoms carrying positive charge (other than the central carbon change from oxygen to sulfur to nitrogen, consistent with the relative stabilities of species with positive charge on these atoms.

  18. Liquid chloroform structure from computer simulation with a full ab initio intermolecular interaction potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have calculated the intermolecular interaction energies of the chloroform dimer in 12 orientations using the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory. Single point energies of important geometries were calibrated by the coupled cluster with single and double and perturbative triple excitation method. Dunning's correlation consistent basis sets up to aug-cc-pVQZ have been employed in extrapolating the interaction energies to the complete basis set limit values. With the ab initio potential data we constructed a 5-site force field model for molecular dynamics simulations. We compared the simulation results with recent experiments and obtained quantitative agreements for the detailed atomwise radial distribution functions. Our results were also consistent with previous results using empirical force fields with polarization effects. Moreover, the calculated diffusion coefficients reproduced the experimental data over a wide range of thermodynamic conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ab initio force field which is capable of competing with existing empirical force fields for liquid chloroform

  19. Abiotic Degradation Rates for Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform: Progress in FY 2010

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Russell, Colleen K.; Humphrys, Daniel R.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.

    2010-12-08

    This report documents the progress made through FY 2010 on a project initiated in FY 2006 to help address uncertainties related to the rates of hydrolysis in groundwater at the Hanford Site for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF). The study also explores the possible effects of contact with minerals and sediment (i.e., heterogeneous hydrolysis) on these rates. The research was initiated to decrease the uncertainties in abiotic degradation rates of CT and chloroform CF associated with temperature and possible heterogeneous effects. After 2 years of data collection, the first evidence for heterogeneous effects was identified for hydrolysis of CT, and preliminary evidence for the effects of different mineral types on CF hydrolysis rates also was reported. The CT data showed no difference among mineral types, whereas significant differences were seen in the CF results, perhaps due to the fact that CF hydrolyzes by both neutral and base-catalyzed mechanisms whereas CT follows only the neutral hydrolysis path. In this report, we review the project objectives, organization, and technical approaches taken, update the status and results of the hydrolysis-rate experiments after 4 years of experimentation (i.e., through FY 2010), and provide a brief discussion of how these results add to scientific understanding of the behavior of the CT/CF plume at the Hanford Site.

  20. Optimization of the Phenol -Chloroform Silica DNA Extraction Method in Ancient Bones DNA Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Sadeghi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: DNA extraction from the ancient bones tissues is currently very difficult. Phenol chloroform silica method is one of the methods currently used for this aim. The purpose of this study was to optimize the assessment method. Methods: DNA of 62 bone tissues (average 3-11 years was first extracted with phenol chloroform silica methods and then with changing of some parameters of the methods the extracted DNA was amplified in eight polymorphisms area including FES, F13, D13S317, D16, D5S818, vWA and CD4. Results from samples gained by two methods were compared in acrylamide gel. Results: The average of PCR yield for new method and common method in eight polymorphism regions was 75%, 78%, 81%, 76%, 85%, 71%, 89%, 86% and 64%, 39%, 70%, 49%, 68%, 76%, 71% and 28% respectively. The average of DNA in optimized (in 35l silica density and common method were 267.5 µg/ml with 1.12 purity and 192.76 g/ml with 0.84 purity respectively. Conclusions: According to the findings of this study, it is estimated that longer EDTA attendance is an efficient agent in removing calcium and also adequate density of silica particles can be efficient in removal of PCR inhibitors.

  1. Crystal structure of Boc-(S-ABOC-(S-Ala-(S-ABOC-(S-Phe-OBn chloroform monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Wenger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, phenyl (S-2-[(S-(1-{2-[(S-(1-{[(tert-butoxycarbonyl]amino}bicyclo[2.2.2]octan-2-ylformamido]propanamido}bicyclo[2.2.2]octan-2-ylformamido]-3-phenylpropanoate chloroform monosolvate, C42H56N4O7·CHCl3, the α,β-hybrid peptide contains two non-proteinogenic amino acid residues of (S-1-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acid [(S-ABOC], two amino acid residues of (S-2-aminopropanoic acid [(S-Ala] and (S-2-amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid [(S-Phe], and protecting groups of tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc and benzyl ester (OBn. The tetramer folds into a right-handed mixed 11/9 helix stabilized by intramolecular i,i + 3 and i,i − 1 C=O...H—N hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, the oligomers are linked by N—H...O=C hydrogen bonds into chains along the a-axis direction. The chloroform solvent molecules are intercalated between the folded chains via C—H...O=C interactions.

  2. [Kenzo Yoshida of the Hiroshima Domain and Chloroform Anesthesia at the End of the Edo Era in Japan].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Matsuiki, Akitomo

    2016-02-01

    Japanese physicians encountered difficulties in obtaining information from The Netherlands on general anesthetics since 1848. It was a turning point when Chinese medical textbooks were imported in the latter half of the 1850 s. They were written by Benjamin Hobson (1816-1873), a British missionary and physician who lived in China for many years. Among them, Siyi Luelun (Sei-i Ryakuron) published in 1857, was widely welcome by Japanese surgeons and medical students. Kenzo Yoshida (1848-1924), a physician from the Hiroshima Domain, was impressed by a two-page description of chloroform anesthesia in it He observed William Willis administrating chloroform anesthesia on several injured Satsuma domain soldiers in January 1868 at the Shokokuji Temple in Kyoto. A few days later, Yoshida had a chance to administer chloroform to a man who committed suicide by cutting the abdomen. The intestine, which was 90 cm long, protruded from the wound, was put back into the abdominal cavity under chloroform anesthesia given by Yoshida. This is the second case of chloroform anesthesia administered by a Japanese physician. PMID:27017783

  3. Tracheal relaxant effect of column chromatographic elutes of chloroform fraction of Adhatoda schimperiana leaves in guinea-pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelalem Petros

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adhatoda schimperiana has been used in Ethiopian traditional medicine as a remedy for bronchial asthma. In the present study, tracheal relaxant effect of column chromatographic elutes (CCEs of the chloroform fraction of the leaves of the plant was investigated on guinea-pigs. The intermediate polar CCE of the chloroform fraction showed tracheal relaxant effect as observed by a right-ward shift of the dose-response curve. The maximum response to histamine in presence of the intermediate polar CCE was significantly lower than that of the chloroform fraction (p< 0.05. These results suggest that bioactivity-guided fractionation could show improved tracheal relaxant activity, and the alkaloid-rich fraction of the crude extract might be responsible for the claimed anti-asthmatic effect of the plant.

  4. Development of analytical methodology for determination of chloroform in samples of flavoured waters using headspace-solid phase microextraction technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcel Silveira dos Santos

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available A simple and fast analytical methodology was developed using the headspace-solid phase micro extration (HS-SPME for the determination of chloroform in 15 samples of flavoured waters. The extraction of the chloroform was performed with the fiber CAR-PDMS and analyzed on a gas chromatography equipped with electron capture detector (ECD - 63Ni. The variables that affect the efficiency of extraction: temperature and time of extraction, volume of headspace, magnetic stirring and salt addition were optimized. The linearity of the method ranged from 0,5 - 45 µg L-1. Low limit of detection was obtained, 0,46 µg L-1. The method showed excellent precision, calculated as the relative standard deviation (RSD% (n = 6 using spiked solutions of 1, 15 and 35 µg L-1 of chloroform, values obtained: 11,2%, 6,4% and 5,7%. Excellent relative sensitivity of 94% was obtained.

  5. Abiotic Degradation Rates for Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform: Progress in FY2009

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Russell, Colleen K.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.

    2010-03-31

    This report documents the progress made through FY 2009 on a project initiated in FY 2006 to help address uncertainties related to the rates of hydrolysis in groundwater for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF). The study seeks also to explore the possible effects of contact with minerals and sediment (i.e., heterogeneous hydrolysis) on these rates. In previous years the work was funded as two separate projects by various sponsors, all of whom received their funding from the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE). In FY2009, the projects were combined and funded by CH2MHill Plateau Remediation Corporation (CHPRC). Work in FY2009 was performed by staff at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). Staff from the State University of New York at Cortland (SUNY–Cortland) contributed in previous years.

  6. Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform Attenuation Parameter Studies: Heterogeneous Hydrolytic Reactions -- Status Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.; Qafoku, Odeta; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Russell, Colleen K.; Truex, Michael J.

    2009-09-18

    This report documents a project initiated in FY 2006 to help address uncertainties related to the rates of hydrolysis in groundwater for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF). The study sought also to explore the possible effects of contact with minerals and sediment (i.e., heterogeneous hydrolysis) on these rates. It was funded by the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) through the Office of Environmental Management Columbia River Protection Supplemental Technologies (CRPST) project and complements work initiated by the Hanford Groundwater Project in FY 2006 that focused primarily on CT in homogenous solution. Work was performed by staff at the Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) and the State University of New York at Cortland (SUNY-Cortland).

  7. Irradiation of poly(vinyl alcohol) fibers in the presence of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolysis of poly(vinyl alcohol) fibers (PVA) in the presence of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride was investigated. Decrease in intrinsic viscosity was observed at lower dosages (up to 2.3 megarads); and above this, an increase was noted. The blank samples irradiated under similar conditions showed a continuous decrease in intrinsic viscosity. A discoloration in the samples irradiated in the presence of CCl4 and CHCl3 was also observed. It is attributed to double bond formation in the backbone. A marginal decrease in the tensile strength of the irradiated fibers was observed. However, the surface characteristics of the fibers did not change on irradiation. The thermogravimetric analysis revealed a better heat resistance in irradiated fibers

  8. A modified Phenol-chloroform extraction method for isolating circulating cell free DNA of tumor patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Hufnagl

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Searching for new cancer biomarkers, circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA has become an appealing target of interest as an elevated level of cfDNA has been detected in the circulation of cancer patients in comparison with healthy controls. Since cfDNA can be isolated from the circulation and other body fluids of patients without harming their physical condition, cfDNA is becoming a promising candidate as a novel non-invasive biomarker for cancer. The challenge in the diagnostic analysis of cfDNA is its very low presence in human plasma/serum and its partially strong fragmentation. Here we evaluated a modified phenol/chloroform extraction method for the isolation of cfDNA and compared it with published standard methods for cfDNA isolation.

  9. Ultrafast multiplex CARS investigation of vibrational characteristics in chloroform and PMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper demonstrates the femtosecond time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering by using folded BOXCARS geometry where an ultrashort broadband coherent white light continuum was used as Stokes pulse, and carries out the non-contact detection at long distance. The CARS signal is so easy to be detected that it can be seen even by nude eye. The C–H bonds of chloroform or PMMA were detected and the vibration modes belonging to the side chain and the main chain in PMMA were also compared. Their vibrational characteristics involved decay process and quantum beating were discussed. This modified CARS experimental technique could make up the deficiency of traditional CARS technique. (atomic and molecular physics)

  10. Thermal stability of chloroform in the steam condensate cycle of CANDU-PHW nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of samples taken at the Gentilly 2 (Quebec) CANDU-PHW (CANadian Deuterium Uranium - Pressurized Heavy Water) plant after chlorination and demineralization revealed the presence of all four trihalomethanes (THMs) (CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3) and other unidentified halogenated volatile compounds. Among the THMs, chloroform was the major contaminant. A study of its thermal stability in water at different temperatures confirmed the degradation of the CHCl3 molecule according to the equation CHCl3 + H2O → CO + 3 HCl. The reaction follows first order kinetics and has an activation energy of 100 kJ/mol. The estimated half-life is six seconds at 260 deg C, the maximum temperature of the steam condensate cycle

  11. CTAB/water/chloroform reverse micelles: a closed or open association model?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klíčová, L'ubica; Sebej, Peter; Štacko, Peter; Filippov, Sergey K; Bogomolova, Anna; Padilla, Marc; Klán, Petr

    2012-10-30

    The micellization of cetyltrimethylammonium bromide (CTAB) in chloroform in the presence of water was examined. Three scenarios of the reverse micelle formation, the closed, open and Eicke's association models, were considered in the interpretation of the experimental data. The growth of the aggregates was observed through the changes of NMR signals of associated water, probing the microenvironment of the premicellar aggregates and the interior of reverse micelles. This technique if combined with isothermal titration calorimetry (ITC) revealed that hydrated surfactant premicellar aggregates are already present at ∼6 mM CTAB. NMR, ITC and conductometry were used to determine the critical micelle concentration (cmc) to be ∼40 mM CTAB. It is suggested that the variation of the cmc values reflects the fact that the NMR analysis indicated the beginning of the reverse micelle formation, whereas conductometry and ITC measurements provided the upper limit and an average value of a so-called apparent cmc, respectively. The cmc values were found to be unaffected by the water content. The presence of reverse micelles, the existence of multiple equilibria, and high polydispersity of the samples were evidenced by DOSY NMR spectroscopy. As a result, we validated Eicke's association model, according to which cyclic inverse micelles are formed by a structural reorganization of linear associates within a narrow concentration range, called the apparent cmc. New experimental results have also been gained for micellization of cetyltrimethylammonium chloride (CTAC) in chloroform in the presence of water; a similar mechanism of reverse micelle formation has been suggested. PMID:23072317

  12. Ethyl 3-[2-(3,4-dimethoxybenzyl-1-phenylsulfonyl-1H-indol-3-yl]acrylate chloroform hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Thenmozhi

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C28H27NO6S·0.5CHCl3, the ethyl acrylate substituent adopts an extented conformation with all torsion angles close to 180°. The chloroform solvent molecule is disordered across an inversion centre and is therefore half occupied. The molecular packing is controlled by intermolecular C—H...O interactions.

  13. Chemical changes in the chloroform-paraffin-dye system irradiated with 60Co gamma-rays, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been carried out on the amount of hydrogen chloride formed by the radiolysis of chloroform in a solid paraffin-chloroform-Methyl Yellow system, and the color changes from yellow to red and absorption energy observed. The amount of hydrogen chloride formed and the intensity of the red color were determined with a pH meter, a spectrophotometer, and a color/ color-difference meter. It was found that the color-difference meter had the most excellent spectral response and sensitivity for measurement of the irradiated sample, and that the color-difference, ΔE, obtained by reflectometry increased proportionally with the increase in the radiation dose throughout a region of 100 -- 5000 R. When a solid sample composed of 1.0 kg paraffin (m.p. 62 -- 640C), 0.74 kg chloroform and 3.4 x 10-3 mol Methyl Yellow was subjected to 1000 R irradiation at 200C, 2.5 x 1014 molecules of hydrogen chloride were formed in 1.0 g of the solid sample with the absorption energy of 5.9 x 1016 eV, 3.2 x 1016 eV of which contributed to chloroform as the absorption energy. (author)

  14. Acute Toxicity Investigation and Anti-diarrhoeal Effect of the Chloroform-Methanol Extract of the Leaves of Persea americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian E, Odo; Okwesili Fc, Nwodo; Parker E, Joshua; Okechukwu Pc, Ugwu

    2014-01-01

    Persea americana is a plant used by traditional medicine practitioners to treat ailments including diarrhoea and diabetes mellitus in Nigeria. Hence, the chloroform and the methanol fractions of the chloroform-methanol extract of the leaves of P. americana were evaluated for their acute toxicity as well as anti-diarrhoeal effects in Wistar rats to substantiate this claim. The chloroform and methanol fractions [at graded doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg body weight (b.w) of each] were studied for their anti-diarrhoeal effects in terms of the reductions in the wetness of faeces and the frequency of defaecation of castor oil-induced diarrhoea. To understand the mechanism of their anti-diarrhoeal effects, their actions were further evaluated on castor oil-induced enteropooling (intestinal fluid accumulation). The median lethal dose (LD50) of the methanol fraction was found to be less than 5000 mg/Kg b.w. At the two doses, the chloroform and the methanol fractions showed dose-dependent significant (p americana possesses significant anti-diarrhoeal effect and may be a potent source of anti-diarrhoeal drug(s) in future. PMID:25237361

  15. THE FAILURE OF CHLOROFORM ADMINISTERED IN THE DRINKING WATER TO INDUCE RENAL TUBULAR CELL NEOPLASIA IN MALE F344/N RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The failure of chloroform administered in drinking water to induce renal tubular cell neoplasia in male F344/N rats Chloroform (TCM) has been demonstrated to be a renal carcinogen in the male Osborne-Mendel rat when administered either by corn oil gavage or in drin...

  16. The natural chlorine cycle - Formation of the carcinogenic and greenhouse gas compound chloroform in drinking water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forczek, Sándor T; Pavlík, Milan; Holík, Josef; Rederer, Luděk; Ferenčík, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Chlorine cycle in natural ecosystems involves formation of low and high molecular weight organic compounds of living organisms, soil organic matter and atmospherically deposited chloride. Chloroform (CHCl3) and adsorbable organohalogens (AOX) are part of the chlorine cycle. We attempted to characterize the dynamical changes in the levels of total organic carbon (TOC), AOX, chlorine and CHCl3 in a drinking water reservoir and in its tributaries, mainly at its spring, and attempt to relate the presence of AOX and CHCl3 with meteorological, chemical or biological factors. Water temperature and pH influence the formation and accumulation of CHCl3 and affect the conditions for biological processes, which are demonstrated by the correlation between CHCl3 and ΣAOX/Cl(-) ratio, and also by CHCl3/ΣAOX, CHCl3/AOXLMW, CHCl3/ΣTOC, CHCl3/TOCLMW and CHCl3/Cl(-) ratios in different microecosystems (e.g. old spruce forest, stagnant acidic water, humid and warm conditions with high biological activity). These processes start with the biotransformation of AOX from TOC, continue via degradation of AOX to smaller molecules and further chlorination, and finish with the formation of small chlorinated molecules, and their subsequent volatilization and mineralization. The determined concentrations of chloroform result from a dynamic equilibrium between its formation and degradation in the water; in the Hamry water reservoir, this results in a total amount of 0.1-0.7 kg chloroform and 5.2-15.4 t chloride. The formation of chloroform is affected by Cl(-) concentration, by concentrations and ratios of biogenic substrates (TOC and AOX), and by the ratios of the substrates and the product (feedback control by chloroform itself). PMID:27231877

  17. Phosphorylation of chloroform soluble compounds in plasma membranes of human epidermoid carcinoma A431 cells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated a possible role for the epidermal growth factor (EGF) receptor protein tyrosine kinase in phosphoinositide metabolism with plasma membrane vesicles from human epidermoid carcinoma (A431) cells. The authors found a novel chloroform-soluble product radiolabeled with [gamma-32P]ATP that did not migrate from the origin in the thin layer system designed to separate the phosphoinositides, appeared as a single band of Mr = 3500 on polyacrylamide gels in the presence of dodecyl sulfate, had an ultraviolet absorbance spectrum with a maximum at 275 nm and stained with Coomassie dye. Based on these properties this phosphorylation product is referred to as a proteolipid. The 32P label was not detected in phosphotyrosine [Tyr(P)], phosphoserine [Ser(P)] or phosphothreonine [Thr(P)] and was lost during acid or base hydrolysis. Phosphorylation of proteolipid was increased significantly by EGF, whereas phosphorylation of phosphatidic acid was decreased and labeling of phosphoinositides was unaffected. Thus, it appears that in A431 membranes the EGF receptor/kinase does not utilize phosphatidylinositol as a substrate, but does phosphorylate a membrane proteolipid

  18. Unexpected Temperature Behavior of Polyethylene Glycol Spacers in Copolymer Dendrimers in Chloroform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Markelov, Denis A.; Matveev, Vladimir V.; Ingman, Petri; Nikolaeva, Marianna N.; Penkova, Anastasia V.; Lahderanta, Erkki; Boiko, Natalia I.; Chizhik, Vladimir I.

    2016-04-01

    We have studied copolymer dendrimer structure: carbosilane dendrimers with terminal phenylbenzoate mesogenic groups attached by poly(ethylene) glycol (PEG) spacers. In this system PEG spacers are additional tuning to usual copolymer structure: dendrimer with terminal mesogenic groups. The dendrimer macromolecules were investigated in a dilute chloroform solution by 1H NMR methods (spectra and relaxations). It was found that the PEG layer in G = 5 generations dendrimer is “frozen” at high temperatures (above 260 K), but it unexpectedly becomes “unfrozen” at temperatures below 250 K (i.e., melting when cooling). The transition between these two states occurs within a small temperature range (~10 K). Such a behavior is not observed for smaller dendrimer generations (G = 1 and 3). This effect is likely related to the low critical solution temperature (LCST) of PEG and is caused by dendrimer conformations, in which the PEG group concentration in the layer increases with growing G. We suppose that the unusual behavior of PEG fragments in dendrimers will be interesting for practical applications such as nanocontainers or nanoreactors.

  19. Bis{2-methoxy-6-[(E-(4-methylbenzyliminomethyl]phenolato}palladium(II chloroform monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadariah Bahron

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Pd(C16H16NO22]·CHCl3, the PdII cation lies on an inversion center. One Cl atom of the CHCl3 solvent molecule lies on a twofold axis and the C—H group is disordered with equal occupancies about this axis with the other Cl atom in a general position with full occupancy. The PdII cation is four-coordinate and adopts a square-planar geometry via coordination of the imine N and phenolic O atoms of the two bidentate Schiff base anions. The N and O atoms of these ligands are mutually trans. The plane of the benzene ring makes a dihedral angle of 73.52 (10° with that of the methoxyphenolate ring. In the crystal, molecules of the PdII complex are arranged into sheets parallel to the ac plane, and the chloroform solvent molecules are located in the interstitial areas between the complex molecules. Weak intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...π interactions stabilize the packing.

  20. Wirelike charge transport dynamics for DNA-lipid complexes in chloroform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashutosh Kumar; Young, Ryan M; Wasielewski, Michael R; Lewis, Frederick D

    2014-11-01

    The dynamics of charge separation and charge recombination have been determined for lipid complexes of DNA capped hairpins possessing stilbene electron-acceptor and -donor chromophores separated by base-pair domains that vary in length and base sequence in chloroform solution by means of femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. The results obtained for the DNA-lipid complexes are compared with those previously obtained in our laboratories for the same hairpins in aqueous buffer. The charge separation and charge recombination times for the lipid complexes are consistently much shorter than those determined in aqueous solution and are only weakly dependent on the number of base pairs separating the acceptor and donor. The enhanced rate constants for forward and return charge transport in DNA-lipid complexes support proposals that solvent gating is responsible, to a significant extent, for the relatively low rates of charge transport for DNA in water. Moreover, they suggest that DNA-lipid complexes may prove useful in the development of DNA-based molecular electronic devices. PMID:25299823

  1. Rotational spectrum in the v.sub.6./sub.=1 and v.sub.3./sub.=1 levels of chloroform

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Margulés, L.; Demaison, J.; Pracna, Petr

    2006-01-01

    Roč. 795, 1-3 (2006), s. 157-162. ISSN 0022-2860 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400400504; GA AV ČR 1ET400400410 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40400503 Keywords : chloroform * high-resolution rotational spectra * submilimeter wave spectroscopy * vibration-rotation resonances Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.495, year: 2006

  2. Investigation of Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Potential of Chloroform and Petroleum Ether Extracts of Selected Medicinal Plants of Bangladesh

    OpenAIRE

    Zulfiker, A. H. M.; P P Roy; Momin, M. A. M.; Khan, M.S.; Bulbul, I. J.; T. Ahmed; Rana, M. S.

    2013-01-01

    Aim: To investigate the antioxidant and antimicrobial potential of Chloroform and Pet ether extracts of Manilkara zapota (MZCE, MZPE), Polyalthia longifolia (PLCE, PLPE), Abroma augusta (AACE, AAPE) Ficus hispida (FHCE, FHPE), Vitex negundo (VNCE, VNPE) plants. Study Design: In vitro antioxidant and antimicrobial study. Place and Duration of Study: Department of Pharmacy, School of Science & Engineering, Southeast University, Banani, Dhaka between June 2011 and March 2012. Methodology: In...

  3. Neuroprotective effects of chloroform and petroleum ether extracts of Nigella sativa seeds in stroke model of rat

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad Akhtar; Aliyu Muhammad Maikiyo; Abul Kalam Najmi; Razia Khanam; Mohd Mujeeb; Mohd Aqil

    2013-01-01

    Purpose: Stroke still remains a challenge for the researchers and scientists for developing ideal drug. Several new drugs are being evaluated showing excellent results in preclinical studies but when tested in clinical trials, they failed. Many herbal drugs in different indigenous system of medicine claim to have beneficial effects but not extensively evaluated for stroke (cerebral ischemia). Aim: The present study was undertaken to evaluate chloroform and petroleum ether extract of Nigella s...

  4. The BUME method: a novel automated chloroform-free 96-well total lipid extraction method for blood plasma[S

    OpenAIRE

    Löfgren, Lars; Ståhlman, Marcus; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Saarinen, Sinikka; Nilsson, Ralf; Göran I Hansson

    2012-01-01

    Lipid extraction from biological samples is a critical and often tedious preanalytical step in lipid research. Primarily on the basis of automation criteria, we have developed the BUME method, a novel chloroform-free total lipid extraction method for blood plasma compatible with standard 96-well robots. In only 60 min, 96 samples can be automatically extracted with lipid profiles of commonly analyzed lipid classes almost identically and with absolute recoveries similar or better to what is ob...

  5. Complexation of two non-fully hydrogen bonded aromatic hydrazide heptamers toward n-octyl-α-L-glucopyranoside in chloroform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Ping; XU YunXiang; JIANG XiKui; LI ZhanTing

    2009-01-01

    Two aromatic hydrazide haptamers have been prepared, with both consisting of two hydrogen bonded folded segments. Compared to their fully hydrogen bonded analogues, the flexibility of their backbones increases due to lack of one or two intramolecular hydrogen bonds at the middle aromatic unit. (2D) 1H NMR, circular dichroism and fluorescent studies revealed that both oligomers moderately complex n-octyl-α-L-glucopyranoside in chloroform.

  6. Vasorelaxant effect of diterpenoid lactones from Andrographis paniculata chloroform extract on rat aortic rings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R N Sriramaneni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the possible mechanism of the vasorelaxant effect of the Andrographis paniculata chloroform extract (APCE and diterpenoids, such as, 14-deoxyandrographolide (DA and 14-deoxy-11, 12-didehydroandrographolide (DDA, on rat aortic rings. Methods: DA and DDA (10 μM to 40 μM induce relaxation in the aortic rings pre-contracted with KCl (80 mM. Results: The IC 50 values are 40.47 ± 1.44 and 37.43 ± 1.41%, respectively, and this inhibition is antagonized by increasing the Ca 2+ concentration in the Kreb′s medium. The results indicate that APCE, DA, and DDA may have a calcium anatgonist property. APCE, DA, and DDA also relax norepinephrene (NE-induced sustained contractions with IC 50 values 41.63 ± 1.19, 49.22 ± 2.76, and 37.46 ± 1.41% and this relaxant effect is unaffected by the removal of the endothelium or by the presence of indomethacin and Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME. Moreover, DA and DDA inhibit the phasic and tonic contractions induced by NE in a concentration-dependent manner and show the most potent inhibition on phasic contraction (P < 0.01. Conclusion: This study shows that APCE, DA, and DDA pre-treatment presents a more potent inhibition compared to post-treatment, after the tension has reached a steady state. These results suggest that the vasorelaxation of APCE, DA, and DDA direct the inhibition of the calcium influx. The vasorelaxant effect is more active in the calcium independent pathway and more sensitive in the intial stage of contraction.

  7. Estimates of European emissions of methyl chloroform using a Bayesian inversion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maione

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Methyl chloroform (MCF is a man-made chlorinated solvent contributing to the destruction of stratospheric ozone and is controlled under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Long-term, high-frequency observations of MCF carried out at three European sites show a constant decline of the background mixing ratios of MCF. However, we observe persistent non-negligible mixing ratio enhancements of MCF in pollution episodes suggesting unexpectedly high ongoing emissions in Europe. In order to identify the source regions and to give an estimate of the magnitude of such emissions, we have used a Bayesian inversion method and a point source analysis, based on high-frequency long-term observations at the three European sites. The inversion identified south-eastern France (SEF as a region with enhanced MCF emissions. This estimate was confirmed by the point source analysis. We performed this analysis using an eleven-year data set, from January 2002 to December 2012. Overall emissions estimated for the European study domain decreased nearly exponentially from 1.1 Gg yr−1 in 2002 to 0.32 Gg yr−1 in 2012, of which the estimated emissions from the SEF region accounted for 0.49 Gg yr−1 in 2002 and 0.20 Gg yr−1 in 2012. The European estimates are a significant fraction of the total semi-hemisphere (30–90° N emissions, contributing a minimum of 9.8% in 2004 and a maximum of 33.7% in 2011, of which on average 50% are from the SEF region. On the global scale, the SEF region is thus responsible from a minimum of 2.6% (in 2003 to a maximum of 10.3% (in 2009 of the global MCF emissions.

  8. Extracellular lipids of Camelina sativa: characterization of chloroform-extractable waxes from aerial and subterranean surfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Razeq, Fakhria M; Kosma, Dylan K; Rowland, Owen; Molina, Isabel

    2014-10-01

    Camelina sativa (L.) Crantz is an emerging low input, stress tolerant crop with seed oil composition suitable for biofuel and bioproduct production. The chemical compositions and ultrastructural features of surface waxes from C. sativa aerial cuticles, seeds, and roots were analyzed using gas chromatography and microscopy. Alkanes, primary fatty alcohols, and free fatty acids were common components of all analyzed organs. A particular feature of leaf waxes was the presence of alkyl esters of long-chain fatty acids and very long-chain fatty alcohols, ranging from C38 to C50 and dominated by C42, C44 and C46 homologues. Stem waxes were mainly composed of non-sterol pentacyclic triterpenes. Flowers accumulated significant amounts of methyl-branched iso-alkanes (C29 and C31 total carbon number) in addition to straight-chain alkanes. Seed waxes were mostly primary fatty alcohols of up to 32 carbons in length and unbranched C29 and C31 alkanes. The total amount of identified wax components extracted by rapid chloroform dipping of roots was 280μgg(-1) (fresh weight), and included alkyl hydroxycinnamates, predominantly alkyl coumarates and alkyl caffeates. This study provides qualitative and quantitative information on the waxes of C. sativa root, shoot, and seed boundary tissues, allowing the relative activities of wax biosynthetic pathways in each respective plant organ to be assessed. This detailed description of the protective surface waxes of C. sativa may provide insights into its drought-tolerant and pathogen-resistant properties, and also identifies C. sativa as a potential source of renewable high-value natural products. PMID:25081105

  9. The Utilization of Chloroform Post-Treatment to Improve the Adhesion of Au Thin Films onto PMMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, Kathleen; Hughes, Chris; Hu, Xiaofeng; Augustine, Brian

    2015-03-01

    The metallization of Au onto plastics is an important processing step in the fabrication of microfluidic devices. While its corrosion resistance and excellent electrical and thermal conductivity make Au a good choice, its inertness results in poor adhesion to polymer surfaces. Previous studies have indicated that exposing commercially available Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) sheets to chloroform vapor following Au deposition significantly improves adhesion. In this study, we deposited 6 nm of Au onto 1.50 mm thick PMMA and exposed the samples to vapor released from chloroform heated on a hot plate set at 70 °C. The force required to remove the Au thin films was determined by placing samples on a polisher spinning at 150 rpm and utilizing UV-VIS spectroscopy to measure the transmittance of 700 nm light through the films to quantify their removal as a function of applied polishing force. The Au thin films were also characterized using AFM. AFM images demonstrated a progressive roughening of the surface corresponding to an increase in applied force. Additionally, these images support a model in which the chloroform treatment softens the PMMA surface, producing a softened layer that the polisher removes simultaneously with the Au thin film. Undergraduate.

  10. Survey on efficacy of chloroformic extract of Artemisia annua against Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golami, Shirzad; Rahimi-Esboei, Bahman; Mousavi, Parisa; Marhaba, Zahra; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-03-01

    Giardiasis is a parasitic cosmopolitan disease that the rate of infection in developing countries is considerable. This infection directly is associated with poor hygienic conditions, poor water quality control, and overcrowding. Reinfection and drug resistance are two major problems in endemic areas. Recently, researchers are concentrating on herbal drugs as a proper solution. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to survey on efficacy of chloroformic extract of Artemisia annua against Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst in vitro. G. lamblia cysts were prepared from faces of giardiasis patients from different hospitals of Mazandaran Medical University. Four concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml) of chloroformic extract of A. annua were utilized for 1, 5, 30, 60 and 180 min. Viability of G. lamblia cysts was confirmed by 0.1 % Eosin staining. Cyst and trophozoite contact (intermix) of G. lamblia with extract of A. annua with variant concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml) after 1 and 180 min caused following cyst and trophozoite elimination rates: (67, 69, 71 and 73 %), (65, 67, 67 and 72 %), (94, 96, 97 and 99 %) and (100, 100, 100 and 100 %), respectively. Authors from the current investigation draw a conclusion that chloroformic extract of A. annua has the ability to eliminate G. lamblia cysts and trophozoites in vitro. PMID:27065604

  11. Anti-diabetic potential of chloroform extract of flowers of Calotropis gigantea: An in vitro and in vivo study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N K Choudhary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform extract of Calotropis gigantea flowers was evaluated for anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in vivo and inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. It was also intended to establish correlation between the serum marker antioxidant enzymes and diabetes. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate freshly prepared in a dose of 150 mg/kg. Chloroform extract showing presence of flavonoids was administered orally at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg for 21 consecutive days. Fasting blood glucose level, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood glutathione, serum creatinine kinase, serum lactate dehydrogenase levels as well as final change in body weight were evaluated. In vitro inhibition of carbohydrate digestive enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase was also determined. Experimental findings showed moderately significant anti-diabetic potential of extract in terms of reduction of fasting glucose level in diabetic rats. The extract was found statistically significant in maintaining the level of serum marker antioxidant enzymes. Overall, the effect of chloroform extract particularly 200 mg/kg was moderate as compared to that of standard drug glibenclamide.

  12. Suppression of Pulmonary Host Defenses and Enhanced Susceptibility to Respiratory bacterial Infection in mice Following Inhalation Exposure to Trichloroethylene and Chloroform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Numerous epidemiologic studies have associated episodes of increased air pollution with increased incidence of respiratory disease, including pneumonia, croup, and bronchitis. Trichloroethylene (TCE) and chloroform are among 33 hazardous air pollutants identified by the U.S. Env...

  13. Ethanopharmacological study of the aqueous, chloroform, ethanol leaves extracts and latex of Calotropisprocera in diabetic rats

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    Ali Ismaiel Ali-Abd Alrheam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calotropisprocera is a member of the plant family Asclepiadaceae, a shrub about 6m high and is widely distributed in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to show some medicinal potentials and biological activity of Calotropisprocera and to discover new natural, safe and effective materials available in the Saudi Arabia environment. Marerial and Methods:The leaves extracts and latex of Calotropisprocerawere investigated for its anti-hyperglycemic effect in Male Wister Albino rats. Diabetes was induced by administration of single dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg, I.P. Forty two male albino rats, weighting 150-200 gm divided into seven groups, each consisted of 6 rats as follows: Group I : Normal control, Group II: Diabetic control, Group III: Diabetic rats given Glibenclamide 600 and #956;g/kg, Group IV: Diabetic rats given aqueous leaves extracts C. procera200mg/kg b. wt, Group V: Diabetic rats given chloroform leaves extracts C. procera200mg/kg b. wt, Group VI: Diabetic rats given ethanol leaves extracts C. procera200mg/kg b. wt, Group VII: Diabetic rats given latex of C. procera200mg/kg b. wt.The leaves extracts and latex of Calotropisprocera were administered as single dose per day to diabetes-induced rats for a period of 15 days.The effect of C. proceraon blood glucose level was measured in the diabetic rats. Serum lipid profile (Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density, and high density lipoprotein also were measured. The activities were also compared to that effect produced by a standard anti-diabetic agent, glibenclamide 500 and #956;g/kg. Results and Discussion:The results showed a significant decrease in the mean level of blood glucose and serum cholesterol, Triglycrides, HDL, LDL. Calotropisprocera appears to be a rich source of phytoconstituents that activate and inhence a pharmacological response of different parts of the body and this study need further studies to shows the complete properties of the

  14. Acute and repeated inhalation lung injury by 3-methoxybutyl chloroformate in rats: CT-pathologic correlation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objectives: To investigate the acute and repeated pulmonary damage in Sprague-Dawley rats caused by the inhalation of 3-methoxybutyl chloroformate (3-MBCF) using computed tomography (CT), and to correlate these results with those obtained from a pathological study. Methods: Sixty, 7-week-old rats were exposed to 3-MBCF vapor via inhalation (6 h/day) for 1 day (N = 20), 3 days (N = 20), and 28 days (5 days/week) (N = 20) using whole body exposure chambers at a concentration of 0 (control), 3, 6 and 12 ppm. CT examinations including densitometry and histopathologic studies were carried out. For the follow-up study, the rats exposed for 3 days were scanned using CT and their pathology was examined at 7, 14, and 28 days. Results: There was a significant decrease in the parenchymal density in the groups exposed to the 3-MBCF vapors for 1 day at 3 ppm (p = 0.022) or 6 ppm (p = 0.010), compared with the control. The parenchymal density of the rats exposed to12 ppm was significantly higher. The pathological findings in this period, the grades of vascular congestion, tracheobronchial exfoliation, and alveolar rupture were significant. In the groups exposed for 3 days, there was a large decrease in the parenchymal density with increasing dose (control: -675.48 ± 32.82 HU, 3 ppm: -720.65 ± 34.21 HU, 6 ppm: -756.41 ± 41.68 HU, 12 ppm: -812.56 ± 53.48 HU) (p = 0.000). There were significant density differences between each dose in the groups exposed for 28 days (p = 0.000). The CT findings include an irregular lung surface, areas of multifocal, wedge-shaped increased density, a heterogeneous lung density, bronchial dilatation, and axial peribronchovascular bundle thickening. The histopathology examination revealed the development of alveolar interstitial thickening and vasculitis, and an aggravation of the mainstem bronchial exudates and bronchial inflammation. The alveolar wall ruptures and bronchial dilatation became severe during this period. On the follow-up study, the

  15. Acute and repeated inhalation lung injury by 3-methoxybutyl chloroformate in rats: CT-pathologic correlation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lim, Yeon Soo [Department of Radiology, Holy Family Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, 2, Sosa-dong, Wonmi-gu, Pucheon, Kyung gi-do 420-717 (Korea, Republic of); Chung, Myung Hee [Department of Radiology, Holy Family Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, 2, Sosa-dong, Wonmi-gu, Pucheon, Kyung gi-do 420-717 (Korea, Republic of)]. E-mail: mhchung@catholic.ac.kr; Park, Seog Hee [Department of Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary Hospital, Catholic University of Korea, 505 Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-040 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Hyeon-Yeong [Industrial Chemicals Research Center, Industrial Safety and Health Research Institute KISCO, 104-8, Moonji-dong, Yusong-gu, Taejon-si 305-380 (Korea, Republic of); Choi, Byung Gil [Department of Radiology, Kangnam St. Mary Hospital, Catholic University of Korea, 505 Banpo-dong, Seocho-gu, Seoul 137-040 (Korea, Republic of); Lim, Hyun Wook [Department of Radiology, Holy Family Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, 2, Sosa-dong, Wonmi-gu, Pucheon, Kyung gi-do 420-717 (Korea, Republic of); Kim, Jin Ah [Department of Pathology, Holy Family Hospital, Catholic University of Korea, 2, Sosa-dong, Wonmi-gu, Pucheon-si, Kyung gi-do 420-717 (Korea, Republic of); Yoo, Won Jong [Department of Radiology, Holy Family Hospital, College of Medicine, Catholic University of Korea, 2, Sosa-dong, Wonmi-gu, Pucheon, Kyung gi-do 420-717 (Korea, Republic of)

    2007-05-15

    Objectives: To investigate the acute and repeated pulmonary damage in Sprague-Dawley rats caused by the inhalation of 3-methoxybutyl chloroformate (3-MBCF) using computed tomography (CT), and to correlate these results with those obtained from a pathological study. Methods: Sixty, 7-week-old rats were exposed to 3-MBCF vapor via inhalation (6 h/day) for 1 day (N = 20), 3 days (N = 20), and 28 days (5 days/week) (N = 20) using whole body exposure chambers at a concentration of 0 (control), 3, 6 and 12 ppm. CT examinations including densitometry and histopathologic studies were carried out. For the follow-up study, the rats exposed for 3 days were scanned using CT and their pathology was examined at 7, 14, and 28 days. Results: There was a significant decrease in the parenchymal density in the groups exposed to the 3-MBCF vapors for 1 day at 3 ppm (p = 0.022) or 6 ppm (p = 0.010), compared with the control. The parenchymal density of the rats exposed to12 ppm was significantly higher. The pathological findings in this period, the grades of vascular congestion, tracheobronchial exfoliation, and alveolar rupture were significant. In the groups exposed for 3 days, there was a large decrease in the parenchymal density with increasing dose (control: -675.48 {+-} 32.82 HU, 3 ppm: -720.65 {+-} 34.21 HU, 6 ppm: -756.41 {+-} 41.68 HU, 12 ppm: -812.56 {+-} 53.48 HU) (p = 0.000). There were significant density differences between each dose in the groups exposed for 28 days (p = 0.000). The CT findings include an irregular lung surface, areas of multifocal, wedge-shaped increased density, a heterogeneous lung density, bronchial dilatation, and axial peribronchovascular bundle thickening. The histopathology examination revealed the development of alveolar interstitial thickening and vasculitis, and an aggravation of the mainstem bronchial exudates and bronchial inflammation. The alveolar wall ruptures and bronchial dilatation became severe during this period. On the follow

  16. The alkaline comet assay used in evaluation of genotoxic damage of drinking water disinfection by-products (bromoform and chloroform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messaouda Khallef

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The alkaline comet assay (pH 12.3 is a useful method for monitoring genotoxic effects of environmental pollutants in the root nuclei of Allium cepa and various plants; it allows the detection of single- and double-strand breaks, incomplete excision-repair sites and cross-links. It has been introduced to detect even small changes in DNA structure. It is a technically simple, highly sensitive, fast and economic test which detects in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity (DNA integrity and packing mode in any cell types examined, and requires just a few cells for its execution (Liman et al., 2011; Yıldız et al., 2009. Chloroform and bromoform are the most important trihalomethanes found in drinking water. Different concentrations of bromoform (25, 50, 75and 100µg/ml and chloroform (25, 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml were introduced to onion tuber roots. Distilled water was used as a negative control and methyl methansulfonate (MMS-10 µg/ml as positive control. All obtained data were subjected to statistical analyses by using SPSS 15.0 for Windows software. For comparison purposes, Duncan multiple range tests using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were employed and p<0.05 was accepted as the test of significance. Comet assay results showed that DNA damage was significant at p <0.05 for the different concentrations of chloroform and bromoform compared to the negative control which has a damage rate equal to 3.5 ± 0.7 and the positive control which has damage rate equal to 13.5 ± 2.12. The exposure of root tip cells to these disinfection by-products increases DNA damage. All concentrations examined in this study of bromoform and chloroform cause significant harm, which could be due to DNA damage induced by oxidative stress. The measurement of DNA damage in the nuclei of higher plant tissues is a new area of study with SCGE. This assay could be incorporated into in situ monitoring of atmosphere, water and soil: the comet assay allows a fast detection without

  17. Antidiabetic and renoprotective effects of the chloroform extract of Terminalia chebula Retz. seeds in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats

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    Rao Nalamolu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Terminalia chebula (Combretaceae has been widely used in Ayurveda for the treatment of diabetes. In the present investigation, the chloroform extract of T. chebula seed powder was investigated for its antidiabetic activity in streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats using short term and long term study protocols. The efficacy of the extract was also evaluated for protection of renal functions in diabetic rats. Methods The blood glucose lowering activity of the chloroform extract was determined in streptozotocin-induced (75 mg/kg, i.p.; dissolved in 0.1 M acetate buffer; pH 4.5 diabetic rats, after oral administration at the doses of 100, 200 and 300 mg/kg in short term study. Blood samples were collected from the eye retro-orbital plexus of rats before and also at 0.5, 1, 2, 4, 6, 8 and 12 h after drug administration and the samples were analyzed for blood glucose by using glucose-oxidase/peroxidase method using a visible spectrophotometer. In long term study, the extract (300 mg/kg was administered to streptozotocin-induced diabetic rats, daily for 8 weeks. Blood glucose was measured at weekly intervals for 4 weeks. Urine samples were collected before the induction of diabetes and at the end of 8 weeks of treatments and analyzed for urinary protein, albumin and creatinine levels. The data was compared statistically using one-way ANOVA with post-hoc Dunnet's t-test. Results The chloroform extract of T. chebula seeds produced dose-dependent reduction in blood glucose of diabetic rats and comparable with that of standard drug, glibenclamide in short term study. It also produced significant reduction in blood glucose in long term study. Significant renoprotective activity is observed in T. chebula treated rats. The results indicate a prolonged action in reduction of blood glucose by T. chebula and is probably mediated through enhanced secretion of insulin from the β-cells of Langerhans or through extra pancreatic mechanism. The

  18. Fusion curves and thermodynamic properties of carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, bromoform and silicon tetrachloride at pressure up to 3500 Mpa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Rong-Jiao; Xu Wei; Tian Yi-Ling; Hao Ji-Shuang

    2008-01-01

    The fusion temperature as a function of pressure for carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, bromoform and silicon tetrachloride at pressures up to 3500MPa has been determined. The experimental data were fitted by the equation Tfus = T0(1 + Ap/a1)a2 exp(-a3△p) and the changes of the molar enthalpy and molar internal energy on fusion were calculated using the parameters of the fitted equation. Comparisons with the data from the literature show that the experimental data, parameters of fitted equations, changes of the molar enthalpy and molar internal energy are reliable.

  19. Effects of organophosphorus donors in the extraction of Uranium(VI) with N-acetyl benzamide in chloroform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liquid-liquid extraction of Uranium(VI) from aqueous nitrate solution by a mixture of N-acetyl benzamide and Organophosphorus donors in chloroform is reported. Concentration of the metal was measured by fluorescence technique and synergism was observed in the extraction of Uranium(VI). Stoichiometries of extracted species in both individual and mixed extraction were ascertained by slope ratio analysis. From the extraction data, overall equilibrium constants for binary and ternary extractions were calculated. Thermodynamic parameters controlling the nature of extraction were also evaluated. (author)

  20. The use of alkaline hydrolysis as a novel strategy for chloroform remediation: the feasibility of using construction wastes and evaluation of carbon isotopic fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrentó, Clara; Audí-Miró, Carme; Bordeleau, Geneviève; Marchesi, Massimo; Rosell, Mònica; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory and field-scale pilot experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of chloroform degradation by alkaline hydrolysis and the potential of δ(13)C values to assess this induced reaction process at contaminated sites. In batch experiments, alkaline conditions were induced by adding crushed concrete (pH 12.33 ± 0.07), a filtered concrete solution (pH 12.27 ± 0.04), a filtered cement solution (pH 12.66 ± 0.02) and a pH 12 buffer solution (pH 11.92 ± 0.11). The resulting chloroform degradation after 28 days was 94, 96, 99, and 72%, respectively. The experimental data were described using a pseudo-first-order kinetic model, resulting in pseudo-first-order rate constant values of 0.10, 0.12, 0.20, and 0.05 d(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the significant chloroform carbon isotopic fractionation associated with alkaline hydrolysis of chloroform (-53 ± 3‰) and its independence from pH in the admittedly limited tested pH range imply a great potential for the use of δ(13)C values for in situ monitoring of the efficacy of remediation approaches based on alkaline hydrolysis. The carbon isotopic fractionation obtained at the lab scale allowed the calculation of the percentage of chloroform degradation in field-scale pilot experiments where alkaline conditions were induced in two recharge water interception trenches filled with concrete-based construction wastes. A maximum of approximately 30-40% of chloroform degradation was achieved during the two studied recharge periods. Although further research is required, the treatment of chloroform in groundwater through the use of concrete-based construction wastes is proposed. This strategy would also imply the recycling of construction and demolition wastes for use in value-added applications to increase economic and environmental benefits. PMID:24410407

  1. The role of renal proximal tubule P450 enzymes in chloroform-induced nephrotoxicity: Utility of renal specific P450 reductase knockout mouse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kidney is a primary target for numerous toxic compounds. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450) are responsible for the metabolic activation of various chemical compounds, and in the kidney are predominantly expressed in proximal tubules. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that renal proximal tubular P450s are critical for nephrotoxicity caused by chemicals such as chloroform. We developed two new mouse models, one having proximal tubule-specific deletion of the cytochrome P450 reductase (Cpr) gene (the enzyme required for all microsomal P450 activities), designated proximal tubule-Cpr-null (PTCN), and the other having proximal tubule-specific rescue of CPR activity with the global suppression of CPR activity in all extra-proximal tubular tissues, designated extra-proximal tubule-Cpr-low (XPT-CL). The PTCN, XPT-CL, Cpr-low (CL), and wild-type (WT) mice were treated with a single oral dose of chloroform at 200 mg/kg. Blood, liver and kidney samples were obtained at 24 h after the treatment. Renal toxicity was assessed by measuring BUN and creatinine levels, and by pathological examination. The blood and tissue levels of chloroform were determined. The severity of toxicity was less in PTCN and CL mice, compared with that of WT and XPT-CL mice. There were no significant differences in chloroform levels in the blood, liver, or kidney, between PTCN and WT mice, or between XPT-CL and CL mice. These findings indicate that local P450-dependent activities play an important role in the nephrotoxicity induced by chloroform. Our results also demonstrate the usefulness of these novel mouse models for studies of chemical-induced kidney toxicity. - Highlights: • New mouse models were developed with varying P450 activities in the proximal tubule. • These mouse models were treated with chloroform, a nephrotoxicant. • Studies showed the importance of local P450s in chloroform-induced nephrotoxicity

  2. The role of renal proximal tubule P450 enzymes in chloroform-induced nephrotoxicity: Utility of renal specific P450 reductase knockout mouse models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Senyan [Kidney Institute and Division of Nephrology, Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai 200003 (China); Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and School of Public Health, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Yao, Yunyi; Lu, Shijun; Aldous, Kenneth; Ding, Xinxin [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and School of Public Health, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Mei, Changlin, E-mail: chlmei1954@126.com [Kidney Institute and Division of Nephrology, Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai 200003 (China); Gu, Jun, E-mail: jungu@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and School of Public Health, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The kidney is a primary target for numerous toxic compounds. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450) are responsible for the metabolic activation of various chemical compounds, and in the kidney are predominantly expressed in proximal tubules. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that renal proximal tubular P450s are critical for nephrotoxicity caused by chemicals such as chloroform. We developed two new mouse models, one having proximal tubule-specific deletion of the cytochrome P450 reductase (Cpr) gene (the enzyme required for all microsomal P450 activities), designated proximal tubule-Cpr-null (PTCN), and the other having proximal tubule-specific rescue of CPR activity with the global suppression of CPR activity in all extra-proximal tubular tissues, designated extra-proximal tubule-Cpr-low (XPT-CL). The PTCN, XPT-CL, Cpr-low (CL), and wild-type (WT) mice were treated with a single oral dose of chloroform at 200 mg/kg. Blood, liver and kidney samples were obtained at 24 h after the treatment. Renal toxicity was assessed by measuring BUN and creatinine levels, and by pathological examination. The blood and tissue levels of chloroform were determined. The severity of toxicity was less in PTCN and CL mice, compared with that of WT and XPT-CL mice. There were no significant differences in chloroform levels in the blood, liver, or kidney, between PTCN and WT mice, or between XPT-CL and CL mice. These findings indicate that local P450-dependent activities play an important role in the nephrotoxicity induced by chloroform. Our results also demonstrate the usefulness of these novel mouse models for studies of chemical-induced kidney toxicity. - Highlights: • New mouse models were developed with varying P450 activities in the proximal tubule. • These mouse models were treated with chloroform, a nephrotoxicant. • Studies showed the importance of local P450s in chloroform-induced nephrotoxicity.

  3. Identification of sitosteryl glucoside palmitate in a chloroform-derived fraction of Phyllanthus niruri with antiplasmodial and peripheral antinociceptive properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ezenyi; Ifeoma; Chinwude; Kulkarni; Roshan; Joshi; Swati; Salawu; Oluwakanyinsola; Adeola; Emeje; Martins

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antiplasmodial properties of fractions of chloroform portion of Phyllanthus niruri(P.niruri) methanol extract and identify a suitable chemical marker present therein.Methods:Chloroform portion of P.niruri methanol extract was separated from silica gel using gradient systems of hexane,ethylacetate and methanol.The fractions were screened for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum HB3 and FcM29.Fractions with IC50<10μg/ml.against parasites were further screened for peripheral analgesic activity,while cytotoxicity was evaluated using THP-1 cells.Results:Fractions 12-14 were very active(IC50<10 μg/mL) against Plasmodium falciparum and showed no significant cytotoxicity.Fractions 12 and 13 exhibited significant(P<0.01) reduction in acetic acid-induced writhing in mice,decreasing the number of writhes by 66.67% and 65.22% respectively and comparable with 100 mg/kg aspirin(65.22%).From fraction 12,a compound was isolated and identified as sitosteryl-6-β-D-glucoside-6’-palmitate by 1H,13C nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopies.Conclusions:Our findings illustrate antiplasmodial column fractions of P.niruri with analgesic activity and identify sitosteryl glucoside pahmitate as a chemical marker of activity.

  4. Pulse shaping effect on two-photon excitation efficiency of α-perylene crystals and perylene in chloroform solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We demonstrated that the two-photon excitation efficiency of perylene in chloroform solution as well as that of crystalline perylene was dramatically increased by optimizing the shape of intense femtosecond laser pulses of a regenerative amplifier output. The efficiency was three times higher than for an unshaped single femtosecond pulse with the pulse width of shorter than 50 fs. The pulse shape optimized for the solution sample was a pulse train with a repetition frequency of about 340 cm-1, and the pulse shape optimized for crystalline perylene was very similar. These results supported our previous findings on α-perylene crystals using weak femtosecond pulses from a mode-locked laser oscillator [T. Okada et al. J. Chem. Phys. 121, 6385 (2004)]. Furthermore, it was confirmed that the shaped pulse optimized for the liquid sample could also increase the two-photon excitation efficiency of α-perylene crystals and vice versa. We concluded that the mechanism for the increase in excitation efficiency of perylene in chloroform was almost the same as that for α-perylene crystal, and that the efficiency increased mainly through intramolecular dynamical processes. Processes involving intermolecular interactions and/or energy states delocalized over the crystal cannot play the major role

  5. Crystal structure of Boc-(S)-ABOC-(S)-Ala-(S)-ABOC-(S)-Phe-OBn chloro-form monosolvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Emmanuel; Moulat, Laure; Legrand, Baptiste; Amblard, Muriel; Calmès, Monique; Didierjean, Claude

    2015-10-01

    In the title compound, phenyl (S)-2-[(S)-(1-{2-[(S)-(1-{[(tert-but-oxy)carbon-yl]amino}-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octan-2-yl)formamido]-propanamido}-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octan-2-yl)formamido]-3-phenyl-propano-ate chloro-form monosolvate, C42H56N4O7·CHCl3, the α,β-hybrid peptide contains two non-proteinogenic amino acid residues of (S)-1-amino-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octane-2-carb-oxy-lic acid [(S)-ABOC], two amino acid residues of (S)-2-amino-propanoic acid [(S)-Ala] and (S)-2-amino-3-phenyl-propanoic acid [(S)-Phe], and protecting groups of tert-but-oxy-carbonyl (Boc) and benzyl ester (OBn). The tetra-mer folds into a right-handed mixed 11/9 helix stabilized by intra-molecular i,i + 3 and i,i - 1 C=O⋯H-N hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, the oligomers are linked by N-H⋯O=C hydrogen bonds into chains along the a-axis direction. The chloro-form solvent mol-ecules are inter-calated between the folded chains via C-H⋯O=C inter-actions. PMID:26594404

  6. Optical constants and dispersion equations of lecithin, cholesterol, fucose, and chloroform: measurements in vacuum-ultraviolet to visible wavelength regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical constants, n and k, of solutions of lecithin, cholesterol, and fucose and of the solvent chloroform were measured for the spectral region 1348 to 6407 A by a reflectance method. Absorption peaks were found in chloroform at about 1393 and 1631 A and were attributed, respectively, to sigma → sigma/sup */ electron transitions at the C--H and C--Cl bonds and an n → sigma/sup */ electron transition at the C--Cl bond. A procedure for the determination of the optical constants of a solute from those of the solution and solvent is developed and applied. The procedure is also applied to calculate the optical constants of a solution from those of the components. From the values of the optical constants, dispersion equation parameters and van der Waals parameters were calculated for the compounds. The static electronic polarizabilities of the substances studies were found to depend little (less than 6%) on the concentration of solution used in the measurement. Values of polarizabilities obtained agreed closely with those obtained by the addition of bond polarizabilities

  7. Inductively coupled plasma torch efficiency at atmospheric pressure for organo-chlorine liquid waste removal: chloroform destruction in oxidative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang-Youbi, Georges; Poizot, Karine; Lemont, Florent

    2013-01-15

    The performance of a plasma reactor for the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbon waste is reported. Chloroform was used as a target for a recently patented destruction process based using an inductive plasma torch. Liquid waste was directly injected axially into the argon plasma with a supplied power of ~4kW in the presence of oxygen as oxidant and carrier gas. Decomposition was performed at CHCl(3) feed rates up to 400 g h(-1) with different oxygen/waste molar ratios, chloroform destruction was obtained with at least 99% efficiency and the energy efficiency reached 100 g kWh(-1). The conversion end products were identified and assayed by online FTIR spectroscopy (CO(2), HCl and H(2)O) and redox titration (Cl(2)). Considering phosgene as representative of toxic compounds, only very small quantities of toxics were released (<1 g h(-1)) even with high waste feed rates. The experimental results were very close to the equilibrium composition predicted by thermodynamic calculations. At the bottom of the reactor, the chlorinated acids were successfully trapped in a scrubber and transformed into mineral salts, hence, only CO(2) and H(2)O have been found in the final off-gases composition. PMID:23246953

  8. Induction of apoptosis in HeLa cells by chloroform fraction of seed extracts of Nigella sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshatwi Ali A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer remains one of the most dreaded diseases causing an astonishingly high death rate, second only to cardiac arrest. The fact that conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures like chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reverting the outcome of the disease to any drastic extent, has made researchers investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties. This study progresses in the direction of identifying component(s from Nigella sativa with anti cancer acitivity. In the present study we investigated the efficacy of Organic extracts of Nigella sativa seed powder for its clonogenic inhibition and induction of apoptosis in HeLa cancer cell. Results Methanolic, n-Hexane and chloroform extracts of Nigella sativa seedz effectively killed HeLa cells. The IC50 values of methanolic, n-hexane, and chloroform extracts of Nigella sativa were 2.28 μg/ml, 2.20 μg/ml and 0.41 ng/ml, respectively. All three extracts induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. Apoptosis was confirmed by DNA fragmentation, western blot and terminal transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin-end labeling (TUNEL assay. Conclusion Western Blot and TUNEL results suggested that Nigella sativa seed extracts regulated the expression of pro- and anti- apoptotic genes, indicating its possible development as a potential therapeutic agent for cervical cancer upon further investigation.

  9. 氯油制备氯仿新工艺%New preparation process of chloroform from chlorinated oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐晓兵

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a new chloroform production process by reaction of chlorinated oil with dimethyl amine instead of lime is introduced, in which N, N- dimethyl methanamide is coproduct. The characteristics of this process lie in that the raw materials are easy to get and have low prices,its unique extraction technology avoid using drying agent and other assistants, the use ratio of carbon contained in trichlroacetic aldehyde reaches to 100% and there aren't formate substances to be discharged. The quality of pilot product produced by the new process is better than that of the product produced by lime process,the quality of chloroform reach to the high-class required by National Standard GB 4118-92,DMF products reach to the requirement of HG 2028-91. Moreover, with the adoption of the newprocess, the production cost of chloroform was reduced by1 387.87 RMB¥/t compared with that oflime process, and the problem of environment pollution was thoroughly solved,achieving the aims of production cost reduction and environmental protection.%介绍了一种采用二甲胺代替石灰与氯油反应,在生产氯仿的同时联产N,N-二甲基甲酰胺的新工艺。该工艺的特点在于原料易得且价格低廉,具有独创性的萃取技术避免了使用干燥剂及其它助剂,理论上使三氯乙醛中碳的利用率达到100%,无甲酸盐类物质排放。新工艺中试产品的质量优于石灰法产品质量,氯仿质量达到国标GB4118-92优等品要求,DMF产品达到HG2028-91标准要求。而且采用新工艺后,公司氯仿成本比石灰法下降1 387.87元/t,环境污染问题也得到根本性解决,达到降低成本、保护环境的双重目的。

  10. Gelation behaviour of a bent-core dihydrazide derivative: effect of incubation temperature in chloroform and toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxue; Zhang, Tianren; Ji, Nan; Zhang, Yan; Bai, Binglian; Wang, Haitao; Li, Min

    2016-02-01

    In this work, a new kind of gelator, 1,3-bis[(3,4-dioctyloxy phenyl) hydrazide]phenylene (BP8-C), containing two dihydrazide units as the rigid bent-core, has been synthesized and investigated. It was demonstrated that BP8-C is an efficient gelator which can gel various organic solvents, such as ethanol, benzene, toluene, chloroform, etc. Both an opaque gel (O-gel) and a transparent gel (T-gel), which is more stable, were obtained with BP8-C in chloroform at different incubation temperatures. Kinetic data based on fluorescence spectra revealed that the T-gels showed a larger Avrami parameter (n = 1.44 at 20 °C) than that of the O-gels (n = 1.21 for gelation at temperatures below 0 °C). While BP8-C did form the opaque gel in toluene, gelation took longer at lower incubation temperatures and even precipitated out below 0 °C. The kinetic Avrami analysis on sols of BP8-C with different concentrations shows a two-phrase mechanism, i.e. the n values are between 0.88 and 1.74 followed by 1.69 and 3.01 throughout the temperature range of 5 °C and 35 °C for 5.34 mg mL(-1) BP8-C in toluene, indicating that the fibers formed first and then bundled to produce compact networks. We propose that supersaturation governs the formation of gel in chloroform and that the diffusion process denominates gelation in toluene. XRD and FT-IR measurements confirmed that the xerogels prepared at different temperatures in different solvents exhibited a Col(h) structure and that there are three molecules in one columnar slice. Our results indicate that the gelation process, morphology of the gels and thus the final properties of the gels depend strongly on the preparation conditions such as temperature, solvent, concentration, etc. PMID:26659559

  11. Anti-diabetic activity of the chloroform extract of Senecio mikanioides Otto in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan S. M. Marzouk

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we examined the effect of oral administration of the chloroform extract of Senecio mikanioides Otto for a period of 30 days at doses of 100, 300 or 500 mg/kg body weight/day on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups and classified into; extract treatment group received 100, 300 or 500 mg/kg body weight per day by oral gavage for 30 days; diabetic group administered intraperitoneally a single dose (75 mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin (STZ; diabetic rats plus tolbutamide group where diabetic rats received the standard hypoglycemic drug tolbutamide (100 mg/kg body weight per day by oral gavage for 30 days; diabetic rats plus extract group where diabetic rats received the extract (same doses by gavage for 30 days; as well as a normal group for comparison. In all of these groups, the levels of glucose and insulin were checked in blood, while the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH, nitric oxide (NO, lipid peroxidation (TBARS and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR activity were measured in pancreatic tissues. Results: The results revealed that STZ administration resulted in significant elevation in the level of both TBARS and NO with depletion in the level of GSH as compared with control accompanied with hyperglycemia, hypo-insulinemia and low insulin sensitivity. Moreover, the activity of pancreatic TrxR was lower than the control group. Feeding the diabetic rats for 30 days with the extract normalizes the previous biochemical parameters in dose dependent manner reaching near the tolbutamide treated group at the highest dose. Conclusion: The chloroform extract of Senecio mikanioides Otto exhibited antidiabetic activity and it corrected the insulin level and its sensitivity in experimentally induced diabetic rats in dose dependent manner. The current results clearly indicated the beneficial effects of the chloroform extract of Senecio mikanioides Otto in both

  12. The extraction of Yb(3) and Lu(3) with chloroform from aqueous solutions in the presence of cupferron

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The equilibrium of distribution of Yb(3) and Lu(3) between chloroform and the aqueous phase in the presence of cupferron (the ammonium salt of N-nitrosophenylhydroxylamine) were studied as a pH function of the aqueous phase and the concentration of N-nitrosophenylhydroxylamine (HL). The stability constants for the LnLn(3-n)complexes (n = 1/3) being formed in the aqueous phase were established, as well as the equilibrium constants of the extraction reaction Ln(H2O)m3++3HL(0) rightleftdblarrow LnL3(0) +3H++mH2O(Ln3+ = Yb, Lu), two-phase stability constants for the LnL3 complexes, pH0,5 and the separation factor Lu(3) from Yb(3). (Author)

  13. An extractive spectrophotometry method for the determination of vanadium as V(II)-8-hydroxyquinoline complex into acetylacetone-chloroform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple and rapid extractive spectrophotometric method of determination of vanadium is developed by reduction of the metal ion with Zn/Hg in presence of 8-hydroxyquinoline under acidic conditions employing acetylacetone-chloroform as extractant. No interference is shown by W(VI), Cr(VI, III), U(VI), Mo(VI), Fe(II), Co(II), Ni(II), Cu(II) and several other elements of interest. The applicability of the method is tested by analysis of a large number of different samples. The method is highly reproducible with a standard deviation of 0.0065 and Sandell's sensitivity 8.6956x10-2 μg V/cm2. Stoichiometry of the complex is also studied. (author). 1 tab., 17 refs

  14. Inductively coupled plasma torch efficiency at atmospheric pressure for organo-chlorine liquid waste removal: Chloroform destruction in oxidative conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamgang-Youbi, Georges, E-mail: kamyougeo@yahoo.fr [French Atomic Commission-CEA, Marcoule-DTCD/SCDV/LPIC, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-Sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, The University of Yaounde I, P.O Box, 812 Yaounde (Cameroon); Poizot, Karine; Lemont, Florent [French Atomic Commission-CEA, Marcoule-DTCD/SCDV/LPIC, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-Sur-Cèze Cedex (France)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► Inductively plasma torch is used for the decomposition of organochlorine molecule. ► We examine the impact of liquid water substitution by oxygen gas as oxidant. ► Complete and safe decomposition is achieved with the presence of oxygen. ► The energy efficiency and capabilities of process are better with O{sub 2} than H{sub 2}O. -- Abstract: The performance of a plasma reactor for the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbon waste is reported. Chloroform was used as a target for a recently patented destruction process based using an inductive plasma torch. Liquid waste was directly injected axially into the argon plasma with a supplied power of ∼4 kW in the presence of oxygen as oxidant and carrier gas. Decomposition was performed at CHCl{sub 3} feed rates up to 400 g h{sup −1} with different oxygen/waste molar ratios, chloroform destruction was obtained with at least 99% efficiency and the energy efficiency reached 100 g kWh{sup −1}. The conversion end products were identified and assayed by online FTIR spectroscopy (CO{sub 2}, HCl and H{sub 2}O) and redox titration (Cl{sub 2}). Considering phosgene as representative of toxic compounds, only very small quantities of toxics were released (<1 g h{sup −1}) even with high waste feed rates. The experimental results were very close to the equilibrium composition predicted by thermodynamic calculations. At the bottom of the reactor, the chlorinated acids were successfully trapped in a scrubber and transformed into mineral salts, hence, only CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O have been found in the final off-gases composition.

  15. CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF N-HEXANE, CHLOROFORM AND CARBON TETRACHLORIDE FRACTIONS OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES AND STEMS OF BACCAUREA RAMIFLORA (LOUR..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Sarker Apu et al.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to find out the cytotoxic activity of the n-hexane, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride fractions of the ethanolic extracts of the leaves and stems of Baccaurea ramiflora (Lour.. Ethanolic extracts of the leaves and stems of Baccaurea ramiflora were subjected to solvent-solvent partitioning using n-hexane, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride to obtain n-hexane leaves fraction, chloroform leaves fraction, n-hexane stems fraction, chloroform stems fraction and carbon tetrachloride stems fraction. Each fraction was assayed for their cytotoxic effect using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Among the fractions, the n-hexane fractions of leaves and stems showed significant cytotoxic effects having LC50 values of 7.79 µg/ml (95% confidence interval 6.48-9.37 and 5.78 µg/ml (95% confidence interval 4.76-6.99 respectively as compared to vincristine sulfate (LC50= 2.81 µg/ml (95% confidence interval 1.97-4.01 which was used as positive control. The results support the traditional uses of B. ramiflora for various medicinal purposes and thus demand the isolation and identification of active principles and thorough bioassay.

  16. Methyl halide and chloroform emissions from a subsiding Sacramento-San Joaquin Delta island converted to rice fields

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M. A. H.; Rhew, R. C.; Whelan, M. E.; Zhou, K.; Deverel, S. J.

    2011-02-01

    Net fluxes of methyl halides and chloroform were measured from recently converted rice fields on Twitchell Island, California, using field- and laboratory-based incubations. A stable isotope tracer method was used to demonstrate that the net emissions of CH 3Cl and CH 3Br during the growing season were predominantly the result of large gross production rates, with gross consumption rates being relatively minor. In agreement with prior studies, the production rates for methyl halides differed significantly at different rice plant growth phases. The Twitchell Island rice field, however, had production rates of CH 3Cl during the growth phases that were higher than rates reported at commercial rice fields, presumably because of higher soil chloride concentrations. Laboratory soil incubations showed that the non-flooded rice field soils acted as a small net sink for CH 3Cl and as small net sources for CH 3Br, CH 3I and CHCl 3. Despite the higher CH 3Cl emissions during the growing season, the overall emissions of halomethanes from the conversion of all potential islands in the San Joaquin Delta to rice paddies is predicted to be an insignificant source of halomethanes.

  17. Fenton process for degradation of selected chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons exemplified by trichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene and chloroform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhimin QIANG; Weiwei BEN; ChinPao HUANG

    2008-01-01

    The degradation of selected chlorinated ali-phatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) exemplified by trichloroethy-lene (TCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene (DCE), and chloroform (CF) was investigated with Fenton oxidation process. The results indicate that the degradation rate was primarily affected by the chemical structures of organic contami-nants. Hydroxyl radicals (·OH) preferred to attack the organic contaminants with an electron-rich structure such as chlorinated alkenes (i.e., TCE and DCE). The dosing mode of Fenton's reagent, particularly of Fe2+, significantly affected the degradation efficiency of studied organic compound. A new "time-squared" kinetic model, C = Coexp(-kobst2), was developed to express the degrada-tion kinetics of selected CAHs. This model was applicable to TCE and DCE, but inapplicable to CF due to their varied reaction rate constants towards ·OH. Chloride release was monitored to examine the degree of dechlorina- tion during the oxidation of selected CAHs. TCE was more easily dechlorinated than DCE and CF. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) was identified as the major reaction intermediate in the oxidation of TCE, which could be completely removed as the reaction proceeded. No reaction intermedi- ates or byproducts were identified in the oxidation of DCE and CF. Based on the identified intermediate, the reaction mechanism of TCE with Fenton's reagent was proposed.

  18. An in vivo and in vitro analysis of free radical scavenging potential possessed by Desmodium gangeticum chloroform root extract: interpretation by gsms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivats, Shyam; Ramakrishnan, Gomathi; Paddikkala, Jose; Kurian, Gino Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of DG chloroform root extract was assessed on isolated rat heart and in-vitro antioxidant models. Ischemia reperfusion injury was experimentally induced by using Langendroff apparatus. The free radical scavenging potential was studied in vitro by using different antioxidant models such as DPPH, super oxide scavenging activity, hydroxide scavenging activity and nitric oxide scavenging activity. Both experimental approaches not only substantiate its antioxidant potential but also the cardio-protection imparted by the extract. The cardio-stimulatory effects were investigated for the extract by treating it as a pre-conditioning agent against myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. The improved antioxidant status of the myocardium indirectly predicts reduced oxidative stress mediated by ischemic reperfusion with evident reduction of infarct size determined by cardiac marker protein. These findings indicate that DG chloroform root extract may possess therapeutic potential against ischemia reperfusion injury. PMID:22186306

  19. Electron-donor and -acceptor functions of physiologically active substances. XI. Influence of an alkyl substituent in phosphorylated oximes on their complex formation with chloroform-d

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Phosphorylated alkanoyl chloride oximes were prepared from trialkyl phosphites and the corresponding 1,1-dichloro-1-nitrosoalkenes. In the formation of complexes of chloroform-d with the oximes synthesized the intensity of the stretching vibrations of the carbon-deuterium bond rises considerably, and this provides a basis for the correct evaluation of the stability constants of the complexes. In the series of compounds studied a substantial change was observed in the stability of the complexes with chloroform-d with variation of the chain length and degree of branching of the alkyl group Alk, and this change goes in parallel with the change in the inhibiting activity of the given oximes with respect to certain enzymes

  20. Survey of several methods deproteinizing human plasma before and within the chloroformate-mediated treatment of amino/carboxylic acids quantitated by gas chromatography

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hušek, Petr; Švagera, Z.; Hanzlíková, D.; Šimek, Petr

    67-68, AUG-SEP (2012), s. 159-162. ISSN 0731-7085 R&D Projects: GA MZd NS9755; GA ČR GAP206/10/2401 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : plasma (lipo)protein precipitation * chloroformate-treated supernatant * S-amino acids Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 2.947, year: 2012 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0731708512002245

  1. Investigating migration inhibition and apoptotic effects of Fomitopsis pinicola chloroform extract on human colorectal cancer SW-480 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fomitopsis pinicola (Sw. Ex Fr.m Karst (FPK which belongs to the Basidiomycota fungal class is one of the most popular medical fungi in China. It has been used for many diseases: cancer, heart diseases, diabetes and so on. However, little study on the pro-apoptotic effect and migration inhibition of FPK chloroform extract (FPKc has been reported and the possible involved mechanism has not been illuminated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chemical analysis was performed by HPLC which showed ergosterol (ES concentration was 105 µg/mg. MTT assay revealed that FPKc could selectively inhibit SW-480 cells viability with the IC50 of 190.28 µg/ml. Wound healing and transwell assay indicated that FPKc could inhibit the migration of SW-480 cells obviously, FPKc could also dramatically decreased the matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, nuclear Hoechst 33342 staining and DNA fragmentation analysis revealed that FPKc and ES could induce SW-480 cells apoptosis. The apoptosis process closely involved in ROS accumulation and depletion of GSH, activation of caspase 3, poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP degradation. FPKc could also up-regulate P53 expression and thus lead to G1 phase arrest. When SW-480 cells were pretreated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, the ROS generation, cell viability and apoptotic ratio were partially declined, which indicated that ROS was vertical in the pro-apoptosis process induced by FPKc. Moreover, in the whole process, ES which has been previously found in FPKc had the similar effect to FPKc. Thus we could conclude that ES, as one of the highest abundant components in FPKc, might also be one of the active constituents. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: FPKc could inhibit the migration of SW-480 cells, induce SW-480 cells G1 phase arrest and cause ROS-mediated apoptosis effect. And ES might be one of the effective constituents in the whole process.

  2. The Chloroform Fraction of Carpinus tschonoskii Leaves Inhibits the Production of Inflammatory Mediators in HaCaT Keratinocytes and RAW264.7 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Gyeoung-Jin; Kang, Na-Jin; Han, Sang-Chul; Koo, Dong-Hwan; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Yoo, Byoung-Sam; Yoo, Eun-Sook

    2012-12-01

    Inflammation is the immune system's response to infection and injury-related disorders, and is related to pro-inflammatory factors (NO, PGE2, cytokines, etc.) produced by inflammatory cells. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a representative inflammatory skin disease that is characterized by increasing serum levels of inflammatory chemokines, including macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC). Carpinus tschonoskii is a member of the genus Carpinus. We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of C. tschonoskii by studying the effects of various solvent fractions prepared from its leaves on inflammatory mediators in HaCaT and RAW264.7 cells. We found that the chloroform fraction of C. tschonoskii inhibited MDC at both the protein and mRNA levels in HaCaT cells, acting via the inhibition of STAT1 in the IFN-γ signaling pathway. In addition, the chloroform fraction significantly suppressed the expression of inflammatory factors induced by lipopolysaccharide stimulation, except COX-2 and TNF-α. These results suggest that the chloroform fraction of C. tschonoskii leaves may include a component with potential anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:24278618

  3. Reliable solution processed planar perovskite hybrid solar cells with large-area uniformity by chloroform soaking and spin rinsing induced surface precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solvent soaking and rinsing method, in which the solvent was allowed to soak all over the surface followed by a spinning for solvent draining, was found to produce perovskite layers with high uniformity on a centimeter scale and with much improved reliability. Besides the enhanced crystallinity and surface morphology due to the rinsing induced surface precipitation that constrains the grain growth underneath in the precursor films, large-area uniformity with film thickness determined exclusively by the rotational speed of rinsing spinning for solvent draining was observed. With chloroform as rinsing solvent, highly uniform and mirror-like perovskite layers of area as large as 8 cm × 8 cm were produced and highly uniform planar perovskite solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 10.6 ± 0.2% as well as much prolonged lifetime were obtained. The high uniformity and reliability observed with this solvent soaking and rinsing method were ascribed to the low viscosity of chloroform as well as its feasibility of mixing with the solvent used in the precursor solution. Moreover, since the surface precipitation forms before the solvent draining, this solvent soaking and rinsing method may be adapted to spinless process and be compatible with large-area and continuous production. With the large-area uniformity and reliability for the resultant perovskite layers, this chloroform soaking and rinsing approach may thus be promising for the mass production and commercialization of large-area perovskite solar cells

  4. Determination of vanadium in stainless steel and Ni-base alloys by NBPHA spectrophotometric method combined with chloroform extraction separation in media of sulfuric-hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method of rapid vanadium analysis was proposed. In this method, vanadium is directly extracted and determined from sample solutions in sulfuric-hydrofluoric acid. The interference of the coexisting elements can be ignored in this method. Take one gram of sample into a 200 ml beaker, and add 30 ml of aqua regia. Then heat and dissolve it, and add 14 ml of sulfuric acid (1+1) and 5 ml of phosphoric acid. After cooling, dissolve the salts with a small amount of water. Thereafter, transfer it with use of water into a polyethylene separatory funnel, add 10 ml of 46% hydrofluoric acid, and dilute to 50 ml. Then, add 4 ml iron (II) ammonium sulfate solution (10%) and mix it thoroughly. Allow to stand for two or three minutes, add 10 ml of 45% ammonium persulfate solution and mix it thoroughly again. Allow to stand for about five minutes. Then, add exactly 20 ml of BPHA-chloroform solution (0.1%) and shake and mix it vigorously for two minutes. After a while, transfer the chloroform complex into a 10 mm cell through a piece of absorbent cotton. Then, determine vanadium by measuring the absorbance at the wave length of 530 nm against a chloroform reference. This method can be applicable to the analysis of vanadium in other metals and alloys than stainless steel and Ni-base alloys. (Iwakiri, K.)

  5. In vitro ovicidal assessment of methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of Annona squamosa and Chenopodium album against caprine gastrointestinal nematodiosis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sachan, Arti; Shanker, Daya; Jaiswal, Amit Kumar; Sudan, Vikrant

    2015-03-01

    The objective of this study was in vitro evaluation of the ovicidal efficacy of methanol, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of Annona squamosa (seeds) and Chenopodium album (whole plant) in comparison to albendazole against the GI nematodes of goats using egg hatch test. Eggs of GI nematodes were incubated at 27 °C in different extracts at concentration of 100-6.25 mg/ml for 2 days. Distilled water and albendazole were used as negative and positive controls, respectively. Percentage efficacy and ED50 and ED90 values were separately evaluated with upper and lower confidence limit by log probit analysis using SAS 9.2. The ED50 and ED90 values of methanolic, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of A. squamosa was calculated as 1.52 and 4.56; 2.48 and 10.73; 3.02 and 12.44 mg/ml, respectively against GI nematodes if goats. Similarly, the ED50 and ED90 values of methanolic, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of C. album was calculated as 3.86 and 7.14; 2.73 and 8.31; 4.41 and 20.11 mg/ml, respectively This study shows that C. album and A. squamosa possess in vitro anthelmintic activities. The study also suggests further large scale pharmacological and toxicological studies for their safer use in veterinary medicine. PMID:25698862

  6. Blood porphyrins in binary mixtures of N,N-dimethylformamide with 1-octanol and chloroform: The energetics of solvation, (solute + cosolvent) interactions and model calculations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The energetics of solvation of photosensitizers in binary systems was studied. • The (solute + non-electrolyte) pair interactions were examined. • Affinity of porphyrins to protein-like species in a lipid-like phase was established. • The method for predicting enthalpies of solute transfer in mixed solvents was created. - Abstract: This study provides the first accurate analysis of the energetics of solvation of blood porphyrins in binary solvents which are considered as appropriate models for a smooth transition from a polar protein-like phase to an apolar lipid-like environment. Our results do indicate that hematoporphyrin dimethylether dimethylester (HDEDE) and deuteroporphyrin dimethylether (DDE), as well as the model of their ester side-chains ethyl acetate (EtOAc), reveal more exothermic solvation in chloroform (CHCl3) than in dimethylformamide (DMF) and, especially, in 1-octanol (OctOH). The energetics of pair interaction between dissolved species and cosolvent molecules both in a protein-like and a lipid-like environment are clearly associated with these solvation effects. The interaction between blood porphyrins and DMF in OctOH is accompanied by large negative enthalpy changes at both temperatures, whereas in chloroform, forming strong H-bonds with dissolved species, the interaction is strongly thermochemically repulsive. All solute molecules interact in the energetically unfavorable way with OctOH and CHCl3 in DMF, the effect being much stronger pronounced for chloroform. The most significant result of this work is that it is possible to connect this pair interaction in a highly diluted solution with the solute behavior in the entire range of the binary mixture. The approach proposed is independent of a solute and solvent structure, it provides a good prediction of the energetics of solvation in mixed solvents and can be extended for a lot of other biologically active solutes

  7. Influence of Alkaline Treatment on Chloroform Extract of China-Hemp%碱处理对汉麻皮氯仿萃取物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小泷; 杨力生; 金彪; 李荣霞; 周文龙

    2013-01-01

    运用气质联用技术,对汉麻皮的氯仿萃取物进行了测定分析.研究表明,汉麻皮的氯仿萃取物中仍然明显有大麻中的特殊化学成分——四氢大麻酚(THC)存在.四氢大麻酚会在汉麻的普通化学脱胶处理(碱处理)中被有效去除,这说明在汉麻纺织商品中不会含有大麻酚物质,汉麻纺织产品是安全的,同时也说明四氢大麻酚物质可能与汉麻皮的胶类物质有一定的关系.在一定条件下,碱处理60 min后纤维中将不会存在四氢大麻酚.汉麻皮氯仿萃取物中主要还含有十六酸和十八烷酸等物质.%This paper tests and analyzes chloroform extract of China-hemp using gas chromatography-mass spectrography technology. The research shows that the special chemical component in hemp-THC still exists in chloroform extract of China-hemp. THC will be effectively removed in general chemical de-gumming treatment (alkaline treatment) of China-hemp, indicating that China-hemp textile goods do not contain Cannabinol and China-hemp textile products are safe and that THC might have certain relationship with gum substance of China-hemp. Under certain conditions, fiber subject to alkaline treatment for 60 min will not have THC. Chloroform extract of China-hemp also contains hexadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid etc.

  8. Solvent extraction of lanthanum(III), europium(III) and lutetium(III) with fluorinated 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolones into chloroform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saleh, M I; Ahmad, M; Darus, H

    1990-07-01

    A series of chelating reagents, 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(2-fluorobenzoyl)-5-pyrazolone, 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(3-fluorobenzoyl)-5-pyrazolone and 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)-5-pyrazolone, has been synthesized. The extraction of Ln(III), (Ln = La, Eu and Lu) into chloroform with these reagents at 30 +/- 1 degrees has been studied. The composition of the complexes extracted has been determined by the slope method, and the extraction constants K(ex), were measured. The presence of the fluorine atom in the reagents does not make the K(ex), values much different from those obtained with the parent pyrazolone. PMID:18965016

  9. Solvent extraction of lanthanum(III), europium(III) and lutetium(III) with fluorinated 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-benzoyl-5-pyrazolones into chloroform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A series of chelating reagents, 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(2-fluorobenzoyl)-5-pyrazolone, 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(3-fluorobenzoyl)-5-purazolone and 1-phenyl-3-methyl-4-(4-fluorobenzoyl)-5-pyrazolone, has been synthesized. The extraction of Ln(III), (Ln = La, Eu and Lu) into chloroform with these reagents at 30±10 has been studied. The composition of the complexes extracted has been determined by the slope method, and the extraction constants Kex, were measured. The presence of the fluorine atom in the reagents does not make the Kex values much different from those obtained with the parent pyrazolone. (author)

  10. Chloroform Cometabolism by Butane-Grown CF8, Pseudomonas butanovora, and Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 and Methane-Grown Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b

    OpenAIRE

    Hamamura, N.; Page, C.; Long, T; Semprini, L; Arp, D J

    1997-01-01

    Chloroform (CF) degradation by a butane-grown enrichment culture, CF8, was compared to that by butane-grown Pseudomonas butanovora and Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 and to that by a known CF degrader, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. All three butane-grown bacteria were able to degrade CF at rates comparable to that of M. trichosporium. CF degradation by all four bacteria required O(inf2). Butane inhibited CF degradation by the butane-grown bacteria, suggesting that butane monooxygenase is respon...

  11. (η6-Benzene(carbonato-κ2O,O′[dicyclohexyl(naphthalen-1-ylmethylphosphane-κP]ruthenium(II chloroform trisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Gowrisankar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Ru(CO3(η6-C6H6{(C6H112P(CH2C10H7}]·3CHCl3, was synthesized by carbonation of [RuCl2(η6-C6H6{(C6H112P(CH2C10H7}] with NaHCO3 in methanol at room temperature. The RuII atom is surrounded by a benzene ligand, a chelating carbonate group and a phosphane ligand in a piano-stool configuration. The crystal packing is consolidated by C—H...O and C—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions between adjacent metal complexes and between the complexes and the solvent molecules. The asymmetric unit contains one metal complex and three chloroform solvent molecules of which only one was modelled. The estimated diffraction contributions of the other two strongly disordered chloroform solvent molecules were substracted from the observed diffraction data using the SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155].

  12. Dithizone chloroform single drop microextraction system combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using Ir as permanent modifier for the determination of Cd in water and biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhefeng; Zhou, Wei

    2006-07-01

    A simple and sensitive method using dithizone-chloroform single drop microextraction has been developed for separation and preconcentration of trace Cd prior to its determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with Ir as permanent modifier. Parameters, such as pyrolysis and atomization temperature, solvent type, pH, dithizone concentration, extraction time, organic drop volume, stirring rate and sample volume were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a detection limit (3 σ) of 0.7 ng/l and enrichment factor of 65 were achieved. The relative standard deviation was 7.4% ( c = 0.2 μg/l, n = 5). The developed method has been applied to the determination of trace Cd in water samples and biological reference materials with satisfactory results.

  13. Dithizone-chloroform single drop microextraction system combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using Ir as permanent modifier for the determination of Cd in water and biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Zhefeng [Department of Chemistry, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041004 (China)]. E-mail: zhefengfan@163.com; Zhou Wei [Department of Chemistry, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041004 (China)

    2006-07-15

    A simple and sensitive method using dithizone-chloroform single drop microextraction has been developed for separation and preconcentration of trace Cd prior to its determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with Ir as permanent modifier. Parameters, such as pyrolysis and atomization temperature, solvent type, pH, dithizone concentration, extraction time, organic drop volume, stirring rate and sample volume were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a detection limit (3{sigma}) of 0.7 ng/l and enrichment factor of 65 were achieved. The relative standard deviation was 7.4% (c = 0.2 {mu}g/l, n = 5). The developed method has been applied to the determination of trace Cd in water samples and biological reference materials with satisfactory results.

  14. The single-step method of RNA isolation by acid guanidinium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform extraction: twenty-something years on.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chomczynski, Piotr; Sacchi, Nicoletta

    2006-01-01

    Since its introduction, the 'single-step' method has become widely used for isolating total RNA from biological samples of different sources. The principle at the basis of the method is that RNA is separated from DNA after extraction with an acidic solution containing guanidinium thiocyanate, sodium acetate, phenol and chloroform, followed by centrifugation. Under acidic conditions, total RNA remains in the upper aqueous phase, while most of DNA and proteins remain either in the interphase or in the lower organic phase. Total RNA is then recovered by precipitation with isopropanol and can be used for several applications. The original protocol, enabling the isolation of RNA from cells and tissues in less than 4 hours, greatly advanced the analysis of gene expression in plant and animal models as well as in pathological samples, as demonstrated by the overwhelming number of citations the paper gained over 20 years. PMID:17406285

  15. Sperm motility inhibitory effect of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in langur monkey, Presbytis entellus entellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nirmal K.Lohiya; Boomi Manivannan; Shipra Goyal; Abdul S.Ansari

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess the contraceptive efficacy of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in langur monkeys. Methods: The test substance was given p.o. to five monkeys at 50 mg/kg body weight/day for 360 days. Control animals (n = 3) received olive oil as vehicle. Sperm parameters as per World Health Organization standards, sperm functional tests, morphology of testis and epididymis, haematology, clinical biochemistry, serum testosterone and libido were evaluated. Following completion of 360 days treatment the animals were withdrawn from the treatment and the recovery pattern was assessed by semen analysis and sperm functional tests. Results: Total inhibition of sperm motility was observed following 60 days of treatment that continued until 360 days study period. Sperm count, percent viability and percent normal spermatozoa showed a drastic decline following 30 days of treatment. Sperm morphology showed predominant mid piece abnormalities. Sperm functional tests scored in sterile range. Histology and ultrastructure of testis revealed vacuolization in the Sertoli cells and germ cells. Loss of cytoplasmic organelles was evident in spermatocytes and round spermatids. Histology and ultrastruc-ture of epididymis of treated animals were comparable to those of control animals. Hematological and serum clinicalparameters and testosterone levels fluctuated within the control range throughout the study period. Recovery was evident following 60-120 days of treatment withdrawal. Conclusion: The results suggest that the benzene chro-matographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya shows contraceptive efficacy without adverse toxicity, mediated through inhibition of sperm motility.

  16. meso-(1S*,21R*-25-Methyl-8,11,14-trioxa-22,24,25-triazatetracyclo[19.3.1.02,7.015,20]pentacosa-2,4,6,15(20,16,18-hexaene-23-thione chloroform monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Truong Hong Hieu

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound crystallizes as a chloroform solvate, C20H23N3O3S·CHCl3, with two crystallographically independent units. The independent units have distinctly different interaction patterns between the azacrown macrocycle and the chloroform solvent molecule. In one of them, the chloroform molecule forms C—H...N and Cl...H—C hydrogen bonds with the azacrown macrocycle (as a proton donor and an acceptor, respectively, whereas in the other, one of the chloroform molecules is bound to the azacrown macrocycle by an attractive Cl...O [3.080 (3 Å] interaction. The azacrown macrocycles of different units are structurally similar; the aza-14-crown-3-ether ring adopts a bowl conformation with dihedral angles between the planes of the fused benzene rings of 60.7 (1 and 68.0 (1°. The triazinanethione ring in both cases has a sofa conformation. The crystal packing is characterized by N—H...S, N—H...O, C—H...Cl and C—H...S hydrogen bonds.

  17. Optimization of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method with methyl chloroformate derivatization for quantification of amino acids in plant tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancompernolle, Bram; Croes, Kim; Angenon, Geert

    2016-04-01

    Rapid, easy and reliable quantification of amino acids is crucial in research on plant amino acid metabolism and nutritional improvement of crops via enrichment of essential amino acids. A recently reported analysis method, based on solid phase extraction (SPE), derivatization with methyl chloroformate and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was optimized and tested on three-week-old Arabidopsis thaliana leaf tissues. Optimization of the SPE cleanup yielded recovery rates of minimum 95% for all amino acids (except arginine). Variations in accuracy and precision did not exceed 12.5%, except for cysteine, histidine and tryptophane, which were excluded from analysis. Quantification of overlapping peaks for isoleucine/threonine and proline/asparagine was possible by selection of two specific fragment ions for each amino acid. Of the 16 selected amino acids, 14 were quantified successfully in at least 75% of the samples, while methionine and tyrosine were only quantifiable in 6% and 42%, respectively. A case study on the aspartate super pathway confirmed the applicability of the optimized method on wild type and genetically modified plants: external supplementation of methionine or lysine yielded a 146-fold or 27-fold increase in the respective absolute amino acid levels compared with the control treatment. Induced expression of dhdps-r1 (a mutated lysine biosynthesis gene encoding a feedback insensitive enzyme) caused an 83-fold increase in absolute lysine levels. PMID:26994331

  18. Synergistic extraction of Nd(III), Tb(III) and Lu(III) ions with a mixture of picrolonic acid and benzo-15-crown-5 in chloroform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Habib-ur-Rehman; Ahmed, S. [Central Analytical Facility Div., Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, (PINSTECH), P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Ali, A. [Nuclear Chemistry Div., Pakistan Inst. of Nuclear Science and Technology, P.O. Nilore, Islamabad (Pakistan); Anwar, J. [Inst. of Chemistry, Univ. of the Punjab, Lahore (Pakistan)

    2006-07-01

    The synergistic mixture comprising picrolonic acid (HPA) and benzo-15-crown-5 (B15C5) in chloroform has been used for the extraction of Nd{sup 3+}, Tb{sup 3+} and Lu{sup 3-} as representatives of lanthanide(III) ions from pH 1-2 solutions having ionic strength of 0.1 moll{sup -1} (K{sup -}/H{sup +}, Cl{sup -}). The composition of the extracted species has been determined as M(PA){sub 3}.nB15C5 where M is Nd, Tb and Lu and n = 1 or 2. The acid dissociation constant (pK{sub u}) has been evaluated to be 2.52 {+-} 0.01. The influence of various anions and cations on the extraction of these lanthanide(III) ions has also been studied and only oxalate and thiosulphate among the anions and Cu{sup 2+}, Fe{sup 3+}, Zn{sup 2+} and Ni{sup 2+} among the cations have some deleterious effect. The extraction equilibrium constants have been evaluated and discussed. (orig.)

  19. Structure and potential C-terminal dimerization of a recombinant mutant of surfactant-associated protein C in chloroform/methanol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luy, Burkhard; Diener, Alexander; Hummel, Rolf-Peter; Sturm, Ernst; Ulrich, Wolf-Rüdiger; Griesinger, Christian

    2004-06-01

    The solution structure of a recombinant mutant [rSP-C (FFI)] of the human surfactant-associated protein C (hSP-C) in a mixture of chloroform and methanol was determined by high-resolution NMR spectroscopy. rSP-C (FFI) contains a helix from Phe5 to the C-terminal Leu34 and is thus longer by two residues than the helix of porcine SP-C (pSP-C), which is reported to start at Val7 in the same solvent. Two sets of resonances at the C-terminus of the peptide were observed, which are explained by low-order oligomerization, probably dimerization of rSP-C (FFI) in its alpha-helical form. The dimerization may be induced by hydrogen bonding of the C-terminal carboxylic groups or by the strictly conserved C-terminal heptapeptide segment with a motif similar to the GxxxG dimerization motif of glycophorin A. Dimerization at the heptapeptide segment would be consistent with findings based on electrospray ionization MS data, chemical cross-linking studies, and CNBr cleavage data. PMID:15153097

  20. Molecular mechanisms involved in the protective effect of the chloroform extract of Selaginella lepidophylla (Hook. et Grev.) Spring in a lithiasic rat model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirian, Estévez-Carmona María; Juanita, Narvaéz-Morales; Christophe, Barbier Olivier; Estela, Meléndez-Camargo María

    2013-06-01

    Urolithiasis is a multifaceted process, progressing from urine supersaturation to the formation of mature renal calculi. Calcium oxalate, the main component of kidney stones, has toxicological effects on renal epithelial cells. Some medicinal plants have shown pharmacological effects against renal lithiasis, such as Selaginella lepidophylla (Hook. et Grev) Spring, a plant empirically used in Mexico for its diuretic and antilithiasic activity. The plant was identified and ground, and a chloroform extract (CE) was obtained. Urolithiasis was induced in Wistar female rats by administration of ethylene glycol and ammonium chloride for 21 days. Urolithiasis rats were treated with the CE (50 mg/kg) for 21 days. Osmolality, creatinine, sodium and potassium concentrations were measured in blood and urine. Glomerular filtration rate (GFR), and electrolytic and water balances were calculated. Urinary oxalic acid concentration was measured. Apoptosis, lipoperoxidation, ROS and p-amino hippuric acid were determined in cortical tissue. Urolithiasis rats showed a decrease of urinary flow, GFR, electrolytic balance, renal tubular secretion and ATP concentration and increase of urinary oxalic acid, lipoperoxidation, oxidative stress and apoptosis in cortical tissue. After treatment with the CE, urinary flow rate, GFR and renal tubular secretion levels were recovered; on the other hand, serum creatinine and urinary oxalic acid decreased on day 21. CE of Selaginella lepidophylla prevented the damage caused by lithiasic process by improving the active secretion in the proximal tubules, counteracting the ROS and lipoperoxidation effects by oxalate and decreased the OAT3 expression on kidney. PMID:23543194

  1. Chloroform fraction of Solanum tuberosum L. cv Jayoung epidermis suppresses LPS-induced inflammatory responses in macrophages and DSS-induced colitis in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Seung-Jun; Shin, Ji-Sun; Choi, Hye-Eun; Lee, Kyoung-Goo; Cho, Young-Wuk; An, Hyo-Jin; Jang, Dae Sik; Jeong, Jin-Cheol; Kwon, Oh-Keun; Nam, Jung-Hwan; Lee, Kyung-Tae

    2014-01-01

    In this study, the authors investigated the molecular mechanism underlying the antiinflammatory effects of the chloroform fraction of the peel of 'Jayoung' (CFPJ), a color-fleshed potato, on lipopolysaccharide (LPS)-induced RAW 264.7 macrophages and in mice with dextran sulfate sodium (DSS)-induced colitis. CFPJ inhibited the expressions of inducible nitric oxide synthase (iNOS) and cyclooxygenase-2 (COX-2) at the transcription level, and attenuated the transcriptional activity of nuclear factor-κB (NF-κB) by reducing the translocation of NF-κB depending on degradation of inhibitory κB-α (IκB-α). Furthermore, CFPJ attenuated the phosphorylations of mitogen-activated protein kinase kinases3/6 (MKK3/6) and of p38. In colitis model, CFPJ significantly reduced the severity of colitis and the productions and protein levels of pro-inflammatory mediators in colonic tissue. These results suggest that the anti-inflammatory effects of CFPJ are associated with the suppression of NF-κB and p38 activation in macrophages, and support its possible therapeutic role for the treatment of colitis. PMID:24184733

  2. Cytotoxic Activities of Physalis minima L. Chloroform Extract on Human Lung Adenocarcinoma NCI-H23 Cell Lines by Induction of Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooi Kheng Leong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physalis minima L. is reputed for having anticancer property. In this study, the chloroform extract of this plant exhibited remarkable cytotoxic activities on NCI-H23 (human lung adenocarcinoma cell line at dose- and time-dependent manners (after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation. Analysis of cell-death mechanism demonstrated that the extract exerted apoptotic programed cell death in NCI-H23 cells with typical DNA fragmentation, which is a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis. Morphological observation using transmission electron microscope (TEM also displayed apoptotic characteristics in the treated cells, including clumping and margination of chromatins, followed by convolution of the nuclear and budding of the cells to produce membrane-bound apoptotic bodies. Different stages of apoptotic programed cell death as well as phosphatidylserine externalization were confirmed using annexin V and propidium iodide staining. Furthermore, acute exposure to the extract produced a significant regulation of c-myc, caspase-3 and p53 mRNA expression in this cell line. Due to its apoptotic effect on NCI-H23 cells, it is strongly suggested that the extract could be further developed as an anticancer drug.

  3. 四氯化碳液相催化加氢反应动力学的研究%KINETIC STUDIES ON THE CATALYTIC HYDROGENATION OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE TO CHLOROFORM IN LIQUID PHASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛建新; 蒋晓原; 陆维敏; 郑小明

    2001-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride is an ozone-depleting chemical, while chloroform is not. Therefore it is important for the catalytic hydrodechlorination of CCl4 to CHCl3. In this paper, kinetics on the catalytic hydrogenation of carbon tetrachloride to chloroform in liquid phase was studied. A reaction mechanism was proposed. Hydrogen molecular was activated on the surface of catalyst, the activated hydrogen atom then reacted with CCl4 in the solution and produced CHCl3. A definite kinetic equation could be deduced from the reaction mechanism. The reaction rate constant is concerned with the intial concentration of CCl4 in the solution, pressure, reaction temperature and the concentration of active center. All these factors were investigated over Pt-Pd/C catalyst and fit in with the kinetic equation. The activation energy of the reaction is 86?KJ/mol according to the experimental results.

  4. Distributions and sea-to-air fluxes of chloroform, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chlorodibromomethane and bromoform in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea during spring

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Halocarbons including chloroform (CHCl3), trichloroethylene (C2HCl3), tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4), chlorodibromomethane (CHBr2Cl) and bromoform (CHBr3) were measured in the Yellow Sea (YS) and the East China Sea (ECS) during spring 2011. The influences of chlorophyll a, salinity and nutrients on the distributions of these gases were examined. Elevated levels of these gases in the coastal waters were attributed to anthropogenic inputs and biological release by phytoplankton. The vertical distributions of these gases in the water column were controlled by different source strengths and water masses. Using atmospheric concentrations measured in spring 2012 and seawater concentrations obtained from this study, the sea-to-air fluxes of these gases were estimated. Our results showed that the emissions of C2HCl3, C2Cl4, CHBr2Cl, and CHBr3 from the study area could account for 16.5%, 10.5%, 14.6%, and 3.5% of global oceanic emissions, respectively, indicating that the coastal shelf may contribute significantly to the global oceanic emissions of these gases. -- Highlights: ► Distributions of the VHCs were studied in the YS and the ECS. ► Elevated levels of VHCs were related to terrestrial input from the Yangtze River. ► Biogenic production from diatoms was an important source of the VHCs. ► Shelf seas could significantly contribute to the global oceanic VHCs emission. -- The elevated levels of the volatile halocarbons in the coastal waters were attributed to anthropogenic inputs and biological release by phytoplankton (e.g., diatoms)

  5. Crystal structure of tris(1,3-dimesityl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-3-ium tetrabromidocobaltate(II bromide chloroform hexasolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduard Rais

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the unit cell of the title compound, (C21H27N23[CoBr4]Br·6CHCl3, the tetrabromidocobaltate(II anion and the bromide anion are located on a crystallographic threefold rotation axis. For the [CoBr4]2− group, the axis runs through one of the Br ligands and the CoII atom. All other structure moieties lie on general sites. Various tris(1,3-dimesityl-4,5-dihydro-1H-imidazol-3-ium structures with different counter-ions have been reported. In the title compound, the N—C—N angle is 113.7 (5°, with short C—N bond lengths of 1.297 (7 and 1.307 (7 Å. The two mesityl planes make a dihedral angle of 34.6 (1° and the dihedral angles between the mesityl and N–C–N planes are 82.0 (1 and 88.5 (1°, respectively. The imidazoline ring is almost planar, with atom deviations in the range 0.003 (5–0.017 (5 Å from the best plane; the mean deviation is 0.012 (5 Å. In the crystal, non-covalent interactions of the C—H...Br type occur between the Br− anion and the cation, as well as between the [CoBr4]2− anion and both the chloroform solvent molecules. These H...A distances are slightly shorter than the sum of van der Waals radii.

  6. Chloroform Fraction of Centratherum anthelminticum (L. Seed Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Exhibits Pleotropic Bioactivities: Inhibitory Role in Human Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Arya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the antioxidant potential, cytotoxic effect, and TNF-α inhibition activity with NF-κB activation response in a chloroform fraction of Centratherum anthelminticum seeds (CACF. The antioxidant property of CACF was evaluated with DPPH, ORAC, and FRAP assays, which demonstrated significant antioxidant activity. The cytotoxicity of CACF was tested using the MTT assay; CACF effective inhibitory concentrations (IC50 for A549, PC-3, MCF-7, and WRL-68 cells were 31.42±5.4, 22.61±1.7, 8.1±0.9, and 54.93±8.3 μg/mL, respectively. CACF effectively and dose-dependently inhibited TNF-α release, in vitro and in vivo. CACF inhibited TNF-α secretion in stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage supernatants with an IC50 of 0.012 μg/mL, without affecting their viability; the highest dose tested reduced serum TNF-α by 61%. Acute toxicity testing in rats revealed that CACF was non-toxic at all doses tested. Matching the cytotoxic activity towards a mechanistic approach, CACF dose-dependently exhibited in vitro inhibitory effects against the activation of NF-κB translocation in MCF-7 cells. Preliminary phytochemical screening with GC/MS analysis detected 22 compounds in CACF, of which morpholinoethyl isothiocyanate was the most abundant (29.04%. The study reveals the potential of CACF in the treatment of breast cancer and in oxidative stress conditions with associated inflammatory responses.

  7. Positive and Negative Contributions in the Solvation Enthalpy due to Specific Interactions in Binary Mixtures of C1-C4 n-Alkanols and Chloroform with Butan-2-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varfolomeev, Mikhail A; Rakipov, Ilnaz T; Solomonov, Boris N; Lodowski, Piotr; Marczak, Wojciech

    2015-06-25

    In the paper, results of calorimetric measurements, IR spectra, and calculated ab initio stabilization energies of dimers are reported for binary systems butan-2-one + (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, and chloroform). Changes in the total enthalpy of specific interactions due to dissolution of butan-2-one in the alcohols, calculated using equations derived in previous works, are positive. That results from the endothermic breaking of the O-H···O-H bonds not completely compensated by the exothermic effects of formation of the O-H···O═C ones. Moreover, the concentration of nonbonded molecules of butan-2-one is significant even in dilute solutions, as is evidenced by the shape of the C═O stretching vibrations band in the IR spectra. Apart from that, the spectra do not confirm 1:2 complexes in spite of two lone electron pairs in the carbonyl group of butan-2-one capable of forming the hydrogen bonds. The changes in enthalpy of specific interactions are negative for dilute solutions of alcohols and chloroform in butan-2-one and of butan-2-one in chloroform, because no hydrogen bonds occur in pure butan-2-one. The experimental results are positively correlated with the enthalpies estimated from the ab initio energies using a simple "chemical reaction" approach. PMID:26012694

  8. Profiling of urinary amino-carboxylic metabolites by in-situ heptafluorobutyl chloroformate mediated sample preparation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hušek, Petr; Švagera, Zdeněk; Hanzlíková, Dagmar; Řimnáčová, Lucie; Zahradníčková, Helena; Opekarová, Iva; Šimek, Petr

    2016-04-22

    A novel 1,1,1,2,2,3,3-heptafluorobutyl chloroformate reagent (HFBCF) was examined for in-situ derivatization of amino-carboxylic metabolites in human urine. The arising reaction products exhibit greatly reduced polarity which facilitates combining the derivatization and liquid-liquid microextraction (LLME) from an aqueous urine into an isooctane phase and immediate gas chromatographic-mas spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The sample preparation protocol is simple, proceeds without an alcohol excess and provides cleaner extracts than other urinary GC-MS based methods. Moreover, thiol metabolites bound in disulfide bonds can be released by reduction with tris(3-hydroxypropyl)phosphine (THP) prior to the developed derivatization and LLME step. In order to evaluate potential of the novel method for GC-MS metabolomics, reaction products of 153 urinary metabolites with HFBCF, particularly those possessing amino and carboxyl groups (56 amino acids and their conjugates, 84 organic acids, 9 biogenic amines, 4 other polar analytes) and two internal standards were investigated in detail by GC-MS and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). One hundred and twenty metabolites (78%) yielded a single product, 25 (16%) and 2 metabolites (2-methylcitrate, citrate) generated two and more derivatives. From the examined set, analytically applicable products of 5 metabolites were not detected; the derivatives of 3 metabolites were only suitable for LC-MS analysis. Electron ionization (EI) of the examined analytes contained characteristic, diagnostic ions enabling to distinguish related and isomeric structures. The new method was validated for 132 metabolites using two internal standards in artificial urine and with special attention to potential disease biomarker candidates. The developed sample preparation protocol was finally evaluated by means of a certified organic acid standard mixture in urine and by GC-MS analysis of 100 morning urines obtained from healthy patients (50

  9. OP-7/氯仿反胶束体系的制备及其增溶水量的研究%Study on preparation of OP-7/chloroform reverse micelle systems and their water solubilization performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵群; 陈怡秀; 朱青; 沈炎冰; 邓龙根; 马超; 阎克路

    2013-01-01

    The novel OP-7/chloroform reverse micelle system have been prepared by substituting chloroform for the alkanes of traditional reverse micelle systems,and the water solubilization behaviors of the systems have been investigated.The impact of OP-7' s concentration and the type of cosurfactant on the water solubilization amount of reverse micelle systems and the relationship between the water solubilization amount and the size and the conductivity of the systems were studied.The results showed that both the dosage of OP-7,the type and the concentration of the alcohol as cosufactant affect the water solubilization amount ; at the same time,the size and conductivity of the systems increased with increasing water solubilization amount,the OP-7/n-octanol/chloroform has the maximum water solubilization amount.%以氯仿代替传统的烃类溶剂,制备新型OP-7(非离子表面活性剂)/氯仿反胶束体系,并对该体系的增溶行为进行研究.考察了OP-7的浓度和不同的助表面活性剂对该体系增溶水量的影响及增溶水量与体系的粒径、电导率的关系.结果表明,OP-7的浓度、助表面活性剂醇的种类和用量都影响着体系的增溶水量;同时增溶水量增加,体系的粒径和电导率随之增加,OP-7/正辛醇/氯仿反胶束体系增溶水量最大.

  10. Phytochemistry and Preliminary Assessment of the Antibacterial Activity of Chloroform Extract of Amburana cearensis (Allemão A.C. Sm. against Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirivaldo Barros Sá

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform extract of the stem bark of Amburana cearensis was chemically characterized and tested for antibacterial activity.The extract was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The main compounds identified were 4-methoxy-3-methylphenol (76.7%, triciclene (3.9%, α-pinene (1.0%, β-pinene (2.2%, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (3.1%. Preliminary antibacterial tests were carried out against species of distinct morphophysiological characteristics: Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Bacillus cereus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determinate in 96-well microplates for the chloroform extract and an analogue of themain compound identified, which was purchased commercially.We have shown that plant’s extract was only inhibitory (but not bactericidal at the maximum concentration of 6900 μg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus. Conversely, the analogue 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol produced MICs ranging from215 to 431 μg/mL against all bacterial species.New antibacterial assays conducted with such chemical compound against Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing strains have shown similarMICresults and minimumbactericidal concentration (MBC of 431 μg/mL.We conclude that A. cearensis is a good source of methoxy-methylphenol compounds,which could be screened for antibacterial activity againstmultiresistant bacteria fromdifferent species

  11. Acaricidal activity of four fractions and octadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl ester isolated from chloroform extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong-Hua; Li, Jin-Liang; Jia, Ren-Yong; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Li, Xu-Ting; Lv, Cheng; Ye, Gang; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yu-Qun

    2009-07-01

    Four fractions obtained from chloroform extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil by column chromatography were investigated for acaricidal activity against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. Octadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl ester was isolated from an active fraction of the chloroform extract and its toxicity against S. scabiei larvae was tested in vitro. A complementary log-log model was used to analyse the toxicity data. Activity was found in the third fraction, with 100% corrected mortality after 4.5 h of exposure at a concentration of 200 mg ml(-1). This fraction was repeatedly re-crystallised in acetone to yield a white amorphous powder, identified as octadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl ester, with a median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of 0.1 mg ml(-1) at 24 h post-treatment. The median lethal time (LT(50)) for this compound was 15.3 h at a concentration of 7.5 mg ml(-1). PMID:19443124

  12. Phase transition of silver nanoparticles from aqueous solution to chloroform with the help of inclusion complexes of p-sulfonated calix[4]arene and alkanethiol molecules and its application in the size sorting of nanoparticles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Silver nanoparticles were synthesized in aqueous solution and capped with an inclusion complex of octadecanethiol (ODT) and p-sulfonated calix[4]arene (pSC4). By vigorous shaking of a biphasic mixture of the pSC4-threaded ODT-stabilized silver hydrosol and chloroform, the phase transition of the silver nanoparticles could be observed in the course of the transition of colour from the aqueous phase to the organic phase. The procedure of phase transition was independently verified by UV-vis spectroscopy, transmission electron microscopy (TEM), Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectra, and 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). In shaking the biphasic mixture, it was believed that pSC4 molecules were desorbed from the inclusion complex and the protective layer of silver nanoparticles shifted from hydrophilic to hydrophobic, which drove the phase transition of silver nanoparticles from aqueous solution into chloroform. More interestingly, the efficiency in the phase transition of aqueous silver nanoparticles rigidly depended on their sizes, which maybe used in the size sorting of nanoparticles

  13. 水中三氯甲烷、四氯化碳的QHSS -40自动进样顶空气相色谱测定法%Determination of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride in water by automatic headspace gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗黎明

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立测定水中三氯甲烷和四氯化碳含量的全自动顶空气相色谱法.方法 利用全自动顶空进样技术,采用ECD检测器测定水中三氯甲烷和四氯化碳.结果 在测定条件下,方法的检出限三氯甲烷为0.06 μg/L,四氯化碳为0.03μg/L;三氯甲烷的RSD为1.7% ~2.5%,四氯化碳的RSD为1.5~2.8%;回收率三氯甲烷为101%~103%,四氯化碳为99.6% ~ 102%.结论 该方法简便、快速、具有较好的精密度与准确度,适用于水中三氯甲烷、四氯化碳测定.%[ Objective] To establish the method for determination of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride in water by automatic head-space gas chromatography. [ Methods ] Automated headspace sampling technology was adopted to detect chloroform and carbon tetrachloride in drinking water with ECD detector. [Results] Under the determination conditions, the detection limit was 0.03μg / L of chloroform and 0.06 μg/ L of carbon tetrachloride; RSD of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride was 1.7-2.5% andl.5-2. 8% , respectively; recoveries of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride were 101%-103% and 99. 6% ~ 102% , respectively. [ Conclusion] This method is simple, rapid, with good precision and accuracy, and suitable for determination of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride in drinking water.

  14. Dynamic and kinematic viscosities, excess volumes and excess Gibbs energies of activation for viscous flow in the ternary mixture {1- propanol+ N,N-dimethylformamide + chloroform} at temperatures between 293.15 K and 323.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassein-bey-Larouci, A., E-mail: hasseinbey@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Modélisation Moléculaire, Faculté de Chimie, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, B.P. 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Igoujilen, O.; Aitkaci, A. [Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Modélisation Moléculaire, Faculté de Chimie, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, B.P. 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Segovia, J.J.; Villamañán, M.A. [TERMOCAL Research Group, Escuela de Ingenierías Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce, 59, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-08-10

    Highlights: • Many engineering applications require quantitative thermodynamic data of the fluids. • Excess properties of mixtures are important in the understanding of mixing process. • The results are used to explain the molecular interaction in the mixtures. - Abstract: Dynamic and kinematic viscosities, and densities of the ternary mixture {x_1 propanol + x_2 DMF + x_3 chloroform} and of the three corresponding binary systems have been measured at 293.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The thermophysical properties, viscosity deviations (Δη), kinematic viscosity (γ), excess Gibbs energies of activation of viscous flow (G*{sup E}) and excess molar volumes (V{sup E}) have been calculated from experimental values of dynamic viscosity, η, and density, ρ. The different results have been correlated by the Redlich–Kister equation for the binary mixtures and the Cibulka equation for equation for the ternary ones.

  15. Dynamic and kinematic viscosities, excess volumes and excess Gibbs energies of activation for viscous flow in the ternary mixture {1- propanol+ N,N-dimethylformamide + chloroform} at temperatures between 293.15 K and 323.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Many engineering applications require quantitative thermodynamic data of the fluids. • Excess properties of mixtures are important in the understanding of mixing process. • The results are used to explain the molecular interaction in the mixtures. - Abstract: Dynamic and kinematic viscosities, and densities of the ternary mixture {x1 propanol + x2 DMF + x3 chloroform} and of the three corresponding binary systems have been measured at 293.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The thermophysical properties, viscosity deviations (Δη), kinematic viscosity (γ), excess Gibbs energies of activation of viscous flow (G*E) and excess molar volumes (VE) have been calculated from experimental values of dynamic viscosity, η, and density, ρ. The different results have been correlated by the Redlich–Kister equation for the binary mixtures and the Cibulka equation for equation for the ternary ones

  16. 3,10,14,21-Tetrakis(4-methoxyphenylpentacyclo[11.8.0.02,11.04,9.015,20]henicosa-1(21,2,4(9,5,7,10,13,15(20,16,18-decaen-12-one chloroform monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopinath

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C49H36O6·CHCl3, contains half an organic molecule, the complete molecule being generated by the operation of a crystallographic twofold rotation axis, and half a highly disordered chloroform molecule. The contribution to the diffraction pattern of the latter was removed using the program SQUEEZE in PLATON [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the unit-cell characteristics take into account the presence of CHCl3. The dihedral angles between the planes of the naphthalene ring system and the methoxybenzene rings are 71.05 (7 (syn to the central C=O group and 57.27 (6° (anti to the central C=O group. In the crystal, molecules are linked by C—H...O interactions, generating C(12 chains running parallel to the b axis.

  17. Liquid chromatography coupled to quadrupole-time of flight tandem mass spectrometry based quantitative structure-retention relationships of amino acid analogues derivatized via n-propyl chloroformate mediated reaction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kritikos, Nikolaos; Tsantili-Kakoulidou, Anna; Loukas, Yannis L; Dotsikas, Yannis

    2015-07-17

    In the current study, quantitative structure-retention relationships (QSRR) were constructed based on data obtained by a LC-(ESI)-QTOF-MS/MS method for the determination of amino acid analogues, following their derivatization via chloroformate esters. Molecules were derivatized via n-propyl chloroformate/n-propanol mediated reaction. Derivatives were acquired through a liquid-liquid extraction procedure. Chromatographic separation is based on gradient elution using methanol/water mixtures from a 70/30% composition to an 85/15% final one, maintaining a constant rate of change. The group of examined molecules was diverse, including mainly α-amino acids, yet also β- and γ-amino acids, γ-amino acid analogues, decarboxylated and phosphorylated analogues and dipeptides. Projection to latent structures (PLS) method was selected for the formation of QSRRs, resulting in a total of three PLS models with high cross-validated coefficients of determination Q(2)Y. For this reason, molecular structures were previously described through the use of descriptors. Through stratified random sampling procedures, 57 compounds were split to a training set and a test set. Model creation was based on multiple criteria including principal component significance and eigenvalue, variable importance, form of residuals, etc. Validation was based on statistical metrics Rpred(2),QextF2(2),QextF3(2) for the test set and Roy's metrics rm(Av)(2) and rm(δ)(2), assessing both predictive stability and internal validity. Based on aforementioned models, simplified equivalent were then created using a multi-linear regression (MLR) method. MLR models were also validated with the same metrics. The suggested models are considered useful for the estimation of retention times of amino acid analogues for a series of applications. PMID:26044385

  18. Extraction studies in the system vanadium (5)-4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR)-2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-tetrazolium chloride (INT)-water-chloroform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A ternary ion-associate complex of vanadium (5) with 4-(2-pyridylazo)resorcinol (PAR) and 2-(4-iodophenyl)-3-(4-nitrophenyl)-5-phenyl-tetrazolium chloride (INT) was prepared. The complex is sparingly soluble in water but extracted into chloroform. The composition of the complex was determined to be V(5):PAR:INT=1:1:1. Optimum extraction conditions were established - pH of the aqueous phase, concentration of reagents, time of extraction. The following constants were determined: distribution coefficient (D), recovery factor (R=97.5%), distribution constant (KD=39.4±6.2), extraction constant (Kex=(4.47±0.32)·104), equilibrium constant in aqueous medium (β=(1.13±0.26)·103). A small bathochromic effect was observed in the spectrum of ion-associate complex. The molar absorptivity was obtained to be ε=(3.9±0.1)·104 l/mol·cm

  19. Solvent extraction of lanthanum (III), europium (III), and lutetium (III) with 5,7-dichloro-8-quinolinol into chloroform in the absence and presence of tetrabutylammonium ions or trioctylphosphine oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solvent extractions of lanthanum(III), europium(III), and lutetium(III) (M3+) in 0.1 moldm-3 sodium nitrate solutions with 5,7-dichloro-8-quinolinol (HA) into chloroform were studied in both the absence and presence of tetrabutylammonium ions (tba+) or trioctylphosphine oxide (TOPO). In the absence of tba+ or TOPO, the extracted species were the MA3 and MAHA (self-adduct), though MA4-tba+ was found when tba+ was added; MA3TOPO and MA3(TOPO)2 were found when TOPO was added in addition to the above mentioned two species. The anionic complex or TOPO adducts greatly enhanced the extraction. The data were statistically analyzed and the equilibrium constants for the extraction of these species, as well as the constants for the association of the HA, the A-tba+, or the TOPO on the MA3 in the organic phase, were determined. The extraction of the MA3 is better in the order LaA333. Although the values of the association constant of the HA or the TOPO on the MA3 are rather similar for the three metal chelates, the constants for A-tba+ are larger in the same order as mentioned above. Thus, the separation of these three metal ions by solvent extraction with this chelating extractant is not much affected by the addition of TOPO, but is greatly improved by the addition of tba+. (author)

  20. Chlorobenzene, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride adsorption on undoped and metal-doped sol-gel substrates (SiO2, Ag/SiO2, Cu/SiO2 and Fe/SiO2)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Adsorption isotherms of chlorobenzene, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride vapors on undoped SiO2, and metal-doped Ag/SiO2, Cu/SiO2 and Fe/SiO2 substrates were measured in the temperature range of 398-593 K. These substrates were prepared from a typical sol-gel technique in the presence of metal dopants that rendered an assortment of microporous-mesoporous solids. The relevant characteristic of these materials was the different porosities and micropore to mesopore volume ratios that were displayed; this was due to the effect that the cationic metal valence exerts on the size of the sol-gel globules that compose the porous solid. The texture of these SiO2 materials was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR, and diverse adsorption methods. The pore-size distributions of the adsorbents confirmed the existence of mesopores and supermicropores, while ultramicropores were absent. The Freundlich adsorption model approximately fitted the chlorinated compounds adsorption data on the silica substrates by reason of a heterogeneous energy distribution of adsorption sites. The intensity of the interaction between these organic vapors and the surface of the SiO2 samples was analyzed through evaluation of the isosteric heat of adsorption and standard adsorption energy; from these last results it was evident that the presence of metal species within the silica structure greatly affected the values of both the amounts adsorbed as well as of the isosteric heats of adsorption

  1. Chlorobenzene, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride adsorption on undoped and metal-doped sol-gel substrates (SiO{sub 2}, Ag/SiO{sub 2}, Cu/SiO{sub 2} and Fe/SiO{sub 2})

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hernandez, M.A. [Postgrado de Ciencias Ambientales and Departamento de Investigacion en Zeolitas, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Edificio 76, Complejo de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 72570 Puebla (Mexico)], E-mail: mighern@siu.buap.mx; Gonzalez, A.I.; Corona, L.; Hernandez, F. [Postgrado de Ciencias Ambientales and Departamento de Investigacion en Zeolitas, Instituto de Ciencias, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla, Edificio 76, Complejo de Ciencias, Ciudad Universitaria, CP 72570 Puebla (Mexico); Rojas, F.; Asomoza, M.; Solis, S. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidad Autonoma Metropolitana-Iztapalapa, P.O. Box 55-534, D.F. Mexico (Mexico); Portillo, R.; Salgado, M.A. [Facultad de Ciencias Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma de Puebla (Mexico)

    2009-02-15

    Adsorption isotherms of chlorobenzene, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride vapors on undoped SiO{sub 2}, and metal-doped Ag/SiO{sub 2}, Cu/SiO{sub 2} and Fe/SiO{sub 2} substrates were measured in the temperature range of 398-593 K. These substrates were prepared from a typical sol-gel technique in the presence of metal dopants that rendered an assortment of microporous-mesoporous solids. The relevant characteristic of these materials was the different porosities and micropore to mesopore volume ratios that were displayed; this was due to the effect that the cationic metal valence exerts on the size of the sol-gel globules that compose the porous solid. The texture of these SiO{sub 2} materials was analyzed by X-ray diffraction (XRD), FTIR, and diverse adsorption methods. The pore-size distributions of the adsorbents confirmed the existence of mesopores and supermicropores, while ultramicropores were absent. The Freundlich adsorption model approximately fitted the chlorinated compounds adsorption data on the silica substrates by reason of a heterogeneous energy distribution of adsorption sites. The intensity of the interaction between these organic vapors and the surface of the SiO{sub 2} samples was analyzed through evaluation of the isosteric heat of adsorption and standard adsorption energy; from these last results it was evident that the presence of metal species within the silica structure greatly affected the values of both the amounts adsorbed as well as of the isosteric heats of adsorption.

  2. 8-{1-[(4′-Fluoro-[1,1′-biphenyl]-4-ylmethyl]piperidin-4-yl}-3,4-dihydroquinolin-2(1H-one chloroform 0.25-solvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nisar Ullah

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available In the asymmetric unit of the title compound, C27H27FN2O·0.25CHCl3, there are two independent molecules (A and B together with a partially disordered chloroform molecule situated about an inversion center. The conformation of the two molecules is very similar. The bridging piperidine rings each have a chair conformation while the piperidin-2-one rings of the quinoline moiety have screw-boat conformations. The benzene rings of the biphenyl moiety are inclined to one another by 26.37 (4 and 23.75 (15° in molecules A and B, respectively. The mean plane of the central piperidine ring [r.m.s. deviation = 0.241 (2 Å in both molecules A and B] is inclined to the benzene ring of the quinoline moiety by 80.06 (4 in A and 83.75 (15° in B, while it is inclined to the adjacent benzene ring of the biphenyl group by 73.623 (15 in A and 75.65 (14° in B. In the crystal, individual molecules are linked by pairs of N—H...O hydrogen bonds, forming A–A and B–B inversion dimers with R22(8 ring motifs. The dimers are stabilized by C—H...O hydrogen bonds and linked via C—H...F and C—H...N hydrogen bonds into a three-dimensional network. Several C—H...π interactions are also present.

  3. Genomic DNA Isolation by Phenol/Chloroform Extracting Method from Sheep Blood Clot%酚/氯仿抽提法提取绵羊凝血块中基因组DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹果清; 莫清珊; 陈凤仙

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to establish the method of extracting genomic DNA from sheep blood clot on the basis of the improvement of method for extracting genomic DNA from tissues. [Method]The genomic DNA with complete primary structure and high purity was obtained from the sheep blood clot after the steps of cutting the sheep blood clot with ophthalmic scissors, cell lysis with tissue DNA extracts and digested by proteinase K, extracting with phenol/chloroform and precipitating with ethanol were performed. [Result]The concentration of the extracted DNA was 159.90±0.70 ng/μl and the ratio of the A260/A280 was 1.80+0.01. The sheep microsatellite locus of BM203 was amplified by using the extracted DNA from the sheep blood clot as template of PCR, and the PCR result was perfect. [Conclusion]This method is simple and feasible, the quantity and quality of the extracted DNA can satisfy the demands for the subsequent researches. It is worth to extending and using for reference.%[目的]对组织DNA提取方法进行改进,建立一种从绵羊凝血块中提取基因组DNA的方法.[方法]将绵羊凝血块用眼科剪剪碎,用组织DNA抽提液裂解细胞,用蛋白酶K消化后,经过酚/氯仿抽提,无水乙醇沉淀获得基因组DNA.用NanoDrop ND-1000微型分光光度计检测DNA浓度和纯度.用0.8%琼脂糖凝胶电泳检验基因组DNA的完整性.以绵羊微卫星位点BM203为扩增位点,分别以F:5′-GGGTGTGACATTTTGTTCCC-3′,R:5′-CTGCTCGCCACTAGTCCTTC-3′为上下游引物,进行PCR扩增试验.PCR产物用1.5%琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测.[结果]提取的DNA浓度为(159.90±0.70) ng/μl,A260/A280比值为1.80±0.01,分子完整,结果理想.以从凝血块中提取的DNA为模板,对绵羊BM203微卫星位点进行了PCR扩增,扩增产物条带整齐、明亮、特导性强,扩增效果好.[结论]该方法简单、实用,提取的DNA可满足后续相关研究对DNA质量的要求,值得推广借鉴.

  4. Chloroform fumigation-extraction labile C pool (microbial biomass C "plus" shows high correlation to microbial biomass C in Argentinian and Brazilian soils Alta correlación entre el "pool" de carbono lábil por fumigación con cloroformo-extracción (carbono de biomasa microbiana plus y carbono de biomasa microbiana en suelos de Argentina y Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helvécio De-Polli

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Chloroform fumigation-incubation and chloroform fumigation-extraction approaches have significantly contributed to assess soil microbial biomass. Some controversy is found in the literature about the suggestion to calculate microbial biomass carbon (MBC without the subtraction of the un-fumigated control, in opposition to the originally proposed method that requires such subtraction. Some authors consider the non-subtraction proceeding as a more robust method. Nevertheless, values obtained without subtraction of a control include other labile organic fractions of soil carbon besides microbial biomass. Therefore, due to the usefulness of this measurement we consider more appropriate to call it as chloroform-fumigation labile C pool or microbial biomass carbon "plus" (MBC PLUS. We used a vast series of data from soils of Argentina and Brazil under different management situations to verify whether MBC correlates to MBC PLUS. There was a significant statistical correlation between values of MBC obtained by fumigation-extraction method and the corresponding MBC PLUS. The MBC PLUS performed as well as MBC as an indicator to differentiate soil managements and their impact on soil quality.Los métodos de fumigación-incubación y fumigación extracción han contribuido significativamente a las determinaciones de biomasa microbiana del suelo. En la literatura se encuentran algunas controversias acerca de la sugerencia de calcular el carbono de biomasa microbiana (CBM sin la sustracción del control no fumigado, en oposición a las metodologías tradicionales que requieren de dicha sustracción. Algunos autores mencionan que el hecho de no realizar la sustracción hace al procedimiento más robusto. Sin embargo, los valores obtenidos sin la sustracción del control incluyen otras fracciones lábiles del carbono, además de la biomasa microbiana. Debido a lo útil que resulta esta medida consideramos adecuado llamarla "pool" de carbono lábil por fumigaci

  5. Chloroform and Carbon Tetrachloride Determination in Drinking Water with Headspace Capillary Column Gas Chromatography%顶空毛细管柱气相色谱法测定生活饮用水中的氯仿和四氯化碳

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁波; 徐文清

    2014-01-01

    本方法采用顶空气相色谱法,利用毛细管柱、μ-ECD微电子捕获检测器对饮用水中氯仿和四氯化碳残留量进行了检测分析,检出限分别为0.02和0.2μg/L,回收率90.4%~95.6%,本方法分析简便,容易操作。%Residue of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride in drinking water were measured by using headspace gas chromatography with capillary column or μ-ECD microelectronics capture detector. Detection limit was 0.02 and 0.2μg/L, respectively. Recovery was 90.4%-95.6%. This method was simple and sasy.

  6. Antinociceptive activities of crude methanolic extract and phases, n-butanolic, chloroformic and ethyl acetate from Caulerpa racemosa (Caulerpaceae Atividade antinociceptiva do extrato metanólico bruto e das fases n-butanólica, clorofórmica e acetato de etila de Caulerpa recemosa (Caulerpaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton T. Souza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we attempted to identify the possible antinociceptive actions of n-butanolic phase, chloroformic phase, ethyl acetate phase and crude methanolic extract obtained from Caulerpa racemosa. This seaweed is cosmopolitan in world, mainly in tropical regions. The n-butanolic, chloroformic, ethyl acetate phases and crude methanolic extract, all administered orally in the concentration of 100 mg/kg, reduced the nociception produced by acetic acid by 47.39%, 70.51%, 76.11% and 72.24%, respectively. In the hotplate test the chloroformic and ethyl acetate phase were activite in this models. In the neurogenic phase on formalin test, were observed that crude methanolic extract (51.77%, n-butanolic phase (35.12%, chloroformic phase (32.70% and indomethacin (32.06% were effective in inhibit the nociceptive response. In the inflammatory phase, only the ethyl acetate phase (75.43% and indomethacin (47.83% inhibited significantly the nociceptive response. Based on these data, we can infer that the ethyl acetate phase shows a significant anti-inflammatory profile, whose power has not yet been determined. However, pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism(s responsible for the antinociceptive action and also to identify other active principles present in Caulerpa racemosa.Neste estudo, tentamos identificar a atividade antinociceptiva do extrato metanólico bruto e das fases n-butanólica, clorofórmica e acetato de etila provenientes da alga Caulerpa racemosa. Esta alga é cosmopolita no mundo, principalmente em regiões tropicais. O extrato metanólico bruto e as fases n-butanólica, clorofórmica e acetato de etila foram administrados por via oral, na concentração de 100 mg/kg. Estes foram capazes de reduzir a nocicepção produzida pelo ácido acético, sendo 47,39%, 70,51%, 76,11% e 72,24%, respectivamente. No ensaio da placa quente as fases clorofórmica e acetato de etila foram ativas neste

  7. Evaluation of the genotoxic potential of Austroplenckia populnea (Reiss Lundell chloroform fraction from barkwood extract in rodent cells in vivo Avaliação do potencial genotóxico da fração clorofórmica de cascas do caule de Austroplenckia populnea em células de roedores in vivo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    JC. Ribeiro

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available The genotoxic effect of the Austroplenckia populnea chloroform fraction from barkwood extract was tested in vivo on peripheral blood cells of Swiss mice with the comet assay (SCGE, and the clastogenic effect was investigated on peripheral blood cells of Swiss mice and bone marrow cells of Wistar rats, with the micronucleus and chromosome aberrations tests. The animals were treated by gavage with 3 concentrations of the extract: 300, 600 and 900 mg.kg-1. Peripheral blood cells of Swiss mice were collected 4 and 24 hours after the treatment to the SCGE assay and 48 and 72 hours to the micronucleus test. Bone marrow cells of Wistar rats were collected 24 hours after the treatment to the micronucleus and chromosome aberration tests. The results showed that the A. populnea chloroform fraction induced an increase in the average number of DNA damage in peripheral blood cells at the three concentrations tested, but this increase was not statistically significant. In the micronucleus and chromosome aberrations test, no significant increase was observed in the mean number of micronucleated polychromatic erythrocytes (MNPCE of Swiss mice or MNPCE or chromosome aberrations for the rat bone marrow cells, for any of the tested doses. Our findings enable us to conclude that by the comet assay, A. populnea chloroform fraction from barkwood extract showed no genotoxic effects, and by the micronucleus and chromosome aberration tests, the extract fraction showed no clastogenic/aneugenic effects on the rodent cells tested.O possível efeito genotóxico da fração clorofórmica de cascas de caule de Austroplenckia populnea foi testado in vivo em células do sangue periférico de camundongos Suíços pelo ensaio cometa, e o seu possível efeito clastogênico foi investigado em células de sangue periférico de camundongos Suíços e células da medula óssea de ratos Wistar, respectivamente pelos testes do micronúcleo e de aberrações cromossômicas. Os animais

  8. Chloroform extraction of iodine in seawater: method development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, H. B.; Glimme, A.; Tumey, S.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2012-12-01

    While 129I poses little to no radiological health hazard, the isotopic ratio of 129I to stable iodine is very useful as a nearly conservative tracer for ocean mixing processes. The unfortunate disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant released many radioactive materials into the environment, including 129I. The release allows the studying of oceanic processes through the tracking of 129I. However, with such a low iodine (~0.5 micromolar) and 129I concentrations (<10-11) accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) is needed for accurate measurements. In order to prepare the samples of ocean water for analysis by AMS, the iodine needs to be separated from the various other salts in the seawater. Solvent extraction is the preferred method for preparation of seawater for AMS analysis of 129I. However, given the relatively low background 129I concentrations in the Pacific Ocean, we sought to optimize recovery of thismethod, which would minimize both the sample size and the carrier addition required for analysis. We started from a base method described in other research and worked towards maximum efficiency of the process while boosting the recovery of iodine. During development, we assessed each methodological change qualitatively using a color scale (I2 in CHCl3) and quantitatively using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The "optimized method" yielded a 20-40% increase in recovery of the iodine compared to the base method (80-85% recovery vs. 60%). Lastly, the "optimized method" was tested by AMS for fractionation of the extracted iodine.

  9. Tritium labelled deutero-chloroform production and control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This method was developed for production of CTCl3 in concentrations above 3,7 109 Bq/l (0.1 Ci/l) from DTO/D2O. The exchange reaction takes place in the interphase of CDCl3 and DTO, catalyzed by NaOD. To increase contact area, owing to immiscibility of these two liquids, a turbulent regime is generated by a propeller at 800 rpm. The DTO as well as the CTCl3 were measured by liquid scintillation counting. (author)

  10. Determination of taurine in human plasma by high performance capillary electrophoresis after pre- column derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate%9-芴甲氧羰酰氯柱前衍生-高效毛细管电泳法测定人血浆中牛磺酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛勇; 薛丰; 孙成均

    2011-01-01

    A high performance capillary zone electrophoresis ( CZE ) method for the determination of taurine in plasma is presented in this paper. After removed protein in plasma with acetonitrile and centrifuged, taurine in supematant was derivatized with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) at room temperature and dark place for 20 min in borate buffer (pH9. 5 ), the derivatized product was separated on a bare fused-silica capillary (50 μm I.D. , 50 cm of total length, and 41 cm effective length) using a 40 mmol/L sodium acetate buffer (pH 4. 6) at 22kV and detected at 265nm. Under the optimum condition, the determination time was within 9 min. The method showed a good linearity within the concentration range of 2. 5 ~40. 0 mg/L for taurine ( r =0. 9995 ) with a detection limit ( S/N = 3 ) of 0. 8 mg/L. The relative standard derivations (RSDs) of migration times and peak areas for determination of taurine standards were 0. 27% and 1.8%, respectively, and recoveries were between 90. 3% and 108. 0%. The method was used to measure taurine contents in plasma from 18 healthy persons and the taurine contents of 15.8 ± 3.2 μg/mL were found. The method was simple, rapid,accurate, sensitive and suitable for the determination of taurine in human plasma.%建立了区带毛细管电泳法快速测定人血浆中牛磺酸的方法.血浆样品经乙腈沉淀蛋白并离心后,上清液中牛磺酸与9-芴甲氧羰酰氯在室温及pH 9.5条件下避光反应20 min,生成具有紫外吸收的衍生产物,以40 mmol/L的乙酸钠(pH 4.6)为运行缓冲溶液,熔融石英毛细管为分离柱;分离电压22kV;紫外检测.实验结果表明:在优化的实验条件下,样品检测仅需9 min,牛磺酸质量浓度在2.5~40.0 μg/mL范围内具良好线性关系(r=0.9995),检出限为0.8 mg/L(S/N=3),迁移时间和峰面积RSD分别为0.27%和1.8%,加标回收率90.3%~108.0%.用本法测定18名健康成人血浆中的牛磺酸,均值为15.8±3.2μg/mL.

  11. Solvent extraction of Sb(III) with malachite green into chloroform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid and selective method for the solvent extraction of Sb(III) using malachite green (C. I. Basic green 4) has been described. Effect of different parameters affecting the extraction coefficient value of Sb(III) such as acidity, time of equilibration, KI concentration, solvents, anions, etc. has been studied. For various elements the separation factor has been evaluated. The stoichiometry of the extracted species has been determined by the method of substoichiometric extraction. The decontamination factor for some elements using substoichiometric quantities of the extracting agent has been evaluated. Radiotracers were employed for the extraction studies. The method elaborated has been employed for the quantitative determination of antimony in normal, benign and cancerous tissues of the human brain. (author)

  12. Halogen bonded complexes between volatile anaeshetics (chloroform, halothane, enflurane, isoflurane) and formaldehyde: a theoretical study

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zierkiewicz, W.; Wieczorek, R.; Hobza, Pavel; Michalska, D.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 13, č. 11 (2011), s. 5105-5113. ISSN 1463-9076 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC512 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40550506 Keywords : halogen bond * anaesthetics * ab initio calculation Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 3.573, year: 2011

  13. CTAB/water/chloroform reverse micelles: a closed or open association model?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klíčová, L.; Šebej, P.; Štacko, P.; Filippov, Sergey K.; Bogomolova, Anna; Padilla, M.; Klán, P.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 28, č. 43 (2012), s. 15185-15192. ISSN 0743-7463 R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0640 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : CTAB * reverse micelles * AFM Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry Impact factor: 4.187, year: 2012

  14. Solvatochromic and Kinetic Response Models in (Ethyl Acetate + Chloroform or Methanol Solvent Mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. R. Vottero

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available The present work analyzes the solvent effects upon the solvatochromic response models for a set of chemical probes and the kinetic response models for an aromatic nucleophilic substitution reaction, in binary mixtures in which both pure components are able to form intersolvent complexes by hydrogen bonding.

  15. Abiotic Degradation Rates for Carbon Tetrachloride: and Chloroform: Progress in FY 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Russell, Colleen K.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.

    2008-10-31

    This is a letter report summarizing work performed in FY2008 to determine the rates of carbon tetrachloride hydrolysis at temperatures close to actual groundwater temperatures. The report describes the project, the methodology, and the results obtained since the project's inception in FY2006. Measurements of hydrolysis rates in homogeneous solution have been completed for temperaturs of 70 C through 40 C, with additional data available at 30 C and 20 C. These results show no difference between the rates in deionized H2O and in filter-sterilized Hanford-Site groundwater. Moreover, the rates measured are 2-3 times slower than predicted from the open literature. Measurements of rates involving sterile suspensions of Hanford-Site sediment in Hanford-Site groundwater, however, show faster hydrolysis at temperatures below 40 C. Extrapolation of the current data available suggests a six-fold increase in rate would be expected at groundwater temperature of 16 C due to the presence of the sediment. This result translates into a 78-year half-life, rather than the 470-680 year half-life that would be predicted from rate determinations in homogeneous solution. The hydrolysis rate data at 20 C, in contrast to those at higher temperatures, are preliminary and have low statistical power. While significant (p < 0.05) differences between the heterogeneous and homogeneous systems are seen at 30 C, the results at 20 C are not statistically significant at this level due to limited data and the very slow nature of the reaction. More time is needed to collect data at these low temperatures to improve the statistical power of our observation. Given the critical need for hydrolysis rate data at temperatures relevant to groundwater systems, we have three recommendations for future work. First, we recommend a continuation of the sampling and analysis of the remaining long-term sealed-ampule experiments described in this report. These are primarily 20 C and 30 C experiments. The data at 20°C, which are most germane to the groundwater environment, will likely take two more years before they are complete. Second, due to the importance of heterogeneous effects, we recommend the continuation of sampling and analysis for a similar set of experiments looking at hydrolysis rates of CT and CF in contact with individual minerals (montmorillonite, kaolinite, albite, and muscovite) or Hanford-Site sediment, and, for CF, in homogeneous solutions. These experiments were set up under a separate project funded by a congressional earmark (EM-22) for which funding expired at the end of FY08. Third, we strongly recommend development of a 13C/12C isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) approach for determination of hydrolysis rates at groundwater temperatures and relevant CT and CF concentrations. The technique is sensitive enough that we expect to be able to shorten the time required for a rate-constant determination by 20-fold. Thus, a 5-year experiment conducted by the sealed-ampule approach could be shortened to 3 months by the IRMS approach. This sensitivity also would allow the IRMS technique to be used to follow hydrolysis rates at concentrations found in groundwater plumes at Hanford.

  16. Surface Properties of Photocatalytic Nano-Crystalline Titania Films and Reactor for Photocatalytic Degradation of Chloroform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Simonsen, Morten Enggrob; Jensen, Henrik;

    2006-01-01

    were characterized using XRD, XPS, AFM, UV-Vis spectroscopy and the photocatalytic activity was assessed using stearic acid as a model compound. Investigation of the prepared films showed that the films prepared from Degussa P25 was the most active, followed by the Hombikat UV100 film, Sol-gel film...... stearic acid proceeds partly through formation of hydroxyl radicals which are formed from adsorbed hydroxyl groups.  The investigation also showed that the rate of degradation increases linearly with the concentration of TiO2 in the films, these findings suggests that the amount of TiO2 in the film is the...

  17. Formation of Chloroform and Other Chlorinated Byproducts by the Chlorination of Antibacterial Products

    OpenAIRE

    Fiss, Edward Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Triclosan is a widely used antibacterial agent found in many personal hygiene products. While it has been established that pure triclosan and free chlorine readily react, interactions between triclosan-containing products and free chlorine have not previously been analyzed. Sixteen double-blinded solutions including both triclosan-containing (1.14-3.12 mg triclosan/g product) and triclosan-free products were contacted with free chlorine. Products detected included (chlorophenoxy)phenols, ...

  18. Desorption Behavior of Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform in contaminated Low Organic Carbon Aquifer Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert G.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Sklarew, Debbie S.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Gent, Philip M.; Brown, Christopher F.; Thompson, Christopher J.

    2010-05-01

    Experimental determination of contaminant behavior in deep aquifer sediments is challenging because of the cost and difficulty associated with sample collection. On the other hand, parameter values important to contaminant transport (e.g., distribution coefficient) derived from such sediments may be more accurate than those determined by estimation methods. Furthermore, experiments performed with sediments where the contaminants have been in contact with the sediments for decades are more likely to reveal kinetic controls on contaminant transport not as readily revealed in short contact time experiments. We report the first measurements of CCl4 and CHCl3 distribution coefficients in contaminated Hanford sediments with varying physical/chemical properties.

  19. Carbon Tetrachloride and Chloroform Partition Coefficients Derived from Aqueous Desorption of Contaminated Hanford Sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, Robert G.; Sklarew, Debbie S.; Brown, Christopher F.; Gent, Philip M.; Szecsody, Jim E.; Mitroshkov, Alexandre V.; Thompson, Christopher J.

    2005-07-08

    Researchers at PNNL determined CCl4 and CHCl3 groundwater/sediment partition coefficients (Kd values) for contaminated aquifer sediments collected from borehole C3246 (299-W15-46) located in the 200 West Area adjacent to the Z-9 trench. Having realistic values for this parameter is critical to predict future movement of CCl4 in groundwater from the 200 West Area.

  20. Ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposures to chloroform and trichloroethene from tap water.

    OpenAIRE

    Weisel, C P; Jo, W K

    1996-01-01

    Individuals are exposed to volatile compounds present in tap water by ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption. Traditional risk assessments for water often only consider ingestion exposure to toxic chemicals, even though showering has been shown to increase the body burden of certain chemicals due to inhalation exposure and dermal absorption. We collected and analyzed time-series samples of expired alveolar breath to evaluate changes in concentrations of volatile organic compounds being ...

  1. Acid-base interactions in microbial adhesion to hexadecane and chloroform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R; Busscher, HJ; Geertsema-Doornbusch, GI; Van Der Mei, HC; Mittal, KL

    2000-01-01

    Acid-base interactions play an important role in adhesion, including microbial adhesion to surfaces. Qualitatively acid-base interactions in microbial adhesion can be demonstrated by comparing adhesion to hexadecane (a negatively charged interface in aqueous solutions, unable to exert acid-base inte

  2. Isotope Effects in the Reactions of Chloroform Isotopologues with Cl, OH and OD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Elna Johanna Kristina; Johnson, Matthew Stanley; Nielsen, Claus J.

    2009-01-01

    The kinetic isotope effects in the reactions of CHCl3, CDCl3, and 13CHCl3 with Cl, OH, and OD radicals have been determined in relative rate experiments at 298 ( 1 K and atmospheric pressure monitored by long path FTIR spectroscopy. The spectra were analyzed using a nonlinear least-squares spectral.......002, kCHCl3+OD/kCDCl3+OD ) 3.95 ( 0.03, and kCHCl3+OD/k13CHCl3+OD ) 1.032 ( 0.004. Larger isotope effects in the OH reactions than in the Cl reactions are opposite to the trends for CH4 and CH3Cl reported in the literature. The origin of these differences was investigated using electronic structure...

  3. (R )-2,2'-Bis[N'-(3,5-dichlorophenyl)ureido]-1,1'-binaphthalene chloroform disolvate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Holakovský, R.; Pojarová, Michaela; Dušek, Michal; Čejka, J.; Císařová, I.

    2011-01-01

    Roč. 67, č. 2 (2011), o384-o385. ISSN 1600-5368 Grant ostatní: AVČR(CZ) Praemium Academiae Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z10100521 Keywords : crystal structure * SHELX97 * binaphthalene Subject RIV: BM - Solid Matter Physics ; Magnetism Impact factor: 0.347, year: 2011

  4. Conformational dynamics of an amide-backbone substituted, valine-rich heptapeptide in chloroform and methanol solutions

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Czernek, Jiří

    Praha : Karlova univerzita, 2003. s. 15. [Workshop Modeling Interactions in Biomolecules. 15.09.2003-20.09.2003, Nové Hrady] R&D Projects: GA AV ČR KJB4050311 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z4050913 Keywords : molecular dynamics * ab initio * oligopeptide Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  5. Formation of the reverse micelles of cetyl trimethylammonium bromide in chloroform and their behavior at subzero temperatures

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Klíčová, L.; Šebej, P.; Štacko, P.; Filippov, Sergey K.; Klán, P.

    Philadelphia : American Chemical Society, 2012. s.103-COLL 217. [American Chemical Society National Meeting /244./ & Exposition - Materials for Health & Medicine. 19.08.2012-23.08.2012, Philadelphia] R&D Projects: GA ČR GAP108/12/0640 Institutional support: RVO:61389013 Keywords : aggregation * reverse micelles Subject RIV: CD - Macromolecular Chemistry

  6. Quantification of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chloroform emissions over Ireland from atmospheric observations at Mace Head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flux estimates of CO2, CH4, N2O and CHCl3 over Ireland are inferred from continuous atmospheric records of these species. We use radon-222 (222Rn) as a reference compound to estimate unknown sources of other species. The correlation between each species and 222Rn is calculated for a suite of diurnal events that have been selected in the Mace Head record over the period 1995-1997 to represent air masses exposed to sources over Ireland. We established data selection criteria based on 222Rn and 212Pb concentrations. We estimated flux densities of 12x103 kg CH4/km2/yr, 680 kg N2O/km2/yr and 20 kg CHCl3/km2/yr for CH4, N2O and CHCl3, respectively. We also inferred flux densities of 250x103 kg C/km2/yr for CO2 during wintertime, and of 760x103 kg C/km2/yr for CO2 during summer night-time. Our CH4 inferred flux compare well with the CORINAIR90 and CORNAIR94 inventories for Ireland. The N2O emission flux we inferred is close to the inventory value by CORINAIR90, but twice the inventory value by CORINAIR94 and EDGAR 2.0. This discrepancy may have been caused by the use of the revised 1996 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories in 1994, which include a new methodology for N2O emissions from agriculture. We carried out the first estimation of CHCl3 emission fluxes over Ireland. This estimation is 4 times larger than the CHCl3 emission fluxes measured close to the Mace Head station over peatlands. Our CHCl3 emission fluxes estimate is consistent with the interpretation of the same data by Ryall (personal communication, 2000), who obtained, using a Lagrangian atmospheric transport model, CHCl3 fluxes of 24±7 kg CHCl3/km2/yr. Our estimates of CO2 emission fluxes during summer night-time and wintertime are close to those estimated from inventories and to one biogeochemical model of heterotrophic respiration

  7. Optimized genomic DNA extraction by a modified organic phenol- chloroform method without using PCR for best results

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Ali; Sadaf Jafar; Qurat-ul-Ain

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of the study was to design a cost effective, efficient and better protocol for genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction. Methods: This was an experimental study, which is carried out ARID Research laboratory. The duration of study was four months from March 2015 to June 2015. White blood cells were used for extraction of DNA. Two procedures RBC lysis and extraction of DNA from the pellet was done. The goal was to obtain high quality and quantity DNA yield....

  8. A rapid method for profiling of volatile and semi-volatile phytohormones using methyl chloroformate derivatisation and GC–MS

    OpenAIRE

    Rawlinson, Catherine; Kamphuis, Lars G.; Gummer, Joel P A; Singh, Karam B.; Trengove, Robert D.

    2015-01-01

    Phytohormones are central components of complex signalling networks in plants. The interplay between these metabolites, which include abscisic acid (ABA), auxin (IAA), ethylene, jasmonic acid (JA) and salicylic acid (SA), regulate plant growth and development and modulate responses to biotic and abiotic stress. Few methods of phytohormone profiling can adequately quantify a large range of plant hormones simultaneously and without the requirement for laborious or highly specialised extraction ...

  9. PRODUCT TOXICITY AND COMETABOLIC COMPETITIVE INHIBITION MODELING OF CHLOROFORM AND TRICHLOROETHYLENE BY METHANOTROPHIC RESTING CELLS. (R825689C041)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  10. Chlorido(pyridine-κN(5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrinato-κ4Ncobalt(III chloroform hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassin Belghith

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [CoCl(C44H28N4(C5H5N]·0.5CHCl3 or [CoIII(TPPCl(py]·0.5CHCl3 (where TPP is the dianion of tetraphenylporphyrin and py is pyridine, the average equatorial cobalt–pyrrole N atom bond length (Co—Np is 1.958 (7 Å and the axial Co—Cl and Co—Npy distances are 2.2339 (6 and 1.9898 (17 Å, respectively. The tetraphenylporphyrinate dianion exhibits an important nonplanar conformation with major ruffling and saddling distortions. In the crystal, molecules are linked via weak C—H...π interactions. In the difference Fourier map, a region of highly disordered electron density was estimated using the SQUEEZE routine [PLATON; Spek (2009, Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155] to be equivalent to one half-molecule of CHCl3 per molecule of the complex.

  11. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15–150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.

  12. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-01-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15-150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method. PMID:27282822

  13. Antiproliferative and antiangiogenic effects of flavone eupatorin, an active constituent of chloroform extract of Orthosiphon stamineus leaves

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Dolečková, Iva; Rárová, L.; Grúz, Jiří; Vondrusová, Magdaléna; Strnad, Miroslav; Kryštof, Vladimír

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 83, č. 6 (2012), s. 1000-1007. ISSN 0367-326X Grant ostatní: GA MŠk(CZ) ED0007/01/01 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : eupatorin * orthosiphon stamineus * flavonoids Subject RIV: ED - Physiology Impact factor: 2.231, year: 2012

  14. Implementation of laser induced fluorescence technique to study the kinetics of radicals generated in the IR multiphoton dissociation of chloroform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this work we present the design and implementation of an experimental facility for the study of the reaction mechanisms of the CCl2 radicals produced in the Infrared Multiple-Photon Dissociation of CDCl3. The design of this facility was performed by combining two techniques: Laser Induced Fluorescence (LIF) and Infrared Multiple-Photon Dissociation (IRMPD). A TEA CO2 laser and a dye laser were synchronized to couple both techniques. The IRMPD of CDCl3 with a TEA CO2 laser produces CCl2 radicals and DCl as main products. The dye laser was used for the electronic excitation of the CCl2 radicals. The relaxation of these radicals to the ground level gives rise to the fluorescence signal which is proportional to the radicals' concentration. The kinetics of the CCl2 radicals was studied by analyzing the fluorescence signal intensity for different delay times between both lasers radiation. We also present the data acquisition system developed, the kinetic model proposed to explain the experimental results and the rate constants values kO2 and kHCl determined for the reactions of the CCl2 radicals with O2 and HCl.

  15. Study of disulfide reduction and alkyl chloroformate derivatization of plasma sulfur amino acids using gas chromatography–mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Švagera, Z.; Hanzlíková, D.; Šimek, Petr; Hušek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 402, č. 9 (2012), s. 2953-2963. ISSN 1618-2642 R&D Projects: GA MZd NS9755; GA ČR GAP206/10/2401; GA ČR GA203/09/2014 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : plasma amino acids * disulfide-reducing agents * trichloroacetic acid deproteinization Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 3.659, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/781wln3085q3v21r/

  16. A KINETIC STUDY OF AEROBIC PROPANE UPTAKE AND COMETABOLIC DEGRADATION OF CHLOROFORM, CIS-DICHLOROETHYLENE AND TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN MICROCOSMS WITH GROUNDWATER/AQUIFER SOLIDS. (R828772)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  17. Spectrophotometric determination of arsenic by molybdenum blue method in zinc-lead concentrates and related smelter products after chloroform extraction of iodide complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, C S; Rajan, S C; Rao, N V

    1993-05-01

    The most popular and widely applied method for determination of arsenic in ore concentrates is by spectrophotometry of arsenomolybdic acid reduced to molybdenum blue. While applying this method, several authors have developed procedures which varied in the decomposition, separation of arsenic and in the final colour development. Data regarding interference from germanium is inadequate. The present paper describes a procedure, which combines the best features of the previous procedures and is simple, less time consuming and interference-free compared to earlier procedures. This method has been applied to zinc-lead concentrates and related smelter products. PMID:18965681

  18. Induction of apoptosis in HeLa cells by chloroform fraction of seed extracts of Nigella sativa

    OpenAIRE

    Alshatwi Ali A; Hasan Tarique N; Munshi Anjana; Shafi Gowhar; Jyothy A; Lei David KY

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background Cancer remains one of the most dreaded diseases causing an astonishingly high death rate, second only to cardiac arrest. The fact that conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures like chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reverting the outcome of the disease to any drastic extent, has made researchers investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems...

  19. Letter to the Editor regarding “GC–MS with ethyl chloroformate derivatization for comprehensive analysis of metabolites in serum and its application to human uremia”

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hušek, Petr

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 403, č. 9 (2012), s. 2785-2786. ISSN 1618-2642 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : human uremia Impact factor: 3.659, year: 2012 http://www.springerlink.com/content/m6u818gg70148g74/fulltext.pdf

  20. Gas chromatographic determination of D- and L-amino acids produced by cyanobacteria on Chirasil-Val after derivatization with pentafluoropropyl chloroformate

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Zahradníčková, Helena; Hušek, Petr; Šimek, Petr; Hartwich, Petr; Maršálek, B.; Holoubek, I.

    2007-01-01

    Roč. 1, č. 3 (2007), s. 161-162. ISSN 1336-7242. [Zjazd Chemikov /59./. 02.09.2007-06.09.2007, Vysoké Tatry , Tatranské Matliare] R&D Projects: GA ČR GA303/06/1674 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50070508 Keywords : GC analysis Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry

  1. Profiling of urinary amino-carboxylic metabolites by in-situ heptafluorobutyl chloroformate mediated sample preparation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Hušek, Petr; Švagera, Z.; Hanzlíková, D.; Řimnáčová, Lucie; Zahradníčková, Helena; Opekarová, Iva; Šimek, Petr

    2016-01-01

    Roč. 1443, April 22 (2016), s. 211-232. ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA13-18509S Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : metabolite profiling * metabolomics * urine Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 4.169, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021967316302692

  2. Comparison of QIAamp HCV kit spin columns, silica beads, and phenol-chloroform for recovering human immunodeficiency virus type 1 RNA from plasma.

    OpenAIRE

    Shafer, R. W.; Levee, D J; Winters, M A; Richmond, K L; D. Huang; Merigan, T C

    1997-01-01

    Human immunodeficiency virus type 1 (HIV-1) pol mutations are responsible for HIV-1 resistance to current antiretroviral drugs. HIV-1 RNA extraction with QIAamp HCV kit spin columns (Qiagen, Chatsworth, Calif.) followed by reverse transcription-PCR successfully recovered a 1,008-bp pol fragment from the plasma of 31 of 34 HIV-1-infected patients that was suitable for sequencing and recombinant-virus studies. The minimum HIV-1 RNA concentration required for gene recovery was 30 to 40 copies/ml...

  3. Expanded metabolite coverage of Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract through improved chloroform/methanol extraction and tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoomrung, Sakda; Martinez, Jose L.; Tippmann, Stefan; Jansa-Ard, Suwanee; Buffing, Marieke F.; Nicastro, Raffaele; Nielsen, Jens

    2015-01-01

    and non-polar metabolites were derivatized using tert-butyldimethylsilyl (t-BDMS) dissolved in acetonitrile. Using microwave treatment of the samples, the derivatization process could be completed within 2 h (from >20 h of the conventional method), providing fully derivatized metabolites that contain...... a very useful tool in various aspects of biotechnological applications i.e. development of cell factories, metabolomics profiling, metabolite identification, 13C-labeled flux analysis or semi-quantitative analysis of metabolites in yeast samples....... multiple derivatizable organic functional groups. This results in a single derivative from one metabolite, leading to increased accuracy and precision for identification and quantification of the method. Analysis of combined fractions allowed the method to expand the coverage of detected metabolites from...

  4. A new method for immediate derivatization of hydroxyl groups by fluoroalkyl chloroformates and its application for the determination of sterols and tocopherols in human serum and amniotic fluid by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Řimnáčová, Lucie; Hušek, Petr; Šimek, Petr

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 1339, APR 25 (2014), s. 154-167. ISSN 0021-9673 R&D Projects: GA MZd(CZ) NT11513 Grant ostatní: Czech Science Foundation(CZ) P206-10-2401; Grant Agency of Charles University(CZ) 54009 Institutional support: RVO:60077344 Keywords : alkyl chlorformate derivatization * steroid hydroxyl group * liquid-liquid microextraction Subject RIV: CB - Analytical Chemistry, Separation Impact factor: 4.169, year: 2014 http://www.sciencedirect.com/science/article/pii/S0021967314003707

  5. 印楝油氯仿提取物对雄性小鼠的抗生育作用%The Anti-Fertility Effect of Extract Chloroform from Neem Oil on Male Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷中琼; 贾仁勇; 陈章宝; 田茂春; 张新申

    2005-01-01

    给昆明种雄性小鼠口服印楝油氯仿提取物2 g·kg-1 d-1,连续1周,停药后第3周取材,研究了其抗生育作用.结果表明小鼠口服印楝油氯仿提取物后抗生育作用肯定;半数致死量为33 g·kg-1;血清中转氨酶的活性在停药后的1~3个月升高,停药后的4~6个月基本恢复至正常,血清中睾丸酮含量在服药前后,无明显改变;流式细胞术研究结果表明:印楝油氯仿提取物引起睾丸组织生精细胞减少,细胞凋亡率升高;对变态期精子细胞核蛋白转换的影响表现为总碱性核蛋白含量减少47.11%,总组蛋白/精核蛋白比值升高82.25%.研究表明,印楝油氯仿提取物有较好的抗生育作用,其作用机制主要是干扰精子核蛋白的转换,另外还可能与细胞免疫介导有关,对于控制鼠害有一定的意义.

  6. The Effect of Solvent Accessible Surface on Hammett-Type Dependencies of Infinite Dilution 29Si and 13C NMR Shifts in Ring Substituted Silylated Phenols Dissolved in Chloroform and Acetone

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Blechta, Vratislav; Šabata, Stanislav; Sýkora, Jan; Hetflejš, Jiří; Soukupová, Ludmila; Schraml, Jan

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 50, č. 2 (2012), s. 128-134. ISSN 0749-1581 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA400720706; GA ČR GA203/06/0738 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z40720504 Keywords : 1H NMR * 13C NMR * 29Si NMR Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 1.528, year: 2012

  7. Chelex-100法及酚氯仿法提取阴道毛滴虫DNA的比较%A Comparative Study of Chelex-100 and Phenol-chloroform Methods for Extracting DNA from Trichomonas vaginalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢辉; 王雅静; 帖超男; 廖琳; 刘佩娜

    2004-01-01

    目的-比较Chelex-100法和酚氯仿法提取阴道毛滴虫基因组DNA.方法-分别用Chelex-100法和酚氯仿法提取阴道毛滴虫基因组DNA,用PCR法检测DNA提取的有效性. 结果-两种方法提取的DNA经PCR扩增均有特定的条带.结论-两种方法均能提取阴道毛滴虫DNA.Chelex-100方法简便、省时,较适用于分子生物学研究及临床PCR扩增使用.

  8. DETERMINATION OF HENRY'S LAW CONSTANT AND EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON HENRY′S LAW CONSTANT FOR CHLOROFORM%饮用水中三氯甲烷亨利常数的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永华; 王保强

    2001-01-01

    推导了改变气液相比静态顶空气相色谱法测定挥发性有机污染物亨利常数的理论关系式.根据顶空气相色谱峰面积倒数与气液相比之间的线性关系测定了不同温度下的氯仿亨利常数值.从热力学定律出发,提出了在22-100℃范围内,温度对亨利常数影响的数学关系式:lnK=A+B/T+ClnT,对实验值的拟合系数为0.999.预测100℃时氯仿的亨利常数值是1.359.与实验值比较,相对误差为2.89%.比经典的范特荷夫方程lnK=A+B/T的预测精度提高了近10%.

  9. Mound Facility activities in chemical and physical research: January-June 1980. [OLECULES; VIRIAL EQUATION; CHEMICAL REACTIONS; DEUTERIUM; TRITIUM; CALCIUM NITRATES; HEAVY WATER; THERMAL DIFFUSION; WATER; CROSS SECTIONS; MOLECULAR BEAMS; TEMPERATURE DEPENDENCE; CHELATING AGENTS; CHLOROFORM

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1980-08-29

    I. Low temperature research covered Hydrogen Intermolecular Potential Functions: five potentials have been compared to bound state energies, second virial coefficients, and total and differential scattering cross sections, but none of them consistently fits all of the data. Using a Hartree-Fock-Dispersion form with a modified damping function, three out of the four sets of data can be represented with a single potential function. Reaction Rates of Deuterium-Tritium Mixtures: two mixing chambers are being designed and built for studying D/sub 2/-T/sub 2/ and H/sub 2/-T/sub 2/. Low Temperature Trennschaukel: a bench model trennschaukel has been instrumented. II. Separation research covered Liquid Thermal Diffusion: Isotopic separations as functions of time were measured for methyl chloride, ethyl chloride, 1-chloropropane and 1-chlorobutane. The campaign to enrich chlorine-37 by liquid thermal diffusion of methyl chloride was concluded after 240 g of enriched isotope had been produced. Calcium Isotope Separation: Calcium isotope separation in the Ca(NO/sub 3/)/sub 2/-H/sub 2/O and -D/sub 2/O systems was measured using a 36.5 cm liquid phase thermal diffusion column. The largest separation was a 15% change in the calcium-48 abundance. Molecular Beam Scattering: a supersonic Ne beam through a cell containing Ar was used to measure low-energy, elastic, total cross sections of neon/argon in the velocity range of 4 to 10 (x 10/sup 4/) cm/s. Cross sections at onset of clustering were 7% higher than at minimum cluster conditions. Mutual Diffusion: Study continues on the temperature dependence of the mutal diffusion coefficients for binary noble gas mixtures, particularly argon with helium, neon, and xenon. Metal Chemical Exchange With Macrocyclic Ligands: The equilibrium single-stage separation factor was determined for two additional LiTFA/221 cryptand/CHCl/sub 3/ and two LiTFA/211 cryptand/CHCl/sub 3/ exchange systems.

  10. Trihalomethanes as initiators and promoters of carcinogenesis.

    OpenAIRE

    M. A. PEREIRA; Lin, L. H.; Lippitt, J M; Herren, S L

    1982-01-01

    Chloroform and other trihalomethanes are contaminants of drinking water that have been demonstrated to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Determination of the mechanism of carcinogenicity of chloroform is required so that the animal data can be extrapolated to estimate the human health hazard. The extent of the binding of chloroform to rat liver and kidney DNA was approximately 0.1% the level of binding found for dimethylnitrosamine. Neither chloroform nor bromoform, in contrast to diethy...

  11. 4.DISEASE CAUSED BY CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930626 Studies on the toxicities and occupational ex-posure limit of chloroform.LI Linghong,etal.Dept Occupat Health,Shanghai Med Univ,Shang-hai,200032.Chin J Industr Hyg & Occupat Dis 1993;11(4):206—208.In order to get necessary data to recommend themaximum acceptable concentration(MAC)of chloro-form, a series of studies were carried out.The resultsshowed that the occupationally exposure of chloroform

  12. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa U; Amrutia Jay N; Katharotiya Reena; Moses Semuel Rajan

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of leaves of Moringa oleifera were screened for various bioactive constituents like glycosides, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids and alkaloids. The chloroform and methanol extracts were evaluated for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheritima postuma using Piperazine citrate and Rajah Pravartani Vati (Ayurvedic preparation) as a reference standards. The results obtained indicated that the chloroform ex...

  13. 印楝油氯仿提取物杀螨活性成分的分离纯化及其生物学活性%Purification and biological activities of an acaricidal active compound from chloroform extract of neem oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾仁勇; 杜永华; 殷中琼; 蒲中慧; 陈娇

    2008-01-01

    将印楝油氯仿提取物经硅胶柱层析和丙酮重结晶进行生物活性跟踪分离纯化,并运用互补重对数模型(CCL模型)分析活性化合物的离体生物活性,求出半数致死浓度(LC50)和半数致死时间(LT50).结果显示,从印楝油氯仿提取物中分离出一种白色雪花状丙酮结晶物,熔点为60~61℃,经结构鉴定为18-碳酸-3,4-呋喃二酯,其对兔疥螨幼虫的杀螨活性呈时间浓度依赖性,24 h的LC50和LC90分别为0.0818和9.842 4 g/L,7.500 g/L时的LT50和LT90分剐为15.332 4 h和24.678 4 h.这表明印楝油氯仿提取物的杀螨活性成分主要为酯类物质,对兔疥螨具有较强的杀螨活性.

  14. Chromatographic study of gamma-ray irradiated degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbon in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbon in gamma ray irradiation was examined in order to get information on treatment of groundwater. Water chloroform was sealed into a vial irradiated with gamma ray. Both gas chromatography and ion chromatography were applied for determination of degradation products. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ethane and chloride ion were detected in the irradiated system. Effect of radiation dose on the gamma ray induced chloroform degradation was investigated. The elimination of chloride ion and the degradation of chloroform were promoted by gamma irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. The G(CHCl3), which was defined as the number of degraded chloroform molecules when absorbed 100eV, was inferred to be 3.1. The degradation mechanism of chloroform irradiated with gamma ray seemed to involve that chloroform reacted with electron from radiolysis of water and the elimination of chloride ion occurred. (author)

  15. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa U

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of leaves of Moringa oleifera were screened for various bioactive constituents like glycosides, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids and alkaloids. The chloroform and methanol extracts were evaluated for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheritima postuma using Piperazine citrate and Rajah Pravartani Vati (Ayurvedic preparation as a reference standards. The results obtained indicated that the chloroform extract was more potent compared to other extracts.

  16. Skrining Fitokimia Dan Uji Aktivitas Antibakteri Dari Ekstrak Metanol Dan Fraksi Kloroform Daun Sirsak (Annona muricata L.)

    OpenAIRE

    Utami, Niky Puji

    2013-01-01

    The photochemical screening, and antibacterial activity of methanol extract, chloroform fraction of soursop leaves (Annona muricata L.), of the family of Annonaceae againts Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli have been carried out. The phytochemical screening of simplex powder, methanol extract, chloroform fraction have been carried out. The extraction process by maceration method using methanol as solvent and then fractionated, first with n-hexane then chloroform. The antibacterial...

  17. Antimicrobial, antimycobacterial and antibiofilm properties of Couroupita guianensis Aubl. fruit extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Dhabi Naif Abdullah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Couroupita guianensis Aubl. (Lecythidaceae is commonly called Ayahuma and the Cannonball tree. It is distributed in the tropical regions of northern South America and Southern Caribbean. It has several medicinal properties. It is used to treat hypertension, tumours, pain, inflammatory processes, cold, stomach ache, skin diseases, malaria, wounds and toothache. Methods The fruits of Couroupita guianensis were extracted with chloroform. Antimicrobial, antimycobacterial and antibiofilm forming activities of the chloroform extract were investigated. Quantitative estimation of Indirubin, one of the major constituent, was identified by HPLC. Results Chloroform extract showed good antimicrobial and antibiofilm forming activities; however it showed low antimycobacterial activity. The zones of inhibition by chloroform extract ranged from 0 to 26 mm. Chloroform extract showed effective antibiofilm activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa starting from 2 mg/mL BIC, with 52% inhibition of biofilm formation. When the chloroform extract was subjected to HPLC-DAD analysis, along with Indirubin standard, in the same chromatographic conditions, it was found that Indirubin was one of the major compounds in this plant (0.0918% dry weight basis. Conclusions The chloroform extract showed good antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties. Chloroform extract can be evaluated further in drug development programmes.

  18. TRIHALOMETHANES AS INITIATORS AND PROMOTERS OF CARCINOGENESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chloroform and other trihalomethanes are contaminants of drinking water that have been demonstrated to be carcinogenic in laboratory animals. Determination of the mechanism of carcinogenicity of chloroform is required so that the animal data can be extrapolated to estimate the hu...

  19. Quantitation of pulmonary surfactant protein SP-B in the absence or presence of phospholipids by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oviedo, J M; Valiño, F; Plasencia, I; Serrano, A G; Casals, C; Pérez-Gil, J

    2001-01-01

    We have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that uses polyclonal or monoclonal anti-surfactant protein SP-B antibodies to quantitate purified SP-B in chloroform/methanol and in chloroform/methanol extracts of whole pulmonary surfactant at nanogram levels. This method has been...

  20. Spectroscopic properties of a reconstituted light-harvesting complex from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum containing CsmA and bacteriochlorophyll a

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie Østergaard; Pham, Lan; Steensgaard, Dorte Bjerre;

    2008-01-01

    chlorosomes were lyophilized and extracted with chloroform/methanol (1:1, v/v). The . Isolated chlorosomes were lyophilized and extracted with chloroform/methanol (1:1, v/v). The extract was further purified using gel filtration and reverse-phase HPLC and the purity of the preparation confirmed by SDS...

  1. Dipping induced orientation in Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers of a flexible PPV precursor polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagting, J.G; Vorenkamp, E.J.; Schouten, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Langmuir monolayers of a chloroform soluble dimethoxy substituted precursor poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) with a methoxy leaving group were studied. During storage in chloroform the precursor polymer is partly converted to PPV. Multilayer films could only be prepared of this partly converted p

  2. Dipping induced orientation in Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of a flexible PPV precursor polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagting, J.G.; Vorenkamp, E.J.; Schouten, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Langmuir monolayers of a chloroform soluble dimethoxy substituted precursor poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) with a methoxy leaving group were studied. During storage in chloroform the precursor polymer is partly converted to PPV. Multilayer films could only be prepared of this partly converted p

  3. EFFICIENCY OF DOMESTIC REVERSE OSMOSIS IN REMOVAL OF TRIHALOMETHANES FROM DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mazloomi ، R. Nabizadeh ، S. Nasseri ، K. Naddafi ، S. Nazmara ، A. H. Mahvi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of disinfectants with natural organic matters existing in water lead to the formation of Disinfection By-Products. Potentially hazardous and carcinogenic characteristics of trihalomethanes (THMs are recognized. Thus removal of THMs or its precursors are necessary for human health. The aim of this study was to study the efficiency of domestic reverse osmosis (RO in removal of trihalomethanes from drinking water. A pilot scale of RO system with Polyamide membrane as Spiral-Wound, Tape wrapping module was used. Feed solution was made by using of pure chloroform. The samples containing chloroform were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. By increasing the flow, the removal rate of chloroform decreased and with declining removal of EC, the removal of chloroform declined too. In this research, at the worst condition, the efficiency of the pilot scale reverse osmosis reached to 80 % removal of chloroform.

  4. Chromatographic finger print analysis and lysosomal membrane stabilisation activity of active fraction of Alstonia scholaris leaf extract in arthritic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Goyal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Object: The present study was aimed to assess the anti-arthritic activity of chloroform fraction of Alstonia scholaris leaf extract against Freund′s complete adjuvant (FCA-induced arthritis in rats. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity of various fractions of ethanolic extract of Alstonia scholaris at concentration of 100 mg/kg was studied using the carrageenan-induced inflammatory models. The chloroform fraction shows significant anti-inflammatory activity. The chloroform fraction was further studied for anti-arthritic activity and HPTLC fingerprint analysis. For anti-arthritic activity, the active chloroform fraction was administered at the concentrations of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight. The effect of chloroform fraction on liver ALP, ACP and LDH levels of lysosomal enzymes of FCA arthritic animals were studied. Indomethacin and prednisolone (10 mg/kg was used as standard. HPTLC studies were carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with linomat IV applicator, TLC scanner; Reprostar 3 and WIN CATS-4 software were used. Results: The chloroform fraction at 100 mg/kg, showed maximum inhibition (34.16% of inflammation induced by carrageenan. In FCA-induced arthritis, the chloroform fraction showed a highly significant reduction in paw volume (50 mg/kg-72.71%; 100 mg/kg-74.35%. The levels of lysosomal enzymes were significantly decreased in the chloroform fraction-treated groups. Conclusion: The possible mechanism of action of the chloroform fraction of Alstonia scholaris leaf extract may be through its stabilising action on lysosomal membranes. Future studies will provide new insights into the anti-arthritic activity of Alstonia scholaris and isolation of compound from it may eventually lead to development of a new class of anti-arthritic agent.

  5. Solvent extraction of uranium(VI) by 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-phenyl-4-pyridone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of uranium (VI) from aqueous hydrochloric or nitric acid solution by 3-hydroxy-2-methyl-1-phenyl-4-pyridone (HX) dissolved in chloroform has been studied. Uranium(VI) is quantitatively extracted from the solutions in the range 5 3 at concentrations higher than 1 M. The composition of the extracted uranium(VI) species was studied in solution and in the solid state. The complex UO2X2HX was isolated from the chloroform solution. Solutions in chloroform, exhibit maximum absorbance at 319 nm; the molar absorptivity is 32,000 1 mole -1cm-1. Uranium can be determined spectrophotometrically in the organic phase. (author)

  6. Screening of roots of Baliospermum montanum for hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced liver damage in albino rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wadekar Raju

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of the present investigation was to study hepatoprotective activity of alcohol, chloroform and aqueous extract of roots of Baliospermum montanum paracetamol induced liver damage model in rats. Liver damage in rats was produced by paracetamol (2 g/kg, po in tween 80. Alcohol, chloroform, aqueous extracts of roots of the plant was administered to rats daily for seven days. The biochemical parameters were investigated. Histopathological changes in liver were studied. Concurrently silymarin was used as standard hepatoprotective agent. The results indicated that biochemical changes produced by paracetamol were restored to normal by alcohol, chloroform and aqueous extracts. The alcohol and aqueous extract of roots of Baliospermum montanum showed significant hepatoprotective effect whereas chloroform extract showed moderate hepatoprotective activity against paracetamol induced liver damage model in rats.

  7. Chemical examination of the Red alga Acanthophora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Analyses of petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of the marine alga Acanthophora spicifera exhibiting antifertility activity led to the isolation of sterols and fatty acids as well as the rare dipeptides aurantiamides. All the compounds were...

  8. Glycolipids from the red alga Chondria armata (Kutz.) Okamura

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Al-Fadhli, A.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.

    Three distinct fractions containing polar glycolipids (PF1–3) were isolated from the chloroform soluble fraction of crude methanolic extract of red alga Chondria armata (Kütz.) Okamura on gel chromatography over Sephadex LH20. Their structure...

  9. Solvent Effects on Cesium Complexation with Crown Ethers from Liquid to Supercritical Fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques were used to study crown ether-water interactions in solvents of low dielectric constants such as chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Water forms a 1:1 complex with a number of crown ethers including 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, 18-crown-6, dicyclohexano-18=crown-6, dicyclohexano-24-crown 8, and dibenzl-24-crown-8 in chloroform. Among these crown ethers, the 18-crown-6-H2 complex has the largest equilibrium constant (K=545) and 97% of the crown is complexed to water in chloroform. Addition of carbon tetrachloride to chloroform lowers the equilibrium constants of the crown-water complexes. The partition coefficients of crown ethers (D=crown in water/crown in solvent) between water and organic solvent also vary with solvent composition

  10. Toxic effects of coastal and marine plant extracts on mosquito larvae

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; Solimabi; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, S.Y.

    (Halophila ovalis, Syringodium isoetifolium), and a lichen (Umbilicaria aprine) were studied for their toxicity against larvae of the mosquito Culex quinquefasciatus. Petroleum-ether fractions (PE) were more effective than chloroform fractions (C) in all...

  11. Bepaling van valproinezuur in humaan plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olling; M.; Besamusca; P.; Rauws; A.G.

    1985-01-01

    In dit rapport wordt een gaschromatografische methode beschreven voor de bepaling van valproinezuur (dipropylazijnzuur) in humaan plasma. Valproinezuur wordt uit plasma geextraheerd met chloroform in zuur milieu, dat direct wordt ingespoten in de gaschromatograaf en gedecteerd met een vlamionisa

  12. Analysis of phytochemical constituents of Eucalyptus citriodora L. responsible for antifungal activity against post-harvest fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, S; Shoaib, A; Mahmood, Z; Mushtaq, S; Iftikhar, S

    2012-01-01

    In vitro antifungal activity and phytochemical constituents of essential oil, aqueous, methanol and chloroform extract of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook leaves were investigated. A qualitative phytochemical analysis was performed for the detection of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, sterols, tannins and phenols. Methanolic extract holds all identified biochemical constituents except for the tannin. While these biochemical constituents were found to be absent in essential oil, aqueous and chloroform extracts with the exception of sterols, cardiac glycosides and phenols in essential oil and sterols and phenols in aqueous and chloroform extracts. Antimycotic activity of four fractions of E. citriodora was investigated through agar-well diffusion method against four post-harvest fungi, namely, Aspergillus flavus Link ex Gray, Aspergillus fumigatus Fres., Aspergillus nidulans Eidam ex Win and Aspergillus terreus Thom. The results revealed maximum fungal growth inhibition by methanolic extract (14.5%) followed by essential oil (12.9%), chloroform extract (10.15%) and aqueous extract (10%). PMID:21999598

  13. Langmuir-Blodgett films of alkane chalcogenice (S, Se, Te) stabilized gold nanoparticles

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brust, M.; Stuhr-Hansen, N.; Norgaard, K.;

    2001-01-01

    Gold nanoparticles stabilized by alkanethiolates, alkaneselenides, and alkanetellurides have been prepared by analogous methods. Chloroform solutions of thiolate and selenide stabilized particles were spread and evaporated on the water/air interface where the particles formed well-defined Langmuir...

  14. Antibacterial potency screening of Capparis zeylanica Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rezaul Haque; Wahedul Islam; Selina Parween

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To conduct the antibacterial potency and minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts (n-hexane, acetone, chloroform and methanol) obtained from the root, leaf and stem of Capparis zeylanica. Methods: The powdered leaf, root and stem samples were Soxhlet extracted sequentially in n-hexane, acetone, chloroform and methanol. Antibacterial potency was evaluated by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a control. Results: In vitro antibacterial activity against 12 bacteria was performed with crude extracts. Among them, all the bacteria showed the moderate activity but chloroform and methanolic extracts showed promising antibacterial potency against Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi and Shigella dysenteriae (leaf > root > stem). This activity was evaluated using disc diffusion method with a standard antibiotic, 30 µg/disc of amoxicillin. Conclusions: Strong antibacterial potency of chloroform and methanolic extracts provides new antibacterial compounds.

  15. Diagnostic compositions containing a chelate of radioactive indium and 8-hydroxyquinoline

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    There are disclosed aqueous, radioassaying solutions of a chelate of radioactive indium and an 8-hydroxyquinoline, having an essential absence of an organic solvent, e.g., alcohol or chloroform. The solutions are useful in radioassaying warmblooded animals. (author)

  16. Phototoxicity activity of Psoralea drupacea L. using Atremia salina bioassay system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ramezani

    2011-07-01

    Conclusion: The result showed that P. drupacea methanolic extract and chloroform fraction have phototoxicity in A. salina bioassay system and their toxic effect is related to phototoxic constituents such as psoralen.

  17. REMOVAL OF SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER: RASCO, INC. ADVANCED SIMULTANEOUS OXIDATION PROCESS (ASOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RASco, Inc. ASOP Drinking Water Treatment Module was tested at NSF’s Laboratory for the reduction of the following chemicals of concern: aldicarb, benzene, carbofuran, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, methomyl, mevinphos, nicotine, oxamyl, paraquat, phorate, sodium fluor...

  18. Synthesis and herbicidal activities of pyridyl sulfonylureas:More convenient preparation process of phenyl pyrimidylcarbamates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Ma; Zhi Jin Fan; Bao Lei Wang; Yong Hong Li; Zheng Ming Li

    2008-01-01

    Four 4-monosubstituted pyrimidine pyridyl sulfonylureas were synthesized from pyridinesulfonamide and phenyl pyrimidyl-carbamate and screened for herbicidal activities.We also reported a convenient preparation process of phenyl pyrimidylcarbamates from pyrimidineamine and phenyl chloroformate.

  19. Zinc separation by using a liquid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed the isotopic separation of 64Zn and 66Zn by using a liquid membrane with chloroform diluent and dicyclohexano - 18 - crown - 6 as carrier. The isotopic separation factor was the same as for liquid-liquid extraction

  20. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF Abutilon indicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonkothai, M

    2006-07-01

    Chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Abutilon indicum were investigated for antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Among the various extracts, maximum antibacterial activity was exhibited by ethanol extract (14, 25, 14, 25, 17, 18 mm) followed by chloroform extract (13, 17, 8, 15, 15, 20 mm) while aqueous extract, showed no activity. PMID:22557222

  1. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF Abutilon indicum

    OpenAIRE

    Poonkothai, M.

    2006-01-01

    Chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Abutilon indicum were investigated for antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Among the various extracts, maximum antibacterial activity was exhibited by ethanol extract (14, 25, 14, 25, 17, 18 mm) followed by chloroform extract (13, 17, 8, 15, 15, 20 mm) while aqueous extract, showed no activity.

  2. Flavonóides e triterpenos de Baccharis pseudotenuifolia: bioatividade sobre Artemia salina Flavonoids and triterpenes from Baccharis pseudotenuifolia: bioactivity on Artemia salina

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco de Paula Madeira Moreira; Valmor Coutinho; Ana Beatriz Pimentel Montanher; Miguel Soriano Balparda Caro; Inês Maria Costa Brighente; Moacir Geraldo Pizzolatti; Franco Delle Monache

    2003-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the chloroformic and methanolic extracts of the Baccharis pseudotenuifolia led to the isolation of triterpenes, steroids and flavonoids. From chloroformic extract were isolated oleanolic acid and alpha-spinasterol while from methanolic extract were isolated the flavonoids: hispidulin, naringenin, 3'-methoxy-luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol, eriodyctiol, aromadendrin, quercetin, 3'-methoxy-quercetin, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. The str...

  3. On the Procedures for the Extraction and Isolation of Flavonoids Present in the Methanolic Extract of Leaves of Acanthospermum Hispidiumdc

    OpenAIRE

    Abe R. T; Edewor-Kuponiyi, T. I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the procedures of the extraction and isolation of flavonoids present in the methanolic leaf extract of Acanthospermum hispidium DC .The leaves of Acanthospermum hispidium dc was extracted with polar and non-polar solvents. The activecomponents (.i.e. flavonoids) were found in methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol while methanol, chloroform, ethylacetate and n-butanol contained steroids. From the chromatographic analysis, it was observed that the component 1and ...

  4. Flavonóides e triterpenos de Baccharis pseudotenuifolia: bioatividade sobre Artemia salina

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira Francisco de Paula Madeira; Coutinho Valmor; Montanher Ana Beatriz Pimentel; Caro Miguel Soriano Balparda; Brighente Inês Maria Costa; Pizzolatti Moacir Geraldo; Monache Franco Delle

    2003-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the chloroformic and methanolic extracts of the Baccharis pseudotenuifolia led to the isolation of triterpenes, steroids and flavonoids. From chloroformic extract were isolated oleanolic acid and alpha-spinasterol while from methanolic extract were isolated the flavonoids: hispidulin, naringenin, 3'-methoxy-luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol, eriodyctiol, aromadendrin, quercetin, 3'-methoxy-quercetin, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. The str...

  5. Standardization of biosurfactant enrichment process by factorial design and elucidating its physico-chemical and structural characteristics

    OpenAIRE

    Karadi RV; Lokesh KN; . Channarayappa; Bindu Sadanandan*; Marikunte Venkatrangana; Siva Kiran R R

    2012-01-01

    Biosurfactant recovery by Flavobacterium sp. was standardized by factorial design 3(k-p). The extraction of biosurfactant was carried out by organic solvent extraction, ammonium sulphate precipitation and acid precipitation. The organic solvent extraction was performed with varied proportion (3 levels) of chloroform and methanol i.e. (X*:1) designated as F1 (varied proportion of chloroform) and (1: X**) referred as F2 (varied proportion of methanol) respectively, similarly ammonium sulphate (...

  6. Stimulation of hydrogen peroxide production by drinking water contaminants in HL-60 cells sensitized by retinoic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Hideaki; Inoue, Shoichi; Yoshida, Kohki; Nakajima, Osamu; Mizuno, Shigetaka

    1998-01-01

    Chemical carcinogens, such as chloroform and trichloroethylene, are present in drinking water in Japan. As these contaminants are believed to have a role in carcinogenesis, we examined if chloroform and trichloroethylene, as well as methylene chloride, xylene, benzene, and ethanol, have the ability to generate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and human leukemia (HL-60) cells. Methylene chloride, benzene, xylene, trichloroethylene, and ethanol did not increa...

  7. Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLÇİN, İlhami

    2004-01-01

    The present work evaluates the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of clary sage (CS) Salvia sclarea L. Antimicrobial, total antioxidant, DPPH radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and metal chelating activities, reducing power, and total contents of phenolic compounds of dried herb samples extracted with chloroform and acetone were studied. The chloroform extract had stronger total antioxidant activity than the acetone extract and exhibited ...

  8. Addressing analytical uncertainties in the determination of trichloroacetic acid in soil

    OpenAIRE

    Dickey, Catherine A; Heal, Kate V.; Cape, Neil; Stidson, Ruth; Reeves, Nicholas; Heal, Mathew R.

    2005-01-01

    Soil is an important compartment in the environmental cycling of trichloroacetic acid (TCA), but soil TCA concentration is a methodologically defined quantity; analytical methods either quantify TCA in an aqueous extract of the soil, or thermally decarboxylate TCA to chloroform in the whole soil sample. The former may underestimate the total soil TCA, whereas the latter may overestimate TCA if other soil components (e.g. humic material) liberate chloroform under the decarboxylation conditions...

  9. A Method for the Simultaneous Determination of Chlorogenic Acid and Sesquiterpene Lactone Content in Industrial Chicory Root Foodstuffs

    OpenAIRE

    Honorine Willeman; Philippe Hance; Anne Fertin; Najia Voedts; Nathalie Duhal; Jean-François Goossens; Jean-Louis Hilbert

    2014-01-01

    A method for the simultaneous determination of free chlorogenic acids (CGA) and sesquiterpene lactones (STL) in chicory root and its dried (flour) and roasted (grain) forms is described. The method uses one extraction and one analysis for all chicory root products. Various solvents with low to high polarity, such as methanol, chloroform, or n-hexane, were tested alone, in combination in different proportions or with acidified or neutral aqueous solvent. The water/chloroform/methanol (30/30/40...

  10. Isolasi Senyawa Flavonoida Dari Buah Mahkota Dewa (Phaleria macrocarpa Boerl.)

    OpenAIRE

    Albinur P. S.

    2011-01-01

    Isolation of flavonoid compounds from god’s crown fruit (Phaleria macrocarpa Boerl.) has been done with maceration by methanol solvent. The concentrated extract then partition extracted with n-hexane and then acided by HCl 6% while heated. Continued extraction with chloroform to get flavonoid compounds. The concentrated chloroform extract which is total flavonoid was analysed with Thin Layer Chromatography, then separated with Column Chromatography with eluent n-hexane : ethyl acetate (70:30 ...

  11. Anti-herpes simplex virus activities of monogalactosyl diglyceride and digalactosyl diglyceride from Clinacanthus nutans, a traditional Thai herbal medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Sirada Pongmuangmul; Supaporn Phumiamorn; Phanchana Sanguansermsri; Nalin Wongkattiya; Ian Hamilton Fraser; Donruedee Sanguansermsri

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the monogalactosyl diglyceride (MGDG) and digalactosyl diglyceride (DGDG) from Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans) for their in vitro antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) by plaque reduction assay. Methods: MGDG and DGDG were extracted with chloroform from C. nutans leaves. MGDG and DGDG were separated from chloroform crude extract using column chromatography, characterized by thin layer chromatography and quantified by high...

  12. End of life cycle assessment for carbon nanotube (CNT) containing composites : release of CNT and ecotoxicological consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Rhiem, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, for the first time, release rates for CNT from polycarbonate nanocomposites (containing 1 weight % CNT) were quantified by use of 14C-labeleled CNT material. Composites were produced by dispersing 14C-CNT in chloroform and adding polycarbonate pellets afterwards in order to produce CNT holding PC composites. After evaporation of the chloroform and surface improvement by hot pressing, round samples with a diameter of 18 mm were produced. Two different sample types were pr...

  13. EVALUATION OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA (BURMF) WALL EX NEES, LEAF EXTRACTS AND ANDROGRAPHOLIDE ON GASTROINTESTINAL PATHOGENS

    OpenAIRE

    R. Anitha; D. Raynukaa

    2013-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (BurmF) Wall Ex Nees called as Kalmegh or "King of Bitters is used in southeast Asia for treating several ailments. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of Andrographis paniculata leaf extracts. The agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods were used to determine the antibacterial activity of the Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. Chloroform and petroleum ether extracts inhibited Shigella, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonia and Sa...

  14. ANTICANCER POTENTIAL OF BAMBUSA BAMBOS LEAF EXTRACTS

    OpenAIRE

    Muneerudeen J; Himanshu Joshi; Gururaja M.P.; Devi Swapna PV; Lekshmi P; Jipnomon J; C S Shastry

    2013-01-01

    Anti-cancer activities of chloroform and hydro-alcohol leaf extracts of Bambusa bambos was evaluated in vitro using Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites (DLA) and Ehrlich’s Ascites Carcinoma (EAC) cell lines by Trypan blue dye exclusion method. The chloroform extract exhibited better activity compared to hydro-alcohol extract. Further hemolytic activities of both the extracts were carried out to measure the extent of damage to normal red blood cell membranes. The findings suggested that both the extract...

  15. Cytotoxic activity of marine algae against cancerous cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élica A. C. Guedes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation on the cytotoxic activity in human tumor cell from dichloromethane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol, water extracts, and hexane and chloroform fractions from green, brown and red algae collected at Riacho Doce Beach, north coast of Alagoas, Brazil, against the cancer cells K562 (chronic myelocytic leukemia, HEp-2 (laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma and NCI-H292 (human lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma through the MTT colorimetric method. The dichloromethane extract and chloroform fraction of Hypnea musciformis showed the best cytotoxic activity against K562 (3.8±0.2 µg.mL-1 and 6.4±0.4 µg.mL-1, respectively. Dichloromethane extracts of Dictyota dichotoma (16.3±0.3 µg.mL-1 and the chloroform fraction of H. musciformis (6.0±0.03 µg.mL-1 and chloroform fraction of P. gymnospora (8.2±0.4 were more active against HEp-2 as well as ethanol extracts of P. gymnospora (15.9±2.8 µg.mL-1 and chloroform fraction of H. musciformis (15.0±1.3 µg.mL-1 against the cell NCI-H292. The constituents with higher anticancer action are present in the extracts of dichloromethane and chloroform and in the chloroform fraction of H. musciformis, Digenea simplex, P. gymnospora, and D.dichotoma. In the case of the seaweed S. vulgare, the anticancer constituents are present in the aqueous extract.

  16. BRINE SHRIM LETHALITY BIOASSAY OF METHANOLIC CRUDE EXTRACTS OF TERMINALIA ARJUNA

    OpenAIRE

    Maruf Anayet and Mohammad Musarraf Hussain

    2012-01-01

    The aim of this work is to determine the cytotoxic activities of Terminalia arjuna (Family: Combretaceae) by brine shrimp lethality bioassay. The leaves of Terminalia arjuna were extracted with methanol and the methanolic extract was fractionated into three fractions by using organic solvents like n-hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform. The n-hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform soluble fractions of methanolic crude extract were screened for antitumor properties using brine shrimp lethality b...

  17. Disposable reversed-phase chromatography columns for improved detection of carboxylic acids in body fluids by electron-capture gas-liquid chromatography.

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshvar, M. I.; Brooks, J B; Winstead, R M

    1987-01-01

    Disposable reversed-phase chromatography columns were tested for their effectiveness in removing unreacted trichloroethanol (TCE) from derivatized samples for gas-liquid chromatography analysis. Derivatized acidic chloroform extracts of saponified whole cells of Mycobacterium species, spent culture media, and derivatized acidic chloroform extracts of serum and cerebrospinal fluids from patients with tuberculous meningitis were tested. Samples were added to preconditioned reversed-phase chroma...

  18. In vitro antiplasmodial activity and phytochemical screening of Alstonia boonei De wild used in treating malaria-associated symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Enemakwu Thomas Andrew; M. M. Adeyemi; Salihu, L

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the In vitro antiplasmodial activity and phytochemical constituents of the leaves from Alstonia boonei used in the local treatment of malaria. The crude ethanol extract from the medicinal plant (AB-01) was fractionated into ethyl acetate (AB-01-01), chloroform (AB-01-02) and n-hexane (AB-01-03) fractions. In vitro antiplasmodial assays and phytochemical screening of ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane fractions from the plant were further carried out. Alkaloids, sap...

  19. Amino acid analysis in biological fluids by GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspar, Hannelore

    2009-01-01

    Amino acids are intermediates in cellular metabolism and their quantitative analysis plays an important role in disease diagnostics. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based method was developed for the quantitative analysis of free amino acids as their propyl chloroformate derivatives in biological fluids. Derivatization with propyl chloroformate could be carried out directly in the biological samples without prior protein precipitation or solid-phase extraction of the amino acid...

  20. HIV-1 protease inhibitory effects of medicinal plants used as self medication by AIDS patients

    OpenAIRE

    Sopa Kummee; Sanan Subhadhirasakul; Supinya Tewtrakul

    2003-01-01

    Thirty-six chloroform-, methanol-, and water- extracts of some plants used as self mediciation by AIDS patients were investigated for their HIV-1 protease (HIV-1 PR) inhibitory activities. Of these extracts, Boesenbergia pandurata (rhizome, chloroform extract) showed the most potent inhibitory activity against HIV-1 PR, followed by Boesenbergia pandurata (rhizome, MeOH extract) and Alpinia galanga (rhizome, MeOH extract) with the inhibitions of 64.92, 51.92 and 48.70%, respectively, at concen...

  1. Does high offshore petroleum activity affect the lipid composition in wild Atlantic Cod (Gadus morhua) from the North Sea?

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Li

    2012-01-01

    A combined two step extraction, using hexane/methanol to extract neutral lipids and chloroform/methanol to extract polar lipids, has been developed and validation. Four times methanol wash were done to hexane/methanol extract and merged with chloroform/methanol extract to ensure optimized lipid classes distribution between two solvent systems. Quick freeze of hexane/methanol solvent system by dry ice was adopted to avoid adverse effect of generation of micelle. The glass aminopropyl bonded co...

  2. Extraction of scandium by aromatic carboxylic acids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction of complex compounds af scandium with salicylic, phenyl- and diphenylacetic acids with chloroform solutions of tetraethyldiamideheptylphosphate as a donor-active additive in relation to the pH and reagent concentration has been studied. Extraction of salicylates of some elements (Ta, Nb, Zr, Hf, Mo) by solutions of tetraethyldiamideheptylphosphate in chloroform has been investigated, and the possibility of their extraction separation from scandium is shown

  3. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF CALENDULA OFFICINALIS LINN

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborthy Guno Sindhu

    2010-01-01

    Identification of primary and secondary constituents has become the utmost important tool for the presence of active moiety. The phytochemical screening of petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water extracts of Calendula officinalis leaf done by TLC means. Petroleum ether extract showed the presence of fatty acids, chloroform extracts showed the presence of triterpens and sterols. Flavonoids, carbohydrates, amino acids and saponins were present in methanol extract and saponins, phenolic ...

  4. Assessment of in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity of Sphaeranthus amaranthoides burm.f

    OpenAIRE

    Gayatri, S.; C. Uma Maheswara Reddy; K. Chitra; Parthasarathy, V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of plants have been used in Indian system of medicine such as ayurveda, unani and siddha, but most of these plants were not explored properly. Sphaeranthus amaranthoides (SA) Burm.f., is one such plant used as an energizer in siddha. Objective: To evaluate the anticancer effect of chloroform extract of the whole plant of SA Burm.f. against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: The anticancer effect of chloroform extract was investigat...

  5. Antioxidant and phytochemical analysis of Ranunculus arvensis L. extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Bhatti, Muhammad Zeeshan; Ali, Amjad; Ahmad, Ayaz; Saeed, Asma; Malik, Salman Akbar

    2015-01-01

    Background Ranunculus arvensis L. (R. arvensis) has long been used to treat a variety of medical conditions such as arthritis, asthma, hay fever, rheumatism, psoriasis, gut diseases and rheumatic pain. Here, we screened R. arvensis for antioxidant activity, phytochemical and high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC) analyses. Methods The chloroform, chloroform:methanol, methanol, methanol:acetone, acetone, methanol:water and water extracts of R. arvensis were examined for DPPH (1, 1-diphe...

  6. Antibacterial, Antifungal, and Insecticidal Potentials of Oxalis corniculata and Its Isolated Compounds

    OpenAIRE

    Azizur Rehman; Ali Rehman; Ijaz Ahmad

    2015-01-01

    Oxalis corniculata is a common medicinal plant widely used against numerous infectious diseases. The agrochemical potential of methanolic extract, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fractions were assessed to measure the antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities of the plant. The crude, chloroform, and n-butanol soluble fractions showed excellent activities against Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis but have no activity...

  7. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antiproliferative compounds from Centaurea arenaria

    OpenAIRE

    Csapi, Bence; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Zupko, Istvan; Berényi, Ágnes; Forgo, Peter; Szabó, Pál Tam'S; Hohmann, Judit

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The antiproliferative effects of n-hexane, chloroform and aqueous methanol extracts prepared from the whole plant of Centaurea arenaria M.B. ex Willd. were investigated against cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) and skin epidermoid carcinoma (A431) cells, using the MTT assay. The chloroform extract displayed high tumour cell proliferation inhibitory activity (higher than 85% at 10 ?g/ml concentration), and was therefore subjected to a bioassay-guide...

  8. Physicochemical investigations on the extraction mechanism of some elements and inorganic acids by quaternary ammonium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of rare earth and transplutonium elements, Tl, Pb, Bi, and Po, and also of HNO3 and HCl, with chloroform solutions of cetylpyridinium salts solutions showed that the salts aggregate in chloroform solutions, forming micelles above a concentration of about 10-2M. Surface tension and surface potential measurements proved that cetylpyridinium nitrate is not transferred to HNO3 solutions in the extraction system, while cetylpyridinium chloride is transferred to ECl solutions. (author)

  9. Preparation and distribution of materials for 2 BcR intercomparisons of methods for determination of aflatoxins in peanut meal and peanut butter, and deoxynivalenol in wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond; H.P.van; Paulsch; W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Standaardoplossingen werden bereid van de afzonderlijke aflatoxinene B1, B2, G1 en G2 in chloroform (0.1 ug/ml) en een oplossing van aflatoxinen B1, B2, G1 en G2 in chloroform (ca 2,1,4 en 1 ug/ml resp.). De oplossingen werden in ampullen afgevuld. (ca 100 ampullen van elke oplossing.) Van iede

  10. Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial activity of Flacourtia Ramontchi Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulbha Lalsare

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The literature survey revealed that a very merge amount of pharmacological work has been carried out on Flacourtia ramontchi. Also it was observed from the Ayurvedic literature and Ethnobotanical studies that the plant is very useful in treating inflammation and infectious diseases but no scientific investigation has been done in such direction. Very merge work has been done regarding phytochemical and pharmacological effectiveness on this plant. Successive extraction of the leaves with solvents of increasing polarity; preliminary phytochemical studies of different extracts; screening of chloroform, methanol and hydromethanolic extracts for anti-inflammatory (by Carrageenan induced rat paw model and antimicrobial activity (by Cup and plate method and thin layer chromatographic studies of active extracts using mobile phase i.e. chloroform and methanol. The results clearly indicate that all three extracts i.e. chloroform, methanol and hydromethanolic, of the leaves having anti-inflammatory activity. But the chloroform and methano extract showed promising results and even chloroform extract at the dose 150mg/kg exhibits equipotent anti-inflammatory activity as that of the standard Indomethacin. Methanol extract possess broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity at concentration 10000 mg/ml whereas hydromethanolic and chloroform extracts having more or less antimicrobial activity.

  11. Antifungal Activity and Nail Permeation of Nail Lacquer Containing Piper regnellii (Miq. C. CD. var. pallescens (C. DC. Yunck (Piperaceae Leave Extracts and Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mayumi Koroishi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The dermatophytes are filamentous fungi that cause cutaneous fungal infections because they use keratin as a nutrient source. For this study the antidermatophyte activity of the extracts and derivates from leaves of Piper regnellii was analyzed. From the dichloromethane extract (EBD neolignans such as eupomatenoid-3 and eupomatenoid-5 were obtained, and it was submitted to fractionation to remove the green residue, designated as the chloroform fraction (FF. Extracts, chloroform fraction and compounds were tested against Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 28189 to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The chloroform fraction was incorporated to nail lacquer that was analyzed by photoacoustic spectroscopy, in vitro assay and scanning electronic microscopy. For antifungal activity in solid medium the dichloromethane extract and chloroform fraction were used. The compounds eupomatenoid-3 and eupomatenoid-5 were less active than the dichloromethane extract against T. rubrum. EBD and FF showed moderate activity in hyphal growth inhibition in solid medium and EBD did not link to ergosterol. Nail lacquer containing the chloroform fraction showed good penetration through the nail as determined by photoacoustic spectroscopy. From in vitro studies it was observed that nail lacquer concentrations above 20 mg/mL prevented the growth of fungi, but concentrations up to 2.5 inhibited the growth. Scanning electronic microscopy was used to confirm the in vitro nail lacquer activity results. The specie P. regnellii showed great antifungal activity against T. rubrum, and nail lacquer containing its chloroform fraction has great potential to treat onychomycosis caused by these microorganisms.

  12. Organic Chemical Attribution Signatures for the Sourcing of a Mustard Agent and Its Starting Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Carlos G.; Bronk, Krys; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2016-05-17

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) are being investigated for the sourcing of chemical warfare (CW) agents and their starting materials that may be implicated in chemical attacks or CW proliferation. The work reported here demonstrates for the first time trace impurities produced during the synthesis of tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3) that point to specific reagent stocks used in the synthesis of this CW agent. Thirty batches of HN3 were synthesized using different combinations of commercial stocks of triethanolamine (TEA), thionyl chloride, chloroform, and acetone. The HN3 batches and reagent stocks were then analyzed for impurities by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Reaction-produced impurities indicative of specific TEA and chloroform stocks were exclusively discovered in HN3 batches made with those reagent stocks. In addition, some reagent impurities were found in the HN3 batches that were presumably not altered during synthesis and believed to be indicative of reagent type regardless of stock. Supervised classification using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) on the impurity profiles of chloroform samples from seven stocks resulted in an average classification error by cross-validation of 2.4%. A classification error of zero was obtained using the seven-stock PLSDA model on a validation set of samples from an arbitrarily selected chloroform stock. In a separate analysis, all samples from two of seven chloroform stocks that were purposely not modeled had their samples matched to a chloroform stock rather than assigned a “no class” classification.

  13. Chromatographic finger print analysis of anti-inflammatory active extract fractions of aerial parts of Tribulus terrestris by HPTLC technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mona Salih Mohammed; Mohamed Fahad Alajmi; Perwez Alam; Hassan Subki Khalid; Abelkhalig Muddathir Mahmoud; Wadah Jamal Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To develop HPTLC fingerprint profile of anti-inflammatory active extract fractions of Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae). Methods:The anti-inflammatory activity was tested for the methanol and its fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) and chloroform extract of Tribulus terrestris (aerial parts) by injecting different groups of rats (6 each) with carrageenan in hind paw and measuring the edema volume before and 1, 2 and 3 h after carrageenan injection. Control group received saline i.p. The extracts treatment was injected i.p. in doses of 200 mg/kg 1 h before carrageenan administration. Indomethacin (30 mg/kg) was used as standard. HPTLC studies were carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat IV applicator, TLC scanner 3, Reprostar 3, CAMAG ADC 2 and WIN CATS-4 software for the active fractions of chloroform fraction of methanol extract. Results:The methanol extract showed good antiedematous effect with percentage of inhibition more than 72%, indicating its ability to inhibit the inflammatory mediators. The methanol extract was re-dissolved in 100 mL of distilled water and fractionated with chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The four fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) were subjected to anti-inflammatory activity. Chloroform fraction showed good anti-inflammatory activity at dose of 200 mg/kg. Chloroform fraction was then subjected to normal phase silica gel column chromatography and eluted with petroleum ether-chloroform, chloroform-ethyl acetate mixtures of increasing polarity which produced 15 fractions (F1-F15). Only fractions F1, F2, F4, F5, F7, F9, F11 and F14 were found to be active, hence these were analyzed with HPTLC to develop their finger print profile. These fractions showed different spots with different Rf values. Conclusions:The different chloroform fractions F1, F2, F4, F5, F7, F9, F11 and F14 revealed 4, 7, 7, 8, 9, 7, 7 and 6 major spots, respectively. The

  14. Isolation and characterisation of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Aquilaria subintegra for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Hirbod; Mohamad, Jamaludin; Paydar, Mohammad Javad; Rothan, Hussin A

    2014-02-01

    Aquilaria subintegra, locally known as "Gaharu", belongs to the Thymelaeceae family. This plant's leaves have been claimed to be effective for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by Malay traditional practitioner in Malaysia. In this research, the chloroform extracts of the leaves and stem of A. subintegra were tested for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity. The Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) results indicated the presence of phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, and alkaloids compounds in the extracts. Analysis of the stem chloroform extracts with LCMS/MS displayed that it contains kaempferol 3,4,7-trimethyl ether. The AChE inhibitory activity of leaves and stem chloroform extracts and kaempferol were 80%, 93% and 85.8%, respectively. The Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA) exhibited low to moderate toxicity of the chloroform extract from leaves (LC50=531.18 ± 49.53 μg/ml), the stem chloroform extract (LC50=407.34 ± 68.05 μg/ml) and kaempferol (LC50=762.41 ± 45.09 μg/ml). The extracts and kaempferol were not cytotoxic to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), human normal gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) and human normal hepatic cell line (WRL-68). The effect of leaf and stem chloroform extracts and kaempferol were determined in the Radial Arm Maze (RAM) after administration by oral gavage to ICR male and female mice with valium-impaired memory. Administration of kaempferol to the mice significantly reduced the number of repeated entries into the arms of maze in males and females. In conclusion, the inhibition of AChE by leaf and stem chloroform extracts of A. subintegra could be due to the presence of kaempferol. This extract is safe for use as a natural AChE inhibitor as an alternative to berberine for the treatment of AD. PMID:24479629

  15. Solubility of water in water-in-oil microemulsions stabilized by cetyltrimethylammonium: Effects of the surfactant counterion, the nature and composition of the oil, and the salinity of the droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuin, E.B.; Rubio, M.A.; Lissi, E.A. (Univ. de Santiago de Chile (Chile))

    1993-06-01

    The solubility of water in water-in-oil microemulsions stabilized by cetyltrimethylammonium (CTA) has been investigated as a function of the nature of the surfactant counterion (bromide; CTAB/chloride; CTAC), the composition of the oil (chloroform and chloroform/heptane mixtures), the salinity of the droplets, and the nature of the salt employed to modify it. Changing the composition of the oil from neat chloroform to a 500% mixture with heptane produces an increase of the water solubility in the microemulsions stabilized by CATB and decreases it in the CTAC microemulsions. Strong alterations of the solubility of water were found to occur upon mixing of the surfactants. Solubility increases abruptly on going from either CTAC- or CTAB-stabilized microemulsions to mixtures of both surfactants, reaching a maximum at CTAC mole fractions of 0.5 and 0.4 for solutions of the surfactants in chloroform and chloroform/heptane, respectively. Mixtures of CTAC and CATB in a solvent comprising 500% chloroform/heptane show a different behavior. In this system, water solubility continuously decreases when the CTAC/CTAB ratio increases. Solubility increases with salinity in the CTAC-stabilized microemulsions and decreases in the CTAB-stabilized microemulsions. Nevertheless, the magnitude of the effects observed is dependent on the nature of the salt employed to modify the salinity of the droplets. The results obtained are explained in terms of the model of Shah and coworkers by considering that, due to the stronger binding of bromide than of chloride to the surfactant heads at the micellar interface, water solubility in solutions of CTAB or CTAC in chloroform is determined by different factors: the curvature of the surfactant film (CTAB) and the interaction between droplets (CTAC).

  16. Resolution of ion translocating proteolipid subclasses active in bacterial calcification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Formation of calcium hydroxyapatite occurs on membrane surfaces via interaction of calcium, inorganic phosphate, phospholipids, calcifiable proteolipids, and ion flux to and from the nucleating site. Recently, this laboratory reported that proteolipids from the calcifying bacterium, Bacterionema matruchotti, act as an ionophore when reconstituted into bacteriorhodopsin-proteoliposomes. This ionophoric activity is blocked by [14C]dicyclohexylcarbodiimide ([14C]DCCD). SDS-PAGE shows that [14C]DCCD binds to a single band of Mr 8500. To determine whether proteins other than the [14C]DCCD-binding protein are involved, we examined the function of proteolipid species extracted by solvents of differing polarity. Proteolipids were isolated independently from chloroform:methanol (2:1) and chloroform:methanol:HCl (200:100:1) extracts of the bacteria by Sephadex LH-20 chromatography and were electrophoresed on 12.5% acrylamide gels. The chloroform:methanol extract contained a major hand at Mr 10,000 that was not present in gels of proteolipid isolated by acidified solvent. Proteolipids extracted in chloroform:methanol:HCl included a broad band at Mr 8500, which co-migrated with the [14C] DCCD-binding protein. The rate and extent of proton translocation were not altered when either proteolipid extract was added individually to bacteriorhodopsin proteoliposomes. However, when proteolipids isolated from the chloroform:methanol and chloroform:methanol:HCl extracts were combined, the rate and extent of translocation were increased. These data demonstrate that at least two proteolipid proteins are necessary for ionophoric activity, the Mr 10,000 protein isolated by chloroform:methanol 2:1 and the [14C]DCCD-binding protein requiring acidified solvent for extraction

  17. Evaluation of the toxicity and molluscicidal and larvicidal activities of Schinopsis brasiliensis stem bark extract and its fractions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clisiane C.S. Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever and schistosomiasis are major public health issues for which vector control using larvicide and molluscicide substances present in plants provides a promising strategy. This study evaluated the potential toxicity of the extract of hydroethanol Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl., Anacardiaceae, stem bark and its chloroform, hexane, ethyl acetate, and hydromethanol fractions against Artemia salina and Aedes Aegypti larvae and snails Biomphalaria glabrata. All of the assays were performed in triplicate and the mean mortality rates were used to determine the LC50and LC90 values using the probit method. The hydroethanol hydromethanol extract and fraction were free of toxicity towards A. salina(LC50 > 1000 µg/ml, while chloroform fraction was moderately toxic (LC50313 µg/ml; ethyl acetate and hexane fractions displayed low toxicity, with LC50 557 and 582 µg/ml, respectively. Chloroform, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions showed larvicidal potential towards A. aegypti (LC50 values of 345, 527 and 583 µg/ml, respectively, while chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions were highly toxic to B. glabrata (LC90values of 68 and 73 µg/ml, respectively. Based on these findings, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane fractions should be further investigated for their potential use against the vectors of dengue and schistosomiasis.

  18. Modelling of volumetric properties of binary and ternary mixtures by CEOS, CEOS/GE and empirical models

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    BOJAN D. DJORDJEVIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although many cubic equations of state coupled with van der Waals-one fluid mixing rules including temperature dependent interaction parameters are sufficient for representing phase equilibria and excess properties (excess molar enthalpy HE, excess molar volume VE, etc., difficulties appear in the correlation and prediction of thermodynamic properties of complex mixtures at various temperature and pressure ranges. Great progress has been made by a new approach based on CEOS/GE models. This paper reviews the last six-year of progress achieved in modelling of the volumetric properties for complex binary and ternary systems of non-electrolytes by the CEOS and CEOS/GE approaches. In addition, the vdW1 and TCBT models were used to estimate the excess molar volume VE of ternary systems methanol + chloroform + benzene and 1-propanol + chloroform + benzene, as well as the corresponding binaries methanol + chloroform, chloroform + benzene, 1-propanol + chloroform and 1-propanol + benzene at 288.15–313.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Also, prediction of VE for both ternaries by empirical models (Radojković, Kohler, Jackob–Fitzner, Colinet, Tsao–Smith, Toop, Scatchard, Rastogi was performed.

  19. Polymerization of diallyl phtalate in solution by. gamma. -radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divakar, R.S.; Rao, K.N.

    1977-08-01

    The polymerization of diallyl phthalate has been studied in two solvents, benzene (G/sub Radical/ = 0.7) and chloroform (G/sub R/ = 11.2), ..gamma..-radiation being used to investigate the effect of the solvent on the rates of polymerization and also chain transfer to the solvent. Kinetic analysis shows that in benzene solution the initiating species come almost exclusively from the monomer, but in chloroform they arise only from the solvent. The latter was further confirmed from the chlorine analysis of the polymer wherein chloroform appears to have telomerized with diallyl phthalate. In neither of the solvents was high molecular weight polymer obtained. The k/sub p//k/sub t/ sup 1/2/ for the polymerization of DAP was found to be 3.3 x 10/sup -4/ and 1.17 x 10/sup -3/ in benzene and chloroform solutions, respectively. The chain-transfer constant C/sub S/ was 11.25 x 10/sup -3/ and 9.75 x 10/sup -3/ for benzene and chloroform, respectively.

  20. Biodegradation of chlorinated and non-chlorinated VOCs from pharmaceutical industries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balasubramanian, P; Philip, Ligy; Bhallamudi, S Murty

    2011-02-01

    Biodegradation studies were conducted for major organic solvents such as methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, acetone, acetonitrile, toluene, chloroform, and carbon tetrachloride commonly used in pharmaceutical industries. Various microbial isolates were enriched and screened for their biodegradation potential. An aerobic mixed culture that had been previously enriched for biodegradation of mixed pesticides was found to be the most effective. All the organic solvents except chloroform and carbon tetrachloride were consumed as primary substrates by this mixed culture. Biodegradation rates of methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, acetone, acetonitrile, and toluene were measured individually in batch systems. Haldane model was found to best fit the kinetics of biodegradation. Biokinetic parameters estimated from single-substrate experiments were utilized to simulate the kinetics of biodegradation of mixture of substrates. Among the various models available for simulating the kinetics of biodegradation of multi-substrate systems, competitive inhibition model performed the best. Performance of the models was evaluated statistically using the dimensionless modified coefficient of efficiency (E). This model was used for simulating the kinetics of biodegradation in binary, ternary, and quaternary substrate systems. This study also reports batch experiments on co-metabolic biodegradation of chloroform, with acetone and toluene as primary substrates. The Haldane model, modified for inhibition due to chloroform, could satisfactorily predict the biodegradation of primary substrate, chloroform, and the microbial growth. PMID:20799072

  1. Acaricidal activity of extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against the larvae of the rabbit mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong-Hua; Jia, Ren-Yong; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Pu, Zhong-Hui; Chen, Jiao; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yu-Qun; Lu, Yang

    2008-10-20

    The acaricidal activity of the petroleum ether extract, the chloroform extract and the acetic ether extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae was tested in vitro. A complementary log-log (CLL) model was used to analyze the data of the toxicity tests. The results showed that at all test time points, the petroleum ether extract demonstrated the highest activity against the larvae of S. scabiei var. cuniculi, while the activities of the chloroform extract and the acetic ether extract were similar. The activities of both the petroleum ether extract and the chloroform extract against the larvae showed the relation of time and concentration dependent. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the petroleum ether extract (1.3 microL/mL) was about three times that of the chloroform extract (4.1 microL/mL) at 24 h post-treatment. At the concentrations of 500.0 microL/mL, the median lethal time (LT50) of the petroleum ether extract and the chloroform extract was 8.4 and 9.6 h, respectively. PMID:18752898

  2. Evaluation of Inhibitory Effect of the Plant Phyllanthus amarus Against Dermatophytic Fungi Microsporum gypseum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANURAG AGRAWAL; SHALINI SRIVASTAVA; J. N. SRIVASTAVA; M. M. SRIVASAVA

    2004-01-01

    The antifungal activity of various solvent extracts (such as ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol) of the plant Phyllanthus amarus against dermatophytic fungi Microsporum gypseum was observed. Method Antifungal bioassay in terms of reduction in weight, colony diameter and sporulation of the target fungal colony was carried out using Broth Dilution method. Results Root part of the plant, extracted in various organic solvents did not show any noticeable antifungal activity. The percentage inhibition observed in different solvent extracts of aerial part was found as reduction in weight: chloroform [50.3%], ethyl acetate [27.7%] and ethyl alcohol [12.1%], reduction in colony diameter: chloroform [53.4%], ethyl acetate [31.4%] and ethyl alcohol [15.0%] and reduction in sporulation: maximum inhibition in chloroform extract, at test concentration of 4000 ppm at incubation period of 8 days. Conclusion Chloroform fraction of the aerial part of the plant P. amarus shows significant inhibitory effect against dermatophytic fungi M. gypseum and requires chemical characterization for its bioactive principle.

  3. Of Penguins, Pinnipeds, and Poisons: Anesthesia on Elephant Island.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Firth, Paul G

    2016-07-01

    Although Ernest Shackleton's Endurance Antarctic expedition of 1914 to 1916 is a famous epic of survival, the medical achievements of the two expedition doctors have received little formal examination. Marooned on Elephant Island after the expedition ship sank, Drs. Macklin and McIlroy administered a chloroform anesthetic to crew member Perce Blackborow to amputate his frostbitten toes. As the saturated vapor pressure of chloroform at 0°C is 71.5 mmHg and the minimum alveolar concentration is 0.5% of sea-level atmospheric pressure (3.8 mmHg), it would have been feasible to induce anesthesia at a low temperature. However, given the potentially lethal hazards of a light chloroform anesthetic, an adequate and constant depth of anesthesia was essential. The pharmacokinetics of the volatile anesthetic, administered via the open-drop technique in the frigid environment, would have been unfamiliar to the occasional anesthetist. To facilitate vaporization of the chloroform, the team burned penguin skins and seal blubber under overturned lifeboats to increase the ambient temperature from -0.5° to 26.6°C. Chloroform degrades with heat to chlorine and phosgene, but buildup of these poisonous gases did not occur due to venting of the confined space by the stove chimney. The anesthetic went well, and the patient-and all the ship's crew-survived to return home. PMID:27148920

  4. Antiulcer activity of methanolic extract and fractions of Picralima nitida seeds(Apocynacaea) in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Okonta Jegbefume Mathew; Adibe Maxwell Ogochukwu; Ubaka Chukwuemeka Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigated the antisecrectory activities of the methanol extract, chloroform fraction and methanol fraction of Picralima nitida seeds. Methods: The methanol extract of Picralima nitida seeds was fractionated into chloroform fraction and methanol fraction. They were evaluated for antiulcer activity and gastric emptying time in rats using aspirin-pylorus-ligation model. Results: Oral administration of the methanol extract, chloroform fraction and methanol fraction at 1 000 mg/kg reduced gastric ulcer by 56.4%, 40.0% and 56.3%, respectively; and the fractions of the extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced gastric emptying time when compared to the control. Gastric acidity was significantly decreased when compared with saline group, 40.25 mEq/L in methanol extract, 50.0 mEq/L in chloroform fraction 51.25 mEq/L in methanol fration but had no significant effect on the gastric secretion volume. Conclusions: These findings showed that methanol extract, chloroform fraction and methanol fraction of the seeds of Picralima possessed potent antiulcer properties and some antisecretory properties.

  5. Chemical constituents and anti-tuberculosis activity of ink extracts of cuttlefish, Sepiella inermis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muthusamy Ravichandiran

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the chemical constituents and the anti-tuberculosis activity of methanol and chloroform ink extracts of Sepiella inermis. Methods: Pulverized ink powder was extracted separately with chloroform and methanol. Chemical analysis was carried out by UV-VIS spectrophotometer, FT-IR and GC-MS. Crude extracts were tested in vitro for their activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis using Lowenstein Jensen (L-J medium. Activity in L-J medium was assessed by mean reduction in number of colonies on extract containing bottles as compared to extract free controls. Results: GC-MS of methanol extract revealed four compounds viz. hexadecanoic acid, 9, 12- octadecadienoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid and octadecanoic acid. The chloroform extract containing fourteen compounds. The methanol extract exhibited anti-tuberculosis activity in L-J medium at 64 µg/mL with the observed inhibition of 14 CFU. Chloroform extract displayed a weak activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Conclusions: This investigation showed the methanol extract exhibited significant activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis than chloroform extract. Since ink of sepia is available abundantly as a waste material, further studies aimed at isolation and efficacy of active substances pave the way for new anti-tuberculosis drugs.

  6. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF MONTELUKAST FROM BULK DRUG AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM

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    S.R. Bhagade

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two Simple, accurate, precise and sensitive spectrophotometric methods for estimation of Montelukast sodium (MON have been developed and validated. The zero order spectroscopic method (Method I and area under curve method (Method II have developed. The proposed methods are validated according to ICH Q2B guidelines. The Montelukast sodium gives maximum absorbance at 241nm in chloroform and observed linearity 2-20 μg/ml for zero order method and 4-20 μg/ml for area under curve method. The stability of drug in chloroform has been studied and drug shows good stability in Chloroform. The recovery by method I and method II are 99.52 ± 0.069, 101.93± 0.11 respectively. The both spectrophotometric methods can be applied for routine analysis of Montelukast sodium in tablet formulation and in bulk drug.

  7. Tuning the properties of polyhydroxybutyrate films using acetic acid via solvent casting

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anbukarasu, Preetam; Sauvageau, Dominic; Elias, Anastasia

    2015-12-01

    Biodegradable polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) films were fabricated using acetic acid as an alternative to common solvents such as chloroform. The PHB films were prepared using a solvent casting process at temperatures ranging from 80 °C to 160 °C. The crystallinity, mechanical properties and surface morphology of the films cast at different temperatures were characterized and compared to PHB films cast using chloroform as a solvent. Results revealed that the properties of the PHB film varied considerably with solvent casting temperature. In general, samples processed with acetic acid at low temperatures had comparable mechanical properties to PHB cast using chloroform. This acetic acid based method is environmentally friendly, cost efficient and allows more flexible processing conditions and broader ranges of polymer properties than traditional methods.

  8. Comparison of rapid solvent extraction systems for the GC–MS/MS characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aged, contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleyur, Nagalakshmi; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Mansur, Abdulatif A.; Koshlaf, Eman; Morrison, Paul D.; Osborn, A. Mark; Ball, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major class of organic hydrocarbons with high molecular weight that originate from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Sixteen PAHs are included in the U.S Environmental Protection agency list of priority pollutants due to their mutagenic, carcinogenic, toxic and teratogenic properties. In this study, the development and optimization of a simplified and rapid solvent extraction for the characterisation of 16 USEPA priority poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aged contaminated soils was established with subsequent analysis by GC–MS/MS. • Five different extraction solvent systems: dichloromethane: acetone, chloroform: methanol, dichloromethane, acetone: hexane and hexane were assessed in terms of their ability to extract PAHs from aged PAH-contaminated soils. • Highest PAH concentrations were extracted using acetone: hexane and chloroform: methanol. Given the greater toxicity associated with chloroform: methanol, acetone: hexane appears the best choice of solvent extraction system. • This protocol enables efficient extraction of PAHs from aged weathered soils. PMID:27200269

  9. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF TINOSPORA CRISPA ROOT EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Asif Iqbal Chittur Mohammed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanol, distilled water, methanol and chloroform crude extracts of the roots of Tinospora crispa. Antimicrobial activity was examined by disc diffusion method against gram positive bacterial strains of Streptococcus pneumonia, gram negative bacterial strains of Escherichia coli and fungal strains of Candida albicans. The maximum zone of inhibition was obtained with ethanol extract against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumonia followed by chloroform extract against the same organisms. Whilst distilled water extract showed a minimal zone of inhibition, methanol extract showed a moderate zone of inhibition against the bacterial strains used. The values were compared with a standard antibiotic. The ethanol extract also showed the maximum zone of inhibition against the growth of Candida albicans, whereas the lowest activity was shown with distilled water crude extract. Methanol and chloroform crude extracts showed considerably moderate activities against the fungal strain, as compared to the standard antibiotic used.

  10. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Root Extracts of Abitulon indicum

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    Krishna Rao MORTHA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activity of Abitulon indicum roots was studied against seven pathogenic bacteria and three fungal strains by agar well diffusion method. Antimicrobial activity was recorded for hexane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts. Alcohol (ethanol and methanol extracts exhibited the highest degree of antimicrobial activity compared to aqueous, chloroform and hexane extracts. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was turned out to be the most susceptible bacterium to the crude root chemical constituents, using the standard Tetracycline and Clotrimazole. Minimum inhibition concentration values of hexane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts were determined by the agar dilution method and ranged between 62.5 and 1,000 µg. The study suggested that the root extracts possess bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activity against the tested bacteria and fungi, revealing a significant scope to develop a novel broad spectrum of antimicrobial drug formulation from Abitulon indicum.

  11. Cation Tuning toward the Inference of the Gelation Behavior of Supramolecular Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Peng; Wu, Huiqiong; Wang, Xiaojuan; He, Ting; Shen, Rujuan; Yue, Fan; Wang, Jide; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    We serendipitously discovered that the tripeptide Asp–Phe–Phe trifluoroacetic acid salt (hereafter abbreviated as β-AspFF) formed a reversible thermotropic gel in chloroform solution (at temperatures higher than the boiling point of chloroform), and a stable gel in toluene solution (at equal to or lower than the room temperature). Experimental results indicate that doping metal ions into β-AspFF toluene gels can trigger morphological variations in the gel skeleton, thereby increasing gel volume and inducing the collapse of organogels. Investigation on the cation-tuned gelation behavior of β-AspFF can be used to elucidate heating-induced gel collapse (of normal gel) or reverse thermotropic gelation as well as select carbamide and acetamide as activators of β-AspFF gels in chloroform solution at room temperature. PMID:27138527

  12. Cation Tuning toward the Inference of the Gelation Behavior of Supramolecular Gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Peng; Wu, Huiqiong; Wang, Xiaojuan; He, Ting; Shen, Rujuan; Yue, Fan; Wang, Jide; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    We serendipitously discovered that the tripeptide Asp-Phe-Phe trifluoroacetic acid salt (hereafter abbreviated as β-AspFF) formed a reversible thermotropic gel in chloroform solution (at temperatures higher than the boiling point of chloroform), and a stable gel in toluene solution (at equal to or lower than the room temperature). Experimental results indicate that doping metal ions into β-AspFF toluene gels can trigger morphological variations in the gel skeleton, thereby increasing gel volume and inducing the collapse of organogels. Investigation on the cation-tuned gelation behavior of β-AspFF can be used to elucidate heating-induced gel collapse (of normal gel) or reverse thermotropic gelation as well as select carbamide and acetamide as activators of β-AspFF gels in chloroform solution at room temperature. PMID:27138527

  13. Studies on the Surface Interaction and Dispersity of Silver Nanoparticles in Organic Solvents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Rong; RONG Min-Zhi; ZHANG Ming-Qiu; ZENG Han-Min

    2000-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles with different sizes have been prepared by microemulsion and have been surface-modified with C12H25SH. Electron spin resonance results indicate that there exist some kinds of surface local paramagnetic sites in capped Ag nanoparticles, which leads to the relation between electron spin resonance parameters and particle size deviating from Kawabata's description. Thereis a strong interaction between nanosilver and chloroform. The smaller the particles, the stronger the interaction. Transmission electron microscopy and ultravilolet-visible absorption spectra confirmed that Ag nanoparticles are well dispersed in chloroform, implying that a good dispersity of Ag nanoparticles in polymers could be obtained by means of solution mixing by using chloroform as the solvent.

  14. Cation Tuning toward the Inference of the Gelation Behavior of Supramolecular Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Peng; Wu, Huiqiong; Wang, Xiaojuan; He, Ting; Shen, Rujuan; Yue, Fan; Wang, Jide; Zhang, Yi

    2016-05-01

    We serendipitously discovered that the tripeptide Asp–Phe–Phe trifluoroacetic acid salt (hereafter abbreviated as β-AspFF) formed a reversible thermotropic gel in chloroform solution (at temperatures higher than the boiling point of chloroform), and a stable gel in toluene solution (at equal to or lower than the room temperature). Experimental results indicate that doping metal ions into β-AspFF toluene gels can trigger morphological variations in the gel skeleton, thereby increasing gel volume and inducing the collapse of organogels. Investigation on the cation-tuned gelation behavior of β-AspFF can be used to elucidate heating-induced gel collapse (of normal gel) or reverse thermotropic gelation as well as select carbamide and acetamide as activators of β-AspFF gels in chloroform solution at room temperature.

  15. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Batallán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to analyze the larvicidal activity of different crude extracts of Larrea cuneifolia and its most abundant lignan, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA, against Culex quinquefasciatus. METHODS: Chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts from L. cuneifolia and NDGA were tested against larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. RESULTS: The chloroform extract showed the highest larvicidal effect, with an estimated LC50 of 0.062 mg/ml. NDGA also demonstrated significant larvicidal activity with an estimated LC50 of 0.092 mg/ml. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the chloroform extract of L. cuneifolia and NDGA are promising insecticides of botanical origin that could be useful for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  16. Isolation and Identification of an Antiproliferative Compound from Fructose-Tryptophan Maillard Reaction Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Su Jeong; Jang, Gwi Yeong; Kim, Min Young; Hwang, In Guk; Kim, Hyun Young; Woo, Koan Sik; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Song, Jin; Lee, Junsoo; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2016-04-20

    This study was performed to isolate and identify a compound with antiproliferative activity against human stomach cancer cell lines, from fructose-tryptophan Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The MRPs, prepared from a fructose-tryptophan solution heated at 130 °C for 2 h, were fractionated into five solvent fractions: n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water. The highest antiproliferative activity was found in the chloroform fraction (85.93% at 200 μg/mL), and the active compound from this chloroform fraction was purified by silica gel column chromatography, TLC, and preparative HPLC. The antiproliferative activity (IC50) of the active compound was 42.24 μg/mL, and the active compound was identified as perlolyrine (C16H10N2O2) by (1)H/(13)C NMR, DEPT, HMBC, and LC-ESI-MS. Therefore, this research may be useful in developing perlolyrine as a functional therapeutic agent. PMID:27041128

  17. IN VITRO CYTOTOXIC EFFECT OF METHANOLIC CRUDE EXTRACTS OF TERMINALIA CHEBULA

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    Md.Golam Kibria

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to observe invitro cytotoxic effect of methanolic crude extracts of Terminalia chebula (Family: Combretaceae. The bark of Terminalia chebula were soaked with methanol and then methanolic crude extract was fractionated into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and chloroform soluble fractions. The methanolic crude extracts (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and chloroform soluble fractions of Terminalia chebula were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. A reputed cytotoxic agent vincristine sulphate used as a positive control. From the results of the brine shrimp lethality bioassay it can be well predicted that methanolic crude extracts (n-hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform soluble fractions of Terminalia chebula possess cytotoxic principles, (LC50 1.413 mg/mL, 1.492 mg/mL and 1.496 mg/mL respectively comparison with positive control, vincristine sulphate (LC50 0.563 mg/mL.

  18. Isoflavone and triterpenoid isolated from an endemic plant Genista microcephala Coss et Dur.

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    Ilhem Bouakaz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Genista microcephala Coss et Dur is a plant that grows in northern of Algeria. The Genista species show interesting biological properties. Aims: To study phytochemically of the aerial parts of G. microcephala and search new compounds with pharmacological interest. Methods: Aerial parts of G. microcephala were extracted using chloroform. The extract was purified by several chromatography processes. Isolated compounds were analyzed by the usual spectroscopic methods and 2D NMR technics. Results: From the chloroformic extract of the air parts of Genista microcephala (Leguminosae two known components were obtained. The structures of these compounds were oleanolic acid (1, alpinum isoflavone (2 elucidated by the usual spectroscopic methods and 2D NMR technics and by comparison with literature data. Conclusions: Two known components were obtained from the chloroformic extract of the air parts of Genista microcephala but they have not previously been reported from this species.

  19. Antioxidant, Anticholinesterase and Antibacterial Activities of Jurinea consanguinea DC

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    Hülya Öztürk

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate in vitro antioxidant, anticholinesterase and antibacterial activities of the petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts obtained from the aerial parts of Jurinea consanguinea DC. (Asteraceae. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of these crude extracts were determined as pyrocatechol and quercetin equivalents, respectively. The methanol extract which possessed almost the same effect with the chloroform extract in b -carotene-linoleic acid system exhibited higher free radical scavenging activity than a standard compound, BHT, at 100 and 200 m g/mL concentrations. The petroleum ether extract showed the highest acetylcholinesterase inhibitory activity among the tested extracts. The methanol extract exhibited higher butyrylcholinesterase inhibitory activity than galantamine at all concentrations (94% inhibition at 200 m g/mL. The antibacterial activity of the extracts was determined by the disc diffusion method. The chloroform extract showed moderate activity against B. subtilis, P. aeruginosa and S. aureus.

  20. Total phenolic, flavonoids and tannin contents in different extracts of Artemisia absinthium

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rajeev Singh

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available The A. absinthium is commonly known as wormwood having antipyretic, antimicrobial, antifungal, diuretic and anti-inflammatory properties. Natural bioactive compounds like phenols and flavonoids are the important secondary metabolites in plant posses high scavenging ability of free radical and reactive oxygen species produced in mammals. To maximize these agents in the extract different solvents viz. aqueous, ethanolic and chloroform are used for the extraction procedure (among these different extractions. Current study was aimed to determine the levels of total phenolic, flavonoids and tannin contents. Observations suggested that ethanolic extract has significantly high (P<0.05 concentration of flavonoids, phenolic and tannin contents as compared to aqueous and chloroform extracts. Therefore, ethanolic extract of A. absinthium has greater potential to scavenge free radicals/ ROS and can produce more beneficial effects as compared to aqueous and chloroform extracts. [J Intercult Ethnopharmacol 2012; 1(2.000: 101-104

  1. ANTIOXIDANT, CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SONNERATIA ALBA BARK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Md. Ali Milon*1, Md. Abdul Muhit , Durajan Goshwami , Mohammad Mehedi Masud and Bilkis Begum

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of Sonneratia alba bark. The carbon tetrachloride, chloroform soluble partitionate of methanolic extract and crude methanolic extract showed significant antioxidant property using 1,1-diphenyl-2-pecrylhydrazyl(DPPH scavenging assay ,of which chloroform partitionate and crude extract demonstrated highest activity with IC50 value of 12µg/ml and 14µg/ml respectively. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, LC50 values obtained from the best fit line slope were 0.812, 14.94, 0.831 and 3.288 µg/ml for standard (Vincristine sulphate, n-Hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform soluble partitionate of methanolic extract respectively. The carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction revealed moderate activities against Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutea, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella dysenteriae test organisms.

  2. Absorption spectra of PTCDI: A combined UV-Vis and TD-DFT study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oltean, Mircea; Calborean, Adrian; Mile, George; Vidrighin, Mihai; Iosin, Monica; Leopold, Loredana; Maniu, Dana; Leopold, Nicolae; Chiş, Vasile

    2012-11-01

    Absorption spectra of PTCDI (3,4,9,10-perylene-tetracarboxylic-diimide) have been investigated in chloroform, N,N'-dimethylformamide (DMF) and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO). While no signature of assembled PTCDI molecules is observed in chloroform solution, distinct bands assigned to their aggregation have been identified in DMF and DMSO solutions. PTCDI monomers show very similar absorption patterns in chloroform and DMSO solutions. Experimental data, including the vibronic structure of the absorption spectra were explained based on the Franck-Condon approximation and quantum chemical results obtained at PBE0-DCP/6-31+G(d,p) level of theory. Geometry optimization of the first excited state leads to a nice agreement between the calculated adiabatic transition energies and experimental data.

  3. IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES OF LAWSONIA INERMIS LEAF EXTRACTS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak Sarojini

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available To know the in vitro antibacterial activities of n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, benzene, acetone and acetronitrile extracts of the leaves of Lawsonia inermis(Family- Lythraceae, present study was conducted. All the extracts were used at 50mg/ml, 100mg/ml and 300mg/ml concentrations. For the present study Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli were used. Against Bacillus subtilis, the ethyl acetate extract was more potent than tetracycline (25µl/ml, which was used as a positive control. On the other hand, the chloroform extract and tetracycline more or less produce equal zone of inhibition against that strain. n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, acetone and acetonitrile extracts were effective against all the strains used in the study. All the extracts of Lawsonia inermis, which were having antibacterial activities, produced such activities in a dose dependent manner. For the study dimethylsulfoxide was used as negative control.

  4. Occurrence of volatile organic compounds in shallow alluvial aquifers of a Mediterranean region: Baseline scenario and ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, T; Borgoni, R; Ambrosini, R; Cifoni, M; Galassi, D M P; Petitta, M

    2015-12-15

    A regional survey of eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs), namely BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and p-xylene) and four chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs: chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene), was carried out at 174 sites, in 17 alluvial aquifers of Abruzzo, a Mediterranean region of southern Italy, from 2004 to 2009. Frequency of detection, concentration range, spatial distribution pattern, and temporal trend of contaminant concentration in each aquifer were analyzed as well as the relationships between VOC concentrations and the total amount of precipitation during the 90days preceding each sampling date. A review of published ecotoxicological data, providing an indication of the biological risk associated with the observed levels of VOC contamination, was presented and discussed. BTEX concentrations were under detection limits in all the investigated aquifers, indicating absence of contamination. In contrast, CAH contamination occurred in 14 out of 17 aquifers. The two most frequently detected compounds were chloroform and tetrachloroethene. No significant temporal trend was observed for chloroform and tetrachloroethene concentrations during the six years of observation, indicating the persistence of stable contaminations, except for some slightly decreasing trends observed in three out of 17 aquifers. In four aquifers chloroform and tetrachloroethene concentrations increased with precipitations in the preceding months. Spatial patterns of contamination differed among aquifers, indicating highly complex contaminant distributions at aquifer scale not related to single-plume geometries. Patterns of contamination by chloroform and tetrachloroethene in the most urbanized aquifers were likely associated with multiple sources of VOCs not clearly detectable at the scale used in this study. In five out of 17 aquifers, chloroform and tetrachloroethene co-occurred at concentrations that are lethal to groundwater

  5. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and in vitro anthelmintic activities ofMaesa lanceolata solvent extracts againstLymnatis nilotica (aquatic leech)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wondu Dagnaw; Alemayehu Mekonnen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate phytochemicals constituents and check the anthelmintic activities of Maesa lanceolata (M. lanceolata) solvent extracts against aquatic leech. Methods: Several phytochemicals were tested and screened from petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts ofM. lanceolata extracts and their anthelmintic activities were done based on the standard procedure against aquatic leech. Piperazine citrate (20 mg/mL) was used as a reference standard while distilled water was used as a control. Results:Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts ofM. lanceolata revealed the presence of flavonoids and alkaloids in chloroform extracts and alkaloids in methanol extracts. In addition to the qualitative analysis of the plant extracts, the anthelmintic effects were also evaluated against aquatic leech (Lymnatis nilotica). Accordingly, various concentrations (10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/mL) of each solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts and 20 mg/mL of standard drug were prepared and tested against the selected leech. All the tested concentrations showed anthelmintic activities in a dose-dependent manner. From petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts, chloroform extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration was effective with the paralytic time of (29.00 ± 1.06) min and death time of (65.00 ± 2.00) min in gradient extraction method. But in the case of extraction without gradient method, methanol extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration showed effective paralysis and death time (26.00 ± 1.73) and (56.00 ± 1.56) min, respectively, against the selected aquatic leech. Conclusions:The present study revealed thatM. lanceolata extracts have magic anthelmintic activities which are helpful to treat aquatic leeches (Lymnatis nilotica) which are associated with the nasal cavities of animals and human beings.

  6. In vitro anti-proliferative, anti-bacterial potential and induction of DNA strand break of partially purified Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhulika Bhagat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuscuta reflexa is an important medicinal plant, mentioned in Ayurveda, an ancient Indian system of medicine. The plant is selected to evaluate the possibility for novel pharmaceuticals for anticancer and antibiotics drugs. Since most of these drugs had developed resisitance against currently used chemotherapeutics. This study describes the in vitro anti-proliferative, anti-bacterial and single stand DNA break of the holoprasitic plant Cuscuta reflexa. Bioassay-guided fractionation and partial purification of the plant were done and evaluated for antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines by SRB assay and single strand DNA break by comet assay. Further antibacterial activity was also performed by agar well diffusion assay. The alcoholic extract, chloroform fraction and partially purified ethylacetate-methanol (1:1 sub-fraction of C. reflexa showed anti-proliferative potential against IMR-32 and 502713 human cancer cell lines. Alcoholic extract exhibited anti-proliferative activity of 74% and 72%, chloroform fraction demonstrated 91% and 95% against neuroblastoma (IMR-32 and colon (502713 cancer cell lines at 100 μg/ml. Single strand DNA break of the chloroform fraction was also demonstrated using comet assay, indicating that possible mode of cell death may be apoptosis. Anti-microbial properties were evaluated against eight species of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms and maximum zone of inhibition for anti-bacterial activity was found against Staphylococcus aureus (22 mm by alcoholic extract, 21 mm by chloroform fraction and 12 mm by ethylacetate-methanol (1:1 sub-fraction. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the chloroform fraction was 1500 μg/ml for S. aureus. The plant was found to be equally effective against gram-positive and negative bacteria. Studies are well underway to isolate and identify active compounds from chloroform fraction and ethyl acetate:methanol (1:1 sub-fraction, which can be used as

  7. Identification of Secondary Metabolites Compounds and Antibacterial Activities on The Extract of Soursop Leaf

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    Dian Riana Ningsih

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of bacterial infectious diseases using semi-synthetic antibiotics can lead to resistance, so as to overcome it necessary to search for natural ingredients from plant extracts that has potential as an antibacterial, one of which is the leaf extract of soursop (Annona muricata L.. This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of soursop leaf against E. coli and identify groups most active chemical compounds from the extracts. Soursop leaves extracted by maceration using n-hexane, chloroform and methanol. The extracts were tested for antibacterial activity using the diffusion method. Extract with the highest activity determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations grow (MIC and tested the content of secondary metabolites with phytochemical test, subsequently identified using IR spectrophotometer. Soursop leaves with extraction solvent n-hexane, chloroform and methanol to produce n-hexane extract (E1, the chloroform extract (E2, and the methanol extract (E3 with a yield respectively 0.82%; 5.21%; 8.2% and produce antibacterial activity with consecutive inhibition zone of 3.52 mm; 8.34 mm; 3.00 mm. MIC of soursop leaf chloroform extract of the E. coli bacteria that is at a concentration of 1 ppm with inhibition zone of 3.23 mm. Based on the test results phytochemical soursop leaf chloroform extract showed the presence of compounds alkaloids, steroids, saponins and tannins. IR spectrophotometer identification results showed that the chloroform extract of the leaves of the soursop has functional groups OH, aliphatic C-H, C = O, C = C aromatic, CH3, C-O ether and C-H outside the field.

  8. Laboratory Evaluations of the Fractions Efficacy of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae Leaf Extract on Immature Stage Development of Malarial and Filarial Mosquito Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younoussa Lame

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the framework to control mosquitoes, ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Annona senegalensis leaf extract and its 4 fractions against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were evaluated in the laboratory conditions.Methods: Ovicidal test was performed by submitting at least 100 eggs of mosquitoes to 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations, while larvicidal and pupicidal effects were assessed by submitting 25 larvae or pupae to the concentrations of 2500, 1250, 625 and 312.5 ppm of plant extract or fractions of A. senegalensis.Results: The eggs of An. gambiae were most affected by N-hexane (0.00% hatchability and chloroform (03.67% hatchability fractions compared to Cx. quinquefasciatus where at least 25 % hatchability were recorded at 2000 ppm. For larvicidal test, N-hexane (LC50= 298.8 ppm and chloroform (LC50= 418.3 ppm fractions were more effective than other fractions on An. gambiae larvae while, a moderate effectiveness was also observed with Nhexane (LC50= 2087.6 ppm, chloroform (LC50= 9010.1 ppm fractions on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The highest mortality percent of the pupae were also recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions on An. gambiae at 2500 ppm. As for Cx. quinquefasciatus only 50 % and 36 % mortality were recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions respectively.Conclusion: The extract of A. senegalensis was toxic on immature stage of mosquito species tested. By splitting methanolic crude extract, only N-hexane and chloroform fractions were revealed to possess a mosquitocidal effects and could be considered and utilized for future immature mosquito vectors control.

  9. Larvicidal activity of extracts from three Plumbago spp against Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Barasa M Maniafu; Lwande Wilber; Ndiege, Isaiah O.; Cornelius C Wanjala; Teresa Ayuko Akenga

    2009-01-01

    Three Plumbago spp have been tested for mosquito larvicidal activity. The crude extracts exhibiting the highest larvicidal activity against Anopheles gambiae were hexane (LC50 = 6.4 μg/mL) and chloroform (LC50 = 6.7 μg/mL) extracts from Plumbago zeylanica Linn, chloroform (LC50 = 6.7 ug/mL) extract from Plumbago stenophylla Bull and ethyl acetate (LC50 = 4.1 μg/mL) extract from Plumbago dawei Rolfe. These LC50 values were within 95% confidence limits. 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-nap...

  10. The Reactivity of 2,4,6-Tirphenylpyridinium Ylids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Triphenylpyridinium ylid 2, generated by the decarboxylation of betaine 1, were noted to react with acetyl chloride, chloroform or acetone to form addition-elimination product and proton extraction - carbanion addition products, respectively. The reaction with chloroform was determined as pseudo first order from kinetic experiments. The values of kobsd and t1/2 for decarboxylation at 20, 40 and 50°C were calculated to be 4.6 x 10-4, 8.8 x 10-3, 2.8 x 10-2 min-1 and 1.5 x 103, 78, 24 minutes, respectively.

  11. Investigation of chloromethane complexes of cryptophane‐A analogue with butoxy groups using 13C NMR in the solid state and solution along with single crystal X‐ray diffraction

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Emilie; Mathew, Renny; Zimmermann, Iwan; Brotin, Thierry; Edén, Mattias; Kowalewski, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Host‐guest complexes between cryptophane‐A analogue with butoxy groups (cryptophane‐But) and chloromethanes (chloroform, dichloromethane) were investigated in the solid state by means of magic‐angle spinning 13C NMR spectroscopy. The separated local fields method with 13C‐1H dipolar recoupling was used to determine the residual dipolar coupling for the guest molecules encaged in the host cavity. In the case of chloroform guest, the residual dipolar interaction was estimated to be about 19 kHz...

  12. Antimalarial activity of extracts of Malaysian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib Nik A Rahman, N; Furuta, T; Kojima, S; Takane, K; Ali Mohd, M

    1999-03-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that Malaysian medicinal plants, Piper sarmentosum, Andrographis paniculata and Tinospora crispa produced considerable antimalarial effects. Chloroform extract in vitro did show better effect than the methanol extract. The chloroform extract showed complete parasite growth inhibition as low as 0.05 mg/ml drug dose within 24 h incubation period (Andrographis paniculata) as compared to methanol extract of drug dose of 2.5 mg/ml but under incubation time of 48 h of the same plant spesies. In vivo activity of Andrographis paniculata also demonstrated higher antimalarial effect than other two plant species. PMID:10363840

  13. Tritium removal from contaminated water via infrared laser multiple-photon dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maienschein, J.L.; Magnotta, F.; Herman, I.P.; Aldridge, F.T.; Hsiao, P.

    1983-01-01

    Isotope separation by means of infrared-laser multiple-photon dissociation offers an efficient way to recover tritium from contaminated light or heavy water found in fission and fusion reactors. For tritium recovery from heavy water, chemical exchange of tritium into deuterated chloroform is followed by selective laser dissociation of tritiated chloroform and removal of the tritiated photoproduct, TCl. The single-step separation factor is at least 2700 and is probably greater than 5000. Here we present a description of the tritium recovery process, along with recent accomplishments in photochemical studies and engineering analysis of a recovery system.

  14. Preparation of mixed trialkyl alkylcarbonate derivatives of etidronic acid via an unusual route

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    Petri A. Turhanen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A method to prepare four (3a–d trialkyl alkylcarbonate esters of etidronate from P,P'-dimethyl etidronate and alkyl chloroformate was developed by utilizing unexpected demethylation and decarboxylation reactions. The reaction with the sterically more hindered isobutyl chloroformate at a lower temperature (90 °C produced the P,P'-diester (2 as a stable intermediate product. A possible reaction mechanism is discussed to explain these methyl substitutions. These unusual reactions also clarify why it is difficult to prepare alkylcarbonate prodrugs from bisphosphonates. The compounds prepared were analysed by spectroscopic techniques.

  15. Development of technology for the large-scale preparation of 60Co polymer film source

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    60Co sources (∼37 kBq) in the form of a thin film are widely used in position identification of perforation in offshore oil-well explorations. This paper describes the large-scale preparation of such sources using a radioactive polymer containing 60Co. 60Co was extracted into chloroform containing 8-hydroxyquinoline. The chloroform layer was mixed with polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) polymer. A large film was prepared using the polymer solution containing the complex. The polymer film was then cut into circular sources, mounted on a source holder and supplied to various users

  16. Roseovarius azorensis sp. nov., isolated from seawater at Espalamaca, Azores

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Rajasabapathy, R.; Mohandass, C.; Dastager, S.G.; Liu, Q.; Khieu, T.-N.; Son, C.K.; Li, W.-J.; Colaco, A.

    was developed in chloroform/methanol/water (65:25:3.8, by vol.) and the second in chloroform/methanol/acetic acid/water (40:7.5:6:1.8, by vol.). Total lipid material and specific functional groups were detected using molybdophosphoric acid (total lipids...), molybdenum blue spray reagent (phosphate), ninhydrin (free amino groups), periodate-Schiff (α-glycols), and α-naphthol reagent (sugars). Isoprenoid quinones were determined as described by Minnikin et al. (1984). The genomic DNA for G+C content analysis...

  17. The use of decylamine for the extraction of actinides and lanthanides from carbonate solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper studies the extraction of actinides (Th, U, Pu, Am, Cm, Bk, Cf) and the lanthanides (Ce, Eu, Yb, Lu) from solutions of ammonium bicarbonate by decylamine (DA) chloride in chloroform. The following order of extraction of the actinides in various oxidation states was established: Me(III) >Me(IV) > (Me(VI). The extraction of trivalent transplutonium elements increases in the series Cf -3 ion concentration and, conversely, increase with increasing concentration of the metal and extraction reagent. In the system NH4HCO3-DA in chloroform, a high separation factor of the Am-U pair, equal to 103, is observed

  18. ANTICANCER POTENTIAL OF BAMBUSA BAMBOS LEAF EXTRACTS

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    Muneerudeen J

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Anti-cancer activities of chloroform and hydro-alcohol leaf extracts of Bambusa bambos was evaluated in vitro using Dalton’s Lymphoma Ascites (DLA and Ehrlich’s Ascites Carcinoma (EAC cell lines by Trypan blue dye exclusion method. The chloroform extract exhibited better activity compared to hydro-alcohol extract. Further hemolytic activities of both the extracts were carried out to measure the extent of damage to normal red blood cell membranes. The findings suggested that both the extracts produced no signs of hemolysis indicating that the extracts are not toxic to normal erythrocytes.

  19. Antibacterial Activity of Barringtonia acutangula against Selected Urinary Tract Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S; Panda, P K; Mishra, S R; Parida, R K; Ellaiah, P; Dash, S K

    2008-09-01

    Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn belonging to family Barringtoniaceae was investigated to evaluate In vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanolic, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli the major urinary tract infection causing pathogens were tested by disc diffusion assay method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was evaluated. Ethanol (95%) extract exhibited broader spectrum of inhibition followed by chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts against the urinary tract pathogens under test. An attempt has been made to compare the activity of extracts with standard antibiotics against selected urinary tract infection causing pathogens. PMID:21394275

  20. Antibacterial activity of Barringtonia acutangula against selected urinary tract pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Barringtonia acutangula (L. Gaertn belonging to family Barringtoniaceae was investigated to evaluate In vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanolic, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts against Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli the major urinary tract infection causing pathogens were tested by disc diffusion assay method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was evaluated. Ethanol (95% extract exhibited broader spectrum of inhibition followed by chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts against the urinary tract pathogens under test. An attempt has been made to compare the activity of extracts with standard antibiotics against selected urinary tract infection causing pathogens.

  1. Extractive Spectrophotometric Methods for the Determination of Rosuvastatin Calcium in Pure Form and in Pharmaceutical Formulations by Using Safranin O and Methylene blue

    OpenAIRE

    Marothu Vamsi Krishna; Dannana Gowri Sankar

    2007-01-01

    Two simple extractive Spectrophotometric methods are described for the determination of rosuvastatin calcium (RST) in pure form and in pharmaceutical formulations. These methods are based on the formation of ion association complexes of the RST with basic dyes safranin O (Method A) and methylene blue (Method B) in basic buffer of pH 9.8 followed by their extraction in chloroform. The absorbance of the chloroform layer for each method was measured at its appropriate λmax against the reagent bl...

  2. Polar Lipid Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: Biotechniques Polar lipids are generally extracted from dry cell material using chloroform:methanol:0.3% NaCl (1:2:0.8 v/v/v). This may be carried out by adding 9.5 ml of this mixture to 100 mg of freeze dried cells, or by adding a suitable amount of chloroform, methanol and 0.3% NaCl to the cell material, or to the aqueous methanolic phase remaining from the lipoquinone extraction. 1. The aqueous methanolic phase (4 ml total volume), together with the cell material from the ...

  3. Spectrofluorimetric determination of microquantities of aluminium in uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A rapid and sensitive method for the separation and spectrofluorimetric determination of microamounts of aluminium in uranium compounds is described. In sodium carbonate solution at pH 9.5-10.0, the uranyl ion forms a very stable anionic complex with the carbonate ion. In these conditions, uranium is not extracted by a chloroform oxine solution, while alumium is isolated as the tris(oxinate)aluminium(III) form. The interferences are previously extracted with chloroform as diethylditiocarbomates in the same tris(oxinate)aluminum(III) pH extraction. The sensitivity is 0,005 μ Al/ml of organic phase and the relative standard deviation is 10%

  4. The determination of nanogram amounts of Chromium in urine by x-ray fluorescence spectroscopy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Beyermann, K.; Rose, H.J., Jr.; Christian, R.P.

    1969-01-01

    Nanogram amounts of chromium can be extracted as oxinate into chloform. By treatment of the chloroform layer 3 M hydrochloric acid, oxinates of other elements and excess of reagent are removed, leaving a chloroform solution of the chromium chelate only. This solution is concentrated and transferred to the top of a small brass rod acting as sample holder. The intensity of the X-ray fluorescence of the Cr K?? line is measured with curved crystal optics. Chromium amounts greater than 5 ng can be detected. The application of the procedure to the analysis of the chromium content of urine is demonstrated. ?? 1969.

  5. Phenolic Compounds from the Fruits of Orania Sylvicola

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fruits of Orania sylvicola (Arecaceae) were extracted with methanol and partitioned with chloroform and n-butanol. Investigation of the chloroform and n-butanol partitions by repetitive chromatographic method resulted in the isolation of two known compounds, namely, 5-hydroxy-7,4'-dimethoxyflavone (1) and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (2). Compound 2 is the major phenolic compound and has been used as a chemo taxonomic marker for the Arecaceae family. Their structures were elucidated with UV-VIS, IR, NMR (1H, 13C, HSQC, HMBC, COSY and NOESY) and MS. (author)

  6. Evaluation of antiasthmatic activity of Cassia sophera linn

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D H Nagore

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Cassia sophera from the family caesalpiniaceae is being used in local traditional medicine for asthma and bronchitis. Powdered leaves of C. sophera was extracted with ethanol and subjected for sequential fractionation with chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol respectively. Phytochemical analysis demonstrated the presence of flavonoids and antraquinone glycosides in all of the fractions. In the present study, antiasthmatic activity of parent ethanol extract and chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol fractions of C. sophera were evaluated. For the evaluation, carrageenan induced paw edema, histamine induced bronchoconstriction, clonidine and haloperidol induced catalepsy, milk induced leukocytosis, and eosinophilia and passive paw anaphylaxis has performed. The paw edema significantly (p< 0.05 inhibited by the parent extract, ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol fraction at 4th hr with the percent inhibition 54.2%, 50.4%, 44.3%, 60.7% respectively. In the present study C. sophera significantly (P< 0.05 protected the bronchoconstriction in guinea pigs against histamine-induced bronchospasm. The parent extract, ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol fractions showed 62.7%, 60%, 55% and 64% protection at 4th hour respectively. The clonidine induced catalepsy was found to be inhibited significantly (P< 0.05 by parent extract, ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol fraction at 120 min (144.00±4.830, 150.50±9.773 175.33, ±13.990, 142.50 ±4.233 sec. The parent extract, ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol fractions failed to revert the haloperidol induced catalepsy. In milk induced leukocytosis, milk treated group showed 4575.0 ±117.44 per cu mm leukocyte. The parent extract, ethyl acetate, chloroform and ethanol fractions reduced leukocyte count (1550.0±78.528, 2083.3±35.746, 2750.0±73.030, 1266.7±72.648 per cu mm resp. and eosinophil count (38.333±2.216, 82.333±2.1246, 2.500±1.057, 40.500±2.078 per cu mm resp. where milk treated group

  7. Rhodamine-Sulphuric Acid -A New Visualization Reagent for the Determination of Sucralose by HPTLC

    OpenAIRE

    Mohd Idris; Seema Srivastava; Baggi, T. R.; Shulka, S. K.; A. K. Ganjoo

    2010-01-01

    Sucralose a UV-visible inactive compound was separated on silica gel plate without any plate treatment prior to analysis, derivatized with rhodamine - sulphuric acid reagent and detected densitometrically at 456 nm as olive green band. With this reagent sucralose also shows golden yellow fluorescence at 366 nm. Two new solvent systems i.e. chloroform: methanol: toluene (v/v 5:3.5:1.5) (solvent system-I) and chloroform: ethanol: benzene (v/v 5:3:2) (solvent system-II) were developed and giving...

  8. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF CALENDULA OFFICINALIS LINN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborthy Guno Sindhu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Identification of primary and secondary constituents has become the utmost important tool for the presence of active moiety. The phytochemical screening of petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water extracts of Calendula officinalis leaf done by TLC means. Petroleum ether extract showed the presence of fatty acids, chloroform extracts showed the presence of triterpens and sterols. Flavonoids, carbohydrates, amino acids and saponins were present in methanol extract and saponins, phenolic substances and tannins were present in the water extract of Calendula officinalis.

  9. Phyto chemical and bio activities research on Tinospora crispa (Patawali)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usage of traditional therapeutic medicine is gaining attention as consumption to modern therapeutic medicine can affect health and also causing death. Because of this resurgence of interest, the research on medicinal plant is growing phenomenally in Malaysia as Tinospora crispa is one of the potential candidates and this plant is been use since long time ago as medicine. Solvent extraction method run on Tinospora crispa's stem had resulted 5 extracts which were hexane, chloroform, butanol, aqueous and methanol. Phyto chemical screening of hexane extract showed existence of alkaloid, flavonon, polyphenol substances and steroid type saponins. Chloroform extract consists alkaloid and triterpenoid type saponins while alkaloid, flavon and polyphenol substances found in butanol extract. Aqueous extract consist free acid and steroid type saponins whereas alkaloid, tannin and triterpenoid type saponins were found in methanol extract. Hexane, chloroform, and butanol extracts shows inhibition zone for bacteria gram-positive, Staphylococcus aureus where each extracts give inhibitory zone diameter of 1.5 cm, 1.3 cm, and 1.2 cm. There is no inhibitory zone for methanol and aqueous extract. As observation for bacteria gram-negative, Escherichia coli shows negative result for inhibitory zone. The LC50 acute for hexane, chloroform, butanol, aqueous and methanol extracts are 3162.28 ppm, 7813.71 ppm, 380.72 ppm, 662.87 ppm, dan 1847.85 ppm respectively. LC50 chronic for hexane, chloroform, butanol, aqueous and methanol extracts are 273.84 ppm, 259.29 ppm, 17.78 ppm, 12.02 ppm, dan 15.44 ppm respectively. Butanol, aqueous and methanol extracts gives higher relative toxicity compared to potassium dichromate. Overall, Tinospora crispas extracts are toxic compared with relative toxicity of potassium dichromate. The solvent system of toulene, acetone and chloroform with the proportion of 8: 2: 5 for hexane extract indicated 9 substances where chloroform extract yielded 6 substance

  10. A convenient method for lecithin purification from fresh eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio A. Maximiano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for fatty acid-free lecithin required modifications in existing purification methods. In this technical note we describe a purification procedure with the following steps: a homogenization and extraction of yolks obtained from fresh eggs with acetone, b solubilization with ethanol and solvent elimination and c repeated solubilization/precipitation with petroleum ether/acetone. This crude extract was chromatographed on neutral alumina, which was exhaustively washed with chloroform before elution with chloroform:methanol, allowing the sequential separation of fatty acids and lecithin. Chromatographic behavior and mass spectra of the product are presented. This fast procedure yields fatty acid-free lecithin at a competitive cost.

  11. Phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity of roots of Murraya koenigii (Linn. Spreng. (Rutaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Manisha Vats

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Murraya koenigii, family Rutaceae, commonly known as Curry leaf plant is a highly valued plant for its medicinal value and characteristic aroma. The plant is a rich source of carbazole alkaloids. The petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethanol extracts of roots of the plant were screened for phytochemical properties and antimicrobial activity for Staphylococcus aureus, Micrococcus luteus, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger. Phytochemical screening showed the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, steroids and flavonoids in the root extracts of the plant. The study shows that all the extracts possess remarkable antibacterial activity. Additionally, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts also had antifungal activity.

  12. Determination of the elemental composition of cyanobacteria cells and cell fractions by atomic emission and atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach to studying the elemental composition of cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis and Nostoc commune using a set of complementary analytical methods (ICP-AES, PAAS, and ETAAS) was proposed . The procedures were adapted for the determination of macro- and microelements (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Mo, Zn, B, and Se) in the biomass of cyanobacteria and separated cell fractions (chloroform and water-methanol extracts and precipitates). The conditions for the mineralization of biological materials were optimized for autoclave and microwave sample preparation procedures. The evaporation and atomization of Se and Mo in a graphite furnace in the presence of chloroform and methanol were studied

  13. Studying the Greenhouse Effect: A Simple Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Studies the parameters involved in a presentation of the greenhouse effect and describes a simple demonstration of this effect. Required equipment includes a 100-120 watt lamp, a 250mL beaker, and a thermometer capable of recording 0-750 degrees Celsius together with a small amount of chloroform. (Author/SAH)

  14. Antioxidant activity and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of extracts of the marine algae, caulerpa peltata and padina gymnospora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Murugan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of our previous investigations on extracts of selected marine algae showed that Caulerpa peltata and Padina gymnospora had more promising antiproliferative and antioxidant activities than Gelidiella acerosa and Sargassum wightii. Based on these results, the more active chloroform extract of C. peltata and ethyl acetate extract of P. gymnospora were further analyzed for their constituents by using gas chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry. The GC-MS analysis (GC % peak area given in parentheses showed that fucosterol (12.45% and L-(+-ascorbic acid 2,6-dihexadecanoate (8.13% were the major compounds present in P. gymnospora ethyl acetate extract. On the other hand, C. peltata chloroform extract had 1-heptacosanol (10.52%, hexacosanol acetate (9.28%, tetradecyl ester of chloroacetic acid (7.22%, Z,Z-6,28-heptatriactontadien-2-one (6.77% and 10,13-dimethyl-methyl ester of tetradecanoic acid (5.34% as major compounds. Also described in the report are the beta-carotene bleaching inhibitory and total reducing activities of the chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of C. peltata and P. gymnospora, respectively, relative to the other three extracts (aqueous, methanol, chloroform or ethyl acetate of the two algae.

  15. Effect of anion nature of extraction of uranium(6) cationic complexes with diantipyrylmethane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction of uranium(6) from trifluoro-, trichloro-, sodium tribromoacetate- and sodium naphthalane sulfonate solutions by diantipyrylmethane in chloroform is studied. Conditions for element quantitative extraction are found. Composition of extracted complexes -UO2LX2 is determined. The process chemical nature is discussed. 9 refs.; 2 figs

  16. Extraction of alkaloids for NMR-based profiling

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Yilmaz, Ali; Nyberg, Nils; Jaroszewski, Jerzy W.

    2012-01-01

    A museum collection of Cinchona cortex samples (n = 117), from the period 1850–1950, were extracted with a mixture of chloroform-d1, methanol-d4, water-d2, and perchloric acid in the ratios 5:5:1:1. The extracts were directly analyzed using 1H NMR spectroscopy (600 MHz) and the spectra evaluated ...

  17. Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Elíca Amara Cecília; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Ribeiro Junior, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Lisboa Ribeiro, Thyago Fernando; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; Prado Moura, Flávia de Barros; Goulart Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzebio

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (11.1460 μg·mL−1 and 25.8689 μg·mL−1, resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (29.018 μg·mL−1 and 17.230 μg·mL−1, resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277 μg·mL−1 and 706.990 μg·mL−1) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar. PMID:24688787

  18. Determination of natural thorium in urines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A procedure for the quantitative analysis of thorium in urine is described. After precipitation with ammonium hydroxide, dissolution of the precipitate, extraction at pH 4-4.2 with cupferron in chloroformic solution and mineralization, a colorimetric determination of thorium with thorin is performed. It is thus possible to detect about 2 γ of thorium in the sample. (author)

  19. Ovicidal activity of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the ovicidal efficacy of different solvent leaf extracts of Ageratina adenophora against dengue vector Aedes aegypti . Methods: The ovicidal efficacy of the crude leaf extracts of A. adenophora with five different solvents (hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol) and was ...

  20. Application of substoichiometric radioisotopic dilution to extraction of trace-level cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genova, N.; Crespi, V.C.; Maggi, L.; Brandone, A. (Pavia Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Chimica Generale e Inorganica)

    1983-04-01

    A substoichiometric isotopic dilution method was coupled to the standard addition technique for the determination of trace-level cadmium. /sup 109/Cd carrier-free as a radiotracer and extraction with dithizone in chloroform were used. A preconcentration procedure, which also cuts down the main interferences, for tap and natural waters was suggested. The sensitivity and accuracy of the method are discussed.

  1. Generation and Reaction of Carbamoyl Anions in Flow: Applications in the Three-Component Synthesis of Functionalized α-Ketoamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaki, Aiichiro; Takahashi, Yusuke; Yoshida, Jun-Ichi

    2016-04-18

    Using a flow microreactor system, carbamoyllithium compounds were successfully generated and used for reactions with electrophiles to give various amides, including α-ketoamides. The present method could be applied to the three-component synthesis of functionalized α-ketoamides using a carbamoyllithium compound, methyl chloroformate, and a functionalized organolithium reagent. PMID:26990703

  2. Sida Veronicaefolia as a Source of Natural Antioxidant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pandey Manisha

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available Antioxidants play a major role in the management of diseases which are associated with oxidative stresses caused by excess free radicals and other reactive oxygen species. Antioxidant phytochemicals exert their effect by neutralizing these highly reactive radicals. The antioxidant activity of hexane, chloroform, hydro-alcoholic and aqueous extract of whole plant of Sida veronicaefolia (family Malvaceae was evaluated using in-vitro models, DPPH free radical scavenging, scavenging of hydrogen peroxide and reducing power method. Dried powder of whole plant was extracted with hexane, chloroform, hydro-alcohol (50 % and water using Soxhlet apparatus. Hexane, chloroform, hydroalcoholic and aqueous extracts showed 7.2 %, 8.4 %, 20.9 % and 14.1 % inhibition on DPPH, while 1.5 %, 2.5 %, 23.4 % and 11.5 % inhibition of hydrogen peroxide compared to 37.4 % and 40 % by standard (BHT and increasing order of absorbance by reducing power method i.e. hexane (0.150 < chloroform (0.479 < aqueous (1.790 < hydro-alcoholic (1.906 < standard (2.082. The obtained results indicate that, the hydro-alcoholic extract of Sida veronicaefolia shows high scavenging activity. The antioxidant activity of the plant may be due to the presence of flavonoids, terpenoids and phenolic compounds of hydro-alcoholic extract of whole plant. In all the methods, the extract displayed its ability to scavenge free radicals in a concentration dependent manner.

  3. Isolation and characterization of stigmast-5-en-3β-ol (β-sitosterol from the leaves of Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Patra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (Acanthaceae commonly known as ‘Talmakhana’ in Hindi contains a number of phytoconstituents viz. alkaloids, phytosterols, glycosides, amino acids, proteins, phenolic acids, enzymes, vitamins, sugars, minerals, flavonoids, gums & ucilage, terpenoids etc. The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize phytoconstituents(s from the chloroform extract of Hygrophila spinosa leaves. Methods: Chloroform extract was subjected to column chromatography and eluted with solvent mixtures of increasing polarity, composed of petroleum ether, benzene and chloroform to isolate phytoconstituents. The structure of the isolated compound was established on the basis of elemental analysis and spectroscopic evidences (IR, UV, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, MS. Results: A sterol, stigmast-5-en-3β-ol was isolated from the chloroform extract of the leaves of the plant. The yield of the compound was 0.0046% w/w, m.p. 136- 1380C, λmax in EtOH: 206 nm, Rf value 0.72 in Toluene: Ether: Cyclohexane (5:2:1. Conclusions: Hygrophila spinosa contains β-sitosterol which may be responsible for various pharmacological activities of the plant.

  4. Crystalline mono- and multilayer self-assemblies of oligothiophenes at the air-water interface

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Isz, S.; Weissbuch, I.; Kjær, K.; Bouwman, W.G.; Als-Nielsen, J.; Palacin, S.; Ruaudel-Teixier, A.; Leiserowitz, L.; Lahav, M.

    1997-01-01

    aromatic nonamphiphilic molecules, self-aggregated at the air-water interface. As model systems we have examined the deposition of quaterthiophene (S-4), quinquethiophene (S-5). and sexithiophene (S-6) from chloroform solutions on the water surface. The structures of the films were determined by surface...

  5. The lamellar period in symmetric diblock copolymer thin films studied by neutron reflectivity and AFM

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Gadegaard, N.; Almdal, K.; Larsen, N.B.; Mortensen, K.

    The lamellar structure of a symmetric diblock copolymer was studied as a function of temperature. We used dPEP-PDMS with a molecular weight of 8.3 kg/mol as model system. The polymer was dissolved in chloroform and spin-casted on silicon wafers into thin uniform films. The degree and direction of...

  6. New dendrimer - Peptide host - Guest complexes: Towards dendrimers as peptide carriers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boas, Ulrik; Sontjens, S.H.M.; Jensen, Knud Jørgen; Christensen, J.B.; Meijer, E.W.

    2002-01-01

    Adamantyl urea and adamantyl thiourea modified poly(propylene imine) dendrimers act as hosts for N-terminal tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc)-protected peptides and form chloroform-soluble complexes. investigations with NMR spectroscopy show that the peptide is bound to the dendrimer by ionic interactions...

  7. Inactivation of barley limit dextrinase inhibitor by thioredoxin-catalysed disulfide reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Johanne Mørch; Hägglund, Per; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager; Svensson, Birte

    2012-01-01

    Barley limit dextrinase (LD) that catalyses hydrolysis of α-1,6 glucosidic linkages in starch-derived dextrins is inhibited by limit dextrinase inhibitor (LDI) found in mature seeds. LDI belongs to the chloroform/methanol soluble protein family (CM-protein family) and has four disulfide bridges and...

  8. A short designed semi-aromatic organic nanotube – synthesis, chiroptical characterization, and host properties

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wixe, Torbjörn; Christensen, Niels Johan; Lidin, Sven; Fristrup, Peter; Wärnmark, Kenneth

    2014-01-01

    molecular dynamics simulations in chloroform). The synthesis of the tube, a heptamer, is based on a series of Friedländer condensations and the use of pyrido[3,2-d]pyrimidine units as masked 2-amino aldehydes, as a general means to propagate organic tubular structures and the introduction of a methoxy group...

  9. Evaluation of the solid state dipole moment and pyroelectric coefficient of phosphangulene by multipolar modeling of X-ray structure factors

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, G.K.H.; Krebs, Frederik C; Lebech, B.; Larsen, F.K.

    2000-01-01

    moment measured in a chloroform solution. It is substantiated that the estimated standard deviation of the dipole moment is about 0.8 D. The standard uncertainty (s.u.) of the derived dipole moment has been derived by splitting the dataset into three independent datasets. A novel method for obtaining...

  10. A flexible cyclophane: Design, synthesis, and structure of a multibridged tris-tetrathiafulvalene (TTF) macrocycle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Takimiya, K.; Thorup, Niels; Becher, J.

    2000-01-01

    that the neutral molecules include two (3a) or one chloroform molecule (3b) as solvent of crystallization inside the cavity, whereas the I-3(-) salt of 3b, obtained by electrocrystallization, has a molecular structure which is different from that of the neutral molecule in that the cavity has...

  11. Synthesis of a criss-cross overlapped tetrathiafulvalenophane and a topologically new [2]catenane

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Mogens Brønsted; Thorup, Niels; Becher, Jan

    Using stepwise cyclization reactions followed by an intramolecular coupling., a criss-cross overlapped tetrathiafulvalenophane was prepared. The structure of the cis,cis isomer was elucidated by X-ray crystallography which revealed a host-guest complex with chloroform. This electron donor was used...

  12. Evidence for Microbial Iron Reduction in a Landfill Leachate-Polluted Aquifer (Vejen, Denmark)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen; Christensen, Thomas Højlund

    1994-01-01

    increase in the concentration of dissolved Fe(II). Iron reduction did not occur when the medium was inoculated with inactive sediment and when the organisms in the inoculated medium were killed by formaldehyde, by chloroform, or by pasteurization, whereas the level of iron reduction was significant when...

  13. Selective labeling of pulmonary surfactant protein SP-C in organic solution

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Plasencia, I; Cruz, A; López-Lacomba, J L; Casals, C; Pérez-Gil, J

    2001-01-01

    Pulmonary surfactant protein SP-C has been isolated from porcine lungs and treated with dansyl isothiocyanate in chloroform:methanol 2:1 (v/v) solutions,under conditions optimized to introduce a single dansyl group covalently attached to the N-terminalamine group of the protein without loss of its...

  14. Cleanup and analysis of sugar phosphates in biological extracts by using solid phase extraction and anion-exchange chromatography with pulsed amperometric detection

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Smith, Hans Peter; Cohen, A.; Buttler, T.; Nielsen, Jens Bredal; Olsson, Lisbeth

    1998-01-01

    Saccharomyces cerevisiae obtained by using cold methanol as quenching agent and chloroform as extraction solvent. It was shown that pretreatment of the cell extract with SPE markedly improved the quality of the liquid chromatography analysis with recoveries of the sugar phosphates close to 100%. Furthermore...

  15. Preparation of [45Ti] Ti-salan-dipic

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Severin, Gregory W.; Jensen, Andreas Tue Ingemann; Fonslet, Jesper; Zhuravlev, Fedor

    2014-01-01

    of the final compound upon ligand exchange to dipic. [45Ti]Ti-salan-dipic was characterized by radio-TLC on silica in 1:1 ethylacetate:chloroform in comparison to the cold compound. This is a hydrolytically stable, cytotoxic, 45Ti compound. The solid-phase synthesis is robust, and provides...

  16. The ground and ν6=1 vibrational levels of HC35Cl3: The first high-resolution analysis of the ν6 fundamental band

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Pracna, Petr; Ceausu-Velcescu, A.; Horneman, V. M.

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 113, č. 11 (2012), s. 1220-1225. ISSN 0022-4073 R&D Projects: GA MŠk LC06071 Institutional support: RVO:61388955 Keywords : chloroform * high-resolution IR spectroscopy * fundamental bands Subject RIV: CF - Physical ; Theoretical Chemistry Impact factor: 2.380, year: 2012

  17. Atrazine removal in Danish anaerobic aquifers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Philip Grinder; Arildskov, N.P.; Albrechtsen, Hans-Jørgen

    process was abiotic since atrazine was also removed from microbially inhibited autoclaved and chloroform amended controls, although in controls amended with mercury, atrazine removal was slowed down. (ring-U-C-14)- atrazine amended samples showed no mineralization to (CO2)-C-14 or transformation to...

  18. Biodegradation of trichloroacetic acid in Norway spruce/oil system

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Forczek, Sándor; Matucha, Miroslav; Uhlířová, H.; Albrechtová, J.; Fuksová, K.; Schröder, H. P.

    2001-01-01

    Roč. 44, č. 2 (2001), s. 317-320. ISSN 0006-3134 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA522/99/1465 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z5038910 Keywords : chloroform in forest soil * Pieca abies * radioindicator techniqueus Subject RIV: CE - Biochemistry Impact factor: 0.426, year: 2001

  19. Capabilities and Limitations of an Association Theory for Chemicals in Liquid or Supercritical Solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tsivintzelis, Ioannis; Kontogeorgis, Georgios

    2012-01-01

    . The capabilities of the model are illustrated in the first two case studies: the phase behavior of mixtures used in the oxidation of 2-octanol in supercritical CO2 and the investigation of systems containing acetone, methanol, water, chloroform, and methyl acetate. In each case, both correlations of...

  20. 4-Hydroxy-1-naphthaldehydes: proton transfer or deprotonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Y; Kurteva, V; Antonov, L; Marciniak, H; Lochbrunner, S; Crochet, A; Fromm, K.M.; Kamounah, Fadhil S.; Hansen, Poul Erik

    2015-01-01

    form. In chloroform and toluene, the OH form is completely dominant. Both 4-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde and 4-methoxy-1-naphthaldehyde (fixed enol form) show dimerization in the investigated solvents and the crystallographic data, obtained for the latter, confirm the existence of a cyclic dimer...

  1. RAPID TECHNIQUE FOR ESTIMATING DNA BINDING, USED TO EVALUATE 1-NITROPYRENE ADDUCT FORMATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    A simple and rapid procedure for estimating binding of radiolabelled material to DNA and protein is described. Protein was extracted from lysed rabbit alveolar macrophages with chloroform: iso-amyl-alcohol:phenol extraction. Nucleic acids were precipitated from the lysate, and hy...

  2. Alternative chromatographic system for the quality control of lipophilic technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals such as [99mTc(MIBI6]+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Faria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals is mandatory and can be evaluated by several methods and techniques. Planar chromatography is the technique normally employed in nuclear medicine since it is simple, rapid and usually of low cost. There is no standard system for the chromatographic technique, but price, separation efficiency and short time for execution must be considered. We have studied an alternative system using common chromatographic stationary phase and alcohol or alcohol:chloroform mixtures as the mobile phase, using the lipophilic radiopharmaceutical [99mTc(MIBI6]+ as a model. Whatman 1 modified phase paper and absolute ethanol, Whatman 1 paper and methanol:chloroform (25:75, Whatman 3MM paper and ethanol:chloroform (25:75, and the more expensive ITLC-SG and 1-propanol:chloroform (10:90 were suitable systems for the direct determination of radiochemical purity of [99mTc(MIBI6]+ since impurities such as 99mTc-reduced-hydrolyzed (RH, 99mTcO4 - and [99mTc(cysteine2]- complex were completely separated from the radiopharmaceutical, which moved toward the front of chromatographic systems while impurities were retained at the origin. The time required for analysis was 4 to 15 min, which is appropriate for nuclear medicine routines.

  3. A comparison of four DNA extraction protocols for the analysis of urine from patients with visceral leishmaniasis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Almerice Lopes da Silva

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Polymerase chain reaction (PCR may offer an alternative diagnostic option when clinical signs and symptoms suggest visceral leishmaniasis (VL but microscopic scanning and serological tests provide negative results. PCR using urine is sensitive enough to diagnose human visceral leishmaniasis (VL. However, DNA quality is a crucial factor for successful amplification. Methods A comparative performance evaluation of DNA extraction methods from the urine of patients with VL using two commercially available extraction kits and two phenol-chloroform protocols was conducted to determine which method produces the highest quality DNA suitable for PCR amplification, as well as the most sensitive, fast and inexpensive method. All commercially available kits were able to shorten the duration of DNA extraction. Results With regard to detection limits, both phenol: chloroform extraction and the QIAamp DNA Mini Kit provided good results (0.1 pg of DNA for the extraction of DNA from a parasite smaller than Leishmania (Leishmania infantum (< 100fg of DNA. However, among 11 urine samples from subjects with VL, better performance was achieved with the phenol:chloroform method (8/11 relative to the QIAamp DNA Mini Kit (4/11, with a greater number of positive samples detected at a lower cost using PCR. Conclusion Our results demonstrate that phenol:chloroform with an ethanol precipitation prior to extraction is the most efficient method in terms of yield and cost, using urine as a non-invasive source of DNA and providing an alternative diagnostic method at a low cost.

  4. Rapid and simple method for preparation of genomic DNA from easily obtainable clotted blood.

    OpenAIRE

    Kanai, N; Fujii, T.; Saito, K; Tokoyama, T

    1994-01-01

    A method was developed for the preparation of genomic DNA from clotted blood that is usually discarded after extraction, for other laboratory tests. The method, which involves proteinase K digestion, salt/chloroform extraction and 90% ethanol precipitation of DNA from clotted blood, is rapid, simple, and easy because it does not impose an extra burden on the patient.

  5. Organic Chemical Attribution Signatures for the Sourcing of a Mustard Agent and Its Starting Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Carlos G; Bronk, Krys; Dockendorff, Brian P; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2016-05-17

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) are being investigated for the sourcing of chemical warfare (CW) agents and their starting materials that may be implicated in chemical attacks or CW proliferation. The work reported here demonstrates for the first time trace impurities from the synthesis of tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3) that point to the reagent and the specific reagent stocks used in the synthesis of this CW agent. Thirty batches of HN3 were synthesized using different combinations of commercial stocks of triethanolamine (TEA), thionyl chloride, chloroform, and acetone. The HN3 batches and reagent stocks were then analyzed for impurities by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All the reagent stocks had impurity profiles that differentiated them from one another. This was demonstrated by building classification models with partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) and obtaining average stock classification errors of 2.4, 2.8, 2.8, and 11% by cross-validation for chloroform (7 stocks), thionyl chloride (3 stocks), acetone (7 stocks), and TEA (3 stocks), respectively, and 0% for a validation set of chloroform samples. In addition, some reagent impurities indicative of reagent type were found in the HN3 batches that were originally present in the reagent stocks and presumably not altered during synthesis. More intriguing, impurities in HN3 batches that were apparently produced by side reactions of impurities unique to specific TEA and chloroform stocks, and thus indicative of their use, were observed. PMID:27116337

  6. Bepaling van theofylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine) in hondeplasma met behulp van reversed-phase vloeistofchromatografie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olling; M; Besamusca; P.; Rauws; A.G.

    1985-01-01

    In dit rapport wordt een snelle en nauwkeurige methode beschreven voor de bepaling van theofylline in plasma. Theofylline wordt uit plasma geextraheerd met chloroform/2-propanol en met behulp van reversed-phase hogedruk vloeistofchromatografie gescheiden en met spectrofotometrische detectie bepa

  7. Experiments for the Undergraduate Laboratory that Illustrate the Size-Exclusion Properties of Zeolite Molecular Sieves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Jason; Henderson, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments are presented that demonstrate the size-exclusion properties of zeolites and reveal the reason for naming zeolites "molecular sieves". If an IR spectrometer is available, the adsorption or exclusion of alcohols of varying sizes from dichloromethane or chloroform solutions can be readily demonstrated by monitoring changes in the…

  8. Laser separation of hydrogen isotopes: Tritium-from-deuterium recovery

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Single-step enrichment factors exceeding 15,000 have been observed in the removal of tritium-from-deuterium by 12 μm laser multiple-photon dissociation of chloroform. The photochemistry and photophysics of this process is discussed along with prospects for implementation of this method in practical heavy water reactor detritiation. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab

  9. 40 CFR Table 7 to Subpart Vvvvvv... - Partially Soluble HAP

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...-Dichlorobenzene 106467 11. 2-Nitropropane 79469 12. 4-Methyl-2-pentanone (MIBK) 108101 13. Acetaldehyde 75070 14...-Trichloroethane (methyl chloroform) 71556 2. 1,1,2,2-Tetrachloroethane 79345 3. 1,1,2-Trichloroethane 79005 4. 1,1-Dichloroethylene (vinylidene chloride) 75354 5. 1,2-Dibromoethane 106934 6. 1,2-Dichloroethane......

  10. Group concentration of metals by extraction by mixture of heptanoic acid with benzoylhydrazine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Effect of benzoylhydrazine on the absolute concentrating of copper, nickel, cobalt, cadmium and zinc by chloroform solution of heptanoic acid is investigated. It is established that at the phases ratio Vsub(w):Vsub(o)=10 copper is concentrated by 1-mol. chloroform solution of heptanoic acid well enough, zinc and cadmium are extracted insignificantly, and nickel and cobalt are not practically extracted; single extraction by the mixture of heptanoic acid (1-mol.) and benzoylhydrazine (0.5-mol.) in chloroform promotes to quantitative transfer of metals in the organic phase, at that, at pH 6-8 group extraction is observed (under condition, that Vsub(w):Vsub(o) <= 20). Shown is possibility of the concentrating of impurities in natural waters in the process of extraction by chloroform solution of heptanoic acid, containing benzoylhydrazine with subsequent atomic-absorption element determination directly in the extract. Cd determination limit constitutes 0.5 mkg/l. Destruction method of large amounts of humic acids, affecting metal concentrating, is suggested

  11. Study on the Extracting Technology of Natural Lycopene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Optimum technical parameters for extracting lycopene from tomatoes are studied with crthogonal experiments. The results show that chloroform has the best effect compared to 4 other groups of solvents: petoleum ether, acetic acid + ethanol, acetic ether, and acetone + diethyl ether, associated with the parameters of 40℃, pH 5 and the ratio of tomato paste to solvent 1:1.

  12. Evaluation of extraction methods from paraffin wax embedded tissues for PCR amplification of human and viral DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, P; Chan, D.; To, K; Yu, M.; Cheung, J.; Cheng, A

    2001-01-01

    Aim—To evaluate the efficiency of phenol/chloroform, microwave, and Qiagen spin column based DNA extractions from paraffin wax embedded tissue for use in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, to assess the reliability of amplifying a housekeeping gene to indicate successful viral DNA extraction.

  13. A new method of DNA extraction from the ethanol-fixed parasitic worms

    OpenAIRE

    Tkach,Vasyl; Pawlowski, Jan Wojciech

    1999-01-01

    A protocol of the new method of DNA extraction from the ethanol fixed parasitic worms is described. The method is based on the use of the guanidine thiocyanate extraction buffer after evaporation of the ethanol from the tissues of drying. The method has been successfully used on several groups of parasitic Plathyhelminthes and provided higher DNA yield than a conventional phenol-chloroform extraction.

  14. The three-dimensional structure of CsmA: A small antenna protein from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie Østergaard; Underhaug, Jarl; Dittmer, Jens;

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the chlorosome baseplate protein CsmA from Chlorobium tepidum in a 1:1 chloroform:methanol solution was determined using liquid-state NMR spectroscopy. The data reveal that the 59-residue protein is predominantly α-helical with a long helical domain extending from residues V6 to ...

  15. Correlations between the motion and the structure of nonionic surfactant aggregates in organic solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Tetraethylene glycol dodecyl ether is dissolved at 200C in a variety of organic solvents (methanol, benzene, chloroform, hydrocarbons). The formation of aggregates in hydrocarbon solvents and the effect of added water on their structural and dynamic properties are studied by neutron scattering and nuclear relaxation experiments. (orig.)

  16. Antibacterial, Antifungal, and Insecticidal Potentials of Oxalis corniculata and Its Isolated Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizur Rehman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxalis corniculata is a common medicinal plant widely used against numerous infectious diseases. The agrochemical potential of methanolic extract, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fractions were assessed to measure the antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities of the plant. The crude, chloroform, and n-butanol soluble fractions showed excellent activities against Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis but have no activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Similarly the crude, n-hexane, and chloroform fractions were also found to have significant activity against fungal strains including Fusarium solani, Aspergillus flexneri, and Aspergillus flavus and have no activity against Aspergillus niger. Chemical pesticides have shown very good results at the beginning, but with the passage of time the need was realized to use the natural plant sources for the safe control of insects. The current study will provide minor contribution towards it. High mortality rate was recorded for the crude extract and chloroform fraction against Tribolium castaneum. The two isolated compounds 5-hydroxy-6,7,8,4′-tetramethoxyflavone (1 and 5,7,4′-trihydroxy-6,8-dimethoxyflavone (2 were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities. The results showed that compound 2 was more active than compound 1 against the tested bacterial strains and insects.

  17. Clinacanthus nutans Extracts Are Antioxidant with Antiproliferative Effect on Cultured Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoke Keong Yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves (CN have been used in traditional medicine but the therapeutic potential has not been explored for cancer prevention and treatment. Current study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and antiproliferative effects of CN, extracted in chloroform, methanol, and water, on cancer cell lines. Antioxidant properties of CN were evaluated using DPPH, galvinoxyl, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide based radical scavenging assays, whereas the tumoricidal effect was tested on HepG2, IMR32, NCL-H23, SNU-1, Hela, LS-174T, K562, Raji, and IMR32 cancer cells using MTT assay. Our data showed that CN in chloroform extract was a good antioxidant against DPPH and galvinoxyl radicals, but less effective in negating nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals. Chloroform extract exerted the highest antiproliferative effect on K-562 (91.28±0.03% and Raji cell lines (88.97±1.07% at 100 μg/ml and the other five cancer cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner, but not on IMR-32 cells. Fourteen known compounds were identified in chloroform extract, which was analysed by gas chromatography—mass spectra analysis. In conclusion, CN extracts possess antioxidant and antiproliferative properties against cultured cancer cell lines, suggesting an alternate adjunctive regimen for cancer prevention or treatment.

  18. Clinacanthus nutans Extracts Are Antioxidant with Antiproliferative Effect on Cultured Human Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Yoke Keong; Tan, Jun Jie; Teh, Soek Sin; Mah, Siau Hui; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Chiong, Hoe Siong; Ahmad, Zuraini

    2013-01-01

    Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves (CN) have been used in traditional medicine but the therapeutic potential has not been explored for cancer prevention and treatment. Current study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and antiproliferative effects of CN, extracted in chloroform, methanol, and water, on cancer cell lines. Antioxidant properties of CN were evaluated using DPPH, galvinoxyl, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide based radical scavenging assays, whereas the tumoricidal effect was tested on HepG2, IMR32, NCL-H23, SNU-1, Hela, LS-174T, K562, Raji, and IMR32 cancer cells using MTT assay. Our data showed that CN in chloroform extract was a good antioxidant against DPPH and galvinoxyl radicals, but less effective in negating nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals. Chloroform extract exerted the highest antiproliferative effect on K-562 (91.28 ± 0.03%) and Raji cell lines (88.97 ± 1.07%) at 100  μ g/ml and the other five cancer cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner, but not on IMR-32 cells. Fourteen known compounds were identified in chloroform extract, which was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectra analysis. In conclusion, CN extracts possess antioxidant and antiproliferative properties against cultured cancer cell lines, suggesting an alternate adjunctive regimen for cancer prevention or treatment. PMID:23533485

  19. Analysis of Chromatin Organisation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szeberenyi, Jozsef

    2011-01-01

    Terms to be familiar with before you start to solve the test: chromatin, nucleases, sucrose density gradient centrifugation, melting point, gel electrophoresis, ethidium bromide, autoradiography, Southern blotting, Northern blotting, Sanger sequencing, restriction endonucleases, exonucleases, linker DNA, chloroform extraction, nucleosomes,…

  20. Ox peripheral nerve myelin membrane. Purification and partial characterization of two basic proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    London, Y.

    1971-01-01

    Two basic proteins were purified from the peripheral nervous system. The isolation was achieved by (1) delipidation with chloroform-butanol mixtures, dry acetone, and dry ether, (2) acid extraction at pH 2 and then (3) dialysis against distilled water, lyophilization, and solubilization in pH-10.7 b

  1. Determination of Poly-β-Hydroxybutyrate and Poly-β-Hydroxyvalerate in Activated Sludge by Gas-Liquid Chromatography

    OpenAIRE

    Comeau, Yves; Hall, Kenneth J.; Oldham, William K.

    1988-01-01

    A convenient gas-liquid chromatography procedure to quantify poly-β-hydroxybutyrate and poly-β-hydroxyvalerate in activated sludge was developed by combining lyophilization of the samples, purification of the chloroform phase by water reextraction, and the use of capillary columns. With a flame ionization detector the sensitivity was estimated at 10−5 g/liter.

  2. Solvent-dependent dual-mode photochromism between T- and P-types in a dipyrrinone derivative.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sakata, Yoko; Fukushima, Satomi; Akine, Shigehisa; Setsune, Jun-ichiro

    2016-01-21

    A newly synthesized dipyrrinone derivative bearing an ethoxycarbonyl group at the pyrrolic-α position exhibited solvent-dependent dual-mode photochromism between T- and P-types. While this molecule underwent thermally reversible (T-type) photoresponsive reaction in chloroform, it became a thermally irreversible (P-type) system in methanol. PMID:26615770

  3. Influence of solvents on extraction of U(Ⅵ) by N,N'-didecanoylpiperazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Extraction behavior of N, N'-didecanoylpiperazine (DDPEZ) for U(Ⅵ)in a series of solvents from aqueous nitric acid media was investigated for the first time.The dependence of distribution ratios on the concentration of aqueous nitric acid.extractant and temperature has been discussed. The increasing sequence of extractiveability of DDPEZ is given: chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, dimethylbenzene, toluene,benzene.``

  4. Changes of NF-KB activity in colon carcinoma cells treated with different crude extracts of abrotani herba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Pan; Yuying Chen; Li Yang; Zhiheng Bian; Houjie Liang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study changes of NF-KB activity in colon carcinoma cell lines treated with different crude extracts of abrotani herba obtained through solvent extraction methods.Methods: Crude extracts of abrotani herba were extracted with ligarine, chloroform, acetoacetate and n-butanol in separating funnel.Exposure concentration of crude extracts were obtained through detecting viability of HT-29 cells by MTT.Then HT-29 cells and Lovo cells were treated with different crude extracts respectively.Changes of NF-KB activity in HT-29 cells and Lovo cells using different crude extracts were observed by EMSA.Results: Successfully extracted different crude extracts of abrotani herba and called them ligarine extract, chloroform extract,acetoacetate extract, n-butanol extract and remaining extract for short.NF-KB activity was significantly inhibited in HT-29 cells treated with chloroform extract, there were no significant differences in other groups compared with the control.The same change of NF-KB activity was observed in Lovo calls using different crude extracts of abrotani herba.Conclusion: NF-KB activity can be inhibited in colon carcinoma HT-29 calls and Lovo cells treated with chloroform extract obtained from abrotani herba through the method of solvent extraction.

  5. CHEMOMETRICS IN BIOANALYTICAL SAMPLE PREPARATION - A FRACTIONATED COMBINED MIXTURE AND FACTORIAL DESIGN FOR THE MODELING OF THE RECOVERY OF 5 TRICYCLIC AMINES FROM PLASMA AFTER LIQUID-LIQUID-EXTRACTION PRIOR TO HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIELING, J; MENSINK, CK; JONKMAN, JHG; COENEGRACHT, PMJ; DUINEVELD, CAA; DOORNBOS, DA

    1993-01-01

    A general systematic approach is described for the chemometric modelling of liquid-liquid extraction data of drugs from biological fluids. Extraction solvents were selected from Snyder's solvent selectivity triangle: methyl tert.-butyl ether, methylene chloride and chloroform. The composition of a m

  6. [Constituents of the leaves of Ligustrum delavayanum Hariot].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagy, M; Baróniková, S; Grancai, D; Mucaji, P

    2001-11-01

    From the chloroform part of Ligustrum delavayanum Hariot, leaves five constituents were isolated: tyrosol, esculetine, kempferol-7-O-rhamnoside, quercetine-3-O-glucoside, and quercetine. Further six constituents (probably malvidine, two secoiridoid glycosides, caffeic acid monosaccharide ester, quercetine monoglycoside (no hyperoside), and quercetine diglycoside (no rutinoside)) were isolated from the methanolic part of above mentioned drug. PMID:11797198

  7. Extraction-spectrophotometric investigation of thulium-, lutetium- and ytterbium complexing with 1-(2-pyridylazo)-2-naphthol

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction of pyridylazonaphtholates of Tm(3), Lu(3) and Yb(3) with chloroform from aqueous solutions containing chloride-ions is studied. Dependence of the distribution coefficients on the pH, concentration of reagent and chloride-ions is established. The composition of extractable compounds is determined as well as extraction constants and pHsub(1/2) values

  8. The Effect of Extracts of Andrographis paniculata Aerial Parts on Rat Thoracic Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Raghava Naidu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (AP, (Burf. Nees. of Acanthaceae, has been used for centuries in Asia to treat GI tract and upper respiratory tract infections, fever, herpes, sore throat, and a variety of other chronic and infectious diseases. AP has cardio protective property and is familiarly known as "King of Bitters". The present study was aimed to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of different solvent extracts of AP on rat thoracic aorta. Petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol extracts of AP are used in this study. Experiments are performed on male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats for possible vasorelaxing activity of AP. Cumulative dose response curves are recorded by using isometric force displacement transducer Model FT-03 and it is connected to Grass Polygraph Model 79D. Additionally, HPLC study of chloroform extract of AP is conducted and compared with commercially available standard andrographolide. Petroleum ether and chloroform extract of AP is first suspended in 1% (v/v DMSO then volume made up with Krebs solution. The average of responses to each concentration of the agonist is plotted on the ordinate the logarithm of the concentration of the agonist on the abscissa. Among all these extracts of AP, chloroform extract 80 and 160 μg/mL is found to be the highly significant (P< 0.001 vasorelaxant effect on norepinephrine induced contraction on rat thoracic aortic ring preparations.

  9. Antibacterial activity of Barringtonia acutangula against selected urinary tract pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo S; Panda P; Mishra S; Parida R; Ellaiah P; Dash S

    2008-01-01

    Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn belonging to family Barringtoniaceae was investigated to evaluate In vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanolic, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts against Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli the major urinary tract infection causing pathogens were tested by disc diffusion assay method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was evaluated. Ethanol (95%...

  10. Antibacterial Activity of Barringtonia acutangula against Selected Urinary Tract Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sahoo; Panda, P. K.; S R Mishra; Parida, R. K.; P Ellaiah; Dash, S. K.

    2008-01-01

    Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn belonging to family Barringtoniaceae was investigated to evaluate In vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanolic, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli the major urinary tract infection causing pathogens were tested by disc diffusion assay method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was evaluated. Ethanol (95%) extract exhibi...

  11. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride via sulfur and oxygen substitution by Pseudomonas sp. strain KC.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, T A; Crawford, R L

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain KC transforms carbon tetrachloride into carbon dioxide and nonvolatile products, without chloroform as an intermediate. To define the pathway for hydrolysis, nonvolatile products were analyzed. Condensation products containing the carbon atom of carbon tetrachloride as carbonyl and thioxo moieties were identified, indicating the intermediacy of phosgene and thiophosgene in the pathway.

  12. Saponins and the in vitro bioactivities of different solvent extracts of some tropical green and red seaweeds

    OpenAIRE

    Abhilash Parameswaran Kailas; Muraleedharan Sukumaran Nair

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the saponins content and the corresponding sequential extracts prepared using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and acetone, of some seaweed species [consisting of red Gracilaria corticata, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica and Gracilaria foliifera and green Enteromorpha prolifera, Ulva fasciata and Chaetomorpha antennina (C. antennina) seaweeds], obtained from the southwest coast of India. Me...

  13. Mutagenic, antimutagenic and antioxidant potency of leaf extracts from Nitraria retusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker, Jihed; Skandrani, Ines; Bouhlel, Ines; Ben Sghaier, Mohamed; Neffati, Aicha; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2010-01-01

    Four extracts were prepared from the leaves of Nitraria retusa; methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and hexane extracts. An assay for the ability of these extracts to prevent mutations induced by various oxidants in Salmonella typhimurium TA102 and TA 104 strains was conducted. These extracts from leaf parts of N. retusa showed no mutagenicity either with or without the metabolic enzyme preparation (microsome fraction). The highest protection against methylmethanesulfonate induced mutagenicity was observed with chloroform and methanol extracts with inhibition percentages of 44.93% (at 50 microg/plate in the presence of TA102 strain) and 38% (at 10 microg/plate in the presence of TA104 strain), respectively. Whereas Hexane and chloroform extracts reduced the mutagenicity induced by 2-aminoanthracene by 83.4% (using the S. typhimurium TA104 assay system) and 65.3% (using the S. typhimurium TA 102 assay system), respectively. Antioxidant activity of N. retusa extracts was determined by the ability of each extract to protect plasmid DNA against strand scission induced by hydroxyl radicals. Chloroform extract exhibited the highest ability to protect plasmid DNA against hydroxyl radical induced DNA damages and exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, with 0.95mM trolox equivalent when tested by the ferric reducing/antioxidant method. PMID:20510330

  14. Termodinâmica estatística de líquidos com o método de Monte Carlo. II. O líquido clorofórmio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barlette Vania Elisabeth

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic properties and radial distribution functions for liquid chloroform were calculated using the Monte Carlo method implemented with Metropolis algorithm in the NpT ensemble at 298 K and 1 atm. A five site model was developed to represent the chloroform molecules. A force field composed by Lennard-Jones and Coulomb potential functions was used to calculate the intermolecular energy. The partial charges needed to represent the Coulombic interactions were obtained from quantum chemical ab initio calculations. The Lennard-Jones parameters were adjusted to reproduce experimental values for density and enthalpy of vaporization for pure liquid. All thermodynamic results are in excelent agreement with experimental data. The correlation functions calculated are in good accordance with theoretical results avaliable in the literature. The free energy for solvating one chloroform molecule into its own liquid at 298 K and 1 atm was computed as an additional test of the potential model. The result obtained compares well with the experimental value. The medium effects on cis/trans convertion of a hypotetical solute in water TIP4P and chloroform solvents were also accomplished. The results obtained from this investigation are in agreement with estimates of the continuous theory of solvation.

  15. 21 CFR 177.1595 - Polyetherimide resin.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... identified in paragraph (a) of this section shall have an intrinsic viscosity in chloroform at 25 °C (77 °F) of not less than 0.35 deciliter per gram as determined by a method titled “Intrinsic Viscosity...

  16. Extraction of 211At-astatine from hydrochloric acid solutions by means of TOPO, TBP, and triphenylphosphine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction behaviour of astatine was studied under defined conditions from hydrochloride acid solutions (cHCl>0.1 M or 1 and 2M). Therefore other effects like adsorption, reduction or hydrolysis can be excluded. The present work describes the extraction with tri- n- octylphosphinoxide (TOPO), tri- n-butylphosphate (TBP) and tri-phenylphosphine in chloroform. (orig.)

  17. Hypoglycemic effects of lactucin-8-O-methylacrylate of Parmentiera edulis fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, R M; Perez, C; Zavala, M A; Perez, S; Hernandez, H; Lagunes, F

    2000-08-01

    Hypoglycemic activity-guided fractionation together with chemical analysis led to the isolation of one guaianolide (lactucin-8-O-methylacrylate) from the chloroform extract of the dried fruits of Parmentiera edulis. Identification was based on spectroscopic methods. The compounds lowers blood sugar levels after administration to alloxan-diabetic mice. PMID:10940575

  18. Development and Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Polyherbal Formulation Containing Some Indigenous Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Dandagi P; Patil M; Mastiholimath V; Gadad A; Dhumansure R

    2008-01-01

    The present study explores the hepatoprotective activity of various extracts of Ferula asafoetida , Momordica charantia Linn and Nardostachys jatamansi against experimental hepatotoxicity. Polyherbal suspensions were formulated using extracts showing significant activity and evaluated for both physicochemical and hepatoprotective activity in comparison with LIV-52 as standard. Petroleum ether (60-80°), chloroform, benzene, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Ferula asafetida , Momor...

  19. Selective determination of vanadium using N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Technique for selective spectrophotometric vanadium determination in alloys after extraction by chloroform of vanadium (5) complexes with N-benzoyl-N-phenylhydroxylamine from phosphoric acid solutions was developed. Low boundary of determination on sample dissolving ∼1 h. Effect of the nature of mineral acids and aliphatic alcohols on spectrophotometric characteristics of complexes was investigated

  20. 40 CFR 82.5 - Apportionment of baseline production allowances for class I controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Inc 7,873,615 Degussa Corporation 26,546 Dow Chemical Company, USA 18,987,747 E.I. DuPont de Nemours...,358 Vulcan Chemicals 21,931,987 (e) For Group V controlled substances: Methyl Chloroform Dow Chemical...Pont de Nemours & Co 4,176,000 (b) For Group II controlled substances: Halon-1211 Great Lakes...

  1. Antibacterial activity of mushroom Osmoporus odoratus

    OpenAIRE

    Sivakumar R; Vetrichelvan T; Rajendran N; Devi M; Sundaramoorthi K; Shankar ASK; Shanmugam S

    2006-01-01

    The petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone and water extracts of mushroom Osmoporus odoratus were selected for examine the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by disc diffusion method using Muller Hinton agar media. And the extracts were compared with that of standard ampicillin (30 µg) and chloramphenicol (30 µg). The water extract alone showed antibacterial activity aga...

  2. Identification, isolation and characterization of the antifeedant constituent of Clausena anisata against Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olufemi O.R.Pitan; O.O.Ayelaagbe; Hong-Lei Wang; Chen-Zhu Wang

    2009-01-01

    Hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts of Clausena anisata [(Willd.) Hook F. Ex Benth] leaves and roots were evaluated against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) for antifeedant activities. Antifeedant activity was confirmed, and was found to be higher in root extracts than those of the leaf. Chloroform and petroleum ether extracts of the root showed strongest antifeedant activities (DC50S [concentration (C) causing 50% deterrence compared with the control] 0.014% and 0.016% respectively), and root extracts were fractionated using silica gel column chromatography. One fraction of the chloroform and one of the petroleum ether root extracts was active; and on the basis of mass spectroscopy and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data, the active compounds in the two fractious were confirmed to be identical, and identified as osthol [2H-I-Benzopyran-2-one, 7-methoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)]. The highest concentratiun of osthol was found in the chloroform root extract. Antifeedant activities of the root extracts, as measured by DC50 values, were highly correlated with their osthol contents. Approximately 99% of the variation in bioactivity of the root extracts could be accounted for by variation in osthol content; osthol therefore, appeared to be an antifeedant component of C. Anisata to H. Armigera. This may provide a new approach to managing this pest.

  3. Alternative chromatographic system for the quality control of lipophilic technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals such as [99mTc(MIBI)6]+

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Knowledge of the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals is mandatory and can be evaluated by several methods and techniques. Planar chromatography is the technique normally employed in nuclear medicine since it is simple, rapid and usually of low cost. There is no standard system for the chromatographic technique, but price, separation efficiency and short time for execution must be considered. We have studied an alternative system using common chromatographic stationary phase and alcohol or alcohol:chloroform mixtures as the mobile phase, using the lipophilic radiopharmaceutical [99mTc(MIBI)6]+ as a model. Whatman 1 modified phase paper and absolute ethanol, Whatman 1 paper and methanol: chloroform (25:75), Whatman 3MM paper and ethanol:chloroform (25:75), and the more expensive ITLC-SG and 1-propanol: chloroform (10:90) were suitable systems for the direct determination of radiochemical purity of [99mTc(MIBI)6]+ since impurities such as 99mTc-reduced-hydrolyzed (RH), 99mTcO4- and [99mTc(cysteine)2]- complex were completely separated from the radiopharmaceutical, which moved toward the front of chromatographic systems while impurities were retained at the origin. The time required for analysis was 4 to 15 min, which is appropriate for nuclear medicine routines. (author)

  4. Radiation induced grafting of N,N-dimethylacrylamide onto polyester film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced grafting of N,N-dimethylacrylamide onto polyester film has been studied by means of immersion method. Polyester film was immersed in the aqueous solution of N,N-dimethylacrylamide containing potassium ferricyanide as homo-polymerization inhibitor and chloroform as swelling and activation agent for polyester film, and was irradiated with gamma ray at a temperature between 00C and 500C. Radiation induced grafting of N,N-dimethylacrylamide onto polyester film by means of immersion method took place when small amount of chloroform was contained in the aqueous solution. The relation between grafting ratio and irradiation time t is shown as follows. G equals kt, where G: grafting ratio (%), t: irradiation time (hr), k: constant. Grafting ratio was constant for the grafting system where the aqueous solution was saturated with chloroform. The apparent activation energy was determined to be 10.6 kcal/mole between 00C and 400C for the mixture of N,N-dimethylacrylamide-chloroform-water. From the observation of X-ray diffraction pattern, cross-section microphotograph and differential scanning calorimetry, it was suggested that N,N-dimethylacrylamide was grafted in the amorphous region of polyester film and penetrated through the whole section of the film, and grafted N,N-dimethylacrylamide itself was in amorphous state. Water content of the N,N-dimethylacrylamide grafted polyester increased with increase of grafting ratio. S equals 0.22G, where s: swelling ratio, G: grafting ratio (%). (author)

  5. Coupling of hplc and NMR. 2. Analysis of flowing liquid chromatographic fractions by proton magnetic resonance in the presence of hydrogen-containing eluting solvents

    Science.gov (United States)

    Buddrus, Joachim; Herzog, Helmut; Cooper, James W.

    1H NMR spectra of flowing high-pressure liquid chromatography (hplc) fractions of barbituric acids dissolved in hydrogen-chloroform were obtained. Two techniques have been used to prevent overflow in the computer linked with the Fourier transform NMR spectrometer: (1) extension of the computer word length from the standard 16 to 32 bits, and (2) selective presaturation of the solvent protons.

  6. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of some selected green seaweed extracts from Muttam coastal areas, Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushparaj Arunachalam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the selected marine green algae Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca, Cheatomorpha linoides and Helimeda macroloba against six strains of Gram-positive bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus] and Gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis]. Methods: The selected green seaweed extracts were experimented with four different solvents (acetone, ethanol, methanol and chloroform against the selected pathogens by using agar disc diffusion method. Results: The maximum activity (7 mm was observed by the extract of U. lactuca against Proteus mirabilis by using methanol as a solvent and the lowest activity (2 mm was recorded by the extract of U. lactuca against L. acidophilus by using chloroform as a solvent and ethanol extract against P. aeruginosa. The lowest activity (2 mm was seen in the extract of Cheatomorpha linoides by using ethanol and methanol as a solvent against S. aureus. In Helimeda macroloba extract, the lowest activity was recorded against Escherichia coli by using chloroform as a solvent. The microbial strains S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and L. acidophilus were resistant to the chloroform and methanol of all selected seaweeds. Conclusions: Further study should be needed to identify the prime compound which is responsible for the activity against the selected pathogens especially those causing the human diseases.

  7. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of some selected green seaweed extracts from Muttam coastal areas, Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pushparaj Arunachalam; Ramesh Uthandakalai; Raubbin rajsmaill

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the selected marine green algae Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca), Cheatomorpha linoides and Helimeda macroloba against six strains of Gram-positive bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus)] and Gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Proteus mirabilis]. Methods: The selected green seaweed extracts were experimented with four different solvents (acetone, ethanol, methanol and chloroform) against the selected pathogens by using agar disc diffusion method. Results:The maximum activity (7 mm) was observed by the extract of U. lactuca against Proteus mirabilis by using methanol as a solvent and the lowest activity (2 mm) was recorded by the extract of U. lactuca against L. acidophilus by using chloroform as a solvent and ethanol extract against P. aeruginosa. The lowest activity (2 mm) was seen in the extract of Cheatomorpha linoides by using ethanol and methanol as a solvent against S. aureus. In Helimeda macroloba extract, the lowest activity was recorded against Escherichia coli by using chloroform as a solvent. The microbial strains S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and L. acidophilus were resistant to the chloroform and methanol of all selected seaweeds. Conclusions:Further study should be needed to identify the prime compound which is responsible for the activity against the selected pathogens especially those causing the human diseases.

  8. Addition compounds between trifluoromethanessulfonates and N,N-Dimethylacetamide (DMA)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rare-earth complex ions were prepared using dissolution of hydrated lanthnide compounds in the species used as ligand, N,N-dimethylacetamide (DMA) followed by evaporation of the ligand excess, and by crystallization of the dissolved complexes in DMA medium using chloroform as precipitating agent. (M.J.C.)

  9. Het ontstaan van trihalomethanen bij de behandeling van drinkwater met chloor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rook, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    It has been established that chlorination of naturally coloured waters produces chloroform and other trihalomethanes in concentrations that are considerably higher than most of the organic microcontaminants commonly found in polluted surface waters.The objective of this study was to investigate the

  10. Effect of greenhouse gas emissions on stratospheric ozone depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velders GJM; LLO

    1997-01-01

    The depletion of the ozone layer is caused mainly by the increase in emissions of chlorine- and bromine-containing compounds like CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform and methyl bromide. Emissions of greenhouse gases can affect the depletion of the ozone layer through atmospheric i

  11. Enhanced mobility of poly(3-hexylthiophene) transistors by spin-coating from high-boiling-point solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, J.F.; Sun, B.Q.; Breiby, Dag Werner;

    2004-01-01

    Chloroform is a general solvent for poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) active layers in field-effect transistors. However, its low boiling point and rapid evaporation limit the time for crystallization during the spin-coating process, and field-effect mobilities achieved for P3HT films spin-coated from...

  12. Equilibrium of Extraction of Succinic, Malic, Maleic and Fumaric Acids with Trioctylamine%三辛胺萃取丁二酸、苹果酸、马来酸、富马酸特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振宇; 秦炜; 汪敏; 黄焱; 戴猷元

    2002-01-01

    Extraction equilibrium features of succinic acid, malic acid, maleic acid and fumaric acid were investigated systematically with trioctylamine (TOA) in chloroform, 4-methyl-2-pentanone (MIBK) and 1-octanol. Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis of organic samples loaded with the acid shows that amine forms 1:1 complex of ion-pair association with succinic acid, malic acid and maleic acid, and 1:1, 2:1 complex of ion-pair association with fumaric acid. It is proposed that the complex forms depend on the second dissociation constant of the dibasic acid, pKa2. Results of equilibrium experiments show that diluents affect extraction behavior, and depend on the solute concentration. Protic diluents, chloroform and 1-octanol, are more effective than the others when the equilibrium solute concentration is lower than 1:1 stoichiometry of TOA to acid, otherwise the extraction ability shows that MIBK>l-octanol>chloroform for malic and maleic acids, and 1-octanol>MIBK>chloroform for succinic acid. Overloading (solute concentration in organic phase is lager than TOA concentration) appears for all of the studied acids, and the sequence of overloading amount is the same as that of distribution constant of diluent. The results show that the sequence of extraction ability of different acid is the same as that of acidity at low equilibrium solute concentrations, while it is the same as the sequence of hydrophobicity at high equilibrium concentrations.

  13. Potential Anti-cancer and Anti-bacterial Activities of Philippine Echinoderm Extracts

    OpenAIRE

    Rodyl J. Layson; Maria Criselda A. Rodil; Elmer-Rico E. Mojica; Custer C. Deocaris

    2014-01-01

    In high-throughput search for bioactive compounds under resource-limited settings from Philippine echinoderms, the aqueous, methanol, chloroform and hexane extracts of seven Philippine echinoderms namely Holothuria nobilis (sea cucumber), Bohadscia marmorata (sea cucumber), Stichopus chloronatus (sea cucumber), Holothuria axiologa (sea cucumber), Linckia laevigata (starfish), Oreaster nodusus (starfish) and Ophiocoma ochoenleinii (brittle star) were screened for antitumor and antibacterial a...

  14. Peroxide values of Aglaia argentea Blume, A. silvestria (M. Roemer Merr., dan A. tomentosa Teijsm. & Binn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAPTIWI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to determine the chemical components and the peroxide values of three Aglaia species (A. argentea Blume, A. silvestria (M. Roemer Merr and A. tomentosa Teijsm & Binn. Phytochemical screening was done by Cuiley method, while peroxide values were determined by iodometri-titration on methanol, hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts. The result of phytochemical screening indicated that all of Aglaia species tested (three species contained sterol and triterpenoids, base alkaloid, reduction sugar, and anthrasenoid while other components present only in one or two species of Aglaia. Peroxide values of the tested extracts were higher than that of vitamin E (40.996 mili-equivalent/1000 g samples as a standard reductor, except the peroxide value of chloroform extract of A. tomentosa (41.078 milli-equivalent/ 1000 g sample. It can be concluded that A. tomentosa chloroform extract might had similar ability with vitamin E in preventing or delaying oxidation process. A. tomentosa chloroform extract acted as reductor.

  15. Antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC stem.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lai, Zhen-Rung; Ho, Yu-Ling; Huang, Shun-Chieh; Huang, Tai-Hung; Lai, Shang-Chih; Tsai, Jen-Chieh; Wang, Ching-Ying; Huang, Guan-Jhong; Chang, Yuan-Shiun

    2011-01-01

    Oxidative stress and inflammation are related to several chronic diseases including cancer and atherosclerosis. Kalanchoe gracilis (L.) DC is a special folk medicinal plant in Taiwan. The aim of this study was to evaluate the antioxidant, anti-inflammatory and antiproliferative activities of the methanolic extract and fractions of the stem of K. gracilis. TEAC, total phenolic compound content, total flavonoid content, DPPH radical scavenging activity, reducing power, inhibition of NO production in LPS-induced RAW264.7 cells, and inhibition of cancer cell proliferation were analyzed. Among all fractions, the chloroform fraction showed the highest TEAC and DPPH radical scavenging activities. The chloroform fraction also had the highest content of polyphenols and flavonoids. Chloroform fractions also decreased LPS-induced NO production and expressions of iNOS and COX-2 in RAW264.7 cells. The antiproliferative activities of the methanolic extract and fractions were studied in vitro using HepG2 cells, and the results were consistent with their antioxidant capacities. Chloroform fractions had the highest antiproliferative activity with an IC(50) of 136.85 ± 2.32 μg/ml. Eupafolin also had good pharmacological activity in the antioxidant, anti-inflammation and antiproliferative. Eupafolin might be an important bioactive compound in the stem of K. gracilis. The above experimental data indicated that the stem of K. gracilis is a potent antioxidant medicinal plant, and such efficacy may be mainly attributed to its polyphenolic compounds. PMID:22083996

  16. Photooxidation of Some Metallocenes in a Polymer Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mallik

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the electronic absorption spectra (UV-Vis of some metallocene-doped poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA thin films containing chloroform molecules as impurities were studied after photoexcitation in the nitrogen atmosphere. Photoexcitations were made by monochromatic radiation (using a Xe-lamp source and a monochromator at an interval of few nanometers in the spectral range 210-750 nm. The changes in spectra were studied as a function of photoexcitation time (duration, amount of metallocene in the film and the amount of chloroform molecules present in the film. Occurrence of photoinduced charge-transfer between some metallocenes and chloroform molecules confined in the PMMA thin films was observed, which indicated photooxidation of the metallocenes in the polymer matrix. Photoresponse in the case of ferrocene derivatives was observed to decrease with the increase in the value of para- Hammett constant for the substituent attached to the ferrocene unit and also with increasing half-wave potential for the ferrocene derivatives. Photoeffects on the metallocenes having different central metal atom were studied and it was noticed that the photoeffects on the metallocenes with "18 valence electrons", as in ferrocene and ruthenocene, favored the occurrence of photoinduced charge-transfer between the metallocene and chloroform molecules present in a PMMA film. The photooxidation of a metallocene in a PMMA thin film resulted in an enhanced photoconductivity of the polymeric film.

  17. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PALMYRA PALM ( BORASSUS FLABELLIFER) ROOT EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Saravanan C., Priya B.*, Asir Bradley S. and Uma Sundaram

    2012-01-01

    The phytochemical constituents of Borassus flabellifer was identified and evaluated the antibacterial activity of the acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol and methanol extracts. A phytoconstituent analysis of alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols and saponins were performed on the various solvent extracts. Antibacterial activity was analyzed by agar well diffusion method against five pathogenic microorganisms, E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginos...

  18. Photonuclear method of production Cu-67

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The efficiently separation of 67Cu is achieved by using diantipyrylpropylmethane (DAPPM). Experimental separation of 67Cu from sulphuric solution (1 mol./L) of zinc (2 mol./L) with addition potassium iodide (0.1 mol./L) is realized with help DAPPM (0.02 mol./L), which dissolve in chloroform. The 84.4% 67Cu was extracted from water phase of ZnSO4 into organic phase (solution DAPPM in chloroform). The 67Cu remainder in organic phase is 4.6%. Effective extraction of protonated forms of reagent and ionic associate of metal+halide was realized by means of antipyrin forms in acid halide solution. The decrease of acidity of a water phase is necessary for effective re-extraction. Re-extraction was realised by means of consecutive washing of organic phase (DAPPM in chloroform) by means of distilled water. Some amount of ZnSO4 in process of extraction gets in organic phase that causes a low level re-extraction in first two tests. These tests re-extraction have low values pH. Re-extraction 67Cu from solution DAPPM in chloroform is carried out consistently four times by distilled water. The activity of 67Cu in third and fourth re-extraction tests was 72.7%.

  19. Využití UV/VIS spektrofotometrie pro stanovení diklofenaku

    OpenAIRE

    Čapka, L. (Lukáš); Zlámalová Gargošová, H.; Vávrová, M.; Urbánková, L.

    2013-01-01

    The determination of diclofenac, a non-steroidal anti-inflammatory drug, is based on its complexation with Cu (II) acetate and Methylene Blue followed by extraction of the complexes into chloroform. The extract is analysed by UV-VIS spectrophotometry.

  20. Phase behavior of solvent vapor annealed thin films of PS-b-P4VP(PDP) supramolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoelen, Wendy; Asumaa, Terhi; Ruokolainen, Janne; Ikkala, OlliI; ten Brinke, Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    The phase behavior and terrace formation of solvent (chloroform) vapor annealed thin films of asymmetric comb-shaped supramolecules consisting of a polystyrene (PS) block and a supramolecular block of poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) hydrogen bonded with pentadecylphenol (PDP) on silicon oxide (SiO2) we

  1. Assembly of naphthalenediimide conjugated peptides: aggregation induced changes in fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Shibaji; Nanda, Jayanta; Banerjee, Arindam

    2013-08-01

    Naphthalenediimide appended peptide based self-assembly was studied. Interestingly, an aggregation induced drastic change in the fluorescence property and gel formation were observed depending on the solvent composition (chloroform : methylcyclohexane) at a fixed concentration of 1.6 mM at room temperature. PMID:23799544

  2. Feoforbídeo (etoxi-purpurina-18 isolado de Gossypium mustelinum (Malvaceae Ethyl ester putpurin-18 from Gossypium mustelinum (Malvaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tania Maria Sarmento Silva

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available The phaeophorbide ethyl ester named Purpurin-18 and the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol were obtained by chromatographic procedures from the chloroform fraction of aerial parts of Gossypium mustelinum. The structure of these compound was determined by NMR, IR and mass spectra data analysis. This is the first occurrence of this compound in Angiosperm.

  3. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF FEW SELECTED MEDICINAL PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    Dash G. K; Murthy P.N.

    2011-01-01

    The petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of leaves of Ageratum conyzoides Linn (Fam: Asteraceae), Argemone mexicana Linn. (Fam: Papaveraceae), Heliotropium indicum Linn (Fam: Boraginaceae) and stem barks of Alstonia scholaris (L.) R. Brown (Fam: Apocynaceae) were screened for their antimicrobial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Stapphylococcus aureus, Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Candida albicans and Aspergillus niger respectively. The results indicated t...

  4. Bioactive compounds and antifungal activity of three different seaweed species Ulva lactuca, Sargassum tenerrimum and Laurencia obtusa collected from Okha coast, Western India

    OpenAIRE

    Megha Barot; Nirmal Kumar JI; Rita N. Kumar

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate bioactive compounds responsible for antifungal activity from seaweeds of Okha coast, Western India. Methods: Each species were extracted with different solvents with increasing polarity: hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and methanol using Soxhlet apparatus. The antifungal activity was determined by agar diffusion plate method by using fluconazole, ketoconazole and amphotericin B as standards. Gas chromatography-mass spectrometer analysis was done for ...

  5. Antibacterial, Antifungal, and Insecticidal Potentials of Oxalis corniculata and Its Isolated Compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rehman, Azizur; Rehman, Ali; Ahmad, Ijaz

    2015-01-01

    Oxalis corniculata is a common medicinal plant widely used against numerous infectious diseases. The agrochemical potential of methanolic extract, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fractions were assessed to measure the antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities of the plant. The crude, chloroform, and n-butanol soluble fractions showed excellent activities against Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis but have no activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Similarly the crude, n-hexane, and chloroform fractions were also found to have significant activity against fungal strains including Fusarium solani, Aspergillus flexneri, and Aspergillus flavus and have no activity against Aspergillus niger. Chemical pesticides have shown very good results at the beginning, but with the passage of time the need was realized to use the natural plant sources for the safe control of insects. The current study will provide minor contribution towards it. High mortality rate was recorded for the crude extract and chloroform fraction against Tribolium castaneum. The two isolated compounds 5-hydroxy-6,7,8,4'-tetramethoxyflavone (1) and 5,7,4'-trihydroxy-6,8-dimethoxyflavone (2) were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities. The results showed that compound 2 was more active than compound 1 against the tested bacterial strains and insects. PMID:25873973

  6. Screening of Antibacterial and Antifungal Activity of Freshwater and Marine Algae as a Prominent Natural Antibiotic Available in Bangladesh

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammed Mehadi Hassan Chowdhury

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In Bangladesh, algae have not been adequately explored for their potential as a source of bioactive substances. So, present work provides the eligibility of algae commonly found in Bangladesh as a prominent natural antibiotic against various pathogens. In vitro screening of organic solvent extracts (methanol, ethanol and chloroform of ten fresh water and marine algae showed antimicrobial activity carried out by disc diffusion method against two gram positive, four gram negative bacteria and one fungus. Marine algal species performed better than fresh water algal species. Green algae are more potent than red and brown algae. Ethanolic extracts are more effective than methanolic and chloroform extracts. Ulva lactuca and Chlorella sp. revealed the best activity among other algal species in all solvent forms. Spirogyra crassa showed very poor antibacterial activity where its antifungal activity was moderate. Escherichia coli was more resistant bacteria in a comparison to others because it showed totally resistant against some algae. Highest zone of inhibition (26 mm was recorded for chloroform extract of Ulva lactuca against E. coli where chloroform extract of Dictyopteris membranacea didn’t show any microbial activity. At the end, it was clear that almost all extracts of all algal species revealed antimicrobial activity against all pathogens. These results give an indication of the presence of promising antimicrobial compounds in the algal species under studied. Further phytochemical studies are needed to elucidate these compounds structures and activity for use algae as an alternative natural antibiotic against synthetic conventional antibiotics.

  7. DNA ISOLATION FROM SMALL TISSUE SAMPLES USING SALT AND SPERMINE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Common DNA isolation methods rely upon protein denaturation by organic solvents such as phenol and chloroform. hese solvents pose some risk to the user and require special disposal procedures. e have previously reported a method for isolating DNA from peripheral blood lymphocytes...

  8. Screening of Quercus infectoria gall extracts as anti-bacterial agents against dental pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Vermani Archa; Navneet; Prabhat

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives: A number of bacteria have now become antibiotic-resistant. This increases the importance of ayurvedic drugs. We report, here, the activity of different extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water) of Quercus infectoria galls against dental pathogens - Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus (designated) and Streptococcus sanguis (isolated). Materials and Methods: The cup-plate method was used ...

  9. Effect of temperature and extraction process on antioxidant activity of various leaves crude extracts of Thymus vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad A Hossain; Zawan Hamood AL-Mijizy; Kawther Khalifa Al-Rashdi; Afaf M Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of temperature and extraction process on the estimation of antioxidant activity of various organic crude extracts from the leaves of Thymus vulgaris (T.vulgaris ) species native to Sultanate of Oman. Methods: The dry powder samples of T. vulgaris were extracted with methanol using two different extraction methods. Both methanol crude extracts from the leaves of T. vulgaris were defatted with water and extracted successively with different polarities of solvents with increasing polarities, e.g., hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and butanol.Results:The yield of methanol crude extract by Soxhlet extraction method is better than maceration method. The yield of extraction was increasing with increasing temperature. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts from both extraction methods was measured by DPPH with modification. By Soxhlet extraction method, the activity result found in butanol crude extracts was highest and the lowest in hexane crude extract as the following order of butanol>methanol>ethyl acetate extract>chloroform>hexane extract. However, by maceration method, the activity was highest in ethyl acetate and lowest in chloroform as the order of ethyl aectate>methanol extract>butanol>hexane >chloroform.Conclusions:In conclusion, the maceration method is the best method for the evaluation of antioxidant activity.

  10. Comparison of DNA Extraction Methods in Terms of Yield, Purity, Long-Term Storage, and Downstream Manipulation with Brewer's Yeast Chromosomal DNA

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Kopecká, J.; Matoulková, D.; Němec, M.; Jelínková, Markéta; Felsberg, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    Roč. 72, č. 1 (2014), s. 1-5. ISSN 0361-0470 Institutional support: RVO:61388971 Keywords : Brewer's yeast * Isolation of DNA * Phenol/chloroform extraction Subject RIV: EE - Microbiology, Virology Impact factor: 0.886, year: 2014

  11. ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ROOTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sini; N S Malathy

    2005-01-01

    Antibacterial properties of hexane, chloroform and aqueous extracts of roots of Acorus calamus, Aristolochia indica, Cyperus rotundus, Desmodium gangeticum, Holostemma ada– kodien and Kaempferia galanga, used in the traditional medicine were studied on Bacillus pumilis and Eschericia coli by disc diffusion method.

  12. Absorption coefficient of nearly transparent liquids measured using thermal lens spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Cabrera

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We use an optimized pump-probe mode-mismatched thermal lens scheme to determine the optical absorption coefficient and thermal diffusivity of ethanol, benzene, acetone, methanol, toluene and chloroform. In this scheme the excitation beam is focused in the presence of a collimated probe beam. The agreement between experimentally obtained results and values reported in the literature is good.

  13. Antimicrobial properties of marine seaweed, Sargassum muticum against human pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Puthamohan Vinayaga Moorthi; Chelliah Balasubramanian

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antibacterial efficiency of the seaweed, Sargassum muticum (S. muticum) collected from Pudumadam, Ramanathapuram, Tamil Nadu, India. Methods: Crude solvent extracts of S. muticum were obtained by using Soxhlet extraction and the solvents like acetone, methanol and chloroform. These different extracts were tested against different human bacterial pathogens such as Micrococcus sp., Staphylococcus aureus (methicillin resistance), Salmonella paratyph...

  14. Aktivitas antibakteri dan antijamur ekstrak dan senyawa dari Kleinhovia hospita dan Pterospermum subpeltatum (Sterculiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Soekamto, Nunuk

    2011-01-01

    Kleinhovia hospita and Pterospermum subpeltatum are popular plant used as traditional medicines in South Sulawesi. Antibacterial activity test against Escherichia coli, Shigella boydii, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella thypi, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Streptococcus mutan and antifungi (Candida albicans) have been done on extracts and compounds from those plants. Chloroform extract of Pterospermum subpeltatum showed the highest activity against S. aurus with the inhibition diameter of ...

  15. Enthalpy of extracoordination of imidazole by some metalloprotoporphyrins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Changes in enthalpy during dissolution of deutero-, hematoporphyrin and their complexes with zinc (2) and cadmium (2) in benzene, chloroform, tetrachloromethane with imidazole additions were measured at 298.15 K by calorimetric method. Enthalpy contribution of imidazole extracoordination on metalloporphyrins was estimated. Influence of structural specific features of porphyrin solvate shell structure on enthalpy characteristics of interparticle interactions was discussed

  16. Solution blow spun Poly(lactic acid)/Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose nanofibers with antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanofibers containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and tetracycline hydrochloride (THC) were solution blow spun from two different solvents, chloroform/acetone (CA, 80:20 v/v) and 2,2,2-triflouroethanol (TFE). The diameter distribution, chemical, thermal, thermal stab...

  17. CONSTITUINTES QUÍMICOS E ATIVIDADE FITOTÓXICA DAS FOLHAS DE Annona nutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Lucca Silva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation and evaluation of the phytotoxic effect of the extract and fractions obtained from the leaves of Annona nutans (R. E. Fr. R. E. Fr. were performed. Phytotoxic activity was assessed on radicle and hypocotyl of Allium cepa and Lactuca sativa, where chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions proved active. Phytochemical investigation of the chloroform fraction was allowed identification of polyketides derivatives: triacontanal, 16-hentriacontane, octacosanol and triacontanol, using the 1H NMR technique associated with data from GC/MS. Using ethyl acetate fraction, with low activity, flavonoids 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-isorhamnetin, 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-quercetin and 3-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→2-galactopyranosyl-quercetin were identified, determined by spectrometric techniques one and two-dimensional NMR, combined with mass spectral data. All substances are being reported for the first time in Annona nutans. The phytotoxic activity of chloroform fraction may be related to the presence of triacontanol and similar substances. Triacontanol stimulates growth at very low concentrations, but can have an inhibitory effect at higher concentrations, such as those reported for auxin analogs. The toxicity assay using Artemia salina (BST was also performed, with the chloroform fraction showing a negligible lethal dose, LD50 = 500 mg mL-1, while the other fractions and extracts showed no activity. Thus, the presence of acetogenins was ruled out.

  18. Facile Conversion of Alcohols to Olefins by Tosylation and Subsequent SiO2- promoted β-elimination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Xiaohong; SONG Gaopeng; ZHANG Yichun; LI Yingxia

    2007-01-01

    A convenient and effective procedure was developed for the conversion of alcohol to olefin by tosylation and subsequent β-elimination promoted by silica gel in this study. Treatment of the alcohols with p-toluenesulfonyl chloride in pyridine at 0℃ affords tosylates which undergo β-elimination with silica gel in dichloromethane or chloroform at room temperature, yielding olefinswith high productivity.

  19. Alternative chromatographic system for the quality control of lipophilic technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals such as [{sup 99m}Tc(MIBI){sub 6}]{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, D.P.; Buchpiguel, C.A.; Marques, F.L.N., E-mail: danielefaria1@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Radiologia. Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    2015-10-15

    Knowledge of the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals is mandatory and can be evaluated by several methods and techniques. Planar chromatography is the technique normally employed in nuclear medicine since it is simple, rapid and usually of low cost. There is no standard system for the chromatographic technique, but price, separation efficiency and short time for execution must be considered. We have studied an alternative system using common chromatographic stationary phase and alcohol or alcohol:chloroform mixtures as the mobile phase, using the lipophilic radiopharmaceutical [{sup 99m}Tc(MIBI){sub 6}]{sup +} as a model. Whatman 1 modified phase paper and absolute ethanol, Whatman 1 paper and methanol: chloroform (25:75), Whatman 3MM paper and ethanol:chloroform (25:75), and the more expensive ITLC-SG and 1-propanol: chloroform (10:90) were suitable systems for the direct determination of radiochemical purity of [{sup 99m}Tc(MIBI){sub 6}]{sup +} since impurities such as {sup 99m}Tc-reduced-hydrolyzed (RH), {sup 99m}TcO4{sup -} and [{sup 99m}Tc(cysteine){sub 2}]{sup -} complex were completely separated from the radiopharmaceutical, which moved toward the front of chromatographic systems while impurities were retained at the origin. The time required for analysis was 4 to 15 min, which is appropriate for nuclear medicine routines. (author)

  20. EVALUATION OF NEPETA LEAVIGATA, NEPETA KURRAMENSIS AND RHYNCHOSIA RENIFORMIS ON ANTIMALARIAL AND ANTILEISHMANIAL ACTIVITIES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Memoona A, Amir MK, Sultan A, Razia P, Sumera P, Lal M, Nisar Ahmed*

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available The pharmacological investigation of methanolic extracts and different fractions of the Nepeta leavigata, Nepeta kurramensis and Rhynchosia reniformis were designed to assess the antimalarial and antileishmanial screening of medicinal plants for development of drugs. Materials and Methods: The shade-dried whole plant material of Nepeta leavigata was soaked in methanol for 10 days. The powdered drug was extracted with 80 % methanol three times and filtered at room temperature. The filtrate was evaporated in rotary to get a dark-greenish residue (extract, which was further suspended in water and partitioned successively with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol to obtain n-hexane-soluble, chloroform-soluble, ethyl acetate-soluble, n-butanol-soluble and aqueous fractions, respectively (Khan, et al., 2010a. Same extraction and fractionation procedure was adopted for Nepeta kurramensis and Rhynchosia reniformis. The antimalarial / antileishmanial activity of crude extracts/fractions was determined through standard protocol (Kerharo & Adam, 1974/. Results: The crude extract, chloroform fraction of Nepeta leavigata and fractions chloroform and ethyl acetate of Nepeta kurramensis showed promising antileishmanial and antimalarial activity against parasites of leishmania and malaria (promistogetes and schizonts by observing 1 or 0 number of parasites on slide field where ≤ 1 level is significant, while all fractions of Rhynchosia reniformis did not showed any action against promistigotes and schizonts. Conclusions: The bioassays guided isolation and phytochemical screening of active fractions against these activities will further enhance research in the field of pharmacology.

  1. Modified method for combined DNA and RNA isolation from peanut and other oil seeds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Isolation of good quality RNA and DNA from seeds is difficult due to high levels of polysaccharides, polyphenols, and lipids that can degrade or co-precipitate with nucleic acids. Standard RNA extraction methods utilizing guanidinium-phenol-chloroform extraction has not shown to be successful. RNA...

  2. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor without addition of another electron donor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, J.H. de; Hunneman, P.; Doddema, H.J.; Janssen, D.B.; Harder, W.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (52 μM) was biodegraded for more than 72% in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor without addition of an external electron donor. The chloride mass balance demonstrated that all carbon tetrachloride transformed was completely dechlorinated. Chloroform and dichloromethane were sometim

  3. Two new bioactive salsolanol and biphenylsalsinol from the aerial parts of Salsola villosa Delile. ex Schul.(Chenopodiaceae) growing in Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed; Habib; Oueslati; Faraj; A.Al-Ghamdi; Adel; Noubigh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and characterize the bioactive secondary metabolites from aerial parts of widespread Chenopodiaceae taxa growing in Saudi Arabia: Salsola villosa Delile. ex Schul. Methods: Antibacterial activities of chloroformic extract, fractions and isolate compounds was evaluated against five bacterial strains(Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis), using a paper disc diffusion method. The purification of compound(s) of chloroform extract was done by chromatographic column of silica gel. The structure elucidation was determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis(1H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance, correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence and nuclear overhauser enhancement spectroscopy) and high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy analysis.Results: Bioactivity guided fractionation of the chloroformic extract led to the isolation of two bioactive compounds: 4-(4’-hydroxy-2’-methylcyclopent-2’-enyloxy)-4-methylcyclopent-2-enol(1) named salsolanol and 4’-[3-(hydroxymethyl)oxiran-2-yl]-3-[(E)-3-hydroxyprop-1-en-1-yl]-6, 2’-dimethoxy [1, 1’-biphenyl]-2-ol(2) named biphenylsalsinol. The antibacterial effects of the chloroform extracts, fractions and isolated compounds 1 and 2 were also evaluated in this work. Results showed that the compounds 1 and 2 exhibited antibacterial activities against four strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with diameter of zone of inhibition ranging between(9.33 ± 0.94) to(26.33 ± 0.94) mm.Conclusions: Based on data presented here, two new natural compounds secondary cyclic alcohol 1 and biphenylpropanoid 2 isolated from bioactive chloroformic extract from aerial parts of Salsola villosa can be responsible for its antibacterial activities.

  4. Mosquito larvicidal activity of some common spices and vegetable waste onCulex quinquefasciatus andAnopheles stephensi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Someshwar Singha; Goutam Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the larvicidal activities of crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extracts of some common spices (Cuminum cyminum, Allium sativum, Zingiber offinale, Curcuma longa) and vegetable waste (Solanum tuberosum germinated tuber) againstAnopheles stephensiandCulex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae.Methods:Larval mortality of above mosquito species were observed after 24, 48 and72 h of exposure to five concentrations of aqueous extract (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4% and0.5%) and four concentrations (25, 50, 75 ppm) of chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extract. The lethal concentration of individual spices or vegetable waste was determined by log-probit analysis (at95%confidence level) and effect of crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extracts were recorded on non target organisms.Results:Relative mortality rate of both larval mosquito species were recorded in the following sequences:Cuminum cyminum>Allium sativum>Zingiber offinale, Curcuma longa > Solanum tuberosum germinated tuber for crude extract, and efficacy of chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extract were as follows:Curcuma longa > Zingiber offinale > Solanum tuberosum germinated tuber >Cuminum cyminum>Allium sativum.Conclusions: Crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extract of Cuminum cyminum, Allium sativum, Zingiber offinale, Curcuma longa andSolanum tuberosum germinated tuber can be recommended effectively in mosquito control programmes at very low concentrations. No mortality and other abnormalities were noticed on non target organisms and further studies are needed to investigate the chemical structure of active principal which are responsible for larvicidal activity.

  5. Larvicidal activity of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii leaf fractions against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younoussa Lame

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of leaf fractions of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were exposed for 24 hours to various concentrations (312.5-2500 mg/L of methanolic crude extract and its fractions obtained with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl-acetate and methanol solvents, following WHO method. The mortalities recorded were subjected to ANOVA test for mean comparison and Probit analysis to determine LC50. Preliminary phytochemical screening test for some components of the plants assessed were also evaluated. The phytochemical screening of the two plants revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, fats and oils in the crude extracts which, after splitting were most distributed in n-hexane and chloroform fractions. Apart from methanol fraction, all products used showed a significant (P<0.001 concentration-dependent toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae. The LC50 recorded with crude extract were 759.6 and 830.4 mg/L for A. senegalensis and B. dalzielli respectively. After fractionation, n-hexane and chloroform fractions of A. senegalensis revealed more effective activity than others with CL50 values of 379.3 and 595.2 mg/L respectively. As for B. dalzielli, n-hexane (LC50=537.1 mg/L and chloroform (LC50=585.5 mg/L fractions were also the most effective. These results suggest that the n-hexane and chloroform fractions of these plants as a promising larvicide against Ae. aegypti and can constitute the best basic and vital step in the development of a botanical insecticide source.

  6. Polarity-based separation and chemical characterization of fast pyrolysis bio-oil from poultry litter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    140 g Poultry litter pyrolysis oils (PL oils) were separated into four fractions using polarity based fractionation method. Four solvents of increasing polarity (hexane < toluene < chloroform < methanol) were used to sequentially fractionate the PL oil into four fractions (hexane fraction, toluene fraction, chloroform fraction and methanol fraction). The mass of hexane, toluene, chloroform and methanol fractions was 46 g, 29 g, 48 g and 14 g, respectively. The hexane and toluene fractions had low viscosity, while chloroform fraction was viscous and methanol fraction was almost solid at ambient laboratory conditions. The four PL oil fractions were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometry, and their organic elemental composition and higher heating values were also determined. Furthermore, major compounds in the four fractions were isolated by column chromatography. As a result, four compound classes (fatty acids, sterols, phenols and carbohydrates) and eleven major compounds were isolated from these four fractions. Oleic acid was predominant component of the hexane fraction (48.6%). The major component in methanol fraction was 1, 6-anhydro-β-D-glucose (16.7%), but the chloroform fraction had no predominant component. The 1, 6-anhydro-β-D-glucose and other sugar derivatives were water soluble and were selectively removed from the PL oil by water extraction and this subsequently decreased the viscosity of residual PL oil. - Highlights: • PL oil was separated into four fractions using polarity-based fractionation method. • The methanol fraction is a major cause of the high viscosity of the PL oil. • Fatty acids were predominant components of the hexane and toluene fractions. • The major component in methanol fraction was 1, 6-anhydro-glucose

  7. The Investigation of Antibacterial Effects of Salvia Sahendica Extracts on Some Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bannazadeh Baghi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The salvia plant is one of the Lamiacea family members, that is being cultiurated all over the world. In Iran almost all spices of this plant could found, that are used for medical, food industry and parfumers production. Salvia sahendica genus is the member of this family, that its antibacterial effects on Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been investigated. Methods: In this study are used standard strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27852 Staphylococcus aureus, (ATCC 25923 and, Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC 3583. Salvia was provided from Tabriz mall and was powdered. Then this powder was suspended with ratio 1:10 with Metanol, Aceton, Chloroform, Hexan, Ethyl acetate and water. After 24h extractions isolated and concentrated with distillated in vacuum system. Which of bacteria were cultured to over night in Mohler Hinton agar medium, then compared with 0.5 macfarland. In continue extraction were tested by used of well assay method and then the diameter of zone measured. Experiments repeated tree times and the average of data obtained. In each of tests we had a control from special solvent. Results: Regarding to the results, all of salvia sahendica extractions showed antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and. That regarding Klebsiella pneumonia, Ethanol, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate, Hexan, and regarding Staphylococcus aureus Metanol, Aceton, Chloroform, Hexan, Ethyl acetate and Pseudomonas aeruginosa only Chloroform this plant has antibacterial effects. Chloroform extraction of salvia shows the most antibacterial activity (with the biggest diameter of antibacterial zone. Conclusion: Regarding the carried out study it could be noted that for inhibition and destroying Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia, plants effects extraction could be used.

  8. Equilibrium of Extraction of Succinic,Malic,Maleic and Fumaric Acids with Trioctylamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhenyu; QINWei; 等

    2002-01-01

    Extraction equilibrium features of succinic acid,malic acid,maleic acid and fumaric acid were investigated systematically with trioctylamine (TOA) in chloroform,4-methyl-2-pentanone (MIBK) and 1-octanol.Fourier transform-infrared(FTIR) spectroscopic analysis of organic samples loaded with the acid show that amine forms 1:1 complex of ion-pair association with succinic acid,malic acid and maleic acid,and 1:1,2:1 complex of ion-pair association with fumaric acid.It is proposed that the complex forms depend on the second dissociation constant of the dibasic acid,pKa2.Results of equilibrium experiments show that diluents affects extraction behavior,and depend on the solute concentration.Protic diluents,chloroform and 1-octanol,are more effective than the others when the equilibrium solute concentration.Protic diluents,chloroform and 1-octanol,are more effective tthan the others when the equilibrium solute concentration is lower than 1:1 stoichiometry of TOA to acid,otherwise the extraction ability shows that MIBK>1-octanol>chloroform for malic and maleic acids,and 1-octanol>MIBK>chloroform for succinic acid.Overloading(Solute concentration in organic phase is lager than TOA concentration) appears for all of the studied acids, and the sequence of overloading amount is the same as that of distribution constant of diluent.The results show that the sequence of extraction ability of different acid is the same as that of acidity at low equilibrium solute concentrations,while it is the same as the sequence of hydrophobicity at high equilibrium concentrations.

  9. Antinociceptive effect in mice of a hydroalcoholic extract of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. and its organic fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracioso, J S; Paulo, M Q; Hiruma Lima, C A; Souza Brito, A R

    1998-12-01

    An infusion of the aerial parts of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. (Compositae-Asteraceae) is used in Caribbean folk medicine to treat several kinds of pain. In this investigation we studied the acute oral toxicity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the plant and the antinociceptive effect of the extract and of its hexane- and chloroform-partitioned fractions, given orally, in nociception and inflammatory models in mice. No signs of toxicity were observed for oral doses up to 5000 mg kg(-1) in mice. Morphine hydrochloride (100 mg kg(-1)), dipyrone sodium (200 mg kg(-1)), the hydroalcoholic extract (1000 mg kg(-1)), and its chloroform- and hexane-partitioned fractions (100 mg kg(-1)) significantly inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction in mice (100, 95, 47, 62 and 60% inhibition, respectively when compared with the negative control). In the hot-plate test in mice, morphine hydrochloride, the chloroform- and hexane-partitioned fractions, but not the hydroalcoholic extract, resulted in a significant latency increase in all observation times. In the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction in mice, pretreatment of the animals with naloxone significantly reversed the analgesic effect of morphine, but not that of the hydroalcoholic extract or of its hexane- and chloroform-partitioned fractions. Finally, administration of the hexane- and chloroform-partitioned fractions (100 mg kg(-1)) had a significant anti-oedematogenic effect on carrageenan-induced oedema in mice. These data show that the hydroalcoholic extract of N. lobata and, in particular, its partitioned fractions have significant analgesic properties when assessed through these pain models. Their antinociceptive effect might be the result of interference with the inflammatory process. PMID:10052860

  10. Chemical constituents of Swertia longifolia Boiss. with α-amylase inhibitory activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Soodabeh Saeidnia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Amylase inhibitors play a critical role in the control of diabetes and many of medicinal plants have been found to act as α-amylase inhibitors. Swertia genus, belonging to the family Gentianaceae, comprises different species most of which have been used in traditional medicine of several cultures as antidiabetic, anti-pyretic, analgesic, liver and gastrointestinal tonic. Swertia longifolia Boiss. is the only species of Swertia growing in Iran. In the present investigation, phytochemical study of S. longifolia was performed and α-amylase inhibitory effects of the plant fractions and purified compounds were determined. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with hexane, chloroform, methanol and water, respectively. The components of the hexane and chloroform fractions were isolated by different chromatographic methods and their structures were determined by 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR data. α-Amylase inhibitory activity was determined by a colorimetric assay using 3,5-dinitro salysilic acid. During phytochemical examination, α-amyrin, β-amyrin and β-sitosterol were purified from the hexane fraction,while ursolic acid, daucosterol and swertiamarin were isolated from chloroform fraction. The results of the biochemical assay revealed α-amylase inhibitory activity of hexane, chloroform, methanol and water fractions, of which the chloroform and methanol fractions were more potent (IC 50 16.8 and 18.1 mg/ml, respectively. Among examined compounds, daucosterol was found to be the most potent α-amylase inhibitor (57.5% in concentration 10 mg/ml. With regard to α-amylase inhibitory effects of the plant extracts, purified constituents, and antidiabetic application of the species of Swertia genus in traditional medicine of different countries, S. longifolia seems more appropriate species for further mechanistic antidiabetic evaluations.

  11. Halogenated organic species over the tropical rainforest

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebhardt, S.; Colomb, A.; Hofmann, R.; Williams, J.; Lelieveld, J.

    2008-01-01

    Airborne measurements of the halogenated trace gases methyl chloride, methyl bromide and chloroform were conducted over the Atlantic Ocean and 1000 km of pristine tropical rainforest in Suriname and French Guyana (3-6° N, 51-59° W) in October 2005. In the boundary layer (0-1.4 km), maritime air masses initially low in forest hydrocarbons, advected over the forest by southeasterly trade winds, were measured at various distances from the coast. Since the organohalogens presented here have relatively long atmospheric lifetimes (0.4-1.0 years) in comparison to the transport times (1-2 days), emissions will accumulate in air traversing the rainforest. The distributions of methyl chloride, methyl bromide and chloroform were analyzed as a function of forest contact time and the respective relationship used to determine fluxes from the rainforest during the long dry season. Emission fluxes have been calculated for methyl chloride and chloroform as 9.4 (±4.0 2σ) and 0.34 (0.14± 2σ) μg m-2 h-1, respectively. No significant flux from the rainforest was observed for methyl bromide within the limits of these measurements. The flux of methyl chloride was in general agreement with the flux measured over the same region in March 1998 during the LBA Claire project using a different analytical system. This confirms that the rainforest is a strong source for methyl chloride and suggests that this emission is relatively uniform throughout the year. In contrast the chloroform flux derived here is a factor of three less than previous measurements made in March 1998 suggesting a pronounced ecosystem variation. The differences in chloroform fluxes could not be attributed to either temperature or rainfall changes. The global extrapolation of the derived fluxes led to 1.5 (±0.6 2σ) Tg yr-1 for methyl chloride, which is in the range of the missing source postulated by previous model studies and 55 (±22 2σ) Gg yr-1 for chloroform.

  12. Biodegradation of disinfection byproducts as a potential removal process during aquifer storage recovery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landmeyer, J.E.; Bradley, P.M.; Thomas, J.M.

    2000-01-01

    The biodegradation potential of two drinking water disinfection byproducts was investigated using aquifer materials obtained from approximately 100 and 200 meters below land surface in an aerobic aquifer system undergoing aquifer storage recovery of treated surface water. No significant biodegradation of a model trihalomethane compound, chloroform, was observed in aquifer microcosms under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. In contrast, between 16 and 27 percent mineralization of a radiolabeled model haloacetic acid compound, chloroacetic acid, was observed. These results indicate that although the potential for biodegradation of chloroacetic acid exists in deep aquifer systems, chloroform entrained within these aquifers or formed in situ will tend to persist. These results have important implications for water managers planning to meet anticipated lowered permissible levels of tri-halomethanes in drinking water.The biodegradation potential of two drinking water disinfection byproducts was investigated using aquifer materials obtained from approximately 100 and 200 meters below land surface in an aerobic aquifer system undergoing aquifer storage recovery of treated surface water. No significant biodegradation of a model trihalomethane compound, chloroform, was observed in aquifer microcosms under aerobic or anaerobic conditions. In contrast, between 16 and 27 percent mineralization of a radiolabeled model haloacetic acid compound, chloroacetic acid, was observed. These results indicate that although the potential for biodegradation of chloroacetic acid exists in deep aquifer systems, chloroform entrained within these aquifers or formed in situ will tend to persist. These results have important implications for water managers planning to meet anticipated lowered permissible levels of trihalomethanes in drinking water.Aquifer-storage-recovery injection water often contains disinfection byproducts. Results are presented from a study in which two model disinfection

  13. In vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanolic fractions of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mills-Robertson Felix C

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Following claims that some plants have antimicrobial activities against infectious microbes, the in vitro antimicrobial activities of different solvent fractions of ethanolic extract of Cryptolepis sanguinolenta were evaluated against eight standard bacteria and clinical isolates. Methods The solvent partitioning protocol involving ethanol, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and water, was used to extract various fractions of dried pulverized Cryptolepis sanguinolenta roots. Qualitative phyto-constituents screening was performed on the ethanol extract, chloroform fraction and the water fraction. The Kirby Bauer disk diffusion method was employed to ascertain the antibiogram of the test organisms while the agar diffusion method was used to investigate the antimicrobial properties of the crude plant extracts. The microplate dilution method aided in finding the MICs while the MBCs were obtained by the method of Nester and friends. The SPSS 16.0 version was used to analyze the percentages of inhibitions and bactericidal activities. Results The phytochemical screening revealed the presence of alkaloids, reducing sugars, polyuronides, anthocyanosides and triterpenes. The ethanol extract inhibited 5 out of 8 (62.5% of the standard organisms and 6 out of 8 (75% clinical isolates. The petroleum ether fraction inhibited 4 out of 8 (50% of the standard microbes and 1 out of 8 (12.5% clinical isolates. It was also observed that the chloroform fraction inhibited the growth of all the organisms (100%. Average inhibition zones of 14.0 ± 1.0 mm to 24.67 ± 0.58 mm was seen in the ethyl acetate fraction which halted the growth of 3 (37.5% of the standard organisms. Inhibition of 7 (87.5% of standard strains and 6 (75% of clinical isolates were observed in the water fraction. The chloroform fraction exhibited bactericidal activity against all the test organisms while the remaining fractions showed varying degrees of

  14. Larvicidal activity of extracts from three Plumbago spp against Anopheles gambiae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barasa M Maniafu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Three Plumbago spp have been tested for mosquito larvicidal activity. The crude extracts exhibiting the highest larvicidal activity against Anopheles gambiae were hexane (LC50 = 6.4 μg/mL and chloroform (LC50 = 6.7 μg/mL extracts from Plumbago zeylanica Linn, chloroform (LC50 = 6.7 ug/mL extract from Plumbago stenophylla Bull and ethyl acetate (LC50 = 4.1 μg/mL extract from Plumbago dawei Rolfe. These LC50 values were within 95% confidence limits. 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (plumbagin 1 (LC50 = 1.9 μg/mL and β-sitosterol 2 were characterised from ethyl acetate extract of root bark of P. dawei, a native medicinal plant growing in Kenya, based on spectral analysis and comparisons with data in literature.

  15. Effect of alkali ions (Na+, K+) on the solvent extraction of uranium(VI) with a di-carboxylated calix[4]arene

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The solvent extraction of uranium(VI) with a di-carboxylated calix[4]arene (LH2) in chloroform and 1,2-dichloroethane has been studied in the presence or absence of alkali ions (M=Na+,K+). For UO22+ when studied alone, a 1:2 (metal:ligand) extracted species is evidenced, with a rather low associated extraction equilibrium constant. The efficiency of extraction increases drastically in the presence of alkali ions, due to the formation of heteronuclear complexes. In all cases, the extracted species are found to be both 1:2:2 and 1:1:2 (UO22+:M:LH2) mixed complexes, except in chloroform with K+, where only the latter is formed. In the case of Na+, mass spectrometry spectra confirm the existence of both homo and heteronuclear complexes as determined in the extraction studies. (author). 26 refs., 10 figs., 3 tabs

  16. Influência de diferentes solventes utilizados na deposição de filme de poli(9-vinilcarbazol em dispositivos OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Roberto Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the influence of the film deposition process on light emission performance and on threshold voltage of OLEDs, with architecture glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK/Alq3/Al. The commercial PVK was dissolved in different solvents such as: chloroform, tetrahydrofuran, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and trimethylpentane. OLEDs were characterized by current-voltage and revealed a significant influence of the solvents, although all devices emitted green electroluminescence. A difference in threshold voltage up to 10 V was observed among OLEDs prepared from different solvents. The 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene showed best performance, presenting lowest treshold voltage (≈ 6 V, followed by tetrahydrofuran (≈ 8 V, trimethylpentane (≈ 14 V and chloroform (≈ 16 V.

  17. To trace the active compound in mengkudu (morinda citrifolia with anthelmintic acvtivity against Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B Murdiati

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites such Haemonchus contortus is usually controlled by management improvement and regular administration of anthelmintic. However, there is an indication of H. contortus resistance to several anthelmintic available in the market, which makes medicinal plants as an alternative anthelmintic and mengkudu or noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia have been reported as an effective anthelmintic. To trace the active compounds responsible for anthelmintic activity against H. contortus, the mengkudu fruit was continuosly extracted into hexane, chloroform, metanol and water, followed by in-vitro study on the anthelmintic activity. The in-vitro anthelmintic activity was base on the ability of the extracts to kill the worm and the ability of the extracts to prevent egg development. The study suggested that chloroform fraction which contains alkaloid and anthraquinon have the highest anthelmintic activity and showed significant different compared to control (P≤ 0.05.

  18. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) of repeatedly extruded polyethylene terephthalate (PET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milana, M R; Denaro, M; Arrivabene, L; Maggio, A; Gramiccioni, L

    1998-04-01

    The paper deals with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) monitoring of the behaviour of PET (polyethylene terephthalate) after repeated extrusions. Virgin PET was submitted to three successive extrusion/drying cycles and then the samples were swelled with hexafluoroisopropanol and treated with chloroform. GPC analysis was carried out at room temperature on a B.C.S. Serial LC 2000 GPC system equipped with a series of four GPC columns with UV detection at 254 nm and chloroform as eluent. GPC results showed that after each extrusion step the molecular weight distribution of the PET was different and Mw, Mn and Mz decreased. These findings suggest that during each extrusion degradation occurs and that repeated extrusions, as in the case of the recycling PET, may cause an alteration of the molecular weight distribution of the original PET. PMID:9666895

  19. sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 I targets for studies of nuclear waste transmutation

    CERN Document Server

    Ingelbrecht, C; Raptis, K; Altzitzoglou, T; Noguere, G

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear incineration of long-lived fission products and minor actinides is being investigated as an alternative means of reactor waste disposal. sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 I is of particular interest because of its long half-life and high mobility in the environment. Lead iodide targets of sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 I for neutron capture cross-section measurements were prepared from 210 l fuel reprocessing waste solution containing 1.3 g l sup - sup 1 iodine and other fission products. The iodine was separated by oxidation to I sub 2 and extraction into chloroform, reduction to iodide by sodium sulphite and re-extraction into an aqueous phase. Iodide was precipitated using lead nitrate and dried. The chemistry was carried out batch-wise using 400 ml starting solution each time and recycling the chloroform. An extraction efficiency of about 90%, determined by gamma-ray spectrometry, was achieved.

  20. In-vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of Solvent Extracts of Leaves of Bauhinia racemosa Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae Against Enteric Bacterial Pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. B. Dahikar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical screening of the plant leaves reveals the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, and tannins. Petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract, ethyl acetate extract and methanol extracts of leaves of Bauhinia racemosa Linn. were prepared and antibacterial activity were studied by disc diffusion method against certain enteric bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Proteus vulgaris. The Methanol extracts had wide range of antibacterial activity against enteric bacterial pathogens than the petroleum ether extract, where as ethyl acetate extract were slightly higher antibacterial activity than chloroform extract. Antibacterial activity of various extract of leaves of Bauhinia racemosa was carried in attempt to develop a new pharmaceutical drug from natural origin for prevention of enteric infection.

  1. A FUNCTIONAL LIGHT-EMITTING COPOLYMER CONTAINING IONIC CONDUCTIVE BLOCKS IN THE MAIN CHAIN%一种主链含有离子导电性链段的功能发光共聚物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海侨; 刘德山; 王晓工

    2001-01-01

    A novel blue-light-emitting functional copolymer containing alternating rigid conjugated PPV and flexible ionic conductivity PEO blocks in the main chain was synthesized by using the Wittig reaction.The copolymer was characterized by FT-IR,1H-NMR, UV-Vis, DSC, GPC, etc.The results show that the copolymer can be soluble in chloroform and tetrahydrofuran,with Tg=50.5℃,Td=205℃, a maximum absorption peak in UV-Vis spectrum at 354nm and an emission peak in the photoluminescent spectrum at 438nm for solution in chloroform and at 475nm for film. It is a good blue emitter for fabricating LED or LEC.

  2. Plasmid purification by phenol extraction from guanidinium thiocyanate solution: development of an automated protocol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, J A; Favreau, M B

    1991-05-01

    We have developed a novel plasmid isolation procedure and have adapted it for use on an automated nucleic acid extraction instrument. The protocol is based on the finding that phenol extraction of a 1 M guanidinium thiocyanate solution at pH 4.5 efficiently removes genomic DNA from the aqueous phase, while supercoiled plasmid DNA is retained in the aqueous phase. S1 nuclease digestion of the removed genomic DNA shows that it has been denatured, which presumably confers solubility in the organic phase. The complete automated protocol for plasmid isolation involves pretreatment of bacterial cells successively with lysozyme, RNase A, and proteinase K. Following these digestions, the solution is extracted twice with a phenol/chloroform/water mixture and once with chloroform. Purified plasmid is then collected by isopropanol precipitation. The purified plasmid is essentially free of genomic DNA, RNA, and protein and is a suitable substrate for DNA sequencing and other applications requiring highly pure supercoiled plasmid. PMID:1713749

  3. Self-assembly of CdTe nanocrystals at the water/oil interface by amphiphilic hyperbranched polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general strategy for realizing the self-assembly of aqueous CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) at the water/oil interface by means of an amphiphilic core-shell hyperbranched polymer has been proposed. Aqueous CdTe NCs were firstly transferred into the chloroform phase in the presence of palmityl chloride functionalized hyperbranched poly(amidoamine) (HPAMAM-PC), and then self-assembled at the water/chloroform interface by decreasing the pH value of the aqueous phase or introducing α-CDs to the aqueous phase. The resulting CdTe/HPAMAM-PC self-assembly film was characterized by fluorescence microscopy, UV-vis, PL, TEM, EDS, FT-IR, DSC and TGA.

  4. Reduction of chlorinated solvents at the Y-12 Oak Ridge Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Richards, H.L. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been actively seeking replacements for chlorinated solvents for several years. The first step in the reduction program was the identification of the solvents and their usages. The four main solvents used at the plant include Freon, methyl chloroform, perchloroethylene, and methylene chloride. The main reduction has been in the use of perchloroethylene. Other significant reductions have occurred in the area of changing out vapor degreasers which utilized perchloroethylene or methyl chloroform. These degreasers were replaced with ultrasonic cleaners which utilize aqueous detergent for cleaning. Ultrasonic cleaning has many advantages, but the one disadvantage is that it requires a rinse step. Currently, the work on reduction of chlorinate solvents is focused on finding solvents which can be substituted for squirt bottle type applications. Concerns which were addressed when looking at replacement solvents were disposal, compatibility, and health effects.

  5. Synthesis of Cu2O, CuCl, and Cu2OCl2 nanoparticles by ultrafast laser ablation of copper in liquid media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Syed Hamad; G Krishna Podagatlapalli; Surya P Tewari; S Venugopal Rao

    2014-02-01

    Copper complex nanoparticles were fabricated from bulk copper using picosecond laser ablation in water and chloroform. We found that composition of the nanoparticles was CuCl and Cu2OCl2 in chloroform at three different input fluences; Cu2O in water which was confirmed from the data of EDAX, UV-Visible absorption spectra, and selected area electron diffraction pattern. We have also performed nonlinear optical studies of colloidal nanoparticles using Z-scan technique at 800 nm and ∼2 ps laser pulses. Cu2O NPs exhibited two-photon absorption at lower peak intensities while three-photon absorption was observed at higher peak intensities. Other samples exhibited two-photon absorption at all peak intensities.

  6. Extraction and LC determination of lysine clonixinate salt in water/oil microemulsions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pineros, I; Ballesteros, P; Lastres, J L

    2002-02-01

    A new reversed-phase high performance liquid chromatography method has been developed and validated for the quantitative determination of lysine clonixinate salt in water/oil microemulsions. The mobile phase was acetonitrile-buffer phosphate pH 3.3. Detection was UV absorbance at 252 nm. The precision and accurately of the method were excellent. The established linearity range was 5-60 microg ml(-1) (r(2)=0.999). Microemulsions samples were dispersed with chloroform and extracted lysine clonixinate salt with water. This easy method employing chloroformic extraction has been done three times. The recovery of lysine clonixinate salt from spiked placebo and microemulsion were >90% over the linear range. PMID:11814716

  7. Quantification and implications of two types of soluble organic matter from brackish to saline lake source rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yitao; LIAO Yongsheng; ZHANG Shouchun

    2005-01-01

    Two types of soluble organic matter, the free and adsorbed, were obtained and quantified from the brackish to saline lake source rocks. The adsorbed type was extracted with chloroform, solvent mixtures of methanol: acetone:chloroform (MAC) and CS2:N-methyl-2-pyrroli- dinone (CS2/NMP). The total amounts of the two types of soluble organic matter from some immature source rocks are >830 mg/g TOC, more than 63% of the total organic matter in these samples. This result indicates that the majority of the organic matter in the immature source rocks in the brackish to saline lake basin is soluble, and is significant for study of petroleum formation and helpful for petroleum exploration in the brackish to saline lake basin.

  8. Evaluation of antidiabetic and related actions of some Indian medicinal plants in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raju N Patil; Ravindra Y Patil; Bharati Ahirwar; Dheeraj Ahirwar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate antidiabetic activity of chloroform extracts of Acacia arabica bark,Benincasa hispida fruit, Tinispora cordifolia stem, Ocimum sanctum areal parts and Jatropha curcus leaves. Methods: The chloroform extracts of Acacia arabica bark, Benincasa hispida fruit, Tinospora cordifolia stem, aerial part of Ocimum sanctum and Jatropha curcus leaves were evaluated at different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight.) for antidiabetic potentials in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. The extracts were administered for two weeks in different groups whereas tolbutamide (80 mg/kg body weight) was used as reference standard throughout study. Results: The result of present study showed test compounds significantly decreases elevated level of serum glucose and also caused to reverse the cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL values when compared to untreated diabetic rats. Conclusions: Our finding indicates that different test extracts were able to ameliorate the derangements in lipid metabolism caused by diabetes mellitus in alloxan induced diabetic rats towards normal level.

  9. Studies of antiviral activity and cytotoxicity of Wrightia tinctoria and Morinda citrifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvam P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Different extracts of leaf parts of Wrightia tinctoria and fruit powder of Morinda citrifolia have been studied against replication of HIV-1(IIIB in MT-4 cells and HCV in Huh 5.2 cells. Chloroform extract of Wrightia tinctoria exhibited a maximum protection of 48% against the cytopathic effect of HIV-1(IIIB in MT-4 cells. Fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia exhibited a displayed marked cytotoxic activity in lymphocyte (MT-4 cells (CC50: 0.19 mg/ml. The 50% effective concentration for inhibition of HCV subgenomic replicon replication in Huh 5-2 cells by Morinda citrifolia was 0.98 µg/ml and by chloroform extract of Wrightia tinctoria was 10 µg/ml. The concentration that reduced the growth of exponentially proliferating Huh 5-2 cells by 50% was greater than 50 µg/ml.

  10. Comparative HPTLC fingerprint profile of Illicium verum Hook.f. and Illicium griffithii Hook.f. & Thoms fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraswathy A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the fingerprint profile of two Illicium species namely Illicium verum Hook.f. and Illicium griffithii Hook.f. & Thoms using high performace thin layer chromatography (HPTLC technique. Methods: CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with TLC autosampler 4 applicator, TLC scanner 3 and win CATS 1.4.4. software was used. n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of the fruits were developed in suitable mobile phase using standard procedures and scanned under UV at 254nm, 366 nm and under visible light. Results: The HPTLC fingerprinting of the n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts showed several peaks with different Rf values. Conclusion: HPTLC fingerprint profile of two Illicium species may be useful in differentiating the species and also helpful in the identification and authentication of these species

  11. Triterpenes and antitubercular activity of Byrsonima crassa

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We evaluated the potential antitubercular activity of triterpenes obtained from leaves and bark of Byrsonima crassa. From chloroform extracts of the leaves, by bioassay-guided fractionation, we obtained mixtures of known triterpenes: alpha-amyrin, beta-amyrin and their acetates, lupeol, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and alpha-amyrinone. Tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the triterpenes exhibited minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 31.25 - 312.25 mug/mL. beta-amyrin and friedelin, isolated from the chloroform extract of bark, showed MICs of 312.25 and 125 mug/mL respectively. This is the first report of the identification and determination of the activity of B. crassa triterpenes against M. tuberculosis. (author)

  12. Triterpenes and antitubercular activity of Byrsonima crassa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Higuchi, Celio Takashi; Pavan, Fernando Rogerio; Leite, Clarice Queico Fujimura [Universidade Estadual Paulista, Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas]. E-mail: leitecqf@fcfar.unesp.br; Sannomiya, Miriam; Vilegas, Wagner; Leite, Sergio Roberto de Andrade [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Inst. de Quimica. Dept. de Quimica Geral e Inorganica; Sacramento, Luis Vitor S. [Universidade Estadual Paulista (UNESP), Araraquara, SP (Brazil). Fac. de Ciencias Farmaceuticas. Dept. de Principios Ativos Naturais e Toxicologia; Sato, Daisy Nakamura [Instituto Adolfo Lutz de Ribeirao Preto, SP (Brazil)

    2008-07-01

    We evaluated the potential antitubercular activity of triterpenes obtained from leaves and bark of Byrsonima crassa. From chloroform extracts of the leaves, by bioassay-guided fractionation, we obtained mixtures of known triterpenes: alpha-amyrin, beta-amyrin and their acetates, lupeol, oleanolic acid, ursolic acid and alpha-amyrinone. Tested against Mycobacterium tuberculosis, the triterpenes exhibited minimum inhibitory concentrations (MICs) of 31.25 - 312.25 mug/mL. beta-amyrin and friedelin, isolated from the chloroform extract of bark, showed MICs of 312.25 and 125 mug/mL respectively. This is the first report of the identification and determination of the activity of B. crassa triterpenes against M. tuberculosis. (author)

  13. A study on the total phenols content and antioxidant activity of essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic plant Merremia borneensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amzad Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is planned to determine the antioxidant activity and total phenols content of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of the endemic plant Merremia borneensis. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were examined by three different methods, DPPH, β-carotene and reducing power assays. In all methods, aqueous ethanol extract exhibited a higher activity potential than that of other extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol and the essential oil. As assumed, the amount of total phenolics was very high in this extract. Chloroform extract has been found to be rich in flavonoids. A positive result was observed between the antioxidant activity potential and total flavonoid levels of the extracts.

  14. Fenugreek seeds extracts as growth regulatory and feeding inhibitor for the African Melon Lady Bird Beetle: Henosepilachna elaterii (Rossi)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of the extracts of fenugreek seeds on feeling and development of the African melon ladybird beetle, Henosepilachna elaterii. (Rossi). Seeds of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graceum) were extracted by distilled water and organic solvents (chloroform, acetone and ethanol), and the extracts were tested against the African melon ladybird beetle under laboratory conditions. Both aqueous and organic extracts showed significant growth regulatory activities, mainly prolonging the larval duration. The effect was clear in late in stars. The organic extracts showed strong feeding inhibitory activity against the fourth larval in star, where the amounts of food consumed inversely related to dose. The effects induced by acetone and ethanol extracts were greater than chloroform extract. Phyto chemical groups present in various fractions were identified. Various aspects of efficacy against the test insect are discussed.(Author)

  15. EVALUATION OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA (BURMF WALL EX NEES, LEAF EXTRACTS AND ANDROGRAPHOLIDE ON GASTROINTESTINAL PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Anitha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (BurmF Wall Ex Nees called as Kalmegh or "King of Bitters is used in southeast Asia for treating several ailments. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of Andrographis paniculata leaf extracts. The agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods were used to determine the antibacterial activity of the Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. Chloroform and petroleum ether extracts inhibited Shigella, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella paratyphi A at concentration of 10 and 1mg/ml respectively. The antibacterial property exhibited by the extracts was due to the presence of Andrographolide which was confirmed by HPLC analysis. Standard Andrographolide inhibited all bacterium except E.coli which indicates that it is a broad spectrum antibacterial compound. Although Andrographolide was effective against various gastrointestinal pathogens it does not have any harmful effect on the native flora.

  16. ANXIOLYTIC AND ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF ANDROGRAPHYS PANICULATA IN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ravindra Patil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Petroleum ether and Chloroform extract of Andrographis paniculata leaves was investigated for its potential to protect gastric mucosa against pylorus ligation induced ulcer and to find out the anxiolytic action in elevated plus maze model. Chloroform extract at the dose of 200mg/kg protected the gastric mucosa in the pylorus ligation ulcer induction significantly (p<0.001 when compared with that of the standard drug famotidine (10mg/kg and acts as a potent antiulcer effect. Elevated plus maze results were significant in alleviating the anxiety in the animals’ results in increased time spent and entries into the open arm compared with the standard drug diazepam (1mg/kg.

  17. A PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON THE LEAVES OF SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelapu Neelima

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Identification of primary and secondary constituents has become the utmost important tool for the presence of active moiety. The present study was aimed to investigate phytochemicals present in the leaf extract of Solanum xanthocarpum. The leaves of Solanum xanthocarpum contain phytoconstituents like Alkaloids, Glycosides, Tannins and Phenolic compounds, Flavonoids, Proteins and Amino Acids, Sterols, Triterpenoids, Carbohydrates and Fats. TLC profiling of extracts also gives an idea about the presence of various phytochemicals. The Petroleum ether, Chloroform, ethyl acetate and Methanol extracts were proceed to T.L.C. TLC resulted in identification of 2 spots for Petroleum ether extract, 4 spots for Chloroform extract, 2 spots for Ethyl acetate extract and 2 spots for Methanol extract.

  18. Reverse self-assemblies based on amphiphilic polyphosphazenes for encapsulation of water-soluble molecules

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel series of amphiphilic polyphosphazenes (PNIPAm/AA-PPP) containing hydrophilic oligo-(N-isopropylacrylamide) (oligo-NIPAm) and various hydrophobic aliphatic amines as co-substitutes was synthesized via a two-step substitution reaction. The extraction and solubilization of water-soluble substances such as fluorescein sodium and trypan blue from an aqueous phase into the chloroform phase were supposed to result from the formation of polyphosphazene reverse self-assemblies in the organic phase. A field emission scanning electronic microscope was adopted to characterize the morphology of reverse assemblies in chloroform. Additionally, a significant improvement of encapsulation and release profiles of water-soluble substances was found for poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles in the presence of amphiphilic copolymers, which was associated with the chemical structure of copolymers as well as the content of copolymer in the microparticles

  19. Reverse self-assemblies based on amphiphilic polyphosphazenes for encapsulation of water-soluble molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qiu Liyan [College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhang Jianxiang [College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Yan Meiqiu [College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Jin Yi [College of Pharmaceutical Sciences, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310058 (China); Zhu Kangjie [Institute of Polymer Science, Zhejiang University, Hangzhou 310027 (China)

    2007-11-28

    A novel series of amphiphilic polyphosphazenes (PNIPAm/AA-PPP) containing hydrophilic oligo-(N-isopropylacrylamide) (oligo-NIPAm) and various hydrophobic aliphatic amines as co-substitutes was synthesized via a two-step substitution reaction. The extraction and solubilization of water-soluble substances such as fluorescein sodium and trypan blue from an aqueous phase into the chloroform phase were supposed to result from the formation of polyphosphazene reverse self-assemblies in the organic phase. A field emission scanning electronic microscope was adopted to characterize the morphology of reverse assemblies in chloroform. Additionally, a significant improvement of encapsulation and release profiles of water-soluble substances was found for poly(lactic-co-glycolic acid) (PLGA) microparticles in the presence of amphiphilic copolymers, which was associated with the chemical structure of copolymers as well as the content of copolymer in the microparticles.

  20. Estimation of microbial biomass in hillside soils under different management system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Microbial biomass was estimated as organic carbon by fumigation -extraction method using a wet soil sample under chloroform alcohol free (CHCL) and potassium sulphate 0.5 M. Sample not fumigated is not exposure to chloroform. The experiment consists in eight treatments: USLE (naked plot), chicken manure, traditional management, conservative agriculture, grass, vetiver, legumes and pastures in soils of Santander de Quilichao and Mondomo (Cauca - Colombia). Results showed significant differences (pr<0.001) among microbial biomass for each treatment. Microbial biomass was high in conservative agriculture, grass, legumes, pastures and chicken manure (608.28, 426.46, 304.32, 271.25 y 315.68 mg de carbon g. soil respectively)