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Sample records for chlormequat

  1. The distribution and degradation of chlormequat in wheat plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekhuijzen, H.M.; Vonk, C.R.

    1974-01-01

    The distribution and degradation of chlormequat chloride (2-chloro 1,2-14C ethyltrimethylammonium chloride) was determined after uptake by the roots of summer wheat seedlings. This plant regulator was readily translocated from the roots to the above ground parts and converted into choline. Choline w

  2. Determination of chlormequat in pig serum and sow milk by LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Sørensen, M.T.

    2007-01-01

    Chlormequat is a plant growth regulator widely used on cereals, and there is general concern that it may impair human fertility. A LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of chlormequat in milk and serum was developed and validated in connection with an investigation on the effect of chlormequat on pig......-110%, and the LOD was 0.2 ng/g for serum and 0.3 ng/g for milk. The values for repeatability and reproducibility were within 2/3 of the limits given by the Horwitz equation. Samples of pig serum (59) and sow milk (27) were analyzed using the method. Chlormequat was determined in four milk samples in the range of 0.......4 ng/g to 1.2 ng/g and in all serum samples in the range of 0.2 ng/g-4.0 ng/g....

  3. Stem morphology and vascular anatomy of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. under retardant chlormequat chloride action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr E. Smirnov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effects of different concentrations of retardant chlormequat chloride on hypocotyl and first internode lengths of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. were investigated. It was established that treatment of buckwheat plants with chlormequat chloride before presowing led to: reduction of stem length, activation of early and intensive lignification of vascular and mechanical elements, increasing number and size of vascular bundles in correlation with functional reconstructions on donor-acceptor connections of plant organs.

  4. An intercomparison study of the determination of glyphosate, chlormequat and mepiquat residues in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Hinge; Bille, Rikke; Granby, Kit

    2007-01-01

    (r(2) = 0.95) indicates a systematic between-laboratory variation. Several different principles were used for the analysis of glyphosate using different clean-up techniques and GC/MS, HPLC-fluorescence or LC/MS for detection. The results of the chlormequat residues showed more consistency. All...

  5. No effect of the plant growth regulator, chlormequat, on boar fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M.T.; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Leffers, H.;

    2009-01-01

    weeks of age and two boar littermates continued on the same treatment as the dam until maturity and delivery of semen for in vitro fertilization (IVF) and in vivo fertilization. Semen volume, sperm concentration and fraction of live sperms were not (P >= 0.46) detrimentally affected by chlormequat...

  6. Estudo comparativo entre cloreto de mepiquat e cloreto de chlormequat aplicados no algodoeiro Comparative study of mepiquat chloride and chlormequat chloride application in cotton

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Mendes Lamas

    2001-02-01

    Full Text Available A comparação dos efeitos da aplicação dos reguladores de crescimento cloreto de mepiquat e cloreto de chlormequat isolados e combinados no algodoeiro (Gossypium hirsutum L. cv. CNPA ITA 90 constituiu o objetivo do presente trabalho. O experimento foi conduzido no ano agrícola de 1998/99 no Município de Primavera do Leste, MT. Foram estudados 15 tratamentos com quatro repetições, utilizando-se o delineamento experimental de blocos casualizados. A altura das plantas com a aplicação parcelada foi 24% menor em relação à testemunha, independentemente do produto estudado. O peso do capulho foi maior com a aplicação de regulador de crescimento, e não dependeu do produto e do esquema de aplicação. O peso de 100 sementes depende da seqüência de aplicação e do produto utilizado; nos tratamentos em que as duas primeiras aplicações foram com cloreto de chlormequat, o peso de 100 sementes foi maior. Não houve efeito significativo dos reguladores de crescimento na porcentagem de fibras; entretanto, a produtividade de fibras foi influenciada pelo produto e pelo esquema de parcelamento; com três e duas aplicações do mesmo produto, a maior produtividade foi obtida com cloreto de mepiquat.This work was carried out to compare the effects of the growth regulators mepiquat chloride and chlormequat chloride applied in combination or separately in the cotton (Gossypium hirsutum L. cultivar CNPA ITA 90. The experiment was evaluated in Mato Grosso State, Brazil, in the agricultural year of 1998/99. Fifteen treatments were studied with four replications, using randomized complete block design. The height of the plants with the parceled application was 24% smaller in relation to the control treatment, independently on the chemical. The boll weight was greater with the application of growth regulator, not depending on the product and the application outline. The weight of 100 seeds depends on the application sequence and on the chemical; it was

  7. Investigation of the herbicide glyphosate and the plant growth regulators chlormequat and mepiquat in cereals produced in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granby, K; Vahl, M

    2001-10-01

    An LC-MS/MS method for analysing glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in cereals was developed. The method is based on extraction with water and detection of the ions from the fragmentation m/z 170-->88 (glyphosate) and m/z 112-->30 (AMPA), using electrospray interface in the positive mode. Investigation from the harvests of 1998 and 1999 showed residues of glyphosate and/or its degradation product AMPA in more than half of the cereal samples produced in Denmark. The average concentration of glyphosate in 46 samples from the 1999 harvest was 0.11 mg/kg compared with 0.08 mg/kg for the 1998 harvest (n = 49). Thus, the figures were well below the maximum residue limit (MRL) and no violations were observed. The plant growth regulators chlormequat and/or mepiquat were investigated in cereals from the Danish harvest of 1999 where 83% of the samples contained chlormequat (n = 46) compared with 87% of the samples from the 1997 harvest (n = 52). The average concentration of chlormequat in 1999 was 0.32 mg/kg compared with 0.23 mg/kg in 1997. At 2.9 mg/kg, one sample of wheat bran was exceeding the MRL of 2 mg/kg for wheat. The intakes of the pesticides through the diet of cereals were estimated to comprise 0.04% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for glyphosate and 1% of the ADI for chlormequat for an adult Dane.

  8. Effect of chlormequat chloride, ß-naphthoxyacetic acid and ethephon on early and total yield of tomato in open field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Borkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato seedlings in hotbed with Antywylegacz (chlormequat chloride to suppress their excessive elongation before transplanting, were used. Their first 2-3 flower clusters were dipped in the field in Betokson (ß-naphthoxyacetic acid to induce better early fruit set and the plants were sprayed with Ethrel (ethephon just before the first fruits become pink, to stimulate earlier ripening and increase early yield. The experiment was carried out during 3 years with the cultivars 'Venture', 'New Yorker' and 'Nesthackchen' (only in 1975. Application of chlormequat alone prevented excessive growth of the seedlings but did not increase early yield significantly. ß-naphthoxyacetic acid alone was effectiveevery year and always increased early yield. Chlormequat followed by ß-naphthoxyacetic treatment showed always a tendency to increase early yield more than ß-naphthoxyacetic acid alone. Treatment with ß-naphthoxyacetic acid, alone or in combination with other treatments, lowered the total yield. Ethephon used solely or in combination with other treatments usually was ineffective.

  9. Urinary biomarker concentrations of captan, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in UK adults and children living near agricultural land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Karen S; MacCalman, Laura; Jones, Kate; Cocker, John; Teedon, Paul; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie

    2015-01-01

    There is limited information on the exposure to pesticides experienced by UK residents living near agricultural land. This study aimed to investigate their pesticide exposure in relation to spray events. Farmers treating crops with captan, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos or cypermethrin provided spray event information. Adults and children residing ≤100 m from sprayed fields provided first-morning void urine samples during and outwith the spray season. Selected samples (1-2 days after a spray event and at other times (background samples)) were analysed and creatinine adjusted. Generalised Linear Mixed Models were used to investigate if urinary biomarkers of these pesticides were elevated after spray events. The final data set for statistical analysis contained 1518 urine samples from 140 participants, consisting of 523 spray event and 995 background samples which were analysed for pesticide urinary biomarkers. For captan and cypermethrin, the proportion of values below the limit of detection was greater than 80%, with no difference between spray event and background samples. For chlormequat and chlorpyrifos, the geometric mean urinary biomarker concentrations following spray events were 15.4 μg/g creatinine and 2.5 μg/g creatinine, respectively, compared with 16.5 μg/g creatinine and 3.0 μg/g creatinine for background samples within the spraying season. Outwith the spraying season, concentrations for chlorpyrifos were the same as those within spraying season backgrounds, but for chlormequat, lower concentrations were observed outwith the spraying season (12.3 μg/g creatinine). Overall, we observed no evidence indicative of additional urinary pesticide biomarker excretion as a result of spray events, suggesting that sources other than local spraying are responsible for the relatively low urinary pesticide biomarkers detected in the study population.

  10. Investigation of the herbicide glyphosate and the plant growth regulators chlormequat and mepiquat in cereals produced in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Gabrielsen, Martin Vahl

    2001-01-01

    An LC-MS/ MS method for analysing glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in cereals was developed. The method is based on extraction with water and detection of the ions from the fragmentation m/z 170 --> 88 (glyphosate) and m/z 112 --> 30 (AMPA), using electrospray interface...... in the positive mode. Investigation from the harvests of 1998 and 1999 showed residues of glyphosate and/or its degradation product AMPA in more than half of the cereal samples produced in Denmark. The average concentration of glyphosate in 46 samples from the 1999 harvest was 0.11 mg/kg compared with 0.08 mg...... estimated to comprise 0.04% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for glyphosate and 1% of the ADI for chlormequat for an adult Dane....

  11. Effect of chlormequat (cycocel) on the growth of ornamental cabbage and kale (Brassica oleracea) cultivars 'Kamome White' and 'Nagoya Red'.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gholampour, Abdollah; Hashemabadi, Davood; Sedaghathoor, Shahram; Kaviani, Behzad

    2015-01-01

    The effect of concentration and application method of chlormequat (cycocel), a plant growth retardant, on plant height and some other traits in Brassica oleracea cultivars 'Kamome White' and 'Nagoya Red' was assessed. Plant growth retardants are commonly applied to limit stem elongation and produce a more compact plant. The experiment was done as a factorial in randomized completely blocks design (RCBD) with four replications. Plants (40 days after transplanting) were sprayed and drenched with 500, 1000 and 1500 mg l(-1) cycocel. In each experiment, control untreated plants. Data were recorded the 60 and 90 days after transplanting. Based on analysis of variance (ANOVA), the effect of different treatments and their interaction on all traits was significant at 0.05 or 0.01 level of probability. Treatment of 1500 mg I(-1) cycocel resulted in about 50 and 20% shorter plants than control plants, 60 and 90 days after transplant. The growth of Brassica oleracea cultivar 'Kamome White' and 'Nagoya Red' decreased with increased cycocel concentration. Foliar sprays of cycocel controlled plant height of both cultivars. Results indicated that the shortest plants (9.94 and 11.59 cm) were those sprayed with 1500 mg l(-1) cycocel in cultivar 'Kamome White' after 60 and 90 days, respectively. The largest number of leaves (33.94) and highest leaf diameter (9.39 cm) occurred in cv. 'Nagoya Red', when drench was used. Maximum dry matter (14.31%) accumulated in cv. 'Nagoya Red', treated with spray.

  12. Effects of gibberellin A4/7, 6-benzylaminopurine and chlormequat chloride on the number of male and female strobili and immature cones in Chinese Pine (Pinus tabuliformis) with foliar sprays

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHAO Peng; FAN Jun-feng; ZHANG Shuo-xin; HUANG Zhong-lian; YANG Pei-hua; MA Zhen-hua; Keith E. Woeste

    2011-01-01

    Three kinds of plant growth regulators, gibberellinA (GA),6-benzylaminopurine (BA), and chlormequat chloride (CCC), wereevaluated for their ability to promote strobilus and cone production in aChinese pine (Pinus tabuliformis Carr.) clonal seed orchard. Treatments(0, 250, 500, or 1000 mg-L) were applied during three periods (June-July, July-August and August-September) in 2005. Of the three plantgrowth regulators, GA was the best for promoting flower and coneproduction. Trees sprayed with GA(500 mg·L) from June to Septem-ber had significantly more female strobili and immature cones than con-trols and other treatments (p≤0.0001). The best time to apply GA was inJune. BA at 500 mg.L significantly increased female flower and imma-ture cone production, compared to other treatments and controls(p≤0.0001), while promotion of male strobili was unchanged. Chlorme-quat chloride at 1000 mg.L significantly increased the number of malestrobili, compared to the other treatments (P≤0.0001). Spraying CCC at500 mg.L significantly increased the number of female strobili, com-pared to controls (p0.05). These results are important for improving seed productionand seed orchard management of Chinese pine.

  13. Resposta de cultivares de arroz a doses de nitrogênio e do regulador de crescimento cloreto de clormequat Response of rice cultivars to nitrogen and growth regulator chlormequat chloride

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    Salatiér Buzetti

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar os efeitos de doses de nitrogênio (0, 50, 100 e 150 kg ha-1 e do regulador de crescimento cloreto de clormequat (0, 1 e 2 L ha-1, em algumas características agronômicas de cultivares de arroz IAC 201 e IAC 202. O delineamento experimental foi o de blocos ao acaso, com quatro repetições. O N foi aplicado em cobertura, no estádio da diferenciação floral, e o regulador de crescimento foi aplicado parceladamente, aos 20 e 30 dias após a emergência das plântulas de arroz (perfilhamento. Na safra 2001/2002, houve efeito significativo de N para altura de plantas, comprimento da panícula, espiguetas por panícula, massa de 100 grãos e produtividade de grãos. Houve efeito do regulador de crescimento sobre o comprimento da panícula e espiguetas por panícula. A maior produtividade foi a da cultivar IAC 202. Na safra 2002/2003, houve efeito de N para altura de plantas, massa de 100 grãos, fertilidade das espiguetas e produtividade de grãos. O regulador de crescimento não exerceu efeito nas características testadas, e a cultivar IAC 202 foi novamente a mais produtiva.The objective of this work was to evaluate N rates (0, 50, 100 and 150 kg ha-1 and the growth regulator chlormequat chloride effect (0, 1 e 2 L ha-1 on some agronomic characteristics of rice cultivars IAC 201 and IAC 202. The experimental design was a randomized block with four replicates. Nitrogen was applied as side-dressing at flower differentiation and the growth regulator was split in two times and applied at 20 and 30 days after seedlings emergency (tillering. In the harvests of 2001/2002, there was no significant effect of N rates on plant height, panicle length, spikelet per panicle, 100-grain mass and grain yield. The growth regulator rates were significant for panicle length and spikelet per panicle. IAC 202 presented higher grain yield. In the harvest of 2002/2003 there was no effect of N rates on plant height, spikelet

  14. Analysis of chlormequat chloride and mepiquat chloride residues in tomato, tomato paste and pear by using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry%超高效液相色谱-串联质谱法测定番茄(酱)及香梨中矮壮素和缩节胺残留量

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张海燕

    2016-01-01

    建立了快速测定番茄(酱)及香梨中矮壮素和缩节胺残留量的超高效液相色谱-串联质谱(UPLC-MS/MS)方法。样品经V (水):V (乙腈)=1:1提取,无需富集浓缩等特殊净化步骤,以Waters Acquity BEH HILIC色谱柱分离,电喷雾电离(ESI+),多反应监测(MRM)模式检测,基质匹配标准溶液峰面积外标法定量。结果表明:在0.001~0.02 mg/L范围内,矮壮素和缩节胺的质量浓度与对应的峰面积间线性关系良好,相关系数均大于0.999。矮壮素及缩节胺在番茄、香梨及番茄酱中的检出限(LOD)分别为0.0004~0.002 mg/kg和0.0009~0.002 mg/kg,定量限(LOQ)均为0.01 mg/kg。在0.01、0.02和0.05 mg/kg 3个添加水平下,矮壮素及缩节胺的回收率分别为71%~94%和75%~101%,相对标准偏差分别为1.9%~7.7%和2.8%~6.9%。该方法简便快捷,定量准确,可用于同时检测番茄(酱)及香梨中矮壮素和缩节胺的残留量。%A rapid method for analyzing the two plant growth regulators chlormequat chloride and mepiquat chloride residues in tomato, tomato paste and pear by ultra-high performance liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry (UPLC-MS/MS) was developed. The samples were extracted withV (water) :V (acetonitrile) =1 : 1. Special clean-up procedures such as enrichment or concentration were not necessary. The chromatographic separation was carried out by HILIC column. Analytes were detected by electro-spray ionization (ESI+), and multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode. Quantification was performed by peak area external standard methods using matrix-matched calibration curves, which were linear in the range of 0.001-0.02 mg/L with good linear relationships. The correlation coefficients were all above 0.999. In the case of tomato, tomato paste and pear, the limits of detection (LOD) for chlormequat chloride and mepiquat chloride were estimated in the range of 0.0004-0.002, 0.0009-0.002 mg/kg , respectively. And the limits of

  15. Effects of Ethylene-Chlormequat-Potassium on Leaf Nitrogen Assimilation after Anthesis and Early Senescence under Different Planting Densities%乙矮合剂对不同密度夏玉米花粒期叶片氮素同化与早衰的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢霖; 董志强; 董学瑞; 焦浏; 李光彦; 高娇

    2015-01-01

    To explore the effects of ethylene-chlormequat-potassium (ECK) on the physiological mechanisms of nitrogen assimi-lation and early senescence in summer maize, and provide a theoretical basis for high and stable yields of summer maize under high plant density by chemical regulation technology in North China Plain, we conducted a field experiment using two varieties of Zhongdan 909 and Xundan 20 with different planting densities in 2013 and 2014. The results showed that increasing plant density significantly decreased the activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) after anthesis, glutamate oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) activity at anthesis, and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activity at 30 days after anthesis. The soluble protein and free amino acid contents at 20 days after anthesis, and the SPAD value at 10 days after anthesis were significantly decreased with increasing plant density. For both varieties, grain yield reached the highest under 7.5×104 plants ha–1, while de-creased under the density of ≥ 7.5×104 plants ha–1. The higher density resulted in early senescence. ECK treatment significantly increased the activities of NR, GS, and contents of free amino acid, soluble protein and SPAD value during middle and late grain filling stages. ECK treatment also significantly improved the GOT and GPT activities under 7.5×104−10.5×104 plants ha–1. Under the density ≥ 7.5×104 plant ha–1, the yields of Zhongdan 909 and Xundan 20 compared with their own control were respectively increased by 5.59%−6.63% and 6.73%−8.10%. ECK treatment significantly increased the nitrogen assimilation key enzyme acti-vity of ear leaf and its product content under different planting densities, promoted normal nitrogen assimilation and prevented early senescence under higher planting densities, therefore increased yield. Thus, an appropriate planting density combined with ECK application could be an important technique for achieving high

  16. Effect of chlormequat (CCC on the accumulation of ethephon in tomatoes and on ethephon-stimulated ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In greenhouse experiment, tomato seedlings were treated with CCC (250 mg·l-1 twice before transplanting. When about 10% of fruits were showing signs of ripening (pink fruits, ethephon solution (960 mg·l-1 was applied either to leaves only or to fruits only, in order to make ripening more uniform. CCC treatment delayed the process of fruit ripening and lowered the ethephon accumulation in ripe fruits as compared to the control (CCC untreated plants. The results were similar when ethephon was applied to leaves only or to fruits only.

  17. A new retardant for tomatoes N,N-dimethylmorpholinium chloride (preparate RW3

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    Jan Borkowski

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The preparate RW3 produced in Poland, is a stronger growth retardant for young tomato plants than chlormequat. It shows no additive effect with chlormequat when given simultaneously with it.

  18. Residues of chlormequat (CCC in fruits and other parts of tomato plants after treating the seedlings with 14C-CCC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joanna Ostrzycka

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available CCC remaining in tomato plants after treating the seedlings with a solution of 125 mg/l CCC to prevent their excessive growth has been studied in experiment conducted for two years. When seedling had been treated twice with CCC, the tomatoes of the first crop from these plants contained 0.09 mg CCC/kg fresh fruit. The amount of residual CCC decreased with each further crop. The last crop contained only 0.02 mg CCC/kg fresh fruit. The amount of CCC in the remains of leaves and stems at the end of the vegetation period was similar to that in the fruit of the first crop, however, the amount of CCC in the remains of the roots was several times larger than in the fruit. CCC which had been added directly to compost soil was quickly degraded.

  19. Effects of currently used pesticides in assays for estrogenicity, androgenicity, and aromatase activity in vitro

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Helle Raun; Vinggaard, Anne; Rasmussen, Thomas Høj;

    2002-01-01

    (endosulfan, methiocarb, methomyl, pirimicarb, propamocarb, deltamethrin, fenpropathrin, dimethoate, chlorpyriphos, dichlorvos, tolchlofosmethyl, vinclozolin, iprodion, fenarimol, prochloraz, fosetylaluminum, chlorothalonil, daminozid, paclobutrazol, chlormequat chlorid, and ethephon) were selected according...

  20. Two tank-mix adjuvants effect on yield and quality attributes of wheat treated with growth retardants

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    Wojciech Miziniak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of seeds and yield of winter wheat under different retardants application. The two years field trials on winter wheat were carried out in the Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute in Poznan (Poland. Treatments consisted of trinexapac-ethyl, chlormequat and prohexadione calcium applied in mixtures with paraffin oil adjuvant or organosilicone surfactant in BBCH 31 growth stage of winter wheat. No lodging occurred in any experimental year. The retardants had varying effect on the quality parameters of wheat grain. The highest fluctuations in the content of protein, gluten and the Zeleny value were observed after the application of chlormequat chloride. Starch content in wheat grain, regardless of the retardant application method, was negatively correlated with others grain quality parameters evaluated in the experiment. Depending on the year of study and weather conditions, increased or decreased wheat quality.

  1. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON MORPHOLOGICAL, SEED YIELD AND QUALITY PARAMETERS OF GREENGRAM

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    K Rajesh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the different growth regulating compounds on morphological, quality and yield parameters in greengram at Acharya N.G Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad during rabi 2009- 10. The basic material for the present investigation consists of Greengram cv WGG-37 and two growth promoting (NAA and Brassinosteroid and growth retarding substances (Chlormequat chloride and Mepiquat chloride. These growth regulators were sprayed at flower initiation stage. The morphological traits viz., plant height, number of branches per plant, number of trifoliates per plant and days to 50% flowering and maturity were significantly increased by NAA @ 20 ppm, whereas total dry matter production (TDM over growth regulator treatments at all stages NAA (20 ppm and brassinosteroid (20ppm recorded significantly higher values. Among the quality parameters highest seed protein content (% and highest nitrogen harvest index values were recorded with growth retarding substance chlormequat chloride (187.5 g a.i ha-1 in greengram. The seed yield increased significantly with NAA (20 ppm followed by mepiquat chloride 5% AS, brassinosteroid (20 ppm, chlormequat chloride (137.5.5 a.i/ha.

  2. Inibidores de síntese de giberelinas e crescimento de mudas de mangueira 'Tommy Atkins' Synthesis inhibitors of gibberellins and mango 'Tommy Atkins' seedlings growth

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    Maria Aparecida do Carmo Mouco

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A mangicultura no semiárido brasileiro destaca-se pelos altos rendimentos, pela qualidade do fruto produzido e pela possibilidade de produção durante todo o ano, devido a condições climáticas e tecnologias para o manejo do crescimento vegetativo e da floração, com uso da irrigação, podas e retardantes vegetais. O paclobutrazol aplicado ao solo é utilizado no manejo da produção da mangueira na maioria dos pomares. Entretanto, há a necessidade de identificar retardantes vegetais que possam ser aplicados via foliar, de forma a minimizar os resíduos no solo e evitar o uso de quantidades inadequadas ao longo dos anos. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar retardantes vegetais aplicados via foliar na inibição do crescimento vegetativo de mudas de mangueira 'Tommy Atkins'. Prohexadione-Ca, etil-trinexapac e cloreto de chlormequat, aplicados via foliar, na dose de 1g i.a. planta-1, regulam o crescimento de ramos vegetativos, mas apresentam tempo diferenciado de atividade nas mudas, sendo 20 dias para prohexadione-Ca, 30 dias para cloreto de chlormequat e 45 dias para etil-trinexapac, nas condições em que o experimento foi conduzido.The mango in the Brazilian semi-arid region stands out in the national scenario due to high yields and fruit quality, as well as to the possibility of all-year production due to climatic conditions and technologies which allow the management of plant growth and flowering through irrigation, pruning and use of plant growth regulators. Paclobutrazol applied to the soil is used for the production management of mangoes in most of the orchards. However, it is necessary to identify plant growth regulators which might be applied to the leaves, so as to minimize the risk of residues in the soil and to avoid inadequate application levels over several years. The present paper aimed at evaluating the effect of plant growth regulators applied to the leaves, regarding their efficiency for flowering management

  3. Efeitos de reguladores vegetais no desenvolvimento e na produtividade do amendoinzeiro (Arachis hypogaea L. Effects of growth regulators on groundnut development (Arachis hypogaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R.C. Castro

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar a ação de substâncias de crescimento no desenvolvimento e produtividade do amendoinzeiro, sob condições de casa de vegetação. Plantas de Arachis hypogaea cv. Tatu-53, providas de 4 folhas definitivas, foram pulverizadas com chlormequat 2000 ppm, daminozide 4000 ppm, ácido giberélico 100 ppm, ácido indolilacético 100 ppm, além do controle. Foram determinados: altura das plantas, número de hastes, número de entrenós, comprimento do segundo e quarto entrenós, e o número de folhas. Também foram verificados os números de flores, de frutos e de sementes; peso dos frutos, das sementes, da matéria seca da parte aérea e da matéria seca das raízes do amendoinzeiro. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que daminozide 4000 ppm reduziu a altura, o número de entrenós na haste principal e o comprimento do quarto entrenó. Este produto também aumentou o número de folhas, atrasou a florescência, aumentou o número de flores e tendeu a aumentar o peso seco da parte aérea do amendoinzeiro. Pulverização com chlormequat 2000 ppm e ácido indolilacético 100 ppm, diminuiu a altura da planta e o comprimento do quarto entrenó da haste principal do amendoinzeiro.This research deals with the effects of plant growth regulators on groundnut growth (Arachis hypogaea L. cv. Tatu-53. Plants of groundnut with four leaves grown in pots under greenhouse conditions, were sprayed with chlormequat 2000 ppm, daminozide 4000 ppm, gibberellic acid 100 ppm, indolylacetic acid 100 ppm, mid check treatment. Daminozide 4000 ppm reduced plant height, internode number and the length of the fourth internode. Daminozide increased the number of leaves, retarded flowering, increased the number of flowers and presented a tendency to increase the dry weight of stems. Chlormequat 2000 ppm and indolylacetic acid 100 ppm reduced plant height and the lenght of the fourth internode of the groundnut plant stem.

  4. Efeitos de fitorreguladores no crescimento e na floração de plantas de gerânio Effects of growth regulators on the development and flowering of geranium plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Aparecida de Nucci

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de verificar a eficiência de fitorreguladores no controle da altura de gerânio (Pelargonium hortorum Bailey e no comprimento do ráquis de sua inflorescência, instalaram-se dois ensaios na região de Cotia, SP, ambos plantados em vasos em casa de vegetação. Num deles, foram pulverizados clormequate e daminozide, nas doses de 1.000, 2.000 e 4.000 ppm por planta, e paclobutrazol nas doses de 15, 30 e 60 ppm. No segundo ensaio, foram pulverizados clormequate a 2.000ppm, por duas vezes e, em aplicação única, daminozide a 4.000 ppm e paclobutrazol nas doses de 5, 10 e 15 ppm. Clormequate e daminozide, de modo geral, não foram eficientes na redução do porte das plantas nem do comprimento do ráquis da inflorescência. Paclobutrazol, em todas as doses superiores a 5ppm, provocou redução significativa tanto na altura das plantas como no comprimento do ráquis da inflorescência, destacando-se as concentrações de 10 e 15 ppm como as mais adequadas para obtenção de plantas com conformação ideal para envasamento.The efficiency of growth regulators in controlling geranium height and rachis lenght was studied in two greenhouse experiments at Cotia, State of São Paulo, Brazil, with plants growing in plastic bags. In one experiment the following growth regulators were used: chlormequat, and daminozide, both with concentrations of 1,000, 2,000 and 4,000 ppm and paclobutrazol with concentrations of 15, 30 and 60 ppm. In another experiment chlormequat at concentration of 2,000 ppm was sprayed twice; daminozide solution 4,000 ppm was sprayed once and paclobutrazol was sprayed with concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 ppm once. Chlormequat and daminozide were not efficient in shortening plant height and rachis length. Paclobutrazol sprays in all dosis higher than 5ppm shortened significantly plant height and rachis length. Solutions of paclobutrazol at concentrations of 10 and 15 ppm were the most effective treatment in producing

  5. Efeitos de reguladores de crescimento na elongação do colmo de trigo = Effect of growth regulators on wheat stem elongation

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    Marcelo Curitiba Espindula

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de doses e épocas deaplicação de três reguladores de crescimento na elongação do colmo de plantas de trigo. O experimento, conduzido em Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, de maio a setembro de 2005, foi instalado com tratamentos em esquema fatorial e hierárquico com uma testemunha, no delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram 500; 1.000 e 1.500 g ha-1 de clormequat; 62,5; 125,0 e 187,5 g ha-1 detrinexapac-etil e 40; 80 e 120 g ha-1 de paclobutrazol, aplicados no estádio 6 ou 8 da escala Feeks e Large, e uma testemunha. O comprimento do colmo com trinexapac-etil foi menor do que com o clormequat, que, por sua vez, foi menor do que com o paclobutrazol. A aplicação de reguladores na época 1 promoveu maior redução dosentrenós basais, enquanto a aplicação na época 2 proporcionou maior influência no pedúnculo. O aumento das doses de clormequat e trinexapac-etil promoveu redução do comprimento do colmo e das partes que o formam. O aumento das doses de paclobutrazol promoveu respostas pouco expressivas no colmo e seus componentes.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of doses and times of application of three growth regulators on wheat stem elongation. The experiments were conducted in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, from May to September 2005, in a factorial and hierarchicalrandomized block design with four repetitions and a control treatment. Treatments consisted of 500, 1000 and 1500 g ha-1 of chlormequat; 62.5, 125.0 and 187.5 g ha-1 of trinexapac-ethyl and 40, 80 and 120 g ha-1 of paclobutrazol, applied either at the 6 or 8stage of the Feeks and Large scale, with a control. Stem length with trinexapac-ethyl was smaller than with chlormequat, which was in its turn smaller than with paclobutrazol. Application of growth regulators at stage 1 produced shorter basal internodes, whereas the stage 2 application caused greater reduction

  6. Use of growth retardants in wheat Utilização de redutores de crescimento em trigo

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    M.C. Espindula

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In general, lodging has been controlled by restricting nitrogen fertilizer application and/or using short cultivars. Growth retardants can also be used to solve this problem.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of rates and application times of three growth retardants on Pioneiro wheat cultivar. The trial was carried out in Viçosa-MG, from May to September 2005, in a factorial and hierarchical scheme, in a randomized block design with four replications and a control treatment. The treatments consisted of 500, 1,000 and 1,500 g ha-1 of chlormequat; 62.5, 125 and 187.5 g ha-1 of trinexapac-ethyl and 40, 80 and 120 g ha-1 of paclobutrazol applied at growth stages 6 or 8, growth stage used on the scale of Feeks and Large, and a control treatment without growth retardant application. Only trinexapac-ethyl and chlormequat were efficient in reducing plant height; the effect of chlormequat and paclobutrazol on plant height was independent of the application time, but the trinexapac-ethyl at growth stage 8 produced shorter plant height than at stage 6. Increasing growth retardant rates produced shorter plant heights; chlormequat and paclobutrazol did not affect grain yield. However, the highest trinexapac-ethyl rates reduced wheat yield.De modo geral, o acamamento tem sido controlado mediante restrição da aplicação de fertilizantes nitrogenados e/ou o uso de cultivares de porte baixo. No entanto, esse problema também pode ser solucionado pela utilização de redutores de crescimento. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de doses e épocas de aplicação de três redutores de crescimento sobre plantas de trigo do cultivar Pioneiro. O experimento, conduzido em Viçosa-MG de maio a setembro de 2005, foi instalado com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial e hierárquico com uma testemunha, no delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram: 500, 1.000 e 1.500 g ha-1 de clormequat; 62

  7. Control of Pesticides 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, Teddy; Petersen, Kitty Kastalag; Christoffersen, Christel

    The analytical chemical authority control of pesticide products on the Danish market in 2006 is described in this report. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients in the pro......The analytical chemical authority control of pesticide products on the Danish market in 2006 is described in this report. Samples of selected groups of pesticides have been collected from the market and analysed to verify whether the actual contents of the respective active ingredients...... analytical chemical authority control: Herbicides containing metamitron, propaquizafop and haloxyfop-ethoxyethyl. Fungicides containing azoxystrobin, propiconazole, cyprodinil, picoxystrobin and fenpropidin. Insecticides containing pirimicarb. Plant growth regulators containing chlormequat chloride, mepiquat...

  8. Reguladores de crescimento vegetal na concentração de macronutrientes em videira Itália Plant growth regulators on macronutrients in Itália grapes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Teresinha Costa Silveira de Albuquerque

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Em clima tropical semi-árido, o uso de reguladores vegetais em fruteiras permite o manejo do crescimento vegetativo, tão necessário ao escalonamento da produção e ao aumento da fertilidade das gemas. Estas substâncias influenciam vários fenômenos fisiológicos relacionados com a absorção mineral, como a condutância de membrana e utilização metabólica de íons. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento vegetativo, produção de matéria seca dos ramos, concentração e quantidade acumulada de N, P, K, Ca e Mg nos ramos e nos pecíolos e produção de panículas florais em resposta ao uso de reguladores vegetais, em plantas de videira da cultivar Itália. No experimento foram avaliados três ciclos vegetativos e cinco tratamentos (controle, chlormequat - 1500 mg L-1; daminozide - 3000 mg L-1; uniconazole - 30 mg L-1 e cloreto de mepiquat - 300 mg L-1, aplicados nas plantas em pulverizações aos 35 e 70 dias após a poda. Com o chlormequat e o uniconazole ocorreu efeito cumulativo nas plantas, quando aplicados em ciclos sucessivos da cultura, favorecendo o acúmulo de nutrientes e a diferenciação de gemas férteis em comparação com as plantas controle das videiras 'Itália'. Embora o daminozide tenha inibido significativamente o crescimento das plantas, não resultou em maior acúmulo de nutrientes e emissão de panículas florais nas plantas tratadas.In semi-arid tropical climate, the use of plant growth regulators in fruit trees allows the vegetative growth control, so necessary to the assignment of the production and the increase of the fertility of the buds. These substances influence several physiological processes related to the mineral absorption, for example: membrane condutance and metabolic use of ions. The objective of this work was to evaluate vegetative growth, stem dry mater, N, P, K, Ca and Mg content in the stem and petiole and panicle production in response to plant growth regulators in grape "It

  9. Proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Herrmann, Susan Strange

    2009-01-01

    -methyl, difenconazole, epoxiconazole, glyphosate, iprodione, malathion, pirimicarb, prochloraz, spiroxamin and trifloxystrobin. After harvest, the test material was additionally spiked in the laboratory with three pesticides, that where the residues were too low, and axozystrobin. In total, 72 laboratories submitted...... results and z-scores were calculated for all laboratories and pesticides, except for glyphosate where only five laboratories submitted results and summed weighted z-scores were calculated for the laboratories with a sufficient scope. For several pesticides, the submitted results were strongly depending......A proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in wheat was organised in 2008. The test material was grown in 2007 and treated in the field with 14 pesticides formulations containing the active substances, alpha-cypermethrin, bifentrin, carbendazim, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos...

  10. Plant growth regulator losses in cotton as affected by adjuvants and rain Perdas de reguladores de crescimento do algodoeiro em função de adjuvante e de chuva simulada

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    Fábio Rafael Echer

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Most of Brazilian cotton is produced in regions where annual rainfall exceeds 1,500mm, hence plant growth regulators (PGR may be washed from the leaves before being absorbed. The objective of this research was to evaluate mepiquat chloride and chlormequat chloride washing from cotton leaves by rains occurring at different moments post spraying. The experiment was conducted in a greenhouse. Both PGR were sprayed to cotton at pin-head square at 15g ha-1 a.i. with and without a silicon-based adjuvant, and simulated rains were applied at 0, 0.75, 1.5, 3.0, 6.0, 12.0 and 24 hours after spraying, plus a control without rainfall. Addition of silicon adjuvant increased PGR uptake. Rainfall occurring up to 24 hours after spraying resulted in some PGR loss from cotton leaves, mainly in the absence of the adjuvant. The decreased uptake implies that in order to achieve the desired level of growth reduction, at least a fraction of the original PGR rate should be reapplied.Nas maiores regiões algodoeiras no Brasil, chove mais de 1.500mm anuais, existindo risco de ocorrer lavagem de reguladores de crescimento aplicados às folhas do algodoeiro, antes que sejam absorvidos. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a lavagem dos reguladores de crescimento cloreto de mepiquat e cloreto de chlormequat de folhas de algodoeiro por chuva, ocorrendo em diferentes momentos após a aplicação. O trabalho foi realizado em casa de vegetação. Ambos os reguladores foram aplicados no aparecimento do primeiro botão floral, na dose de 15g ha-1 de i.a. com e sem adjuvante siliconado, e chuva simulada foi aplicada aos 0, 0,75; 1,5; 3,0; 6,0; 12,0 e 24 horas após a aplicação dos reguladores, mais um tratamento sem chuva. A adição de adjuvante siliconado melhorou a absorção dos produtos. A ocorrência de chuva até mesmo 24 horas após a aplicação dos reguladores pode lavar parte dos produtos das plantas de algodoeiro, com maior intensidade para o tratamento sem

  11. The effect of plant growth regulators on height control in potted Arundina graminifolia orchids (Growth regulators in Arundina graminifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina da Silva Wanderley

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Orchids have become an important portion of the international floriculture market.  Arundina graminifolia is a terrestrial orchid that produces attractive flowers, and, although the species could be a potential candidate for the floriculture market, its considerable height makes it difficult to transport and commercialize.  A number of plant growth regulators have been utilized to control plant height in ornamentals and other species.  Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of growth regulators, paclobutrazol and chlormequat chloride on the vegetative development of containerized A. graminifolia orchid aiming at height control.  Paclobutrazol (Cultar was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg L-1, and CCC (Cycocel was applied at 0, 2000, 4000, and 6000 mg L-1. The plants were assessed monthly for the plant height and number of shoots per container. CCC had no effect on the final height of plants at the concentrations applied. In contrast, paclobutrazol was effective in controlling plant height at a concentration of 5 mg L-1, but higher concentrations (10 and 20 mg L-1 proved to be toxic to the plants, causing death to the new shoots. Paclobutrazol at lower concentrations offers a viable means for height control in A. graminifolia.

  12. Effects of Plant Growth Regulators on Endogenous Hormones Content of Rhodoendron decorum%植物生长调节剂对大白杜鹃幼苗内源激素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田红红; 李朝婵; 伍庆; 赵云龙; 黄承玲

    2015-01-01

    Using different concentrations of two plant growth regulators paclobutrazol ( PP333 ) and chlormequat ( CCC) handling Rho-doendron decorum 3-year-old seedlings,it based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA) analyzing endogenous hormones in the leaves.The results showed that PP333 and CCC treatment with different concentrations,reducing the IAA,GA3 ,and ZR content in the leaves,compared with the control;ABA content was higher than the control.GA3 and ZR content was negatively correlated with the concentration of two plant growth regulators,and ABA content was positively correlated with the concentration of two plant growth regulators.%以3年生大白杜鹃实生苗为试材,探讨不同浓度的植物生长调节剂PP333(多效唑)、CCC(矮壮素)对大白杜鹃幼苗内源激素的影响。结果表明:PP333、CCC处理下大白杜鹃茎段内IAA、GA3和ZR含量均低于对照,ABA含量均高于对照;2种植物生长调节剂浓度与GA3、ZR含量呈负相关性,与ABA含量呈正相关性。

  13. Multiresidue analysis of plant growth regulators in grapes by triple quadrupole and quadrupole-time of flight-based liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulkar, Dasharath P; Banerjee, Kaushik; Kulkarni, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    A selective and sensitive LC-MS/MS method is presented for simultaneous determination of 12 plant growth regulators, viz., indol-3-acetic acid, indol-3-butyric acid, kinetin, zeatin, 6-benzyl aminopurine, gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, chlormequat chloride, forchlorfenuron, paclobutrazole, daminozide, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, in bud sprouts and grape berries. The sample preparation method involved extraction of homogenized sample (5 g) with 40 mL methanol (80%), and final determination was by LC-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with time segmentation for quantification supported by complementary analysis by quadrupole-time of flight (Q-TOF) MS with targeted high-resolution MS/MS scanning for confirmatory identification based on accurate mass measurements. The recovery of the test compounds ranged within 90-107% with precision RSD less than 5% (n = 6). The method could be successfully applied in analyzing incurred residue samples, and the strength of accurate mass analysis could be utilized in identifying the compounds in cases where the qualifier MRM ions were absent or at an S/N less than 3:1 due to low concentrations.

  14. Multi-residue determination of plant growth regulators in apples and tomatoes by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiaying; Wang, Suli; You, Xiangwei; Dong, Jiannan; Han, Lijun; Liu, Fengmao

    2011-11-15

    A sensitive and rapid multi-residue analytical method for plant growth regulators (PGRs) (i.e., chlormequat, mepiquat, paclobutrazol, uniconazole, ethephon and flumetralin) in apples and tomatoes was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). A homogenised sample was extracted with a mixture of methanol/water (90:10, v/v) and adjusted to pH <3 with formic acid. Primary secondary amine (PSA) adsorbent was used to clean up the sample. The determination was performed using electrospray ionisation (ESI) and a triple quadrupole (QqQ) analyser. Under the optimised method, the results showed that, except for ethephon, the recoveries were 81.8-98.1% in apples and tomatoes at the spiked concentrations of 0.005 to 2 mg/kg, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 11.7%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were lower than their maximum residue limits (MRLs). The procedure was concluded as a practical method to determine the PGR residues in fruit and vegetables and is also suitable for the simultaneous analysis of the amounts of samples for routine monitoring. The analytical method described herein demonstrates a strong potential for its application in the field of PGR multi-residue analysis to help assure food safety.

  15. Efeito de reguladores vegetais no desenvolvimento de mudas de Passiflora alata Curtis Effect of plant regulators on Passiflora alata seedlings development

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    Anísio de Oliveira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O principal fator limitante à produção de mudas enxertadas de maracujazeiro é o elevado tempo para a sua formação. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de reguladores vegetais no desenvolvimento de mudas de Passiflora alata Curtis, a serem empregadas como porta-enxerto, visando a reduzir o tempo para atingir o ponto de enxertia. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o inteiramente casualisado, em esquema fatorial 4x5 (4 reguladores vegetais x 5 concentrações, com 4 repetições de 25 plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por 0,0 mg L-1 (testemunha; 25 mg L-1; 50 mg L-1; 75 mg L-1, e 100 mg L-1 de Benziladenina (BA, GA4+7 + Fenilmetil-aminopurina (GA4+7+CK, Ácido giberélico (GA3 e Cloreto de chlormequat (CCC. Avaliaram-se o comprimento e o diâmetro do caule, o número de folhas, o comprimento e a fitomassa seca de raíz, do caule, das folhas e total. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão polinomial, sendo realizado desdobramento quando houve efeito significativo da interação.Os reguladores não promoveram respostas significativas para o comprimento e a massa seca de raiz, do caule, de folhas e total. Porém, GA4+7+Fenilmetil-aminopurina foi o regulador que incrementou o comprimento do caule, o diâmetro e o número de folhas, promovendo maior desenvolvimento às mudas e reduzindo o tempo para a formação do porta-enxerto, de três a oito meses, para dois meses (63 dias.The limiting main factor to the passion flower grafted seedlings production is the long time necessary for its formation. So, this work aimed, to evaluate the effects of vegetal regulators, at Passiflora alata Curtis seedlings development, aiming to reduce time for the seedling to reach the grafting point. The experimental design was completely randomized, with a 4 x 5 (plant growth regulator x concentrations factorial and four replicates, with 25 seedlings per parcel. The treatments were as follow: Benzyladenine, GA

  16. Retardadores de crescimento na produção de plantas floridas envasadas de açafrão-da-cochinchina Growth retardants on production of flowering potted thai tulip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Rossini Pinto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de novos produtos na floricultura brasileira é importante para o crescimento do setor. O açafrão-da-cochinchina (Curcuma alismatifolia possui inflorescência e folhagem altamente decorativas e grande potencial para produção como florífera envasada, com o auxílio de retardadores de crescimento, usados na produção de plantas compactas e atrativas. Avaliou-se o efeito de retardadores de crescimento na produção de açafrão-da-cochinchina `Pink', de 3/12/2004 a 28/4/2005, sob ambiente protegido, em Holambra (SP. Instalou-se experimento em blocos casualizados com três repetições e onze tratamentos: controle, paclobutrazol (20; 25; 30 e 35 mg i.a./vaso, via substrato, duas, três e cinco pulverizações de daminozide na concentração de 2,125 g L-1 e duas, três e cinco pulverizações de solução de daminozide (1,275 g L-1 mais chlormequat (0,2 g L-1. O propágulo foi plantado em vaso plástico (1,0 L com substrato comercial e fertirrigado diariamente. Paclobutrazol (35 mg i.a./vaso reduziu significativamente a altura da parte aérea e da folhagem e o comprimento da haste floral, sem alterar o comprimento da inflorescência e atrasar o ciclo de produção. Entretanto, as plantas não ficaram suficientemente compactas para atender às exigências de qualidade do mercado. Os demais retardadores estudados não afetaram significativamente a altura da folhagem e o comprimento da haste floral comparado ao controle.The introduction of new products is important for the growth of Brazilian floriculture industry. The thai tulip (Curcuma alismatifolia has a highly attractive inflorescence and foliage, and great prospect as a flowering potted plant with the aid of growth retardants, which are used to produce compact plants. The effect of growth retardants on `Pink' thai tulip production was evaluated under controlled growing conditions at Holambra, SP. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with three replications and

  17. Currently used pesticides and their mixtures affect the function of sex hormone receptors and aromatase enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Lisbeth Stigaard; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2013-10-15

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of pesticides is of health concern, since they are found ubiquitously in the environment and in food items. We investigated in vitro effects on estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) transactivity, and aromatase enzyme activity, of the following pesticides: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb, cypermethrin, tau fluvalinate, malathion and the metabolite ethylene thiourea (ETU). The pesticides were analyzed alone and in selected mixtures. Effects of the pesticides on ER and AR function were assessed in human breast carcinoma MVLN cells and hamster ovary CHO-K1 cells, respectively, using luciferase reporter gene assays. Effects on aromatase enzyme activity were analyzed in human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells, employing the classical [(3)H](2)O method. Five pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole, prothioconazole, cypermethrin and malathion) weakly induced the ER transactivity, and three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole and mancozeb) antagonized the AR activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Three pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole and prothioconazole) weakly induced the aromatase activity. In addition, two mixtures, consisting of three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin) and five pesticides (terbuthylazine, bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion), respectively, induced the ER transactivity and aromatase activity, and additively antagonized the AR transactivity. In conclusion, our data suggest that currently used pesticides possess endocrine-disrupting potential in vitro which can be mediated via ER, AR and aromatase activities. The observed mixture effects emphasize the importance of considering the combined action of pesticides in order to assure proper estimations of related health effect risks.

  18. Effects of currently used pesticides and their mixtures on the function of thyroid hormone and aryl hydrocarbon receptor in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Long, Manhai; Tabbo, Agnese; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2015-05-01

    Evidence suggest that exposure to pesticides can interfere with the endocrine system by multiple mechanisms. The endocrine disrupting potential of currently used pesticides in Denmark was analyzed as single compounds and in an equimolar mixture of 5 selected pesticides. The pesticides were previously analyzed for effects on the function of estrogen and androgen receptors, the aromatase enzyme and steroidogenesis in vitro. In this study, the effect on thyroid hormone (TH) function and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transactivity was assessed using GH3 cell proliferation assay (T-screen) and AhR responsive luciferase reporter gene bioassay, respectively. Thirteen pesticides were analyzed as follows: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb and its metabolite ethylene thiourea, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate, and malathion (currently banned in DK). In the T-screen, prothioconazole, malathion, tau-fluvalinate, cypermethrin, terbuthylazine and mancozeb significantly stimulated and bitertanol and propiconazole slightly reduced the GH3 cell proliferation. In the presence of triiodothyronine (T3), prothioconazole, tau-fluvalinate, propiconazole, cypermethrin and bitertanol significantly antagonized the T3-induced GH3 cell proliferation. Eleven of the tested pesticides agonized the AhR function, and bitertanol and prothioconazole inhibited the basal AhR activity. Bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole and cypermethrin antagonized the TCDD-induced AhR transactivation at the highest tested concentration. The 5-component mixture had inducing effect but the combined effect could not be predicted due to the presence of bitertanol eliciting inhibitory effect. Upon removal of bitertanol from the mixture, the remaining four pesticides acted additively. In conclusion, our data suggest that pesticides currently used in Denmark

  19. Currently used pesticides and their mixtures affect the function of sex hormone receptors and aromatase enzyme activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, Lisbeth Stigaard; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie, E-mail: ebj@mil.au.dk

    2013-10-15

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of pesticides is of health concern, since they are found ubiquitously in the environment and in food items. We investigated in vitro effects on estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) transactivity, and aromatase enzyme activity, of the following pesticides: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb, cypermethrin, tau fluvalinate, malathion and the metabolite ethylene thiourea (ETU). The pesticides were analyzed alone and in selected mixtures. Effects of the pesticides on ER and AR function were assessed in human breast carcinoma MVLN cells and hamster ovary CHO-K1 cells, respectively, using luciferase reporter gene assays. Effects on aromatase enzyme activity were analyzed in human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells, employing the classical [{sup 3}H]{sub 2}O method. Five pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole, prothioconazole, cypermethrin and malathion) weakly induced the ER transactivity, and three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole and mancozeb) antagonized the AR activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Three pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole and prothioconazole) weakly induced the aromatase activity. In addition, two mixtures, consisting of three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin) and five pesticides (terbuthylazine, bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion), respectively, induced the ER transactivity and aromatase activity, and additively antagonized the AR transactivity. In conclusion, our data suggest that currently used pesticides possess endocrine-disrupting potential in vitro which can be mediated via ER, AR and aromatase activities. The observed mixture effects emphasize the importance of considering the combined action of pesticides in order to assure proper estimations of related health effect risks

  20. Multi-residue analysis of pesticides, plant hormones, veterinary drugs and mycotoxins using HILIC chromatography - MS/MS in various food matrices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Danezis, G P; Anagnostopoulos, C J; Liapis, K; Koupparis, M A

    2016-10-26

    One of the recent trends in Analytical Chemistry is the development of economic, quick and easy hyphenated methods to be used in a field that includes analytes of different classes and physicochemical properties. In this work a multi-residue method was developed for the simultaneous determination of 28 xenobiotics (polar and hydrophilic) using hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography technique (HILIC) coupled with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry (LC-MS/MS) technology. The scope of the method includes plant growth regulators (chlormequat, daminozide, diquat, maleic hydrazide, mepiquat, paraquat), pesticides (cyromazine, the metabolite of the fungicide propineb PTU (propylenethiourea), amitrole), various multiclass antibiotics (tetracyclines, sulfonamides quinolones, kasugamycin and mycotoxins (aflatoxin B1, B2, fumonisin B1 and ochratoxin A). Isolation of the analytes from the matrix was achieved with a fast and effective technique. The validation of the multi-residue method was performed at the levels: 10 μg/kg and 100 μg/kg in the following representative substrates: fruits-vegetables (apples, apricots, lettuce and onions), cereals and pulses (flour and chickpeas), animal products (milk and meat) and cereal based baby foods. The method was validated taking into consideration EU guidelines and showed acceptable linearity (r ≥ 0.99), accuracy with recoveries between 70 and 120% and precision with RSD ≤ 20% for the majority of the analytes studied. For the analytes that presented accuracy and precision values outside the acceptable limits the method still is able to serve as a semi-quantitative method. The matrix effect, the limits of detection and quantification were also estimated and compared with the current EU MRLs (Maximum Residue Levels) and FAO/WHO MLs (Maximum Levels) or CXLs (Codex Maximum Residue Limits). The combined and expanded uncertainty of the method for each analyte per substrate, was also estimated.

  1. Study on Rapid Propagation Technology of Tissue Culture of Caryopteris mongolica Bunge%蒙古莸组培快繁技术研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李相儒; 袁勤

    2016-01-01

    Abstact Using the annual branch of Caryopteris mongolica Bunge as the explant,inductiion,proliferation,differentiation,rooting culture medium screening and ransplant of tissue culture and rapid propagation were systematic studied,to lay the technical foundation for Caryopteris mongolica Bunge factory seedling.In this study,the most suitable medium for the induction was MS+1.5 mg/L 6-BA+0.3 mg/L NAA+0.02 mg/L GA.The optimum medium for the multiplication and rooting was MS,and the promoting strong dwarfing effect of 20 mg/L chlormequat was the best.The survival rate of transplanting could exceed 85%under that condition.%以蒙古莸一年生树上的当年生嫩枝作为材料,研究了诱导、增殖、分化、生根培养基筛选、移栽等组培快繁技术,旨在为蒙古莸工厂化育苗奠定技术基础。结果表明:蒙古莸诱导最适培养基为MS+1.5 mg/L 6-BA+0.3 mg/L NAA+0.02 mg/L GA;最适增殖扩繁及生根培养基为MS,且培养基MS中加入20 mg/L矮壮素矮化促壮效果最好;组培苗移栽成活率可达85%以上。

  2. Effects of exogenous substances on cold resistance of muskmelon seedlings%外源物质处理对网纹甜瓜幼苗抗寒性的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢明; 邓征宇; 陈豫梅; 陈丹; 孙奇

    2012-01-01

    The cold resistance of muskmelon seedlings were studied by a procedure of using different exogenous substances to treat seedlings,undertaking cold stress,measuring the enzyme activities of POD,CAT and EC value of root exudate.The results showed that,6-BA had the most best effect on improving cold resistance of muskmelon seedlings and the secondary one was salicylic acid;daminozide,chlormequat and penicillin could improve cold resistance in some degree;CaCl2 had little difference with the control in POD,CAT activities,but had better protection effect for cell membrane,and NAA could cause the decrease of cold resistance of muskmelon seedlings.%通过不同外源物质处理甜瓜幼苗,并进行低温胁迫处理,测定不同处理后甜瓜幼苗叶片的POD、CAT酶活性和根系外渗液的EC值,研究其对甜瓜幼苗抗寒性的影响,结果表明:6-BA和水杨酸有助于提高甜瓜幼苗的抗寒性,而以6-BA效果最好,水杨酸次之;比久、矮壮素、青霉素对甜瓜幼苗抗寒性有一定的提高作用;氯化钙处理POD、CAT酶活性与对照差异不大,但对细胞膜有较好的保护效果;萘乙酸会导致甜瓜幼苗抗寒性下降。

  3. Effects of currently used pesticides and their mixtures on the function of thyroid hormone and aryl hydrocarbon receptor in cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Long, Manhai; Tabbo, Agnese; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie, E-mail: ebj@mil.au.dk

    2015-05-01

    Evidence suggest that exposure to pesticides can interfere with the endocrine system by multiple mechanisms. The endocrine disrupting potential of currently used pesticides in Denmark was analyzed as single compounds and in an equimolar mixture of 5 selected pesticides. The pesticides were previously analyzed for effects on the function of estrogen and androgen receptors, the aromatase enzyme and steroidogenesis in vitro. In this study, the effect on thyroid hormone (TH) function and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transactivity was assessed using GH3 cell proliferation assay (T-screen) and AhR responsive luciferase reporter gene bioassay, respectively. Thirteen pesticides were analyzed as follows: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb and its metabolite ethylene thiourea, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate, and malathion (currently banned in DK). In the T-screen, prothioconazole, malathion, tau-fluvalinate, cypermethrin, terbuthylazine and mancozeb significantly stimulated and bitertanol and propiconazole slightly reduced the GH3 cell proliferation. In the presence of triiodothyronine (T3), prothioconazole, tau-fluvalinate, propiconazole, cypermethrin and bitertanol significantly antagonized the T3-induced GH3 cell proliferation. Eleven of the tested pesticides agonized the AhR function, and bitertanol and prothioconazole inhibited the basal AhR activity. Bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole and cypermethrin antagonized the TCDD-induced AhR transactivation at the highest tested concentration. The 5-component mixture had inducing effect but the combined effect could not be predicted due to the presence of bitertanol eliciting inhibitory effect. Upon removal of bitertanol from the mixture, the remaining four pesticides acted additively. In conclusion, our data suggest that pesticides currently used in Denmark

  4. 化学打顶对芝麻产量和品质的影响%Preliminary Effect of Chemical Detopping on Yield and Quality of Sesame( Sesamum indicum L. )

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕丰娟; 肖运萍; 魏林根; 汪瑞清; 袁展汽; 林洪鑫

    2016-01-01

    To seek the suitable plant hormone for artificial topping,artificial and chemical topping were conducted,and the effects 5 plant hormones on sesame yield and seed quality were analyzed at 60 d after planting. The results showed that artificial topping increased sesame yield by 5. 65% compared with the treatment without detopping. Paclobutrazol( PP333 ) had little effect on sesame yield,therefore it couldn' t replace artificial detopping. After the spraying of triiodobenzoic acid( TIBA) ,chlormequat chloride( CCC) or daminozide(B9),the blighted seed rate(BSR) significantly decreased,seeds per capsule(SPC),seeds weight per capsule ( SWPC ) and ratio of seed weight to shell weight per capsule ( RSS ) significantly increased,which could promote the improvement of the yield;in addition, the plant top length ( PTL ) significantly decreased under the treatment of TIBA and B9 . Both artificial and chemical detopping had no significant effect on crude protein,crude fat and fatty acid composition in sesame oil. Artificial detopping and TIBA significantly decreased sesamin content,CCC had no significant effect on sesamin and sesamolin content,while 6-BA increased sesamolin content,and B9 increased the contents of sesamin and sesamolin by 14. 29%, 17. 38% respectively. In a word, B9 could significantly increased both sesame yield (12. 72% higher than the treatment without detopping) and quality. Therefore,B9 was the most suitable plant hormone for chemical detopping.%为筛选可替代人工打顶的植物生长调节剂,于芝麻播种后60 d进行人工打顶和化学打顶处理,研究了不同植物生长调节剂对芝麻产量和品质的影响.结果表明:人工打顶处理比不打顶处理增产5.65%;多效唑(PP333)对芝麻无增产效果,不能替代人工打顶;喷施三碘苯甲酸(TIBA)、矮壮素(CCC)、丁酰肼(B9)处理芝麻每蒴粒数、每蒴粒质量和粒壳比显著升高,秕子率显著降低,可促进芝麻增产,且TIBA、B9处理芝麻空梢长

  5. Effects of Cycocel on Morphological Traits, Nitrogen and Potassium Content of Basil Plants under Water Stress Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A Rezaei Estakhroeih

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Introduction Basil (Ocimum basilicum is an annual plant which belongs to the Lamiaceae family. It used as a drug, spice and fresh vegetable. Drought stress is one of the important limiting factors of plant growth. Water stress has significant effects on morphological and biochemical characteristics of purple Basil. As the soil water content decreases, the plant height, stem diameter, number and area of leaves, leaf area index (LAI, herb yield and leaf chlorophyll contents (a,b and total chlorophyll decrease, as well. However, the amounts of anthocyanin and proline increase. Cycocel (CCC which chemically called chlormequat chloride is an alkylating agent and a quaternary ammonium salt.. Cycocel is used as plant growth regulator. Application of Cycocel increases the number of siliques/ plant, seed yield and dry matter produced of oilseed rape. Cycocel application decreases the plant height and increases the yield level and protein percentage of seed in faba bean. This research was performed to investigate the effect of Cycocel on morphological characteristics, the percentage of nitrogen and potassium of basil plants under drought stress conditions Materials and Methods This research has been conducted in the research station of Shahid Bahonar University of Kerman with 56o 58' E longitude, 30o 15' N latitude, and 1753.8 altitudes. According to the regional information from 1952 to 2005, the average temperature was 17.1 o C, the average rainfall was 154.1 mm, the average annual relative humidity is 32%, and the climate of Kerman according to De Martonne method is semiarid. A split plot experiment based on RCBD with three replications was employed. Three levels of irrigation, including 50 (severe stress (I3, 75 (mild stress (I2 and 100 (full irrigation (I1 percent of crop water requirement were assigned to the main plots while five levels of Cycocel application (zero (control, 500, 1000, 1500, 2000 milligrams per litre were assigned to the sub