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Sample records for chloroform

  1. Chloroform in the endodontic operatory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonald, M.N.; Vire, D.E. (U.S. Army Dental Corps, Fort Sill, OK (United States))

    1992-06-01

    This article reviews the role chloroform has played in dentistry and describes an occupational health clinical investigation into the possible hazards of chloroform use in the operatory. Due to a Food and Drug Administration ban on drugs and cosmetics containing chloroform, there has been some confusion as to whether the use of chloroform in the practice of dentistry is considered unsafe or has been prohibited. Utilizing common endodontic treatment methods employing chloroform, this study reports no negative health effects to the dentist or assistant and air vapor levels well below Occupational Health and Safety Administration mandated maximum levels. The report concludes that, with careful and controlled use, chloroform can be a useful adjunct in the practice of dentistry. The Food and Drug Administration has no jurisdiction over a dentist's use of chloroform in clinical practice and has not proven that chloroform is a human carcinogen.

  2. Koetjapic acid chloroform hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Z. D. Nassar

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C30H46O4·0.5CHCl3, consists of one koetjapic acid [systematic name: (3R,4aR,4bS,7S,8S,10bS,12aS-7-(2-carboxyethyl-3,4b,7,10b,12a-pentamethyl-8-(prop-1-en-2-yl-1,2,3,4,4a,4b,5,6,7,8,9,10,10b,11,12,12a-hexadecahydrochrysene-3-carboxylic acid] molecule and one half-molecule of chloroform solvent, which is disordered about a twofold rotation axis. The symmetry-independent component is further disordered over two sites, with occupancies of 0.30 and 0.20. The koetjapic acid contains a fused four-ring system, A/B/C/D. The A/B, B/C and C/D junctions adopt E/trans/cis configurations, respectively. The conformation of ring A is intermediate between envelope and half-chair and ring B adopts an envelope conformation whereas rings C and D adopt chair conformations. A weak intramolecular C—H...O hydrogen bond is observed. The koetjapic acid molecules are linked into dimers by two pairs of intermolecular O—H...O hydrogen bonds. The dimers are stacked along the c axis.

  3. Bacterial Cellular Materials as Precursors of Chloroform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, J.; Ng, T.; Zhang, Q.; Chow, A. T.; Wong, P.

    2011-12-01

    The environmental sources of chloroform and other halocarbons have been intensively investigated because their effects of stratospheric ozone destruction and environmental toxicity. It has been demonstrated that microorganisms could facilitate the biotic generation of chloroform from natural organic matters in soil, but whether the cellular materials itself also serves as an important precursor due to photo-disinfection is poorly known. Herein, seven common pure bacterial cultures (Acinetobacter junii, Aeromonas hydrophila, Bacillus cereus, Bacillus substilis, Escherichia coli, Shigella sonnei, Staphylococcus sciuri) were chlorinated to evaluate the yields of chloroform, dibromochloromethane, dichlorobromomethane, and bromoform. The effects of bromide on these chemical productions and speciations were also investigated. Results showed that, on average, 5.64-36.42 μg-chloroform /mg-C were generated during the bacterial chlorination, in similar order of magnitude to that generated by humic acid (previously reported as 78 μg-chloroform/mg-C). However, unlike humic acid in water chlorination, chloroform concentration did not simply increase with the total organic carbon in water mixture. In the presence of bromide, the yield of brominated species responded linearly to the bromide concentration. This study provides useful information to understand the contributions of chloroform from photodisinfection processes in coastal environments.

  4. Subchronic chloroform priming protects mice from a subsequently administered lethal dose of chloroform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Protection offered by pre-exposure priming with a small dose of a toxicant against the toxic and lethal effects of a subsequently administered high dose of the same toxicant is autoprotection. Although autoprotection has been extensively studied with diverse toxicants in acute exposure regimen, not much is known about autoprotection after priming with repeated exposure. The objective of this study was to investigate this concept following repeated exposure to a common water contaminant, chloroform. Swiss Webster (SW) mice, exposed continuously to either vehicle (5% Emulphor, unprimed) or chloroform (150 mg/kg/day po, primed) for 30 days, were challenged with a normally lethal dose of chloroform (750 mg chloroform/kg po) 24 h after the last exposure. As expected, 90% of the unprimed mice died between 48 and 96 h after administration of the lethal dose in contrast to 100% survival of mice primed with chloroform. Time course studies indicated lower hepato- and nephrotoxicity in primed mice as compared to unprimed mice. Hepatic CYP2E1, glutathione levels (GSH), and covalent binding of 14C-chloroform-derived radiolabel did not differ between livers of unprimed and primed mice after lethal dose exposure, indicating that protection in liver is neither due to decreased bioactivation nor increased detoxification. Kidney GSH and glutathione reductase activity were upregulated, with a concomitant reduction in oxidized glutathione in the primed mice following lethal dose challenge, leading to decreased renal covalent binding of 14C-chloroform-derived radiolabel, in the absence of any change in CYP2E1 levels. Buthionine sulfoximine (BSO) intervention led to 70% mortality in primed mice challenged with lethal dose. These data suggest that higher detoxification may play a role in the lower initiation of kidney injury observed in primed mice. Exposure of primed mice to a lethal dose of chloroform led to 40% lower chloroform levels (AUC15-360min) in the systemic circulation

  5. Reactor for Photocatalytic Degradation of Chloroform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Simonsen, Morten Enggrob; Søgaard, Erik Gydesen

    In the present study a new type of continuous photoreactor is developed in which the TiO2 catalyst is immobilized on the surface of quartz tubes surrounding the UV lamps and on the internal surface of the reactor walls. The study showed that an initial concentration chloroform of 7 mg/l was degra......In the present study a new type of continuous photoreactor is developed in which the TiO2 catalyst is immobilized on the surface of quartz tubes surrounding the UV lamps and on the internal surface of the reactor walls. The study showed that an initial concentration chloroform of 7 mg....../l was degraded in a period of 500 hour. The kinetics of the degradation of chloroform in the flow reactor was found to obey Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. The investigation also showed that the reactor design has a significant influence on the rate of degradation, as it was observed that the position...... of the coated lamp in the reactor yield different degradation rates....

  6. Formation, fate and leaching of chloroform in coniferous forest soils

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Research highlights: → Chloroform may be formed in coniferous forest soil. → The formed chloroform may enter the groundwater in μg/L concentrations. → Clear seasonal patterns in chloroform formation in soil are observed. → Sorption and degradation affects the fate of chloroform in forest soil. - Abstract: Chloroform is a common groundwater pollutant but also a natural compound in forest ecosystems. Leaching of natural chloroform from forest soil to groundwater was followed by regular analysis of soil air and groundwater from multilevel wells at four different sites in Denmark for a period of up to 4 a. Significant seasonal variation in chloroform was observed in soil air 0.5 m below surface ranging at one site from 120 ppb by volume in summer to 20 ppb during winter. With depth, the seasonal variation diminished gradually, ranging from 30 ppb in summer to 20 ppb during winter, near the groundwater table. Chloroform in the shallowest groundwater ranged from 0.5-1.5 μg L-1 at one site to 2-5 μg L-1 at another site showing no clear correlation with season. Comparing changes in chloroform in soil air versus depth with on-site recorded meteorological data indicated that a clear relationship appears between rain events and leaching of chloroform. Chloroform in top soil air co-varied with CO2 given a delay of 3-4 weeks providing evidence for its biological origin. This was confirmed during laboratory incubation experiments which further located the fermentation layer as the most chloroform producing soil horizon. Sorption of chloroform to soils, examined using 14C-CHCl3, correlated with organic matter content, being high in the upper organic rich soils and low in the deeper more minerogenic soils. The marked decrease in chloroform in soil with depth may in part be due to microbial degradation which was shown to occur at all depths by laboratory tests using 14C-CHCl3.

  7. Formation, fate and leaching of chloroform in coniferous forest soils

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Albers, Christian N., E-mail: calbers@ruc.dk [Dept. Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, O. Voldgade 10, DK-1350, Copenhagen (Denmark); Laier, Troels; Jacobsen, Ole S. [Dept. Geochemistry, Geological Survey of Denmark and Greenland, O. Voldgade 10, DK-1350, Copenhagen (Denmark)

    2010-10-15

    Research highlights: {yields} Chloroform may be formed in coniferous forest soil. {yields} The formed chloroform may enter the groundwater in {mu}g/L concentrations. {yields} Clear seasonal patterns in chloroform formation in soil are observed. {yields} Sorption and degradation affects the fate of chloroform in forest soil. - Abstract: Chloroform is a common groundwater pollutant but also a natural compound in forest ecosystems. Leaching of natural chloroform from forest soil to groundwater was followed by regular analysis of soil air and groundwater from multilevel wells at four different sites in Denmark for a period of up to 4 a. Significant seasonal variation in chloroform was observed in soil air 0.5 m below surface ranging at one site from 120 ppb by volume in summer to 20 ppb during winter. With depth, the seasonal variation diminished gradually, ranging from 30 ppb in summer to 20 ppb during winter, near the groundwater table. Chloroform in the shallowest groundwater ranged from 0.5-1.5 {mu}g L{sup -1} at one site to 2-5 {mu}g L{sup -1} at another site showing no clear correlation with season. Comparing changes in chloroform in soil air versus depth with on-site recorded meteorological data indicated that a clear relationship appears between rain events and leaching of chloroform. Chloroform in top soil air co-varied with CO{sub 2} given a delay of 3-4 weeks providing evidence for its biological origin. This was confirmed during laboratory incubation experiments which further located the fermentation layer as the most chloroform producing soil horizon. Sorption of chloroform to soils, examined using {sup 14}C-CHCl{sub 3}, correlated with organic matter content, being high in the upper organic rich soils and low in the deeper more minerogenic soils. The marked decrease in chloroform in soil with depth may in part be due to microbial degradation which was shown to occur at all depths by laboratory tests using {sup 14}C-CHCl{sub 3}.

  8. Information draft on the development of air standards for chloroform

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1999-01-01

    Chloroform is used as a grain fumigant and a solvent for pesticides, adhesives, fats, oils, rubbers, alkaloids and waxes. It is also a chemical intermediate for dyes and pesticides, a component of cough syrups, toothpastes, and liniments. It is used in fire extinguishers, in the manufacture of refrigerants, propellants, plastics, anesthetics and pharmaceuticals. Of the releases into the air in 1996 in Ontario (36.7 tonnes), over 96 per cent was attributed to the pulp and paper industry. Chloroform is well absorbed in exposed animals and humans through ingestion, inhalation, and dermal contact. Once absorbed, the chloroform distributes throughout the entire body. Metabolism of chloroform involves cytochrome P-450 in an oxidative biotransformation to produce trichloromethanol with phosgene as its intermediate product and finally hydrochloric acid and carbon dioxide. Chloroform is a central nervous system depressant and a gastrointestinal irritant. Exposure to chloroform can cause fainting, vomiting, dizziness, nausea, fatique and headache. Its most universally observed toxic effect is liver damage. Chloroform is not known to be carcinogenic in humans, but there is sufficient evidence to suggest that it is an animal carcinogen. The current Ontario air quality standard and criterion for chloroform was established in 1979. The half-hour interim POI standard is 1,500 microgram/cubic meter, and the 24-hour AAQC is 500 microgram/cubic meter. This document reviews the scientific and technical information relevant to setting an ambient air quality standard for chloroform in Ontario. The information is gathered from standards and guidelines developed by the federal government, the US Environmental Protection Agency, the World Health Organization, Scandinavia, the Netherlands, and various American states. 59 refs., 1 tab., appendix.

  9. Formation of chloroform in soil. A year-round study at a Danish spruce forest site

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Haselmann, K.F.; Laturnus, F.; Grøn, C.

    2002-01-01

    to ambient air concentrations indicated a natural production of chloroform, while the other chlorinated compounds investigated probably originated from non-point source pollution. The seasonal variation of the chloroform concentration suggested a production by microorganisms, as high chloroform...

  10. Tracing tissues with chloroform-metabolizing capacity in rats

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Rats were injected i.v. or i.p. with (14C)chloroform and the localization and binding of metabolites in the tissues were studied by whole-body and microautoradiography. Based on the autoradiographic findings various tissues were tested for their capacity to form 14CO2 and to incorporate 14C into tissue-macromolecules from the (14C) chloroform. Autoradiography in vitro was used to localize the sites of (14C)chloroform metabolism under in vitro conditions. The results of the vitro metabolism studies showed that several tissues had a capacity to metabolise the (14C)chloroform. Further, the results showed that there was a correlation between the ability of various tissues to accumulate metabolites in the rats injected with the (14C)chloroform and the ability of the same tissues to metabolize the (14C)chloroform in vitro. The in vitro autoradiography showed an acculumlation of radioactivity at sites corresponding to the ones acculmulating metabolites in vivo. It is concluded that many tissues have a capacity to metabolize chloroform in vivo and in vitro. The structures identified as having a marked chloroform-metabolizing capacity were, besides the liver, the kidney cortex, the mucosa of the bronchial tree, the tracheal mucosa, the olfactory and respiratory nasal mucosa, Bowman's glands in the olfactory lamina propria mucosae, Steno's gland (the lateral nasal gland), the mucosa of the oesophagus, the larynx, the tongue, the gingiva, the cheek, the naso-pharyngeal duct, the pharynx and the soft palate (but not the hard palate). (Author)

  11. Durability of organobentonite-amended liner for decelerating chloroform transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Shichong; Zhu, Lizhong

    2016-04-01

    Chloroform is added to landfill for suppressing methane generation, which however may transport through landfill liners and lead to contamination of groundwater. To decelerate chloroform transport, the enhanced sorption ability of clay liners following organobentonite addition was tested. In this study, we used batch sorption to evaluate sorption capacity of chloroform to organobentonite, followed by column tests and model simulations for assessing durability of different liners. Results show that adding 10% CTMAB-bentonite (organobentonite synthesized using cetyltrimethylammonium bromide) increased the duration of a bentonite liner by 88.5%. CTMAB-bentonite consistently showed the highest sorption capacity (Qm) among six typical organobentonites under various environmental conditions. The removal rate of chloroform by CTMAB-bentonite was 3.6-23 times higher than that by natural soils. According to the results derived by model simulation, a 70-cm 10% CTMAB-bentonite liner exhibited much better durability than a 100-cm compact clay liner (CCL) and natural bentonite liner evidenced by the delayed and lower peak of eluent concentration. A minimum thickness of 65.8 cm of the 10% CTMAB-bentonite liner could completely sorb the chloroform in a 100-m-high landfill. The 10% CTMAB-bentonite liner exhibiting much better durability has the promise for reducing environmental risk of chloroform in landfill. PMID:26874063

  12. Photooxidation of papaverine, papaverinol and papaveraldine in their chloroform solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piotrowska, Karolina; Hermann, Tadeusz W; Augustyniak, Włodzimierz

    2002-01-01

    Papaverine hydrochloride, papaverinol, and papaveraldine chloroform solutions were exposed to UV light of 254 nm in atmospheric, aerobic and anaerobic (helium) conditions. The same degradation products appear (TLC) in the above papaverine hydrochloride chloroform solutions. However, the rate of papaverine hydrochloride degradation processes is enhanced as a function of oxygen pressure. Papaverinol and papaveraldine photooxidation products are essentially not different from those observed in the above papaverine hydrochloride solutions. However, the amount of an unknown brown degradation product (X) is the greatest in the papaverinol chloroform solution degraded. That brown compound was previously observed in papaverine either hydrochloride or sulfate injection solutions on their storage even when protected from daylight. The preliminary X product structure development was undertaken (TLC, molecular weight, elemental analysis, UV/VIS, IR and 13C MAS NMR spectroscopy).

  13. Chloroform alters interleaflet coupling in lipid bilayers: an entropic mechanism

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reigada, Ramon; Sagués, Francesc

    2015-01-01

    The interaction of the two leaflets of the plasmatic cell membrane is conjectured to play an important role in many cell processes. Experimental and computational studies have investigated the mechanisms that modulate the interaction between the two membrane leaflets. Here, by means of coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, we show that the addition of a small and polar compound such as chloroform alters interleaflet coupling by promoting domain registration. This is interpreted in terms of an entropic gain that would favour frequent chloroform commuting between the two leaflets. The implication of this effect is discussed in relation to the general anaesthetic action. PMID:25833246

  14. Biological Hydrogen Production Using Chloroform-treated Methanogenic Granules

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hu, Bo; Chen, Shulin

    In fermentative hydrogen production, the low-hydrogen-producing bacteria retention rate limits the suspended growth reactor productivity because of the long hydraulic retention time (HRT) required to maintain adequate bacteria population. Traditional bacteria immobilization methods such as calcium alginate entrapment have many application limitations in hydrogen fermentation, including limited duration time, bacteria leakage, cost, and so on. The use of chloroform-treated anaerobic granular sludge as immobilized hydrogen-producing bacteria in an immobilized hydrogen culture may be able to overcome the limitations of traditional immobilization methods. This paper reports the findings on the performance of fed-batch cultures and continuous cultures inoculated with chloroform-treated granules. The chloroform-treated granules were able to be reused over four fed-batch cultures, with pH adjustment. The upflow reactor packed with chloroform-treated granules was studied, and the HRT of the upflow reactor was found to be as low as 4 h without any decrease in hydrogen production yield. Initial pH and glucose concentration of the culture medium significantly influenced the performance of the reactor. The optimum initial pH of the culture medium was neutral, and the optimum glucose concentration of the culture medium was below 20 g chemical oxygen demand/L at HRT 4 h. This study also investigated the possibility of integrating immobilized hydrogen fermentation using chloroform-treated granules with immobilized methane production using untreated granular sludge. The results showed that the integrated batch cultures produced 1.01 mol hydrogen and 2 mol methane per mol glucose. Treating the methanogenic granules with chloroform and then using the treated granules as immobilized hydrogen-producing sludge demonstrated advantages over other immobilization methods because the treated granules provide hydrogen-producing bacteria with a protective niche, a long duration of an active

  15. Phase equilibrium data for the ternary system (propane + chloroform + oryzanol)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Correa, Fernanda V.; Comim, Sibele R.R. [EQA/UFSC, Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Cesaro, Aline M. de; Rigo, Aline A.; Mazutti, Marcio A. [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, 99700-000 Erechim, RS (Brazil); Hense, Haiko [EQA/UFSC, Chemical and Food Engineering Department, Federal University of Santa Catarina, C.P. 476, CEP 88040-900, Florianopolis, SC (Brazil); Oliveira, J. Vladimir, E-mail: vladimir@uricer.edu.b [Department of Food Engineering, URI - Campus de Erechim, Av. Sete de Setembro, 1621, 99700-000 Erechim, RS (Brazil)

    2011-01-15

    The compound oryzanol available in the rice bran (oriza sativa) is well known for its antioxidant activity. Phase equilibrium data involving oryzanol in compressed fluids, hardly found in the literature, are important to provide the basis for the extraction and fractionation processes. In this sense, the aim of this work is to report phase equilibrium measurements for the system ({gamma}-oryzanol + chloroform) in compressed propane. Phase equilibrium experiments were performed using the static synthetic method (cloud points transition data) in a high-pressure variable-volume view cell in the temperature range of 303 K to 353 K, pressures up to 17 MPa, for oryzanol overall mass fractions of 2 wt%, 5 wt% and 10 wt% in (propane + chloroform) mixtures. A complex phase behaviour comprising vapour-liquid, liquid-liquid, vapour-liquid-liquid, solid-liquid, solid-liquid-liquid, solid-liquid-liquid-vapour transitions were visually observed for the system studied.

  16. THE PRESERVATION OF SOME ORAL LIQUID PREPARATIONS - THE REPLACEMENT OF CHLOROFORM BY OTHER PRESERVATIVES

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    VANDOORNE, H; LEIJEN, JB

    1994-01-01

    Chloroform should be considered as an obsolete preservative for,pharmaceutical preparations, because of its toxicological implications and its physical instability. The effectiveness oi possible alternatives for chloroform in three-oral liquid pharmaceutical preparations was investigated, using a mi

  17. Graphene oxide and adsorption of chloroform: A density functional study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuisma, Elena; Hansson, C. Fredrik; Lindberg, Th. Benjamin; Gillberg, Christoffer A.; Idh, Sebastian; Schröder, Elsebeth

    2016-05-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds are of environmental concerns, since they are toxic to humans and other mammals, and are widespread, and exposure is hard to avoid. Understanding and improving methods to reduce the amount of the substances are important. We present an atomic-scale calculational study of the adsorption of chlorine-based substance chloroform (CHCl3) on graphene oxide, as a step in estimating the capacity of graphene oxide for filtering out such substances, e.g., from drinking water. The calculations are based on density functional theory, and the recently developed consistent-exchange functional for the van der Waals density-functional method is employed. We obtain values of the chloroform adsorption energy varying from roughly 0.2 to 0.4 eV per molecule. This is comparable to previously found results for chloroform adsorbed directly on clean graphene, using similar calculations. In a wet environment, like filters for drinking water, the graphene will not stay clean and will likely oxidize, and thus adsorption onto graphene oxide, rather than clean graphene, is a more relevant process to study.

  18. Graphene oxide and adsorption of chloroform: a density functional study

    CERN Document Server

    Kuisma, Elena; Lindberg, Th Benjamin; Gillberg, Christoffer A; Idh, Sebastian; Schroder, Elsebeth

    2016-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbon compounds are of environmental concerns, since they are toxic to humans and other mammals, are widespread, and exposure is hard to avoid. Understanding and improving methods to reduce the amount of the substances is important. We present an atomic-scale calculational study of the adsorption of chlorine-based substance chloroform (CHCl3) on graphene oxide, as a step in estimating the capacity of graphene oxide for filtering out such substances, e.g., from drinking water. The calculations are based on density functional theory (DFT), and the recently developed consistent-exchange functional for the van der Waals density-functional method (vdW-DF-cx) is employed. We obtain values of the chloroform adsorption energy varying from roughly 0.2 to 0.4 eV per molecule. This is comparable to previously found results for chloroform adsorbed directly on clean graphene, using similar calculations. In a wet environment, like filters for drinking water, the graphene will not stay clean and will likel...

  19. 21 CFR 700.18 - Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 7 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic... SERVICES (CONTINUED) COSMETICS GENERAL Requirements for Specific Cosmetic Products § 700.18 Use of chloroform as an ingredient in cosmetic products. (a) Chloroform has been used as an ingredient in...

  20. Grunwald-Winstein Analysis - Isopropyl Chloroformate Solvolysis Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dennis N. Kevill

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available Specific rates of solvolysis at 25 °C for isopropyl chloroformate (1 in 24 solvents of widely varying nucleophilicity and ionizing power, plus literature values for studies in water and formic acid, are reported. Previously published solvolytic rate constants at 40.0 °C are supplemented with two additional values in the highly ionizing fluoroalcohols. These rates are now are analyzed using the one and two-term Grunwald-Winstein Equations. In the more ionizing solvents including ten fluoroalcohols negligible sensitivities towards changes in solvent nucleophilicity (l and very low sensitivities towards changes in solvent ionizing power (m values are obtained, evocative to those previously observed for 1-adamantyl and 2-adamantyl chloroformates 2 and 3. These observations are rationalized in terms of a dominant solvolysis-decomposition with loss of the CO2 molecule. In nine of the more nucleophilic pure alchohols and aqueous solutions an association-dissociation mechanism is believed to be operative. Deficiencies in the acid production indicate 2-33% isopropyl chloride formation, with the higher values in less nucleophilic solvents.

  1. Carbon nanofibers synthesized by pyrolysis of chloroform and ethanol mixture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lin, Wang-Hua [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, 62102, Taiwan (China); Li, Yuan-Yao, E-mail: chmyyl@ccu.edu.tw [Department of Chemical Engineering, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, 62102, Taiwan (China); Graduate Institute of Opto-Mechatronics, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, 62102, Taiwan (China); Advanced Institute of Manufacturing with High-Tech Innovations, National Chung Cheng University, Chia-Yi, 62102, Taiwan (China)

    2015-08-01

    Platelet graphite nanofibers (PGNFs) and turbostratic carbon nanofibers (TSCNFs) were synthesized by the pyrolysis of 3 and 10 vol% chloroform in ethanol, respectively, in the presence of Ni catalyst at 700 °C. Auger electron spectrometry analysis reveals that the participation of chloroform in the synthesis led to Ni–Cl bonding on the surface of the catalysts, resulting in a relatively poor crystalline layer and a coarse surface. Furthermore, the Ni–Cl compound affected the melting point and mobility of Ni, changing the morphology and geometrical shape of Ni particles. A low amount of chlorine in the catalyst led to the formation of smaller catalyst particles with a flat surface, resulting in graphene nanosheets stacked perpendicular to the fiber axis, which became PGNFs. In contrast, a high amount of chlorine in the catalyst led to the aggregation of the catalyst and thus the formation of large catalyst particles with a rough surface, resulting in the random stacking of graphene nanosheets, which became TSCNFs. The participation of chlorine was found to be important in the synthesis of the PGNFs and TSCNFs. - Graphical abstract: Display Omitted - Highlights: • The morphology of CNFs changed while different amount of CHCl{sub 3} presented. • The interaction of Ni and Cl changed the geometry and morphology of catalysts. • The structure of CNFs formed attributed to the surface morphology of catalysts. • PGNFs and TSCNFs were perpendicular and random stacking of graphene.

  2. Contribution of natural terrestrial sources to the atmospheric chloroform budget

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhew, R. C.; Abel, T.; Pan, D.; Whelan, M.

    2008-12-01

    Chloroform (trichloromethane, CHCl3) is the second largest carrier of natural chlorine in the troposphere after methyl chloride, contributing to the reactive chlorine burden in the troposphere and to ozone destruction in the stratosphere. Our understanding of the biogeochemical cycling of atmospheric CHCl3 has undergone major adjustments recently, including the quantification of the total atmospheric burden of this compound, the estimated global source and sink strengths, and the relative contributions of anthropogenic versus natural contributions. Numerous natural terrestrial sources have been identified, including temperate peatlands, Arctic tundra, termite mounds, salt marshes, grasslands, forests and woodlands. However, the wide variability of fluxes within each ecosystem has complicated efforts to quantify the overall terrestrial source. In addition, the environmental and biogeochemical controls remain largely unknown. We shall present a comparison of recent CHCl3 flux measurements that cover a range of biome types and climatic conditions. To address within-biome variability, flux measurements from the Arctic tundra and temperate grasslands will be compared to common environmental parameters (e.g., temperature, soil moisture, solar insolation) and other trace gas fluxes (CH3Cl, CH4, CCl4). The generally poor correlations demonstrate that the variability of CHCl3 emissions may be affected by site-specific parameters that are not currently measured or by drastic changes in hydrologic conditions. Similar patterns are observed in laboratory incubations of tundra peat and grassland soils. We explore the possibility that the humification of plant material, which has been shown to produce organochlorine compounds through the chlorination of organic matter, may contribute to CHCl3 emissions. If this link exists, then CHCl3 production could potentially act as a proxy for organic matter degradation and carbon sequestration, essential biogeochemical and ecosystem

  3. Chloroform formation in Arctic and Subarctic soils - mechanism and emissions to the atmosphere

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albers, Christian N.; Johnsen, Anders R.; Jacobsen, Ole S.

    2015-04-01

    It is well established that halogenated organic compounds are formed naturally in the terrestrial environment. These compounds include volatiles such as trihalomethanes that may escape to the atmosphere. In deed most of the atmospheric chloroform (and other trihalomethane species) is regarded to have a natural origin. This origin may be both marine and terrestrial. Chloroform formation in soil has been reported in a number of studies, mostly conducted in temperate and (sub-) tropical environments. We hereby report that also colder soils emit chloroform naturally. We measured in situ the fluxes of chloroform from soil to atmosphere in 6 Subarctic and 5 Arctic areas covering different dwarf heath, wetland and forest biotopes in Greenland and Northern Sweden. Emissions were largest from the forested areas, but all areas emitted measurable amounts of chloroform. Also the brominated analog bromodichloromethane was formed in Arctic and Subarctic soils but the fluxes to the atmosphere were much lower than the corresponding chloroform emissions. No other volatile poly-halogenated organic compounds were found to be emitted from the study areas. It has previously been proposed that chloroform is formed in temperate forest soils through trichloroacetyl intermediates formed by unspecific enzymatic chlorination of soil organic matter. We found positive relationships between chloroform emissions and the concentration of trichloroacetyl groups in soil within the various biotopes. The hydrolysis of trichloroacetyl compounds is, however, very pH dependent, excluding a simple relationship between trichloroacetyl concentration and chloroform emission in any given soil. However, our results show that at low pH, turnover time of soil trichloroacetyl compounds may be counted in decades while at pH above 6, turnover time may be just a few months. We found no relationship between trichloroacetyl concentration and total organic chlorine concentration in the soils indicating that more than

  4. Adaptive tolerance in mice upon subchronic exposure to chloroform: Increased exhalation and target tissue regeneration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aims of the present study were to characterize the subchronic toxicity of chloroform by measuring tissue injury, repair, and distribution of chloroform and to assess the reasons for the development of tolerance to subchronic chloroform toxicity. Male Swiss Webster (SW) mice were given three dose levels of chloroform (150, 225, and 300 mg/kg/day) by gavage in aqueous vehicle for 30 days. Liver and kidney injury were measured by plasma ALT and BUN, respectively, and by histopathology. Tissue regeneration was assessed by 3H-thymidine incorporation into hepato- and nephro-nuclear DNA and by proliferating cell nuclear antigen staining. In addition, GSH and CYP2E1 in liver and kidney were assessed at selected time points. The levels of chloroform were measured in blood, liver, and kidney during the dosing regimen (1, 7, 14, and 30 days). Kidney injury was evident after 1 day with all three doses and sustained until 7 days followed by complete recovery. Mild to moderate liver injury was observed from 1 to 14 days with all three dose levels followed by gradual decrease. Significantly higher regenerative response was evident in liver and kidney at 7 days, but the response was robust in kidney, preventing progression of injury beyond first week of exposure. While the kidney regeneration reached basal levels by 21 days, moderate liver regeneration with two higher doses sustained through the end of the dosing regimen and 3 days after that. Following repeated exposure for 7, 14, and 30 days, the blood and tissue levels of chloroform were substantially lower with all three dose levels compared to the levels observed with single exposure. Increased exhalation of 14C-chloroform after repeated exposures explains the decreased chloroform levels in circulation and tissues. These results suggest that toxicokinetics and toxicodynamics (tissue regeneration) contribute to the tolerance observed in SW mice to subchronic chloroform toxicity. Neither bioactivation nor detoxification

  5. Kinetic Studies that Evaluate the Solvolytic Mechanisms of Allyl and Vinyl Chloroformate Esters

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm J. D'Souza

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available At 25.0 °C the specific rates of solvolysis for allyl and vinyl chloroformates have been determined in a wide mix of pure and aqueous organic mixtures. In all the solvents studied, vinyl chloroformate was found to react significantly faster than allyl chloroformate. Multiple correlation analyses of these rates are completed using the extended (two-term Grunwald-Winstein equation with incorporation of literature values for solvent nucleophilicity (NT and solvent ionizing power (YCl. Both substrates were found to solvolyze by similar dual bimolecular carbonyl-addition and unimolecular ionization channels, each heavily dependent upon the solvents nucleophilicity and ionizing ability.

  6. Abiotic degradation rates for carbon tetrachloride and chloroform: Final report.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Russell, Colleen K.; Humphrys, Daniel R.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.

    2012-12-01

    This report documents the objectives, technical approach, and progress made through FY 2012 on a project initiated in FY 2006 to help address uncertainties related to the rates of hydrolysis in groundwater for carbon tetrachloride (CT) and chloroform (CF). The project also sought to explore the possible effects of contact with minerals and sediment (i.e., heterogeneous hydrolysis) on these rates. We conducted 114 hydrolysis rate experiments in sealed vessels across a temperature range of 20-93 °C for periods as long as 6 years, and used the Arrhenius equation to estimate activation energies and calculate half-lives for typical Hanford groundwater conditions (temperature of 16 °C and pH of 7.75). We calculated a half-life of 630 years for hydrolysis for CT under these conditions and found that CT hydrolysis was unaffected by contact with sterilized, oxidized minerals or Hanford sediment within the sensitivity of our experiments. In contrast to CT, hydrolysis of CF was generally slower and very sensitive to pH due to the presence of both neutral and base-catalyzed hydrolysis pathways. We calculated a half-life of 3400 years for hydrolysis of CF in homogeneous solution at 16 °C and pH 7.75. Experiments in suspensions of Hanford sediment or smectite, the dominant clay mineral in Hanford sediment, equilibrated to an initial pH of 7.2, yielded calculated half-lives of 1700 years and 190 years, respectively, at 16 °C. Experiments with three other mineral phases at the same pH (muscovite mica, albite feldspar, and kaolinite) showed no change from the homogeneous solution results (i.e., a half-life of 3400 years). The strong influence of Hanford sediment on CF hydrolysis was attributed to the presence of smectite and its ability to adsorb protons, thereby buffering the solution pH at a higher level than would otherwise occur. The project also determined liquid-vapor partition coefficients for CT under the temperatures and pressures encountered in the sealed vessels that

  7. ADSORPTION OF CHLOROFORM AND TRICHLOROETHYLENE IN WATER WITH A NEW KIND OF HYPERCROSSLINKED RESINS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zheng-hao Fei; Jin-long Chen; Guan-dao Gao; Chao Long; Ai-min Li; Quan-xing Zhang

    2004-01-01

    In this paper two newly developed hypercrosslinked resins were used to treat micropolluted drinking water and their static and kinetic adsorption were investigated at 293 K. The results show that these two adsorbents are superior to Amberlite XAD-4 for removing chloroform and trichloroethylene in aqueous solutions. The breakthrough capacity and the total capacities from mini-column adsorption studies for chloroform and trichloroethylene on XAD-4, ZH-01 and ZH-00 are calculated respectively under experimental conditions

  8. Hot spot formation of chloroform in forest soils caused pollution of groundwater

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Ole S.; Albers, Christian N.; Laier, Troels; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2015-04-01

    High concentration of chloroform in groundwater is usually attributed to anthropogenic input, but we have found that the groundwater beneath some pristine areas contained chloroform from 1 - 10 µg/L. Groundwater containing chloroform that exceeds 1 µg/L could not be used for drinking water according to Danish regulations. The strict demands on groundwater quality may have to be taken into account when decisions are made regarding the change of land use in order to protect major recharge areas from pollution with nitrate and pesticides resulting from high-yield agriculture production. The terrestrial environment and especially hot spots in forest soils seem to be important contributors to apparent pollution of groundwater with chloroform. We performed a field study to investigate concentration and fluxes of chloroform to the groundwater from in four coniferous forests in order to increase knowledge on the hot spot formation and fate of natural chloroform. We investigated four stations over a period of several years in order to measure the net-formation of chloroform. Field measurements soil air concentrations of chloroform were monitored in five soil profiles down to the groundwater table. Meteorological data were recorded at all stations In the hotspots up to 120 ppbv was found in soil air under the spruce forest, to be compared to an ambient atmospheric concentration of 0.02 ppbv. The concentration of chloroform in soil air showed seasonal variation with a maximum in August-September. The chloroform concentration decreased with depth in all profiles during the summer half-year to about 20 % of concentration in the production layer. However, the concentration is still high enough to give an equilibrium concentration in the upper groundwater of 1-10 µg/L. Stable carbon isotopic analyses of chloroform from the uppermost groundwater in different parts of the forests and from soil water showed values from δ13C = -13 ‰ to -27 ‰, corresponding to the ratio in

  9. Characterization of hot spots for natural chloroform formation: Relevance for groundwater quality

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobsen, Ole S.; Albers, Christian N.; Laier, Troels

    2015-04-01

    Chloroform soil hot spot may deteriorate groundwater quality and may even result in chloroform concentration exceeding the Danish maximum limit of 1 µg/L in groundwater for potable use. In order to characterize the soil properties important for the chloroform production, various ecosystems were examined with respect to soil air chloroform and soil organic matter type and content. Coniferous forest areas, responsible for highest chloroform concentrations, were examined on widely different scales from km to cm scale. Furthermore, regular soil gas measurements including chloroform were performed during 4 seasons at various depths, together with various meteorological measurements and soil temperature recordings. Laboratory incubation experiments were also performed on undisturbed soil samples in order to examine the role of various microbiota, fungi and bacteria. To identify hot spots responsible for the natural contamination we have measured the production of chloroform in the upper soil from different terrestrial systems. Field measurements of chloroform in top soil air were used as production indicators. The production was however not evenly distributed at any scale. The ecosystems seem to have quite different net-productions of chloroform from very low in grassland to very high in some coniferous forests. Within the forest ecosystem we found large variation in chloroform concentrations depending on vegetation. In beech forest we found the lowest values, somewhat higher in an open pine forest, but the highest concentrations were detected in spruce forest without any vegetation beneath. Within this ecotype, it appeared that the variation was also large; hot spots with 2-4 decades higher production than the surrounding area. These hot spots were not in any way visually different from the surroundings and were of variable size from 3 to 20 meters in diameter. Besides this, measurements within a seemingly homogenous hot spot showed that there was still high

  10. Removal of Chloroform (CHCl3 from Tehran Drinking Water by GAC and Air Stripping Columns

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M T Samadi, S Nasseri, A Mesdaghinia, M R Alizadefard

    2004-07-01

    Full Text Available The harmful substances, defined as trihalomethanes (THMs, were found to be formed during the disinfection of drinking water when chlorine was used as the disinfectant. In this research, the effectiveness of granular activated carbon (GAC and air stripping (AS packed column for the removal of chloroform (CHCl3 (as THMs basic indicator compound in many resources in range of 50 to300µg/L, from drinking water was studied. Pilots of GAC and air stripping columns were designed and set up. The study was carried out for the two cases of deionized and chlorinated Tehran tap water. Also the effects of flow rate, chloroform and TDS concentrations were considered in both treatment systems. Gas chromatography (GC with electron capture detector (ECD was used for determination of chloroform concentration in inlet and outlet samples. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS and non-parametric Kruskal–Wallis method. Results showed a positive correlation between the flow rate and chloroform concentration, and removal efficiencies. The average of variations of removal efficiencies for AS and GAC columns with deionized water samples were, 89.9%, 71.2% and for chlorinated Tehran tap water were 91.2% and 76.4%, respectively. The removal of feed residual chlorine in these columns with 0.5, 0.8 ppm was 100%, respectively and re-chlorination for finishing water was recommended. Results showed AS to be considered more effective in chloroform removal for conventional water treatment plants as a finishing process.

  11. In Vitro Antioxidant and Enzymes Inhibitory activity of Chloroform Fraction of Hydroalcoholic extract obtained from Argemone mexicana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nayak P

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation antioxidant and alphaamylase inhibitory activity of chloroform fraction of Argemone mexicana were evaluated. The antioxidant activity of chloroform fraction of A. mexicana was evaluated by DPPH, Super oxide radical Scavenging activity, ABTS radical cation scavenging activity and Nitric oxide radical scavenging activity. Alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of chloroform fraction was evaluated by DNS method respectively. The observed resultant antioxidant activity of chloroform fraction in all studied models was moderate as compared with reference standard Ascorbic acid. The chloroform fraction exhibited appreciable α-amylase inhibitory activity with an IC50 value 48.92μg/ml respectively, when compared with acarbose (IC50 value 83.33μg/ml.In conclusion, from the results of present study it is confirmed that antioxidant and alpha-amylase inhibitory activity of chloroform fraction of A. mexicana may contribute in its earlier observed antidiabetic potential.

  12. Atomistic study of lipid membranes containing chloroform: looking for a lipid-mediated mechanism of anesthesia.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ramon Reigada

    Full Text Available The molecular mechanism of general anesthesia is still a controversial issue. Direct effect by linking of anesthetics to proteins and indirect action on the lipid membrane properties are the two hypotheses in conflict. Atomistic simulations of different lipid membranes subjected to the effect of small volatile organohalogen compounds are used to explore plausible lipid-mediated mechanisms. Simulations of homogeneous membranes reveal that electrostatic potential and lateral pressure transversal profiles are affected differently by chloroform (anesthetic and carbon tetrachloride (non-anesthetic. Simulations of structured membranes that combine ordered and disordered regions show that chloroform molecules accumulate preferentially in highly disordered lipid domains, suggesting that the combination of both lateral and transversal partitioning of chloroform in the cell membrane could be responsible of its anesthetic action.

  13. Acute liver injury in two workers exposed to chloroform in cleanrooms: a case report.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Young Joong; Ahn, Jungho; Hwang, Yang-In

    2014-01-01

    We report 2 cases of hepatotoxicity in cleanroom workers due to high retained chloroform air concentrations. The women, aged 34 and 41 years, who had been working in a medical endoscopic device manufacturer as cleanroom workers for approximately 40-45 days suffered severe liver damage. Two measured time-weighted averages of the chloroform concentration in the air in the cleanroom were 82.74 and 64.24 ppm, which are more than 6 times the legal occupational exposure limit in Korea. Only 7% of the cleanroom air was newly introduced from outside. The clinical courses of these cases and workplace inspection, led us to conclude that both cases of hepatotoxicity were caused by chloroform exposure.

  14. A study of the sources and sinks of methane and methyl chloroform using a global three-dimensional Lagrangian tropospheric tracer transport model

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, JA; Brasseur, GP; Zimmerman, PR; Cicerone, RJ

    1991-01-01

    By comparison with methyl chloroform observations a global average tropospheric hydroxyl radical concentration of 6.4 × 105 cm-3 was found to be consistent with published methyl chloroform emission data for the year 1980. Published methyl chloroform emissions data for 1981-1984 were found to be inconsistent with the observed methyl chloroform concentration increases. Using the hydroxyl radical field calibrated to the methyl chloroform observations, two source function models of the spatial an...

  15. Mechanistic insights into the formation of chloroform from natural organic matter using stable carbon isotope analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Breider, Florian; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2014-01-01

    Chloroform can be naturally formed in terrestrial environments (e.g. forest soils, peatland) by chlorination of natural organic matter (NOM). Recently, it was demonstrated that natural and anthropogenic chloroform have a distinctly different carbon isotope signature that makes it possible to identify its origin in soil and groundwater. In order to evaluate the contribution of different functional groups to chloroform production and factors controlling the isotopic composition of chloroform, carbon isotope trends during chlorination of model compounds, soil organic matter (SOM) and humic acids were evaluated, and apparent kinetic isotope effects (AKIEs) quantified. Phenol and propanone were selected as model compounds representing common functional groups in NOM. Chlorination was induced by hypochlorous acid to mimic natural chlorination. The pH ranged between 4 and 8 to cover typical soil conditions. For each model compound and pH, different AKIEs were observed. For phenol, the AKIE was normal at pH 4 (1.0156 ± 0.0012) and inverse at pH 8 (0.9900 ± 0.0007). For 2-propoanol, an opposite pH dependence was observed with an inverse AKIE at pH 4 (0.9935 ± 0.0007) and a normal AKIE at pH 8 (1.0189 ± 0.0016). The variations of the AKIE values suggest that the rate-limiting step of the reaction is either the re-hybridization of the carbon atom involved in chloroform formation or the hydrolysis of trichloroacetyl intermediates depending on the nature of functional group and pH. The chloroform formation from humic acid and SOM gives rise to small isotope variations. A comparison of the isotopic trends of chloroform formed from humic acid and SOM with those found for the model compounds suggest that opposed AKIE associated with the chlorination of phenolic and ketone moieties of NOM partly compensate each other during chlorination of NOM indicating that different types of functional groups contribute to chloroform formation.

  16. Modeling the interaction of ozone with chloroform and bromoform under conditions close to stratospheric

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strokova, N. E.; Yagodovskaya, T. V.; Savilov, S. V.; Lukhovitskaya, E. E.; Vasil'ev, E. S.; Morozov, I. I.; Lunin, V. V.

    2013-02-01

    The reactions of ozone with chloroform and bromoform are studied using a flow gas discharge vacuum unit under conditions close to stratospheric (temperature range, 77-250 K; pressure, 10-3-0.1 Torr in the presence of nitrate ice). It is shown that the reaction with bromoform begins at 160 K; the reaction with chloroform, at 190 K. The reaction products are chlorine and bromine oxides of different composition, identified by low-temperature FTIR spectroscopy. The presence of nitrate ice raises the temperature of reaction onset to 210 K.

  17. 'My beloved chloroform'. Attitudes to childbearing in colonial Queensland: a case study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Woolcock, H R; Thearle, M J; Saunders, K

    1997-12-01

    In 1847 the anaesthetic and analgesic properties of chloroform were discovered. This technology generated a new era for midwifery: mothers could be relieved of pain in childbirth. The introduction of chloroform for childbirth saw increasing medical dominance in obstetrics, traditionally in the hands of the midwife. At the same time the use of chloroform sparked a medical and moral controversy which lasted for several decades. On the one hand women were destined by the 'curse of Eve' to experience pain during childbirth; on the other, medical humanitarians and practitioners believed that there were technical and moral reasons for alleviating pain in childbirth. In concentrating on the debate historians have largely ignored the reactions of mothers to the introduction of the technology. This paper explores changing attitudes to childbearing within the context of colonial Queensland society, 1860-90, by examining the correspondence of an upper-class mother. Her education and liberal outlook, and a certain ambivalence towards motherhood, all influenced her attitude to the use of chloroform and the process of childbirth. PMID:11619827

  18. Persulfate Oxidation of MTBE- and Chloroform-Spent Granular Activated Carbon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Activated persulfate (Na2S2O8) regeneration of methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE) and chloroform-spent GAC was evaluated in this study. Thermal-activation of persulfate was effective and resulted in greater MTBE removal than either alkaline-activation or H2O2–persulfate binary mixtur...

  19. Chemical changes in the chloroform-paraffin system irradiated by 60Co gamma-rays, 1

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    It has been reported that the chloroform-paraffin-dye system have excellent sensitivity for radiation as a solid chemical dosimeter or a phantom. However, the chemical changes in the irradiated system are not examined in detail. In the present study, the effect of paraffin on changes in the above system of a liquid state irradiated by 60Co γ-rays was examined by using various normal paraffin, and the other variable factors on the changes were done. When the chloroform solution and the solution containing 25 per cent of paraffin by volume with 5.0 x 15-5 mol/liter of Methyl Yellow as a dye were irradiated by 2000 R, G values for the formation of hydrogen chloride in the both solutions were 8.4 and 10.8, respectively, and were little affected by the kind of those, from C6 (hexane) to C36 (hexatria-contane). These results suggest that chlorine radical formed by radiolysis of chloroform may react with hydrogen atom from paraffin, thereby increasing the amount of hydrogen chloride. Presence of oxygen increased G value of the chloroform solution from 7.6 to 8.4, but did little that of the solution containing paraffin. (author)

  20. "Comparison of Nanofiltration and GAC Adsorption Processes for Chloroform Removal from Drinking Water"

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Nasseri

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available In this research, the Chloroform (CHCl3 removal effectiveness of two water treatment systems including membrane technology and granular activated carbon (GAC adsorption were studied. Two bench-scales were designed and set up: 1 Nanofiltration (NF spiral-wound modules and 2 GAC adsorption column. Chloroform was considered as trihalomethanes (THMs basic indicator compound. The inlet and outlet CHCl3 concentrations were detected by gas chromatography (GC with electron capture detector (ECD. The study was carried out for the two cases of spiked deionized water with CHCl3 and chlorinated Tehran tap water. Flow rate, CHCl3 and total dissolved solids (TDS concentrations were considered in both treatment systems and the transmembrane pressures for membrane pilot, as the basic variables affecting removal efficiencies. Results showed that CHCl3 rejection coefficients for NF 300 Da, NF 600 Da and GAC Column, with various operation conditions had a range of 55.2% to 87.8%, 78% to 85% and 41.4% to 74.1%, respectively. It was found that removal efficiencies for NF 600 Da were lower than those of NF 300 Da and GAC column. The obtained data were analyzed by SPSS and non-parametric Kruskal-Wallis method. Results showed a positive correlation between the flow rate, CHCl3 concentration and chloroform rejection coefficients and the TDS concentration had no significant effect on chloroform removal efficiencies.

  1. Detection of chloroform in water using an azo dye-modified β-cyclodextrin - Epichlorohydrin copolymer as a fluorescent probe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ncube, Phendukani; Krause, Rui W. M.; Mamba, Bhekie B.

    Chlorination disinfection by-products (DBPs) in water pose a health threat to humans and the aquatic environment. Their detection in water sources is therefore vital. Herein we present the detection of chloroform, a DBP, using a molecular fluorescent probe. The detection was based on the quenching of fluorescence of the probe by chloroform due to host-guest complex formation between β-cyclodextrin in the probe and the chloroform molecule. The stability constant for the host-guest complex was high at 3.825 × 104 M-1. Chloroform quenched the fluorescence of the copolymer the most compared to the other small chlorinated compounds studied, suggesting that the probe was more sensitive to chloroform, with a sensing factor of 0.35 compared to as low as 0.0073 for dichloromethane. There was no interference from other chloroalkanes on the quenching efficiency of chloroform. The probe was used to detect chloroform in dam water as well as in bottled water. Detection of chloroform in both water samples using the probe was possible without chemically treating the water samples which may introduce other pollutants.

  2. GC-MS/MS Based Identification of Bioactive principles of Chloroform fraction of Swertia Chirayatia (Chirata.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Homa Jilani Khan

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to characterize the chemical composition, in vitro antioxidant and anticancer activity of chloroform fraction of Swertia chirata L. (Family Gentianaceae. GC-MS analysis of chloroform fraction of S. chirata (CFSc identified twenty-five compounds belonging to different chemical class. Among these important classes of compounds were tri-terpenoids, phenol, acids, and fatty acids. Our phytochemical analysis of CFSc was well supported by its Total Phenolic Content and antioxidant activity with in vitro anticancer activity which was evaluated by MTT assay also showed that CFSc exhibited anti-proliferative activity against human breast cancer cell lines (MDA-MB-231 and MCF-7. In conclusion; our study revealed an extensive biochemical profile of CFSc as well its potential as a pharmacological agent with respect of its antioxidant and anti-cancer property. More safety and toxicological studies are needed to be addressed to ensure the use of CFSc for medicinal purposes.

  3. A very stable complex of a modified marine cyclopeptide with chloroform

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haberhauer, Gebhard; Pintér, Áron; Woitschetzki, Sascha

    2013-12-01

    Noncovalent interactions play a pivotal role in molecular recognition. These interactions can be subdivided into hydrogen bonds, cation-π interactions, ion pair interactions and London dispersion forces. The latter are considered to be weak molecular interactions and increase with the size of the interacting moieties. Here we show that even the small chloroform molecule forms a very stable complex with a modified marine cyclopeptide. By means of high-level quantum chemical calculations, the size of the dispersive interactions is calculated; the dispersion energy (approximately -40 kcal mol-1) is approximately as high as if the four outer atoms of the guest form four strong hydrogen bonds with the host. This strong binding of chloroform to a modified marine cyclopeptide allows the speculation that the azole-containing cyclopeptides-haloform interaction may play some biological role in marine organisms such as algae.

  4. Study on the Electrical Conductivity of Au Nanoparticle/ Chloroform and Toluene Suspensions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    FANG Fang; ZHANG Ya-fei

    2005-01-01

    Au nanoparticles capped by hexadecanethiol and dodecanethiol were chemically synthesized. The characteristics of electrical conductivity for the capped nanoparticles dissolved in chloroform and toluene solvents were investigated. The electrical conductivity of the samples is conspicuously Au nanoparticle concentration dependent.The results show that a rapid conductivity increases when the nanoparticle concentration increases from low value to a moderate value of 5.47 g/L and 11.22 g/L, which is capped by hexadecanethiol and dodecanethiol in chloroform solvent, and 2.77 g/L and 7.88 g/L in toluene solvent. The room-temperature dc conductivity σdc of Au nanoparticle capped by hexadecanethiol is smaller than that capped by dodecanethiol in the whole range of Au nanoparticle concentrations. The conductivity of Au nanoparticle suspensions increases almost linearly in the temperature range in above two solvents.

  5. Surface Properties of Photocatalytic Nano-Crystalline Titania Films and Reactor for Photocatalytic Degradation of Chloroform

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Søgaard, Erik Gydesen; Simonsen, Morten Enggrob; Jensen, Henrik;

    2006-01-01

    concentration chloroform of 7 mg/l was degraded in a period of 500 hour. The kinetics of the degradation of chloroform in the flow reactor was found to obey Langmuir-Hinshelwood kinetics. The investigation also showed that the reactor design has a significant influence on the rate of degradation...... is the limiting condition for the rate of reaction. Also a new type of continuous photoreactor was developed in which the TiO2 catalyst made from Sol-gel film was immobilized on the surface of quartz tubes surrounding the UV lamps and on the internal surface of the reactor walls. The study showed that an initial......, as it was observed that the position of the coated lamp in the reactor yield different degradation rates....

  6. Analysis of phenolic acids as chloroformate derivatives using solid phase microextraction-gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Citová, Ivana; Sladkovský, Radek; Solich, Petr

    2006-07-28

    In the presented study, a simple and original procedure of phenolic acids derivatization treated by ethyl and methyl chloroformate performed in an aqueous media consisting of acetonitrile, water, methanol/ethanol and pyridine has been modified and optimized. Seven phenolic acid standards-caffeic, ferulic, gallic, p-coumaric, protocatechuic, syringic and vanillic were derivatized into corresponding methyl/ethyl esters and subsequently determined by the means of gas chromatography connected to the flame-ionisation detector (FID). Some selected validation parameters as linearity, detection and quantitation limits and peak area repeatability were valued. The total time of gas chromatography (GC) analysis was 24 min for methyl chloroformate and 30 min for ethyl chloroformate derivatization. The more suitable methyl chloroformate derivatization was used for further experiments on the possibility of multiple pre-concentration by the direct solid phase microextraction technique (SPME). For this purpose, polyacrylate (PA), polydimethylsiloxane (PDMS), carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane (CAR/PDMS) and polydimethylsiloxane/divinylbenzene (PDMS/DVB) fibres were tested and the extraction conditions concerning time of extraction, temperature and time of desorption were optimized. The most polar PA fibre gave the best results under optimal extraction conditions (50 min extraction time, 25 degrees C extraction temperature and 10 min desorption time). As a result, the total time of SPME-GC analysis was 74 min and an increase in method sensitivity was reached. The limits of quantitation (LOQ) of p-coumaric, ferulic, syringic and vanillic acid esters after SPME pre-concentration were 0.02, 0.17, 0.2 and 0.2 microg mL(-1), respectively, showing approximately 10 times higher sensitivity in comparison with the original GC method. PMID:17723529

  7. Comparative analysis of antioxidant and phenolic content of chloroform extract/fraction of Terminalia chebula

    OpenAIRE

    Walia, Harpreet; Kumar, Subodh; Arora, Saroj

    2011-01-01

    In the present study, two chloroform extracts of fruits of Terminalia chebula viz. “CHL1” and “CHL 2” prepared by maceration and sequential method respectively was compared for their antioxidant efficacy and phenolic content. The extraction procedure of plant material plays an important role in the activity of phytochemicals. Also, the assessment of antioxidant capacity of phytochemicals cannot be executed precisely by any single method due to complex nature of phytochemicals as multiple reac...

  8. Chloroform in a pristine aquifer system: Toward an evidence of biogenic origin

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Laturnus, F.; Lauritsen, F.R.; Grøn, C.

    2000-01-01

    Ambient air, soil air, and groundwater were monitored for volatile halogenated organic compounds in a pristine spruce forest at Klosterhede, Denmark. Although this location is remote from industrial areas and free of any point sources of either soil or groundwater contamination, several volatile......, only bromoform was found and only in the upper soil layer. For chloroform a formation in the spruce forest soil is suggested, leading to concentrations in the groundwater in the micrograms per liter range....

  9. Cytotoxicity activities of chloroform extract of Cichorium intybus seed against HCT-15 and Vero cell line

    OpenAIRE

    Prashant Y Mali

    2015-01-01

    Background: Cichorium intybus L., (Asteraceae) is well-known as a coffee substitute but is also widely used medicinally to treat various ailments ranging from wounds to diabetes. Other plant parts are also used for liver and cancer disorder. Objective: The objective was to study the cytotoxic potential of chloroform extract of C. intybus seed against HCT-15 and Vero (normal) cell line. Materials and Methods: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR) analysis of the extract was performed....

  10. Cytotoxicity activities of chloroform extract of Cichorium intybus seed against HCT-15 and Vero cell line

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Prashant Y Mali

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cichorium intybus L., (Asteraceae is well-known as a coffee substitute but is also widely used medicinally to treat various ailments ranging from wounds to diabetes. Other plant parts are also used for liver and cancer disorder. Objective: The objective was to study the cytotoxic potential of chloroform extract of C. intybus seed against HCT-15 and Vero (normal cell line. Materials and Methods: Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR analysis of the extract was performed. 3-(4, 5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2, 5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide assay was used for evaluation of the cytotoxic potential of chloroform extract of C. intybus seed. Doxorubicin was considered as standard reference drug. The concentrations 1000–0.05 μg/ml was used in the experiment. Result and Discussion: FTIR spectrum showed 1025.363, 1083.126, 1291.366, 1389.144, and 1569.294 peaks/centers in the wavelength region of 4,000.00–650.00 cm−1. The chloroform extract of C. intybus seed and doxorubicin was showed 1411.37 μg/ml and 460.13 μg/ml 50% cell growth inhibition (IC50 against the HCT-15 cell line. Both extract and doxorubicin were safe against the Vero (normal cell line. Conclusion: It can be concluded that the chloroform extract of C. intybus seed was not efficient against the HCT-15 cell line at the concentrations used in the experiment. Furthermore, there is no need to explore the said studies by in vivo models.

  11. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  12. Evidence of Hydrogen Bonding in Chloroform and Polyacrylates from NMR Measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    The presence of hydrogen bonding in chloroform and polyacrylate mixtures was demonstrated by observation of 1H- and 13C-NMR chemical shifts. Comparison of the nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) chemical shift in polymer solutions with their low molecular mass analogues showed the effect of steric hindrance on hydrogen bonding. This initial investigation is helpful for understanding the intermolecular interaction in relatively weak hydrogen bonding polymer solutions.

  13. Effect of chloroform, eucalyptol and orange oil solvents on the microhardness of human root dentin.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sedigheh Khedmat

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to assess the effect of chloroform, eucalyptol and orange oil solvents on the microhardness of human root dentin.Sixty-eight single-rooted single-canal extracted human premolar teeth were used. Tooth crowns were separated from the roots at the cementoenamel junction (CEJ. Roots were buccolingually sectioned into mesial and distal halves. Specimens were randomly divided into 5 groups, with 20 teeth in each solvent group and 4 teeth in each control group. Primary microhardness of specimens was measured using Vickers microhardness tester. Specimens were exposed to solvents for 15 minutes and were subjected to microhardness testing again. Data were recorded and analyzed using repeated measure ANOVA.No significant difference was found in dentin microhardness before and after exposure to solvents in any of the orange oil, eucalyptol, chloroform or saline groups (P=0.727. None of the experimental groups showed any significant difference in terms of dentin microhardness reduction (P=0.99 and had no significant difference with the negative control group.This study showed that chloroform, eucalyptol and orange oil as gutta percha solvents did not decrease the microhardness of root dentin. Thus, none of the mentioned solvents has any superiority over the others in terms of affecting dentin properties.

  14. Vapor-liquid equilibria for acetone + chloroform + methanol and constituent binary systems at 101. 3 kPa

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hiaki, Toshihiko (Nihon Univ., Chiba (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry); Kurihara, Kiyofumi; Kojima, Kazuo (Nihon Univ., Tokyo (Japan). Dept. of Industrial Chemistry)

    1994-10-01

    Vapor-liquid equilibria (VLE) and azeotropic data, which are useful for the design and operation of separation processes, have been observed for many systems. Isobaric vapor-liquid equilibria for acetone + chloroform + methanol and for the constituent binary systems chloroform + methanol and chloroform + acetone were measured at 101.3 kPa using a liquid-vapor ebullition-type equilibrium still. The experimental data were correlated with the extended Redlich-Kister and Wilson equations. The data were best correlated and completely calculated for the ternary and three binary azeotropic data using the extended Redlich-Kister equation.

  15. Anti-diabetic potential of chloroform extract of flowers of Calotropis gigantea: An in vitro and in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    N K Choudhary; Jha, A. K.; Sharma, S.; Goyal, S.; J Dwivedi

    2011-01-01

    The chloroform extract of Calotropis gigantea flowers was evaluated for anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in vivo and inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. It was also intended to establish correlation between the serum marker antioxidant enzymes and diabetes. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate freshly prepared in a dose of 150 mg/kg. Chloroform extract showing presence of flavonoids was administered orally at ...

  16. The effect of silver nitrate, chloroformic garlic extract and normal saline in induction of sclerosing cholangitis in rabbits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Objective was to the effects of 0.5% silver nitrate, 20% chloroformic garlic extract and 0.9% normal saline in induction of sclerosing cholangitis in the bile ducts of rabbits. During a 6-months period from April to September 2006 in Shiraz University Laboratory Animal Research Center, we selected 3 equal groups of rabbits. We injected 0.5% silver nitrate, 20% chloroformic garlic extract and 0.9% normal saline into the bile ducts of each group. The animals were euthanized and autopsied after 4 months and the liver and bile ducts were removed and studied histopathologically. Cholangiography was undertaken to evaluate the presence and extent of any sclerosing cholangitis. Animals showed sclerosing cholangitis in silver nitrate group (7 [58%]), one (8%) in chloroformic garlic extract group and one (7%) in normal saline group. The difference between silver nitrate and chloroformic garlic extract groups were statistically significant and similar results were noticed between chloroformic garlic extract and normal saline groups. Twenty percent of chloroformic garlic extract had fewer complications such as sclerosing cholangitis, compared to other materials. (author)

  17. Comparing the apical microleakage of lateral condensation and chloroform dip techniques with a new obturation method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masoud Saatchi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The final objective of root canal therapy is to create a hermetic seal along the length of the root canal system. For this purpose, many methods and materials have been introduced. The purpose of this study was to compare the apical microleakage in a new obturation technique (true-tug-back with two other obturation techniques (lateral condensation and chloroform dip technique. Methods: In this in vitro study 102 single canal teeth were selected. The crowns were removed, and the canals were prepared using step-back technique. The master apical file was K-file #40. The teeth were divided into 3 experimental groups of 32 teeth. First group were obturated with lateral condensation technique and second group with chloroform dip technique and the third group with true-tug-back technique. Six teeth were used as control group. The teeth were placed in incubator at 100% humidity and 37°c for three days. The roots of the teeth were coated with two layers of nail varnish except for the apical 2 millimeter. Teeth were placed in Methylene blue 2% for one week. The teeth were sectioned vertically and the depth of maximum dye penetration for each tooth was recorded by stereomicroscope. Data were analyzed using ANOVA and Dunkan test. Results: The mean liner dye penetration differences between lateral condensation group (6.88 ± 4.06 mm and chloroform dip technique group (7.16 ± 3.37 mm were not statistically significant (P = 0.719. The differences between true-tug-back group (3.15 ± 0.52 mm and two other groups were statistically significant (P < 0.001. Conclusion: The results of this study showed that the true-tug-back technique can improve apical seal. Further studies are needed for this purpose.

  18. Isolation, fractionation and evaluation of the antiplasmodial properties of Phyllanthus niruri resident in its chloroform fraction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Obidike Ifeoma; Okhale Samuel; Aboh Mercy Itohan; Salawu Oluwakanyinsola Adeola

    2013-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antiplasmodial activity ofPhyllanthus niruri(P. niruri) methanol extract(ME) and its fractions in mice.Methods:P. niruri methanol extract and its chloroform, ethanol and aqueous portions were tested against chloroquine-sensitivePlasmodium berghei bergheiin early, established and repository models of infection usingKnight andPeter's4-day suppressive model,Ryley andPeters curative model andPeters prophylactic model respectively. Results:Chemosuppression of parasitaemia(37.65%-50.53%) was elicited by100-400 mg/kg(b.w.) ofME.At doses of100 mg/kg b.w., the chloroform fraction(F1) significantly(P<0.01) suppressed parasitaemia by85.29%, while ethanol and aqueous fractions(F2 andF3, respectively) elicited 67.06% and51.18% chemosuppression.The most active fraction,F1 was selected for further antiplasmodial screening.Inestablished infection,ME reduced parasitaemia(15.81% -62.96%) whileF1 significantly(P<0.01) reduced parasitaemia(44.36%-90.48%), with effects comparable to that of chloroquine(96.48%).The prophylactic antiplasmodial activity ofME(92.50% suppression) was also significant(P<0.01) and was more effective than pyrimethamine(85.00%).Additionally, cell membrane integrity of non-parasitizederythrocytes incubated with125-500 mg/mLF1 was maintained.Conclusions:These findings indicate the antiplasmodial efficacy ofP. niruri methanol extract, and the localization of this effect in its chloroform fraction.

  19. Chloroform and trichloroethylene uptake from water into human skin in vitro: Kinetics and risk implications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A model recently proposed by the US Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) predicts that short-term dermal uptakes of organic environmental water contaminants are proportional to the square root of exposure time. The model appears to underestimate dermal uptake, based on very limited in vivo uptake data obtained primarily using human subjects. To further assess this model, we examined in vitro dermal uptake kinetics for aqueous organic chemicals using accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS). Specifically, we examined the kinetics of in vitro dermal uptake of 14C-labeled chloroform and trichloroethylene from dilute (5-ppb) aqueous solutions using full-thickness human cadaver skin exposed for (≤1 hr)

  20. Vasorelaxant effect of diterpenoid lactones from Andrographis paniculata chloroform extract on rat aortic rings

    OpenAIRE

    R.N. Sriramaneni; Omar, Ameer Z.; Salman M Ibrahim; Sadikun Amirin; Asmawi Mohd Zaini

    2010-01-01

    Background: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the possible mechanism of the vasorelaxant effect of the Andrographis paniculata chloroform extract (APCE) and diterpenoids, such as, 14-deoxyandrographolide (DA) and 14-deoxy-11, 12-didehydroandrographolide (DDA), on rat aortic rings. Methods: DA and DDA (10 μM to 40 μM) induce relaxation in the aortic rings pre-contracted with KCl (80 mM). Results: The IC 50 values are 40.47 ± 1.44 and 37.43 ± 1.41%, respectively, and this inhibition i...

  1. Lipase inhibitory activity of chlorophyll a, isofucosterol and saringosterol isolated from chloroform fraction of Sargassum thunbergii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Koth-Bong-Woo-Ri; Kim, Min-Ji; Ahn, Dong-Hyun

    2014-01-01

    Three compounds (chlorophyll a, isofucosterol and saringosterol) were isolated from chloroform fraction of Sargassum thunbergii extract. The three compounds had two- to fourfold lower lipase inhibitory activity than that of the CHCl3:MeOH (C:M) (100:1) fraction (fraction I, 83.78% at 1 mg/mL). These results suggested that the high lipase inhibitory activity of fraction I was attributable to the actions of the three compounds. Therefore, S. thunbergii has potential for application as an anti-obesity agent.

  2. Photochemical reactions of poly(3-butoxythiophene-2,5-diyl) with chloroform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    IMIT Mokhtar; YAMAMOTO Takakazu; IMIN Patigul

    2005-01-01

    Photochemical reactions of poly(3-butoxythiophene-2,5-diyl) with chloroform under irradiation with light were studied. The reactions were separately carried out under air, oxygen, and nitrogen. The obtained results showed that this reaction belongs to the pseudo-first-order reaction with a rate constant kobs of 1.4× 10-5 s-1 at room temperature. The presence or absence of air, oxygen, and nitrogen did not have obvious effects on the reaction rate under irradiation with light.

  3. Optimization of the Phenol -Chloroform Silica DNA Extraction Method in Ancient Bones DNA Extraction

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Morteza Sadeghi

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: DNA extraction from the ancient bones tissues is currently very difficult. Phenol chloroform silica method is one of the methods currently used for this aim. The purpose of this study was to optimize the assessment method. Methods: DNA of 62 bone tissues (average 3-11 years was first extracted with phenol chloroform silica methods and then with changing of some parameters of the methods the extracted DNA was amplified in eight polymorphisms area including FES, F13, D13S317, D16, D5S818, vWA and CD4. Results from samples gained by two methods were compared in acrylamide gel. Results: The average of PCR yield for new method and common method in eight polymorphism regions was 75%, 78%, 81%, 76%, 85%, 71%, 89%, 86% and 64%, 39%, 70%, 49%, 68%, 76%, 71% and 28% respectively. The average of DNA in optimized (in 35l silica density and common method were 267.5 µg/ml with 1.12 purity and 192.76 g/ml with 0.84 purity respectively. Conclusions: According to the findings of this study, it is estimated that longer EDTA attendance is an efficient agent in removing calcium and also adequate density of silica particles can be efficient in removal of PCR inhibitors.

  4. Influence of Sulfur for Oxygen Substitution in the Solvolytic Reactions of Chloroformate Esters and Related Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Malcolm J. D'Souza

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The replacement of oxygen within a chloroformate ester (ROCOCl by sulfur can lead to a chlorothioformate (RSCOCl, a chlorothionoformate (ROCSCl, or a chlorodithioformate (RSCSCl. Phenyl chloroformate (PhOCOCl reacts over the full range of solvents usually included in Grunwald-Winstein equation studies of solvolysis by an addition-elimination (A-E pathway. At the other extreme, phenyl chlorodithioformate (PhSCSCl reacts across the range by an ionization pathway. The phenyl chlorothioformate (PhSCOCl and phenyl chlorothionoformate (PhOCSCl react at remarkably similar rates in a given solvent and there is a dichotomy of behavior with the A-E pathway favored in solvents such as ethanol-water and the ionization mechanism favored in aqueous solvents rich in fluoroalcohol. Alkyl esters behave similarly but with increased tendency to ionization as the alkyl group goes from 1° to 2° to 3°. N,N-Disubstituted carbamoyl halides favor the ionization pathway as do also the considerably faster reacting thiocarbamoyl chlorides. The tendency towards ionization increases as, within the three contributing structures of the resonance hybrid for the formed cation, the atoms carrying positive charge (other than the central carbon change from oxygen to sulfur to nitrogen, consistent with the relative stabilities of species with positive charge on these atoms.

  5. Crystal structure of Boc-(S-ABOC-(S-Ala-(S-ABOC-(S-Phe-OBn chloroform monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emmanuel Wenger

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, phenyl (S-2-[(S-(1-{2-[(S-(1-{[(tert-butoxycarbonyl]amino}bicyclo[2.2.2]octan-2-ylformamido]propanamido}bicyclo[2.2.2]octan-2-ylformamido]-3-phenylpropanoate chloroform monosolvate, C42H56N4O7·CHCl3, the α,β-hybrid peptide contains two non-proteinogenic amino acid residues of (S-1-aminobicyclo[2.2.2]octane-2-carboxylic acid [(S-ABOC], two amino acid residues of (S-2-aminopropanoic acid [(S-Ala] and (S-2-amino-3-phenylpropanoic acid [(S-Phe], and protecting groups of tert-butoxycarbonyl (Boc and benzyl ester (OBn. The tetramer folds into a right-handed mixed 11/9 helix stabilized by intramolecular i,i + 3 and i,i − 1 C=O...H—N hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, the oligomers are linked by N—H...O=C hydrogen bonds into chains along the a-axis direction. The chloroform solvent molecules are intercalated between the folded chains via C—H...O=C interactions.

  6. Liquid chloroform structure from computer simulation with a full ab initio intermolecular interaction potential

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have calculated the intermolecular interaction energies of the chloroform dimer in 12 orientations using the second-order Møller-Plesset perturbation theory. Single point energies of important geometries were calibrated by the coupled cluster with single and double and perturbative triple excitation method. Dunning's correlation consistent basis sets up to aug-cc-pVQZ have been employed in extrapolating the interaction energies to the complete basis set limit values. With the ab initio potential data we constructed a 5-site force field model for molecular dynamics simulations. We compared the simulation results with recent experiments and obtained quantitative agreements for the detailed atomwise radial distribution functions. Our results were also consistent with previous results using empirical force fields with polarization effects. Moreover, the calculated diffusion coefficients reproduced the experimental data over a wide range of thermodynamic conditions. To the best of our knowledge, this is the first ab initio force field which is capable of competing with existing empirical force fields for liquid chloroform

  7. Phytochemical and Chromatographic Fingerprint Studies on Chloroformic Extracts of Cassia tora L.

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    Patil Sahadeo

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To lay down the chromatographic profile of chloroform extracts of Cassia tora L. by HPTLC technique. Methods: Chloroformic extracts prepared from leaf, flower and seed of Cassia tora L. using Soxhlet apparatus. Qualitative phytochemical screening was done and HPTLC analysis was carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with automatic TLC sampler IV, TLC scanner 3, REPROSTAR 3 with 12 bit CCD camera for photo documentation, winCATS Planer Chromatography software. Results: The results of qualitative phytochemical analysis confirmed the presence of alkaloids, tannins, flavonoids and terpenoids, but absence of saponins. HPTLC determination of leaf extract showed the presence of 10 components with Rf values ranging from 0.33 - 0.92; seed revealed the presence of 8 components with Rf values in the range of 0.35 – 0.91; flower extract displayed presence of 11 components with Rf values in the range of 0.33 – 0.94. Conclusion: The presence of phytochemicals like flavonoids, terpenoids, tannins and alkaloid in Cassia tora L. increase the probable role in biological activities and their use in medicine. The HPTLC finger printing of Cassia tora L. may be useful in differentiating the species and act as a biochemical marker for this plant.

  8. Tracheal relaxant effect of column chromatographic elutes of chloroform fraction of Adhatoda schimperiana leaves in guinea-pigs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zelalem Petros

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Adhatoda schimperiana has been used in Ethiopian traditional medicine as a remedy for bronchial asthma. In the present study, tracheal relaxant effect of column chromatographic elutes (CCEs of the chloroform fraction of the leaves of the plant was investigated on guinea-pigs. The intermediate polar CCE of the chloroform fraction showed tracheal relaxant effect as observed by a right-ward shift of the dose-response curve. The maximum response to histamine in presence of the intermediate polar CCE was significantly lower than that of the chloroform fraction (p< 0.05. These results suggest that bioactivity-guided fractionation could show improved tracheal relaxant activity, and the alkaloid-rich fraction of the crude extract might be responsible for the claimed anti-asthmatic effect of the plant.

  9. Chloroform micro-evaporation induced ordered structures of poly(L-lactide) thin films

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Huang, Shaoyong; Li, Hongfei; Shang, Yingrui;

    2013-01-01

    and dendritic morphologies with radial periodic variation of thicknesses were formed in dilute solution driven by micro-evaporation of the solvent. Bunched morphologies stacked with a flat-on lozenge-shaped lamellae were created in thinner films. The formation of the concentric ring banded structures......Self-assembly of poly(L-lactide) (PLLA) in thin films induced by chloroform micro-evaporation was investigated by microscopic techniques and X-ray diffraction studies. A film-thickness dependent on highly ordered structures has been derived from disordered films. Ring-banded spherulitic...... was attributed to the periodic rhythmic growth associated with radial periodic changes in the concentration gradient of PLLA. A diffusion-induced rhythmic growth mechanism was proposed to explain the formation of the ring banded morphologies with periodic variation of thicknesses....

  10. Thermal stability of chloroform in the steam condensate cycle of CANDU-PHW nuclear power plant

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Analysis of samples taken at the Gentilly 2 (Quebec) CANDU-PHW (CANadian Deuterium Uranium - Pressurized Heavy Water) plant after chlorination and demineralization revealed the presence of all four trihalomethanes (THMs) (CHCl3, CHBrCl2, CHBr2Cl and CHBr3) and other unidentified halogenated volatile compounds. Among the THMs, chloroform was the major contaminant. A study of its thermal stability in water at different temperatures confirmed the degradation of the CHCl3 molecule according to the equation CHCl3 + H2O → CO + 3 HCl. The reaction follows first order kinetics and has an activation energy of 100 kJ/mol. The estimated half-life is six seconds at 260 deg C, the maximum temperature of the steam condensate cycle

  11. Ultrafast multiplex CARS investigation of vibrational characteristics in chloroform and PMMA

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper demonstrates the femtosecond time-resolved coherent anti-Stokes Raman scattering by using folded BOXCARS geometry where an ultrashort broadband coherent white light continuum was used as Stokes pulse, and carries out the non-contact detection at long distance. The CARS signal is so easy to be detected that it can be seen even by nude eye. The C–H bonds of chloroform or PMMA were detected and the vibration modes belonging to the side chain and the main chain in PMMA were also compared. Their vibrational characteristics involved decay process and quantum beating were discussed. This modified CARS experimental technique could make up the deficiency of traditional CARS technique. (atomic and molecular physics)

  12. Chloroform Aided Extraction Spectrophotometric Determination of Rhenium Using Thiocyanate Complexing Agent

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    E. Keshavarz Alamdari; S.K. Sadrnezhaad; Z. Mos-hefi Shabestari

    2005-01-01

    A new technique is developed for quantitative determination of rhenium in aqueous media containing molybdenum,iron and copper ions. The method seems easier and more accurate than the traditional ones. It consists of the formation of rhenium thiocyanate complex, which is extracted with chloroform at the presence of hydrochloric acid.This complex is a highly visible light absorbent that can easily be detected with the aid of a spectrophotometer. The maximum absorbance (λmax) observed for this complex was in the visible range of 430~435 nm. The experimental results showed that in a concentration range from 0.5~8 mg/L, the absorbance behavior of the rhenium thiocyanate complex is followed to the Beer-Lambert law.

  13. A modified Phenol-chloroform extraction method for isolating circulating cell free DNA of tumor patients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clemens Hufnagl

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Searching for new cancer biomarkers, circulating cell-free DNA (cfDNA has become an appealing target of interest as an elevated level of cfDNA has been detected in the circulation of cancer patients in comparison with healthy controls. Since cfDNA can be isolated from the circulation and other body fluids of patients without harming their physical condition, cfDNA is becoming a promising candidate as a novel non-invasive biomarker for cancer. The challenge in the diagnostic analysis of cfDNA is its very low presence in human plasma/serum and its partially strong fragmentation. Here we evaluated a modified phenol/chloroform extraction method for the isolation of cfDNA and compared it with published standard methods for cfDNA isolation.

  14. Characterization of Methylocystis strain JTA1 isolated from aged refuse and its tolerance to chloroform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tiantao Zhao; Lijie Zhang; Yunru Zhang; Zhilin Xing; Xuya Peng

    2013-01-01

    To accelerate the efficiency of methane biodegradation in landfills,a Gram-negative,rod-shaped,non-motile,non-spore-forming bacterium,JTA1,which can utilize methane as well as acetate,was isolated from the Laogang MSW landfills,Shanghai,China.Strain JTA1 was a member of genus Methylocystis on the basis of 16S rRNA and pmoA gene sequence similarity.The maximum specific cell growth rates (μmax=0.042 hr-1,R2=0.995) was derived through Boltzmann simulation,and the apparent half-saturation constants (Km(app) =7.08 mmol/L,R2 =0.982) was calculated according to Michaelis-Menton hyperbolic model,indicating that Methylocystis strain JTA1 had higher-affinity potential for methane oxidation than other reported methanotrophs.By way of adding the strain JTA1 culture,the methane consumption of aged refuse reached 115 mL,almost two times of control experiment.In addition,high tolerance of Methylocystis strain JTA1 to chloroform could facilitate the methane oxidation of aged refuse bio-covers.At the chloroform concentration of 50 mg/L,the methane-oxidation rate of bio-cover reached 0.114 mL/(day.g),much higher than the highest rate,0.0135 mL/(day.g),of reported bio-covers.In conclusion,strain JTA1 opens up a new possibility for environmental biotechnology,such as soil or landfills bioremediation and wastewater decontamination.

  15. Identification of sitosteryl glucoside palmitate in a chloroform-derived fraction of Phyllanthus niruri with antiplasmodial and peripheral antinociceptive properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ezenyi Ifeoma Chinwude; Kulkarni Roshan; Joshi Swati; Salawu Oluwakanyinsola Adeola; Emeje Martins

    2014-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antiplasmodial properties of fractions of chloroform portion of Phyllanthus niruri (P. niruri) methanol extract and identify a suitable chemical marker present therein. Methods: Chloroform portion of P. niruri methanol extract was separated from silica gel using gradient systems of hexane, ethylacetate and methanol. The fractions were screened for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum HB3 and FcM29. Fractions with IC50 Results:Fractions 12-14 were very active (IC50 Conclusions:Our findings illustrate antiplasmodial column fractions of P. niruri with analgesic activity and identify sitosteryl glucoside palmitate as a chemical marker of activity.

  16. Treatment of natural ovine malignant theileriosis with a chloroform extract of the plant Peganum harmala : research communication

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Mirzaiedehaghi

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available One hundred sheep naturally infected with Theileria lestoquardi were treated with a chloroform extract of the plant Peganum harmala. The treatment was continued for 5 days, the dose of extract being 5 mg/kg per day. Sixty-five of the sheep responded to treatment and recovered but 35 did not and died. The cure rate was 65 %

  17. Factors associated with sources, transport, and fate of chloroform and three other trihalomethanes in untreated groundwater used for drinking water

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Janet M.; Moran, Michael J.; Zogorski, John S.; Price, Curtis V.

    2012-01-01

    Multiple lines of evidence for indicating factors associated with the sources, transport, and fate of chloroform and three other trihalomethanes (THMs) in untreated groundwater were revealed by evaluating low-level analytical results and logistic regression results for THMs. Samples of untreated groundwater from wells used for drinking water were collected from 1996-2007 from 2492 wells across the United States and analyzed for chloroform, bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform by a low-level analytical method implemented in April 1996. Using an assessment level of 0.02 μg/L, chloroform was detected in 36.5% of public-well samples and 17.6% of domestic-well samples, with most concentrations less than 1 μg/L. Brominated THMs occurred less frequently than chloroform but more frequently in public-well samples than domestic-well samples. For both public and domestic wells, THMs occurred most frequently in urban areas. Logistic regression analyses showed that the occurrence of THMs was related to nonpoint sources such as urban land use and to point sources like septic systems. The frequent occurrence and concentration distribution pattern of THMs, as well as their frequent co-occurrence with other organic compounds and nitrate, all known to have anthropogenic sources, and the positive associations between THM occurrence and dissolved oxygen and recharge indicate the recycling of water that contains THMs and other anthropogenic contaminants.

  18. Chemical changes in the chloroform-paraffin-dye system irradiated with 60Co gamma-rays, 2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies have been carried out on the amount of hydrogen chloride formed by the radiolysis of chloroform in a solid paraffin-chloroform-Methyl Yellow system, and the color changes from yellow to red and absorption energy observed. The amount of hydrogen chloride formed and the intensity of the red color were determined with a pH meter, a spectrophotometer, and a color/ color-difference meter. It was found that the color-difference meter had the most excellent spectral response and sensitivity for measurement of the irradiated sample, and that the color-difference, ΔE, obtained by reflectometry increased proportionally with the increase in the radiation dose throughout a region of 100 -- 5000 R. When a solid sample composed of 1.0 kg paraffin (m.p. 62 -- 640C), 0.74 kg chloroform and 3.4 x 10-3 mol Methyl Yellow was subjected to 1000 R irradiation at 200C, 2.5 x 1014 molecules of hydrogen chloride were formed in 1.0 g of the solid sample with the absorption energy of 5.9 x 1016 eV, 3.2 x 1016 eV of which contributed to chloroform as the absorption energy. (author)

  19. Acute Toxicity Investigation and Anti-diarrhoeal Effect of the Chloroform-Methanol Extract of the Leaves of Persea americana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Christian E, Odo; Okwesili Fc, Nwodo; Parker E, Joshua; Okechukwu Pc, Ugwu

    2014-01-01

    Persea americana is a plant used by traditional medicine practitioners to treat ailments including diarrhoea and diabetes mellitus in Nigeria. Hence, the chloroform and the methanol fractions of the chloroform-methanol extract of the leaves of P. americana were evaluated for their acute toxicity as well as anti-diarrhoeal effects in Wistar rats to substantiate this claim. The chloroform and methanol fractions [at graded doses of 100 and 200 mg/Kg body weight (b.w) of each] were studied for their anti-diarrhoeal effects in terms of the reductions in the wetness of faeces and the frequency of defaecation of castor oil-induced diarrhoea. To understand the mechanism of their anti-diarrhoeal effects, their actions were further evaluated on castor oil-induced enteropooling (intestinal fluid accumulation). The median lethal dose (LD50) of the methanol fraction was found to be less than 5000 mg/Kg b.w. At the two doses, the chloroform and the methanol fractions showed dose-dependent significant (p americana possesses significant anti-diarrhoeal effect and may be a potent source of anti-diarrhoeal drug(s) in future. PMID:25237361

  20. The natural chlorine cycle - Formation of the carcinogenic and greenhouse gas compound chloroform in drinking water reservoirs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Forczek, Sándor T; Pavlík, Milan; Holík, Josef; Rederer, Luděk; Ferenčík, Martin

    2016-08-01

    Chlorine cycle in natural ecosystems involves formation of low and high molecular weight organic compounds of living organisms, soil organic matter and atmospherically deposited chloride. Chloroform (CHCl3) and adsorbable organohalogens (AOX) are part of the chlorine cycle. We attempted to characterize the dynamical changes in the levels of total organic carbon (TOC), AOX, chlorine and CHCl3 in a drinking water reservoir and in its tributaries, mainly at its spring, and attempt to relate the presence of AOX and CHCl3 with meteorological, chemical or biological factors. Water temperature and pH influence the formation and accumulation of CHCl3 and affect the conditions for biological processes, which are demonstrated by the correlation between CHCl3 and ΣAOX/Cl(-) ratio, and also by CHCl3/ΣAOX, CHCl3/AOXLMW, CHCl3/ΣTOC, CHCl3/TOCLMW and CHCl3/Cl(-) ratios in different microecosystems (e.g. old spruce forest, stagnant acidic water, humid and warm conditions with high biological activity). These processes start with the biotransformation of AOX from TOC, continue via degradation of AOX to smaller molecules and further chlorination, and finish with the formation of small chlorinated molecules, and their subsequent volatilization and mineralization. The determined concentrations of chloroform result from a dynamic equilibrium between its formation and degradation in the water; in the Hamry water reservoir, this results in a total amount of 0.1-0.7 kg chloroform and 5.2-15.4 t chloride. The formation of chloroform is affected by Cl(-) concentration, by concentrations and ratios of biogenic substrates (TOC and AOX), and by the ratios of the substrates and the product (feedback control by chloroform itself). PMID:27231877

  1. THE FAILURE OF CHLOROFORM ADMINISTERED IN THE DRINKING WATER TO INDUCE RENAL TUBULAR CELL NEOPLASIA IN MALE F344/N RATS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The failure of chloroform administered in drinking water to induce renal tubular cell neoplasia in male F344/N rats Chloroform (TCM) has been demonstrated to be a renal carcinogen in the male Osborne-Mendel rat when administered either by corn oil gavage or in drin...

  2. Bis{2-methoxy-6-[(E-(4-methylbenzyliminomethyl]phenolato}palladium(II chloroform monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hadariah Bahron

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [Pd(C16H16NO22]·CHCl3, the PdII cation lies on an inversion center. One Cl atom of the CHCl3 solvent molecule lies on a twofold axis and the C—H group is disordered with equal occupancies about this axis with the other Cl atom in a general position with full occupancy. The PdII cation is four-coordinate and adopts a square-planar geometry via coordination of the imine N and phenolic O atoms of the two bidentate Schiff base anions. The N and O atoms of these ligands are mutually trans. The plane of the benzene ring makes a dihedral angle of 73.52 (10° with that of the methoxyphenolate ring. In the crystal, molecules of the PdII complex are arranged into sheets parallel to the ac plane, and the chloroform solvent molecules are located in the interstitial areas between the complex molecules. Weak intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...π interactions stabilize the packing.

  3. Gastroprotective activity of the chloroform extract of the roots from Arctium lappa L.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dos Santos, Ana C; Baggio, Cristiane H; Freitas, Cristina S; Lepieszynski, Juliana; Mayer, Bárbara; Twardowschy, André; Missau, Fabiana C; dos Santos, Elide P; Pizzolatti, Moacir G; Marques, Maria C A

    2008-06-01

    Arctium lappa L. is used in folk medicine as a diuretic, depurative and digestive stimulant and in dermatological conditions. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect and the possible mechanisms involved in the gastroprotective effects of a chloroform extract (CE) of the roots from A. lappa and its fractions. Oral pretreatment with CE (10, 30 and 100 mg kg(-1)) significantly reduced gastric lesions induced by ethanol by 61%, 70% and 76%, respectively. Oral administration of CE (100 mg kg(-1) per day for 7 days) reduced the chronic gastric ulceration induced by acetic acid by 52%. Intraduodenal CE (100, 300 and 600 mg kg(-1)) reduced the total acidity of gastric secretion by 22%, 22% and 33%, respectively, while i.p. administration (10, 30 and 100 mg kg(-1)) inhibited total acidity by 50%, 60% and 67%, respectively. In-vitro, CE inhibited H+, K+ -ATPase activity with an EC50 of 53 microgmL(-1) and fraction A (30 and 100 microgmL(-1)) reduced this by 48% and 89%, respectively. CE had no effect on gastrointestinal motility. CE (250 microgmL(-1)) and fraction B (100 and 250 microgmL(-1)) had free-radical scavenging ability, inhibiting 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH) radical activity by 50%, 20% and 55%, respectively. Collectively, the results show that the CE protects animals from gastric lesions by reducing gastric acid secretion via inhibition of gastric H+, K+ -ATPase.

  4. Toxicity of chloroform extract of prunus africana stem bark in rats: gross and histological lesions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gathumbi, P K; Mwangi, J W; Mugera, G M; Njiro, S M

    2002-05-01

    Chloroform extract of Prunus africana (Hook f. (Rosaceae) did not cause clinical signs or pathology in rats at daily oral doses of up to 1,000 mg/kg for 8 weeks. The extract caused marked clinical signs, organ damage and a 50% mortality rate at a dose of 3.3 g/kg for 6 days. The main lesions observed at this dose were marked centrilobular hepatocellular degeneration and necrosis, diffuse nephrosis, myocardial degeneration, lymphocytic necrosis and neuronal degeneration. The morphological damage in these tissues caused a corresponding rise in blood biochemical parameters namely, aspartate aminotransferase, alanine aminotransferase, alkaline phosphatase, lactate dehydrogenase, creatine kinase and blood urea nitrogen. The target organs of toxicity of this extract are the liver, kidney and heart. Overt toxicity occurred only after the administration of multiple doses of 3.3 g/kg body weight. These findings confirm the suitability of this extract for therapeutic use, since the doses used in the therapy of prostate gland are much lower than those used in this study and would therefore not be expected to cause pathological changes.

  5. Wirelike charge transport dynamics for DNA-lipid complexes in chloroform.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mishra, Ashutosh Kumar; Young, Ryan M; Wasielewski, Michael R; Lewis, Frederick D

    2014-11-01

    The dynamics of charge separation and charge recombination have been determined for lipid complexes of DNA capped hairpins possessing stilbene electron-acceptor and -donor chromophores separated by base-pair domains that vary in length and base sequence in chloroform solution by means of femtosecond time-resolved transient absorption spectroscopy. The results obtained for the DNA-lipid complexes are compared with those previously obtained in our laboratories for the same hairpins in aqueous buffer. The charge separation and charge recombination times for the lipid complexes are consistently much shorter than those determined in aqueous solution and are only weakly dependent on the number of base pairs separating the acceptor and donor. The enhanced rate constants for forward and return charge transport in DNA-lipid complexes support proposals that solvent gating is responsible, to a significant extent, for the relatively low rates of charge transport for DNA in water. Moreover, they suggest that DNA-lipid complexes may prove useful in the development of DNA-based molecular electronic devices. PMID:25299823

  6. Estimates of European emissions of methyl chloroform using a Bayesian inversion method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Maione

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Methyl chloroform (MCF is a man-made chlorinated solvent contributing to the destruction of stratospheric ozone and is controlled under the Montreal Protocol on Substances that Deplete the Ozone Layer. Long-term, high-frequency observations of MCF carried out at three European sites show a constant decline of the background mixing ratios of MCF. However, we observe persistent non-negligible mixing ratio enhancements of MCF in pollution episodes suggesting unexpectedly high ongoing emissions in Europe. In order to identify the source regions and to give an estimate of the magnitude of such emissions, we have used a Bayesian inversion method and a point source analysis, based on high-frequency long-term observations at the three European sites. The inversion identified south-eastern France (SEF as a region with enhanced MCF emissions. This estimate was confirmed by the point source analysis. We performed this analysis using an eleven-year data set, from January 2002 to December 2012. Overall emissions estimated for the European study domain decreased nearly exponentially from 1.1 Gg yr−1 in 2002 to 0.32 Gg yr−1 in 2012, of which the estimated emissions from the SEF region accounted for 0.49 Gg yr−1 in 2002 and 0.20 Gg yr−1 in 2012. The European estimates are a significant fraction of the total semi-hemisphere (30–90° N emissions, contributing a minimum of 9.8% in 2004 and a maximum of 33.7% in 2011, of which on average 50% are from the SEF region. On the global scale, the SEF region is thus responsible from a minimum of 2.6% (in 2003 to a maximum of 10.3% (in 2009 of the global MCF emissions.

  7. Vasorelaxant effect of diterpenoid lactones from Andrographis paniculata chloroform extract on rat aortic rings

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    R N Sriramaneni

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: The aim of the present study is to evaluate the possible mechanism of the vasorelaxant effect of the Andrographis paniculata chloroform extract (APCE and diterpenoids, such as, 14-deoxyandrographolide (DA and 14-deoxy-11, 12-didehydroandrographolide (DDA, on rat aortic rings. Methods: DA and DDA (10 μM to 40 μM induce relaxation in the aortic rings pre-contracted with KCl (80 mM. Results: The IC 50 values are 40.47 ± 1.44 and 37.43 ± 1.41%, respectively, and this inhibition is antagonized by increasing the Ca 2+ concentration in the Kreb′s medium. The results indicate that APCE, DA, and DDA may have a calcium anatgonist property. APCE, DA, and DDA also relax norepinephrene (NE-induced sustained contractions with IC 50 values 41.63 ± 1.19, 49.22 ± 2.76, and 37.46 ± 1.41% and this relaxant effect is unaffected by the removal of the endothelium or by the presence of indomethacin and Nω-nitro-L-arginine (L-NAME. Moreover, DA and DDA inhibit the phasic and tonic contractions induced by NE in a concentration-dependent manner and show the most potent inhibition on phasic contraction (P < 0.01. Conclusion: This study shows that APCE, DA, and DDA pre-treatment presents a more potent inhibition compared to post-treatment, after the tension has reached a steady state. These results suggest that the vasorelaxation of APCE, DA, and DDA direct the inhibition of the calcium influx. The vasorelaxant effect is more active in the calcium independent pathway and more sensitive in the intial stage of contraction.

  8. Dynamic real-time monitoring of chloroform in an indoor swimming pool air using open-path Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, M-J; Duh, J-M; Shie, R-H; Weng, J-H; Hsu, H-T

    2016-06-01

    This study used open-path Fourier transform infrared (OP-FTIR) spectroscopy to continuously assess the variation in chloroform concentrations in the air of an indoor swimming pool. Variables affecting the concentrations of chloroform in air were also monitored. The results showed that chloroform concentrations in air varied significantly during the time of operation of the swimming pool and that there were two peaks in chloroform concentration during the time of operation of the pool. The highest concentration was at 17:30, which is coincident with the time with the highest number of swimmers in the pool in a day. The swimmer load was one of the most important factors influencing the chloroform concentration in the air. When the number of swimmers surpassed 40, the concentrations of chloroform were on average 4.4 times higher than the concentration measured without swimmers in the pool. According to the results of this study, we suggest that those who swim regularly should avoid times with highest number of swimmers, in order to decrease the risk of exposure to high concentrations of chloroform. It is also recommended that an automatic mechanical ventilation system is installed to increase the ventilation rate during times of high swimmer load.

  9. The BUME method: a novel automated chloroform-free 96-well total lipid extraction method for blood plasma[S

    OpenAIRE

    Löfgren, Lars; Ståhlman, Marcus; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Saarinen, Sinikka; Nilsson, Ralf; Göran I Hansson

    2012-01-01

    Lipid extraction from biological samples is a critical and often tedious preanalytical step in lipid research. Primarily on the basis of automation criteria, we have developed the BUME method, a novel chloroform-free total lipid extraction method for blood plasma compatible with standard 96-well robots. In only 60 min, 96 samples can be automatically extracted with lipid profiles of commonly analyzed lipid classes almost identically and with absolute recoveries similar or better to what is ob...

  10. Complexation of two non-fully hydrogen bonded aromatic hydrazide heptamers toward n-octyl-α-L-glucopyranoside in chloroform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    Two aromatic hydrazide haptamers have been prepared,with both consisting of two hydrogen bonded folded segments. Compared to their fully hydrogen bonded analogues,the flexibility of their backbones increases due to lack of one or two intramolecular hydrogen bonds at the middle aromatic unit. (2D) 1H NMR,circular dichroism and fluorescent studies revealed that both oligomers moderately complex n-octyl-α-L-glucopyranoside in chloroform.

  11. Complexation of two non-fully hydrogen bonded aromatic hydrazide heptamers toward n-octyl-α-L-glucopyranoside in chloroform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    DU Ping; XU YunXiang; JIANG XiKui; LI ZhanTing

    2009-01-01

    Two aromatic hydrazide haptamers have been prepared, with both consisting of two hydrogen bonded folded segments. Compared to their fully hydrogen bonded analogues, the flexibility of their backbones increases due to lack of one or two intramolecular hydrogen bonds at the middle aromatic unit. (2D) 1H NMR, circular dichroism and fluorescent studies revealed that both oligomers moderately complex n-octyl-α-L-glucopyranoside in chloroform.

  12. The Utilization of Chloroform Post-Treatment to Improve the Adhesion of Au Thin Films onto PMMA

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krist, Kathleen; Hughes, Chris; Hu, Xiaofeng; Augustine, Brian

    2015-03-01

    The metallization of Au onto plastics is an important processing step in the fabrication of microfluidic devices. While its corrosion resistance and excellent electrical and thermal conductivity make Au a good choice, its inertness results in poor adhesion to polymer surfaces. Previous studies have indicated that exposing commercially available Poly(methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) sheets to chloroform vapor following Au deposition significantly improves adhesion. In this study, we deposited 6 nm of Au onto 1.50 mm thick PMMA and exposed the samples to vapor released from chloroform heated on a hot plate set at 70 °C. The force required to remove the Au thin films was determined by placing samples on a polisher spinning at 150 rpm and utilizing UV-VIS spectroscopy to measure the transmittance of 700 nm light through the films to quantify their removal as a function of applied polishing force. The Au thin films were also characterized using AFM. AFM images demonstrated a progressive roughening of the surface corresponding to an increase in applied force. Additionally, these images support a model in which the chloroform treatment softens the PMMA surface, producing a softened layer that the polisher removes simultaneously with the Au thin film. Undergraduate.

  13. Survey on efficacy of chloroformic extract of Artemisia annua against Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Golami, Shirzad; Rahimi-Esboei, Bahman; Mousavi, Parisa; Marhaba, Zahra; Youssefi, Mohammad Reza; Rahimi, Mohammad Taghi

    2016-03-01

    Giardiasis is a parasitic cosmopolitan disease that the rate of infection in developing countries is considerable. This infection directly is associated with poor hygienic conditions, poor water quality control, and overcrowding. Reinfection and drug resistance are two major problems in endemic areas. Recently, researchers are concentrating on herbal drugs as a proper solution. Therefore, the objective of the present study was to survey on efficacy of chloroformic extract of Artemisia annua against Giardia lamblia trophozoite and cyst in vitro. G. lamblia cysts were prepared from faces of giardiasis patients from different hospitals of Mazandaran Medical University. Four concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml) of chloroformic extract of A. annua were utilized for 1, 5, 30, 60 and 180 min. Viability of G. lamblia cysts was confirmed by 0.1 % Eosin staining. Cyst and trophozoite contact (intermix) of G. lamblia with extract of A. annua with variant concentrations (1, 10, 50 and 100 mg/ml) after 1 and 180 min caused following cyst and trophozoite elimination rates: (67, 69, 71 and 73 %), (65, 67, 67 and 72 %), (94, 96, 97 and 99 %) and (100, 100, 100 and 100 %), respectively. Authors from the current investigation draw a conclusion that chloroformic extract of A. annua has the ability to eliminate G. lamblia cysts and trophozoites in vitro. PMID:27065604

  14. Oxidation of trichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene, and chloroform by toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chauhan, S; Barbieri, P; Wood, T K

    1998-08-01

    Toluene/o-xylene monooxygenase (ToMO) from Pseudomonas stutzeri OX1, which oxidizes toluene and o-xylene, was examined for its ability to degrade the environmental pollutants trichloroethylene (TCE), 1, 1-dichloroethylene (1,1-DCE), cis-1,2-DCE, trans-1,2-DCE, chloroform, dichloromethane, phenol, 2,4-dichlorophenol, 2,4,5-trichlorophenol, 2,4,6-trichlorophenol, 2,3,5,6-tetrachlorophenol, and 2,3,4,5, 6-pentachlorophenol. Escherichia coli JM109 that expressed ToMO from genes on plasmid pBZ1260 under control of the lac promoter degraded TCE (3.3 microM), 1,1-DCE (1.25 microM), and chloroform (6.3 microM) at initial rates of 3.1, 3.6, and 1.6 nmol/(min x mg of protein), respectively. Stoichiometric amounts of chloride release were seen, indicating mineralization (2.6, 1.5, and 2.3 Cl- atoms per molecule of TCE, 1,1-DCE, and chloroform, respectively). Thus, the substrate range of ToMO is extended to include aliphatic chlorinated compounds. PMID:9687467

  15. Anti-diabetic potential of chloroform extract of flowers of Calotropis gigantea: An in vitro and in vivo study

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    N K Choudhary

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform extract of Calotropis gigantea flowers was evaluated for anti-diabetic activity in alloxan-induced hyperglycemia in vivo and inhibition of α-amylase and α-glucosidase in vitro. It was also intended to establish correlation between the serum marker antioxidant enzymes and diabetes. Diabetes was induced by a single intraperitoneal injection of alloxan monohydrate freshly prepared in a dose of 150 mg/kg. Chloroform extract showing presence of flavonoids was administered orally at the doses of 100 and 200 mg/kg for 21 consecutive days. Fasting blood glucose level, glycosylated haemoglobin, blood glutathione, serum creatinine kinase, serum lactate dehydrogenase levels as well as final change in body weight were evaluated. In vitro inhibition of carbohydrate digestive enzymes (α-amylase and α-glucosidase was also determined. Experimental findings showed moderately significant anti-diabetic potential of extract in terms of reduction of fasting glucose level in diabetic rats. The extract was found statistically significant in maintaining the level of serum marker antioxidant enzymes. Overall, the effect of chloroform extract particularly 200 mg/kg was moderate as compared to that of standard drug glibenclamide.

  16. Ethanopharmacological study of the aqueous, chloroform, ethanol leaves extracts and latex of Calotropisprocera in diabetic rats

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    Ali Ismaiel Ali-Abd Alrheam

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Introduction: Calotropisprocera is a member of the plant family Asclepiadaceae, a shrub about 6m high and is widely distributed in the kingdom of Saudi Arabia. This study aimed to show some medicinal potentials and biological activity of Calotropisprocera and to discover new natural, safe and effective materials available in the Saudi Arabia environment. Marerial and Methods:The leaves extracts and latex of Calotropisprocerawere investigated for its anti-hyperglycemic effect in Male Wister Albino rats. Diabetes was induced by administration of single dose of streptozotocin (STZ, 50 mg/kg, I.P. Forty two male albino rats, weighting 150-200 gm divided into seven groups, each consisted of 6 rats as follows: Group I : Normal control, Group II: Diabetic control, Group III: Diabetic rats given Glibenclamide 600 and #956;g/kg, Group IV: Diabetic rats given aqueous leaves extracts C. procera200mg/kg b. wt, Group V: Diabetic rats given chloroform leaves extracts C. procera200mg/kg b. wt, Group VI: Diabetic rats given ethanol leaves extracts C. procera200mg/kg b. wt, Group VII: Diabetic rats given latex of C. procera200mg/kg b. wt.The leaves extracts and latex of Calotropisprocera were administered as single dose per day to diabetes-induced rats for a period of 15 days.The effect of C. proceraon blood glucose level was measured in the diabetic rats. Serum lipid profile (Total cholesterol, triglycerides, low density, and high density lipoprotein also were measured. The activities were also compared to that effect produced by a standard anti-diabetic agent, glibenclamide 500 and #956;g/kg. Results and Discussion:The results showed a significant decrease in the mean level of blood glucose and serum cholesterol, Triglycrides, HDL, LDL. Calotropisprocera appears to be a rich source of phytoconstituents that activate and inhence a pharmacological response of different parts of the body and this study need further studies to shows the complete properties of the

  17. Gelation behaviour of a bent-core dihydrazide derivative: effect of incubation temperature in chloroform and toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxue; Zhang, Tianren; Ji, Nan; Zhang, Yan; Bai, Binglian; Wang, Haitao; Li, Min

    2016-02-01

    In this work, a new kind of gelator, 1,3-bis[(3,4-dioctyloxy phenyl) hydrazide]phenylene (BP8-C), containing two dihydrazide units as the rigid bent-core, has been synthesized and investigated. It was demonstrated that BP8-C is an efficient gelator which can gel various organic solvents, such as ethanol, benzene, toluene, chloroform, etc. Both an opaque gel (O-gel) and a transparent gel (T-gel), which is more stable, were obtained with BP8-C in chloroform at different incubation temperatures. Kinetic data based on fluorescence spectra revealed that the T-gels showed a larger Avrami parameter (n = 1.44 at 20 °C) than that of the O-gels (n = 1.21 for gelation at temperatures below 0 °C). While BP8-C did form the opaque gel in toluene, gelation took longer at lower incubation temperatures and even precipitated out below 0 °C. The kinetic Avrami analysis on sols of BP8-C with different concentrations shows a two-phrase mechanism, i.e. the n values are between 0.88 and 1.74 followed by 1.69 and 3.01 throughout the temperature range of 5 °C and 35 °C for 5.34 mg mL(-1) BP8-C in toluene, indicating that the fibers formed first and then bundled to produce compact networks. We propose that supersaturation governs the formation of gel in chloroform and that the diffusion process denominates gelation in toluene. XRD and FT-IR measurements confirmed that the xerogels prepared at different temperatures in different solvents exhibited a Col(h) structure and that there are three molecules in one columnar slice. Our results indicate that the gelation process, morphology of the gels and thus the final properties of the gels depend strongly on the preparation conditions such as temperature, solvent, concentration, etc.

  18. The alkaline comet assay used in evaluation of genotoxic damage of drinking water disinfection by-products (bromoform and chloroform

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Messaouda Khallef

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The alkaline comet assay (pH 12.3 is a useful method for monitoring genotoxic effects of environmental pollutants in the root nuclei of Allium cepa and various plants; it allows the detection of single- and double-strand breaks, incomplete excision-repair sites and cross-links. It has been introduced to detect even small changes in DNA structure. It is a technically simple, highly sensitive, fast and economic test which detects in vitro and in vivo genotoxicity (DNA integrity and packing mode in any cell types examined, and requires just a few cells for its execution (Liman et al., 2011; Yıldız et al., 2009. Chloroform and bromoform are the most important trihalomethanes found in drinking water. Different concentrations of bromoform (25, 50, 75and 100µg/ml and chloroform (25, 50, 100 and 200 µg/ml were introduced to onion tuber roots. Distilled water was used as a negative control and methyl methansulfonate (MMS-10 µg/ml as positive control. All obtained data were subjected to statistical analyses by using SPSS 15.0 for Windows software. For comparison purposes, Duncan multiple range tests using one-way analysis of variance (ANOVA were employed and p<0.05 was accepted as the test of significance. Comet assay results showed that DNA damage was significant at p <0.05 for the different concentrations of chloroform and bromoform compared to the negative control which has a damage rate equal to 3.5 ± 0.7 and the positive control which has damage rate equal to 13.5 ± 2.12. The exposure of root tip cells to these disinfection by-products increases DNA damage. All concentrations examined in this study of bromoform and chloroform cause significant harm, which could be due to DNA damage induced by oxidative stress. The measurement of DNA damage in the nuclei of higher plant tissues is a new area of study with SCGE. This assay could be incorporated into in situ monitoring of atmosphere, water and soil: the comet assay allows a fast detection without

  19. Effects of organophosphorus donors in the extraction of Uranium(VI) with N-acetyl benzamide in chloroform

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The liquid-liquid extraction of Uranium(VI) from aqueous nitrate solution by a mixture of N-acetyl benzamide and Organophosphorus donors in chloroform is reported. Concentration of the metal was measured by fluorescence technique and synergism was observed in the extraction of Uranium(VI). Stoichiometries of extracted species in both individual and mixed extraction were ascertained by slope ratio analysis. From the extraction data, overall equilibrium constants for binary and ternary extractions were calculated. Thermodynamic parameters controlling the nature of extraction were also evaluated. (author)

  20. Fusion curves and thermodynamic properties of carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, bromoform and silicon tetrachloride at pressure up to 3500 Mpa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhu Rong-Jiao; Xu Wei; Tian Yi-Ling; Hao Ji-Shuang

    2008-01-01

    The fusion temperature as a function of pressure for carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, bromoform and silicon tetrachloride at pressures up to 3500MPa has been determined. The experimental data were fitted by the equation Tfus = T0(1 + Ap/a1)a2 exp(-a3△p) and the changes of the molar enthalpy and molar internal energy on fusion were calculated using the parameters of the fitted equation. Comparisons with the data from the literature show that the experimental data, parameters of fitted equations, changes of the molar enthalpy and molar internal energy are reliable.

  1. The role of renal proximal tubule P450 enzymes in chloroform-induced nephrotoxicity: Utility of renal specific P450 reductase knockout mouse models

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Liu, Senyan [Kidney Institute and Division of Nephrology, Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai 200003 (China); Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and School of Public Health, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Yao, Yunyi; Lu, Shijun; Aldous, Kenneth; Ding, Xinxin [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and School of Public Health, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States); Mei, Changlin, E-mail: chlmei1954@126.com [Kidney Institute and Division of Nephrology, Changzheng Hospital, Shanghai 200003 (China); Gu, Jun, E-mail: jungu@wadsworth.org [Wadsworth Center, New York State Department of Health, and School of Public Health, State University of New York, Albany, NY 12201 (United States)

    2013-10-01

    The kidney is a primary target for numerous toxic compounds. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450) are responsible for the metabolic activation of various chemical compounds, and in the kidney are predominantly expressed in proximal tubules. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that renal proximal tubular P450s are critical for nephrotoxicity caused by chemicals such as chloroform. We developed two new mouse models, one having proximal tubule-specific deletion of the cytochrome P450 reductase (Cpr) gene (the enzyme required for all microsomal P450 activities), designated proximal tubule-Cpr-null (PTCN), and the other having proximal tubule-specific rescue of CPR activity with the global suppression of CPR activity in all extra-proximal tubular tissues, designated extra-proximal tubule-Cpr-low (XPT-CL). The PTCN, XPT-CL, Cpr-low (CL), and wild-type (WT) mice were treated with a single oral dose of chloroform at 200 mg/kg. Blood, liver and kidney samples were obtained at 24 h after the treatment. Renal toxicity was assessed by measuring BUN and creatinine levels, and by pathological examination. The blood and tissue levels of chloroform were determined. The severity of toxicity was less in PTCN and CL mice, compared with that of WT and XPT-CL mice. There were no significant differences in chloroform levels in the blood, liver, or kidney, between PTCN and WT mice, or between XPT-CL and CL mice. These findings indicate that local P450-dependent activities play an important role in the nephrotoxicity induced by chloroform. Our results also demonstrate the usefulness of these novel mouse models for studies of chemical-induced kidney toxicity. - Highlights: • New mouse models were developed with varying P450 activities in the proximal tubule. • These mouse models were treated with chloroform, a nephrotoxicant. • Studies showed the importance of local P450s in chloroform-induced nephrotoxicity.

  2. The use of alkaline hydrolysis as a novel strategy for chloroform remediation: the feasibility of using construction wastes and evaluation of carbon isotopic fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrentó, Clara; Audí-Miró, Carme; Bordeleau, Geneviève; Marchesi, Massimo; Rosell, Mònica; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory and field-scale pilot experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of chloroform degradation by alkaline hydrolysis and the potential of δ(13)C values to assess this induced reaction process at contaminated sites. In batch experiments, alkaline conditions were induced by adding crushed concrete (pH 12.33 ± 0.07), a filtered concrete solution (pH 12.27 ± 0.04), a filtered cement solution (pH 12.66 ± 0.02) and a pH 12 buffer solution (pH 11.92 ± 0.11). The resulting chloroform degradation after 28 days was 94, 96, 99, and 72%, respectively. The experimental data were described using a pseudo-first-order kinetic model, resulting in pseudo-first-order rate constant values of 0.10, 0.12, 0.20, and 0.05 d(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the significant chloroform carbon isotopic fractionation associated with alkaline hydrolysis of chloroform (-53 ± 3‰) and its independence from pH in the admittedly limited tested pH range imply a great potential for the use of δ(13)C values for in situ monitoring of the efficacy of remediation approaches based on alkaline hydrolysis. The carbon isotopic fractionation obtained at the lab scale allowed the calculation of the percentage of chloroform degradation in field-scale pilot experiments where alkaline conditions were induced in two recharge water interception trenches filled with concrete-based construction wastes. A maximum of approximately 30-40% of chloroform degradation was achieved during the two studied recharge periods. Although further research is required, the treatment of chloroform in groundwater through the use of concrete-based construction wastes is proposed. This strategy would also imply the recycling of construction and demolition wastes for use in value-added applications to increase economic and environmental benefits. PMID:24410407

  3. The use of alkaline hydrolysis as a novel strategy for chloroform remediation: the feasibility of using construction wastes and evaluation of carbon isotopic fractionation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Torrentó, Clara; Audí-Miró, Carme; Bordeleau, Geneviève; Marchesi, Massimo; Rosell, Mònica; Otero, Neus; Soler, Albert

    2014-01-01

    Laboratory and field-scale pilot experiments were performed to evaluate the feasibility of chloroform degradation by alkaline hydrolysis and the potential of δ(13)C values to assess this induced reaction process at contaminated sites. In batch experiments, alkaline conditions were induced by adding crushed concrete (pH 12.33 ± 0.07), a filtered concrete solution (pH 12.27 ± 0.04), a filtered cement solution (pH 12.66 ± 0.02) and a pH 12 buffer solution (pH 11.92 ± 0.11). The resulting chloroform degradation after 28 days was 94, 96, 99, and 72%, respectively. The experimental data were described using a pseudo-first-order kinetic model, resulting in pseudo-first-order rate constant values of 0.10, 0.12, 0.20, and 0.05 d(-1), respectively. Furthermore, the significant chloroform carbon isotopic fractionation associated with alkaline hydrolysis of chloroform (-53 ± 3‰) and its independence from pH in the admittedly limited tested pH range imply a great potential for the use of δ(13)C values for in situ monitoring of the efficacy of remediation approaches based on alkaline hydrolysis. The carbon isotopic fractionation obtained at the lab scale allowed the calculation of the percentage of chloroform degradation in field-scale pilot experiments where alkaline conditions were induced in two recharge water interception trenches filled with concrete-based construction wastes. A maximum of approximately 30-40% of chloroform degradation was achieved during the two studied recharge periods. Although further research is required, the treatment of chloroform in groundwater through the use of concrete-based construction wastes is proposed. This strategy would also imply the recycling of construction and demolition wastes for use in value-added applications to increase economic and environmental benefits.

  4. Anti-inflammatory effects of the chloroform extract of Pulicaria guestii ameliorated the neutrophil infiltration and nitric oxide generation in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alghaithy, A A; El-Beshbishy, H A; Abdel-Naim, A B; Nagy, A A; Abdel-Sattar, E M

    2011-11-01

    Pulicaria guestii Rech.f. & Rawi is a fragrant, perennial herb, which grows wild, west of Al-Madinah, Saudi Arabia. Several reports were published on the anti-inflammatory activity of the sesquiterpene lactones, phenolics and flavonoids, which constitute the main active constituents of the members of the genus Pulicaria. The present study was designed to explore the potential anti-inflammatory effect of P. guestii in several experimental models. The methanol extract of the dried aerial parts of P. guestii was extracted with petroleum ether, chloroform and n-butanol. The chloroform extract was analysed on TLC and examined under UV and visible light in presence of AlCl(3) spray. The free radical scavenging activity and the total phenolic content in the CHCl(3) extract were estimated. The crude methanol extract and the CHCl(3) fraction were examined against carrageenin-induced paw edema and ear edema induced by croton oil application. The crude methanolic extract significantly reduced carrageenin-induced rat paw edema. After fractionation, the chloroform fraction caused significant reduction in carrageenin-induced rat paw edema in addition to diminishing prostaglandin E(2) (PGE(2)) in the inflammatory exudates. Topical application of chloroform fraction significantly reduced rat ear edema induced by croton oil application. In the same model, chloroform fraction reduced neutrophil infiltration, as indicated by the significant decrease in myeloperoxidase activity, and ameliorated histopathological changes induced by croton oil application. In lipopolysaccharide-induced inflammation in rat air pouch, chloroform fraction significantly reduced the nitric oxide level and tumor necrosis factor-α release. In conclusion, the chloroform fraction of P. guestii extract possesses anti-inflammatory activity in several experimental models. Further investigations are needed to identify the active constituents responsible for this anti-inflammatory activity.

  5. The role of renal proximal tubule P450 enzymes in chloroform-induced nephrotoxicity: Utility of renal specific P450 reductase knockout mouse models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The kidney is a primary target for numerous toxic compounds. Cytochrome P450 enzymes (P450) are responsible for the metabolic activation of various chemical compounds, and in the kidney are predominantly expressed in proximal tubules. The aim of this study was to test the hypothesis that renal proximal tubular P450s are critical for nephrotoxicity caused by chemicals such as chloroform. We developed two new mouse models, one having proximal tubule-specific deletion of the cytochrome P450 reductase (Cpr) gene (the enzyme required for all microsomal P450 activities), designated proximal tubule-Cpr-null (PTCN), and the other having proximal tubule-specific rescue of CPR activity with the global suppression of CPR activity in all extra-proximal tubular tissues, designated extra-proximal tubule-Cpr-low (XPT-CL). The PTCN, XPT-CL, Cpr-low (CL), and wild-type (WT) mice were treated with a single oral dose of chloroform at 200 mg/kg. Blood, liver and kidney samples were obtained at 24 h after the treatment. Renal toxicity was assessed by measuring BUN and creatinine levels, and by pathological examination. The blood and tissue levels of chloroform were determined. The severity of toxicity was less in PTCN and CL mice, compared with that of WT and XPT-CL mice. There were no significant differences in chloroform levels in the blood, liver, or kidney, between PTCN and WT mice, or between XPT-CL and CL mice. These findings indicate that local P450-dependent activities play an important role in the nephrotoxicity induced by chloroform. Our results also demonstrate the usefulness of these novel mouse models for studies of chemical-induced kidney toxicity. - Highlights: • New mouse models were developed with varying P450 activities in the proximal tubule. • These mouse models were treated with chloroform, a nephrotoxicant. • Studies showed the importance of local P450s in chloroform-induced nephrotoxicity

  6. Identification of sitosteryl glucoside palmitate in a chloroform-derived fraction of Phyllanthus niruri with antiplasmodial and peripheral antinociceptive properties

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ezenyi; Ifeoma; Chinwude; Kulkarni; Roshan; Joshi; Swati; Salawu; Oluwakanyinsola; Adeola; Emeje; Martins

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate the antiplasmodial properties of fractions of chloroform portion of Phyllanthus niruri(P.niruri) methanol extract and identify a suitable chemical marker present therein.Methods:Chloroform portion of P.niruri methanol extract was separated from silica gel using gradient systems of hexane,ethylacetate and methanol.The fractions were screened for antiplasmodial activity against Plasmodium falciparum HB3 and FcM29.Fractions with IC50<10μg/ml.against parasites were further screened for peripheral analgesic activity,while cytotoxicity was evaluated using THP-1 cells.Results:Fractions 12-14 were very active(IC50<10 μg/mL) against Plasmodium falciparum and showed no significant cytotoxicity.Fractions 12 and 13 exhibited significant(P<0.01) reduction in acetic acid-induced writhing in mice,decreasing the number of writhes by 66.67% and 65.22% respectively and comparable with 100 mg/kg aspirin(65.22%).From fraction 12,a compound was isolated and identified as sitosteryl-6-β-D-glucoside-6’-palmitate by 1H,13C nuclear magnetic resonance and mass spectroscopies.Conclusions:Our findings illustrate antiplasmodial column fractions of P.niruri with analgesic activity and identify sitosteryl glucoside pahmitate as a chemical marker of activity.

  7. Crystal structure of Boc-(S)-ABOC-(S)-Ala-(S)-ABOC-(S)-Phe-OBn chloro-form monosolvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wenger, Emmanuel; Moulat, Laure; Legrand, Baptiste; Amblard, Muriel; Calmès, Monique; Didierjean, Claude

    2015-10-01

    In the title compound, phenyl (S)-2-[(S)-(1-{2-[(S)-(1-{[(tert-but-oxy)carbon-yl]amino}-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octan-2-yl)formamido]-propanamido}-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octan-2-yl)formamido]-3-phenyl-propano-ate chloro-form monosolvate, C42H56N4O7·CHCl3, the α,β-hybrid peptide contains two non-proteinogenic amino acid residues of (S)-1-amino-bicyclo-[2.2.2]octane-2-carb-oxy-lic acid [(S)-ABOC], two amino acid residues of (S)-2-amino-propanoic acid [(S)-Ala] and (S)-2-amino-3-phenyl-propanoic acid [(S)-Phe], and protecting groups of tert-but-oxy-carbonyl (Boc) and benzyl ester (OBn). The tetra-mer folds into a right-handed mixed 11/9 helix stabilized by intra-molecular i,i + 3 and i,i - 1 C=O⋯H-N hydrogen bonds. In the crystal, the oligomers are linked by N-H⋯O=C hydrogen bonds into chains along the a-axis direction. The chloro-form solvent mol-ecules are inter-calated between the folded chains via C-H⋯O=C inter-actions. PMID:26594404

  8. Optical constants and dispersion equations of lecithin, cholesterol, fucose, and chloroform: measurements in vacuum-ultraviolet to visible wavelength regions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The optical constants, n and k, of solutions of lecithin, cholesterol, and fucose and of the solvent chloroform were measured for the spectral region 1348 to 6407 A by a reflectance method. Absorption peaks were found in chloroform at about 1393 and 1631 A and were attributed, respectively, to sigma → sigma/sup */ electron transitions at the C--H and C--Cl bonds and an n → sigma/sup */ electron transition at the C--Cl bond. A procedure for the determination of the optical constants of a solute from those of the solution and solvent is developed and applied. The procedure is also applied to calculate the optical constants of a solution from those of the components. From the values of the optical constants, dispersion equation parameters and van der Waals parameters were calculated for the compounds. The static electronic polarizabilities of the substances studies were found to depend little (less than 6%) on the concentration of solution used in the measurement. Values of polarizabilities obtained agreed closely with those obtained by the addition of bond polarizabilities

  9. Synthesis, growth, structural, thermal, optical properties of new metal-organic crystals: Methyltriphenylphosphonium iodide thiourea and methyltriphenylphosphonium iodide chloroform hemisolvate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shivachev, Boris L.; Kossev, Krassimir; Dimowa, Louiza T.; Yankov, Georgi; Petrov, Todor; Nikolova, Rositsa P.; Petrova, Nadia

    2013-08-01

    Crystals of methyltriphenylphosphonium iodide thiourea (1) and methyltriphenylphosphonium iodide chloroform hemisolvate (2) were obtained for the first time. Fourier transform infrared (FTIR) spectral studies have been performed to identify the functional groups. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) and differential thermal analysis (DTA) were used to study their thermal properties. The optical transmittance window and the lower cutoff wavelength have been identified by UV-vis studies. Crystals of the title compounds suitable for single crystal X-ray analyses were successfully grown by slow evaporation and diffraction data were collected to elucidate the molecular structure and interactions. The proton donors (phosphonium) and proton acceptor (iodine) in the structure of 1 provide infrastructure to introduce charge asymmetry while in 2 chloroform molecule is not involved in the charge transfer. An optical quality crystal of 1 (5×4×2 mm3) was obtained by macroseeding. The crystal has developed facets with major ones (001) and (00¯1). A crystal of 1 was tested with 1060 nm laser radiation and showed second harmonic generation (SHG).

  10. Induction of apoptosis in HeLa cells by chloroform fraction of seed extracts of Nigella sativa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alshatwi Ali A

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Cancer remains one of the most dreaded diseases causing an astonishingly high death rate, second only to cardiac arrest. The fact that conventional and newly emerging treatment procedures like chemotherapy, catalytic therapy, photodynamic therapy and radiotherapy have not succeeded in reverting the outcome of the disease to any drastic extent, has made researchers investigate alternative treatment options. The extensive repertoire of traditional medicinal knowledge systems from various parts of the world are being re-investigated for their healing properties. This study progresses in the direction of identifying component(s from Nigella sativa with anti cancer acitivity. In the present study we investigated the efficacy of Organic extracts of Nigella sativa seed powder for its clonogenic inhibition and induction of apoptosis in HeLa cancer cell. Results Methanolic, n-Hexane and chloroform extracts of Nigella sativa seedz effectively killed HeLa cells. The IC50 values of methanolic, n-hexane, and chloroform extracts of Nigella sativa were 2.28 μg/ml, 2.20 μg/ml and 0.41 ng/ml, respectively. All three extracts induced apoptosis in HeLa cells. Apoptosis was confirmed by DNA fragmentation, western blot and terminal transferase-mediated dUTP-digoxigenin-end labeling (TUNEL assay. Conclusion Western Blot and TUNEL results suggested that Nigella sativa seed extracts regulated the expression of pro- and anti- apoptotic genes, indicating its possible development as a potential therapeutic agent for cervical cancer upon further investigation.

  11. Anti-diabetic activity of the chloroform extract of Senecio mikanioides Otto in streptozotocin induced diabetic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hanan S. M. Marzouk

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Objective: In this study, we examined the effect of oral administration of the chloroform extract of Senecio mikanioides Otto for a period of 30 days at doses of 100, 300 or 500 mg/kg body weight/day on streptozotocin induced diabetic rats. Methods: Male Sprague-Dawley rats were divided into five groups and classified into; extract treatment group received 100, 300 or 500 mg/kg body weight per day by oral gavage for 30 days; diabetic group administered intraperitoneally a single dose (75 mg/kg body weight of streptozotocin (STZ; diabetic rats plus tolbutamide group where diabetic rats received the standard hypoglycemic drug tolbutamide (100 mg/kg body weight per day by oral gavage for 30 days; diabetic rats plus extract group where diabetic rats received the extract (same doses by gavage for 30 days; as well as a normal group for comparison. In all of these groups, the levels of glucose and insulin were checked in blood, while the levels of reduced glutathione (GSH, nitric oxide (NO, lipid peroxidation (TBARS and thioredoxin reductase (TrxR activity were measured in pancreatic tissues. Results: The results revealed that STZ administration resulted in significant elevation in the level of both TBARS and NO with depletion in the level of GSH as compared with control accompanied with hyperglycemia, hypo-insulinemia and low insulin sensitivity. Moreover, the activity of pancreatic TrxR was lower than the control group. Feeding the diabetic rats for 30 days with the extract normalizes the previous biochemical parameters in dose dependent manner reaching near the tolbutamide treated group at the highest dose. Conclusion: The chloroform extract of Senecio mikanioides Otto exhibited antidiabetic activity and it corrected the insulin level and its sensitivity in experimentally induced diabetic rats in dose dependent manner. The current results clearly indicated the beneficial effects of the chloroform extract of Senecio mikanioides Otto in both

  12. Gelation behaviour of a bent-core dihydrazide derivative: effect of incubation temperature in chloroform and toluene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Chunxue; Zhang, Tianren; Ji, Nan; Zhang, Yan; Bai, Binglian; Wang, Haitao; Li, Min

    2016-02-01

    In this work, a new kind of gelator, 1,3-bis[(3,4-dioctyloxy phenyl) hydrazide]phenylene (BP8-C), containing two dihydrazide units as the rigid bent-core, has been synthesized and investigated. It was demonstrated that BP8-C is an efficient gelator which can gel various organic solvents, such as ethanol, benzene, toluene, chloroform, etc. Both an opaque gel (O-gel) and a transparent gel (T-gel), which is more stable, were obtained with BP8-C in chloroform at different incubation temperatures. Kinetic data based on fluorescence spectra revealed that the T-gels showed a larger Avrami parameter (n = 1.44 at 20 °C) than that of the O-gels (n = 1.21 for gelation at temperatures below 0 °C). While BP8-C did form the opaque gel in toluene, gelation took longer at lower incubation temperatures and even precipitated out below 0 °C. The kinetic Avrami analysis on sols of BP8-C with different concentrations shows a two-phrase mechanism, i.e. the n values are between 0.88 and 1.74 followed by 1.69 and 3.01 throughout the temperature range of 5 °C and 35 °C for 5.34 mg mL(-1) BP8-C in toluene, indicating that the fibers formed first and then bundled to produce compact networks. We propose that supersaturation governs the formation of gel in chloroform and that the diffusion process denominates gelation in toluene. XRD and FT-IR measurements confirmed that the xerogels prepared at different temperatures in different solvents exhibited a Col(h) structure and that there are three molecules in one columnar slice. Our results indicate that the gelation process, morphology of the gels and thus the final properties of the gels depend strongly on the preparation conditions such as temperature, solvent, concentration, etc. PMID:26659559

  13. 氯油制备氯仿新工艺%New preparation process of chloroform from chlorinated oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乐晓兵

    2001-01-01

    In this paper, a new chloroform production process by reaction of chlorinated oil with dimethyl amine instead of lime is introduced, in which N, N- dimethyl methanamide is coproduct. The characteristics of this process lie in that the raw materials are easy to get and have low prices,its unique extraction technology avoid using drying agent and other assistants, the use ratio of carbon contained in trichlroacetic aldehyde reaches to 100% and there aren't formate substances to be discharged. The quality of pilot product produced by the new process is better than that of the product produced by lime process,the quality of chloroform reach to the high-class required by National Standard GB 4118-92,DMF products reach to the requirement of HG 2028-91. Moreover, with the adoption of the newprocess, the production cost of chloroform was reduced by1 387.87 RMB¥/t compared with that oflime process, and the problem of environment pollution was thoroughly solved,achieving the aims of production cost reduction and environmental protection.%介绍了一种采用二甲胺代替石灰与氯油反应,在生产氯仿的同时联产N,N-二甲基甲酰胺的新工艺。该工艺的特点在于原料易得且价格低廉,具有独创性的萃取技术避免了使用干燥剂及其它助剂,理论上使三氯乙醛中碳的利用率达到100%,无甲酸盐类物质排放。新工艺中试产品的质量优于石灰法产品质量,氯仿质量达到国标GB4118-92优等品要求,DMF产品达到HG2028-91标准要求。而且采用新工艺后,公司氯仿成本比石灰法下降1 387.87元/t,环境污染问题也得到根本性解决,达到降低成本、保护环境的双重目的。

  14. Electrochemical dechlorination of chloroform in neutral aqueous solution on palladium/foam-nickel and palladium/polymeric pyrrole film/foam-nickel electrodes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Zhirong; LI Baohua; HU Xiang; SHI Min; HOU Qingnan; PENG Yongzhen

    2008-01-01

    Electrochemical dechlonnafion of chloroform in neutral aqueous solution was investigated using palladium-loaded electrodes at ambient temperature.Palladium/foam-nickel (Pd/foam-Ni) and palladium/polymeric pyrrole film/foam-nickel (Pd/PPy/foam-Ni)composite electrodes which provided catalytic surface for reductive dechiorination of chloroform in aqueous solution were prepared using an electrodepositing method.Scanning electron microscope (SEM) micrographs showed that polymeric pyrrole film modified the electrode-surface characteristics and resulted in the uniform dispersion of needle-shaped palladium particles on foam-Ni supporting electrode.The experimental results of dechlorination indicated that the removal efficiency of chloroform and current efficiency in neutral aqueous solution on Pd/PPy/foam-Ni electrode could be up to 36.8% and 33.0% at dechlorination current of 0.1 mA and dechlorination time of 180 rain,which is much higher than that of Pd/foam-Ni electrode.

  15. Formation of Carbonized Polystyrene Sphere/hemisphere Shell Arrays by Ion Beam Irradiation and Subsequent Annealing or Chloroform Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xianyin; Dai, Zhigao; Xiao, Xiangheng; Li, Wenqing; Zheng, Xudong; Shang, Xunzhong; Zhang, Xiaolei; Cai, Guangxu; Wu, Wei; Meng, Fanli; Jiang, Changzhong

    2015-01-01

    Heat-resistant two-dimensional (2D) sphere/hemisphere shell array is significant for the fabrication of novel nanostructures. Here large-area, well-ordered arrays of carbonized polystyrene (PS) hollow sphere/hemisphere with controlled size and morphology are prepared by combining the nanosphere self-assembly, kV Ag ion beam modification, and subsequent annealing or chloroform treatment. Potential mechanisms for the formation and evolution of the heat-resistant carbonized PS spherical shell with increasing ion fluence and energy are discussed. Combined with noble metal or semiconductor, these modified PS sphere arrays should open up new possibilities for high-performance nanoscale optical sensors or photoelectric devices. PMID:26640125

  16. Effects of chloroformic extracts from washed and unwashed papaya seeds (Carica papaya) on the sperm concentration of dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Pacheco, A; Jiménez-Coello, M; Gutiérrez-Blanco, E; Acosta-Viana, K Y; Guzmán-Marín, E; Zavala-Sánchez, M A; Montalvo-Beltrán, N E; Pérez-Gutiérrez, M S

    2010-12-01

    Papaya seeds (Carica papaya Linn) have been found to have a significant effect on sperm characteristics in some mammals, including humans, but no studies have investigated the effects on dogs. In the present study, a significant decrease in sperm concentration was observed in a group of dogs treated with extracts from washed papaya seeds, but no decrease was observed in the group of dogs treated with non-washed seeds. An important effect of extract components from washed seeds such as fatty acids is probably involved in the reduction of sperm production because of Sertoli cell damage, as has been suggested for langur monkeys. Dilution of the active components in the non-washed papaya seeds or interference with some of the components may reduce the expected effect on spermatogenesis. This first report on the effects of a chloroformic extract of papaya seeds in dogs suggests that an increased dose is necessary to achieve azoospermia.

  17. Inductively coupled plasma torch efficiency at atmospheric pressure for organo-chlorine liquid waste removal: Chloroform destruction in oxidative conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamgang-Youbi, Georges, E-mail: kamyougeo@yahoo.fr [French Atomic Commission-CEA, Marcoule-DTCD/SCDV/LPIC, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-Sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, The University of Yaounde I, P.O Box, 812 Yaounde (Cameroon); Poizot, Karine; Lemont, Florent [French Atomic Commission-CEA, Marcoule-DTCD/SCDV/LPIC, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-Sur-Cèze Cedex (France)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► Inductively plasma torch is used for the decomposition of organochlorine molecule. ► We examine the impact of liquid water substitution by oxygen gas as oxidant. ► Complete and safe decomposition is achieved with the presence of oxygen. ► The energy efficiency and capabilities of process are better with O{sub 2} than H{sub 2}O. -- Abstract: The performance of a plasma reactor for the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbon waste is reported. Chloroform was used as a target for a recently patented destruction process based using an inductive plasma torch. Liquid waste was directly injected axially into the argon plasma with a supplied power of ∼4 kW in the presence of oxygen as oxidant and carrier gas. Decomposition was performed at CHCl{sub 3} feed rates up to 400 g h{sup −1} with different oxygen/waste molar ratios, chloroform destruction was obtained with at least 99% efficiency and the energy efficiency reached 100 g kWh{sup −1}. The conversion end products were identified and assayed by online FTIR spectroscopy (CO{sub 2}, HCl and H{sub 2}O) and redox titration (Cl{sub 2}). Considering phosgene as representative of toxic compounds, only very small quantities of toxics were released (<1 g h{sup −1}) even with high waste feed rates. The experimental results were very close to the equilibrium composition predicted by thermodynamic calculations. At the bottom of the reactor, the chlorinated acids were successfully trapped in a scrubber and transformed into mineral salts, hence, only CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O have been found in the final off-gases composition.

  18. In Vivo Antiprotozoal Activity of the Chloroform Extract from Carica papaya Seeds against Amastigote Stage of Trypanosoma cruzi during Indeterminate and Chronic Phase of Infection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Matilde Jimenez-Coello

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available In order to evaluate the antiprotozoal activity of the chloroform extract of Carica papaya seeds during the subacute and chronic phase of infection of Trypanosoma cruzi, doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg were evaluated during the subacute phase, including a mixture of their main components (oleic, palmitic, and stearic acids. Subsequently, doses of 50 and 75 mg/kg in mice during the chronic phase of infection (100 dpi were also evaluated. It was found that chloroform extract was able to reduce the amastigote nests numbers during the subacute phase in 55.5 and 69.7% (P > 0.05 as well as in 56.45% in animals treated with the mixture of fatty acids. Moreover, the experimental groups treated with 50 and 75 mg/kg during the chronic phase of the infection showed a significant reduction of 46.8 and 53.13% respectively (P < 0.05. It is recommended to carry out more studies to determine if higher doses of chloroformic extract or its administration in combination with other antichagasic drugs allows a better response over the intracellular stage of T. cruzi in infected animal models and determine if the chloroform extract of C. papaya could be considered as an alternative for treatment during the indeterminate and chronic phase of the infection.

  19. Expanded metabolite coverage of Saccharomyces cerevisiae extract through improved chloroform/methanol extraction and tert-butyldimethylsilyl derivatization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Khoomrung, Sakda; Martinez, Jose L.; Tippmann, Stefan;

    2015-01-01

    We present an improved extraction and derivatization protocol for GC-MS analysis of amino/non-amino acids in Saccharomyces cerevisiae. Yeast cells were extracted with chloroform: aqueous-methanol (1:1, v/v) and the resulting non-polar and polar extracts combined and dried for derivatization. Pola...

  20. CYTOTOXIC ACTIVITY OF N-HEXANE, CHLOROFORM AND CARBON TETRACHLORIDE FRACTIONS OF THE ETHANOLIC EXTRACT OF LEAVES AND STEMS OF BACCAUREA RAMIFLORA (LOUR..

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Apurba Sarker Apu et al.

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the study was to find out the cytotoxic activity of the n-hexane, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride fractions of the ethanolic extracts of the leaves and stems of Baccaurea ramiflora (Lour.. Ethanolic extracts of the leaves and stems of Baccaurea ramiflora were subjected to solvent-solvent partitioning using n-hexane, chloroform and carbon tetrachloride to obtain n-hexane leaves fraction, chloroform leaves fraction, n-hexane stems fraction, chloroform stems fraction and carbon tetrachloride stems fraction. Each fraction was assayed for their cytotoxic effect using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. Among the fractions, the n-hexane fractions of leaves and stems showed significant cytotoxic effects having LC50 values of 7.79 µg/ml (95% confidence interval 6.48-9.37 and 5.78 µg/ml (95% confidence interval 4.76-6.99 respectively as compared to vincristine sulfate (LC50= 2.81 µg/ml (95% confidence interval 1.97-4.01 which was used as positive control. The results support the traditional uses of B. ramiflora for various medicinal purposes and thus demand the isolation and identification of active principles and thorough bioassay.

  1. Geochemical characteristics of light hydrocarbons in cracking gases from chloroform bitumen A,crude oil and its fractions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2009-01-01

    The composition characteristics of light hydrocarbons from crude oil,chloroform bitumen A,saturated hydrocarbon fraction,aromatic hydrocarbon fraction,and asphaltene fraction during cracking have been studied systematically. The results revealed that the content of n-alkanes,branched alkanes and cycloalkanes in light hydrocarbons from the samples gradually decreased as the simulation temperature increased,and finally almost depleted completely,while the abundance of methane,benzene and its homologues increased obviously and became the main products. The ratios of benzene/n-hexane and toluene/n-heptane can be used as measures for oil cracking levels. Variation characteristics of maturity parameters of light hydrocarbons,for example,iC4/nC4,iC5/nC5,isoheptane value,2,2-DMC4/nC6,and 2-MC6+3-MC6/nC7 for different samples with increasing pyrolysis temperature,are consistent with those in petroleum reservoirs,indicating that these parameters may be efficient maturity index.

  2. Fenton process for degradation of selected chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons exemplified by trichloroethylene, 1,1-dichloroethylene and chloroform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhimin QIANG; Weiwei BEN; ChinPao HUANG

    2008-01-01

    The degradation of selected chlorinated ali-phatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) exemplified by trichloroethy-lene (TCE), 1,1-dichloroethylene (DCE), and chloroform (CF) was investigated with Fenton oxidation process. The results indicate that the degradation rate was primarily affected by the chemical structures of organic contami-nants. Hydroxyl radicals (·OH) preferred to attack the organic contaminants with an electron-rich structure such as chlorinated alkenes (i.e., TCE and DCE). The dosing mode of Fenton's reagent, particularly of Fe2+, significantly affected the degradation efficiency of studied organic compound. A new "time-squared" kinetic model, C = Coexp(-kobst2), was developed to express the degrada-tion kinetics of selected CAHs. This model was applicable to TCE and DCE, but inapplicable to CF due to their varied reaction rate constants towards ·OH. Chloride release was monitored to examine the degree of dechlorina- tion during the oxidation of selected CAHs. TCE was more easily dechlorinated than DCE and CF. Dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) was identified as the major reaction intermediate in the oxidation of TCE, which could be completely removed as the reaction proceeded. No reaction intermedi- ates or byproducts were identified in the oxidation of DCE and CF. Based on the identified intermediate, the reaction mechanism of TCE with Fenton's reagent was proposed.

  3. Calculated Third Order Rate Constants for Interpreting the Mechanisms of Hydrolyses of Chloroformates, Carboxylic Acid Halides, Sulfonyl Chlorides and Phosphorochloridates

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. William Bentley

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Hydrolyses of acid derivatives (e.g., carboxylic acid chlorides and fluorides, fluoro- and chloroformates, sulfonyl chlorides, phosphorochloridates, anhydrides exhibit pseudo-first order kinetics. Reaction mechanisms vary from those involving a cationic intermediate (SN1 to concerted SN2 processes, and further to third order reactions, in which one solvent molecule acts as the attacking nucleophile and a second molecule acts as a general base catalyst. A unified framework is discussed, in which there are two reaction channels—an SN1-SN2 spectrum and an SN2-SN3 spectrum. Third order rate constants (k3 are calculated for solvolytic reactions in a wide range of compositions of acetone-water mixtures, and are shown to be either approximately constant or correlated with the Grunwald-Winstein Y parameter. These data and kinetic solvent isotope effects, provide the experimental evidence for the SN2-SN3 spectrum (e.g., for chloro- and fluoroformates, chloroacetyl chloride, p-nitrobenzoyl p-toluenesulfonate, sulfonyl chlorides. Deviations from linearity lead to U- or V-shaped plots, which assist in the identification of the point at which the reaction channel changes from SN2-SN3 to SN1-SN2 (e.g., for benzoyl chloride.

  4. Isobaric vapor liquid equilibria data for the binary system (glycidyl butyrate + acetone, glycidyl butyrate + carbon tetrachloride, glycidyl butyrate + chloroform) at atmospheric pressure 101 kPa

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Qiang; Meng, Qingyi; Ban, Chunlan; Zhang, Rui; Gao, Yingyu

    2016-09-01

    Isobaric vapor liquid equilibria (VLE) for the binary mixtures of glycidyl butyrate(1) + acetone(2), glycidyl butyrate(1) + carbon tetrachloride(2) and glycidyl butyrate(1) + chloroform(2) at 101 kPa were studied. The experimental data were satisfactorily correlated with the models of Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC activity coefficients. The activity coefficients for the equilibrium data were obtained by the nonlinear least square method. The average relative deviations between experimental temperatures and calculated temperatures by the Wilson, NRTL and UNIQUAC models were 0.16, 0.16, 0.23% for glycidyl butyrate(1) + chloroform( 2), 0.38, 0.12, 0.27% for glycidylbutyrate(1) + carbon tetrachloride(2), and 0.67, 0.13, 0.54% for glycidyl butyrate(1) + acetone(2). Azeotrope behavior was not found for these systems. The thermodynamic consistency of the correlations was checked by the Herrington's area test.

  5. An in vivo and in vitro analysis of free radical scavenging potential possessed by Desmodium gangeticum chloroform root extract: interpretation by gsms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srivats, Shyam; Ramakrishnan, Gomathi; Paddikkala, Jose; Kurian, Gino Andrew

    2012-01-01

    In the present study, the effect of DG chloroform root extract was assessed on isolated rat heart and in-vitro antioxidant models. Ischemia reperfusion injury was experimentally induced by using Langendroff apparatus. The free radical scavenging potential was studied in vitro by using different antioxidant models such as DPPH, super oxide scavenging activity, hydroxide scavenging activity and nitric oxide scavenging activity. Both experimental approaches not only substantiate its antioxidant potential but also the cardio-protection imparted by the extract. The cardio-stimulatory effects were investigated for the extract by treating it as a pre-conditioning agent against myocardial ischemia reperfusion injury. The improved antioxidant status of the myocardium indirectly predicts reduced oxidative stress mediated by ischemic reperfusion with evident reduction of infarct size determined by cardiac marker protein. These findings indicate that DG chloroform root extract may possess therapeutic potential against ischemia reperfusion injury. PMID:22186306

  6. Investigating migration inhibition and apoptotic effects of Fomitopsis pinicola chloroform extract on human colorectal cancer SW-480 cells.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yaqin Wang

    Full Text Available BACKGROUND: Fomitopsis pinicola (Sw. Ex Fr.m Karst (FPK which belongs to the Basidiomycota fungal class is one of the most popular medical fungi in China. It has been used for many diseases: cancer, heart diseases, diabetes and so on. However, little study on the pro-apoptotic effect and migration inhibition of FPK chloroform extract (FPKc has been reported and the possible involved mechanism has not been illuminated. METHODOLOGY/PRINCIPAL FINDINGS: Chemical analysis was performed by HPLC which showed ergosterol (ES concentration was 105 µg/mg. MTT assay revealed that FPKc could selectively inhibit SW-480 cells viability with the IC50 of 190.28 µg/ml. Wound healing and transwell assay indicated that FPKc could inhibit the migration of SW-480 cells obviously, FPKc could also dramatically decreased the matrix metalloproteinases-2, 9 (MMP-2 and MMP-9 expression. Annexin V-FITC/PI staining, nuclear Hoechst 33342 staining and DNA fragmentation analysis revealed that FPKc and ES could induce SW-480 cells apoptosis. The apoptosis process closely involved in ROS accumulation and depletion of GSH, activation of caspase 3, poly (ADP-ribose polymerase (PARP degradation. FPKc could also up-regulate P53 expression and thus lead to G1 phase arrest. When SW-480 cells were pretreated with N-acetylcysteine (NAC, the ROS generation, cell viability and apoptotic ratio were partially declined, which indicated that ROS was vertical in the pro-apoptosis process induced by FPKc. Moreover, in the whole process, ES which has been previously found in FPKc had the similar effect to FPKc. Thus we could conclude that ES, as one of the highest abundant components in FPKc, might also be one of the active constituents. CONCLUSION/SIGNIFICANCE: FPKc could inhibit the migration of SW-480 cells, induce SW-480 cells G1 phase arrest and cause ROS-mediated apoptosis effect. And ES might be one of the effective constituents in the whole process.

  7. Microcalorimetric Study on the Oscillating System of Two-phase Reaction of Aqueous Acid with Primary Amine in Chloroform

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG,Hong-Lin; YU,Xiu-Fang; LU,Cheng-Xue; SUN,Si-Xiu; GUO,Guo-Hua; FU,Xun

    2003-01-01

    It has been found that the two-phase reactions of aqueous HCl,HOAc or H3PO4 with primary amine N1923 in chloroform are oscillating reactions. Their power-time curves were measured by the titration microcalorimetric method, and the induction period (tin).The first oscillating period (tp.1) and the second oscillating period(tp.2 ) were determined.The apparent activating parameters and the orders of the oscillating systems were calculated and the following relationships were established: for the oscillating system of hydrochloric acid tin∝c0.147HCIexp(1.35×103/T),.tp.1∝c0.241HCI·exp(4.33×103/T),tp.2∝c0.290HCIexp(5.59×103/T);for the oscillating system of acetic acid, tm∝c0.883HOAcexp(2.32×103/T),tp.1∝c0.399HOAc·exp(4.50×103/T),tp.2∝c0.301HOAcexp(5.88×103/T),for the oscillating system of phosphoric acid, tim∝c1.14H3PO4exp(7.70×104]T),tp.1∝c1.42H3PO4exp(1.14×104/T),tp.2∝c1.47H3PO4exp(1.27×104/T).

  8. Anticancer activity of chloroform extract and sub-fractions of nepeta deflersiana on human breast and lung cancer cells: an in vitro cytotoxicity assessment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mai M Al-Oqail

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Background: Cancer is one of the major causes of death worldwide. The plant-derived natural products have received considerable attention in recent years due to their diverse pharmacological properties including anticancer effects. Nepeta deflersiana (ND is used in the folk medicine as antiseptic, carminative, antimicrobial, antioxidant, and for treating rheumatic disorders. However, the anticancer activity of ND chloroform extract has not been explored so far. Objectives: The present study was aimed to investigate the anticancer activities of chloroform Nepeta deflersiana extract and various sub-fractions (ND-1-ND-15 of ND against human breast cancer cells (MCF-7 and human lung cancer cells (A-549. Materials and Methods: The 3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl-2,5-diphenyl tetrazolium bromide and neutral red uptake assays, and cellular morphological alterations using phase contrast light microscope were studied. Cells were exposed with 10-1000 mg/ml of sub-fractions of ND for 24 h. Results: Results showed that selected sub-fractions of the chloroform extract significantly reduced the cell viability of MCF-7 and A-549 cells, and altered the cellular morphology in a concentration-dependent manner. Among the sub-fractions, ND-10 fraction showed relatively higher cytotoxicity compared to other fractions whereas, ND-1 did not cause any cytotoxicity even at higher concentrations. The A-549 cells were found to be more sensitive to growth inhibition by all the extracts as compared to the MCF-7 cells. Conclusion: The present study provides preliminary screening of anticancer activities of chloroform extract and sub-fractions of ND, which can be further used for the development of a potential therapeutic anticancer agent.

  9. RNA extraction from various recalcitrant plant tissues with a cethyltrimethylammonium bromide-containing buffer followed by an acid guanidium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Suzuki, Yuji; Mae, Tadahiko; Makino, Amane

    2008-07-01

    High-quality total RNA was extracted using a cethyltrimethylammonium bromide-containing buffer followed by an acid guanidium thiocyanate-phenol-chloroform treatment from recalcitrant plant tissues such as tree leaves (pine, Norway spruce, ginkgo, Japanese cedar, rose), flowers (rose, Lotus japonicus) and storage tissues (seeds of Lotus japonicus and rice, sweet potato tuber, banana fruit). This protocol greatly reduced the time required for RNA extraction.

  10. Inhibiting effects of chloroform and ethanol on GMO detection%三氯甲烷和乙醇对转基因成分检测的抑制

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王东; 宋君; 尹全; 陶李; 雷绍荣; 刘勇

    2011-01-01

    The different concentration of chloroform and ethanol were designed in the PCR of lectin gene of genetically modified soybean (GTS-40-3-2) in order to investigate the inhibitory effects of chloroform and ethanol on the quality PCR of genetically modified organism detection. The results showed PCR was inhibited when the concentration of chloroform was greater than or equal to 3.77 mol/L and when that of ethanol was greater than 1.39 mol/L in the reaction system.%该文以抗除草剂(CP4-EPSPS)转基因大豆GTS-40-3 -2为材料,在Lectin基因的扩增体系中设置不同浓度梯度的三氯甲烷、乙醇,模拟这2种有机试剂残留,探讨三氯甲烷、乙醇在转基因成分检测中的抑制作用.结果表明:在PCR反应体系中三氯甲烷的摩尔浓度≥3.77 mol/L时,能完全抑制PCR反应;乙醇的摩尔浓度>1.39 mol/L时,PCR反应彻底被抑制.

  11. Reliable solution processed planar perovskite hybrid solar cells with large-area uniformity by chloroform soaking and spin rinsing induced surface precipitation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A solvent soaking and rinsing method, in which the solvent was allowed to soak all over the surface followed by a spinning for solvent draining, was found to produce perovskite layers with high uniformity on a centimeter scale and with much improved reliability. Besides the enhanced crystallinity and surface morphology due to the rinsing induced surface precipitation that constrains the grain growth underneath in the precursor films, large-area uniformity with film thickness determined exclusively by the rotational speed of rinsing spinning for solvent draining was observed. With chloroform as rinsing solvent, highly uniform and mirror-like perovskite layers of area as large as 8 cm × 8 cm were produced and highly uniform planar perovskite solar cells with power conversion efficiency of 10.6 ± 0.2% as well as much prolonged lifetime were obtained. The high uniformity and reliability observed with this solvent soaking and rinsing method were ascribed to the low viscosity of chloroform as well as its feasibility of mixing with the solvent used in the precursor solution. Moreover, since the surface precipitation forms before the solvent draining, this solvent soaking and rinsing method may be adapted to spinless process and be compatible with large-area and continuous production. With the large-area uniformity and reliability for the resultant perovskite layers, this chloroform soaking and rinsing approach may thus be promising for the mass production and commercialization of large-area perovskite solar cells

  12. The Chloroform Fraction of Carpinus tschonoskii Leaves Inhibits the Production of Inflammatory Mediators in HaCaT Keratinocytes and RAW264.7 Macrophages.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kang, Gyeoung-Jin; Kang, Na-Jin; Han, Sang-Chul; Koo, Dong-Hwan; Kang, Hee-Kyoung; Yoo, Byoung-Sam; Yoo, Eun-Sook

    2012-12-01

    Inflammation is the immune system's response to infection and injury-related disorders, and is related to pro-inflammatory factors (NO, PGE2, cytokines, etc.) produced by inflammatory cells. Atopic dermatitis (AD) is a representative inflammatory skin disease that is characterized by increasing serum levels of inflammatory chemokines, including macrophage-derived chemokine (MDC). Carpinus tschonoskii is a member of the genus Carpinus. We investigated the anti-inflammatory activity of C. tschonoskii by studying the effects of various solvent fractions prepared from its leaves on inflammatory mediators in HaCaT and RAW264.7 cells. We found that the chloroform fraction of C. tschonoskii inhibited MDC at both the protein and mRNA levels in HaCaT cells, acting via the inhibition of STAT1 in the IFN-γ signaling pathway. In addition, the chloroform fraction significantly suppressed the expression of inflammatory factors induced by lipopolysaccharide stimulation, except COX-2 and TNF-α. These results suggest that the chloroform fraction of C. tschonoskii leaves may include a component with potential anti-inflammatory activity. PMID:24278618

  13. Determination of vanadium in stainless steel and Ni-base alloys by NBPHA spectrophotometric method combined with chloroform extraction separation in media of sulfuric-hydrofluoric acid

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new method of rapid vanadium analysis was proposed. In this method, vanadium is directly extracted and determined from sample solutions in sulfuric-hydrofluoric acid. The interference of the coexisting elements can be ignored in this method. Take one gram of sample into a 200 ml beaker, and add 30 ml of aqua regia. Then heat and dissolve it, and add 14 ml of sulfuric acid (1+1) and 5 ml of phosphoric acid. After cooling, dissolve the salts with a small amount of water. Thereafter, transfer it with use of water into a polyethylene separatory funnel, add 10 ml of 46% hydrofluoric acid, and dilute to 50 ml. Then, add 4 ml iron (II) ammonium sulfate solution (10%) and mix it thoroughly. Allow to stand for two or three minutes, add 10 ml of 45% ammonium persulfate solution and mix it thoroughly again. Allow to stand for about five minutes. Then, add exactly 20 ml of BPHA-chloroform solution (0.1%) and shake and mix it vigorously for two minutes. After a while, transfer the chloroform complex into a 10 mm cell through a piece of absorbent cotton. Then, determine vanadium by measuring the absorbance at the wave length of 530 nm against a chloroform reference. This method can be applicable to the analysis of vanadium in other metals and alloys than stainless steel and Ni-base alloys. (Iwakiri, K.)

  14. Sources and occurrence of chloroform and other trihalomethanes in drinking-water supply wells in the United States, 1986-2001

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ivahnenko, Tamara; Zogorski, J.S.

    2006-01-01

    Chloroform and three other trihalomethanes (THMs)--bromodichloromethane, dibromochloromethane, and bromoform--are disinfection by-products commonly produced during the chlorination of water and wastewater. Samples of untreated ground water from drinking-water supply wells (1,096 public and 2,400 domestic wells) were analyzed for THMs and other volatile organic compounds (VOCs) during 1986-2001, or compiled, as part of the U.S. Geological Survey's National Water-Quality Assessment Program. This report provides a summary of potential sources of THMs and of the occurrence and geographical distribution of THMs in samples from public and domestic wells. Evidence for an anthropogenic source of THMs and implications for future research also are presented. Potential sources of THMs to both public and domestic wells include the discharge of chlorinated drinking water and wastewater that may be intentional or inadvertent. Intentional discharge includes the use of municipally supplied chlorinated water to irrigate lawns, golf courses, parks, gardens, and other areas; the use of septic systems; or the regulated discharge of chlorinated wastewater to surface waters or ground-water recharge facilities. Inadvertent discharge includes leakage of chlorinated water from swimming pools, spas, or distribution systems for drinking water or wastewater sewers. Statistical analyses indicate that population density, the percentage of urban land, and the number of Resource Conservation and Recovery Act hazardous-waste facilities near sampled wells are significantly associated with the probability of detection of chloroform, especially for public wells. Domestic wells may have several other sources of THMs, including the practice of well disinfection through shock chlorination, laundry wastewater containing bleach, and septic system effluent. Chloroform was the most frequently detected VOC in samples from drinking-water supply wells (public and domestic wells) in the United States. Although

  15. Influence of Alkaline Treatment on Chloroform Extract of China-Hemp%碱处理对汉麻皮氯仿萃取物的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵小泷; 杨力生; 金彪; 李荣霞; 周文龙

    2013-01-01

    运用气质联用技术,对汉麻皮的氯仿萃取物进行了测定分析.研究表明,汉麻皮的氯仿萃取物中仍然明显有大麻中的特殊化学成分——四氢大麻酚(THC)存在.四氢大麻酚会在汉麻的普通化学脱胶处理(碱处理)中被有效去除,这说明在汉麻纺织商品中不会含有大麻酚物质,汉麻纺织产品是安全的,同时也说明四氢大麻酚物质可能与汉麻皮的胶类物质有一定的关系.在一定条件下,碱处理60 min后纤维中将不会存在四氢大麻酚.汉麻皮氯仿萃取物中主要还含有十六酸和十八烷酸等物质.%This paper tests and analyzes chloroform extract of China-hemp using gas chromatography-mass spectrography technology. The research shows that the special chemical component in hemp-THC still exists in chloroform extract of China-hemp. THC will be effectively removed in general chemical de-gumming treatment (alkaline treatment) of China-hemp, indicating that China-hemp textile goods do not contain Cannabinol and China-hemp textile products are safe and that THC might have certain relationship with gum substance of China-hemp. Under certain conditions, fiber subject to alkaline treatment for 60 min will not have THC. Chloroform extract of China-hemp also contains hexadecanoic acid and octadecanoic acid etc.

  16. Chloroform Cometabolism by Butane-Grown CF8, Pseudomonas butanovora, and Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 and Methane-Grown Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b

    OpenAIRE

    Hamamura, N.; Page, C.; Long, T; Semprini, L; Arp, D J

    1997-01-01

    Chloroform (CF) degradation by a butane-grown enrichment culture, CF8, was compared to that by butane-grown Pseudomonas butanovora and Mycobacterium vaccae JOB5 and to that by a known CF degrader, Methylosinus trichosporium OB3b. All three butane-grown bacteria were able to degrade CF at rates comparable to that of M. trichosporium. CF degradation by all four bacteria required O(inf2). Butane inhibited CF degradation by the butane-grown bacteria, suggesting that butane monooxygenase is respon...

  17. (η6-Benzene(carbonato-κ2O,O′[dicyclohexyl(naphthalen-1-ylmethylphosphane-κP]ruthenium(II chloroform trisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saravanan Gowrisankar

    2014-07-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, [Ru(CO3(η6-C6H6{(C6H112P(CH2C10H7}]·3CHCl3, was synthesized by carbonation of [RuCl2(η6-C6H6{(C6H112P(CH2C10H7}] with NaHCO3 in methanol at room temperature. The RuII atom is surrounded by a benzene ligand, a chelating carbonate group and a phosphane ligand in a piano-stool configuration. The crystal packing is consolidated by C—H...O and C—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions between adjacent metal complexes and between the complexes and the solvent molecules. The asymmetric unit contains one metal complex and three chloroform solvent molecules of which only one was modelled. The estimated diffraction contributions of the other two strongly disordered chloroform solvent molecules were substracted from the observed diffraction data using the SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155].

  18. Dithizone chloroform single drop microextraction system combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using Ir as permanent modifier for the determination of Cd in water and biological samples

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Zhefeng; Zhou, Wei

    2006-07-01

    A simple and sensitive method using dithizone-chloroform single drop microextraction has been developed for separation and preconcentration of trace Cd prior to its determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with Ir as permanent modifier. Parameters, such as pyrolysis and atomization temperature, solvent type, pH, dithizone concentration, extraction time, organic drop volume, stirring rate and sample volume were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a detection limit (3 σ) of 0.7 ng/l and enrichment factor of 65 were achieved. The relative standard deviation was 7.4% ( c = 0.2 μg/l, n = 5). The developed method has been applied to the determination of trace Cd in water samples and biological reference materials with satisfactory results.

  19. Dithizone-chloroform single drop microextraction system combined with electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry using Ir as permanent modifier for the determination of Cd in water and biological samples

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fan Zhefeng [Department of Chemistry, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041004 (China)]. E-mail: zhefengfan@163.com; Zhou Wei [Department of Chemistry, Shanxi Normal University, Linfen 041004 (China)

    2006-07-15

    A simple and sensitive method using dithizone-chloroform single drop microextraction has been developed for separation and preconcentration of trace Cd prior to its determination by electrothermal atomic absorption spectrometry with Ir as permanent modifier. Parameters, such as pyrolysis and atomization temperature, solvent type, pH, dithizone concentration, extraction time, organic drop volume, stirring rate and sample volume were investigated. Under the optimized conditions, a detection limit (3{sigma}) of 0.7 ng/l and enrichment factor of 65 were achieved. The relative standard deviation was 7.4% (c = 0.2 {mu}g/l, n = 5). The developed method has been applied to the determination of trace Cd in water samples and biological reference materials with satisfactory results.

  20. Sperm motility inhibitory effect of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in langur monkey, Presbytis entellus entellus

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Nirmal K.Lohiya; Boomi Manivannan; Shipra Goyal; Abdul S.Ansari

    2008-01-01

    Aim: To assess the contraceptive efficacy of the benzene chromatographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya in langur monkeys. Methods: The test substance was given p.o. to five monkeys at 50 mg/kg body weight/day for 360 days. Control animals (n = 3) received olive oil as vehicle. Sperm parameters as per World Health Organization standards, sperm functional tests, morphology of testis and epididymis, haematology, clinical biochemistry, serum testosterone and libido were evaluated. Following completion of 360 days treatment the animals were withdrawn from the treatment and the recovery pattern was assessed by semen analysis and sperm functional tests. Results: Total inhibition of sperm motility was observed following 60 days of treatment that continued until 360 days study period. Sperm count, percent viability and percent normal spermatozoa showed a drastic decline following 30 days of treatment. Sperm morphology showed predominant mid piece abnormalities. Sperm functional tests scored in sterile range. Histology and ultrastructure of testis revealed vacuolization in the Sertoli cells and germ cells. Loss of cytoplasmic organelles was evident in spermatocytes and round spermatids. Histology and ultrastruc-ture of epididymis of treated animals were comparable to those of control animals. Hematological and serum clinicalparameters and testosterone levels fluctuated within the control range throughout the study period. Recovery was evident following 60-120 days of treatment withdrawal. Conclusion: The results suggest that the benzene chro-matographic fraction of the chloroform extract of the seeds of Carica papaya shows contraceptive efficacy without adverse toxicity, mediated through inhibition of sperm motility.

  1. Distributions and sea-to-air fluxes of chloroform, trichloroethylene, tetrachloroethylene, chlorodibromomethane and bromoform in the Yellow Sea and the East China Sea during spring.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhen; Yang, Gui-Peng; Lu, Xiao-Lan; Zhang, Hong-Hai

    2013-06-01

    Halocarbons including chloroform (CHCl3), trichloroethylene (C2HCl3), tetrachloroethylene (C2Cl4), chlorodibromomethane (CHBr2Cl) and bromoform (CHBr3) were measured in the Yellow Sea (YS) and the East China Sea (ECS) during spring 2011. The influences of chlorophyll a, salinity and nutrients on the distributions of these gases were examined. Elevated levels of these gases in the coastal waters were attributed to anthropogenic inputs and biological release by phytoplankton. The vertical distributions of these gases in the water column were controlled by different source strengths and water masses. Using atmospheric concentrations measured in spring 2012 and seawater concentrations obtained from this study, the sea-to-air fluxes of these gases were estimated. Our results showed that the emissions of C2HCl3, C2Cl4, CHBr2Cl, and CHBr3 from the study area could account for 16.5%, 10.5%, 14.6%, and 3.5% of global oceanic emissions, respectively, indicating that the coastal shelf may contribute significantly to the global oceanic emissions of these gases.

  2. A spectrophotometric and thermodynamic study of the charge-transfer complexes of iodine with 2-aminomethyl-15-crown-5 in chloroform and 1,2-dichloroethane solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, Masoumeh; Akbari, Sakineh

    2007-05-01

    Interaction of 2-aminomethyl-15-crown-5 (AM15C5) with iodine has been investigated spectrophotometrically in chloroform and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCE) solutions. The observed time dependence of the charge-transfer band and subsequent formation of I(3)(-) in solution were related to the slow transformation of the initially formed 1:1 AM15C5.I(2) outer complex to an inner electron donor-acceptor (EDA) complex, followed by fast reaction of the inner complex with iodine to form a triiodide ion. The pseudo-first-order rate constants were evaluated from the absorbance- and conductivity-time data. The stoichiometry and formation constants of the resulting EDA complexes have also been determined. Thermodynamic parameters, Delta H degrees and Delta S degrees , of the complexes have been determined from the temperature dependence of stability constants by Van't Hoff equation. The results indicate that iodine complexes of AM15C5 in both solvents are enthalpy stabilized but entropy destabilized. The influence of solvent properties on the kinetics and stability of the resulting charge-transfer complexes are discussed.

  3. Optimization of a gas chromatography-mass spectrometry method with methyl chloroformate derivatization for quantification of amino acids in plant tissue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vancompernolle, Bram; Croes, Kim; Angenon, Geert

    2016-04-01

    Rapid, easy and reliable quantification of amino acids is crucial in research on plant amino acid metabolism and nutritional improvement of crops via enrichment of essential amino acids. A recently reported analysis method, based on solid phase extraction (SPE), derivatization with methyl chloroformate and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry was optimized and tested on three-week-old Arabidopsis thaliana leaf tissues. Optimization of the SPE cleanup yielded recovery rates of minimum 95% for all amino acids (except arginine). Variations in accuracy and precision did not exceed 12.5%, except for cysteine, histidine and tryptophane, which were excluded from analysis. Quantification of overlapping peaks for isoleucine/threonine and proline/asparagine was possible by selection of two specific fragment ions for each amino acid. Of the 16 selected amino acids, 14 were quantified successfully in at least 75% of the samples, while methionine and tyrosine were only quantifiable in 6% and 42%, respectively. A case study on the aspartate super pathway confirmed the applicability of the optimized method on wild type and genetically modified plants: external supplementation of methionine or lysine yielded a 146-fold or 27-fold increase in the respective absolute amino acid levels compared with the control treatment. Induced expression of dhdps-r1 (a mutated lysine biosynthesis gene encoding a feedback insensitive enzyme) caused an 83-fold increase in absolute lysine levels. PMID:26994331

  4. Cytotoxic Activities of Physalis minima L. Chloroform Extract on Human Lung Adenocarcinoma NCI-H23 Cell Lines by Induction of Apoptosis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ooi Kheng Leong

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Physalis minima L. is reputed for having anticancer property. In this study, the chloroform extract of this plant exhibited remarkable cytotoxic activities on NCI-H23 (human lung adenocarcinoma cell line at dose- and time-dependent manners (after 24, 48 and 72 h of incubation. Analysis of cell-death mechanism demonstrated that the extract exerted apoptotic programed cell death in NCI-H23 cells with typical DNA fragmentation, which is a biochemical hallmark of apoptosis. Morphological observation using transmission electron microscope (TEM also displayed apoptotic characteristics in the treated cells, including clumping and margination of chromatins, followed by convolution of the nuclear and budding of the cells to produce membrane-bound apoptotic bodies. Different stages of apoptotic programed cell death as well as phosphatidylserine externalization were confirmed using annexin V and propidium iodide staining. Furthermore, acute exposure to the extract produced a significant regulation of c-myc, caspase-3 and p53 mRNA expression in this cell line. Due to its apoptotic effect on NCI-H23 cells, it is strongly suggested that the extract could be further developed as an anticancer drug.

  5. Amino acid analysis by reverse-phase high-performance liquid chromatography: improved derivatization and detection conditions with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bank, R A; Jansen, E J; Beekman, B; te Koppele, J M

    1996-09-01

    An improved method for the quantitative derivatization of amino acids with fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) is described. Amino acids are derivatized in borate buffer at pH 11.4 for 40 min at ambient temperature. All amino acids resulted in stable derivatives. In particular, improved derivatization was obtained with the troublesome amino acids His and Tyr: exclusively monosubstituted His and disubstituted Tyr were formed, eluting as free peaks in the chromatogram. These derivatives show a higher fluorescence response than their disubstituted and monosubstituted counterparts, respectively, resulting from other protocols. Under the new conditions, considerable less of the hydrolysis product of FMOC-Cl is seen in the chromatograms. Baseline noise was substantially reduced at a higher emission wavelength (630 nm instead of 313 or 340 nm). With simple precautions, extensive adsorption of the disubstituted derivatives (Lys, Hyl, and Tyr) on plastic or glass surfaces could be prevented. Calibration curves were linear over a 10 to 300 molar ratio of FMOC-Cl to total amino acid. The detection limits are in the femtomole range and the derivatives are stable for more than 48 h, thus permitting automated analysis of multiple samples. PMID:8811901

  6. 四氯化碳液相催化加氢反应动力学的研究%KINETIC STUDIES ON THE CATALYTIC HYDROGENATION OF CARBON TETRACHLORIDE TO CHLOROFORM IN LIQUID PHASE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛建新; 蒋晓原; 陆维敏; 郑小明

    2001-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride is an ozone-depleting chemical, while chloroform is not. Therefore it is important for the catalytic hydrodechlorination of CCl4 to CHCl3. In this paper, kinetics on the catalytic hydrogenation of carbon tetrachloride to chloroform in liquid phase was studied. A reaction mechanism was proposed. Hydrogen molecular was activated on the surface of catalyst, the activated hydrogen atom then reacted with CCl4 in the solution and produced CHCl3. A definite kinetic equation could be deduced from the reaction mechanism. The reaction rate constant is concerned with the intial concentration of CCl4 in the solution, pressure, reaction temperature and the concentration of active center. All these factors were investigated over Pt-Pd/C catalyst and fit in with the kinetic equation. The activation energy of the reaction is 86?KJ/mol according to the experimental results.

  7. Determination of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in aqueous soil matrices: a critical analysis of the 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate derivatization reaction and application to adsorption studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez, María E; Fuentes, Edwar; Espina, María José; Espinoza, Jeannette

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of the environmental fate of glyphosate and its degradation product (aminomethylphosphonic acid) is of great interest given the widespread use of the herbicide. Studies of adsorption-desorption and transport processes in soils require analytical methods with sensitivity, accuracy, and precision suitable for determining the analytes in aqueous equilibrium solutions of varied complexity. In this work, the effect of factors on the yield of the derivatization of both compounds with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate for applying in aqueous solutions derived from soils was evaluated through factorial experimental designs. Interference effects coming from background electrolytes and soil matrices were established. The whole method had a linear response up to 640 ng/mL (R(2) > 0.999) under optimized conditions for high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Limits of detection were 0.6 and 0.4 ng/mL for glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid, respectively. The relative standard deviation was 4.4% for glyphosate (20 ng/mL) and 5.9% for aminomethylphosphonic acid (10 ng/mL). Adsorption of compounds on four different soils was assessed. Isotherm data fitted well the Freundlich model (R(2) > 0.97). Kf constants varied between 93 ± 3.1 and 2045 ± 157 for glyphosate and between 99 ± 4.1 and 1517 ± 56 (μg(1-1/) (n)  mL(1/) (n) ( ) g(-1) ) for aminomethylphosphonic acid, showing the broad range of applicability of the proposed method.

  8. Determination of glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid in aqueous soil matrices: a critical analysis of the 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate derivatization reaction and application to adsorption studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Báez, María E; Fuentes, Edwar; Espina, María José; Espinoza, Jeannette

    2014-11-01

    The assessment of the environmental fate of glyphosate and its degradation product (aminomethylphosphonic acid) is of great interest given the widespread use of the herbicide. Studies of adsorption-desorption and transport processes in soils require analytical methods with sensitivity, accuracy, and precision suitable for determining the analytes in aqueous equilibrium solutions of varied complexity. In this work, the effect of factors on the yield of the derivatization of both compounds with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate for applying in aqueous solutions derived from soils was evaluated through factorial experimental designs. Interference effects coming from background electrolytes and soil matrices were established. The whole method had a linear response up to 640 ng/mL (R(2) > 0.999) under optimized conditions for high-performance liquid chromatography with fluorescence detection. Limits of detection were 0.6 and 0.4 ng/mL for glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid, respectively. The relative standard deviation was 4.4% for glyphosate (20 ng/mL) and 5.9% for aminomethylphosphonic acid (10 ng/mL). Adsorption of compounds on four different soils was assessed. Isotherm data fitted well the Freundlich model (R(2) > 0.97). Kf constants varied between 93 ± 3.1 and 2045 ± 157 for glyphosate and between 99 ± 4.1 and 1517 ± 56 (μg(1-1/) (n)  mL(1/) (n) ( ) g(-1) ) for aminomethylphosphonic acid, showing the broad range of applicability of the proposed method. PMID:25137606

  9. Chloroform Fraction of Centratherum anthelminticum (L. Seed Inhibits Tumor Necrosis Factor Alpha and Exhibits Pleotropic Bioactivities: Inhibitory Role in Human Tumor Cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aditya Arya

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available We investigated the antioxidant potential, cytotoxic effect, and TNF-α inhibition activity with NF-κB activation response in a chloroform fraction of Centratherum anthelminticum seeds (CACF. The antioxidant property of CACF was evaluated with DPPH, ORAC, and FRAP assays, which demonstrated significant antioxidant activity. The cytotoxicity of CACF was tested using the MTT assay; CACF effective inhibitory concentrations (IC50 for A549, PC-3, MCF-7, and WRL-68 cells were 31.42±5.4, 22.61±1.7, 8.1±0.9, and 54.93±8.3 μg/mL, respectively. CACF effectively and dose-dependently inhibited TNF-α release, in vitro and in vivo. CACF inhibited TNF-α secretion in stimulated RAW264.7 macrophage supernatants with an IC50 of 0.012 μg/mL, without affecting their viability; the highest dose tested reduced serum TNF-α by 61%. Acute toxicity testing in rats revealed that CACF was non-toxic at all doses tested. Matching the cytotoxic activity towards a mechanistic approach, CACF dose-dependently exhibited in vitro inhibitory effects against the activation of NF-κB translocation in MCF-7 cells. Preliminary phytochemical screening with GC/MS analysis detected 22 compounds in CACF, of which morpholinoethyl isothiocyanate was the most abundant (29.04%. The study reveals the potential of CACF in the treatment of breast cancer and in oxidative stress conditions with associated inflammatory responses.

  10. Positive and Negative Contributions in the Solvation Enthalpy due to Specific Interactions in Binary Mixtures of C1-C4 n-Alkanols and Chloroform with Butan-2-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varfolomeev, Mikhail A; Rakipov, Ilnaz T; Solomonov, Boris N; Lodowski, Piotr; Marczak, Wojciech

    2015-06-25

    In the paper, results of calorimetric measurements, IR spectra, and calculated ab initio stabilization energies of dimers are reported for binary systems butan-2-one + (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, and chloroform). Changes in the total enthalpy of specific interactions due to dissolution of butan-2-one in the alcohols, calculated using equations derived in previous works, are positive. That results from the endothermic breaking of the O-H···O-H bonds not completely compensated by the exothermic effects of formation of the O-H···O═C ones. Moreover, the concentration of nonbonded molecules of butan-2-one is significant even in dilute solutions, as is evidenced by the shape of the C═O stretching vibrations band in the IR spectra. Apart from that, the spectra do not confirm 1:2 complexes in spite of two lone electron pairs in the carbonyl group of butan-2-one capable of forming the hydrogen bonds. The changes in enthalpy of specific interactions are negative for dilute solutions of alcohols and chloroform in butan-2-one and of butan-2-one in chloroform, because no hydrogen bonds occur in pure butan-2-one. The experimental results are positively correlated with the enthalpies estimated from the ab initio energies using a simple "chemical reaction" approach. PMID:26012694

  11. Positive and Negative Contributions in the Solvation Enthalpy due to Specific Interactions in Binary Mixtures of C1-C4 n-Alkanols and Chloroform with Butan-2-one.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varfolomeev, Mikhail A; Rakipov, Ilnaz T; Solomonov, Boris N; Lodowski, Piotr; Marczak, Wojciech

    2015-06-25

    In the paper, results of calorimetric measurements, IR spectra, and calculated ab initio stabilization energies of dimers are reported for binary systems butan-2-one + (methanol, ethanol, propan-1-ol, butan-1-ol, and chloroform). Changes in the total enthalpy of specific interactions due to dissolution of butan-2-one in the alcohols, calculated using equations derived in previous works, are positive. That results from the endothermic breaking of the O-H···O-H bonds not completely compensated by the exothermic effects of formation of the O-H···O═C ones. Moreover, the concentration of nonbonded molecules of butan-2-one is significant even in dilute solutions, as is evidenced by the shape of the C═O stretching vibrations band in the IR spectra. Apart from that, the spectra do not confirm 1:2 complexes in spite of two lone electron pairs in the carbonyl group of butan-2-one capable of forming the hydrogen bonds. The changes in enthalpy of specific interactions are negative for dilute solutions of alcohols and chloroform in butan-2-one and of butan-2-one in chloroform, because no hydrogen bonds occur in pure butan-2-one. The experimental results are positively correlated with the enthalpies estimated from the ab initio energies using a simple "chemical reaction" approach.

  12. Study on Antimicrobial Activity and Stability of Chloroform Phase of Zingiber officinale Roscoe Extract%大肉姜提取物氯仿相的抑菌效果及稳定性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韦学丰; 邓年方; 杨君军; 蒙英升

    2015-01-01

    In order to study the antimicrobial activity of Zingiber officinale Roscoe extracts,the chloroform phase is selected as the research object after fractional extraction.Echerichia coli, Staphylo-coccus aureus and Saccharomyces cere-visiae are selected as the indicator bacteria and the antimicrobial effect is as the evaluating indicator,the antimicrobial activity of chloroform phase and total extracts are compared,the effects of temperature,pH value on the inhibitory activity of total extracts and chloroform phase are studied as well. The results show that Echerichia coli, Staphylo-coccus aureus and Saccharomyces cere-visiae are inhibited by both the total extracts and the chloroform phase,but the inhibitory effects are different on strains.The pH value and heat treatment have obvious impact on the stability of chloroform phase,but have little impact on the total extracts.%为了研究大肉姜提取物化学成分的抑菌性能,对大肉姜总提取物进行分级萃取,以氯仿相为研究对象,以大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌和酒精酵母为指示菌,以抑菌效果为评价指标,比较了氯仿相与总提取物的抑菌性能,并考察了温度、pH 值对总提取物和氯仿相抑菌活性的影响。结果表明:氯仿相和总提取物对大肠杆菌、金黄色葡萄球菌和酒精酵母均有一定的抑制作用,但对不同菌种的抑菌效果存在一定差异,pH 值和热处理对氯仿相抑菌稳定性影响较大,对总提取物的抑菌稳定性影响较小。

  13. Profiling of urinary amino-carboxylic metabolites by in-situ heptafluorobutyl chloroformate mediated sample preparation and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hušek, Petr; Švagera, Zdeněk; Hanzlíková, Dagmar; Řimnáčová, Lucie; Zahradníčková, Helena; Opekarová, Iva; Šimek, Petr

    2016-04-22

    A novel 1,1,1,2,2,3,3-heptafluorobutyl chloroformate reagent (HFBCF) was examined for in-situ derivatization of amino-carboxylic metabolites in human urine. The arising reaction products exhibit greatly reduced polarity which facilitates combining the derivatization and liquid-liquid microextraction (LLME) from an aqueous urine into an isooctane phase and immediate gas chromatographic-mas spectrometric analysis (GC-MS). The sample preparation protocol is simple, proceeds without an alcohol excess and provides cleaner extracts than other urinary GC-MS based methods. Moreover, thiol metabolites bound in disulfide bonds can be released by reduction with tris(3-hydroxypropyl)phosphine (THP) prior to the developed derivatization and LLME step. In order to evaluate potential of the novel method for GC-MS metabolomics, reaction products of 153 urinary metabolites with HFBCF, particularly those possessing amino and carboxyl groups (56 amino acids and their conjugates, 84 organic acids, 9 biogenic amines, 4 other polar analytes) and two internal standards were investigated in detail by GC-MS and liquid chromatography-mass spectrometry (LC-MS). One hundred and twenty metabolites (78%) yielded a single product, 25 (16%) and 2 metabolites (2-methylcitrate, citrate) generated two and more derivatives. From the examined set, analytically applicable products of 5 metabolites were not detected; the derivatives of 3 metabolites were only suitable for LC-MS analysis. Electron ionization (EI) of the examined analytes contained characteristic, diagnostic ions enabling to distinguish related and isomeric structures. The new method was validated for 132 metabolites using two internal standards in artificial urine and with special attention to potential disease biomarker candidates. The developed sample preparation protocol was finally evaluated by means of a certified organic acid standard mixture in urine and by GC-MS analysis of 100 morning urines obtained from healthy patients (50

  14. Fresh Preservation of Cowpea with Extracts of Millettia specisoa Champ Isolated with Chloroform%牛大力氯仿提取物保鲜豇豆研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张苏敏; 李天略; 刘艺洁; 陈光英; 史载锋

    2012-01-01

    [目的]研究牛大力氯仿提取物的乙醇水溶液对豇豆的保鲜作用.[方法]将豇豆在不同浓度牛大力氯仿提取物中浸泡,然后取出在空气中晾干存放.在存放过程中,测定豇豆表观、失重率、pH、总糖含量以及Vc含量的变化来分析其保鲜效果.[结果]用浓度为6 ml/L的牛大力氯仿提取物乙醇水溶液浸泡的豇豆样品,好果率、失重率、pH、Vc含量、总糖含量的变化幅度均较小,保鲜效果最佳,保鲜期比不经任何处理的豇豆延长2d.[结论]研究可为天然植物提取物用于果蔬保鲜的开发应用提供参考依据.%[Objective] To study the preservation effects of cowpea with extracts of Millettia specisoa Champ isolated with chloroform. [Method ] Cowpeas were immersed in alcohol-water solution of the extracts, then stored in the open-air at room temperature after dried out. Changes of the factors such as apparent, weight loss, pH value, VC and total sugar contents were determined during the preservation process. [ Result ] The results indicated that it gives the best fresh reservation effects on cowpea with the extracts concentration of 6 ml/L, changes of all factors are the smallest. It is to say that the extracts may show good preservation effect on cowpeas at proper conditions, the keeping fresh time is 2 days longer than that without any preservation treatment. [Conclusion] The study provides reference basis for utilization of natural plant extracts in fruit and vegetable preservation.

  15. OP-7/氯仿反胶束体系的制备及其增溶水量的研究%Study on preparation of OP-7/chloroform reverse micelle systems and their water solubilization performance

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    赵群; 陈怡秀; 朱青; 沈炎冰; 邓龙根; 马超; 阎克路

    2013-01-01

    The novel OP-7/chloroform reverse micelle system have been prepared by substituting chloroform for the alkanes of traditional reverse micelle systems,and the water solubilization behaviors of the systems have been investigated.The impact of OP-7' s concentration and the type of cosurfactant on the water solubilization amount of reverse micelle systems and the relationship between the water solubilization amount and the size and the conductivity of the systems were studied.The results showed that both the dosage of OP-7,the type and the concentration of the alcohol as cosufactant affect the water solubilization amount ; at the same time,the size and conductivity of the systems increased with increasing water solubilization amount,the OP-7/n-octanol/chloroform has the maximum water solubilization amount.%以氯仿代替传统的烃类溶剂,制备新型OP-7(非离子表面活性剂)/氯仿反胶束体系,并对该体系的增溶行为进行研究.考察了OP-7的浓度和不同的助表面活性剂对该体系增溶水量的影响及增溶水量与体系的粒径、电导率的关系.结果表明,OP-7的浓度、助表面活性剂醇的种类和用量都影响着体系的增溶水量;同时增溶水量增加,体系的粒径和电导率随之增加,OP-7/正辛醇/氯仿反胶束体系增溶水量最大.

  16. Comparison of phenol chloroform method and salting out method for genomic DNA extraction%酚/氯仿法和盐析法提取人类外周血基因组DNA方法的比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宋洁云; 刘芳宏; 马军; 陈远帆; 王海俊

    2013-01-01

    目的 比较两种不同方法提取的基因组DNA的纯度、产量和后续实验效果.方法 采用酚/氯仿法和盐析法两种方法直接从全血中提取基因组DNA,并采用电泳、PCR和基质支持的激光释放/电离飞行时间质谱分析(MALDI-TOF MS)方法进行检测.结果 酚/氯仿法提取的基因组DNA纯度高于盐析法(P<0.001),但两组纯度平均值都高于1.80;没有发现两种方法提取的DNA浓度存在差异(P=0.819).两组DNA在电泳中都没有出现明显拖尾现象,均很容易扩增出胰岛素诱导基因2片段,并且在MALDI-TOF MS检测中,两组DNA样本结果没有明显差异.结论 酚/氯仿法和盐析法提取的基因组DNA质量无明显差异.相比酚/氯仿法,盐析法能简便、快速、无毒地进行DNA提取,适合于大规模的分子生物学实验.%Objective To detect the purity,quantity and follow-up experimental effects of DNA extracted with two methods. Methods Extract genomic DNA with phenol chloroform method and salting out method,and detect the DNA samples with electrophoresis, PCR and Matrix-Assisted Laser Desorption/ Ionization Time of Flight Mass Spectrome try (MALDI-TOF MS). Results Purity of DNA extracted with phenol chloroform method was higher than that with salting out method,with both mean purity higher than 1.80. The quantity was not significantly different between two methods (P=0. 819). The DNA samples did not smear on gel,and the PCR test of INSIG2 gene and MALD1-TOF MS test did not show difference between DNA isolated with two methods. Conclusion There was no difference between DNA samples isolated with phenol chloroform method and salting out method. Compared to phenol chloroform method, salting out method was much simpler, more quick and harmless, and was applicable to molecular biology experiments with large scale.

  17. Acaricidal activity of four fractions and octadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl ester isolated from chloroform extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong-Hua; Li, Jin-Liang; Jia, Ren-Yong; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Li, Xu-Ting; Lv, Cheng; Ye, Gang; Zhang, Li; Zhang, Yu-Qun

    2009-07-01

    Four fractions obtained from chloroform extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil by column chromatography were investigated for acaricidal activity against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae in vitro. Octadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl ester was isolated from an active fraction of the chloroform extract and its toxicity against S. scabiei larvae was tested in vitro. A complementary log-log model was used to analyse the toxicity data. Activity was found in the third fraction, with 100% corrected mortality after 4.5 h of exposure at a concentration of 200 mg ml(-1). This fraction was repeatedly re-crystallised in acetone to yield a white amorphous powder, identified as octadecanoic acid-tetrahydrofuran-3,4-diyl ester, with a median lethal concentration (LC(50)) of 0.1 mg ml(-1) at 24 h post-treatment. The median lethal time (LT(50)) for this compound was 15.3 h at a concentration of 7.5 mg ml(-1). PMID:19443124

  18. Phytochemistry and Preliminary Assessment of the Antibacterial Activity of Chloroform Extract of Amburana cearensis (Allemão A.C. Sm. against Klebsiella pneumoniae Carbapenemase-Producing Strains

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mirivaldo Barros Sá

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform extract of the stem bark of Amburana cearensis was chemically characterized and tested for antibacterial activity.The extract was analyzed by gas chromatography and mass spectrometry. The main compounds identified were 4-methoxy-3-methylphenol (76.7%, triciclene (3.9%, α-pinene (1.0%, β-pinene (2.2%, and 4-hydroxybenzoic acid (3.1%. Preliminary antibacterial tests were carried out against species of distinct morphophysiological characteristics: Escherichia coli, Salmonella enterica Serotype Typhimurium, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Staphylococcus aureus, Listeria monocytogenes, and Bacillus cereus. The minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC was determinate in 96-well microplates for the chloroform extract and an analogue of themain compound identified, which was purchased commercially.We have shown that plant’s extract was only inhibitory (but not bactericidal at the maximum concentration of 6900 μg/mL against Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Bacillus cereus. Conversely, the analogue 2-methoxy-4-methylphenol produced MICs ranging from215 to 431 μg/mL against all bacterial species.New antibacterial assays conducted with such chemical compound against Klebsiella pneumoniae carbapenemase-producing strains have shown similarMICresults and minimumbactericidal concentration (MBC of 431 μg/mL.We conclude that A. cearensis is a good source of methoxy-methylphenol compounds,which could be screened for antibacterial activity againstmultiresistant bacteria fromdifferent species

  19. (η(6)-Benzene)(carbonato-κ(2) O,O')[di-cyclohex-yl(naphthalen-1-ylmeth-yl)phosphane-κP]ruthenium(II) chloro-form tris-olvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowrisankar, Saravanan; Neumann, Helfried; Spannenberg, Anke; Beller, Matthias

    2014-07-01

    The title compound, [Ru(CO3)(η(6)-C6H6){(C6H11)2P(CH2C10H7)}]·3CHCl3, was synthesized by carbonation of [RuCl2(η(6)-C6H6){(C6H11)2P(CH2C10H7)}] with NaHCO3 in methanol at room temperature. The Ru(II) atom is surrounded by a benzene ligand, a chelating carbonate group and a phosphane ligand in a piano-stool configuration. The crystal packing is consolidated by C-H⋯O and C-H⋯Cl hydrogen-bonding inter-actions between adjacent metal complexes and between the complexes and the solvent mol-ecules. The asymmetric unit contains one metal complex and three chloro-form solvent mol-ecules of which only one was modelled. The estimated diffraction contributions of the other two strongly disordered chloro-form solvent mol-ecules were substracted from the observed diffraction data using the SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. D65, 148-155]. PMID:25161531

  20. 水中三氯甲烷、四氯化碳的QHSS -40自动进样顶空气相色谱测定法%Determination of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride in water by automatic headspace gas chromatography

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    罗黎明

    2012-01-01

    目的 建立测定水中三氯甲烷和四氯化碳含量的全自动顶空气相色谱法.方法 利用全自动顶空进样技术,采用ECD检测器测定水中三氯甲烷和四氯化碳.结果 在测定条件下,方法的检出限三氯甲烷为0.06 μg/L,四氯化碳为0.03μg/L;三氯甲烷的RSD为1.7% ~2.5%,四氯化碳的RSD为1.5~2.8%;回收率三氯甲烷为101%~103%,四氯化碳为99.6% ~ 102%.结论 该方法简便、快速、具有较好的精密度与准确度,适用于水中三氯甲烷、四氯化碳测定.%[ Objective] To establish the method for determination of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride in water by automatic head-space gas chromatography. [ Methods ] Automated headspace sampling technology was adopted to detect chloroform and carbon tetrachloride in drinking water with ECD detector. [Results] Under the determination conditions, the detection limit was 0.03μg / L of chloroform and 0.06 μg/ L of carbon tetrachloride; RSD of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride was 1.7-2.5% andl.5-2. 8% , respectively; recoveries of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride were 101%-103% and 99. 6% ~ 102% , respectively. [ Conclusion] This method is simple, rapid, with good precision and accuracy, and suitable for determination of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride in drinking water.

  1. Spectrophotometric study of interaction of 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone with diaza-18-crown-6 and diaza-15-crown-5 in acetonitrile and chloroform solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasani, Masoumeh; Shamsipur, Mojtaba

    2005-03-01

    Interactions of diaza-18-crown-6 and diaza-15-crown-5, as electron donors, with 2,3-dichloro-5,6-dicyano-1,4-benzoquinone (DDQ), as an electron acceptor, have been investigated spectrophotometrically in acetonitrile and chloroform solutions. The results indicated immediate formation of an electron donor-electron acceptor complex DA: D+A ⇌fastKDA which is followed by two relatively slow consecutive reactions: DA⟶kDA⟶kProduct The pseudo-first-order rate constants for the formation of the ionic intermediate and the final product have been evaluated at various temperatures by computer fitting of the absorbance time data to appropriate equations. The formation constants of the resulting DA complexes have also been determined. The influences of both the azacrown's structure and the solvent properties on the formation of DA complexes and the rates of subsequent reactions are discussed.

  2. 3,10,14,21-Tetrakis(4-methoxyphenylpentacyclo[11.8.0.02,11.04,9.015,20]henicosa-1(21,2,4(9,5,7,10,13,15(20,16,18-decaen-12-one chloroform monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopinath

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C49H36O6·CHCl3, contains half an organic molecule, the complete molecule being generated by the operation of a crystallographic twofold rotation axis, and half a highly disordered chloroform molecule. The contribution to the diffraction pattern of the latter was removed using the program SQUEEZE in PLATON [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155]; the unit-cell characteristics take into account the presence of CHCl3. The dihedral angles between the planes of the naphthalene ring system and the methoxybenzene rings are 71.05 (7 (syn to the central C=O group and 57.27 (6° (anti to the central C=O group. In the crystal, molecules are linked by C—H...O interactions, generating C(12 chains running parallel to the b axis.

  3. Dynamic and kinematic viscosities, excess volumes and excess Gibbs energies of activation for viscous flow in the ternary mixture {1- propanol+ N,N-dimethylformamide + chloroform} at temperatures between 293.15 K and 323.15 K

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hassein-bey-Larouci, A., E-mail: hasseinbey@yahoo.fr [Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Modélisation Moléculaire, Faculté de Chimie, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, B.P. 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Igoujilen, O.; Aitkaci, A. [Laboratoire Thermodynamique et Modélisation Moléculaire, Faculté de Chimie, Université des Sciences et de la Technologie Houari Boumediene, B.P. 32, El-Alia, 16111 Bab-Ezzouar, Alger (Algeria); Segovia, J.J.; Villamañán, M.A. [TERMOCAL Research Group, Escuela de Ingenierías Industriales, Universidad de Valladolid, Paseo del Cauce, 59, 47011 Valladolid (Spain)

    2014-08-10

    Highlights: • Many engineering applications require quantitative thermodynamic data of the fluids. • Excess properties of mixtures are important in the understanding of mixing process. • The results are used to explain the molecular interaction in the mixtures. - Abstract: Dynamic and kinematic viscosities, and densities of the ternary mixture {x_1 propanol + x_2 DMF + x_3 chloroform} and of the three corresponding binary systems have been measured at 293.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The thermophysical properties, viscosity deviations (Δη), kinematic viscosity (γ), excess Gibbs energies of activation of viscous flow (G*{sup E}) and excess molar volumes (V{sup E}) have been calculated from experimental values of dynamic viscosity, η, and density, ρ. The different results have been correlated by the Redlich–Kister equation for the binary mixtures and the Cibulka equation for equation for the ternary ones.

  4. Yolk antibody were extracted in eggs by Chloroform methods, hydrolysis methods and carrageenan methods%氯仿法、水解法、卡拉胶法提取鸡蛋中卵黄抗体

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杨波; 霍乃蕊

    2013-01-01

    卵黄抗体(egg-yolk antibody,IgY)具有一些IgG所没有的优良特性,与哺乳动物的IgG相比,IgY的提取具有方法简单,提取率高且方法多样等优点.本文旨在对当前条件下卵黄抗体的提取方法进行比较.选取水溶法(Water Dilution,WD)、氯仿法(Chloroform,CHL)和卡拉胶法(Carrageenan,CAR)制备IgY,根据电泳结果,比较三种方法得率高低.SDS-PAGE结果表明,氯仿法的得率较其他两种方法高一些.

  5. Dynamic and kinematic viscosities, excess volumes and excess Gibbs energies of activation for viscous flow in the ternary mixture {1- propanol+ N,N-dimethylformamide + chloroform} at temperatures between 293.15 K and 323.15 K

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Many engineering applications require quantitative thermodynamic data of the fluids. • Excess properties of mixtures are important in the understanding of mixing process. • The results are used to explain the molecular interaction in the mixtures. - Abstract: Dynamic and kinematic viscosities, and densities of the ternary mixture {x1 propanol + x2 DMF + x3 chloroform} and of the three corresponding binary systems have been measured at 293.15, 303.15, 313.15 and 323.15 K and atmospheric pressure. The thermophysical properties, viscosity deviations (Δη), kinematic viscosity (γ), excess Gibbs energies of activation of viscous flow (G*E) and excess molar volumes (VE) have been calculated from experimental values of dynamic viscosity, η, and density, ρ. The different results have been correlated by the Redlich–Kister equation for the binary mixtures and the Cibulka equation for equation for the ternary ones

  6. Effects of Chloroform Extract of Echinacea Purpurea on the Mouse’s Mono-Macrophage System%紫锥菊提取物对小鼠单核巨噬细胞系统功能的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴江涛; 刘珂

    2001-01-01

    用昆明种小鼠进行碳粒廓清实验,观察烟台从加拿大引种的紫锥菊的氯仿提取物对小鼠单核巨噬细胞系统功能的影响.结果显示:该提取物在0.025,0.25,2.5,和22 μg/g四种剂量时,对正常昆明种小鼠的单核巨噬细胞系统功能都没有显著影响;在0.025 μg/g剂量时,对氢化可的松免疫抑制的昆明种小鼠的单核巨噬细胞系统功能有显著影响,可使该种小鼠下降了的碳粒廓清能力恢复到正常水平,这种作用与10 mg/g剂量的黄芪注射液的作用相当;但在0.25和 2.5 μg/g剂量时,对氢化可的松免疫抑制的昆明种小鼠的单核巨噬细胞系统功能没有显著影响.说明该引种的紫锥菊有可能成为我国的一种新的药用植物资源,其氯仿提取物有可能被开发成一种免疫恢复剂.%Carbon clearance test is carried out in Kunming mice to observe the effect of the chloroform extract of the Yantai-introduced-from-Canada-Echinacea purpurea on the function of mono-macrophage system. The results show that this extract has no significant effect on the function of the normal Kunming mice's mono-macrophage system at the dosages of 0.025, 0.25, 2.5 and 22 μg/g;at the dosage of 0.025 μg/g,it has a significant effect on the function of the hydrocortisone-immune-inhibited-Kunming mice's mono-macrophage system,it recovers the mice's reduced carbon clearance ability to the normal level and the effect is comparable to that of the Huang-Qi injection at the dosage of 10 mg/g; but at the dosages of 0.25 and 2.5 μg/g,it has no significant effect on the function of the hydrocortisone-immune-inhibited-Kunming mice's mono-macrophage system. The results imply that the introduced Echinacea purpurea may become a new medicinal plant resource of this country and the chloroform extract may be developed into an immune restorer.

  7. Genomic DNA extraction from whole blood stored from 15- to 30-years at -20 °C by rapid phenol-chloroform protocol: a useful tool for genetic epidemiology studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pietro, Fabio; Ortenzi, Francesco; Tilio, Martina; Concetti, Fabio; Napolioni, Valerio

    2011-02-01

    Long-term stored (LTS) whole blood collection can be an important source of DNA without collection costs, but there is a lack of information on methods useful to extract genomic DNA from such type of biological material. Here we report a simple and fast revisited phenol/chloroform extraction method from LTS whole blood. Protocol reliability was assessed by comparison with proteinase K and silica-gel membrane spin column-based DNA extraction methods using LTS -20 °C whole blood from 1980, and by testing it on 82 whole blood samples, collected from 1980 to 1995, with high quality (A(260/280) = 1.79 ± 0.32 O.D., A(260/230) = 1.45 ± 0.52 O.D.) and quantity results. Genotyping efficiency was also checked by performing RFLP-PCR and ASP-PCR of p53 Pro72Arg (rs1042522) SNP and hTERT MNS16A VNTR, respectively, resulting in 100% of samples successfully typed. In addition to the goodness and the efficiency of method proposed here, this protocol achieves working time reduction combining extraction and purification steps, allowing to work at room temperature. Furthermore, phenol is able to inactivate any potential nuclease and potential infective sources from the first step on. Based on these results we also conclude that LTS -20 °C whole blood samples may be considered a reliable and potential resource for future genotyping studies and retrospective analysis in a genetic epidemiological setting.

  8. Genomic DNA Isolation by Phenol/Chloroform Extracting Method from Sheep Blood Clot%酚/氯仿抽提法提取绵羊凝血块中基因组DNA

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹果清; 莫清珊; 陈凤仙

    2009-01-01

    [Objective] The aim was to establish the method of extracting genomic DNA from sheep blood clot on the basis of the improvement of method for extracting genomic DNA from tissues. [Method]The genomic DNA with complete primary structure and high purity was obtained from the sheep blood clot after the steps of cutting the sheep blood clot with ophthalmic scissors, cell lysis with tissue DNA extracts and digested by proteinase K, extracting with phenol/chloroform and precipitating with ethanol were performed. [Result]The concentration of the extracted DNA was 159.90±0.70 ng/μl and the ratio of the A260/A280 was 1.80+0.01. The sheep microsatellite locus of BM203 was amplified by using the extracted DNA from the sheep blood clot as template of PCR, and the PCR result was perfect. [Conclusion]This method is simple and feasible, the quantity and quality of the extracted DNA can satisfy the demands for the subsequent researches. It is worth to extending and using for reference.%[目的]对组织DNA提取方法进行改进,建立一种从绵羊凝血块中提取基因组DNA的方法.[方法]将绵羊凝血块用眼科剪剪碎,用组织DNA抽提液裂解细胞,用蛋白酶K消化后,经过酚/氯仿抽提,无水乙醇沉淀获得基因组DNA.用NanoDrop ND-1000微型分光光度计检测DNA浓度和纯度.用0.8%琼脂糖凝胶电泳检验基因组DNA的完整性.以绵羊微卫星位点BM203为扩增位点,分别以F:5′-GGGTGTGACATTTTGTTCCC-3′,R:5′-CTGCTCGCCACTAGTCCTTC-3′为上下游引物,进行PCR扩增试验.PCR产物用1.5%琼脂糖凝胶电泳检测.[结果]提取的DNA浓度为(159.90±0.70) ng/μl,A260/A280比值为1.80±0.01,分子完整,结果理想.以从凝血块中提取的DNA为模板,对绵羊BM203微卫星位点进行了PCR扩增,扩增产物条带整齐、明亮、特导性强,扩增效果好.[结论]该方法简单、实用,提取的DNA可满足后续相关研究对DNA质量的要求,值得推广借鉴.

  9. Effects of the Chloroform Extracts of Kochia Scoparia (L.) Schrad on Several Enzyme Systems in Tetran ychus Viennensis%地肤子活性成分对山楂叶螨酯酶同工酶的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张慧荣; 刘素琪; 王海香; 郝晓娟; 莫海波; 曹挥

    2011-01-01

    实验研究了地肤子活性成分KFCE-2处理后,山楂叶螨体内的酯酶同工酶的影响.从聚丙烯酰胺凝胶电泳结果来看,在处理组中,没有检测到新的其它酶带.并且其酯酶酶带E1、E2比对照组的颜色要浅,而且图谱面积小;而E3在处理的12 h后完全消失.酯酶同工酶电泳图谱经UVP2凝胶成像系统扫描分析,从强度变化上可以看出,E2、E3带的活性从处理的4 h(LANE-a')开始活性就在逐渐减弱,尤其是E3带的活性在处理的12 h后(LANE-c'就完全被抑制.此外,在迁移率的变化上,处理组E1、E2带的迁移率有逐渐增大的趋势;E3带的迁移率在能观察到的两个时间内,有减小的趋势.这表明KFCE-2可能通过抑制山楂叶螨体内的酯酶同工酶的活性,并且通过特异性的结合,改变部分酯酶的活性结构,来降低其解毒代谢.这也表明了地肤子作为新型植物源农药具有良好的开发前景.%The changes of the activities of the esterase isoenzyme in Tetranychus Viennensis treated with chloroform extract of Kochia Scoparia (KFCE-2) were tested. The results of the polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis (PAGE) indicated that new band was not found in mites treated with KFCE-2, and the colors of the esterase bands Ei and E2 were lighter than that of the control group and the area of the maps were smaller. The band of E3 disappeared completely when treated after 12 h. When the electropherograms of PAGE were analyzed used UVP2 gel imaging system, we found from the change of intensity that the activities of the E2 and E3 bands tended to be weak after treated 4 h ( LANE-a'), especially the activity of the band E3 which was entirely suppressed after 12 h (LANE-C). Besides, the migration rate of the E1 and E2 bands tended to be enlarged and that of the E3 band was gradually decreased in the treated groups. The result showed that KFCE-2 could reduce the antidote metabolism of Tetranychus Viennensis by restraining the activities

  10. Chloroform fumigation-extraction labile C pool (microbial biomass C "plus" shows high correlation to microbial biomass C in Argentinian and Brazilian soils Alta correlación entre el "pool" de carbono lábil por fumigación con cloroformo-extracción (carbono de biomasa microbiana plus y carbono de biomasa microbiana en suelos de Argentina y Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Helvécio De-Polli

    2007-07-01

    Full Text Available Chloroform fumigation-incubation and chloroform fumigation-extraction approaches have significantly contributed to assess soil microbial biomass. Some controversy is found in the literature about the suggestion to calculate microbial biomass carbon (MBC without the subtraction of the un-fumigated control, in opposition to the originally proposed method that requires such subtraction. Some authors consider the non-subtraction proceeding as a more robust method. Nevertheless, values obtained without subtraction of a control include other labile organic fractions of soil carbon besides microbial biomass. Therefore, due to the usefulness of this measurement we consider more appropriate to call it as chloroform-fumigation labile C pool or microbial biomass carbon "plus" (MBC PLUS. We used a vast series of data from soils of Argentina and Brazil under different management situations to verify whether MBC correlates to MBC PLUS. There was a significant statistical correlation between values of MBC obtained by fumigation-extraction method and the corresponding MBC PLUS. The MBC PLUS performed as well as MBC as an indicator to differentiate soil managements and their impact on soil quality.Los métodos de fumigación-incubación y fumigación extracción han contribuido significativamente a las determinaciones de biomasa microbiana del suelo. En la literatura se encuentran algunas controversias acerca de la sugerencia de calcular el carbono de biomasa microbiana (CBM sin la sustracción del control no fumigado, en oposición a las metodologías tradicionales que requieren de dicha sustracción. Algunos autores mencionan que el hecho de no realizar la sustracción hace al procedimiento más robusto. Sin embargo, los valores obtenidos sin la sustracción del control incluyen otras fracciones lábiles del carbono, además de la biomasa microbiana. Debido a lo útil que resulta esta medida consideramos adecuado llamarla "pool" de carbono lábil por fumigaci

  11. Chloroform and Carbon Tetrachloride Determination in Drinking Water with Headspace Capillary Column Gas Chromatography%顶空毛细管柱气相色谱法测定生活饮用水中的氯仿和四氯化碳

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    袁波; 徐文清

    2014-01-01

    本方法采用顶空气相色谱法,利用毛细管柱、μ-ECD微电子捕获检测器对饮用水中氯仿和四氯化碳残留量进行了检测分析,检出限分别为0.02和0.2μg/L,回收率90.4%~95.6%,本方法分析简便,容易操作。%Residue of chloroform and carbon tetrachloride in drinking water were measured by using headspace gas chromatography with capillary column or μ-ECD microelectronics capture detector. Detection limit was 0.02 and 0.2μg/L, respectively. Recovery was 90.4%-95.6%. This method was simple and sasy.

  12. Crystal structure of 6-(4-chlorophenyl-6a-nitro-6,6a,6b,7,9,11a-hexahydrospiro[chromeno[3′,4′:3,4]pyrrolo[1,2-c]thiazole-11,11′-indeno[1,2-b]quinoxaline] chloroform monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nithya Sivakumar

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C33H23ClN4O3S·CHCl3, the thiazole ring adopts an envelope conformation with the N atom as the flap, and the pyrrolidine ring adopts a half-chair conformation. The thiazole ring mean plane makes a dihedral angle of 59.31 (1° with the pyrrolidine ring mean plane, 71.67 (1° with the chromene ring and 82.59 (1° with the chlorobenzene ring. An intramolecular C—H...N hydrogen bond occurs. In the crystal, a second C—H...N hydrogen bond links the main and solvent molecules. The solvent chloroform molecule is disordered about two positions with an occupancy ratio of 0.508 (14:0.492 (14.

  13. (5-Methyl-pyrazine-2-carboxyl-ato-κ(2) N (1),O)bis-[2-(4-methyl-pyridin-2-yl-κN)-3,5-bis-(tri-fluoro-meth-yl)phenyl-κC (1)]iridium(III) chloro-form hemisolvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kim, Young-Inn; Song, Young-Kwang; Kang, Sung Kwon

    2014-02-01

    In the title complex, [Ir(C14H8F6N)2(C6H5N2O2)]·0.5CHCl3, the Ir(III) atom adopts a distorted octa-hedral geometry, being coordinated by three N atoms (arranged meridionally), two C atoms and one O atom of three bidentate ligands. The complex mol-ecules pack with no specific inter-molecular inter-actions between them. The SQUEEZE procedure in PLATON [Spek (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. D65, 148-155] was used to model a disordered chloro-form solvent mol-ecule; the calculated unit-cell data allow for the presence of half of this mol-ecule in the asymmetric unit. PMID:24764808

  14. Antinociceptive activities of crude methanolic extract and phases, n-butanolic, chloroformic and ethyl acetate from Caulerpa racemosa (Caulerpaceae Atividade antinociceptiva do extrato metanólico bruto e das fases n-butanólica, clorofórmica e acetato de etila de Caulerpa recemosa (Caulerpaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Everton T. Souza

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available In this study, we attempted to identify the possible antinociceptive actions of n-butanolic phase, chloroformic phase, ethyl acetate phase and crude methanolic extract obtained from Caulerpa racemosa. This seaweed is cosmopolitan in world, mainly in tropical regions. The n-butanolic, chloroformic, ethyl acetate phases and crude methanolic extract, all administered orally in the concentration of 100 mg/kg, reduced the nociception produced by acetic acid by 47.39%, 70.51%, 76.11% and 72.24%, respectively. In the hotplate test the chloroformic and ethyl acetate phase were activite in this models. In the neurogenic phase on formalin test, were observed that crude methanolic extract (51.77%, n-butanolic phase (35.12%, chloroformic phase (32.70% and indomethacin (32.06% were effective in inhibit the nociceptive response. In the inflammatory phase, only the ethyl acetate phase (75.43% and indomethacin (47.83% inhibited significantly the nociceptive response. Based on these data, we can infer that the ethyl acetate phase shows a significant anti-inflammatory profile, whose power has not yet been determined. However, pharmacological and chemical studies are continuing in order to characterize the mechanism(s responsible for the antinociceptive action and also to identify other active principles present in Caulerpa racemosa.Neste estudo, tentamos identificar a atividade antinociceptiva do extrato metanólico bruto e das fases n-butanólica, clorofórmica e acetato de etila provenientes da alga Caulerpa racemosa. Esta alga é cosmopolita no mundo, principalmente em regiões tropicais. O extrato metanólico bruto e as fases n-butanólica, clorofórmica e acetato de etila foram administrados por via oral, na concentração de 100 mg/kg. Estes foram capazes de reduzir a nocicepção produzida pelo ácido acético, sendo 47,39%, 70,51%, 76,11% e 72,24%, respectivamente. No ensaio da placa quente as fases clorofórmica e acetato de etila foram ativas neste

  15. 紫外光和光氧化剂对水中氯仿及 三氯乙烯和四氯乙烯的光降解作用%Photo-Degradation of Chloroform, Trichloroethylene and Tetrachloroethylene in Water by UV and Photo-Oxidants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周细红; 曾清如

    2001-01-01

    为了探明紫外光和光氧化剂对卤烃光降解的影响,以H2O2和H2O2/草酸铁络合物为光氧化剂,研究了紫外光对氯仿、三氯乙烯和四氯乙烯的降解.结果表明,紫外光、紫外光/H2O2体系能有效地加速水溶液中三氯乙烯和四氯乙烯的光降解,但不能降解氯仿;而紫外光/ H2O2/草酸铁或紫外光/草酸铁络合物体系能有效地使水溶液中氯仿、三氯乙烯和四氯乙烯烃迅速光解脱氯;溶液pH值对卤烃光解有显著影响,pH值为2.5~3.5时光解速率最快.随着H2O2质量浓度的增加,卤烃光解速率提高,但H2O2增大到一定质量浓度时,其脱氯量反而降低.%The photo-degradation of chloroform, trichloroethylene and tetrachloroethylene by H2O2 and H2O2-ferrioxalate complexes as photo-oxidants under irradiation of UV was compared. The results show that the photodegradation of two kinds of chloroethylene in aqueous solution by UV, UV/ H2O2 is very effective;the photodegradation of chloroform by the photo-oxidants is not obvious;the photodegradation of three kinds of chloronated hydrocarbons by UV/ H2O2 /ferrioxalate or UV/ferrioxalate complexes is very significant. pH has significant effects on the photo-degradation of halogenated hydrocarbons and the highest rate of photo-degradation happens at pH 2.5~3.5. The rate of photo-degradation of halogenated hydrocarbons increases with the rice of H2O2 concentration, but the amount of dechloridation decreases when the concentration of H2O2 reaches a certain level.

  16. 3,10,14,21-Tetra-kis(4-meth-oxy-phen-yl)penta-cyclo-[11.8.0.0(2,11).0(4,9).0(15,20)]henicosa-1(21),2,4(9),5,7,10,13,15(20),16,18-decaen-12-one chloro-form monosolvate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gopinath, S; Narayanan, P; Sethusankar, K; Nandakumar, Meganathan; Mohanakrishnan, Arasambattu K

    2014-08-01

    The asymmetric unit of the title compound, C49H36O6·CHCl3, contains half an organic mol-ecule, the complete mol-ecule being generated by the operation of a crystallographic twofold rotation axis, and half a highly disordered chloro-form mol-ecule. The contribution to the diffraction pattern of the latter was removed using the program SQUEEZE in PLATON [Spek (2009 ▶). Acta Cryst. D65, 148-155]; the unit-cell characteristics take into account the presence of CHCl3. The dihedral angles between the planes of the naphthalene ring system and the meth-oxy-benzene rings are 71.05 (7) (syn to the central C=O group) and 57.27 (6)° (anti to the central C=O group). In the crystal, mol-ecules are linked by C-H⋯O inter-actions, generating C(12) chains running parallel to the b axis. PMID:25249919

  17. Chloroform extraction of iodine in seawater: method development

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidler, H. B.; Glimme, A.; Tumey, S.; Guilderson, T. P.

    2012-12-01

    While 129I poses little to no radiological health hazard, the isotopic ratio of 129I to stable iodine is very useful as a nearly conservative tracer for ocean mixing processes. The unfortunate disaster at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant released many radioactive materials into the environment, including 129I. The release allows the studying of oceanic processes through the tracking of 129I. However, with such a low iodine (~0.5 micromolar) and 129I concentrations (research and worked towards maximum efficiency of the process while boosting the recovery of iodine. During development, we assessed each methodological change qualitatively using a color scale (I2 in CHCl3) and quantitatively using Inductively Coupled Plasma Mass Spectrometry (ICP-MS). The "optimized method" yielded a 20-40% increase in recovery of the iodine compared to the base method (80-85% recovery vs. 60%). Lastly, the "optimized method" was tested by AMS for fractionation of the extracted iodine.

  18. Determination of taurine in human plasma by high performance capillary electrophoresis after pre- column derivatization with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate%9-芴甲氧羰酰氯柱前衍生-高效毛细管电泳法测定人血浆中牛磺酸

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛勇; 薛丰; 孙成均

    2011-01-01

    A high performance capillary zone electrophoresis ( CZE ) method for the determination of taurine in plasma is presented in this paper. After removed protein in plasma with acetonitrile and centrifuged, taurine in supematant was derivatized with 9-fluorenylmethyl chloroformate (FMOC-Cl) at room temperature and dark place for 20 min in borate buffer (pH9. 5 ), the derivatized product was separated on a bare fused-silica capillary (50 μm I.D. , 50 cm of total length, and 41 cm effective length) using a 40 mmol/L sodium acetate buffer (pH 4. 6) at 22kV and detected at 265nm. Under the optimum condition, the determination time was within 9 min. The method showed a good linearity within the concentration range of 2. 5 ~40. 0 mg/L for taurine ( r =0. 9995 ) with a detection limit ( S/N = 3 ) of 0. 8 mg/L. The relative standard derivations (RSDs) of migration times and peak areas for determination of taurine standards were 0. 27% and 1.8%, respectively, and recoveries were between 90. 3% and 108. 0%. The method was used to measure taurine contents in plasma from 18 healthy persons and the taurine contents of 15.8 ± 3.2 μg/mL were found. The method was simple, rapid,accurate, sensitive and suitable for the determination of taurine in human plasma.%建立了区带毛细管电泳法快速测定人血浆中牛磺酸的方法.血浆样品经乙腈沉淀蛋白并离心后,上清液中牛磺酸与9-芴甲氧羰酰氯在室温及pH 9.5条件下避光反应20 min,生成具有紫外吸收的衍生产物,以40 mmol/L的乙酸钠(pH 4.6)为运行缓冲溶液,熔融石英毛细管为分离柱;分离电压22kV;紫外检测.实验结果表明:在优化的实验条件下,样品检测仅需9 min,牛磺酸质量浓度在2.5~40.0 μg/mL范围内具良好线性关系(r=0.9995),检出限为0.8 mg/L(S/N=3),迁移时间和峰面积RSD分别为0.27%和1.8%,加标回收率90.3%~108.0%.用本法测定18名健康成人血浆中的牛磺酸,均值为15.8±3.2μg/mL.

  19. 在饮水中典型溶解性有机氮酪氨酸氯化生成氯仿的机理分析%The Mechanism Analysis of Formation of Chloroform during Typical Dissolved Organic Nitrogen Tyrosine Chlorination in Drinking Water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    楚文海; 高乃云; 赵世嘏; 邓慧萍

    2009-01-01

    Chlorination disinfection of drinking water effectively prevents waterborne diseases, but results in unintended disinfection byproducts (DBPs) from the reactions between organic materials in water and disinfectants. As alanine (Ala), phenylalanine (Phe) and tyrosine (Tyr) exist in much source water, the chlorination characteristic of the three amino acids (AA) and the formation pathways for chloroform (CF) during chlorination of model Tyr were studied. Chlorine demand and CF yield of the important intermediate product 2,4,6-trichlorophenol (2,4,6-TCP) were also examined. The results indicated that chlorine demand and CF yield of Tyr were much higher than those of Ala and Phe based on the same chlorination conditions, which indicated that Tyr was an important precursor of CF. Based on the analysis of GC/MS and calculation of frontier electron densities (FED~2), the formation pathway of CF during chlorination of Tyr was proposed as Tyr→4-monochlorophenol (4-MCP) → 2,4-dichlorophenol (2,4-DCP) →2,4,6-TCP →CF. The yields of CF and 2,4,6-TCP could be reduced by switching chlorination to chloramination. However, the disinfec-tion performance of chloramination is inferior to chlorination. The removal of precursor (Tyr, etc.) before disinfection may be a more promising method to reduce the generation of CF.%饮用水氯化消毒可以有效杀灭细菌,但同时会产生危害人体健康的消毒副产物(DBP).DBP生成机理研究是有效控制DBP的前提.溶解性有机氮(DON)是DBP的重要前体物,选取典型DON-丙氨酸(Ala)、苯丙氨酸(Phe)和酪氨酸(Tyr作为氯仿(CF)等DBP的前体物,研究三种氨皋酸(AA)的耗氯量和CF产率;同时考察了Tyr氯化中间产物2,4,6-TCP的氯化特性和CF产率;采用GC/MS扫描和前线轨道理论验证,探讨了CF的主要生成路径.研究发现,在同等氯化反应条件下,由于侧链基团的不同,Tyr的耗氯量以及CF产率都明显高于Ala和Phe,从而说明Tyr确实是一种重要

  20. Antisecretory activity of methanol and chloroform extracts from aerial parts and flowers of Phytolacca icosandra L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Arturo Santos-López

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Las partes aéreas de Phytolacca icosandra L., (Phytolaccaceae, han sido usadas tradicionalmente en la medicina popular mexicana para tratar diarrea y como auxiliar para perder peso. El estudio tuvo como objetivo determinar la actividad antisecretora de P. icosandra usando el modelo de acumulación de fluido intestinal en ratas. Las hojas y flores secas y molidas fueron extraídas por maceración a temperatura ambiente con metanol y cloroformo (500 ml × dos veces. El disolvente fue evaporado con vacío para obtener el extracto crudo. El efecto antisecretor fue estudiado indirectamente sobre la secreción intestinal midiendo la acumulación de fluido en el intestino después de la administración oral del aceite de ricino en ratas (n = 5 por grupo. Las ratas fueron tratadas por vía intragástrica con los extractos, (300 mg/kg disueltos en 1mL de la solución de Tween 80 al 1 % en agua o el vehículo (solución de Tween 80 al 1 % en agua. Se utilizó Loperamida (2.5 mg/kg como fármaco antisecretor control. Después de una hora, los animales fueron sacrificados usando éter etílico y se removió el intestino delgado, la actividad antisecretora de los extractos fue medida en base a la secreción acumulada en las asas y expresada en porcentaje de inhibición. Los extractos obtenidos mostraron actividad antisecretora, el extracto clorofórmico de las partes aéreas y de las flores mostró 89.16 % y 58.3 % de inhibición, respectivamente el extracto metanólico de las flores y hojas demostró un 75 % y 41.66 % de inhibición, respectivamente. Los resultados del presente estudio proporcionan un soporte sobre el uso tradicional de Phytolacca icosandra L. en el control de la diarrea.

  1. Abiotic Degradation Rates for Carbon Tetrachloride: and Chloroform: Progress in FY 2008

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Amonette, James E.; Jeffers, Peter M.; Qafoku, Odeta; Russell, Colleen K.; Wietsma, Thomas W.; Truex, Michael J.

    2008-10-31

    This is a letter report summarizing work performed in FY2008 to determine the rates of carbon tetrachloride hydrolysis at temperatures close to actual groundwater temperatures. The report describes the project, the methodology, and the results obtained since the project's inception in FY2006. Measurements of hydrolysis rates in homogeneous solution have been completed for temperaturs of 70 C through 40 C, with additional data available at 30 C and 20 C. These results show no difference between the rates in deionized H2O and in filter-sterilized Hanford-Site groundwater. Moreover, the rates measured are 2-3 times slower than predicted from the open literature. Measurements of rates involving sterile suspensions of Hanford-Site sediment in Hanford-Site groundwater, however, show faster hydrolysis at temperatures below 40 C. Extrapolation of the current data available suggests a six-fold increase in rate would be expected at groundwater temperature of 16 C due to the presence of the sediment. This result translates into a 78-year half-life, rather than the 470-680 year half-life that would be predicted from rate determinations in homogeneous solution. The hydrolysis rate data at 20 C, in contrast to those at higher temperatures, are preliminary and have low statistical power. While significant (p < 0.05) differences between the heterogeneous and homogeneous systems are seen at 30 C, the results at 20 C are not statistically significant at this level due to limited data and the very slow nature of the reaction. More time is needed to collect data at these low temperatures to improve the statistical power of our observation. Given the critical need for hydrolysis rate data at temperatures relevant to groundwater systems, we have three recommendations for future work. First, we recommend a continuation of the sampling and analysis of the remaining long-term sealed-ampule experiments described in this report. These are primarily 20 C and 30 C experiments. The data at 20°C, which are most germane to the groundwater environment, will likely take two more years before they are complete. Second, due to the importance of heterogeneous effects, we recommend the continuation of sampling and analysis for a similar set of experiments looking at hydrolysis rates of CT and CF in contact with individual minerals (montmorillonite, kaolinite, albite, and muscovite) or Hanford-Site sediment, and, for CF, in homogeneous solutions. These experiments were set up under a separate project funded by a congressional earmark (EM-22) for which funding expired at the end of FY08. Third, we strongly recommend development of a 13C/12C isotope ratio mass spectrometry (IRMS) approach for determination of hydrolysis rates at groundwater temperatures and relevant CT and CF concentrations. The technique is sensitive enough that we expect to be able to shorten the time required for a rate-constant determination by 20-fold. Thus, a 5-year experiment conducted by the sealed-ampule approach could be shortened to 3 months by the IRMS approach. This sensitivity also would allow the IRMS technique to be used to follow hydrolysis rates at concentrations found in groundwater plumes at Hanford.

  2. Isotope Effects in the Reactions of Chloroform Isotopologues with Cl, OH and OD

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Elna Johanna Kristina; Johnson, Matthew Stanley; Nielsen, Claus J.

    2009-01-01

    The kinetic isotope effects in the reactions of CHCl3, CDCl3, and 13CHCl3 with Cl, OH, and OD radicals have been determined in relative rate experiments at 298 ( 1 K and atmospheric pressure monitored by long path FTIR spectroscopy. The spectra were analyzed using a nonlinear least-squares spectral......, respectively. The reaction rate coefficients of the two elementary vapor phase reactions including the 2H and 13C kinetic isotope effects were calculated using improved canonical variational theory with small curvature tunneling (ICVT/SCT) and the results compared with experimental data....

  3. TOXICITY OF CHLOROFORM BIOTRANSFORMATION TO METHANOGENIC BACTERIA. (R825549C053)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  4. Ingestion, inhalation, and dermal exposures to chloroform and trichloroethene from tap water.

    OpenAIRE

    Weisel, C P; Jo, W K

    1996-01-01

    Individuals are exposed to volatile compounds present in tap water by ingestion, inhalation, and dermal absorption. Traditional risk assessments for water often only consider ingestion exposure to toxic chemicals, even though showering has been shown to increase the body burden of certain chemicals due to inhalation exposure and dermal absorption. We collected and analyzed time-series samples of expired alveolar breath to evaluate changes in concentrations of volatile organic compounds being ...

  5. Acid-base interactions in microbial adhesion to hexadecane and chloroform

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bos, R; Busscher, HJ; Geertsema-Doornbusch, GI; Van Der Mei, HC; Mittal, KL

    2000-01-01

    Acid-base interactions play an important role in adhesion, including microbial adhesion to surfaces. Qualitatively acid-base interactions in microbial adhesion can be demonstrated by comparing adhesion to hexadecane (a negatively charged interface in aqueous solutions, unable to exert acid-base inte

  6. PRODUCT TOXICITY AND COMETABOLIC COMPETITIVE INHIBITION MODELING OF CHLOROFORM AND TRICHLOROETHYLENE BY METHANOTROPHIC RESTING CELLS. (R825689C041)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The perspectives, information and conclusions conveyed in research project abstracts, progress reports, final reports, journal abstracts and journal publications convey the viewpoints of the principal investigator and may not represent the views and policies of ORD and EPA. Concl...

  7. Quantification of carbon dioxide, methane, nitrous oxide, and chloroform emissions over Ireland from atmospheric observations at Mace Head

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Flux estimates of CO2, CH4, N2O and CHCl3 over Ireland are inferred from continuous atmospheric records of these species. We use radon-222 (222Rn) as a reference compound to estimate unknown sources of other species. The correlation between each species and 222Rn is calculated for a suite of diurnal events that have been selected in the Mace Head record over the period 1995-1997 to represent air masses exposed to sources over Ireland. We established data selection criteria based on 222Rn and 212Pb concentrations. We estimated flux densities of 12x103 kg CH4/km2/yr, 680 kg N2O/km2/yr and 20 kg CHCl3/km2/yr for CH4, N2O and CHCl3, respectively. We also inferred flux densities of 250x103 kg C/km2/yr for CO2 during wintertime, and of 760x103 kg C/km2/yr for CO2 during summer night-time. Our CH4 inferred flux compare well with the CORINAIR90 and CORNAIR94 inventories for Ireland. The N2O emission flux we inferred is close to the inventory value by CORINAIR90, but twice the inventory value by CORINAIR94 and EDGAR 2.0. This discrepancy may have been caused by the use of the revised 1996 IPCC guidelines for national greenhouse gas inventories in 1994, which include a new methodology for N2O emissions from agriculture. We carried out the first estimation of CHCl3 emission fluxes over Ireland. This estimation is 4 times larger than the CHCl3 emission fluxes measured close to the Mace Head station over peatlands. Our CHCl3 emission fluxes estimate is consistent with the interpretation of the same data by Ryall (personal communication, 2000), who obtained, using a Lagrangian atmospheric transport model, CHCl3 fluxes of 24±7 kg CHCl3/km2/yr. Our estimates of CO2 emission fluxes during summer night-time and wintertime are close to those estimated from inventories and to one biogeochemical model of heterotrophic respiration

  8. Optimized genomic DNA extraction by a modified organic phenol- chloroform method without using PCR for best results

    OpenAIRE

    Hamid Ali; Sadaf Jafar; Qurat-ul-Ain

    2016-01-01

    Background: The objective of the study was to design a cost effective, efficient and better protocol for genomic deoxyribonucleic acid (DNA) extraction. Methods: This was an experimental study, which is carried out ARID Research laboratory. The duration of study was four months from March 2015 to June 2015. White blood cells were used for extraction of DNA. Two procedures RBC lysis and extraction of DNA from the pellet was done. The goal was to obtain high quality and quantity DNA yield....

  9. The BUME method: a new rapid and simple chloroform-free method for total lipid extraction of animal tissue

    Science.gov (United States)

    Löfgren, Lars; Forsberg, Gun-Britt; Ståhlman, Marcus

    2016-06-01

    In this study we present a simple and rapid method for tissue lipid extraction. Snap-frozen tissue (15–150 mg) is collected in 2 ml homogenization tubes. 500 μl BUME mixture (butanol:methanol [3:1]) is added and automated homogenization of up to 24 frozen samples at a time in less than 60 seconds is performed, followed by a 5-minute single-phase extraction. After the addition of 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1) and 500 μl 1% acetic acid a 5-minute two-phase extraction is performed. Lipids are recovered from the upper phase by automated liquid handling using a standard 96-tip robot. A second two-phase extraction is performed using 500 μl heptane:ethyl acetate (3:1). Validation of the method showed that the extraction recoveries for the investigated lipids, which included sterols, glycerolipids, glycerophospholipids and sphingolipids were similar or better than for the Folch method. We also applied the method for lipid extraction of liver and heart and compared the lipid species profiles with profiles generated after Folch and MTBE extraction. We conclude that the BUME method is superior to the Folch method in terms of simplicity, through-put, automation, solvent consumption, economy, health and environment yet delivering lipid recoveries fully comparable to or better than the Folch method.

  10. Chlorido(pyridine-κN(5,10,15,20-tetraphenylporphyrinato-κ4Ncobalt(III chloroform hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yassin Belghith

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [CoCl(C44H28N4(C5H5N]·0.5CHCl3 or [CoIII(TPPCl(py]·0.5CHCl3 (where TPP is the dianion of tetraphenylporphyrin and py is pyridine, the average equatorial cobalt–pyrrole N atom bond length (Co—Np is 1.958 (7 Å and the axial Co—Cl and Co—Npy distances are 2.2339 (6 and 1.9898 (17 Å, respectively. The tetraphenylporphyrinate dianion exhibits an important nonplanar conformation with major ruffling and saddling distortions. In the crystal, molecules are linked via weak C—H...π interactions. In the difference Fourier map, a region of highly disordered electron density was estimated using the SQUEEZE routine [PLATON; Spek (2009, Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155] to be equivalent to one half-molecule of CHCl3 per molecule of the complex.

  11. Spectrophotometric determination of arsenic by molybdenum blue method in zinc-lead concentrates and related smelter products after chloroform extraction of iodide complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rao, C S; Rajan, S C; Rao, N V

    1993-05-01

    The most popular and widely applied method for determination of arsenic in ore concentrates is by spectrophotometry of arsenomolybdic acid reduced to molybdenum blue. While applying this method, several authors have developed procedures which varied in the decomposition, separation of arsenic and in the final colour development. Data regarding interference from germanium is inadequate. The present paper describes a procedure, which combines the best features of the previous procedures and is simple, less time consuming and interference-free compared to earlier procedures. This method has been applied to zinc-lead concentrates and related smelter products. PMID:18965681

  12. Determination of intermolecular force in the chloroform aqueous solution%氯仿水溶液中分子间力的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    夏太国

    2006-01-01

    提出了测量氯仿水溶液中分子间力的新方法.通过把化学平衡的原理应用到相平衡中来进行讨论,用顶空色谱法测出6个温度点的亨利常数来进行计算,试验平均相对误差2.6%.

  13. Using design of experiments to optimize derivatization with methyl chloroformate for quantitative analysis of aqueous phase from hydrothermal liquefaction of biomass

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Madsen, René Bjerregaard; Jensen, Mads Mørk; Mørup, Anders;

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal liquefaction is a promising technique for the production of bio-oil. The process produces an oil phase, a gas phase, a solid residue, and an aqueous phase. Gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry is used to analyze the complex aqueous phase. Especially small organic acids a...

  14. 槲树叶氯仿提取部位化学成分的研究%Study of the Chemical Ingredients of Live Oak Chloroform Extraction Parts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢军; 芦霜

    2013-01-01

    目的:槲树(Quercus dentata Thunb.)为壳斗科(Fagaceae)栎属(Quercus L.)植物,为落叶乔木,别名大叶菠萝.在我国分布有大约100余种,主产中国北部地区,以河南、河北、山东、山西等省山地多见.辽宁、陕西、湖南、四川等省也有分布.某些品种作为民间中草药被广泛应用,并且有着悠久的药用历史,主要用于治疗痢疾、恶疮、淋证等症.槲叶、槲皮、槲实仁均可作为药用.国内科研工作者已将槲树叶开发成治疗泌尿系统结石的新药.实验利用硅胶柱色谱法,从槲树叶中分离1种化合物,β-谷甾醇.方法:采用大孔树脂、硅胶,经理化常数、光谱学方法鉴定结构.结果:分离得到β-谷甾醇.%Objective: Live oak ( Quercus dentata Thunb. ) for Fagaceae (Fagaceae) of oak (QuercusL. ) plants, for deciduous trees, alias big leaf pineapple. In our country s distribution about more than 100 species, mainly produced in northern China, henan, hebei, shandong, shanxi provinces mountain see more. Liaoning, shanxi, hunan, sichuan provinces have distribution. Some varieties as folk Chinese herbal medicine is widely used, and has a long medicinal history. It is mainly used to treat dysentery, evil boils, stranguria wait for disease. Live oak, it skin, it can be used as a real kernel are medicinal. Domestic scientific research workers have live oak developed into treatment of urinary tract stones of the new drug. This experiment using silica gel column chromatography, from live oak separation 1 kind of compound, beta sitosterol. Methods:using macroporous resin, silica gel, the manager change constant, spectroscopy method appraisal structure. Results: separation get beta sitosterol.

  15. Crystal structures of tris[1-oxopyridine-2-olato(1−]silicon(IV chloride chloroform-d1 disolvate, tris[1-oxopyridine-2-olato(1−]silicon(IV chloride acetonitrile unquantified solvate, and fac-tris[1-oxopyridine-2-thiolato(1−]silicon(IV chloride chloroform-d1 disolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bradley M. Kraft

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available The cations in the title salts, [Si(OPO3]Cl·2CDCl3, (I, [Si(OPO3]Cl·xCH3CN, (II, and fac-[Si(OPTO3]Cl·2CDCl3, (III (OPO = 1-oxo-2-pyridinone, C5H4NO2, and OPTO = 1-oxo-2-pyridinethione, C5H4NOS, have distorted octahedral coordination spheres. The first two structures contain the same cation and anion, but different solvents of crystallization led to different solvates and packing arrangements. In structures (I and (III, the silicon complex cations and chloride anions are well separated, while in (II, there are two C—H...Cl distances that fall just within the sum of the van der Waals radii of the C and Cl atoms. The pyridine portions of the OPO ligands in (I and (II are modeled as disordered with the planar flips of themselves [(I: 0.574 (15:0.426 (15, 0.696 (15:0.304 (15, and 0.621 (15:0.379 (15; (II: 0.555 (13:0.445 (13, 0.604 (14:0.396 (14 and 0.611 (13:0.389 (13], demonstrating that both fac and mer isomers are co-crystallized. In (II, highly disordered solvent, located in two independent channels along [100], was unable to be modeled. Reflection contributions from this solvent were fixed and added to the calculated structure factors using the SQUEEZE [Spek (2015. Acta Cryst. C71, 9–18] function of program PLATON, which determined there to be 54 electrons in 225 Å3 accounted for per unit cell (25 electrons in 109 Å3 in one channel, and 29 electrons in 115 Å3 in the other. In (I and (II, all species lie on general positions. In (III, all species are located along crystallographic threefold axes.

  16. 5-Methylspiro[indoline-3,7′-[6H,7H,8H]pyrano[3,2-c:5,6-c′]di[1]benzopyran]-2,6′,8′-trione chloroform hemisolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdulrahman I. Almansour

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound, C27H15NO6·0.5CHCl3, the central pyran ring and both the benzopyran systems are planar, with the dihedral angle between the outer rings being 3.24 (6°. The indolin-2-one system is in a perpendicular configuration with respect to the pyran ring [dihedral angle = 87.58 (2°]. Supramolecular layers in the ac plane are formed in the crystal structure whereby inversion-related molecules are connected by N—H...O hydrogen bonds. These are further linked by C—H...O interactions, forming a supramolecular layer in the ac plane. Disordered CHCl3 solvent in the structure was modelled with the SQUEEZE routine in PLATON [Spek (2009. Acta Cryst. D65, 148–155].

  17. 印楝油氯仿提取物对雄性小鼠的抗生育作用%The Anti-Fertility Effect of Extract Chloroform from Neem Oil on Male Mice

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    殷中琼; 贾仁勇; 陈章宝; 田茂春; 张新申

    2005-01-01

    给昆明种雄性小鼠口服印楝油氯仿提取物2 g·kg-1 d-1,连续1周,停药后第3周取材,研究了其抗生育作用.结果表明小鼠口服印楝油氯仿提取物后抗生育作用肯定;半数致死量为33 g·kg-1;血清中转氨酶的活性在停药后的1~3个月升高,停药后的4~6个月基本恢复至正常,血清中睾丸酮含量在服药前后,无明显改变;流式细胞术研究结果表明:印楝油氯仿提取物引起睾丸组织生精细胞减少,细胞凋亡率升高;对变态期精子细胞核蛋白转换的影响表现为总碱性核蛋白含量减少47.11%,总组蛋白/精核蛋白比值升高82.25%.研究表明,印楝油氯仿提取物有较好的抗生育作用,其作用机制主要是干扰精子核蛋白的转换,另外还可能与细胞免疫介导有关,对于控制鼠害有一定的意义.

  18. ON THE EFFECTIVENESS OF IMPROVED SALTING OUT METHOD AND PHENOL-CHLOROFORM ONE FOR EXTRACTION OF GENOME DNA%用改良的盐洗法与酚-氯仿法提取基因组DNA效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡敬富; 周淑华; 韩兆东; 魏义花

    2004-01-01

    目的:探索更为安全可靠的基因组DNA提取方法.方法:采用改良盐洗法提取人外周血白细胞基因组DNA,与传统的酚-氯仿抽提法在提取效果、DNA纯度等方面加以比较.结果:通过对15份不同静脉血标本与酚-氯仿抽提法同步对比研究显示:改良盐洗法提取模板DNA无污染、无害,所提DNA质量好、纯度高,达到酚-氯仿抽提法所获DNA的水平;操作简单、快速,方法稳定可靠,无一例失败.结论:该方法提取的DNA可用于实验以及临床上DNA分型等研究.

  19. DETERMINATION OF HENRY'S LAW CONSTANT AND EFFECT OF TEMPERATURE ON HENRY′S LAW CONSTANT FOR CHLOROFORM%饮用水中三氯甲烷亨利常数的测定

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王永华; 王保强

    2001-01-01

    推导了改变气液相比静态顶空气相色谱法测定挥发性有机污染物亨利常数的理论关系式.根据顶空气相色谱峰面积倒数与气液相比之间的线性关系测定了不同温度下的氯仿亨利常数值.从热力学定律出发,提出了在22-100℃范围内,温度对亨利常数影响的数学关系式:lnK=A+B/T+ClnT,对实验值的拟合系数为0.999.预测100℃时氯仿的亨利常数值是1.359.与实验值比较,相对误差为2.89%.比经典的范特荷夫方程lnK=A+B/T的预测精度提高了近10%.

  20. Chelex-100法及酚氯仿法提取阴道毛滴虫DNA的比较%A Comparative Study of Chelex-100 and Phenol-chloroform Methods for Extracting DNA from Trichomonas vaginalis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    谢辉; 王雅静; 帖超男; 廖琳; 刘佩娜

    2004-01-01

    目的-比较Chelex-100法和酚氯仿法提取阴道毛滴虫基因组DNA.方法-分别用Chelex-100法和酚氯仿法提取阴道毛滴虫基因组DNA,用PCR法检测DNA提取的有效性. 结果-两种方法提取的DNA经PCR扩增均有特定的条带.结论-两种方法均能提取阴道毛滴虫DNA.Chelex-100方法简便、省时,较适用于分子生物学研究及临床PCR扩增使用.

  1. 印楝油氯仿提取物杀螨活性成分的分离纯化及其生物学活性%Purification and biological activities of an acaricidal active compound from chloroform extract of neem oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    贾仁勇; 杜永华; 殷中琼; 蒲中慧; 陈娇

    2008-01-01

    将印楝油氯仿提取物经硅胶柱层析和丙酮重结晶进行生物活性跟踪分离纯化,并运用互补重对数模型(CCL模型)分析活性化合物的离体生物活性,求出半数致死浓度(LC50)和半数致死时间(LT50).结果显示,从印楝油氯仿提取物中分离出一种白色雪花状丙酮结晶物,熔点为60~61℃,经结构鉴定为18-碳酸-3,4-呋喃二酯,其对兔疥螨幼虫的杀螨活性呈时间浓度依赖性,24 h的LC50和LC90分别为0.0818和9.842 4 g/L,7.500 g/L时的LT50和LT90分剐为15.332 4 h和24.678 4 h.这表明印楝油氯仿提取物的杀螨活性成分主要为酯类物质,对兔疥螨具有较强的杀螨活性.

  2. 4.DISEASE CAUSED BY CHEMICAL AND PHYSICAL AGENTS

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    1993-01-01

    930626 Studies on the toxicities and occupational ex-posure limit of chloroform.LI Linghong,etal.Dept Occupat Health,Shanghai Med Univ,Shang-hai,200032.Chin J Industr Hyg & Occupat Dis 1993;11(4):206—208.In order to get necessary data to recommend themaximum acceptable concentration(MAC)of chloro-form, a series of studies were carried out.The resultsshowed that the occupationally exposure of chloroform

  3. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES

    OpenAIRE

    Srinivasa U; Amrutia Jay N; Katharotiya Reena; Moses Semuel Rajan

    2011-01-01

    Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of leaves of Moringa oleifera were screened for various bioactive constituents like glycosides, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids and alkaloids. The chloroform and methanol extracts were evaluated for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheritima postuma using Piperazine citrate and Rajah Pravartani Vati (Ayurvedic preparation) as a reference standards. The results obtained indicated that the chloroform ex...

  4. 21 CFR 177.1390 - Laminate structures for use at temperatures of 250 °F and above.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... entitled “Determination of Non-Volatile Chloroform Soluble Residues in Retort Pouch Water Extracts,” which... Non-volatile Chloroform Soluble Residues in Retort Pouch Water Extracts,” which is incorporated by... Chloroform Soluble Residues in Retort Pouch Water Extracts,” which is incorporated by reference....

  5. Chromatographic study of gamma-ray irradiated degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbon in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbon in gamma ray irradiation was examined in order to get information on treatment of groundwater. Water chloroform was sealed into a vial irradiated with gamma ray. Both gas chromatography and ion chromatography were applied for determination of degradation products. Carbon dioxide, carbon monoxide, methane, ethane and chloride ion were detected in the irradiated system. Effect of radiation dose on the gamma ray induced chloroform degradation was investigated. The elimination of chloride ion and the degradation of chloroform were promoted by gamma irradiation in a dose-dependent manner. The G(CHCl3), which was defined as the number of degraded chloroform molecules when absorbed 100eV, was inferred to be 3.1. The degradation mechanism of chloroform irradiated with gamma ray seemed to involve that chloroform reacted with electron from radiolysis of water and the elimination of chloride ion occurred. (author)

  6. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF MORINGA OLEIFERA LEAVES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Srinivasa U

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts of leaves of Moringa oleifera were screened for various bioactive constituents like glycosides, carbohydrates, tannins, flavonoids, triterpenoids and alkaloids. The chloroform and methanol extracts were evaluated for anthelmintic activity on adult Indian earthworms Pheritima postuma using Piperazine citrate and Rajah Pravartani Vati (Ayurvedic preparation as a reference standards. The results obtained indicated that the chloroform extract was more potent compared to other extracts.

  7. Modeling of RO/NF membrane rejections of PhACs and organic compounds: a statistical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yangali-Quintanilla, V.; Kim, T.-U.; Kennedy, M.; Amy, G.

    2008-01-01

    Rejections of pharmaceutical compounds (Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Clofibric acid, Naproxen, Primidone, Phenacetin) and organic compounds (Dichloroacetic acid, Trichloroacetic acid, Chloroform, Bromoform, Trichloroethene, Perchloroethene, Carbontetrachloride, Carbontetrabromide) by NF (Filmtec, Saehan)

  8. Analytical Method Details (MS): SE19_MS1 [Metabolonote[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available om temperature. Each phase separation was achieved by adding 2 mL chloroform and 2 mL water. After vortexing...ed in chloroform / methanol (2:1) at a concentration of 10 ug (tissue weight) /uL. LC conditions Reverse-phased LC separation

  9. Dipping induced orientation in Langmuir-Blodgett multilayers of a flexible PPV precursor polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagting, J.G; Vorenkamp, E.J.; Schouten, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Langmuir monolayers of a chloroform soluble dimethoxy substituted precursor poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) with a methoxy leaving group were studied. During storage in chloroform the precursor polymer is partly converted to PPV. Multilayer films could only be prepared of this partly converted p

  10. Dipping induced orientation in Langmuir–Blodgett multilayers of a flexible PPV precursor polymer

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hagting, J.G.; Vorenkamp, E.J.; Schouten, A.J.

    1998-01-01

    The Langmuir monolayers of a chloroform soluble dimethoxy substituted precursor poly(p-phenylenevinylene) (PPV) with a methoxy leaving group were studied. During storage in chloroform the precursor polymer is partly converted to PPV. Multilayer films could only be prepared of this partly converted p

  11. Larvicidal activity of crude extracts from Larrea cuneifolia (Zygophyllaceae) and of its metabolite nordihydroguaiaretic acid against the vector Culex quinquefasciatus (Diptera: Culicidae)

    OpenAIRE

    Gonzalo Batallán; Romina Torre; Fernando Flores; Brenda Konigheim; Francisco Ludueña-Almeida; Carlos Tonn; Marta Contigiani; Walter Almirón

    2013-01-01

    INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to analyze the larvicidal activity of different crude extracts of Larrea cuneifolia and its most abundant lignan, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA), against Culex quinquefasciatus. METHODS: Chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts from L. cuneifolia and NDGA were tested against larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. RESULTS: The chloroform extract showed the highest larvicidal ef...

  12. Antimicrobial, antimycobacterial and antibiofilm properties of Couroupita guianensis Aubl. fruit extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al-Dhabi Naif Abdullah

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Couroupita guianensis Aubl. (Lecythidaceae is commonly called Ayahuma and the Cannonball tree. It is distributed in the tropical regions of northern South America and Southern Caribbean. It has several medicinal properties. It is used to treat hypertension, tumours, pain, inflammatory processes, cold, stomach ache, skin diseases, malaria, wounds and toothache. Methods The fruits of Couroupita guianensis were extracted with chloroform. Antimicrobial, antimycobacterial and antibiofilm forming activities of the chloroform extract were investigated. Quantitative estimation of Indirubin, one of the major constituent, was identified by HPLC. Results Chloroform extract showed good antimicrobial and antibiofilm forming activities; however it showed low antimycobacterial activity. The zones of inhibition by chloroform extract ranged from 0 to 26 mm. Chloroform extract showed effective antibiofilm activity against Pseudomonas aeruginosa starting from 2 mg/mL BIC, with 52% inhibition of biofilm formation. When the chloroform extract was subjected to HPLC-DAD analysis, along with Indirubin standard, in the same chromatographic conditions, it was found that Indirubin was one of the major compounds in this plant (0.0918% dry weight basis. Conclusions The chloroform extract showed good antimicrobial and antibiofilm properties. Chloroform extract can be evaluated further in drug development programmes.

  13. Structure elucidation of β-sitosterol with antibacterial activity from the root bark of Malva parviflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ododo, Mesfin Medihin; Choudhury, Manash Kumar; Dekebo, Ahmed Hussen

    2016-01-01

    The powder of root bark of Malva parviflora (Malvaceae) was successively extracted with petroleum ether (b.p. 60-80 °C), chloroform and ethanol. The chloroform extract showed antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus and Escherichia coli, whereas the ethanolic extract showed antibacterial activity against only S. aureus. The chloroform extract, after column chromatographic separation on silica gel using petroleum ether:chloroform (3:1) as eluent, furnished 98 mg of white crystalline compound. The yield of the compound is 0.316 % (w/w). The compound has a melting point of 134-136 °C and the Rf value 0.56 in benzene:chloroform:acetone (1:15:1) on silica gel TLC. The compound was characterized as β-sitosterol by physical properties, chemical test, spectral analysis (FTIR, NMR and MS) and comparing the data obtained from the literature.

  14. EFFICIENCY OF DOMESTIC REVERSE OSMOSIS IN REMOVAL OF TRIHALOMETHANES FROM DRINKING WATER

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Mazloomi ، R. Nabizadeh ، S. Nasseri ، K. Naddafi ، S. Nazmara ، A. H. Mahvi

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of disinfectants with natural organic matters existing in water lead to the formation of Disinfection By-Products. Potentially hazardous and carcinogenic characteristics of trihalomethanes (THMs are recognized. Thus removal of THMs or its precursors are necessary for human health. The aim of this study was to study the efficiency of domestic reverse osmosis (RO in removal of trihalomethanes from drinking water. A pilot scale of RO system with Polyamide membrane as Spiral-Wound, Tape wrapping module was used. Feed solution was made by using of pure chloroform. The samples containing chloroform were analyzed using a gas chromatograph equipped with a flame ionization detector. By increasing the flow, the removal rate of chloroform decreased and with declining removal of EC, the removal of chloroform declined too. In this research, at the worst condition, the efficiency of the pilot scale reverse osmosis reached to 80 % removal of chloroform.

  15. Characterization of the isolated wetting crude oil components with infrared spectroscopy

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Akhlaq, Mohammed Shahid [German Petroleum Institute, Walther-Nernst-Str. 7, D-38678 Clausthal-Zellerfeld (Germany)

    1999-02-01

    To improve the understanding of wettability, especially the influence of different crude oil colloids, wetting experiments on quartz sand and kaolin were performed with an asphaltene rich oil. A two-step procedure was developed to investigate the wetting behavior. In the first step, those crude oil components were extracted, which preferentially wet solid surfaces. The extracted crude oil components were characterized in a second step. The composition of the fractions extracted with different solvents are different. The acetone fractions extracted from quartz sand are rich in compounds containing nitrogen, whereas the compounds containing sulphur predominate in the chloroform fraction extracted from quartz sand. IR spectroscopy of the extracted fractions shows that carbonyl compounds are abundant in the methanol/chloroform and acetone/chloroform fractions extracted from quartz sand. The chloroform fraction is poor in carbonyl group-containing compounds. In agreement with elemental analysis, a strong signal for C-N groups in the IR spectra is found for acetone/chloroform and methanol/chloroform fractions, extracted from the quartz sand system. On the other hand, a significant, strong IR-peak representing S=O containing components is observed in the acetone and acetone/chloroform fractions, extracted from quartz sand

  16. Chromatographic finger print analysis and lysosomal membrane stabilisation activity of active fraction of Alstonia scholaris leaf extract in arthritic rats

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Swapnil Goyal

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Object: The present study was aimed to assess the anti-arthritic activity of chloroform fraction of Alstonia scholaris leaf extract against Freund′s complete adjuvant (FCA-induced arthritis in rats. Materials and Methods: The anti-inflammatory activity of various fractions of ethanolic extract of Alstonia scholaris at concentration of 100 mg/kg was studied using the carrageenan-induced inflammatory models. The chloroform fraction shows significant anti-inflammatory activity. The chloroform fraction was further studied for anti-arthritic activity and HPTLC fingerprint analysis. For anti-arthritic activity, the active chloroform fraction was administered at the concentrations of 50 and 100 mg/kg body weight. The effect of chloroform fraction on liver ALP, ACP and LDH levels of lysosomal enzymes of FCA arthritic animals were studied. Indomethacin and prednisolone (10 mg/kg was used as standard. HPTLC studies were carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with linomat IV applicator, TLC scanner; Reprostar 3 and WIN CATS-4 software were used. Results: The chloroform fraction at 100 mg/kg, showed maximum inhibition (34.16% of inflammation induced by carrageenan. In FCA-induced arthritis, the chloroform fraction showed a highly significant reduction in paw volume (50 mg/kg-72.71%; 100 mg/kg-74.35%. The levels of lysosomal enzymes were significantly decreased in the chloroform fraction-treated groups. Conclusion: The possible mechanism of action of the chloroform fraction of Alstonia scholaris leaf extract may be through its stabilising action on lysosomal membranes. Future studies will provide new insights into the anti-arthritic activity of Alstonia scholaris and isolation of compound from it may eventually lead to development of a new class of anti-arthritic agent.

  17. Bioassay-guided isolation and identification of an antibacterial compound from Ferula persica var. persica roots

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ahmad-Reza Shahverdi

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial activities of the chloroform and water extracts of Ferula persica var. persica (Apiaceaeroots were studied by the disk diffusion method. While the chloroform extract of F. persica roots showed antibacterial activity, the water extract of the roots at the concentrations that tested did not show any activity. By bioassay-guided fractionation of the chloroform extract of the roots by preparative thin layer chromatography (PTLC a compound was found which was active against some bacteria. By conventional spectroscopy methods the active fraction was identified as umbelliprenin. This coumarin was mostly active against B. subtillis, B. cereus, E. coli, K. ponumoniae, S. typhi, S. aureus, and S. epidermilis.

  18. Zinc separation by using a liquid membrane

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have performed the isotopic separation of 64Zn and 66Zn by using a liquid membrane with chloroform diluent and dicyclohexano - 18 - crown - 6 as carrier. The isotopic separation factor was the same as for liquid-liquid extraction

  19. Solvent Effects on Cesium Complexation with Crown Ethers from Liquid to Supercritical Fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) techniques were used to study crown ether-water interactions in solvents of low dielectric constants such as chloroform and carbon tetrachloride. Water forms a 1:1 complex with a number of crown ethers including 12-crown-4, 15-crown-5, 18-crown-6, dicyclohexano-18=crown-6, dicyclohexano-24-crown 8, and dibenzl-24-crown-8 in chloroform. Among these crown ethers, the 18-crown-6-H2 complex has the largest equilibrium constant (K=545) and 97% of the crown is complexed to water in chloroform. Addition of carbon tetrachloride to chloroform lowers the equilibrium constants of the crown-water complexes. The partition coefficients of crown ethers (D=crown in water/crown in solvent) between water and organic solvent also vary with solvent composition

  20. Chemical examination of the Red alga Acanthophora spicifera

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Wahidullah, S.; Kamat, S.Y.

    Analyses of petroleum ether and chloroform extracts of the marine alga Acanthophora spicifera exhibiting antifertility activity led to the isolation of sterols and fatty acids as well as the rare dipeptides aurantiamides. All the compounds were...

  1. Synthesis and herbicidal activities of pyridyl sulfonylureas:More convenient preparation process of phenyl pyrimidylcarbamates

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ning Ma; Zhi Jin Fan; Bao Lei Wang; Yong Hong Li; Zheng Ming Li

    2008-01-01

    Four 4-monosubstituted pyrimidine pyridyl sulfonylureas were synthesized from pyridinesulfonamide and phenyl pyrimidyl-carbamate and screened for herbicidal activities.We also reported a convenient preparation process of phenyl pyrimidylcarbamates from pyrimidineamine and phenyl chloroformate.

  2. Glycolipids from the red alga Chondria armata (Kutz.) Okamura

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Al-Fadhli, A.; Wahidullah, S.; DeSouza, L.

    Three distinct fractions containing polar glycolipids (PF1–3) were isolated from the chloroform soluble fraction of crude methanolic extract of red alga Chondria armata (Kütz.) Okamura on gel chromatography over Sephadex LH20. Their structure...

  3. REMOVAL OF SYNTHETIC ORGANIC CHEMICAL CONTAMINANTS IN DRINKING WATER: RASCO, INC. ADVANCED SIMULTANEOUS OXIDATION PROCESS (ASOP)

    Science.gov (United States)

    The RASco, Inc. ASOP Drinking Water Treatment Module was tested at NSF’s Laboratory for the reduction of the following chemicals of concern: aldicarb, benzene, carbofuran, chloroform, dichlorvos, dicrotophos, methomyl, mevinphos, nicotine, oxamyl, paraquat, phorate, sodium fluor...

  4. Effect of solvent on dynamic range and sensitivity in pneumatically-assisted electrospray (ion spray) mass spectrometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Kostiainen, R; Bruins, AP

    1996-01-01

    Mass-analyzed detector signal and spray current have been measured in pneumatically-assisted electrospray mass spectrometry. The sample was tetrabutylammonium bromide dissolved in water, methanol, acetonitrile, chloroform, dichloromethane or toluene. At low sample concentrations (less than or equal

  5. BIOVENTING OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS FOR GROUND-WATER CLEANUP THROUGH BIOREMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorinated solvents such as tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane, and dichloromethane (methylene chloride) can exist in contaminated subsurface material as (1) the neat oil, (2) a component of a mixed oily waste, (3) a solu...

  6. Phototoxicity activity of Psoralea drupacea L. using Atremia salina bioassay system

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad Ramezani

    2011-07-01

    Conclusion: The result showed that P. drupacea methanolic extract and chloroform fraction have phototoxicity in A. salina bioassay system and their toxic effect is related to phototoxic constituents such as psoralen.

  7. Bepaling van valproinezuur in humaan plasma

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olling; M.; Besamusca; P.; Rauws; A.G.

    1985-01-01

    In dit rapport wordt een gaschromatografische methode beschreven voor de bepaling van valproinezuur (dipropylazijnzuur) in humaan plasma. Valproinezuur wordt uit plasma geextraheerd met chloroform in zuur milieu, dat direct wordt ingespoten in de gaschromatograaf en gedecteerd met een vlamionisa

  8. Prediction of RO/NF membrane rejections of PhACs and organic compounds: a statistical analysis

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Yangali-Quintanilla, V.; Kim, T.U.; Kennedy, M.; Amy, G.

    2008-01-01

    OA fund TU Delft Rejections of pharmaceutical compounds (Ibuprofen, Diclofenac, Clofibric acid, Naproxen, Primidone, Phenacetin) and organic compounds (Dichloroacetic acid, Trichloroacetic acid, Chloroform, Bromoform, Trichloroethene, Perchloroethene, Car-bontetrachloride, Carbontetrabromide) by NF

  9. Analysis of phytochemical constituents of Eucalyptus citriodora L. responsible for antifungal activity against post-harvest fungi.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Javed, S; Shoaib, A; Mahmood, Z; Mushtaq, S; Iftikhar, S

    2012-01-01

    In vitro antifungal activity and phytochemical constituents of essential oil, aqueous, methanol and chloroform extract of Eucalyptus citriodora Hook leaves were investigated. A qualitative phytochemical analysis was performed for the detection of alkaloids, cardiac glycosides, flavonoids, saponins, sterols, tannins and phenols. Methanolic extract holds all identified biochemical constituents except for the tannin. While these biochemical constituents were found to be absent in essential oil, aqueous and chloroform extracts with the exception of sterols, cardiac glycosides and phenols in essential oil and sterols and phenols in aqueous and chloroform extracts. Antimycotic activity of four fractions of E. citriodora was investigated through agar-well diffusion method against four post-harvest fungi, namely, Aspergillus flavus Link ex Gray, Aspergillus fumigatus Fres., Aspergillus nidulans Eidam ex Win and Aspergillus terreus Thom. The results revealed maximum fungal growth inhibition by methanolic extract (14.5%) followed by essential oil (12.9%), chloroform extract (10.15%) and aqueous extract (10%). PMID:21999598

  10. Antibacterial potency screening of Capparis zeylanica Linn

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Rezaul Haque; Wahedul Islam; Selina Parween

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To conduct the antibacterial potency and minimum inhibitory concentration of extracts (n-hexane, acetone, chloroform and methanol) obtained from the root, leaf and stem of Capparis zeylanica. Methods: The powdered leaf, root and stem samples were Soxhlet extracted sequentially in n-hexane, acetone, chloroform and methanol. Antibacterial potency was evaluated by following the agar diffusion method and amoxicillin disc was used as a control. Results: In vitro antibacterial activity against 12 bacteria was performed with crude extracts. Among them, all the bacteria showed the moderate activity but chloroform and methanolic extracts showed promising antibacterial potency against Staphylococcus aureus, Sarcina lutea, Bacillus megaterium, Bacillus subtilis, Salmonella typhi and Shigella dysenteriae (leaf > root > stem). This activity was evaluated using disc diffusion method with a standard antibiotic, 30 µg/disc of amoxicillin. Conclusions: Strong antibacterial potency of chloroform and methanolic extracts provides new antibacterial compounds.

  11. A NEW KAURANE DITERPENE FROM THE LEAVES OF CALLICARPA MACROPHYLLA VAHL.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vinay Kumar Verma

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The chloroform extract of leaves of Callicarpa macrophylla Vahl., yielded a new compound 16α-hydroxy- 17-isopropylidino-3-oxo-phyllocladane along with calliterpenone and its monoacetate.

  12. Batch culture fermentation of Penicillium chrysogenum and a report on the isolation, purification, identification and antibiotic activity of citrinin

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    PrabhaDevi; DeSouza, L.; Kamat, T.; Rodrigues, C.; Naik, C.G.

    the volume to approximately 800 ml. This concentrated filtrate was extracted using chloroform (5 × 200 ml). Any emulsion formed during separation was overcome by the use of celite (545, LR). The extraction procedure resulted in approximately 1000 ml...

  13. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF Abutilon indicum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poonkothai, M

    2006-07-01

    Chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Abutilon indicum were investigated for antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Among the various extracts, maximum antibacterial activity was exhibited by ethanol extract (14, 25, 14, 25, 17, 18 mm) followed by chloroform extract (13, 17, 8, 15, 15, 20 mm) while aqueous extract, showed no activity. PMID:22557222

  14. ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF LEAF EXTRACT OF Abutilon indicum

    OpenAIRE

    Poonkothai, M.

    2006-01-01

    Chloroform, ethanol and aqueous extracts of the leaves of Abutilon indicum were investigated for antibacterial activity against Bacillus subtilis, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Escherichia coli and Salmonella typhi. Among the various extracts, maximum antibacterial activity was exhibited by ethanol extract (14, 25, 14, 25, 17, 18 mm) followed by chloroform extract (13, 17, 8, 15, 15, 20 mm) while aqueous extract, showed no activity.

  15. Flavonóides e triterpenos de Baccharis pseudotenuifolia: bioatividade sobre Artemia salina Flavonoids and triterpenes from Baccharis pseudotenuifolia: bioactivity on Artemia salina

    OpenAIRE

    Francisco de Paula Madeira Moreira; Valmor Coutinho; Ana Beatriz Pimentel Montanher; Miguel Soriano Balparda Caro; Inês Maria Costa Brighente; Moacir Geraldo Pizzolatti; Franco Delle Monache

    2003-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the chloroformic and methanolic extracts of the Baccharis pseudotenuifolia led to the isolation of triterpenes, steroids and flavonoids. From chloroformic extract were isolated oleanolic acid and alpha-spinasterol while from methanolic extract were isolated the flavonoids: hispidulin, naringenin, 3'-methoxy-luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol, eriodyctiol, aromadendrin, quercetin, 3'-methoxy-quercetin, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. The str...

  16. On the Procedures for the Extraction and Isolation of Flavonoids Present in the Methanolic Extract of Leaves of Acanthospermum Hispidiumdc

    OpenAIRE

    Abe R. T; Edewor-Kuponiyi, T. I.

    2014-01-01

    This paper presents the procedures of the extraction and isolation of flavonoids present in the methanolic leaf extract of Acanthospermum hispidium DC .The leaves of Acanthospermum hispidium dc was extracted with polar and non-polar solvents. The activecomponents (.i.e. flavonoids) were found in methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol while methanol, chloroform, ethylacetate and n-butanol contained steroids. From the chromatographic analysis, it was observed that the component 1and ...

  17. Flavonóides e triterpenos de Baccharis pseudotenuifolia: bioatividade sobre Artemia salina

    OpenAIRE

    Moreira Francisco de Paula Madeira; Coutinho Valmor; Montanher Ana Beatriz Pimentel; Caro Miguel Soriano Balparda; Brighente Inês Maria Costa; Pizzolatti Moacir Geraldo; Monache Franco Delle

    2003-01-01

    The phytochemical investigation of the chloroformic and methanolic extracts of the Baccharis pseudotenuifolia led to the isolation of triterpenes, steroids and flavonoids. From chloroformic extract were isolated oleanolic acid and alpha-spinasterol while from methanolic extract were isolated the flavonoids: hispidulin, naringenin, 3'-methoxy-luteolin, apigenin, kaempferol, eriodyctiol, aromadendrin, quercetin, 3'-methoxy-quercetin, quercetin-3-O-rhamnoside and quercetin-3-O-glucoside. The str...

  18. Cytotoxic activity of marine algae against cancerous cells

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Élica A. C. Guedes

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents an investigation on the cytotoxic activity in human tumor cell from dichloromethane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol, water extracts, and hexane and chloroform fractions from green, brown and red algae collected at Riacho Doce Beach, north coast of Alagoas, Brazil, against the cancer cells K562 (chronic myelocytic leukemia, HEp-2 (laryngeal epidermoid carcinoma and NCI-H292 (human lung mucoepidermoid carcinoma through the MTT colorimetric method. The dichloromethane extract and chloroform fraction of Hypnea musciformis showed the best cytotoxic activity against K562 (3.8±0.2 µg.mL-1 and 6.4±0.4 µg.mL-1, respectively. Dichloromethane extracts of Dictyota dichotoma (16.3±0.3 µg.mL-1 and the chloroform fraction of H. musciformis (6.0±0.03 µg.mL-1 and chloroform fraction of P. gymnospora (8.2±0.4 were more active against HEp-2 as well as ethanol extracts of P. gymnospora (15.9±2.8 µg.mL-1 and chloroform fraction of H. musciformis (15.0±1.3 µg.mL-1 against the cell NCI-H292. The constituents with higher anticancer action are present in the extracts of dichloromethane and chloroform and in the chloroform fraction of H. musciformis, Digenea simplex, P. gymnospora, and D.dichotoma. In the case of the seaweed S. vulgare, the anticancer constituents are present in the aqueous extract.

  19. Bioactivity-guided isolation of antiproliferative compounds from Centaurea arenaria

    OpenAIRE

    Csapi, Bence; Hajdú, Zsuzsanna; Zupko, Istvan; Berényi, Ágnes; Forgo, Peter; Szabó, Pál Tam'S; Hohmann, Judit

    2010-01-01

    Abstract The antiproliferative effects of n-hexane, chloroform and aqueous methanol extracts prepared from the whole plant of Centaurea arenaria M.B. ex Willd. were investigated against cervix adenocarcinoma (HeLa), breast adenocarcinoma (MCF7) and skin epidermoid carcinoma (A431) cells, using the MTT assay. The chloroform extract displayed high tumour cell proliferation inhibitory activity (higher than 85% at 10 ?g/ml concentration), and was therefore subjected to a bioassay-guide...

  20. EVALUATION OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA (BURMF) WALL EX NEES, LEAF EXTRACTS AND ANDROGRAPHOLIDE ON GASTROINTESTINAL PATHOGENS

    OpenAIRE

    R. Anitha; D. Raynukaa

    2013-01-01

    Andrographis paniculata (BurmF) Wall Ex Nees called as Kalmegh or "King of Bitters is used in southeast Asia for treating several ailments. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of Andrographis paniculata leaf extracts. The agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods were used to determine the antibacterial activity of the Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. Chloroform and petroleum ether extracts inhibited Shigella, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonia and Sa...

  1. COMPATIBILITY IN POLYMER BLENDS OF POLY (VINYL ACETATE) AND POLY (METHYL METHACRYLATE)STUDIED BY NMR

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Mo; DAI Yingkun; HU Cheng; HUANG Yuhui; CONG Guangmin

    1992-01-01

    Compatibility of poly (vinyl acetate) (PVAc) with poly (methyl methacrylate) (PMMA) mixtures has been studied by using nuclear magnetic relaxation, differential scanning calorimeter and small-angle X-ray scattering techniques. The nuclear magnetic relaxation time T1's were measured as a function of composition in blends of PMMA and PVAc prepared from chloroform solution. The results show that the system is miscible for casting from chloroform solution.

  2. Disposable reversed-phase chromatography columns for improved detection of carboxylic acids in body fluids by electron-capture gas-liquid chromatography.

    OpenAIRE

    Daneshvar, M. I.; Brooks, J B; Winstead, R M

    1987-01-01

    Disposable reversed-phase chromatography columns were tested for their effectiveness in removing unreacted trichloroethanol (TCE) from derivatized samples for gas-liquid chromatography analysis. Derivatized acidic chloroform extracts of saponified whole cells of Mycobacterium species, spent culture media, and derivatized acidic chloroform extracts of serum and cerebrospinal fluids from patients with tuberculous meningitis were tested. Samples were added to preconditioned reversed-phase chroma...

  3. In vitro antiplasmodial activity and phytochemical screening of Alstonia boonei De wild used in treating malaria-associated symptoms

    OpenAIRE

    Enemakwu Thomas Andrew; M. M. Adeyemi; Salihu, L

    2015-01-01

    This study investigated the In vitro antiplasmodial activity and phytochemical constituents of the leaves from Alstonia boonei used in the local treatment of malaria. The crude ethanol extract from the medicinal plant (AB-01) was fractionated into ethyl acetate (AB-01-01), chloroform (AB-01-02) and n-hexane (AB-01-03) fractions. In vitro antiplasmodial assays and phytochemical screening of ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane fractions from the plant were further carried out. Alkaloids, sap...

  4. Physicochemical investigations on the extraction mechanism of some elements and inorganic acids by quaternary ammonium salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The extraction of rare earth and transplutonium elements, Tl, Pb, Bi, and Po, and also of HNO3 and HCl, with chloroform solutions of cetylpyridinium salts solutions showed that the salts aggregate in chloroform solutions, forming micelles above a concentration of about 10-2M. Surface tension and surface potential measurements proved that cetylpyridinium nitrate is not transferred to HNO3 solutions in the extraction system, while cetylpyridinium chloride is transferred to ECl solutions. (author)

  5. Construction of J- and H- Aggregates of meso-Tetrakis (4-hydroxyphenyl) porphyrin Diacid (H4THPP2+)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Hui ZHANG; Yang WU

    2005-01-01

    UV-Vis spectrum was utilized to study the aggregation behaviors of H4THPP2+ in DMF-chloroform mixture and water. It was found that J-aggregation of H4THPP2+ was formed in DMF-chloroform mixture and H-aggregate was formed in aqueous solution with high ionic-strength, as indicated by different spectral characteristics of different H4THPP2+ aggregates.

  6. Amino acid analysis in biological fluids by GC-MS

    OpenAIRE

    Kaspar, Hannelore

    2009-01-01

    Amino acids are intermediates in cellular metabolism and their quantitative analysis plays an important role in disease diagnostics. A gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) based method was developed for the quantitative analysis of free amino acids as their propyl chloroformate derivatives in biological fluids. Derivatization with propyl chloroformate could be carried out directly in the biological samples without prior protein precipitation or solid-phase extraction of the amino acid...

  7. Preparation and distribution of materials for 2 BcR intercomparisons of methods for determination of aflatoxins in peanut meal and peanut butter, and deoxynivalenol in wheat

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Egmond; H.P.van; Paulsch; W.E.

    1986-01-01

    Standaardoplossingen werden bereid van de afzonderlijke aflatoxinene B1, B2, G1 en G2 in chloroform (0.1 ug/ml) en een oplossing van aflatoxinen B1, B2, G1 en G2 in chloroform (ca 2,1,4 en 1 ug/ml resp.). De oplossingen werden in ampullen afgevuld. (ca 100 ampullen van elke oplossing.) Van iede

  8. A novel pentacyclic triterpene from Leontodon filii.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tostão, Zélia; Noronha, João P; Cabrita, Eurico J; Medeiros, Jorge; Justino, Jorge; Bermejo, Jaime; Rauter, Amélia P

    2005-03-01

    A novel oleanene triterpenetetrol was isolated from the chloroform extract of the aerial parts of Leontodon filii. Its structure was shown to be 2beta,3beta,15alpha,21beta-olean-12-ene-2,3,15,21-tetrol by chemical and spectroscopic methods. The fungicidal efficacy of the chloroform and methanol extracts of the plant was also evaluated, a protective effect being found against Plasmopara viticola, Botrytis cinerea, particularly powerful against Pyricularia oryzae. PMID:15752627

  9. Isolasi Senyawa Flavonoida Dari Daun Tumbuhan Jambu Biji Australia (Psidium guajava L)

    OpenAIRE

    Manihuruk, Rickson Y.

    2016-01-01

    Isolation of flavonoid compounds from leaves of Australian Guava (Psidium guajava L.) has been done with extraction maceration by methanol solvent. The concentrated extract of methanol added with aethyl acetate. The concentrated extract of aethyl acetate then dissolved with methanol and partition extracted with n-hexane. The concentrated extract of methanol acided by HCl 6%, then partition extracted with chloroform. The concentrated extract of chloroform separated with column chromatography w...

  10. End of life cycle assessment for carbon nanotube (CNT) containing composites : release of CNT and ecotoxicological consequences

    OpenAIRE

    Rhiem, Stefan

    2014-01-01

    In the present study, for the first time, release rates for CNT from polycarbonate nanocomposites (containing 1 weight % CNT) were quantified by use of 14C-labeleled CNT material. Composites were produced by dispersing 14C-CNT in chloroform and adding polycarbonate pellets afterwards in order to produce CNT holding PC composites. After evaporation of the chloroform and surface improvement by hot pressing, round samples with a diameter of 18 mm were produced. Two different sample types were pr...

  11. Stimulation of hydrogen peroxide production by drinking water contaminants in HL-60 cells sensitized by retinoic acid

    OpenAIRE

    Yoshida, Hideaki; Inoue, Shoichi; Yoshida, Kohki; Nakajima, Osamu; Mizuno, Shigetaka

    1998-01-01

    Chemical carcinogens, such as chloroform and trichloroethylene, are present in drinking water in Japan. As these contaminants are believed to have a role in carcinogenesis, we examined if chloroform and trichloroethylene, as well as methylene chloride, xylene, benzene, and ethanol, have the ability to generate hydrogen peroxide (H2O2) in human polymorphonuclear leukocytes (PMN) and human leukemia (HL-60) cells. Methylene chloride, benzene, xylene, trichloroethylene, and ethanol did not increa...

  12. Evaluation of the Antioxidant and Antimicrobial Activities of Clary Sage (Salvia sclarea L.)

    OpenAIRE

    GÜLÇİN, İlhami

    2004-01-01

    The present work evaluates the antioxidant and antimicrobial activity of clary sage (CS) Salvia sclarea L. Antimicrobial, total antioxidant, DPPH radical scavenging, superoxide anion radical scavenging, hydrogen peroxide scavenging and metal chelating activities, reducing power, and total contents of phenolic compounds of dried herb samples extracted with chloroform and acetone were studied. The chloroform extract had stronger total antioxidant activity than the acetone extract and exhibited ...

  13. Anti-herpes simplex virus activities of monogalactosyl diglyceride and digalactosyl diglyceride from Clinacanthus nutans, a traditional Thai herbal medicine

    OpenAIRE

    Sirada Pongmuangmul; Supaporn Phumiamorn; Phanchana Sanguansermsri; Nalin Wongkattiya; Ian Hamilton Fraser; Donruedee Sanguansermsri

    2016-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the monogalactosyl diglyceride (MGDG) and digalactosyl diglyceride (DGDG) from Clinacanthus nutans (C. nutans) for their in vitro antiviral activities against herpes simplex virus type 1 (HSV-1) and type 2 (HSV-2) by plaque reduction assay. Methods: MGDG and DGDG were extracted with chloroform from C. nutans leaves. MGDG and DGDG were separated from chloroform crude extract using column chromatography, characterized by thin layer chromatography and quantified by high...

  14. Efficient Route to Deuterated Aromatics by the Deamination of Anilines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burglova, Kristyna; Okorochenkov, Sergei; Hlavac, Jan

    2016-07-15

    One-step replacement of NH2 groups in ring-substituted anilines by deuterium is reported. Approaches comprising both solid-phase and solution-phase syntheses can be used on a large variety of substrates. The method uses diazotization in a mixture of water and either dichloromethane or chloroform, which serve as a source of hydrogen. This protocol can be used as a general method for fast and easy incorporation of deuterium into an aromatic system using deuterated chloroform.

  15. Assessment of in vitro cytotoxicity and in vivo antitumor activity of Sphaeranthus amaranthoides burm.f

    OpenAIRE

    Gayatri, S.; C. Uma Maheswara Reddy; K. Chitra; Parthasarathy, V.

    2015-01-01

    Background: A number of plants have been used in Indian system of medicine such as ayurveda, unani and siddha, but most of these plants were not explored properly. Sphaeranthus amaranthoides (SA) Burm.f., is one such plant used as an energizer in siddha. Objective: To evaluate the anticancer effect of chloroform extract of the whole plant of SA Burm.f. against Ehrlich ascites carcinoma bearing Swiss albino mice. Materials and Methods: The anticancer effect of chloroform extract was investigat...

  16. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF CALENDULA OFFICINALIS LINN

    OpenAIRE

    Chakraborthy Guno Sindhu

    2010-01-01

    Identification of primary and secondary constituents has become the utmost important tool for the presence of active moiety. The phytochemical screening of petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water extracts of Calendula officinalis leaf done by TLC means. Petroleum ether extract showed the presence of fatty acids, chloroform extracts showed the presence of triterpens and sterols. Flavonoids, carbohydrates, amino acids and saponins were present in methanol extract and saponins, phenolic ...

  17. Separation of digoxin by luiquid-luiquid extraction from extracts of foxglove secondary glycosides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Novković Vesna V.

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study deals with the extraction of digoxin (Dgx from chloroform and trichloroethylene extracts of the secondary glycosides of fermented foxglove (Digitalis lanata Ehrh. foliage by liquid-liquid extraction. The extraction degree (ED of Dgx achieved by maceration and percolation using 10% vol. aqueous ethanol solutions were higher than 95%. Using trichlorethylene and chloroform, the ED of Dgx of about 100% and 96%, respectively from the liquid ethanolic extracts (macerate or percolate were achieved by the four-cycle extraction. Fifteen separating funnels were employed for the liquid-liquid extraction. Three different four-component two-phase systems (ethanol:water - chloroform:ethyl acetate, ethanol:water - chloroform:trichloroethylene and ethanol:water - trichloroethylene:ethyl acetate were tested as an extracting solvent to get the final product having more than 98% of Dgx. The initial amount of the chloroform or trichloroethylene extract in the light phase was varied between 5 and 25 g/L, while the volume ratio of light and heavy phases was in the range of 1:1 to 1:2. The best Dgx yield of 98% was achieved with the system ethanol:water - chloroform:trichloroethylene 35:15:20:30 at the volume ratio of the phases of 1:1.1 and at the initial amount of the extract of 15 g/L. Purity of the separated digoxin was 99.8 %. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. TR-34012

  18. Organic Chemical Attribution Signatures for the Sourcing of a Mustard Agent and Its Starting Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fraga, Carlos G.; Bronk, Krys; Dockendorff, Brian P.; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2016-05-17

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) are being investigated for the sourcing of chemical warfare (CW) agents and their starting materials that may be implicated in chemical attacks or CW proliferation. The work reported here demonstrates for the first time trace impurities produced during the synthesis of tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3) that point to specific reagent stocks used in the synthesis of this CW agent. Thirty batches of HN3 were synthesized using different combinations of commercial stocks of triethanolamine (TEA), thionyl chloride, chloroform, and acetone. The HN3 batches and reagent stocks were then analyzed for impurities by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Reaction-produced impurities indicative of specific TEA and chloroform stocks were exclusively discovered in HN3 batches made with those reagent stocks. In addition, some reagent impurities were found in the HN3 batches that were presumably not altered during synthesis and believed to be indicative of reagent type regardless of stock. Supervised classification using partial least squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) on the impurity profiles of chloroform samples from seven stocks resulted in an average classification error by cross-validation of 2.4%. A classification error of zero was obtained using the seven-stock PLSDA model on a validation set of samples from an arbitrarily selected chloroform stock. In a separate analysis, all samples from two of seven chloroform stocks that were purposely not modeled had their samples matched to a chloroform stock rather than assigned a “no class” classification.

  19. Insecticidal activities and active components of the alcohol extract from green peel of Juglans mandshurica

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Mo-long; WANG Yan-mei; SONG Zhan-qian; FANG Gui-zhen

    2007-01-01

    The extract of green peel of Juglans mandshurica Maxim was extracted by common method for studying its insecticidal activities and analyzing the active components. Results showed that the alcohol extract and the chloroform part of extract (separated with chloroform from alcohol extract) form green peel of J. mandshurica have insecticidal activities in contact toxicity and stomach toxicity against larvae of Lymantria dispar L.. After application of the extracts for five days, the corrected mortality of larvae of Lymantria dispar for both extracts was more than 50% in contact toxicity and stomach toxicity at the concentration of > 5 g·L1. The insecticidal activity for both alcohol extract and chloroform part of extract is more effect in contact toxicity than in stomach toxicity, but no significant difference in the insecticidal activities was found between alcohol extract and chloroform part of extract. The active components in the chloroform part of extract from green peel of J. mandshurica were analyzed by GC-MS. The analyzed results showed that the active components in the chloroform part of extract are: (1)juglone (5-hydroxy-1,4- naphthaoquinone), the relative content 27.11%, (2) 1,5-Naphthalenediol, the relative content 9.52%, (3) 7-Methoxy-l-tetralone, the relative content 6.81%, (4) Benzofuran, 2,3-dihydro-, the relative content 6.76%, (5)4-Hydroxy-2-methoxycinnamaldehyde, the relative content 3.99%, (6) 2-Methoxy-4-vinylphenol, the relative content 3.05%.

  20. Development and application of ultrasound-assisted microextraction to analysis of fenitrothion in environmental samples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takahashi, Fumiki; Kobayashi, Kanya; Jin, Jiye

    2016-10-01

    A microextraction technique based on ultrasonic emulsification and demulsification was developed for detecting pesticides at trace levels in environmental water samples. In this ultrasound-assisted microextraction (UAME), chloroform was emulsified with an aqueous sample solution containing trace fenitrothion (MEP) by ultrasonic irradiation (48 kHz) for 5 min. The emulsion was then demulsified by ultrasonic irradiation (2.4 MHz) for 10 min. This resulted in phase separation of the water and chloroform without centrifugation. The demulsified chloroform was collected by a microsyringe and submitted to gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. In conventional extraction with mechanical stirring, the extraction recovery (ER) of MEP was strongly dependent on the sample/chloroform volume ratio. However, in UAME, the ER was independent of the volume ratio and the ER was >80 % when the enrichment factor was 40. In UAME, MEP was rapidly extracted into the chloroform because of the large specific surface areas of the small chloroform droplets in the oil-in-water (O/W) emulsion. This gave a high extraction efficiency for MEP. UAME is a simple method requiring only a change in the ultrasound frequency and with no pretreatment steps that could contaminate the sample. The suitability of UAME was demonstrated by application to the detection of trace levels of pesticides in a spiked water sample from a fish tank. Graphical abstract Schematic diagram of the ultrasound-assisted microextraction (UAME) method.

  1. Study on the inhibition of methane production from anaerobic digestion of biodegradable solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tiantao Zhao; Lijie Zhang; Youcai Zhao

    2010-04-01

    The inhibition effects and mechanisms of chlorinated methane, anthraquinone and acetylene on methanogenesis in the anaerobic digestion process of biodegradable solid wastes were investigated. It was found that both chloroform and acetylene could effectively inhibit methanogens. Acetylene inhibited the activity of methanogens, while chloroform inhibited metabolic process of methanogenesis. A central composite design (CCD) and response surface regression analysis (RSREG) were employed to determine the optimum conditions and interaction effects of chloroform and acetylene in terms of methane and hydrogen production. Acetylene promoted the inhibition efficiency (F = 31.14; P 0.05). In addition, a maximum hydrogen production of 1.6 ml was estimated under the optimum conditions of chloroform concentration of 6.69 mg kg(-1) and acetylene concentration of 3.08 x 10(-3) (v/v). Chloroform had a significant effect on enhancing the production of propionic acid and a minimum molar ratio of acetic acid to propionic acid of 0.707 was reached with the chloroform concentration of 9.24 mg kg(-1) and acetylene concentration of 4.0 x 10(-3) (v/v). Hence, methanogens can be inhibited while the stabilization process of solid wastes can still work well. Moreover, co-inhibition technology practice at landfills was feasible and the environmental damage was negligible, according to the analysis and experimental results.

  2. Anti-Inflammatory and Antimicrobial activity of Flacourtia Ramontchi Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sulbha Lalsare

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available The literature survey revealed that a very merge amount of pharmacological work has been carried out on Flacourtia ramontchi. Also it was observed from the Ayurvedic literature and Ethnobotanical studies that the plant is very useful in treating inflammation and infectious diseases but no scientific investigation has been done in such direction. Very merge work has been done regarding phytochemical and pharmacological effectiveness on this plant. Successive extraction of the leaves with solvents of increasing polarity; preliminary phytochemical studies of different extracts; screening of chloroform, methanol and hydromethanolic extracts for anti-inflammatory (by Carrageenan induced rat paw model and antimicrobial activity (by Cup and plate method and thin layer chromatographic studies of active extracts using mobile phase i.e. chloroform and methanol. The results clearly indicate that all three extracts i.e. chloroform, methanol and hydromethanolic, of the leaves having anti-inflammatory activity. But the chloroform and methano extract showed promising results and even chloroform extract at the dose 150mg/kg exhibits equipotent anti-inflammatory activity as that of the standard Indomethacin. Methanol extract possess broad-spectrum antimicrobial activity at concentration 10000 mg/ml whereas hydromethanolic and chloroform extracts having more or less antimicrobial activity.

  3. Antifungal Activity and Nail Permeation of Nail Lacquer Containing Piper regnellii (Miq. C. CD. var. pallescens (C. DC. Yunck (Piperaceae Leave Extracts and Derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Andrea Mayumi Koroishi

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available The dermatophytes are filamentous fungi that cause cutaneous fungal infections because they use keratin as a nutrient source. For this study the antidermatophyte activity of the extracts and derivates from leaves of Piper regnellii was analyzed. From the dichloromethane extract (EBD neolignans such as eupomatenoid-3 and eupomatenoid-5 were obtained, and it was submitted to fractionation to remove the green residue, designated as the chloroform fraction (FF. Extracts, chloroform fraction and compounds were tested against Trichophyton rubrum ATCC 28189 to determine the minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC. The chloroform fraction was incorporated to nail lacquer that was analyzed by photoacoustic spectroscopy, in vitro assay and scanning electronic microscopy. For antifungal activity in solid medium the dichloromethane extract and chloroform fraction were used. The compounds eupomatenoid-3 and eupomatenoid-5 were less active than the dichloromethane extract against T. rubrum. EBD and FF showed moderate activity in hyphal growth inhibition in solid medium and EBD did not link to ergosterol. Nail lacquer containing the chloroform fraction showed good penetration through the nail as determined by photoacoustic spectroscopy. From in vitro studies it was observed that nail lacquer concentrations above 20 mg/mL prevented the growth of fungi, but concentrations up to 2.5 inhibited the growth. Scanning electronic microscopy was used to confirm the in vitro nail lacquer activity results. The specie P. regnellii showed great antifungal activity against T. rubrum, and nail lacquer containing its chloroform fraction has great potential to treat onychomycosis caused by these microorganisms.

  4. Chromatographic finger print analysis of anti-inflammatory active extract fractions of aerial parts of Tribulus terrestris by HPTLC technique

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mona Salih Mohammed; Mohamed Fahad Alajmi; Perwez Alam; Hassan Subki Khalid; Abelkhalig Muddathir Mahmoud; Wadah Jamal Ahmed

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To develop HPTLC fingerprint profile of anti-inflammatory active extract fractions of Tribulus terrestris (family Zygophyllaceae). Methods:The anti-inflammatory activity was tested for the methanol and its fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) and chloroform extract of Tribulus terrestris (aerial parts) by injecting different groups of rats (6 each) with carrageenan in hind paw and measuring the edema volume before and 1, 2 and 3 h after carrageenan injection. Control group received saline i.p. The extracts treatment was injected i.p. in doses of 200 mg/kg 1 h before carrageenan administration. Indomethacin (30 mg/kg) was used as standard. HPTLC studies were carried out using CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with Linomat IV applicator, TLC scanner 3, Reprostar 3, CAMAG ADC 2 and WIN CATS-4 software for the active fractions of chloroform fraction of methanol extract. Results:The methanol extract showed good antiedematous effect with percentage of inhibition more than 72%, indicating its ability to inhibit the inflammatory mediators. The methanol extract was re-dissolved in 100 mL of distilled water and fractionated with chloroform, ethyl acetate and n-butanol. The four fractions (chloroform, ethyl acetate, n-butanol and aqueous) were subjected to anti-inflammatory activity. Chloroform fraction showed good anti-inflammatory activity at dose of 200 mg/kg. Chloroform fraction was then subjected to normal phase silica gel column chromatography and eluted with petroleum ether-chloroform, chloroform-ethyl acetate mixtures of increasing polarity which produced 15 fractions (F1-F15). Only fractions F1, F2, F4, F5, F7, F9, F11 and F14 were found to be active, hence these were analyzed with HPTLC to develop their finger print profile. These fractions showed different spots with different Rf values. Conclusions:The different chloroform fractions F1, F2, F4, F5, F7, F9, F11 and F14 revealed 4, 7, 7, 8, 9, 7, 7 and 6 major spots, respectively. The

  5. Isolation and characterisation of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Aquilaria subintegra for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Hirbod; Mohamad, Jamaludin; Paydar, Mohammad Javad; Rothan, Hussin A

    2014-02-01

    Aquilaria subintegra, locally known as "Gaharu", belongs to the Thymelaeceae family. This plant's leaves have been claimed to be effective for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by Malay traditional practitioner in Malaysia. In this research, the chloroform extracts of the leaves and stem of A. subintegra were tested for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity. The Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) results indicated the presence of phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, and alkaloids compounds in the extracts. Analysis of the stem chloroform extracts with LCMS/MS displayed that it contains kaempferol 3,4,7-trimethyl ether. The AChE inhibitory activity of leaves and stem chloroform extracts and kaempferol were 80%, 93% and 85.8%, respectively. The Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA) exhibited low to moderate toxicity of the chloroform extract from leaves (LC50=531.18 ± 49.53 μg/ml), the stem chloroform extract (LC50=407.34 ± 68.05 μg/ml) and kaempferol (LC50=762.41 ± 45.09 μg/ml). The extracts and kaempferol were not cytotoxic to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), human normal gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) and human normal hepatic cell line (WRL-68). The effect of leaf and stem chloroform extracts and kaempferol were determined in the Radial Arm Maze (RAM) after administration by oral gavage to ICR male and female mice with valium-impaired memory. Administration of kaempferol to the mice significantly reduced the number of repeated entries into the arms of maze in males and females. In conclusion, the inhibition of AChE by leaf and stem chloroform extracts of A. subintegra could be due to the presence of kaempferol. This extract is safe for use as a natural AChE inhibitor as an alternative to berberine for the treatment of AD.

  6. Solubility of water in water-in-oil microemulsions stabilized by cetyltrimethylammonium: Effects of the surfactant counterion, the nature and composition of the oil, and the salinity of the droplets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Abuin, E.B.; Rubio, M.A.; Lissi, E.A. (Univ. de Santiago de Chile (Chile))

    1993-06-01

    The solubility of water in water-in-oil microemulsions stabilized by cetyltrimethylammonium (CTA) has been investigated as a function of the nature of the surfactant counterion (bromide; CTAB/chloride; CTAC), the composition of the oil (chloroform and chloroform/heptane mixtures), the salinity of the droplets, and the nature of the salt employed to modify it. Changing the composition of the oil from neat chloroform to a 500% mixture with heptane produces an increase of the water solubility in the microemulsions stabilized by CATB and decreases it in the CTAC microemulsions. Strong alterations of the solubility of water were found to occur upon mixing of the surfactants. Solubility increases abruptly on going from either CTAC- or CTAB-stabilized microemulsions to mixtures of both surfactants, reaching a maximum at CTAC mole fractions of 0.5 and 0.4 for solutions of the surfactants in chloroform and chloroform/heptane, respectively. Mixtures of CTAC and CATB in a solvent comprising 500% chloroform/heptane show a different behavior. In this system, water solubility continuously decreases when the CTAC/CTAB ratio increases. Solubility increases with salinity in the CTAC-stabilized microemulsions and decreases in the CTAB-stabilized microemulsions. Nevertheless, the magnitude of the effects observed is dependent on the nature of the salt employed to modify the salinity of the droplets. The results obtained are explained in terms of the model of Shah and coworkers by considering that, due to the stronger binding of bromide than of chloride to the surfactant heads at the micellar interface, water solubility in solutions of CTAB or CTAC in chloroform is determined by different factors: the curvature of the surfactant film (CTAB) and the interaction between droplets (CTAC).

  7. Isolation and characterisation of acetylcholinesterase inhibitors from Aquilaria subintegra for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahrani, Hirbod; Mohamad, Jamaludin; Paydar, Mohammad Javad; Rothan, Hussin A

    2014-02-01

    Aquilaria subintegra, locally known as "Gaharu", belongs to the Thymelaeceae family. This plant's leaves have been claimed to be effective for the treatment of Alzheimer's disease (AD) by Malay traditional practitioner in Malaysia. In this research, the chloroform extracts of the leaves and stem of A. subintegra were tested for acetylcholinesterase (AChE) inhibitory activity. The Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC) results indicated the presence of phenols, flavonoids, terpenoids, and alkaloids compounds in the extracts. Analysis of the stem chloroform extracts with LCMS/MS displayed that it contains kaempferol 3,4,7-trimethyl ether. The AChE inhibitory activity of leaves and stem chloroform extracts and kaempferol were 80%, 93% and 85.8%, respectively. The Brine Shrimp Lethality Assay (BSLA) exhibited low to moderate toxicity of the chloroform extract from leaves (LC50=531.18 ± 49.53 μg/ml), the stem chloroform extract (LC50=407.34 ± 68.05 μg/ml) and kaempferol (LC50=762.41 ± 45.09 μg/ml). The extracts and kaempferol were not cytotoxic to human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVEC), human normal gastric epithelial cell line (GES-1) and human normal hepatic cell line (WRL-68). The effect of leaf and stem chloroform extracts and kaempferol were determined in the Radial Arm Maze (RAM) after administration by oral gavage to ICR male and female mice with valium-impaired memory. Administration of kaempferol to the mice significantly reduced the number of repeated entries into the arms of maze in males and females. In conclusion, the inhibition of AChE by leaf and stem chloroform extracts of A. subintegra could be due to the presence of kaempferol. This extract is safe for use as a natural AChE inhibitor as an alternative to berberine for the treatment of AD. PMID:24479629

  8. Evaluation of the toxicity and molluscicidal and larvicidal activities of Schinopsis brasiliensis stem bark extract and its fractions

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    Clisiane C.S. Santos

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Dengue fever and schistosomiasis are major public health issues for which vector control using larvicide and molluscicide substances present in plants provides a promising strategy. This study evaluated the potential toxicity of the extract of hydroethanol Schinopsis brasiliensis Engl., Anacardiaceae, stem bark and its chloroform, hexane, ethyl acetate, and hydromethanol fractions against Artemia salina and Aedes Aegypti larvae and snails Biomphalaria glabrata. All of the assays were performed in triplicate and the mean mortality rates were used to determine the LC50and LC90 values using the probit method. The hydroethanol hydromethanol extract and fraction were free of toxicity towards A. salina(LC50 > 1000 µg/ml, while chloroform fraction was moderately toxic (LC50313 µg/ml; ethyl acetate and hexane fractions displayed low toxicity, with LC50 557 and 582 µg/ml, respectively. Chloroform, hexane, and ethyl acetate fractions showed larvicidal potential towards A. aegypti (LC50 values of 345, 527 and 583 µg/ml, respectively, while chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions were highly toxic to B. glabrata (LC90values of 68 and 73 µg/ml, respectively. Based on these findings, ethyl acetate, chloroform, and hexane fractions should be further investigated for their potential use against the vectors of dengue and schistosomiasis.

  9. Evaluation of Inhibitory Effect of the Plant Phyllanthus amarus Against Dermatophytic Fungi Microsporum gypseum

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ANURAG AGRAWAL; SHALINI SRIVASTAVA; J. N. SRIVASTAVA; M. M. SRIVASAVA

    2004-01-01

    The antifungal activity of various solvent extracts (such as ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and ethyl alcohol) of the plant Phyllanthus amarus against dermatophytic fungi Microsporum gypseum was observed. Method Antifungal bioassay in terms of reduction in weight, colony diameter and sporulation of the target fungal colony was carried out using Broth Dilution method. Results Root part of the plant, extracted in various organic solvents did not show any noticeable antifungal activity. The percentage inhibition observed in different solvent extracts of aerial part was found as reduction in weight: chloroform [50.3%], ethyl acetate [27.7%] and ethyl alcohol [12.1%], reduction in colony diameter: chloroform [53.4%], ethyl acetate [31.4%] and ethyl alcohol [15.0%] and reduction in sporulation: maximum inhibition in chloroform extract, at test concentration of 4000 ppm at incubation period of 8 days. Conclusion Chloroform fraction of the aerial part of the plant P. amarus shows significant inhibitory effect against dermatophytic fungi M. gypseum and requires chemical characterization for its bioactive principle.

  10. Polymerization of diallyl phtalate in solution by. gamma. -radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Divakar, R.S.; Rao, K.N.

    1977-08-01

    The polymerization of diallyl phthalate has been studied in two solvents, benzene (G/sub Radical/ = 0.7) and chloroform (G/sub R/ = 11.2), ..gamma..-radiation being used to investigate the effect of the solvent on the rates of polymerization and also chain transfer to the solvent. Kinetic analysis shows that in benzene solution the initiating species come almost exclusively from the monomer, but in chloroform they arise only from the solvent. The latter was further confirmed from the chlorine analysis of the polymer wherein chloroform appears to have telomerized with diallyl phthalate. In neither of the solvents was high molecular weight polymer obtained. The k/sub p//k/sub t/ sup 1/2/ for the polymerization of DAP was found to be 3.3 x 10/sup -4/ and 1.17 x 10/sup -3/ in benzene and chloroform solutions, respectively. The chain-transfer constant C/sub S/ was 11.25 x 10/sup -3/ and 9.75 x 10/sup -3/ for benzene and chloroform, respectively.

  11. Chemical constituents and anti-tuberculosis activity of ink extracts of cuttlefish, Sepiella inermis

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    Muthusamy Ravichandiran

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To study the chemical constituents and the anti-tuberculosis activity of methanol and chloroform ink extracts of Sepiella inermis. Methods: Pulverized ink powder was extracted separately with chloroform and methanol. Chemical analysis was carried out by UV-VIS spectrophotometer, FT-IR and GC-MS. Crude extracts were tested in vitro for their activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis using Lowenstein Jensen (L-J medium. Activity in L-J medium was assessed by mean reduction in number of colonies on extract containing bottles as compared to extract free controls. Results: GC-MS of methanol extract revealed four compounds viz. hexadecanoic acid, 9, 12- octadecadienoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid and octadecanoic acid. The chloroform extract containing fourteen compounds. The methanol extract exhibited anti-tuberculosis activity in L-J medium at 64 µg/mL with the observed inhibition of 14 CFU. Chloroform extract displayed a weak activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis. Conclusions: This investigation showed the methanol extract exhibited significant activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis than chloroform extract. Since ink of sepia is available abundantly as a waste material, further studies aimed at isolation and efficacy of active substances pave the way for new anti-tuberculosis drugs.

  12. An alternative method study for determining the content oils and greases derived from spectrophotometric; Estudo de um metodo alternativo para determinacao de oleos e graxas derivado do metodo espectrofotometrico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moura, Leila Rose Benevides; Bezerra, Magna Angelica dos Santos [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Programa de Recursos Humanos da ANP, PRH-14; Melo, Josette Lourdes de Sousa; Melo, Henio Normando de Sousa [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil); Gomes, Andrea Karla Martins [Universidade Federal do Rio Grande do Norte (UFRN), Natal, RN (Brazil). Dept. de Engenharia Quimica

    2004-07-01

    The determination of the Text of Oils and Greases (TOG) it can be done by several methods - gravimetrical or spectrophotometric. That work seeks to study a method alternative spectrophotometric, being compared this with the method used by Curbelo (2002). The modifications were: the reason solvent/sample, and the procedure in which the solvent the sample was mixed. For the method of Curbelo (2002) 100 mL of the sample was mixed to 10 chloroform mL and separated in separation funnel. In the proposed method, adapted denominated Chloroform, the reason was of 20 sample mL for 20 chloroform mL, being this mixture, after manual agitation, taken directly for centrifuge. The medium results were of 81,36 mg/L and 150,44 mg/L for the methods of the Chloroform and Adapted Chloroform, respectively. In spite of the medium values they present differences of almost 50%, it can be verified that the methods demonstrated certain uniformity when evaluated separately, being obtained a minimum deviation of 5,88%. With base in those preliminary results, it can be verified that the developed alternative method gets to remove more oil, mainly for more concentrated samples - exception done to the results of the pattern - and that the two methods present viability of substitution of the gravimetrical methods. (author)

  13. Mosquito larvicidal activity of Solanum nigrum berry extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rawani, Anjali; Chowdhury, Nandita; Ghosh, Anupam; Laskar, Subrata; Chandra, Goutam

    2013-05-01

    Phytochemicals are widely used as biocontrol agent against vector mosquitoes. The present study was undertaken to isolate and evaluate the mosquitocidal activity of various extracts of berries of S. nigrum against Culex quinquefasciatus. Crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extracts of fresh, mature, green berries of S. nigrum were tested against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The lethal concentration was determined and the chemical nature of the active substance was evaluated. A qualitative phytochemical analysis of chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extract was performed in search of the active ingredient. The appropriate lethal concentrations at 24 h for chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extract was also studied on non-target organisms. In a 72 h bioassay experiment with crude extract, the highest mortality was recorded in 3 per cent extract. In the chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) solvent extract, the maximum mortality was recorded at a concentration of 120 μg/ml. The log probit analysis (95% confidence level) recorded lowest LC 50 value at 72 h of exposure. Both crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extracts showed good larvicidal activity against Cx. quinquefasciatus. The isolated active ingredient may be tested as a potential larvicide after determination of its structure.

  14. Acaricidal activity of extracts of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against the larvae of the rabbit mite Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi in vitro.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Du, Yong-Hua; Jia, Ren-Yong; Yin, Zhong-Qiong; Pu, Zhong-Hui; Chen, Jiao; Yang, Fan; Zhang, Yu-Qun; Lu, Yang

    2008-10-20

    The acaricidal activity of the petroleum ether extract, the chloroform extract and the acetic ether extract of neem (Azadirachta indica) oil against Sarcoptes scabiei var. cuniculi larvae was tested in vitro. A complementary log-log (CLL) model was used to analyze the data of the toxicity tests. The results showed that at all test time points, the petroleum ether extract demonstrated the highest activity against the larvae of S. scabiei var. cuniculi, while the activities of the chloroform extract and the acetic ether extract were similar. The activities of both the petroleum ether extract and the chloroform extract against the larvae showed the relation of time and concentration dependent. The median lethal concentration (LC50) of the petroleum ether extract (1.3 microL/mL) was about three times that of the chloroform extract (4.1 microL/mL) at 24 h post-treatment. At the concentrations of 500.0 microL/mL, the median lethal time (LT50) of the petroleum ether extract and the chloroform extract was 8.4 and 9.6 h, respectively. PMID:18752898

  15. Chemical constituents and anti-tuberculosis activity of ink extracts of cuttlefish, Sepiella inermis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Muthusamy Ravichandiran; Selvam Thiripurasalini; Vaithilingam Ravitchandirane; Srinivasa Gopalane; Chelladurai Stella

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To study the chemical constituents and the anti-tuberculosis activity of methanol and chloroform ink extracts of Sepiella inermis.Methods:Chemical analysis was carried out by UV-VIS spectrophotometer, FT-IR and GC-MS. Crude extracts Pulverized ink powder was extracted separately with chloroform and methanol. were tested in vitro for their activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis using Lowenstein Jensen (L-J) medium. Activity in L-J medium was assessed by mean reduction in number of colonies on extract containing bottles as compared to extract free controls.Results:octadecadienoic acid, 9-octadecenoic acid and octadecanoic acid. The chloroform extract GC-MS of methanol extract revealed four compounds viz. hexadecanoic acid, 9, 12-containing fourteen compounds. The methanol extract exhibited anti-tuberculosis activity in L-J medium at 64 µg/mL with the observed inhibition of 14 CFU. Chloroform extract displayed a weak activity against Mycobacterium tuberculosis.Conclusions:Mycobacterium tuberculosis than chloroform extract. Since ink of sepia is available abundantly as This investigation showed the methanol extract exhibited significant activity against a waste material, further studies aimed at isolation and efficacy of active substances pave the way for new anti-tuberculosis drugs.

  16. Modelling of volumetric properties of binary and ternary mixtures by CEOS, CEOS/GE and empirical models

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    BOJAN D. DJORDJEVIC

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Although many cubic equations of state coupled with van der Waals-one fluid mixing rules including temperature dependent interaction parameters are sufficient for representing phase equilibria and excess properties (excess molar enthalpy HE, excess molar volume VE, etc., difficulties appear in the correlation and prediction of thermodynamic properties of complex mixtures at various temperature and pressure ranges. Great progress has been made by a new approach based on CEOS/GE models. This paper reviews the last six-year of progress achieved in modelling of the volumetric properties for complex binary and ternary systems of non-electrolytes by the CEOS and CEOS/GE approaches. In addition, the vdW1 and TCBT models were used to estimate the excess molar volume VE of ternary systems methanol + chloroform + benzene and 1-propanol + chloroform + benzene, as well as the corresponding binaries methanol + chloroform, chloroform + benzene, 1-propanol + chloroform and 1-propanol + benzene at 288.15–313.15 K and atmospheric pressure. Also, prediction of VE for both ternaries by empirical models (Radojković, Kohler, Jackob–Fitzner, Colinet, Tsao–Smith, Toop, Scatchard, Rastogi was performed.

  17. Antiulcer activity of methanolic extract and fractions of Picralima nitida seeds(Apocynacaea) in rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Okonta Jegbefume Mathew; Adibe Maxwell Ogochukwu; Ubaka Chukwuemeka Michael

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To investigated the antisecrectory activities of the methanol extract, chloroform fraction and methanol fraction of Picralima nitida seeds. Methods: The methanol extract of Picralima nitida seeds was fractionated into chloroform fraction and methanol fraction. They were evaluated for antiulcer activity and gastric emptying time in rats using aspirin-pylorus-ligation model. Results: Oral administration of the methanol extract, chloroform fraction and methanol fraction at 1 000 mg/kg reduced gastric ulcer by 56.4%, 40.0% and 56.3%, respectively; and the fractions of the extract significantly (P<0.05) reduced gastric emptying time when compared to the control. Gastric acidity was significantly decreased when compared with saline group, 40.25 mEq/L in methanol extract, 50.0 mEq/L in chloroform fraction 51.25 mEq/L in methanol fration but had no significant effect on the gastric secretion volume. Conclusions: These findings showed that methanol extract, chloroform fraction and methanol fraction of the seeds of Picralima possessed potent antiulcer properties and some antisecretory properties.

  18. Studies on the Surface Interaction and Dispersity of Silver Nanoparticles in Organic Solvents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZENG Rong; RONG Min-Zhi; ZHANG Ming-Qiu; ZENG Han-Min

    2000-01-01

    Silver nanoparticles with different sizes have been prepared by microemulsion and have been surface-modified with C12H25SH. Electron spin resonance results indicate that there exist some kinds of surface local paramagnetic sites in capped Ag nanoparticles, which leads to the relation between electron spin resonance parameters and particle size deviating from Kawabata's description. Thereis a strong interaction between nanosilver and chloroform. The smaller the particles, the stronger the interaction. Transmission electron microscopy and ultravilolet-visible absorption spectra confirmed that Ag nanoparticles are well dispersed in chloroform, implying that a good dispersity of Ag nanoparticles in polymers could be obtained by means of solution mixing by using chloroform as the solvent.

  19. Comparison of rapid solvent extraction systems for the GC–MS/MS characterization of polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in aged, contaminated soil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haleyur, Nagalakshmi; Shahsavari, Esmaeil; Mansur, Abdulatif A.; Koshlaf, Eman; Morrison, Paul D.; Osborn, A. Mark; Ball, Andrew S.

    2016-01-01

    Polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) are a major class of organic hydrocarbons with high molecular weight that originate from both natural and anthropogenic sources. Sixteen PAHs are included in the U.S Environmental Protection agency list of priority pollutants due to their mutagenic, carcinogenic, toxic and teratogenic properties. In this study, the development and optimization of a simplified and rapid solvent extraction for the characterisation of 16 USEPA priority poly aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs) in aged contaminated soils was established with subsequent analysis by GC–MS/MS. • Five different extraction solvent systems: dichloromethane: acetone, chloroform: methanol, dichloromethane, acetone: hexane and hexane were assessed in terms of their ability to extract PAHs from aged PAH-contaminated soils. • Highest PAH concentrations were extracted using acetone: hexane and chloroform: methanol. Given the greater toxicity associated with chloroform: methanol, acetone: hexane appears the best choice of solvent extraction system. • This protocol enables efficient extraction of PAHs from aged weathered soils. PMID:27200269

  20. Cation Tuning toward the Inference of the Gelation Behavior of Supramolecular Gels

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Peng; Wu, Huiqiong; Wang, Xiaojuan; He, Ting; Shen, Rujuan; Yue, Fan; Wang, Jide; Zhang, Yi

    2016-05-01

    We serendipitously discovered that the tripeptide Asp–Phe–Phe trifluoroacetic acid salt (hereafter abbreviated as β-AspFF) formed a reversible thermotropic gel in chloroform solution (at temperatures higher than the boiling point of chloroform), and a stable gel in toluene solution (at equal to or lower than the room temperature). Experimental results indicate that doping metal ions into β-AspFF toluene gels can trigger morphological variations in the gel skeleton, thereby increasing gel volume and inducing the collapse of organogels. Investigation on the cation-tuned gelation behavior of β-AspFF can be used to elucidate heating-induced gel collapse (of normal gel) or reverse thermotropic gelation as well as select carbamide and acetamide as activators of β-AspFF gels in chloroform solution at room temperature.

  1. H-bonding-directed self-assembly of synthetic copolymers containing nucleobases: organization and colloidal fusion in a noncompetitive solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lutz, Jean-François; Pfeifer, Sebastian; Chanana, Munish; Thünemann, Andreas F; Bienert, Ralf

    2006-08-15

    The self-organization of random copolymers composed of a nucleobase monomer (either 1-(4-vinylbenzyl)thymine or 9-(4-vinylbenzyl)adenine) and dodecyl methacrylate (DMA) was studied in dilute chloroform solutions. The balance between the molar fractions of the nucleobase monomer (leading to intermolecular H-bonding) and DMA (soluble moiety in chloroform) in the polymer chains was found to be the parameter that principally influences the self-organization. DMA-rich copolymers are molecularly soluble in chloroform, whereas nucleobase-rich copolymers are insoluble in this solvent. Copolymers possessing an equimolar comonomer composition self-assemble into micrometer-sized particles physically cross-linked by intermolecular H-bonds (either thymine-thymine or adenine-adenine interactions, depending on the studied copolymer). Nevertheless, when mixed together, thymine- and adenine-based colloids fuse into thermodynamically stable microspheres cross linked by adenine-thymine interactions.

  2. Evaluation of Antimicrobial Activity of Root Extracts of Abitulon indicum

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    Krishna Rao MORTHA

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial activity of Abitulon indicum roots was studied against seven pathogenic bacteria and three fungal strains by agar well diffusion method. Antimicrobial activity was recorded for hexane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts. Alcohol (ethanol and methanol extracts exhibited the highest degree of antimicrobial activity compared to aqueous, chloroform and hexane extracts. Pseudomonas aeruginosa was turned out to be the most susceptible bacterium to the crude root chemical constituents, using the standard Tetracycline and Clotrimazole. Minimum inhibition concentration values of hexane, chloroform, methanol, ethanol and aqueous extracts were determined by the agar dilution method and ranged between 62.5 and 1,000 µg. The study suggested that the root extracts possess bioactive compounds with antimicrobial activity against the tested bacteria and fungi, revealing a significant scope to develop a novel broad spectrum of antimicrobial drug formulation from Abitulon indicum.

  3. Antioxidant and cytotoxic activities of three different fractions of Lonicera quinquelocularis (Translucent Honeysuckle plant

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    MUHAMMAD IMRAN K.

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available The cytotoxic and antioxidant activities of a plant count for its effectiveness against various lethal and sever diseases such as cancer, Parkinson Alzheimer and Diabetics etc. Free radicals in the form of reactive oxygen species and reactive nitrogen species may be the main cause of these severe health issues. Medicinal plants with antioxidant and cytotoxic properties have been proved to be the most reliable method of treatment of the mentioned diseases. In the present study antioxidant and cytotoxic potential of three different fractions i.e. ethanol, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracted from Lonicera quinquelocularis (Translucent Honeysuckle plant were tested. The ethanolic and ethyl acetate fraction showed highest scavenging ability than chloroform fraction against DPPH and ABTS free radicals. In cytotoxic assays, chloroform fraction showed highest lethal effects than ethanolic and ethyl acetate fraction. The data obtained from the experimental work revealed that all the three fractions isolated from Lonicera quinquelocularis (Translucent Honeysuckle possess antioxidant and cytotoxic properties. Key Words:

  4. Cation Tuning toward the Inference of the Gelation Behavior of Supramolecular Gels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Peng; Wu, Huiqiong; Wang, Xiaojuan; He, Ting; Shen, Rujuan; Yue, Fan; Wang, Jide; Zhang, Yi

    2016-01-01

    We serendipitously discovered that the tripeptide Asp-Phe-Phe trifluoroacetic acid salt (hereafter abbreviated as β-AspFF) formed a reversible thermotropic gel in chloroform solution (at temperatures higher than the boiling point of chloroform), and a stable gel in toluene solution (at equal to or lower than the room temperature). Experimental results indicate that doping metal ions into β-AspFF toluene gels can trigger morphological variations in the gel skeleton, thereby increasing gel volume and inducing the collapse of organogels. Investigation on the cation-tuned gelation behavior of β-AspFF can be used to elucidate heating-induced gel collapse (of normal gel) or reverse thermotropic gelation as well as select carbamide and acetamide as activators of β-AspFF gels in chloroform solution at room temperature. PMID:27138527

  5. Isolation and Identification of an Antiproliferative Compound from Fructose-Tryptophan Maillard Reaction Products.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Sang Hoon; Jeong, Su Jeong; Jang, Gwi Yeong; Kim, Min Young; Hwang, In Guk; Kim, Hyun Young; Woo, Koan Sik; Hwang, Bang Yeon; Song, Jin; Lee, Junsoo; Jeong, Heon Sang

    2016-04-20

    This study was performed to isolate and identify a compound with antiproliferative activity against human stomach cancer cell lines, from fructose-tryptophan Maillard reaction products (MRPs). The MRPs, prepared from a fructose-tryptophan solution heated at 130 °C for 2 h, were fractionated into five solvent fractions: n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, butanol, and water. The highest antiproliferative activity was found in the chloroform fraction (85.93% at 200 μg/mL), and the active compound from this chloroform fraction was purified by silica gel column chromatography, TLC, and preparative HPLC. The antiproliferative activity (IC50) of the active compound was 42.24 μg/mL, and the active compound was identified as perlolyrine (C16H10N2O2) by (1)H/(13)C NMR, DEPT, HMBC, and LC-ESI-MS. Therefore, this research may be useful in developing perlolyrine as a functional therapeutic agent. PMID:27041128

  6. Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalo Batallán

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available INTRODUCTION: The aim of the present study was to analyze the larvicidal activity of different crude extracts of Larrea cuneifolia and its most abundant lignan, nordihydroguaiaretic acid (NDGA, against Culex quinquefasciatus. METHODS: Chloroform, methanol, and aqueous extracts from L. cuneifolia and NDGA were tested against larvae of Cx. quinquefasciatus under laboratory conditions. RESULTS: The chloroform extract showed the highest larvicidal effect, with an estimated LC50 of 0.062 mg/ml. NDGA also demonstrated significant larvicidal activity with an estimated LC50 of 0.092 mg/ml. CONCLUSIONS: These results indicate that the chloroform extract of L. cuneifolia and NDGA are promising insecticides of botanical origin that could be useful for controlling Cx. quinquefasciatus.

  7. ANTIOXIDANT, CYTOTOXIC AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF SONNERATIA ALBA BARK

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    Md. Ali Milon*1, Md. Abdul Muhit , Durajan Goshwami , Mohammad Mehedi Masud and Bilkis Begum

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available The present study was undertaken to evaluate antioxidant, cytotoxic and antimicrobial activity of Sonneratia alba bark. The carbon tetrachloride, chloroform soluble partitionate of methanolic extract and crude methanolic extract showed significant antioxidant property using 1,1-diphenyl-2-pecrylhydrazyl(DPPH scavenging assay ,of which chloroform partitionate and crude extract demonstrated highest activity with IC50 value of 12µg/ml and 14µg/ml respectively. In the brine shrimp lethality bioassay, LC50 values obtained from the best fit line slope were 0.812, 14.94, 0.831 and 3.288 µg/ml for standard (Vincristine sulphate, n-Hexane, carbon tetrachloride and chloroform soluble partitionate of methanolic extract respectively. The carbon tetrachloride soluble fraction revealed moderate activities against Bacillus cereus, Bacillus subtilis, Sarcina lutea, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Shigella dysenteriae test organisms.

  8. IN VITRO CYTOTOXIC EFFECT OF METHANOLIC CRUDE EXTRACTS OF TERMINALIA CHEBULA

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    Md.Golam Kibria

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this work is to observe invitro cytotoxic effect of methanolic crude extracts of Terminalia chebula (Family: Combretaceae. The bark of Terminalia chebula were soaked with methanol and then methanolic crude extract was fractionated into n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and chloroform soluble fractions. The methanolic crude extracts (n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and chloroform soluble fractions of Terminalia chebula were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. A reputed cytotoxic agent vincristine sulphate used as a positive control. From the results of the brine shrimp lethality bioassay it can be well predicted that methanolic crude extracts (n-hexane, ethyl acetate and chloroform soluble fractions of Terminalia chebula possess cytotoxic principles, (LC50 1.413 mg/mL, 1.492 mg/mL and 1.496 mg/mL respectively comparison with positive control, vincristine sulphate (LC50 0.563 mg/mL.

  9. Solvent vapour detection with a charge flow transistor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilkop, T; Ray, A K [Sheffield Hallam University, School of Engineering, Physical Electronics and Fibre Optics Research Laboratories, City Campus, Pond Street, Sheffield (United Kingdom)

    2002-10-21

    A novel method to detect reversibly high concentrations of organic vapours in air has been developed by combining an intrinsically low conductive membrane of the calix[4]resorcinarene [C{sub 7}H{sub 15}] derivative with a charge flow transistor. The modulation of the turn-on response for the transistor upon exposure to acetone, chloroform, methanol, hexane and water is presented. The increase in the membrane conductivity is partially attributed to condensation of the vapours in the highly microporous membrane even below the saturation vapour pressure and partially to the effect of the polar analyte molecules complexing inside and between the OH groups of the cavities. The observed sensitivity is in the order chloroform chloroform >> acetone >> methanol >> hexane >> water.

  10. IN VITRO ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITIES STUDY OF ALBIZZIA LEBBECK (L BENTH LEAF EXTRACTS

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    Sahoo Anjulata Manjari

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available To know the in vitro antibacterial activities of benzene, chloroform, acetone, ethyl acetate, ethanol and methanol extracts of the leaves of Albizzia lebbek(L Benth. (Shirish, Family: Mimosaceae, present study was conducted. All the extracts were used at 3mg/ml and 6mg/ml concentrations. Against Staphylococcus aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Escherichia coli, antibacterial activities of the different extracts were studied. Considering the overall antibacterial activity pattern, it can be mentioned that both the chloroform and ethanol extracts possessed antibacterial activities against all the strains used. Out of these two extracts, chloroform extract was more potent than the ethanol extract as far as their antibacterial activities were concerned. The extracts, which displayed antibacterial activity, produced such activity in a dose dependent manner. For the study Tetracycline (25µg/ml was used as positive control, while DMSO was the negative control.

  11. ANALISIS SENYAWA KIMIA DALAM EKSTRAK KLOROFOM BUNGA KAMBOJA (Plumeria alba DENGAN GC-MS

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    Santi Nur Handayani

    2008-11-01

    Full Text Available Plumeria alba is called frangipani is one of Apocynaceae family’s plant. Frangipani is potentially used as traditional medicine, for example as an antiinflamation drugs. It has not been yet done an extensive reasearch on the chemical compound content of frangipani. The reasearch was conducted to investigate some chemical constituents by using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometer (GC-MS. Extraction of chemical compound of frangipani has been conducted by soxhletasi using n-hexane as solvent followed by chloroform and ethyl acetate. Then chloroform extract was identified by GC-MS. The result showed that extract of chloroform contained : palmitic acid, clionasterol, fucosterol, fagarasterol and methyl commate B respectively.

  12. ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF TINOSPORA CRISPA ROOT EXTRACTS

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    Asif Iqbal Chittur Mohammed

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to determine the in vitro antimicrobial activity of ethanol, distilled water, methanol and chloroform crude extracts of the roots of Tinospora crispa. Antimicrobial activity was examined by disc diffusion method against gram positive bacterial strains of Streptococcus pneumonia, gram negative bacterial strains of Escherichia coli and fungal strains of Candida albicans. The maximum zone of inhibition was obtained with ethanol extract against Escherichia coli and Streptococcus pneumonia followed by chloroform extract against the same organisms. Whilst distilled water extract showed a minimal zone of inhibition, methanol extract showed a moderate zone of inhibition against the bacterial strains used. The values were compared with a standard antibiotic. The ethanol extract also showed the maximum zone of inhibition against the growth of Candida albicans, whereas the lowest activity was shown with distilled water crude extract. Methanol and chloroform crude extracts showed considerably moderate activities against the fungal strain, as compared to the standard antibiotic used.

  13. SPECTROPHOTOMETRIC ESTIMATION OF MONTELUKAST FROM BULK DRUG AND TABLET DOSAGE FORM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S.R. Bhagade

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Two Simple, accurate, precise and sensitive spectrophotometric methods for estimation of Montelukast sodium (MON have been developed and validated. The zero order spectroscopic method (Method I and area under curve method (Method II have developed. The proposed methods are validated according to ICH Q2B guidelines. The Montelukast sodium gives maximum absorbance at 241nm in chloroform and observed linearity 2-20 μg/ml for zero order method and 4-20 μg/ml for area under curve method. The stability of drug in chloroform has been studied and drug shows good stability in Chloroform. The recovery by method I and method II are 99.52 ± 0.069, 101.93± 0.11 respectively. The both spectrophotometric methods can be applied for routine analysis of Montelukast sodium in tablet formulation and in bulk drug.

  14. Isoflavone and triterpenoid isolated from an endemic plant Genista microcephala Coss et Dur.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilhem Bouakaz

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available Context: Genista microcephala Coss et Dur is a plant that grows in northern of Algeria. The Genista species show interesting biological properties. Aims: To study phytochemically of the aerial parts of G. microcephala and search new compounds with pharmacological interest. Methods: Aerial parts of G. microcephala were extracted using chloroform. The extract was purified by several chromatography processes. Isolated compounds were analyzed by the usual spectroscopic methods and 2D NMR technics. Results: From the chloroformic extract of the air parts of Genista microcephala (Leguminosae two known components were obtained. The structures of these compounds were oleanolic acid (1, alpinum isoflavone (2 elucidated by the usual spectroscopic methods and 2D NMR technics and by comparison with literature data. Conclusions: Two known components were obtained from the chloroformic extract of the air parts of Genista microcephala but they have not previously been reported from this species.

  15. Biodiesel from wet microalgae: extraction with hexane after the microwave-assisted transesterification of lipids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Jun; Huang, Rui; Li, Tao; Zhou, Junhu; Cen, Kefa

    2014-10-01

    A chloroform-free novel process for the efficient production of biodiesel from wet microalgae is proposed. Crude biodiesel is produced through extraction with hexane after microwave-assisted transesterification (EHMT) of lipids in wet microalgae. Effects of different parameters, including reaction temperature, reaction time, methanol dosage, and catalyst dosage, on fatty acids methyl esters (FAMEs) yield are investigated. The yield of FAME extracted into the hexane from the wet microalgae is increased 6-fold after the transesterification of lipids. The yield of FAME obtained through EHMT of lipids in wet microalgae is comparable to that obtained through direct transesterification of dried microalgae biomass with chloroform; however, FAME content in crude biodiesel obtained through EHMT is 86.74%, while that in crude biodiesel obtained through the chloroform-based process is 75.93%. EHMT ensures that polar pigments present in microalgae are not extracted into crude biodiesel, which leads to a 50% reduction in nitrogen content in crude biodiesel.

  16. In vitro anti-proliferative, anti-bacterial potential and induction of DNA strand break of partially purified Cuscuta reflexa Roxb.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Madhulika Bhagat

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Cuscuta reflexa is an important medicinal plant, mentioned in Ayurveda, an ancient Indian system of medicine. The plant is selected to evaluate the possibility for novel pharmaceuticals for anticancer and antibiotics drugs. Since most of these drugs had developed resisitance against currently used chemotherapeutics. This study describes the in vitro anti-proliferative, anti-bacterial and single stand DNA break of the holoprasitic plant Cuscuta reflexa. Bioassay-guided fractionation and partial purification of the plant were done and evaluated for antiproliferative activity against human cancer cell lines by SRB assay and single strand DNA break by comet assay. Further antibacterial activity was also performed by agar well diffusion assay. The alcoholic extract, chloroform fraction and partially purified ethylacetate-methanol (1:1 sub-fraction of C. reflexa showed anti-proliferative potential against IMR-32 and 502713 human cancer cell lines. Alcoholic extract exhibited anti-proliferative activity of 74% and 72%, chloroform fraction demonstrated 91% and 95% against neuroblastoma (IMR-32 and colon (502713 cancer cell lines at 100 μg/ml. Single strand DNA break of the chloroform fraction was also demonstrated using comet assay, indicating that possible mode of cell death may be apoptosis. Anti-microbial properties were evaluated against eight species of pathogenic and non-pathogenic microorganisms and maximum zone of inhibition for anti-bacterial activity was found against Staphylococcus aureus (22 mm by alcoholic extract, 21 mm by chloroform fraction and 12 mm by ethylacetate-methanol (1:1 sub-fraction. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC of the chloroform fraction was 1500 μg/ml for S. aureus. The plant was found to be equally effective against gram-positive and negative bacteria. Studies are well underway to isolate and identify active compounds from chloroform fraction and ethyl acetate:methanol (1:1 sub-fraction, which can be used as

  17. Laboratory Evaluations of the Fractions Efficacy of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae) Leaf Extract on Immature Stage Development of Malarial and Filarial Mosquito Vectors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lame, Younoussa; Nukenine, Elias Nchiwan; Pierre, Danga Yinyang Simon; Elijah, Ajaegbu Eze; Esimone, Charles Okechukwu

    2015-01-01

    Background: Within the framework to control mosquitoes, ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Annona senegalensis leaf extract and its 4 fractions against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were evaluated in the laboratory conditions. Methods: Ovicidal test was performed by submitting at least 100 eggs of mosquitoes to 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations, while larvicidal and pupicidal effects were assessed by submitting 25 larvae or pupae to the concentrations of 2500, 1250, 625 and 312.5 ppm of plant extract or fractions of A. senegalensis. Results: The eggs of An. gambiae were most affected by N-hexane (0.00% hatchability) and chloroform (03.67% hatchability) fractions compared to Cx. quinquefasciatus where at least 25 % hatchability were recorded at 2000 ppm. For larvicidal test, N-hexane (LC50= 298.8 ppm) and chloroform (LC50= 418.3 ppm) fractions were more effective than other fractions on An. gambiae larvae while, a moderate effectiveness was also observed with N-hexane (LC50= 2087.6 ppm), chloroform (LC50= 9010.1 ppm) fractions on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The highest mortality percent of the pupae were also recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions on An. gambiae at 2500 ppm. As for Cx. quinquefasciatus only 50 % and 36 % mortality were recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions respectively. Conclusion: The extract of A. senegalensis was toxic on immature stage of mosquito species tested. By splitting methanolic crude extract, only N-hexane and chloroform fractions were revealed to possess a mosquitocidal effects and could be considered and utilized for future immature mosquito vectors control. PMID:26623434

  18. Preliminary phytochemical investigation and in vitro anthelmintic activities ofMaesa lanceolata solvent extracts againstLymnatis nilotica (aquatic leech)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wondu Dagnaw; Alemayehu Mekonnen

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To investigate phytochemicals constituents and check the anthelmintic activities of Maesa lanceolata (M. lanceolata) solvent extracts against aquatic leech. Methods: Several phytochemicals were tested and screened from petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts ofM. lanceolata extracts and their anthelmintic activities were done based on the standard procedure against aquatic leech. Piperazine citrate (20 mg/mL) was used as a reference standard while distilled water was used as a control. Results:Qualitative phytochemical analysis of different solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts ofM. lanceolata revealed the presence of flavonoids and alkaloids in chloroform extracts and alkaloids in methanol extracts. In addition to the qualitative analysis of the plant extracts, the anthelmintic effects were also evaluated against aquatic leech (Lymnatis nilotica). Accordingly, various concentrations (10, 20, 40 and 60 mg/mL) of each solvent (petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol) extracts and 20 mg/mL of standard drug were prepared and tested against the selected leech. All the tested concentrations showed anthelmintic activities in a dose-dependent manner. From petroleum ether, chloroform and methanol extracts, chloroform extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration was effective with the paralytic time of (29.00 ± 1.06) min and death time of (65.00 ± 2.00) min in gradient extraction method. But in the case of extraction without gradient method, methanol extracts with 60 mg/mL concentration showed effective paralysis and death time (26.00 ± 1.73) and (56.00 ± 1.56) min, respectively, against the selected aquatic leech. Conclusions:The present study revealed thatM. lanceolata extracts have magic anthelmintic activities which are helpful to treat aquatic leeches (Lymnatis nilotica) which are associated with the nasal cavities of animals and human beings.

  19. Antitubercular activity of the semi-polar extractives of Uvaria rufa

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Allan Patrick G Macabeo; Florie A Tudla; Karsten Krohn; Scott G Franzblau

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the inhibitory activity of the chloroform extract, petroleum ether and chloroform sub-extracts, lead-acetate treated chloroform extract, fractions and secondary metabolites of Uvaria rufa (U. rufa) against Mycobacterium tuberculosis (M. tuberculosis) H37Rv. Methods: The antituberculosis susceptibility assay was carried out using the colorimetric Microplate Alamar blue assay (MABA). In addition, the cytotoxicity of the most active fraction was evaluated using the VERO cell toxicity assay. Results: The in vitro inhibitory activity against M. tuberculosis H37Rv increased as purification progressed to fractionation (MIC up to 23μg/mL). The chloroform extract and its sub-extracts showed moderate toxicity while the most active fraction from chloroform sub-extract exhibited no cytotoxicity against VERO cells. Meanwhile, the lead acetate-treated crude chloroform extract and its fractions showed complete inhibitions (100%) with MIC values up to 8μg/mL. Phytochemical screening of the most active fraction showed, in general, the presence of terpenoids, steroids and phenolic compounds. Evaluation of the antimycobacterial activity of known secondary metabolites isolated showed no promising inhibitory activity against the test organism. Conclusions: The present results demonstrate the potential of U. rufa as a phytomedicinal source of compounds that may exhibit promising antituberculosis activity. In addition, elimination of polar pigments revealed enhanced inhibition against M. tuberculosis H37Rv. While several compounds known for this plant did not show antimycobacterial activity, the obtained results are considered sufficient reason for further study to isolate the metabolites from U. rufa responsible for the antitubercular activity.

  20. Occurrence of volatile organic compounds in shallow alluvial aquifers of a Mediterranean region: Baseline scenario and ecological implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Lorenzo, T; Borgoni, R; Ambrosini, R; Cifoni, M; Galassi, D M P; Petitta, M

    2015-12-15

    A regional survey of eight volatile organic compounds (VOCs), namely BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene and p-xylene) and four chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs: chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane, trichloroethene and tetrachloroethene), was carried out at 174 sites, in 17 alluvial aquifers of Abruzzo, a Mediterranean region of southern Italy, from 2004 to 2009. Frequency of detection, concentration range, spatial distribution pattern, and temporal trend of contaminant concentration in each aquifer were analyzed as well as the relationships between VOC concentrations and the total amount of precipitation during the 90days preceding each sampling date. A review of published ecotoxicological data, providing an indication of the biological risk associated with the observed levels of VOC contamination, was presented and discussed. BTEX concentrations were under detection limits in all the investigated aquifers, indicating absence of contamination. In contrast, CAH contamination occurred in 14 out of 17 aquifers. The two most frequently detected compounds were chloroform and tetrachloroethene. No significant temporal trend was observed for chloroform and tetrachloroethene concentrations during the six years of observation, indicating the persistence of stable contaminations, except for some slightly decreasing trends observed in three out of 17 aquifers. In four aquifers chloroform and tetrachloroethene concentrations increased with precipitations in the preceding months. Spatial patterns of contamination differed among aquifers, indicating highly complex contaminant distributions at aquifer scale not related to single-plume geometries. Patterns of contamination by chloroform and tetrachloroethene in the most urbanized aquifers were likely associated with multiple sources of VOCs not clearly detectable at the scale used in this study. In five out of 17 aquifers, chloroform and tetrachloroethene co-occurred at concentrations that are lethal to groundwater

  1. Laboratory Evaluations of the Fractions Efficacy of Annona senegalensis (Annonaceae Leaf Extract on Immature Stage Development of Malarial and Filarial Mosquito Vectors

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younoussa Lame

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available Background: Within the framework to control mosquitoes, ovicidal, larvicidal and pupicidal activity of Annona senegalensis leaf extract and its 4 fractions against Anopheles gambiae and Culex quinquefasciatus were evaluated in the laboratory conditions.Methods: Ovicidal test was performed by submitting at least 100 eggs of mosquitoes to 125, 250, 500, 1000 and 2000 ppm concentrations, while larvicidal and pupicidal effects were assessed by submitting 25 larvae or pupae to the concentrations of 2500, 1250, 625 and 312.5 ppm of plant extract or fractions of A. senegalensis.Results: The eggs of An. gambiae were most affected by N-hexane (0.00% hatchability and chloroform (03.67% hatchability fractions compared to Cx. quinquefasciatus where at least 25 % hatchability were recorded at 2000 ppm. For larvicidal test, N-hexane (LC50= 298.8 ppm and chloroform (LC50= 418.3 ppm fractions were more effective than other fractions on An. gambiae larvae while, a moderate effectiveness was also observed with Nhexane (LC50= 2087.6 ppm, chloroform (LC50= 9010.1 ppm fractions on Cx. quinquefasciatus larvae. The highest mortality percent of the pupae were also recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions on An. gambiae at 2500 ppm. As for Cx. quinquefasciatus only 50 % and 36 % mortality were recorded with N-hexane and chloroform fractions respectively.Conclusion: The extract of A. senegalensis was toxic on immature stage of mosquito species tested. By splitting methanolic crude extract, only N-hexane and chloroform fractions were revealed to possess a mosquitocidal effects and could be considered and utilized for future immature mosquito vectors control.

  2. Identification of Secondary Metabolites Compounds and Antibacterial Activities on The Extract of Soursop Leaf

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dian Riana Ningsih

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Treatment of bacterial infectious diseases using semi-synthetic antibiotics can lead to resistance, so as to overcome it necessary to search for natural ingredients from plant extracts that has potential as an antibacterial, one of which is the leaf extract of soursop (Annona muricata L.. This study aims to determine the antibacterial activity of soursop leaf against E. coli and identify groups most active chemical compounds from the extracts. Soursop leaves extracted by maceration using n-hexane, chloroform and methanol. The extracts were tested for antibacterial activity using the diffusion method. Extract with the highest activity determined the minimum inhibitory concentrations grow (MIC and tested the content of secondary metabolites with phytochemical test, subsequently identified using IR spectrophotometer. Soursop leaves with extraction solvent n-hexane, chloroform and methanol to produce n-hexane extract (E1, the chloroform extract (E2, and the methanol extract (E3 with a yield respectively 0.82%; 5.21%; 8.2% and produce antibacterial activity with consecutive inhibition zone of 3.52 mm; 8.34 mm; 3.00 mm. MIC of soursop leaf chloroform extract of the E. coli bacteria that is at a concentration of 1 ppm with inhibition zone of 3.23 mm. Based on the test results phytochemical soursop leaf chloroform extract showed the presence of compounds alkaloids, steroids, saponins and tannins. IR spectrophotometer identification results showed that the chloroform extract of the leaves of the soursop has functional groups OH, aliphatic C-H, C = O, C = C aromatic, CH3, C-O ether and C-H outside the field.

  3. Larvicidal activity of extracts from three Plumbago spp against Anopheles gambiae

    OpenAIRE

    Barasa M Maniafu; Lwande Wilber; Ndiege, Isaiah O.; Cornelius C Wanjala; Teresa Ayuko Akenga

    2009-01-01

    Three Plumbago spp have been tested for mosquito larvicidal activity. The crude extracts exhibiting the highest larvicidal activity against Anopheles gambiae were hexane (LC50 = 6.4 μg/mL) and chloroform (LC50 = 6.7 μg/mL) extracts from Plumbago zeylanica Linn, chloroform (LC50 = 6.7 ug/mL) extract from Plumbago stenophylla Bull and ethyl acetate (LC50 = 4.1 μg/mL) extract from Plumbago dawei Rolfe. These LC50 values were within 95% confidence limits. 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-nap...

  4. Antimalarial activity of extracts of Malaysian medicinal plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Najib Nik A Rahman, N; Furuta, T; Kojima, S; Takane, K; Ali Mohd, M

    1999-03-01

    In vitro and in vivo studies revealed that Malaysian medicinal plants, Piper sarmentosum, Andrographis paniculata and Tinospora crispa produced considerable antimalarial effects. Chloroform extract in vitro did show better effect than the methanol extract. The chloroform extract showed complete parasite growth inhibition as low as 0.05 mg/ml drug dose within 24 h incubation period (Andrographis paniculata) as compared to methanol extract of drug dose of 2.5 mg/ml but under incubation time of 48 h of the same plant spesies. In vivo activity of Andrographis paniculata also demonstrated higher antimalarial effect than other two plant species. PMID:10363840

  5. Antibacterial activity of Citrus reticulata peel extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jayaprakasha, G K; Negi, P S; Sikder, S; Rao, L J; Sakariah, K K

    2000-01-01

    Citrus peels were successively extracted with hexane, chloroform and acetone using a soxhlet extractor. The hexane and chloroform extracts were fractionated into alcohol-soluble and alcohol-insoluble fractions. These fractions were tested against different gram positive and gram negative bacteria. The EtOH-soluble fraction was found to be most effective. Fractionation of EtOH-soluble fraction on silica gel column yielded three polymethoxylated flavones, namely desmethylnobiletin, nobiletin and tangeretin. Their structures were confirmed by UV, 1H, 13C NMR and mass spectral studies. The findings indicated a potential of these natural compounds as biopreservatives in food applications. PMID:11204182

  6. A convenient method for lecithin purification from fresh eggs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Flavio A. Maximiano

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The increasing demand for fatty acid-free lecithin required modifications in existing purification methods. In this technical note we describe a purification procedure with the following steps: a homogenization and extraction of yolks obtained from fresh eggs with acetone, b solubilization with ethanol and solvent elimination and c repeated solubilization/precipitation with petroleum ether/acetone. This crude extract was chromatographed on neutral alumina, which was exhaustively washed with chloroform before elution with chloroform:methanol, allowing the sequential separation of fatty acids and lecithin. Chromatographic behavior and mass spectra of the product are presented. This fast procedure yields fatty acid-free lecithin at a competitive cost.

  7. Determination of the elemental composition of cyanobacteria cells and cell fractions by atomic emission and atomic absorption spectrometry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An approach to studying the elemental composition of cyanobacteria Spirulina platensis and Nostoc commune using a set of complementary analytical methods (ICP-AES, PAAS, and ETAAS) was proposed . The procedures were adapted for the determination of macro- and microelements (Na, K, Mg, Ca, Fe, Mn, Cu, Mo, Zn, B, and Se) in the biomass of cyanobacteria and separated cell fractions (chloroform and water-methanol extracts and precipitates). The conditions for the mineralization of biological materials were optimized for autoclave and microwave sample preparation procedures. The evaporation and atomization of Se and Mo in a graphite furnace in the presence of chloroform and methanol were studied

  8. Antibacterial Activity of Barringtonia acutangula against Selected Urinary Tract Pathogens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sahoo, S; Panda, P K; Mishra, S R; Parida, R K; Ellaiah, P; Dash, S K

    2008-09-01

    Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn belonging to family Barringtoniaceae was investigated to evaluate In vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanolic, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli the major urinary tract infection causing pathogens were tested by disc diffusion assay method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was evaluated. Ethanol (95%) extract exhibited broader spectrum of inhibition followed by chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts against the urinary tract pathogens under test. An attempt has been made to compare the activity of extracts with standard antibiotics against selected urinary tract infection causing pathogens. PMID:21394275

  9. Antibacterial activity of Barringtonia acutangula against selected urinary tract pathogens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sahoo S

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Barringtonia acutangula (L. Gaertn belonging to family Barringtoniaceae was investigated to evaluate In vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanolic, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts against Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli the major urinary tract infection causing pathogens were tested by disc diffusion assay method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was evaluated. Ethanol (95% extract exhibited broader spectrum of inhibition followed by chloroform, petroleum ether and aqueous extracts against the urinary tract pathogens under test. An attempt has been made to compare the activity of extracts with standard antibiotics against selected urinary tract infection causing pathogens.

  10. Polar Lipid Extraction

    OpenAIRE

    sprotocols

    2014-01-01

    Author: Biotechniques Polar lipids are generally extracted from dry cell material using chloroform:methanol:0.3% NaCl (1:2:0.8 v/v/v). This may be carried out by adding 9.5 ml of this mixture to 100 mg of freeze dried cells, or by adding a suitable amount of chloroform, methanol and 0.3% NaCl to the cell material, or to the aqueous methanolic phase remaining from the lipoquinone extraction. 1. The aqueous methanolic phase (4 ml total volume), together with the cell material from the ...

  11. Advanced glycation end-products inhibitors isolated from Schisandra grandiflora.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poornima, B; Kumar, D Anand; Siva, Bandi; Venkanna, A; Vadaparthi, P R Rao; Kumar, K; Tiwari, Ashok K; Babu, K Suresh

    2016-01-01

    Free radicals scavenging and advanced glycation end-products (AGEs) inhibitory potentials in crude chloroform extract of Schisandra grandiflora were evaluated. Bioassay-guided isolation of the chloroform extract led to the identification of 24 compounds. Among the isolates, ( ± ) gomisin M1, arisantetralone C and D, macelignan, saurulignan B and SZ-MO displayed potent-free radical scavenging as well as AGEs inhibitory potentials. This is the first report identifying the presence of AGEs inhibitory activity and assigning AGEs inhibitory activity to these compounds. Therefore, our research finds new application of traditional medicinal plant S. grandiflora having capacity to reduce formation and accumulation of AGEs in diabetes.

  12. Tritium removal from contaminated water via infrared laser multiple-photon dissociation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maienschein, J.L.; Magnotta, F.; Herman, I.P.; Aldridge, F.T.; Hsiao, P.

    1983-01-01

    Isotope separation by means of infrared-laser multiple-photon dissociation offers an efficient way to recover tritium from contaminated light or heavy water found in fission and fusion reactors. For tritium recovery from heavy water, chemical exchange of tritium into deuterated chloroform is followed by selective laser dissociation of tritiated chloroform and removal of the tritiated photoproduct, TCl. The single-step separation factor is at least 2700 and is probably greater than 5000. Here we present a description of the tritium recovery process, along with recent accomplishments in photochemical studies and engineering analysis of a recovery system.

  13. The Reactivity of 2,4,6-Tirphenylpyridinium Ylids

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Triphenylpyridinium ylid 2, generated by the decarboxylation of betaine 1, were noted to react with acetyl chloride, chloroform or acetone to form addition-elimination product and proton extraction - carbanion addition products, respectively. The reaction with chloroform was determined as pseudo first order from kinetic experiments. The values of kobsd and t1/2 for decarboxylation at 20, 40 and 50°C were calculated to be 4.6 x 10-4, 8.8 x 10-3, 2.8 x 10-2 min-1 and 1.5 x 103, 78, 24 minutes, respectively.

  14. Preparation of mixed trialkyl alkylcarbonate derivatives of etidronic acid via an unusual route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Petri A. Turhanen

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A method to prepare four (3a–d trialkyl alkylcarbonate esters of etidronate from P,P'-dimethyl etidronate and alkyl chloroformate was developed by utilizing unexpected demethylation and decarboxylation reactions. The reaction with the sterically more hindered isobutyl chloroformate at a lower temperature (90 °C produced the P,P'-diester (2 as a stable intermediate product. A possible reaction mechanism is discussed to explain these methyl substitutions. These unusual reactions also clarify why it is difficult to prepare alkylcarbonate prodrugs from bisphosphonates. The compounds prepared were analysed by spectroscopic techniques.

  15. Investigation of chloromethane complexes of cryptophane‐A analogue with butoxy groups using 13C NMR in the solid state and solution along with single crystal X‐ray diffraction

    OpenAIRE

    Steiner, Emilie; Mathew, Renny; Zimmermann, Iwan; Brotin, Thierry; Edén, Mattias; Kowalewski, Jozef

    2015-01-01

    Host‐guest complexes between cryptophane‐A analogue with butoxy groups (cryptophane‐But) and chloromethanes (chloroform, dichloromethane) were investigated in the solid state by means of magic‐angle spinning 13C NMR spectroscopy. The separated local fields method with 13C‐1H dipolar recoupling was used to determine the residual dipolar coupling for the guest molecules encaged in the host cavity. In the case of chloroform guest, the residual dipolar interaction was estimated to be about 19 kHz...

  16. Purification of human genomic DNA from whole blood using sodium perchlorate in place of phenol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Johns, M B; Paulus-Thomas, J E

    1989-08-01

    We have developed a new, rapid method for the extraction of human genomic DNA from whole blood samples. Traditionally, genomic DNA has been extracted from blood by overnight proteinase K digestion of lysed peripheral lymphocytes followed by phenol/chloroform extraction. In addition to being time consuming, the use of phenol involves inherent risks due to the toxic nature of the reagent. Our method for the extraction of DNA from whole blood uses sodium perchlorate and chloroform instead of phenol with a significant time savings realized as well as fewer hazards to the technician. Furthermore, DNA prepared by this new method is an excellent substrate for restriction endonuclease digestion and Southern hybridization analysis.

  17. Two New Phorbol-Type Diterpene Esters from Synadenium grantii Hook F. Leaves

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emad M. Hassan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Two new phorbol-type diterpene esters has been isolated from the chloroform extract of the leaves of Synadenium grantii Hook F. and identified as 3,4,12,13-tetraacetylphorbol-20-phenylacetate and 4-deoxyphor bol-12,13-ditiglate for which the trivial names Synagrantol A & B respectively, were adopted. Furthermore, two known triterpenes were isolated. The structures of all isolated compounds were established by 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy including 1H and 13C NMR, HSQC and HMBC techniques. The cytotoxicity as well as the antiparasitic activity of the chloroform extract was performed and proved to be active.

  18. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF CALENDULA OFFICINALIS LINN

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chakraborthy Guno Sindhu

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Identification of primary and secondary constituents has become the utmost important tool for the presence of active moiety. The phytochemical screening of petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water extracts of Calendula officinalis leaf done by TLC means. Petroleum ether extract showed the presence of fatty acids, chloroform extracts showed the presence of triterpens and sterols. Flavonoids, carbohydrates, amino acids and saponins were present in methanol extract and saponins, phenolic substances and tannins were present in the water extract of Calendula officinalis.

  19. Phyto chemical and bio activities research on Tinospora crispa (Patawali)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The usage of traditional therapeutic medicine is gaining attention as consumption to modern therapeutic medicine can affect health and also causing death. Because of this resurgence of interest, the research on medicinal plant is growing phenomenally in Malaysia as Tinospora crispa is one of the potential candidates and this plant is been use since long time ago as medicine. Solvent extraction method run on Tinospora crispa's stem had resulted 5 extracts which were hexane, chloroform, butanol, aqueous and methanol. Phyto chemical screening of hexane extract showed existence of alkaloid, flavonon, polyphenol substances and steroid type saponins. Chloroform extract consists alkaloid and triterpenoid type saponins while alkaloid, flavon and polyphenol substances found in butanol extract. Aqueous extract consist free acid and steroid type saponins whereas alkaloid, tannin and triterpenoid type saponins were found in methanol extract. Hexane, chloroform, and butanol extracts shows inhibition zone for bacteria gram-positive, Staphylococcus aureus where each extracts give inhibitory zone diameter of 1.5 cm, 1.3 cm, and 1.2 cm. There is no inhibitory zone for methanol and aqueous extract. As observation for bacteria gram-negative, Escherichia coli shows negative result for inhibitory zone. The LC50 acute for hexane, chloroform, butanol, aqueous and methanol extracts are 3162.28 ppm, 7813.71 ppm, 380.72 ppm, 662.87 ppm, dan 1847.85 ppm respectively. LC50 chronic for hexane, chloroform, butanol, aqueous and methanol extracts are 273.84 ppm, 259.29 ppm, 17.78 ppm, 12.02 ppm, dan 15.44 ppm respectively. Butanol, aqueous and methanol extracts gives higher relative toxicity compared to potassium dichromate. Overall, Tinospora crispas extracts are toxic compared with relative toxicity of potassium dichromate. The solvent system of toulene, acetone and chloroform with the proportion of 8: 2: 5 for hexane extract indicated 9 substances where chloroform extract yielded 6 substance

  20. Measurement and Correlation of Solubilities of Adipic Acid in Different Solvents%已二酸溶解度的测定与关联

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    毛治博; 孙晓波; 栾向海; 王钰; 刘国际

    2009-01-01

    Using a simple and reliable apparatus, the solubilities of adipic acid in water, ethanol, chloroform, n-butanol and acetone are determined by the analytic method. The results are correlated with Xh equation, Apelblat equation, and UNIFAC equation. The solubilities calculated by these models are in good agreement with experi-mental data, so that the models can meet the requirements of engineering design.

  1. Enhanced mobility of poly(3-hexylthiophene) transistors by spin-coating from high-boiling-point solvents

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chang, J.F.; Sun, B.Q.; Breiby, Dag Werner;

    2004-01-01

    Chloroform is a general solvent for poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT) active layers in field-effect transistors. However, its low boiling point and rapid evaporation limit the time for crystallization during the spin-coating process, and field-effect mobilities achieved for P3HT films spin-coated from...

  2. Adsorption of Halogenated Hydrocarbons from Aqueous Solutions by Wetted and Nonwetted Hydrophobic and Hydrophilic Sorbents:  Equilibria

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rexwinkel, G.; Heesink, A.B.M.; Swaaij, van W.P.M.

    1999-01-01

    Single-solute adsorption equilibria of 1,1,1-trichloroethane, 1,1,2-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, trans-1,2-dichloroethene, chloroform, 2,4-dichorophenol, and dichloromethane dissolved in water have been measured, using both wetted and nonwetted hydrophobic Amberlite XAD-4 resin at 20 °C. The re

  3. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor without addition of another electron donor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    de Best, JH; Hunneman, P; Doddema, HJ; Janssen, DB; Harder, W; Doddema, Hans J.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (52 mu M) was biodegraded for more than 72% in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor without addition of an external electron donor. The chloride mass balance demonstrated that all carbon tetrachloride transformed was completely dechlorinated. Chloroform and dichloromethane were somet

  4. Laboratory and field evaluation of medicinal plant extracts against filarial vector, Culex quinquefasciatus Say (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    In this study, chemical extracts of Jatropha curcas, Hyptis suaveolens, Abutilon indicum, and Leucas aspera were tested for toxicity to larvae of the filariasis vector Culex quinquefasciatus. Respective median lethal concentrations (LC50) for hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and methanol extracts...

  5. Alternative chromatographic system for the quality control of lipophilic technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals such as [99mTc(MIBI6]+

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    D.P. Faria

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Knowledge of the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals is mandatory and can be evaluated by several methods and techniques. Planar chromatography is the technique normally employed in nuclear medicine since it is simple, rapid and usually of low cost. There is no standard system for the chromatographic technique, but price, separation efficiency and short time for execution must be considered. We have studied an alternative system using common chromatographic stationary phase and alcohol or alcohol:chloroform mixtures as the mobile phase, using the lipophilic radiopharmaceutical [99mTc(MIBI6]+ as a model. Whatman 1 modified phase paper and absolute ethanol, Whatman 1 paper and methanol:chloroform (25:75, Whatman 3MM paper and ethanol:chloroform (25:75, and the more expensive ITLC-SG and 1-propanol:chloroform (10:90 were suitable systems for the direct determination of radiochemical purity of [99mTc(MIBI6]+ since impurities such as 99mTc-reduced-hydrolyzed (RH, 99mTcO4 - and [99mTc(cysteine2]- complex were completely separated from the radiopharmaceutical, which moved toward the front of chromatographic systems while impurities were retained at the origin. The time required for analysis was 4 to 15 min, which is appropriate for nuclear medicine routines.

  6. 21 CFR 556.220 - 3,5-Dinitrobenzamide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... chloroform and prepared for chromatography by removing the aqueous phase in a separatory funnel and the... the resin on a Buchner funnel (24 cm.) fitted with Whatman No. 1 paper. 5. Wash the resin bed with.... Chromatography tubes—Corning No. 38460, 20 millimeters A 400 millimeters and having a tapered 29/42 joint...

  7. Evaluation of antimicrobial activity of the lichens Physcia aipolia, Xanthoria parietina, Usnea florida, Usnea subfloridana and Melanohalea exasperata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gülşah Çobanoğlu

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The present study aimed to evaluate the antimicrobial activity of methanol and chloroform extracts of five lichen species, Melanohalea exasperata, Physcia aipolia, Usnea florida, U. subfloridana and Xanthoria parietina. Antimicrobial activity in culture assays of these foliose and fruticose lichen extracts were examined against two Gram-negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Escherichia coli, two Gram-positive bacteria (Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus, and the yeast Candida albicans using the paper disc method through determination of minimal inhibitory concentrations (MICs. The obtained results indicated the existence of different levels of antibiotic substances in the chloroform and the methanol extracts of the examined lichen species. The chloroform extracts of Usnea subfloridana showed the highest activity against Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa while the methanol extracts of this species were not active against these microorganisms. The chloroform extracts of the examined species exhibited more significant antimicrobial activity than the methanol extracts. None of the species were active against Enterococcus faecalis and Staphylococcus aureus. Most of the lichen extracts indicated a moderate antifungal activity against Candida albicans, except for Physcia aipolia, which was not active.

  8. Phytotoxic Activity of a Benzofuran Isolated from Trichocline reptans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Vaccarini

    2000-03-01

    Full Text Available Phytotoxic Activity of the 6-acetyl-5-hydroxy-2isopropenyl-2,3-dihydrobenzofurane (1 isolated from Trichocline reptans (Asteraceae was investigated in two weed species. Results indicate that the best growth inhibition effect ocurres on Chenopodium album weed. Phythotoxic effect of the T. reptans chloroformic extract and of the benzofurane are discussed and compared in the two weed species.

  9. Application of substoichiometric radioisotopic dilution to extraction of trace-level cadmium

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Genova, N.; Crespi, V.C.; Maggi, L.; Brandone, A. (Pavia Univ. (Italy). Ist. di Chimica Generale e Inorganica)

    1983-04-01

    A substoichiometric isotopic dilution method was coupled to the standard addition technique for the determination of trace-level cadmium. /sup 109/Cd carrier-free as a radiotracer and extraction with dithizone in chloroform were used. A preconcentration procedure, which also cuts down the main interferences, for tap and natural waters was suggested. The sensitivity and accuracy of the method are discussed.

  10. Crude extract and purified components isolated from the stems of Tinospora crispa exhibit positive inotropic effects on the isolated left atrium of rats

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Praman, Siwaporn; Mulvany, Michael J.; Williams, David E.;

    2013-01-01

    was to investigate the effects and mechanisms of the Tinospora crispa extract and bioactive components on the rat isolated left atria. MATERIALS AND METHODS: Air-dried stems of Tinospora crispa were extracted with water, followed by partitioning with chloroform, ethyl acetate, and finally by n-butanol. The n...

  11. Absorption coefficient of nearly transparent liquids measured using thermal lens spectrometry

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H.Cabrera

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available We use an optimized pump-probe mode-mismatched thermal lens scheme to determine the optical absorption coefficient and thermal diffusivity of ethanol, benzene, acetone, methanol, toluene and chloroform. In this scheme the excitation beam is focused in the presence of a collimated probe beam. The agreement between experimentally obtained results and values reported in the literature is good.

  12. Generation and Reaction of Carbamoyl Anions in Flow: Applications in the Three-Component Synthesis of Functionalized α-Ketoamides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nagaki, Aiichiro; Takahashi, Yusuke; Yoshida, Jun-Ichi

    2016-04-18

    Using a flow microreactor system, carbamoyllithium compounds were successfully generated and used for reactions with electrophiles to give various amides, including α-ketoamides. The present method could be applied to the three-component synthesis of functionalized α-ketoamides using a carbamoyllithium compound, methyl chloroformate, and a functionalized organolithium reagent. PMID:26990703

  13. New insight into the mechanism of the conjugate addition of benzenethiol to cyclic and acyclic enones and of the corresponding uranyl-salophen-catalysed version

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Axel Castelli, van Valeria; Dalla Cort, Antonella; Mandolini, Luigi; Reinhoudt, David N.; Schiaffino, Luca

    2003-01-01

    A thorough kinetic investigation of the triethylamine-catalysed addition of benzenethiol to 2-cyclopenten-1-one in chloroform shows that the highest energy transition state is a complex of thiol, enone, and base in a 1:1:1 ratio, but whether formation or disruption of the enolate-triethylammonium io

  14. N-Heterocyclic Carbene-Catalyzed Alcohol Acetylation: An Organic Experiment Using Organocatalysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan, John P.; Shrimp, Jonathan H.

    2014-01-01

    Undergraduate students in the teaching laboratory have successfully used N-heterocyclic carbenes (NHCs) as organocatalysts for the acetylation of primary alcohols, despite the high water sensitivity of uncomplexed ("free") NHCs. The free NHC readily reacted with chloroform, resulting in an air- and moisture-stable adduct that liberates…

  15. Molecular evidence for cryptic species among the Antarctic fish Trematomus bernacchii and Trematomus hansoni

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Bernardi, G.; Goswami, U.

    Station. Muscle tissue was extracted and preserved at -20°C until DNA extraction. Tissues were digested overnight at 55°C in 500 ml of extraction buffer (Tris 10 mM, NaCl400 mM, EDTA 2 mM, SDS 2%, Proteinase K). The DNA was then purified by chloroform...

  16. Organic Chemical Attribution Signatures for the Sourcing of a Mustard Agent and Its Starting Materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraga, Carlos G; Bronk, Krys; Dockendorff, Brian P; Heredia-Langner, Alejandro

    2016-05-17

    Chemical attribution signatures (CAS) are being investigated for the sourcing of chemical warfare (CW) agents and their starting materials that may be implicated in chemical attacks or CW proliferation. The work reported here demonstrates for the first time trace impurities from the synthesis of tris(2-chloroethyl)amine (HN3) that point to the reagent and the specific reagent stocks used in the synthesis of this CW agent. Thirty batches of HN3 were synthesized using different combinations of commercial stocks of triethanolamine (TEA), thionyl chloride, chloroform, and acetone. The HN3 batches and reagent stocks were then analyzed for impurities by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. All the reagent stocks had impurity profiles that differentiated them from one another. This was demonstrated by building classification models with partial least-squares discriminant analysis (PLSDA) and obtaining average stock classification errors of 2.4, 2.8, 2.8, and 11% by cross-validation for chloroform (7 stocks), thionyl chloride (3 stocks), acetone (7 stocks), and TEA (3 stocks), respectively, and 0% for a validation set of chloroform samples. In addition, some reagent impurities indicative of reagent type were found in the HN3 batches that were originally present in the reagent stocks and presumably not altered during synthesis. More intriguing, impurities in HN3 batches that were apparently produced by side reactions of impurities unique to specific TEA and chloroform stocks, and thus indicative of their use, were observed. PMID:27116337

  17. Comparing an ionic liquid to a molecular solvent in the cesium cation extraction by a calixarene: a molecular dynamics study of the aqueous interfaces.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sieffert, Nicolas; Wipff, Georges

    2006-10-01

    We report a molecular dynamics (MD) study of the interfacial behavior of key partners involved in the Cs(+) cation extraction by a calix[4]arene-crown-6 host (L), comparing an ionic liquid (IL) to a classical molecular solvent (chloroform) as receiving "oil" phase. The IL is composed of hydrophobic 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium cations (BMI(+)) and bis(trifluoromethylsulfonyl)imide anions (Tf(2)N(-)) and forms a biphasic system with water. The simulations reveal similarities but also interesting differences between the two types of interfaces. Much longer times are needed to "equilibrate" IL systems, compared to classical liquid mixtures, and there is more intersolvent mixing with the IL than with chloroform, especially concerning the water-in-oil content. There is also some excess of the BMI(+) cations over the Tf(2)N(-) anions in the aqueous phase. Simulations on the Na(+)NO(3)(-) and Cs(+)NO(3)(-) ions show that they sometimes interact at the interface with the IL ions, forming hydrated intimate ion pairs, whereas they are "repelled" by the classical interface. The LCs(+) complex and L ligand also behave differently, depending on the "oil phase". They are better solvated by the IL than by chloroform and thus poorly attracted at the IL interface, whereas they adsorb at the chloroform interface, adopting well-defined amphiphilic orientations. The results are discussed in the context of assisted ion transfer and provide a number of arguments explaining the specificity and efficiency of IL based, compared to classical extraction systems.

  18. The Effect of Extracts of Andrographis paniculata Aerial Parts on Rat Thoracic Aorta

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S Raghava Naidu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (AP, (Burf. Nees. of Acanthaceae, has been used for centuries in Asia to treat GI tract and upper respiratory tract infections, fever, herpes, sore throat, and a variety of other chronic and infectious diseases. AP has cardio protective property and is familiarly known as "King of Bitters". The present study was aimed to investigate the vasorelaxant effect of different solvent extracts of AP on rat thoracic aorta. Petroleum ether, chloroform, and methanol extracts of AP are used in this study. Experiments are performed on male Sprague-Dawley (SD rats for possible vasorelaxing activity of AP. Cumulative dose response curves are recorded by using isometric force displacement transducer Model FT-03 and it is connected to Grass Polygraph Model 79D. Additionally, HPLC study of chloroform extract of AP is conducted and compared with commercially available standard andrographolide. Petroleum ether and chloroform extract of AP is first suspended in 1% (v/v DMSO then volume made up with Krebs solution. The average of responses to each concentration of the agonist is plotted on the ordinate the logarithm of the concentration of the agonist on the abscissa. Among all these extracts of AP, chloroform extract 80 and 160 μg/mL is found to be the highly significant (P< 0.001 vasorelaxant effect on norepinephrine induced contraction on rat thoracic aortic ring preparations.

  19. Isolation and characterization of stigmast-5-en-3β-ol (β-sitosterol from the leaves of Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Arjun Patra

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Purpose: Hygrophila spinosa T. Anders (Acanthaceae commonly known as ‘Talmakhana’ in Hindi contains a number of phytoconstituents viz. alkaloids, phytosterols, glycosides, amino acids, proteins, phenolic acids, enzymes, vitamins, sugars, minerals, flavonoids, gums & ucilage, terpenoids etc. The objective of the present study was to isolate and characterize phytoconstituents(s from the chloroform extract of Hygrophila spinosa leaves. Methods: Chloroform extract was subjected to column chromatography and eluted with solvent mixtures of increasing polarity, composed of petroleum ether, benzene and chloroform to isolate phytoconstituents. The structure of the isolated compound was established on the basis of elemental analysis and spectroscopic evidences (IR, UV, 1HNMR, 13CNMR, MS. Results: A sterol, stigmast-5-en-3β-ol was isolated from the chloroform extract of the leaves of the plant. The yield of the compound was 0.0046% w/w, m.p. 136- 1380C, λmax in EtOH: 206 nm, Rf value 0.72 in Toluene: Ether: Cyclohexane (5:2:1. Conclusions: Hygrophila spinosa contains β-sitosterol which may be responsible for various pharmacological activities of the plant.

  20. Influence of solvents on extraction of U(Ⅵ) by N,N'-didecanoylpiperazine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Extraction behavior of N, N'-didecanoylpiperazine (DDPEZ) for U(Ⅵ)in a series of solvents from aqueous nitric acid media was investigated for the first time.The dependence of distribution ratios on the concentration of aqueous nitric acid.extractant and temperature has been discussed. The increasing sequence of extractiveability of DDPEZ is given: chloroform, carbon tetrachloride, dimethylbenzene, toluene,benzene.``

  1. The three-dimensional structure of CsmA: A small antenna protein from the green sulfur bacterium Chlorobium tepidum

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Marie Østergaard; Underhaug, Jarl; Dittmer, Jens;

    2008-01-01

    The structure of the chlorosome baseplate protein CsmA from Chlorobium tepidum in a 1:1 chloroform:methanol solution was determined using liquid-state NMR spectroscopy. The data reveal that the 59-residue protein is predominantly α-helical with a long helical domain extending from residues V6 to ...

  2. 40 CFR Appendix I to Part 258 - Constituents for Detection Monitoring

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) Arsenic (Total) (3) Barium (Total) (4) Beryllium (Total) (5) Cadmium (Total) (6) Chromium (Total) (7... tetrachloride 56-23-5 (24) Chlorobenzene 108-90-7 (25) Chloroethane; Ethyl chloride 75-00-3 (26) Chloroform...-57-6 (33) 1,1-Dichlorethane; Ethylidene chloride 75-34-3 (34) 1,2-Dichlorethane; Ethylene...

  3. Assembly of naphthalenediimide conjugated peptides: aggregation induced changes in fluorescence.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Basak, Shibaji; Nanda, Jayanta; Banerjee, Arindam

    2013-08-01

    Naphthalenediimide appended peptide based self-assembly was studied. Interestingly, an aggregation induced drastic change in the fluorescence property and gel formation were observed depending on the solvent composition (chloroform : methylcyclohexane) at a fixed concentration of 1.6 mM at room temperature. PMID:23799544

  4. [Methods for the rapid preparation of paraffin blocks].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmurun, R I

    1992-01-01

    Two accelerated chloroform-paraffin processings of materials with the use of ultrasound (US) and microwave (MW) irradiation in the stove "Electronica" as well as a combined method with US- and MW-irradiation are proposed to shorten drastically the duration of the prehistologic processing.

  5. Het ontstaan van trihalomethanen bij de behandeling van drinkwater met chloor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Rook, J.J.

    1978-01-01

    It has been established that chlorination of naturally coloured waters produces chloroform and other trihalomethanes in concentrations that are considerably higher than most of the organic microcontaminants commonly found in polluted surface waters.The objective of this study was to investigate the

  6. Screening of Quercus infectoria gall extracts as anti-bacterial agents against dental pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Vermani Archa; Navneet; Prabhat

    2009-01-01

    Background and Objectives: A number of bacteria have now become antibiotic-resistant. This increases the importance of ayurvedic drugs. We report, here, the activity of different extracts (petroleum ether, chloroform, methanol and water) of Quercus infectoria galls against dental pathogens - Streptococcus mutans, Streptococcus salivarius, Staphylococcus aureus, Lactobacillus acidophilus (designated) and Streptococcus sanguis (isolated). Materials and Methods: The cup-plate method was used ...

  7. Aktivitas antibakteri dan antijamur ekstrak dan senyawa dari Kleinhovia hospita dan Pterospermum subpeltatum (Sterculiaceae)

    OpenAIRE

    Soekamto, Nunuk

    2011-01-01

    Kleinhovia hospita and Pterospermum subpeltatum are popular plant used as traditional medicines in South Sulawesi. Antibacterial activity test against Escherichia coli, Shigella boydii, Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella thypi, Streptococcus pneumonia, and Streptococcus mutan and antifungi (Candida albicans) have been done on extracts and compounds from those plants. Chloroform extract of Pterospermum subpeltatum showed the highest activity against S. aurus with the inhibition diameter of ...

  8. Antibacterial activity of Barringtonia acutangula against selected urinary tract pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    Sahoo S; Panda P; Mishra S; Parida R; Ellaiah P; Dash S

    2008-01-01

    Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn belonging to family Barringtoniaceae was investigated to evaluate In vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanolic, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts against Staphylococcus aureus , Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli the major urinary tract infection causing pathogens were tested by disc diffusion assay method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was evaluated. Ethanol (95%...

  9. Antibacterial Activity of Barringtonia acutangula against Selected Urinary Tract Pathogens

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sahoo; Panda, P. K.; S R Mishra; Parida, R. K.; P Ellaiah; Dash, S. K.

    2008-01-01

    Barringtonia acutangula (L.) Gaertn belonging to family Barringtoniaceae was investigated to evaluate In vitro antibacterial activity of aqueous, ethanolic, petroleum ether and chloroform extracts against Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella pneumoniae, Enterococcus faecalis and Escherichia coli the major urinary tract infection causing pathogens were tested by disc diffusion assay method and the minimum inhibitory concentration was evaluated. Ethanol (95%) extract exhibi...

  10. Silica Bonded S-Sulfonic Acid: A Recyclable Catalyst for the Synthesis of Quinoxalines at Room Temperature

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khodabakhsh Niknam

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available The reaction of 3-mercaptopropylsilica (MPS and chlorosulfonic acid in chloroform afforded silica bonded S-sulfonic acid (SBSSA, which was used as a catalyst for the room temperature synthesis of quinoxaline derivatives from 1,2-diamino compounds and 1,2-dicarbonyl compounds. The catalyst could be recycled and reused several times without any loss of efficiency.

  11. Mosquito larvicidal and biting deterrency activity of bud of Polianthes tuberosa plants extract against Anopheles stephensi and Culex quinquefasciatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anjali, Rawani; Atanu, Banerjee; Goutam, Chandra

    2012-06-01

    Mosquito control by phytochemicals is an alternative method to synthetic insecticides, as it is biodegradable and non resistant to vector mosquito. Polianthes tuberosa is a perennial plant distributed in many parts of India. The present study was undertaken to scientifically evaluate the larvicide and biting deterrency activity of bud of Polianthes tuberosa against Culex quinquefasciatus and Anopheles stephensi. Crude and solvent extract [ethyl acetate, chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v), acetone] of fresh, mature, bud of P. tuberosa was tested against (ex. quinquefasciatus and An. stephensi. The repellent activity tested by chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) solvent extract against both mosquito species. The appropriate lethal concentrations at 24h for chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) extract was also studied on non target organisms such as Toxorhynchites larvae, Diplonychus annulatum and Chironomus circumdatus. In a 72 hour bioassay experiment, 0.5% crude extract showed the highest mortality and chloroform: methanol (1:1, v/v) solvent extract showed the highest mortality, the maximum (p larvicide agent. There is no changes in the activity non-target organism so, it is safe to use.

  12. Larvicidal Activity against Aedes aegypti and Molluscicidal Activity against Biomphalaria glabrata of Brazilian Marine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guedes, Elíca Amara Cecília; de Carvalho, Cenira M.; Ribeiro Junior, Karlos Antonio Lisboa; Lisboa Ribeiro, Thyago Fernando; de Barros, Lurdiana Dayse; de Lima, Maria Raquel Ferreira; Prado Moura, Flávia de Barros; Goulart Sant'Ana, Antônio Euzebio

    2014-01-01

    This study investigated the biological activities of five benthic marine algae collected from Northeastern Region of Brazil. The tested activities included larvicidal activity against Aedes aegypti, molluscicidal activity against Biomphalaria glabrata, and toxicity against Artemia salina. Extracts of Ulva lactuca (Chlorophyta), Padina gymnospora, Sargassum vulgare (Phaeophyta), Hypnea musciformis, and Digenea simplex (Rhodophyta) were prepared using different solvents of increasing polarity, including dichloromethane, methanol, ethanol, and water. Of the extracts screened, the dichloromethane extracts of H. musciformis and P. gymnospora exhibited the highest activities and were subjected to bioassay-guided fractionation in hexane and chloroform. The chloroform fractions of the P. gymnospora and H. musciformis extracts showed molluscicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (11.1460 μg·mL−1 and 25.8689 μg·mL−1, resp.), and the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora showed larvicidal activity at values below 40 μg·mL−1 (29.018 μg·mL−1 and 17.230 μg·mL−1, resp.). The crude extracts were not toxic to A. salina, whereas the chloroform and hexane fractions of P. gymnospora (788.277 μg·mL−1 and 706.990 μg·mL−1) showed moderate toxicity, indicating that the toxic compounds present in these algae are nonpolar. PMID:24688787

  13. Toxic Effects of Pollutants on Methane Production of River Sediment

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Vlaardingen PLA; van Beelen P

    1992-01-01

    The effects of five compounds on the endogenous methane production of sediment samples of the river Rhine were examined. The concentrations of a toxicant that inhibited the methane production for 10% and 50% are called EC10 and EC50. Benzene, 1,2- dichloroethane, pentachlorophenol and chloroform h

  14. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride via sulfur and oxygen substitution by Pseudomonas sp. strain KC.

    OpenAIRE

    Lewis, T A; Crawford, R L

    1995-01-01

    Pseudomonas sp. strain KC transforms carbon tetrachloride into carbon dioxide and nonvolatile products, without chloroform as an intermediate. To define the pathway for hydrolysis, nonvolatile products were analyzed. Condensation products containing the carbon atom of carbon tetrachloride as carbonyl and thioxo moieties were identified, indicating the intermediacy of phosgene and thiophosgene in the pathway.

  15. Saponins and the in vitro bioactivities of different solvent extracts of some tropical green and red seaweeds

    OpenAIRE

    Abhilash Parameswaran Kailas; Muraleedharan Sukumaran Nair

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate the antioxidant and antimicrobial activities of the saponins content and the corresponding sequential extracts prepared using petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate and acetone, of some seaweed species [consisting of red Gracilaria corticata, Gracilaria corticata var. cylindrica and Gracilaria foliifera and green Enteromorpha prolifera, Ulva fasciata and Chaetomorpha antennina (C. antennina) seaweeds], obtained from the southwest coast of India. Me...

  16. Facile Conversion of Alcohols to Olefins by Tosylation and Subsequent SiO2- promoted β-elimination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    RUAN Xiaohong; SONG Gaopeng; ZHANG Yichun; LI Yingxia

    2007-01-01

    A convenient and effective procedure was developed for the conversion of alcohol to olefin by tosylation and subsequent β-elimination promoted by silica gel in this study. Treatment of the alcohols with p-toluenesulfonyl chloride in pyridine at 0℃ affords tosylates which undergo β-elimination with silica gel in dichloromethane or chloroform at room temperature, yielding olefinswith high productivity.

  17. Alternative chromatographic system for the quality control of lipophilic technetium-99m radiopharmaceuticals such as [{sup 99m}Tc(MIBI){sub 6}]{sup +}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Faria, D.P.; Buchpiguel, C.A.; Marques, F.L.N., E-mail: danielefaria1@gmail.com [Universidade de Sao Paulo (USP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil). Faculdade de Medicina. Departamento de Radiologia. Servico de Medicina Nuclear

    2015-10-15

    Knowledge of the radiochemical purity of radiopharmaceuticals is mandatory and can be evaluated by several methods and techniques. Planar chromatography is the technique normally employed in nuclear medicine since it is simple, rapid and usually of low cost. There is no standard system for the chromatographic technique, but price, separation efficiency and short time for execution must be considered. We have studied an alternative system using common chromatographic stationary phase and alcohol or alcohol:chloroform mixtures as the mobile phase, using the lipophilic radiopharmaceutical [{sup 99m}Tc(MIBI){sub 6}]{sup +} as a model. Whatman 1 modified phase paper and absolute ethanol, Whatman 1 paper and methanol: chloroform (25:75), Whatman 3MM paper and ethanol:chloroform (25:75), and the more expensive ITLC-SG and 1-propanol: chloroform (10:90) were suitable systems for the direct determination of radiochemical purity of [{sup 99m}Tc(MIBI){sub 6}]{sup +} since impurities such as {sup 99m}Tc-reduced-hydrolyzed (RH), {sup 99m}TcO4{sup -} and [{sup 99m}Tc(cysteine){sub 2}]{sup -} complex were completely separated from the radiopharmaceutical, which moved toward the front of chromatographic systems while impurities were retained at the origin. The time required for analysis was 4 to 15 min, which is appropriate for nuclear medicine routines. (author)

  18. Development and Evaluation of Hepatoprotective Polyherbal Formulation Containing Some Indigenous Medicinal Plants

    OpenAIRE

    Dandagi P; Patil M; Mastiholimath V; Gadad A; Dhumansure R

    2008-01-01

    The present study explores the hepatoprotective activity of various extracts of Ferula asafoetida , Momordica charantia Linn and Nardostachys jatamansi against experimental hepatotoxicity. Polyherbal suspensions were formulated using extracts showing significant activity and evaluated for both physicochemical and hepatoprotective activity in comparison with LIV-52 as standard. Petroleum ether (60-80°), chloroform, benzene, ethanol and aqueous extracts of Ferula asafetida , Momor...

  19. Hypoglycemic effects of lactucin-8-O-methylacrylate of Parmentiera edulis fruit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perez, R M; Perez, C; Zavala, M A; Perez, S; Hernandez, H; Lagunes, F

    2000-08-01

    Hypoglycemic activity-guided fractionation together with chemical analysis led to the isolation of one guaianolide (lactucin-8-O-methylacrylate) from the chloroform extract of the dried fruits of Parmentiera edulis. Identification was based on spectroscopic methods. The compounds lowers blood sugar levels after administration to alloxan-diabetic mice. PMID:10940575

  20. Cosolvent Effect on the Tautomerism of Ethyl Acetoacetate in Supercritical CO2

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    The effect of cosolvent cyclohexane, chloroform, and acetonitrile on the keto-enol tautomeric equilibrium of ethyl acetoacetate in supercritical CO2 was studied by UV-Vis spectroscopy over the pressure range from 76 to 110 bar at 308.15 K. It was found that the equilibrium constant decreases with increasing polarity of the cosolvents.

  1. Study on the Extracting Technology of Natural Lycopene

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2001-01-01

    Optimum technical parameters for extracting lycopene from tomatoes are studied with crthogonal experiments. The results show that chloroform has the best effect compared to 4 other groups of solvents: petoleum ether, acetic acid + ethanol, acetic ether, and acetone + diethyl ether, associated with the parameters of 40℃, pH 5 and the ratio of tomato paste to solvent 1:1.

  2. Antioxidant activity and gas chromatographic-mass spectrometric analysis of extracts of the marine algae, caulerpa peltata and padina gymnospora

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kavitha Murugan

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The results of our previous investigations on extracts of selected marine algae showed that Caulerpa peltata and Padina gymnospora had more promising antiproliferative and antioxidant activities than Gelidiella acerosa and Sargassum wightii. Based on these results, the more active chloroform extract of C. peltata and ethyl acetate extract of P. gymnospora were further analyzed for their constituents by using gas chromatography in tandem with mass spectrometry. The GC-MS analysis (GC % peak area given in parentheses showed that fucosterol (12.45% and L-(+-ascorbic acid 2,6-dihexadecanoate (8.13% were the major compounds present in P. gymnospora ethyl acetate extract. On the other hand, C. peltata chloroform extract had 1-heptacosanol (10.52%, hexacosanol acetate (9.28%, tetradecyl ester of chloroacetic acid (7.22%, Z,Z-6,28-heptatriactontadien-2-one (6.77% and 10,13-dimethyl-methyl ester of tetradecanoic acid (5.34% as major compounds. Also described in the report are the beta-carotene bleaching inhibitory and total reducing activities of the chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of C. peltata and P. gymnospora, respectively, relative to the other three extracts (aqueous, methanol, chloroform or ethyl acetate of the two algae.

  3. Antibacterial activity of Pulicaria dysenterica extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nickavar, Bahman; Mojab, Faraz

    2003-06-01

    Aqueous, methanolic and chloroformic extracts of Pulicaria dysenterica aerial parts were tested for their antibacterial activity using the disc-diffusion assay technique. The methanolic extract was found to be the most effective extract against three out of six tested bacteria. All of the extracts were active against Vibrio cholera.

  4. Gnapholide: a new guaiac-dimer from Pulicaria gnaphalodes (Asteraceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ali, Muhammad Shaiq; Jahangir, Muhammad; Uzair, Syed Shah; Erian, Ayman Wahba; Tareen, Rasool Bakhsh

    2002-06-01

    The ethyl acetate soluble part of the chloroform extract of Pulicaria gnaphalodes belonging to the family Asteraceae afforded a new sesquiterpene-dimer of guaiane class named as gnapholide and anabsinthin of the same skeleton. The structures of both the compounds were elucidated with the aid of spectroscopic techniques including 2D NMR.

  5. First ever isolation of cytotoxic triterpenoid 2-hydroxydiplopterol from plant source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arisaema jacquemontii have shown medicinal importance and biological activities particularly, its anticancer activity, so we have decided to keep on investigating the plant in term of its chemical constituents. A chemical investigation on the chloroform extract of A. jacquemontii have resulted in th...

  6. Evaluation of extraction methods from paraffin wax embedded tissues for PCR amplification of human and viral DNA

    OpenAIRE

    Chan, P; Chan, D.; To, K; Yu, M.; Cheung, J.; Cheng, A

    2001-01-01

    Aim—To evaluate the efficiency of phenol/chloroform, microwave, and Qiagen spin column based DNA extractions from paraffin wax embedded tissue for use in the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). In addition, to assess the reliability of amplifying a housekeeping gene to indicate successful viral DNA extraction.

  7. A new method of DNA extraction from the ethanol-fixed parasitic worms

    OpenAIRE

    Tkach,Vasyl; Pawlowski, Jan Wojciech

    1999-01-01

    A protocol of the new method of DNA extraction from the ethanol fixed parasitic worms is described. The method is based on the use of the guanidine thiocyanate extraction buffer after evaporation of the ethanol from the tissues of drying. The method has been successfully used on several groups of parasitic Plathyhelminthes and provided higher DNA yield than a conventional phenol-chloroform extraction.

  8. Maritime Halophyte Species from Southern Portugal as Sources of Bioactive Molecules

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Rodrigues, Maria João; Gangadhar, Katkam N.; Vizetto-Duarte, Catarina;

    2014-01-01

    . acutus (94 mg GAE/g). Significant decreases in nitric oxide (NO) production were observed after incubation of macrophages with lipopolysaccharide (LPS) and the chloroform extract of H. portulacoides (IC50 = 109 µg/mL) and the hexane extract of P. coronopus (IC50 = 98.0 µg/mL). High in vitro cytotoxic...

  9. 40 CFR 141.131 - Analytical requirements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 5 U.S.C. 552(a) and 1 CFR part 51. Copies may be inspected at EPA's Drinking Water Docket, 1301... Drinking Water Using Lissamine Green B and Horseradish Peroxidase with Detection by Visible... Chloroform ±20 Laboratory must meet all 4 individual THM acceptance limits in order to successfully pass a...

  10. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of some selected green seaweed extracts from Muttam coastal areas, Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Pushparaj Arunachalam; Ramesh Uthandakalai; Raubbin rajsmaill

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the selected marine green algae Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca), Cheatomorpha linoides and Helimeda macroloba against six strains of Gram-positive bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus), Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus)] and Gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa) and Proteus mirabilis]. Methods: The selected green seaweed extracts were experimented with four different solvents (acetone, ethanol, methanol and chloroform) against the selected pathogens by using agar disc diffusion method. Results:The maximum activity (7 mm) was observed by the extract of U. lactuca against Proteus mirabilis by using methanol as a solvent and the lowest activity (2 mm) was recorded by the extract of U. lactuca against L. acidophilus by using chloroform as a solvent and ethanol extract against P. aeruginosa. The lowest activity (2 mm) was seen in the extract of Cheatomorpha linoides by using ethanol and methanol as a solvent against S. aureus. In Helimeda macroloba extract, the lowest activity was recorded against Escherichia coli by using chloroform as a solvent. The microbial strains S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and L. acidophilus were resistant to the chloroform and methanol of all selected seaweeds. Conclusions:Further study should be needed to identify the prime compound which is responsible for the activity against the selected pathogens especially those causing the human diseases.

  11. New Phase Transfer Agent for Dye:Application for Hyperbranched Poly(ester-amine)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Teng QIU; Li Ming TANG; Xin Lin TUO; De Shan LIU

    2004-01-01

    Hydrophilic hyperbranched poly(ester-amine) (HPEA) synthesized from diethanolamine and methyl acrylate was used as phase transfer agent for the first time to transfer methyl orange (MO) from water into chloroform.This process was quantified by UV-Vis spectra.A possible mechanism was put forward based on the formation of amphiphilic aggregates.

  12. ANTIMICROBIAL PROPERTIES OF ROOTS OF MEDICINAL PLANTS

    OpenAIRE

    S. Sini; N S Malathy

    2005-01-01

    Antibacterial properties of hexane, chloroform and aqueous extracts of roots of Acorus calamus, Aristolochia indica, Cyperus rotundus, Desmodium gangeticum, Holostemma ada– kodien and Kaempferia galanga, used in the traditional medicine were studied on Bacillus pumilis and Eschericia coli by disc diffusion method.

  13. Effect of greenhouse gas emissions on stratospheric ozone depletion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Velders GJM; LLO

    1997-01-01

    The depletion of the ozone layer is caused mainly by the increase in emissions of chlorine- and bromine-containing compounds like CFCs, halons, carbon tetrachloride, methyl chloroform and methyl bromide. Emissions of greenhouse gases can affect the depletion of the ozone layer through atmospheric i

  14. Studying the Greenhouse Effect: A Simple Demonstration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papageorgiou, G.; Ouzounis, K.

    2000-01-01

    Studies the parameters involved in a presentation of the greenhouse effect and describes a simple demonstration of this effect. Required equipment includes a 100-120 watt lamp, a 250mL beaker, and a thermometer capable of recording 0-750 degrees Celsius together with a small amount of chloroform. (Author/SAH)

  15. Equilibrium of Extraction of Succinic, Malic, Maleic and Fumaric Acids with Trioctylamine%三辛胺萃取丁二酸、苹果酸、马来酸、富马酸特性的研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李振宇; 秦炜; 汪敏; 黄焱; 戴猷元

    2002-01-01

    Extraction equilibrium features of succinic acid, malic acid, maleic acid and fumaric acid were investigated systematically with trioctylamine (TOA) in chloroform, 4-methyl-2-pentanone (MIBK) and 1-octanol. Fourier transform-infrared (FTIR) spectroscopic analysis of organic samples loaded with the acid shows that amine forms 1:1 complex of ion-pair association with succinic acid, malic acid and maleic acid, and 1:1, 2:1 complex of ion-pair association with fumaric acid. It is proposed that the complex forms depend on the second dissociation constant of the dibasic acid, pKa2. Results of equilibrium experiments show that diluents affect extraction behavior, and depend on the solute concentration. Protic diluents, chloroform and 1-octanol, are more effective than the others when the equilibrium solute concentration is lower than 1:1 stoichiometry of TOA to acid, otherwise the extraction ability shows that MIBK>l-octanol>chloroform for malic and maleic acids, and 1-octanol>MIBK>chloroform for succinic acid. Overloading (solute concentration in organic phase is lager than TOA concentration) appears for all of the studied acids, and the sequence of overloading amount is the same as that of distribution constant of diluent. The results show that the sequence of extraction ability of different acid is the same as that of acidity at low equilibrium solute concentrations, while it is the same as the sequence of hydrophobicity at high equilibrium concentrations.

  16. CONSTITUINTES QUÍMICOS E ATIVIDADE FITOTÓXICA DAS FOLHAS DE Annona nutans

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathália Lucca Silva

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical investigation and evaluation of the phytotoxic effect of the extract and fractions obtained from the leaves of Annona nutans (R. E. Fr. R. E. Fr. were performed. Phytotoxic activity was assessed on radicle and hypocotyl of Allium cepa and Lactuca sativa, where chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions proved active. Phytochemical investigation of the chloroform fraction was allowed identification of polyketides derivatives: triacontanal, 16-hentriacontane, octacosanol and triacontanol, using the 1H NMR technique associated with data from GC/MS. Using ethyl acetate fraction, with low activity, flavonoids 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-isorhamnetin, 3-O-β-D-galactopyranosyl-quercetin and 3-O-β-D-apiofuranosyl-(1→2-galactopyranosyl-quercetin were identified, determined by spectrometric techniques one and two-dimensional NMR, combined with mass spectral data. All substances are being reported for the first time in Annona nutans. The phytotoxic activity of chloroform fraction may be related to the presence of triacontanol and similar substances. Triacontanol stimulates growth at very low concentrations, but can have an inhibitory effect at higher concentrations, such as those reported for auxin analogs. The toxicity assay using Artemia salina (BST was also performed, with the chloroform fraction showing a negligible lethal dose, LD50 = 500 mg mL-1, while the other fractions and extracts showed no activity. Thus, the presence of acetogenins was ruled out.

  17. Antibacterial, Antifungal, and Insecticidal Potentials of Oxalis corniculata and Its Isolated Compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Azizur Rehman

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Oxalis corniculata is a common medicinal plant widely used against numerous infectious diseases. The agrochemical potential of methanolic extract, n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate, and n-butanol fractions were assessed to measure the antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities of the plant. The crude, chloroform, and n-butanol soluble fractions showed excellent activities against Escherichia coli, Shigella dysenteriae, Salmonella typhi, and Bacillus subtilis but have no activity against Staphylococcus aureus. Similarly the crude, n-hexane, and chloroform fractions were also found to have significant activity against fungal strains including Fusarium solani, Aspergillus flexneri, and Aspergillus flavus and have no activity against Aspergillus niger. Chemical pesticides have shown very good results at the beginning, but with the passage of time the need was realized to use the natural plant sources for the safe control of insects. The current study will provide minor contribution towards it. High mortality rate was recorded for the crude extract and chloroform fraction against Tribolium castaneum. The two isolated compounds 5-hydroxy-6,7,8,4′-tetramethoxyflavone (1 and 5,7,4′-trihydroxy-6,8-dimethoxyflavone (2 were evaluated for antibacterial, antifungal, and insecticidal activities. The results showed that compound 2 was more active than compound 1 against the tested bacterial strains and insects.

  18. 40 CFR 82.5 - Apportionment of baseline production allowances for class I controlled substances.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ..., Inc 7,873,615 Degussa Corporation 26,546 Dow Chemical Company, USA 18,987,747 E.I. DuPont de Nemours...,358 Vulcan Chemicals 21,931,987 (e) For Group V controlled substances: Methyl Chloroform Dow Chemical...Pont de Nemours & Co 4,176,000 (b) For Group II controlled substances: Halon-1211 Great Lakes...

  19. Antibacterial activity of mushroom Osmoporus odoratus

    OpenAIRE

    Sivakumar R; Vetrichelvan T; Rajendran N; Devi M; Sundaramoorthi K; Shankar ASK; Shanmugam S

    2006-01-01

    The petroleum ether, chloroform, acetone and water extracts of mushroom Osmoporus odoratus were selected for examine the antibacterial activity against Staphylococcus aureus, Streptococcus pyogenes, Bacillus subtilis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa by disc diffusion method using Muller Hinton agar media. And the extracts were compared with that of standard ampicillin (30 µg) and chloramphenicol (30 µg). The water extract alone showed antibacterial activity aga...

  20. Identification, isolation and characterization of the antifeedant constituent of Clausena anisata against Helicoverpa armigera (Lepidoptera: Noctuidae)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Olufemi O.R.Pitan; O.O.Ayelaagbe; Hong-Lei Wang; Chen-Zhu Wang

    2009-01-01

    Hexane, petroleum ether, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol and water extracts of Clausena anisata [(Willd.) Hook F. Ex Benth] leaves and roots were evaluated against Helicoverpa armigera (Hubner) for antifeedant activities. Antifeedant activity was confirmed, and was found to be higher in root extracts than those of the leaf. Chloroform and petroleum ether extracts of the root showed strongest antifeedant activities (DC50S [concentration (C) causing 50% deterrence compared with the control] 0.014% and 0.016% respectively), and root extracts were fractionated using silica gel column chromatography. One fraction of the chloroform and one of the petroleum ether root extracts was active; and on the basis of mass spectroscopy and 1H and 13C nuclear magnetic resonance spectral data, the active compounds in the two fractious were confirmed to be identical, and identified as osthol [2H-I-Benzopyran-2-one, 7-methoxy-8-(3-methyl-2-butenyl)]. The highest concentratiun of osthol was found in the chloroform root extract. Antifeedant activities of the root extracts, as measured by DC50 values, were highly correlated with their osthol contents. Approximately 99% of the variation in bioactivity of the root extracts could be accounted for by variation in osthol content; osthol therefore, appeared to be an antifeedant component of C. Anisata to H. Armigera. This may provide a new approach to managing this pest.

  1. Ox peripheral nerve myelin membrane. Purification and partial characterization of two basic proteins

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    London, Y.

    1971-01-01

    Two basic proteins were purified from the peripheral nervous system. The isolation was achieved by (1) delipidation with chloroform-butanol mixtures, dry acetone, and dry ether, (2) acid extraction at pH 2 and then (3) dialysis against distilled water, lyophilization, and solubilization in pH-10.7 b

  2. Differential human urinary lipid profiles using various lipid-extraction protocols: MALDI-TOF and LIFT-TOF/TOF analyses

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tipthara, Phornpimon; Thongboonkerd, Visith

    2016-01-01

    Changes in lipid levels/profiles can reflect health status and diseases. Urinary lipidomics, thus, has a great potential in clinical diagnostics/prognostics. Previously, only chloroform and methanol were used for extracting lipids from the urine. The present study aimed to optimize lipid extraction and examine differential lipid classes obtained by various extraction protocols. Urine samples were collected from eight healthy individuals and then pooled. Lipids were extracted by six solvent protocols, including (i) chloroform/methanol (1:1, v/v), (ii) chloroform/methanol (2:1, v/v), (iii) hexane/isopropanol (3:2, v/v), (iv) chloroform, (v) diethyl ether, and (vi) hexane. Lipid profiles of the six extracts were acquired by MALDI-TOF mass spectrometry (MS) and some lipid classes were verified by LIFT-TOF/TOF MS/MS. The data revealed that phosphatidylglycerol (PG) and phosphatidylinositol (PI) could be detected by all six protocols. However, phosphatidylcholine (PC) and sphingomyelin (SM) were detectable only by protocols (i)–(iv), whereas phosphatidylserine (PS) was detectable only by protocols (iii)–(vi), and phosphatidylethanolamine (PE) was detectable only by protocols (v)–(vi). In summary, we have demonstrated differential lipidome profiles yielded by different extraction protocols. These data can serve as an important source for selection of an appropriate extraction method for further highly focused studies on particular lipid classes in the human urine. PMID:27646409

  3. Changes of NF-KB activity in colon carcinoma cells treated with different crude extracts of abrotani herba

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Feng Pan; Yuying Chen; Li Yang; Zhiheng Bian; Houjie Liang

    2008-01-01

    Objective: To study changes of NF-KB activity in colon carcinoma cell lines treated with different crude extracts of abrotani herba obtained through solvent extraction methods.Methods: Crude extracts of abrotani herba were extracted with ligarine, chloroform, acetoacetate and n-butanol in separating funnel.Exposure concentration of crude extracts were obtained through detecting viability of HT-29 cells by MTT.Then HT-29 cells and Lovo cells were treated with different crude extracts respectively.Changes of NF-KB activity in HT-29 cells and Lovo cells using different crude extracts were observed by EMSA.Results: Successfully extracted different crude extracts of abrotani herba and called them ligarine extract, chloroform extract,acetoacetate extract, n-butanol extract and remaining extract for short.NF-KB activity was significantly inhibited in HT-29 cells treated with chloroform extract, there were no significant differences in other groups compared with the control.The same change of NF-KB activity was observed in Lovo calls using different crude extracts of abrotani herba.Conclusion: NF-KB activity can be inhibited in colon carcinoma HT-29 calls and Lovo cells treated with chloroform extract obtained from abrotani herba through the method of solvent extraction.

  4. CHEMOMETRICS IN BIOANALYTICAL SAMPLE PREPARATION - A FRACTIONATED COMBINED MIXTURE AND FACTORIAL DESIGN FOR THE MODELING OF THE RECOVERY OF 5 TRICYCLIC AMINES FROM PLASMA AFTER LIQUID-LIQUID-EXTRACTION PRIOR TO HIGH-PERFORMANCE LIQUID-CHROMATOGRAPHY

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    WIELING, J; MENSINK, CK; JONKMAN, JHG; COENEGRACHT, PMJ; DUINEVELD, CAA; DOORNBOS, DA

    1993-01-01

    A general systematic approach is described for the chemometric modelling of liquid-liquid extraction data of drugs from biological fluids. Extraction solvents were selected from Snyder's solvent selectivity triangle: methyl tert.-butyl ether, methylene chloride and chloroform. The composition of a m

  5. Evaluation of antibacterial activity of some selected green seaweed extracts from Muttam coastal areas, Kanyakumari, Tamil Nadu, India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pushparaj Arunachalam

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antimicrobial activity of the selected marine green algae Ulva lactuca (U. lactuca, Cheatomorpha linoides and Helimeda macroloba against six strains of Gram-positive bacteria [Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus, Bacillus subtilis and Lactobacillus acidophilus (L. acidophilus] and Gram-negative bacteria [Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa (P. aeruginosa and Proteus mirabilis]. Methods: The selected green seaweed extracts were experimented with four different solvents (acetone, ethanol, methanol and chloroform against the selected pathogens by using agar disc diffusion method. Results: The maximum activity (7 mm was observed by the extract of U. lactuca against Proteus mirabilis by using methanol as a solvent and the lowest activity (2 mm was recorded by the extract of U. lactuca against L. acidophilus by using chloroform as a solvent and ethanol extract against P. aeruginosa. The lowest activity (2 mm was seen in the extract of Cheatomorpha linoides by using ethanol and methanol as a solvent against S. aureus. In Helimeda macroloba extract, the lowest activity was recorded against Escherichia coli by using chloroform as a solvent. The microbial strains S. aureus, P. aeruginosa, Bacillus subtilis and L. acidophilus were resistant to the chloroform and methanol of all selected seaweeds. Conclusions: Further study should be needed to identify the prime compound which is responsible for the activity against the selected pathogens especially those causing the human diseases.

  6. Mutagenic, antimutagenic and antioxidant potency of leaf extracts from Nitraria retusa.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boubaker, Jihed; Skandrani, Ines; Bouhlel, Ines; Ben Sghaier, Mohamed; Neffati, Aicha; Ghedira, Kamel; Chekir-Ghedira, Leila

    2010-01-01

    Four extracts were prepared from the leaves of Nitraria retusa; methanol, ethyl acetate, chloroform and hexane extracts. An assay for the ability of these extracts to prevent mutations induced by various oxidants in Salmonella typhimurium TA102 and TA 104 strains was conducted. These extracts from leaf parts of N. retusa showed no mutagenicity either with or without the metabolic enzyme preparation (microsome fraction). The highest protection against methylmethanesulfonate induced mutagenicity was observed with chloroform and methanol extracts with inhibition percentages of 44.93% (at 50 microg/plate in the presence of TA102 strain) and 38% (at 10 microg/plate in the presence of TA104 strain), respectively. Whereas Hexane and chloroform extracts reduced the mutagenicity induced by 2-aminoanthracene by 83.4% (using the S. typhimurium TA104 assay system) and 65.3% (using the S. typhimurium TA 102 assay system), respectively. Antioxidant activity of N. retusa extracts was determined by the ability of each extract to protect plasmid DNA against strand scission induced by hydroxyl radicals. Chloroform extract exhibited the highest ability to protect plasmid DNA against hydroxyl radical induced DNA damages and exhibited the highest antioxidant capacity, with 0.95mM trolox equivalent when tested by the ferric reducing/antioxidant method. PMID:20510330

  7. Termodinâmica estatística de líquidos com o método de Monte Carlo. II. O líquido clorofórmio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barlette Vania Elisabeth

    1999-01-01

    Full Text Available Thermodynamic properties and radial distribution functions for liquid chloroform were calculated using the Monte Carlo method implemented with Metropolis algorithm in the NpT ensemble at 298 K and 1 atm. A five site model was developed to represent the chloroform molecules. A force field composed by Lennard-Jones and Coulomb potential functions was used to calculate the intermolecular energy. The partial charges needed to represent the Coulombic interactions were obtained from quantum chemical ab initio calculations. The Lennard-Jones parameters were adjusted to reproduce experimental values for density and enthalpy of vaporization for pure liquid. All thermodynamic results are in excelent agreement with experimental data. The correlation functions calculated are in good accordance with theoretical results avaliable in the literature. The free energy for solvating one chloroform molecule into its own liquid at 298 K and 1 atm was computed as an additional test of the potential model. The result obtained compares well with the experimental value. The medium effects on cis/trans convertion of a hypotetical solute in water TIP4P and chloroform solvents were also accomplished. The results obtained from this investigation are in agreement with estimates of the continuous theory of solvation.

  8. Radiation induced grafting of N,N-dimethylacrylamide onto polyester film

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation induced grafting of N,N-dimethylacrylamide onto polyester film has been studied by means of immersion method. Polyester film was immersed in the aqueous solution of N,N-dimethylacrylamide containing potassium ferricyanide as homo-polymerization inhibitor and chloroform as swelling and activation agent for polyester film, and was irradiated with gamma ray at a temperature between 00C and 500C. Radiation induced grafting of N,N-dimethylacrylamide onto polyester film by means of immersion method took place when small amount of chloroform was contained in the aqueous solution. The relation between grafting ratio and irradiation time t is shown as follows. G equals kt, where G: grafting ratio (%), t: irradiation time (hr), k: constant. Grafting ratio was constant for the grafting system where the aqueous solution was saturated with chloroform. The apparent activation energy was determined to be 10.6 kcal/mole between 00C and 400C for the mixture of N,N-dimethylacrylamide-chloroform-water. From the observation of X-ray diffraction pattern, cross-section microphotograph and differential scanning calorimetry, it was suggested that N,N-dimethylacrylamide was grafted in the amorphous region of polyester film and penetrated through the whole section of the film, and grafted N,N-dimethylacrylamide itself was in amorphous state. Water content of the N,N-dimethylacrylamide grafted polyester increased with increase of grafting ratio. S equals 0.22G, where s: swelling ratio, G: grafting ratio (%). (author)

  9. Bepaling van theofylline (1,3-dimethylxanthine) in hondeplasma met behulp van reversed-phase vloeistofchromatografie

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Olling; M; Besamusca; P.; Rauws; A.G.

    1985-01-01

    In dit rapport wordt een snelle en nauwkeurige methode beschreven voor de bepaling van theofylline in plasma. Theofylline wordt uit plasma geextraheerd met chloroform/2-propanol en met behulp van reversed-phase hogedruk vloeistofchromatografie gescheiden en met spectrofotometrische detectie bepa

  10. Ovicidal activity of Ageratina adenophora (Family: Asteraceae) against dengue vector, Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae)

    Science.gov (United States)

    To determine the ovicidal efficacy of different solvent leaf extracts of Ageratina adenophora against dengue vector Aedes aegypti . Methods: The ovicidal efficacy of the crude leaf extracts of A. adenophora with five different solvents (hexane, benzene, chloroform, ethyl acetate, methanol) and was ...

  11. Inactivation of barley limit dextrinase inhibitor by thioredoxin-catalysed disulfide reduction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Johanne Mørch; Hägglund, Per; Christensen, Hans Erik Mølager;

    2012-01-01

    Barley limit dextrinase (LD) that catalyses hydrolysis of α-1,6 glucosidic linkages in starch-derived dextrins is inhibited by limit dextrinase inhibitor (LDI) found in mature seeds. LDI belongs to the chloroform/methanol soluble protein family (CM-protein family) and has four disulfide bridges a...

  12. ANTIBACTERIAL AND PHYTOCHEMICAL EVALUATION OF HARUNGANA MADAGASCARIENSIS L (HYPERICACEAE SEEDS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Afieroho O.E.

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Clinical cases of resistance to orthodox drugs are on the rise. Medicinal plants are a source of lead compounds in drug discovery. Harungana madagascariensis is known for its ethno medicinal uses in the treatment of dysentery and related bacterial infections. In view of this, investigating its antibacterial drug lead potential is an imperative .The crude methanol extract of the fresh seeds was fractionated with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and acetone successively. Agar dilution method was used for the antibacterial evaluation with clinical and ATCC strains of .E. coli and S.aureus as test microorganisms. Phytochemical methods were by using standard phytochemical screening reagents.The Chloroform fraction was the most active against the test pathogenic organisms with observed minimum inhibitory concentration MIC trend: chloroform (0.03125 mg/ml > ethyl acetate (0.50000 mg/ml. Anthraquinones were found only in the most active chloroform fraction with some amount of flavonoids aglycones, and triterpenoids. This study showed that anthraquinones and/or flavonoids aglycones could be responsible for the antibacterial activity with possible synergistic effect from flavonoids and terpenoids. This further confirmed its ethnomedicinal uses.

  13. 76 FR 77909 - Protection of Stratospheric Ozone: Extension of the Laboratory and Analytical Use Exemption for...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-12-15

    ... (Art. 2B), carbon tetrachloride (Art. 2D), methyl chloroform (Art. 2E), hydrobromofluorocarbons (Art. 2G), and chlorobromomethane (Art. 2I). As defined by Decision IV/25 of the Parties, ``use of a... is critical for the functioning of society (encompassing cultural and intellectual aspects); and...

  14. Ecosystem response of pasture soil communities to fumigation-induced microbial diversity reductions: an examination of the biodiversity-ecosystem function relationship

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Griffiths, B.S.; Ritz, K.; Bardgett, R.D.; Cook, R.; Christensen, S.; Ekelund, F.; Sorensen, S.J.; Bccth, E.; Bloem, J.; Ruiter, de P.C.; Dolfing, J.; Nicolardot, B.

    2000-01-01

    A technique based on progressive fumigation was used to reduce soil microbial biodiversity, and the effects of such reductions upon the stability of key soil processes were measured. Mineral soil samples from a grassland were fumigated with chloroform for up to 24 h and then incubated for 5 months t

  15. A Simple, Inexpensive and Safe Method for DNA Extraction of Frigid and Clotted Blood Samples

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nasrin Mohammadi

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available Background: Extraction of blood genomicDNAis one of the main approaches for clinical and molecular biology studies. Although several methods have been developed for extraction of blood genomic DNA, most of these methods consume long time and use expensive chemicals such as proteinase K and toxic organic solvent such as phenol and chloroform. The objective of this study was to developed easy and safe method forDNAextraction from clotted and frozen whole blood. This method has many advantages: time reducing, using inexpensive materials, without phenol and chloroform, achieving of high molecular weight and good quality genomicDNA.Materials and Methods: DNA extraction was performed by two methods (new and phenol-chloroform method. Then quantity and quality parameters were evaluated by 1% agarose gel electrophoresis, Nano drop analysis and efficiency of Polymerase Chain Reaction (PCR.Results: Extracted DNA from 500μL of blood samples were 457.7ng/μl and 212ng/μL and their purity (OD260/OD280 were 1.8 and 1.81 for new recommended and phenol–chloroform methods respectively. The PCR results indicated that D16S539 and CSF1PO loci were amplified.Conclusion: These results shown that this method is simple, fast, safe and most economical.

  16. [Analysis of different methods of extracting DNA from paraffin-embedded tissues and the application of nest PCR].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yan, Limin; Sun, Baocun; Zhao, Xiulan; Liu, Zenghui; Song, Wenjing

    2011-08-01

    The aim of this research was to explore the most optimal method of DNA extraction from formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues, and to improve the amplification of long fragments with the method. Three methods, one step method, phenol-chloroform extraction method, and genomic DNA purification kit method, were employed to extract DNA from twenty normal thyroid tissues which were fixed with formalin and embedded with paraffin. The highest proportionality of OD260/OD280 in the examples was obtained by phenol-chloroform extraction method, 1.703 +/- 0.086, compared to the results of the other two methods. As for the long DNA segments amplification, the achievement ratio of one step method, phenol-chloroform extraction method and genomic DNA purification kit method were 0%, 5% and 10%, respectively, by traditional PCR method, but 0%, 95% and 85% respectively by the nest PCR. We have found that the best process of extracting DNA from FFPE is digesting by proteinase K and purifying by phenol-chloroform, and it is effective to amplify long DNA segments from FFPE by nest PCR.

  17. The purification, crystallization and preliminary structural characterization of FAD-dependent monooxygenase PhzS, a phenazine-modifying enzyme from Pseudomonas aeruginosa

    Science.gov (United States)

    The blue chloroform-soluble bacterial metabolite pyocyanin (1-hydroxy-5-methyl-phenazine) contributes to the survival and virulence of Pseudomonas aeruginosa, an important Gram-negative opportunistic pathogen of humans and animals. Little is known about the two enzymes, designated PhzM and PhzS, tha...

  18. Clinacanthus nutans Extracts Are Antioxidant with Antiproliferative Effect on Cultured Human Cancer Cell Lines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoke Keong Yong

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves (CN have been used in traditional medicine but the therapeutic potential has not been explored for cancer prevention and treatment. Current study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and antiproliferative effects of CN, extracted in chloroform, methanol, and water, on cancer cell lines. Antioxidant properties of CN were evaluated using DPPH, galvinoxyl, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide based radical scavenging assays, whereas the tumoricidal effect was tested on HepG2, IMR32, NCL-H23, SNU-1, Hela, LS-174T, K562, Raji, and IMR32 cancer cells using MTT assay. Our data showed that CN in chloroform extract was a good antioxidant against DPPH and galvinoxyl radicals, but less effective in negating nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals. Chloroform extract exerted the highest antiproliferative effect on K-562 (91.28±0.03% and Raji cell lines (88.97±1.07% at 100 μg/ml and the other five cancer cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner, but not on IMR-32 cells. Fourteen known compounds were identified in chloroform extract, which was analysed by gas chromatography—mass spectra analysis. In conclusion, CN extracts possess antioxidant and antiproliferative properties against cultured cancer cell lines, suggesting an alternate adjunctive regimen for cancer prevention or treatment.

  19. Clinacanthus nutans Extracts Are Antioxidant with Antiproliferative Effect on Cultured Human Cancer Cell Lines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yong, Yoke Keong; Tan, Jun Jie; Teh, Soek Sin; Mah, Siau Hui; Ee, Gwendoline Cheng Lian; Chiong, Hoe Siong; Ahmad, Zuraini

    2013-01-01

    Clinacanthus nutans Lindau leaves (CN) have been used in traditional medicine but the therapeutic potential has not been explored for cancer prevention and treatment. Current study aimed to evaluate the antioxidant and antiproliferative effects of CN, extracted in chloroform, methanol, and water, on cancer cell lines. Antioxidant properties of CN were evaluated using DPPH, galvinoxyl, nitric oxide, and hydrogen peroxide based radical scavenging assays, whereas the tumoricidal effect was tested on HepG2, IMR32, NCL-H23, SNU-1, Hela, LS-174T, K562, Raji, and IMR32 cancer cells using MTT assay. Our data showed that CN in chloroform extract was a good antioxidant against DPPH and galvinoxyl radicals, but less effective in negating nitric oxide and hydrogen peroxide radicals. Chloroform extract exerted the highest antiproliferative effect on K-562 (91.28 ± 0.03%) and Raji cell lines (88.97 ± 1.07%) at 100  μ g/ml and the other five cancer cell lines in a concentration-dependent manner, but not on IMR-32 cells. Fourteen known compounds were identified in chloroform extract, which was analysed by gas chromatography-mass spectra analysis. In conclusion, CN extracts possess antioxidant and antiproliferative properties against cultured cancer cell lines, suggesting an alternate adjunctive regimen for cancer prevention or treatment. PMID:23533485

  20. Disinfection byproduct formation from lignin precursors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hua, Guanghui; Kim, Junsung; Reckhow, David A

    2014-10-15

    Lignin is the most abundant aromatic plant component in terrestrial ecosystems. This study was conducted to determine the contribution of lignin residues in natural water to the formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs) in drinking water. We investigated the formation of different classes of DBPs from lignin model compounds, lignin polymers, and humic substances using two common disinfection techniques, chlorination and chloramination. The contributions of lignin to the overall formation of DBPs from these organic products were determined based on the observed abundances of individual lignin phenols and their DBP yields. Model lignin phenols generally produced higher trichloroacetic acid (TCAA) yields than chloroform and dichloroacetic acid (DCAA) during chlorination. Lignin phenols generally produced higher DBP yields but lower percentages of unknown total organic halogen compared to bulk humic substances and lignin polymers. The relative significance of lignin phenols as chlorination DBP precursors generally follows the order of TCAA > DCAA&chloroform. The relative significance of lignin phenols to DBP formation by chloramination follows the order: TCAA > DCAA&DCAN > chloroform. Overall, lignin phenols are more important as TCAA precursors than as chloroform and DCAA precursors.

  1. Evaluation of five DNA extraction methods for detection of H. pylori in formalin-fixed paraffin-embedded (FFPE) liver tissue from patients with hepatocellular carcinoma.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rabelo-Gonçalves, Elizabeth; Roesler, Bruna; Guardia, Ana Carolina; Milan, Arlete; Hara, Natalicia; Escanhoela, Cecília; Almeida, Jazon; Boin, Ilka; Zeitune, José Murilo

    2014-03-01

    Since Helicobacter spp. DNA was identified in liver tissue resected from patients with hepatocelullar carcinoma (HCC), researchers have suggested a role of this bacterium in hepatic carcinogenesis. Archives of formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded (FFPE) tissues represent an extraordinary source for clinical studies providing many advantages. However, DNA extraction from FFPE tissues is laborious, time-consuming and still remains a challenge. The aim of this study was to evaluate five protocols for DNA extraction from FFPE liver obtained from patients with HCC in order to detect Helicobacter pylori DNA. These methods were: (1) QIAamp FFPE Tissue Kit, (2) QIAamp DNA Mini Kit, (3) Wizard SV Genomic DNA Purification System, (4) RealiaPrep FFPE gDNA Miniprep System and (5) phenol-chloroform. H. pylori detection was performed using 16S rRNA gene amplification by PCR. The highest total amount of DNA was obtained using the phenol-chloroform method. Analyses of 16S rRNA gene amplification did not show statistically significant differences among the methods (p=0.466), although the highest percentage of positive cases (70%) was found in samples extracted with phenol-chloroform. We suggest that of the five methods evaluated, phenol/chloroform is the most suitable for detection of H. pylori in FFPE liver from patients with HCC.

  2. Enantioselective binding of amino acids and amino alcohols by self-assembled chiral basket-shaped receptors

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Escuder, B.; Rowan, A.E.; Feiters, M.C.; Nolte, R.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Amino acid appended diphenylglycoluril-based chiral molecular receptors 2 and 3 have been prepared and their aggregation has been studied in water at various pH's and in chloroform. The binding of several biologically relevant guests with aromatic moieties to these aggregates has been studied with U

  3. Experiments for the Undergraduate Laboratory that Illustrate the Size-Exclusion Properties of Zeolite Molecular Sieves

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cooke, Jason; Henderson, Eric J.

    2009-01-01

    Experiments are presented that demonstrate the size-exclusion properties of zeolites and reveal the reason for naming zeolites "molecular sieves". If an IR spectrometer is available, the adsorption or exclusion of alcohols of varying sizes from dichloromethane or chloroform solutions can be readily demonstrated by monitoring changes in the…

  4. Transformation of carbon tetrachloride in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor without addition of another electron donor

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Best, J.H. de; Hunneman, P.; Doddema, H.J.; Janssen, D.B.; Harder, W.

    1999-01-01

    Carbon tetrachloride (52 μM) was biodegraded for more than 72% in an anaerobic packed-bed reactor without addition of an external electron donor. The chloride mass balance demonstrated that all carbon tetrachloride transformed was completely dechlorinated. Chloroform and dichloromethane were sometim

  5. Photooxidation of Some Metallocenes in a Polymer Matrix

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Mallik

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The changes in the electronic absorption spectra (UV-Vis of some metallocene-doped poly(methyl methacrylate (PMMA thin films containing chloroform molecules as impurities were studied after photoexcitation in the nitrogen atmosphere. Photoexcitations were made by monochromatic radiation (using a Xe-lamp source and a monochromator at an interval of few nanometers in the spectral range 210-750 nm. The changes in spectra were studied as a function of photoexcitation time (duration, amount of metallocene in the film and the amount of chloroform molecules present in the film. Occurrence of photoinduced charge-transfer between some metallocenes and chloroform molecules confined in the PMMA thin films was observed, which indicated photooxidation of the metallocenes in the polymer matrix. Photoresponse in the case of ferrocene derivatives was observed to decrease with the increase in the value of para- Hammett constant for the substituent attached to the ferrocene unit and also with increasing half-wave potential for the ferrocene derivatives. Photoeffects on the metallocenes having different central metal atom were studied and it was noticed that the photoeffects on the metallocenes with "18 valence electrons", as in ferrocene and ruthenocene, favored the occurrence of photoinduced charge-transfer between the metallocene and chloroform molecules present in a PMMA film. The photooxidation of a metallocene in a PMMA thin film resulted in an enhanced photoconductivity of the polymeric film.

  6. 4-Hydroxy-1-naphthaldehydes: proton transfer or deprotonation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Manolova, Y; Kurteva, V; Antonov, L;

    2015-01-01

    . In chloroform and toluene, the OH form is completely dominant. Both 4-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde and 4-methoxy-1-naphthaldehyde (fixed enol form) show dimerization in the investigated solvents and the crystallographic data, obtained for the latter, confirm the existence of a cyclic dimer...

  7. Ethyl ester purpurine-18 from Gossypium mustelinum (Malvaceae);Feoforbideo (etoxi-purpurina-18) isolado de Gossypium mustelinum (Malvaceae)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Tania Maria Sarmento; Camara, Celso Amorim, E-mail: taniasarmento@dq.ufrpe.b [Universidade Federal de Pernambuco (UFPE), Recife, PE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Barbosa-Filho, Jose Maria [Universidade Federal da Paraiba (UFPB), Joao Pessoa, PB (Brazil). Lab. de Tecnologia Farmaceutica; Giulietti, Ana Maria [Universidade Estadual de Feira de Santana, BA (Brazil). Dept. de Ciencias Biologicas

    2010-07-01

    The phaeophorbide ethyl ester named Purpurine-18 and the flavonoids quercetin and kaempferol were obtained by chromatographic procedures from the chloroform fraction of aerial parts of Gossypium mustelinum. The structure of these compound was determined by NMR, IR and mass spectra data analysis. This is the first occurrence of this compound in Angiosperm. (author)

  8. Phase behavior of solvent vapor annealed thin films of PS-b-P4VP(PDP) supramolecules

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van Zoelen, Wendy; Asumaa, Terhi; Ruokolainen, Janne; Ikkala, OlliI; ten Brinke, Gerrit

    2008-01-01

    The phase behavior and terrace formation of solvent (chloroform) vapor annealed thin films of asymmetric comb-shaped supramolecules consisting of a polystyrene (PS) block and a supramolecular block of poly(4-vinylpyridine) (P4VP) hydrogen bonded with pentadecylphenol (PDP) on silicon oxide (SiO2) we

  9. Solution blow spun Poly(lactic acid)/Hydroxypropyl methylcellulose nanofibers with antimicrobial properties

    Science.gov (United States)

    Poly(lactic acid) (PLA) nanofibers containing hydroxypropyl methylcellulose (HPMC) and tetracycline hydrochloride (THC) were solution blow spun from two different solvents, chloroform/acetone (CA, 80:20 v/v) and 2,2,2-triflouroethanol (TFE). The diameter distribution, chemical, thermal, thermal stab...

  10. Peroxide values of Aglaia argentea Blume, A. silvestria (M. Roemer Merr., dan A. tomentosa Teijsm. & Binn.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    PRAPTIWI

    2006-07-01

    Full Text Available The objectives of this research were to determine the chemical components and the peroxide values of three Aglaia species (A. argentea Blume, A. silvestria (M. Roemer Merr and A. tomentosa Teijsm & Binn. Phytochemical screening was done by Cuiley method, while peroxide values were determined by iodometri-titration on methanol, hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts. The result of phytochemical screening indicated that all of Aglaia species tested (three species contained sterol and triterpenoids, base alkaloid, reduction sugar, and anthrasenoid while other components present only in one or two species of Aglaia. Peroxide values of the tested extracts were higher than that of vitamin E (40.996 mili-equivalent/1000 g samples as a standard reductor, except the peroxide value of chloroform extract of A. tomentosa (41.078 milli-equivalent/ 1000 g sample. It can be concluded that A. tomentosa chloroform extract might had similar ability with vitamin E in preventing or delaying oxidation process. A. tomentosa chloroform extract acted as reductor.

  11. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING OF ANTIBACTERIAL ACTIVITY OF PALMYRA PALM ( BORASSUS FLABELLIFER) ROOT EXTRACT

    OpenAIRE

    Saravanan C., Priya B.*, Asir Bradley S. and Uma Sundaram

    2012-01-01

    The phytochemical constituents of Borassus flabellifer was identified and evaluated the antibacterial activity of the acetone, benzene, chloroform, ethanol and methanol extracts. A phytoconstituent analysis of alkaloids, glycosides, terpenoids, steroids, flavonoids, tannins, phenols and saponins were performed on the various solvent extracts. Antibacterial activity was analyzed by agar well diffusion method against five pathogenic microorganisms, E. coli, S. aureus, K. pneumonia, P. aeruginos...

  12. Induced solvent chirality: A VCD study of camphor in CDCl 3

    Science.gov (United States)

    Debie, Elke; Jaspers, Lize; Bultinck, Patrick; Herrebout, Wouter; Veken, Benjamin Van Der

    2008-01-01

    It is shown how the presence of a chiral compound in solution induces chirality in the surrounding solvent molecules. Using Vibrational Circular Dichroism on camphor dissolved in deuterated chloroform, it is found that the C-D stretch in the latter indeed becomes VCD active. The experimental results agree with ab initio computed spectra for 1:1 associations between the solvent and solute.

  13. Effect of temperature and extraction process on antioxidant activity of various leaves crude extracts of Thymus vulgaris

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mohammad A Hossain

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To observe the effect of temperature and extraction process on the estimation of antioxidant activity of various organic crude extracts from the leaves of Thymus vulgaris (T. vulgaris species native to Sultanate of Oman. Methods: The dry powder samples of T. vulgaris were extracted with methanol using two different extraction methods. Both methanol crude extracts from the leaves of T. vulgaris were defatted with water and extracted successively with different polarities of solvents with increasing polarities, e.g., hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and butanol. Results: The yield of methanol crude extract by Soxhlet extraction method is better than maceration method. The yield of extraction was increasing with increasing temperature. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts from both extraction methods was measured by DPPH with modification. By Soxhlet extraction method, the activity result found in butanol crude extracts was highest and the lowest in hexane crude extract as the following order of butanol>methanol>ethyl acetate extract>chloroform>hexane extract. However, by maceration method, the activity was highest in ethyl acetate and lowest in chloroform as the order of ethyl aectate>methanol extract>butanol>hexane >chloroform. Conclusions: In conclusion, the maceration method is the best method for the evaluation of antioxidant activity.

  14. Effect of temperature and extraction process on antioxidant activity of various leaves crude extracts of Thymus vulgaris

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohammad A Hossain; Zawan Hamood AL-Mijizy; Kawther Khalifa Al-Rashdi; Afaf M Weli; Qasim Al-Riyami

    2013-01-01

    Objective: To observe the effect of temperature and extraction process on the estimation of antioxidant activity of various organic crude extracts from the leaves of Thymus vulgaris (T.vulgaris ) species native to Sultanate of Oman. Methods: The dry powder samples of T. vulgaris were extracted with methanol using two different extraction methods. Both methanol crude extracts from the leaves of T. vulgaris were defatted with water and extracted successively with different polarities of solvents with increasing polarities, e.g., hexane, ethyl acetate, chloroform and butanol.Results:The yield of methanol crude extract by Soxhlet extraction method is better than maceration method. The yield of extraction was increasing with increasing temperature. The antioxidant activity of different crude extracts from both extraction methods was measured by DPPH with modification. By Soxhlet extraction method, the activity result found in butanol crude extracts was highest and the lowest in hexane crude extract as the following order of butanol>methanol>ethyl acetate extract>chloroform>hexane extract. However, by maceration method, the activity was highest in ethyl acetate and lowest in chloroform as the order of ethyl aectate>methanol extract>butanol>hexane >chloroform.Conclusions:In conclusion, the maceration method is the best method for the evaluation of antioxidant activity.

  15. Mosquito larvicidal activity of some common spices and vegetable waste onCulex quinquefasciatus andAnopheles stephensi

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Someshwar Singha; Goutam Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the larvicidal activities of crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extracts of some common spices (Cuminum cyminum, Allium sativum, Zingiber offinale, Curcuma longa) and vegetable waste (Solanum tuberosum germinated tuber) againstAnopheles stephensiandCulex quinquefasciatus mosquito larvae.Methods:Larval mortality of above mosquito species were observed after 24, 48 and72 h of exposure to five concentrations of aqueous extract (0.1%, 0.2%, 0.3%, 0.4% and0.5%) and four concentrations (25, 50, 75 ppm) of chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extract. The lethal concentration of individual spices or vegetable waste was determined by log-probit analysis (at95%confidence level) and effect of crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extracts were recorded on non target organisms.Results:Relative mortality rate of both larval mosquito species were recorded in the following sequences:Cuminum cyminum>Allium sativum>Zingiber offinale, Curcuma longa > Solanum tuberosum germinated tuber for crude extract, and efficacy of chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extract were as follows:Curcuma longa > Zingiber offinale > Solanum tuberosum germinated tuber >Cuminum cyminum>Allium sativum.Conclusions: Crude and chloroform: methanol (1:1 v/v) extract of Cuminum cyminum, Allium sativum, Zingiber offinale, Curcuma longa andSolanum tuberosum germinated tuber can be recommended effectively in mosquito control programmes at very low concentrations. No mortality and other abnormalities were noticed on non target organisms and further studies are needed to investigate the chemical structure of active principal which are responsible for larvicidal activity.

  16. Larvicidal activity of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii leaf fractions against Aedes aegypti (Diptera: Culicidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Younoussa Lame

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of the present study was to evaluate the larvicidal activity of leaf fractions of Annona senegalensis and Boswellia dalzielii against fourth instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. Fourth instar larvae of Ae. aegypti were exposed for 24 hours to various concentrations (312.5-2500 mg/L of methanolic crude extract and its fractions obtained with n-hexane, chloroform, ethyl-acetate and methanol solvents, following WHO method. The mortalities recorded were subjected to ANOVA test for mean comparison and Probit analysis to determine LC50. Preliminary phytochemical screening test for some components of the plants assessed were also evaluated. The phytochemical screening of the two plants revealed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, phenolic compounds, terpenoids, fats and oils in the crude extracts which, after splitting were most distributed in n-hexane and chloroform fractions. Apart from methanol fraction, all products used showed a significant (P<0.001 concentration-dependent toxicity against Ae. aegypti larvae. The LC50 recorded with crude extract were 759.6 and 830.4 mg/L for A. senegalensis and B. dalzielli respectively. After fractionation, n-hexane and chloroform fractions of A. senegalensis revealed more effective activity than others with CL50 values of 379.3 and 595.2 mg/L respectively. As for B. dalzielli, n-hexane (LC50=537.1 mg/L and chloroform (LC50=585.5 mg/L fractions were also the most effective. These results suggest that the n-hexane and chloroform fractions of these plants as a promising larvicide against Ae. aegypti and can constitute the best basic and vital step in the development of a botanical insecticide source.

  17. The Investigation of Antibacterial Effects of Salvia Sahendica Extracts on Some Pathogenic Bacteria

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Bannazadeh Baghi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Background: The salvia plant is one of the Lamiacea family members, that is being cultiurated all over the world. In Iran almost all spices of this plant could found, that are used for medical, food industry and parfumers production. Salvia sahendica genus is the member of this family, that its antibacterial effects on Klebsiella pneumonia, Staphylococcus aureus and Pseudomonas aeruginosa have been investigated. Methods: In this study are used standard strains of Pseudomonas aeruginosa (ATCC 27852 Staphylococcus aureus, (ATCC 25923 and, Klebsiella pneumonia (ATCC 3583. Salvia was provided from Tabriz mall and was powdered. Then this powder was suspended with ratio 1:10 with Metanol, Aceton, Chloroform, Hexan, Ethyl acetate and water. After 24h extractions isolated and concentrated with distillated in vacuum system. Which of bacteria were cultured to over night in Mohler Hinton agar medium, then compared with 0.5 macfarland. In continue extraction were tested by used of well assay method and then the diameter of zone measured. Experiments repeated tree times and the average of data obtained. In each of tests we had a control from special solvent. Results: Regarding to the results, all of salvia sahendica extractions showed antibacterial activity on Staphylococcus aureus, Pseudomonas aeruginosa and. That regarding Klebsiella pneumonia, Ethanol, Chloroform, Ethyl acetate, Hexan, and regarding Staphylococcus aureus Metanol, Aceton, Chloroform, Hexan, Ethyl acetate and Pseudomonas aeruginosa only Chloroform this plant has antibacterial effects. Chloroform extraction of salvia shows the most antibacterial activity (with the biggest diameter of antibacterial zone. Conclusion: Regarding the carried out study it could be noted that for inhibition and destroying Staphylococcus aureus and Klebsiella pneumonia, plants effects extraction could be used.

  18. Two new bioactive salsolanol and biphenylsalsinol from the aerial parts of Salsola villosa Delile. ex Schul.(Chenopodiaceae) growing in Saudi Arabia

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Mohamed; Habib; Oueslati; Faraj; A.Al-Ghamdi; Adel; Noubigh

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To isolate and characterize the bioactive secondary metabolites from aerial parts of widespread Chenopodiaceae taxa growing in Saudi Arabia: Salsola villosa Delile. ex Schul. Methods: Antibacterial activities of chloroformic extract, fractions and isolate compounds was evaluated against five bacterial strains(Escherichia coli, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Staphylococcus aureus and Staphylococcus epidermidis), using a paper disc diffusion method. The purification of compound(s) of chloroform extract was done by chromatographic column of silica gel. The structure elucidation was determined by extensive spectroscopic analysis(1H and 13 C nuclear magnetic resonance, correlation spectroscopy, heteronuclear multiple bond correlation, heteronuclear multiple quantum coherence and nuclear overhauser enhancement spectroscopy) and high resolution electrospray ionization mass spectroscopy analysis.Results: Bioactivity guided fractionation of the chloroformic extract led to the isolation of two bioactive compounds: 4-(4’-hydroxy-2’-methylcyclopent-2’-enyloxy)-4-methylcyclopent-2-enol(1) named salsolanol and 4’-[3-(hydroxymethyl)oxiran-2-yl]-3-[(E)-3-hydroxyprop-1-en-1-yl]-6, 2’-dimethoxy [1, 1’-biphenyl]-2-ol(2) named biphenylsalsinol. The antibacterial effects of the chloroform extracts, fractions and isolated compounds 1 and 2 were also evaluated in this work. Results showed that the compounds 1 and 2 exhibited antibacterial activities against four strains: Staphylococcus aureus, Staphylococcus epidermidis, Escherichia coli and Pseudomonas aeruginosa with diameter of zone of inhibition ranging between(9.33 ± 0.94) to(26.33 ± 0.94) mm.Conclusions: Based on data presented here, two new natural compounds secondary cyclic alcohol 1 and biphenylpropanoid 2 isolated from bioactive chloroformic extract from aerial parts of Salsola villosa can be responsible for its antibacterial activities.

  19. Antinociceptive effect in mice of a hydroalcoholic extract of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. and its organic fractions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gracioso, J S; Paulo, M Q; Hiruma Lima, C A; Souza Brito, A R

    1998-12-01

    An infusion of the aerial parts of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br. (Compositae-Asteraceae) is used in Caribbean folk medicine to treat several kinds of pain. In this investigation we studied the acute oral toxicity of the hydroalcoholic extract of the plant and the antinociceptive effect of the extract and of its hexane- and chloroform-partitioned fractions, given orally, in nociception and inflammatory models in mice. No signs of toxicity were observed for oral doses up to 5000 mg kg(-1) in mice. Morphine hydrochloride (100 mg kg(-1)), dipyrone sodium (200 mg kg(-1)), the hydroalcoholic extract (1000 mg kg(-1)), and its chloroform- and hexane-partitioned fractions (100 mg kg(-1)) significantly inhibited acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction in mice (100, 95, 47, 62 and 60% inhibition, respectively when compared with the negative control). In the hot-plate test in mice, morphine hydrochloride, the chloroform- and hexane-partitioned fractions, but not the hydroalcoholic extract, resulted in a significant latency increase in all observation times. In the acetic acid-induced abdominal constriction in mice, pretreatment of the animals with naloxone significantly reversed the analgesic effect of morphine, but not that of the hydroalcoholic extract or of its hexane- and chloroform-partitioned fractions. Finally, administration of the hexane- and chloroform-partitioned fractions (100 mg kg(-1)) had a significant anti-oedematogenic effect on carrageenan-induced oedema in mice. These data show that the hydroalcoholic extract of N. lobata and, in particular, its partitioned fractions have significant analgesic properties when assessed through these pain models. Their antinociceptive effect might be the result of interference with the inflammatory process. PMID:10052860

  20. Equilibrium of Extraction of Succinic,Malic,Maleic and Fumaric Acids with Trioctylamine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LIZhenyu; QINWei; 等

    2002-01-01

    Extraction equilibrium features of succinic acid,malic acid,maleic acid and fumaric acid were investigated systematically with trioctylamine (TOA) in chloroform,4-methyl-2-pentanone (MIBK) and 1-octanol.Fourier transform-infrared(FTIR) spectroscopic analysis of organic samples loaded with the acid show that amine forms 1:1 complex of ion-pair association with succinic acid,malic acid and maleic acid,and 1:1,2:1 complex of ion-pair association with fumaric acid.It is proposed that the complex forms depend on the second dissociation constant of the dibasic acid,pKa2.Results of equilibrium experiments show that diluents affects extraction behavior,and depend on the solute concentration.Protic diluents,chloroform and 1-octanol,are more effective than the others when the equilibrium solute concentration.Protic diluents,chloroform and 1-octanol,are more effective tthan the others when the equilibrium solute concentration is lower than 1:1 stoichiometry of TOA to acid,otherwise the extraction ability shows that MIBK>1-octanol>chloroform for malic and maleic acids,and 1-octanol>MIBK>chloroform for succinic acid.Overloading(Solute concentration in organic phase is lager than TOA concentration) appears for all of the studied acids, and the sequence of overloading amount is the same as that of distribution constant of diluent.The results show that the sequence of extraction ability of different acid is the same as that of acidity at low equilibrium solute concentrations,while it is the same as the sequence of hydrophobicity at high equilibrium concentrations.

  1. Polarity-based separation and chemical characterization of fast pyrolysis bio-oil from poultry litter

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    140 g Poultry litter pyrolysis oils (PL oils) were separated into four fractions using polarity based fractionation method. Four solvents of increasing polarity (hexane < toluene < chloroform < methanol) were used to sequentially fractionate the PL oil into four fractions (hexane fraction, toluene fraction, chloroform fraction and methanol fraction). The mass of hexane, toluene, chloroform and methanol fractions was 46 g, 29 g, 48 g and 14 g, respectively. The hexane and toluene fractions had low viscosity, while chloroform fraction was viscous and methanol fraction was almost solid at ambient laboratory conditions. The four PL oil fractions were characterized using Fourier Transform Infrared (FT-IR) spectrometry, 13C Nuclear Magnetic Resonance (NMR) spectrometry, and their organic elemental composition and higher heating values were also determined. Furthermore, major compounds in the four fractions were isolated by column chromatography. As a result, four compound classes (fatty acids, sterols, phenols and carbohydrates) and eleven major compounds were isolated from these four fractions. Oleic acid was predominant component of the hexane fraction (48.6%). The major component in methanol fraction was 1, 6-anhydro-β-D-glucose (16.7%), but the chloroform fraction had no predominant component. The 1, 6-anhydro-β-D-glucose and other sugar derivatives were water soluble and were selectively removed from the PL oil by water extraction and this subsequently decreased the viscosity of residual PL oil. - Highlights: • PL oil was separated into four fractions using polarity-based fractionation method. • The methanol fraction is a major cause of the high viscosity of the PL oil. • Fatty acids were predominant components of the hexane and toluene fractions. • The major component in methanol fraction was 1, 6-anhydro-glucose

  2. Antimicrobial and wound healing activities of leaves of Alternanthera sessilis Linn

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    Jalalpure Sunil

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available The leaves of Alternanthera sessilis (Linn. R.Br.ex DC (Family Amaranthaceae were exhaustively extracted by soxhlet apparatus with different solvents like, petroleum ether (40-60°C, chloroform, acetone, methanol and distilled water in ascending order of the polarity. All the five extracts were subjected to antimicrobial screening by using the cup plate and turbidimetric methods. The chloroform extract among all five extracts showed maximum zone of inhibition and significant MIC values in above two methods respectively. Hence chloroform extract was taken for the screening of wound healing activity and models adopted for wound healing activity were, incision, excision and granuloma studies. The chloroform extract of leaves of Alternanthera sessilis at a dose of 200 µg/mL (orally in all models showed significant results. Contraction of wound area (P < 0.005 at 16 th day, time for complete epithelization in 16 days (P < 0.0001, and scar area after complete epithelization was found to be 33.2 ± 0.0730 (P < 0.0008 in excision wound model, wound breaking strength 388 ± 5.85 grams (P < 0.0001 in incision wound model, granuloma dry weight 47.7 ± 2.29, granuloma breaking strength 247 ± 10.2 (P < 0.022 in granuloma studies. All the results were significant for different parameters in wound healing activity when compared with control group. Presence of sterols in chloroform extract was also confirmed by preliminary phytochemical investigation, TLC and HPTLC methods.

  3. Chemical constituents of Swertia longifolia Boiss. with α-amylase inhibitory activity

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    Soodabeh Saeidnia

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available α-Amylase inhibitors play a critical role in the control of diabetes and many of medicinal plants have been found to act as α-amylase inhibitors. Swertia genus, belonging to the family Gentianaceae, comprises different species most of which have been used in traditional medicine of several cultures as antidiabetic, anti-pyretic, analgesic, liver and gastrointestinal tonic. Swertia longifolia Boiss. is the only species of Swertia growing in Iran. In the present investigation, phytochemical study of S. longifolia was performed and α-amylase inhibitory effects of the plant fractions and purified compounds were determined. Aerial parts of the plant were extracted with hexane, chloroform, methanol and water, respectively. The components of the hexane and chloroform fractions were isolated by different chromatographic methods and their structures were determined by 1 H NMR and 13 C NMR data. α-Amylase inhibitory activity was determined by a colorimetric assay using 3,5-dinitro salysilic acid. During phytochemical examination, α-amyrin, β-amyrin and β-sitosterol were purified from the hexane fraction,while ursolic acid, daucosterol and swertiamarin were isolated from chloroform fraction. The results of the biochemical assay revealed α-amylase inhibitory activity of hexane, chloroform, methanol and water fractions, of which the chloroform and methanol fractions were more potent (IC 50 16.8 and 18.1 mg/ml, respectively. Among examined compounds, daucosterol was found to be the most potent α-amylase inhibitor (57.5% in concentration 10 mg/ml. With regard to α-amylase inhibitory effects of the plant extracts, purified constituents, and antidiabetic application of the species of Swertia genus in traditional medicine of different countries, S. longifolia seems more appropriate species for further mechanistic antidiabetic evaluations.

  4. Larvicidal activity of extracts from three Plumbago spp against Anopheles gambiae

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    Barasa M Maniafu

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Three Plumbago spp have been tested for mosquito larvicidal activity. The crude extracts exhibiting the highest larvicidal activity against Anopheles gambiae were hexane (LC50 = 6.4 μg/mL and chloroform (LC50 = 6.7 μg/mL extracts from Plumbago zeylanica Linn, chloroform (LC50 = 6.7 ug/mL extract from Plumbago stenophylla Bull and ethyl acetate (LC50 = 4.1 μg/mL extract from Plumbago dawei Rolfe. These LC50 values were within 95% confidence limits. 5-hydroxy-2-methyl-1,4-naphthoquinone (plumbagin 1 (LC50 = 1.9 μg/mL and β-sitosterol 2 were characterised from ethyl acetate extract of root bark of P. dawei, a native medicinal plant growing in Kenya, based on spectral analysis and comparisons with data in literature.

  5. Pharmacognostic and Biological Studies of the Roots of Rubia Cordifolia Linn. (Rubiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    RAMESH S. DEODA

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Rubia cordifolia (Rubiaceae is also known as, Manjishtha, Indian madder known to contain substantial amounts of anthraquinones, especially in the roots which is responsible for anti-tumor, anti-inflammatory, urinary disorders, antistress antimicrobial, hepatoprotective, radio protective, and anticancer, antimicrobial, antifungal, hypotensive, analgesic, antimalarial, antioxidant, antileukemic and mutagenic functions, immunomodulatory, anti-inflammatory and antioxidant activity. The plant contains substantial amounts of anthraquinones, triterpenoids especially in the roots, which is responsible for most of its pharmacological activity. In present study the chloroform fraction from methanolic extract of roots of R. cordifolia were evaluated for its biological effect and compared with the parent extract and remaining fraction, where chloroform fraction showed potent protective action for stress induced complications in mice.

  6. Extraction and measurement of subpicogram quantities quantities of technetium from geologic and other matrices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An extraction and purification technique for 99Tc from both geological and water samples has been developed at Los Alamos. For geological samples, the technique consists of spiking the sample with 97Tc followed by a sodium peroxide/sodium hydroxide fusion. After dissolving in water and filtering off precipitates, the Tc is extracted into TPA/chloroform mixture, back-extracted with nitric acid, then further purified in anion columns. The final purification step is microdistillation in a 5-ml Teflon conical vial. For water samples, the technique is to add 97Tc spike along with sulfuric acid and Ce+4 to ensure equilibration, then the extraction with TPA/chloroform is done, and so forth. Analysis of Tc isotopes is done by negative ionization mass spectrometry. The limit of detection is 14 femtograms. The technique is used in natural analog studies of radionuclide release rates. 19 refs

  7. A high-performance liquid chromatography with circular dichroism detector for determination of stereochemistry of 6, 9-oxygen bridge dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from kadsura coccinea.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhu, Hui; Xu, Liang; Yang, Shi-Lin; Li, He-Ran

    2015-10-01

    The stereochemistry of two 6, 9-oxygen bridge dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans from Kadsura coccinea, are difficult to separate and very unstable. The present study was designed to develop a high-performance liquid chromatography using circular dichroism detection for the analysis of the stereochemistry. A new 6, 9-oxygen bridge dibenzocyclooctadiene lignans named Kadsulignan Q was firstly found with an S-biphenyl configuration. The other compound was identified as Kadsulignan L with an R- biphenyl configuration. In order to obtain kinetic data on their reversible interconversion, the stability was measured at different deuterated solvents such as deuterated methanol, deuterated chloroform and deuterated dimethylsulfoxide. The lignans were more unstable and converted more easily in deuterated methanol than in deuterated chloroform and deuterated dimethylsulfoxide. PMID:26481381

  8. In-vitro Antibacterial Efficacy of Solvent Extracts of Leaves of Bauhinia racemosa Lam. (Caesalpiniaceae Against Enteric Bacterial Pathogens

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    S. B. Dahikar

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Phytochemical screening of the plant leaves reveals the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, flavonoids, steroids, and tannins. Petroleum ether extract, chloroform extract, ethyl acetate extract and methanol extracts of leaves of Bauhinia racemosa Linn. were prepared and antibacterial activity were studied by disc diffusion method against certain enteric bacterial pathogens such as Escherichia coli, Staphylococcus aureus, Klebsiella pneumonia, Enterobacter aerogenes, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Salmonella typhimurium, Salmonella typhi, Staphylococcus epidermidis and Proteus vulgaris. The Methanol extracts had wide range of antibacterial activity against enteric bacterial pathogens than the petroleum ether extract, where as ethyl acetate extract were slightly higher antibacterial activity than chloroform extract. Antibacterial activity of various extract of leaves of Bauhinia racemosa was carried in attempt to develop a new pharmaceutical drug from natural origin for prevention of enteric infection.

  9. Comparative HPTLC fingerprint profile of Illicium verum Hook.f. and Illicium griffithii Hook.f. & Thoms fruits

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Saraswathy A

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To establish the fingerprint profile of two Illicium species namely Illicium verum Hook.f. and Illicium griffithii Hook.f. & Thoms using high performace thin layer chromatography (HPTLC technique. Methods: CAMAG HPTLC system equipped with TLC autosampler 4 applicator, TLC scanner 3 and win CATS 1.4.4. software was used. n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts of the fruits were developed in suitable mobile phase using standard procedures and scanned under UV at 254nm, 366 nm and under visible light. Results: The HPTLC fingerprinting of the n-hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate extracts showed several peaks with different Rf values. Conclusion: HPTLC fingerprint profile of two Illicium species may be useful in differentiating the species and also helpful in the identification and authentication of these species

  10. Gel permeation chromatography (GPC) of repeatedly extruded polyethylene terephthalate (PET).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Milana, M R; Denaro, M; Arrivabene, L; Maggio, A; Gramiccioni, L

    1998-04-01

    The paper deals with gel permeation chromatography (GPC) monitoring of the behaviour of PET (polyethylene terephthalate) after repeated extrusions. Virgin PET was submitted to three successive extrusion/drying cycles and then the samples were swelled with hexafluoroisopropanol and treated with chloroform. GPC analysis was carried out at room temperature on a B.C.S. Serial LC 2000 GPC system equipped with a series of four GPC columns with UV detection at 254 nm and chloroform as eluent. GPC results showed that after each extrusion step the molecular weight distribution of the PET was different and Mw, Mn and Mz decreased. These findings suggest that during each extrusion degradation occurs and that repeated extrusions, as in the case of the recycling PET, may cause an alteration of the molecular weight distribution of the original PET. PMID:9666895

  11. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF THE FRUITS OF CUCUMIS TRIGONUS ROXB.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gopalakrishnan

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The antibacterial and antifungal activities of the successive extracts (petroleum ether (40-60ºC, benzene, chloroform, ethanol and water of the fruit of Cucumis trigonus Roxb. (Fam. Cucurbitaceae have been carried out against three gram positive bacteria, Bacillus cereus, Baccillus subtilis, Streptococcus faecalis, three gram negative bacteria, Pseudomonas aeruginosa, Klebsiella aerogenos, Proteaus vulgaris and two fungi, Candida albicans, Asparagillus flavans by using disk diffusion method. Zones of inhibition of the extracts have been compared with that of the standard antibiotics. The petroleum ether (40-60ºC and chloroform extracts showed no activity while the ethanolic extract showed more activity than the benzene and aqueous extracts. Minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC for the ethanolic extract of the fruit of Cucumis trigonus has also been determined. The results indicate that Cucumis trigonus is a potential antiseptic for the prevention and treatment of microbial infections.

  12. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF CANANGA ODORATA (LAM.HOOK.F. & THOMSON LEAF EXTRACT: AN IN VITRO STUDY

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    R.Gomathi

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Medicinal plants are important source of potentially useful structures for the development of novel chemotherapeutic agents. The first step towards this goal is the in vitro antibacterial activity assay( Tona et al., 1998. The present study was aimed to evaluate the antmicrobial effect of Cananga odorata leaf extract on some bacterial cultures such as Staphylococcus aureus, Salmonella typhi, Escherichia coli, Vibrio cholerae and fungi such as Epidermophyton floccosum. Microsporum gypseum and Trichophyton mentagrophytes. The solvents Methanol, Chloroform and Petroleum ether were used for extraction.The inhibitory effect was assessed by well diffusion method. The zone of inhibition was measured. Among the solvent extracts tested, methanol was more effective than chloroform and petroleum ether.

  13. A Rapid and Cost-Effective Method for DNA Extraction from Archival Herbarium Specimens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krinitsina, A A; Sizova, T V; Zaika, M A; Speranskaya, A S; Sukhorukov, A P

    2015-11-01

    Here we report a rapid and cost-effective method for the extraction of total DNA from herbarium specimens up to 50-90-year-old. The method takes about 2 h, uses AMPure XP magnetic beads diluted by PEG-8000- containing buffer, and does not require use of traditional volatile components like chloroform, phenol, and liquid nitrogen. It yields up to 4 µg of total nucleic acid with high purity from about 30 mg of dry material. The quality of the extracted DNA was tested by PCR amplification of 5S rRNA and rbcL genes (nuclear and chloroplast DNA markers) and compared against the traditional chloroform/isoamyl alcohol method. Our results demonstrate that the use of the magnetic beads is crucial for extraction of DNA suitable for subsequent PCR from herbarium samples due to the decreasing inhibitor concentrations, reducing short fragments of degraded DNA, and increasing median DNA fragment sizes.

  14. A FUNCTIONAL LIGHT-EMITTING COPOLYMER CONTAINING IONIC CONDUCTIVE BLOCKS IN THE MAIN CHAIN%一种主链含有离子导电性链段的功能发光共聚物

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王海侨; 刘德山; 王晓工

    2001-01-01

    A novel blue-light-emitting functional copolymer containing alternating rigid conjugated PPV and flexible ionic conductivity PEO blocks in the main chain was synthesized by using the Wittig reaction.The copolymer was characterized by FT-IR,1H-NMR, UV-Vis, DSC, GPC, etc.The results show that the copolymer can be soluble in chloroform and tetrahydrofuran,with Tg=50.5℃,Td=205℃, a maximum absorption peak in UV-Vis spectrum at 354nm and an emission peak in the photoluminescent spectrum at 438nm for solution in chloroform and at 475nm for film. It is a good blue emitter for fabricating LED or LEC.

  15. Photoassisted Electrochemical Treatment of Azo and Phtalocyanine Reactive Dyes in the Presence of Surfactants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mireia Sala

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available An electrochemical treatment (EC was applied at different intensities to degrade the chromophoric groups of dyes C.I. Reactive Black 5 (RB5 and C.I. Reactive Blue 7 (Rb7 until uncolored species were obtained. Decolorization rate constants of the azo dye RB5 were higher than the phtalocyanine Rb7 ones. In addition, the EC treatment was more efficient at higher intensities, but these conditions significantly increased the generation of undesirable by-products such as chloroform. The combination of EC with UV irradiation (UVEC drastically minimized the generation of chloroform. The photo-assisted electrochemical treatment was also able to achieve decolorization values of 99%. Finally, mixtures of dyes and surfactants were treated by EC and UVEC. In the presence of surfactants, the decolorization kinetic of dyes was slowed due to the competitive reactions of surfactants degradation. Both methods achieved total decolorization and in both cases, the generation of haloforms was negligible.

  16. 用修正的Polanyi-Dubinin方程描述有机蒸气-水蒸气在活性炭上的吸附平衡%MODIFIED POLANYI-DUBININ EQUATION TO ORRELATE ADSORPTION EQUILIBRIUM OF VOC-WATER VAPOR MIXTURES ON ACTIVATED CARBON

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高华生; 汪大翚; 叶芸春; 谭天恩

    2001-01-01

    Long-column method was used to determine the adsorption isotherms of 4 VOCs (benzene, toluene, chloroform and acetone) in concentration range of 250~5000?mg*m-3 on a commercial activated-carbon under different humidity levels at 30?℃.A modified Polanyi-Dubinin equation was proposed to correlate the adsorption equilibrium of different VOC-water vapor systems. Among 3 methods of calculating the Relative Affinity Coefficient β used,the Molar Volume method and the Molecular Parachor method proved to be suitable for the calculation with better precision than the Electronic Polarization method. Calculation results were satisfactory for the benzene-, toluene-, and chloroform-water vapor/activated carbon systems, but poor for acetone possibly because of its strong polarity.The equation could be used to estimate the detaining effect of atmospheric humidity on the adsorption equilibrium of VOCs on activated carbon.

  17. Optical Properties of Poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl and Poly (3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl / [6,6]-Phenyl C61-butyric Acid 3-ethylthiophene Ester Thin Films

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B.M. Omer

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Thin films of Poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl (P3HT were prepared from chloroform, 1,2 dichlorobenzene and toluene solutions by spin coating technique on quartz substrates. The absorption and photoluminescence (PL measurements were performed on the P3HT films to investigate the influence of solvent on the optical properties of the films. The results shows that the UV-vis absorption of P3HT film spin-coated from toluene is red shifted compared to the spectra of the films spin-coated from either chloroform or 1,2 dichlorobenzene. The surface morphology of P3HT: [6, 6]-Phenyl C61-butyric Acid 3-ethylthiophene Ester (Modified Fullerene thin films spin-coated from different solvents were studied using Atomic Force Microscope (AFM, the thin film spin-coated from 1,2 dichlorobenzene show the smoother surface.

  18. Influência de diferentes solventes utilizados na deposição de filme de poli(9-vinilcarbazol em dispositivos OLEDs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Emerson Roberto Santos

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work studies the influence of the film deposition process on light emission performance and on threshold voltage of OLEDs, with architecture glass/ITO/PEDOT:PSS/PVK/Alq3/Al. The commercial PVK was dissolved in different solvents such as: chloroform, tetrahydrofuran, 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene and trimethylpentane. OLEDs were characterized by current-voltage and revealed a significant influence of the solvents, although all devices emitted green electroluminescence. A difference in threshold voltage up to 10 V was observed among OLEDs prepared from different solvents. The 1,2,4-trichlorobenzene showed best performance, presenting lowest treshold voltage (≈ 6 V, followed by tetrahydrofuran (≈ 8 V, trimethylpentane (≈ 14 V and chloroform (≈ 16 V.

  19. Inhibition of Quorum Sensing-Controlled Virulence Factor Production in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PAO1 by Ayurveda Spice Clove (Syzygium Aromaticum Bud Extract

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kok-Gan Chan

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available Quorum sensing controls the virulence determinants in most proteobacteria. In this work, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of an Ayurveda spice, namely clove (Syzygium aromaticum, shown anti-quorum sensing activity. Hexane and methanol extracts of clove inhibited the response of C. violaceum CV026 to exogenously supplied N‑hexanoylhomoserine lactone, in turn preventing violacein production. Chloroform and methanol extracts of clove significantly reduced bioluminescence production by E. coli [pSB1075] grown in the presence of N-(3-oxododecanoyl-L-homoserine lactone. We demonstrated that clove extract inhibited quorum sensing-regulated phenotypes in Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, including expression of lecA::lux (by hexane extract, swarming (maximum inhibition by methanol extract, pyocyanin (maximum inhibition by hexane extract. This study shows that the presence of natural compounds that exhibit anti-quorum sensing activity in the clove extracts may be useful as the lead of anti-infective drugs.

  20. Design and construct of a new detector for gas chromatography based on continuous negative corona discharge.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghahfarokhi, M Sharifian; Khayamian, T

    2011-05-01

    In this work, a new detector was designed and constructed based on negative corona discharge. This detector can be used separately or as a detector in gas chromatography. The detector and chromatographic variables including cell temperature, gas flow rates, voltage between the two electrodes, and column temperature were optimized. Chloroform was used as a test compound to evaluate the performance of the detector. The detection limit of chloroform was obtained 0.78 ng∕ml and its dynamic range was over the range of 2-840 ng∕ml. The relative standard detection was about 6% for the limit of quantification. This detector is able to be used as an alternative for analysis of compounds containing electronegative elements. PMID:21639545

  1. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaves extracts

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    JavidAli; BashirAhmad

    2015-01-01

    Objective: To investigate the antioxidant activity of aqueous, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane extracts of Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides) leaves. Methods: Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using in-vitro antioxidant assays model 1, 1’-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity. The antioxidant activities were compared with standard antioxidant agents such as ascorbic acid. Results: The antioxidant activities (% inhibition) of all the tested extracts were increased in the order i.e. menthol > ethanol > aqueous > acetone > chloroform > ethyl acetate > n-hexane. The methanol extract EC50 (µg/mL) value was compatible with vitamin C (standard). The antioxidant activity of H. rhamnoides leaves extracts increased in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions: It was observed that H. rhamnoides was a potential resource of antioxidants and thus could put off numerous radical linked diseases.

  2. Assessment of some Herbal Drugs for Prophylaxis of Peptic Ulcer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gohar, Ahmed A; Zaki, Ahmed A

    2014-01-01

    Aqueous (hydrophilic) and chloroform (Lipophilic) extracts of nine medicinal plants currently used in Egyptian traditional medicine to treat some gastrointestinal tract (GIT) disorders were tested for their gastro-protective effect against the incidence of peptic ulcer. Indomethacin-induced ulcer in a rat model was used for this testing. Mentha microphylla, Brassica oleracea Capitata (Cabbage), B. oleracea Botrytis (cauliflower) aqueous fraction, Portolaca oleracea polysaccharide fraction, Oreganum marjoranum, Matricaria recutita, Solanum nigrum hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions, in addition to the chloroform fraction of Portolaca oleracea and Cicorium intybus afforded high protection against the incidence of gastric ulcer (~95%). O. syriacum hydrophilic and lipophilic fractions and gum arabic afforded moderate prophylactic effect. L. sicerarea, C. intybus hydrophilic fractions and M. microphylla lipophilic fraction were inactive. Herbs represent excellent resources for cost-effective and readily available gastro-protective remedies without side effects. PMID:25276211

  3. EVALUATION OF ANDROGRAPHIS PANICULATA (BURMF WALL EX NEES, LEAF EXTRACTS AND ANDROGRAPHOLIDE ON GASTROINTESTINAL PATHOGENS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. Anitha

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Andrographis paniculata (BurmF Wall Ex Nees called as Kalmegh or "King of Bitters is used in southeast Asia for treating several ailments. The aim of this study was to determine the antibacterial activity of Andrographis paniculata leaf extracts. The agar diffusion and micro-dilution methods were used to determine the antibacterial activity of the Petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. Chloroform and petroleum ether extracts inhibited Shigella, Proteus vulgaris, Klebsiella pneumonia and Salmonella paratyphi A at concentration of 10 and 1mg/ml respectively. The antibacterial property exhibited by the extracts was due to the presence of Andrographolide which was confirmed by HPLC analysis. Standard Andrographolide inhibited all bacterium except E.coli which indicates that it is a broad spectrum antibacterial compound. Although Andrographolide was effective against various gastrointestinal pathogens it does not have any harmful effect on the native flora.

  4. ANXIOLYTIC AND ANTIULCER ACTIVITY OF LEAVES OF ANDROGRAPHYS PANICULATA IN EXPERIMENTAL MODEL

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    Ravindra Patil

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The Petroleum ether and Chloroform extract of Andrographis paniculata leaves was investigated for its potential to protect gastric mucosa against pylorus ligation induced ulcer and to find out the anxiolytic action in elevated plus maze model. Chloroform extract at the dose of 200mg/kg protected the gastric mucosa in the pylorus ligation ulcer induction significantly (p<0.001 when compared with that of the standard drug famotidine (10mg/kg and acts as a potent antiulcer effect. Elevated plus maze results were significant in alleviating the anxiety in the animals’ results in increased time spent and entries into the open arm compared with the standard drug diazepam (1mg/kg.

  5. Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon- Natural Food Sourcewith Anti-Quorum Sensing Properties

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Li Ying Tan

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available Various parts of Piper nigrum, Piper betle and Gnetum gnemon are used as food sources by Malaysians. The purpose of this study is to examine the anti-quorum sensing (anti-QS properties of P. nigrum, P. betle and G. gnemon extracts. The hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of these plants were assessed in bioassays involving Pseudomonas aeruginosa PA01, Escherichia coli [pSB401], E. coli [pSB1075] and Chromobacterium violaceum CV026. It was found that the extracts of these three plants have anti-QS ability. Interestingly, the hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts from P. betle showed the most potent anti-QS activity as judged by the bioassays. Since there is a variety of plants that serve as food sources in Malaysia that have yet to be tested for anti-QS activity, future work should focus on identification of these plants and isolation of the anti-QS compounds.

  6. Carbonaceous chondrites and the origin of life

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartman, Hyman; Sweeney, Michael A.; Kropp, Michael A.; Lewis, John S.

    1993-01-01

    Organic matter in carbonaceous chondrites can be separated into three fractions. The first component, the fraction that is insoluble in chloroform and methanol, has a part which is of interstellar origin. The other two fractions (chloroform-soluble hydrocarbons and methanol-soluble polar organics) are hypothesized to have been synthesized on a planetoid body. We propose that the polar organics, i.e., amino acids, were synthesized close to its surface by the radiolysis of hydrocarbons and ammonium carbonate in a liquid water environment. Some hydrocarbons may have been synthesized by a Fischer-Tropsch mechanism in the interior of the body. Ferrous ion acted as a protection against back reactions. The simultaneous synthesis of iron-rich clays with the polar organics may be indicative of events related to the origin of life on Earth.

  7. Conducting nanofibers and organogels derived from the self-assembly of tetrathiafulvalene-appended dipeptides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nalluri, Siva Krishna Mohan; Shivarova, Nadezhda; Kanibolotsky, Alexander L; Zelzer, Mischa; Gupta, Swati; Frederix, Pim W J M; Skabara, Peter J; Gleskova, Helena; Ulijn, Rein V

    2014-10-21

    We demonstrate the nonaqueous self-assembly of a low-molecular-mass organic gelator based on an electroactive p-type tetrathiafulvalene (TTF)-dipeptide bioconjugate. We show that a TTF moiety appended with diphenylalanine amide derivative (TTF-FF-NH2) self-assembles into one-dimensional nanofibers that further lead to the formation of self-supporting organogels in chloroform and ethyl acetate. Upon doping of the gels with electron acceptors (TCNQ/iodine vapor), stable two-component charge transfer gels are produced in chloroform and ethyl acetate. These gels are characterized by various spectroscopy (UV-vis-NIR, FTIR, and CD), microscopy (AFM and TEM), rheology, and cyclic voltammetry techniques. Furthermore, conductivity measurements performed on TTF-FF-NH2 xerogel nanofiber networks formed between gold electrodes on a glass surface indicate that these nanofibers show a remarkable enhancement in the conductivity after doping with TCNQ. PMID:25259412

  8. Potential wound healing activity of the different extract of Typhonium trilobatum in albino rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Sourav Kanti Roy; Pratyush Kumar Mishra; Subhangkar Nandy; Rana Datta; Bodhisattwa Chakraborty

    2012-01-01

    Objective: To establish the wound healing activity of methanolic, ethyl acetate and chloroform extracts of plant of Typhonium trilobatum. Methods: Two models were performed to evaluate the wound healing activity i.e. excision and incision models. In incision model the parameter which is carried out was breaking strength of the wounded skin. In excision model the percentage wound contraction and period of epithelialization were established for three extracts. Reference standard drug was povidone iodine ointments for comparison with other groups. Results: From the observation in both two models, methanolic and ethyl acetate extract were found greater wound healing activity than chloroform extract in terms of breaking strength in incision model and percentage wound contraction, period of epithelialization in excision model than that of other groups. Conclusions: The results indicate that the different extracts of Typhonium trilobatum has significant wound healing activity.

  9. PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION AND ANTHELMINTIC ACTIVITY OF ACACIA SUMA (ROXB BARKS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Acharyya Suman

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The present work was conducted to investigate the preliminary phytochemical studies and anthelmintic activities on the bark of Acacia suma (Roxb. Family- Fabaceae against adult Indian earthworms, Pheretima posthuma. Various concentrations (5-25 mg/ml of each extract along with the reference samples (Piperazine citrate, Albendazole were subjected for anthelmintic activity study. The qualitative test revealed that the petroleum ether extracts contained only terpenoids but chloroform and hydroalcoholic (Methanol 70% v/v extracts exhibited the presence of carbohydrates, alkaloids, glycosides, flavonoids, tannins and saponins but amino acids and steroids were absent. All the extracts showed anthelmintic activity when compared with petroleum ether and chloroform extracts. The anthelmintic activity of hydroalcoholic extract was comparable with reference drugs.

  10. Different J-Type Aggregates of meso-Tetrakis (4-hydroxyphenyl) porphyrin (H2THPP) Formed in Different Solvents

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ying Hui ZHANG; Yang WU

    2005-01-01

    The aggregation of meso-tetrakis(4-hydroxyphenyl)porphyrin (H2THPP) in dimethylformamide (DMF)-water solution and in DMF-chloroform solution was studied by UV-vis absorption spectroscopy. The red shift of Soret band indicates the formation of J-type aggregates of H2THPP in these two solutions. However, different shift extent of Soret band, 12 nm in DMF-water solution and 32 nm in DMF-chloroform solution, implies structural difference between these two J-type aggregates. The hydrogen bond between hydroxyl group and N-H bonds in porphyrin ring is thought as the main cause to the formation of J-type aggregate in DMFchloroform solution, whereas the π-σ interaction between two adjacent porphyrin cores is thought as the main cause of the formation of J-type aggregate in DMF-water solution

  11. Quantitation of pulmonary surfactant protein SP-B in the absence or presence of phospholipids by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Oviedo, J M; Valiño, F; Plasencia, I;

    2001-01-01

    used to explore the effect of the presence of different phospholipids on the immunoreactivity of SP-B. Both polyclonal and monoclonal antibodies produced reproducible ELISA calibration curves for methanolic SP-B solutions with protein concentrations in the range of 20-1000 ng/mL. At these protein...... concentrations, neither dipalmitoylphosphatidylcholine, dipalmitoylphosphatidylglycerol, nor phosphatidylcholine or phosphatidylglycerol from egg yolk had significant effects on the binding of antibodies to SP-B up to protein-to-lipid weight ratios of 1:20. Coating of ELISA plates with SP-B concentrations higher......We have developed an enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA) that uses polyclonal or monoclonal anti-surfactant protein SP-B antibodies to quantitate purified SP-B in chloroform/methanol and in chloroform/methanol extracts of whole pulmonary surfactant at nanogram levels. This method has been...

  12. Antimalarial activity of extracts and alkaloids isolated from six plants used in traditional medicine in Mali and Sao Tome.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ancolio, C; Azas, N; Mahiou, V; Ollivier, E; Di Giorgio, C; Keita, A; Timon-David, P; Balansard, G

    2002-11-01

    Methanol and chloroform extracts were prepared from various parts of four plants collected in Mali: Guiera senegalensis (Gmel.) Combretaceae, Feretia apodanthera (Del.) Rubiaceae, Combretum micranthum (Don.) Combretaceae, Securidaca longepedunculata (Fres.) Polygalaceae and two plants -collected in Sao Tome: Pycnanthus angolensis (Welw.) Myristicaceae and Morinda citrifolia (Benth.) Rubiaceae were assessed for their in vitro antimalarial activity and their cytotoxic effects on human monocytes (THP1 cells) by flow cytometry. The methanol extract of leaves of Feretia apodanthera and the chloroform extract of roots of Guiera senegalensis exhibited a pronounced antimalarial activity. Two alkaloids isolated from the active extract of Guiera senegalensis, harman and tetrahydroharman, showed antimalarial activity (IC(50) lower than 4 microg/mL) and displayed low toxicity against THP1. Moreover, the decrease of THP1 cells in S phase of the cell cycle, after treatment with harman and tetrahydroharman, was probably due to an inhibition of total protein synthesis. PMID:12410545

  13. In vitro effect of medicinal plants used to treat erectile dysfunction on smooth muscle relaxation and human sperm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rakuambo, N C; Meyer, J J M; Hussein, A; Huyser, C; Mdlalose, S P; Raidani, T G

    2006-04-21

    Chloroform and ethanol extracts of root bark of Securidaca longepedunculata, Wrightia natalensis and Rhoicissus tridentata were investigated for their in vitro activity on the contraction of corpus cavernosal smooth muscle of white New Zealand rabbits. Some of the extracts of these plants relaxed the corpus cavernosal smooth muscle at low concentrations. The highest activity was obtained from Securidaca longepedunculata chloroform extracts at a concentration of 13.0 mg/ml, which induced 66.6% relaxation. Viagra was used as a positive control in this study. Extracts of Securidaca longepedunculata added to human spermatozoa affected certain sperm parameters negatively at 6.5 mg/ml and higher whilst there was no effect at 1.0 mg/ml. PMID:16309865

  14. 一种适合于cDNA文库构建的高质量棉花RNA的简单抽提法%An Improved Simple Protocol for Isolation of High Quality RNA from Gossypium spp. Suitable for cDNA Library Construction

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱龙付; 涂礼莉; 曾范昌; 刘迪秋; 张献龙

    2005-01-01

    @@ Due to the large amounts of polyphenolics and polysaccharides, the extraction of high quality biochemical molecules like RNA and DNA is always an obstacle to the molecular biology study of cotton. The conventional RNA extraction methods and commercial kits always failed to get high quality RNA or even nothing. Perfect RNA was extracted from embryogenic callus in cotton using Trizol (Invitrogen, #15596-026) but failed to other tissues in this study. Here a modified simple protocol was described using guanidinium thiocyanate to extract high quality RNA from cotton with low cost, easily handling and time-saving. The steps included extracting of RNA by guanidinium thiocyanate, removing proteins and other impurities by chloroform-isoamylalcohol without phenol; after precipitation and resuspension of RNA, phenol / chloroform-isoamylalcohol were utilized to purify the RNA. This method was applied to RNA isolation from leaves, roots, hypocotyls, fibers, whole seedlings and callus in Gossypium spp. effectively.

  15. Phytochemical and antioxidant studies of Laurera benguelensis growing in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, Nedeljko T; Vasiljevic, Perica J; Gritsanapan, Wandee; Supabphol, Roongtawan; Manojlovic, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate metabolites of the lichen Laurera benguelensis. A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for the characterization of xanthones and anthraquinones in extracts of this lichen. Lichexanthone, secalonic acid D, norlichexanthon, parietin, emodin, teloschistin and citreorosein were detected in the lichen samples, which were collected from two places in Thailand. Components of the lichen were identified by relative retention time and spectral data. This is the first time that a detailed phytochemical analysis of the lichen L. benguelensis was reported and this paper has chemotaxonomic significance because very little has been published on the secondary metabolites present in Laurera species. Some of the metabolites were detected for the first time in the family Trypetheliaceae. The results of preliminary testing of benzene extract and its chloroform and methanol fractions showed that all samples showed a weak radical scavenging activity. The chloroform extract showed the highest antioxidant activity. PMID:21031261

  16. Assessment of flavonoids contents and in vitro antioxidant activity of Launaea procumbens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Khan Rahmat

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Launaea procumbens (LP has been used as a food supplement in Pakistan. In this study methanolic crude extract (LPME of the whole plant and its different fractions; n-hexane (LPHE; ethyl acetate (LPEE and chloroform (LPCE were studied for the determination of total flavonoid and phenolics contents along with multifaceted in vitro scavenging assays. Results Considerable amount of flavonoid and phenolics contents were found in all the fractions. Methanol and chloroform fraction exhibited efficient scavenging of DPPH·, ABTS·+, ·OH, superoxide, lipid peroxide and nitric oxide free radicals. Significant correlation was found between DPPH·, ABTS·+, superoxide radical, β-carotene bleaching restraint and phosphomolybdenum assay with total flavonoids and phenolics contents. High performance chromatography (HPLC of LPME revealed the presence of vitexin, orientin, rutin, hyperoside, catechin and myricetin. Conclusion These results reveal the presence of bioactive compounds in LPME, which might be contributed towards the various in vitro scavenging.

  17. Reduction of chlorinated solvents at the Y-12 Oak Ridge Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.; Richards, H.L. [Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant, TN (United States)

    1989-11-01

    The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has been actively seeking replacements for chlorinated solvents for several years. The first step in the reduction program was the identification of the solvents and their usages. The four main solvents used at the plant include Freon, methyl chloroform, perchloroethylene, and methylene chloride. The main reduction has been in the use of perchloroethylene. Other significant reductions have occurred in the area of changing out vapor degreasers which utilized perchloroethylene or methyl chloroform. These degreasers were replaced with ultrasonic cleaners which utilize aqueous detergent for cleaning. Ultrasonic cleaning has many advantages, but the one disadvantage is that it requires a rinse step. Currently, the work on reduction of chlorinate solvents is focused on finding solvents which can be substituted for squirt bottle type applications. Concerns which were addressed when looking at replacement solvents were disposal, compatibility, and health effects.

  18. Free radical-scavenging activity and flavonoid contents of Polygonum orientale leaf, stem, and seed extracts

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jiang Xinyu

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The present study was designed to explore the total flavonoid and taxifolin contents and the radical-scavenging activity of 50% ethanol extracts of Polygonum orientale leaves, stems, and seeds by 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH assay. The extract with higher total flavonoid content has higher radical scavenging activity. Taxifolin (IC50 = 2.83 μmol/L has antioxidant activity stronger than that of rutin (IC50 = 3.08 μmol/L. The free radical-scavenging potentials of chloroform, ethyl acetate, water, ethanol, and methanol extracts of Polygonum orientale seeds were also investigated. The free radical-scavenging abilities of various extracts were determined as: methanol > ethanol > water > ethyl acetate > chloroform.

  19. Phytochemical and antioxidant studies of Laurera benguelensis growing in Thailand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manojlovic, Nedeljko T; Vasiljevic, Perica J; Gritsanapan, Wandee; Supabphol, Roongtawan; Manojlovic, Ivana

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate metabolites of the lichen Laurera benguelensis. A high-performance liquid chromatographic (HPLC) method has been developed for the characterization of xanthones and anthraquinones in extracts of this lichen. Lichexanthone, secalonic acid D, norlichexanthon, parietin, emodin, teloschistin and citreorosein were detected in the lichen samples, which were collected from two places in Thailand. Components of the lichen were identified by relative retention time and spectral data. This is the first time that a detailed phytochemical analysis of the lichen L. benguelensis was reported and this paper has chemotaxonomic significance because very little has been published on the secondary metabolites present in Laurera species. Some of the metabolites were detected for the first time in the family Trypetheliaceae. The results of preliminary testing of benzene extract and its chloroform and methanol fractions showed that all samples showed a weak radical scavenging activity. The chloroform extract showed the highest antioxidant activity.

  20. Ultra violet spectra studies of polystyrene films in presence of some transition metal complexes with 4-amino-5-pyridyl-4h-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghad Haddad

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Some coordination complexes of Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, Cd(II and Sn (II metal with [4-amino-5-(pyridyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol], has been prepared in alcoholic medium and used for photostabilizer for polystyrene. Polystyrene (PS has been mixed with these complexes in chloroform solvent to form modified PS in (5% w/v thickness, which containing concentration of complex 0.5 % by weight were produced by the casting method from chloroform solvent. The photostabilization of PS films compounds was investigated. The light of the wavelength 365 nm with intensity (6.02*10-9 Ein Dm-3 S-1 is used for irradiation of PS films at room temperature. The photostabilization activity of these compounds was determined by calculating the photodecomposition rate constant (Kd for blank and modified polystyrene.

  1. Ultra violet spectra studies of polystyrene films in presence of some transition metal complexes with 4-amino-5-pyridyl-4h-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Raghad Haddad

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Some coordination complexes of Ni(II, Cu(II, Zn(II, Cd(II and Sn (II metal with [4-amino-5-(pyridyl-4H-1,2,4-triazole-3-thiol], has been prepared in alcoholic medium and used for photostabilizer for polystyrene. Polystyrene (PS has been mixed with these complexes in chloroform solvent to form modified PS in (5% w/v thickness, which containing concentration of complex 0.5 % by weight were produced by the casting method from chloroform solvent. The photostabilization of PS films compounds was investigated. The light of the wavelength 365 nm with intensity (6.02*10-9 Ein Dm-3 S-1 is used for irradiation of PS films at room temperature. The photostabilization activity of these compounds was determined by calculating the photodecomposition rate constant (Kd for blank and modified polystyrene.

  2. Study on the liquid membrane oscillation of water/oil/water system containing TTAB and picric acid

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Zhou; Jiao Ning Tang; Bo Liu; Yi Guang Wu; Ai Lian Wang; Chuan Dong Liao

    2008-01-01

    The liquid membrane oscillation of a novel water (aqueous tetradecyl trimethyl ammoniumbromide,TTAB and alcohol sohition)/oil (picdcacid in chloroform sohition)/water (aqueous glucose solution) system was investigated.By using homemade device,the curves of various liquid membranes oscillation with different concentration of TTAB and picric acid,types of alcohol and other organic solvents at different temperature were measured.The results show that the water (aqueous 7 mmol/L of TTAB and 0.5 mol/L of n-propanol solution)/oil (0.5 mmol/L of picric acid in chloroform solution)/water (aqueous glucose solution) system performed sustained and stable oscillation at 30℃.And the novel system can recognise added amino acid.

  3. [Anthraquinones isolated from Morinda officinalis and Damnacanthus indicus].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Y J; Shu, H Y; Min, Z D

    1992-01-01

    From chloroform extract of the root of Morinda officinalis, eight anthraquinones were isolated whose structures were deduced to be rubiadin (I), rubiadin-1-methyl ether (II), 1-hydroxyanthraquinone (III), 1-hydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (IV), 1,6-dihydroxy-2,4-dimethoxyanthraquinone (V), 1,6-dihydroxy-2-methoxyanthraquinone (VI), 1-hydroxy-2-methoxyanthraquinone (VII) and physcion (VIII). Except for compound I and compound II, the other compounds, 1-hydroxy-2-hydroxymethylanthraquinone (IX), 1,3-dihydroxy-2-methoxy-anthraquinone (X), 1,4-dihydroxy-2-methylanthraquinone (XI), 1-methoxy-2-hydroxyanthraquinone (XII) and 1,4-dimethoxy-2-hydroxyanthraquinone (XIII), were isolated from chloroform extract of root of Damnacanthus indicus. Compound V, VI and XIII are new compounds. PMID:1442057

  4. PHYTOCHEMICAL SCREENING AND ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY ON THE FRUITS OF HUGONIA MYSTAX L. (LINACEAE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Vimalavady et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available An ethnomedicinal plant, Hugonia mystax L., was examined for preliminary phytochemical screening and antimicrobial activity. Preliminary phytochemical screening showed the presence of various classes of secondary metabolites such as flavonoids, phenols, saponins, steroids, tannins and terpenoids. Antimicrobial activity of petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanolic and aqueous fruits extracts showed significant activity against the human pathogens such as Streptococcus pneumoniae causing brain abscesses, pneumonia and septic arthritis; Proteus vulgaris, Pseudomonas aeruginosa causing urinary tract infections and septicaemia; Salmonella typhi causing typhoid fever, Vibrio species causing diarrheal infections and the fungus Candida albicans causes urinary tract infections. The antimicrobial activity of the petroleum ether, chloroform, ethanolic and aqueous fruits extracts showed concentration-dependent activity against all the tested bacteria at various concentrations. Thus the present findings revealed the medicinal potential of H. mystax to develop a drug against various human ailments.

  5. Hybrid Fibre Polylactide Acid Composite with Empty Fruit Bunch: Chopped Glass Strands

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Y. Tshai

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Hybrid polylactide acid (PLA composites reinforced with palm empty fruit bunch (EFB and chopped strand E-glass (GLS fibres were investigated. The hybrid fibres PLA composite was prepared through solution casting followed by pelletisation and subsequent hot compression press into 1 mm thick specimen. Chloroform and dichloromethane were used as solvent and their effectiveness in dissolving PLA was reported. The overall fibre loading was kept constant at volume fraction, Vf, of 20% while the ratio of EFB to GLS fibre was varied between Vf of 0 : 20 to 20 : 0. The inclusion of GLS fibres improved the tensile and flexural performance of the hybrid composites, but increasing the glass fibre length from 3 to 6 mm has a negative effect on the mechanical properties of the hybrid composites. Moreover, the composites that were prepared using chloroform showed superior tensile and flexural properties compared to those prepared with dichloromethane.

  6. IDENTIFIKASI DAN UJI AKTIVITAS ANTIKANKER EKSTRAK SPONS Ianthella basta TERHADAP LARVA Artemia salina L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ni Wayan Sri Sukmarianti

    2013-05-01

    Full Text Available The main purpose of this research is to determine the toxicity of extracts sponge Ianthella basta against Artemia salina larvae and to identify the chemical compounds contained in those toxic isolates. The preliminary test of the anticancer activity has conducted by Brine Shrimp Letalithy (BST test. The results showed that the chloroform extract was the most toxic with LC50 value of 22,39 ppm. Futher, the cloroform extract was separated and purified by coloumn chromatography using eluent of solvent mixture of chloroform : ethyl acetate : n-hexane by 7 : 2 : 1 and 4 fractions were obtained. The most toxic fraction was the fraction C with LC50 value of 35,36 ppm. Based on the GC-MS results, the toxic isolate is allegedly containing chemicals compound of hexadecanoic methyl ester and hexadecanoic acid.

  7. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane.

  8. A study on the total phenols content and antioxidant activity of essential oil and different solvent extracts of endemic plant Merremia borneensis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Amzad Hossain

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study is planned to determine the antioxidant activity and total phenols content of the essential oil and different solvent extracts of the endemic plant Merremia borneensis. The antioxidant activities of the extracts were examined by three different methods, DPPH, β-carotene and reducing power assays. In all methods, aqueous ethanol extract exhibited a higher activity potential than that of other extracts (hexane, chloroform, ethyl acetate and butanol and the essential oil. As assumed, the amount of total phenolics was very high in this extract. Chloroform extract has been found to be rich in flavonoids. A positive result was observed between the antioxidant activity potential and total flavonoid levels of the extracts.

  9. Fenugreek seeds extracts as growth regulatory and feeding inhibitor for the African Melon Lady Bird Beetle: Henosepilachna elaterii (Rossi)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study aimed at investigating the effect of the extracts of fenugreek seeds on feeling and development of the African melon ladybird beetle, Henosepilachna elaterii. (Rossi). Seeds of fenugreek (Trigonella foenum graceum) were extracted by distilled water and organic solvents (chloroform, acetone and ethanol), and the extracts were tested against the African melon ladybird beetle under laboratory conditions. Both aqueous and organic extracts showed significant growth regulatory activities, mainly prolonging the larval duration. The effect was clear in late in stars. The organic extracts showed strong feeding inhibitory activity against the fourth larval in star, where the amounts of food consumed inversely related to dose. The effects induced by acetone and ethanol extracts were greater than chloroform extract. Phyto chemical groups present in various fractions were identified. Various aspects of efficacy against the test insect are discussed.(Author)

  10. A PRELIMINARY PHYTOCHEMICAL INVESTIGATION ON THE LEAVES OF SOLANUM XANTHOCARPUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neelapu Neelima

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available Identification of primary and secondary constituents has become the utmost important tool for the presence of active moiety. The present study was aimed to investigate phytochemicals present in the leaf extract of Solanum xanthocarpum. The leaves of Solanum xanthocarpum contain phytoconstituents like Alkaloids, Glycosides, Tannins and Phenolic compounds, Flavonoids, Proteins and Amino Acids, Sterols, Triterpenoids, Carbohydrates and Fats. TLC profiling of extracts also gives an idea about the presence of various phytochemicals. The Petroleum ether, Chloroform, ethyl acetate and Methanol extracts were proceed to T.L.C. TLC resulted in identification of 2 spots for Petroleum ether extract, 4 spots for Chloroform extract, 2 spots for Ethyl acetate extract and 2 spots for Methanol extract.

  11. Fatty acids and sterols composition, and antioxidant activity of oils extracted from plant seeds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kozłowska, Mariola; Gruczyńska, Eliza; Ścibisz, Iwona; Rudzińska, Magdalena

    2016-12-15

    This study determined and compared the contents of bioactive components in plant seed oils extracted with n-hexane (Soxhlet method) and chloroform/methanol (Folch method) from coriander, caraway, anise, nutmeg and white mustard seeds. Oleic acid dominated among unsaturated fatty acids in nutmeg and anise seed oils while petroselinic acid was present in coriander and caraway oils. Concerning sterols, β-sitosterol was the main component in seed oils extracted with both methods. The content of total phenolics in nutmeg, white mustard and coriander seed oils extracted with chloroform/methanol was higher than in their counterparts prepared with n-hexane. The seed oil samples extracted according to the Folch method exhibited a higher ability to scavenge DPPH radicals compared to the oil samples prepared with the Soxhlet method. DPPH values of the methanolic extracts derived from oils produced with the Folch method were also higher than in the oils extracted with n-hexane. PMID:27451203

  12. Quantification and implications of two types of soluble organic matter from brackish to saline lake source rocks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SONG Yitao; LIAO Yongsheng; ZHANG Shouchun

    2005-01-01

    Two types of soluble organic matter, the free and adsorbed, were obtained and quantified from the brackish to saline lake source rocks. The adsorbed type was extracted with chloroform, solvent mixtures of methanol: acetone:chloroform (MAC) and CS2:N-methyl-2-pyrroli- dinone (CS2/NMP). The total amounts of the two types of soluble organic matter from some immature source rocks are >830 mg/g TOC, more than 63% of the total organic matter in these samples. This result indicates that the majority of the organic matter in the immature source rocks in the brackish to saline lake basin is soluble, and is significant for study of petroleum formation and helpful for petroleum exploration in the brackish to saline lake basin.

  13. To trace the active compound in mengkudu (morinda citrifolia with anthelmintic acvtivity against Haemonchus contortus

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T.B Murdiati

    2000-12-01

    Full Text Available Intestinal parasites such Haemonchus contortus is usually controlled by management improvement and regular administration of anthelmintic. However, there is an indication of H. contortus resistance to several anthelmintic available in the market, which makes medicinal plants as an alternative anthelmintic and mengkudu or noni fruit (Morinda citrifolia have been reported as an effective anthelmintic. To trace the active compounds responsible for anthelmintic activity against H. contortus, the mengkudu fruit was continuosly extracted into hexane, chloroform, metanol and water, followed by in-vitro study on the anthelmintic activity. The in-vitro anthelmintic activity was base on the ability of the extracts to kill the worm and the ability of the extracts to prevent egg development. The study suggested that chloroform fraction which contains alkaloid and anthraquinon have the highest anthelmintic activity and showed significant different compared to control (P≤ 0.05.

  14. Different behavior of 3-nitrotyrosine and tyrosine toward perfluorinated reagents suitable for one-step preparation of volatile derivatives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Pavlović Radmila

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available In view to develop a gas-chromatographic (GC determination of the 3-nitrotyrosine (NY/tyrosine (Y ratio as a marker of nitro-oxidative stress, different reagents were tested with the objective of obtaining a single volatile fluorinated product for each amino acid by a one-step derivatization procedure. The heptafluorobutyric anhydride (HFBA /heptafluorobutanol (HFBOH mixture proved unsuccessful for NY and Y simultaneous analysis. The reaction with different chloroformates [isobutyl chlorofomate (iBuCF and ethyl chloroformate (EtCF] in the presence of different perfluorinated alcohols such as trifluoroethanol (TFEOH and HFBOH was investigated. Combination EtCF/fluorinated alcohols yielded derivatives of NY and Y as single peaks suitable to the GC determination of the NY/Y ratio. The different behaviour of two amino acids in the used reaction mixtures and the parameters influencing the results were discussed.

  15. COMPARATIVE ANTIHYPERLIPIDAEMIC EFFICACY OF TRACHYSPERMUM AMMI EXTRACTS IN ALBINO RABBITS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    I. JAVED, Z. IQBAL, Z. U. RAHMAN, F. H. KHAN, F. MUHAMMAD, B. ASLAM AND L. ALI1

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available Comparative antihyperlipidaemic efficacy of Trachyspermum ammi (L Sprague (Ajowain extracts in chloroform, methanol, petroleum ether and water was investigated in albino rabbits. Hyperlipidaemia was induced with butter fed ad libitum and oral intubation of cholesterol 400 mg/kg body weight. Simvastatin was used as a synthetic cholesterol lowering drug. The results suggested that chloroform and water extracts of T. ammi seed had no hypolipidaemic activity. However, methanol and petroleum ether extracts equivalent to its 2 g/kg body weight powder and Simvastatin (0.6 mg/kg body weight were equally effective in treating hyperlipidaemia in albino rabbits. Moreover, petroleum ether extract appeared to be more potent than methanol extract on the basis of increasing the level of HDL-cholesterol and lowering the LDL-cholesterol more effectively than methanol extract. Petroleum ether extract reduced atherogenic index (total cholesterol/HDL-cholesterol more effectively than methanol extract.

  16. Self-assembly of CdTe nanocrystals at the water/oil interface by amphiphilic hyperbranched polymers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A general strategy for realizing the self-assembly of aqueous CdTe nanocrystals (NCs) at the water/oil interface by means of an amphiphilic core-shell hyperbranched polymer has been proposed. Aqueous CdTe NCs were firstly transferred into the chloroform phase in the presence of palmityl chloride functionalized hyperbranched poly(amidoamine) (HPAMAM-PC), and then self-assembled at the water/chloroform interface by decreasing the pH value of the aqueous phase or introducing α-CDs to the aqueous phase. The resulting CdTe/HPAMAM-PC self-assembly film was characterized by fluorescence microscopy, UV-vis, PL, TEM, EDS, FT-IR, DSC and TGA.

  17. Evaluation of antidiabetic and related actions of some Indian medicinal plants in diabetic rats

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Raju N Patil; Ravindra Y Patil; Bharati Ahirwar; Dheeraj Ahirwar

    2011-01-01

    Objective: To evaluate antidiabetic activity of chloroform extracts of Acacia arabica bark,Benincasa hispida fruit, Tinispora cordifolia stem, Ocimum sanctum areal parts and Jatropha curcus leaves. Methods: The chloroform extracts of Acacia arabica bark, Benincasa hispida fruit, Tinospora cordifolia stem, aerial part of Ocimum sanctum and Jatropha curcus leaves were evaluated at different doses (250 and 500 mg/kg body weight.) for antidiabetic potentials in alloxan induced diabetic albino rats. The extracts were administered for two weeks in different groups whereas tolbutamide (80 mg/kg body weight) was used as reference standard throughout study. Results: The result of present study showed test compounds significantly decreases elevated level of serum glucose and also caused to reverse the cholesterol, triglyceride, HDL and LDL values when compared to untreated diabetic rats. Conclusions: Our finding indicates that different test extracts were able to ameliorate the derangements in lipid metabolism caused by diabetes mellitus in alloxan induced diabetic rats towards normal level.

  18. IN VITRO CYTOTOXIC EFFECT OF METHANOLIC CRUDE EXTRACTS OF OCIMUM SANCTUM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aparna Debnath and Mohammad Musarraf Hussain*

    2013-03-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The aim of this research is to observe the cytotoxic activities of methanolic crude extracts of Ocimum sanctum (Family: Lamiaceae. The leaves of Ocimum sanctum was extracted with organic solvent (methanol and the extracts were fractionated by using solvent-solvent partition. The nhexane, ethyl acetate, and chloroform soluble fractions of methanolic crude extract of Ocimum sanctum were screened for cytotoxic activity using brine shrimp lethality bioassay. A reputed cytotoxic agent, vincristine sulphate was used as a positive control. From the results of the brine shrimp lethality bioassay it was well predicted that n-hexane, ethyl acetate, and chloroform soluble fractions of methanolic crude extracts possess cytotoxic principles (LC50 4.36 mg/mL, LC50 5.37 mg/mL and LC50 10.00 mg/mL respectively comparison with positive control, vincristine sulphate (LC50 0.563 mg/mL.

  19. sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 I targets for studies of nuclear waste transmutation

    CERN Document Server

    Ingelbrecht, C; Raptis, K; Altzitzoglou, T; Noguere, G

    2002-01-01

    Nuclear incineration of long-lived fission products and minor actinides is being investigated as an alternative means of reactor waste disposal. sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 I is of particular interest because of its long half-life and high mobility in the environment. Lead iodide targets of sup 1 sup 2 sup 9 I for neutron capture cross-section measurements were prepared from 210 l fuel reprocessing waste solution containing 1.3 g l sup - sup 1 iodine and other fission products. The iodine was separated by oxidation to I sub 2 and extraction into chloroform, reduction to iodide by sodium sulphite and re-extraction into an aqueous phase. Iodide was precipitated using lead nitrate and dried. The chemistry was carried out batch-wise using 400 ml starting solution each time and recycling the chloroform. An extraction efficiency of about 90%, determined by gamma-ray spectrometry, was achieved.

  20. Fluorescence Studies of Selected 2-Alkylaminopyrimidines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. K. Low

    2004-06-01

    Full Text Available The reactions of 2-chloropyrimidine with methylamine, ethylamine and piperidine gave the corresponding 2-N-methylamino-, 2-N-ethylamino- and 2N- piperidinopyrimidines, respectively. The fluorescence properties of these alkylamino derivatives in chloroform, ethyl acetate, carbon tetrachloride, acetone, ether, ethanol and methanol were studied. All the alkylamino derivatives showed the highest fluorescence intensity in polar protic solvents; thus 2-N-methylaminopyrimidine (highest fluorescence intensity at 377 nm when excited at 282 nm and 2-N-ethylaminopyrimidine (highest fluorescence intensity at 375 nm, when excited at 286 nm showed the highest fluorescence in methanol. In ethanol, 2-N-piperidinopyrimidine showed a fluorescence peak at 403 nm when excited at 360 nm and in chloroform it fluoresced at 392 nm when excited at 356 nm.

  1. Glycolipids from macroalgae: potential biomolecules for marine biotechnology?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bianca B. Mattos

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Brown, red and green algae from the Southeastern coast of Brazil were successively extracted with chloroform/methanol 2:1 and 1:2 (v/v. The crude lipid extract was partitioned according to Folch and the lower phase enriched in glycolipids was fractionated on a silica gel column chromatography eluted with chloroform, acetone and methanol. Three major orcinol-reactive bands present in the acetone and methanol fractions were detected by thin-layer chromatography with chromatographic mobilities corresponding to sulfoglycolipids and glycosyldiacylglycerols. These fractions exhibited potent antiviral activity against HSV-1-ACVs and HSV-1-ACVr and present low toxicity for cell cultures. Purification and identification of these bioactive glycolipids will be necessary in order to elucidate their primary structures and mechanism of action.

  2. Comparison of the Artemia salina and Artemia fransiscana bioassays for toxicity of Indian medicinal plants

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    Thangapandi Veni

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To evaluate leaves extract of Azima tetracantha and Gmelina asiatica for lethality to brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina and Artemia fransiscana. Methods: The plant materials were extracted based on polarity gradients of petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and methanol. The extracts were investigated for their cytotoxic potential. Results: In the brine shrimp lethality assay of all extracts, exception of acetone, ethanol and petroleum ether extracts Gmelina asiatica displayed 100% mortality at 1 000 μg/mL by Artemia salina and Artemia fransiscana. Chloroform extract was the most potent and presented the highest percentage of mortality with the lowest LC50 values by both assay too. Conclusions: The results of the present study suggest the presence of photochemical possessing cytotoxic agents.

  3. A STUDY ON THE ANTIMICROBIAL EFFECT OF ACMELLA OLERACEAE AGAINST DENTAL CARIES BACTERIA

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. Shafi Thompson et al.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to discover the antibacterial effect of Acmella oleraceae against dental caries bacteria and aware the populace about the importance of using phytomedicines. According to this study, the antibacterial effects of Acmella oleraceae was checked against the dental caries bacteria using well diffusion method. Phytochemical screening of Acmella oleracea checked with chloroform, ethanol, methanol and water and acetone extracts. Screening tests revealed that this plant is a big source of phytochemical compounds. The phytochemical analysis of Acmella oleracea is conducted using Thin Layer Chromatography (TLC.Acetone solvent system of Acmella oleracea showed two spots with highest Rf value 0.922. Three compounds were obtained in the chloroform solvent system with highest Rf value of 0.744.

  4. Comparison of the Artemia salina and Artemia fransiscana bioassays for toxicity of Indian medicinal plants

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Thangapandi Veni; Thambusamy Pushpanathan

    2014-01-01

    Objective:To evaluate leaves extract of Azima tetracantha and Gmelina asiatica for lethality to brine shrimp larvae (Artemia salina and Artemia fransiscana). Methods: The plant materials were extracted based on polarity gradients of petroleum ether, benzene, chloroform, acetone, ethanol and methanol. The extracts were investigated for their cytotoxic potential. Results: In the brine shrimp lethality assay of all extracts, exception of acetone, ethanol and petroleum ether extracts Gmelina asiatica displayed 100%mortality at 1 000 μg/mL by Artemia salina and Artemia fransiscana. Chloroform extract was the most potent and presented the highest percentage of mortality with the lowest LC50 values by both assay too. Conclusions:The results of the present study suggest the presence of photochemical possessing cytotoxic agents.

  5. Evaluation of antioxidant activities of Hippophae rhamnoides Linn leaves extracts

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    Javid Ali

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Objective: To investigate the antioxidant activity of aqueous, methanol, ethanol, acetone, ethyl acetate, chloroform and n-hexane extracts of Hippophae rhamnoides (H. rhamnoides leaves. Methods: Antioxidant activity was evaluated by using in-vitro antioxidant assays model 1, 1’-diphenyl-2-picrylhydrazyl radical-scavenging activity. The antioxidant activities were compared with standard antioxidant agents such as ascorbic acid. Results: The antioxidant activities (% inhibition of all the tested extracts were increased in the order i.e. menthol > ethanol > aqueous > acetone > chloroform > ethyl acetate > n-hexane. The methanol extract EC50 (µg/mL value was compatible with vitamin C (standard. The antioxidant activity of H. rhamnoides leaves extracts increased in a dose dependent manner. Conclusions: It was observed that H. rhamnoides was a potential resource of antioxidants and thus could put off numerous radical linked diseases.

  6. Efficacy ofLimonia acidissima L. (Rutaceae) leaf extract on larval immatures of Culex quinquefasciatus Say 1823

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Siddharthasankar Banerjee; Someshwar Singha; Subrata Laskar; Goutam Chandra

    2011-01-01

    Objective:To investigate the role of leaf extract ofLimonia acidissimaL. (Rutaceae) as a biocontrol agent against the larval form ofCulex quinquefasciatus, and characterization of bioactive component responsible for larvicidal activity.Methods:Larval mortality of mosquito species was observed after24, 48and72 hours of exposure to different concentrations of aqueous extract, solvent extract and subsequently bioactive compound. The bioactive compound was subjected toIR andGC-MS analysis.Results:Mortality rate at 3% concentration of crude extract were highest(90%) amongst all concentrations tested and subsequently highest(95%) mortality was achieved in chloroform: methanol extract at100 ppm concentrations. IRandGC-MS analysis of bioactive compound revealed the presence of steroid compound which may act as larvicide. Conclusions:The chloroform: methanol extract of mature leaves of Limonia acidissima was found to exhibit considerable mosquito larvicidal activity against Culex quinquefasciatus.

  7. Studies of antiviral activity and cytotoxicity of Wrightia tinctoria and Morinda citrifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Selvam P

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Different extracts of leaf parts of Wrightia tinctoria and fruit powder of Morinda citrifolia have been studied against replication of HIV-1(IIIB in MT-4 cells and HCV in Huh 5.2 cells. Chloroform extract of Wrightia tinctoria exhibited a maximum protection of 48% against the cytopathic effect of HIV-1(IIIB in MT-4 cells. Fruit juice of Morinda citrifolia exhibited a displayed marked cytotoxic activity in lymphocyte (MT-4 cells (CC50: 0.19 mg/ml. The 50% effective concentration for inhibition of HCV subgenomic replicon replication in Huh 5-2 cells by Morinda citrifolia was 0.98 µg/ml and by chloroform extract of Wrightia tinctoria was 10 µg/ml. The concentration that reduced the growth of exponentially proliferating Huh 5-2 cells by 50% was greater than 50 µg/ml.

  8. A Concentrated Hydrochloric Acid-based Method for Complete Recovery of DNA from Bone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huynen, Leon; Lambert, David M

    2015-11-01

    The successful extraction of DNA from historical or ancient animal bone is important for the analysis of discriminating genetic markers. Methods used currently rely on the digestion of bone with EDTA and proteinase K, followed by purification with phenol/chloroform and silica bed binding. We have developed a simple concentrated hydrochloric acid-based method that precludes the use of phenol/chloroform purification and can lead to a several-fold increase in DNA yield when compared to other commonly used methods. Concentrated hydrochloric acid was shown to dissolve most of the undigested bone and allowed the efficient recovery of DNA fragments <100 bases in length. This method should prove useful for the recovery of DNAs from highly degraded animal bone, such as that found in historical or ancient samples.

  9. Antibacterial activity of bark extracts of Moringa oleifera Lam. against some selected bacteria.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zaffer, Mudasser; Ahmad, Showkat; Sharma, Rajendra; Mahajan, Surabhi; Gupta, Ankur; Agnihotri, Rajneesh Kumar

    2014-11-01

    The methanol, chloroform, ethyl acetate and aqueous bark extracts of Moringa oleifera were evaluated for their antibacterial activity against four bacteria viz. Staphylococcus aureus, Citrobacter freundii, Bacillus megaterium and Pseudomonas fluorescens using erythromycin as positive control. The activity was analyzed using paper disc diffusion method at different concentration of the extract. The study revealed that all the bark extracts irrespective of their types, in different concentrations inhibited growth of the test pathogens to varying degrees. Ethyl acetate extract showed maximum activity against all the bacterial strains followed in descending order by chloroform, methanol and aqueous extracts. The activity decreased with decrease in concentration of the extract. Staphylococcus aureus was found to be the most sensitive test organism to different extracts of Moringa oleifera. Looking to these results it may be concluded that M. oleifera may be a potential source for the treatment of different infections caused by the resistant microbes.

  10. Screening of the topical anti-inflammatory activity of some Central American plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sosa, S; Balick, M J; Arvigo, R; Esposito, R G; Pizza, C; Altinier, G; Tubaro, Aurelia

    2002-07-01

    Hexane, chloroform and methanol extracts of seven herbal drugs used in the folk medicine of Central America against skin disorders (Aristolochia trilobata leaves and bark, Bursera simaruba bark, Hamelia patens leaves, Piper amalago leaves, and Syngonium podophyllum leaves and bark) were evaluated for their topical anti-inflammatory activity against the Croton oil-induced ear oedema in mice. Most of the extracts induced a dose-dependent oedema reduction. The chloroform extract of almost all the drugs exhibited interesting activities with ID(50) values ranging between 108 and 498 micro g/cm(2), comparable to that of indomethacin (93 micro g/cm(2)). Therefore, the tested plants are promising sources of principles with high anti-inflammatory activity.

  11. Report: screening of selected medicinal plants for their enzyme inhibitory potential - a validation of their ethnopharmacological uses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khuda, Fazli; Iqbal, Zafar; Khan, Ayub; Zakiullah; Shah, Yasar; Khan, Abad

    2014-05-01

    In present study four medicinal plants namely Valeriana wallichii, Xanthium strumarium, Achyranthes aspera and Duchesnea indica belonging to different families were collected in Khyber Pakhtunkhwa province and crude extract and subsequent fractions were analyzed for their inhibitory potential against acetylcholinesterase, butyrylcholinesterase and α-glucosidase enzymes. Valeriana wallichii, Xanthium strumarium and Achyranthes aspera were significantly active against cholinesterases. Chloroform and ethylacetate fractions of Valeriana wallichii exhibited significant activity against acetylcholinesterase (IC50: 61μg/ml) and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes (IC50: 58μg/ml), respectively. Similarly ethylacetate fraction of Achyranthes aspera showed significant activity against acetylcholinesterase (IC50: 61 μg/ml) and butyrylcholinesterase enzymes (IC50: 61 μg/ml), respectively. In case of α-glucosidase enzyme, the chloroform fraction of Xanthium strumarium exhibited significant inhibitory activity (IC50: 72 μg/ml) as compared to the standard compound acarbose (IC50: 483 μg/ml). Duchesnea indica showed no such activities. PMID:24811822

  12. Development and Validation of High Performance Thin-Layer Chromatographic Method for Determination of α-Mangostin in Fruit Pericarp of Mangosteen Plant (Garcinia mangostana L. using Ultraviolet – Visible Detection

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Himanshu Misra

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A simple, fast and precise quantitative high performance thin-layer chromatographic method has been developed for quantitative estimation of α-mangostin in fruit pericarp of Garcinia mangostana L. (Hypericaceae. Best solvent for extraction of a-mangostin optimized after screening with five solvents under same conditions using hot solid-liquid extraction through soxhlet apparatus. Methanol and chloroform gave highest and second highest recovery of a-mangostin, respectively. Plates were developed in chloroform-methanol in the ratio of 27-3 (v/v. Post-chromatographic derivatization performed using anisaldehyde-sulphuric acid reagent and scanned at 382 nm in ultraviolet-visible mode. The developed method was found to be linear in the range 1.0 to 5.0 mg spot-1, limits of detection and quantitation were 150 and 450 ng spot-1. The developed method was validated in terms of system suitability, specificity and robustness.

  13. Antimicrobial activity of volatile components and various extracts of the red alga Jania rubens.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Karabay-Yavasoglu, N Ulku; Sukatar, Atakan; Ozdemir, Guven; Horzum, Zerrin

    2007-02-01

    The methanol, dichloromethane, hexane, chloroform and volatile oil extracts of the red alga Jania rubens were tested in vitro for their antimicrobial activity (five Gram-positive, four Gram-negative bacteria and Candida albicans ATCC 10239). GC-MS analysis of the volatile components of J. rubens identified 40 compounds which constituted 77.53% of the total. The volatile components of J. rubens consisted of n-docosane (6.35%), n-eicosane (5.77%) and n-tetratriacontane (5.58%) as major components. The methanol and chloroform extracts (4 mg/disc) showed more potent antimicrobial activity than the hexane and dichloromethane extracts and the volatile oil of J. rubens. PMID:17128433

  14. Contribuição ao estudo fitoquímico de Dorstenia multiformis Miquel (Moraceae com abordagem em atividade antioxidante Contribution to the phytochemical study of Dorstenia multiformis Miquel (Moraceae with approach in antioxidant activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luciana Balestrin

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Conhecida como carapiá, a espécie Dorstenia multiformis Miquel, Moraceae, é largamente empregada na medicina popular contra doenças de pele. Neste trabalho determinou-se a atividade antioxidante de substâncias isoladas, do extrato etanólico, e frações hexano, clorofórmio e acetato de etila. Todas as amostras testadas apresentaram atividade antioxidante, sendo que a fração clorofórmio foi a que apresentou maior atividade antioxidante.The species Dorstenia multiformis Miquel, Moraceae, known as "carapiá", is largely employed in folk medicine against skin diseases. In this paper the antioxidant activity of isolated substances, from the ethanol extract, and hexane, chloroform and ethyl acetate fractions has been determined. All of the tested samples showed antioxidant activity, and the chloroform fraction was the one that presented the largest antioxidant activity.

  15. Cytotoxity of two new coumarin derivatives isolated from Launaea mucronata.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El-Sharkawy, Eman R; Mahmoud, Khaled

    2016-01-01

    The chloroform fraction of methanol (MeOH) extract of the aerial parts of Launaea mucronata was in vitro investigated for cytotoxicity against HCT116, HepG2 and MCF-7 cell lines, and resulted with IC50 = 20.0, 18.6 and 14.30 μg/mL, respectively. The chloroform fraction of the MeOH extract was subjected to further fractionation, which led to the isolation of two new coumarin compounds (6-isobutyl coumarin and 6-isobutyl-7-methyl- coumarin). The structures of the new compounds were elucidated by high field 1D and 2D NMR and ESI-MS spectroscopies. Low polar fractions revealed the isolation of other known triterpene compounds which were identified according to its spectral data and comparison with the literature. New coumarin compounds show high cytotoxicity against MCF-7, HCT116 and HepG2 cell lines.

  16. Biodegradation of Trihalomethanes and Other Halogenated Aliphatic Compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, G. B.

    1996-01-01

    The biological dehalogenation of common water pollutants such as trichloromethane (chloroform) and other halogenated aliphatic compounds was the subject of this project. Samples from diverse water environments such as from groundwater contaminated with halogenated compounds and wastewaters from regional treatment plants were studied to identify conditions that favor certain dehalogenation reactions over others. Gene probe analyses of DNA extracted from the dichlormethane-degrading wastewater indicated the presence of the gene coding for dichloromethane dehalogenase, indicating the genetic basis for the dechlorination activity observed. These studies indicate that methanogenic bacteria are the organisms responsible for the chloroform dechlorination. Dechlorination of a common chlorofluorocarbon (CFC-11) was identified in samples taken from a regional aquifer contaminated with halogenated aliphatic compounds.

  17. EVALUATION OF ANTIMICROBIAL ACTIVITY OF ERYTHRINA MYSORENSIS Gamb

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    T. S.Nagaraja

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available In the present investigation the Petroleum ether (60- 80, chloroform, alcohol and aqueous extracts of Erythrina mysorensis Gamb, stem bark were investigated for antibacterial and antifungal activities. Chloroform and ethanol extracts possessed antibacterial activity in a concentration dependent manner against the gram +ve and gram –ve organisms. The effects of these extracts are compared to standard drugs, benzyl penicillin and streptomycin. Both the ethanol and aqueous extracts possessed antifungal activity in a concentration dependent manner against the fungus. The effects of these extracts are compared to standard drug gentamycin. The phytochemical screening of the extracts revealed the presence of secondary metabolites like glycosides, alkaloids, flavonoids, tannins, triterpenoids and saponins etc.

  18. Synthesis of Cu2O, CuCl, and Cu2OCl2 nanoparticles by ultrafast laser ablation of copper in liquid media

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Syed Hamad; G Krishna Podagatlapalli; Surya P Tewari; S Venugopal Rao

    2014-02-01

    Copper complex nanoparticles were fabricated from bulk copper using picosecond laser ablation in water and chloroform. We found that composition of the nanoparticles was CuCl and Cu2OCl2 in chloroform at three different input fluences; Cu2O in water which was confirmed from the data of EDAX, UV-Visible absorption spectra, and selected area electron diffraction pattern. We have also performed nonlinear optical studies of colloidal nanoparticles using Z-scan technique at 800 nm and ∼2 ps laser pulses. Cu2O NPs exhibited two-photon absorption at lower peak intensities while three-photon absorption was observed at higher peak intensities. Other samples exhibited two-photon absorption at all peak intensities.

  19. Inhibition of thermal induced protein denaturation of extract/fractions of Withania somnifera and isolated withanolides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Murad Ali; Khan, Haroon; Rauf, Abdul; Ben Hadda, Taibi

    2015-01-01

    This study describes the in vitro inhibition of protein denaturation of extract/fractions of Withania somnifera and isolated withanolides including 20β hydroxy-1-oxo(22R)-witha-2,5,24 trienolide (1), (20R,22R-14α,20α)-dihydroxy-1-oxowitha-2,5,16,24 tetraenolide (2). The results showed that the extract/fractions of the plant evoked profound inhibitory effect on thermal-induced protein denaturation. The chloroform fraction caused the most dominant attenuation of 68% at 500 μg/mL. The bioactivity-guided isolation from chloroform fraction led to the isolation of compounds 1 and 2 that showed profound protein inhibition with 78.05% and 80.43% effect at 500 μg/mL and thus strongly complimented the activity of extract/fractions. In conclusion, extract/fractions of W. somnifera possessed strong inhibition of protein denaturation that can be attributed to these isolated withanolides.

  20. COMPARATIVE PRIMARY PHYTO-PROFILE AND MICROCIDAL ACTIVITY OF CENCHRUS CILIARIS (ANJAN GRASS AND WITHANIA SOMNIFERA (WINTER CHERRY

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Singariya P.

    2012-04-01

    Full Text Available Crude extracts of different parts (root, stem, leaf and seed of Cenchrus ciliaris (CAZRI-358 and (root, stem, leaf and flower of Withania somnifera (RUBL-20668 and were successively extracted with polar to non polar solvents (water, chloroform and benzene using soxhlet assembly. The extracts were then screened for their antimicrobial activity in-vitro against one gram positive bacteria (Bacillus subtilis, two gram negative bacteria (Pseudomonas aeruginosa and Enterobactor aerogens and one fungus (Aspergillus flavus by disc diffusion assay. Serial dilution method was used to determine minimum inhibitory concentration (MIC and minimum bactericidal/fungicidal concentration (MBC/MFC. Chloroform extract of leaves of both the plants showed highest activity, by W. somnifera (IZ-20.83±0.21 mm, AI- 1.389 and (IZ-20.67±0.24 mm, AI- 1.148 by C. ciliaris against B. subtilis and P. aeruginosa respectively.