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Sample records for chlormequat

  1. Determination of chlormequat in pig serum and sow milk by LC-MS/MS

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Sørensen, M.T.;

    2007-01-01

    Chlormequat is a plant growth regulator widely used on cereals, and there is general concern that it may impair human fertility. A LC-MS/MS method for the analysis of chlormequat in milk and serum was developed and validated in connection with an investigation on the effect of chlormequat on pig...

  2. The distribution and degradation of chlormequat in wheat plants

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dekhuijzen, H.M.; Vonk, C.R.

    1974-01-01

    The distribution and degradation of chlormequat chloride (2-chloro 1,2-14C ethyltrimethylammonium chloride) was determined after uptake by the roots of summer wheat seedlings. This plant regulator was readily translocated from the roots to the above ground parts and converted into choline. Choline w

  3. No effect of the plant growth regulator, chlormequat, on boar fertility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, M.T.; Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Leffers, H.;

    2009-01-01

    Chlormequat is a commonly used plant growth regulator in agriculture. Defined level; of chlormequat residue are allowed in food and an acceptable daily intake is defined for humans. However, there are results in the literature suggesting that a daily intake below the acceptable level for human...... in the pregnant gilts (P=0.36). Serum chlormequat concentration was 0.9 mu g/kg in the 0.025 mg CCC/kg BIN per day group and 1.8 mu g/kg in the 0.05 mg CCC/kg BW per day group, but was below the detection limit in control animals. In conclusion, the plant growth regulator chlormequat could not be, proven...

  4. Stem morphology and vascular anatomy of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. under retardant chlormequat chloride action

    OpenAIRE

    Oleksandr E. Smirnov; Anatoliy M. Kosyan; Oksana I. Kosyk; Natalia Yu. Taran

    2015-01-01

    Effects of different concentrations of retardant chlormequat chloride on hypocotyl and first internode lengths of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench.) were investigated. It was established that treatment of buckwheat plants with chlormequat chloride before presowing led to: reduction of stem length, activation of early and intensive lignification of vascular and mechanical elements, increasing number and size of vascular bundles in correlation with functional reconstructions on don...

  5. Stem morphology and vascular anatomy of Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. under retardant chlormequat chloride action

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Oleksandr E. Smirnov

    2015-05-01

    Full Text Available Effects of different concentrations of retardant chlormequat chloride on hypocotyl and first internode lengths of common buckwheat (Fagopyrum esculentum Moench. were investigated. It was established that treatment of buckwheat plants with chlormequat chloride before presowing led to: reduction of stem length, activation of early and intensive lignification of vascular and mechanical elements, increasing number and size of vascular bundles in correlation with functional reconstructions on donor-acceptor connections of plant organs.

  6. Investigation of the herbicide glyphosate and the plant growth regulators chlormequat and mepiquat in cereals produced in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Granby, Kit; Gabrielsen, Martin Vahl

    2001-01-01

    /kg for the 1998 harvest (n=49). Thus, the figures were well below the maximum residue limit (MRL) and no violations were observed. The plant growth regulators chlormequat and/or mepiquat were investigated in cereals from the Danish harvest of 1999 where 83% of the samples contained chlormequat (n=46) compared...

  7. An intercomparison study of the determination of glyphosate, chlormequat and mepiquat residues in wheat

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Jens Hinge; Bille, Rikke; Granby, Kit

    2007-01-01

    An intercomparison study of the determinations of glyphosate, chlormequat and mepiquat residues in cereals was performed. Four samples comprising one blank, two incurred and one spiked sample were sent to six participating laboratories. For glyphosate, two laboratories reported considerably lower...... results than the other four. One of the two laboratories with low results also reported low recoveries. The results of a sample spiked with 0.80 mg kg(-1) glyphosate and an incurred sample, ranged from 0.23-0.87 mg kg(-1) and 0.11-0.25 mg kg(-1) respectively. The strong correlation between the two samples...... (r(2) = 0.95) indicates a systematic between-laboratory variation. Several different principles were used for the analysis of glyphosate using different clean-up techniques and GC/MS, HPLC-fluorescence or LC/MS for detection. The results of the chlormequat residues showed more consistency. All but...

  8. Optimisation of the quantitative determination of chlormequat by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horak, J; Werther, W; Schmid, E R

    2001-01-01

    The plant growth regulator chlormequat, an involatile quaternary ammonium salt, has been quantified by matrix-assisted laser desorption/ionisation time-of-flight mass spectrometry (MALDI-TOFMS). Restrictions for quantitative MALDI-TOFMS analysis, such as irreproducible crystallisation and unsatisfactory laser stability, have been overcome by the application of two synthesised isotopically labelled standards and the optimisation of the measurement protocol. Data acquisition at constant laser power was compared to data acquisition at approximately constant ion abundance of the relevant ions (analyte and internal standards). Data acquisition at constant ion abundance performed better and enabled a high number of consecutive firings to the same sample deposition area. Furthermore an increased sample-to-sample repeatability and a high reproducibility over several weeks without re-calibration have been attained by this method. Linearity over three orders of magnitude (0.05 to 30 ng/microL chlormequat), with a correlation coefficient of 0.9997, was achieved using [13C3]-chlormequat as internal standard. Limit of detection and limit of determination were determined to be in the low pg/microL range for pure standard solutions. Thin-layer chromatography was applied for the removal of high amounts of choline, which is often present in plant tissue extracts and can adversely affect the ionisation and detection of chlormequat by MALDI-TOFMS. The use of two internal standards ([13C3]- and [2H9]-chlormequat) enabled direct quantification and simultaneous control of the recovery. PMID:11223954

  9. Investigation of the herbicide glyphosate and the plant growth regulators chlormequat and mepiquat in cereals produced in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Granby, K; Vahl, M

    2001-10-01

    An LC-MS/MS method for analysing glyphosate and aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) in cereals was developed. The method is based on extraction with water and detection of the ions from the fragmentation m/z 170-->88 (glyphosate) and m/z 112-->30 (AMPA), using electrospray interface in the positive mode. Investigation from the harvests of 1998 and 1999 showed residues of glyphosate and/or its degradation product AMPA in more than half of the cereal samples produced in Denmark. The average concentration of glyphosate in 46 samples from the 1999 harvest was 0.11 mg/kg compared with 0.08 mg/kg for the 1998 harvest (n = 49). Thus, the figures were well below the maximum residue limit (MRL) and no violations were observed. The plant growth regulators chlormequat and/or mepiquat were investigated in cereals from the Danish harvest of 1999 where 83% of the samples contained chlormequat (n = 46) compared with 87% of the samples from the 1997 harvest (n = 52). The average concentration of chlormequat in 1999 was 0.32 mg/kg compared with 0.23 mg/kg in 1997. At 2.9 mg/kg, one sample of wheat bran was exceeding the MRL of 2 mg/kg for wheat. The intakes of the pesticides through the diet of cereals were estimated to comprise 0.04% of the acceptable daily intake (ADI) for glyphosate and 1% of the ADI for chlormequat for an adult Dane.

  10. Effect of chlormequat chloride, ß-naphthoxyacetic acid and ethephon on early and total yield of tomato in open field

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jan Borkowski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Tomato seedlings in hotbed with Antywylegacz (chlormequat chloride to suppress their excessive elongation before transplanting, were used. Their first 2-3 flower clusters were dipped in the field in Betokson (ß-naphthoxyacetic acid to induce better early fruit set and the plants were sprayed with Ethrel (ethephon just before the first fruits become pink, to stimulate earlier ripening and increase early yield. The experiment was carried out during 3 years with the cultivars 'Venture', 'New Yorker' and 'Nesthackchen' (only in 1975. Application of chlormequat alone prevented excessive growth of the seedlings but did not increase early yield significantly. ß-naphthoxyacetic acid alone was effectiveevery year and always increased early yield. Chlormequat followed by ß-naphthoxyacetic treatment showed always a tendency to increase early yield more than ß-naphthoxyacetic acid alone. Treatment with ß-naphthoxyacetic acid, alone or in combination with other treatments, lowered the total yield. Ethephon used solely or in combination with other treatments usually was ineffective.

  11. Urinary biomarker concentrations of captan, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos and cypermethrin in UK adults and children living near agricultural land.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galea, Karen S; MacCalman, Laura; Jones, Kate; Cocker, John; Teedon, Paul; Cherrie, John W; van Tongeren, Martie

    2015-01-01

    There is limited information on the exposure to pesticides experienced by UK residents living near agricultural land. This study aimed to investigate their pesticide exposure in relation to spray events. Farmers treating crops with captan, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos or cypermethrin provided spray event information. Adults and children residing ≤100 m from sprayed fields provided first-morning void urine samples during and outwith the spray season. Selected samples (1-2 days after a spray event and at other times (background samples)) were analysed and creatinine adjusted. Generalised Linear Mixed Models were used to investigate if urinary biomarkers of these pesticides were elevated after spray events. The final data set for statistical analysis contained 1518 urine samples from 140 participants, consisting of 523 spray event and 995 background samples which were analysed for pesticide urinary biomarkers. For captan and cypermethrin, the proportion of values below the limit of detection was greater than 80%, with no difference between spray event and background samples. For chlormequat and chlorpyrifos, the geometric mean urinary biomarker concentrations following spray events were 15.4 μg/g creatinine and 2.5 μg/g creatinine, respectively, compared with 16.5 μg/g creatinine and 3.0 μg/g creatinine for background samples within the spraying season. Outwith the spraying season, concentrations for chlorpyrifos were the same as those within spraying season backgrounds, but for chlormequat, lower concentrations were observed outwith the spraying season (12.3 μg/g creatinine). Overall, we observed no evidence indicative of additional urinary pesticide biomarker excretion as a result of spray events, suggesting that sources other than local spraying are responsible for the relatively low urinary pesticide biomarkers detected in the study population.

  12. Effects of Chlormequat and Uniconazole on Seedlings Quality in Sweet Pepper%矮壮素及烯效唑对甜椒幼苗质量的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹振木; 牛玉; 刘子记; 刘维侠; 杨衍

    2012-01-01

    Chlormequat and uniconazole belong to delayed plant growth regulators that can inhibit the biosynthesis of gibberellins and slow down the cell elongation. In order to control the excessive growth of sweet pepper plug seedlings and improve the quality of seedlings, large fruit sweet pepper Retian No.4 was treated with different concentrations of chlormequat and uniconazole for analyzing the effects on seedlings quality. The results showed that 200~1 000 mg/L 50% chlormequat and 20~100 mg/L 5% uniconazole could significantly inhibit the plant height, increase stem diameter, reduce leaf area, increase root-shoot ratio, and enhance the activity of SOD and POD enzyme. The inhibition effect of uniconazole was significantly higher than that of chlormequat. 400 mg/L 50% chlormequat or 60 mg/L 5% uniconazole was a suitable concentration for spraying that could improve the quality of sweet pepper seedlings significantly.%矮壮素和烯效唑属于延缓型植物生长调节剂,能够抑制植物体内赤霉素的生物合成及减慢细胞伸长速度.为控制甜椒穴盘苗徒长,提高穴盘苗质量,以大果型甜椒热甜4号为材料,利用矮壮素和烯效唑进行处理,分析不同浓度的矮壮素和烯效唑对甜椒幼苗质量的影响.结果表明:200~1 000 mg/L 50%矮壮素水剂及20~100 mg/L5%烯效唑微乳剂均能明显抑制甜椒穴盘苗株高、增加茎粗、减小叶面积、增大根冠比、提高SOD和POD酶的活性.烯效唑对甜椒幼苗的抑制作用显著高于矮壮素.400 mg/L 50%矮壮素水剂或60 mg/L5%烯效唑微乳剂是适宜的喷施浓度,可显著提高甜椒幼苗的质量.

  13. Effects of Spraying Chlormequat Chloride on Plug Seedlings of Cucumber and Solanaceous Vegetables%矮壮素对黄瓜及茄果类蔬菜穴盘育苗的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王莅; 王艳婕; 朱鑫

    2013-01-01

      采用穴盘育苗的方法,研究了4种浓度(50、100、200、500 mg/L)矮壮素处理在黄瓜及茄果类蔬菜穴盘育苗中期一次性喷施对幼苗质量的影响。试验结果表明,黄瓜、茄子在2叶期用浓度为200 mg/L、圆椒在3叶期用浓度为100 mg/L、番茄在3叶期用浓度50 mg/L的药液喷洒效果为宜,该浓度矮壮素能有效降低幼苗株高,增加茎粗,促进幼苗干物质的积累,有利于培育壮苗。%Adopting plug seedling production technology, we studied the effects of one-time spraying of four concentrations (50, 100, 200, 500 mg/L) of chlormequat chloride (CCC) on seedlings quality of cucumber and solanaceous vegetables at the middle seedling stage. The results showed that, the plug seedlings' plant height reduced effectively, and their stem diameter and accumulation of dry matter increased, while sprayed CCC to cucumber and eggplant at two-leaf period with the CCC concentration of 200 mg/L, and sprayed CCC to round pepper and tomato at their three-leaf period with CCC concentration of 100 and 50 mg/L respectively.

  14. Effects of Ethylene-Chlormequat-Potassium on Leaf Nitrogen Assimilation after Anthesis and Early Senescence under Different Planting Densities%乙矮合剂对不同密度夏玉米花粒期叶片氮素同化与早衰的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卢霖; 董志强; 董学瑞; 焦浏; 李光彦; 高娇

    2015-01-01

    To explore the effects of ethylene-chlormequat-potassium (ECK) on the physiological mechanisms of nitrogen assimi-lation and early senescence in summer maize, and provide a theoretical basis for high and stable yields of summer maize under high plant density by chemical regulation technology in North China Plain, we conducted a field experiment using two varieties of Zhongdan 909 and Xundan 20 with different planting densities in 2013 and 2014. The results showed that increasing plant density significantly decreased the activities of nitrate reductase (NR) and glutamine synthetase (GS) after anthesis, glutamate oxaloacetic transaminase (GOT) activity at anthesis, and glutamate pyruvate transaminase (GPT) activity at 30 days after anthesis. The soluble protein and free amino acid contents at 20 days after anthesis, and the SPAD value at 10 days after anthesis were significantly decreased with increasing plant density. For both varieties, grain yield reached the highest under 7.5×104 plants ha–1, while de-creased under the density of ≥ 7.5×104 plants ha–1. The higher density resulted in early senescence. ECK treatment significantly increased the activities of NR, GS, and contents of free amino acid, soluble protein and SPAD value during middle and late grain filling stages. ECK treatment also significantly improved the GOT and GPT activities under 7.5×104−10.5×104 plants ha–1. Under the density ≥ 7.5×104 plant ha–1, the yields of Zhongdan 909 and Xundan 20 compared with their own control were respectively increased by 5.59%−6.63% and 6.73%−8.10%. ECK treatment significantly increased the nitrogen assimilation key enzyme acti-vity of ear leaf and its product content under different planting densities, promoted normal nitrogen assimilation and prevented early senescence under higher planting densities, therefore increased yield. Thus, an appropriate planting density combined with ECK application could be an important technique for achieving high

  15. Effect of chlormequat (CCC on the accumulation of ethephon in tomatoes and on ethephon-stimulated ripening

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janusz Czapski

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In greenhouse experiment, tomato seedlings were treated with CCC (250 mg·l-1 twice before transplanting. When about 10% of fruits were showing signs of ripening (pink fruits, ethephon solution (960 mg·l-1 was applied either to leaves only or to fruits only, in order to make ripening more uniform. CCC treatment delayed the process of fruit ripening and lowered the ethephon accumulation in ripe fruits as compared to the control (CCC untreated plants. The results were similar when ethephon was applied to leaves only or to fruits only.

  16. Factors influencing flower bud formation on the pear tree cultivar 'Doyenne du Cornice'. II. Influence of growth inhibition on the anatomical structure of the stem

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Franciszka Jaumień

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Differentiation of the particular tissues in shoots inhibited in growth by chlormequat occurs differently than in vigorously growing ones. After the end of elongation growth, in the subapical part of shoots sprayed with chlormequat the cortex extends and secondary xylem develops less intensively, this leading to an increased participation of parenchymatous tissue in the stem.

  17. Control of Pesticides 2006

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Krongaard, Teddy; Petersen, Kitty Kastalag; Christoffersen, Christel

    analytical chemical authority control: Herbicides containing metamitron, propaquizafop and haloxyfop-ethoxyethyl. Fungicides containing azoxystrobin, propiconazole, cyprodinil, picoxystrobin and fenpropidin. Insecticides containing pirimicarb. Plant growth regulators containing chlormequat chloride, mepiquat...

  18. Proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in cereals

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Poulsen, Mette Erecius; Christensen, Hanne Bjerre; Herrmann, Susan Strange

    2009-01-01

    A proficiency test on incurred and spiked pesticide residues in wheat was organised in 2008. The test material was grown in 2007 and treated in the field with 14 pesticides formulations containing the active substances, alpha-cypermethrin, bifentrin, carbendazim, chlormequat, chlorpyrifos...

  19. Growth retardants on development and ornamental quality of potted 'Lilliput' Zinnia elegans Jacq. Retardadores de crescimento no desenvolvimento e na qualidade ornamental de Zinnia elegans Jacq. 'Lilliput' envasada

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Rossini Pinto

    2005-08-01

    Full Text Available Zinnias have good potential to be used as flowering, potted plants, being a quick source of novelty for the floriculture industry with the aid of growth retardants. This study evaluated the effect of growth retardants on development and production of short, compact and attractive plants of potted 'Lilliput' Zinnia elegans, a highly ornamental zinnia with low cost seeds. Trials were set up in randomized blocks, with ten treatments (control and three treatments of each retardant: daminozide, paclobutrazol and chlormequat and four replications (two pots per experimental unit, with one plant per 0.6-L pot. Paclobutrazol (0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 mg a.i. per pot and chlormequat (1.0, 2.0 and 3.0 g L-1 were applied as a single drench (40 mL per pot, and daminozide (2.5, 3.75 and 5.0 g L-1 as a single foliar spray to runoff (10 mL per pot, at apical flower bud stage. Daminozide (2.5 and 3.75 g L-1, paclobutrazol (0.5, 0.75 and 1.0 mg a.i. per pot and chlormequat at 1.0 g L-1 significantly reduced plant height and side branches length, without affecting flower diameter, delaying production cycle and causing phytotoxicity symptoms. However, plants were not short and compact enough to meet market quality demand. Chlormequat (2.0 and 3.0 g L-1 caused phytotoxicity symptoms and daminozide (5.0 g L-1 delayed production cycle.As zínias têm grande potencial como plantas floríferas envasadas e representam rápida fonte de novidade para a floricultura com o auxílio de retardadores de crescimento. Avaliaram-se os efeitos de retardadores de crescimento no desenvolvimento e na produção de plantas envasadas de porte baixo, compactas e atrativas de 'Lilliput' Zinnia elegans, cultivar altamente ornamental, com sementes de baixo custo. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados, com dez tratamentos (controle e três concentrações de cada retardador: daminozide, paclobutrazol e chlormequat e quatro repetições (dois vasos por unidade experimental, com uma

  20. Two tank-mix adjuvants effect on yield and quality attributes of wheat treated with growth retardants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wojciech Miziniak

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT: The objective of this study was to evaluate the quality of seeds and yield of winter wheat under different retardants application. The two years field trials on winter wheat were carried out in the Institute of Plant Protection - National Research Institute in Poznan (Poland. Treatments consisted of trinexapac-ethyl, chlormequat and prohexadione calcium applied in mixtures with paraffin oil adjuvant or organosilicone surfactant in BBCH 31 growth stage of winter wheat. No lodging occurred in any experimental year. The retardants had varying effect on the quality parameters of wheat grain. The highest fluctuations in the content of protein, gluten and the Zeleny value were observed after the application of chlormequat chloride. Starch content in wheat grain, regardless of the retardant application method, was negatively correlated with others grain quality parameters evaluated in the experiment. Depending on the year of study and weather conditions, increased or decreased wheat quality.

  1. Influence of growth retardants on the development of Gladiolus communis L. plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Ferraz de Campos

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Treatments involving plant growth retardants were studied in sword lily plants (Gladiolus communis L. spp. to evaluate plant height, number of leaves and flower buds, stem diameter, and flower stalk length. The experimental design was a completely randomized layout, with four replicates and seven treatments (control; applications of mepiquat chloride at 200mg.L-1, 3 and 6 times; chlormequat chloride at 200mg.L-1, 3 and 6 times; and ethephon at 200mg.L-1, 3 and 6 times. Seven non-destructive evaluations were made every 7 days, in addition to a final collection. The ethephon treatments caused reductions in plant height and flower stalk length, and decreased stem diameter. The chlormequat chloride treatment also decreased plant stem diameter.

  2. A COMPARATIVE STUDY OF PLANT GROWTH REGULATORS ON MORPHOLOGICAL, SEED YIELD AND QUALITY PARAMETERS OF GREENGRAM

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K Rajesh

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available A field experiment was conducted to study the different growth regulating compounds on morphological, quality and yield parameters in greengram at Acharya N.G Ranga Agricultural University, Hyderabad during rabi 2009- 10. The basic material for the present investigation consists of Greengram cv WGG-37 and two growth promoting (NAA and Brassinosteroid and growth retarding substances (Chlormequat chloride and Mepiquat chloride. These growth regulators were sprayed at flower initiation stage. The morphological traits viz., plant height, number of branches per plant, number of trifoliates per plant and days to 50% flowering and maturity were significantly increased by NAA @ 20 ppm, whereas total dry matter production (TDM over growth regulator treatments at all stages NAA (20 ppm and brassinosteroid (20ppm recorded significantly higher values. Among the quality parameters highest seed protein content (% and highest nitrogen harvest index values were recorded with growth retarding substance chlormequat chloride (187.5 g a.i ha-1 in greengram. The seed yield increased significantly with NAA (20 ppm followed by mepiquat chloride 5% AS, brassinosteroid (20 ppm, chlormequat chloride (137.5.5 a.i/ha.

  3. Efeitos de reguladores vegetais no desenvolvimento e na produtividade do amendoinzeiro (Arachis hypogaea L. Effects of growth regulators on groundnut development (Arachis hypogaea L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    P.R.C. Castro

    1993-09-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi realizado com o objetivo de determinar a ação de substâncias de crescimento no desenvolvimento e produtividade do amendoinzeiro, sob condições de casa de vegetação. Plantas de Arachis hypogaea cv. Tatu-53, providas de 4 folhas definitivas, foram pulverizadas com chlormequat 2000 ppm, daminozide 4000 ppm, ácido giberélico 100 ppm, ácido indolilacético 100 ppm, além do controle. Foram determinados: altura das plantas, número de hastes, número de entrenós, comprimento do segundo e quarto entrenós, e o número de folhas. Também foram verificados os números de flores, de frutos e de sementes; peso dos frutos, das sementes, da matéria seca da parte aérea e da matéria seca das raízes do amendoinzeiro. Os resultados obtidos revelaram que daminozide 4000 ppm reduziu a altura, o número de entrenós na haste principal e o comprimento do quarto entrenó. Este produto também aumentou o número de folhas, atrasou a florescência, aumentou o número de flores e tendeu a aumentar o peso seco da parte aérea do amendoinzeiro. Pulverização com chlormequat 2000 ppm e ácido indolilacético 100 ppm, diminuiu a altura da planta e o comprimento do quarto entrenó da haste principal do amendoinzeiro.This research deals with the effects of plant growth regulators on groundnut growth (Arachis hypogaea L. cv. Tatu-53. Plants of groundnut with four leaves grown in pots under greenhouse conditions, were sprayed with chlormequat 2000 ppm, daminozide 4000 ppm, gibberellic acid 100 ppm, indolylacetic acid 100 ppm, mid check treatment. Daminozide 4000 ppm reduced plant height, internode number and the length of the fourth internode. Daminozide increased the number of leaves, retarded flowering, increased the number of flowers and presented a tendency to increase the dry weight of stems. Chlormequat 2000 ppm and indolylacetic acid 100 ppm reduced plant height and the lenght of the fourth internode of the groundnut plant stem.

  4. Inibidores de síntese de giberelinas e crescimento de mudas de mangueira 'Tommy Atkins' Synthesis inhibitors of gibberellins and mango 'Tommy Atkins' seedlings growth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Aparecida do Carmo Mouco

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available A mangicultura no semiárido brasileiro destaca-se pelos altos rendimentos, pela qualidade do fruto produzido e pela possibilidade de produção durante todo o ano, devido a condições climáticas e tecnologias para o manejo do crescimento vegetativo e da floração, com uso da irrigação, podas e retardantes vegetais. O paclobutrazol aplicado ao solo é utilizado no manejo da produção da mangueira na maioria dos pomares. Entretanto, há a necessidade de identificar retardantes vegetais que possam ser aplicados via foliar, de forma a minimizar os resíduos no solo e evitar o uso de quantidades inadequadas ao longo dos anos. Assim, este trabalho teve como objetivo avaliar retardantes vegetais aplicados via foliar na inibição do crescimento vegetativo de mudas de mangueira 'Tommy Atkins'. Prohexadione-Ca, etil-trinexapac e cloreto de chlormequat, aplicados via foliar, na dose de 1g i.a. planta-1, regulam o crescimento de ramos vegetativos, mas apresentam tempo diferenciado de atividade nas mudas, sendo 20 dias para prohexadione-Ca, 30 dias para cloreto de chlormequat e 45 dias para etil-trinexapac, nas condições em que o experimento foi conduzido.The mango in the Brazilian semi-arid region stands out in the national scenario due to high yields and fruit quality, as well as to the possibility of all-year production due to climatic conditions and technologies which allow the management of plant growth and flowering through irrigation, pruning and use of plant growth regulators. Paclobutrazol applied to the soil is used for the production management of mangoes in most of the orchards. However, it is necessary to identify plant growth regulators which might be applied to the leaves, so as to minimize the risk of residues in the soil and to avoid inadequate application levels over several years. The present paper aimed at evaluating the effect of plant growth regulators applied to the leaves, regarding their efficiency for flowering management

  5. Efeitos de fitorreguladores no crescimento e na floração de plantas de gerânio Effects of growth regulators on the development and flowering of geranium plants

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia Aparecida de Nucci

    1991-01-01

    Full Text Available Com a finalidade de verificar a eficiência de fitorreguladores no controle da altura de gerânio (Pelargonium hortorum Bailey e no comprimento do ráquis de sua inflorescência, instalaram-se dois ensaios na região de Cotia, SP, ambos plantados em vasos em casa de vegetação. Num deles, foram pulverizados clormequate e daminozide, nas doses de 1.000, 2.000 e 4.000 ppm por planta, e paclobutrazol nas doses de 15, 30 e 60 ppm. No segundo ensaio, foram pulverizados clormequate a 2.000ppm, por duas vezes e, em aplicação única, daminozide a 4.000 ppm e paclobutrazol nas doses de 5, 10 e 15 ppm. Clormequate e daminozide, de modo geral, não foram eficientes na redução do porte das plantas nem do comprimento do ráquis da inflorescência. Paclobutrazol, em todas as doses superiores a 5ppm, provocou redução significativa tanto na altura das plantas como no comprimento do ráquis da inflorescência, destacando-se as concentrações de 10 e 15 ppm como as mais adequadas para obtenção de plantas com conformação ideal para envasamento.The efficiency of growth regulators in controlling geranium height and rachis lenght was studied in two greenhouse experiments at Cotia, State of São Paulo, Brazil, with plants growing in plastic bags. In one experiment the following growth regulators were used: chlormequat, and daminozide, both with concentrations of 1,000, 2,000 and 4,000 ppm and paclobutrazol with concentrations of 15, 30 and 60 ppm. In another experiment chlormequat at concentration of 2,000 ppm was sprayed twice; daminozide solution 4,000 ppm was sprayed once and paclobutrazol was sprayed with concentrations of 5, 10 and 15 ppm once. Chlormequat and daminozide were not efficient in shortening plant height and rachis length. Paclobutrazol sprays in all dosis higher than 5ppm shortened significantly plant height and rachis length. Solutions of paclobutrazol at concentrations of 10 and 15 ppm were the most effective treatment in producing

  6. Efeitos de reguladores de crescimento na elongação do colmo de trigo = Effect of growth regulators on wheat stem elongation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcelo Curitiba Espindula

    2010-01-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de doses e épocas deaplicação de três reguladores de crescimento na elongação do colmo de plantas de trigo. O experimento, conduzido em Viçosa, Estado de Minas Gerais, de maio a setembro de 2005, foi instalado com tratamentos em esquema fatorial e hierárquico com uma testemunha, no delineamento em blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram 500; 1.000 e 1.500 g ha-1 de clormequat; 62,5; 125,0 e 187,5 g ha-1 detrinexapac-etil e 40; 80 e 120 g ha-1 de paclobutrazol, aplicados no estádio 6 ou 8 da escala Feeks e Large, e uma testemunha. O comprimento do colmo com trinexapac-etil foi menor do que com o clormequat, que, por sua vez, foi menor do que com o paclobutrazol. A aplicação de reguladores na época 1 promoveu maior redução dosentrenós basais, enquanto a aplicação na época 2 proporcionou maior influência no pedúnculo. O aumento das doses de clormequat e trinexapac-etil promoveu redução do comprimento do colmo e das partes que o formam. O aumento das doses de paclobutrazol promoveu respostas pouco expressivas no colmo e seus componentes.The objective of this work was to evaluate the effect of doses and times of application of three growth regulators on wheat stem elongation. The experiments were conducted in Viçosa, Minas Gerais State, from May to September 2005, in a factorial and hierarchicalrandomized block design with four repetitions and a control treatment. Treatments consisted of 500, 1000 and 1500 g ha-1 of chlormequat; 62.5, 125.0 and 187.5 g ha-1 of trinexapac-ethyl and 40, 80 and 120 g ha-1 of paclobutrazol, applied either at the 6 or 8stage of the Feeks and Large scale, with a control. Stem length with trinexapac-ethyl was smaller than with chlormequat, which was in its turn smaller than with paclobutrazol. Application of growth regulators at stage 1 produced shorter basal internodes, whereas the stage 2 application caused greater reduction

  7. Reguladores de crescimento vegetal na concentração de macronutrientes em videira Itália Plant growth regulators on macronutrients in Itália grapes

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    Teresinha Costa Silveira de Albuquerque

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Em clima tropical semi-árido, o uso de reguladores vegetais em fruteiras permite o manejo do crescimento vegetativo, tão necessário ao escalonamento da produção e ao aumento da fertilidade das gemas. Estas substâncias influenciam vários fenômenos fisiológicos relacionados com a absorção mineral, como a condutância de membrana e utilização metabólica de íons. O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o crescimento vegetativo, produção de matéria seca dos ramos, concentração e quantidade acumulada de N, P, K, Ca e Mg nos ramos e nos pecíolos e produção de panículas florais em resposta ao uso de reguladores vegetais, em plantas de videira da cultivar Itália. No experimento foram avaliados três ciclos vegetativos e cinco tratamentos (controle, chlormequat - 1500 mg L-1; daminozide - 3000 mg L-1; uniconazole - 30 mg L-1 e cloreto de mepiquat - 300 mg L-1, aplicados nas plantas em pulverizações aos 35 e 70 dias após a poda. Com o chlormequat e o uniconazole ocorreu efeito cumulativo nas plantas, quando aplicados em ciclos sucessivos da cultura, favorecendo o acúmulo de nutrientes e a diferenciação de gemas férteis em comparação com as plantas controle das videiras 'Itália'. Embora o daminozide tenha inibido significativamente o crescimento das plantas, não resultou em maior acúmulo de nutrientes e emissão de panículas florais nas plantas tratadas.In semi-arid tropical climate, the use of plant growth regulators in fruit trees allows the vegetative growth control, so necessary to the assignment of the production and the increase of the fertility of the buds. These substances influence several physiological processes related to the mineral absorption, for example: membrane condutance and metabolic use of ions. The objective of this work was to evaluate vegetative growth, stem dry mater, N, P, K, Ca and Mg content in the stem and petiole and panicle production in response to plant growth regulators in grape "It

  8. Use of growth retardants in wheat Utilização de redutores de crescimento em trigo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.C. Espindula

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available In general, lodging has been controlled by restricting nitrogen fertilizer application and/or using short cultivars. Growth retardants can also be used to solve this problem.The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of rates and application times of three growth retardants on Pioneiro wheat cultivar. The trial was carried out in Viçosa-MG, from May to September 2005, in a factorial and hierarchical scheme, in a randomized block design with four replications and a control treatment. The treatments consisted of 500, 1,000 and 1,500 g ha-1 of chlormequat; 62.5, 125 and 187.5 g ha-1 of trinexapac-ethyl and 40, 80 and 120 g ha-1 of paclobutrazol applied at growth stages 6 or 8, growth stage used on the scale of Feeks and Large, and a control treatment without growth retardant application. Only trinexapac-ethyl and chlormequat were efficient in reducing plant height; the effect of chlormequat and paclobutrazol on plant height was independent of the application time, but the trinexapac-ethyl at growth stage 8 produced shorter plant height than at stage 6. Increasing growth retardant rates produced shorter plant heights; chlormequat and paclobutrazol did not affect grain yield. However, the highest trinexapac-ethyl rates reduced wheat yield.De modo geral, o acamamento tem sido controlado mediante restrição da aplicação de fertilizantes nitrogenados e/ou o uso de cultivares de porte baixo. No entanto, esse problema também pode ser solucionado pela utilização de redutores de crescimento. Objetivou-se com este trabalho avaliar o efeito de doses e épocas de aplicação de três redutores de crescimento sobre plantas de trigo do cultivar Pioneiro. O experimento, conduzido em Viçosa-MG de maio a setembro de 2005, foi instalado com os tratamentos dispostos em esquema fatorial e hierárquico com uma testemunha, no delineamento de blocos casualizados com quatro repetições. Os tratamentos foram: 500, 1.000 e 1.500 g ha-1 de clormequat; 62

  9. Rapid detection of pesticides not amenable to multi-residue methods by flow injection-tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mol, Hans G J; van Dam, Ruud C J

    2014-11-01

    Flow injection combined with tandem mass spectrometry (MS/MS) was investigated for the rapid detection of highly polar pesticides that are not amenable to multi-residue methods because they do not partition into organic solvents and require dedicated chromatographic conditions. The pesticides included in this study were amitrole, chlormequat, cyromazine, daminozide, diquat, ethephon, fosetyl-Al, glufosinate, glyphosate and its metabolite aminomethylphosphonic acid, maleic hydrazide, mepiquat and paraquat. The composition of the flow-injection solvent was optimized to achieve maximum MS/MS sensitivity. Instrumental limits of detection varied between milk and kidney samples were extracted with water (1% formic acid in case of paraquat/diquat) and ten times diluted in either methanol/0.1% formic acid, methanol/0.1% ammonia or acetonitrile/0.1% ammonia, depending on the pesticide. The ion suppression observed depended strongly on both the matrix and the pesticide. This could be largely compensated for by matrix-matched calibration, but more accurate quantification was obtained by using isotopically labelled standards (commercially available for most of the pesticides studied). The method detection limits ranged from 0.02 mg/kg for chlormequat and mepiquat to 2 mg/kg for maleic hydrazide and were 0.05-0.2 mg/kg for most other pesticide/matrix combinations. This was sufficiently low to test compliance with EU maximum residue limits for many relevant pesticide/commodity combinations. The method substantially reduces the liquid chromatography-MS/MS capacity demand which for many laboratories is prohibitive for inclusion of these pesticides in their monitoring and surveillance programmes. PMID:24518902

  10. Effects of Plant Growth Regulators on Endogenous Hormones Content of Rhodoendron decorum%植物生长调节剂对大白杜鹃幼苗内源激素的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    田红红; 李朝婵; 伍庆; 赵云龙; 黄承玲

    2015-01-01

    Using different concentrations of two plant growth regulators paclobutrazol ( PP333 ) and chlormequat ( CCC) handling Rho-doendron decorum 3-year-old seedlings,it based on enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay ( ELISA) analyzing endogenous hormones in the leaves.The results showed that PP333 and CCC treatment with different concentrations,reducing the IAA,GA3 ,and ZR content in the leaves,compared with the control;ABA content was higher than the control.GA3 and ZR content was negatively correlated with the concentration of two plant growth regulators,and ABA content was positively correlated with the concentration of two plant growth regulators.%以3年生大白杜鹃实生苗为试材,探讨不同浓度的植物生长调节剂PP333(多效唑)、CCC(矮壮素)对大白杜鹃幼苗内源激素的影响。结果表明:PP333、CCC处理下大白杜鹃茎段内IAA、GA3和ZR含量均低于对照,ABA含量均高于对照;2种植物生长调节剂浓度与GA3、ZR含量呈负相关性,与ABA含量呈正相关性。

  11. The effect of plant growth regulators on height control in potted Arundina graminifolia orchids (Growth regulators in Arundina graminifolia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Christina da Silva Wanderley

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Orchids have become an important portion of the international floriculture market.  Arundina graminifolia is a terrestrial orchid that produces attractive flowers, and, although the species could be a potential candidate for the floriculture market, its considerable height makes it difficult to transport and commercialize.  A number of plant growth regulators have been utilized to control plant height in ornamentals and other species.  Thus, the aim of this study was to evaluate the efficiency of growth regulators, paclobutrazol and chlormequat chloride on the vegetative development of containerized A. graminifolia orchid aiming at height control.  Paclobutrazol (Cultar was applied at 0, 5, 10, and 20 mg L-1, and CCC (Cycocel was applied at 0, 2000, 4000, and 6000 mg L-1. The plants were assessed monthly for the plant height and number of shoots per container. CCC had no effect on the final height of plants at the concentrations applied. In contrast, paclobutrazol was effective in controlling plant height at a concentration of 5 mg L-1, but higher concentrations (10 and 20 mg L-1 proved to be toxic to the plants, causing death to the new shoots. Paclobutrazol at lower concentrations offers a viable means for height control in A. graminifolia.

  12. Multiresidue analysis of plant growth regulators in grapes by triple quadrupole and quadrupole-time of flight-based liquid chromatography/mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oulkar, Dasharath P; Banerjee, Kaushik; Kulkarni, Sunil

    2011-01-01

    A selective and sensitive LC-MS/MS method is presented for simultaneous determination of 12 plant growth regulators, viz., indol-3-acetic acid, indol-3-butyric acid, kinetin, zeatin, 6-benzyl aminopurine, gibberellic acid, abscisic acid, chlormequat chloride, forchlorfenuron, paclobutrazole, daminozide, and 2,4-dichlorophenoxy acetic acid, in bud sprouts and grape berries. The sample preparation method involved extraction of homogenized sample (5 g) with 40 mL methanol (80%), and final determination was by LC-MS/MS in the multiple reaction monitoring (MRM) mode with time segmentation for quantification supported by complementary analysis by quadrupole-time of flight (Q-TOF) MS with targeted high-resolution MS/MS scanning for confirmatory identification based on accurate mass measurements. The recovery of the test compounds ranged within 90-107% with precision RSD less than 5% (n = 6). The method could be successfully applied in analyzing incurred residue samples, and the strength of accurate mass analysis could be utilized in identifying the compounds in cases where the qualifier MRM ions were absent or at an S/N less than 3:1 due to low concentrations.

  13. Multi-residue determination of plant growth regulators in apples and tomatoes by liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Jiaying; Wang, Suli; You, Xiangwei; Dong, Jiannan; Han, Lijun; Liu, Fengmao

    2011-11-15

    A sensitive and rapid multi-residue analytical method for plant growth regulators (PGRs) (i.e., chlormequat, mepiquat, paclobutrazol, uniconazole, ethephon and flumetralin) in apples and tomatoes was developed using high-performance liquid chromatography/tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/MS/MS). A homogenised sample was extracted with a mixture of methanol/water (90:10, v/v) and adjusted to pH <3 with formic acid. Primary secondary amine (PSA) adsorbent was used to clean up the sample. The determination was performed using electrospray ionisation (ESI) and a triple quadrupole (QqQ) analyser. Under the optimised method, the results showed that, except for ethephon, the recoveries were 81.8-98.1% in apples and tomatoes at the spiked concentrations of 0.005 to 2 mg/kg, with relative standard deviations (RSDs) of less than 11.7%. The limits of quantification (LOQs) were lower than their maximum residue limits (MRLs). The procedure was concluded as a practical method to determine the PGR residues in fruit and vegetables and is also suitable for the simultaneous analysis of the amounts of samples for routine monitoring. The analytical method described herein demonstrates a strong potential for its application in the field of PGR multi-residue analysis to help assure food safety.

  14. Retardadores de crescimento na produção de plantas floridas envasadas de açafrão-da-cochinchina Growth retardants on production of flowering potted thai tulip

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Christina Rossini Pinto

    2006-01-01

    Full Text Available A introdução de novos produtos na floricultura brasileira é importante para o crescimento do setor. O açafrão-da-cochinchina (Curcuma alismatifolia possui inflorescência e folhagem altamente decorativas e grande potencial para produção como florífera envasada, com o auxílio de retardadores de crescimento, usados na produção de plantas compactas e atrativas. Avaliou-se o efeito de retardadores de crescimento na produção de açafrão-da-cochinchina `Pink', de 3/12/2004 a 28/4/2005, sob ambiente protegido, em Holambra (SP. Instalou-se experimento em blocos casualizados com três repetições e onze tratamentos: controle, paclobutrazol (20; 25; 30 e 35 mg i.a./vaso, via substrato, duas, três e cinco pulverizações de daminozide na concentração de 2,125 g L-1 e duas, três e cinco pulverizações de solução de daminozide (1,275 g L-1 mais chlormequat (0,2 g L-1. O propágulo foi plantado em vaso plástico (1,0 L com substrato comercial e fertirrigado diariamente. Paclobutrazol (35 mg i.a./vaso reduziu significativamente a altura da parte aérea e da folhagem e o comprimento da haste floral, sem alterar o comprimento da inflorescência e atrasar o ciclo de produção. Entretanto, as plantas não ficaram suficientemente compactas para atender às exigências de qualidade do mercado. Os demais retardadores estudados não afetaram significativamente a altura da folhagem e o comprimento da haste floral comparado ao controle.The introduction of new products is important for the growth of Brazilian floriculture industry. The thai tulip (Curcuma alismatifolia has a highly attractive inflorescence and foliage, and great prospect as a flowering potted plant with the aid of growth retardants, which are used to produce compact plants. The effect of growth retardants on `Pink' thai tulip production was evaluated under controlled growing conditions at Holambra, SP. The experimental design was randomized blocks, with three replications and

  15. Efeito de reguladores vegetais no desenvolvimento de mudas de Passiflora alata Curtis Effect of plant regulators on Passiflora alata seedlings development

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    Anísio de Oliveira

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available O principal fator limitante à produção de mudas enxertadas de maracujazeiro é o elevado tempo para a sua formação. Assim, objetivou-se avaliar o efeito de reguladores vegetais no desenvolvimento de mudas de Passiflora alata Curtis, a serem empregadas como porta-enxerto, visando a reduzir o tempo para atingir o ponto de enxertia. O delineamento experimental empregado foi o inteiramente casualisado, em esquema fatorial 4x5 (4 reguladores vegetais x 5 concentrações, com 4 repetições de 25 plantas por parcela. Os tratamentos foram constituídos por 0,0 mg L-1 (testemunha; 25 mg L-1; 50 mg L-1; 75 mg L-1, e 100 mg L-1 de Benziladenina (BA, GA4+7 + Fenilmetil-aminopurina (GA4+7+CK, Ácido giberélico (GA3 e Cloreto de chlormequat (CCC. Avaliaram-se o comprimento e o diâmetro do caule, o número de folhas, o comprimento e a fitomassa seca de raíz, do caule, das folhas e total. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão polinomial, sendo realizado desdobramento quando houve efeito significativo da interação.Os reguladores não promoveram respostas significativas para o comprimento e a massa seca de raiz, do caule, de folhas e total. Porém, GA4+7+Fenilmetil-aminopurina foi o regulador que incrementou o comprimento do caule, o diâmetro e o número de folhas, promovendo maior desenvolvimento às mudas e reduzindo o tempo para a formação do porta-enxerto, de três a oito meses, para dois meses (63 dias.The limiting main factor to the passion flower grafted seedlings production is the long time necessary for its formation. So, this work aimed, to evaluate the effects of vegetal regulators, at Passiflora alata Curtis seedlings development, aiming to reduce time for the seedling to reach the grafting point. The experimental design was completely randomized, with a 4 x 5 (plant growth regulator x concentrations factorial and four replicates, with 25 seedlings per parcel. The treatments were as follow: Benzyladenine, GA

  16. Assessment of ABCG2-mediated transport of pesticides across the rabbit placenta barrier using a novel MDCKII in vitro model.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Halwachs, Sandra; Schäfer, Ingo; Kneuer, Carsten; Seibel, Peter; Honscha, Walther

    2016-08-15

    In humans, the ATP-binding cassette efflux transporter ABCG2 contributes to the fetoprotective barrier function of the placenta, potentially limiting the toxicity of transporter substrates to the fetus. During testing of chemicals including pesticides, developmental toxicity studies are performed in rabbit. Despite its toxicological relevance, ABCG2-mediated transport of pesticides in rabbit placenta has not been yet elucidated. We therefore generated polarized MDCK II cells expressing the ABCG2 transporter from rabbit placenta (rbABCG2) and evaluated interaction of the efflux transporter with selected insecticides, fungicides, and herbicides. The Hoechst H33342 accumulation assay indicated that 13 widely used pesticidal active substances including azoxystrobin, carbendazim, chlorpyrifos, chlormequat, diflufenican, dimethoate, dimethomorph, dithianon, ioxynil, methiocarb, propamocarb, rimsulfuron and toclofos-methyl may be rbABCG2 inhibitors and/or substrates. No such evidence was obtained for chlorpyrifos-methyl, epoxiconazole, glyphosate, imazalil and thiacloprid. Moreover, chlorpyrifos (CPF), dimethomorph, tolclofos-methyl and rimsulfuron showed concentration-dependent inhibition of H33342 excretion in rbABCG2-transduced MDCKII cells. To further evaluate the role of rbABCG2 in pesticide transport across the placenta barrier, we generated polarized MDCKII-rbABCG2 monolayers. Confocal microscopy confirmed correct localization of rbABCG2 protein in the apical plasma membrane. In transepithelial flux studies, we showed the time-dependent preferential basolateral to apical (B>A) directed transport of [(14)C] CPF across polarized MDCKII-rbABCG2 monolayers which was significantly inhibited by the ABCG2 inhibitor fumitremorgin C (FTC). Using this novel in vitro cell culture model, we altogether showed functional secretory activity of the ABCG2 transporter from rabbit placenta and identified several pesticides like the insecticide CPF as potential rbABCG2 substrates

  17. Currently used pesticides and their mixtures affect the function of sex hormone receptors and aromatase enzyme activity

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of pesticides is of health concern, since they are found ubiquitously in the environment and in food items. We investigated in vitro effects on estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) transactivity, and aromatase enzyme activity, of the following pesticides: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb, cypermethrin, tau fluvalinate, malathion and the metabolite ethylene thiourea (ETU). The pesticides were analyzed alone and in selected mixtures. Effects of the pesticides on ER and AR function were assessed in human breast carcinoma MVLN cells and hamster ovary CHO-K1 cells, respectively, using luciferase reporter gene assays. Effects on aromatase enzyme activity were analyzed in human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells, employing the classical [3H]2O method. Five pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole, prothioconazole, cypermethrin and malathion) weakly induced the ER transactivity, and three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole and mancozeb) antagonized the AR activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Three pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole and prothioconazole) weakly induced the aromatase activity. In addition, two mixtures, consisting of three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin) and five pesticides (terbuthylazine, bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion), respectively, induced the ER transactivity and aromatase activity, and additively antagonized the AR transactivity. In conclusion, our data suggest that currently used pesticides possess endocrine-disrupting potential in vitro which can be mediated via ER, AR and aromatase activities. The observed mixture effects emphasize the importance of considering the combined action of pesticides in order to assure proper estimations of related health effect risks. - Highlights:

  18. Currently used pesticides and their mixtures affect the function of sex hormone receptors and aromatase enzyme activity.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kjeldsen, Lisbeth Stigaard; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2013-10-15

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of pesticides is of health concern, since they are found ubiquitously in the environment and in food items. We investigated in vitro effects on estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) transactivity, and aromatase enzyme activity, of the following pesticides: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb, cypermethrin, tau fluvalinate, malathion and the metabolite ethylene thiourea (ETU). The pesticides were analyzed alone and in selected mixtures. Effects of the pesticides on ER and AR function were assessed in human breast carcinoma MVLN cells and hamster ovary CHO-K1 cells, respectively, using luciferase reporter gene assays. Effects on aromatase enzyme activity were analyzed in human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells, employing the classical [(3)H](2)O method. Five pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole, prothioconazole, cypermethrin and malathion) weakly induced the ER transactivity, and three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole and mancozeb) antagonized the AR activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Three pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole and prothioconazole) weakly induced the aromatase activity. In addition, two mixtures, consisting of three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin) and five pesticides (terbuthylazine, bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion), respectively, induced the ER transactivity and aromatase activity, and additively antagonized the AR transactivity. In conclusion, our data suggest that currently used pesticides possess endocrine-disrupting potential in vitro which can be mediated via ER, AR and aromatase activities. The observed mixture effects emphasize the importance of considering the combined action of pesticides in order to assure proper estimations of related health effect risks.

  19. Effects of currently used pesticides and their mixtures on the function of thyroid hormone and aryl hydrocarbon receptor in cell culture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Long, Manhai; Tabbo, Agnese; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie

    2015-05-01

    Evidence suggest that exposure to pesticides can interfere with the endocrine system by multiple mechanisms. The endocrine disrupting potential of currently used pesticides in Denmark was analyzed as single compounds and in an equimolar mixture of 5 selected pesticides. The pesticides were previously analyzed for effects on the function of estrogen and androgen receptors, the aromatase enzyme and steroidogenesis in vitro. In this study, the effect on thyroid hormone (TH) function and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transactivity was assessed using GH3 cell proliferation assay (T-screen) and AhR responsive luciferase reporter gene bioassay, respectively. Thirteen pesticides were analyzed as follows: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb and its metabolite ethylene thiourea, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate, and malathion (currently banned in DK). In the T-screen, prothioconazole, malathion, tau-fluvalinate, cypermethrin, terbuthylazine and mancozeb significantly stimulated and bitertanol and propiconazole slightly reduced the GH3 cell proliferation. In the presence of triiodothyronine (T3), prothioconazole, tau-fluvalinate, propiconazole, cypermethrin and bitertanol significantly antagonized the T3-induced GH3 cell proliferation. Eleven of the tested pesticides agonized the AhR function, and bitertanol and prothioconazole inhibited the basal AhR activity. Bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole and cypermethrin antagonized the TCDD-induced AhR transactivation at the highest tested concentration. The 5-component mixture had inducing effect but the combined effect could not be predicted due to the presence of bitertanol eliciting inhibitory effect. Upon removal of bitertanol from the mixture, the remaining four pesticides acted additively. In conclusion, our data suggest that pesticides currently used in Denmark

  20. Currently used pesticides and their mixtures affect the function of sex hormone receptors and aromatase enzyme activity

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kjeldsen, Lisbeth Stigaard; Ghisari, Mandana; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie, E-mail: ebj@mil.au.dk

    2013-10-15

    The endocrine-disrupting potential of pesticides is of health concern, since they are found ubiquitously in the environment and in food items. We investigated in vitro effects on estrogen receptor (ER) and androgen receptor (AR) transactivity, and aromatase enzyme activity, of the following pesticides: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid (MCPA), terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb, cypermethrin, tau fluvalinate, malathion and the metabolite ethylene thiourea (ETU). The pesticides were analyzed alone and in selected mixtures. Effects of the pesticides on ER and AR function were assessed in human breast carcinoma MVLN cells and hamster ovary CHO-K1 cells, respectively, using luciferase reporter gene assays. Effects on aromatase enzyme activity were analyzed in human choriocarcinoma JEG-3 cells, employing the classical [{sup 3}H]{sub 2}O method. Five pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole, prothioconazole, cypermethrin and malathion) weakly induced the ER transactivity, and three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole and mancozeb) antagonized the AR activity in a concentration-dependent manner. Three pesticides (terbuthylazine, propiconazole and prothioconazole) weakly induced the aromatase activity. In addition, two mixtures, consisting of three pesticides (bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin) and five pesticides (terbuthylazine, bitertanol, propiconazole, cypermethrin, malathion), respectively, induced the ER transactivity and aromatase activity, and additively antagonized the AR transactivity. In conclusion, our data suggest that currently used pesticides possess endocrine-disrupting potential in vitro which can be mediated via ER, AR and aromatase activities. The observed mixture effects emphasize the importance of considering the combined action of pesticides in order to assure proper estimations of related health effect risks

  1. Effects of Plant Growth Regulators on Taxol Biosynthesis by an Endophytic Fungus%植物生长调节剂对内生真菌生物合成紫杉醇的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娟花; 陈文强; 邓百万; 刘开辉; 解修超; 彭浩; 张晓伟; 张曼

    2011-01-01

    研究了植物生长调节剂对Metarhizium anisopliae Tax-27产紫杉醇的影响,采用HPLC法检测.结果表明,赤霉素(GA3)质量浓度为4 mg/L、茉莉酸甲酯(MeJA)质量浓度为60umol/L、矮壮素(CCC)质量浓度为25 mg/L、6-苄氨基嘌呤(6-BA)质量浓度为4 mg/L、萘乙酸(NAA)质量浓度为4 mg/L时该菌产紫杉醇的质量浓度分别为:670.49、838.11、942.57、455.72、450.48、953.35μg/L.但GA3、MeJA和CCC对M.anisopliae Tax-27菌丝体的生长有明显的抑制作用;6-BA和NAA对菌丝体的生长均有促进作用.%In this study, the effect of plant growth regulators on the taxol biosynthesis by Metarhizium anisopliae Tax-27 was investigated . The results showed that the titer of taxol was 670.49 Mg/L,838. Llμg/L, 942. 57μg/L, 455. 72 μg/L, 450. 48μg/L when 4 mg/L gibberellin (GA3) , 60^mol/L methyl jasmonate(MeJA) , 25mg/L chlormequat chloride (CCC) , 4 mg/L 6-benzylaminopurine (6-BA),and 4 mg/L 1-naphthlcetic acid (NAA) was feed to the fermentation broth, respectively. . However, the addition of GA3, MeJA, CCC inhibited the mycelial growth of M. Anisopliae Tax-27, on the other hand, the addition of 6-BA and NAA significance increased the mycelia growth.

  2. 高效液相色谱-串联质谱法测定樱桃番茄中四种季铵类农药%Simultaneous determination of quaternary ammonium compounds in tomato by liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张曦; 金芬; 钱永忠; 于志勇; 王静

    2011-01-01

    A method for the simultaneously determination of four representative quaternary ammonium compounds [ chlormequat (CQ) chloride, mepiquat(MQ) chloride, deiquat (DQ) dibromide hydrate and difenzoquat (DF) methyl sulfate] ,using liquid chromatography-tandem mass spectrometry(LC-MS/MS) system was developed. The chromatographic separation was performed using a hydrophilic interaction liquid chromatography(HILIC) column to avoid LC-MS system contamination with the use of ion-pair reagents. Aqueous solution containing 0.1 % formic acid (A) and acetonitrile(B) ( 75:25, V/V) were used as the mobile phasegavegood chromatographic retention and sensitivity for these four quaternary ammonium compounds(QACs).The recovery was 91.4%~106.3% for the four QACs at three concentration levels. The limit of quantitation (LOQ)for the four QACs in tomato samples were 0.005mg/kg based on the lowest spiked concentration with suitable precision and accuracy. Finally, the method was successfully used to detect residual QACs in cherry-tomatoes.%建立了4种季铵类农药(矮壮素、燕麦枯、敌草快和缩节胺)的高效液相色谱-串联质谱(LC-MS/MS)检测方法.样品用75%乙腈-水溶液提取,高速离心后取上清液过尼龙滤膜,用亲水柱分离,以含0.1%甲酸的水:乙腈=25:75(V:V)作为流动相,在正离子多反应监测(MRM)模式下进行测定.4种季铵类农药的线性范围为0.5~100ng/mL,线性相关系数在0.9982~0.9996范围内,方法检出限为0.005mg/kg,可以满足国际限量的要求.在0.04、0.08、0.16mg/kg添加浓度下,4种季铵类农药的回收率为91.4%~106.3%,相对标准偏差(RSD)小于15%.本方法可用于樱桃番茄样品中4种季铵类农药的测定.

  3. Effects of currently used pesticides and their mixtures on the function of thyroid hormone and aryl hydrocarbon receptor in cell culture

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ghisari, Mandana; Long, Manhai; Tabbo, Agnese; Bonefeld-Jørgensen, Eva Cecilie, E-mail: ebj@mil.au.dk

    2015-05-01

    Evidence suggest that exposure to pesticides can interfere with the endocrine system by multiple mechanisms. The endocrine disrupting potential of currently used pesticides in Denmark was analyzed as single compounds and in an equimolar mixture of 5 selected pesticides. The pesticides were previously analyzed for effects on the function of estrogen and androgen receptors, the aromatase enzyme and steroidogenesis in vitro. In this study, the effect on thyroid hormone (TH) function and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transactivity was assessed using GH3 cell proliferation assay (T-screen) and AhR responsive luciferase reporter gene bioassay, respectively. Thirteen pesticides were analyzed as follows: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb and its metabolite ethylene thiourea, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate, and malathion (currently banned in DK). In the T-screen, prothioconazole, malathion, tau-fluvalinate, cypermethrin, terbuthylazine and mancozeb significantly stimulated and bitertanol and propiconazole slightly reduced the GH3 cell proliferation. In the presence of triiodothyronine (T3), prothioconazole, tau-fluvalinate, propiconazole, cypermethrin and bitertanol significantly antagonized the T3-induced GH3 cell proliferation. Eleven of the tested pesticides agonized the AhR function, and bitertanol and prothioconazole inhibited the basal AhR activity. Bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole and cypermethrin antagonized the TCDD-induced AhR transactivation at the highest tested concentration. The 5-component mixture had inducing effect but the combined effect could not be predicted due to the presence of bitertanol eliciting inhibitory effect. Upon removal of bitertanol from the mixture, the remaining four pesticides acted additively. In conclusion, our data suggest that pesticides currently used in Denmark

  4. Effects of currently used pesticides and their mixtures on the function of thyroid hormone and aryl hydrocarbon receptor in cell culture

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Evidence suggest that exposure to pesticides can interfere with the endocrine system by multiple mechanisms. The endocrine disrupting potential of currently used pesticides in Denmark was analyzed as single compounds and in an equimolar mixture of 5 selected pesticides. The pesticides were previously analyzed for effects on the function of estrogen and androgen receptors, the aromatase enzyme and steroidogenesis in vitro. In this study, the effect on thyroid hormone (TH) function and aryl hydrocarbon receptor (AhR) transactivity was assessed using GH3 cell proliferation assay (T-screen) and AhR responsive luciferase reporter gene bioassay, respectively. Thirteen pesticides were analyzed as follows: 2-methyl-4-chlorophenoxyacetic acid, terbuthylazine, iodosulfuron-methyl-sodium, mesosulfuron-methyl, metsulfuron-methyl, chlormequat chloride, bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole, mancozeb and its metabolite ethylene thiourea, cypermethrin, tau-fluvalinate, and malathion (currently banned in DK). In the T-screen, prothioconazole, malathion, tau-fluvalinate, cypermethrin, terbuthylazine and mancozeb significantly stimulated and bitertanol and propiconazole slightly reduced the GH3 cell proliferation. In the presence of triiodothyronine (T3), prothioconazole, tau-fluvalinate, propiconazole, cypermethrin and bitertanol significantly antagonized the T3-induced GH3 cell proliferation. Eleven of the tested pesticides agonized the AhR function, and bitertanol and prothioconazole inhibited the basal AhR activity. Bitertanol, propiconazole, prothioconazole and cypermethrin antagonized the TCDD-induced AhR transactivation at the highest tested concentration. The 5-component mixture had inducing effect but the combined effect could not be predicted due to the presence of bitertanol eliciting inhibitory effect. Upon removal of bitertanol from the mixture, the remaining four pesticides acted additively. In conclusion, our data suggest that pesticides currently used in Denmark

  5. 苹果农药残留风险评估%Risk Assessment of Pesticide Residues in Apples

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    聂继云; 闫震; 李志霞; 刘传德; 方金豹; 王成; 郭永泽; 雷绍荣; 李海飞; 徐国锋

    2014-01-01

    修订或制定苹果中矮壮素等18种农药的MRLs。%[Objective]Risk assessment of pesticide residues in apples will provide a scientific basis for apple consumption, apple pesticide residue supervision, and establishment of maximum residue limits (MRLs) for pesticides in apple. [Method]Residues of 102 pesticides in 200 apple samples from main producing areas in China were detected. Chronic dietary intake risk and acute dietary intake risk of pesticide residues in these samples were assessed, respectively, by%ADI and%ARfD. Estimated maximum residue limits (eMRLs) of 26 pesticides with detectable residues were calculated by ADIs, large portion of apple, and body weight of consumer. The Matrix Ranking developed by the Veterinary Residues Committee of the United Kingdom was referred to rank the risk of pesticides and apple samples.[Result]25.5% of pesticides (26/102) and 89.5% of apple samples (179/200) had detectable residues. 0.5% of apple samples contained residue above the MRL (of omethoate). For 26 pesticides with detectable residues, their chronic dietary intake risks expressed as%ADI were 0.00%-1.07%with an average of 0.13%, and their acute dietary intake risks expressed as %ARfD were 0.18%-22.41% with an average of 4.12%. These 26 pesticides were divided into 3 groups by risk score, i.e. high risk group (8 pesticides), medium risk group (10 pesticides), and low risk group (8 pesticides). Apple samples studied were ranked by risk index, 1.5%of which had high pesticide residue risk, and 98.5%of which had medium, low, or lower pesticide residue risk. Among 26 pesticides with detectable residues, it is unnecessary for chlorbenzuron to establish MRL in apple, MRLs of 6 pesticides (e.g. flusilazole) are overly strict, MRLs of 5 pesticides (e.g. dimethoate) are overly loose, and MRLs of 18 pesticides (including chlormequat, difenoconazole, tebufenozide, diazinon, flusilazole, thiophanate-methyl, dimethoate, bifenthrin, cyhalothrin, fenvalerate, propargite