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Sample records for chloris gayana kunth

  1. Ação do flúor dissolvido em chuva simulada sobre a estrutura foliar de Panicum maximum jacq. (colonião e Chloris gayana kunth. (capim-rhodes - Poaceae

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    Chaves Alba Lucilvânia Fonseca

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available Panicum maximum e Chloris gayana foram submetidas à chuvas simuladas com soluções de fluoreto de potássio (15mg ml-1 com objetivo de identificar as injúrias causadas pelo flúor (F-, como poluente atmosférico, na estrutura da lâmina foliar e fornecer subsídios para a seleção de características diagnósticas a serem utilizadas na bioindicação. Os principais sintomas foram clorose e necrose, principalmente no ápice e margens das lâminas. Nos cortes transversais, quatro tipos de alterações causadas pelo flúor são relacionadas: redução do número, tamanho e arranjo dos cloroplastos; necrose dos tecidos principalmente nas margens das folhas; erosões na superfície da folha e hipertrofia das células. Em C. gayana, no entanto, não foram observadas as alterações nos cloroplastos e os outros sintomas foram bem mais discretos que em P. maximum. A ocorrência de compostos fenólicos foi registrada pela coloração com fucsina em todas as regiões da lâmina onde foram observadas lesões. Ao microscópio eletrônico de varredura foi observado o achatamento e formação de concavidades nas paredes externas das células. Este experimento confirma a maior sensibilidade de P. maximum ao flúor e revela algumas características anatômicas de C. gayana que, entre outros fatores, podem estar contribuindo para a maior resistência desta espécie a este poluente.

  2. EFFECT OF DROUGHT STRESS AND ADDITION OF ARBUSCULA MYCORRHIZAL FUNGI (AMF ON GROWTH AND PRODUCTIVITY OF TROPICAL GRASSES (Chloris gayana, Paspalum dilatatum, and Paspalum notatum

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    Pebriansyah A

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Grasses productivity is affected by soil water availability. Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF was innoculated to support plant to overcome drought stress during its growth. The aim of this study was to understand the role of  Arbuscular Mycorrhizal Fungi (AMF to support growth and the production of grasses in drought stress condition. Three species of tropical grasses : Chloris    gayana,    Paspalum    notatum,    and  Paspalum dilatatum were used. The research used completely randomized design with 4 treatments consisting of M0S0 = without AMF and daily watering, M0S1 = without AMF and without watering; M1S0 = with mycorrhiza and daily watering; M1S1 = with AMF and without watering. and 5 replications. The four treatments research were as follows; Each type of grasses were obsereved in a separate study. The result showed that AMF played significant role in improving growth and root dry weight biomass of Chloris    gayana in drought condition. Paspalum notatum is the most adaptive grass in the drought condition. Chloris gayana has the growth and a better production than Paspalum dilatatum.

  3. Penggunaan Azospirillum pada Tanah Masam dengan Aluminium Tinggi Terhadap Produksi dan Serapan Nitrogen Rumput Setaria splendida dan Chloris gayana

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    P.D.M.H. Karti

    2005-04-01

    Full Text Available High content of Al on the soil maybe harmful (toxic for plant. Red and yellow podzolic soil was marginal land that characterized by high Al content. Azospirillum is free living N fixing bacteria that can be associated with grass. This research was conducted to find the best yield of grass planted on the soil inoculated with Azospirillum. The research consisted of some steps; 1 soil sampling 2 laboratory research: bacterial isolation, isolate selection, standardized of population, content of IAA 3 pod experiment. Pod experiment in the glass house was designed in completely randomized design, that consisted of six treatments. The variables observed were dry mass production of shoot and root, nitrogen content of shoot and root, and nitrogen absorption. Four best isolates chosen were; SM Setaria, OBIS/BD, PO2 and PM2. Azospirillum isolates enhanced shoot and root production, nitrogen content and N total absorption of tolerance one (S. splendida. The susceptible (C. gayana, Azospirillum significantly enhanced shoot and root nitrogen content, but did not affect the growth, production and N total absorption. Root growth that was inhibited by Al toxicity, decreased the symbiotic capability of nitrogen fixing bacteria. PM2 isolate showed the best effect on production and quality of S. splendida as well as on C. gayana. This isolate will be used for future research. PM2 produces 6.4 ppm Indole Acetic Acid that promoted root growth.

  4. Effect of supplementing Rhodes grass hay (Chloris gayana) with Berchemia discolor or Zizyphus mucronata on the performance of growing goats in Kenya.

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    Osuga, I M; Abdulrazak, S A; Muleke, C I; Fujihara, T

    2012-08-01

    Twenty growing Small East African goats were used to determine the effects of feeding sun-dried leaves of the browse forages Berchemia discolor and Zizyphus mucronata as supplements to low-quality basal diet, Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay, on voluntary feed intake (VFI), digestibility and growth performance. The grass hay and maize bran were used as a control. The dried leaves were then included at the rates of 15% and 30% of the dry matter intake (DMI). Berchemia discolor had the highest crude protein (CP) content of 195.5 g/kg DM, while Z. mucronata had CP content of 169.5 g/kg DM. The grass hay had the lowest CP content of 50.9 g/kg DM. The browse forages had low fibre content [Neutral detergent fibre (NDF); 257.9-369.5 g/kg DM], while the grass hay had high fibre content (NDF; 713.1 g/kg DM). Goats in the groups supplemented with either of the browse forages had higher total DMI, nitrogen (N) intake and retention and live-weight gains than those in the control diet group. The digestibility of DM and organic matter (OM) was not affected by supplementation, but the CP digestibility increased with supplementation. The use of the browse forages as supplements for goats fed on poor-quality basal diets would enhance the performance of the animals.

  5. Effects of supplementing a basal diet of Chloris gayana hay with one of three protein-rich legume hays of Cassia rotundifolia, Lablab purpureus and Macroptilium atropurpureum forage on some nutritional parameters in goats.

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    Mupangwa, J F; Ngongoni, N T; Topps, J H; Hamudikuwanda, H

    2000-08-01

    Growth and digestibility experiments were conducted on growing East African type goats offered Chloris gayana hay supplemented with one of three high-protein (119-128 g CP/kg DM) legume hays, Cassia rotundifolia (cassia), Lablab purpureus (lablab) or Macroptilium atropurpureum (siratro), and crushed maize to investigate the feed intake, digestibility, growth and urinary excretion of purine derivatives. Goats in the supplemented groups had higher total dry matter and nitrogen intakes and higher N retention and body mass gains than unsupplemented counterparts. The digestibility of dry matter, organic matter and neutral detergent fibre were increased by protein supplementation. Animals on supplemented diets had higher fractional outflow rates of particulate matter from the rumen. The production of protein by ruminal microbes and the efficiency of microbial N production were increased by supplementation. It was concluded that a mixture of low-quality grass hay (61.9 CP/kg DM) and either cassia, lablab or siratro hay, and maize grain can provide a productive balanced diet for growing goats.

  6. 7 CFR 201.2 - Terms defined.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...—Crotalaria spectabilis Roth Crotalaria, slenderleaf—Crotalaria brevidens Benth. var. intermedia (Kotschy... Roth Rescuegrass—Bromus catharticus Vahl Rhodesgrass—Chloris gayana Kunth Rice—Oryza sativa L... Velvetgrass—Holcus lanatus L. Vetch, common—Vicia sativa L. subsp. sativa Vetch, hairy—Vicia villosa...

  7. guadua Angustifolia Kunth

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    JAIRO ALEXANDER OSORIO S.

    2005-01-01

    Full Text Available La carga a compresión evaluada al límite de proporcionalidad en elementos cortos de Guadua angustifolia kunth fue relacionada con algunos parámetros físicos tales como el diámetro externo e interno, espesor de la pared, densidad aparente, número de entrenudos y contenido de humedad. Los elementos de Guadua fueron sometidos a compresión según las normas ISO-TC 165 dadas por el INBAR (1999. Los resultados estadísticos mostraron que para predecir el comportamiento de la carga en el límite de proporcionalidad de elementos cortos de Guadua, los parámetros de mayor incidencia son el diámetro externo (De y el espesor total de la pared (e, para los cuales se obtuvo una correlación con un nivel de confianza del 95%. Un valor de 27,15 MPa con un coeficiente de variación del 16% fue encontrado para el esfuerzo a compresión evaluado al límite de proporcionalidad. Además se estableció un modelo aproximado para la densidad aparente de la Guadua según el contenido de humedad.

  8. Lignoids Isolated from Nectandra turbacensis (Kunth Nees (Lauraceae

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    Víctor Macías-Villamizar

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available A new 7,8-secolignan, as well as seven known compounds; were isolated from Nectandra turbacensis (Kunth Nees (Lauraceae (leaves and root bark. These compounds were identified as, one secolignan, turbacenlignan A (1; four diaryldimethylbutane lignans: meso-monomethyl dihydroguaiaretic acid (2, threo-dihydroguaiaretic acid (3, schineolignin B (4, and austrobailignan-5 (5;and three 7,7' -epoxylignans: henricine (6 and the identifiable mixture of veraguensin (7 and galgravin (8. Compounds 1-8, were first isolated from Nectandra turbacensis (Kunth Nees (Lauraceae (leaves and root bark and compounds 1, 6-8, were isolated for the first time from Nectandra genus.

  9. Cytotoxic Constituents from bark and leaves of Amyris pinnata Kunth.

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    Luis Enrique Cuca-Suarez

    2015-04-01

    Full Text Available From leaves and bark of Amyris pinnata Kunth twelve compounds were isolated, corresponding to six lignans 1-6, three coumarins 7-9, a sesquiterpene 10, an oxazole alkaloid 11, and a prenylated flavonoid 12,. Metabolites were identified by spectroscopic techniques ( 1H and 13C NMR, EIMS and by comparison with published data in the literature. C ytotoxicity against leukemia, solid tumors, and normal cells was evaluated for all isolated compounds. Lignans were found to be the most cytotoxic compounds occurring in A. pinnata.

  10. Incidencia de enfermedades en pejibaye (bactris gasipaes kunth para palmito

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    Carlos Arroyo

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Incidencia de enfermedades en pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth para palmito. Se determinó la incidencia de enfermedades en cuatro variedades de palmito de pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, durante los 12 primeros meses de desarrollo. Tres de ellas sin espinas (Diamantes-1, Diamantes- 10 y Diamantes-20 y una con espinas (Utilis-Tucurrique. El ensayo se efectuó en la región de Guápiles, Costa Rica, de mayo del 2000 a abril del 2001. Los patógenos que se encontraron en las plantas de pejibaye fueron: Colletotrichum sp., (mancha negra de las hojas; Phytophthora palmivora, (pudrición cogollo u hoja guía; Drechslera setariae, (mancha de anillo; Lasiodiplodia theobromae (hoja deshilachada y Erwinia sp., (pudrición del tallo, quema de hojas y hoja guía. La variedad Utilis-Tucurrique, presentó la mayor susceptibilidad a todas las enfermedades, pero en ningún caso éstas llegaron a un nivel de importancia económica. La incidencia de Erwinia sp. y Phytophothora palmivora mostró mayor relación con la precipitación y alta temperatura.

  11. Cytotoxic components of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. (Cactaceae) leaves.

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    Malek, Sri Nurestri Abdul; Shin, Sim Kae; Wahab, Norhanom Abdul; Yaacob, Hashim

    2009-05-06

    Dihydroactinidiolide (1) and a mixture of sterols [campesterol (2), stigmasterol (3) and beta-sitosterol (4)], together with the previously isolated individual compounds beta-sitosterol (4), 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (5), alpha-tocopherol (6), phytol (7) were isolated from the active ethyl acetate fraction of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. (Cactaceae) leaves. Cytotoxic activities of the above mentioned compounds against five human carcinoma cell lines, namely the human nasopharyngeal epidermoid carcinoma cell line (KB), human cervical carcinoma cell line (CasKi), human colon carcinoma cell line (HCT 116), human hormone-dependent breast carcinoma cell line (MCF7) and human lung carcinoma cell line (A549); and non-cancer human fibroblast cell line (MRC-5) were investigated. Compound 5 possessed very remarkable cytotoxic activity against KB cells, with an IC(50 )value of 0.81microg/mL. This is the first report on the cytotoxic activities of the compounds isolated from Pereskia bleo.

  12. Flavonoides e atividade antioxidante em Palicourea rigida Kunth, Rubiaceae Flavonoids and antioxidant activity in Palicourea rigida Kunth, Rubiaceae

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    Elisa A. da Rosa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available A atividade antioxidante, avaliada pelo método DPPH (1,1-difenil-2-picrilidrazila, e o teor em compostos fenólicos totais do extrato bruto metanólico e frações das folhas da espécie Palicourea rigida Kunth, Rubiaceae, foram quantificadas neste trabalho. Apesar da baixa atividade apresentada pelo extrato bruto (500 ppm, a fração acetato de etila apresentou atividade moderada (192 ppm e o maior teor de fenólicos totais dentre as frações ensaiadas. Assim, a fração acetato de etila foi submetida a procedimentos cromatográficos o que resultou no isolamento dos flavonoides quercetina 3-O-β-D-glicosídeo, quercetina 3-O-soforosídeo e isoraminetina 3-glicosídeo, cujas estruturas foram elucidadas por análise espectroscópica, incluindo RMN (1D e 2D e comparação com os dados da literatura.The antioxidant activity, evaluated by DPPH (1,1-difenil-2-picrilidrazila method, and the determination of the total phenolic compounds of the crude methanolic extract and fractions of the Palicourea rigida Kunth, Rubiaceae, leaves were quantified in this work. Despite weak activity exhibited by crude extract (500 ppm, the fraction ethyl acetate showed moderate activity (192 ppm, and the largest value for the phenolic compounds among all the assayed fractions. Then, the ethyl acetate fraction was submitted to the chromatography procedures which led to the isolation of the flavonoid quercetin 3-O-D-glicoside, quercetin 3-O-sophoroside and isorhamnetin 3-glicoside, which had the structures elucidated by spectroscopy analysis, including RMN (1D and 2D and comparison with literature data.

  13. Cytotoxic Components of Pereskia bleo (Kunth DC. (Cactaceae Leaves

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    Sri Nurestri Abdul Malek

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available Dihydroactinidiolide (1 and a mixture of sterols [campesterol (2, stigmasterol (3 and β-sitosterol (4], together with the previously isolated individual compounds β-sitosterol (4, 2,4-di-tert-butylphenol (5, α-tocopherol (6, phytol (7 were isolated from the active ethyl acetate fraction of Pereskia bleo (Kunth DC. (Cactaceae leaves. Cytotoxic activities of the above mentioned compounds against five human carcinoma cell lines, namely the human nasopharyngeal epidermoid carcinoma cell line (KB, human cervical carcinoma cell line (CasKi, human colon carcinoma cell line (HCT 116, human hormone-dependent breast carcinoma cell line (MCF7 and human lung carcinoma cell line (A549; and non-cancer human fibroblast cell line (MRC-5 were investigated. Compound 5 possessed very remarkable cytotoxic activity against KB cells, with an IC50 value of 0.81µg/mL. This is the first report on the cytotoxic activities of the compounds isolated from Pereskia bleo.

  14. Dormicion y tipo de suelo como determinantes de la germinación y establecimiento de Chloris berroi en la Pampa Deprimida

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    Bolaños, Víctor Raúl Ariel; Vecchio, María Cristina; Golluscio, Rodolfo

    2016-01-01

    En los pastizales halófitos de la Pampa Deprimida la historia pastoril habría inducido deterioros en la diversidad florísticos y propiedades edáficas. La recuperación de las especies nativas de alto valor forrajero constituye una valiosa estrategia para la regeneración forrajera del sistema. Ello requiere un profundo conocimiento de los aspectos ecológicos de estas especies que, en el caso de Chloris berroi, nativa y potencial regeneradora de ambientes degradados, es desconocida. En este trab...

  15. FLAVONOIDES AISLADOS DE LAS INFLORESCENCIAS DE Piper hispidum Kunth (PIPERACEAE Y DERIVADOS ACETILADOS

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    Erika Plazas

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available En el articulo "FLAVONOIDES AISLADOS DE LAS INFLORESCENCIAS DE Piper hispidum Kunth (PIPERACEAE Y DERIVADOS ACETILADOS" de Erika A. Plazas G., Luis E. Cuca S., Wilman A. Delgado A Rev Colomb. Quim., 2008, 37(2: 135-144 falto incluir lo siguiente.

  16. Antioxidant and Cytotoxic Activities of Cuphea hyssopifolia Kunth (Lythraceae Cultivated in Egypt

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    Mohamed Elgindi

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available Cuphea hyssopifolia Kunth (Family Lythraceae is a herb, newly cultivated in Egypt. Its richness in phenolics had led to test for its antioxidant and cytotoxic activities and isolation of its componenets. Also it urges us to check for its genotyping. Isolation of some phenolics was done using usual chromatographic techniques. The genetic fingerprinting of the aerial parts of C. hyssopifolia Kunth was determined using RAPD-PCR (Random Amplified Polymorphic DNA technique which has been widely used in plants for the construction of genetic maps using 10 primers. The antioxidant activity of the extract was measured using the stable free radical DPPH assay while its cytoctoxic property was tested using different cell lines viz MCF7 (breast carcinoma cell line, HEP2 (larynx carcinoma cell line, HCT116 (colon carcinoma cell line and HEPG2 (liver carcinoma cell line adopting SRB method. Several compounds had been isolated from the aqueous methanolic extract of the aerial parts of C. hyssopifolia Kunth namely valoneic acid dilactone (1, 1,3−O−digalloyl-4-,6-hexahydroxydiphenoyl- β-D−4C1-glucopyarnose (2, gallic acid (3, genistein-7-O-β-D-4C1-glucopyranoside (4, myricetin−3 − O− β-D−4C1-glucopyarnoside (5, 3, 4, 5-trimethoxy benzoic acid (6, vanilic acid (7 and quercetin (8. Primer OPP-01 was the best sequence for dominating C. hyssopifolia Kunth cultivated in Egypt. The antioxidant activity of the extract showed an inhibition 95.5% compared to that of ascorbic acid 98.35%. The extract showed moderate cytotoxic activity with IC50 ranging from 73.4 to 92.5 ug/ml for the tested cell lines. The study suggests that C. hyssopifolia Kunth may be the potential rich source of natural antioxidant.

  17. The large C-type asteroids 146 Lucina and 410 Chloris, and the small S-type asteroids 152 Atala and 631 Philippina - Rotation periods and lightcurves

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    Schober, H. J.

    1983-07-01

    Photoelectric observations are presented for four asteroids. 146 Lucina and 410 Chloris (larger C-type asteroids) were observed in Sep. 1979 at CTIO, the rotation periods are P = 18h54 and P = 32h.50, respectively, both derived by Harris and Young (1982), using my observations prior to publication. 152 Atala was observed in Nov. 1981 at OHP, a rotation period of P - 5h.282 ± 0h.004 was derived with a lightcurve amplitude of 0m.50. 631 Philippina was observed in Feb. 1981 at ESO, and a period of P = 5h.92 ± 0m.01 could be derived with a maximum lightcurve amplitude of 0m.20. 152 Atala and 631 Philippina are both small-sized S-type asteroids and rotate much faster. Colors and magnitudes were measured for the asteroids, excluding 152 Atala for 631 Philippina colors were obtained frequently over all rotational cycles with no variation exceeding the scatter.

  18. A new species of Labania Hedqvist (Braconidae, Doryctinae from Costa Rica, reared from aerial root galls of Ficus obtusifolia Kunth

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    Sergey Belokobylskij

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available A new species of the Doryctinae genus Labania Hedqvist, L. ficophaga sp. n. from Costa Rica is described. This new species was reared from aerial root galls of Ficus obtusifolia Kunth. An updated key to the five described species of Labania and digital pictures of L. ficophaga sp. n. and L. minuta Marsh are provided.

  19. Influência do fósforo e de diferentes regimes de corte na produtividade e no perfilhamento do capim-de-raiz (Chloris orthonoton Doell Phosphorus and cut system on the productivity and tillering of the capim-de-raiz (Chloris orthonoton, Doell

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    Tatiana Neres de Oliveira

    2004-02-01

    Full Text Available O trabalho foi conduzido em casa de vegetação do Departamento de Zootecnia/UFRPE, no período de outubro de 2000 a maio de 2001, objetivando avaliar o efeito da adubação fosfatada e de diferentes regimes de corte sobre a produtividade e perfilhamento do capim-de-raiz (Chloris orthonoton, Doell. O delineamento utilizado foi o inteiramente casualizado, distribuído em um arranjo fatorial 3 x 2 x 2, sendo três doses de adubação fosfatada (0, 100 e 200 kg/ha de P2O5, duas freqüências de corte (30 e 40 dias e duas intensidades de corte (5 e 15 cm. A produção de MS foi influenciada pelas interações freqüência x intensidade de corte e adubação fosfatada x freqüência de corte. A melhor combinação entre freqüência e intensidade de corte foi de 40 dias e 5 cm, propiciando produção de 10,66 g/vaso de MS. A adubação fosfatada propiciou melhor resultado, quando a freqüência de corte foi de 40 dias (11,70 g/vaso de MS. O perfilhamento do capim-de-raiz foi influenciado pela adubação, freqüência e intensidade de corte.The work was carried out in a greenhouse, at the Animal Science Department/UFRPE, from October 2000 to May 2001, to evaluate the effect of phosphorus fertilization and different cut systems on the productivity and tillering of the capim-de-raiz (Chloris orthonoton, Doell. The experimental design was completely randomized, distributed in a factorial arrangement 3 x 2 x 2, being three levels of application of phosphorus fertilizer (0, 100 and 200 kg/ha of P2O5, two cut frequencies (30 and 40 days and two cut intensities (5 and 15 cm. Significant interaction between cut frequency and cut intensity as well as phosphorus fertilization and cut frequency for the DM yield was observed. The best combination between cut frequency and cut intensity was 40 days and 5 cm, respectively, with 10.66 g/pot of DM. The phosphorus fertilization showed higher efficacy when the cut frequency was 40 days (11.70 g/pot of DM. Phosphorus

  20. Dormición y tipo de suelo como determinantes de la germinación y establecimiento de Chloris berroi en la Pampa Deprimida

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    Bolaños, Víctor; Vecchio, María Cristina; Golluscio, Rodolfo A.

    2015-01-01

    Para que las estrategias alternativas de recuperación de ambientes degradados logren con eficacia su objetivo, requieren de un profundo conocimiento de las especies a tratar siendo la germinación un aspecto central de la biología de las especies, información desconocida para Chloris berroi, nativa y potencial regeneradora de ambientes degradados. A fin de contribuir al aporte de dicha información y poner a prueba dos hipótesis formuladas: (1) la dormición de C. berroi se debe a las estructura...

  1. FLAVONOIDES AISLADOS DE LAS INFLORESCENCIAS DE Piper hispidum Kunth (PIPERACEAE Y DERIVADOS ACETILADOS

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    Luis Enrique Cuca

    2009-04-01

    Full Text Available A partir del extracto etanólico de las inflorescencias de la especie Piper hispidum Kunth (Piperaceae fueron aislados tres flavonoides: 5-hidroxi-7-metoxiflavanona, 5-hidroxi-4’,7-dimetoxiflavanona y 2’,4’,6’-trimetoxidihidrochalcona. De las flavanonas aisladas fueron obtenidos los  derivados acetilados: 5-acetoxi-7-metoxiflavanona y  5-acetoxi-4’,7-dimetoxiflavanona. Las estructuras fueron elucidadas empleando técnicas espectroscópicas y por comparación con datos de literatura. Los compuestos naturales y sus derivados fueron sometidos al bioensayo de letalidad frente a Artemia salina. El flavonoide 5-hidroxi-7-metoxiflavanona presenta la mayor actividad tóxica frente a los microcrustaceos CL50 1.8 µg/ml.

  2. Caracterización molecular de Guadua angustifolia Kunth mediante marcadores moleculares RAMs

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    Paula Andrea Rugeles-Silva

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Guadua angustifolia Kunth es un bambú del Neotrópico que se distribuye principalmente en la región Andina. En la región del Eje Cafetero colombiano esta especie presenta gran importancia por su utilización en la construcción, industrialización y fabricación de muebles y artesanías. Para conocer la diversidad genética de nueve materiales superiores de G. angustifolia seleccionados previamente por sus características morfológicas y físico-mecánicas se realizó una caracterización molecular usando marcadores moleculares RAMs. Se obtuvo un valor de He = 0.31 y un porcentaje de loci polimórfico de 81.03% lo que indica una alta diversidad genética de los materiales evaluados.

  3. Development of the pollen in the antarctic flowering plant Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl.

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    Irena Giełwanowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl. produced two types very small bisexual fl owers. In the Antarctic natural conditions chasmogamic and cleistogamic fl owers most often form fi ve stamina with short fi laments. Two microsporangia with a three-layer wall form in the anther. Microspore mother cells, which develop into microspores after meiosis, form inside the microsporangium. Microsporocytes of Colobanthus quitensis are surrounded with a thick callose layer, the special wall. After meiosis, the callose wall is dissolved and microspores are released from the tetrad. The production of proorbicules, orbicules and peritapetal membrane, and the construction of a complex sporoderm with numerous apertural sites were observed. When microspore and pollen protoplasts underwent necrosis, probably as a result of temperature and osmotic stress, sporoderm layers formed around microspores, and the cell tapetum did not disintegrate. However, woody wall layers did not accumulate in endothecium cells.

  4. Chemical composition and functional properties of starch extracted from the pejibaye fruit (Bactris gasepaes Kunth.

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    Biano Alves de Melo Neto

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to establish the chemical composition and functional properties of the starch extracted from the pejibaye fruit (Bactris gasepaes Kunth.. The chemical characterization was evaluated from the determination of starch, amylose, amylopectin, total lipid, protein, ash, moisture and water activity. The water absorption index and the water solubility index were calculated for temperatures between 25 and 90ºC. Low contents of ash and protein were found. The studied starch has 14% moisture, according to the established by law. The water activity value was 0.55, which ensures its microbiological stability. A range of gelatinization between 65 to 70ºC was observed, close to the one of commercial starches. The solubility rate in water was 0.6119% and the absorption rate in water was 1.8252%. These results demonstrated that the starch from the pejibaye fruit has important characteristics for use in the food industry.

  5. Guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth) effects on LDL oxidation in elderly people: an in vitro and in vivo study

    OpenAIRE

    Portella, Rafael de Lima; Barcelos, Rômulo Pillon; da Rosa, Edovando José Flores; RIBEIRO, EULER ESTEVES; DA CRUZ, IVANA BEATRICE MÂNICA; Suleiman, Leila; Soares, Felix Alexandre Antunes

    2013-01-01

    Background Previous experimental investigations have suggested that guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, supplied by EMBRAPA Oriental) consumption is associated with a lower prevalence of cardiovascular metabolic diseases and has positive effects on lipid metabolism, mainly related to low density lipoprotein (LDL) levels. As LDL oxidation is an important initial event in the development of atherosclerosis, we performed in vitro and in vivo studies to observe the potential effects of guaraná on LD...

  6. Correlation between chemical compounds and mechanical response in culms of two different ages of Guadua angustifolia Kunth

    OpenAIRE

    Luz Adriana Sánchez Echeverri; Giovanna Aita; Diana Robert; Mario Enrique Rodriguez Garcia

    2014-01-01

    Wet chemical analysis was used to determine carbohydrate structural contents, as well as ash and extractive contents on four Guadua Angustifolia Kunth forms ( f. Cebolla, f. Macana, f. Rayada Amarilla and f. Castilla ) with two different growth ages (young and mature). Soluble and insoluble fiber content was determined by using AOAC 985.29 method. Bending tests were conducted in a universal testing machine following ASTM D143 standard method in order to determine modulus of rupture ( MOR ). F...

  7. Amides from Piper as a Diuretic: Behind the Ethnopharmacological Uses of Piper glabratum Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thiago Bruno Lima Prando

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Several species of the genus Piper are known in Brazilian folk medicine as having diuretic activity. So, we propose to investigate the acute diuretic activity and the possible toxic effects of Piper glabratum Kunth, popularly known as false Jaborandi. Additionally, we propose to check whether there is any correlation between the biological activities of the crude extract (MEPG and its 2-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxy-trans-cinnamoyl-pyrrolidine (MMCP in Wistar rats. The MEPG was fractioned by chromatography column and the MMCP was identified by analyses of 1H and 13C RMN spectral data and correlations. Both MEPG and MMCP were assayed for diuretic activity. The preparations obtained were orally administered in a single dose to rats. The urine excretion, pH, density, conductivity, and content of Na+, K+, Cl−, and HCO3- were measured in the urine of saline-loaded animals. Additionally, acute toxicity of the extract was also evaluated. MMCP at doses of 30 mg/kg was able to increase the urine volume, pH, and HCO3- excretion. Moreover, high dosage of MEPG showed important liver toxicity and elevated mortality when injected intraperitoneally. The results indicate that the MMCP shows important diuretic properties when administered in Wistar rats. Additionally, MEPG can induce important acute toxicity if given in high doses.

  8. Efecto de diferentes niveles de aceites esenciales de Lippia origanoides kunth en pollos de engorde

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    Liliana Betancourt L.

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Determinar el nivel de inclusión de aceite esencial de Lippia origanoides Kunth (AEO que maximice el peso corporal y la eficiencia económica. Materiales y métodos. Los AEO se obtuvieron por hidrodestilación y se analizaron por GC/MS. Se evaluaron cuatro niveles, 0, 100, 200 y 300 ppm de AEO en dos grupos de pollos; un grupo retado con ooquistes atenuados de coccidia y otro no retado. El nivel óptimo de inclusión fue estimado mediante una función sinusoidal. Resultados. La suplementación con 100 ppm de AEO redujo el impacto negativo del reto con ooquistes atenuados de coccidia sobre el peso corporal, 1.799, 1.889 y 1.995 g en los grupos retado sin AEO, retado + AEO y control, respectivamente (p<0.001. Se encontró una interacción significativa entre la suplementación con AEO y reto sobre el peso corporal y la conversión de alimento (p<0.05. El nivel de AEO que maximiza el peso corporal en los grupos de pollos no retados fue 65 ppm; mientras que para los grupos retados fue 147 ppm. Conclusiones. Se demostró que los AEO ricos en timol pueden ser un aditivo natural viable para la producción de carne de pollo.

  9. TRADITIONAL USE OF A PROTECTED SPECIES (Litsea glaucescens Kunth IN THE “SIERRA DEL LAUREL

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    Salvador Martín Medina-Torres

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Whenever a natural area is proposed to be a protected area, the information that supports the proposal is usually based on the physical environmental, rather than on the social environment and on the management of natural resource. This study was conducted from May 2004 to June 2005 whit the objective to analyze the process of exploitation of Mexican Bay Leaf (Litsea glaucescens Kunth in rural communities of Sierra del Laurel, a priority area in the state of Aguascalientes, México. Thirteen semi-structured interview were applied for local collectors and seven more were applied to inhabitants of the region to understand the trends in the use of resource. Three interviews were also applied to environmental officials from federal and local institutions to know about their position regarding the use of the Mexican Bay Leaf. A participative workshop with producers and collectors was conducted to document their opinion on the status of the population of this specie. Trend in utilization of the Mexican Bay Leaf have led it to be in danger of extinction: there is not organization nor legal utilization schemes among collectors that allow regeneration; the lack of institutional coordination, along whit inefficient implementation of laws and other legal instruments to regulate the management of natural resources, has contributed so that users have not adequate risk management procedures.

  10. Population ecology of Paepalanthus polyanthus (Bong. Kunth: temporal variation in the pattern of spatial distribution

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    Tânia Tarabini Castellani

    2004-11-01

    Full Text Available The temporal variation in density and pattern of spatial distribution of Paepalanthus polyanthus (BONG. Kunth (Eriocaulaceae were evaluated at a determinate sand dune. This study was carried out over a period of five years, at three permanent plots of 25m2 in a sand dune slack at Joaquina Beach, Florianópolis, SC, Brazil. There were strong density fluctuations throughout these years. In areas 1, 2 and 3, the densities changed from 10.4, 2.2 and 1.8 plants/m2 in December 1986 to 75.8, 11.4 and 45.6 plants/m2 in December 1991. Area 3, situated on an elevated site, presented greater variation in density, with no live plants in December 1989 and 102.2 plants/m2 at the recruitment observed in May 1990. Despite these density fluctuations, the pattern of spatial distribution was always aggregated (Id>1, P<0.05. The greatest Id values occurred in periods of low density and not in those of high density, associated with seedling recruitment. Factors such as high seed production with low dispersal, massive germination in moit years and a comparatively high death rate of seedlings at sites more subject to flooding or more distant from the water table proved themselves able to promote this aggregate pattern and increase it during plant development.

  11. Agentes protectores contra hongos asociados a la semilla de pejibaye (bactris gasipaes kunth

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    Carlos Arroyo

    2000-01-01

    Full Text Available Agentes protectores contra hongos asociados a la semilla de pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth. Se presenta un estudio de alternativas no tradicionales, para el control del ataque fungoso a las semillas de pejibaye durante el proceso de germinación. Se evaluó el efecto de 13 agentes protectores: Vitavax + Benomil, Bayletón, NaCl, Cloro, Kilol, Alcohol, H2O2, Aserrín, H2O, Gasolina, Diesel, Kerosene y Chile picante. De las sustancias probadas, la inmersión en kerosene y gasolina, mostraron un comportamiento tan efectivo como los fungicidas triadimefom (Bayletón y la mezcla de carboxin + benomyl. Esto debido al efecto fungicida y su posterior evaporación, no interfiriendo con la respiración, como fue el caso del aceite diesel. Se encontró además que el peróxido de hidrógeno (H2O2, tuvo un efecto acelerador de la germinación, pero no actuó como buen fungicida. El kilol, mostró un efecto fungicida prometedor a concentración superior a los 10 cc/l de agua

  12. [Bee diversity in Tecoma stans (L.) Kunth (Bignoniaceae): importance for pollination and fruit production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Cláudia I; Augusto, Solange C; Sofia, Silvia H; Moscheta, Ismar S

    2007-01-01

    Tecoma stans (L.) Kunth is an exotic plant in Brazil, commonly distributed in urban areas, which is considered an invasive species in crop and pasture areas. In this study, the floral biology and the behavior of bees in flowers of T. stans from three urban areas in southeastern Brazil were investigated. In all study sites, T. stans was an important food resource to the Apoidea to 48 species of bees. Centris tarsata Smith and Exomalopsis fulvofasciata Smith (Hymenoptera: Apidae) were the effective pollinators more abundant, while Scaptotrigona depilis Moure (Hymenoptera: Apidae) was the more frequent robber species. The most part of T. stans visitors (87.5%) exploited exclusively nectar, which varied in sugar concentration depending on the day period and flower phase. In all flower stages, higher averages of nectar concentration (26.4% to 32.7%) occurred from 10 am to 2 pm. The presence of osmophore in the petals and protandry were detected. In two urban areas the number of visitors varied significantly during the day. The greatest abundance of pollinators occurred when pollen availability was higher and flowers showed receptive stigma, which could be contributing to the reproductive success of T. stans. The results indicate that the production of fruits increased in plants that received a higher number of effective pollinators.

  13. Vibrational and Compositional Analysis Associated with the Color of Guadua angustifolia Kunth Variety Bicolor (GAKVB

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    J. I. Cárdenas

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available The vibrational modes and compositional behavior of plant material of Guadua angustifolia Kunth Variety Bicolor (GAKVB and the characteristics associated with color changes were evaluated by Raman, infrared, and energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy. In the vibrational spectra, the frequencies of 1598, 2099, and 845 cm−1 were associated with yellow and blue pigments. These pigments can be found in natural organic dyes of vegetable origin, such as indigo blue (anil or pastel, extracted from Central American shrubs (Indigofera and indaco (Domenech, 2010, in some pigments synthesized in solid-state reactions from aluminum oxides, such as CaAl12O19, that have a turquoise color (Costa et al., 2009, and in Indian yellow (MgC19H16O11·5H2O. Using an immersion test, it was shown that the color was stable and that no loss of color occurred when photosynthesis was halted in the sample. The green and yellow stripes are assigned to Fe, N, Mg, and Si compounds. The yellow is due to decrease of Fe, Mg, and elemental Si. Results are obtained using energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy and Raman measurements.

  14. Phytotoxic potential of young leaves from Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth) O. Berg (Myrtaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Habermann, E; Pontes, F C; Pereira, V C; Imatomi, M; Gualtieri, S C J

    2016-06-01

    The loss of leaves by plant species found in the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna) is an energetically expensive process due to adverse environmental conditions and predation by herbivory. The mature leaves have adaptations which minimize these events. However, the young individuals lack these structures and produce high leaf concentrations of secondary metabolites as a form of protection. These compounds can be used in bioprospection of natural herbicides. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the phytotoxicity of hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of young leaves from Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth) O. Berg on the elongation of wheat coleoptiles (Triticum aestivum L.) and evaluate the potential phytotoxic of ethyl acetate extract on germination, growth and cell size of metaxylem of sesame (Sesamum indicum L.) seedlings. The hexane and ethyl acetate extracts inhibited the elongation of wheat coleoptiles at all concentrations; however, the most promising results were observed in coleoptile fragments treated with the ethyl acetate extract. This treatment changed the mean germination time and the synchrony of sesame seeds, inhibited the growth of shoots and roots, reduced the dry weight of seedlings, led to abnormalities in the seedlings and reduced the length of the metaxylem cells in the sesame seedlings. These results demonstrated the phytotoxic potential of young leaf extracts of B. salicifolius and the high phytotoxicity of the ethyl acetate extract in the initial development of S. indicum.

  15. LEAF MICROMOPHOMETRY OF PALICOUREA RIGIDA KUNTH. (RUBIACEAE FROM BRAZILIAN CERRADO AND CAMPO RUPESTRE ENVIRONMENTS

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    Manuel Losada Gavilanes

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate qualitative and quantitative leaf anatomical traits of Palicourea rigida Kunth. (Rubiaceae species occurring in the Brazilian Cerrado and Campo Rupestre ecosystems. Anatomical analysis was performed in fresh or fixed leaves processed with usual plant microtechnique. Leaves showed uniseriate epidermis in petiole and leaf blade which contains uniseriate nonglandular tricomes (tector type occurring only over the vascular bundles. Likewise, paracytic stomata were found only in abaxial side of the leaf surface. The mesophyll contains uniseriate palisade parenchyma and multiseriate spongy parenchyma (nine layers which showed cells with different morphology and size. Crystal idoblasts of different types were observed in both the petiole and leaf blade. Collateral vascular bundles were found both in the petiole and leaf blade. Leaf venation type was pinnate, campylodromous or brochydodromous. The micromorphometric analysis showed significant differences from plants of different environments for all leaf characteristics and Cerrado plants showed higher means for all evaluated traits. Therefore, the influence of environments may had modulated morphological responses in P. rigida, since no difference was found in the type or distribution of leaf tissues in Cerrado or Campo Rupestre.

  16. Amides from Piper as a Diuretic: Behind the Ethnopharmacological Uses of Piper glabratum Kunth

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prando, Thiago Bruno Lima; Baciquete, Tatiane da Fonseca; Vieira, Jennifer Alexandra Castanho; Bressan, Jaqueline; Gasparotto, Francielly Mourão; Jesus, Douglas Rossi; Cardozo Junior, Euclides Lara; Lourenço, Emerson Luiz Botelho; Gasparotto Junior, Arquimedes

    2014-01-01

    Several species of the genus Piper are known in Brazilian folk medicine as having diuretic activity. So, we propose to investigate the acute diuretic activity and the possible toxic effects of Piper glabratum Kunth, popularly known as false Jaborandi. Additionally, we propose to check whether there is any correlation between the biological activities of the crude extract (MEPG) and its 2-methoxy-4,5-methylenedioxy-trans-cinnamoyl-pyrrolidine (MMCP) in Wistar rats. The MEPG was fractioned by chromatography column and the MMCP was identified by analyses of 1H and 13C RMN spectral data and correlations. Both MEPG and MMCP were assayed for diuretic activity. The preparations obtained were orally administered in a single dose to rats. The urine excretion, pH, density, conductivity, and content of Na+, K+, Cl−, and HCO3− were measured in the urine of saline-loaded animals. Additionally, acute toxicity of the extract was also evaluated. MMCP at doses of 30 mg/kg was able to increase the urine volume, pH, and HCO3− excretion. Moreover, high dosage of MEPG showed important liver toxicity and elevated mortality when injected intraperitoneally. The results indicate that the MMCP shows important diuretic properties when administered in Wistar rats. Additionally, MEPG can induce important acute toxicity if given in high doses. PMID:25101133

  17. Phytotoxic potential of young leaves from Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth O. Berg (Myrtaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Habermann

    Full Text Available Abstract The loss of leaves by plant species found in the Cerrado (Brazilian savanna is an energetically expensive process due to adverse environmental conditions and predation by herbivory. The mature leaves have adaptations which minimize these events. However, the young individuals lack these structures and produce high leaf concentrations of secondary metabolites as a form of protection. These compounds can be used in bioprospection of natural herbicides. Thus, this study aimed to evaluate the phytotoxicity of hexane, ethyl acetate and aqueous extracts of young leaves from Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth O. Berg on the elongation of wheat coleoptiles (Triticum aestivum L. and evaluate the potential phytotoxic of ethyl acetate extract on germination, growth and cell size of metaxylem of sesame (Sesamum indicum L. seedlings. The hexane and ethyl acetate extracts inhibited the elongation of wheat coleoptiles at all concentrations; however, the most promising results were observed in coleoptile fragments treated with the ethyl acetate extract. This treatment changed the mean germination time and the synchrony of sesame seeds, inhibited the growth of shoots and roots, reduced the dry weight of seedlings, led to abnormalities in the seedlings and reduced the length of the metaxylem cells in the sesame seedlings. These results demonstrated the phytotoxic potential of young leaf extracts of B. salicifolius and the high phytotoxicity of the ethyl acetate extract in the initial development of S. indicum.

  18. Cytotoxic mechanism of Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth essential oil and its major compound nerolidol.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sperotto, A R M; Moura, D J; Péres, V F; Damasceno, F C; Caramão, E B; Henriques, J A P; Saffi, J

    2013-07-01

    Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth is used in popular medicine as anti-inflamatory and against liver disorders. One of the most studied components of the plant is the essential oil for which chemical analysis revealed (E)-nerolidol as major compound. Recently, we have shown that P. gaudichaudianum essential oil possesses strong cytotoxic effects in mammalian V79 cells. The aim of this study was to analyze the cytotoxicity and mutagenicity of P. gaudichaudianum essential oil and nerolidol using Saccharomyces cerevisiae as model study. Treatment of the XV185-14c and N123 strains with essential oil and nerolidol led to cytotoxicity but did not induce mutagenicity. Our results revealed an important role of base excision repair (BER) as the ntg1, ntg2, apn1 and apn2 mutants showed pronounced sensitivity to essential oil and nerolidol. In the absence of superoxide dismutase (in sod1Δ mutant strain) sensitivity to the essential oil and nerolidol increased indicating that this oil and nerolidol are generating reactive oxygen species (ROS). The ROS production was confirmed by DCF-DA probing assay in Sod-deficient strains. From this, we conclude that the observed cytotoxicity to P. gaudichaudianum essential oil and nerolidol is mainly related to ROS and DNA single strand breaks generated by the presence of oxidative lesions.

  19. Lignanos diarildimetilbutanos y otros constituyentes aislados de Nectandra turbacensis (kunth nees (lauraceae

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    Víctor Macías Villamizar

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Ocho compuestos conocidos fueron aislados del extracto etanólico de corteza de Nectandra turbacensis (Kunth Nees (Lauraceae. Estos fueron identificados como ácido meso-dihidroguayarético 1, ácido treo-dihidroguayarético 2, sauriol B 3, y treo-austrobailignano-6 4; vitexina (8-C-β-D-glucopiranosil-5,7,4’-trihidroxiflavona 5; estigmast-4-en-3-ona 6 y la mezcla sitosterol 7 / estigmasterol 8. Las estructuras de los compuestos fueron elucidadas por métodos espectroscópicos, que incluyeron técnicas de RMN en 1D y 2D, CG/EM y por comparación de los datos espectroscópicos, reportados en la literatura de compuestos relacionados. Este es el primer reporte de la presencia de este tipo de compuestos en la especie. Se describen también las implicaciones quimiotaxonómicas; relacionadas con la presencia frecuente de lignanos en especies del género Nectandra.

  20. Mechanisms of Forest Restoration in Landslide Treatment Areas

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    Yi-Chang Chen

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Reforestation after a landslide facilitates competition between herbaceous plants and arborous plants. Tangible variations in grassland areas in regions susceptible to landslides can only be found within collections of trees. A landslide area in the Sule Watershed was investigated. Relative illuminance results reveal that the Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana Kunth biomass in this landslide area increases with relative illuminance. A comparison of regions with tree islands indicates that the size of the grassland areas decreased and the number of tree islands increased during 2005–2010. Furthermore, a germination experiment in a soil-seed bank indicates that more woody plant species exist around the tree island than in other areas in the landslide region. Trees in a tree island change the micro-climate of the landslide region, and they gather as many nutrients and as much moisture as possible, enabling vegetation to expand around the tree island. Additionally, the area with Rhodes grass and its biomass declined annually in the tree island region. Investigation results show that tree islands and soil-seed banks are suited to reforestation in landslide regions. The pioneering research will assist regional landslide management in Taiwan.

  1. BIOLOGÍA REPRODUCTIVA DEL ORÉGANO MEXICANO (Lippia graveolens Kunth) EN TRES CONDICIONES DE APROVECHAMIENTO

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    El orégano mexicano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) se recolecta de casi todo el territorio nacional y su aprovechamiento coincide con el periodo de floración de la planta limitando la formación de frutos y semillas. Se estudiaron aspectos de la reproducción de L. graveolens en individuos de una población silvestre sin aprovechamiento (San Juan Raya, estado de Puebla, México) y de otra población silvestre pero con aprovechamiento constante (La Salitrera, estado de Guanajuato), y de una población cu...

  2. Morpho-anatomical and fingerprinting study of Vernonanthura patens (Kunth H. Rob.

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    Patricia I. Manzano

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available Context: The specie Vernonanthura patens (Kunth H. Rob. (Asteraceae is a South American native wild bush that grows in various provinces of Ecuador and it has been used in traditional medicine for several diseases, highliting its use in treatment of leishmaniasis, a condition of high incidence in the country. Despite its medicinal use, there are few or none botanic, chemical nor biological studies for this species. Aims: In this paper it were comprised the morpho-anatomical characterization of leaves and stems and genetic identification of a DNA fraction of the leaves of V. patens, in order to provide the elements for proper characterization and contribute to the establishment of quality control. Methods: The macromorphological description was made in leaves and stems from the fresh plant. The micromorphological evaluation was performed by paraffin inclusion of the material with cross-section that were clarify in sodium hypochlorite for its posterior safranin and cresil’s blue stained and its glycerinated gel fixation respectively. On obtaining the DNA chloroplast it was followed the internal protocol established by Molecular Biology CIBE´s laboratory. In order to sequence isolated DNA fragments from leaves of V. patens, Macrogen Maryland, USA´S company services were hired. Results: Leaves and stems of the new specie’s micro morphological characteristics were described for the first time and new macro morphological characters were described too from stems particularly. Conclusions: Using molecular and macro-micromorphological assessments is corroborated the identity of the V. patens species growing in Ecuador coast.

  3. Genetic differentiation and trade among populations of Peach Palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the Peruvian Amazon - implications for genetic resource management

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adin, A.; Weber, J.C.; Sotelo Montes, C.; Vidaurre, H.; Vosman, B.J.; Smulders, M.J.M.

    2004-01-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is cultivated for fruit and 'heart of palm', and is an important component of agroforestry systems in the Peruvian Amazon. In this study, AFLP was used to compare genetic diversity among domesticated populations along the Paranapura and Cuiparillo rivers, which ar

  4. Thermal and magnetic behavior of Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers covered with Fe{sub 3}O{sub 4} particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Calvo, S. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Arias, N.P. [Laboratorio de Materiales Nanoestructurados y Funcionales, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Departamento de Ingenieria Electrica, Electronica y Computacion, Facultad de Ingenieria y Arquitectura, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Giraldo, O., E-mail: ohggiraldo@hotmail.com [Laboratorio de Materiales Nanoestructurados y Funcionales, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia); Rosales-Rivera, A.; Moscoso, O. [Laboratorio de Magnetismo y Materiales Avanzados, Facultad de Ciencias Exactas y Naturales, Universidad Nacional de Colombia, Sede Manizales, Manizales (Colombia)

    2012-08-15

    Several Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers, which have been previously treated with an alkaline solution, were coated with magnetite particles. The coating of the fibers was achieved by an in-situ co-precipitation method with Fe{sup 2+} and Fe{sup 3+}in NaOH or NH{sub 4}OH. The fibers were evaluated by chemical analysis using atomic absorption (A.A.) technique, structural characterization by X-ray diffraction (XRD), thermal stability with thermo-gravimetric analysis (TGA) in nitrogen at temperature range between 23 Degree-Sign C and 800 Degree-Sign C and magnetic behavior using vibrating sample magnetometry (VSM) applying a magnetic field between -27 KOe and 27 KOe at room temperature. We found that the thermal stability and magnetization depend of the synthesis method used to cover the Angustifolia Kunth bamboo fibers. In addition, an improved magnetic response was observed when NaOH solution is used to generate the magnetite coating on the fiber surface.

  5. Os gêneros Zanthoxylum L. e Esenbeckia Kunth (Rutaceae no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil The genera Zanthoxylum L. and Esenbeckia Kunth (Rutaceae in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

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    Maria de Fátima Figueiredo Melo

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho consiste no levantamento das espécies dos gêneros Zanthoxylum e Esenbeckia ocorrentes em Pernambuco. Foi baseado nos caracteres morfológicos das espécies obtidas em campo e nos materiais de 16 herbários brasileiros. Foram registradas nove espécies de Zanthoxylum: Z. caribaeum Lam., Z. fagara (L. Sarg., Z. gardneri Engl., Z. hamadryadicum Pirani, Z. monogynum A. St.-Hil., Z. petiolare A. St.-Hil & Tul., Z. rhoifolium Lam., Z. stelligerum Turcz. e Z. syncarpum Tul. Para Esenbeckia foram verificadas cinco espécies: E. almawillia Kaastra, E. febrifuga (A. St.-Hil. Juss. ex Mart., E. garandiflora Mart., E. leiocarpa Engl. e E. pilocarpoides Kunth. Para reconhecimento das espécies são apresentadas chaves de identificação, descrições, ilustrações, distribuição geográfica, comentários e nomes vulgares.This work is a survey of the species of Zanthoxylum and Esenbeckia occuring in the State of Pernambuco. It was based on morphological characters of the species obtained during field trips and of specimens from 16 Brazilian herbaria. Nine species were recorded for Zanthoxylum: Z. caribaeum Lam., Z. fagara (L. Sarg., Z. gardneri Engl., Z. hamadryadicum Pirani, Z. monogynum A. St.-Hil., Z. petiolare A. St.-Hil & Tul., Z. rhoifolium Lam., Z. stelligerum Turcz., and Z. syncarpum Tul. Esenbeckia comprised five species: E. almawillia Kaastra, E. febrifuga (A. St.Hil. Juss. ex Mart., E. grandiflora Mart., E. leiocarpa Engl., and E. pilocarpoides Kunth. Identication keys, descriptions, ilustrations, geographic distribution, common names, and comments on the species are presented.

  6. Anti-proliferative and mutagenic activities of aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves from Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Er, Hui Meng; Cheng, En-Hsiang; Radhakrishnan, Ammu Kutty

    2007-09-25

    The anti-proliferative effects of the aqueous and methanol extracts of leaves of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC (Cactaceae) against a mouse mammary cancer cell line (4T1) and a normal mouse fibroblast cell line (NIH/3T3) were evaluated under an optimal (in culture medium containing 10% foetal bovine serum (FBS)) and a sub-optimal (in culture medium containing 0.5% FBS) conditions. Under the optimal condition, the aqueous extract showed a significant (pCactaceae) do not have appreciable anti-proliferative effect on the 4T1 and NIH/3T3 cells as the EC(50) values obtained are greater than 50 microg/mL when tested under optimal culture condition. Moreover, the aqueous extract may form mutagenic compound(s) upon the metabolisation by liver enzymes.

  7. Aspectos da anatomia foliar de algumas espécies de Paepalanthus Kunth, Eriocaulaceae da Serra do Cipó - Minas Gerais Aspects of leaf anatomy of some species of Paepalanthus Kunth, Eriocaulaceae from Serra do Cipó - Minas Gerais

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Neuza Maria de Castro

    1995-12-01

    Full Text Available O estudo da anatomia foliar das espécies de Paepalanthus Kunth.: P. bromelioides Silv.; P. macropodus Ruhl.; P. miçrophyllus (Giull. Kunth; P. paulinus Ruhl.; P. robustus Silv.; P. scleranthus Ruhl. e P. speciosus (Bong. Koer. mostrou uma semelhança no número e distribuição dos feixes vasculares, Em P. robustus e, menos marcadamente, em P. speciosus, estes feixes de tamanhos diferentes, encontram-se distribuídos em séries, com os feixes menores mais próximos da epiderme adaxial. As folhas revelam características xerofíticas em diferentes graus. Chama-se a atenção para a formação de feixes vasculares anfivasais no ápice das folhas.The anatomical studies in species of Paepalanthus Kunth: P.bromelioides Silv.; P. macropodus Ruhl.; P. miçrophyllus (Giull. Kunth; P. paulinus Ruhl.; P. robustus Silv.; P. scleranthus Ruhl. and P. speciosus (Bong. Koem., show similarity in the number and distribution of the vascular bundles. In P. robustus and, to a lesser extent, in P. speciosus, theses bundles of differing sizes occur in series, the smaller ones being closer to the adaxial epidermis. The leaves exhibit varying degrees of xeromorphy. Attention is drawn to the development of anphyvasal vascular bundles in the leaf apices.

  8. Morfofisiologia de Andropogon gayanus Kunth sob adubação mineral e orgânica em três estratos verticais Morphophysiology of Andropogon gayanus Kunth with organic and mineral fertilization in three vertical layers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Socorro de Souza Carneiro

    2001-05-01

    Full Text Available Neste experimento foram avaliadas algumas características morfofisiológicas do capim-andropogon, Andropogon gayanus Kunth cv. Planaltina (Poaceae, submetido a quatro tratamentos de adubação (0, 25, 50 kg N/ha/corte e 20t esterco bovino aplicado após o corte de uniformização, dois intervalos entre cortes (28 e 42 dias, em duas épocas de avaliação (84 e 168 dias e amostrado em três estratos (20-40 cm; 40-60 cm; >60 cm do solo. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados em parcelas subsubdivididas. Os maiores valores de massa seca total e de colmos foram registrados no estrato inferior (20-40 cm, enquanto que os estratos superiores apresentaram maior massa seca de folhas (40-60 e > 60 cm e relação folha/colmo. A adubação não influenciou significativamente (P > 0,05 as características do capim-andropogon estudadas nesta pesquisa.The morphophysiological characteristics of the andropogon grass, Andropogon gayanus Kunth cv. Planaltina (Poaceae with four manure treatments (control; 25 kg N/ha/cutting date; 50 kg N/ha/cutting date and 20 t/ha of cattle manure applied after each cut, were evaluated. There were 28 and 42-day cut intervals within two evaluation periods (84 and 168 days, sampled in three layers (0.20-0.40 m; 0.40-0.60 m; > 0.60 m. Complete randomized block design in a split-split-plot arrangement has been used. Highest values of total dry mass and dry mass of stem were reported in the lowest layer (0.20-0.40 m. The upper layers had higher leaf dry mass (0.40-0.60 m and > 0.60 m, higher leaf area and consequently higher leaf/stem ratio. The four fertilization treatments were not significantly influential on the characteristics of the grass analyzed in this research.

  9. Croissance juvénile et comportement physiologique d'Andropogon gayanus Kunth var. bisquamulatus en conditions de stress hydrique

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    André Buldgen

    1997-01-01

    Full Text Available Seedling growth and physiological behaviour of Andropogon gayanus Kunth cv. bisquamulatus in water stress conditions.Several studies carried on the physiology of Andropogon gayanus Kunth cv. bisquamulatus were conducted in Belgium in a wind tunnel simulating climatic conditions close to those prevailing during the rainy season in Sahelo-Sudanese region. The first experiments simulated water supply of 15, 20 and 25 mm at the outset of a caryopse sowing in a sandy soil. The observations were focused on daily evaporation losses, seedling emergencies, their growth and the mortality evolution. Results show that an initial soil water reserve of 25 mm, i.e. about 22.5 % in volume in the upper layer, is necessary to ensure the seedling survival during a period of 15 days after emergence. After 27 days, 95 % of the seedlings were still clive. With an initial soil water reserve of 13.5 or 18 % in volume (15 and 25 mm treatment respectively, mortalities occur already 4 to 6 days after sowing and increase vert' rapidly over a 10—day period. Whatever the initial water reserve mat' be, seedling losses occur systematically for a soil water reserve under or equal to 5 mm (4.5 % in volume. Two subsequent experiments were also conducted in order to analyse the photosynthetic parameters and the water status of 6 plants of Andropogon gayanus in the rainy and the dry seasons and during two drying cycles imposed in the rainy season. The first experiment shows that the hydric potentiel is -0.44 MPa during the rainy season and louver than -1 MPa during the dry season. The stomacal conductance is high (more than 1 cm . s-1 during both seasons, but the rate of photosynthesis decreases by half (from 19.8 to 10.9 graoles CO2 . m-2 . s-1 during the dry season. When the graminea endures a drought period in the rainy season, the physiological parameters evolve slowly until the soil water reserve reaches.

  10. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae) in the Brazilian Cerrado.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tozin, Luiz R S; Marques, Marcia O M; Rodrigues, Tatiane M

    2015-01-01

    The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  11. Post-harvest conservation of camu–camu fruits (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh using different temperatures and packages

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    Maria Luiza GRIGIO

    2015-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract The camu-camu tree (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth Mc Vaugh is fruit-bearing tree belonging to the family Myrtaceae. This work was conducted with the purpose of evaluating the type of storage temperature and package which allow better conservation of the quality attributes of camu-camu. The experimental design utilized was the completely randomized with three replications in a factorial arrangement (3x3x8, constituted of three different storage temperatures (laboratory ambiente or 25 ± 2 °C, 15 °C and 20 °C, three types of packages (no package, PET and PVC and fourteen days’ storage, the fruits being analyzed every two days. The fruits were evaluated as to fresh mass loss, pH, soluble solids contents, titrable acidity, ascorbic acid, carotenoids, anthocyanins, chlorophylls A and B and maturation index (SS/AT. According to the results obtained, the quality attributes and ascorbic acid content were conserved for longer time in the fruits stored on PVC-film covered expanded polystyrene trays at 15 °C. It follows that the best temperature for the storage of camu-camu is 15 °C and the package that best keeps its quality attributes is the PVC-film covered expanded polystyrene tray.

  12. Optimization of the bamboo guadua angustifolia kunth in the elaboration of glued laminated elements for constructive use

    Science.gov (United States)

    Díaz, G. A.; Cruz, R. A.; Chávez, A. M.

    2013-11-01

    Bamboo is considered one of the best timber resources in the world because for its mechanical properties and high sustainability; this research aims to improve the mechanical properties of the laminated glued bamboo Guadua Angustifolia Kunth (GAK) for use as structural elements, starting from de very manufacture process; this is important because it is possible to observe variations in the flexural strength and the elastic modulus in GAK samples taken from different heights and thickness of the culm. In order to analyze the influence of these final mechanical properties variations in the laminated, the height of the culm where samples are extracted (cepa, basa and sobrebasa) it is taken as a variable from where different types of laminated were manufactured, seeking to make optimal the configuration based in the transversal section area and the material strength. Three assemblies were designed varying the overlap of the adhesion lines and it concluded that the highest strength average values were obtained in the laminated composites manufactured with samples taken from the bottom of the culm (basa), which is possible because in these elements there are less adhesion lines than the other ones (middle, top and mixed) or the better matching of themselves.

  13. Methanolic extract of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. (Cactaceae) induces apoptosis in breast carcinoma, T47-D cell line.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, M L; Sulaiman, S F; Najimuddin, N; Samian, M R; Muhammad, T S Tengku

    2005-01-04

    Currently, breast cancer is the leading cause of cancer-related death in women. Therefore, there is an urgent need to develop alternative therapeutic measures against this deadly disease. Here, we report the cytotoxicity activity and the mechanism of cell death exhibited by the methanol extract prepared from Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. (Cactaceae) plant against human breast carcinoma cell line, T-47D. In vitro cytotoxicity screening of methanol extract of Pereskia bleo plant indicated the presence of cytotoxicity activity of the extract against T-47D cells with EC50 of 2.0 microg/ml. T-47D cell death elicited by the extract was found to be apoptotic in nature based a clear indication of DNA fragmentation which is a hallmark of apoptosis. In addition, ultrastructural analysis also revealed apoptotic characteristics (the presence of chromatin margination and apoptotic bodies) in the extract-treated cells. RT-PCR analysis showed the mRNA expression levels of c-myc, and caspase 3 were markedly increased in the cells treated with the plant extract. However, p53 expression was only slightly increased as compared to caspase 3 and c-myc. Thus, the results from this study strongly suggest that the methanol extract of Pereskia bleo may contain bioactive compound(s) that caused breast carcinoma, T-47D cell death by apoptosis mechanism via the activation of caspase-3 and c-myc pathways.

  14. Central Antinociceptive and Mechanism of Action of Pereskia bleo Kunth Leaves Crude Extract, Fractions, and Isolated Compounds

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    Carolina Carvalho Guilhon

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Pereskia bleo (Kunth DC. (Cactaceae is a plant commonly used in popular medicine in Malaysia. In this work, we evaluate the antinociceptive effect of P. bleo leaf extracts and isolated compounds in central antinociceptive model. Ethanol extract (E, hexane (H, ethyl acetate (EA, or butanol (B fractions (30, 50, or 100 mg/kg, p.o., sitosterol (from hexane and vitexin (from ethyl acetate, were administered to mice. Antinociceptive effect was evaluated in the hot plate and capsaicin- or glutamate-induced licking models. Morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o. was used as reference drug. Naloxone (1 mg/kg, i.p., atropine (1 mg/kg, i.p., and L-nitro arginine methyl ester (L-NAME, 3 mg/kg, i.p. were administered 30 min earlier (100 mg/kg, p.o. in order to evaluate the mechanism of the antinociceptive action. Higher dose of B developed an effect significantly superior to morphine-treated group. Naloxone prevented the antinociceptive effect of all fractions. L-NAME demonstrated effect against E, EA, and B. In all fractions, sitosterol and vitexin reduced the licking time after capsaicin injection. Glutamate-induced licking response was blocked by H, EA, and B. Our results indicate that Pereskia bleo fractions, sitosterol and vitexin, possessed a central antinociceptive effect. Part of this effect is mediated by opioid receptors and nitrergic pathway.

  15. LARVICIDAL ACTIVITY OF PERESKIA BLEO (KUNTH) DC. (CACTACEAE) FRUIT ENDOCARP CRUDE AND FRACTIONATED EXTRACTS AGAINST AEDES AEGYPTI (L.) (DIPTERA: CULICIDAE).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thongwat, Damrongpan; Ganranoo, Lucksagoon; Chokchaisiri, Ratchanaporn

    2014-11-01

    The use of insecticides can cause adverse effects in vector control, a plant bio-insecticide is an advantageous substitute. Currently, the promising mosquito larvicidal activity from plant extracts has been reported worldwide, including Thailand. In this study, the endocarp of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC. fruit was extracted with distilled water and ethanol. Crudes and fractionated groups of the extracts were evaluated for their larvicidal efficacy against the 3rd instar larvae of Aedes aegypti. At 48 hours of exposure, it was found that the activities of the extracts were higher than 24-hour's. The ethanolic extracts showed stronger activities than the aqueous ones, indicating the lower LC50 values of both crude and fractionated group extracts. The most toxic activity was found in a fractionated group of the ethanolic extract, E-Gr3, with significantly lowest LC50 values of 707.94 and 223.12 ppm for 24- and 48-hour detection times, respectively. The bioassay results indicated the larvicidal property against the Ae. aegypti mosquito of the P. bleo plant extracts. A safety for non-target organisms or an action on other mosquito vectors of this plant, should be further investigated.

  16. Effects of methyl and isopropyl N-methylanthranilates from Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae) on experimental anxiety and depression in mice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radulović, Niko S; Miltojević, Ana B; Randjelović, Pavle J; Stojanović, Nikola M; Boylan, Fabio

    2013-09-01

    Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae) is a plant species used in Mexican folk medicine for its antispasmodic and simulative properties. Recently, we identified a new alkaloid, isopropyl N-methylanthranilate, and a related one, methyl N-methylanthranilate, from the essential oil of this species and have proven them to possess antinociceptive activity even at 0.3 mg/kg. In the present study, anxiolytic and antidepressant effects of the two compounds have been studied in open field, horizontal wire, light/dark, forced swimming and tail suspension tests, as well as the effect on the onset and duration of diazepam-induced sleep in BALB/c mice. The volatile alkaloids (50-200 mg/kg, administered intraperitoneally), without having a muscle relaxant effect, caused a significant increase in the time the animals spent in an unsecured and putatively dangerous area when compared with the control group but had no effect on the number of crossings between the light/dark compartments. In addition to this anxiolytic activity, a significantly antidepressant-like effect was apparent at all tested doses, which was not due to an increase in locomotive activity. The anthranilates administered on their own did not induce sleep in mice but significantly prolonged the diazepam-induced sleep, in a dose-dependent way, suggesting an interaction with the gamma-aminobutyric acid receptor complex.

  17. Chemical characterization and antioxidant activity of Amazonian (Ecuador) Caryodendron orinocense Karst. and Bactris gasipaes Kunth seed oils.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Radice, Matteo; Viafara, Derwin; Neill, David; Asanza, Mercedes; Sacchetti, Gianni; Guerrini, Alessandra; Maietti, Silvia

    2014-01-01

    Nowadays, data concerning the composition of Caryodendron orinocense Karst. (Euphorbiaceae) and Bactris gasipaes Kunth (Arecaceae) seed oils are lacking. In light of this fact, in this paper fatty acids and unsaponifiable fraction composition have been determined using GC-MS, HPLC-DAD (Diode Array Detector), NMR approaches and possible future applications have been preliminary investigated through estimation of antioxidant activity, performed with DPPH test. For C. orinocense linoleic acid (85.59%) was the main component, lauric (33.29%) and myristic (27.76%) acids were instead the most abundant in B. gasipaes. C. orinocense unsaponifiable fraction (8.06%) evidenced a remarkable content of β-sitosterol, campesterol, stigmasterol, squalene and vitamin E (816 ppm). B. gasipaes revealed instead β-sitosterol and squalene as main constituents of unsaponifiable matter (3.01%). Antioxidant capacity evidenced the best performance of C. orinocense seed oil. These preliminary results could be interesting to suggest the improvement of the population's incomes from Amazonian basin. In particular the knowledge of chemical composition of C. orinocense and B. gasipaes oils could be helpful to divulge and valorize these autochthones plants.

  18. Glandular trichome density and essential oil composition in leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth (Verbenaceae in the Brazilian Cerrado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Luiz R.S. Tozin

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from leaves and inflorescences of Lippia origanoides Kunth present aromatic and medicinal potential and have been used to treat several diseases, including melanoma. In Brazil, L. origanoides is commonly found in campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu, physiognomies featured mainly by the differential light conditions to which short and medium-sized plants are subjected. Our aim was to investigate the glandular trichome density and the yield and chemical composition of the essential oils in leaves and inflorescences of L. origanoides from campo cerrado and cerrado stricto sensu. For glandular density analysis, leaves and inflorescences were processed according to conventional techniques for scanning electron microscopy. The essential oils of leaves and inflorescences were obtained by hydrodistillation and identified with gas chromatography. Bracts and sepals showed the highest glandular density, followed by petals and leaves. The glandular density in the abaxial leaf surface was higher in individuals from the campo cerrado. In both populations the essential oil yield was higher in inflorescences than in leaves. The chemical composition of the essential oils varied among individuals from different areas and inside a same population. Our results demonstrated the chemical plasticity of L. origanoides suggesting the importance of monitoring its popular use.

  19. Ontogeny of the pericarp of Serjania communis Camb. and Urvillea ulmacea Kunth (Sapindaceae with emphasis on the dispersion apparatus

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    Bruna Mary Matuguma Tanaka

    2014-10-01

    Full Text Available The pericarp development of Serjania communis Camb. and Urvillea ulmacea Kunth was described to expand the structural knowledge of Sapindaceae fruit. Ovaries and fruits were analyzed with usual techniques in plant anatomy. Ovary is structurally similar and the occurrence of glandular and non-glandular trichomes varies between species. In S. communis, the samaroid schizocarp has proximal wings and distal cavities; in U. ulmacea, the fruit presents septicidal and septifragal passive dehiscence and each seed chamber presents a dorsal wing. The unistratified exocarp has long pluricellular, uniseriate and sparse trichomes in U. ulmacea. The mesocarp is spongy, parenchymatous and in S. communis it presents three distinguished regions. Dorsal, lateral and ventral vascular bundles are more developed in S. communis and fiber caps on the phloem in the lateral bundles have an important role on the mericarp separation. The endocarp derives from the adaxial meristem and its oblique and tangentially elongated cells become lignified. The wings originate from a more active meristem – at the ovarian edges – and by intense divisions of ovarian mesophyll in this region. Fruit of U. ulmacea can represent a transition state between the samaroid schizocarp formed by Serjania and the septifragal capsule produced by Cardiospermum.

  20. Kinetics of moisture loss and oil uptake during deep fat frying of Gethi (Dioscorea kamoonensis Kunth) strips.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Manjunatha, S S; Ravi, N; Negi, P S; Raju, P S; Bawa, A S

    2014-11-01

    Investigation was carried out to study kinetics of moisture loss, oil uptake and tristimulus colour during deep fat frying of Gethi (Dioscorea kamoonensis kunth) strips. Deep fat frying of Gethi strips of size 6 × 6 × 40 mm was carried out in a laboratory scale fryer at different temperatures ranging from 120 to 180 °C. The investigation showed that the moisture loss and oil uptake followed the first order kinetics equation (r > 0.95, p oil uptake increased significantly (p oil uptake values was described using Arrhenius equation (r > 0.99, p oil uptake were found to be 41.53 KJ/mol and 27.12 KJ/mol respectively. The hunter colour parameters were significantly affected by frying temperature and frying time. The hunter lightness (L) value increased with respect to frying time initially, followed by decline and same trend was observed at higher temperatures of frying with elevated rate, whereas hunter redness (a) value increased significantly (p  0.99, p < 0.01). The other hunter colour parameters such as chroma, hue angle and total colour difference were markedly affected by frying temperature as well as frying time.

  1. 盐碱胁迫对非常规草坪草羊草和虎尾草生理生态特性的影响%Effect of saline-alkali tolerance physiological and ecological character on Leymus chinensis and Chloris virgata in Songnen Plain

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    鞠晓峰; 李国良; 杜广明; 韩玉静; 于开源

    2011-01-01

    In order to further screen salt tolerance gene, breed high saline-alkali tolerance grass and improve grassland saline-alkalized of Songnen Plain, the dynamic change and response of physical, ecological indexes of Leymus chinensis and Chloris virgata under salt and alkaline stress was studied by using method of combined major grass dominant plants which were Leymus chinensis and Chloris virgata, respectively existed in the wild grass of different salinity levels (pH was 7.56, 8.18, 8.3, 9.2, 9.81, respectively and the total salt amount was 0.05%, 0.12%, 0.15%, 0.24%, 0.32%, respectively.) with indoor simulated habitat (different gradient salt mixture and pH was 7, 7.7, 8.4, 9.1, 9.8, respectively). The results were as follows: with the increase of saline-alkali stress intensity, MDA content and the free sugars content were increased in the leaves of Leymus chinensis and Chloris Virgata. High saline-alkali stress could inhibit growth of Leymus chinensis and Chloris virgata and the frequency of grass group, coverage had apparently decreased tendency, but the lower saline-alkali stress (pH 8.18, the total salt amount is 0.12%) could promote growth of Leymus chinensis and the frequency of Leymus chinensis, coverage were slightly increased. Those showed that Chloris virgata was more salinity than that of Leymus chinensis.%采用野外不同盐碱化程度草地(pH值分别为7.56、8.18、8.3、9.2、9.81和总盐量分别为0.05%、0.12%、0.15%、0.24%、0.32%)的主要禾本科优势植物羊草和虎尾草为野外实验材料,与室内模拟生境(不同梯度混合盐碱,pH值分别为7、7.7、8.4、9.1、9.8)相结合的方法,对羊草和虎尾草在盐碱胁迫下生理、生态指标的动态变化及响应情况进行研究,结果表明,随着盐碱胁迫强度的增加,羊草和虎尾草叶片丙二醛和可溶性糖含量含量均显著升高;牧草丙二醛含量与其耐盐碱性显著负相关;牧草叶片可溶性糖含量与其耐盐碱

  2. Determinación de los valores de esfuerzos admisibles del bambú Guadua angustifolia Kunth del departamento de Tolima, Colombia

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    En el año 2010 Colombia aprueba el uso la Guadua angustifolia Kunth como material estructural a través del Reglamento Colombiano de Construcción Sismo Resistente NSR-10 Título G. Contribuyendo con esta iniciativa del gobierno nacional, diferentes grupos de investigación en el país se han dado a la labor de reunir información alrededor de las características físicas y mecánicas de este material, con el fin de ir actualizando el reglamento y hacer más especializado y confiable su empleo en la c...

  3. Determinación de la resistencia mecánica a tensión y cizalladura de la guadua angustifolia kunth

    OpenAIRE

    2011-01-01

    Para Guadua angustifolia Kunth fueron determinados los valores últimos de los esfuerzos a tensión y cizalladura. Los resultados estadísticos mostraron valores promedios a Tensión y cizalladura de 190,70 MPa (1945,92 kgf/cm2) y 5,57 MPa (56,84 kgf/cm2), respectivamente, indicando que el material como elemento de ingeniería presenta una alta resistencia en dirección paralela a la orientación de las fibras

  4. Algunos parámetros farmacognósticos de Vernonanthura patens (Kunth) H. Rob. (Asteraceae) endémica de Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    http://scielo.sld.cu/scielo.php?script=sci_arttext&pid=S1028-47962013000100015 Vernonanthura patens (Kunth) H. Rob., arbusto originario de Sudamérica, crece silvestre en el sur ecuatoriano; los pobladores del cantón Marcabelí, provincia del Oro, la conocen como laritaco y utilizan las cocciones acuosas de las hojas para lavar y cicatrizar las heridas, calmar el dolor de cabeza, como antiinflamatorio, calmar la tos y combatir ciertos tipos de cáncer. Las investigaciones biológicas prelimina...

  5. Mycorrhizal Dependency of Alcaparro (Senna pistaciifolia Kunth at Three Concentrations of Soil Solution Phosphorus / Dependencia Micorrizal de la Alcaparra (Senna pistaciifolia Kunth bajo Tres Concentraciones de Fósforo en la Solución del Suelo

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jorge Alberto Sierra Escoba

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract. A greenhouse bioassay was carried out to determine themycorrhizal dependency of alcaparro (Senna pistaciifolia Kunth. Arandomized complete experimental design was employed, with sixtreatments in a factorial arrangement 3x2; the treatments consistedof three levels in soil solution phosphorus (P (0.002, 0.02, and0.2 mg L-1 combined with two levels of mycorrhizal inoculationeither uninoculated or inoculated with Glomus agreggatum. Thevariables studied were leaf P content as a function of time, shootdry matter, shoot P content, mycorrhizal colonization of roots, andthe mycorrhizal dependency (MD. The results indicate that the leafP content increased significantly with the mycorrhizal inoculationin alcaparro to 0.02 mg L-1 after the second sampling days, butnot in the other soil P levels. Likewise, shoot dry weight increasedsignificantly at 0.02 mg L-1. On the other hand, the total plant Pcontent increase at all levels of soil available P. The mycorrhizalcolonization in alcaparro roots was 11, 23, and 0% at 0.02, 0.002and 0.2 mg of P L-1, respectively. The MD for alcaparro was 32%,which allow classify this specie as moderately dependent on themycorrhizal association. /  Resumen. Se realizó un bioensayo en invernadero para determinar la dependencia micorrizal de alcaparro (Senna pistaciifolia Kunth. Se utilizó un diseño experimental completamente randomizado. Los tratamientos se arreglaron en un factorial 3x2, estos consistieron en la combinación de tres niveles de P en la solución del suelo (0.002, 0.02 y 0.2 mg L-1 y 2 niveles de inoculación micorrizal (inoculado y no inoculado con el hongo Glomus agreggatum. Se emplearon como variables respuesta el contenido de P foliar en función del tiempo; al momento de la cosecha, se determinaron la masa seca aérea, el P total en la parte aérea y la colonización micorrizal. Los resultados indican que el contenido de P foliar a 0.02 mg L-1 en el segundo muestreo aumentó significativamente

  6. ABEJAS VISITANTES DE Aspilia tenella (KUNTH S. F. BLAKE (ASTERACEAE: COMPORTAMIENTO DE FORRAJEO Y CARGAS POLÍNICAS BEES VISITING Aspilia tenella (KUNTH S .F. BLAKE (ASTERACEAE: FORAGING BEHAVIOR AND POLLEN LOADS

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    Clara Isabel Aguilar Sierra

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available En cuatro localidades de la zona de influencia del embalse Porce II (Antioquia, Colombia, se observó el comportamiento de 23 taxones de abejas durante sus visitas a Aspilia tenella (Kunth S. F. Blake; se registró el número de individuos y el tiempo total de visita y se midieron la temperatura y la humedad relativa. Los análisis de varianza indican que hubo una relación estadísticamente significativa en cuanto a los atributos considerados para las especies de abejas y una covariación significativa con las variables ambientales. Las pruebas de rangos múltiples muestran que Trigona nigerrima es la especie con los mayores valores promedio para el número de individuos y el tiempo de visita. En el estudio de las cargas polínicas se encontraron 30 tipos polínicos, dentro de los cuales A. tenella presentó el mayor porcentaje; Piper aduncum, Miconia minuti flora, Psidium guajava, Rapanea sp., Mimosa pudica y Psychotria sp., en su orden, son otras fuentes de polen importantes para varias de las especies de abejas. El análisis de agrupamiento para las abejas capturadas permitió diferenciar dos grupos: el primero incluye a 18 especies cuyas cargas polínicas que poseían una abundancia relativa de granos de polen de A. tenella por encima de 77%; el segundo grupo estaba conformado por cinco especies de abejas que recolectaron porcentajes mayores de otros tipos polínicos: Exomalopsis sp. 1 (90,4% de M. minuti flora; Lasioglossum sp. 1 y Coelioxys aff. mexicana (77,4% y 64,1% de P. aduncum, respectivamente; Exomalopsis sp. 2 (67,1% de P. guajava y Auglochloropsis vesta (55,5% de Rapanea sp.. Trigona fulviventris y Apis mellifera presentaron los valores más altos de riqueza de tipos polínicos en las cargas de polen; ello evidencia sus nichos tróficos amplios y su comportamiento generalista de visita.We observed the behavior of 23 species of wild bees visiting Aspilia tenella (Kunth S .F. Blake in four different localities of the Porce II dam

  7. Efectos de la introducción de especies megatérmicas sobre características agronómicas y edáficas de un ambiente halomórfico de la pampa inundable

    OpenAIRE

    Otondo, José

    2011-01-01

    En la pampa inundable se ha producido un importante aumento de carga animal durante la última década. Para sostenerlo son necesarias alternativas tecnológicas que permitan mejorar las áreas con pastizales menos productivos, como son las estepas de halófitas o bajos alcalino - sódicos. En la presente tesis se evaluaron los efectos de la introducción de Chloris gayana (Chloris)y Panicum coloratum (Panicum)sobre las características agronómicas y edáficas de un ambiente halomórfico de esta región...

  8. EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA); Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and reduction of body weight pursuant

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Tetens, Inge

    related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, reduction of body...... between the consumption of a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana) and Camellia sinensis (L.) Kuntze (green tea) extracts and a reduction in body weight. © European Food Safety Authority, 2012...

  9. Melhoria do rendimento e do processo de obtenção da bebida alcoólica de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth Improvement on beverage volume yield and on process of alcoholic beverage production from pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth

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    Jerusa S. Andrade

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Com frutos de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth e fermentação natural, índios na Amazônia produzem uma bebida alcoólica turva, densa, com resíduos de polpa, denominada de "caiçuma". Pesquisas realizadas no Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia mostram que com hidrólise enzimática do amido, fermentação por Saccharomyces cerevisiae e filtração adequada, a limpidez e características desejáveis podem ser obtidas. Este experimento teve por objetivo aumentar o rendimento em bebida e facilitar o processo pelo aumento da proporção água:polpa no mosto e exclusão da hidrólise enzimática do amido, respectivamente. A composição química da polpa dos frutos in natura e cozidos foi determinada, e com a polpa cozida e autoclavada foi preparado o mosto completando-se a quantidade de substrato com a adição de xarope de sacarose. Após a inoculação com Saccharomyces cerevisiae a fermentação foi monitorada diariamente por sete dias através de análises químicas. A bebida foi caracterizada quanto à composição química, edulcorada e analisada sensorialmente. A cocção e autoclavagem ocasionaram hidrólise parcial do amido presente na polpa. A evolução da fermentação foi mostrada pelo consumo de açúcares e produção de ácidos e álcool. O rendimento em bebida (± 60%, graduação alcoólica de 12,1% (v/v, atraente coloração alaranjada clara, limpidez, sabor e aroma agradáveis e boa aceitabilidade (81,90%, mostraram a viabilidade técnica do processo na utilização da pupunha para produção de bebida. O aumento da proporção água:polpa no mosto contribuiu para o rendimento. A exclusão da hidrólise enzimática e o aumento do rendimento em bebida não interferiram na graduação alcoólica, coloração, sabor, aroma e aceitabilidade da bebida alcoólica fermentada de pupunha.Pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth fruits and natural fermentation are used by Amazonian natives to produce a thick drink called "cai

  10. Esterases no exame da estrutura populacional de Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh-Myrtaceae Esterases for examining the population structure of Camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh-Myrtaceae

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    Aylton Saturnino Teixeira

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Dois sistemas enzimáticos (esterase e esterase-D, analisados pela técnica de eletroforese em gel de amido, em folhas jovens de plantas cultivadas em terra firme, de sementes provenientes de três amostras de populações naturais de camu-camu, Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh-Myrtaceae, procedentes de Iquitos, Boa Vista e Uatumã, revelaram a presença de 6 locos: Est-1, Est-2, Est-3, Est-4, Est-D1 e Est-D2. Dois dos seis locos gênicos examinados no presente estudo (Est-3 e Est-D2 mostraram-se polimórficos, sendo desse modo considerados valiosos no estudo de caracterização da estrutura populacional da espécie. Os padrões de polimorfismo revelados nos locos Est-3 e Est-D2 de camu-camu, são típicos de enzimas monoméricas e diméricas, respectivamente. O loco Est-3 apresentou um grande desbalanço genético dentro e entre as amostras populacionais examinadas, devido ao excessivo número observado de plantas heterozigóticas em relação ao número esperado. O loco Est-D2 apresentou um polimorfismo exclusivo para os alelos Est-D2¹,Est-D2² e Est-D2³, e um bom balanço genético na amostra populacional de Uatumã. Em função disso, dentre os demais locos gênicos aqui investigados, o loco Est-D2 parece ser o mais adequado para identificação e delimitação de prováveis estoques de camu-camu. Portanto, recomenda-se que esse loco esteja presente na lista dos marcadores isoenzimáticos a serem usados em futuras prospecções sobre genética populacional dessa espécie na região amazônica. Dados sobre a distribuição das freqüências alélicas, estimativas das distâncias genéticas, e estimativas de variação genética nos 6 locos de esterases examinados, foram eficazes na demonstração de diferenças genéticas entre as amostras populacionais examinadas da espécie. Os maiores valores de heterozigozidade média (0,1353; proporção de locos polimórficos (0,33 e número médio de alelos por loco (1,33 revelados na amostra

  11. DETERMINACIÓN DE LA RELACIÓN DE POISSON DE LA Guadua angustifolia Kunth A PARTIR DE PROCESAMIENTOS DE imágenes Y SU RELACIÓN CON LA ESTRUCTURA INTERNA DETERMINATION OF POISSON´S RATIO OF THE Guadua angustifolia Kunth USING IMAGE PROCESSING AND ITS RELATIONSHIP WITH THE MICROSTRUCTURE

    OpenAIRE

    Jairo Alexander Osorio Saraz; Juan Manuel Vélez Restrepo; Héctor José Ciro Velásquez

    2007-01-01

    En esta investigación se propuso determinar los valores de la relación de Poisson para la Guadua angustifolia Kunth, en la cepa y la basa del culmo, además de analizar la incidencia que ejerce la estructura interna en dicha propiedad. Los resultados indicaron que la relación de Poisson depende significativamente de la estructura del material variando entre 0,22 y 0,35 haciéndolo un producto biológico altamente heterogéneo y anisotrópico. Además, los análisis de estructura interna de tejido co...

  12. Morfologia e avaliação do crescimento inicial de plântulas de Bactris gasipaes Kunth. (arecaceae em diferentes substratos Morphology and evaluation of inicial growth of Bactris gasipaes Kunth. seedlings in different substrata

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    Vanessa Lorencini da Silva

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve por objetivos descrever a morfologia dos diásporos, as fases da germinação e determinar o substrato mais adequado para o crescimento inicial de plântulas de pupunha. Periodicamente, unidades representativas de cada fase de germinação foram retiradas para a descrição da seqüência dos eventos morfológicos. Os substratos usados para o crescimento inicial foram Plantmax HT, areia, terra (latossolo roxo e outro com proporções iguais de terra, areia e esterco (TAE. Avaliou-se o crescimento inicial das plântulas aos 101 dias após o transplante, com base na sua altura, número de folhas, comprimento e largura das folhas. Observou-se que as sementes são albuminosas, com endosperma oleaginoso e de consistência relativamente dura. O embrião é lateral, periférico e relativamente indiferenciado, de forma cônica. A germinação inicia-se com o desenvolvimento de uma massa de células indiferenciadas na depressão micropilar. Posteriormente, esta massa de células torna-se cilíndrica, com a diferenciação dos primórdios caulinar e radicular. O primórdio caulinar é constituído por três bainhas envolvendo a primeira folha. Estas se abrem sucessivamente, permitindo a emergência da folha primária. Entre os substratos testados, de acordo com os parâmetros avaliados, os mais adequados para crescimento inicial de mudas de Bactris gasipaes Kunth foram o TAE e o Plantmax.This work aimed to describe the morphology of the diaspore, the phases of germination and to determine the most adequate substratum for germination and development of peach palm. Periodically, representative units of each phase of germination had been removed for the description of the sequence of the morphological events. The used substrata for germination and initial growth were Plantmax HT, sand, rich soil and another one with equal ratios of soil, sand and manure (SSM. It was evaluated the percentage and the speed of germination and the initial

  13. Atividade antioxidante e captora de radicais livres dos extratos de Achyrocline alata (Kunth. DC. em comparação com extratos de Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC. Antioxidant and free radical scavenging effects in extracts of the Achyrocline alata (Kunth DC. in comparison with the extracts of the Achyrocline satureioides (LAM. DC.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafaela F. Grassi-Zampieron

    2009-06-01

    Full Text Available Achyrocline alata (Kunth. DC. e Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC., espécies pertencentes à família Asteraceae, são utilizadas na medicina popular de Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, como plantas sucedâneas. O presente trabalho teve com objetivo comparar os extratos obtidos dessas espécies através de ensaios químicos simples destinados a testar as atividades antioxidante e captora de radicais livres, utilizando como modelo β-caroteno e DPPH, respectivamente. Tais ensaios revelaram que os extratos de A. satureioides foram mais ativos como captores de radicais livres do que os extratos obtidos de A. alata. Todos os experimentos foram feitos em triplicata, utilizando quercetina como padrão.Achyrocline alata (Kunth. DC. and Achyrocline satureioides (Lam. DC. are species belonging to the family Asteraceae widely used in the folk medicine of Campo Grande, Mato Grosso do Sul, being considered substitute plants. The present work aimed to compare the obtained extracts of these species to simple chemical assays, in order to test the antioxidant activity and free radical scavenging, using β-carotene and DPPH as reference, respectively. With these assays it was observed that the obtained extracts of Achyrocline satureioides were more active, as free radical scavenging, than the same obtained extracts of Achyrocline alata. These chemical assays were compared to a known patterned, quercetin, and and they were dealt under triplicate basis.

  14. EFECTO DE LA LUZ Y DEL ÁCIDO GIBERÉLICO (AG3 EN LA GERMINACIÓN DE Minthostachys mollis KUNTH. GRISEB.(LABIATAE Effect of Light and Giberellic Acid (AG3 on the Germination of Minthostachys mollis Kunth. Griseb. (Labiatae

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    DIEGO SUÁREZ

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Minthostachys mollis (Kunth Griseb., es un arbusto perenne que crece en la región andina de Colombia; es ampliamente utilizada por las comunidades rurales donde es valorado por sus propiedades medicinales. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la luz (luz roja, luz blanca y luz natural y del ácido giberélico (0, 5, 15, 25 ppm en el proceso de germinación de M. mollis. Se encontró inhibición de la germinación bajo condiciones de oscuridad. No se observó efecto de AG3 sobre la germinación. Los porcentajes de germinación fueron superiores a 80% para los tratamientos con luz (semilla fotoblástica positiva, donde el tratamiento con luz roja tuvo el efecto más significativo sobre el proceso de germinación.Minthostachys mollis (Kunth Griseb., is a perennial shrub that grows in the Andean region of Colombia; this species is widely used by rural communities where it is valued for its medicinal properties. The aim of this study was to determine the effect of light (red light, white light, and natural light and gibberellic acid (0, 5, 15, 25 ppm on the process of germination of M. mollis. We found a strong inhibition of germination under conditions of darkness. We do not observe effect of AG3 on germination. The germination percentages obtained were above 80% (positive photoblastic seeds for the three proposed lighting treatments where red-light treatment had a most significant effect on the germination process.

  15. Calagem e adubação orgânica na produção de biomassa e óleo essencial em Lippia citriodora (Kunth Liming and organic fertilization on Lippia citriodora (Kunth phytomass and essential oil production

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    M.F. Souza

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available O presente trabalho objetivou avaliar a calagem e adubação orgânica na produção de biomassa e óleo essencial em Lippia citriodora Kunth. O delineamento experimental utilizado constou de fatorial 7 x 2, sendo sete tratamentos (testemunha; adição de sulfato de Ca e Mg; calcário dolomítico; silicato de Ca e Mg; sulfato de Ca e Mg + esterco de curral; calcário dolomítico + esterco de curral; silicato de Ca e Mg + esterco de curral e duas épocas de colheita, com quatro repetições, inteiramente casualizado (DIC. Verificou-se que a correção do solo mostrou-se prática necessária para o desenvolvimento da Lippia citriodora. Independentemente da época de colheita, a produção de massa fresca e seca foi maior com a aplicação do esterco de curral (32 t ha-1, no entanto, isso não refletiu em maior rendimento de óleo essencial.The present work aimed to evaluate the effect of liming and bovine fertilization on Lippia citriodora Kunth phytomass and essential oil production. The experimental design was completely randomized with seven treatments (control; Ca and Mg sulfate; limestone; Ca and Mg silicate; Ca and Mg sulfate + manure; limestone + manure; Ca and Mg silicate + manure and two harvest seasons, with four replicates. Soil adjustment showed to be a necessary procedure for Lippia citriodora development. Independently of the harvest season, fresh and dry matter yields were higher under treatments with bovine manure (32 t ha-1; however, no effect of treatments was observed on essential oil concentration.

  16. Estudo da variação sazonal e circadiana da composição química do óleo essencial de Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth) O. Berg

    OpenAIRE

    Godinho, Wilson Muanis

    2011-01-01

    O Cerrado apresenta grande diversidade de espécies vegetais nativas, muito utilizadas na medicina popular e com pouco ou nenhum estudo científico. Entre essas espécies, destaca-se a Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth) O. Berg (Myrtaceae), conhecida como “Maria-preta”, “Guamirim” ou “Murta”. A medicina tradicional recomenda o uso das folhas na forma de infusão, como antidiarreico, contra infecções urinárias e respiratórias. Estudos evidenciam atividade antimicrobiana do óleo essencial e leishma...

  17. Determinación de la relación de poisson de la guadua angustifolia kunth a partir de procesamientos de imágenes y su relación con la estructura interna.

    OpenAIRE

    OSORIO SARAZ, JAIRO ALEXANDER; Vélez Restrepo,Juan Manuel; Ciro Velásquez, Héctor José

    2011-01-01

    En esta investigación se propuso determinar los valores de la relación de Poisson para la Guadua angustifolia Kunth, en la cepa y la basa del culmo, además de analizar la incidencia que ejerce la estructura interna en dicha propiedad. Los resultados indicaron que la relación de Poisson depende significativamente de la estructura del material variando entre 0,22 y 0,35 haciéndolo un producto biológico altamente heterogéneo y anisotrópico. Además, los análisis de estructura interna de tejido co...

  18. Composição química volátil e não-volátil de Eupatorium ballotifolium Kunth, Asteraceae

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    Maria Rose Jane R. Albuquerque

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho descreve a composição química dos óleos essenciais e o isolamento de onze substâncias de Eupatorium ballotifolium Kunth, Asteraceae. Os óleos essenciais foram obtidos por hidrodestilação, analisados por CG-EM e avaliados quanto às suas atividades frente à enzima acetilcolinesterase. O rendimento dos óleos foi de 0,11% para as folhas e 0,03% para os talos. Os principais constituintes dos óleos foram os sesquiterpenos β-cariofileno (24,9 e 22,2%, espatulenol (17,7 e 12,4% e epóxi-allo-aromadendreno (23,0 e 23,6%. Do extrato hexânico da parte aérea foi isolada a mistura de β-sitosterol e estigmasterol, incluindo suas formas glicosiladas, e os triterpenos acetato de taraxasterila e taraxasterol, enquanto, do extrato etanólico foram isolados os flavonóides nepetina and 3-O-glicosil-quercetina. Do extrato hexânico das raízes foram isolados os triterpenos epi-friedelanol e damara-20,24-dien-3β-ol e do extrato etanólico a cumarina 11-hidroxi-11,12-di-hidroobliquina. As estruturas de todos os compostos foram determinadas usando técnicas espectroscópica tais como IV, EM e RMN ¹H e 13C.This work describes the chemical composition of the essential oils and the isolation of eleven substances from Eupatorium ballotifolium Kunth, Asteraceae. The essential oils were obtained by hydrodistillation, analyzed by GC/MS and evaluated towards the acetylcholinesterase enzyme. The oils yield was of 0.11% for the leaves and 0.03% for the stems. The main constituents of the oils were the sesquiterpenes β-caryophyllene (24.9 and 22.2%, spathulenol (17.7 and 12.4% and epoxy-allo-aromadendrene (23.0 and 23.6%. From the hexane extract of the aerial part were isolated a mixture of sitosterol and stigmasterol, its glucosides, and the triterpenes taraxasteryl acetate and taraxasterol, while from the ethanol extract were obtained the flavonoids nepetin and 3-O-glucoside-quercetin. The triterpenes epi-friedelanol and dammara-20,24-dien-3

  19. Anti-inflammatory activity of Choisya ternata Kunth essential oil, ternanthranin, and its two synthetic analogs (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilates.

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    Mariana Martins Gomes Pinheiro

    Full Text Available Choisya ternata Kunth (Rutaceae is native to North America where it is popularly known as "Mexican orange". In this study, the anti-inflammatory effects of the essential oil (EO obtained from the leaves of C. ternata, one of its minor components (ternanthranin-ISOAN and its two synthetic analogues (methyl and propyl N-methylanthranilate--MAN and PAN were evaluated. Mice pretreated with the EO (EO obtained from C. ternata leaves (3-100 mg/kg, p.o., ISOAN, MAN or PAN (1-30 mg/kg, p.o. and the reference drugs, morphine (1 mg/kg, p.o. and acetylsalicylic acid (ASA, 100 mg/kg, p.o., were evaluated in inflammation models such as formalin and subcutaneous air pouch models, with measurement of cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravasation, nitric oxide and pro-inflammatory cytokines. The EO from C. ternata significantly inhibited the time that the animals spent licking the formalin-injected paw in the second phase of the model at their higher doses (30 and 100 mg/kg, respectively. An inhibition of the inflammatory reaction induced after subcutaneous carrageenan injection into air pouch was also observed. In this model, the EO significantly reduced cell migration, exudate volume, protein extravased, and the increase in levels of inflammatory mediators (nitric oxide, TNF-α and IL-1β. ISOAN, MAN and PAN behaved in the same fashion at much smaller doses. Also, these molecules were able to show significant effects in the reduction of paw edema (at all tested doses when the phlogistic agent was carrageenan, bradykinin, 5-HT, PGE2, C48/80 or 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-acetate (TPA. None of the tested doses had any effect in reducing histamine-induced edema. Our results indicate that the EO from C. ternata and anthranilate derivatives demonstrates an anti-inflammatory effect.

  20. Determinação de taninos e metilxantinas no guaraná em pó (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência Determination of tannins and methylxanthines in powdered guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae by high performance liquid chromatography

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    Sandra A. Sousa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available As sementes de guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae são utilizadas como estimulante e os principais constituintes químicos são as metilxantinas e os taninos, tais como catequina e epicatequina. Este trabalho teve por objetivo investigar um método por cromatografia líquida de alta eficiência (CLAE para quantificar, simultaneamente, cafeína, teofilina, teobromina, catequina e epicatequina em pó de guaraná. Os valores obtidos foram comparados com os resultados encontrados no método espectrofotométrico da Farmacopéia Brasileira IV ed. Pelo método cromatográfico, os teores de metilxantinas e taninos totais foram de 4,04% e 1,48%, respectivamente. Os teores de metilxantinas e taninos totais, obtidos pelo método espectrofotométrico, foram de 4,88% e 4,05%, respectivamente. Acredita-se que, nas condições experimentais empregadas, o método espectrofotométrico não foi específico, quantificando outras substâncias fenólicas presentes no guaraná. Portanto, sugere-se o emprego desse método cromatográfico no controle de qualidade do guaraná em pó, por ser preciso, sensível, específico e rápido.The seeds of Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae, are used as a stimulant and the main chemical constituents are the methylxanthines and tannins, as catechin and epicatechin. This study aimed to investigate a method by high performance liquid chromatography (HPLC to quantify both caffeine, theophylline, theobromine, catechin and epicatechin in powdered of P. cupana. The values obtained were compared with the results of the spectrophotometric method of the Brazilian Pharmacopoeia IV ed. For the chromatographic method, the levels of methylxanthines and total tannins were 4.04% and 1.48%, respectively. The levels of methylxanthines and total tannins obtained by the spectrophotometric method, were 4.88% and 4.05%, respectively. It is believed that, under our experimental conditions, the spectrophotometric method was not specific and

  1. Chemical composition and antifungal activity of Piper auritum Kunth and Piper holtonii C. DC. against phytopathogenic fungi Composición química y actividad antifúngica de Piper auritum Kunth y Piper holtonii C. DC. contra hongos fitopatogénicos

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    Rodrigo Pineda M

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available The growth of fungi during pre - and postharvest of fruits may cause spoilage and result in a reduction in quality and quantity. The aim of the present work was to investigate the efficacy of four extracts (n-hexane, dichlorometane, ethyl acetate, and methanol and the essential oil of Piper auritum Kunth and P. holtonii C. DC. on the growth inhibition of three important postharvest pathogens of fruits (Colletotrichum acutatum, C. gloeosporioides, and Botryodiplodia theobromae. The in vitro antifungal activity was assayed following the poisoned food technique. The results showed that both n-hexane extract (HE as essential oil (EO displayed a relative good control against the three pathogens, being the originating materials of P. holtonii the most actives. Mycelial growth of C. acutatum, C. gloeosporioides, and B. theobromae was significantly inhibited at 400 μg mL-1. Additionally, the chemical composition of the bioactive materials was analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS. Safrole (64.54/56.88% and apiol (64.24/57.20% were the major constituents of the EO/HE from P. auritum and P. holtonii respectively. Structural identification was also confirmed by nuclear magnetic resonance. Both compounds exhibited significant antifungal properties. It can be concluded that EOs/HEs from P. auritum and P. holtonii, and their major constituents, have interesting applications to control plant pathogenic fungi.El crecimiento de hongos durante pre- y poscosecha de frutas puede causar el deterioro y resultar en una reduccion en la calidad y cantidad. El objetivo del presente trabajo fue investigar la eficiencia de cuatro extractos (n-hexano, diclorometano, acetato de etilo, y metanol y el aceite esencial de Piperauritum Kunth y P. holtonii C. DC. en la inhibición del crecimiento de tres importantes patogenos de pre- y poscosecha de frutas (Colletotrichum acutatum, C. gloeosporioides y Botryodiplodia theobromae. La actividad antifúngica in

  2. Determinación de la variación de la resistencia a flexión y módulo de elasticidad longitudinal de la guadua angustifolia kunth, con el contenido de humedad

    OpenAIRE

    Dumar Lobo, Jorge

    2014-01-01

    Se estudió la variación de la resistencia a la flexión y módulo de elasticidad en función del contenido de humedad para la Guadua angustifolia Kunth. La metodología experimental consistió en ensayos de flexión de tres puntos en pequeñas muestras extraídas de la parte inferior, media y superior de las tres partes de la guadua. El contenido de humedad de cada muestra se modificó utilizando una metodología que garantiza una variación controlada entre 0% y 25%. Con los datos experimentales y el a...

  3. Self-activated Carex Meyeriana Kunth-based Porous Carbon Prepared by Direct Carbonization and Its Electrochemical Properties%自活化乌拉草基多孔碳的制备和电化学性质

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王昀; 贲腾; 裘式纶

    2016-01-01

    Porous carbon material UlaC-950-HF( Ula stands for Carex meyeriana Kunth, C is short for carbo-nized, 950 is the optimized temperature, and HF is the etchant) was prepared through direct carbonization of Carex meyeriana Kunth after necessary impurity removal. The precursor self-activated in the process of pyroly-sis. The electrochemical measurements of the UlaC-950-HF sample and several other carbonized biomass-based porous carbon materials were carried out. The results revealed that the capacitance of UlaC-950-HF was 113 F/g. In addition, the electrode showed excellent cycling stability as its specific capacitance decreased only by 4 F/g after 4000 voltammetry cycles, showing its potential of being applied in the supercapacitor electrode material.%以乌拉草为原料,采用直接碳化方法,通过热解过程中前驱体自活化(即利用自身包含的活化剂实现分子内的化学活化),并经过必要的除杂过程制备了多孔碳材料UlaC-950-HF.测试了该多孔碳的电化学性质,并与以几种常见的生物质为原料制备的多孔碳材料及商用活性炭的电化学性质进行对比.结果表明,乌拉草基多孔碳材料UlaC-950-HF的电容值为113 F/g,经过4000次循环后,材料的电容值仅降低了4 F/g,显示出用作超级电容器电极材料的潜力.

  4. Aves endêmicas e ameaçadas de extinção da Estação Ecológica de Xitué e a contribuição do taquaruçu Guadua tagoara (Nees Kunth para a riqueza local. Endemic and threatened birds of the Xitué Ecological Station and the contribution of the bamboo Guadua tagoara (Nees Kunth to local richness.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alexsander Zamorano ANTUNES

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available O contínuo ecológico da Serra deParanapiacaba, no sul do Estado de São Paulo,é uma área de extrema importância para aconservação das aves. Dentro do contínuo, a EstaçãoEcológica de Xitué é a Unidade de Conservaçãocuja avifauna é menos conhecida. Em levantamentoefetuado em 2006 foram registradas em Xitué48 espécies endêmicas da Mata Atlântica e 8ameaçadas de extinção. Apesar de ser a espécievegetal dominante em vastos trechos da estação,o taquaruçu Guadua tagoara (Nees Kunth parececontribuir pouco para a riqueza de espécies de avesencontradas. No entanto, entre estas espécies seencontra o criticamente ameaçado papa-capim-dataquaraSporophila falcirostris, granívoroespecializado em sementes de taquaras.The Paranapiacaba Range ecologicalcontinuum, in State of São Paulo southernBrazil, is an extremely important area to birdconservation. In Paranapiacaba Range the birds ofXitué Ecological Station remains poorly known.We surveyed the Xitué birds in 2006 and we found48 Atlantic Forest endemics species and 8 threatened.Although the bamboo Guadua tagoara (NeesKunth dominate many areas of Xitué, it contributedtoo little for bird richness. However, between thesebird species was the critically endangered Temminck’sSeedeater Sporophila falcirostris, specializedbamboo granivorous.

  5. Efficacy of 15 Herbicides on Eriochloa villosa (Thunb.) Kunth%15种除草剂对野黍的防治效果

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭玉莲; 黄春艳; 黄元炬; 王宇; 朴德万

    2014-01-01

    为筛选出有效防除大豆、玉米田野黍的除草剂,采用盆栽试验研究了4%烟嘧磺隆悬浮剂、69 g/L精唑禾草灵水乳剂、15%精吡氟禾草灵乳油、12.5%烯禾啶乳油等15种除草剂对野黍的防治效果。结果表明,在温室盆栽条件下,3种土壤处理除草剂90%乙草胺乳油、33%二甲戊灵乳油、48%异草松乳油在有效剂量1620、1125、1100.25 g/hm2(推荐药量的平均药量)时,施药后40 d,对野黍的株数防效及鲜重防效均为100%。4种茎叶处理剂69 g/L精唑禾草灵水乳剂(含安全剂喷雾量3%~5%)、50 g/L精喹禾灵乳油、108 g/L高效氟吡甲禾灵乳油及12.5%烯禾啶乳油在56.93、48.75、60.75、450 g/hm2(推荐药量的平均药量)时,施药后30 d株数防效和鲜重防效均为100%。%To select effective herbicides to control Eriochloa villosa ( Thunb.) Kunth in soybean and maize fields ,a pot culture experiment was conducted using 15 herbicides .The pre-emergence herbicides ,acetochlor 90%EC,pendimethal-in 33%EC and clomazone 48%EC at doses of 1 620,1 125,and 1 100 g/hm2,respectively,provided 100%control at 40 days after spraying in greenhouse .The post-emergence herbicides ,fenoxaprop-p-ethyl 69g/L EW containing 3%~5%safener,quizalofop-p-ethyl 50 g/L EC,haloxyfop-r-methyl 108 g/L EC and sethoxydim 12.5%EC,at doses of 57,49,61,and 450 g/hm2,respectively,controlled 100%E.villosa at 30 days after spraying.

  6. Field evaluation of seven grasses for use in the revegetation of lands disturbed by coal mining in Central Queensland

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Harwood, M.R.; Hacker, J.B.; Mott, J.J. [University of Queensland, St. Lucia, Qld. (Australia). Centre for Mined Land Rehabilitation

    1999-07-01

    Pasture-based systems, dominated by the tussock forming Cenchrus cilliaris cv. Biloela (buffel grass) and the stoloniferous Chloris gayana cv. Pioneer (rhodes grass), are commonly used in the revegetation of lands disturbed by coal mining in the Bowen Basin of Central Queensland. Although able to establish quickly under favourable conditions, neither species has proven entirely suitable for use in this situation, particularly in providing effective ground cover for erosion control on the re-contoured post-mining landscape. The aim of this study was to evaluate a range of new pasture grasses, with the objective of identifying accessions better adapted to the climatic conditions of the areas requiring revegetation.

  7. Tolerancia a la inundación de especies gramíneas forrajeras megatérmicas : bases ecofisiológicas relacionadas con su instalación y producción

    OpenAIRE

    Imaz, José Augusto

    2013-01-01

    La inundación es un factor importante que afecta la implantación y producción de especies forrajeras en ecosistemas de pastizales anegables. Chloris gayana K. y Panicum coloratum L. son dos gramíneas tropicales cuyo uso como forrajera en ambientes templados se ha incrementado recientemente. En esta tesis se realizaron dos experimentos para evaluar la tolerancia de estas especies a eventos de inundación en los estadíos de plántula (implantación, Exp. 1)y de planta adulta (producción, Exp. 2). ...

  8. Detection of Hexaploid and Mechanisms of Polyploidy Formation in Allium wallichii Kunth%六倍体多星韭的发现及多星韭种内倍性组成及演化的分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邹晓菊; 黄瑞复; 翟书华

    2013-01-01

    采用染色体常规制片技术,对云南西北部和中部地区11个多星韭居群进行了细胞学分析.结果显示:(1)云南西北部多星韭二倍体、四倍体混合分布的太子阁和华首门四倍体居群中发现了三倍体(2n=3x=21),核型公式分别为:2n=3x=21=6m(2sat)+ 8sm]+(3m+4sm)和2n=3x=21=[4m(2sat)+ 10sm]+(2m+4sm十lst).三倍体含2条随体染色体,它的21条染色体含2个同源染色体组和一个与它们同源性稍差的染色体组.(2)在云南中部的多星韭四倍体居群中首次发现了六倍体,核型公式为2n=6x=42=15m(3sat)+27sm,核型类型2A.(3)结合核型特征及地理分布对多星韭三倍体和六倍体的成因进行分析,提示多星韭三倍体来源于二倍体与四倍体的杂交,六倍体是通过四倍体产生的未减数配子(n=4x=28)与正常减数配子(n=2x=14)的结合形成的.本研究结果支持多星韭的分化中心是云南西北部高海拔地区的观点,并结合前人的研究和本工作的结果,对多星韭种内的倍性组成和演化进行了分析和讨论.%In this study,we examined the chromosomes numbers and karyotypes of 11 populations of Allium wallichii Kunth from the northwest and central region of Yunnan.(1)Triploid individuals were found in two tetraploid populations which grew near diploid populations.The karyotypes were 2n=3x=21 =[6m (2sat) +8sm] + (3m+ 4sm) and 2n=3x=21 =[4m(2sat) + 10sm] + (2m+ 4sm+ lst),respectively.(2)Hexaploid seeds were found in tetraploid population for the first time.The karyotype were 2n=6x=42 =15m(3sat)+27sm.(3)Considering the karyotypes and cytogeographic information,it can be inferred that the triploid was formed via hybrid between diploid and tetraploid,while fusion of an unreduced tetraploid gamete(n=4x=28) with a reduced diploid gamete(n=2x=14) formed hexaploid.Our results supported that A.wallichii Kunth originated in the high elevation region of northwest Yunnan.In addition,combining both previous studies and our present

  9. Estudo farmacognóstico e atividade in vitro sobre a coagulação sanguínea e agregação plaquetária das folhas de Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae Pharmacognostic study and in vitro activity on blood coagulation and platelet aggregation of leaves of Passiflora nitida Kunth (Passifloraceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria José de Carvalho

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Passiflora (Passifloraceae é utilizado principalmente para tratar doenças do SNC e cardiovasculares. A espécie Passiflora nitida Kunth é comumente conhecida como “maracujá-do-mato". A literatura relata o consumo in natura dos frutos desta espécie pela população local para distúrbios gastrointestinais. Considerando o potencial farmacológico do gênero, este trabalho teve por objetivo realizar estudo de caracterização fitoquímica desta espécie e estudar os efeitos dos extratos aquoso (EA, etanólico (EE e hexânico (EH de suas folhas sobre a coagulação sanguínea e agregação plaquetária. Para a caracterização fitoquímica foram realizados testes de cromatografia em camada delgada e ressonância magnética nuclear. O efeito dos extratos sobre a coagulação foi avaliado pelos testes de tempo de protrombina (TP e tempo de tromboplastina parcial ativada (TTPa. O efeito sobre a agregação plaquetária foi avaliado em plasma rico em plaquetas por método espectrofotométrico, usando adenosina difosfato (ADP e adrenalina (ADR como indutores da agregação. Os extratos EA, EE e EH apresentaram atividade coagulante pelo teste do TP e o EE apresentou atividade anticoagulante para o TTPa. Quando induzidos por ADP, os extratos EA, EE e EH apresentaram valores de concentração inibitória 50% (CI50, µg/mL de 450,5 ± 50,7; 511,2 ± 35,5 e 394,4 ± 8,9, respectivamente, e quando induzidos por ADR apresentaram valores de 438,7 ± 5,2; 21,0 ± 1,9 e 546,9 ± 49,9, respectivamente. O EE apresentou atividade inibitória sobre a agregação. A caracterização fitoquímica foi sugestiva da presença de flavonóides e cumarinas, aos quais podem ser atribuídos, em parte, os efeitos biológicos estudados.The Passiflora genus (Passifloraceae is mainly used to treat CNS and cardiovascular diseases. The Passiflora nitida Kunth species is commonly known as “maracujá-do-mato". The literature reports the in natura consumption of

  10. Características físico-químicas e produtividade de acessos de Passiflora nitida Kunth procedentes do Centro-Norte do Brasil Physical and chemical characteristics and yield of Passiflora nitida Kunth accessions from North and Central regions of Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nilton Tadeu Vilela Junqueira

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O maracujá-suspiro (Passiflora nitida Kunth é uma espécie silvestre amplamente distribuída no território nacional. Tem alto potencial para o melhoramento visando à resistência a diversas doenças que provocam perdas expressivas em cultivos comerciais de maracujá-azedo (Passiflora edulis Sims. Seus frutos são comestíveis e têm elevado valor comercial como fruta fresca. Dessa forma, esse estudo teve como objetivo analisar as características físicas e químicas dos frutos e determinar, em condições de campo, o rendimento de dez acessos de P. nitida procedentes de estados e/ou de diferentes tipos fitofisionômicos das regiões Centro - Norte do Brasil. O experimento foi conduzido na Embrapa Cerrados, localizada em Planaltina, Distrito Federal. Os acessos avaliados foram coletados em Manaus-AM, de capoeira; no Núcleo Rural São José - DF, de chapada e de vereda; no Vale do Amanhecer - DF, de vereda; Jardim Botânico-DF, de Cerrado Stricto Sensu; em Silvânia-GO, de mata ciliar e de chapada; em Itiquira - MT, de Cerrado Stricto Sensu; em Alto Paraíso-GO, de chapada, e em Natividade-TO, de chapada. O delineamento estatístico foi em blocos casualizados, com quatro repetições e três plantas úteis por repetição. As plantas foram propagadas por estacas enraizadas de cada acesso e conduzidas em espaldeiras verticais de 1,80 metro de altura, com irrigação por gotejamento. As avaliações foram feitas durante as colheitas de 2006 e 2007. O acesso do Vale do Amanhecer apresentou o melhor rendimento de frutos. Este acesso pode ser usado no programa de melhoramento visando à inserção de P. nitida no mercado. Também foi possível observar que as fontes provenientes do Cerrado têm características físicas mais desejáveis, produzindo frutos maiores e com melhor rendimento em polpa. Por outro lado, o acesso do Amazonas teve a menor espessura da casca, característica desejável para o mercado de frutas naturais.The passion fruit

  11. Salt tolerance of the invasive vine Mikania micrantha Kunth%入侵藤本薇甘菊的耐盐能力

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡亮; 李鸣光; 韦萍萍

    2014-01-01

    Mikania micrantha Kunth is a noxious invasive species in tropical and subtropical regions. This weed has been found to grow on the coast of the Pearl River Delta and off-coast islands in China. In the present study, we assessed the salt tolerance of M. micrantha seeds, roots, and stems separately. Seed germination and seedling growth in different concentrations of NaCl were tested for three M. micrantha populations and six common species (Eupatorium catarium, Ageratum conyzoides, Crassocephalum crepidioides, Bidens pilosa, Pterocypsela indica, and Ipomoea triloba) in the Pearl River Delta. Seed germination of M. micrantha, E. catarium, A. conyzoides, and B. pilosa were tested after 3, 6, and 12 days of submergence in different concentrations of NaCl to determine whether seeds can be transferred by seawater. Responses of submerged cultured M. micrantha root and stem in different concentrations of NaCl were also recorded to determine whether the weed can disperse by vegetative propagation in coastal saline soils. Experiments produced the following results. 1) In general, the seed germination rates of M. micrantha did not differ significantly from those of the controls at ≤0.6% salinity, and the highest threshold value of 1.5% was greater than those for all control species. Radicle and seedling height growth rates of M. micrantha were less suppressed than those of control plants under the same salinity stress. 2) In comparison with controls, no significant decline in germination rate was observed in treated (submerged in up to 3.0%NaCl for up to 12 days) M. micrantha, A. conyzoides, or E. catarium, whereas submergence in 3.0%NaCl for 12 days caused a significant decline in B. pilosa. However, seedlings of all four tested species grew well. 3) All tested M. micrantha plants survived 0.5%salinity stress to root systems, with a decline in the average seedling height growth rate to 53.3%those of controls;95%of tested plants survived up to 1.0%salinity stress to root

  12. Utilização do ácido giberélico para a quebra de dormência de sementes de Passiflora nitida Kunth germinadas in vitro Gibberelic acid utilization for dormancy break in Passiflora nitida Kunth seeds in vitro germinated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilene Ribeiro da Silva Passos

    2004-08-01

    Full Text Available A obtenção de um protocolo para o estabelecimento in vitro de plantas provenientes de sementes de Passiflora spp. é muito importante para se obterem plantas assépticas, além de proporcionarem oportunidade de manutenção de bancos de germoplasma in vitro. O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito de diferentes doses de ácido giberélico (0; 500 e 1000 mg.L-1, efeito da luz ou de sua ausência, na germinação in vitro de sementes de P. nitida Kunth. Dois experimentos foram efetuados para avaliar esses parâmetros. O delineamento experimental foi o inteiramente casualizado, sendo que cada parcela constou de um frasco com cinco sementes, com dez repetições por tratamento. Para comparação entre os tratamentos, utilizou-se, como parte da estatística descritiva, a comparação de intervalos de confiança das médias por meio do teste t. Como testemunha, para se verificar se o protocolo de imersão de sementes em água e o processo de descontaminação não prejudicavam a viabilidade das sementes, germinaram-se in vitro 100 sementes de Passiflora edulis recém-colhidas. O maior número médio de sementes germinadas foi obtido com a utilização de 1.000 mg.L-1 de ácido giberélico. Não se verificou efeito significativo da luz/escuro sobre a germinação das sementes.The establishment of an in vitro protocol for plants risen from seeds of Passiflora spp is important to guarantee aseptic plants. It could be also an opportunity to maintain an in vitro germoplasma bank. Because Passiflora nitida presents dormancy in seeds, the aim of this paper was to verify the effect in seed germination of different doses of gibberellic acid (GA3 (0, 500 and 1000 mg.L-1, under light or dark. The seeds were germinated in half-strength Murashige & Skoog medium. The experimental design was fully randomized one, with ten replicates per treatment. The experimental unit was considered to be a flask (30 mL of medium with five seeds each. A hundred of P

  13. Scientific Opinion on the substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea extracts and reduction of body weight pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Following an application from Nutrilinks Sarl, submitted pursuant to Article 13(5 of Regulation (EC No 1924/2006 via the Competent Authority of Cyprus, the Panel on Dietetic Products, Nutrition and Allergies (NDA was asked to deliver an opinion on the scientific substantiation of a health claim related to a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea extracts and reduction of body weight. The Panel considers that the food constituent which is the subject of the health claim is sufficiently characterised. The claimed effect, reduction of body weight, is a beneficial physiological effect for overweight subjects. One human intervention study from which no conclusions could be drawn for the scientific substantiation of the claim was provided by the applicant. The Panel concludes that a cause and effect relationship has not been established between the consumption of a combination of Paullinia cupana Kunth (guarana and Camellia sinensis (L. Kuntze (green tea extracts and a reduction in body weight.

  14. Control Effects of Six Herbicides on Different Leaf Age Eriochloa villosa (Thunb.) Kunth.%稀禾啶、烯草酮等6种除草剂对不同叶龄期野黍的防治效果比较

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何付丽; 陈丽丽; 郭晓慧; 黄长权; 赵长山

    2013-01-01

    The influences of different foliar-applied herbicides and application time on control effects against Eriochloa villosa (Thunb. ) Kunth. were investigated through pot-culture method. The results showed that Eriochloa villosa (Thunb. ) Kunth. could be controlled before 3 leaf age. The later herbicides applied,the worse control effects obtained,and the larger dosage needed. In order to control the 1-1.5 leaf age Eriochloa villosa (Thunb. ) Kunth. , it should apply: sethoxydim 12.5% EC, clethodim 240g/L EC, haloxyfop-P-methyl 10. 8% EC, fluazifop-P-butyl 15 % EC, quizalofop-P-ethyl 5 % EC and quizalofop-P-tefuryl 40g/L. EC was applied in a dosage of 131.25 g a. i. / hm2,90.00g a. i. /hm2,64. 80g a. i. /hm2,135.00g a. i. /hm2,71. 25g a. i. /hm2,36.00g a. i. /hm2,respectively. To control the 3 -3. 5 leaf age Eriochloa villosa (Thunb. ) Kunth. ,sethoxydim 12. 5% EC and haloxyfop-P-methyl 10. 8% EC could be applied,the application rate was 168. 75g a. i. /hm2 and 97. 20g a. i. /hm2,respectively. Sethoxydim 12. 5% EC could be exclusively used to control 4 and larger leaf age Eriochloa villosa (Thunb. ) Kunth at the dosage of 187. 50g a. i. /hm2.%为筛选出有效防治大豆田野黍的茎叶处理除草剂并探索适宜施药时期,采用盆栽试验研究了稀禾啶、烯草酮、高效氟吡甲禾灵、精吡氟禾草灵、精喹禾灵、喹禾糠酯对不同叶龄期野黍的防治效果.结果表明,防治一叶期至二叶一心期野黍可施用12.5%稀禾啶机油乳油131.25ga.i./hm2、240g/L烯草酮乳油90.00g a.i./hm2、10.8%高效氟吡甲禾灵乳油64.80g a.i./hm2、15%精吡氟禾草灵乳油135.00g a.i./hm2、5%精喹禾灵乳油71.25g a.i./hm2、40g/L喹禾糠酯乳油36.00g a.i./hm2,防治三叶期至三叶一心期野黍可施用12.5%稀禾啶机油乳油168.75g a.i./hm2、10.8%高效氟吡甲禾灵乳油97.20g a.i./hm2,仅12.5%稀禾啶机油乳油能有效防治四叶期以上野黍,施药量至少187.50g a.i./hm2.

  15. Antiprotozoal alkaloids from Psychotria prunifolia (Kunth) Steyerm

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kato, Lucilia; Oliveira, Cecilia M.A. de; Faria, Emiret O.; Ribeiro, Laryssa C.; Carvalho, Brenda G., E-mail: lucilia@quimica.ufg.br [Instituto de Quimica, Universidade Federal de Goias, Campus II, Samambaia, Goiania, GO (Brazil); Silva, Cleuza C. da; Santin, Silvana M.O. [Departamento de Quimica, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, Maringa, PR (Brazil); Schuque, Ivania T.A.; Nakamura, Celso V.; Britta, Elisandra A.; Miranda, Nathielle [Departamento de Farmacia e Farmacologia, Universidade Estadual de Maringa, PR (Brazil); Iglesias, Amadeu H. [Waters Technologies do Brasil LTDA, Barueri, SP (Brazil); Delprete, Piero G. [VHerbier de Guyane, Institut de Recherche pour le Developpement (IRD), UMR AMAP, French Guiana (France)

    2012-07-01

    The continuity of the phyto chemical study of crude extracts of P. prunifolia's roots and branches led to the isolation of five indole-{beta}-carboline alkaloids. Among them, the 10-hydroxy-iso-deppeaninol and N-oxide-10-hydroxy-antirhine derivatives are described here for the first time. The structures were achieved through 1D and 2D NMR, IR and HRMS analyses. The branches and roots crude extracts and the alkaloids 14-oxoprunifoleine and strictosamide showed selective activity against L. amazonensis, with IC{sub 50} values of 16.0 and 40.7 {mu}g per mL, respectively. (author)

  16. Flavonoides e sesquiterpenos de Croton pedicellatus Kunth

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elton Luz Lopes

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract from leaves of Croton pedicellatus yielded the bis-nor-sesquiterpenes blumenol A and blumenol A glucoside, along with the flavonoids: tiliroside, 6"-O-p-coumaroyl-β-galactopyranosyl- kaempferol, 6"-O-p-coumaroyl-β-glucopyranosyl-3"-methoxy- kaempferol, kaempferol, 3-glucopyranosyl-quercetin and alpinumisoflavone, as well as 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid. The identification of all isolated compounds was performed by spectrometric methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and by comparison with previously-described physical and spectral data.

  17. 秋水仙碱诱导的苏丹草与拟高梁杂交种新材料倍性鉴定%Ploidy identification of hybrid of Sorghum sudanense (Piper) Stapf.×S.propinquum (Kunth) Hitchc.

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔莉莉; 钟小仙; 沈益新; 吴娟子; 刘智微

    2012-01-01

    Interspecific hybrid(CK) of Sorghum sudanense( Piper) Stapf. x Sorghum propinquum( Kunth) Hitchc. and SS2010-1 regenerated from F, embryonic callus treated by colchicine were used as experimental materials. Ploidy determination of SS2010-1 was conducted by seedling morphological characteristics analysis, chromosome number counting, and flow cytometry analysis, and the leaf stomatal apparatus characteristics of the materials were studied. Compared to those of CK, the plant height and leaf length of SS2010-1 were increased by 63.55% (P<0. 05)and 56. 12% (P<0. 05) , respectively, and the leaf width of SS2010-1 was 6.76% wider (P>0. 05). The nuclear DNA contents in SS2010-1 were twice as much as that of CK, and the chromosome number of SS2010-l(2n = 40) was two times as much as that of CK (2n = 20). The results above indicated that the new material SS2010-1 was a tetraploidy. Compared to those of CK, the stomatal apparatus density in upper epidermis of SS2010-1 was decreased by 64. 39% (P<0. 05) , the stomatal apparatus length and width were increased by 29. 33% (P<0. 05) and 15. 99% (P<0. 05) , respectively, and the guard cell width was increased by 18.66% (P<0. 05 ). The stomatal apparatus density in lower epidermis of SS2010-1 was decreased by 39.09% (P<0. 05) , the stomatal apparatus length and width were increased by 23.24% (P<0. 05) and 26. 19% (P<0. 05) , respectively, and the guard cell width was increased by 3.74%(P>0.05).%以苏丹草2098与拟高梁杂交种F1(对照)及秋水仙碱处理的苏丹草与拟高梁杂交种胚性愈伤组织获得的再生植株SS2010-1为材料,通过苗期植株形态学特征观察,结合根尖细胞染色体计数和流式细胞仪对再生植株SS2010-1进行倍性鉴定,并对其叶片表皮气孔器特性进行分析.结果显示:与对照相比,SS2010-1株高和叶长分别增加63.55%和56.12% (P<0.05),叶片宽度增加6.76% (P>0.05);SS2010-1细胞核DNA含量是对照的2倍,另外,

  18. Water use, root activity and deep drainage within a perennial legume-grass pasture: A case study in southern inland Queensland, Australia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Nahuel A. Pachas

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available Water use and depth of water extraction of leucaena (Leucaena leucocephala and Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana pasture, irrigated with desalinated coal seam water (a by-product of the coal seam gas industry, were monitored to provide background information on root activity, spatial and temporal water use and deep drainage over a 757-day period from August 2011 to August 2013. Methodology comprised measurement of soil water from surface to 4 m depth using 8 EnviroSCAN probes connected to dataloggers positioned within leucaena twin rows and within the Rhodes grass inter-row. Just over 581,000 individual moisture measurements were collated and are reported here. Water extraction (and by inference root activity of leucaena and Rhodes grass showed marked seasonal fluctuation with deepest and highest water extraction occurring during the first growing season; water extraction was greatly diminished during the following drier and cooler seasons due to the negative influences of lower soil moisture contents, lower temperatures and increased defoliation on pasture growth. The highest values of deep drainage below 4 m depth occurred when high rainfall events corresponded with high soil water storage in the entire profile (0–4 m depth. Given that water usage by both leucaena and Rhodes grass was greatest in the upper layers of soil (<1.5 m, future research should focus on how the level of competitive interaction might be managed by choice of row spacing and frequency of irrigation. Further studies are needed, including: (a physical sampling to determine the depth of active roots; (b how defoliation affects rooting behaviours and water use of leucaena; and (c modelling of the water and salt balances of leucaena and grass inter-row systems using data from this study, with various levels of irrigation, to investigate the risks of deep drainage over an extended climate sequence.Keywords: Active rooting depth, agroforestry, Chloris gayana, Leucaena leucocephala

  19. Energetic and developmental costs of mounting an immune response in greenfinches (Carduelis chloris)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Amat, Juan A.; Aguilera, Eduardo; Visser, G. Henk

    2007-01-01

    It is assumed that there is a trade-off between the costs allocated to mounting an immune defence and those allocated to costly functions such as breeding and moulting. The physiological basis for this is that mounting an immune response to pathogen challenge has energetic and/or nutrient costs whic

  20. Flavonoids and sesquiterpenes of Croton pedicellatus Kunth; Flavonoides e sesquiterpenos de Croton pedicellatus Kunth.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lopes, Elton Luz; Andrade Neto, Manoel; Silveira, Edilberto Rocha; Pessoa, Otilia Deusdenia Loiola [Universidade Federal do Ceara (UFC), Fortaleza, CE (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica Organica e Inorganica; Braz-Filho, Raimundo [Universidade Estadual do Norte Fluminense (UENF), Campos dos Goytacases, RJ (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica

    2012-07-01

    The chemical investigation of the ethanolic extract from leaves of Croton pedicellatus yielded the bis-nor-sesquiterpenes blumenol A and blumenol A glucoside, along with the flavonoids: tiliroside, 6{sup -}O-p-coumaroyl-{beta}-galactopyranosyl- kaempferol, 6{sup -}O-p-coumaroyl-{beta}-glucopyranosyl-3{sup -}methoxy- kaempferol, kaempferol, 3-glucopyranosyl-quercetin and alpinumisoflavone, as well as 4-hydroxy-3,5-dimethoxybenzoic acid. The identification of all isolated compounds was performed by spectrometric methods, including HR-ESI-MS, 1D and 2D NMR experiments, and by comparison with previously-described physical and spectral data. (author)

  1. Pollination in the Antarctic flowering plant Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Irena Giełwanowska

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Colobanthus quitensis forms chasmogamic and cleistogamic flowers. Their structure signals the possibility of both cross-pollination and self-pollination. In favorable conditions (natural or laboratory, flowers open creating a possibility for cross-pollination. The occurrence of cleistogamy in the investigated species may be conditioned by abiotic factors: low temperature, high air humidity, and strong wind. In closed flowers, a part of pollen grains reaches the stigma surface, and the rest remains inside the microsporangium. Pollen grains germinate on the stigma surface or inside the microsporangium. Often, two or more pollen tubes grow from a single pollen grain. Closed flowers and the direct contact between the style stigma and anther prove the preference for autogamy. Autogamy ensures the reproductive success of the investigated plant in the exceptionally harsh Antarctic environment.

  2. Feed intake and utilization in sheep fed graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf as a supplement to Rhodes grass hay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gebregiorgis, Feleke; Negesse, Tegene; Nurfeta, Ajebu

    2012-03-01

    The effects of feeding graded levels of dried moringa (Moringa stenopetala) leaf on intake, body weight gain (BWG), digestibility and nitrogen utilization were studied using male sheep (BW of 13.8 ± 0.12 kg). Six sheep were randomly allocated to each of the four treatment diets: Rhodes grass (Chloris gayana) hay offered ad libitum (T1), hay + 150 g moringa leaf (T2), hay + 300 g moringa leaf (T3), hay + 450 g moringa leaf (T4) were offered daily. A 7-day digestibility trial and an 84-day growth experiments were conducted. Dry matter (DM), organic matter (OM) and crude protein (CP) intakes increased (P moringa leaf in the diets. Sheep fed T2, T3 and T4 diets gained (P  0.05) among treatments. The digestibility of dietary CP increased (P moringa leaf, but there was no significant difference between T2 and T3 diets. The nitrogen (N) intake and urinary N excretion increased (P moringa leaf. The N retention was highest (P moringa leaf supplementation. The control group was in a negative N balance. Supplementing a basal diet of Rhodes grass hay with dried moringa leaves improved DM intake, BWG and N retention. It is concluded that M. stenopetala can serve as a protein supplement to low-quality grass during the dry season under smallholder sheep production system.

  3. Methane emissions from grazing cattle using point-source dispersion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McGinn, S M; Turner, D; Tomkins, N; Charmley, E; Bishop-Hurley, G; Chen, D

    2011-01-01

    The ability to accurately measure greenhouse gas (GHG) emissions is essential to gauge our ability to reduce these emissions. Enteric methane from ruminants is an important but often difficult source to quantify since it depends on the amount and type of feed intake. Unfortunately, many of the available measurement techniques for estimating enteric methane emissions can impose a change in feed intake. Our study evaluates a nonintrusive technique that uses a novel approach (point-source dispersion with multiple open-path concentrations) to calculate enteric methane emissions from grazing cattle, reported as the major source of GHG in many countries, particularly Australia. A scanner with a mounted open-path laser was used to measure methane concentration across five paths above a paddock containing 18 grazing cattle over 16 d. These data were used along with wind statistics in a dispersion model (WindTrax) to estimate an average herd methane emission rate over 10-mm intervals. Enteric methane emissions from the herd grazing a combination of Rhodes grass (Chlotis gayana Kunth) and Leucaena [Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.)] averaged (+/- SD) 141 (+/- 147) g animal(-1) d(-1). In a release-recovery experiment, the technique accounted for 77% of the released methane at a single point. Our study shows the technique generates more reliable methane emissions during daytime (unstable stratification).

  4. Evaluation of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processed by radiation; Avaliacao do palmito pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) processado por radiacao ionizante

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Priscila Vieira da

    2009-07-01

    The peach palm can be obtained from several species of palms, but the peach palm has attracted great interest by producers, as has characteristics of precocity, rusticity and tillering, producing a palm-quality differentiating it from other palmettos for their sweet flavor and yellowish . The food irradiation has been used as a treatment to ensure microbiological food safety of products to avoid infection. Its use combined with minimal processing could increase the safety and quality of minimally processed vegetables. We aimed at evaluating the effect of gamma radiation and electron beams to control bacteria; assess the physical characteristics through analysis of color and texture in peach palm in natura minimally processed and subjected to ionizing radiation stored at 8 deg C as well as evaluating the sensory characteristics. The results in the microbiological analysis showed that ionizing radiation promotes reduction of microbial load in both treatments. In the analysis of color we can conclude that among all the treatments the sample irradiated with 1.5 kGy showed more differences when compared with the other samples. Observing texture characteristics we could conclude that irradiation changed the texture of the palm, unlike the treatment by electron beams that showed no difference between samples. For the sensory analysis, the gamma radiation with dose of 1.5 kGy, induced changes in sensory properties to the attributes and overall appearance. The dose of 1 kGy caused no significant difference, so a recommended dose for the irradiation of the studied product. (author)

  5. Flavanones from aerial parts of Cordia globosa (Jacq. Kunth, Boraginaceae Flavanonas isoladas das partes aéreas de Cordia globosa (Jacq. Kunth (Boraginaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sâmia Andricia S. da Silva

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available The phytochemical analysis of aerial parts of Cordia globosa, collected in the Municipality of Picuí, State of Paraíba, Brazil, resulted in the isolation and structural identification of narigenin-4',7-dimethyl ether (0.025 g and eriodictyol (0.015 g. These compounds are the first flavanones aglycones isolated from the genus Cordia.A análise fitoquímica das partes aéreas de Cordia globosa, coletadas no município de Picuí, PB, Brasil, resultou no isolamento e identificação estrutural da 7,4'-dimetilnarigenina (0,025 g e eriodictiol (0,015 g. Estas duas flavanonas são as primeiras agliconas, desta classe, isoladas no gênero Cordia.

  6. Seed germination of Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth, under water stress Germinação de sementes de Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth, sob estresse hídrico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lígia M. de M. Silva

    2001-04-01

    Full Text Available Bowdichia virgilioides (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae is a native tree species in Brazil characteristic of the savannah vegetation. Seeds of this species were submitted to different osmotic potentials induced by polyethyleneglycol (PEG-6000 in order to verify their resistance to drought conditions. Seeds were previously scarified with sulphuric acid and incubated at 25 ºC with an eight hours photoperiod, at osmotic potentials of 0.0, -0.1, -0.3, -0.5, -0.7, -0.9 and -1.1 MPa. It was found that water stress resistance limit ranged from -0.7 to -0.9 MPa. Significant reduction in germination velocity from -0.3 MPa, and final percentage of germination from -0.5 MPa in relation to control, were observed. Germination under drastic conditions of water stress was inhibited, but was restored with an increase of water availability.Bowdichia virgilioides (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae é uma espécie arbórea nativa do Brasil, característica da vegetação de cerrado, denominada principalmente de sucupira-preta. Sementes dessa espécie foram escarificadas com ácido sulfúrico e submetidas a diferentes potenciais osmóticos, induzidos por polietilenoglicol (PEG-6000, com o objetivo de avaliar a sua resistência a condições de seca. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar a 25 ºC, sob fotoperíodo de oito horas, nos potenciais osmóticos de 0,0, -0,1, -0,3, -0,5, -0,7, -0,9, e -1,1 MPa. Pelos resultados obtidos, observou-se que o limite de resistência da espécie ao estresse hídrico situa-se entre -0,7 e -0,9 MPa. A velocidade de germinação foi significativamente reduzida a partir de -0,3 MPa e a porcentagem final a partir de -0,5 MPa, em relação às sementes não submetidas ao estresse hídrico. Sob drásticas condições de estresse hídrico não houve germinação das sementes, que foi restabelecida com o aumento da disponibilidade de água.

  7. The fate of Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth. detritus within a tropical reservoir O destino dos detritos de Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth. em um reservatório tropical

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marcela Bianchessi da Cunha Santino

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study is aimed at comparing the kinetics of decomposition of Eichhornia azurea and discussing the fate of its detritus; METHODS: The samples of aquatic macrophytes and water were collected in the Piraju Reservoir (São Paulo State, Brazil. The plant material was oven-dried and triturated and for each experimental condition (aerobic and anaerobic, 72 mineralization chambers were prepared with plant fragments and reservoir water. On sampling days the particulate and dissolved organic matter were quantified (on carbon basis POC and DOC, respectively; RESULTS: The decomposition of E. azurea is more efficient under aerobic conditions, being 2.2 times faster than for the anaerobic process, according to the amount of mineralized carbon. For the decay of leaves, stems and roots of E. azurea the aerobic processes were 1.22-fold faster. It is assumed that the fractions responsible for the high oxygen consumption have reduced periods of half-time, and therefore do not accumulate in the ecosystems. Owing to the biomass of E. azurea in the Piraju Reservoir, the aerobic decay of E. azurea can promote moderate depletion in the dissolved oxygen budget. With the rate of the mineralization of refractory materials (Ξ half-time varying from 385 to 462 days, the fibrous debris of this plant, i.e. refractory fractions, associated with the appropriate conditions of pH and oxi-reduction potential, can contribute to the gas production and storage of particulate organic matter in sediments.OBJETIVO: Nesse estudo foram comparadas as cinéticas de decomposição de Eichhornia azurea e discutidos os destinos de seus detritos; MÉTODOS: As amostras de plantas e de água foram coletadas no reservatório de Piraju (Estado de São Paulo, Brasil. As plantas foram secas e trituradas; para cada condição experimental (meio aeróbio e anaeróbio foram preparadas 72 câmaras de mineralização com fragmentos de planta e água do reservatório. Nos dias de coleta as frações particuladas e dissolvidas de matéria orgânica foram quantificadas (em base de carbono: carbono orgânico particulado (COP e dissolvido (COD, respectivamente; RESULTADOS: Com base no carbono mineralizado, os resultados indicaram que a decomposição de E. azurea foi mais eficiente em meio aeróbio (2,2 vezes mais rápido que em anaerobiose. Para a decomposição das folhas, talos e raízes os processos aeróbios foram 1,22 vezes mais rápidos. Verificou-se que as frações responsáveis pelos consumos elevados de oxigênio possuem tempos de meia vida reduzidos e, desse modo, não se acumulam no reservatório. Devido à biomassa de E. azurea no reservatório de Piraju os processos aeróbios de decomposição dessa espécie podem promover depleções moderadas no balanço de oxigênio dissolvido. Devido à magnitude dos coeficientes de degradação (meia-vida: de 385 a 462 dias, associados com as condições predominantes de pH e potencial de oxi-redução, as frações refratárias dos detritos (fibras de E. azurea podem contribuir para a produção de gases e no estoque de matéria orgânica particulada dos sedimentos do reservatório.

  8. Composição de carotenoides em canistel (Pouteria campechiana (Kunth Baehni Carotenoids composition of canistel (Pouteria campechiana (Kunth Baehni

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tânia da Silveira Agostini Costa

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O canistel (P. campechiana é uma fruta nativa da América Central e México, ainda pouco conhecida no Brasil. Apresenta uma polpa amarelo-alaranjada, rica em carotenoides, que tem despertado interesse como potencial de vitamina A. O objetivo deste trabalho foi determinar o teor de carotenoides e o valor provitamina A na polpa de canistel, assim como os teores de umidade e lipídeos na polpa e na semente. Os carotenoides foram separados por cromatografia em coluna aberta. O conteúdo de carotenoides totais foi de 226 ± 4 μg/g. Violaxantina e neoxantina foram os carotenóides predominantes, somando 196 ± 5 μg/g. seguidos por zetacaroteno, betacaroteno 5,6-epóxido, betacaroteno e fitoflueno. A semente foi a parte do fruto que apresentou maior teor de lipídeos totais, com 4,6 ± 0,2 %, e a polpa, 0,61 ± 0,03 %. Os resultados indicam que o canistel apresenta teores de carotenóides totais muito elevados e pode ser considerado uma boa fonte de provitamina A (59 ± 6 RAE/100g, se comparado com outras frutas normalmente consumidas. No entanto, os principais carotenoides encontrados em sua polpa são destituídos de atividade provitamina A.Canistel (Pouteria campechiana is a native fruit from Central America and Mexico. This fruit still not known in Brazil, presents an orange-yellow pulp rich in carotenoids, which has attracted interest as a potential source of vitamin A. The purpose of this study was to determine the carotenoids content and pro-vitamin A values in the pulp of canistel, as well as the percentage of moisture and lipids in the pulp and seeds. Carotenoids were separated by open column chromatography. The content of total carotenoids was 226 ± 4 μg/g. Violaxantin and neoxantin were the predominant carotenoids with 196 ± 5 μg/g followed by zeta-carotene, beta-carotene 5,6-epoxide, beta-carotene and phytofluene. The seeds presented higher levels of total lipids with 4.6 ± 0.2 %, while pulp had 0.61 ± 0.03 % of total lipid. These results indicate that this fruit presented very high levels of total carotenoids when compared to other fruits regularly consumed, and may be considered as a good source of pro-vitamin A (59 ± 6 RAE/100g. However, the main carotenoids found in Canistel have no pro-vitamin A activity.

  9. Bio-amelioration of alkali soils through agroforestry systems in central Indo-Gangetic plains of India

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Y.P. Singh; Gurbachan Singh; D.K. Sharma

    2014-01-01

    A long-term field study was initiated during 1995 at Central Soil Salinity Research Institute, Regional Research Station, Lucknow (26°47′58′ N and 80°46′24′ E) to analyze the effect of agroforestry systems on amelioration of alkali soils. Three agroforestry systems (pas-toral, silvipastoral and silvicultural) were compared with the control where no agroforestry system was introduced. Tree-based silvicultural and silvipastoral systems were characterized by tree species Prosopis juliflora and Acacia nilotica along with grass species Leptochloa fusca, Panicum maximum, Trifolium alexandrium and Chloris gayana. Growth of ten-year-old Prosopis juliflora and Acacia nilotica planted in combi-nation with grasses was significantly higher over the silviculture system with the same species. Tree biomass yields of P. juliflora (77.20 t⋅ha-1) and A. nilotica (63.20 t⋅ha-1) planted under silvipastoral system were significantly higher than the sole plantation of (64.50 t⋅ha-1 and 52.75 t⋅ha-1). Fodder yield under the pastoral system was significantly higher than the silvipastoral system during initial years but it was at par with that of silvipastoral systems after eight years of plantation. The microbial biomass carbon in the soils of silvipastoral systems was significantly higher than in soils under sole plantation of trees and control systems. The Prosopis-based silvipastoral system proved more effective in reduc-ing soil pH, displacing Na+ from the exchange complex, increasing or-ganic carbon and available N, P and K. Improvement in soil physical properties such as bulk density, porosity, soil moisture and infiltration rate was higher in the Prosopis-based silvipastoral system than in the silviculture system or control. On the basis of biomass production and improvement in soil health due to tree + grass systems, silvipastoral agroforestry system could be adopted for sustainable reclamation of highly alkali soils.

  10. Notas sobre los visitadores florales de Seemannia sylvatica (Kunth Hanstein (Gesneriaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lianka Cairampoma

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available La polinización en Gesneriaceae comúnmente se asocia a síndromes de ornitofilia o melitofilia, siendo usual además la visita a las flores por especies robadoras de néctar. Se presenta una nota sobre la fauna que visita las flores de Seemannia sylvatica en Cusco, registrándose colibríes e insectos visitando las flores. En base a las características florales y conducta de los visitadores florales se sugiere que las flores de S. sylvatica presentan un síndrome ornitofílico. Se concluye que únicamente los colibríes serian los polinizadores, mientras que los insectos visitadores no intervendrían en la polinización y serian robadores del néctar de las flores.

  11. Formulation of Peperomia pellucida (L Kunth extract tablet by modified filler

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nanang Yunarto

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available AbstrakLatar belakang: Peperomia pelusida telah banyak digunakan dalam pengobatan tradisional. Pada saat ini, bentuk-bentuk yang ada masih konvensional seperti jus dan infusum, karena itu, perlu dirumuskan lebih praktis dan berat seragam seperti bentuk tablet. Tujuan dari penelitian ini adalah untuk mendapatkan formula optimum pelusida tablet ekstrak P. pellucida. Metode: P. pelusida ekstrak tablet yang diproduksi dengan variasi selulosa mikrokristalin (MCC PH 101 - laktosa dengan metode granulasi basah dalam tiga formula, formula I (100% MCC PH 101, II (laktosa 100%, dan III (MCC PH 101: laktosa = 50%: 50%. Butiran dievaluasi karakteristik fisik termasuk laju aliran, penyerapan air, dan kompaktibilitas untuk mendapatkan formula optimum dengan menggunakan desain simplex lattice dan jumlah respon. Formula yang digunakan untuk membuat tablet dan diuji karakteristik fisik (keseragaman bobot, kekerasan, dan kerapuhan dan waktu hancur. Hasil: Laktosa secara signifikan dipengaruhi oleh laju alirannya, sedangkan MCC PH 101 - laktosa dengan metode granulasi basah dalam tiga formula, formula I (100% MCC PH 10PH 101 dipengaruhi penyerapan kompaktibilitas dan air. Berdasarkan karakteristik fisik granul dan jumlah responsnya, kombinasi formula MCC PH 101 80% dan laktosa 20% dapat disimpulkan menjadi yang paling optimal untuk tablet filler. Formula tablet ini yang memiliki karakteristik fisik terbaik dengan berat 620,84 ± 1,04 mg, kekerasan 8,54 ± 0,68 kg, kerapuhan 0,26% ± 0,04 dan waktu hancur 4,58 ± 0,17 menit.Kesimpulan: Proporsi MCC PH 101 80% dan laktosa 20% merupakan formula optimum terbaik dan memenuhi persyaratan karakteristik fisik tablet. (Health Science Indones 2013;1:32-6 Key words: formulasi, extract P. pellucida, optimalAbstractBackground: Peperomia pellucida has been widely used in traditional medicine. Recently, its existing forms are still conventional such as juice and infusum; therefore, it needs to be formulated more practically and in uniform weight such as tablet form. The objective of this research was to get the optimum formula of P. pellucidaextract tablet. Methods: P. pellucida extract tablets were produced with variation of microcrystalline cellulose (MCC PH 101 – lactose by wet granulation method in three formulas, formula I (100% MCC PH 101, II (lactose 100%, and III (MCC PH 101: lactose = 50%: 50%. Granules were evaluated their physical characteristics including their flow rate, water absorption and compactibility to obtain the optimum formula by using simplex lattice design and total response. The optimum formula was used to make tablet and tested its physical characteristics (uniformity weight, hardness, and friability and disintegration time. Results:Lactose significantly  influenced by its flow rate, whereas MCC PH 101 influenced  the compactibility and water absorption. Based on the granules physical characteristics and their total responses, the formula combination of MCC PH 101 80% and lactose 20% was concluded to be the most optimum one for tablet filler. This optimum formula tablet had the best physical characteristics with weigth uniformity of 620.84 ± 1.04 mg, hardness of 8.54 ± 0.68 kg, friability of 0.26% ± 0.04 and disintegration time of 4.58 ± 0.17 minutes. Conclusion: The proportion MCC PH 101 80% and lactose of 20% obtained the best optimum formula and passed requirements of the tablet physical characteristics. (Health Science Indones 2013;1:32-6Key words: formulation, P. pellucida extract, optimize

  12. DEPREDACIÓN DE LAS SEMILLAS DE Abies religiosa (Kunth) Schltdl. et Cham

    OpenAIRE

    2013-01-01

    La depredación en los bosques de coníferas es trascendente como proceso sustancial de su conservación, ya que su intensidad y las partes utilizadas definen cambios estructurales en los ecosistemas. El consumo de semillas, en particular, implica una fuerza de selección en virtud de que supone pérdida de germoplasma, por un lado, y, por otro, una nueva distribución del mismo. Con el propósito de conocer el efecto del forrajeo de semillas de oyamel sobre el potencial reproductivo de la especie, ...

  13. Os gêneros Zanthoxylum L. e Esenbeckia Kunth (Rutaceae) no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil

    OpenAIRE

    Melo,Maria de Fátima Figueiredo; Zickel,Carmen Sílvia

    2004-01-01

    Este trabalho consiste no levantamento das espécies dos gêneros Zanthoxylum e Esenbeckia ocorrentes em Pernambuco. Foi baseado nos caracteres morfológicos das espécies obtidas em campo e nos materiais de 16 herbários brasileiros. Foram registradas nove espécies de Zanthoxylum: Z. caribaeum Lam., Z. fagara (L.) Sarg., Z. gardneri Engl., Z. hamadryadicum Pirani, Z. monogynum A. St.-Hil., Z. petiolare A. St.-Hil & Tul., Z. rhoifolium Lam., Z. stelligerum Turcz. e Z. syncarpum Tul. Para Esenb...

  14. Chemins de fer en mutation dans l'Europe médiane / Antoine Kunth

    Index Scriptorium Estoniae

    Kunth, Antoine

    2002-01-01

    Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa raudteestruktuuride arengust sotsialismiperioodist tänapäevani. Reformid ja erastamine. Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa riikide vahelistest raudteeliinidest. Tabelid. Joonis: Kümme Kesk- ja Ida-Euroopa transpordikoridori.

  15. Phytotoxicity and biodirected fractionation of extracts of barks of Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth O.Berg. (Myrtaceae

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    Eduardo Habermann

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to evaluate the phytotoxicity of extracts and fractions of barks of Blepharocalyx salicifolius on elongation of etiolated coleoptiles of Triticum aestivum (wheat. The extracts hexane (Hx, ethyl acetate (AcOET, and aqueous (H2O were obtained by means of exhaustive extraction with CH2Cl2/CH3OH and subsequent fractionation by partition chromatography coefficient. The extracts AcOET and Hx were fractionated by column chromatography by using organic solvents in increasing order of polarity, yielding 7 hexanic fractions and 6 ethylic acetate fractions. Subsequently, the fractions Hx1 and Hx5 were subfractionated by column chromatography. The extracts AcOET and Hx inhibited elongation of coleoptiles. Four ethylic acetate fractions inhibited elongation of coleoptiles at all concentrations. Five hexanic fractions inhibited elongation of coleoptiles, the fractions Hx5 and Hx1 fractions showed phytotoxic effects equivalent or superior to those observed by the herbicide GOAL® at the same concentrations. All subfractions obtained by means of fractionation of Hx1 inhibited elongation of coleoptiles. Six fractions obtained by means of fractionation of Hx5 inhibited elongation of coleoptiles at all concentrations. This study proves the phytotoxicity of extracts of barks of B. salicifolius, providing indications that they may act as promising natural herbicides.

  16. Ethnoecology of the palm Brahea dulcis (Kunth) Mart. in central Mexico

    OpenAIRE

    2015-01-01

    Background There have been few studies on the sustainable use of non-timber forest products in arid and semi-arid zones. The palm Brahea dulcis has been one of the most important resources in semi-arid Mesoamerica, since pre-Hispanic times. Currently, some populations grow within protected natural areas, representing both a challenge and an opportunity for local development. This ethnoecological study of B. dulcis in central Mexico aimed to evaluate their uses, harvesting context, and potenti...

  17. Avaliação da fitotoxidez de Tecoma stans (L. Kunth

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    Franciane Auxiliadora Cipriani

    Full Text Available Tecoma stans foi introduzida no Brasil para fins ornamentais e ocorre tanto cultivada quanto subespontânea. Objetivando avaliar seu potencial alelopático, foi testado o efeito do extrato aquoso de suas folhas sobre a germinação e o desenvolvimento radicial de Lactuca sativa L. (alface, Handroanthus ochraceus (Cham. Mattos (ipê e Medicago sativa L. (alfafa. O extrato causou uma forte inibição na germinação das sementes de alface. O desenvolvimento radicial de alface e alfafa foi reduzido em 75 e 30%, respectivamente. Não foi observado efeito do extrato sobre a germinação ou o desenvolvimento radicial do ipê. Todas as espécies tiveram a velocidade de germinação reduzida. Observaram-se alterações micromorfológicas no ápice radicial das plântulas de alface.

  18. Micropropagation, antinociceptive and antioxidant activities of extracts of Verbena litoralis Kunth (Verbenaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Braga, Virgínia F; Mendes, Giselle C; Oliveira, Raphael T R; Soares, Carla Q G; Resende, Cristiano F; Pinto, Leandro C; Santana, Reinaldo de; Viccini, Lyderson F; Raposo, Nádia R B; Peixoto, Paulo H P

    2012-03-01

    This work describes an efficient micropropagation protocol for Verbena litoralis and the study of the antinociceptive and antioxidant activities in extracts of this species. For the establishment in vitro, surface-sterilization procedures and PVPP showed high efficiency in fungal-bacterial contamination and phenol oxidation controls. Nodal segments cultivation in MS medium supplemented with 6-benzyladenine (7.5 µM)/α-naphthaleneacetic acid (NAA; 0.005 µM) induced multiple shoots. Elongated shoots were rooted with IAA (0.2 µM). Acclimatization rates were elevated and the plants showed the typical features of this species. The hexanic fraction (HF) of powdered leaves presented a radical scavenging activity with IC(50) = 169.3 µg mL(-1). HF showed a non-dose dependent analgesic activity in the writhing test; its antinociceptive activity in the hot plate test was restricted to 500 mg kg(-1), which is the highest dose. The results of this study showed the potential of tissue culture on conservation and large scale multiplication and confirmed the traditional folk medicine use of V. litoralis.

  19. Age-dependent changes from allylphenol to prenylated benzoic acid production in Piper gaudichaudianum Kunth.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gaia, Anderson M; Yamaguchi, Lydia F; Jeffrey, Christopher S; Kato, Massuo J

    2014-10-01

    HPLC-DAD and principal component analysis (PCA) of the (1)H NMR spectrum of crude plant extracts showed high chemical variability among seedlings and adult organs of Piper gaudichaudianum. While gaudichaudianic acid was the major compound in the adult leaves, apiole and dillapiole were the major compounds in their seedling leaves. By the 15th month of seedling growth, the levels of apiole and dillapiole decreased and gaudichaudianic acid appeared along with two compounds, biosynthetically related to gaudichaudianic acid.

  20. Chemical sterilization in in vitro propagation of Arundina bambusifolia Lindl. and Epidendrum ibaguense Kunth

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    Donizetti Tomaz Rodrigues

    2013-08-01

    Full Text Available There is a great demand for simpler and less costly laboratory techniques and for more accessible procedures for orchid breeders who do not have the necessary theoretical basis to use the traditional seed and clone production methods of orchids in vitro. The aim of this study was to assess the use of sodium hypochlorite (NaClO as a decontaminant in the process of inoculating adult orchid explants of Arundina bambusifolia and Epidendrum ibaguenses. Solutions of NaClO (1.200, 2.400, 3.600, 4.800 and 6.000 mg L-1 - equivalent to 50, 100, 150, 200 and 250 mL L-1 of commercial bleach - CB were sprayed on the explants (1.0 mL and the culture medium (GB5, in the presence or absence of activated charcoal (2 g L-1. The explants used were nodal segments of field-grown adult plants. The procedures for inoculating the explants were conducted outside the laminar flow chamber (LFC, except for the control treatment (autoclaved medium and explant inoculation inside the LFC. The best results for fresh weight yield, height and number of shoots were obtained using NaClO in solution at 1.200 mg L-1 (equivalent to 50 mL L-1 commercial bleach with activated charcoal in the culture medium. Fresh weight figures were 1.10 g/jar for Arundina bambusifolia and 0.16 g/jar for Epidendrum ibaguenses. Spraying the NaClO solutions controls the contamination of the culture medium already inoculated with the explants.

  1. پاسخ‌های فیزیولوژیک گیاه کالارگراس (Leptochloa fesca L. kunth به تنش‌های ترکیبی خشکی و شوری در شرایط کنترل شده

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    حاج محمدنیا قالی باف کمال

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available خشکی و شوری در بسیاری از مناطق جهان از مهم‌ترین عوامل محدود کننده رشد و نمو گیاهان به شمار می‌روند. یک سازوکار مناسب در این زمینه استفاده از گیاهانی است که بتوانند در چنین شرایط محیطی، از تولید رضایت بخشی برخوردار باشند. بدین منظور آزمایشی به صورت فاکتوریل بر پایه طرح کاملاً تصادفی با 4 تکرار روی گیاه کالارگراس (Leptochloa fesca L. kunth تحت شرایط کنترل شده در گلخانه تحقیقاتی دانشکده کشاورزی دانشگاه فردوسی مشهد در سال 1388، انجام پذیرفت. سطوح خشکی در سه سطح (100، 50 و 25 درصد ظرفیت زراعی و تنش شوری در چهار سطح (0، 5، 10 و 20 دسی زیمنس بر متر تیمارهای آزمایش را تشکیل دادند. نتایج تحقیق مذکور نشان داد که صفات فیزیولوژیک سرعت فتوسنتز، سرعت تعرق، عملکرد فلورسانس کلروفیل و عدد کلروفیل­متر کالارگراس با افزایش سطوح خشکی و شوری به طور معنی­داری کاهش یافت، به طوری که شدیدترین تیمارهای خشکی (FC 25% و شوری (dSm-1 20 در این آزمایش، کمترین مقادیر این صفات را به خود اختصاص دادند. تنش متوسط خشکی (FC 50% افزایش معنی­دار عملکرد فلورسانس کلروفیل، و تنش‌های کم تا متوسط شوری (dSm-1 10- 5 =EC افزایش معنی­دار عملکرد فلورسانس کلروفیل و عدد کلروفیل متر را در مقایسه با شاهد باعث شدند. افزایش معنی­دار نسبت ریشه به اندام هوایی کالارگراس در ت

  2. Os gêneros Zanthoxylum L. e Esenbeckia Kunth (Rutaceae) no Estado de Pernambuco, Brasil The genera Zanthoxylum L. and Esenbeckia Kunth (Rutaceae) in the State of Pernambuco, Brazil

    OpenAIRE

    Maria de Fátima Figueiredo Melo; Carmen Sílvia Zickel

    2004-01-01

    Este trabalho consiste no levantamento das espécies dos gêneros Zanthoxylum e Esenbeckia ocorrentes em Pernambuco. Foi baseado nos caracteres morfológicos das espécies obtidas em campo e nos materiais de 16 herbários brasileiros. Foram registradas nove espécies de Zanthoxylum: Z. caribaeum Lam., Z. fagara (L.) Sarg., Z. gardneri Engl., Z. hamadryadicum Pirani, Z. monogynum A. St.-Hil., Z. petiolare A. St.-Hil & Tul., Z. rhoifolium Lam., Z. stelligerum Turcz. e Z. syncarpum Tul. Para Esenbecki...

  3. Métodos para a superação da dormência em sementes de sucupira-preta (Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth. Methods for dormancy overcoming of black sucupira (Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth. seeds

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    Keline Sousa Albuquerque

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Neste estudo foram avaliados diferentes métodos para a superação da dormência em sementes de sucupira-preta. O experimento foi realizado inteiramente ao acaso em esquema fatorial 3 x 7, correspondendo a três lotes de sementes e sete tratamentos, com 4 repetições de 25 sementes. Foram utilizados ácido sulfúrico por 4, 8 e 12 minutos, água a 80°C por 5 e 10 minutos, escarificação mecânica, mantendo-se uma testemunha. Foi observado que a espécie possui dormência tegumentar e que todos os tratamentos utilizados permitiram a entrada de água nas sementes. Contudo, alguns métodos estudados, como a água a 80°C por 10 minutos, resultou em um elevado número de sementes mortas. O método mais eficiente para a superação da dormência de sementes de sucupira-preta é a imersão em ácido sulfúrico, por 4, 8 ou 12 minutos, beneficiando a porcentagem e a velocidade de germinação.This study evaluated diferent methods to overcome dormancy of black sucupira seeds. The experiment was installed in a fully randomized design composed by a factorial scheme 3x7, correspoding to three lots of seeds and seven treatments, with 4 replicates of 25 seeds. Sulfuric acid for 4, 8 and 12 minutes, water at 80°C for 5 and 10 minutes, sandpaper treatments were compared to the control. It was observed that this species has tegument dormancy and all treatments allowed seed imbibition. However in some of the methods used, such as like water at 80°C for 10 minutes, occurred a high number of dead seeds. The most suitable method for dormancy overcoming of black sucupira seeds was the imersion in sulfuric acid for 4, 8 and 12 minutes, that showed higher percentage and speed of germination.

  4. Desenvolvimento de panetone à base de farinha de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth
    Development of panettone made of peach palm flour (Bactris gasipaes Kunth

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    A. M. M. MONTEIRO

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available

    Atualmente vem crescendo consideravelmente a preocupação dos indivíduos com a saúde e a qualidade de vida. No entanto, com a correria da vida moderna e a falta de tempo, as pessoas valorizam muito os alimentos prontos, rápidos e fáceis de preparar, predominando um consumo desregrado de produtos refi nados, ricos em gorduras saturadas e pobres em nutrientes. Este trabalho teve como objetivo elaborar um panetone com adição de farinha de pupunha (FP, sensorialmente aceitável, e analisar sua composição química e estabilidade. A farinha utilizada na pesquisa foi processada no Laboratório de Nutrição do Instituto Nacional de Pesquisas da Amazônia. Inicialmente foi realizado um experimento para determinar o percentual de farinha de trigo a ser substituída pela farinha de pupunha, sendo escolhida a formulação com 25% FP. Após elaboração do panetone foram realizadas análises físico-químicas, químicas, sensoriais e microbiológicas. O panetone de pupunha apresentou em sua composição química bons teores de proteína (7,78%, lipídios (12,5% e carotenoides (4,16 atividade equivalente de retinol/100g. O produto elaborado apresentou boa aceitabilidade, sendo que todos os consumidores manifestaram intenção positiva em adquiri-lo se for lançado no mercado. A análise microbiológica revelou que o produto se manteve estável pelo período de 90 dias. Assim, pode-se afi rmar que é possível produzir panetones com a substituição de 25% de farinha de trigo pela farinha de pupunha, agregando valor nutricional ao produto sem sinalização de rejeição pelo consumidor.

  5. Estimativa da repetibilidade em caracteres morfológicos e de produção de palmito em pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth Estimate of repeatability in morphological and heart of palm production characters in peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth

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    Nilson César Corrêa Padilha

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available No melhoramento da pupunheira, visando a produção de palmito, é primordial o conhecimento de parâmetros genéticos de caracteres produtivos associados aos morfológicos na seleção de plantas promissoras. Por ser uma palmeira perene com caráter de produção destrutivo, o coeficiente de repetibilidade consiste em uma estratégia desejável. Assim, estimou-se o coeficiente de repetibilidade entre oito caracteres morfológicos e oito de produção de palmito em pupunheiras da coleção de germoplasma da Embrapa Amazônia Oriental. Para tanto, foram avaliadas 65 plantas com variação para número de estipes por planta. O coeficiente de repetibilidade, o número de estipes a serem cortados e o coeficiente de determinação foram obtidos através da análise da variância com um fator de variação, com número variável de observações. Quatro caracteres morfológicos apresentaram coeficientes de repetibilidade variando de 0,5317 a 0,6716, o que indica regularidade no comportamento das plantas de uma avaliação para outra. No entanto, apenas o comprimento da ráquis foliar mostrou número de medições necessárias para se obter predições com 95% de confiança. Todos os caracteres produtivos tiveram baixas magnitudes de repetibilidade de (0,1030 a 0,2202, o que expressa irregularidades na superioridade das plantas, além de exibirem números de medições elevados. Portanto, o comprimento da ráquis foliar pode ser usado na seleção de pupunheiras para palmito.Understanding the genetic parameters of the productive characters associated to the morphological is of utmost importance in selecting promising plants for peach palm breeding aiming at heart palm production. Since Bactris gasipaes is a perennial palm tree with a destructive production character, the repeatability coefficient is a desirable strategy to apply. Thus, the repeatability coefficient was estimated among eight morphological characters and eight heart of palm production characters, using peach palm from the Embrapa Eastern Amazon's germ plasm collection. Sixty-five plants were evaluated with different number of stems per plant. Repeatability coefficient, minimum number of stems, and determination coefficients were obtained by means of variance analysis against a variation factor with a variable number of observations. Four morphological characters presented repeatability coefficients ranging from 0.5317 to 0.6716, showing regularity in plant behavior from one measurement to the other. However, only leaf raquis length showed a number of measurements necessary to allow predictions with 95% confidence. All the productive characters showed low repeatability scope (0,1030 to 0,2202, indicating irregularities in plant superiority, and also showing high measurement numbers. Therefore, leaf raquis length may be used in the selection of peach palm for heart of palm production.

  6. Desenvolvimento inicial e crescimento in vitro de Cattleya violacea (Kunth Rolfe em diferentes concentrações de sacarose Initial development and in vitro growth of Cattleya violacea (Kunth Rolfe in different sucrose concentrations

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    Renato Fernandes Galdiano Júnior

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available O presente estudo teve por objetivo analisar os aspectos da germinação e avaliar o efeito de concentrações de sacarose no crescimento in vitro de Cattleya violacea. Sementes provenientes de cápsulas fechadas foram semeadas em meio de cultura Murashige e Skoog (MS e a morfologia externa da semente à plântula foi fotodocumentada em estereomicroscópio e microscópio eletrônico de varredura. Plântulas com 90 dias após a semeadura foram repicadas em meio de cultura ½ MS (com metade da concentração de macronutrientes com diferentes concentrações de sacarose (0, 10, 20, 30 e 40 g L-1, incubadas nas mesmas condições in vitro por mais 150 dias e em seguida as plântulas foram avaliadas quanto ao número de raízes, comprimento da maior raiz, número de folhas, comprimento da parte aérea, massa fresca e seca total. Os dados biométricos foram submetidos à análise estatística e a eles ajustadas curvas de regressão. As sementes apresentaram testa reticulada com uma extremidade micropilar (aberta e calazal (fechada; o embrião originou uma estrutura tuberiforme clorofilada denominada protocormo que pode apresentar rizóides, folíolos e quando provido de raiz é considerado plântula. A ausência de açúcar ou a maior concentração avaliada de sacarose foram prejudiciais ao crescimento da planta. A concentração de 27 g L-1 proporcionou maior crescimento in vitro possibilitando maior eficiência para a propagação massal dessa espécie de elevado potencial ornamental.The aims of this study were to analyze the initial germination aspects and evaluate the effect of sucrose concentrations on in vitro growth of Cattleya violacea. Mature seeds from closed pods were sowed on MS (Murashige and Skoog culture medium. The external morphology of seed and plantlets were documented by light and scanning electron microscopy. Plantlets with 90 days after sowing were subcultured on ½ MS (with half-strength macronutrients concentrations culture medium with different sucrose concentrations (0, 10, 20, 30 and 40 g L-1, incubated under the same in vitro conditions during more 150 days followed by the evaluation of root number, root length, shoot length, fresh and dry weight. The biometric data were statistically analyzed and regression curves constructed. The seeds showed reticulate seed coat with a micropylar (opened and chalazal (closed end; the embryo results a chlorophyllated tuberiforme structure called protocorm, which may have rhizoids, leaflets and is considered plantlet when it has root. Absence of sucrose or the highest evaluated sucrose concentration was detrimental for plant growth. The concentration of 27 g L-1 provided the highest in vitro growth enabling great efficiency for mass propagation of this species of high ornamental potential.

  7. Photosynthetic performance of Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl. (Caryophyllaceae in a high-elevation site of the Andes of central Chile Desempeño fotosintético de Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth Bartl. (Caryophyllaceae en los Andes de Chile central

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    M. ANGÉLICA CASANOVA-KATNY

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Photosynthesis of Colobanthus quitensis and mesoclimatic conditions of air temperature and light intensity during the growing season were investigated at 2,650 m in the central Chilean Andes. On three typical days of the growing period (January, March and May, CO2 exchange and chlorophyll fluorescence were measured. In addition, a series of fluorescence response curves with increasing light intensity at different temperatures were performed to estimate the propensity of Andean C. quitensis populations to be photoinhibited. Net Photosynthesis (Pn was low (ca. 2.0 mmol CO2 m-2s-1 during the morning and noon in days with high photosynthetic active radiation (PAR, above 1,800 mmol photons m-2s-1. Pn increased in the afternoon (3.5-4.8 mmol CO2 m-2s-1 when PAR decreased to ca. 1,400 mmol photons m-2s-1 and leaf temperature were ca. 20 °C. Fv/Fm in the diurnal periods was between 0.7-0.75 without evidence of photoinhibition. Leaves at 15 and 22 °C exhibited a slow decrease of F PSII with the increase in actinic light intensity, although the fraction of reaction centers open (expressed by qP remained higher at 22 °C. NPQ was saturated at light intensities close to 500 mmol photons m-2s-1 in leaves at 22 °C and at higher intensities at 15 °C, suggesting that NPQ could be a mechanism of energy dissipation at high light intensity and high leaf temperature in the field. Our results indicated that C. quitensis is not photodamaged during the diurnal cycle and that the low Pn registered during some diurnal periods are likely to be related with photorespiration, which has been suggested as an efficient protective mechanism for photoinhibition in alpine plants. Our results are also compared with the photosynthetic performance of C. quitensis populations from the maritime AntarcticSe estudió la fotosíntesis de Colobanthus quitensis y las condiciones mesoclimáticas de temperatura del aire e intensidad lumínica a 2.650 m en los Andes de Chile central. Se midió la tasa de intercambio gaseoso y la fluorescencia de la clorofila en tres días típicos durante la estación de crecimiento (enero, marzo y mayo. Adicionalmente, se realizaron una serie de curvas de respuesta a incrementos en la intensidad lumínica a diferentes temperaturas para estimar la propensión de C. quitensis a la fotoinhibición. La fotosíntesis neta (Pn fue baja (ca. de 2,0 mmol CO2 m-2s-1 en la mañana y mediodía en días con alta radiación fotosintéticamente activa (PAR, sobre los 1.500 mmol fotones m-2s-1. La tasa de fotosíntesis aumentó en la tarde (3,5-4,8 mmol CO2 m-2s-1 cuando la radiación PAR disminuyó a alrededor de 1.000 mmol fotones m-2s-1. Fv/Fm osciló entre 0,7-0,75 en los registros de enero y marzo, decreciendo en mayo a 0,67. Hojas medidas a 15 y 22 °C mostraron un leve descenso en F PSII con el aumento en la intensidad de luz actínica, aunque la fracción de centros de reacción abiertos (expresados por qP fue mayor a 22 °C. NPQ fue saturado a intensidades lumínicas cercanas a 500 mmol photons m-2s-1 en hojas a 22 °C, y a intensidades mayores en hojas a 15 °C, sugiriendo que NPQ puede ser un mecanismo de disipación energética bajo condiciones de altas intensidades lumínicas y altas temperaturas en el campo. Nuestros resultados indican que C. quitensis no sufre fotodaño durante los ciclos diurnos, y probablemente, los bajos Pn registrados durante algunos periodos diurnos están relacionados con fotorrespiración, la cual ha sido sugerida como un mecanismo muy eficiente en la protección de plantas alpinas contra la fotoinhibición. Nuestros resultados también son comparados con el desempeño fotosintético de las poblaciones de C. quitensis en la Antártica marítima

  8. Métodos de establecimiento de pasturas en zonas áridas de México utilizando semillas crudas o cariópsides

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    Adrián Raymundo Quero-Carrillo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available En 2 sitios del Desierto Chihuahuense, México, se evaluó el establecimiento en secano de las gramíneas nativas Banderita (Bouteloua curtipendula y Navajita (B. gracilis y las introducidas Buffel (Cenchrus ciliaris y Rhodes (Chloris gayana, utilizando cariópsides y/o semillas crudas (semilla limpia con brácteas y aristas y cuatro métodos de tapado. Los sitios de siembra fueron Atotonilco El Grande, Hidalgo y Salinas Hidalgo, San Luis Potosí. Las siembras se hicieron a voleo a razón de 1,000 cariópsides y/o semillas crudas viables/m2. Los métodos de tapado fueron: paso de rastra con ramas; rodillo; rastra con ramas + rodillo; y sin tapado (testigo. Las variables de respuesta incluyeron número de plantas emergidas y de plantas establecidas, diámetro de corona, altura de planta y número de tallos por planta. Se utilizó un diseño completamente al azar con arreglo factorial 2 x 2 x 4 con 3 repeticiones. No se observaron diferencias entre sitios y se establecieron, en promedio, 2 plantas/m2. Con las especies nativas (Banderita y Navajita se obtuvo mayor cantidad de plantas emergidas y establecidas cuando la siembra se hizo con semillas crudas, mientras que en introducidas no se encontró diferencia entre siembra con semilla cruda y siembra con cariópsides. Cuando se utilizó el método de tapado y apisonado del suelo se observaron mayor diámetro de corona y altura de planta. El mayor número de plantas establecidas se obtuvo en pasturas de Navajita y Rhodes. En las especies nativas la eliminación de brácteas accesorias en las semillas no se tradujo en mejor establecimiento, mientras que en las gramíneas introducidas esta práctica sí mejoró el establecimiento. En ambos grupos de especies el apisonado mejoró el establecimiento.Palabras clave: Densidad de siembra, gramíneas introducidas, gramíneas nativas, suelo apisonado, tapado de semilla.DOI: 10.17138/TGFT(429-37  

  9. Caracterização de germoplasma de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) por descritores morfológicos

    OpenAIRE

    Iriarte Martel, Jorge Hugo [UNESP

    2002-01-01

    A pupunheira tem um potencial econômico e social muito grande, sendo a palmeira mais importante na América pré-colombiana, constituindo junto com o milho e a mandioca, a base da alimentação dos povos primitivos. Os principais produtos extraídos são o palmito e os frutos para o consumo humano direto, alimento animal, farinhas para consumo humano e óleo vegetal. Os objetivos do presente trabalho foram de utilizar uma lista de descritores morfológicos recomendada, para discriminar primeiramente ...

  10. Leishmanicidal and antitumoral activities of endophytic fungi associated with the Antarctic angiosperms Deschampsia antarctica Desv. and Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Santiago, Iara F; Alves, Tânia M A; Rabello, Ana; Sales Junior, Policarpo A; Romanha, Alvaro J; Zani, Carlos L; Rosa, Carlos A; Rosa, Luiz H

    2012-01-01

    A total of 564 isolates of endophytic fungi were recovered from the plants Deschampsia antarctica and Colobanthus quitensis collected from Antarctica. The isolates were screened against parasites Leishmania amazonensis and Trypanosoma cruzi and against the human tumour cell lines. Of the 313 fungal isolates obtained from D. antarctica and 251 from C. quitensis, 25 displayed biological activity. Nineteen extracts displayed leishmanicidal activity, and six inhibited the growth of at least one tumour cell line. These fungi belong to 19 taxa of the genera Alternaria, Antarctomyces, Cadophora, Davidiella, Helgardia, Herpotrichia, Microdochium, Oculimacula, Phaeosphaeria and one unidentified fungus. Extracts of 12 fungal isolates inhibited the proliferation of L. amazonesis at a low IC(50) of between 0.2 and 12.5 μg ml(-1). The fungus Phaeosphaeria herpotrichoides displayed only leishmanicidal activity with an IC(50) of 0.2 μg ml(-1), which is equivalent to the inhibitory value of amphotericin B. The extract of Microdochium phragmitis displayed specific cytotoxic activity against the UACC-62 cell line with an IC(50) value of 12.5 μg ml(-1). Our results indicate that the unique angiosperms living in Antarctica shelter an interesting bioactive fungal community that is able to produce antiprotozoal and antitumoral molecules. These molecules may be used to develop new leishmanicidal and anticancer drugs.

  11. Establecimiento in vitro de Hypericum goyanesii Cuatrec. E Hypericum juniperinum Kunth, a partir del cultivo de semillas

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Belkys Adriana Pérez Martínez

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The purpose of this study was to evaluate germination culture media for the in vitro establishment Hypericum goyanesii e Hypericum juniperinum as ex situ conservation strategy for biotechnology of plant species belonging to the high-Andean ecosystem. The seeds were disinfected with sodium hypochlorite and seeded into six treatments MS and MS with 50% reduction of its macro and microsales and vitaminas, with and without the addition of activated charcoal and pulp banana. Germination is favored by the use of banana pulp in MS medium with reducing salts and supplemented with activated charcoal. It was possible to show that sexual explants and H. goyanesii e H. goyanesii juniperinum were influenced positively variable germination percentage, by the use of organic substances to replace growth regulators.

  12. Phytochemical diversity of the essential oils of Mexican Oregano (Lippia graveolens Kunth) populations along an Edapho-climatic gradient.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Calvo-Irabién, Luz María; Parra-Tabla, Victor; Acosta-Arriola, Violeta; Escalante-Erosa, Fabiola; Díaz-Vera, Luciana; Dzib, Gabriel R; Peña-Rodríguez, Luis Manuel

    2014-07-01

    Mexican oregano (Lippia graveolens) is an important aromatic plant, mainly used as flavoring and usually harvested from non-cultivated populations. Mexican oregano essential oil showed important variation in the essential-oil yield and composition. The composition of the essential oils extracted by hydrodistillation from 14 wild populations of L. graveolens growing along an edaphoclimatic gradient was evaluated. Characterization of the oils by GC-FID and GC/MS analyses allowed the identification of 70 components, which accounted for 89-99% of the total oil composition. Principal component and hierarchical cluster analyses divided the essential oils into three distinct groups with contrasting oil compositions, viz., two phenolic chemotypes, with either carvacrol (C) or thymol (T) as dominant compounds (contents >75% of the total oil composition), and a non-phenolic chemotype (S) dominated by oxygenated sesquiterpenes. While Chemotype C was associated with semi-arid climate and shallower and rockier soils, Chemotype T was found for plants growing under less arid conditions and in deeper soils. The plants showing Chemotype S were more abundant in subhumid climate. High-oil-yield individuals (>3%) were identified, which additionally presented high percentages of either carvacrol or thymol; these individuals are of interest, as they could be used as parental material for scientific and commercial breeding programs.

  13. An?lise do rendimento e da efici?ncia no desdobro de estipe de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth)

    OpenAIRE

    Trindade, Agatha Ara?jo

    2013-01-01

    A valora??o de res?duos vegetais provenientes de processos produtivos mostra-se uma alternativa de ganhos para empresas geradoras destes materiais. No entanto, an?lise quanto ao rendimento e efici?ncia promove uma vis?o sist?mica do desempenho para os res?duos agroindustriais. O estipe descartado no abate das palm?ceas adultas ? proveniente de processos produtivos da atividade agr?cola, tornando os passiveis ambientais. Foram selecionados 15 indiv?duos com idades m?dias de 10 a 15 anos e divi...

  14. Produção de mudas de bambu Guadua angustifolia Kunth (Poaceae) por propagação vegetativa.

    OpenAIRE

    Fonseca,Fernanda Karina Pereira da

    2007-01-01

    The bamboo is a tropical, renewable, perennial culture of fast growth and with several uses. However, its use and research is moistly restricted to Asian countries. In Brazil the demand for bamboo has increased in the last years. From November 2005 to September 2006, experiments were carried out with the objective to evaluate the ability of Guadua angustifolia to produce new plants from cuttings of secondary branches and clump division of two years seedlings. There were evaluated the sp...

  15. A Review of Botanical Characteristics, Traditional Usage, Chemical Components, Pharmacological Activities, and Safety of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC

    OpenAIRE

    Sogand Zareisedehizadeh; Chay-Hoon Tan; Hwee-Ling Koh

    2014-01-01

    Pereskia bleo, a leafy cactus, is a medicinal plant native to West and South America and distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. It is traditionally used as a dietary vegetable, barrier hedge, water purifier, and insect repellant and for maintaining health, detoxification, prevention of cancer, and/or treatment of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, stomach ache, muscle pain, and inflammatory diseases such as dermatitis and rheumatism. The aim of this paper was to provide an up-to-date an...

  16. Ecological features of titica vine (Heteropsis flexuosa (Kunth GS Bunting in Rondônia State, Northwest Brazilian Amazon

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    MICHELLINY M. BENTES GAMA

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to characterize the forest structure with H. flexuosa in Rondônia State, as a first step in developing sustainable harvest and conservation guidelines for the species. Crown attributes, total height (m and diameter at breast height ≥ 10 (cm of trees and palms with H. flexuosa were evaluated in three permanent plots (100 m x 150 m each randomized in 219 ha. A total of 22 botanical families hosted H. flexuosa. It was not observed any specific preference for the species standing up itself. Nevertheless it was frequently associated to Burseraceae, Leguminosae, Sapotaceae, Annonaceae, Chrysobalanaceae, Apocynaceae, Moraceae and Myristicaceae and species with thick bark like Schweilera coriacea, Protium sp. and Licania membranaceae. The species was less frequent with taller and broader trees and tended to develop in understory light condition. Trunks or branches were the main position for the attaching of H. flexuosa (90.83% and a low frequency of other lianas was observed on the same host trees. These highlight the need to promote appropriate management practices for root harvesting and species conservation in order to maintain the species in open ombrophylus forest habitat.

  17. A Review of Botanical Characteristics, Traditional Usage, Chemical Components, Pharmacological Activities, and Safety of Pereskia bleo (Kunth) DC.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zareisedehizadeh, Sogand; Tan, Chay-Hoon; Koh, Hwee-Ling

    2014-01-01

    Pereskia bleo, a leafy cactus, is a medicinal plant native to West and South America and distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. It is traditionally used as a dietary vegetable, barrier hedge, water purifier, and insect repellant and for maintaining health, detoxification, prevention of cancer, and/or treatment of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, stomach ache, muscle pain, and inflammatory diseases such as dermatitis and rheumatism. The aim of this paper was to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the botanical characteristics, traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and safety of P. bleo. A literature search using MEDLINE (via PubMed), Science direct, Scopus and Google scholar and China Academic Journals Full-Text Database (CNKI) and available eBooks and books in the National University of Singapore libraries in English and Chinese was conducted. The following keywords were used: Pereskia bleo, Pereskia panamensis, Pereskia corrugata, Rhodocacus corrugatus, Rhodocacus bleo, Cactus panamensis, Cactus bleo, Spinach cactus, wax rose, Perescia, and Chinese rose. This review revealed the association between the traditional usage of P. bleo and reported pharmacological properties in the literature. Further investigation on the pharmacological properties and phytoconstituents of P. bleo is warranted to further exploit its potentials as a source of novel therapeutic agents or lead compounds.

  18. A Review of Botanical Characteristics, Traditional Usage, Chemical Components, Pharmacological Activities, and Safety of Pereskia bleo (Kunth DC

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sogand Zareisedehizadeh

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Pereskia bleo, a leafy cactus, is a medicinal plant native to West and South America and distributed in tropical and subtropical areas. It is traditionally used as a dietary vegetable, barrier hedge, water purifier, and insect repellant and for maintaining health, detoxification, prevention of cancer, and/or treatment of cancer, hypertension, diabetes, stomach ache, muscle pain, and inflammatory diseases such as dermatitis and rheumatism. The aim of this paper was to provide an up-to-date and comprehensive review of the botanical characteristics, traditional usage, phytochemistry, pharmacological activities, and safety of P. bleo. A literature search using MEDLINE (via PubMed, Science direct, Scopus and Google scholar and China Academic Journals Full-Text Database (CNKI and available eBooks and books in the National University of Singapore libraries in English and Chinese was conducted. The following keywords were used: Pereskia bleo, Pereskia panamensis, Pereskia corrugata, Rhodocacus corrugatus, Rhodocacus bleo, Cactus panamensis, Cactus bleo, Spinach cactus, wax rose, Perescia, and Chinese rose. This review revealed the association between the traditional usage of P. bleo and reported pharmacological properties in the literature. Further investigation on the pharmacological properties and phytoconstituents of P. bleo is warranted to further exploit its potentials as a source of novel therapeutic agents or lead compounds.

  19. Lípidos sanguíneos en cerdos alimentados con pijiguao (Bactris gasipaes Kunth y lisina sintética

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Janeth Colina R.

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivo. Evaluar el efecto de la harina de pijiguao y lisina sintética sobre los lípidos sanguíneos de cerdos en crecimiento y engorde. Materiales y métodos. El estudio se realizó en dos etapas. En la primera etapa se utilizaron 72 cerdos castrados en crecimientode 30 ± 0.5 kg, en un arreglo factorial 2x3: dos niveles de lisina sintética (0 y 2.70 g/kgy tres niveles de harina de pijiguao (0, 160 y 320 g/kg. En la segunda etapa se utilizaron 16 cerdos en engorde de 67.25 ± 1.17 kg, en un arreglo factorial 2x2: dos niveles de lisinasintética (0 y 2.70 g/kg y dos niveles de pijiguao (0 y 175 g/kg. Se determinaron las concentraciones séricas de triacilgliceroles, colesterol total y ácidos grasos. Resultados. Los cerdos en crecimiento que consumieron pijiguao presentaron menores (p<0.001concentraciones de colesterol que el grupo control (2.27 y 2.23 mmol/l vs 2.56 mmol/l y triacilgliceroles (0.34 y 0.28 mmol/l vs 0.42 mmol/l. El ácido oleico incrementó (p<0.01con el mayor nivel de pijiguao (20.78% a 28.84%, y la lisina aumentó (p<0.05 el ácidolinoleico (27.83% a 31.29%. Los cerdos alimentados con pijiguao y lisina mostraron menor (p<0.001 ácido palmítico que el grupo con pijiguao sin lisina (0.23 y 0.19% vs 0.45 y 0.62%, respectivamente. En la etapa de engorde los triacilgliceroles disminuyeron (p<0.05 en los cerdos alimentados con pijiguao y lisina (0.46 a 0.36 mmol/l. Los cerdos alimentados con pijiguao mostraron menor ácido linoleico y mayor ácido oleico (p<0.001. Conclusiones. Las dietas con pijiguao y lisina sintética no causaron efectos negativos sobre los lípidos sanguíneos de cerdos.

  20. A new set of microsatellite markers for the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth): characterization and across-taxa utility within the tribe Cocoeae.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Billotte, N.; Couvreur, T.L.P.; Marseillac, P.; Brottier, P.; Perthuis, B.; Vallejo, M.; Noyer, J.L.; Jacquemoud, J.P.; Risterucci, A.M.; Pintaud, J.C.

    2004-01-01

    A (GA)n microsatellite-enriched library was constructed and a new set of 18 nuclear simple sequence repeat loci was isolated in Bactris gasipaes var. gasipaes. The loci were found to be highly variable in the target species and readily transferable to related Bactris species as well as to the Astroc

  1. Histoquímica, contenido de fenoles totales y actividad antioxidante de hoja y de madera de Litsea glaucescens Kunth (Lauraceae)

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Litsea glaucescens (laurel) es una especie distribuida ampliamente en México, sus principales usos se centran en la medicina tradicional en forma de infusiones y baños medicinales para el alivio de desórdenes ginecológicos y estomacales. Esta propiedad terapéutica es atri - buida a la presencia de compuestos fenólicos en el cuerpo de la planta. En el presente estudio se emplearon técnicas histoquímicas para localizar la presencia de compuestos fenólicos como lignina y taninos, así como lípido...

  2. Influencia de la maduración del fruto de Arbutus xalapensis Kunth sobre la germinación de semillas y embriones cigóticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Violeta Tovar-Rocha

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available En este trabajo se determinó el efecto del estado de maduración del fruto en la germinación in vitro de semillas y embriones cigóticos deArbutus xalapensisKunt. Se colectaron frutos de 10 árboles en cada uno de los dos sitios de estudio y se clasifi caron según su tamaño y peso dentro de tres grupos caracterizados por el color del fruto: 1 a 6 frutos verde oscuro (FVO, 7 y 8 frutos verde-amarillo (FVA, y 9 y 10 frutos naranja-rojizo (FNR. De cada estado se seleccionaron 50 semillas y se colocaron en medio MS para evaluar su germinación. El experimento se repitió dos veces y los resultados obtenidos fueron sometidos a un análisis de comparación de medias de Tukey el cual indicó que los tres grupos de frutos presentan características de peso fresco y diámetro diferentes (P = 0.05, con un promedio de 6.3 g y de 0.21 mm para FVO, 9.5 g y 0.46 mm para FVA y 10.8 g y 0.70 mm para FNR. El análisis de microscopía estereoscópica demostró que todos los estados de maduración presentan semillas y embriones; los estados 1 al 4 presentan embriones no desarrollados, y en los estados 5 al 10 los frutos contienen un mayor número de semillas con embriones desarrollados y con una mayor germinación (7.6 a 8.8 semillas/unidad experimental. Se propone el uso de semillas provenientes de frutos de los estados de maduración 5 al 10 para la germinación adecuada de semillas de madroño, mientras que para los embriones cigóticos es necesario realizar estudios de prueba de medios de cultivo para su germinación.

  3. CRESCIMENTO DE MUDAS DE PUPUNHEIRA (Bactris gasipaes Kunth UTILIZANDO RESÍDUO DE MINERAÇÃO DE AREIA COMO COMPONENTE DE SUBSTRATOS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Augusta Garcia

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the growth of peach palm seedlings using fine residue of sand mining as part of substrates. The experiment comprised five treatments, four containing different ratios of sand mining residue to carbonized rice husk: 1:0; 3:1; 1:1; 1:3, and one composed of alic podzolic yellow latosol and buffalo manure in a 3:1 ratio, used as the standard substrate. Treatments were arranged in randomized blocks with five replications and 10 seedlings each. One peach palm seedling was transplantedper container, which consisted of black, 8x20 cm, 1.1 L PE bags filled with different substrates. Diameter ofstem, plantlet height, number of leaves and relative growth rate were recorded monthly and 180 days aftertheir transplanting, SPAD values, dynamics of CO2 assimilation, transpiration and stomatal conductance. The use of unmixed residue of sand mining as substrate did not produce quality seedlings, since that substance has high density and poor particle size. It can be used as part of substrates though, for plants grown in the mixtures of residue and carbonized rice husk showed similarresults to those grown in the standard substrate.

  4. Anti-Inflammatory Activity and Changes in Antioxidant Properties of Leaf and Stem Extracts from Vitex mollis Kunth during In Vitro Digestion

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    Juan Alfredo Morales-Del-Rio

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Vitex mollis is used in traditional Mexican medicine for the treatment of some ailments. However, there are no studies on what happens to the anti-inflammatory activity or antioxidant properties and total phenolic content of leaves and stem extracts of Vitex mollis during the digestion process; hence, this is the aim of this work. Methanolic, acetonic, and hexanic extracts were obtained from both parts of the plant. Extract yields and anti-inflammatory activity (elastase inhibition were measured. Additionally, changes in antioxidant activity (DPPH and ABTS and total phenols content of plant extracts before and after in vitro digestion were determined. The highest elastase inhibition to prevent inflammation was presented by hexanic extracts (leaf = 94.63% and stem = 98.30%. On the other hand, the major extract yield (16.14%, antioxidant properties (ABTS = 98.51% and DPPH = 94.47% of inhibition, and total phenols (33.70 mg GAE/g of dried sample were showed by leaf methanolic extract. Finally, leaf and stem methanolic extracts presented an antioxidant activity increase of 35.25% and 27.22%, respectively, in comparison to their initial values after in vitro digestion process. All samples showed a decrease in total phenols at the end of the digestion. These results could be the basis to search for new therapeutic agents from Vitex mollis.

  5. Antioxidant activity and phenol content of extracts of bark, stems, and young and mature leaves from Blepharocalyx salicifolius (Kunth O. Berg

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Habermann

    Full Text Available Abstract Phenolic compounds are a group of plant secondary metabolites known to have a variety of bioactivities, including the ability to function as antioxidants. Because of the side effects of the use of synthetic substances, the search for natural and less toxic compounds has increased significantly. This study was designed to evaluate the antioxidant activity and phenol content of hexane, ethyl acetate, and aqueous extracts of the bark (suber and stems as well as the young and mature leaves of Blepharocalyx salicifolius. The extracts were obtained by extraction with organic solvents and subsequent fractionation by chromatographic partition coefficient. Preliminary tests for the presence of antioxidants were performed using bioautography in thin-layer chromatography. The antioxidant activity of the extracts was assessed using the 2,2-diphenyl-1-picrylhydrazyl (DPPH method, and the phenol content of the extracts was quantified using the Folin-Ciocalteu technique. The results showed that 9 of the 12 extracts evaluated displayed very strong antioxidant activity and three displayed moderate activity. Aqueous extracts of the young leaves and bark and the ethyl acetate extract of the young leaves showed the highest levels of antioxidant activity and total phenolic content (TPC. A correlation was observed between TPC and antioxidant activity index (AAI with a correlation coefficient (r2 of 0.7999. Thus, the high phenol content of B. salicifolius extracts and its correlation with antioxidant activity provide substrates for further studies.

  6. Variación temporal en la colonización de hongos micorrízicos arbusculares de Bactris gasipaes Kunth en Buenaventura, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francisco H Molineros Hurtado

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available El chontaduro Bactris gasipaes es un cultivo tropical importante del cual se cosechan los frutos o los palmitos. En el estudio se evaluaron los niveles de colonización de las raíces, se realizaron conteos de esporas en el suelo y la identificación de morfotipos de hongos micorrízicos arbusculares (HMA asociados a cultivos de B. gasipaes en el áreas rural de Citronela y Zabaletas, municipio de Buenaventura, Departmento de Valle del Cauca, Colombia, durante tres periodos de entre 2006 y 2007, para determinar la influencia de la pluviosidad en la colonización de HMA. Los porcentajes de colonización en Citronela variaron entre 58% y 90% mientras que en Zabaletas la colonización de raíces varió entre 63% y 79%. El número promedio de esporas en 50 g de suelo húmedo fue mayor in Citronela (244.6 ± 116.0 SD que en Zabaletas (50.3 (± 24.1 SD. Se identificaron 22 morfotipos de HMA del suelo asociado a las palmas de de B. gasipaes. Glomus fue el género de hongos micorrízico más abundante en ambas localidades, pero Scutelospora también fue detectado. Este estudio demuestra la existencia de variación geográfica y temporal en parámetros micorrízicos en un cultivo importante para la agricultura del trópico húmedo.

  7. [Proximal composition, lipid and cholesterol content of meat from pigs fed peach-palm meal (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) and synthetic lysine].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jerez-Timaure, Nancy; Rivero, Janeth Colina; Araque, Humberto; Jiménez, Paola; Velazco, Mariela; Colmenares, Ciolys

    2011-03-01

    Two experiments were conducted to evaluate the proximal composition, lipids and cholesterol content of meat from pigs fed diets with peach-palm meal (PPM), with or without addition of synthetic lysine (LYS). In experiment 1, 24 pigs were randomly allotted into six treatments with three levels of PPM (0.16 and 32%) and two levels of LYS (0 and 0.27%). In experiment II, 16 finishing pigs were fed with two levels of PPM (0 and 17.50%) and two levels of LYS (0 and 0.27%). At the end of each experiment (42 and 35 d, respectively), pigs were slaughtered and loin samples were obtained to determine crude protein, dry matter, moisture, ash, total lipids, and cholesterol content. In experiment I, pork loin from 16% PPM had more dry matter (26.45 g/100 g) and less moisture (73.49 g/100g) than pork loin from 32% PPM (25.11 y 75.03 g/100g, respectively). Meat samples from pigs without LYS had higher (p < 0.05) content of lipids (2.11 g/100 g) than meat from pigs that consumed LYS (1.72 g/100 g). In experiment II, the proximal, lipids and cholesterol content were similar among treatments. The PPM addition to pig diets did not affect the proximal composition of pork, while LYS addition indicated a reduction of total lipids, which could result as an alternative to obtain leaner meat.

  8. The effects of land use change on carbon content in the aerial biomass of an Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. et Cham. forest in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M.R. Pineda Lopez

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study. Were analyzed patterns and dynamics of forest cover change and land use for the period 1995-2005, and estimated carbon content in biomass in a forest of fir (Abies religiosa.Area of study. Ejido El Conejo in the Cofre de Perote National Park, Veracruz, Mexico.Material and Methods. Spatial data (maps, orthophotographs were used: (UTM; GRS 80 spheroid; zone 14, datum ITRF92; units: metres. Maps for 1995 and 2005 were constructed and compared. Carbon content in the aboveground biomass of fir (Abies religiosa was estimated using an equation specific to species.Main results. After one decade, the forested area had increased slightly (0.25%. The main type of land cover change was from shrubland to forest (probability of change 0.41; the change from forestland to shrubland with trees was 0.05%, and from forest to agriculture was 0.02%. Data from 2008 confirmed that the A. religiosa forest located in the ejido is distributed in largely unconnected fragments, of which some have a high density of young trees. Estimated carbon content in the aboveground biomass (163.51 Mg ha-1 was higher than that estimated for other forests of the same species in Mexico.Research highlights. It is recommended that ecological corridors be established throughout the reforested area, in order to connect these fragments (and increase carbon sequestration and favour faunal and floral conservation. Finally, recognition should be given to the high vulnerability of A. religiosa forests to climate change, given their high degree of fragmentation and critical altitudinal limit.Key words: Aboveground biomass; carbon storage; ecological corridors; fir forest.

  9. The effects of land use change on carbon content in the aerial biomass of an Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. et Cham.) forest in central Veracruz, Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pineda-Lopez, M. R.; Sanchez-Velasquez, L. R.; Vazquez-Dominguez, G.; Rojo-Alboreca, A.

    2013-05-01

    Aim of study.) Were analyzed patterns and dynamics of forest cover change and land use for the period 1995-2005, and estimated carbon content in biomass in a forest of fir (Abies religiosa). Area of study. Ejido El Conejo in the Cofre de Perote National Park, Veracruz, Mexico. Material and Methods. Spatial data (maps, ortho photographs) were used: (UTM); GRS 80 spheroid; zone 14, datum ITRF92; units: metres. Maps for 1995 and 2005 were constructed and compared. Carbon content in the aboveground biomass of fir (Abies religiosa) was estimated using an equation specific to species. Main results. After one decade, the forested area had increased slightly (0.25%). The main type of land cover change was from shrubland to forest (probability of change 0.41); the change from forestland to shrubland with trees was 0.05%, and from forest to agriculture was 0.02%. Data from 2008 confirmed that the A. religiosa forest located in the ejido is distributed in largely unconnected fragments, of which some have a high density of young trees. Estimated carbon content in the aboveground biomass (163.51 Mg ha-1) was higher than that estimated for other forests of the same species in Mexico. Research highlights. It is recommended that ecological corridors be established throughout the reforested area, in order to connect these fragments (and increase carbon sequestration) and favour faunal and floral conservation. Finally, recognition should be given to the high vulnerability of A. religiosa forests to climate change, given their high degree of fragmentation and critical altitudinal limit. (Author) 55 refs.

  10. Induction of quadrangular shapes to stems of Guadua angustifolia Kunth for the business development in the rural communities of Ecuadorian Amazon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Karina Carrera-Sánchez

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Local development at indigenous communities from Ecuadorian Amazonía, may develop their potentialities and improve families’ incomes. In sector San José, cantón Mera, province Pastaza (Ecuador, the induction of square shape in G. angustifolia stems was studied using an adjustable metallic mold during three time intervals (15, 30 and 45 days. Square shape in stems of G. angustifolia was observed once metallic mold was used in shoots proliferation stage with 50 cm of height. It was obtained a 60.93 % of perimeter of stem with plane surface and six induced nodes. Metallic molds affected in approximately 55% the elongation of induced nodes, limiting stems normal length. By means of the induction of square shape in stems of G. angustifolia, members from farmer’s communities may develop agricultural production and commercialization to generate micro-enterprising and improve their life quality

  11. Germinação e maturidade fisiológica de sementes de Piptadenia Viridiflora (Kunth. Benth relacionadas a estádios de frutificação e conservação pós-colheita Germination and physiological maturity in seeds of Piptadenia Viridiflora (Kunth. Benth related to fruiting times and forms of post-harvest conservation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronaldo Cesário Pessoa

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi verificar o efeito dos estádios de frutificação e formas de conservação na germinação e qualidade fisiológica de sementes de surucucu. Em 25 árvores na região de Vitória da Conquista, BA, foram realizadas coletas de frutos no período de 17/05 a 9/07 de 2007, em intervalos de sete dias a partir do início da frutificação, caracterizando oito estádios de desenvolvimento das vagens. Cada período de coleta foi definido por lotes diferenciados de sementes, sendo realizadas avaliações de massas fresca e seca de 100 sementes e teor de água. As sementes de cada uma das oito coletas foram mantidas em condições ambientais de laboratório, sendo subdivididas em dois lotes: em um lote, as sementes permaneceram no interior das vagens e, no outro, as vagens foram eliminadas. Após o período de 49 dias a partir do início da frutificação, massas fresca e seca de 100 sementes e teor de água foram determinados. Posteriormente, as sementes foram submetidas a testes de germinação em câmara tipo BOD, com temperatura de 25 ºC, em regime de fotoperíodo de 8 h de luz. Depois de cinco dias foi realizada a primeira contagem de germinação e aos 10 dias, avaliadas as seguintes características: porcentagem de germinação, plântulas anormais e classificação do vigor das plântulas (vigor alto, médio e baixo. A presença das vagens durante o período de conservação das sementes foi fator determinante para a qualidade fisiológica das sementes. A germinação e o acúmulo de matéria seca determinados por ocasião do teste de germinação aumentaram com o período de frutificação, atingindo o máximo aos 37 dias.The objective of this study was to investigate the effect of different fruiting stages and conservation techniques on the germination and physiological quality of surucucu seeds. Fruits were collected on eight occasions from 25 trees in the region of Vitória da Conquista - BA, in the period from 05/17 to 07/09 2007, at sevenday intervals from the beginning of the fruiting stage. Each collection period was characterized by distinct seed lots. Evaluations were made for green and dry weight of 100 seeds and water content. The seeds in each of the eight collections were maintained under room conditions in the laboratory, and were subdivided into two lots: in the first, the seeds remained inside their pods, while in the other the pods were eliminated. After a 49-day period from the beginning of fruiting, determinations were made for green and dry weight of 100 seeds and water content. The seeds were then submitted to germination tests in a BOD incubator adjusted to 25ºC, with an 8:16 hr (light:dark photoperiod. The first germination count was made after five days. At ten days, evaluations were made for germination percentage and abnormal seedlings, and plantlets were classified as to their vigor (high, medium, and low. Germination increased as the fruiting period progressed, and was directly related to dry matter accumulation in the seeds, as determined during the germination test.

  12. Estresse salino no crescimento inicial e nutrição mineral de gliricídia (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Steud em solução nutritiva(1 Growth and mineral nutrition of (Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Steud seedlings in nutrient solution under saline stress

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Séfora Gil Gomes de Farias

    2009-10-01

    Full Text Available A salinidade é um dos fatores que mais limitam o crescimento e desenvolvimento de plantas na região semiárida. A sobrevivência destas em ambientes salinos dependerá de processos adaptativos, que envolvem absorção, transporte e distribuição de íons nos vários órgãos da planta. Com o objetivo de avaliar o crescimento e a nutrição mineral de mudas de gliricídia cultivada em diferentes condições de salinidade, realizou-se um experimento em telado de náilon da Unidade Acadêmica de Engenharia Florestal da Universidade Federal de Campina Grande, Patos - PB. As sementes foram colocadas para germinar em vasos de Leonard, contendo solução nutritiva de Hoagland & Arnon (50 % da concentração original, com as concentrações de NaCl: 0, 100 200 e 400 mmol L-1. Os tratamentos foram distribuídos em delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com quatro repetições, com uma planta por vaso. Aos 60 dias após a emergência, as plantas foram colhidas e avaliadas quanto a altura, matéria seca e teores de N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S e Na na raiz, no caule e nas folhas. O aumento da salinidade promoveu reduções no crescimento e nos teores de macronutrientes, ocorrendo o inverso nos teores de Na, sobretudo na raiz. A gliricídia mostrou-se sensível à salinidade.Salinity is one of the most limiting factors to plant growth and development. Plant survival in saline environments depends on adaptive processes involving uptake, transport, and distribution of ions in plant organs. To evaluate growth and mineral nutrition of Gliricidia sepium seedlings under saline conditions, an experiment was carried out under nylon-mesh protection, at the Federal University of Campina Grande, in Patos - PB. Seeds were sown in pots containing Hoagland & Arnon nutrient solution with four NaCl levels (0, 100, 200 and 400 mmol L-1, with four replications (1 plant/pot in a completely randomized design. Sixty days after seedling emergence, the plant height and root, stem and leaf dry matter, and nutrient (N, P, K, Ca, Mg, S and Na accumulation were measured in the plant tissues. All variables but Na were negatively affected by increasing NaCl levels in the nutrient solution, particularly in the root tissue. Results indicated the sensitivity of Gliricidia sepium to salinity.

  13. Invertebrates associated to Eichhornea azurea Kunth in a lagoon of the Upper Paraná River: composition, community attributes and influence of abiotic factors Invertebrados associados à Eichhornea azurea Kunth em uma lagoa do alto rio Paraná: composição, atributos da comunidade e influência de fatores abióticos

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Valéria Flávia Batista-Silva

    2011-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: We evaluated the composition and community attributes of invertebrates associated to Eichhornia azurea at Cascalho Lagoon, Upper Paraná River, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil, over a hydrological cycle, as well the possible influence of abiotic factors upon these attributes. METHODS: The samplings were conducted during 2010 in the rainy and dry periods at stands of E. azurea. The attributes evaluated were abundance, richness, diversity, evenness and dominance. The abiotic factors, temperature, dissolved oxygen, pH and turbidity were summarized by a Principal Component Analysis (PCA. In order to verify possible differences between the mean values of the community attributes and the scores of the PCA axis in different periods, we employed null models analysis of variance. The influence of abiotic factors on each attribute was evaluated through Pearson correlations. RESULTS: We captured 3,052 individuals, distributed into 32 taxa, belonging to the phyllum Mollusca, Annelida, Nematoda and Arthropoda. Among the assessed attributes, only abundance and richness varied significantly between periods, with higher values during the rainy period. Chironomidade was dominant in both periods, whereas Notonectidae and Cyclopoida were rare in the rainy, and Bivalve, Decapoda, Haliplidae, Trichoptera and Pyralidae, in the dry period. A temporal distinction was evident only for the PCA axis 1, which represented gradients in temperature, dissolved oxygen and pH. Among the community attributes, only abundance was significant and negatively correlated with this axis. CONCLUSION: We attested that: i the rainy period should add favorable conditions for invertebrates' higher richness and abundance in this macrophyte; ii only the later attribute was influenced by limnological gradients.OBJETIVO: Nós avaliamos a composição e atributos da comunidade de invertebrados associados à Eichhornia azurea na lagoa do Cascalho, alto rio Paraná, MS, Brasil, durante um ciclo hidrológico, bem como a possível influência de fatores abióticos sobre estes atributos. MÉTODOS: Amostragens foram realizadas em bancos de E. azurea durante os períodos chuvoso e seco em 2010. Os atributos avaliados foram abundância, riqueza, diversidade, equitabilidade e dominância. As variáveis limnológicas temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido, pH e turbidez foram sumarizadas através da Análise de Componentes Principais (PCA. Para verificar possíveis diferenças entre as médias dos atributos e dos escores do eixo 1 da PCA nos diferentes períodos utilizou-se análises de variância de modelos nulos. A influência dos fatores abióticos sobre cada atributo foi avaliada através de correlações de Pearson. RESULTADOS: Nós capturamos 3052 indivíduos, distribuídos em 32 táxons, pertencentes aos filos Mollusca, Annelida, Nematoda e Arthropoda. Dentre os atributos avaliados, apenas a abundância e riqueza variaram significativamente entre os períodos, com maiores valores obtidos para o chuvoso. Chironomidade foi dominante em ambos os períodos enquanto Notonectidae e Cyclopoida foram raros no período chuvoso e Bivalve, Decapoda, Haliplidae, Trichoptera e Pyralidae no período seco. Distinção temporal foi evidente apenas para o eixo 1 da PCA, o qual representou gradientes de temperatura, oxigênio dissolvido e pH. Dentre os atributos avaliados, somente a abundância apresentou correlação significativa e negativa com este eixo. CONCLUSÃO: Ficou evidente que: i o período chuvoso deve agregar condições favoráveis para a ocorrência de maior riqueza e elevada abundância de invertebrados nesta macrófita; ii somente este último atributo foi influenciado pelos gradientes limnológicos.

  14. A KINETIC STUDY OF THE METHANOLYSIS OF THE SULFONYLUREAS BENSULFURON METHYL AND SULFOMETURON METHYL USING CAPILLARY ELECTROPHORESIS

    Science.gov (United States)

    The instability of sulfonylureas in solution in methanol has led us to a kinetic study of methanolysis of two sulfonylureas using capillary electrophoresis. In a preliminary experiment solutions of the seven compounds, bensulfuron methyl, sulfometuron methyl, nicosulfuron, chlori...

  15. Pro-toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in the traditional Andean herbal medicine "asmachilca"

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asmachilca is a Peruvian medicinal herb preparation ostensibly derived from Eupatorium gayanum Wedd. = Aristeguietia gayana (Wedd.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae). Decoctions of the plant have a reported bronchodilation effect that is purported to be useful in the treatment of respir...

  16. Contribución al conocimiento del árbol de cirián (Crescentia alata Kunth.) variabilidad, selección, morfología, citogenética y fitoquímica.

    OpenAIRE

    Peralta Valverde, Gabriel

    2012-01-01

    El cirián es un árbol medicinal con frutos esféricos que contiene iridoides y polifenoles los que confieren propiedades anti-inflamatorias, antioxidantes y antimicrobianas. La presente investigación se realizó en la región de Tierra Caliente, Michoacán, México en la Depresión del Balsas, la cual es uno de los refugios pleistocénicos más extensos de Norteamérica y centro de origen y domesticación del maíz; el árbol de cirián, es una especie emblemática de esta región y probablemente constituyó...

  17. 云贵高原多星韭二倍体—四倍体分布格局研究%Diploid and Tetraploid Distribution of Allium wallichii Kunth(Ailiaceae)in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    翟艳红; 杨莹; 星耀武; 纪运恒; 周浙昆

    2011-01-01

    Chromosome numbers and karyotypes of seventeen populations of Allium wallichii (Alliaceae) from the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau were examined. The polyploidy distribution pattern of this species was analyzed based on 412 newly studied plants from seventeen populations and published data. Nine diploid populations and six diploid-tetraploid mixed populations occur in central to northwest Yunnan,while twelve tetraploid populations occur in the Yunnan-Guizhou Plateau. Diploids are 2A type except ‘ Shangri-La d’ and Baoshan populations which are 3A type,tetraploids are 2A type except Huize and Hezhang populations which are 2B type. The asymmetry index (Al) comparison indicates that the tetraploids in northwestern Yunnan are likely to be more ancient than those in other areas. The karyotype similarity of diploids and tetraploids indicates a possible autopolyploid origin of tetraploids in this species.%采用染色体压片技术对云贵高原17个多星韭居群,共412株个体进行染色体数目和核型研究.结合已有的细胞学资料,对云贵高原多星韭多倍体分布格局进行了研究.9个二倍体居群、6个二倍体与四倍体混生居群分布于云南中部至西北部,12个四倍体居群分布于整个云贵高原.二倍体除香格里拉d和保山居群核型类型为3A型外,其余均为2A型,四倍体除会泽和赫章居群为2B型外,其余均为2A型.云南西北部四倍体核型不对称指数低于其它分布区,推测该地区四倍体可能起源较早.多星韭二倍体与四倍体核型类型和形态并无明显差异,表明多星韭四倍体可能为同源多倍体.

  18. O gênero Eleocharis R. Br. (Cyperaceae no Rio Grande do Sul, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilsi Iob Boldrin

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available O estudo taxonômico do gênero Eleocharis R. Br. para o Rio Grande do Sul foi desenvolvido através dos métodos tradicionais em taxonomia. Os dados foram obtidos através da bibliografia, revisão de herbários regionais e coleta de exemplares a campo. O gênero está representado no Rio Grande do Sul por 27 espécies: Eleocharis acutangula (Roxb. Schult., E. bonariensis Nees, E. contracta Maury, E. dunensis Kük., E. elegans (Kunth Roem. & Schult., E. filiculmis Kunth, E. flavescens (Poir. Urb., E. geniculata (L. Roem. & Schult., E. interstincta (Vahl Roem. & Schult., E. laeviglumis R. Trevis. & Boldrini, E. loefgreniana Boeck., E. maculosa (Vahl Roem. & Schult., E. minima Kunth var. minima, E. montana (Kunth Roem. & Schult., E. montevidensis Kunth, E. nudipes (Kunth Palla, E. obtusetrigona (Lindl. & Nees Steud., E. parodii Barros, E. quinquangularis Boeck., E. rabenii Boeck., E. radicans (Poir. Kunth, E. sellowiana Kunth, E. squamigera Svenson, E. subarticulata (Nees Boeck., E. viridans Kük. ex Osten, Eleocharis sp.1 e Eleocharis sp.2. O trabalho apresenta descrições, ilustrações, dados sobre distribuição geográfica, habitat e períodos de floração e frutificação das espécies, além de uma chave dicotômica para diferenciá-las.

  19. The Myths behind Flower Names

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白杰

    2014-01-01

    The Greek term for flower is Chloris. It is derived from the name of the Chloris, the goddess of vegetation, in Greek mythology, reasonably so, if we consider the great number of mythological tales linked to flowers of the Greek flowers. The use of flowers was widespread in Greece from time immemorial, since flowers are so important to us from the moment we are born. Flowers play an important role in mythology. As they morph from bud to bloom to faded and wilted petals, they assume various meanings linked to youth, life and death. They are associated with goddesses and legends, and are often attributed with certain powers and symbolism.

  20. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytko...

  1. NUEVAS CITAS DE BULBOSTYLIS (CYPERACEAE) PARA LAS FLORAS DE BOLIVIA Y PARAGUAY New records of Bulbostylis (Cyperaceae) for the flora of Bolivia and Paraguay

    OpenAIRE

    María Gabriela López

    2010-01-01

    Durante la revisión del género Bulbostylis (Cyperaceae, Abildgaardieae) para la flora de
    América austral, se encontraron cinco nuevas citas, una de Bolivia: B. svensoniana Steyerm. y
    cuatro de Paraguay: B. consanguinea (Kunth) C.B.Clarke, B. loefgrenii (Boeck.) Prata &
    López, B. sellowiana (Kunth) Palla y B. papillosa Kük. Se hacen aclaraciones sobre estos&...

  2. The Genus Asparagus in Southern Africa*

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. P. Jessop

    1966-12-01

    Full Text Available A revision of the genus Asparagus in South Africa, South West Africa, Bechuanaland, Basutoland, and Swaziland has been undertaken. Notes are given on the value of most o f the characters which have been used in the separation of species, recent literature on the nature of  Asparagus assimilatory organs, and a technique for the examination of chromosomes. Chromosome counts are listed for ten taxa. There is a key to the forty species and four varieties. In the main part of the work these taxa are described, and their synonymy, taxonomy, distribution and habitats dealt with. Six species and one variety are new. The following are the new species and combinations:  A. setaceus (Kunth (Asparagopsis setacea Kunth, A. mueronatus, A. macowanii Bak. var. zuluensis (N. E. Br.  (A. zuluensis N. E. Br., A. rigidus, A. densiflorus (Kunth  {Asparagopsis densiflora Kunth,  A. aethiopicus L. var. angusticladus, A. falcatus L. var. ternifolius (Bak.  (A. aethiopicus L. var.  ternifolius Bak.,  A. aspergillus,  A. obermeyerae,  A. krebsianus (Kunth (Asparagopsis krebsiana Kunth,  A. acocksii.  A. crassicladus. Several plants o f horticultural importance occur in South Africa. The three best known are A. plumosus, which is reduced here to synonymy under  A. setaceus (Kunth Jessop, and  A. sprengeri and  A. myersii. A. sprengeri is being reduced to synonymy under  A. densiflorus (Kunth Jessop,.  A. myersii, which is a  nomen nudum, is also regarded as belonging to  A. densiflorus.

  3. 7 CFR 361.1 - Definitions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ...—Crotalaria spectabilis Roth Crotalaria, slenderleaf—Crotalaria brevidens Benth. var. intermedia (Kotschy... Mart.) Reichb. Redtop—Agrostis gigantea Roth Rescuegrass—Bromus catharticus Vahl Rhodesgrass—Chloris.... sativa Vetch, hairy—Vicia villosa Roth subsp. villosa Vetch, Hungarian—Vicia pannonica Crantz...

  4. Drug: D02056 [KEGG MEDICUS

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available STITUTES AND PERFUSION SOLUTIONS B05C IRRIGATING SOLUTIONS B05CB Salt solutions B05CB01 Sodium chloride D020...56 Sodium chloride (JP16/USP) B05X I.V. SOLUTION ADDITIVES B05XA Electrolyte solutions B05XA03 Sodium chlori

  5. InterProScan Result: BY928365 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BY928365 BY928365_2_ORF1 EE1DA22F1F6A80CB PANTHER PTHR11616:SF22 SODIUM- AND CHLORI...DE-DEPENDENT NEUROTRANSMITTER TRANSPORTER 1.8e-27 T IPR002944 Sodium:neurotransmitter symporter, inebriated ...

  6. InterProScan Result: BY914571 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available BY914571 BY914571_2_ORF1 E3F646803AEB7EB2 PANTHER PTHR11616:SF22 SODIUM- AND CHLORI...DE-DEPENDENT NEUROTRANSMITTER TRANSPORTER 2.2e-60 T IPR002944 Sodium:neurotransmitter symporter, inebriated ...

  7. InterProScan Result: FS849595 [KAIKOcDNA[Archive

    Lifescience Database Archive (English)

    Full Text Available FS849595 FS849595_3_ORF2 1893B69E030FD4A1 PANTHER PTHR11616:SF22 SODIUM- AND CHLORI...DE-DEPENDENT NEUROTRANSMITTER TRANSPORTER 3.7e-37 T IPR002944 Sodium:neurotransmitter symporter, inebriated ...

  8. Experience and recent innovations in cathodic protection of steel in concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Peelen, W.H.A.

    2014-01-01

    This paper reviews 25 years of experience with cathodic protection of steel in concrete in The Netherlands. Three phases have passed from the late 1980s until present: pioneering, development and maturity. In the first period CP was mainly applied to precast elements corroding due to mixed in chlori

  9. Environmentally acceptable incineration of chlorinated chemical waste: review of theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Zeeuw, M.A.; Lemkowitz, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons in the form of chemical waste, represent a threat to the environment and public health of the world. Their proper handling, removal and destruction is critical to long term safety. Increasingly strict government legislation is leading to an increase in the quantity of chlori

  10. Chloride penetration into cementitious mortar at early age

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Caballero, J.; Polder, R.B.; Leegwater, G.A.; Fraaij, A.L.A.

    2012-01-01

    Modern service life design methods for concrete structures use chloride diffusion data as an input parameter. Abundant data exist for concrete at 28 days and, to a lesser extent, at later ages. This paper presents chloride diffusion data for mortar at ages between 1 day and 28 days age. Rapid Chlori

  11. Caracterización del borde de un relicto de bosque altoandino dominado por Chusquea scandens (Kunth y evaluación del efecto de disturbios experimentales sobre la regeneración natural en la Reserva forestal municipal de Cogua (Cundinamarca, Colombia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vargas Ríos Orlando

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available El presente estudio se realizó en la Reserva Forestal Municipal de Cogua (Cundinamarca, Colombia, como parte del proyecto “Hacia un modelo de restauración del bosque”. Tiene como objetivos caracterizar el borde de avance del bosque, dominado por la especie Chusquea scandens y evaluar la regeneración de especies luego de disturbios experimentales a lo largo del borde de bosque. Con el primero se generó información preliminar del estado del borde de avance y del potencial que puede existir allí para la regeneración natural de la vegetación, el muestreo se realizó entre los meses de julio y octubre de 2003, en el cual se evaluaron algunas condiciones bióticas, abióticas y edáficas por medio del método línea intercepto a lo largo del gradiente pastizal-chuscal-bosque. El segundo estableció que tipo de disturbios son favorables para activar y potencializar la regeneración en los bordes de avance dominados por el chusque, los disturbios se basaron en reducir la competencia que hace el chusque por luz, así como también aumentar la disponibilidad de espacio para el establecimiento de otras especies. Para la caracterización del borde de avance se obtuvo que hacia el pastizal el chusque presenta una
    alta densidad que genera una zona de difícil acceso, lo cual puede funcionar como una barrera natural que reduce la influencia de especies de áreas abiertas en el interior del borde de avance, en donde se presentan peque��os claros donde el chuscal se reduce y se muestra una regeneración natural de especies. Además se estableció que a altas densidades del chusque se reducen las posibilidades de regeneración natural y la implantación de especies arbóreas, así como también, que la regeneración presentada hacia el interior del borde de avance está dominada por especies de borde y de bosque, siendo las herbáceas, enredaderas y arbustos las formas de crecimiento más importantes. Luego de los disturbios experimentales se obtuvo que las condiciones
    de sombra artificial sobre un terreno con remoción del suelo generan altas abundancias de especies, así como también la presencia de especies únicas. Se estableció además, que mantener la capa superficial del suelo es favorable para la regeneración debido a que se mantiene gran parte de las semillas viables acumuladas sobre el suelo.

  12. [Leaf anatomy study in Solanaceae of Venezuela. V. leaf anatomy of eleven species of Cestrum L] .

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jáuregul, D; Rodriguez, N; Benítez, C E

    2000-01-01

    Leaf anatomy of the following eleven species: C. buxifolium Kunth, C. humboldtii Francey, C. lindenii Dunal, C. mariquitense Kunth, C. megalophyllum Dunal, C. olivaceum Francey, C. pariense Steyerm., C petiolare Kunth, C. scandans Vahl, C. strigilatum Ruiz et Pavón and C. tomentosum L.f. is described. Transverse sectioning, bruise and clearing according to the classical methods for optical microscopy were made. The species studied show dissimilitude in relation to a) fohar blade: thickness and sinuosity of epidermal cell walls; type, density and presence of trichornes, leaf type according the position of the stomata, thickness of both palisade and spongy parenchy-ma, number of spongy parenchyma layers, occurrence or not of paranchymatous sheath and sclerifled cells in mesophyll, tmbeculae or projection walls b) Midvein: degree of development and arrangement of the parenchyma and collenchyma, c) Petiole: size and form in transverse section, presence of ornamented cuticle, peridermis and degree of development of the sclerenctiyma next to vascular bundles.

  13. Doença tremorgênica em ruminantes e equídeos no semiárido da Paraíba Tremorgenic disease in ruminants and equidae in the Brazilian semiarid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Clarice R.M. Pessoa

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Descrevem-se oito surtos de uma doença tremorgênica em bovinos, ovinos, equinos e muares na região do Cariri, semiárido da Paraíba. Sete surtos aconteceram de julho a dezembro de 2007, com maior frequência entre setembro e outubro. Outro surto foi observado em fevereiro de 2008. Todos os surtos ocorreram no período da seca. Os sinais observados foram tremores musculares, hipermetria, ataxia, aumento da base de sustentação, constante estado de alerta e, em alguns casos, decúbito. Quando retirados das pastagens os animais recuperavam-se em 3-4 dias a duas semanas, porém quando retornavam ao pasto de origem adoeciam novamente. Um ovino foi necropsiado e não foram observadas lesões macroscópicas ou microscópicas. Em seis propriedades a doença ocorreu em cultivos de palma invadidos por gramíneas e em duas em áreas de caatinga desmatada invadidas pelas mesmas gramíneas. Diversas gramíneas, incluindo Digitaria bicornis, Enteropogon mollis, Chloris virgata e Chloris barbata foram encontradas nos piquetes onde ocorreu a doença. Dois equinos foram alimentados por sete dias com gramíneas secas provenientes de fazendas onde haviam acontecido surtos da doença. Um dos equinos apresentou sinais leves da doença no quinto dia de ingestão, mas recuperou-se no dia seguinte. Esses resultados sugerem que a doença está associada à ingestão de alguma gramínea, possivelmente Chloris spp. Relatos anteriores mencionam a ocorrência de uma intoxicação semelhante, entre 1956 e 1962, no Agreste Pernambucano, em pastagens de Chloris orthonothon.Eight outbreaks of a tremorgenic disease are reported in ruminants and equidae in the semiarid region of the Brazilian state of Paraíba. Seven outbreaks occurred from July to December 2007, with highest frequency in September and October. Another outbreak was observed in February 2008. All outbreaks occurred during the dry season. The disease affected horses, mules, cattle and sheep. Clinical signs

  14. Preliminary screening of five ethnomedicinal plants of Guatemala.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morales, C; Gomez-Serranillos, M P; Iglesias, I; Villar, A M; Cáceres, A

    2001-01-01

    We performed the Irwin test on some different extracts of the aerial parts of Tridax procumbens L., of the leaves of Neurolaena lobata (L.) R. Br., of the bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and Gliricidia sepium Jacq. Walp. and of the root and leaves of Petiveria alliacea L. At a dosage of 1.25 g extract/100 g dried plant, the aqueous extracts of bark and leaves of Byrsonima crassifolia (L.) Kunth. and G. sepium Jacq. Walp. showed higher activity: decrease in motor activity, back tonus, reversible parpebral ptosis. catalepsy and strong hypothermia.

  15. Recubrimiento de fibras naturales con partículas magnéticas para la inmovilización de enzimas

    OpenAIRE

    Calvo Betancur, Santiago Emilio

    2013-01-01

    En este trabajo se recubrieron fibras naturales de Guadua Angustifolia Kunth con partículas magnéticas de magnetita para la inmovilización de la enzima lipasa de Candida Rugosa. La fibra de Guadua Angustifolia Kunth se sometió a un tratamiento con hidróxido de sodio para modificar su superficie y de esta manera mejorar el recubrimiento con magnetita. Para el recubrimiento de las fibras naturales con magnetita se utilizó el método de co-precipitación in-situ de Fe+2 y Fe+3, utilizándose dos ti...

  16. Dispersion of Single-Walled Carbon Nanotubes in Organic Solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Cheng, Qiaohuan

    2010-01-01

    This thesis contains a systematic study of the dispersion of pristine HiPco Single Walled Carbon Nanotubes (SWNTs) in a series of organic solvents. A double beamed UV-Vis-NIR absorption spectrometer coupled with an integrating sphere was employed to demonstrate the dispersibility of SWNTs in different solvents. Raman Spectroscopy and Atomic Force Microscopy (AFM) were used to confirm the debundling and exfoliation of SWNTs aggregates. An investigation of the solubility of SWNTs in four chlori...

  17. Sichere Nachweise der längst ausgestorbenen Seggen Carex loliacea, C. heleonastes, C. buxbaumii und C. hartmanii im westlichen Niedersachsen : Herrn Prof. Dr. Dr. Heinrich E. Weber zum 65. Geburtstag gewidmet

    OpenAIRE

    Garve, Eckhard; Kiffe, Karl

    2012-01-01

    Alten Literaturangaben aus der "Chloris Hanoverana" (Meyer 1836) und der "Flora Hanoverana Excursoria" (Meyer 1849) über das Vorkommen der boreal verbreiteten Seggen Carex loliacea, Carex heleonastes und Carex buxbaumii im westlichen Niedersachsen wurde nachgegangen. Alle drei Arten konnten anhand von Herbarbelegen bestätigt werden und sind damit erstmals sicher für Niedersachsen nachgewiesen. Carex loliacea ist sogar neu für ganz Deutschland. Zusätzlich wurde ein alter Herbarbeleg von Carex ...

  18. A Study of Insect Pollinators Associated with DoD TER-S Flowering Plants, Including Identification of Habitat Types Where They Co-Occur by Military Installation in the Western United States

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    Ecology. CRC Press. 462 pp. Keywords: Carex sp., wind pollination Describes morphology of sedges . The floral structure of sedges is suited to...Reservation G1T1; S1.2 Cardiospermum dissectum (TX) (Chichuahuan balloonvine) Bees Wasps La Reforma G2; S2 Carex obispoensis (CA) (San Luis...Obispo sedge ) Wind-pollinated Camp San Luis Obispo G2; S2.2 Chloris texensis (TX) (Texas windmill grass) Wind-pollinated Ellington Air Force

  19. Biofilm Formation and the Presence of the Intercellular Adhesion Locus ica among Staphylococci from Food and Food Processing Environments

    OpenAIRE

    Møretrø, Trond; Hermansen, Lene; Holck, Askild L.; Sidhu, Maan S.; Rudi, Knut; Langsrud, Solveig

    2003-01-01

    In clinical staphylococci, the presence of the ica genes and biofilm formation are considered important for virulence. Biofilm formation may also be of importance for survival and virulence in food-related staphylococci. In the present work, staphylococci from the food industry were found to differ greatly in their abilities to form biofilms on polystyrene. A total of 7 and 21 of 144 food-related strains were found to be strong and weak biofilm formers, respectively. Glucose and sodium chlori...

  20. Notes on Malesian Fabaceae (Leguminosae-Papilionoideae). 3. The genera Dioclea, Luzonia, and Macropsychanthus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Adema, Frits

    1998-01-01

    The genera Dioclea Humb., Bonpl. & Kunth, Luzonia Elmer, and Macropsychanthus Harms are briefly discussed. Keys to the species and notes to various taxa are given. Dioclea decandra Amshoff is proposed as a new name for Macropsychanthus ferrugineus Merr. Macropsychanthus lauterbachii Harms is lectoty

  1. Ferns and lycophytes of Pernambuco State, Brazil: Metaxyaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Iva Carneiro Leão Barros

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available The present paper elucidates part of the fern flora of Pernambuco State. Metaxyaceae is native to the state and is represented by a single species, Metaxya rostrata (Kunth C. Presl. Descriptions and illustrations, as well as geographical distribution and habitats, are presented.

  2. New taxa of Aneilema R. Br. (Commelinaceae from southern and tropical East Africa

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R. B. Faden

    1984-12-01

    Full Text Available Four new species of Aneilema are described: A. indehiscens Faden, with subsp. indehiscens (Kenya, Tanzania and subsp. lilacinum Faden (Zimbabwe, Mozambique, South Africa; A. arenicola Faden (Mozambique, South Africa; A. brunneospermum Faden (Mozambique, Swaziland, South Africa; and A. tanaense Faden (Kenya. A new subspecies, Aneilema dregeanum Kunth subsp, mossambicense Faden (Mozambique, is also described, and A. johmtonii K. Schum. is lectotypified.

  3. NUEVAS CITAS DE BULBOSTYLIS (CYPERACEAE PARA LAS FLORAS DE BOLIVIA Y PARAGUAY New records of Bulbostylis (Cyperaceae for the flora of Bolivia and Paraguay

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    María Gabriela López

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Durante la revisión del género Bulbostylis (Cyperaceae, Abildgaardieae para la flora de
    América austral, se encontraron cinco nuevas citas, una de Bolivia: B. svensoniana Steyerm. y
    cuatro de Paraguay: B. consanguinea (Kunth C.B.Clarke, B. loefgrenii (Boeck. Prata &
    López, B. sellowiana (Kunth Palla y B. papillosa Kük. Se hacen aclaraciones sobre estos
    taxones, los cuales se describen e ilustran
    During the study of the genus Bulbostylis (Cyperaceae, Abildgaardieae for Austral America,
    five new records were found, one from Bolivia: B. svensoniana Steyerm. and four from
    Paraguay: B. consanguinea (Kunth C.B.Clarke, B. loefgrenii (Boeck. Prata & López, B.
    sellowiana (Kunth Palla and B. papillosa Kük. All the taxa are described and illustrated and
    considerations about them are given

  4. Two new isospirostanol sapogenins from Reineckia carnea

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yao Wang; Na Han; Ling Li Chen; Zhi Hui Liu; Li Bo Zou; Jun Yin

    2012-01-01

    Two new isospirostanol sapogenins named (25R)-5β-spirostane-(1o,3o)-diol (1) and (25R)-5β-spirostane-(1α,2α,3α,4α)-tetrol (2) were isolated from the whole herb ofReineckia carnea (Andr.) Kunth.The structures of the sapogenins were elucidated by chemical and spectral methods.

  5. Manna in winter: indigenous Americans, huckleberries, and blueberries

    Science.gov (United States)

    More than 35 species of blueberries (Vaccinium L.) and huckleberries (Vaccinium and Gaylussacia Kunth.) are indigenous to North America. The indigenous North American peoples, wise in the ways of survival, recognized the quality of these edible fruits and revered these plants. Beyond food needs, the...

  6. Trayectorias de crecimiento radial de especies maderables, yesquero blanco (Cariniana ianeirensis) y serebó (Schizolobium parahyba) en un bosque subhúmedo de la provincia Guarayos (Santa Cruz - Bolivia)

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Romero-Seas, A.; Toledo, M.; Zuidema, P.

    2015-01-01

    Dendrochronology allows to study variations in the growth of the trees. The following research questions were addressed: The growth trajectories of yesquero blanco (Cariniana ianeirensis Kunth) and serebó (Schizolobium parahyba Vell S. F. Blake) species that belong to different ecological guilds? An

  7. Cyclopalladated Ferrocenylimine Catalyzed Chlorination of 2-Arylbenzoxazoles%Cyclopalladated Ferrocenylimine Catalyzed Chlorination of 2-Arylbenzoxazoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷瑜婷; 杨帆; 吴养洁; 李克

    2011-01-01

    An efficient and facile protocol for palladacycle-catalyzed chlorination of 2-arylbenzoxazoles was developed. The results represent the first examples involving the palladacycle as the catalyst for such chlorination. This chlori- nation was not a ligand-directed ortho-C--H activation, but an electrophilic substitution process at the para-position of the nitrogen atom in the benzo ring of benzoxazole moiety, the regiochemistry of which had been confirmed by HMBC spectral analysis. The catalytic system could tolerate various halogen atoms, such as F, Cl and Br, affording the corresponding products in moderate to excellent yields.

  8. Dinâmica da associação de capim-milhã e capim-de-raiz em pasto diferido

    OpenAIRE

    Silva,Marta Gerusa Soares da; Lira,Mario de Andrade; Santos,Mércia Virginia Ferreira dos; Dubeux Junior,José Carlos Batista; Lins,Manuela Menezes; Silva,Camilla Vila Nova Soares

    2011-01-01

    Este estudo foi realizado com o objetivo de avaliar a dinâmica da associação capim-de-raiz (Chloris orthonoton Doell) e capim-milhã [Brachiaria plantaginea (Link) Hitchc] quanto à persistência e produção. Em pasto nativo diferido, foram realizadas a coleta do material botânico, avaliação da composição botânica e massa de forragem. Para estimativa da massa de forragem, utilizou-se delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com quatro tratamentos; 60, 90, 120 e 150 dias de diferimento; e cinco repetições...

  9. Mexican plants with hypoglycaemic effect used in the treatment of diabetes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Andrade-Cetto, Adolfo; Heinrich, Michael

    2005-07-14

    Diabetes mellitus is a syndrome which affects more and more people in all countries over the world. In México, it is commonly treated with herbal extracts. Such treatment may be of considerable benefit especially during the early stages of the illness. In this review, we discuss species commonly used in México in the treatment of diabetes. A total of 306 species have records of a popular use in the treatment of this syndrome in México. Seven of these species--Cecropia obtusifolia Bertol. (Cecropiaceae), Equisetum myriochaetum Schlecht & Cham (Equisetaceae), Acosmium panamense (Benth.) Yacolev (Fabaceae), Cucurbita ficifolia Bouché (Cucurbitaceae), Agarista mexicana (Hemsl.) Judd. (Ericaeae), Brickellia veronicaefolia (Kunth) A. Gray (Asteraceae), Parmentiera aculeata (Kunth) Seem. (Bignoniaceae)--are discussed in greater detail, highlighting our current knowledge about these botanicals, but also the enormous gaps in our knowledge, most notably as it relates to the species' toxicology, the pharmacokinetics of its active constituents and their metabolism.

  10. Attalea blepharopus Mart. (Arecaceae) from Bolivia revisited since Martius

    OpenAIRE

    MORAES, R. M.; Pintaud, Jean-Christophe

    2016-01-01

    Populations in Bolivia of an Attalea Kunth species (Arecaceae) with regularly spaced pinnae were historically assigned to Attalea butyracea (Mutis) Wess. Boer, which also occurs in Colombia, western Venezuela and northern Ecuador. During a recent fieldtrip to the Chapare province in Cochabamba department (central Bolivia), we visited the Yuracare people's territory that Alcide d'Orbigny mentioned as harboring a large and distinct palm, Attalea blepharopus Mart. Based on its morphology, we rec...

  11. Establishing Research and Management Priorities for Invasive Water Primroses (Ludwigia spp.)

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-02-01

    production and for export to England. In 1737, colonists established the first commercial nursery in New York to conduct international trade of ornamental...and Barrett 1985), Chile (Ramirez et al. 1991), and Argentina (Sabattini et al. 1998). Movement of rice seeds for cultivation could possibly be a...slightly above the water line. Ludwigia peploides Subspecies L. peploides (Kunth) Raven subsp. peploides is found in Argentina , Paraguay, and Brazil

  12. Phytochemical screening and antioxidant activity of seven Medicinal plants species from Ecuador

    OpenAIRE

    García García, Isabel Josefa

    2015-01-01

    Seven plant species, used as traditional medicine, from two regions of Ecuador have been subjected to qualitative and cuantitative phytochemistry screening in order to provide information about possible chemical compounds present in these species that will contribute to future researchs. Chuquiraga jussieui J.F. Gmel., Pseudognaphalium elegans (Kunth) Kartesz (Asteraceae), Gustavia pubescens Ruiz & Pav. ex Berg (Lecythidaceae), Aeghiphila alba Moldenke (Lamiaceae), Cleome spinosa Jacq. (Cleom...

  13. A new species and new records of Cryptodacus (Diptera: Tephritidae) from Colombia, Bolivia and Peru.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodriguez, Pedro Alexander; Rodriguez, Erick J; Norrbom, Allen L; Arévalo, Emilio

    2016-05-16

    Cryptodacus bernardoi Rodriguez & Rodriguez, new species, is described from Colombia. It was reared from fruits of Phoradendron sp. near piperoides (Kunth) Trel. New distribution records are reported for Cryptodacus ornatus Norrbom from Colombia and Peru, for Cryptodacus trinotatus Norrbom & Korytkowski from Colombia, and for Cryptodacus obliquus Hendel from Bolivia and Peru. The female abdomen and terminalia of C. obliquus is described for the first time. The Norrbom & Korytkowski (2008)`s key to species was modified to include C. bernardoi n. sp.

  14. Revegetation Strategies for Kaho’olawe Island, Hawaii

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-03-01

    Prosopis pallida Vachta for their assistance in developing and conducting this project. Funding was (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Kunth] and a variety of...plastic fence by the metal fence posts. Sandwiching the fence Snbetween 2 lengths of wood lath prior to attaching it to the posts significantly reduced...provided protection from soil erosion. The less successful species occurred only occasionally on the Unusually heavy precipitation during the 2nd year

  15. Habitat Characteristics and Eggshell Distribution of the Salt Marsh Mosquito, Aedes vigilax, in Marshes in Subtropical Eastern Australia

    OpenAIRE

    Dale, Pat E. R.; Knight, Jon; Kay, Brian H.; Chapman, Heather; Ritchie, Scott A.; Brown, Michael D.

    2008-01-01

    Research at 10 locations in coastal subtropical Queensland, Australia, has shown that salt marshes contained heterogeneous distributions of eggshells of the pest and vector mosquito Aedes vigilax (Skuse) (Diptera:Culicidae). The eggshell distribution was related to specific vegetation assemblages, with a mix of the grass, Sporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), and the beaded glasswort, Sarcocornia quinqueflora (Bunge ex (Ung.-Stern) A.J. Scott (Caryophyllales: Chenopodiaceae), as...

  16. La familia Poaceae del distrito de Arahuay (Canta, Lima, Perú

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paúl Gonzáles

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Se reportan para el distrito de Arahuay (Canta, Lima, Perú (zona baja y media un total de 49 especies de la familia Poaceae agrupadas en 28 géneros, 14 tribus y 4 subfamilias. El género Poa es el más diverso con cinco especies, seguido por Eragrostis y Nassella con cuatro especies cada una. Las especies Calamagrostis spiciformis Hack. ex Stuck., Chloris halophila Parodi, Lamprothyrsus peruvianus Hitchc., Festuca glyceriantha Pilg., Lolium multiflorum Lam. y Poa supina Schrad. son nuevos reportes para el departamento de Lima. Se presentan claves dicotómicas para la determinación de los géneros y para las especies en los casos pertinentes. Para cada especie se incluye datos sobre su hábitat, distribución y el material estudiado.

  17. Systematics of the genus Daubenya (Hyacinthaceae: Massonieae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. C. Manning

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Daubenya Lindl. was until recently thought to comprise the single species D. aurea Lindl. but is now considered to include the monotypic genera Androsiphon Schltr. and Amphisiphon W.F.Barker. as well as the species previously referred to the genus Neobakeria Schltr. Eight species are now recognized in the genus, including the new combinations Daubenya comata (Burch, ex Baker J.C.Manning & A.M.van der Merwe and D. zeyheri (Kunth J.C.Manning & A.M.van der Merwe. Each species is fully described and illustrated in black-and-white and in colour. A key to the species, and distribution maps are provided.

  18. Evaluación de las propiedades mecánicas de la estructura interna de la guadua con un modelo matematico

    OpenAIRE

    JAIRO ALEXANDER OSORIO SARAZ; ALBEIRO ESPINOSA BEDOYA; García Galeano, Eduard A.

    2010-01-01

    Se caracterizo la estructura interna del Bambú-Guadua angustifolia kunth (GAK), en su zona media, encontrando la composición interna de este material compuesto, como son el porcentaje de la matriz (parénquima) y de fibras (células de fibras y tejido conductivo). Se determinó las propiedades mecánicas como la resistencia a tensión y a flexión en sentido tangencial, y la Relación de Poisson del material y la resistencia de la fibra. Se valido un modelo matemático para materiales compuestos prop...

  19. Four New Flowering plant Records from Satpuda Range of Jalgaon District, (MS India

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tanveer A Khan

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Jalgaon is one of the districts in the Khandesh region of North Maharashtra India with great biodiversity of plants. The present paper deals with the addition of 4 taxa of flowering plants to the flora of Jalgaon districts, Maharashtra. These taxa are Habenaria plantaginea Lindl. (Orchidaceae, EuphorbiaserpensKunth. (Euphorbiaceae, Exacum tetragonum Roxb. (Gentianaceae, Ceropegia hirsuta Wight & Arn. (Asclepiadaceae. These species has been reported for the first time from Satpuda range of Jalgaon district, Maharashtra. The study provides a detailed taxonomic description, photographs and relevant information based on fresh collections.

  20. Informes en la familia Pteridaceae (Filicales) para el Neotrópico

    OpenAIRE

    Rojas – Alvarado, Alexander Fco

    2014-01-01

    Varias contribuciones a la flora teridófita neotropical son hechas en este artículo, con la nueva distribución de cuatro especies de Adiantum, dos especies de Doryopteris y dos especies de Eriosorus. Las especies con nueva distribución son: A. polyphyllum Willd., A. trichoclaenum Mickel et Beitel, A. villosissimum Mett. ex Kuhn, A. wilesianum Hook., D. nobilis (T. Moore) C. Chr., D. redivida Fée, y E. hirtus (Kunth) Copel. El concepto de D. pedata(L.) Fée es aclarado. Several contributions...

  1. Distribución y diversidad de las "muñas" género Minthostachys (Lamiaceae) en Huanuco, Perú.

    OpenAIRE

    Tello Villavicencio, Milka Nelly

    2011-01-01

    El 90% de lamiaceas denominadas “muñas” en Huánuco, Perú son especies del género Minthostachys y 10% restante de géneros relacionados. Las especies de Minthostachys encontradas fueron tres: Minthostachys mollis (Kunth) Griseb., con sus tres variedades, var. mollis, var. hybrida Schmidt-Leb. y var. mandoniana (Briq.) Schmidt-Leb., Minthostachys spicata (Benth.) Epling y Minthostachys latifolia Schmidt-Leb., así como una población sin identificar taxonómicamente, que probablemente es un híbrid...

  2. Caracterização do desenvolvimento floral de Elaeis oleífera (H.B.K) Cortés

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    O objetivo deste trabalho foi realizar a caracterização da estrutura anatômica do sistema reprodutivo do Caiaué (Elaeis oleifera (Kunth) Cortés) em nível celular, partindo do primórdio da inflorescência até o desenvolvimento completo da flor das amostras BR 174, Coari e Manicoré. Das inflorescências e flores coletadas, algumas foram fixadas e embebidas em resina Technovit 7100® e outras em parafina. Cortes ultrafinos transversais das inflorescências foram realizados para comparação entre as s...

  3. External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Héctor A. Vargas

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available External morphology of the immature stages of Neotropical heliconians: IX. Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae, Heliconiinae. The biology of the Andean silverspot butterfly Dione glycera (C. Felder & R. Felder, 1861 is still poorly known. This species is restricted to high elevations in the Andes, where the immature stages are found in close association with species of Passiflora belonging to the section Tacsonia (Juss. Harms, especially P. tripartida var. mollissima (Kunth, which is grown for subsistence by villagers. Herein we describe and illustrate the external features of the egg, larva and pupa of D. glycera, based on light and scanning electron microscopy.

  4. La guadua: fundamentos para el diseño de estructuras agropecuarias

    OpenAIRE

    Osorio Saraz, Jairo Alexander; González Castrillón, Eugenia; CORTÉS MARÍN, ELKIN ALONSO

    2010-01-01

    Resumen: la guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunth), el bambú de América, ha influenciado el desarrollo de la cultura colombiana, principalmente en la Región Andina y de manera particular en el Eje cafetero, a través de su aprovechamiento en todo tipo de usos tales como vivienda, muebles, instrumentos musicales, conducción de agua, puentes, jaulas, y, en fin, en un sinnúmero de utensilios y espacios tan amplios como la necesidad y la imaginación lo han permitido. En los últimos años, la guadua ha ...

  5. Indices de anillos de crecimiento en coníferas del eje neovolcánico transversal de México.

    OpenAIRE

    Martínez Molina, Gabriel

    2011-01-01

    Se determinaron índices de crecimiento a partir de los anillos anuales en Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. et Cham) (oyamel) y Pinus hartwegii (Lindl.) (pino) en un transecto sobre el Eje Neo-volcánico Transversal, en México. El muestreo se repitió en sitios con condiciones ambientales similares en seis montañas del centro de México, donde se desarrollan ambas especies forestales. Las montañas seleccionadas fueron: Nevado de Colima, Pico de Tancítaro, Nevado de Toluca, Cerro Tláloc, La Malinc...

  6. Estudo quÃmico de asterÃceas do CearÃ: Baccharis trinervis, Eupatorium ballotaefolium, Eupatorium betonicaeforme, Eupatorium pauciflorum, Pectis apodocephala, Pectis oligocephala, Verbesina diversifolia, Vernonia chalybaea e Vernonia scorpioides

    OpenAIRE

    Maria Rose Jane Ribeiro Albuquerque

    2006-01-01

    Este trabalho descreve a investigaÃÃo quÃmica de plantas da famÃlia Asteraceae nativas da flora cearense, pertencentes aos gÃneros Baccharis, Eupatorium, Pectis, Verbesina e Vernonia. Eupatorium ballotaefolium H.B.K. e E. betonicaeforme Baker foram selecionados para o estudo da composiÃÃo quÃmica volÃtil e nÃo-volÃtil, enquanto Baccharis trinervis (Lam.) Pers., E. pauciflorum Kunth, Pectis apodocephala Baker, P. oligocephala Baker, Verbesina diversifolia D.C., Vernonia chalybaea Mart. e V. sc...

  7. Anatomia comparada das folhas de espécies de Peperomia (Piperaceae: I. Ontogênese do tecido aqüífero e dos estômatos Comparative leaf anatomy of Peperomia (Piperaceae: I. Ontogenesis of the aquiferous tissue and the stomata

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nathieli Keila Takemori

    2003-09-01

    Full Text Available A maioria das espécies de Peperomia apresenta tecido que reserva água na face adaxial de suas folhas. Esse tecido pode variar em espessura, determinando maior ou menor suculência à folha. A fim de se determinar a origem de estruturas anatômicas relevantes ao grupo, o presente trabalho descreveu o desenvolvimento do tecido especializado na reserva de água, bem como a ontogênese dos estômatos de P. catharinae Miquel, P. emarginella (Sw. C.DC., P. quadrifolia (L. Kunth e P. rotundifolia (L. Kunth. Para tanto, foram observadas folhas jovens do ápice caulinar e do primeiro nó subseqüente, em secções transversais e paradérmicas. As técnicas utilizadas foram as usuais para microscopia fotônica. Todas as espécies apresentaram tecido especializado na reserva de água, originado de divisões periclinais das células protodérmicas. A ontogênese estomática é mesoperígena, dando origem a estômatos anisocíticos, tetracíticos e estaurocíticos.Most species of Peperomia presents a water reservoir tissue on the adaxial surface of the leaf. This tissue can vary in thickness determining more or less succulence to the leaf. On purpose of determining the origin of important anatomic structures for this group, the present work describes the development of the water reservoir specialized tissue, as well as the stomata ontogenesis for P. catharinae Miquel, P. emarginella (Sw. C.DC., P. quadrifolia (L. Kunth and P. rotundifolia (L. Kunth. Young leaves from the stem apex and the first node were observed in cross and paradermic sections. The techniques were the usual for light microscopy. All the species presented the water reservoir specialized tissue originated from periclinal divisions of protodermal cells. The stomata ontogenesis is mesoperigenous and it gives rise to anisocytic, tetracytic and staurocytic stomata.

  8. EVALUACIÓN DE LAS PROPIEDADES MECÁNICAS DE LA ESTRUCTURA INTERNA DE LA GUADUA CON UN MODELO MATEMATICO

    OpenAIRE

    2009-01-01

    Se caracterizo la estructura interna del Bambú-Guadua angustifolia kunth (GAK), en su zona media, encontrando la composición interna de este material compuesto, como son el porcentaje de la matriz (parénquima) y de fibras (células de fibras y tejido conductivo). Se determinó las propiedades mecánicas como la resistencia a tensión y a flexión en sentido tangencial, y la Relación de Poisson del material y la resistencia de la fibra. Se valido un modelo matemático para materiales compuestos prop...

  9. First description of the early stage biology of the genus Mygona: the natural history of the satyrine butterfly, Mygona irmina in eastern Ecuador.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Greeney, Harold F; Dyer, Lee A; Pyrcz, Tomasz W

    2011-01-01

    The immature stages and natural history of Mygona irmina Doubleday (Lepidoptera: Nymphalidae: Satyrinae: Pronophilina) from northeastern Ecuadorian cloud forests are described based on 17 rearings. The dwarf bamboo, Chusquea c.f. scandens Kunth (Poaceae, Bambusoidea) is the larval food plant. Eggs are laid singly on the bottom side of mature host plant leaves. Larvae take 102-109 days to mature from egg to adult. Adults are encountered most frequently on sunny days, flying rapidly over areas dominated by their food plant or feeding on the ground at mammal feces. Males are often encountered inside large forest gaps near patches of bamboo guarding perches in the mid-canopy.

  10. Relationships and genetic consequences of contrasting modes of speciation among endemic species of Robinsonia (Asteraceae, Senecioneae) of the Juan Fernández Archipelago, Chile, based on AFLPs and SSRs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Takayama, Koji; López-Sepúlveda, Patricio; Greimler, Josef; Crawford, Daniel J; Peñailillo, Patricio; Baeza, Marcelo; Ruiz, Eduardo; Kohl, Gudrun; Tremetsberger, Karin; Gatica, Alejandro; Letelier, Luis; Novoa, Patricio; Novak, Johannes; Stuessy, Tod F

    2015-01-01

    This study analyses and compares the genetic signatures of anagenetic and cladogenetic speciation in six species of the genus Robinsonia (Asteraceae, Senecioneae), endemic to the Juan Fernández Islands, Chile. Population genetic structure was analyzed by amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) and microsatellite (simple sequence repeat, SSR) markers from 286 and 320 individuals, respectively, in 28 populations. Each species is genetically distinct. Previous hypotheses of classification among these species into subgenera and sections, via morphological, phytochemical, isozymic and internal transcribed spacer (ITS) data, have been confirmed, except that R. saxatilis appears to be related to R. gayana rather than R. evenia. Analysis of phylogenetic results and biogeographic context suggests that five of these species have originated by cladogenesis and adaptive radiation on the older Robinson Crusoe Island. The sixth species, R. masafuerae, restricted to the younger Alejandro Selkirk Island, is closely related to and an anagenetic derivative of R. evenia from Robinson Crusoe. Microsatellite and AFLP data reveal considerable genetic variation among the cladogenetically derived species of Robinsonia, but within each the genetic variation is lower, highlighting presumptive genetic isolation and rapid radiation. The anagenetically derived R. masafuerae harbors a level of genetic variation similar to that of its progenitor, R. evenia. This is the first direct comparison of the genetic consequences of anagenetic and cladogenetic speciation in plants of an oceanic archipelago.

  11. Conservation of the Palms (Arecaceae in the Solid Guamuhaya, county Cienfuegos

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    Duanny Suárez Oropesa

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available During the last 10 years a floristic study was carried out on the family Arecaceae, according to the vegetable formations and the altitude in the southeast region of Cienfuegos province in the Guamuaya Mountains, with the objective of knowing the state of conservation of the palms species of present. The work embraced nine towns in those that the presence of species of this gender was determined by means of the observation method, the collections were carried out in an aleatory and intensive way, keeping in mind the micros hábitats where they progress this group of plants. They were five species, two endemic local, one endemic national and two autochthonous. According to their conservation state they are threatened species. Coccothrinax crinita subsp brevicrinis Borhidi & Muñiz, with category of In Danger (IN; Coccothrinax miraguama subsp. roseocarpa (León Borhidi & Muñiz, Sabal maritima (Kunth Burret and Roystonea regia (Kunth O.F. Cook, smaller Concern (LC, intending In Critical Danger (CP to Coccothinax sp.

  12. Chemical composition of four essential oils from Eupatorium spp: Biological activities toward Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae Composición química de cuatro aceites esenciales provenientes de Eupatorium spp. y su toxicidad para Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

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    Hugo G. Lancelle

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Toxic and repellent properties of whole essential oils from four Eupatorium (Asteraceae species (E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker, and E. viscidum Hook. & Arn were investigated in different concentrations toward Tribolium castaneum Herbst adults. The essential oils were isolated by hydrodistillation techniques from the aerial parts. The analysis was performed by GC-FID and GC-MS methods. Contact toxicity assays showed that all the evaluated essential oils were toxic. Furthermore, in all the cases mortality was dose dependent. The main repellency was observed for the essential oil recovered from E. buniifolium.Se evaluaron las propiedades tóxicas y repelentes de los aceites esenciales de cuatro especies del género Eupatorium (Asteraceae: E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker y E. viscidum Hook. & Arn, en diferentes concentraciones frente a adultos de Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Los aceites esenciales se aislaron de las partes aéreas de las plantas, mediante técnicas de hidrodestilación y se analizaron por los métodos GC-FID y GC-MS. Los ensayos de toxicidad por contacto demostraron que todos los aceites fueron tóxicos y la mortalidad fue, en todos los casos, dependiente de la dosis. El aceite esencial de E. buniifolium presentó la mayor actividad repelente.

  13. Boraginaceae s.l. A. Juss. em uma área de Caatinga da ESEC Raso da Catarina, BA, Brasil Boraginaceae s.l. A. Juss. in the Caatinga of the Raso da Catarina Ecological Station, Bahia State, Brazil

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    José Iranildo Miranda de Melo

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho trata do levantamento florístico-taxonômico da família Boraginaceae em um trecho de Caatinga da Estação Ecológica Raso da Catarina, Bahia, Brasil. Foram encontrados sete espécies e três gêneros de Boraginaceae: Cordia (C. globosa (Jacq. Kunth, C. leucocephala Moric. e C. rufescens A.DC., Heliotropium (H. angiospermum Murray e Heliotropium elongatum (Lehm. I.M. Johnst. e Tournefortia (T. rubicunda Salzm. ex A.DC. e T. salzmannii DC.. São apresentadas chaves para identificação de gêneros e espécies, além de descrições, ilustrações, comentários, dados de distribuição e hábitat.A floristic-taxonomic survey of the family Boraginaceae was carried out in a fragment of Caatinga vegetation of the Raso da Catarina Ecological Station, Bahia, Brazil. Seven species and three genera of Boraginaceae were found: Cordia (C. globosa (Jacq. Kunth; C. leucocephala Moric.; C. rufescens A.DC., Heliotropium (H. angiospermum Murray; H. elongatum (Lehm. I.M. Johnst. and Tournefortia (T. rubicunda Salzm. ex A.DC.; T. salzmannii DC.. Keys to identify genera and species are presented together with descriptions, illustrations, and comments on relationships among these taxa, distribution and habitat.

  14. In vitro schistosomicidal effects of aqueous and dichloromethane fractions from leaves and stems of Piper species and the isolation of an active amide from P. amalago L. (Piperaceae).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carrara, V S; Vieira, S C H; de Paula, R G; Rodrigues, V; Magalhães, L G; Cortez, D A G; Da Silva Filho, A A

    2014-09-01

    Dichloromethane and aqueous fractions from leaves and stems of Piper arboreum Aubl., P. aduncum L., P. amalago L., P. crassinervium H.B. & K., P. diospyrifolium Kunth, P. hispidum Sw. and P. xylosteoides (Kunth) Steud. were tested against adult worms of Schistosoma mansoni. The in vitro activity was evaluated in terms of mortality, number of separated worms and number of worms with reduced motor activity. Most dichloromethane fractions from all Piper species showed moderate schistosomicidal activity, but aqueous fractions were not active. The dichloromethane fraction of P. amalago leaves (at 100 μg/ml) showed the highest activity, resulting in worm mortality, the separation of worm pairs and reduced motor activity. Chromatographic fractionation of the dichloromethane fraction of P. amalago leaves led to the isolation of its major compound, which was also tested against adults of S. mansoni. The isolated piperamide N-[7-(3',4'-methylenedioxyphenyl)-2(Z),4(Z)-heptadienoyl] pyrrolidine, at 100 μ m, resulted in the mortality of all adult worms after 24 h of incubation. The findings suggest that species of Piper are potential sources of schistosomicidal compounds.

  15. Eichhornia meyeri A. G. Schultz : a new citation for the Pantanal basin at the Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul states, Brazil

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    Da Luz Sanches, A.

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available As a result of a taxonomic review for the Pontederiaceae Kunth family at the Pantanal basin, at the Mato Grosso and Malo Grosso do Sul states, we cite for the first time the occurence of Eichhornia meyeri A.G. Schultz in those states. For the identification of this species at the Pantanal basin, located at Mato Grosso and Mato Grosso do Sul states, we re-describe E. meyeri and present data on the species ecology and ethimology. In addition, we present illustrations and a geographical distribution map for E. meyeri

    Como resultado de la revisión taxonómica de la familia Pontederiaceae Kunth para el Pantanal, en los estados de Mato Grosso y Mato Grosso do Sul fue citada por primera vez la presencia de Eichhornia meyeri A.G. Schultz. Para el reconocimiento de esta especie en el Pantanal Matogrossense fue redescrita y incluidos datos ecologicos, etimología, ilustraciones y mapa de distribución geográfica.

  16. Caracterización bromatológica de especies y subproductos vegetales en el trópico húmedo de Colombia

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    Dissa Enith Mosquera Perea

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Se determinó el potencial nutritivo para especies pecuarias de recursos locales existentes en el municipio de Quibdó, departamento del Chocó (Colombia, teniendo en cuenta la composición bromatológica y digestibilidad in vitro de la materia seca (DIVMS en hojas de árbol del pan (Arthocarpus altilis Z., pacó (Gustavia superba Kunth. y achín (Colocasia esculenta Linn, cáscaras del fruto de chontaduro (Bractris gasipaess Kunth. y de plátano (Musa paradisiaca L.. El análisis bromatológico incluyó materia seca (MS, proteína bruta (PB, ceniza (Cen, fibra detergente ácida (FDA, fibra detergente neutra (FDN, lignina detergente ácida (LDA y energía bruta (EB. Las hojas de achín y de árbol del pan presentaron los contenidos más altos de PB (27.78 y 19.38% y de EB (3911 y 3981 cal/g, respectivamente. Los valores de DIVMS más altos se presentaron en cáscaras de chontaduro (78.9% y hojas de achín (68.6%. En general, los recursos en estudio presentan valor nutritivo similar al de forrajes cultivados, por tanto, son una alternativa posible para la sustitución parcial de materias primas costosas en dietas para animales de granja.

  17. Plantas daninhas hospedeiras alternativas de Colletotrichum guaranicola em cultivos de guaraná no Estado do Amazonas Alternative host weeds of Colletotrichum guaranicola in guarana crops in the State Amazonas

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    L.J. Miléo

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available As plantas daninhas reduzem a produção de sementes de guaraná e podem hospedar microrganismos patogênicos, tornando-se potenciais fontes de inóculo. Este trabalho identificou espécies de plantas daninhas colonizadas pelo fungo Colletotrichum guaranicola em cultivos de guaranazeiro em quatro municípios do Estado do Amazonas. As plantas daninhas foram identificadas e a presença do fungo foi verificada por meio de isolamentos feitos a partir de fragmentos de folhas lesionadas. As espécies colonizadas por C. guaranicola foram Bidens bipinnata, Chloris sp., Clidemia capitellata, Cyperus flavus, Elephantopus scaber, Euphorbia brasiliensis, Hemidiodia sp., Hyptis lantanifolia, Paspalum conjugatum, Physalis angulata e Synedrella nodiflora, as quais podem representar uma fonte de inóculo do patógeno, além das plantas de guaraná. A diversidade de plantas daninhas, em cultivos de guaranazeiro, reforça a importância de estabelecer práticas de manejo dessas plantas, principalmente em Maués, onde ocorreu maior colonização das espécies de plantas daninhas pelo fungo.Weed infestation may reduce grain guarana crops yield and host plant pathogens becoming potential inoculum sources. This research identified weed species colonized by the fungus Colletotrichum guaranicola in the guarana crop in four counties in the state of Amazon. The weeds were identified fungi presence was observed by isolation from leaf fragments of leaves injured by the fungi. The weed species colonized by Colletotrichum guaranicola were Bidens bipinnata, Chloris sp., Clidemia capitellata, Cyperus flavus, Elephantopus scaber, Euphorbia brasiliensis, Hemidiodia sp., Hyptis lantanifolia, Paspalum conjugatum, Physalis angulata and Synedrella nodiflora,that may represent a strong potential of plant pathogen inoculum, along with the guarana plants. Weed diversity in guarana crop shows the importance of establishing management practices to control these weeds, mainly in the Maues

  18. The Genus Pithomyces in South Africa

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    W. F. O. Marasas

    1972-12-01

    Full Text Available Descriptions are given of South African isolates of  Pithomyces sacchari (Speg. M. B. Ellis, Pithomyces chartarum (Berk. & Curt. M. B. Ellis and  Pithomyces karoo  Marasas & Schumann, sp. nov.  P. sacchari and P. chartarum were isolated from Medicago sativa L. seed.  P. chartarum was also isolated from dead leaves of Lolium perenne L. and  Sporobolus capensis (Willd. Kunth. plants from artificial pastures in the eastern Cape Province.  P. karoo was isolated from stems of Gnidia polycephala (C.A. Mey. Gilg and  Rhigozum trichotomum Burch, from the Karoo, Cape Province and from Avena sativa L. stubble collected in the Orange Free State.

  19. Floristic diversity in agro-ecosystem livestock bovine of the Canton “El Carmen” in Manabi’s province, Ecuador

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    Justo A. Rojas Rojas

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In the second half of 2013 the species that are part of the diversity of flora in agroecosystems cattle ranching bovine in Canton El Carmen, Manabí, Ecuador were determined. A total of 13 botanical species of which Sida acuta Burm. had the highest records with 29.7 % of dominance and a frequency of 51.0 %, followed by the species Senna obtusifolia (L. H. S. Irwin & Barneby, Desmodium tortuosum (Sw. DC, Pavonia sidifolia Kunth and Stachytarpheta cayennensis (Rich. Vahl. These five species were found to be the most dominant and frequent with respect to all the species found. The Jaccard coefficient showed 53,8 % similarity regarding diversity of plant species.

  20. Development of tablets containing semipurified extract of guaraná (Paullinia cupana

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    Traudi Klein

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the technological feasibility of producing a semipurified extract of guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae in tablet form, using a direct-compression process. Maltodextrin and gum arabic were used to produce the extract microparticles, in order to protect the microparticles against such factors as temperature, oxidation, and humidity. Using pharmacopoeial methodologies, technological and physicochemistry tests (determination of residual moisture, of bulk and tapped density, Hausner ratio, compressibility and compactibility index, appearance, mean weight, hardness, friability, disintegration time, determination of EPA amount in tablets and in vitro release profile were conducted. The formulation containing 200 mg of microparticles, 170 mg microcrystalline cellulose, and 10 mg lactose gave the best results in terms of hardness (116 N, friabilility (0.28%, mean weight (0.3821 g, and disintegration time (25 min for a tablet designed for oral administration. The results met pharmacopoeial specifications, and the tablets are suitable for oral administration.

  1. Development of tablets containing semipurified extract of guaraná (Paullinia cupana

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Traudi Klein

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available This study evaluated the technological feasibility of producing a semipurified extract of guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae in tablet form, using a direct-compression process. Maltodextrin and gum arabic were used to produce the extract microparticles, in order to protect the microparticles against such factors as temperature, oxidation, and humidity. Using pharmacopoeial methodologies, technological and physicochemistry tests (determination of residual moisture, of bulk and tapped density, Hausner ratio, compressibility and compactibility index, appearance, mean weight, hardness, friability, disintegration time, determination of EPA amount in tablets and in vitro release profile were conducted. The formulation containing 200 mg of microparticles, 170 mg microcrystalline cellulose, and 10 mg lactose gave the best results in terms of hardness (116 N, friabilility (0.28%, mean weight (0.3821 g, and disintegration time (25 min for a tablet designed for oral administration. The results met pharmacopoeial specifications, and the tablets are suitable for oral administration.

  2. Chemical composition of four essential oils from Eupatorium spp. Biological activities toward Tribolium castaneum (Coleoptera: Tenebrionidae

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    Hugo G. LANCELLE

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluaron las propiedades tóxicas y repelentes de los aceites esenciales de cuatro especies del género Eupatorium (Asteraceae: E. buniifolium Hook. et Arn, E. inulaefolium Kunth, E. arnottii Baker y E. viscidum Hook. & Arn, en diferentes concentraciones frente a adultos de Tribolium castaneum Herbst. Los aceites esenciales se aislaron de las partes aéreas de las plantas, mediante técnicas de hidrodestilación y se analizaron por los métodos GC-FID y GC-MS. Los ensayos de toxicidad por contacto demostraron que todos los aceites fueron tóxicos y la mortalidad fue, en todos los casos, dependiente de la dosis. El aceite esencial de E. buniifolium presentó la mayor actividad repelente.

  3. Gamma radiation (Co{sup 60}) effects on active substances and microbe burden of medicinal plants; Avaliacao dos efeitos da radiacao gama (Co{sup 60}) sobre principios ativos e carga microbiana de plantas medicinais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dall' Agnol, L. [Herbarium Laboratorio Botanico Ltda, Colombo, PR (Brazil). Dept. de Garantia da Qualidade

    2001-04-01

    In order to evaluate the effects of radioactivity on active vegetal substances, samples of Fennel (Foeniculum vulgare Miller., fructus), Guarana (Paulinia cupana, Kunth, semen), Gingko (gingko biloba, L., folium), and Kawa-Kawa (Piper methysticum G. Forst, rhizoma), were treated with scaling doses (0 to 25 KGy) of gamma radiation (Co{sup 60}). The 'blind test' methodology was used. The active substances from each sample were analysed by qualitative and quantitative methods after radiation. There were no significant differences seen between the control sample (0 KGy) and the irradiated samples. Microbe contamination was significantly reduced, about 10000 CFU/g, with the initial 5 KGy dose. It was concluded that gamma radiation can be used as an alternative procedure to reduce microbiologic contamination in medicinal plants. Before this procedure can be extended to other medicinal plants, more specific analytical methods are recommended to verify possible structural alterations in active vegetal molecules. (author)

  4. Tonic, fortifier and aphrodisiac: adaptogens in the Brazilian folk medicine

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    Fúlvio R. Mendes

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available In Brazil, many plants are used as tonic, fortifier, aphrodisiac, anti-stress, among other uses that are similar to the indications of an adaptogen. In general, such plants are used unspecifically, in situations of stress and fatigue, in the recovery after a previous pathological or debilitating state, or simply aiming at the maintenance of a healthy state. This article discusses the popular terms employed in the Brazilian folk medicine for the plants with this profile, their particularities and limitations. The article also discusses the possible mechanisms of action of an adaptogen and compares the main Brazilian plants used for that purpose: guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, family Sapindaceae, muirapuama (Ptychopetalum olacoides Benth., Olacaceae, catuaba (Anemopaegma arvense (Vell. Stellfeld & J.F. Souza, Bignoniaceae, and Trichilia catigua A. Juss., Meliaceae, nó-decachorro (Heteropterys aphrodisiaca O. Mach, Malpighiaceae, damiana (Turnera diffusa Willd. ex Schult., Turneraceae and pfaffia or Brazilian ginseng (Pfaffia sp, Amaranthaceae.

  5. The structural behaviour of laminated-guadua panels under parallel plane loads

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    Juan Jacobo Pinilla Rodríguez

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available The Universidad Nacional de Colombia "Analysis, Design and Materials - GIES" research group tested two types of panels made from Guadua angustifolia Kunth and poly vinyl acetate (PVA as a first step in studying the behaviour of laminated guadua frames having panels of the same material under seismic load: type 1 panels had a solid cross-section and type 2 panels a sandwich cross-section.Each type of panel had three different heights and 10 replicates were tested for each type and height (60 trials in total.Each panel’s load compared to displacement curve was found; 0.34m and 0.63m type1 panels had initial elastic behaviour followed by inelastic behaviour while 0.98 m panels made of both types had an almost completely elastic behaviour until failure. All panels became crushed at their base; however, the main failure mechanism was warping.

  6. Tithonia diversifolia, Moringa oleifera and Piper auritum: Alternatives for the control of Sitophilus oryzae

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    Leticia Jiménez Álvarez

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available With the objective to determine the effect exerted by vegetable powders of Tithonia diversifolia (Hemsl A. Gray, Moringa oleifera (Lam y Piper auritum Kunth on Sitophilus oryzae L., this experiment was performed. In the execution, adult insects were taken to evaluate the increase of them. Petri dishes of 9 cm with 10 insects were used inside additionally 5 g of rice (Oryza sativa L. and 0.4 g of powder was added botanical species (T. diversifolia, M. oleifera, P. auritum previously dried at 40 0C for 72 hours and finely ground. At 40 days the test mounted, the number of insects present per plate was counted, and after testing, Z Multiple Comparison was performed using the software Stadistix. The results allowed us to conclude that these plant species are a viable alternative for the control of S. oryzae.

  7. Flora vascular de açudes de uma região do semi-árido da Bahia, Brasil Pond vascular flora in the semi-arid region of Bahia State, Brazil

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    Flávio França

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Foram selecionados seis açudes que margeiam a Estrada do Feijão (BA 052, nos municípios de Feira de Santana e Angüera, entre as coordenadas 39º30'-39º00'W e 12º00'-12º30'S. Com a finalidade de se conhecer a flora vascular dos mesmos, esses tipos de plantas foram coletadas de agosto/1996 a dezembro/1997. Registraram-se 121 espécies distribuídas em 46 famílias. As famílias mais representativas foram: Cyperaceae, com 18 espécies (14,9%, Poaceae, com 13 (10,7%, Asteraceae, com 10 (8,3%, Scrophulariaceae e Fabaceae, com 6 (5,0%. As espécies que ocorreram em todos os açudes foram Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae, Echinochloa colona (L. Link (Poaceae, Nymphaea ampla (Salisb. DC. (Nymphaeaceae e Oxycarium cubense (Poepp. & Kunth. Lye (Cyperaceae.Six ponds were studied between August/1996 and December/1997 at the edge of State Highway BA 052, in the municipalities of Feira de Santana and Angüera, 39º30'-39º00'W and 12º00'-12º30'S.With the aim to know their vascular flora, one hundred and twenty-one species of vascular plants were collected, representing 46 families. The most frequent families were: Cyperaceae with 18 species (14.9%, Poaceae with 13 (10.7%, Asteraceae with 10 (8.3%, Scrophulariaceae and Fabaceae with 6 (5.0%. The species which were recorded in all lakes were: Pistia stratiotes L. (Araceae, Echinochloa colona (L. Link (Poaceae, Nymphaea ampla (Salisb. DC. (Nymphaeaceae and Oxycarium cubense (Poepp. & Kunth. Lye (Cyperaceae.

  8. Pollen morphology of Prototulbaghia Vosa: A comparative palynological study of the Southern African Alliaceae.

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    Melissa Andriessen

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The  Southern  African  Alliaceae  Borkh.  is  represented  by  four genera (Allium L., Nothoscordum Kunth, Tulbaghia L. and Prototulbaghia Vosa and 28 species. The  pollen  morphology  of  the  endangered  monotypic  genus Prototulbaghia has  not  been described  before.  A  comparative  study  of  the  pollen  morphology  of Prototulbaghia  siebertii Vosa, Nothoscordum  borbonicum Kunth, Tulbaghia  simmleri P.Beauv.  and T.  violaceae Harv.  is presented in this article. Scanning electron microscopy, as well as light microscopy, were used to examine the pollen. The pollen morphology of the species can be described as perprolate and monosulcate, and the surface sculpture as reticulate and heterobrochate. However, the pollen of Prototulbaghia siebertii displays a unique characteristic as the grains are folded in their breadth with the tips touching, hence causing the grain to display a triangular and disulcate appearance. It might be possible to ascribe this fold to the process of harmomegathy or a still unknown event that occurs during the development of the pollen grain. This phenomenon should be further investigated to determine the cause of folding and whether it is a unique taxonomic  characteristic  of  this  genus,  and  if  it  could  be  of  evolutionary  significance  for the Alliaceae.

  9. Effect of Amaranthus quitensis on parsley for dehydration yield Efecto de Amaranthus quitensis sobre el rendimiento de perejil para deshidratado

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. Puricelli

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Weeds are a severe problem in many horticultural crops but information about weed competition on parsley (Petroselinum crispus (Mill. Nym yield is lacking. The objectives of this study were to determine the critical period for Amaranthus quitensis Kunth control in parsley and to quantify the influence of A. quitensis density on parsley yield. The critical period was variable between years and weed densities and ranged between 3 and 44 days in duration. In both years, A. quitensis densities of more than 30 plants/m² can account for up to 70 % of yield loss. The results indicate that A. quitensis can significantly reduce parsley yields even at low densities if the weed is not controlled in the appropriate period.Las malezas son un problema en la producción de perejil (Petroselinum crispus (Mill. Nym para deshidratado, y existe poca información acerca del efecto de las malezas sobre el rendimiento de este cultivo. Los objetivos de este estudio fueron determinar el período crítico para el control de Amaranhus quitensis Kunth en perejil y cuantificar la influencia de la densidad de A. quitensis sobre el rendimiento del perejil. El período crítico fue variable entre años y densidad de la maleza y tuvo una duración de entre 3 y 44 días. En 2006 y 2007 una densidad de A. quitensis de más de 30 plantas/m² determina un 70 % de la reducción de rendimiento. Los resultados sugieren que bajas densidades de A. quitensis pueden reducir el rendimiento de perejil si no son controladas en el período adecuado.

  10. Conocimiento de seis especies arbustivas utilizadas como plantas nodrizas en el occidente de Guatemala

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    José Vicente Martínez-Arévalo

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available En la restauración de ecosistemas, una técnica es utilizar arbustos de la sucesión como nodriza. En la parte alta de San Marcos, Guatemala, se ha recurrido al menos a seis de ellos en el establecimiento de pino y pinabete: arrayán (Baccharis vaccinoides Kunth, salvia (Buddleia megalocephala Donn. Sm., mozote (Acaena elongata L., chicajol (Stevia polycephala Bertol, mora (Rubus trilobus Ser. y malacate (Symphoricarpos microphyllus Kunth. Se carece de la documentación de su comportamiento y características que puedan servir para utilizarlas ampliamente como plantas protectoras. En esta investigación se estudió características in situ y reproductivas de estas especies. Entre los principales resultados está que la altura de plantas es de 1.17 a 2.64 m y cobertura de 0.34 a 2.77 m2, con una amplia variación entre y dentro de especies. La cantidad de frutos/planta va desde 90 en S. microphyllus a 59,400 en B. vaccinioides. La propagación vegetativa en campo estuvo entre 48 a 92 %, mayor que cuando se realizó en vivero, donde B. vaccinoides, S. microphyllus y R. trilobus tuvieron mejor respuesta. La propagación por semilla muestra que las seis especies pueden reproducirse adecuadamente. Estos resultados permiten su reproducción en viveros para su uso en restauración ecológica.

  11. Anti-inflammatory effect of aqueous extracts of spent Pleurotus ostreatus substrates in mouse ears treated with 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol-13-acetate

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivero-Pérez, Nallely; Ayala-Martínez, Maricela; Zepeda-Bastida, Armando; Meneses-Mayo, Marcos; Ojeda-Ramírez, Deyanira

    2016-01-01

    Aims: To evaluate the application of spent Pleurotus ostreatus substrates, enriched or not with medicinal herbs, as a source of anti-inflammatory compounds. Subjects and Methods: P. ostreatus was cultivated on five different substrates: Barley straw (BS) and BS combined 80:20 with medicinal herbs (Chenopodium ambrosioides L. [BS/CA], Rosmarinus officinalis L. [BS/RO], Litsea glaucescens Kunth [BS/LG], and Tagetes lucida Cav. [BS/TL]). The anti-inflammatory activity of aqueous extracts of spent mushroom substrates (SMSs) (4 mg/ear) was studied using an acute inflammation model in the mouse ear induced with 2.5 μg/ear 12-O-tetradecanoylphorbol13-acetate (TPA). Results: Groups treated with BS/CA, BS/RO, and BS/LG aqueous extracts exhibited the best anti-inflammatory activity (94.0% ± 5.5%, 92.9% ± 0.6%, and 90.4% ± 5.0% inhibition of auricular edema [IAO], respectively), and these effects were significantly different (P < 0.05) from that of the positive control indomethacin (0.5 mg/ear). BS/TL and BS were also able to reduce TPA-induced inflammation but to a lesser extent (70.0% ± 6.7% and 43.5% ± 6.6% IAO, respectively). Conclusions: Spent P. ostreatus substrate of BS possesses a slight anti-inflammatory effect. The addition of CA L. to mushroom substrate showed a slightly synergistic effect while RO L. had an additive effect. In addition, LG Kunth and TL Cav. enhanced the anti-inflammatory effect of SMS. However, to determine whether there is a synergistic or additive effect, it is necessary to determine the anti-inflammatory effect of each medicinal herb. PMID:27127316

  12. Aquatic Food Plants and their Consumer Birds at Sandi Bird Sanctuary, Hardoi, Northern India

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    Kaushalendra Kumar Jha

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available One of the Bird Sanctuaries of Uttar Pradesh, Sandi, was selected for studying some ecological aspects like, aquatic food plants, their food calendar and dependent birds of migratory as well as resident origin. The study site is considered as an ideal wetland. This is located at 27o15’ N and 79o55’ E. Thirty four food plant species were identified to be eaten by 16 birds.These plants were the species of Alloteropsis, Arundo, Azolla, Ceratophyllum, Chloris, Commelina, Cyperus, Echinochloa, Eichhornia, Eleocharis, Hydrilla, Ipomoea, Jussiaea, Lemna, Najas, Nelumbo, Nymphea, Nymphoides, Oryza, Pistia, Polygonum, Potamogeton, Scirpus, Spirodela, Trapa, Typha, Vallisneria, and Wolffia. Common consumer birds eating plant parts were Coot, Pochards, Teal, Wigeon, Gadwal, Gargany, Goose, Whistling-duck, Mallard, Pintail, Shoveler, and Swamphen. These are primarily the migratory birds except Coot, Whistling-duck and Swamphen. Spot-billed Duck, and Indian Moorhen were occasionally seen eating submerged hydrophytes and filamentous slimy green algae. On the basis of multi-strata growth of plants in the Sanctuary a wetland profile was prepared. Food calendar i.e., availability of palatable parts of plants during different months was recorded. Information collected in the study could be used for habitat management, especially the weed removal and ensuring food sustainability for the vegetarian birds.

  13. 影响配煤与废塑料共热解煤气中氯含量的因素及氯的脱除方法%Influence Factors and Removing Method of Chlorine in the Co - pyrolysing Gas Products of Coal and Waste Plastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李震; 王宗臣; 周丽霞

    2011-01-01

    通过对配煤与废塑料共热解煤气有机吸收液的液相色谱一质谱联用分析,以及蒸馏水吸收液的离子色谱分析,探索了热解煤气中氯的赋存形态.结果表明,煤气中氯主要以HCl的形式存在,有机吸收液中没有检测出含氯有机化合物.在此基础上,讨论了升温速率、气体流速等热解条件对煤气中氯含量的影响及对脱氯剂脱氯效果的影响.%In this article, occurrence model and concentration of chlorine in gas product from the pyrolysis process of waste plastic and coal were studied. By analyzing the data of experiments, it is found that there are relativities between concentration of chlori

  14. Plasmodium relictum (lineage P-SGS1): Further observation of effects on experimentally infected passeriform birds, with remarks on treatment with Malarone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palinauskas, Vaidas; Valkiūnas, Gediminas; Krizanauskiene, Asta; Bensch, Staffan; Bolshakov, Casimir V

    2009-10-01

    Plasmodium relictum (lineage P-SGS1) is a widespread malaria parasite that causes disease of different severity in different species of birds. However, experimental studies on the effects of this parasite on avian hosts are uncommon. We investigated development of this lineage in experimentally infected greenfinches Carduelis chloris and compared the obtained data with the literature information about the virulence of the same parasite lineage for phylogenetically closely related bird species. We also used an opportunity to test the efficacy of the antimalarial drug Malarone in treatment of the experimental infection. The cryopreserved strain of the lineage P-SGS1 was multiplied in 4 experimentally infected chaffinches. Light parasitemia developed in these birds; the parasites were then inoculated to 6 uninfected recipient greenfinches. Six uninfected greenfinches were used as negative controls. Light parasitemia developed in all experimental greenfinches. There were no significant effects of malaria on the body mass of greenfinches, but haematocrit value was slightly lower in experimental birds than in control ones; the infection did not cause mortality or morbidity in these birds. According to available data, all investigated fringillid birds are susceptible to P. relictum (P-SGS1), but the same malaria parasite develops markedly differently in different bird species, even closely related hosts. Thus, the observed effects of the same malaria lineage on one species of bird cannot be generalized to others, even closely related ones. The cure with Malarone was highly efficient for blood stages of P. relictum, but exoerythrocytic stages were unaffected.

  15. Salmonella spp. as a cause of mortality and clinical symptoms in free-living garden bird species in Poland.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krawiec, M; Pietkiewicz, M; Wieliczko, A

    2014-01-01

    Some species of garden birds are considered to be sensitive to Salmonella (S.) spp. infections. The aim of this study was to determine the cause of mortality of six free-living birds in one private property in suburban area of Wrocław (Poland). In 2013 Poland experienced prolonged winter, with low temperatures and snow precipitations. During March and April, two dead individuals of the Eurasian siskin (Carduelis spinus) and four dead individuals of the Greenfinch (Carduelis chloris) were found in proximity of the bird feeder. At the time of ringing procedure in the same area, faecal samples of all individuals belonging to these two species of birds were collected, regardless clinical symptoms. In total, twenty two faecal samples of birds belonging to both bird species were collected in the same property. All of them were Salmonella enterica subsp. enterica serovar Typhimurium positive. The visible illness among European siskins and Greenfinches, caused by S. Typhimurium, sug- gests that both Eurasian siskin and Greenfinch may be potential reservoirs of Salmonella spp. Therefore they might play a role in transmission of zoonotic pathogens to other garden bird species or to people.

  16. Evaluation of the ASTRA 4 new microprocessor-controlled electrolyte analyzer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartmann, A E; Fillbach, J R

    1980-09-01

    A new programmable microprocessor-controlled multichannel chemistry analyzer, the Bechman ASTRA 4, was evaluated in an electrolyte configuration including sodium, potassium, chloride, and CO2. Sodium and potassium are analyzed with ion-selective electrodes, CO2 by differential rate pH measurement, and chloride by proportional coulometric titration, Day-to-day reproducibility studies yielded coefficients of variation of 0.8% for Na+, 1.2% for K+, 0.9% for Cl-, and 5.9% for CO2. Linearity was 100-200 mmol/l for Na+, 1.0-10.0 mmol/l for K+, 50-150 mmol/l for Cl+, and 5-50 mmol/l for CO2. There was excellent correlation between the ASTRA 4 and the comparison laboratory methodologies consisting of flame photometry, coulometry, and Beckman Chlorie/CO2 titrator. Performance of the ASTRA 4 was judged acceptable relative to requirements of medical usefulness. The instrument can be used as a routine electrolyte analyzer with a throughput of 60 samples an hour or as a stat analyzer with results obtained within 8.5 minutes. Each sample can be programmed for any combination of tests, and reagent is only consumed on those tests selected. Sample size is approximately 130 microliter for all four tests or reduced accordingly if fewer tests are selected.

  17. The Extraction, Isolation and Identiifcation of Exudates from the Roots of Flaveria bidentis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Xing; ZHANG Li-hui; SHI Cui-ping; SHANG Yan; ZHANG Jin-lin; HAN Jian-min; DONG Jin-gao

    2014-01-01

    Large amounts of Flaveria bidentis’s root culturing solution were obtained by using DFT (deep lfow technique) equipment and these solution which was vacuum concentrated (10, 20 mg mL-1) can have a certain inhibition on Triticum aestivum, Cucumis sativus, Raphanus sativus, Amaranthus retrolfexus, Setaria viridis, Chenopodium album, Echinochloa crusgalli and Chloris virgata. This outcome suggested some active compounds in the root exudates of Flaveria bidentis can inhibit the germination, seedling elongation and root length. The dichloromethane extract of root exudates was identiifcated by GC-MS, and 29 kinds of compounds, including esters, hydrocarbons, ketones, thiazole, amines, etc. were obtained and the phthalate n-octyl ester, phthalate 2-ethylhexyl ester were proved to be allelochemicals. The culturing solution of root exudates was separated through the resin column and silica gel column and a component inhibiting seedling height, root length and fresh weight of wheat was got. There were 6 kinds of organic compounds in this component including dioctyl phthalate, 1,2-phthalate, mono(2-ethylhexyl) ester by GC-MS.

  18. DISTRIBUTION AND DIVERSITY OF FUSARIUM SPECIES ASSOCIATED WITH GRASSES IN TEN STATES THROUGHOUT PENINSULAR MALAYSIA

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    NUR AIN IZZATI, M.Z

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Fusarium is one of the important genera associated with grasses as saprophytes, endophytes and pathogens. A study was carried out on distribution and diversity of Fusarium species associated with two groups of grasses in 10 states throughout Peninsular Malaysia i.e. agricultural grasses (Oryza sativa and Saccharum officinarum and non-agricultural grasses (Axonopus compressus, Centhotheca lappacea, Chloris barbata, Crysopogon aciculatus, Cyanadon dactylon, Dactyloctenium aegyptium, Digitaria ciliaris, Echinochloa colona, Eleusine indica, Eragrostis amabilis, Eragrostis malayana, Eragrostis uniloides, Ischaemum magnum, Panicum brevifolium, Panicum millaneum, Panicum repens, Paspalum commersonii, Paspalum conjugatum, Paspalum orbiculare, Pennisetum purpureum, Sacciolepis indica, Sporobolus diander and Sporobolus indicus. A total of 474 isolates were single-spored and identified by morphological characteristics. F. semitectum was frequently isolated (23.6%, followed by F. sacchari and F. fujikuroi with 15.4% and 14.6%, respectively. The other nine species were F. solani (10.3%, F. proliferatum (8.9%, F. oxysporum (7.4%, F. subglutinans (6.5%, F. equiseti (5.5%, F. verticillioides (3.4%, F. compactum (2.5%, F. chlamydosporum (1.1% and F. longipes (0.8%. Based on the Shannon-Weiner Index, F. solani was the highest (H' = 2.62 isolated from grasses. Species of Fusarium from O. sativa were widely diverse with 11 species, followed by non-agricultural grasses with nine species and S. officinarum with only six species. This is the first report on diversity of Fusarium associated with grasses in Malaysia.

  19. Mechanical properties of epoxidized natural rubber toughen ed poly(vinyl chloride)%环氧化天然橡胶增韧聚氯乙烯力学性能研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王桂强; 贺继东; 赵强; 易芬莲; 李思东

    2001-01-01

    The mechanical properties of epoxidized natural rubber(EN R-50)toughened poly(vinyl chloried) (PVC) were studied.The effects of plasticize r DOP and antio xidant 4010 on PVC/ENR-50 toughened system were researched.The results showed th at ENR had good toughening effect on PVC,decreased the strength a little.DOP acted either plasticizer or toughener to PVC,but it decre ased the efficiency of ENR toughened PVC.Antioxidant 4010 improved the mechanic al properties on PVC/ENR-50 blends.%对环氧化度为50%的环氧化天然橡胶(ENR-50)增韧 聚氯乙烯(PVC)体系的力学性能进行了研究,并分析了防老剂4010与增塑剂DOP对PVC/ENR增韧体系性能的影响。结果表明:ENR有较好的增韧效果,且对PVC的强度影响不大;DOP既可增塑也可增韧,但DOP的加入将影响ENR对PVC的增韧作用;防老剂4010可阻止ENR的老化,改善PVC/ENR-50共混物的性能。

  20. Immunoglobulin E-binding reactivities of natural pollen grain extracts from selected grass species in the Philippines

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cabauatan, Clarissa R.

    2012-01-01

    Background Pollen grains have been reported to be present in the Philippine atmosphere but studies regarding their allergenicity are limited. Objective The present study aimed to profile the sensitization of allergic individuals to selected grass pollen species and to characterize the pollen proteins that may be responsible for this allergenic response. Methods The protein profile of the grass pollen extracts from Cynodon dactylon, Saccharum spontaneum, Sporobulus indicus, Chloris barbata, Oryza sativa, Imperata cylindrica, and Zea mays was analyzed by Sodium Dodecyl Sulphate Polyacrylamide Gel Electrophoresis. The specific-IgE profile of the allergic individuals and the allergenic potential of the pollen extracts were evaluated through Enzyme-linked Immunosorbent Assay and IgE immunoblotting. Results Sensitization of the allergic individuals to the pollen extracts was detected with I. cylindrica and O. sativa to be the most frequently recognized with more that 92% reactivity, whereas for C. dactylon and Z. mays, were found to have less than 25% reactivity. Conclusion Multiple IgE-binding proteins from S. indicus, S. spontaneum and C. barbata that were detected may be responsible for the allergic reactions among Filipino subjects. PMID:22701864

  1. Oxidative profile varies with personality in European greenfinches.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herborn, Katherine A; Coffey, Jo; Larcombe, Stephen D; Alexander, Lucille; Arnold, Kathryn E

    2011-05-15

    Where behavioural responses differ consistently between individuals, this is termed 'personality'. There is the suggestion, but with little supporting data, that personality traits reflect underlying variation in physiology. Here, we tested whether greenfinches Carduelis chloris differing in personality traits differed in various plasma indices of oxidative profile: antioxidant capacity (OXY), pro-oxidant status (reactive oxygen metabolites, ROMs), oxidative stress (OS) and an end-product of oxidative damage: malondialdehyde (MDA). We measured two personality traits: neophobia (latency to approach food near novel objects) and object exploration (latency to approach novel objects). These traits were uncorrelated. ROMs, OXY, OS and MDA were also uncorrelated with each other. Highly neophobic birds had lower OXY, higher ROMs and higher OS than less neophobic birds. Fast exploring birds had higher OXY than slow explorers, but did not differ in ROMs or OS. Variation in MDA was described by a quadratic relationship with neophobia: birds with extremely high or low neophobia had lower MDA than birds with intermediate neophobia, despite highly neophobic birds exhibiting lower OS than intermediately neophobic birds. Additively in that model, fast explorers had lower MDA than slower explorers. To conclude: first, personality types can differ in oxidative profile. Second, although physiological differences (e.g. hormonal stress responsiveness) between personality types generally range along a linear continuum, physiological costs may not. Finally, relationships with oxidative profile differed between neophobia and object exploration. Understanding how oxidative profile and thus physiological costs vary within and between personality traits may explain how differences in personality traits can predict fitness.

  2. Effects of Endotoxin and Psychological Stress on Redox Physiology, Immunity and Feather Corticosterone in Greenfinches.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Richard Meitern

    Full Text Available Assessment of costs accompanying activation of immune system and related neuroendocrine pathways is essential for understanding the selective forces operating on these systems. Here we attempted to detect such costs in terms of disruption to redox balance and interference between different immune system components in captive wild-caught greenfinches (Carduelis chloris. Study birds were subjected to an endotoxin-induced inflammatory challenge and temporary exposure to a psychological stressor (an image of a predator in a 2*2 factorial experiment. Injection of bacterial endotoxin resulted in up-regulation of two markers of antioxidant protection - erythrocyte glutathione, and plasma oxygen radical absorbance (OXY. These findings suggest that inflammatory responses alter redox homeostasis. However, no effect on markers of oxidative damage to proteins or DNA in erythrocytes could be detected. We found no evidence that the endotoxin injection interfered with antibody production against Brucella abortus antigen or the intensity of chronic coccidiosis. The hypothesis of within-immune system trade-offs as a cost of immunity was thus not supported in our model system. We showed for the first time that administration of endotoxin can reduce the level of corticosterone deposited into feathers. This finding suggests a down-regulation of the corticosterone secretion cascade due to an endotoxin-induced immune response, a phenomenon that has not been reported previously. Exposure to the predator image did not affect any of the measured physiological parameters.

  3. Breeding Bird Assemblage in a Mosaic of Urbanized Habitats in a Central European City

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    Kopij Grzegorz

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available There is a lack of data on the population densities of birds breeding in a mosaic of typical urbanized habitats. This study was undertaken to partly fulfil this gap in our knowledge. Counts were conducted in 2008 by means of simplified territory mapping method in a fragment (1197 ha of a large Central European city (Wrocław, SW Poland. In total, 50 bird species were breeding in the study area in 2008. The House Sparrow Passer domesticus, Common Swift Apus apus and Rock Dove comprised about 3/5 of all breeding pairs. The other group of species, each one with a density between 6 and 13 pairs per 100 ha, included seven species, namely the Starling, Sturnus vulgaris, Greenfinch, Carduelis chloris, House Martin, Delichon urbica, Tree Sparrow, Passer montanus, Great Tit, Parus major, Blue Tit, Parus caeruleus, and Jackdaw, Corvus monedula. They comprised together about 1/5. The remaining 40 species nested in a density between 0.1 and 3.5 pairs per 100 ha. The most numerous feeding guild were granivores (53.8% and insectivores (37.9 %. Birds nesting on buildings comprised together 74 % of all breeding pairs. For a few species (Luscinia megarhynchos, Saxicola torquata, Corvus cornix and Turdus pilaris an increase in their numbers in the last three decades has been evidenced.

  4. Pro-toxic dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids in the traditional Andean herbal medicine “asmachilca”

    Science.gov (United States)

    Colegate, Steven M.; Boppré, Michael; Monzón, Julio; Betz, Joseph M.

    2015-01-01

    Ethnopharmacological relevance Asmachilca is a Peruvian medicinal herb preparation ostensibly derived from Eupatorium gayanum Wedd. = Aristeguietia gayana (Wedd.) R.M. King & H. Rob. (Asteraceae: Eupatorieae). Decoctions of the plant have a reported bronchodilation effect that is purported to be useful in the treatment of respiratory allergies, common cold and bronchial asthma. However, its attractiveness to pyrrolizidine alkaloid-pharmacophagous insects indicated a potential for toxicity for human consumers. Aim of the study To determine if commercial asmachilca samples, including fully processed herbal teas, contain potentially toxic 1,2-dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids. Materials and methods Two brands of “Asmachilca” herbal tea bags and four other commercial samples of botanical materials for preparing asmachilca medicine were extracted and analyzed using HPLC-esi(+)MS and MS/MS for the characteristic retention times and mass spectra of known dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids. Other suspected dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids were tentatively identified based on MS/MS profiles and high resolution molecular weight determinations. Further structure elucidation of isolated alkaloids was based on 1D and 2D NMR spectroscopy. Results Asmachilca attracted many species of moths which are known to pharmacophagously gather dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloids. Analysis of 5 of the asmachilca samples revealed the major presence of the dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid monoesters rinderine and supinine, and their N-oxides. The 6th sample was very similar but did not contain supinine or its N-oxide. Small quantities of other dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid monoesters, including echinatine and intermedine, were also detected. In addition, two major metabolites, previously undescribed, were isolated and identified as dehydropyrrolizidine alkaloid monoesters with two “head-to-tail” linked viridifloric and/or trachelanthic acids. Estimates of total pyrrolizidine alkaloid and N

  5. Pollen morphology of Rubiaceae Juss. species occurring in an area of caatinga (dryland vegetation in Bahia State, Brazil Morfologia polínica de espécies de Rubiaceae ocorrentes em uma área de caatinga no estado da Bahia, Brasil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Cristiano Eduardo Amaral Silveira Júnior

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available The palynology of the following 16 species of Rubiaceae, from Brejinho das Amestistas, was investigated: Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC., Cordiera rigida Kuntze, Coutarea hexandra K.Schum., Declieuxia fruticosa Kuntze, Diodella apiculata (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. Delprete, D. radula (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. Delprete, D. teres Small., Emmeorhiza umbellata K.Schum., Leptoscela ruellioides Hook. f., Mitracarpus baturitensis Sucre., Mitracarpus villosus Cham. & Schltdl., Palicourea rigida Kunth, Psyllocarpus asparagoides Mart., Richardia grandiflora Steud., Staelia aurea K. Schum., and Staelia galioides DC. The pollen grains were acetolysed to and their morphological characters were analyzed using light and scanning electron microscopy. They varied in size from small to large; were suboblate to subprolate; inaperturate (P. rigida, colpate and colporate in the remaining species, with an aperture number that varied from three to several. The exines were microreticulate in most species, reticulate (C. hirsutum, C. rigida and P. rigida, bireticulate (D. fruticosa, microechinate-perforated (C. hexandra, echinate-granulate (R. grandiflora, echinate-granulate-perforate (D. apiculata and D. teres, and psilate (P. asparagoides. Based on the results, palynological data can be used to distinguish these species.Rubiaceae foi representada na flora de Brejinho das Ametistas por dezesseis espécies, as quais foram tratadas palinologicamente no presente estudo: Coccocypselum hirsutum Bartl. ex DC., Cordiera rigida Kuntze, Coutarea hexandra K.Schum., Declieuxia fruticosa Kuntze, Diodella apiculata (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. Delprete, D. radula (Willd. ex Roem. & Schult. Delprete, D. teres Small., Emmeorhiza umbellata K.Schum., Leptoscela ruellioides Hook. f., Mitracarpus baturitensis Sucre., Mitracarpus villosus Cham. & Schltdl., Palicourea rigida Kunth, Psyllocarpus asparagoides Mart., Richardia grandiflora Steud., Staelia aurea K. Schum., Staelia galioides

  6. Números cromosómicos en especies sudamericanas andinas de Lupinus (Leguminosae CHROMOSOME NUMBERS IN SOUTH AMERICAN ANDEAN SPECIES OF LUPINUS (LEGUMINOSAE

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    Maristela Fiess Camillo

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Se determinó el número cromosómico en 22 poblaciones de 16 especies del género Lupinus
    L. de la región Andina. Todos presentaron 2n=48 cromosomas con excepción de L.
    bandelierae C. P. Smith (2n=36. Estos son los primeros recuentos cromosómicos para L.
    arvensis Benth., L. chilensis C. P. Smith, L. chlorolepsis C. P. Smith, L. chrysanthus Ulbr., L.
    lindleyanus Agardh, L. mantaroensis C. P. Smith, L. piurensis C. P. Smith, L. proculaustrinus
    C. P. Smith, L. prostratus Agardh, L. pulvinaris Ulbr., L. pycnostachys C. P. Smith, L.
    smithianus Kunth y L. tominensis Wedd. Este trabajo también confirmó recuentos
    cromosómicos para L. mutabilis Sweet, L. semperflorens Benth. (2n=48 y L. bandelierae
    (2n=36. Los resultados claramente confirman que, citológicamente, la mayoría de los Lupinus
    andinos son más próximos de las especies norteamericanas qué a las del este de América del
    Sur
    Chromosome numbers were determined in 22 accessions of 16 Lupinus L. species from the
    Andean region. All had 2n=48 chromosomes, except L. bandelierae C. P. Smith (2n=36.
    These are the first chromosome countings for L. arvensis Benth., L. chilensis C. P. Smith, L.
    chlorolepsis C. P. Smith, L. chrysanthus Ulbr., L. lindleyanus Agardh, L. mantaroensis C. P.
    Smith, L. piurensis C. P. Smith, L. proculaustrinus C. P. Smith, L. prostratus Agardh, L.
    pulvinaris Ulbr., L. pycnostachys C. P. Smith, L. smithianus Kunth and L. tominensis Wedd.
    The present study also confirmed literature data on chromosome numbers of L. mutabilis
    Sweet, L. semperflorens Benth. (2n=48 and L. bandelierae (2n=36. The results clearly
    confirm that, cytologically, the vast majority of Andean species are closer to the North
    American than to the eastern South American taxa

  7. Anatomía foliar y del pecíolo de cuatro especies de Lupinus (Fabaceae Foliar and petiole anatomy of four species of Lupinus (Fabaceae

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    Juan Francisco Zamora-Natera

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available Se describe y compara la anatomía foliar y del pecíolo de 4 especies del género Lupinus (L. aschenbornii S.Schauer, L. exaltatus Zucc., L. montanus Kunth y L. reflexus Rose que se distribuyen en un gradiente altitudinal en el Parque Nacional Nevado de Colima. Las hojas se fijaron en campo y se procesaron mediante la técnica de inclusión en parafina. Parte de las láminas se deshidrataron para caracterizar la superficie foliar por medio del microscopio electrónico de barrido. Las especies comparten la epidermis papilosa de paredes anticlinales con diferentes grados de ondulación, estomas anomocíticos, tricomas simples lineares y mesofilo bifacial. Los folíolos de L. montanus son glabros en la superficie abaxial, las estrías cuticulares sobre las células localizadas en la base de los tricomas es un rasgo característico de L. montanus y de L. reflexus. Las diferencias encontradas en espesor de la lámina y del mesofilo así como la abundancia de ceras epicuticulares pueden estar influenciadas por el ambiente. Distintivamente, el número y distribución de haces vasculares en los pecíolos difieren entre las 4 especies y podrían ser de utilidad para diferenciarlas si estos resultados se confirman al estudiar un mayor número de especies de Lupinus.The aims of this study were to describe and compare the foliar and petiole anatomy of 4 species of Lupinus (L. aschenbornii S.Schauer, L. exaltatus Zucc., L. montanus Kunth, and L. reflexus Rose distributed in an elevation gradient at Parque Nacional Nevado de Colima. Leaves were fixed in the field and prepared using the paraffin embedding technique. In addition, part of the blades was dehydrated to describe leaf surface through the scanning electron microscope. The 4 species shared a papillose epidermis with undulated anticlinal walls in different degrees, stomata anomocytic, simple unicellular trichomes, and bifacial mesophyll. Leaflets of L. montanus are glabrous on the abaxial surface

  8. Nidificação de Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini em ninhos-armadilha no Nordeste do Maranhão, Brasil Nidification of Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith (Hymenoptera, Apidae, Centridini in trap nests in Northeast Maranhão, Brazil

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    Fernanda N. Mendes

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Este trabalho teve como objetivo obter dados sobre a ecologia da nidificação de Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith em três ecossistemas: mata ciliar (MC, mata mesofítica (MM e eucaliptal (EC, utilizandose ninhos-armadilha confeccionados em gomos de bambu, distribuídos em diferentes alturas: 1,5 m e 5-12 m do solo. Foram obtidos 41 ninhos: 31 no EC e 10 na MM, a maioria no estrato superior e com maior freqüência de nidificações ocorrendo no período de estiagem. A razão sexual foi de 1,9:1 (fêmeas/ machos no EC e de 1,08:1 na MM. Cerca de 22% dos ninhos do EC e 40% da MM foram parasitados por Mesocheira bicolor (Fabricius, 1804 (Hymenoptera, Apidae e Coelioxys sp. (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae. A análise polínica revelou predominância de grãos de pólen de Banisteriopsis sp. (Malpighiaceae e Cassia sp. (Caesalpiniaceae no EC e de espécies de Caesalpiniaceae Kunth. e Banisteriopsis Robinson na MM.This work had as objective to obtain ecological data of Centris (Hemisiella tarsata Smith's nidification in three ecosystems: riparian forest (MC, mesophitic forest (MM and eucalyptal (EC, using trap nests made by bamboo canes, distributed in differentiated heights: 1,5 m and 5-12 m high. A total of 41 nests were collected: 31 in EC and 10 in MM, the majority in the upper strata and with the largest frequency of nesting occurring in the dry season. The sex ratio was of 1.9:1 (females/ males in EC and of 1.08:1 in MM. About 22% of nests of the EC and 40% of MM were parasitized by Mesocheira bicolor (Fabricius 1804 (Hymenoptera, Apidae and Coelioxys sp. (Hymenoptera, Megachilidae. The pollinic analyses showed a higher quantity of pollen grains of Banisteriopsis sp. (Malpighiaceae and Cassia sp. (Caesalpiniaceae in EC area and a species of Caesalpiniaceae Kunth. and Banisteriopsis Robinson in MM area.

  9. Chemical composition of canned heart of Cordyline spectabilis and the flour obtained from post-processing residue Caracterização da composição química de conserva de palmito de Cordyline spectabilis e da farinha obtida do resíduo após processamento

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    Cristiane Vieira Helm

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available

    The need for new products requires the use of local raw material, which is either processed rudimentarily, such as the heart of Cordyline spectabilis Kunth & Bouché, or sometimes not processed at all. The aim of this work was to store the heart of Cordyline spectabilis from the municipality of Campo Largo, state of Parana, Brazil, as canned food and evaluate the nutritional value. The residue obtained from this process was used to make flour. The nutritional composition of both products was determinade. Their chemical compositions, pH levels and acidity were also checked for quality and conservation. The canned uvarana heart featured high protein levels (4.68 g 100 g-1 and the flour presented high levels of fibre (69.11 g 100g-1. Both products presented low calorie levels (58.39 and 59.72 kcal 100 g-1, respectively, which suggests an interesting source of vitamin for food industry.

    doi: 10.4336/2011.pfb.31.67.265

    A necessidade de novos produtos estimula a utilização de matérias-primas regionais que não  são processadas ou que quando o são, é realizado de maneira bastante artesanal, como é o caso da uvarana. O objetivo deste trabalho foi elaborar uma conserva de palmito de uvarana (Cordyline spectabilis Kunth & Bouché procedentes do Município de Campo Largo, PR, e com o resíduo obtido do processamento da conserva elaborar uma farinha e determinar a composição nutricional dos dois produtos. Avaliaram-se a composição química dos produtos obtidos e o valor de pH e acidez das conservas, para avaliar o estado de conservação do produto. A conserva apresentou um alto teor proteico (4,68 g 100 g-1 e a farinha um alto teor de fibra alimentar (69,11 g 100 g-1 e ambos os produtos apresentaram um baixo valor calórico (58,39 e 59,72 kcal 100 g-1, respectivamente, o que sugere uma interessante fonte de suplemento alimentar para

  10. Transpiration and stomatal resistance variations of perennial tropical crops under soil water availability conditions and water deficit

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    José Ozinaldo Alves de Sena

    2007-03-01

    Full Text Available During the dry and rainy seasons, determinations of stomatal resistance and transpiration of five tropical crops were carried out: guarana (Paullinia cupana Kunth, coffee (Coffea arabica L., cashew (Anacardium occidentale L., guava (Psidium guajava L. and rubber (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. - Arg. trees. Experimental design was done at randomized complete blocks with five replications. During the dry season there was a decrease in values of stomatal resistance in the following order: guarana > coffee> cashew> guava > rubber, with values from 2.5 to 30.0 s.cm-1. During the rainy season the stomatal resistance values varied from 1.5 to 3.0 s.cm-1. The guarana and coffee crops showed higher resistance to water transpiration when compared to other crops. During the rainy season, the rubber tree continued to present lower stomatal resistance and, consequently, higher transpiration.O experimento foi realizado no Departamento de Produção Vegetal da Escola Superior de Agricultura "Luiz de Queiroz", ESALQ/USP, Piracicaba, São Paulo, Brasil, utilizando-se as culturas de guaranazeiro (Paullinia cupana Kunth, cafeeiro (Coffea arabica L., cajueiro (Anacardium occidentale L., goiabeira (Psidium guajava L. e seringueira (Hevea brasiliensis Muell. - Arg.. No período de seca (setembro/94 e de chuvas (novembro/94, realizaram-se determinações de resistência estomática (RE (s cm-1 e transpiração (T (µg cm-1 s-1 nas diferentes espécies. O delineamento experimental foi em blocos casualizados com cinco repetições. A partir das análises dos dados pode-se concluir: 1. diferenças significativas entre espécies, em termos das variáveis avaliadas no período de deficiência hídrica, com valores decrescentes de resistência estomática e crescente de transpiração na seguinte ordem: guaranazeiro > cafeeiro > cajueiro > goiabeira > seringueira; 2. Nas águas as diferenças entre espécies, para ambas as variáveis, foram menos evidentes, continuando a

  11. Mortalidad y repelencia en Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis, por efecto de diez extractos botánicos Mortality and repellence of Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, pest of oil palm Elaeis guineensis, by effect of ten botanical extracts

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    Diana D. Pérez

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas con actividad insecticida constituyen un importante componente del manejo integrado de plagas. Bajo esta premisa, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la mortalidad y repelencia larval de Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis Jacquin; empleando diez plantas con potencial insecticida: Ucullucuysacha (Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Floripondio (Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Oreja de Tigre (Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Piñón Blanco (Jathropa curcas L., Euphorbiaceae, Sacha yoco (Paullinia clavigera Schltdl., Sapindaceae, Yuquilla (Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbiaceae, Achiote (Bixa orellana L., Bixaceae, Retama común (Cassia fistula L., Fabaceae, Huancahuisacha (Aristolochia pilosa Kunth, Aristolochiaceae y Curare (Chondrodendron tomentosum Ruiz & Pavon, Menispermaceae. Los bioensayos con E. cyparissias abarcaron entre 1 h y 24 h, bajo condiciones estandardizadas de laboratorio. A 24 h de exposición, los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad de E. cyparissias se presentaron en los tratamientos con Sacha yoco (63,3 %: corteza y hojas en decocción, Achiote (63,3 %: semillas en licuado y Yuquilla (48,3 %: hojas en licuado. En el caso de la repelencia, los mayores efectos se encontraron en los tratamientos con Achiote (83,30 %, Sacha yoco (75 % y Floripondio (66,7 %: hojas en licuado.The plants with insecticide activities constitute a main compound of integrated pest management. Under this premise, the aim of the current research was to evaluate mortality and repellence of Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae larvae, pest of oil palm Elaeis guineensis Jacquin, employing ten plants with insecticide potential: Indian heliotrope (Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Angel´s trumpets (Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Wandering Jew (Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Nettles-purge (Jathropa

  12. Micorriza arbuscular em cupuaçu e pupunha cultivados em sistema agroflorestal e em monocultivo na Amazônia Central Arbuscular mycorrhiza in cupuaçu and peach palm cultivated in agroforestry and monoculture systems in the Central Amazon region

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    José Pereira da Silva Junior

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a colonização micorrízica arbuscular em pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth e cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd ex Spring K. Schum cultivados em sistema agroflorestal e em monocultivo na Amazônia Central, em duas épocas do ano, e também identificar características anatômicas da formação dessa simbiose nessas espécies. Foram realizadas coletas de solo e raízes em duas estações, seca e chuvosa. A colonização micorrízica arbuscular no cupuaçu e na pupunha é alterada pelo sistema de manejo adotado, com taxas maiores de colonização no monocultivo. A densidade total dos esporos de fungos micorrízicos arbusculares sob o cupuaçu não é alterada pelo sistema de manejo ou pela época do ano, ao contrário do que ocorre sob a pupunha. Nessa cultura, a densidade de esporos foi maior sob sistema agroflorestal no período seco. A colonização micorrízica na pupunha apresenta dois padrões anatômicos, Paris e Arum, enquanto no cupuaçu ocorre o padrão Arum.The objective of this work was to evaluate the arbuscular mycorrhizal colonization in peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth and cupuaçu (Theobroma grandiflorum (Willd ex Spring K. Schum, in agroforestry systems and monoculture in the Central Amazon region, and to identify anatomic characteristics of mycorrhizal colonization in these species. Soil and root samples were collected in the field, in the dry and rainy season. Mycorrhizal root colonization of cupuaçu and peach palm is affected by the management systems, with higher colonization rates in the monoculture system. Total spore density of the arbuscular mycorrhizal fungi under cupuaçu is not affected by management systems or season, but under peach palm this variation is season dependent. Mycorrhizal colonization of Arum and Paris types occur in peach palm, and only Arum type occurs in cupuaçu.

  13. Comportamiento de paneles de bambú guadua laminado ante cargas paralelas al plano The structural behaviour of laminated-guadua panels under parallel plane loads

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    Takeuchi Tam Caori Patricia

    2012-08-01

    Full Text Available

    Como un primer paso en el estudio del comportamiento ante cargas sísmicas de pórticos de bambú guadua laminados con paneles del mismo material, el Grupo de Investigación “Análisis, Diseño y Materiales, GIES”, de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia, ensayó dos tipos de paneles elaborados con bambú Guadua angustifolia Kunth y poli (vinil acetato, PVA: los paneles tipo 1 de sección transversal maciza y los paneles tipo 2 de sección transversal tipo sándwich.
    Se consideraron tres alturas para cada tipo de panel y se ensayaron diez réplicas por altura y por tipo, para un total de sesenta ensayos.
    Para cada uno de los paneles ensayados se realizó una curva carga-desplazamiento. Los paneles tipo 1, con altura de 0,34 m y 0,63 m, mostraron un comportamiento elástico inicial seguido de un comportamiento inelástico, mientras que los paneles tipo 1 y 2 de 0,98 m de altura revelaron un comportamiento casi totalmente elástico hasta la falla. Todos los paneles sufrieron aplastamiento en la base; sin embargo, el principal mecanismo de falla fue el alabeo.
    The Universidad Nacional de Colombia "Analysis, Design and Materials - GIES" research group tested two types of panels made from Guadua angustifolia Kunth and poly vinyl acetate (PVA as a first step in studying the behaviour of laminated guadua frames having panels of the same material under seismic load: type 1 panels had a solid cross-section and type 2 panels a sandwich cross-section.
    Each type of panel had three different heights and 10 replicates were tested for each type and height (60 trials in total.
    Each panel’s load compared to displacement curve was found; 0.34m and 0.63m type1 panels had initial elastic behaviour followed by inelastic behaviour while 0.98 m panels made of both types had an almost completely elastic behaviour until failure. All panels became crushed at their base; however, the main failure mechanism was

  14. Whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on wild and cultivated plants in the horticultural region of Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina Especies de moscas blancas (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae sobre plantas silvestres y cultivadas en la región hortícola de Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina

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    Gustavo G. Gonsebatt

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Whiteflies of economic importance are polyphagous, being able to develop on a large number of cultivated and spontaneous plants. We recorded the whitefly species on vegetable and flower crops and the wild plants associated, under greenhouse and field conditions, for two years. We observed two species: Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood and the Bemisia tabaci complex (Gennadius. T vaporariorum was recorded on 24 plant species (11 families, 12 and 8 of which are new hosts in Argentina and in the world, respectively. The B. tabaci complex was recorded only on flower production systems, on 19 plant species (11 families, 14 and 7 of which are new hosts in Argentina and in the world, respectively. The crops Glycine max (L. and Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., the wild species Amaranthus blitum L., Amaranthus quitensis Kunth, Conyza bonariensis (L., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Sonchus oleraceus L. and Wedelia glauca (Ortega O. Hoffm. ex Hicken were hosts of both species. The only parasitoid recorded was Eretmocerus californicus near corni Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae from T. vaporariorum. This study, which is the first systematic survey of host plants in the region, intends to provide a better knowledge of the range of whiteflies host plants in Argentina.Las moscas blancas de importancia económica son polífagas y capaces de desarrollarse sobre numerosas plantas cultivadas y espontáneas. Registramos las especies de moscas blancas sobre cultivos hortícolas y de flores, y sobre las plantas silvestres asociadas. Observamos dos especies: Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood y el complejo Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius. T. vaporariorum fue registrada sobre 24 especies de plantas (11 familias, 12 y 8 de las cuales son hospedantes nuevos para Argentina y a nivel mundial, respectivamente. El complejo B. tabaci fue registrado solo en sistemas de producción de flores, sobre 19 especies de plantas (11 familias, 14 y 7 de las cuales son nuevos hospedantes para

  15. Ocorrência de plantas aquáticas nos reservatórios da Light-RJ Ocurrence of aquatic plants in the Light-RJ reservoirs

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    D. Martins

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo do presente trabalho foi caracterizar as comunidades infestantes de plantas aquáticas presentes nos reservatórios da Light-Sistema de Eletricidade S.A., localizada no município de Piraí-RJ. Os levantamentos foram realizados no período de julho a setembro de 1998. Os reservatórios analisados foram: Vigário, Pereira Passos e Lajes, sendo as quantidades de pontos amostrados de 19, 9 e 15, respectivamente. Em cada ponto amostrado fez-se a marcação das coordenadas geográficas e avaliou-se a porcentagem de ocupação do corpo d'água pelas espécies de plantas aquáticas presentes. Depois da identificação das plantas, pôde-se verificar quais eram as espécies mais freqüentes e a sua distribuição dentro do sistema de geração de energia. As espécies encontradas nos reservatórios foram: Brachiaria arrecta (Hack. Stent.; Egeria densa Planch.; Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth.; Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms.; Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Rudge Nees.; Panicum rivulare Trin.; Pistia stratiotis L.; Polygonum spp.; Sagitaria montevidensis Cham. & Schlecht; Salvinia auriculata (Micheli Adans; e Thypha dominguensis L.This study aimed to describe the aquatic weeds infesting the Light-Electric System S.A. reservoirs, located in Pirai-RJ, Brazil. The survey was carried out from July to September 1998. The reservoirs analyzed were: Vigario, Pereira Passos and Lajes, with 19, 9 and 15 points being sampled, respectively. Sampled geographic coordinates were marked in each point and a visual estimate was made of the percentage of river water occupied by the aquatic plants. After plant identification, the most frequent species and their distribution were determined as follows: Brachiaria arrecta (Hack. Stent.; Egeria densa Planch.; Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth.; Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms.; Hymenachne amplexicaulis (Rudge Nees.; Panicum rivulare Trin.; Pistia stratiotis L.; Polygonum spp.; Sagitaria montevidensis Cham.& Schlecht

  16. Palynotaxonomy of Brazilian Viguiera (Asteraceae Species Palinotaxonomia de espécies brasileiras de Viguiera (Asteraceae-Heliantheae

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    Mara Angelina Galvão Magenta

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available With the aim of improving inter-specific delimitation of the genus Viguiera Kunth in Brazil, a palynological analysis was undertaken with 27 taxa, representing around 77% of all occurring species. Samples were obtained from herbarium specimens and the pollen grains were analyzed through light and scanning electron microscopy. Characteristics, including the shape of the pollen grains, polar and equatorial diameter, aperture measurements, surface ornamentation and exine thickness, were registered and compared. The pollen grains were medium-sized (25 - 50 mm, isopolar and oblate spheroidal (prolate spheroidal in V. aspilioides Baker. The observed values corroborated the synonymity of some species and also highlighted certain micro-morphological differences, such as polar diameter and the dimensions of the colpus and endoaperture, thus confirming the groups of species delimitation obtained by morphologic and phylogenetic analyses.Com a finalidade de obter subsídios para a delimitação interespecífica do gênero Viguiera Kunth no Brasil, foi efetuado um estudo palinológico com 27 táxons, representando cerca de 77% das espécies ocorrentes. As amostras foram obtidas de material herborizado e o grão de pólen foi analisado sob microscopias óptica e eletrônica de varredura. Os grãos de pólen foram caracterizados quanto à forma, às dimensões e tipo da abertura, à ornamentação da superfície e à espessura da exina. Os grãos de pólen são médios (25 - 50mm, isopolares, oblato-esferoidais (prolato-esferoidais em V. aspilioides Baker, tricolporados, endoabertura lalongada, sexina espinhosa. Os valores obtidos corroboraram a sinonimização de algumas espécies e diferenças micro-morfológicas, tais como os valores do diâmetro polar, as dimensões do colpo e da endoabertura confirmaram algumas delimitações de grupos de espécies obtidas em análises filogenéticas de morfologia.

  17. Morphometry and retention time as forcing functions to establishment and maintenance of aquatic macrophytes in a tropical reservoir.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cunha-Santino, M B; Fushita, A T; Peret, A C; Bianchini-Junior, I

    2016-05-03

    Macrophytes may constitute an important resource for several chemical, physical and biological processes within aquatic ecosystems. This study considers that in tropical reservoirs with low retention time and with low values of shoreline development (DL), the expansion and persistence of aquatic macrophytes are mainly reported to local conditions (e.g., hydrodynamic and wind exposure) rather than trophic status and depth of the euphotic zone. In this context, this study aimed at describing and comparing the incidence of aquatic macrophytes in a throughflowing, non-dendritic tropical reservoir. During February 2006 to November 2007, eight limnological surveys were performed quarterly within the Ourinhos Reservoir, and in the mouth areas of its tributaries. At the six sampling stations 30 variables were measured. The number of sites with plants varied between 21 and 38 and at the end of the 1st year the total richness was found. The sampling survey outcome the recognition of 18 species of aquatic macrophytes; Cyperaceae (2 genera and 1 species), Pontederiaceae (3 species) and Onarograceae (3 genera) were the families with higher diversity. Seven species (Typha domingensis Pers., Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell.) Verdec, Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth, Eleocharis sp1, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart.) Solms, Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp. & Kunth) Lye) always were present and were more frequent in the sites. The occurrence of emergent species predominated (45.9%), followed by submersed rooted (24.5%), free floating (19.5%), floating rooted (9.7%) and free submersed (0.3%). Although limnological variables and the distribution of macrophytes have discriminated the same sampling points, the stepwise multiple linear regressions did not pointed out strong correspondences (or coherence) among the most constant and distributed macrophyte species and the selected limnological variables, as well the trophic statuses. Seeing the low relationship among limnological

  18. Morphometry and retention time as forcing functions to establishment and maintenance of aquatic macrophytes in a tropical reservoir

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    M. B. Cunha-Santino

    Full Text Available Abstract Macrophytes may constitute an important resource for several chemical, physical and biological processes within aquatic ecosystems. This study considers that in tropical reservoirs with low retention time and with low values of shoreline development (DL, the expansion and persistence of aquatic macrophytes are mainly reported to local conditions (e.g., hydrodynamic and wind exposure rather than trophic status and depth of the euphotic zone. In this context, this study aimed at describing and comparing the incidence of aquatic macrophytes in a throughflowing, non-dendritic tropical reservoir. During February 2006 to November 2007, eight limnological surveys were performed quarterly within the Ourinhos Reservoir, and in the mouth areas of its tributaries. At the six sampling stations 30 variables were measured. The number of sites with plants varied between 21 and 38 and at the end of the 1st year the total richness was found. The sampling survey outcome the recognition of 18 species of aquatic macrophytes; Cyperaceae (2 genera and 1 species, Pontederiaceae (3 species and Onarograceae (3 genera were the families with higher diversity. Seven species (Typha domingensis Pers., Myriophyllum aquaticum (Vell. Verdec, Salvinia auriculata Aubl., Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth, Eleocharis sp1, Eichhornia crassipes (Mart. Solms, Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp. & Kunth Lye always were present and were more frequent in the sites. The occurrence of emergent species predominated (45.9%, followed by submersed rooted (24.5%, free floating (19.5%, floating rooted (9.7% and free submersed (0.3%. Although limnological variables and the distribution of macrophytes have discriminated the same sampling points, the stepwise multiple linear regressions did not pointed out strong correspondences (or coherence among the most constant and distributed macrophyte species and the selected limnological variables, as well the trophic statuses. Seeing the low relationship among

  19. Sinopse das espécies de Croton L. (Euphorbiaceae no estado de Pernambuco, Brasil Synopsis of the species of Croton L. (Euphorbiaceae in Pernambuco state, Brazil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Juliana Santos Silva

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available Este estudo foi baseado na análise de materiais de herbário, referências bibliográficas e coletas, revelando a ocorrência de 35 espécies do gênero Croton para o estado de Pernambuco. A maior parte destas espécies tem distribuição exclusiva na zona fitogeográfica das Caatingas; Croton fuscescens Spreng., C. grewioides Baill. e C. blanchetianus Baill. estendem-se da zona da Mata até a zona das Caatingas; C. polyandrus Spreng. e C. sellowii Baill. ocorrem principalmente na faixa litorânea, em vegetação de restinga; C. argenteus L., C. jacobinensis Baill. e C. triqueter Lam. foram observados apenas na zona da Mata, e C. glandulosus L., C. heliotropiifolius Kunth, C. hirtus L' Her. e C. lundianus (Didr. Müll. Arg. apresentam ampla distribuição no Estado. São apresentadas chave de identificação, comentários sobre distribuição geográfica e habitats, juntamente com ilustrações de características diagnósticas das espécies.This study was based on the analysis of herbarium material, specialized bibliography and field collections, recording the occurrence of 35 species of the genus Croton for the state of Pernambuco. Most of these species are distributed exclusively in the Caatinga phytogeographic region; Croton fuscescens Spreng., C. grewioides Baill. and C. blanchetianus Baill. are found from the forest zone to the caatinga zone; C. polyandrus Spreng. and C. sellowii Baill. occur mainly along the coast, in restinga vegetation; C. argenteus L., C. jacobinensis Baill. and C. triqueter Lam. were observed only in the forest zone, and C. glandulosus L., C. heliotropiifolius Kunth, C. hirtus L' Her. and C. lundianus (Didr. Müll. Arg. are widely distributed. Identification keys, comments on geographic distribution and habitats and illustrations of diagnostic characteristics of the species are provided.

  20. The seroprevalence of avipoxvirus and its association with avian malaria (Plasmodium spp.) infection in introduced passerine birds in the southern regions of the North Island of New Zealand.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, H J; Banda, M; Alley, M R; Howe, L; Gartrell, B D

    2013-03-01

    Blood samples were collected from 65 free-ranging birds from six species in the southern North Island of New Zealand. Sera from the birds were tested for the presence of avipoxvirus (APV) antibodies by enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay (ELISA), and blood cells from 55 birds were also tested for Plasmodium spp. by PCR. Forty-five birds (69.2%) tested seropositive to APV. Song thrushes (Turdus philomelos) presented the highest seroprevalence at 100% (4/4), followed by Eurasian blackbirds (Turdus merula) (96.86%, 31/32), chaffinches (Fringilla coelebs) (54.55%, 6/11), starlings (Sturnus vulgaris) (25%, 3/12), greenfinches (Carduelis chloris) (25%, 1/4), and European goldfinches (Carduelis carduelis) (0%, 0/2). Plasmodium spp. DNA was detected in 15/55 birds (27.3%), including 11 Eurasian blackbirds, one song thrush, and three starlings. Eight Eurasian blackbird isolates (73%) grouped within the subgenus Novyella. Two Eurasian blackbird isolates and the song thrush isolate clustered within a different group with previously reported lineages LINN1 and AFTRU5. In addition, all three starling isolates clustered within the well-characterized lineage Plasmodium (Huffia) elongatum GRW06. All Plasmodium-positive Eurasian blackbirds and the song thrush were seropositive to APV, whereas only 67% of Plasmodium-positive starlings showed evidence of previous exposure to APV. A significant relationship between birds seropositive to APV and birds infected by Plasmodium spp. was observed (chi2 = 5.69, df = 1, P = 0.0086). To the authors' knowledge this is the first report describing the seroprevalence of APV and its association with Plasmodium spp. infection in introduced bird species in New Zealand.

  1. 引入新西兰的欧金翅雀的拒卵行为及其窝卵特征%Egg rejection behavior and clutch characteristics of the European Greenfinch introduced to New Zealand

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Peter SAMA(S); Lenka POLA(C)IKOV(A); Mark E.HAUBER; Phillip CASSEY; Tomá(s) GRIM

    2012-01-01

    那些有着确切的引入历史记录的鸟类种群,为研究生态环境的快速变化对其行为(例如对巢寄生的反应)和生活史特征(例如窝卵数和卵参数)的影响,提供了一个难得的机遇.我们比较了欧金翅雀(Carduelis chloris)在其原产地英国和引入新西兰的种群对外来卵的拒卵行为及其窝卵特征.尽管以往研究认为欧金翅雀不是大杜鹃的合适宿主,因而没有受到杜鹃寄生的选择压力,但我们却发现引入种群的欧金翅雀有拒卵行为(尽管拒卵比例较低).欧金翅雀在原产地和引入地的弃巢比例没有差异,因此弃巢不是欧金翅雀应对巢寄生的策略.与以往研究不同,两地的窝卵数和卵大小没有显著差异.本文强调了在巢寄生实验中注意控制对照实验组的重要性.

  2. Variations in Growth, Photosynthesis and Defense System Among Four Weed Species Under Increased UV-B Radiation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Shiwen Wang; Liusheng Duan; Anthony Egrinya Eneji; Zhaohu Li

    2007-01-01

    Weed tolerance of UV-B radiation varies with species, and the radiation could affect weed ecology and management.Variations in growth, photosynthesis and defense system among four important agronomic weeds, Abutilon theophrasti Medik, Amaranthus retroflexus L., Digitaria sangulnalis (L.) Scop and Chloris virgata Swartz, under increased UV-B radiation (ambient and increased radiation at 2.7, 5.4 and 10.8 kJ·m-2·d-1) were studied in the greenhouse experiment. After 2 weeks of radiation, the shoots' dry mass decreased with increasing UV-B radiation except for D. sanguinalis. The reduction in biomass was the result of changes in morphology and physiology.Higher levels of UV-B treatment decreased the leaf area, plant height, net photosynthetic rate and chlorophyll contents, while it increased the contents of wax and UV-B absorbing compound in all species, except for A. retroflexus,which did not increase significantly. The activity of superoxide dismutase, catalase, ascorbate peroxide and the content of ascorbic acid changed differently among the weed species as UV-B radiation increased. D. sanguinalis was the most tolerant and A. retroflexus the most sensitive to increased UV-B radiation. The results also show that the two grass species (D. sanguinalis and C. virgata) were more tolerant to UV-B radiation than the two broadleafed species (A. theophrasti and A. retroflexus). The UV-B absorbing compound and leaf wax played important roles against UV-B damages in the two grass weeds. The overall results suggest that weed community, competition and management will be altered by continuous ozone depletion.

  3. Quantifying Direct and Indirect Effects of Elevated CO2 on Ecosystem Response

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fatichi, S.; Leuzinger, S.; Paschalis, A.; Donnellan-Barraclough, A.; Hovenden, M. J.; Langley, J. A.

    2015-12-01

    Increasing concentrations of atmospheric carbon dioxide are expected to affect carbon assimilation, evapotranspiration (ET) and ultimately plant growth. Direct leaf biochemical effects have been widely investigated, while indirect effects, although documented, are very difficult to quantify in experiments. We hypothesize that the interaction of direct and indirect effects is a possible reason for conflicting results concerning the magnitude of CO2 fertilization effects across different climates and ecosystems. A mechanistic ecohydrological model (Tethys-Chloris) is used to investigate the relative contribution of direct (through plant physiology) and indirect (via stomatal closure and thus soil moisture, and changes in Leaf Area Index, LAI) effects of elevated CO2 across a number of ecosystems. We specifically ask in which ecosystems and climate indirect effects are expected to be largest. Data and boundary conditions from flux-towers and free air CO2 enrichment (FACE) experiments are used to force the model and evaluate its performance. Numerical results suggest that indirect effects of elevated CO2, through water savings and increased LAI, are very significant and sometimes larger than direct effects. Indirect effects tend to be considerably larger in water-limited ecosystems, while direct effects correlate positively with mean air temperature. Increasing CO2 from 375 to 550 ppm causes a total effect on Net Primary Production in the order of 15 to 40% and on ET from 0 to -8%, depending on climate and ecosystem type. The total CO2 effect has a significant negative correlation with the wetness index and positive correlation with vapor pressure deficit. These results provide a more general mechanistic understanding of relatively short-term (less than 20 years) implications of elevated CO2 on ecosystem response and suggest plausible magnitudes for the expected changes.

  4. The carotenoid-continuum: carotenoid-based plumage ranges from conspicuous to cryptic and back again

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Roberts Mark L

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Carotenoids are frequently used by birds to colour their plumage with green, yellow, orange or red hues, and carotenoid-based colours are considered honest signals of quality, although they may have other functions, such as crypsis. It is usually assumed that red through yellow colours have a signalling function while green is cryptic. Here we challenge this notion using the yellow and green colouration of blue tits (Cyanistes caeruleus, great tits (Parus major and greenfinches (Carduelis chloris as a model. Results The relationship between colouration (chroma, computed using visual sensitivities of conspecifics and detectability (contrast against natural backgrounds as perceived by conspecifics and avian predators followed a similar curvilinear pattern for yellow and green plumage with minimum detectability at intermediate levels of carotenoid deposition. Thus, for yellow and green plumage, colours at or close to the point of minimum detectability may aid in crypsis. This may be the case for blue and great tit green and yellow plumage, and greenfinch green plumage, all of which had comparably low levels of detectability, while greenfinch yellow plumage was more chromatic and detectable. As yellow and green blue tit colouration are strongly affected by carotenoid availability during moult, variation in pigment availability between habitats may affect the degree of background-matching or the costliness of producing cryptic plumage. Conclusions Increasing carotenoid-deposition in the integument does not always lead to more conspicuous colours. In some cases, such as in blue or great tits, carotenoid deposition may be selected through enhanced background-matching, which in turn suggests that producing cryptic plumage may entail costs. We stress however, that our data do not rule out a signalling function of carotenoid-based plumage in tits. Rather, it shows that alternative functions are plausible and that assuming a signalling

  5. Non-target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T; Alcantara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo E; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M; Travlos, Ilias; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha(-1) for exposed (E) and un-exposed (UE) glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of (14)C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE), while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica, and Lolium rigidum.

  6. Non-target Site Tolerance Mechanisms Describe Tolerance to Glyphosate in Avena sterilis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández-Moreno, Pablo T.; Alcantara-de la Cruz, Ricardo; Cruz-Hipólito, Hugo E.; Rojano-Delgado, Antonia M.; Travlos, Ilias; De Prado, Rafael

    2016-01-01

    Sterile wild oat (Avena sterilis L.) is an autogamous grass established in warm climate regions. This species has been used as a cover crop in Mediterranean perennial crops during the spring period prior to initiating competition with the main crop for water and nutrients. However, such cover crops need to be controlled (by glyphosate or tillage) before the beginning of summer period (due to the possibility of intense drought stress). In 2011, the olive grove farmers of southern Spain expressed dissatisfaction because of the ineffective control with glyphosate on A. sterilis. Experiments were conducted to determine whether the continued use of glyphosate over a 5 year period had selected a new resistant or tolerant species. The GR50 values obtained for A. sterilis were 297.12 and 245.23 g ae ha−1 for exposed (E) and un-exposed (UE) glyphosate accessions, respectively. The spray retention and shikimic acid accumulation exhibited a non-significant difference between the two accessions. The results of 14C- glyphosate absorption was the same in the two accessions (E and UE), while the translocation from the treated leaf to the rest of the shoots and roots was similar in A. sterilis accessions. Glyphosate metabolism to aminomethylphosphonic acid (AMPA) and glyoxylate was similar in both accessions, but increased after treatment with glyphosate, indicating that metabolism plays an important role in tolerance. Both A. sterilis accessions, present similarity in the 5-enolpyruvylshikimate-3-phosphate synthase (EPSPS) activity enzyme with different glyphosate concentrations and without glyphosate, confirming that both accessions present the same genomic characteristics. The above-mentioned results indicate that innate tolerance to glyphosate in A. sterilis is probably and partly due to reduced herbicide absorption and translocation and metabolism compared to the susceptibility of other grasses weeds like Chloris inflata, Eleusine indica, and Lolium rigidum. PMID:27570531

  7. Cllnical analysis on 80 cases with hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage compllcating upper digestive tract hemorrhage

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yang Y1chao; Wang Jian; Ye Bin; Li Honghong

    2000-01-01

    Objective: To irrvestigate the treatment and prognosis of the hypertensive cerebral hemorrhage (HCH)With upper dgest tract hemorrhage (UDDIH). Scence:I a surey of 760 cases randomely with HCH in nerve department betweem Jaruarry 1995 and October 1999, including 80 cases wuth UDTH (9.5%). Of the 80 cases 55 were males and25 were fenales, mean age of 60.2 years andrange of 45 to 80 years. Methods:To analyze the clinical materials of 80 cases with HCH complicating UDTH and HCH without UDTH for the same time. Results: Of the 80 cases 52 were cled during the treatment, death rate was 65%, but the death rate of cases without UDTH was 30.2% at the sane time. The death rate of HCH complicating UDTH was significantly ligher than that without UDTH Discussion The nosogeny of HCH complicating UDTH was more likely related to thalanic and brain-stem Lew is thought that thalemric and brain-stem were stimulated to secret CRF and made pituitany gland release ACTH, futhet secret advencortirn These factors gave rise to UDTH by incriesed to secretion of gastic acid Therefore, original ciseases wre Primarily be predcted and treated Patients with intracranial lypenrtension should be inmediately treated by using manniol or glyceric co, and antiacid, anticholinergic drugs. If all kinds of methods shouldn′t control UDTH, thrombin and noradrenaline bitarlrate with cold Natrii Chlori de would be giwn by nostril There have bettertherapeutic efficiency. Conclusion: HCH with UDTH belongs to severe cases, death rates are higher, original diseases and complication should be actively treated

  8. Effects of salinity and desalination on seed germination of six annual weed species

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LI Xue-hua; JIANG De-ming; LI Xiao-lan; ZHOU Quan-lai

    2011-01-01

    The effects of various salinities and desalination on seed ger- mination of six annual glycophytes (Artemisia sieversiana, J. Scoparia, Chloris virgata, Eragrostis pilosa, Chenopodium acuminatum and Chenopodium glaucum) were studied in Horqin Sandy Land, Inner Mon- golia, China. NaCl solutions of five concentrations (0 mM, as the control, and 50, 100, 200 and 300 mM) were used for saline stress and desalina- tion treatments. Increasing salinity significantly reduced germination percentages of A. Sieversiana, A. Scoparia, Ch.virgata and Ch. Acumi- nature, but had no effect on the germination percentages of E. Pilosa. Lower salinity levels (50 mM) significantly increased germination per- centage of Ch. Glaucum. High salinity might be a precondition for germi- nation after desalination for five of the six species, excepting E. Pilosa at NaCl concentration of 300 mM in comparison with non-primed seeds. Higher salinity (>200 mM) led to some specific ion toxicity and reduced seed viability of A. Sieversiana. No specific ion toxicity but an osmotic effect limited the germination of other five species was observed The final germination percentages (salinity stress and desalination) of the six species showed three variations in comparison with the controls, namely, indiscrimination, stimulation, and reduction. Germination responses to salinity and desalination suggested that the six species were separated into three categories. Three species (A. Sieversiana, Ch. Virgata and Ch. Acuminatum) showed similar germination responses to salinity with those of halophyte, but also showed a lower tolerance limit than most halo- phytes, although this was not always the case. A. Scoparia and Ch. Glau- cure exhibited some 'salt stimulation' in seed germination percentages after desalination, whereas E. Pilosa did not show any obvious response to salinity. Therefore, salinity usually induces dormancy of seeds with strong germination capacity in fresh water, but has few, or even positive

  9. [Effects of highway on the vegetation species composition along a distance gradient from road edge in southeastern margin of Tengeer Desert].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Li; Li, Xin-Rong; Guo, Qun; Zhang, Jing-Guang; Zhang, Zhi-Shan

    2011-05-01

    Aimed to examine the effects of highway on the vegetation species composition in arid desert area, forty-eight transects perpendicular to the provincial highway 201 from Shapotou to Jing-tai in the southeastern margin of Tengger Desert were installed, with the vegetation species distribution along a distance gradient from the road edge investigated. The results showed that with increasing distance from the road edge, the species number, coverage, biomass, and alpha-diversity of herbaceous plants declined, but had no significant differences with the control beyond 5 m. Within 0-6 m to the road edge, the herbaceous plant height was greater than that of the control, but their density had less change. Within 0-2 m to the road edge, the species turnover rate of herbaceous plants was lower; at 2-5m, this rate was the highest; while beyond 10 m, the species composition of herbaceous plants was similar to that of the control. The herbaceous plant community at the road edge was dominated by gramineous plants, with the disturbance-tolerant species Pennisetum centrasiaticum, Chloris virgata, and Agropyron cristatum accounting for 68.6% of the total. C. virgata beyond 1 m to the road edge had a rapid decrease in its individual number and presence frequency, P. centrasiaticum and A. cristatum beyond 2 m also showed a similar trend, while the composite plants Artemisia capillaris and A. frigida beyond 2 m from the road edge had a rapid increase in its individual number, accounting for 70% of the herbaceous plants. At the road edge, the coverage and density of shrubs were significantly lower than those of the control, but the species composition had no significant difference.

  10. Repellency, toxicity, and oviposition inhibition of vegetable extracts against greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Edgar Eduardo Mendoza-Garcia

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available In a search for sustainable options of greenhouse whitefly Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood management, the toxic and/or repellent potential of water, ethanolic, and acetonic extracts of Ambrosia artemisiifolia L. (Asteraceae, Comocladia engleriana Loes (Anacardiaceae, Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae, Raphanus raphanistrum L. (Brassicaceae, and Taraxacum officinale F.H. Wigg. aggr.* (Asteraceae were evaluated. Repellency was assessed by the cylinder method (olfactometer, while toxicity and oviposition inhibition were assessed by the leaf immersion method. Acetonic extracts did not cause any repellent or insecticidal effect. In contrast, 200 mg mL-1 water and ethanolic extracts of R. raphanistrum and ethanolic extract of A. artemisiifolia had the highest repellent activity (76%, 72%, and 69%, respectively although their activity decreased gradually over time. Ethanolic extracts of P. auritum (66% and R. raphanistrum (56% at 200 mg mL¹ were highlighted as being toxic, while the most effective in inhibiting oviposition were water extracts of R. raphanistrum (76.1% and P. auritum (72.0% and ethanolic extract of P. auritum (69.5%; however, concentrations lower than 60 mg mL-1 caused oviposition stimulation. Our results suggest that water and ethanolic extracts of R. raphanistrum and P. auritum represent a useful tool in integrated whitefly management.

  11. Análisis numérico de las especies de Prosopis L. (Fabaceae de las costas de Perú y Ecuador

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alicia D. Burghardt

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Diferentes revisiones coinciden en señalar 2 o 3 especies de Prosopis para el sur de Ecuador y norte de Perú: P. juliflora (SW DC, P. pallida (Humb. et Bonpl. ex Willd. Kunth y P. affinis Sprengel. En el presente trabajo se informa del análisis cuantitativo de caracteres foliares de especímenes del genero Prosopis, recolectados a lo largo de la costa desde Arequipa (Perú a Manta (Ecuador. Los resultados señalan tres grupos bien definidos. Del análisis comparativo de los tipos y ejemplares de herbario de todas las especies y sinónimos citados para la zona de estudio surge que los taxones existentes son: P. pallida, P. limensis Bentham, ambos de amplia distribución, y P. chilensis (Molina Stuntz emend Burkart restringido al valle del río Camaná. Estos tres taxones se corresponden con los tres grupos obtenidos del análisis numérico. Debe señalarse la exclusión del área de P. juliflora y P. affinis. Se sugiere no utilizar las numerosas variedades señaladas para P. pallida.

  12. RAPD and microsatellite transferability studies in selected species of Prosopis (section Algarobia) with emphasis on Prosopis juliflora and P. pallida

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Minu Sherry; Steve Smith; Ashok Patel; Phil Harris; Paul Hand; Liz Trenchard; Janey Henderson

    2011-08-01

    The genus Prosopis (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae), comprises 44 species widely distributed in arid and semi-arid zones. Prosopis pallida (Humb. & Bonpl. ex Willd.) Kunth and P. juliflora (Sw.) DC. are the two species that are truly tropical apart from P. africana, which is native to tropical Africa (Pasiecznik et al. 2004), and they have been introduced widely beyond their native ranges. However, taxonomic confusion within the genus has hampered exploitation and better management of the species. The present study focusses primarily on evaluating the genetic relationship between Prosopis species from the section Algarobia, containing most species of economic importance, though P. tamarugo from section Strombocarpa is also included for comparison. In total, 12 Prosopis species and a putative P. pallida × P. chilensis hybrid were assessed for their genetic relationships based on RAPD markers and microsatellite transferability. The results show that P. pallida and P. juliflora are not closely related despite some morphological similarity. Evidence also agrees with previous studies which suggest that the grouping of series in section Algarobia is artificial.

  13. Morphogenetic characteristics and demographic patterns of tillers on andropogon grass under different forage allowances

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Louçana da Costa Araújo

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to evaluate the morphogenetic and structural characteristics and the demographic patterns of tillering in the grass Andropogon gayanus Kunth var. Bisquamulatus (Hochst Hack. cv. Planaltina subjected to three forage allowances: 11, 15 and 19% of the LW, under continuous grazing by goats. The experimental design for the evaluation of the pasture morphogenetic characteristics was set in (two random blocks, with six replications (tussocks within the block. To evaluate the tillering dynamics and population density, we adopted the experimental design of (two random blocks, in a split-plot arrangement. In the plots, we evaluated the effect of forage allowances and in the subplots, the months of April, May and June. Forage allowances did not affect the leaf elongation rate, leaf senescence or the number of live leaves. The leaf appearance rate was highest at the masses of 11 and 15% of the LW. Managing the pasture with a forage allowance of 19% of the LW increases the stem elongation rate, leaf lifespan and the lengths of leaf and stem. The number of vegetative tillers and the tiller appearance and survival rates are not affected by the forage allowances from 11 to 19% of the LW.

  14. Application of wood chips for soil mulching in the cultivation of ornamental grasses

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henschke Monika

    2016-12-01

    Full Text Available A mulch is a layer of material applied to the surface of the soil. Mulching plays an important role in the maintenance of green spaces. Organic materials are still sought for the preparation of mulches. Recently interest in wood chips has grown. The aim of the study was to determine the effect of mulching with pine and birch chips on the contents of phenolic compounds in the soil, as well as on the growth and flowering of ornamental grasses – Bouteloua gracilis (Kunth. Lag. ex Griffiths, Panicum virgatum L. and Pennisetum alopecuroides L. The content of phenolic compounds in the soil steadily increased from spring to autumn. Mulching led to a substantial increase in the level of phenolic compounds. In the first year of cultivation more phenolic compounds were released by chips of pine than birch, while in the second year this difference did not occur. Mulching had a negative impact on the growth and flowering of ornamental grasses, especially in the first year of cultivation. Ornamental grass sensitivity to the substances released from mulches decreased with the age of the plants and was dependent on the species – Bouteloua gracilis was found to be particularly sensitive.

  15. STRUKTUR KOMUNITAS TANAMAN BAWAH, DAN JENIS-JENIS YANG BERMANFAAT SEBAGAI TANAMAN OBAT DI KAWAASAN HUTAN LINDUNG KALIURANG

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SUTOMO SUTOMO

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT Low layer plants as one of component in forest ecosystem today still lack of attention due to the limited information about them. Low layer plants plays an important role in forest ecosystem, and also they are potential to be use as a medicinal plants, genetic resources and other uses that are not yet revealed. For that reason reseach about Low Layer Plants ; Community Structure and Their Use as Medicinal Plants need to be conducted. The objective of this research was to get the information about : (1 Community structure of low layer plants in compartment seven Kaliurang protection forest and (2 Species that are use as a medicinal pants. To fulfill this goal, small plots of 1 x 1 m along forest pathways were made in sampling area. Result showed that as many as 47 species of low layer plants were found in sampling area. There were five main species which has high importance value index : Eupatorium riparium Regel. with importance value index 21,29%, followed by Eleusine indica Gaertn.17,82 % , Oplismenus burmanii Beauv. 14,61 %, Diplazium proliferum 14,04% and Panicum reptans Kunth. 11,27 %. From those 47 species, as many as 10 species are known as a medicinal plants, they are : Melastoma malabathricum L., Physalis angulata Heyne, ex. Wall., Ageratum conyzoides Linn., Elephantopus scaber Linn., Psidium guajava Linn., Justicia gendarussa Linn., Alocasia macrorhiza Schott., Eleusine indica Gaertn., Villebrunea rubescens Bl. and Phyllanthus niruri L.

  16. Centesimal composition and physical-chemistry analysis of the edible mushroom Lentinus strigosus occurring in the Brazilian Amazon.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sales-Campos, Ceci; Araujo, Lidia M; Minhoni, Marli T A; Andrade, Meire C N

    2013-01-01

    The centesimal composition and the physical and chemical analyses of Lentinus strigosus, an edible mushroom occurring in the Brazilian Amazon and produced in alternative substrates based on wood and agroindustrial residues, were evaluated. For this purpose, the C, N, pH, soluble solids, water activity, protein, lipids, total fiber, ash, carbohydrate, and energy levels were determined. The substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. ("marupá"), Ochroma piramidale Cav. Ex. Lam. ("pau-de-balsa") and Anacardium giganteum ("cajuí") sawdust and Bactris gasipaes Kunth ("pupunheira") stipe and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane bagasse). The results indicated that the nutritional composition of L. strigosus varied with the substrate of cultivation; the protein levels found in mushrooms grown in the different substrates (18-21.5%) varied with the substrate and was considered high; the soluble solids present in the mushrooms could have a relation with complex B hydrosoluble vitamins. L. strigosus could be considered as important food owing to its nutritional characteristics such as high protein content, metabolizable carbohydrates and fibers, and low lipids and calories content.

  17. Phylogenetic analysis and systematics of the Acrapex unicolora Hampson species complex (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Apameini, with the description of five new species from the Afrotropics

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    Bruno Le Ru

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available Ten morphologically similar species of Acrapex Hampson, 1891 (Lepidoptera, Noctuidae, Noctuinae, Apameini from Central and Eastern Africa are reviewed, including five new species: Acrapex kafula le Ru sp. nov., A. kavumba le Ru sp. nov., A. kiakouama le Ru sp. nov., A. miscantha le Ru sp. nov. and A. simillima le Ru sp. nov. Evidence is provided to transfer the monotypic genus Poecopa Bowden, 1956 to the genus Acrapex. Host plants of five species are recorded, some of them for the first time. Acrapex kavumba sp. nov., A. miscantha sp. nov. and A. simillima sp. nov. were found on one host plant each. Acrapex mediopuncta, previously reported in West Africa from Pennisetum purpureum Schumach., Rottboellia compressa L., Setaria megaphylla (Steud Dur. & Schinz. and Sorghum arundinaceum (Desv. Stapf, was only found from S. megaphylla in Central Africa. Larvae of Acrapex unicolora were collected on Andropogon gayanus Kunth, Chrysopogon zizanoides (L. Roberty, Cymbopogon schoenanthus subsp. proximus (Hochst. ex A.Rich. Maire & Weller, Cymbopogon pospischiilii (K.Schum. C.E.Hubb., Hyparrhenia diplandra (Hack. Stapf and Setaria sphacelata (Schumach. Moss. We also conducted molecular phylogenetic analyses (using maximum likelihood and molecular species delimitation analyses on a comprehensive sample of 61 specimens belonging to eight of the studied species. Molecular phylogenetic analyses provided additional evidence of the synonymy of Acrapex and Poecopa, whereas molecular species delimitation analyses support the validity of the five newly described species and unravel another potential new species, only collected in the larval stage.

  18. PRELIMINARY FLORA OF ORCHIDACEAE IN THE MUNICIPALITY OF ABAETETUBA, PARÁ, BRAZIL

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    Edgar Augusto Lobato Afonso

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available Orchidaceae is one of the largest plant families in the world with approximately 20,000 species, of which 2,462 Occur in Brazil and 421 in the Pará State. Despite this large number of species, many municipalities in the State have never been sampled floristically, among them is the municipality of Abaetetuba, located in the middle region northeast Pará. Thus, this work aimed to conduct the floristic and taxonomic preliminary study of the Orchidaceae species in the Abaetetuba, Pará, Brazil. Were conducted 41 field collections between January 2012 and May 2014. For collection and specimens herborization were followed usual techniques for vascular plants, and species identification were consulted specific bibliography and experts. For all species recorded are provided descriptions, taxonomic and ecological comments, information on geographical distribution in Brazil. In addition, it presents an identification key for the species Orchidaceae of Abaetetuba. In the municipality Orchidaceae is represented by 23 species belonging to 17 genera, being Epidendrum L. the more rich with three species. The most frequent species were Catasetum macrocarpum Rich. ex Kunth and Polystachya concreta (Jacq. Garay & H.R.Sweet. Except to Vanilla mexicana Mill. and V. palmarum (Salzm. ex Lindl. Lindl. classified as hemiepiphytes, all the other species were classified as holoepiphytes. Keywords: Eastern Amazon; Epiphytes, Orchids; Nort region.

  19. Antiviral activity of Ageratina havanensis and major chemical compounds from the most active fraction

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    Gloria del Barrio

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The antiviral activity of extracts obtained from Ageratina havanensis (Kunth R.M.King & H.Rob., Asteraceae, against rabbit vesivirus (RaV (Caliciviridae and human herpes simplex viruses type 1 and 2 (HSV-1, HSV-2 (Herpesviridae were analyzed, and the main metabolites from the most active extract were isolated and characterized. The antiviral properties were investigated by measuring the inhibition of viral-induced cytopathic effect in Vero cells. The strongest inhibitory effects were found for ethyl acetate extract from leaves (SI=5 for RaV and SI=5.4 for HSV-1. The crude ethyl acetate extract was further fractionated by chromatographic methods and the structures of isolated compounds were established through comprehensive spectroscopic analyses, including IR, 2D NMR and MS. Four flavonoids were identified: 5,4'-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (sakuranetin, 3,5,4'-trihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (7-methoxyaromadendrin, 4'-O-β-D-glucosyl-5,3'-dihydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (4'-O-β-D-glucosyl-7-methoxy-eriodictyol and 4'-O-β-D-glucosyl-5-hydroxy-7-methoxyflavanone (4'-O-β-D-glucosylsakuranetin. This is the first report on antiviral activity for Ageratina havanensis.

  20. Antimicrobial Activity of Lippia Species from the Brazilian Semiarid Region Traditionally Used as Antiseptic and Anti-Infective Agents

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    Cristiana da Purificação Pinto

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Lippia origanoides Kunth, Lippia alnifolia Schauer, and Lippia thymoides Martius and Schauer are shrubs used in the traditional Brazilian medicine as antiseptics, as well as in the treatment of infectious diseases. This study was designed to investigate the antibacterial and antifungal activities of the methanolic extracts of these species, as new potential sources of antimicrobial drugs. The antimicrobial activity of methanolic extracts was investigated against resistant yeasts and bacteria by agar disk diffusion. Then, the MIC determination of the most active species and its fractions in hexane, dichloromethane, ethyl acetate, and water was performed. By the agar diffusion assay, all species were active against at least two microorganisms, giving evidence to support their use in the popular medicine. L. origanoides leaves exhibited the widest antimicrobial action, inhibiting the growth of two Gram-positive bacteria and two yeasts; this activity was also confirmed by the MIC evaluation. The fractionation of L. origanoides crude extracts improved the activity in spectrum and intensity. The results obtained in this study indicate that L. origanoides may be a promising alternative in the treatment of bacterial and fungal infections and in the seeking of new antimicrobial drugs.

  1. Studies on the Biology of Hypogeococcus pungens (sensu stricto) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Argentina to Aid the Identification of the Mealybug Pest of Cactaceae in Puerto Rico.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, M B; Diaz-Soltero, H; Claps, L E; Saracho Bottero, A; Triapitsyn, S; Hasson, E; Logarzo, G A

    2016-01-01

    Hypogeococcus pungens Granara de Willink, sensu stricto, is a serious pest of cacti in Puerto Rico threating many Caribbean islands. A classical biological control program for H. pungens was initiated for Puerto Rico in 2010 with a survey for natural enemies of H. pungens in its native range of Argentina. Biological differences were observed between populations of H. pungens sampled on Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae. Molecular studies suggested that H. pungens populations from different host plant families are likely a complex of species. Our objective was to study the biology of H. pungens sensu stricto on specimens collected in the same locality and host plant as the holotype [Tucumán Province, Argentina; Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae)]. We were interested in the reproductive biology of females, longevity and survival of adults, the effect of temperature on the development, and nymph performance (survival and development) on five Cactaceae species. We found that H. pungens s.s showed marked biological differences from the populations collected on Cactaceae and exported to Australia for the biological control of the cactus Harrisia spp. The main differences were the presence of deuterotoky parthenogenesis and the fact that H. pungens did not attack Cactaceae in the laboratory. Our results provide biological evidence that H. pungens is a species complex. We propose that the population introduced to Australia is neither Hypogeococcus festerianus Lizer y Trelles nor H. pungens, but an undescribed species with three circuli, and that the Hypogeococcus pest of cacti in Puerto Rico is not H. pungens.

  2. Composition and anti-insect activity of essential oils from Tagetes L. species (Asteraceae, Helenieae) on Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann and Triatoma infestans Klug.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Sandra B; López, María L; Aragón, Liliana M; Tereschuk, María L; Slanis, Alberto C; Feresin, Gabriela E; Zygadlo, Julio A; Tapia, Alejandro A

    2011-05-25

    Essential oils from four species of the genus Tagetes L. (Asteraceae, Helenieae) collected in Tucumán province, Argentina, were evaluated for their chemical composition, toxicity, and olfactory activity on Mediterranean fruit fly Ceratitis capitata Wiedemann adults and for repellent properties on Triatoma infestans (Klug) (Chagas disease vector). Yields of essential oils range from 0.2 to 0.8% (v/w). The same main constituents among Tagetes minuta L., Tagestes rupestris Cabrera, and Tagetes terniflora Kunth, (cis-trans)-ocimenes, (cis-trans)-tagetones, and (cis-trans)-ocimenones showed important differences in their relative compositions. Tagetes filifolia Lag. was characterized by the recognized phenylpropanoids methylchavicol and trans-anethole as the main components. LD(50) was ≤20 μg/insect in topical bioassays. T. rupestris was the most toxic to C. capitata females, whereas the other oils presented similar toxicities against males and females. Tagetes rupestris oil attracted both sexes of C. capitata at 5 μg, whereas T. minuta showed opposite activities between males (attractant) and females (repellent). Oils from T. minuta and T. filifolia were the most repellent to T. infestans. The results suggest that compositions of essential oils influence their insecticidal and olfactory properties. The essential oils from Tagetes species show an important potential as infochemical agents on insects' behaviors. This study highlights the chemical variability of essential oils as a source of variation of anti-insect properties.

  3. Avaliação da atividade tóxica em Artemia salina e Biomphalaria glabrata de extratos de quatro espécies do gênero Eleocharis (Cyperaceae

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    A.L.T.G. Ruiz

    2005-06-01

    Full Text Available O gênero Eleocharis R. Br. compreende cerca de 200 espécies, ocorrendo em ambientes úmidos tais como brejos e margens de rios e lagos. Procurando novos agentes moluscicidas, os extratos de Eleocharis acutangula (Roxb. Schult., Eleocharis interstincta (Vahl Roem. & Schult., Eleocharis maculosa (Vahl Roem. & Schult. e Eleocharis sellowiana Kunth foram testados para atividade moluscicida, contra caramujos adultos e desovas, e toxicidade (ensaio de letalidade com Artemia salina. O extrato hexânico de Eleocharis acutangula (parte subterrânea fresca foi ativo contra Artemia salina (CL50 = 476,00 mg/mL, enquanto os demais extratos apresentaram CL50 >> 10³ mg/mL, sugerindo baixa toxicidade. O extrato hidro-etanólico de Eleocharis sellowiana (parte subterrânea fresca foi ativo contra desovas de Biomphalaria glabrata (CL50 = 24,27 mg/mL mas inativo contra indivíduos adultos. Os demais extratos testados não apresentaram atividade moluscicida.

  4. EVALUACIÓN DE LAS PROPIEDADES MECÁNICAS DE LA ESTRUCTURA INTERNA DE LA GUADUA CON UN MODELO MATEMATICO

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    JAIRO ALEXANDER OSORIO SARAZ

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available Se caracterizo la estructura interna del Bambú-Guadua angustifolia kunth (GAK, en su zona media, encontrando la composición interna de este material compuesto, como son el porcentaje de la matriz (parénquima y de fibras (células de fibras y tejido conductivo. Se determinó las propiedades mecánicas como la resistencia a tensión y a flexión en sentido tangencial, y la Relación de Poisson del material y la resistencia de la fibra. Se valido un modelo matemático para materiales compuestos propuesto por Chandrupatla & Belegundu (1999, y se encontraron algunas ecuaciones que permiten predecir la resistencia del material en función de la resistencia de la fibra, y también para realizar modelos computacionales útiles para la industria de laminados de pisos en Bambuguadua. Los resultados experimentales no difirieron significativamente de los resultados obtenidos con los modelos matemáticos.

  5. Genetic divergence among populations and accessions of the spineless peach palm from Pampa Hermosa landrace used in the heart-of-palm agribusiness in Brazil

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    Alessandro Alves-Pereira

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Although originally domesticated for its fruit, exploitation of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth in the production of gourmet heart-of-palm has also become an important activity, hence the need for improved material for large-scale production, on employing the Pampa Hermosa landrace as the seed source. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic divergence among 96 elite plants representing four populations of spineless peach palm from the above cited source. Genetic variability was high (H T = 0.82. The low levels of divergence [F ST (0.023, G ST' (0.005] and the high number of migrants (Nm -3.8 to 52.2 indicated significant interpopulation gene flow. Some of the plants presented high levels of genetic divergence, but the plants were grouped independently of their geographic origins. When combined with morpho-agronomic evaluation, the results found could substantially contribute towards mounting an efficient tool for obtaining superior genotypes with wide genetic variability for improvement programs.

  6. Vasoactive and antioxidant activities of plants used in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ibarra-Alvarado, C; Rojas, A; Mendoza, S; Bah, M; Gutiérrez, D M; Hernández-Sandoval, L; Martínez, M

    2010-07-01

    This study demonstrated that the aqueous extracts of plants employed in Mexican traditional medicine for the treatment of cardiovascular diseases are able to modify the tone of arterial smooth muscle. Agastache mexicana (Kunth) Lint & Epling (Labiatae), Chenopodium murale L. (Chenopodiaceae), Chirantodendron pentadactylon Larreat (Sterculiaceae), Dracocephalum moldavica L. (Labiatae), Psittacanthus calyculatus G. Don (Loranthaceae), Prunus serotina ssp. capuli (Cav. ex Spreng) McVaugh (Rosaceae), and Sechium edule Sw. (Cucurbitaceae) contain secondary metabolites that promote vascular relaxation and display antioxidant activities. As expected, their antioxidant effects showed a significant correlation with the polyphenolics content. However, a lower correlation was found between the antioxidant activity and the maximum vasodilatory effect, suggesting that the vasodilatation elicited by the plant extracts could be only partly attributed to their antioxidant properties. The extract of P. calyculatus, which displayed a maximum vasorelaxant effect that was higher than that of acetylcholine, induced endothelium-dependent vasodilatation. Futhermore, the vasorelaxant response to the P. calyculatus extract was reduced after adding an inhibitor of soluble guanylate cyclase activity, providing evidence that the NO/cGMP pathway is involved. On the other hand, the extracts of Bocconia frutescens L. (Papaveraceae), Magnolia grandiflora L. (Magnoliaceae), and Solanum rostratum Dunal (Solanaceae) induced concentration-dependent contraction of rat aortic rings, suggesting that these plants have potential health benefits for the treatment of ailments such as venous insufficiency. The pharmacological activities of the extracts studied provide scientific support for their ethnomedical use.

  7. Antiprotozoal Activity against Entamoeba histolytica of Plants Used in Northeast Mexican Traditional Medicine. Bioactive Compounds from Lippia graveolens and Ruta chalepensis

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    Ramiro Quintanilla-Licea

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is associated with high morbidity and mortality is becoming a major public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Because of the side-effects and the resistance that pathogenic protozoa build against the standard antiparasitic drugs, e.g., metronidazole, much recent attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. We collected 32 plants used in Northeast Mexican traditional medicine and the methanolic extracts of these species were screened for antiprotozoal activity against E. histolytica trophozoites using in vitro tests. Only 18 extracts showed a significant inhibiting activity and among them six plant extracts showed more than 80% growth inhibition against E. histolytica at a concentration of 150 µg/mL and the IC50 values of these extracts were determined. Lippia graveolens Kunth and Ruta chalepensis Pers. showed the more significant antiprotozoal activity (91.54% and 90.50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 150 µg/mL with IC50 values of 59.14 and 60.07 µg/mL, respectively. Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts from these two plants afforded carvacrol (1 and chalepensin (2, respectively, as bioactive compounds with antiprotozoal activity.

  8. Antiprotozoal activity against Entamoeba histolytica of plants used in northeast Mexican traditional medicine. Bioactive compounds from Lippia graveolens and Ruta chalepensis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Quintanilla-Licea, Ramiro; Mata-Cárdenas, Benito David; Vargas-Villarreal, Javier; Bazaldúa-Rodríguez, Aldo Fabio; Kavimngeles-Hernández, Isvar; Garza-González, Jesús Norberto; Hernández-García, Magda Elizabeth

    2014-12-15

    Amoebiasis caused by Entamoeba histolytica is associated with high morbidity and mortality is becoming a major public health problem worldwide, especially in developing countries. Because of the side-effects and the resistance that pathogenic protozoa build against the standard antiparasitic drugs, e.g., metronidazole, much recent attention has been paid to plants used in traditional medicine around the world in order to find new antiprotozoal agents. We collected 32 plants used in Northeast Mexican traditional medicine and the methanolic extracts of these species were screened for antiprotozoal activity against E. histolytica trophozoites using in vitro tests. Only 18 extracts showed a significant inhibiting activity and among them six plant extracts showed more than 80% growth inhibition against E. histolytica at a concentration of 150 µg/mL and the IC50 values of these extracts were determined. Lippia graveolens Kunth and Ruta chalepensis Pers. showed the more significant antiprotozoal activity (91.54% and 90.50% growth inhibition at a concentration of 150 µg/mL with IC50 values of 59.14 and 60.07 µg/mL, respectively). Bioassay-guided fractionation of the methanolic extracts from these two plants afforded carvacrol (1) and chalepensin (2), respectively, as bioactive compounds with antiprotozoal activity.

  9. Water level effect on herbaceous plant assemblages at an artificial reservoir-Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, D C; Ferreira, J D; Bueno, P A A; Iwakura, L; Bueno, R O; Campiolo, J B

    2015-12-01

    This study presents the effect of water level variation on the assemblages of herbaceous species in Mourão I Reservoir, Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil. The structure and distribution of populations was examined in February (dry period) and April (rainy period), 2011, in two transects. These transects started at the forest edge towards the center of the lake. The end of the transect coincided with the end of the plants within the lake. On every two meters along of the transects we sampled a wooden square of 0.25 m(2) for species biomass analysis.The macrophyte stand was composed entirely of emergent species. Considering the periods, most species were less frequent in the rainy period (April), but Ipomea ramosissima (Poir.) Choisy, Commelina nudiflora L., Eleocharis acuntagula (Roxb.) Schult. and Verbena litorales (Kunth.) had their frequency increased during this period, probably due to their resistance. The influence of flood as measured by the NMDS point out that both before and after the flood, there are plots with distinct compositions and biomass. The water level variation affects the dynamics of plant composition and structure in marginal areas of the Reservoir.

  10. Water level effect on herbaceous plant assemblages at an artificial reservoir-Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil

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    D. C. Souza

    Full Text Available This study presents the effect of water level variation on the assemblages of herbaceous species in Mourão I Reservoir, Lago Azul State Park, Southern Brazil. The structure and distribution of populations was examined in February (dry period and April (rainy period, 2011, in two transects. These transects started at the forest edge towards the center of the lake. The end of the transect coincided with the end of the plants within the lake. On every two meters along of the transects we sampled a wooden square of 0.25 m2 for species biomass analysis.The macrophyte stand was composed entirely of emergent species. Considering the periods, most species were less frequent in the rainy period (April, but Ipomea ramosissima (Poir. Choisy, Commelina nudiflora L., Eleocharis acuntagula (Roxb. Schult. and Verbena litorales (Kunth. had their frequency increased during this period, probably due to their resistance. The influence of flood as measured by the NMDS point out that both before and after the flood, there are plots with distinct compositions and biomass. The water level variation affects the dynamics of plant composition and structure in marginal areas of the Reservoir.

  11. Pecan (Carya illinoinensis/Wangenh./K. Koch: A new species of the Allochthonous dendroflora in Serbia

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    Bobinac Martin

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents the alien species Carya illinoinensis (Wangenh. K. Koch, carya-pecan, (Juglandaceae A. Richard ex Kunth that has not been mentioned so far in the dendroflora of Serbia. One tree was recorded within the first Serbian sugar factory in Čukarica that is now a protected cultural property in the City of Belgrade. The tree is about 35 years old and about 20 m high. The length of the trunk without branches is 6.0 m and the diameter at breast height is 57 cm. Carya-pecan is a native species of the southeastern part of North America, and is grown in Europe for edible fruits and quality wood. The recorded tree in Belgrade is fruitful and characterized by good vitality and rapid growth. Due to its special characteristics, it can have multiple practical application in the territory of Serbia for decoration in urban areas, for forest plantations and in orchards. [Projekat Ministarstva nauke Republike Srbije, br. 31041: Šumski zasadi u funkciji povećanja pošumljenosti Srbije

  12. An Integrated Hypothesis on the Domestication of Bactris gasipaes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Galluzzi, Gea; Dufour, Dominique; Thomas, Evert; van Zonneveld, Maarten; Escobar Salamanca, Andrés Felipe; Giraldo Toro, Andrés; Rivera, Andrés; Salazar Duque, Hector; Suárez Baron, Harold; Gallego, Gerardo; Scheldeman, Xavier; Gonzalez Mejia, Alonso

    2015-01-01

    Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) has had a central place in the livelihoods of people in the Americas since pre-Columbian times, notably for its edible fruits and multi-purpose wood. The botanical taxon includes both domesticated and wild varieties. Domesticated var gasipaes is believed to derive from one or more of the three wild types of var. chichagui identified today, although the exact dynamics and location of the domestication are still uncertain. Drawing on a combination of molecular and phenotypic diversity data, modeling of past climate suitability and existing literature, we present an integrated hypothesis about peach palm's domestication. We support a single initial domestication event in south western Amazonia, giving rise to var. chichagui type 3, the putative incipient domesticate. We argue that subsequent dispersal by humans across western Amazonia, and possibly into Central America allowed for secondary domestication events through hybridization with resident wild populations, and differential human selection pressures, resulting in the diversity of present-day landraces. The high phenotypic diversity in the Ecuadorian and northern Peruvian Amazon suggest that human selection of different traits was particularly intense there. While acknowledging the need for further data collection, we believe that our results contribute new insights and tools to understand domestication and dispersal patterns of this important native staple, as well as to plan for its conservation.

  13. An Integrated Hypothesis on the Domestication of Bactris gasipaes.

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    Gea Galluzzi

    Full Text Available Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth has had a central place in the livelihoods of people in the Americas since pre-Columbian times, notably for its edible fruits and multi-purpose wood. The botanical taxon includes both domesticated and wild varieties. Domesticated var gasipaes is believed to derive from one or more of the three wild types of var. chichagui identified today, although the exact dynamics and location of the domestication are still uncertain. Drawing on a combination of molecular and phenotypic diversity data, modeling of past climate suitability and existing literature, we present an integrated hypothesis about peach palm's domestication. We support a single initial domestication event in south western Amazonia, giving rise to var. chichagui type 3, the putative incipient domesticate. We argue that subsequent dispersal by humans across western Amazonia, and possibly into Central America allowed for secondary domestication events through hybridization with resident wild populations, and differential human selection pressures, resulting in the diversity of present-day landraces. The high phenotypic diversity in the Ecuadorian and northern Peruvian Amazon suggest that human selection of different traits was particularly intense there. While acknowledging the need for further data collection, we believe that our results contribute new insights and tools to understand domestication and dispersal patterns of this important native staple, as well as to plan for its conservation.

  14. Determination of the threshold odor concentration of main odorants in essential oils using gas chromatography-olfactometry incremental dilution technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Benzo, Maurizio; Gilardoni, Gianluca; Gandini, Carlo; Caccialanza, Gabriele; Vita Finzi, Paola; Vidari, Giovanni; Abdo, Susana; Layedra, Patricia

    2007-05-25

    An essential oil, obtained by steam distillation of Clinopodium tomentosum (Kunth) Govaerts (Lamiaceae), collected in Ecuador, was analyzed by gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) and GC-MS techniques. To our knowledge, the composition of this essential oil is described here for the first time, both from the chemical and olfactometric viewpoints. A preliminary analysis by GC-MS and using Kovats' retention indexes, lead to characterize and quantify the oil constituents, while GC-O was then applied for the identification of the main odorants. By the incremental dilution method (AEDA, CHARM Analysis), applied to the GC-O technique, the flavor dilution (FD) chromatogram was obtained. In order to calculate the TOC values of the main odorants, the relationship between the odorant concentration at the sniffing port and that one in the injected solution was established. This relationship was calculated by comparing the injected amount with the TOC value of a reference compound (limonene), obtained by dynamic dilution olfactometry. A good agreement was found between calculated and measured TOC values of few odorants.

  15. Comparative study of the assay of Artemia salina L. and the estimate of the medium lethal dose (LD50 value) in mice, to determine oral acute toxicity of plant extracts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Logarto Parra, A; Silva Yhebra, R; Guerra Sardiñas, I; Iglesias Buela, L

    2001-09-01

    Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), the brine shrimp larva, is an invertebrate used in the alternative test to determine toxicity of chemical and natural products. In this study the Medium Lethal Concentrations (LC50 value) of 20 plant extracts, Aloe vera (L.) Burm. F. (Aloeaceae), Artemisia absinthium L. (Asteraceae); Citrus aurantium L. (Rutaceae); Cymbopogon citratus (DC. Ex Nees) Stapf (Poaceae); Datura stramonium L. (Solanaceae); Justicia pectoralis Jacq. (Acanthaceae); Musa x paradisiaca L. (Musaceae); Ocimum basilicum L.; O. gratissimum L.; O. tenuiflorum L. (Lamiaceae); Pimenta dioica (L.) Merr. (Myrtaceae); Piper auritum Kunth (Piperaceae); Plantago major L. (Plantaginaceae); Plectranthus amboinicus (Lour.) Spreng. (Lamiaceae); Ruta graveolens L. (Rutaceae); Senna alata (L.) Roxb. (Fabaceae); Stachytarpheta jamaicensis (L.) Vahl (Verbenaceae); and Thuja occidentalis L. (Cupressaceae), were determined using Artemia salina L. (Artemiidae), with the objective of relating the results to the LD50 values reported in mice (tested at three concentrations: 10, 100, and 1000 microg/mL, for each extract). We found good correlation between the in vivo and the in vitro tests (r = 0.85 p < 0.05), and this method is a useful tool for predicting oral acute toxicity in plant extracts.

  16. Comparison of herbage yield, nutritive value and ensilability traits of three ryegrass species evaluated for the Irish Recommended List

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    Burns G. A.

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available This study examined 169 of the newest varieties of three ryegrass species, perennial (Lolium perenne L., Italian (Lolium multiflorum Lam. and hybrid (Lolium boucheanum Kunth, from Recommended List trials in Ireland. The traits examined were yield, dry matter concentration, three nutritive value traits (in vitro dry matter digestibility, water-soluble carbohydrate on a dry matter basis and crude protein concentration and two ensilability traits (buffering capacity and water soluble carbohydrate concentration on an aqueous phase basis. Varietal monocultures of each species underwent a six cut combined simulated grazing and silage management in each of two years following sowing. Perennial ryegrass yielded less than both other species in one-year-old swards, but less than only Italian ryegrass in two-year-old swards, but generally had the higher in vitro dry matter digestibility and crude protein values. Italian ryegrass displayed the most favourable ensilability characteristics of the three species with perennial ryegrass less favourable and hybrid ryegrass intermediate. Overall, despite the high yields and favourable nutritive value and ensilability traits recorded, the general differences between the three ryegrass species studied were in line with industry expectations. These findings justify assessing the nutritive value and ensilability of ryegrass species, in addition to yield, to allow farmers select species that match farming enterprise requirements.

  17. Studies on the Biology of Hypogeococcus pungens (sensu stricto) (Hemiptera: Pseudococcidae) in Argentina to Aid the Identification of the Mealybug Pest of Cactaceae in Puerto Rico

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aguirre, M. B.; Diaz-Soltero, H.; Claps, L. E.; Saracho Bottero, A.; Triapitsyn, S.; Hasson, E.; Logarzo, G. A.

    2016-01-01

    Hypogeococcus pungens Granara de Willink, sensu stricto, is a serious pest of cacti in Puerto Rico threating many Caribbean islands. A classical biological control program for H. pungens was initiated for Puerto Rico in 2010 with a survey for natural enemies of H. pungens in its native range of Argentina. Biological differences were observed between populations of H. pungens sampled on Amaranthaceae and Cactaceae. Molecular studies suggested that H. pungens populations from different host plant families are likely a complex of species. Our objective was to study the biology of H. pungens sensu stricto on specimens collected in the same locality and host plant as the holotype [Tucumán Province, Argentina; Alternanthera pungens Kunth (Amaranthaceae)]. We were interested in the reproductive biology of females, longevity and survival of adults, the effect of temperature on the development, and nymph performance (survival and development) on five Cactaceae species. We found that H. pungens s.s. showed marked biological differences from the populations collected on Cactaceae and exported to Australia for the biological control of the cactus Harrisia spp. The main differences were the presence of deuterotoky parthenogenesis and the fact that H. pungens did not attack Cactaceae in the laboratory. Our results provide biological evidence that H. pungens is a species complex. We propose that the population introduced to Australia is neither Hypogeococcus festerianus Lizer y Trelles nor H. pungens, but an undescribed species with three circuli, and that the Hypogeococcus pest of cacti in Puerto Rico is not H. pungens. PMID:27324585

  18. Antioxidant and hepatoprotective potential of Pouteria campechiana on acetaminophen-induced hepatic toxicity in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Aseervatham, G Smilin Bell; Sivasudha, T; Sasikumar, J M; Christabel, P Hephzibah; Jeyadevi, R; Ananth, D Arul

    2014-03-01

    Pouteria campechiana (Kunth) Baehni. is used as a remedy for coronary trouble, liver disorders, epilepsy, skin disease, and ulcer. Therefore, the present study aims to investigate the antioxidant and hepatoprotective effect of polyphenolic-rich P. campechiana fruit extract against acetaminophen-intoxicated rats. Total phenolic and flavonoid contents of egg fruit were estimated followed by the determination of antioxidant activities. Treatment with P. campechiana fruit extract effectively scavenged the free radicals in a concentration-dependent manner within the range of the given concentrations in all antioxidant models. The presence of polyphenolic compounds were confirmed by high-performance thin-layer chromatography (HPTLC). The animals were treated with acetaminophen (250 mg/kg body weight; p.o.) thrice at the interval of every 5 days after the administration of P. campechiana aqueous extract and silymarin (50 mg/kg). Acetaminophen treatment was found to trigger an oxidative stress in liver, leading to an increase of serum marker enzymes. However, treatment with P. campechiana fruit extract significantly reduced the elevated liver marker enzymes (aspartate transaminase, alanine transaminase, and alkaline phosphatase) and increased the antioxidant enzymes (viz., superoxide dismutase and catalase) and glutathione indicating the effect of the extract in restoring the normal functional ability of hepatocytes. These results strongly suggest that P. campechiana fruit extract has strong antioxidant and significant hepatoprotective effect against acetaminophen-induced hepatotoxicity.

  19. Accumulation of arsenic, lead, copper, and zinc, and synthesis of phytochelatins by indigenous plants of a mining impacted area.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Machado-Estrada, Blenda; Calderón, Jaqueline; Moreno-Sánchez, Rafael; Rodríguez-Zavala, José S

    2013-06-01

    Several native plants, able to grow in an unconfined mining impacted area that is now in close vicinity with urban areas, were evaluated for their ability to accumulate heavy metals. The main soil contaminants were As, Pb, Cu, and Zn. Sampling of the rhizospheric metal polluted soil showed that Euphorbia prostrata Aiton, Parthenium incanum Kunth, and Zinnia acerosa (DC.) A. Gray were able to grow in the presence of high amounts of mixtures of these elements. The plants accumulated the metals in the above ground parts and increased the synthesis of thiol molecules. E. prostrata showed the highest capacity for accumulation of the mixture of elements (588 μg g DW(-1)). Analysis of the thiol-molecules profile showed that these plants synthesized high amounts of long-chain phytochelatins, accompanied by low amounts of monothiol molecules, which may be related to their higher resistance to As and heavy metals. The three plants showed translocation factors from roots to leaves >1 for As, Pb, Cu, and Zn. Thus, by periodically removing aerial parts, these plants could be useful for the phytoremediation of semi-arid and arid mining impacted areas, in which metal hyper-accumulator plants are not able to grow.

  20. SMOKE-SATURATED WATER FROM FIVE GRASSES GROWING IN JAPAN INHIBITS IN VITRO PROTOCORM-LIKE BODY FORMATION IN HYBRID CYMBIDIUM

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    Jaime A. TEIXEIRA DA SILVA

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Smoke derived from the burning of plant material has been shown to stimulate seed growth of several species. In addition, several studies have reported that when smoke is condensed with water, smoke-saturated water (SSW can also stimulate the germination of orchid seeds. In this study, SSW was derived from burning the aerial part of five grasses growing in the wild in Shikoku, Japan (Arundinella hirta (Thunb. C. Tanaka var. hirta, Microstegium japonicum (Miquel Koidzumi, Miscanthus sinensis Andersson, Paspalum thunbergii Kunth ex Steud., Themeda triandra Forssk. var. japonica (Willd. Makino, all of which flower between August and October. SSW was added at three concentrations (1, 5, 10%, v/w to solid, agarized Teixeira Cymbidium (TC medium to assess the impact on in vitro organogenesis of hybrid Cymbidium, specifically on new protocorm-like body (neo-PLB formation. The SSW of all five species strongly inhibited the formation of neo-PLBs at all concentrations relative to the control (no SSW added. Since PLBs are considered to be the equivalent of somatic embryos in orchids, and since SSW is able to stimulate the germination of zygotic embryos in other plant families, the mechanism of action is clearly different between zygotic and somatic embryos.

  1. Immature Stages and Life Cycle of the Wasp Moth, Cosmosoma auge (Lepidoptera: Erebidae: Arctiinae under Laboratory Conditions

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    Gunnary León-Finalé

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Cosmosoma auge (Linnaeus 1767 (Lepidoptera: Erebidae is a Neotropical arctiid moth common in Cuban mountainous areas; however, its life cycle remains unknown. In this work, C. auge life cycle is described for the first time; also, immature stages are described using a Cuban population. Larvae were obtained from gravid wild females caught in Viñales National Park and were fed with fresh leaves of its host plant, the climbing hempweed Mikania micrantha Kunth (Asterales: Asteraceae, which is a new host plant record. Eggs are hemispherical and hatching occurred five days after laying. Larval period had six instars and lasted between 20 and 22 days. First and last larval stages are easily distinguishable from others. First stage has body covered by chalazae and last stage has body covered by verrucae as other stages but has a tuft on each side of A1 and A7. Eggs and larvae features agree with Arctiinae pattern. Pupal stage lasted eight days, and, in general, females emerge before males as a result of pupal stage duration differences between sexes.

  2. Anxiolytic-like effect of the extract from Bowdichia virgilioides in mice

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    Larissa Fernanda de A. Vieira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Current therapeutic for the treatment of anxiety is associated with a wild variety of side effects. The traditional use of plant extract to health care can indicate an important source of new pharmaceuticals. Bowdichia virgilioides Kunth, Fabaceae, is a plant commonly employed in the Brazilian folk medicine to treat inflammatory conditions. Nevertheless, despite its popular use there are no studies related to its possible neuropharmacological effect. Here, we investigated the possible anxiolytic effect of the extract of B. virgilioides after acute and sub-chronic treatment in mice. The aqueous extract from the stem barks of B. virgilioides (20, 200 or 400 mg/kg was orally administered, and its anxiolytic effect was evaluated in the elevated plus maze, open-field and rota-rod tests. Diazepam was employed as standard drug. The aqueous extract treatment was effective in inducing anxiolytic effects with single acute treatment, a phenomenon that remained after chronic treatment. However, no changes in spontaneous locomotor activity or myorelaxant effect after aqueous extract treatment. The extract was either safe with no deaths in mice treated orally with 1000 mg/kg. These findings suggest that the aqueous extract from the stem barks of Bowdichia virgilioides has an acute and sub-chronic anxiolytic-like effect without compromising motor activity, demonstrating an advantage regarding to antidepressant drugs.

  3. Análisis teórico experimental de conexiones en elementos estructurales de bambú guadua laminado pegado prensado, para un proyecto de vivienda

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    Patricia Luna

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available El análisis de las conexiones entre elementos fabricados en Bambú guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunth laminado pegado prensado para un proyecto de vivienda, es mostrado en este artículo. El análisis se ejecutó en cuatro etapas: diseño, prueba de carga, simulación numérica y modelación por elementos finitos. El diseño se realizó por el método de los esfuerzos de trabajo. En la prueba de carga fueron medidos desplazamientos para conocer el comportamiento de las conexiones para diferentes incrementos de carga. La simulación numérica fue realizada en el programa ETABS® con la carga real impuesta en cada etapa de la prueba de carga. Finalmente, la modelación por elementos finitos se realizó en el programa ANSYS®. Se encontró que existen diferencias entre los resultados experimentales y los numéricos, las cuales pueden ser consecuencia de que las condiciones reales de la prueba de carga no corresponden exactamente a las consideraciones supuestas de diseño como nudos completamente rígidos o articulados.

  4. Mortalidad y repelencia en Eupalamides cyparissias (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis, por efecto de diez extractos botánicos

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    Diana D. PÉREZ

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Las plantas con actividad insecticida constituyen un importante componente del manejo integrado de plagas. Bajo esta premisa, el objetivo del presente estudio fue evaluar la mortalidad y repelencia larval de Eupalamides cyparissias Fab. (Lepidoptera: Castniidae, plaga de la palma aceitera Elaeis guineensis Jacquin; empleando diez plantas con potencial insecticida: Ucullucuysacha ( Heliotropium indicum L., Boraginaceae, Floripondio ( Brugmansia x candida Pers., Solanaceae, Oreja de Tigre ( Tradescantia zebrina Hort ex Bosse, Commelinaceae, Piñón Blanco ( Jathropa curcas L., Euphorbiaceae, Sacha yoco ( Paullinia clavigera Schltdl., Sapindaceae, Yuquilla ( Euphorbia cotinifolia L., Euphorbiaceae, Achiote ( Bixa orellana L., Bixaceae, Retama común ( Cassia fistula L., Fabaceae, Huancahuisacha ( Aristolochia pilosa Kunth, Aristolochiaceae y Curare ( Chondrodendron tomentosum Ruiz & Pavon, Menispermaceae. Los bioensayos con E. cyparissias abarcaron entre 1 h y 24 h, bajo condiciones estandardizadas de laboratorio. A 24 h de exposición, los mayores porcentajes de mortalidad de E. cyparissias se presentaron en los tratamientos con Sacha yoco (63,3 %: corteza y hojas en decocción, Achiote (63,3 %: semillas en licuado y Yuquilla (48,3 %: hojas en licuado. En el caso de la repelencia, los mayores efectos se encontraron en los tratamientos con Achiote (83,30 %, Sacha yoco (75 % y Floripondio (66,7 %: hojas en licuado.

  5. Microbiological analysis of peach palm in natura submitted to {sup 60}Co radiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Priscila V.; Araujo, Michel M.; Nunes, Thaise C.F.; Costa, Helbert S.F.; Villavicencio, Anna Lucia C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN-CNEN/SP), Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], e-mail: priscilavsilva@gmail.com, e-mail: villavic@ipen.br; Hojeije, Khalil Y. [Floresta Industria e Comercio Ltda., Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)

    2009-07-01

    The palm tree (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) is a species with high potential benefits, because of the nutritional value of its fruits that could be used both in human and animals feeding and mainly for peach palm extraction. It represents a great source of dietary fiber and a moderate source of magnesium and iron. Food irradiation is a worldwide technology that aims to improve the product quality, in order to eliminate diverse microorganisms that can spoil the food. Radiation processing, in the recommended doses, causes very few chemical alterations and nutritional losses in foods, being considered insignificant and/or similar to other food treatments. The objective of this study was to evaluate the effect of irradiation on microbiological counts of mesophilic aerobic in the peach palm in natura. Samples were irradiated with 1.0 and 1.5 kGy using a {sup 60}Co multipurpose irradiator. Radiation treatment appeared to be a useful alternative to reduce microbial contamination in the samples analyzed. (author)

  6. Centesimal composition and physical-chemistry analysis of the edible mushroom Lentinus strigosus occurring in the Brazilian Amazon

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    CECI SALES-CAMPOS

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available The centesimal composition and the physical and chemical analyses of Lentinus strigosus, an edible mushroom occurring in the Brazilian Amazon and produced in alternative substrates based on wood and agroindustrial residues, were evaluated. For this purpose, the C, N, pH, soluble solids, water activity, protein, lipids, total fiber, ash, carbohydrate, and energy levels were determined. The substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. (“marupá”, Ochroma piramidale Cav. Ex. Lam. (“pau-de-balsa” and Anacardium giganteum (“cajuí” sawdust and Bactris gasipaes Kunth (“pupunheira” stipe and Saccharum officinarum (sugar cane bagasse. The results indicated that the nutritional composition of L. strigosus varied with the substrate of cultivation; the protein levels found in mushrooms grown in the different substrates (18 – 21.5% varied with the substrate and was considered high; the soluble solids present in the mushrooms could have a relation with complex B hydrosoluble vitamins. L. strigosus could be considered as important food owing to its nutritional characteristics such as high protein content, metabolizable carbohydrates and fibers, and low lipids and calories content.

  7. Genetic diversity and relationship in American and African oil palm as revealed by RFLP and AFLP molecular markers

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    Barcelos Edson

    2002-01-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this work was to evaluate the genetic diversity, its organization and the genetic relationships within oil palm (Elaeis oleifera (Kunth Cortés, from America, and E. guineensis (Jacq., from Africa germplasm using Restriction Fragment Length Polymorphism (RFLP and Amplified Fragment Length Polymorphism (AFLP. In complement to a previous RFLP study on 241 E. oleifera accessions, 38 E. guineensis accessions were analyzed using the same 37 cDNA probes. These accessions covered a large part of the geographical distribution areas of these species in America and Africa. In addition, AFLP analysis was performed on a sub-set of 40 accessions of E. oleifera and 22 of E. guineensis using three pairs of enzyme/primer combinations. Data were subjected to Factorial Analysis of Correspondence (FAC and cluster analysis, with parameters of genetic diversity being also studied. Results appeared congruent between RFLP and AFLP. In the E. oleifera, AFLP confirmed the strong structure of genetic diversity revealed by RFLP, according to geographical origin of the studied material, with the identification of the same four distinct genetic groups: Brazil, French Guyana/Surinam, Peru, north of Colombia/Central America. Both markers revealed that genetic divergence between the two species is of the same magnitude as that among provenances of E. oleifera. This finding is in discrepancy with the supposed early tertiary separation of the two species.

  8. Floristic composition and community structure of epiphytic angiosperms in a terra firme forest in central Amazonia

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    Mariana Victória Irume

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available This survey aimed to describe the floristic composition and structure of the epiphytic community occurring in a terra firme forest in the city of Coari, Brazil, in the Amazon region. Data collection was performed with a 1.5 ha plot method, with which upland, slope and lowland habitats were sampled. All angiosperm epiphytes and their host plants (diameter at breast height > 10 cm were sampled. We recorded 3.528 individuals in 13 families, 48 genera and 164 species. Araceae was the most prevalent family with regard to the importance value and stood out in all related parameters, followed by Bromeliaceae, Cyclanthaceae and Orchidaceae. The species with the highest epiphytic importance values were Guzmania lingulata (L. Mez. and Philodendron linnaei Kunth. The predominant life form was hemiepiphytic. Estimated floristic diversity was 3.2 (H'. The studied epiphytic community was distributed among 727 host plants belonging to 40 families, 123 genera and 324 species. One individual of Guarea convergens T.D. Penn. was the host with the highest richness and abundance of epiphytes. Stems/trunks of host plants were the most colonized segments, and the most favorable habitat for epiphytism was the lowlands, where 84.1% of species and 48.2% of epiphytic specimens were observed.

  9. Chemical composition of essential oils of Piper jacquemontianum and Piper variabile from Guatemala and bioactivity of the dichloromethane and methanol extracts

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    Sully M. Cruz

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available The essential oils from two native species from Guatemala were studied for their chemical composition and the dichloromethane and methanol extracts for their biological activity. A GC-MS analysis of the essential oil from Piper jacquemontianum Kunth, Piperaceae, showed 34 constituents, consisting mainly of linalool (69.4%, while Piper variabile C. DC. essential oil had 36 constituents, camphor (28.4%, camphene (16.6% and limonene (13.9% being the major components. Dichloromethane extracts of both species were cytotoxic against MCF-7, H-460 and SF-268 cell lines (<7 µg/mL. Dichloromethane extract of P. jacquemontianum was slightly active against bacteria (0.5 mg/mL, was active against promastigotes of Leishmania (20.4-61.0 µg/mL, and epimastigotes of Trypanosoma cruzi (51.9 µg/mL. The methanol extract of P. variabile showed antimalarial activity against Plasmodium falciparum F32 (4.5 µg/mL, and the dichloromethane extract against Leishmania (55.8-76.3 µg/mL and T. cruzi (45.8 µg/mL. None of the extracts from the two species was active against Aedes aegypti larvae and Artemia salina nauplii.

  10. Genetic divergence among populations and accessions of the spineless peach palm from Pampa Hermosa landrace used in the heart-of-palm agribusiness in Brazil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alves-Pereira, Alessandro; Clement, Charles R; Picanço-Rodrigues, Doriane

    2012-04-01

    Although originally domesticated for its fruit, exploitation of the peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth) in the production of gourmet heart-of-palm has also become an important activity, hence the need for improved material for large-scale production, on employing the Pampa Hermosa landrace as the seed source. In this study 11 microsatellite markers were used to evaluate genetic divergence among 96 elite plants representing four populations of spineless peach palm from the above cited source. Genetic variability was high (H(T) = 0.82). The low levels of divergence [F(ST) (0.023), G(ST)' (0.005)] and the high number of migrants (Nm - 3.8 to 52.2) indicated significant interpopulation gene flow. Some of the plants presented high levels of genetic divergence, but the plants were grouped independently of their geographic origins. When combined with morpho-agronomic evaluation, the results found could substantially contribute towards mounting an efficient tool for obtaining superior genotypes with wide genetic variability for improvement programs.

  11. Estrutura da comunidade arbórea de trecho de Floresta Estacional Sempre-Verde e similaridade florística na região Nordeste do Mato Grosso, Brasil

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    Sustanis Horn Kunz

    Full Text Available Este trabalho apresenta a estrutura de trechos de Floresta Estacional Sempre-Verde do Rio das Pacas e avalia a similaridade florística de dez áreas localizadas nas Bacias Hidrográficas Pacuneiro e Pacas, Mato Grosso. Foram alocadas 14 parcelas (25 × 10 m em cada trecho (nascente, meio e foz, sendo amostrados todos os indivíduos com Circunferência à Altura do Peito > 15 cm e realizada a análise dos parâmetros fitossociológicos, além da similaridadeflorística pelo Índice de Jaccard. A densidade total foi de 1.606 ind./ha. As famílias com maior riqueza foram Anonnaceae (9 espécies; Fabaceae (9; Melastomataceae (6 e Burseraceae (5. As espécies Jacaranda copaia (Aubl. D. Don, Ocotea caudata (Nees Mez, Ocotea guianensis Aubl. e Zigia cataractae (Kunth L. Rico tiveram maior valor de importância. O Índice de Shannon (3,67 e o índice de equabilidade (0,86 mostraram-se semelhantes aos de outras florestas ribeirinhas. As áreas de nascente e meio apresentaram maior similaridade florística (J = 0,71.

  12. Ability of a Generalist Seed Beetle to Colonize an Exotic Host: Effects of Host Plant Origin and Oviposition Host.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Amarillo-Suárez, A; Repizo, A; Robles, J; Diaz, J; Bustamante, S

    2017-02-02

    The colonization of an exotic species by native herbivores is more likely to occur if that herbivore is a generalist. There is little information on the life-history mechanisms used by native generalist insects to colonize exotic hosts and how these mechanisms are affected by host properties. We examined the ability of the generalist seed beetle Stator limbatus Horn to colonize an exotic species. We compared its host preference, acceptability, performance, and egg size when ovipositing and developing on two native (Pithecellobium dulce (Roxb.) Benth and Senegalia riparia (Kunth)) and one exotic legume species (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam.)). We also analyzed the seed chemistry. We found that females recognize the exotic species as an unfavorable host for larval development and that they delayed oviposition and laid fewer and larger eggs on the exotic species than on the native species. Survivorship on the exotic host was 0%. Additionally, seeds of the native species contain five chemical compounds that are absent in the exotic species, and the exotic species contains three sterols, which are absent in the native legumes. Genetically based differences between beetles adapted to different hosts, plastic responses toward new hosts, and chemical differences among seeds are important in host colonization and recognition of the exotic host. In conclusion, the generalist nature of S. limbatus does not influence its ability to colonize L. leucocephala. Explanations for the colonization of exotic hosts by generalist native species and for the success of invasive species must be complemented with studies measuring local adaptation and plasticity.

  13. Water quality and communities associated with macrophytes in a shallow water-supply reservoir on an aquaculture farm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sipaúba-Tavares, L H; Dias, S G

    2014-05-01

    Plankton communities and macrofauna associated to aquatic macrophyte stands in a shallow water-supply reservoir (21°14'09″S; 48°18'38″W) on an aquaculture farm were compared to evaluate the relationship between organism densities and some abiotic features of the reservoir. Water and communities associated were sampled at two sites, one in an area with the predominance of Eichhornia azurea (Sw.) Kunth and the other with the predominance of Salvinia auriculata Aublet. Communities associated with macrophytes were sampled with floating quadrants (0.5 m2); the macrophytes were washed and plankton and macrofauna were fixated with 4% formalin and 1% lugol iodine; the specimens were then identified and counted. Plankton and macrofauna communities associated with S. auriculata and E. azurea had a similar diversity of species but different (pmacrophytes presence in the shallow reservoir is a strong predictor of favourable conditions to maintain great diversity plankton community and macrofauna associated with plants. The role of macrophytes is important for not only stabilising the clear-water state and maintaining high diversity of organisms associated, but also it seems to be a good alternative to maintaining desirable water-supply quality for aquaculture farms.

  14. Reasons of leaves withering in tropical plants cultivated under greenhouse conditions

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    Z. Czerwiński

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available In order to determine the reasons of necrosis of exotic plants leaves cultivated in greenhouses plants belonging to ten following species were examined: Ceratozamia mexicana Brongn., Stangeria eriopus (Kunze Nash (Cycadaceae, Eriobotrya japonica Lindl. (Rosaceae, Camellia japonica L. (Theaceae, Phoenix roebeleni O'Brien (Palmae, Sequoia sempervirens Endl. (Taxodiaceae, Calathea bachemiana Morr. (Marantaceae, Cordyline terminalis Kunth (Agavaceae, Spathiphyllum wallisii Reg. and Anthurium magnificum Lind. (Araceae. Chemical analysis were performed in soil samples in which these plants grow, in samples of tap-water applied for watering and in samples of decaying and healthy leaves. In order to examine the process of withdrawal of mineral components from necrotic leaves, both: necrotic and green parts of decaying leaves were subjected to examination. On the basis of the research it was concluded, that - in spite of generally low level of salinity of the water used for watering - some ions content, particularity that of CI-, was unfavourable to plants. Unfavourable ionic composition was discovered in water extracts derived from some of the breeding-ground soils. A comparison of healthy and decaying, necrotic leaves chemism proves that CI- assimilated by the plants from the breeding-grounds and accumulated in leaves, affects them toxically.

  15. Total phenolics and antioxidant activity of Piper auritum and Porophyllum ruderale.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Conde-Hernández, Lilia A; Guerrero-Beltrán, José Á

    2014-01-01

    Extracts from fresh and dried samples of Mexican pepperleaf (Piper auritum Kunth) and "papalo" (Porophyllum ruderale) were obtained using a stirring or an ultrasound extraction system with five types of solvents (water, 50:50% v/v ethanol:water, 70:30% v/v ethanol:water, 85:15% v/v ethanol:1.5N HCl, and ethanol). Total phenolic compounds and antioxidant activity were evaluated with the phenol Folin Ciocalteu reagent and the ABTS method, respectively. Total phenolic compounds (PC), trolox (T), and ascorbic acid (AA), in the two herbs, were in the range of 6.79-68.03mg of galic acid (GA)/g dry solids (d.s.), 4.88-64.99mg of T/gd.s., and 5.31-49.84mgAA/gd.s., respectively. Extracts from fresh "papalo", using ultrasound as the extraction system, had the highest amount of total phenolic compounds. The fresh pepperleaf extract, obtained using ultrasound as the extraction method contained the highest amount of antioxidant activity.

  16. RAPD and microsatellite transferability studies in selected species of Prosopis (section Algarobia) with emphasis on Prosopis juliflora and P. pallida.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sherry, Minu; Smith, Steve; Patel, Ashok; Harris, Phil; Hand, Paul; Trenchard, Liz; Henderson, Janey

    2011-08-01

    The genus Prosopis (Leguminosae, Mimosoideae), comprises 44 species widely distributed in arid and semi-arid zones. Prosopis pallida (Humb. and Bonpl. ex Willd.) Kunth and P. juliflora (Sw.) DC. are the two species that are truly tropical apart from P. africana, which is native to tropical Africa (Pasiecznik et al. 2004), and they have been introduced widely beyond their native ranges. However, taxonomic confusion within the genus has hampered exploitation and better management of the species. The present study focusses primarily on evaluating the genetic relationship between Prosopis species from the section Algarobia, containing most species of economic importance, though P. tamarugo from section Strombocarpa is also included for comparison. In total, 12 Prosopis species and a putative P. pallida x P. chilensis hybrid were assessed for their genetic relationships based on RAPD markers and microsatellite transferability. The results show that P. pallida and P. juliflora are not closely related despite some morphological similarity. Evidence also agrees with previous studies which suggest that the grouping of series in section Algarobia is artificial.

  17. Evaluation of neurotransmitters involved in the anxiolytic and panicolytic effect of the aqueous fraction of Paullinia cupana (guaraná in elevated T maze

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    Marcel P. Rangel

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available This study investigated the effects of repeatedly administration of an aqueous fraction of Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae (guaraná seeds (8 mg/kg on rats submitted to the elevated T-maze, model of generalized anxiety and panic disorders. The selective serotonin reuptake inhibitor paroxetine (3 mg/kg, was used as a positive control. To evaluate possible neurotransmissions involvement, ineffective doses of metergoline (3 mg/kg - non-selective serotonin receptor antagonist, sulpiride (20 mg/kg - non-selective dopaminergic receptor antagonist or ketamine (0.125 mg/kg - non-selective glutamate receptor antagonist were acutely administered in association with the aqueous fraction of P. cupana. Both aqueous fraction and paroxetine decrease the inhibitory avoidance latencies of the elevated T-maze, indicating anxiolytic effect and increased one-way escape latencies from the open arm of the elevated T-maze, indicating a panicolytic effect. The pre-treatment with metergoline, sulpiride and ketamine blocked the anxiolytic effect of aqueous fraction. The panicolytic effect of aqueous fraction was blocked by both metergoline and sulpiride. These results show that the serotonergic, dopaminergic and glutamatergic neurotransmission systems are involved in anxiolytic effect promoted by aqueous fraction, whereas only the serotonergic and the dopaminergic neurotransmission systems are involved in the panicolytic effect promoted by aqueous fraction of P. cupana. The effects produced by paroxetine, were blocked only by metergoline, validating this experimental procedure.

  18. A study of the larvicidal activity of two Croton species from northeastern Brazil against Aedes aegypti.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dória, Grace A A; Silva, Wellington J; Carvalho, Gilcia A; Alves, Péricles B; Cavalcanti, Sócrates C H

    2010-06-01

    The essential oils of Croton heliotropiifolius Kunth (Euphorbiaceae) and Croton pulegiodorus Baill. were selected for larvicidal evaluation against Aedes aegypti L. (Diptera: Culicidae) and studied qualitatively and quantitatively by GC and GC-MS. Sixty-one compounds representing 92.03% (C. heliotropiifolius) and 85.68% (C. pulegiodorus) of the essential oils, respectively, have been identified. The major components of C. heliotropiifolius essential oil were identified as beta-caryophyllene (35.82%), bicyclogermacrene (19.98%), and germacrene-D (11.85%). The major components in C. pulegiodorus essential oil were identified as beta-caryophyllene (20.96%), bicyclogermacrene (16.89%), germacrene-D (10.55%), tau-cadinol (4.56%), and beta-copaen-4-alpha-ol (4.35%). The essential oil of C. pulegiodorus (LC50 159 ppm) was more effective against Ae. aegypti than that of C. heliotropiifolius (LC50 544 ppm). In order to verify whether the major compound of both essential oils is the active principle responsible for the larvicidal activity, beta-caryophyllene was purchased and its larvicidal potential was further evaluated. However, beta-caryophyllene (LC50 1038 ppm) showed weak larvicidal potency. Results of larvicidal evaluation suggest the existence of a synergistic effect of minor components in the essential oils.

  19. Volatile Constituents of Two Croton Species from Caatinga Biome of Pernambuco – Brasil

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    Ilzenayde de Araújo Neves

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Leaf and stem essential oils from Crotonpulegioides Müll.Arg. and C. rhamnifolius var. heliotropiifolius (Kunth Müll.Arg were obtained by hydrodistillation and analyzed using gas chromatography and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The composition of the oils from the two Croton species was very different. The main components of the C. pulegioides oils were 1,8-cineole (15.86± 0.23% in leaf, p-cymene (14.40± 0.01% in leaf, camphor (13.28%± 0.12% in leaf and α-humulene (12.98± 0.22% in leaf, α-calacorene (12.95± 0.45% in stem, cis-isolongifolane (8.94±0.54% in stem and juniper camphor (6.44±0.45% in stem. The main components of the C. rhamnifolius var. heliotropiifolius oils were β-caryophyllene (20.82±0.48% in leaf, spathulenol (16.37±0.56% in leaf and β-elemene (17.28±0.06% in stem and guaiol (18.38±0.84% in stem. Phenylpropanoids common to Croton species were only found in C. rhamnifolius var. heliopropiifolius oils at percentages below 5%. This is the first report of the essential oil constituents of C. pulegioides and C. rhamnifolius var. heliotropiifolius from the Caatinga biome of the state of Pernambuco (Northeastern Brazil.

  20. Modelling initial mortality of Abies religiosa in a crown fire in Mexico

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    Salomé Temiño-Villota

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Aim of study: The objectives of this work were to determine which morphological and fire severity variables may help explain the mortality of adult Abies religiosa (Kunth Schltdl. & Cham., to model the probability of this species after being affected by crown fire, and to obtain more elements to classify the sacred fir in terms of fire resistance. This type of studies are relevant to estimate the impact of crown fires on the climax forests that forms this species.Area of study: The burned forest was located in the southern Mexico City, borough.Material and methods: Morphological variables and fire severity indicators were collected for 335 Abies religiosa trees burned by a mixed severity fire. Logistic regression was used to analyze data and develop models that best explained tree mortality.Main results: Survival was 26.9%. The models for height (p≤0.0001, diameter at breast height (p=0.0082, crown length (p≤0.0001 and crown base height (p≤0.0001 were significant, with a negative relationship between each one of these variables and probability of mortality. The significant severity variables were lethal scorch height (p≤0.0001 and crown kill (p≤ 0.0001, which have a direct relationship with probability of mortality.Highlights: This species is moderately fire-resistant. Crown kill ≥ 70% markedly increases mortality. Silvicultural activities such as pruning, thinning and fuel management can reduce the risk of crown fires.

  1. Whitefly species (Hemiptera: Aleyrodidae on wild and cultivated plants in the horticultural region of Rosario, Santa Fe, Argentina

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    Gustavo G. GONSEBATT

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Las moscas blancas de importancia económica son polífagas y capaces de desarrollarse sobre numerosas plantas cultivadas y espontáneas. Registramos las especies de moscas blancas sobre cultivos hortícolas y de flores, y sobre las plantas silvestres asociadas. Observamos dos especies: Trialeurodes vaporariorum (Westwood y el complejo Bemisia tabaci (Gennadius. T. vaporariorum fue registrada sobre 24 especies de plantas (11 familias, 12 y 8 de las cuales son hospedantes nuevos para Argentina y a nivel mundial, respectivamente. El complejo B. tabaci fue registrado solo en sistemas de producción de flores, sobre 19 especies de plantas (11 familias, 14 y 7 de las cuales son nuevos hospedantes para Argentina y a nivel mundial, respectivamente. Los cultivos Glycine max (L. y Chrysanthemum morifolium Ramat., las especies silvestres Amaranthus blitum L., Amaranthus quitensis Kunth, Conyza bonariensis (L., Galinsoga parviflora Cav., Sonchus oleraceus L. y Wedelia glauca (Ortega O. Hoffm. ex Hicken fueron hospedantes de ambas especies. El único parasitoide registrado fue Eretmocerus californicus cercano a corni Haldeman (Hymenoptera: Aphelinidae sobre T. vaporariorum. Este estudio que constituye el primer relevamiento sistemático de plantas hospedantes en la región, aporta un mayor conocimiento sobre el rango de plantas hospedantes de las moscas blancas en Argentina.

  2. Morpho-physiological response of Colobanthus quitensis and Juncus bufonius under different simulations of climate change

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fuentes-Lillo, Eduardo; Cuba-Díaz, Marely; Rifo, Sergio

    2017-03-01

    Global warming has caused an increase in ambient temperature in Antarctica, which has led to changes in water availability due to increases of precipitation and the melting of permafrost. This scenario of climate change is shown to improve growth conditions, as well as increase populations and local expansion of native and non-native species in the Maritime Antarctic. We hypothesize that the combined effect of the increase in temperature and water availability will enhance the eco-physiological performance in Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) Bartl. and Juncus bufonius L., being more evident in the non-native species. To test this, a combined effect of temperatures and water availability (4°C H2O (field capacity), 4 °C + H2O (40% more than field capacity),15°C H2O, 15 °C + H2O, 20°C H2O and 20 °C + H2O) on morphological and physiological variables on both species were assessed. Temperatures and water availability increased significantly, which enhanced variables such as plant length, number of inflorescences, Fv/Fm and chlorophyll content for both species. When evaluating both species separately, we determined that the most crucial climate factor for the growth and development of C. quitensis was water availability, while the main determinate factor for the growth and development of J. bufonius was temperature. Also, through the simulated temperature rise and increased water availability, J. bufonius reached higher growth rates compared to C. quitensis.

  3. Detection and characterization of a Cucumber mosaic virus isolate infecting peperina, a species native to Argentina

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    P Rodríguez Pardina

    2013-12-01

    Full Text Available Minthostachys mollis (Kunth. Griseb., "peperina", un miembro de la familia Lamiaceae, es una especie aromática que se emplea en la farmacología moderna y en medicina. Está ampliamente distribuida en los Andes, desde Venezuela y Colombia hasta Argentina. En el último país, la principal área de explotación de peperina incluye el área serrana de la provincia de Córdoba, donde la especie es arrancada indiscriminadamente, lo que conlleva una pérdida irreversible de germoplasma. A los fines de preservar este recurso nativo y fuente regional de ingresos, la especie está siendo domesticada. Durante este proceso, se observó la aparición de síntomas de un conspicuo mosaico amarillo, típico de infección viral. Análisis biológicos, serológicos y moleculares (RT-PCR, RFLP, clonado y secuenciación pusieron de manifiesto la presencia del subgrupo IA de Cucumber mosaic virus en las plantas domesticadas de peperina. El aislamiento viral estudiado está íntimamente relacionado con la raza Y previamente informada en Japón. Éste es el primer informe de un virus que infecta a la peperina.

  4. Potential of dispersion of Tecoma stans and chemical attributes of some soils of the Paraná state

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    Celina Wisniewski

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available This work correlated invasiveness characteristic (potential dispersion of Tecoma stans (L. Jussieu ex. Kunth(BIGNONIACEAE known as a Yellow-Bell. Open field test was developed starting from stakes in vases with four different types soilsof the Paraná State, conduced to randomized block design with four treatments and five replications. The soils were analyzedregarding the pH, CTC, level of C, Al+³, macro and micronutrients, and content of sand, silt and clay. After 6 months the leaf area, dryweight of leaves and potential dispersion, calculated by given numeric values from 1 to 4 for phonological phases presented. Themacro and micronutrients content (except K and Fe were high in all the soils. The correlations between dispersion potential and pHand the V% were positive and significant and with effective CTC, the Fe and clay content were negative. It was not found significantcorrelations between the dispersion potential and biomass or leaf area. Positive and significant correlations of biomass and leaf areawith macro (except P and micronutrients (except Cu apparently indicate that if the evaluation had been accomplished at the end of theflowering period of the species, nutritional relationships with the dispersion potential would be clearer, although it can be concludedthat the species has a preference for less acid soils.

  5. PERÍODO CRÍTICO DE COMPETENCIA DE LAS ARVENSES CON EL CULTIVO DE MAIZ ( Z ea mays L. EN HUAMBO, ANGOLA

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    Dácia J. C. J. Vaz Pereira

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available La investigación estuvo dirigida a la determinación del periodo crítico de competencia entre las arvenses y el maíz ( Zea mays L.. Se sembraron dos experimentos sobre un suelo Ferralítico con una variedad de ciclo largo, en un agroecosistema severamente afectado por el uso desmedido de herbicidas. Se estableció un diseño de bloques al azar, con dieciocho tratamientos y cuatro replicas para dos circunstancias “con arvenses hasta” y “sin arvenses hasta” a los 7, 14, 21, 28, 35, 42, 49, 56 días después de la germinación y un testigo, con y sin arvenses todo el ciclo, para cada circunstancia respectivamente y en un experimento posterior, con sólo tres tratamientos (con y sin arvenses durante todo el ciclo y sin arvenses solo en el período crítico encontrado. Entre las especies dominantes se encontraron: Cyperus rotundus L., Bidens pilosa L., Cynodon dactylon (L. Pers. y Chloris polydatyla (L. Swartz. Los resultados mostraron que el período crítico de competencia entre las arvenses y el maíz se ubica entre 21 y 49 días posterior a la germinación, momento imperativo para realizar labores de manejo de arvenses. Antes y después de este período, no beneficia al cultivo y se incrementan los costos de producción. La relación entre la altura y el número de hoja de la planta con el rendimiento y el número de días con y sin arvenses, fue positiva para R 2 superior a 0,95 para ambas variables vs rendimiento y similar respuesta respecto a los días “con y sin arvenses”, con mejor ajuste para la primera.

  6. Status and trends of the land bird avifauna on Tinian and Aguiguan, Mariana Islands.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Pratt, Thane K.; Amidon, Fred; Marshall, Ann P.; Kremer, Shelly; Laut, Megan

    2012-01-01

    Avian surveys were conducted on the islands of Tinian and Aguiguan, Marianas Islands, in 2008 by the U.S. Fish and Wildlife Service to provide current baseline densities and abundances and assess population trends using data collected from previous surveys. On Tinian, during the three surveys (1982, 1996, and 2008), 18 species were detected, and abundances and trends were assessed for 12 species. Half of the 10 native species—Yellow Bittern (Ixobrychus sinensis), White-throated Ground-Dove (Gallicolumba xanthonura), Collared Kingfisher (Todiramphus chloris), Rufous Fantail (Rhipidura rufifrons), and Micronesian Starling (Aplonis opaca)—and one alien bird—Island Collared-Dove (Streptopelia bitorquata)—have increased since 1982. Three native birds—Mariana Fruit-Dove (Ptilinopus roseicapilla), Micronesian Honeyeater (Myzomela rubratra), and Tinian Monarch (Monarcha takatsukasae)—have decreased since 1982. Trends for the remaining two native birds—White Tern (Gygis alba) and Bridled White-eye (Zosterops saypani)—and one alien bird—Eurasian Tree Sparrow (Passer montanus)—were considered relatively stable. Only five birds—White-throated Ground-Dove, Mariana Fruit-Dove, Tinian Monarch, Rufous Fantail, and Bridled White-eye—showed significant differences among regions of Tinian by year. Tinian Monarch was found in all habitat types, with the greatest monarch densities observed in limestone forest, secondary forest, and tangantangan (Leucaena leucocephala) thicket and the smallest densities found in open fields and urban/residential habitats. On Aguiguan, 19 species were detected on one or both of the surveys (1982 and 2008), and abundance estimates were produced for nine native and one alien species. Densities for seven of the nine native birds—White-throated Ground-Dove, Mariana Fruit-Dove, Collared Kingfisher, Rufous Fantail, Bridled White-eye, Golden White-eye (Cleptornis marchei), and Micronesian Starling—and the alien bird— Island

  7. Evolutionary history of chloridoid grasses estimated from 122 nuclear loci.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fisher, Amanda E; Hasenstab, Kristen M; Bell, Hester L; Blaine, Ellen; Ingram, Amanda L; Columbus, J Travis

    2016-12-01

    Chloridoideae (chloridoid grasses) are a subfamily of ca. 1700 species with high diversity in arid habitats. Until now, their evolutionary relationships have primarily been studied with DNA sequences from the chloroplast, a maternally inherited organelle. Next-generation sequencing is able to efficiently recover large numbers of nuclear loci that can then be used to estimate the species phylogeny based upon bi-parentally inherited data. We sought to test our chloroplast-based hypotheses of relationships among chloridoid species with 122 nuclear loci generated through targeted-enrichment next-generation sequencing, sometimes referred to as hyb-seq. We targeted putative single-copy housekeeping genes, as well as genes that have been implicated in traits characteristic of, or particularly labile in, chloridoids: e.g., drought and salt tolerance. We recovered ca. 70% of the targeted loci (122 of 177 loci) in all 47 species sequenced using hyb-seq. We then analyzed the nuclear loci with Bayesian and coalescent methods and the resulting phylogeny resolves relationships between the four chloridoid tribes. Several novel findings with this data were: the sister lineage to Chloridoideae is unresolved; Centropodia+Ellisochloa are excluded from Chloridoideae in phylogenetic estimates using a coalescent model; Sporobolus subtilis is more closely related to Eragrostis than to other species of Sporobolus; and Tragus is more closely related to Chloris and relatives than to a lineage of mainly New World species. Relationships in Cynodonteae in the nuclear phylogeny are quite different from chloroplast estimates, but were not robust to changes in the method of phylogenetic analysis. We tested the data signal with several partition schemes, a concatenation analysis, and tests of alternative hypotheses to assess our confidence in this new, nuclear estimate of evolutionary relationships. Our work provides markers and a framework for additional phylogenetic studies that sample more

  8. Community Structures of Macrozoobenthos and Assessment of Water Quality in Pu River Basin%蒲河流域大型底栖无脊椎动物群落结构及水质评价

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    姜永伟

    2015-01-01

    2014年10月对辽宁省境内的蒲河大型底栖无脊椎动物(以下简称底栖动物)群落结构进行了调查研究,共采集到底栖动物3门5纲12目22科39属44种。其中,节肢动物门35种,占总种类数的80%,环节动物门5种,占11%,软体动物门4种,占9%。优势种有小云多足摇蚊、溪流摇蚊、霍甫水丝蚓、负子蝽、划蝽、绿倒毛摇蚊、浅白雕翅摇蚊、苏氏尾鳃蚓。采用EPT百分比、BMWP-ASPT、Berger-Parker指数和BI指数对蒲河水质进行评价,结果表明,BI指数法结合指示生物法更适于蒲河流域水质生物评价,蒲河流域整体水质存在污染,且生物多样性遭到破坏,需要进行水生态修复与重建。%The community structure of macrozoobenthos was investigated in Pu River basin at October in 2014.A total of 44 species of macrozoobenthos were collected,belonging to 3 phyla,5 classes,12 orders,22 families and 39 genera.Among them,the Arthropoda included 35 species,accounting for 80%of the total species number.The Annelida included 5 species,accounting for 11%of the total species number.The Mollusca included 4 species,accounting for 9% of the total species number.The prevalent macrozoobenthos species were Polypedilumnubeculosum,Chironomusriparius,L.hoffmeistteri,Belostmatidae,Corixidae,M.chloris,Glyptotendrpespallers,Branchiurasowerbyi Beddard.The assessment of water quality was conducted by EPT,BMWP-ASPT,Berger-Parker Index and Biotic Index(BI),and the results showed that BI method combined with Bio Indicator method was more suitable for water quality evaluation of Pu River basin.The overall water quality of Pu River was polluted,and the biodiversity was damaged,so it’s need for water ecological restoration and reconstruction.

  9. Utilización del patrón de restricción del DNA codificante para el RNA Ribosomal de la subunidad pequeña para la caracterización de Apicomplexa

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    López Adelaida

    1996-12-01

    Full Text Available Los Apicomplexos constituyen un phylum de protozoarios que se caracterizan por ser parásitos obligados de una gran variedad de huéspedes vertebrados e invertebrados. Hoy en día hay fuertes polémicas en tomo a su clasificación taxonómica, sus relaciones filogenéticas, y los patrones de coevolución con sus hospederos. El gen que codifica para el ARN ribosomal de la subunidad pequeña (ARN-SURp se utiliza como marcador molecular para resolver estas inquietudes. A partir del ADN de las especies de la familia Sarcocystidae (Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis sp. de Didelphis marsupialis y Sarcocystis sp. de Columbina talpacoti y Toxoplasma gondii, y de especies de la familia Plasmodiidae (Plasmodium de Anolis chloris, P. simium, y P. falciparumi, se amplificó por PCR el gen que codifica para el ARN de la subunidad ribosomal pequeña (ARN- SURp usando los iniciadores P5-P3, 0009-2134 Y566R-567R. Se compararon
    los patrones de restricción Hind III, Eco RI, Sau 3AI y Alw 261 del DNA ribosomal. La prueba de riboprini mostró que además de discriminar entre familias permite caracterizar diferencias a nivel de género y especie.Apicomplexa is a Protozoa phylum in which all members are obliged parasites of a wide range of vertebrate and invertebrate hosts. There is an ongoing controversy on
    systematics, phylogenetic relationships and parasite - host coevolution patterns. The SSU ribosomal gen has been used as a molecular marker in order to solve these issues.
    From DNA of the species of the Sarcocystidae family (Sarcocystis cruzi, Sarcocystis sp. from Didelphis marsupialis, Sarcocystis sp. from Columbina talpacoti and Toxoplasma
    gondii, and from the species of the Plasmodiidae family (Plasmodium from Anolis ehloris, P. simium, and P. falciparum, the SSU ribosomal DNA fragemnt was
    amplified by PCR, using the pair of primers P5-P3, 0009-2134 and 566R-567R. Hind III, Eco RI, Sau 3AI and Alw 261 restriction pattems were compared

  10. Composição mineral de uma linhagem de Pleurotus ostreatus cultivada em resíduos madeireiros e agroindustriais da região amazônica Mineral composition of Pleurotus ostreatus strain grown in wood and agroindustrial residues from the Amazon region

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ceci Sales-Campos

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available Os cogumelos do gênero Pleurotus são cultivados em diversos substratos lignocelulósicos, dada a atividade decompositora desses organismos proveniente de seu metabolismo enzimático. O presente estudo teve como objetivo analisar a composição mineral de Pleurotus ostreatus e dos substratos de cultivo preparados à base de resíduos madeireiros e agroindustriais da região amazônica. Foram analisados macro (P, K, Ca e Mg e micronutrientes (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn e Na dos cogumelos e dos substratos. Os substratos foram formulados a partir da serragem de Simarouba amara Aubl. (marupá, Ochroma piramidale Cav. ex. Lam. (pau de balsa e de bagaços de Bactris gasipaes Kunth (pupunheira e de Saccharum officinarum (cana-de-açúcar. As amostras foram solubilizadas mediante digestão ácida (nítrico-peridrol. Os elementos Ca, Mg, Fe, Cu, Zn e Mn foram determinados por espectrometria de absorção atômica; o Na e K, por emissão atômica e o P, por colorimetria. A composição mineral do cogumelo variou com o substrato de cultivo. Os diferentes substratos possibilitaram a produção de um cogumelo rico em K, P, Mg e Fe, essenciais à nutrição e à saúde humana. O potássio foi o mineral de maior teor no cogumelo em todos os substratos testados (36,83-42,18 g.kg-1, seguido de fósforo (6,95-10,60 g.kg-1 e do magnésio (1,57-2,50 g.kg-1.Mushrooms belonging to the Pleurotus gender are grown in several lignocellulosic substrates due to the decomposing activity of these organisms that result from their enzymatic metabolism. The objective of the present study was to analyze the mineral composition of Pleurotus ostreatus and the cultivation substrates prepared with wood and agroindustrial residues from the Amazon region. Macro (P, K, Ca and Mg and micronutrients (Fe, Zn, Cu, Mn and Na of mushroom and substrates were analyzed. Substrates were formulated from Simarouba amara Aubl. and Ochroma piramidale Cav. ex. Lam. sawdust and crushed Bactris gasipaes Kunth

  11. Caracterização da fauna edáfica em sistemas de manejo para produção de forragens no Estado do Piauí Characterization of edaphic fauna in management systems for forage production in the State of Piauí

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    Luís Alfredo Pinheiro Leal Nunes

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo desse trabalho foi avaliar a distribuição da fauna em função da umidade do solo em diferentes sistemas de manejo para a produção de forragens com capim-Tifton 85 (Cynodon dactylon Pers. x C. niemfuensis Vanderys, capim-Tanzânia (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia, capim-Andropogon (Andropogon gayanus Kunth, Leucena (Leucaena leucocephala (Lam. R. de Wit. tendo como controle uma Mata dos Cocais. A coleta da fauna foi feita utilizando-se armadilhas do tipo Pitfall em duas épocas do ano: setembro de 2007 e março de 2008, período seco e chuvoso, respectivamente. Os sistemas com capim-Tifton, capim-Tanzânia e Leucena mostraram maior número de indivíduos nos dois períodos avaliados. A queimada ocorrida no capim-Andropogon antes da primeira coleta resultou em uma redução na abundância e diversidade da fauna edáfica. Os maiores valores em riqueza, diversidade e uniformidade de fauna foram obtidos na amostragem realizada no período úmido. A mata mostrou maior diversidade e equitabilidade nos dois períodos avaliados. Em situação de estresse hídrico alguns grupos como Formicidae e Collembola predominaram nos sistemas de manejo diminuindo a uniformidade, enquanto no período úmido vários grupos mostraram boa representatividade o que favoreceu a uniformidade. A análise multivariada de componentes principais evidenciou que os sistemas com mata, capim-Tifton e capim-Tanzania e Leucena mostraram associação com vários grupos da fauna edáfica nos dois períodos avaliados enquanto que o sistema com capim-Andropogon, que sofreu queimada, apresentou afinidade apenas com o grupo Heteroptera, no período seco.The objective of this study was to evaluate the distribution of fauna as a function of soil moisture in different fodder-production management systems of Tifton 85 grass (Cynodon dactylon Pers. x C. niemfuensis Vanderys, Tanzania grass (Panicum maximum Jacq. cv. Tanzânia, Andropogon Grass (Andropogon gayanus Kunth and

  12. Fotossíntese, condutância estomática e transpiração em pupunheira sob deficiência hídrica Photosynthesis, stomatal conductance and transpiration in peach palm under water stress

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    Maria Aparecida José de Oliveira

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Resultados de pesquisa envolvendo aspectos fisiológicos da pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, fruteira nativa da América Tropical, são escassos. Procurando completar essa lacuna, um experimento sob deficiência hídrica foi conduzido em casa de vegetação, durante um período de 13 dias, utilizando plantas de 12 meses de idade. O objetivo principal foi avaliar as respostas da pupunheira à deficiência hídrica. As variáveis observadas foram: taxa de assimilação de CO2, transpiração, condutância estomática e potencial de água das folhas. As coletas dos dados foram realizadas diariamente em laboratório e sob fluxo de 1200 mim-2 s-1. Os resultados foram submetidos à análise de variância e de regressão. Verificou-se decréscimo no potencial de água da folha e nas trocas gasosas quando a irrigação foi interrompida por mais de seis dias. Valores mínimos foram obtidos no décimo dia, com redução de 92% da fotossíntese líquida, 87% da condutância estomática e 70% da transpiração. O menor potencial de água nas folhas (-1,9 MPa foi também observado nesse período. Houve recuperação total de todas as variáveis dois dias após reirrigação, com exceção da condutância estomática. A diminuição da condutância estomática e a queda mais rápida da taxa de transpiração que a queda na fotossíntese, indicam a existência de mecanismos de aclimatação em pupunheira, no sentido de diminuir as perdas de água, quando sob condição de estresse hídrico moderado.Research results on physiological aspects of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, a native fruit tree from tropical America, are scarce. Trying to fill this gap, a water deficit experiment was performed under nursery conditions during 13 days, utilizing 12 months old plants. The main objective was to evaluate peach palm responses to water deficit. The measured variables were: CO2 assimilation rate, transpiration rate, stomatal conductance and leaf water potential

  13. Aliso en Simbiosis Dual con Frankia y Endomicorrizas y Respuesta a Boro en un Andisol Alder in Dual Symbiosis whith Frankia and Endomycorrhizae and Response at Boron in an Andisol

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    Marisol Medina Sierra

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Resumen. Se evaluó la respuesta del aliso (Alnus acuminata Kunth a la inoculación dual con cepas de Frankia spp. y de hongos endomicorrizógenos con dos niveles de boro (B (0,3 y 0,6 mg kg-1 suelo y la aplicación de nitrógeno (N (40 kg ha-1, fósforo (P (30 mg kg-1 suelo y un control sin inoculación ni elementos químicos. Se empleó un diseño completamente aleatorizado, con 41 tratamientos y 20 repeticiones. Para el análisis estadístico de componentes principales se empleó el programa Multibiplot. Las variables respuesta correspondieron a la biomasa seca aérea y sus contenidos de N, P, Calcio (Ca y cenizas (cen. Se encontró que los tratamientos de P y N y las cepas nativas de Frankia spp. (UdeA902, UdeA904 y CUNMS502 combinados con hongos micorrizógenos (UdeA1905 y Glomus fistulosum respectivamente, favorecieron el rendimiento y contenido de N del aliso. La aplicación de B en algunos casos mejoró el rendimiento y en otros lo afectó negativamente; pero potenció la respuesta de algunas inoculaciones especialmente cuando estuvo presente G. fistulosum aún en el caso de estar acompañado de la cepa de Frankia (CUNMS502. Esta cepa, que presentó bajo rendimiento en otros tratamientos, se vio favorecida notablemente con la adición de B. La inoculación dual es efectiva para favorecer el manejo forestal del aliso siempre y cuando se haga la selección adecuada de las cepas, lo cual puede además condicionar la respuesta a algunos nutrientes como en el caso del B.Abstract. It was evaluated the response of alder (Alnus acuminata Kunth to the dual inoculation of strains of Frankia spp. and endomycorrhizal fungi with two levels of boron (B (0.3 and 0.6 mg kg-1 soil and the application of nitrogen (N (40 kg ha-1, phosphorus (P (30 mg kg-1 soil and a control without inoculation or chemical elements. The experimental design was completely randomized; it was composed kg-1of 41 treatments and 20 replications. The statistical analysis consisted

  14. Perdas fermentativas e composição bromatológica da entrecasca de palmito pupunha ensilada com aditivos químicos Fermentative losses and chemical composition of pupunha palm by-products ensiled with chemical additives

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    Patrick Schmidt

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available Objetivou-se avaliar o efeito da inclusão de aditivos químicos na ensilagem de resíduos (entrecasca da produção de palmito pupunha (Bactris gasipaes, Kunth. Utilizaram-se silos experimentais (baldes de 20 litros providos de aparatos para determinação gravimétrica de perdas por gases e efluentes. Os tratamentos aplicados foram: controle (sem aditivos; ureia (1% da MV e cal virgem (1% da MV. Decorridos 70 dias de armazenagem, os silos foram pesados, abertos e amostrados. As perdas por efluentes e gases aumentaram com a aplicação de cal virgem na ensilagem. As perdas totais de MS foram de 15,1; 14,4 e 26,6% nas silagens controle, ureia e cal, respectivamente. Em todas as silagens, houve redução no teor de FDN e elevação da fração FDA, o que indica desaparecimento da fração hemicelulose. A relação cálcio:fósforo aumentou substancialmente com a adição de cal virgem, de 4,1:1 na silagem controle para 15,6:1 na silagem com cal. O resíduo da extração do palmito pupunha pode ser classificado como alimento de média qualidade e alto teor de umidade. Os aditivos aplicados na ensilagem não são efetivos em reduzir as perdas fermentativas no processo de conservação.Feeding animals with agro-residues may reduce costs and environmental concerns. The agroindustrial wastes used as ruminant feeding are an alternative for ambient problems caused by it accumulation. This study aimed to evaluate chemical additives on the ensilage of residues of pupunha palm (Bactris gasipaes, Kunth production. Experimental silos (20 L buckets were used equipped with meters to determine gas and effluent DM losses. The experimental treatments were: control (no additives; urea (1% - wet basis and calcium oxide (1% WB. After 70 days storage, the silos were weighed, opened and sampled. Effluent and gas DM losses increased with the application of calcium oxide at ensiling. Total DM losses were 15.1, 14.4 and 26.6% for the Control, Urea and Calcium oxide

  15. Campo rupestre recém-queimado na Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brasil: plantas de rebrota e sementes, com espécies endêmicas na rocha Recently burnt 'campo rupestre' in the Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brazil: resprouters and seeders, with endemic rock species

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    Sâmia Paula Santos Neves

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available O fogo é um distúrbio recorrente em muitas áreas da Chapada Diamantina, geralmente originado por ação antrópica e que ocasiona rápidas mudanças nas comunidades. Este trabalho objetiva conhecer a composição e estrutura da vegetação de uma área de campo rupestre recém-queimada no Parque Nacional da Chapada Diamantina, Bahia, Brasil, situada entre 700 e 800 m acima do nível do mar, visando discussão das estratégias de regeneração das espécies mais conspícuas e das similaridades florísticas entre áreas com e sem distúrbio recente de fogo. Foi realizado um censo das espécies de plantas vasculares ocorrentes em 16 parcelas de 10x10 m, sendo as coberturas estimadas em cinco subparcelas de 2x2 m de cada parcela. Foram encontradas 85 espécies de 34 famílias, sendo 11 de monocotiledôneas, 22 de eudicotiledôneas e uma de monilófita. A espécie mais abundante foi Panicum trinii Kunth (Poaceae e a mais frequente Periandra mediterranea (Vell. Taub. (Fabaceae. O índice de Shannon foi 3,4. A área estudada agrupou-se com a área de afloramento rochoso em altitude menos elevada (38% de similaridade. É possível que o fogo seja mais frequente nessas áreas menos isoladas, em relação às dos topos de morros. As espécies dominantes se restabeleceram principalmente a partir de gemas de sistemas subterrâneos e aéreos. Uma das espécies mais frequentes, Dactylaena microphylla Eichler, estabeceu-se de sementes. Espécies endêmicas sensíveis à ação do fogo sobrevivem em ilhas de vegetação nos afloramentos rochosos.Fire is a recurrent disturbance in many areas of Chapada Diamantina, generally set by human activity that drives rapid changes in communities. This study aims to investigate the composition and structure of 'campo rupestre' vegetation in a recently burned area, between 700 and 800 m above sea level, at Chapada Diamantina National Park, Bahia, Brazil, and to discuss the strategies of regeneration for the most

  16. Degradação de pastagens na Região Amazônica: propriedades físicas do solo e crescimento de raízes Pasture degradation in the Amazon region: soil physical properties and root growth

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    Marcelo Marques Lopes Muller

    2001-11-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar: (i a relação entre a degradação de pastagens de colonião manejadas com queima, e as modificações nas propriedades físicas e morfológicas de um Argissolo Vermelho-Amarelo da Amazônia; (ii o crescimento radicular de pastagens com diferentes níveis de degradação; (iii o potencial de recuperação de pastagens degradadas de colonião com a introdução de andropógon. Numa propriedade rural da Região de Marabá, PA, foram estudados quatro tipos de pastagem: pastagem produtiva de colonião (Panicum maximum Jacq.; pastagem de colonião em declínio produtivo; pastagem de colonião degradada (capoeira; pastagem de colonião degradada e recuperada com andropógon (Andropogon gayanus Kunth. Como referência das propriedades do solo antes do desmatamento, estudou-se, também, uma reserva de mata nativa. A queima das pastagens foi prática usual, e apesar disso, estas não foram adubadas. A degradação da pastagem diminuiu a cobertura do solo e o deixou exposto à chuva e ao pisoteio do gado, o que resultou em aumento da densidade do solo na camada superficial e diminuição do grau de floculação da argila e da porosidade total. A diminuição da produção da parte aérea na pastagem degradada foi acompanhada de diminuição do número de raízes no perfil do solo, e da concentração do sistema radicular próximo à superfície. O andropógon demonstrou bom potencial para recuperação das áreas de pastagens degradadas, na Região Amazônica.The objective of this study was to evaluate: (i the relation between the degradation of burned Guinea grass pastures and the modifications of some physical and morphological properties of an Amazonian Ultisol; (ii the root growth of pastures in different degradation stages; and (iii the potential of rehabilitation of degraded Guinea grass pastures by introducing Gamba grass. On a farm at the eastern Amazon, region of Marabá, PA, Brazil, four pasture types were

  17. Comparison of bioassays using the anostracan crustaceans Artemia salina and Thamnocephalus platyurus for plant extract toxicity screening Comparação de bioensaios com os crustáceos Artemia salina e Thamnocephalus platyurus para abordagem de extratos de plantas com toxicidade

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    Pablo Mayorga

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Three lethality bioassays, using the salt-water crustacean Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (conventional 96 microwell plate test and the Artoxkit M microbiotest and the freshwater crustacean Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae, (Thamnotoxkit F microbiotest, were compared using extracts of ten Guatemalan plant species. It was previously observed that five of them have anti-Artemia activity. These were: Solanum americanum Mill., Solanaceae, Gliricidia sepium (Jacq. Kunth ex Walp., Fabaceae, Neurolaena lobata (L. Cass., Asteraceae, Petiveria alliacea L., Phytolaccaceae, and Ocimum campechianum Mill., Lamiaceae. The five others: Curatella americana L., Dilleniaceae, Prunus barbata Koehne, Rosaceae, Quercus crispifolia Trel., Fagaceae, Rhizophora mangle L., Rhizophoraceae, and Smilax domingensis Willd., Smilacaceae, do not. All plants without anti-Artemia activity had no lethal effects in both assays with A. salina. For the plants with anti-Artemia activity the Artoxkit M was not sensitive to G. sepium and the conventional Artemia test was not sensitive to S. americanum, G. sepium and N. lobata. All the plant extracts, except for that of C. americana, had lethal effects on T. platyurus and the lethal median concentration (LC50 levels for this organism were in all cases substantially lower than those of the salt-water test species. This study revealed that T. platyurus is a promising test species worth further in depth investigation for toxicity screening of plant extracts with potential medicinal properties.Três bioensaios de letalidade com o crustáceo de água salgada Artemia salina Leach, Artemiidae, (teste convencional em microplaca de 96 poós Artoxkit microbiotest M e o crustáceo de água doce Thamnocephalus platyurus Packard, Thamnocephalidae (Thamnotoxkit microbiotest F, foram comparados utilizando extratos de dez espécies de plantas da Guatemala. Foi previamente observado que cinco delas possuem atividade anti

  18. Karyotypic studies and morphological analysis of some reproductive features in five species of Conyza (Astereae: Asteraceae from Northeastern Argentina Estudios cariotípicos y análisis morfológico de algunos caracteres reproductivos en cinco especies de Conyza (Astereae: Asteraceae del Noreste de Argentina

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    Juan D. Urdampilleta

    2005-07-01

    Full Text Available The cosmopolitan genus Conyza Less. comprises about 100 species, 22 of which occur in Argentina. Current taxonomic treatments, largely based on exomorphological characters, are insufficient to characterize and circumscribe some of their polymorphic species. Interspecific variations in inflorescences typology and capitula structure, as well as karyotypic aspects, were studied in five species of Conyza that naturally occur in Misiones Province (Argentina: C. blakei (Cabrera Cabrera, C. bonariensis (L. Cronquist var. bonariensis, C. glandulitecta Cabrera, C. primulaefolia (Lam. Cuatrec. & Lourteig, C. sumatrensis (Retz. E. Walker var. sumatrensis and C. sumatrensis (Retz. E. Walker var. floribunda (Kunth J. B. Marshall. Chromosome numbers for C. bonariensis, C. sumatrensis var. sumatrensis and C. sumatrensis var. floribunda, all with 2n= 54 and C. primulaefolia (2n= 72, were confirmed; two new counts are reported: C. blakei (2n= 54 and C. glandulitecta (2n= 54. All karyotypes were compared, and related with the variation both in flower number per capitula as well as typology of the inflorescence. The results obtained considering the different sources of evidence, demonstrated a close relationship between C. sumatrensis var. sumatrensis and C. sumatrensis var. floribunda, that exhibit characteristics that may be considered primitive for the genus; C. primulaefolia shows the most advanced ones while C. blakei, C. bonariensis and C. glandulitecta occupy an intermediate position.El género cosmopolita Conyza Less. comprende alrededor de 100 especies, de las cuales 22 habitan en Argentina. Los tratamientos taxonómicos actuales, largamente basados en caracteres exomorfológicos, son insuficientes para caracterizar y circunscribir algunas de sus especies polimórficas. Variaciones interespecíficas en la tipología de las inflorescencias y estructura del capítulo, así como aspectos cariotípicos, fueron estudiados en cinco especies de Conyza que

  19. Flora cactológica y especies asociadas en el área natural protegida Sierra Corral de los Bandidos, Nuevo León, México Cactus list and asociated plants of the protected natural area Sierra Corral de Los Bandidos, Nuevo Leon, Mexico

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    María del Pilar Carmona-Lara

    2008-12-01

    Full Text Available El área natural protegida (ANP Sierra Corral de los Bandidos ubicada en la sierra Madre Oriental, al noroeste de Monterrey, sufre el impacto de actividades antropológicas asociadas al matorral submontano (ganadería, agricultura, colecta y urbanismo, disminuyendo sus recursos naturales y amenazando sus especies endémicas, principalmente cactáceas. El propósito del estudio fue conocer la diversidad de cactáceas y especies asociadas en zonas de amortiguamiento y núcleo. Para ello se determinaron índices de riqueza y similitud utilizando un muestreo estratificado con cuadrantes a lo largo de transectos orientados por gradientes altitudinales según su zonificación. En total se registraron 112 taxa (30 cactáceas, 87 (24 cactáceas en zona de amortiguamiento y 80 (19 cactáceas en zona núcleo. Por su densidad, frecuencia y abundancia sobresalieron Echinocereus stramineus (Engelm. Engelm. ex F. Seitz, Cylindropuntia leptocaulis F. M. Knuth in Backeb et F. M. Knuth, Mammillaria melanocentra Poselg., Neolloydia conoidea (DC Britton et Rose, (Cactaceae; Erioneuron avenaceum (H. B et K. Tateoka, (Poaceae; Viguiera stenoloba S. F. Blake; Zexmenia hispida (Kunth A. Gray, (Asteraceae y Agave lechuguilla Torr, (Agavaceae. Existe diferencia significativa entre las poblaciones de cactus de las zonas del ANP, según Jacquard (13%, Sörensen (38% y Morisita (0.44. Ocho cactáceas (7 endémicas están registradas en algún estatus de la NOM-ECOL-059, 2001.The Sierra Corral de los Bandidos is a natural protected area located in the Sierra Madre Oriental mountain range northwest of Monterrey city. This preserve suffers the impact of human activities in the form of cattle ranching, agriculture, harvest of wild plants, and urbanism, diminishing its natural resources and threatening its endemic species, especially from the cactaceae family. The purpose of this study was to obtain information on the diversity of cacti and associated species in the buffer and

  20. Determinação dos teores de umidade e cinzas de amostras comerciais de guaraná utilizando métodos convencionais e análise térmica Determination of humidity and ash content of guarana commercial samples using conventional method and thermal analysis

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    Adriano Antunes de Souza Araújo

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available Paullinia cupana Kunth, vegetal popularmente conhecido como guaraná, é uma planta da família Sapindaceae predominante na região amazônica. A baixa qualidade deste produto pode ser atribuída a espécies e variedades menos nobres, técnicas de colheita e/ou de processamento inadequado ou, ainda, devido à adição de substâncias que não fazem parte de sua composição natural. Neste trabalho objetivou-se avaliar, a partir da termogravimetria (TG/termogravimetria derivada (DTG e calorimetria exploratória diferencial (DSC, o comportamento térmico de amostras comerciais de guaraná em pó existentes no Brasil e estabelecer um estudo comparativo entre os métodos convencionais e termogravimétrico para determinação dos teores de umidade e cinzas. A similaridade entre os perfis das curvas TG/DTG e DSC indicam que não há diferenças entre as amostras. A utilização da TG mostrou que é possível reduzir o tempo de análise, utilizar menor quantidade de amostra, assim como, fazer a determinação simultânea dos teores de umidade e cinzas. Em relação ao método convencional, erros de análise inerentes à manipulação das amostras são minimizados. As técnicas termoanalíticas mostram-se como ferramentas potenciais para a obtenção de parâmetros tecnológicos, em controle de qualidade, torrefação e condições adequadas de armazenamento.Paullinia cupana Kunth a vegetable popularly known as guarana, belongs to the Sapindaceas plant family and is predominant in the Amazon region. The low quality of this product can be attributed to the species and less noble varieties, harvest techniques and/or inadequate processing or, yet due to addition of substances that are not included in its natural composition. The main goal of this work was to evaluate from thermogravimetry (TG/derivative thermogravimetry (DTG and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC, the thermal behavior of powdered guarana samples in the Brazilian market in order to

  1. Longevidade de inflorescências de Epidendrum ibaguense tratadas com aminoetoxivinilglicina Extending vase life of cut Epidendrum ibaguense inflorescences with aminoethoxyvinylglycine

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    Ana Maria Mapeli

    2009-03-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar a influência do inibidor da síntese de etileno aminoetoxivinilglicina (AVG aplicado na forma de solução de condicionamento e pulverização sobre a abscisão e longevidade de inflorescências de Epidendrum ibaguense Kunth. As hastes foram colhidas e imediatamente condicionadas em solução com 0, 0,5, 1, 1,5 e 2 mM de AVG por 6, 12, 18 e 24 horas. Os mesmos tratamentos foram aplicados na forma de pulverização até o molhamento completo da inflorescência. O experimento foi conduzido em um esquema fatorial entre tempo de aplicação e doses de AVG, mais doses de AVG aplicadas em pulverização nas flores, e o delineamento foi em blocos ao acaso, com cinco repetições, com três hastes por unidade experimental. Independentemente do modo de aplicação do AVG, as concentrações utilizadas promoveram aumento da longevidade das flores em aproximadamente 70% em comparação ao controle, com resposta máxima nas concentrações de 1,5 e 2 mM. Apercentagem de abscisão de flores foi reduzida em todos os tratamentos com AVG, principalmente quando se utilizou pulverização, com decréscimo na abscisão acumulada superior a 80% nas concentrações entre 1 e 2 mM de AVG.A aplicação de AVG prolongaa longevidadee reduz a abscisãode flores de Epidendrum ibaguense.This work evaluated the influence of the aminoethoxyvinylglycine (AVG, an inhibitor of ethylene synthesis, when applied in pulsing solution or sprayed, on the abscission and longevity of cut star orchid (Epidendrum ibaguense Kunth inflorescences. The cut stems were placed in solutions with 0, 0.5, 1, 1.5 and 2 mM AVG concentrations immediately after the harvest for periods of 6, 12, 18 and 24 hours. The same treatment concentrations were sprayed on the inflorescences until runoff. The experiment had a randomized complete block design with factorial treatments of rate and duration plus rate of application to the flowers, with five replicates, with three

  2. Repetibilidade da produção de cachos de híbridos interespecíficos entre o caiaué e o dendezeiro Repeatability for bunch production in interspecific hybrids between caiaué and african oil palm

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    Gilson Sánchez Chia

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available A hibridação interespecífica entre o caiaué (Elaeis oleífera (Kunth Cortés e o dendezeiro (E. guineensis Jacq. tem sido explorada com o objetivo de desenvolver cultivares tão produtivas quanto as de dendezeiro, aliada à resistência a pragas e doenças, principalmente o amarelecimento fatal, elevada taxa de ácidos graxos insaturados e redução de porte características do caiaué. Por ser uma cultura perene com longo ciclo de produção, além dos altos custos para manutenção e avaliação dos experimentos de melhoramento genético, é necessário definir o período mínimo de avaliação para que a seleção dos híbridos seja realizada com eficiência e mínimo dispêndio de tempo e recursos. Este estudo teve como objetivo estimar os coeficientes de repetibilidade dos caracteres número de cachos, peso total de cachos e peso médio de cachos de híbridos interespecíficos e definir o número de anos consecutivos de avaliação necessário para seleção eficiente dos melhores cruzamentos e indivíduos. Os coeficientes de repetibilidade foram estimados pelos métodos da análise de variância, componentes principais com base na matriz de covariância (CPCV e de correlações, e análise estrutural com base na matriz de correlações. O método dos CPCV demonstrou ser o mais adequado para o estudo da repetibilidade da produção de cachos, indicando quatro anos consecutivos de avaliação para selecionar progênies, representadas por dez plantas, com coeficientes de determinação (R² superiores a 85%, e que para seleção individual de plantas são necessários pelo menos seis anos consecutivos de avaliação para atingir R² superior a 80%.Interspecific hybridization between the caiaué (Elaeis oleífera (Kunth Cortés and the african oil palm (E. guineensis Jacq. has been exploited with the objective of developing varieties as productive as African oil palm and with the pest and disease resistance, reduced height and high levels

  3. THE POLEN PAULLINIEAE (SAPINDACEAE EL POLEN DE PAULLINIEAE (SAPINDACEAE

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    María Silvia Ferrucci

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    A detailed study on the morphology of pollen on thirty one species of the tribe Paulliniieae, comprising seven genera, has been carried out by LM and SEM.
    The pollen grains of the following taxa were examined: subtribe Paulliniinae (Cardiospermum L., 4 spp., Houssayanthus Hunz., 2 spp., Lophostigma Radlk., 1 sp., Paullinia L., 3 spp., Serjania Miller, 16 spp., and Urvillea Kunth, 4 spp.; subtribe Tlúnouúnae (Thinouia Triana & Planchon, 1 sp.. All of them grow in Argentina, except L. plumosum Radlk. and H. monogynus (Schdl. Ferrucci, collected in Bolivia and Paraguay respectively.
    Four pollen types have been recognized: type A - isopolar, tricolporate, subspheroidal to oblate-spheroidal grains in Thinouia; type B - isopolar or subisopolar, trisyncolporate, heterocolpate, dicolpodiorate, monocolpate, prolate or prolate-spheroidal grains in Lophostigma; type C - heteropolar, hemitrisyncolporate, peroblate or oblate grains are shared by Serjania, Houssayanthus, Cardiospermum and Urvillea, (in these genera tbree groups are recognized based on details of structure and sculpture and type D - isopolar or subisopolar triporate, oblate or peroblate grains in Paullinia.
    The probable evolutionary trends of pollen morphology cbaracters are discussed. Based on shape and aperture types of the grains, a tentative phylogenetic line of the tribe is presented
    Un estudio detallado sobre la morfología del polen en treinta y una especie de la tribu Paullinieae, que comprende siete géneros, se ha llevado a cabo por LM y SEM.
    Fueron examinados los granos de polen de las siguientes especies: subtribu Paulliniinae (Cardiospermum L., 4 spp, Houssayanthus Hunz, 2 spp, Lophostigma Radlk, 1 sp, Paullinia L., 3 spp, Serjania Miller, 16 spp., y Urvillea Kunth, 4 spp;. subtribu Thinouiinae (Thinouia Triana & Planchon, 1 sp. Todas ellas crecen en la Argentina, salvo Radlk L.plumosum y H.monogynus (Schdl. Ferrucci

  4. Respostas de crescimento da pupunheira à adubação NPK Peach palm growth responses to NPK fertilization

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    Marilene Leão Alves Bovi

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available As palmeiras apresentam grande demanda por nutrientes. Por este motivo, o efeito da adubação NPK no crescimento de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth foi estudado durante 30 meses (11/90 a 04/93 em experimento conduzido a campo em solo Aluvial álico (corrigido por meio de calagem em Ubatuba, SP (clima "Cfa". Utilizou-se o delineamento de blocos ao acaso, com uma repetição, em esquema fatorial fracionado (½ de 4³, com tratamentos dispostos em dois blocos, parcelas úteis de 24 plantas e bordaduras duplas ao redor. Foram testadas quatro doses de nitrogênio (0, 100, 200 e 400 kg ha-1 ano-1 de N, fósforo (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de P2O5 e potássio (0, 50, 100 e 200 kg ha-1 ano-1 de K2O, aplicadas em faixa e divididas em cinco aplicações anuais, utilizando como fontes nitrocálcio, superfosfato triplo e cloreto de potássio. As plantas foram cultivadas no espaçamento de 2 × 1 m, e avaliadas periodicamente quanto ao diâmetro da haste principal, número de perfilhos e porcentagem de plantas perfilhadas. Em solo arenoso e de baixa fertilidade, a pupunheira apresenta resposta linear, positiva e significativa de crescimento às adubações com nitrogênio (N e potássio (K e ausência de resposta ao fósforo (P. As primeiras respostas significativas ocorreram três meses depois de iniciadas as adubações diferenciadas. Não houve interações significativas entre N, P e K. O crescimento máximo foi obtido com doses anuais de 400 kg de N, 0 kg de P2O5 e 200 kg de K2O por hectare.Palms have high nutrient demand. For this reason, the effects of NPK fertilization on the initial growth of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth were studied in a field experiment, from November 1990 to April 1993. The trial was set up on an allic, previously limed soil, in Ubatuba, SP, Brazil (23º27'S, 45º04'W, 6 m asl; "Cfa" climate. A fractional factorial experimental design (½ of 4³ was utilized, with two blocks, one replication, 24 inner plants per

  5. Relações alométricas para estimativa da fitomassa aérea em pupunheira Peach palm biomass estimates based on allometric relationships

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    Fernando Vinicio A. Vega

    2004-03-01

    Full Text Available A estimativa da fitomassa aérea da pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth por meio de relações alométricas tem aplicação teórica e prática, sendo essencial em estudos de fisiologia de crescimento, bem como para identificar respostas e predizer a produção. No presente trabalho foram avaliadas diferentes equações buscando o melhor ajuste alométrico representativo da fitomassa da pupunheira cultivada para a produção de palmito. Foram utilizadas palmeiras inermes, da raça Putumayo, em diferentes estádios de desenvolvimento, cultivadas em Ubatuba (SP no espaçamento de 2 x 1 m. Selecionaram-se 117 plantas, com alturas entre 0,22 e 5,04 m e diâmetros entre 2,23 e 27,06 cm. Medidas diretas, relacionadas ao crescimento, foram realizadas antes do corte. Em seguida as plantas foram separadas em diferentes partes estruturais, sendo medidas, pesadas e secas, obtendo-se a massa da matéria seca. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de regressão e ajuste de equações, tendo como variáveis independentes os caracteres facilmente mensuráveis e não destrutivos. A fitomassa da pupunheira pode ser estimada de forma precisa a partir de equações simples, valendo-se de relações alométricas. A altura da haste principal, medida do solo até a inserção da folha +1, foi o caráter preditório indireto ideal para estimar a fitomassa de pupunheiras em cultivo comercial. Identificou-se também que, do estádio de implantação ao início de colheita de palmito, a contribuição dos perfilhos para a fitomassa aérea total é pequena e pode ser desprezada.Biomass estimates based on allometric relationships have theoretical and practical application. These data are useful tools in growth analysis experiments and yield prediction. Several equations were studied to define the best allometric fit to peach palm grown for heart-of-palm purpose. Spineless peach palms (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, from Putumayo landrace, were utilized. The experiment, in a 2 x 1

  6. Seasonal growth variation of peach palms cultivated in containers under subtropical conditions Variação estacional do crescimento em pupunheiras cultivadas em recipientes em condição subtropical

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    Maria Luiza Sant'Anna Tucci

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth is grown in the São Paulo State, Brazil, under climate seasonal variation conditions, mainly temperature and rainfal with possible effects on plant physiology. Recently, due to a higher interest in carrying out physiological experiments on the species, there has been a requirement for more controlled experimental conditions. Therefore, with the aim of studying the seasonal variation of peach palm growth for heart-of-palm production, as well as the possibility of growing them until harvest in pots, for future utilization in physiological experiments, this work was carried out in Campinas, SP, Brazil, with 40 spineless peach palms. One year after seed germination, seedlings were transplanted to 80 L plastic pots, spaced 2 x 1 m, arranged in four rows of ten plants. All plants had vegetative growth evaluated monthly by measurements of main stem height, number of functional leaves, number of offshoots and length of leaf raquis. Seasonal variations were observed in terms of height and diameter growth as well as raquis length of the youngest leaf and in the evolution of the number of leaves. After two years, plants had an average height of 230 cm, six functional leaves and 11.7 offshoots. Positive correlations (P A pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth é cultivada no Estado de São Paulo, Brasil, sob condições de variação estacional do clima, particularmente temperatura e precipitação pluviométrica, com possíveis efeitos na fisiologia das plantas. Recentemente, devido ao crescente interesse em se realizar experimentos sobre a fisiologia da espécie, tem havido necessidade de cultivá-la sob condições experimentais mais controladas. Com o objetivo de estudar a variação estacional do crescimento de pupunheiras, bem como a possibilidade de cultivá-las em recipientes até a colheita, para a realização de futuros experimentos fisiológicos, foi executado este trabalho, em Campinas, SP, com 40 pupunheiras

  7. Efeito do "fluxo sazonal mínimo da inundação" sobre a composição e estrutura de um campo inundável no Pantanal de Poconé, MT, Brasil "Minimum seasonal flow" effects on the composition and structure of a flooding grassland in Pantanal of Poconé, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

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    Luciana Rebellato

    2005-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi investigar o efeito da sazonalidade hídrica sobre a composição e a estrutura de um campo inundável. Foram utilizadas 30 parcelas (armações de 0,5 m×0,5 m para as coletas de cada período (chuvoso e estiagem, onde estimou-se o grau de cobertura das espécies. Calculou-se alguns parâmetros fitossociológicos, índices de diversidade e similaridade entre os dois períodos. Foram amostradas 48 espécies, em 35 gêneros, distribuídos em 20 famílias. As famílias com o maior número de espécies foram Cyperaceae (10, Poaceae (seis e Euphorbiaceae (cinco. As terófitas destacaram-se com 41,02% e hemicriptófitas com 23,08%. A diversidade e a riqueza foram maiores no período chuvoso (S = 41, H' = 4,01 e D = 0,91 em relação ao período de estiagem (S = 26, H' = 3,29 e D = 0,85, sendo a similaridade igual a Sa = 55,88%. Algumas espécies como Bacopa myriophylloides Wettst., Cyperus haspan L. ssp. juncoides (Lam. Kük., Digitaria fuscescens (J. Presl Henrard, Eleocharis mínima Kunth, foram indicadoras de umidade, enquanto Euphorbia thymifolia L., Wedelia brachycarpa Baker, Ludwigia octovalvis (Jacq. P.H. Raven, Hydrolea spinosa L., de estiagem. Foram 12 espécies que caracterizaram o campo entre os dois períodos, destacando-se com altos valores de cobertura relativa (CRi e freqüência relativa (FRi com variações destes parâmetros entre os dois períodos.The aim of this study was to investigate the seasonal effect of wet and dry periods on the composition and structure of flooding grassland. Thirty quadrats (0,5 m×0,5 m were used in each period (wet and dry to estimate the degree of covering of the species. Phytosociological parameters, diversity and similarity indices were calculated between periods. Forty eight species were collected, 35 genera distributed in 20 families. Cyperaceae (10, Poaceae (six and Euphorbiaceae (five were the families with the highest number of species. Therophytes were the most

  8. Preferência alimentar, efeito da planta hospedeira e da densidade larval na sobrevivência e desenvolvimento de Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae Feeding preference, host-plant and larval density effects on survivorship and growth rates of Dione juno juno (Cramer (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae

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    Vidica Bianchi

    2005-03-01

    Full Text Available Dez espécies de passifloraceas ocorrentes no Rio Grande do Sul foram avaliadas em relação à preferência alimentar e performance larval de Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779 (Lepidoptera, Nymphalidae: Passifora alata Dryander, 1781; P. amethystina Mikan, 1820; P. caerulea Linnaeus, 1753; P. capsularis Linnaeus, 1753; P. edulis Sims, 1818; P. elegans Masters, 1872; P. misera Humbold, Bonpland et Kunth, 1817; P. suberosa Linnaeus, 1753; P. tenuifila Killip, 1927 e P. warmingii Masters, 1872. O efeito da densidade larval na performance foi também testado em P. edulis: grupos de uma, duas, quatro, oito, dezesseis, trinta e duas, e sessenta e quatro larvas. A preferência das larvas foi avaliada com base em teste utilizando-se discos foliares, com e sem chance de escolha. As larvas obtiveram maior sobrevivência em P. misera, P. tenuifila e P. edulis. Nenhuma sobreviveu em P. alata, P. capsularis, P. amesthystina, P. suberosa e P. warmingii. As larvas escolheram P. edulis nos testes com chance de escolha. Ingeriram quantidades semelhantes de P. tenuifila, P. misera e P. caerulea nos testes sem chance de escolha. A taxa de crescimento larval e o tamanho dos adultos foi maior quando criadas em P. misera, quando comparado com P. edulis. A sobrevivência foi significativamente reduzida nos grupos com uma, duas e quatro larvas, o que pode explicar em parte o comportamento gregário desta espécie. Concluiu-se que poucas espécies de passifloráceas além de P. edulis podem constituir-se em hospedeiras potenciais de D. juno juno no Estado do Rio Grande do Sul. Numa perspectiva ecológica, no entanto, muitas destas hospedeiras alternativas apresentam limitações a respeito de sua adequabilidade, tamanho ou abundância da planta.Ten passion vine species from Rio Grande do Sul were evaluated regarding larval feeding preference and performance of Dione juno juno (Cramer, 1779: Passifora alata Dryander, 1781; P. amethystina Mikan, 1820; P. caerulea Linnaeus

  9. Pérdidas de suelo y nutrientes bajo diferentes coberturas vegetales en la zona Andina de Colombia Soil and nutrient loss under different vegetation covers in Colombia's Andean region

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    J. Alexander Rodríguez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en la reserva natural El Ciprés, ubicada en la vereda Bellavista, municipio de El Dovio (Valle del Cauca. La vereda se encuentra en la zona Andina de la cordillera occidental, en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, entre 1700 y 1800 m.s.n.m., con una temperatura promedio de 18 °C. Según la clasificación climática de Holdridge, corresponde a una zona de bosque húmedo Montano Bajo, con una precipitación promedio entre 2500 y 2700 mm/año, una humedad relativa de 90% y una pendiente del suelo de 62%. Las mediciones se hicieron en parcelas de escorrentía de 32 m² cada una y siete tipos de coberturas: guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunth, bosque secundario, pastura (Brachiaria decumbens, café (Coffea arabica; banco de proteína (Trichanthera gigantea, caña forrajera (Saccharum officinarum y cultivo limpio conformado por yuca (Manihot esculenta, maíz (Zea mays y arracacha (Arracacia zanthorrhiza Brancroft. Para la evaluación se midieron las pérdidas de suelo y los nutrientes calcio, magnesio, potasio y fósforo en un periodo de 7 meses. Los resultados mostraron diferencias (P Soil and nutrient (calcium, magnesium, potassium, phosphorus losses were measured over a 7-month period in the El Ciprés Natural Reserve, located in the Bellavista rural community, municipality of El Dovio, in the western cordillera of the Andes of the department of Valle del Cauca, Colombia. At 1700-1800 meters above sea level, the area presents an average temperature of 18 °C, an average annual precipitation of 2500-2700 mm, 90% relative humidity, and a 62% slope. According to the Holdridge climate classification system, it corresponds to a lower montane rain forest. Measurements were taken in runoff plots, each 32 m², with seven types of vegetation cover: giant bamboo (Guadua angustifolia Kunth; secondary forest; pastures (Brachiaria decumbens; coffee (Coffea arabica; protein bank (Trichanthera gigantea; forage cane (Saccharum officinarum

  10. Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae that breed in the aerenchyma of Pontederiaceae Comportamiento alimentario de las larvas del grupo truncatus de Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae que se crían en el aerénquima de Pontederiaceae

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    M. Cristina Hernández

    2007-12-01

    Full Text Available Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae that breed in Pontederiaceae species are presented. The larvae of T. circularis Bickel & Hernández develop in globous petioles of Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms- Laubach (Pontederiaceae, digging a mine near the epidermis and forming several holes to the exterior. T. romus Bickel & Hernández develop in E. azurea (Sw. Kunth petioles; the mine is curved and short compared with other Thrypticus species. T. formosensis Bickel & Hernández develops in Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae, and digs the mine between the epidermis and the big central cell of the petioles. T. taragui Bickel & Hernández breeds in submersed stems of P. subovata (Seub. in Mart. Lowden, and forms a mine close to the epidermis with branches to the central vascular stele. The mines of T. yanayacu, T. chanophalus and T. azuricola could not be associated with the corresponding species. Neither predators nor parasites were found associated with the group, but some cases of cannibalism were observed when two mines were confluent. The truncatus group species have a very specific feeding habit, live completely enclosed within host plant tissues, and feed on the sap obtained from holes chewed in the vascular bundles of the petioles, possibly using yeast as supplementary nourishment. Extensive field collections and laboratory tests indicate that each species in the truncatus group is associated with a specific host plant in the Pontederiaceae. Such specialization suggests a long association between the members of this group and their respective host plants.Se da a conocer el comportamiento alimentario de las larvas de algunas especies del grupo truncatus de Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae, que se desarrollan en plantas hospedadoras de Pontederiaceae. Los estadios inmaduros de T. circularis Bickel & Hernández se crían en los pecíolos globosos de Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms

  11. Uso de plantas medicinais na região de Alto Paraíso de Goiás, GO, Brasil The utilization of medicinal plants in the region of Alto Paraíso of Goiás, GO, Brazil

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    Cynthia Domingues de Souza

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Os conhecimentos tradicionais dos usos mais comuns dados aos vegetais podem ser resgatados pela etnobotânica e utilizados para a valorização das plantas do Cerrado no processo de desenvolvimento econômico. Este estudo foi conduzido no município de Alto Paraíso de Goiás, localizado na microrregião denominada Chapada dos Veadeiros, a uma distância de 230 km de Brasília. O levantamento etnobotânico teve como alvo comunidades do entorno do Parque Nacional da Chapada dos Veadeiros e da cidade de Alto Paraíso. Foram realizadas entrevistas em aberto com os moradores locais, tentando buscar informações em níveis sócio-culturais distintos, enfocando quais plantas são mais utilizadas e suas indicações no combate a enfermidades. Observou-se que as espécies vegetais do cerrado têm uma gama considerável de utilização humana para quase todos os estratos, ervas, arbustos e árvores. Quanto às espécies arbóreas, predomina a utilização da entrecasca e sementes. A comunidade utiliza a biodiversidade nativa uma vez que 69% das 103 espécies citadas pelos entrevistados como úteis pertenceram à flora nativa. No elenco das dez espécies medicinais mais utilizadas, foram coincidentes na indicação de todos os entrevistados: chapéu de couro (Echinodorus macrophyllus (Kunth Micheli, arnica (Lychnophora ericoides Mart., plantas nativas de porte herbáceo/arbustivo; as arbóreas nativas, jatobá (Hymenaea stigonocarpa Mart. ex Hayne, tingui (Magonia pubescens A. St.-Hil. e o barbatimão (Stryphnodendron adstringens (Mart. Coville e duas ruderais, carrapicho (Acanthospermum australe (Loefl. Kuntze e mastruz (Chenopodium ambrosioides L., de porte herbáceo/arbustivo. Outro ponto importante evidenciado foi que, apesar do grande potencial de exploração extrativista vegetal, estes recursos estão sendo utilizados de forma indiscriminada, sem um programa eficiente de manejo sustentado.Ethnobotany allows rescuing traditional knowledge of the

  12. Macrófitas aquáticas da lagoa de Jijoca de Jericoacoara, Ceará, Brasil Aquatic macrophytes of Jijoca of Jericoacoara lagoon, Ceará, Brazil

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    Lígia Queiroz Matias

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available A lagoa de Jijoca de Jericoacoara situa-se no litoral do Ceará, Nordeste do Brasil (2º50'10'' e 2º55'32''S - 40º28'32'' e 40º24'09''W, sendo bordejada em sua extremidade Norte por dunas e por vegetação de tabuleiro nas demais faces. Realizou-se o levantamento da composição florística e da estrutura da comunidade de macrófitas aquáticas presentes na lagoa. As amostras das plantas foram coletadas e depositadas no herbário EAC. Densidade, freqüência e cobertura das espécies foram amostradas em 10 transectos plotados em áreas com boas condições de conservação de suas margens, evitando-se áreas urbanas e de atividade agropecuária adjuntas à lagoa. Apresenta-se a lista de 45 espécies ocorrentes, suas formas biológicas e dados da estrutura da comunidade. As espécies com maior índice do valor de importância (IVI foram Eleocharis mutata (L. Roem. & Schult., Paspalidium geminatum Stapf, Eleocharis atropurpurea (Retz. Kunth, Nymphoides indica (L. Kuntze e Echinodorus tenellus (Mart. Buchen. A forma de vida predominante foi "plantas enraizadas ao substrato - anfíbias tolerantes à seca". Em relação à profundidade, ocorre aumento da diversidade de espécies de áreas mais profundas para 0-0,5m de espessura da lâmina d'água.The Jijoca of Jericoacoara lake is located at Ceará Coastal Zone, Northeast of Brazil (2º50'10'' e 2º55'32''S - 40º28'32'' e 40º24'09''W, and it has sand dunes on the Northern shore and arboreal semi-deciduous vegetation around the other lakesides. A floristic and communities structure survey of aquatic flora was conducted. Plant samples were collected and included in the EAC Herbarium. The density, frequency, and cover were measurements used in describing communities by intercept transect sampling. Sampling was carried out in Jijoca of Jericoacoara lake at 10 localities, except areas with human impact, such as urban and agricultural areas. A list of 45 species, their life forms and vegetation

  13. Macrófitas aquáticas de ilhas flutuantes (baceiros nas sub-regiões do Abobral e Miranda, Pantanal, MS, Brasil Aquatic macrophytes of floating mats (" baceiros" in the Abobral and Miranda Pantanal Wetlands, Mato Grosso do Sul State, Brazil

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    Marco Otávio Pivari

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available A associação entre as formas biológicas flutuante e epífita, relacionadas a macrófitas aquáticas, constitui o que se chama genericamente de ilha flutuante. Esta denominação é aplicada ao estabelecimento de uma ou mais epífitas sobre indivíduos vivos de espécies flutuantes, como sinônimo de camalotal ou, ainda, para se referir à vegetação flutuante que se desenvolve sobre um solo orgânico em decomposição (histossolo. Realizou-se o levantamento das espécies presentes em cinco baceiros nas sub-regiões pantaneiras do Abobral e Miranda e o estabelecimento das similaridades florísticas entre estes, a fim de evidenciar aspectos da dinâmica sucessional de ilhas flutuantes. Foram encontradas 66 espécies de macrófitas aquáticas epífitas, distribuídas em 27 famílias, sendo Cyperaceae e Poaceae as mais representativas. O número de espécies por baceiro variou de 7 a 39, sendo os táxons comuns a todos esses Ludwigia leptocarpa (Nutt. H. Hara e Oxycaryum cubense (Poepp. & Kunth Palla, ao nível específico, e Asteraceae, Cyperaceae, Onagraceae, Poaceae e Polygonaceae, com relação às famílias. Outras formas biológicas, além da epífita, foram encontradas associadas aos baceiros, ou ainda, se mostraram adaptadas às condições do histossolo, podendo ser consideradas " epífitas casuais" . Baceiros em estágios sucessionais mais próximos apresentam maior similaridade florística e, no geral, quanto mais avançada a sucessão natural, maior a riqueza específica.The association between floating and epiphytic biological forms, regarding aquatic macrophytes, creates what are called floating mats. This concept refers to the establishment of one or more epiphytes on live individuals of floating species, as a synonym of " camalotal," or applied to floating vegetation that grows on organic soil in decomposition (histosol. A checklist of species was made of five floating mats in the Abobral and Miranda Pantanal Wetlands and

  14. Sinopse das espécies de Marlierea Cambess. (Myrtaceae na Amazônia brasileira Sinopse of the species of Marlierea Cambess. (Myrtaceae in Amazonian Brazil

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    Alessandro Silva do Rosário

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available O estudo de Marlierea Cambess. na Amazônia Brasileira tem como principal objetivo atualizar os dados sobre a morfologia e taxonomia das espécies da região, bem como fornecer subsídios para esclarecer a separação de Marlierea de Myrcia DC. ex Guill., conforme sugerem alguns autores. Na Amazônia Brasileira, Marlierea está representada por 11 espécies (Marlierea bipennis (O. Berg McVaugh, M. caudata McVaugh, M. ensiformis McVaugh, M. ferruginea (Poir. McVaugh, M. mcvaughii B. Holst, M. scytophylla Diels, M. spruceana O. Berg, M. subulata McVaugh, M. summa McVaugh, M. umbraticola (Kunth O. Berg e M. velutina McVaugh e uma mal conhecida (M. obumbrans (O. Berg Nied., habitando principalmente áreas de formações florestais. O gênero se caracteriza pelo hábito arbóreo ou arbustivo; folhas opostas (exceto em M. velutina que pode apresentar folhas opostas e/ou alternas; as inflorescências em panículas (de fascículos, racemos, cimeiras ou dicásios; botões florais geralmente fechados, abertura irregular do cálice, em 4-5 lobos, pétalas freqüentemente ausentes. Os Estados do Amazonas e Pará representam os dois principais centros de distribuição dessas espécies, sendo M. spruceana e M. umbraticola as espécies mais comuns. Marlierea obumbrans será melhor estudada posteriormente, devido apresentar sua delimitação taxonômica confusa entre Myrcia e Marlierea.A morphological study of Marlierea Cambess. occurring in Amazonian Brazil was carried out in order to obtain a better understanding of the morphology and taxonomy of all species in the region and to provide data to elucidate the taxonomic segregation of Marlierea from the morphologically similar Myrcia DC. ex Guill. In Amazonian Brazil, Marlierea is represented by 11, primarily forest, species (Marlierea bipennis (O. Berg McVaugh, M. caudata McVaugh, M. ensiformis McVaugh, M. ferruginea (Poir. McVaugh, M. mcvaughii B. Holst, M. scytophylla Diels, M. spruceana O. Berg, M

  15. Peach palm growth and heart-of-palm yield responses to liming Respostas de crescimento e produção de palmito da pupunheira à calagem

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    M. L. A. Bovi

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available The effects of liming rates on growth and heart-of-palm yield of peach palm plants (Bactris gasipaes Kunth were studied in a two-year field experiment conducted in Pariquera-Açu, State of Sao Paulo, Brazil. Soils in this region are allic (sub group Ultic Haplorthox, with base saturation ranging from 15 to 26 % of the cation exchange capacity (CEC. A randomized complete block design, with five rates of dolomitic limestone (0, 0.7, 4.7, 8.7, and 14.6 Mg ha-1 and five replications was utilized. Individual plots were composed of 80 plants but only the inner rows (24 plants were used for data recording. Planting spacing was 2 x 1 m. There was a cubic effect of liming rates on growth and yield. Maximum heart-of-palm yield was estimated to be achieved at 4.3 Mg ha-1 of limestone application, corresponding to 51.4 % soil base saturation. A significant decrease in growth and yield was observed when large amounts of limestone were applied (8.7 and 14.6 Mg ha-1, probably due to a decreased micronutrient availability.Os efeitos de doses de calcário sobre o crescimento e a produção de palmito de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth foram estudados em experimento realizado em campo em Pariquera-Açu, estado de São Paulo, Brasil. Solos dessa região são álicos (subgrupo Ultic Haplorthox, com saturação por bases variando de 15 a 26% da capacidade de troca catiônica. Foi utilizado um delineamento em blocos completos dispostos ao acaso, com cinco doses de calcário dolomítico (0, 0,7, 4,7, 8,7 e 14,6 Mg ha-1 e cinco repetições. Parcelas individuais eram compostas por 80 plantas, das quais apenas as linhas mais internas (24 plantas foram utilizadas para análise dos dados. O espaçamento entre plantas foi 2 x 1 m. Foram observados efeitos cúbicos para doses de calcário tanto para o crescimento quanto para a produção. Estimativas indicam que máxima produção de palmito pode ser obtida com a aplicação de 4,3 Mg ha-1 de calcário, correspondendo a

  16. Pérdidas de suelo y nutrientes bajo diferentes coberturas vegetales en la zona Andina de Colombia

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    Rodríguez José Alexander

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en la reserva natural El Ciprés, ubicada en la vereda Bellavista, municipio de El Dovio (Valle del Cauca. La vereda se encuentra en la zona Andina de la cordillera occidental, en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, entre 1700 y 1800 m.s.n.m., con una temperatura promedio de 18 °C. Según la clasificación climática de Holdridge, corresponde a una zona de bosque húmedo Montano Bajo, con una precipitación promedio entre 2500 y 2700 mm/año, una humedad relativa de 90% y una pendiente del suelo de 62%. Las mediciones se hicieron en parcelas de escorrentía de 32 m2 cada una y siete tipos de coberturas: guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunth, bosque secundario, pastura (Brachiaria decumbens, café (Coffea arabica; banco de proteína (Trichanthera gigantea, caña forrajera (Saccharum officinarum y cultivo limpio conformado por yuca (Manihot esculenta, maíz (Zea mays y arracacha (Arracacia zanthorrhiza Brancroft. Para la evaluación se midieron las pérdidas de suelo y los nutrientes calcio, magnesio, potasio y fósforo en un periodo de 7 meses. Los resultados mostraron diferencias (P < 0.05 entre las coberturas evaluadas. Las pérdidas más altas de suelo y nutrientes ocurrieron bajo cultivos limpios (2.61 t/ha y las más bajas en guadua (0.08 t/ha. Estos resultados sugieren ventajas de los bosques de guadua en esta zona de Colombia, ya que además de contribuir a la conservación de los suelos y al mantenimiento de la fertilidad, es una alternativa económica complementaria para los productores rurales a partir de su manejo y aprovechamiento.

  17. Folk medicine in the northern coast of Colombia: an overview

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    Medina José

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Traditional remedies are an integral part of Colombian culture. Here we present the results of a three-year study of ethnopharmacology and folk-medicine use among the population of the Atlantic Coast of Colombia, specifically in department of Bolívar. We collected information related to different herbal medicinal uses of the local flora in the treatment of the most common human diseases and health disorders in the area, and determined the relative importance of the species surveyed. Methods Data on the use of medicinal plants were collected using structured interviews and through observations and conversations with local communities. A total of 1225 participants were interviewed. Results Approximately 30 uses were reported for plants in traditional medicine. The plant species with the highest fidelity level (Fl were Crescentia cujete L. (flu, Eucalyptus globulus Labill. (flu and cough, Euphorbia tithymaloides L. (inflammation, Gliricidia_sepium_(Jacq. Kunth (pruritic ailments, Heliotropium indicum L. (intestinal parasites Malachra alceifolia Jacq. (inflammation, Matricaria chamomilla L. (colic Mentha sativa L. (nervousness, Momordica charantia L. (intestinal parasites, Origanum vulgare L. (earache, Plantago major L. (inflammation and Terminalia catappa L. (inflammation. The most frequent ailments reported were skin affections, inflammation of the respiratory tract, and gastro-intestinal disorders. The majority of the remedies were prepared from freshly collected plant material from the wild and from a single species only. The preparation of remedies included boiling infusions, extraction of fresh or dry whole plants, leaves, flowers, roots, fruits, and seeds. The parts of the plants most frequently used were the leaves. In this study were identified 39 plant species, which belong to 26 families. There was a high degree of consensus from informants on the medical indications of the different species. Conclusions This study

  18. Performance and goats behavior in pasture of Andropogon grass under different forage allowances

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    Daniel Louçana da Costa Araújo

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available This study was accomplished to evaluate the behavior and performance of goats in to grazing on grass Andropogon gayanus Kunth var. Bisquamulatus (Hochst Hack. cv. Planaltina submitted to three forage allowances: 11, 15 and 19% BW/day, under continuous grazing. The experimental design to assess the grazing behaviour was randomized blocks in a split-plot with five replicates within the block. In the plots, we evaluated the effect of forage allowances and in the subplots, the months May and June. While for evaluation of animal performance was in complete block design with five replicates within the block. The different forage allowance did not cause structural changes in the pasture, except in height. However, there was an increase of dead material, leaf/stem ratio and reducing of height during the grazing period. The behavioral variables were not affected by forage allowance, except for the time of displacement, whereby goats spent more time in pastures with offer of 11% BW. The goats remained most part of the time in grazing and idle, corresponding to 89% and 5% of the evaluation time, respectively. Higher bit rate was observed in June, among the offerings, and 15 and 19% BW. The ingestive and grazing behaviour in goats is changed by the accumulation of dead material and stem in pasture from Andropogon grass during at rainy season. The forage supply 11% of BW increases the time of displacement of goats grazing on Andropogon grass. The management of grazing Andropogon grass with forage allowance being 11 and 19% of BW provides low weight gains in goats during the rainy season.

  19. EFFECT OF LIGHT AND GIBERELLIC ACID (AG3 ON THE GERMINATION OF MINTHOSTACHYS MOLLIS (LABIATAE

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    Fernández Alonso José Luis

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Minthostachys mollis (Kunth Griseb. o muña es un arbusto perenne que crece naturalmente en las región andina de Colombia; esta especie es ampliamente utilizada por las comunidades rurales en donde es valorada por sus propiedades medicinales para tratar diferentes afecciones y como control de larvas de insectos transmisores de enfermedades; sin embargo, las poblaciones naturales de esta planta han sido fuertemente reducidas por acción antrópica, por lo tanto, es necesario generar tecnologías de propagación que permitan la recuperación y conservación de las poblaciones naturales. El objetivo de este estudio fue determinar el efecto de la luz (luz roja, luz blanca, luz natural y del ácido giberélico (0, 5, 15, 25 ppm en el proceso de germinación de M. mollis. Se encontró un efecto negativo de la oscuridad en el proceso de germinación y no se observó efecto del AG3 sobre la germinación de M. mollis en presencia de la luz. Los porcentajes de germinación obtenidos en los tratamientos de iluminación fueron superiores al 80% sobresaliendo el tratamiento de luz roja que arrojó los mejores resultados tanto en el porcentaje como en la velocidad de germinación. Los resultados indican que la germinación en M. mollis es dependiente de la luz debido a que sus semillas son fotoblásticas positivas.

  20. Effects of forest fragmentation on phenological patterns and reproductive success of the tropical dry forest tree Ceiba aesculifolia.

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    Herrerías-Diego, Yvonne; Quesada, Mauricio; Stoner, Kathryn E; Lobo, Jorge A

    2006-08-01

    Spatial isolation caused by forest fragmentation and temporal isolation caused by asynchronous flowering of plants have been proposed as important factors that affect the reproduction ofplant populations. In a 4-year study, we determined the effects of forest fragmentation and spatial isolation on flowering phenology and reproductive success of the tropical tree Ceiba aesculifolia ([Kunth] Britton & Rose). We conducted our study in the dry forest of Mexico and compared populations in two habitat conditions based on density and environmental conditions: (1) disturbed habitat (four populations of reproductive individuals/ha surrounded by agriculturalfields or pastures) and (2) undisturbed habitat (three populations of groups of >6 reproductive individuals/ha surrounded by undisturbed mature forest). We compared the following variables within these populations over 4 years: flowering overlap, proportion of individuals with flowers and fruit, total flower production, total fruit production, fruit set, seed production, and seed abortion. Little overlap in flowering occurred among the populations in the two habitat conditions. The flowering period of trees in the disturbed habitat initiated between 15 to 20 days before the flowering period of trees in the undisturbed habitat during 3 years. Flowering of trees in the undisturbed habitat peaked at the end of the flowering period of the trees in the disturbed habitat. The proportion of trees that flowered was greater in the undisturbed habitat. Nevertheless, total flower production was greater in the disturbed habitat and these differences were maintained across 3 years. The proportion of individuals that produced fruit did not differ across habitat conditions but did differ across years. Total fruit production was greater in the disturbed habitat, but fruit set and seed production were the same across years and between habitat conditions. Seed abortion varied over years between habitats. We concluded that forest

  1. Deciphering Staphylococcus sciuri SAT-17 Mediated Anti-oxidative Defense Mechanisms and Growth Modulations in Salt Stressed Maize (Zea mays L.).

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    Akram, Muhammad S; Shahid, Muhammad; Tariq, Mohsin; Azeem, Muhammad; Javed, Muhammad T; Saleem, Seemab; Riaz, Saba

    2016-01-01

    Soil salinity severely affects plant nutrient use efficiency and is a worldwide constraint for sustainable crop production. Plant growth-promoting rhizobacteria, with inherent salinity tolerance, are able to enhance plant growth and productivity by inducing modulations in various metabolic pathways. In the present study, we reported the isolation and characterization of a salt-tolerant rhizobacterium from Kallar grass [Leptochloa fusca (L.) Kunth]. Sequencing of the 16S rRNA gene revealed its lineage to Staphylococcus sciuri and it was named as SAT-17. The strain exhibited substantial potential of phosphate solubilization as well as indole-3-acetic acid production (up to 2 M NaCl) and 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylic acid deaminase activity (up to 1.5 M NaCl). Inoculation of a rifampicin-resistant derivative of the SAT-17 with maize, in the absence of salt stress, induced a significant increase in plant biomass together with decreased reactive oxygen species and increased activity of cellular antioxidant enzymes. The derivative strain also significantly accumulated nutrients in roots and shoots, and enhanced chlorophyll and protein contents in comparison with non-inoculated plants. Similar positive effects were observed in the presence of salt stress, although the effect was more prominent at 75 mM in comparison to higher NaCl level (150 mM). The strain survived in the rhizosphere up to 30 days at an optimal population density (ca. 1 × 10(6) CFU mL(-1)). It was concluded that S. sciuri strain SAT-17 alleviated maize plants from salt-induced cellular oxidative damage and enhanced growth. Further field experiments should be conducted, considering SAT-17 as a potential bio-fertilizer, to draw parallels between PGPR inoculation, elemental mobility patterns, crop growth and productivity in salt-stressed semi-arid and arid regions.

  2. Phenology of the oil palm interspecific hybrid Elaeis oleifera × Elaeis guineensis

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    Paola Hormaza

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Oil palm is one of the most important oil crops in the world. Because of its high productivity and perennial nature, it has been expanding quickly. Commercial plantations consist mostly of the African palm E. guineensis Jacq. However, producers in Latin America are increasingly planting the O × G interspecific hybrid, a cross between African palm (E. guineensis and the American palm (E. oleifera (Kunth Cortés. This interspecific hybrid has emerged as a promising solution to diseases such as the bud rot of oil palm because of the apparent partial resistance of this genotype to the disease. This work studied and described the phenology of the O × G interspecific hybrid. The phenology stages were coded using the BBCH scale. The scale for the phenophases was defined using a three-digit code. Due to the nature of the palm, no descriptions were used for stage two (formation of side shoots/tillering and stage four (development of harvestable vegetative plant parts or vegetative reproductive organs because these stages do not apply to oil palm. The scale was constructed using germinating seeds, pre-nursery and nursery plants and five year-old palms. For the description of the stem elongation, different age palms of the same O × G hybrid were used. Observations were performed during an 18-month period. Additionally, the interval for the change from one phenology stage to another was determined both in days and degree-days (DD. The interspecific O × G hybrid required 6408 DD from when the spear leaf unfolds until the bunch was ripened and harvested, and 4427.6 DD from leaf unfolding to anthesis.

  3. Estimación mediante RAPD's de la diversidad genética en Guadua en el departamento del Cauca, Colombia

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    Palacio M. Juan Diego

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available

    Mediante RAPD's se analizaron 120 muestras foliares de 12 biotipos de Guadua angustifolia Kunth clasificados morfológicamente, procedentes de la cuenca del río Cauca, en el departamento del Cauca, Colombia, para determinar diversidad genética. El ADN se extrajo mediante el protocolo modificado de Dellaporta (1983. Se emplearon los cebadores; OPF-12, OPG-19, OPN-19 y OPP-16 con mayor número de bandas polimórficas. El índice de Shannon (HT = 0.4556 ± 0.1849 señaló diversidad genética total alta y diversidad entre los biotipos y al interior de ellos. El Índice de estructura genética (Gst = 0.5200 e Indice de migración efectiva (Nm = 0.4615 definieron biotipos bien diferenciados. El análisis de similaridad conformó tres grupos a un coeficiente de 0.64. El grupo G1 incluyó los biotipos Curvado, Rayada frecuente, Amarilla Playón, Rayada ancha, Rayada escasa, Convexa, Amarilla, Hembra, Verde irregular y algunos individuos de verde alta. El grupo G2, Verde alta y Macho. El grupo G3, Rayada negra. El estudio molecular agrupó los individuos de forma similar al estudio morfológico, con excepción de los individuos del biotipo Hembra.

    Palabras claves: Guadua angustifolia, caracterización molecular, variación genética.

  4. Taxonomical and ecological characteristics of the desmids placoderms in reservoir: analyzing the spatial and temporal distribution

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    Sirlene Aparecida Felisberto

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available AIM: This study aimed to evaluate the influence of river-dam axis and abiotic factors on the composition of Closteriaceae, Gonatozygaceae, Mesotaeniaceae and Peniaceae in a tropical reservoir METHODS: Water samples for physical, chemical and periphyton analysis were collected in April and August 2002 in different regions along the axis of the river-dam of Rosana Reservoir, River Basin Paranapanema. The substrates collected, always in the litoranea region, were petioles of Eichhornia azurea (Swartz Kunth. To examine the relationship of abiotic variables with reservoir zones and between the floristic composition of desmids, we used principal component analysis (PCA and canonical correspondence analysis (CCA RESULTS: The results of the PCA explained 81.3% of the total variability in the first two axes. In the first axis, the variables of conductivity, water temperature and the pH were related to the sampling regions of April with higher values, while for the month of August, nitrate, total phosphorus and dissolved oxygen showed higher values. We identified 20 taxa, distributed in the genera Closterium (14, Gonatozygon (4, Netrium (1 and Penium (1. Spatially, the higher taxa were recorded in the lacustrine region for both collection periods. The canonical correspondence analysis (CCA summarized 62.2% of total data variability of taxa in the first two axes, and in August, Closterium incurvum Brébisson, C. cornu Ehrenberg ex Ralfs and Gonatozygon monotaenium De Bary, were related to higher values of turbidity and nitrate to the lacustrine and intermediate regions CONCLUSION: Thus, the formation of groups was due to the regions along the longitudinal axis, then the seasonal period, which must be related to the low current velocity, the higher values of temperature and the water transparency, especially in late summer

  5. Bacterial diversity in rhizosphere soil from Antarctic vascular plants of Admiralty Bay, maritime Antarctica.

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    Teixeira, Lia C R S; Peixoto, Raquel S; Cury, Juliano C; Sul, Woo Jun; Pellizari, Vivian H; Tiedje, James; Rosado, Alexandre S

    2010-08-01

    The Antarctic is a pristine environment that contributes to the maintenance of the global climate equilibrium. The harsh conditions of this habitat are fundamental to selecting those organisms able to survive in such an extreme habitat and able to support the relatively simple ecosystems. The DNA of the microbial community associated with the rhizospheres of Deschampsia antarctica Desv (Poaceae) and Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth) BartI (Caryophyllaceae), the only two native vascular plants that are found in Antarctic ecosystems, was evaluated using a 16S rRNA multiplex 454 pyrosequencing approach. This analysis revealed similar patterns of bacterial diversity between the two plant species from different locations, arguing against the hypothesis that there would be differences between the rhizosphere communities of different plants. Furthermore, the phylum distribution presented a peculiar pattern, with a bacterial community structure different from those reported of many other soils. Firmicutes was the most abundant phylum in almost all the analyzed samples, and there were high levels of anaerobic representatives. Also, some phyla that are dominant in most temperate and tropical soils, such as Acidobacteria, were rarely found in the analyzed samples. Analyzing all the sample libraries together, the predominant genera found were Bifidobacterium (phylum Actinobacteria), Arcobacter (phylum Proteobacteria) and Faecalibacterium (phylum Firmicutes). To the best of our knowledge, this is the first major bacterial sequencing effort of this kind of soil, and it revealed more than expected diversity within these rhizospheres of both maritime Antarctica vascular plants in Admiralty Bay, King George Island, which is part of the South Shetlands archipelago.

  6. Características físicas e químicas de frutos de pupunheira no Estado do Pará

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    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste estudo foi caracterizar física e físico-quimicamente frutos de 21 matrizes de pupunheira (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, visando a obter subsídios que permitam avançar com o programa de melhoramento genético, em especial para características da polpa do fruto. Os frutos provenientes de diferentes genótipos foram caracterizados quanto à dimensão dos frutos e caroço, umidade, proteínas, lipídeos, cinzas, fibras e carotenoides totais. Os resultados obtidos para as diferentes variáveis analisadas demonstraram diferenças entre os frutos obtidos de diferentes genótipos. A análise de proteínas apresentou valores que variaram de 4,20 a 6,79%, com destaque para a matriz B04-P20, que apresentou o maior valor. Para lipídeos, os teores variaram bastante, com valores entre 8,25 e 40,83%, destacando-se a matriz B02-P30 com o maior teor de lipídeos. Os teores de carotenoides totais das matrizes de pupunheira variaram de 8,02 a 124,90µg/g, com destaque para as matrizes B02-P30 (124,90µg/g e B05-P45 (123,04µg/g, indicando que a pupunha pode contribuir de maneira importante na ingestão de antioxidantes na dieta. De maneira geral, as análises físicas e físico-químicas dos frutos mostraram diferenças significativas entre as matrizes para os caracteres estudados, evidenciando ser um conjunto geneticamente promissor para a prática da seleção.

  7. Karyotype Analysis of Sapodilla and Egg-fruit-tree%人心果和蛋黄果染色体核型分析

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张蕾; 王家保; 陈业渊; 李松刚; 罗石荣

    2011-01-01

    Two species of tropical fruit in Sapotaceae, sapodilla [ Manilkara zapota (Linnaeus) P. van Royen ]and egg-fruit-tree [ Pouteria campechiana (Kunth) Baehni ] were used as materials, whose chromosome number and karyotype were studied. Results showed that: Chromosome number of sapodilla is 26, that of egg-fruit-tree is 28. The karyotype type of the two species are 2B and 1A respectively. Karyotype formula are 18m + 8sm and 26m + 2sm. The asymmetry index and the constitution of relative length of the two species are very different.%研究了山榄科的2种优稀热带果树--人心果及蛋黄果的染色体计数及其染色体形态与核型分析.结果表明:人心果体细胞染色体2n=2X=26,核型类型为2B型,核型公式为18m+8sm,染色体相对长度组成为2L+12M:+8M1+4S,不对称系数为61.71%;蛋黄果体细胞染色体2n=2X=28,核型类型为1A型.核型公式为26m+2sm,染色体相对长度组成为2L+10M2+16M1,不对称系数为59.193%.

  8. Uso del bambú como material de construcción en estructuras no convencionales en la ciudad de Huancayo

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    Vladimir Montoya Torres

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available El objetivo logrado ha sido la experimentación del uso del bambú como material de construcción en estructuras que generen espacios no convencionales. Esta investigación fue de nivel descriptivo, diseño transversal; se aplicaron mediciones de porcentaje de humedad en el bambú con el propósito de medir su resistencia en climas de aire seco. Se escogió la ciudad de Chanchamayo como fuente de materia prima, y para el proceso constructivo se eligió la ciudad de Huancayo, ambas provincias del departamento de Junín. Como resultados de este trabajo, se ha seleccionado material para la construcción, luego se procedió a seccionar las muestras que presentaban un 80 % de humedad en sus fibras, al finalizar el proceso constructivo evidenciaba que la humedad bajó a un 60 %; luego se construyó una estructura sencilla usando herramientas manuales para ensamblar un paraboloide hiperbólico utilizando la especie de bambú (Guadua angustifolia Kunth. Entre las conclusiones a las cuales se arribó, podemos mencionar que, se logró construir una propuesta geométrica no convencional de manera sencilla y rápida, proponiendo así una estructura no convencional; se desarrolló un rápido ensamble, y su edificación fue favorable al momento de construir; el material sufrió una pérdida de humedad provocada por el clima seco de la ciudad de Huancayo, situación que generó fisuras en las superficies del bambú utilizado, esto demuestra que el material es vulnerable a cambios de espacio geográfico y clima.

  9. Priming effects on seed germination in Tecoma stans (Bignoniaceae) and Cordia megalantha (Boraginaceae), two tropical deciduous tree species

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    Alvarado-López, Sandra; Soriano, Diana; Velázquez, Noé; Orozco-Segovia, Alma; Gamboa-deBuen, Alicia

    2014-11-01

    Successful revegetation necessarily requires the establishment of a vegetation cover and one of the challenges for this is the scarce knowledge about germination and seedling establishment of wild tree species. Priming treatments (seed hydration during a specific time followed by seed dehydration) could be an alternative germination pre-treatment to improve plant establishment. Natural priming (via seed burial) promotes rapid and synchronous germination as well as the mobilisation of storage reserves; consequently, it increases seedling vigour. These metabolic and physiological responses are similar to those occurring as a result of the laboratory seed priming treatments (osmopriming and matrix priming) applied successfully to agricultural species. In order to know if natural priming had a positive effect on germination of tropical species we tested the effects of natural priming on imbibition kinetics, germination parameters (mean germination time, lag time and germination rate and percentage) and reserve mobilisation in the seeds of two tree species from a tropical deciduous forest in south-eastern México: Tecoma stans (L Juss. Ex Kunth) and Cordia megalantha (S.F Blake). The wood of both trees are useful for furniture and T. stans is a pioneer tree that promotes soil retention in disturbed areas. We also compared the effect of natural priming with that of laboratory matrix priming (both in soil). Matrix priming improved germination of both studied species. Natural priming promoted the mobilisation of proteins and increased the amount of free amino acids and of lipid degradation in T. stans but not in C. megalantha. Our results suggest that the application of priming via the burial of seeds is an easy and inexpensive technique that can improve seed germination and seedling establishment of tropical trees with potential use in reforestation and restoration practices.

  10. The karyotype of Nothoscordum arenarium Herter (Gilliesioideae, Alliaceae): A populational and cytomolecular analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Souza, Luiz G R; Crosa, Orfeo; Winge, Helga; Guerra, Marcelo

    2009-01-01

    The genus Nothoscordum Kunth comprises approximately 20 species native to South America. Karyologically, the genus is remarkable for its large chromosomes and Robertsonian translocations. Variation in chromosome number has been recorded in a few polyploid species and it is unknown among diploids. This study presents the chromosome number and morphology of 53 individuals of seven populations of N. arenarium Herter (2n = 10). In addition, karyotype analyses after C-banding, staining with CMA and DAPI, and in situ hybridization with 5S and 45S rDNA probes were performed in six individuals from one population. All individuals exhibited 2n = 10 (6M + 4A), except for one tetraploid (2n = 20, 12M + 8A) and one triploid (2n = 15, 9M + 6A) plant. C-banding revealed the presence of CMA(+) /DAPI (-) heterochromatin in the short arm and in the proximal region of the long arm of all acrocentric chromosomes. The 45S rDNA sites co-localized with the CMA (+) regions of the acrocentrics short arms, while the 5S rDNA probe only hybridized with the subterminal region of a pair of metacentric chromosomes. A change in the pattern of CMA bands and rDNA sites was observed in only one individual bearing a reciprocal translocation involving the long arm of a metacentric and the long arm of an acrocentric chromosome. These data suggest that, despite isolated cases of polyploidy and translocation, the karyotype of N. arenarium is very stable and the karyotypic instability described for other species may be associated with their polyploid condition.

  11. The karyotype of Nothoscordum arenarium Herter (Gilliesioideae, Alliaceae: a populational and cytomolecular analysis

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    Luiz G.R. Souza

    2009-01-01

    Full Text Available The genus Nothoscordum Kunth comprises approximately 20 species native to South America. Karyologically, the genus is remarkable for its large chromosomes and Robertsonian translocations. Variation in chromosome number has been recorded in a few polyploid species and it is unknown among diploids. This study presents the chromosome number and morphology of 53 individuals of seven populations of N. arenarium Herter (2n = 10. In addition, karyotype analyses after C-banding, staining with CMA and DAPI, and in situ hybridization with 5S and 45S rDNA probes were performed in six individuals from one population. All individuals exhibited 2n = 10 (6M + 4A, except for one tetraploid (2n = 20, 12M + 8A and one triploid (2n = 15, 9M + 6A plant. C-banding revealed the presence of CMA+/DAPI- heterochromatin in the short arm and in the proximal region of the long arm of all acrocentric chromosomes. The 45S rDNA sites co-localized with the CMA+ regions of the acrocentrics short arms, while the 5S rDNA probe only hybridized with the subterminal region of a pair of metacentric chromosomes. A change in the pattern of CMA bands and rDNA sites was observed in only one individual bearing a reciprocal translocation involving the long arm of a metacentric and the long arm of an acrocentric chromosome. These data suggest that, despite isolated cases of polyploidy and translocation, the karyotype of N. arenarium is very stable and the karyotypic instability described for other species may be associated with their polyploid condition.

  12. Screening of Indian medicinal plants for cytotoxic activity by Brine Shrimp Lethality (BSL assay and evaluation of their total phenolic content

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    Mahesh Biradi

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Objective: Plant-derived cytotoxic constituents and polyphenolic compounds have played an important role in the development of clinically useful anticancer agents. In this context, we have selected six Indian medicinal plants based on the literature claims and an attempt was made to evaluate the cytotoxic potential and total phenolic content (TPC of their methanol extracts and fractions. Materials and Methods: Six plants have been selected for the study, namely, Artemisia absinthium Linn. (Asteraceae, Oroxylum indicum (Linn. Vent. (Bignoniaceae, Heliotropium indicum Linn. (Boraginaceae, Amorphophallus sylvaticus (Roxb. Kunth. (Araceae, Mimosa pudica Linn. (Mimosaceae, and Premna serratifolia Linn. (Verbenaceae. Authenticated plant materials were subjected to extraction with methanol by cold maceration and hot percolation methods. The extracts were fractionated into four fractions (F1, F2, F3, and F4. Preliminary phytochemical investigation was carried out for all extracts and fractions. All extracts and their fractions were subjected to cytotoxicity screening by brine shrimp lethality (BSL bioassay. The plants with significant cytotoxicity were evaluated for TPC by using Folin-Ciocalteu reagent. Results: F1, F2, and F3 fractions of A. absinthium and P. serratifolia and F1 fraction of M. pudica have shown significant cytotoxicity (lethal concentration (LC 50 < 100 ppm compared with other fractions. F1, F2, and F3 fractions of A. absinthium show the LC 50 values 32.52, 14.27, and 24.02, respectively; F1, F2, and F3 of P. serratifolia show LC 50 values 7.61, 4.01, and 10.91 and same for F1 fraction of M. pudica was 34.82 μg/ml, respectively. TPC was found to be significantly higher (39.11 mg gallic acid equivalent (GAE/g in P. serratifolia compared with other two plants. Conclusion: The cytotoxicity screening system confirmed the proposed anticancer plants used by traditional healers and literature claims.

  13. Ação de extratos de plantas medicinais sobre a motilidade do trato gastrointestinal

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    F.B. Potrich

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Muitas plantas são utilizadas pela população para o tratamento e a cura de doenças. Entre elas encontram-se a Persea major Kopp, Piper mollicomum Kunth. e Serjania erecta Radlk. as quais são utilizadas para diversas enfermidades, inclusive para tratar distúrbios do trato gastrointestinal. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar os efeitos dos extratos dessas três plantas sobre a motilidade gastrointestinal. Camundongos Swiss foram tratados com os extratos pela via oral 1 hora antes da administração de uma solução semisólida de carboximetilcelulose 1,5% e vermelho de fenol 0,05% e, após 15 minutos, o esvaziamento gástrico e o trânsito intestinal avaliados. O extrato hidroalcoólico da P. major (100 a 1000 mg Kg-1, p.o. e o extrato hidroalcoólico da P. mollicomum (100 e 300 mg Kg-1, p.o. aumentaram o trânsito intestinal. No entanto, somente o extrato da P. major (100 e 300 mg Kg-1 também aumentou o esvaziamento gástrico. O extrato etanólico da S. erecta (100 a 1000 mg Kg-1, p.o. não alterou a motilidade gastrointestinal. Estes resultados sugerem que a Persea major e a Piper mollicomum mereçam estudos mais aprofundados em busca de princípios ativos ou matéria vegetal efetiva para o tratamento de distúrbios do trato gastrointestinal como a constipação.

  14. In-situ Protection Management and Conservation Study of Some Medicinal Plants%一些药用植物自然状态下管理和保护研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Hassan SHER; Z.D.KHAN; A.U.KHAN; Farrukh HUSSAIN

    2005-01-01

    In-situ study on eleven commercially important species viz;Adiantum capillus-veneris L,Bergenia ciliata (Haw) Sternb,Colchicum luteum Baker,Polygonum amplexicaule D.Den,Cuminum cyminum L,Dioscorea deltoidea Wall Kunth,L Morchella esculenta L,Paeonia emodi Wall ex H Kf,Podophyllum hexandrum (Royle) Chatt & Mukh,Valeriana wallichii DC and Viola serpens Wall ex Roxb was conducted in four locations viz; Malam (1 400 to 2 000m),Bargin (1 700 to 2 300m),Biakand (1 500 to 2 100m) and Shinko (2 100 to 2 700m).The data was recorded from both protected and unprotected sites of each site.Each site had 3 altitudinal sampling point.The density, herbage coverage and fresh biomass were determined in each locations for every species.All the investigated parameters generally showed an increase of 3 to 6 times over unprotected sites in each locations.Morchella esculenta,Dioscorea deltoidea,Colchicum luteum and Podophyllum hexandrum were absent in all unprotected sites while other species had low values in these sites.The investigated parameters of Colchicum luteum,Bergenia ciliata,Paeonioa emodi,Dioscorea deltoidea and Podophyllum hexandrum generally increased with the increasing elevation.Soil analysis,soil and air temperatures were recorded for each site.The air and soil temperature were slightly higher in open areas than in the protected site and showed decrease with increasing elevation.While the soil fertility was relatively high in protected sites as compared to unprotected area.The study shows that protection promotes the growth, distribution and occurrence of medicinal plants.It is possible with the participation of local communities to conserve these resources.

  15. The Evolution of Photoperiod-Insensitive Flowering in Sorghum, A Genomic Model for Panicoid Grasses.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cuevas, Hugo E; Zhou, Chengbo; Tang, Haibao; Khadke, Prashant P; Das, Sayan; Lin, Yann-Rong; Ge, Zhengxiang; Clemente, Thomas; Upadhyaya, Hari D; Hash, C Thomas; Paterson, Andrew H

    2016-09-01

    Of central importance in adapting plants of tropical origin to temperate cultivation has been selection of daylength-neutral genotypes that flower early in the temperate summer and take full advantage of its long days. A cross between tropical and temperate sorghums [Sorghum propinquum (Kunth) Hitchc.×S. bicolor (L.) Moench], revealed a quantitative trait locus (QTL), FlrAvgD1, accounting for 85.7% of variation in flowering time under long days. Fine-scale genetic mapping placed FlrAvgD1 on chromosome 6 within the physically largest centiMorgan in the genome. Forward genetic data from "converted" sorghums validated the QTL. Association genetic evidence from a diversity panel delineated the QTL to a 10-kb interval containing only one annotated gene, Sb06g012260, that was shown by reverse genetics to complement a recessive allele. Sb06g012260 (SbFT12) contains a phosphatidylethanolamine-binding (PEBP) protein domain characteristic of members of the "FT" family of flowering genes acting as a floral suppressor. Sb06g012260 appears to have evolved ∼40 Ma in a panicoid ancestor after divergence from oryzoid and pooid lineages. A species-specific Sb06g012260 mutation may have contributed to spread to temperate regions by S. halepense ("Johnsongrass"), one of the world's most widespread invasives. Alternative alleles for another family member, Sb02g029725 (SbFT6), mapping near another flowering QTL, also showed highly significant association with photoperiod response index (P = 1.53×10 (-)  (6)). The evolution of Sb06g012260 adds to evidence that single gene duplicates play large roles in important environmental adaptations. Increased knowledge of Sb06g012260 opens new doors to improvement of sorghum and other grain and cellulosic biomass crops.

  16. ASPECTS OF THE BREEDING BIOLOGY OF KELP GULL LARUS DOMINICANUS (CHARADRIIFORMES, LARIDAE IN THREE ISLANDS NORTH OFF PERU

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    Figueroa, Judith

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Between November and December 2004, an evaluation was done of some aspects of breeding biology of the kelp gull Larus dominicanus (Lichtenstein, 1823 in Lobos de Afuera, Lobos de Tierra and Foca islands, located off northern Peru. An association was found between the colonies of this species with the South American sea lion Otariaflavescens (Shaw, 1800 in Lobos de Afuera and Foca, with the blue-footed booby Sula nebouxii (Milne-Edwards, 1882 in Lobos de Afuera and Lobos de Tierra, the peruvian pelican Pelecanus thagus (Molina, 1782 in Lobos de Afuera, and with the Humboldt penguin Spheniscus humboldti (Meyen, 1834 in Foca. Egg predation and kleptoparasitism of S. nebouxii was common for this species in the three islands. Regarding the selection of nesting areas, it was noted that the Kelp Gull used different types of substrates such as rock, gravel, flagstone, boulders and seashells and that the nests were built using the resources of the site, mainly seaweeds and feathers and, in the Foca case, using leaves from sapote Capparis scabrida (Kunth, 1821. The nests were located in high and windy areas of the islands next to cracks and large rocks, from slopes of less than 15º to cliffs. Apparently, the timing of nest initiation was the same in the three islands, starting around the third week of October; in most cases were found three eggs in the nests. Factors are discussed that could affect the biological characteristics of the Kelp Gull in northern Peru and its differences with other breeding areas.

  17. Effect of dry spells and soil cracking on runoff generation in a semiarid micro watershed under land use change

    Science.gov (United States)

    dos Santos, Julio Cesar Neves; de Andrade, Eunice Maia; Guerreiro, Maria João Simas; Medeiros, Pedro Henrique Augusto; de Queiroz Palácio, Helba Araújo; de Araújo Neto, José Ribeiro

    2016-10-01

    Soil and water resources effective management and planning in a river basin rely on understanding of runoff generation processes, yield, and their relations to rainfall. This study analyzes the effects of antecedent soil moisture in an expansive soil and the influence of dry spells on soil cracking, runoff generation and yield in a semiarid tropical region in Brazil subject to land use change. Data were collected from 2009 to 2013 in a 2.8 ha watershed, totaling 179 natural rainfall events. In the first year of study (2009), the watershed maintained a typical dry tropical forest cover (arboreal-shrub Caatinga cover). Before the beginning of the second year of study, gamba grass (Andropogon gayanus Kunth) was cultivated after slash and burn of native vegetation. Gamba grass land use was maintained for the rest of the monitoring period. The occurrence of dry spells and the formation of cracks in the Vertisol soil were the most important factors controlling flow generation. Dry spells promoted crack formation in the expansive soil, which acted as preferential flow paths leading to high initial abstractions: average conditions for runoff to be generated included soil moisture content above 20%, rainfall above 70 mm, I30max above 60 mm h-1 and five continuous dry days at the most. The change of vegetation cover in the second year of study did not alter significantly the overall conditions for runoff initiation, showing similar cumulative flow vs. rainfall response, implying that soil conditions, such as humidity and cracks, best explain the flow generation process on the semiarid micro-scale watershed with Vertisol soil.

  18. TRIAGEM PRELIMINAR DA PRESENÇA DE INULINA EM PLANTAS ALIMENTÍCIAS

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    Daniele Misturini ROSSI

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Inulina e oligofrutose são polímeros de frutose encontrados em diferentes espécies vegetais e amplamente pesquisados com relação aos seus benefícios para saúde e propriedades tecnológicas na indústria de alimentos. Atualmente a chicória (Chichorium intybus é a fonte principal de inulina para aplicação industrial, mas outras espécies vegetais como Helianthus tuberosus L. (alcachofra de Jerusalém e Smallanthus sonchifolius (Poepp. H. Rob. (yacon, batata-yacon ou yacon-dos-andes têm sido pesquisadas com relação ao seu conteúdo de inulina e oligofrutose. Um levantamento preliminar do conteúdo de inulina foi realizado em 4 espécies vegetais, em sua maioria não cultivada, colhidas na região de Porto Alegre. Para isso, as raízes ou bulbos foram triturados e homogeneizados em água quente para extração da inulina, e os extratos fi ltrados analisados em HPLC. A triagem preliminar detectou a presença de inulina em todos os extratos analisados, sendo que o yacon-gaúcho (Smallanthus connatus (Spreng. H. Rob. e araruta (Maranta arundinacea L. se destacaram como as espécies de maior conteúdo de inulina dentre as plantas analisadas, com 43,18 e 45,83% de inulina em base seca, respectivamente, seguidas pelo radite nativo (Hypochaeris chillensis (Kunth Britton, que apresentou 21,05% de inulina em base seca. Estas foram superiores à batatayacon (Smallanthus sonchifolius, também analisado e que apresentou 13,37% de inulina (base seca, resultado este condizente com outros já descritos na literatura.

  19. Larval feeding behavior of the truncatus group of Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae that breed in the aerenchyma of Pontederiaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Cristina HERNÁNDEZ

    2007-01-01

    Full Text Available Se da a conocer el comportamiento alimentario de las larvas de algunas especies del grupo truncatus de Thrypticus (Diptera: Dolichopodidae, que se desarrollan en plantas hospedadoras de Pontederiaceae. Los estadios inmaduros de T. circularis Bickel & Hernández se crían en los pecíolos globosos de Eichhornia crassipes (Martius Solms-Laubach (Pontederiaceae, minando cerca de la epidermis y abriendo varios orificios al exterior. La larva de T. romus Bickel & Hernández crece en E. azurea (Sw. Kunth, formando una mina curva, corta en comparación con las otras especies. La larva de T. formosensis Bickel & Hernández se desarrolla en Pontederia cordata L. (Pontederiaceae, excavando la mina entre la epidermis y la gran celda central de los pecíolos. Por último, la larva de T. taragui Bickel & Hernández se cría en tallos sumergidos de P. subovata (Seub. in Mart. Lowden, formando una mina subepidérmica con ramificaciones hacia la estela central del tallo. No se pudieron asociar las minas correspondientes a las especies T. yanayacu, T. chanophalus y T. azuricola. No se encontraron predadores ni parásitos de larvas o pupas, se observaron casos de canibalismo entre larvas cuando el trazado de dos minas confluye. Las especies del grupo truncatus poseen un modo de alimentación sumamente específico, confinadas al aerénquima, se alimentan de la savia extraída de los orificios roídos en los haces vasculares de los pecíolos y tallos, posiblemente con levaduras simbiontes como suplemento para la nutrición. Numerosas colecciones en el campo y pruebas en el laboratorio, indican que estos insectos están asociados con plantas hospedadoras específicas dentro de la misma familia. Esta especialización sugiere una larga asociación insecto-hospedadora.

  20. Water quality and communities associated with macrophytes in a shallow water-supply reservoir on an aquaculture farm

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    LH. Sipaúba-Tavares

    Full Text Available Plankton communities and macrofauna associated to aquatic macrophyte stands in a shallow water-supply reservoir (21°14′09″S; 48°18′38″W on an aquaculture farm were compared to evaluate the relationship between organism densities and some abiotic features of the reservoir. Water and communities associated were sampled at two sites, one in an area with the predominance of Eichhornia azurea (Sw. Kunth and the other with the predominance of Salvinia auriculata Aublet. Communities associated with macrophytes were sampled with floating quadrants (0.5 m2; the macrophytes were washed and plankton and macrofauna were fixated with 4% formalin and 1% lugol iodine; the specimens were then identified and counted. Plankton and macrofauna communities associated with S. auriculata and E. azurea had a similar diversity of species but different (p<0.05 in the abundance of associated organisms. Eichhornia azurea had the highest contents in dry and wet weight, total phosphorus, total nitrogen and organic matter. Planktonic algae were directly correlated with biomass of E. azurea. The taxa with highest densities were Rotifera and Zygnematophyceae. Results showed that the environmental variables associated with macrophytes presence in the shallow reservoir is a strong predictor of favourable conditions to maintain great diversity plankton community and macrofauna associated with plants. The role of macrophytes is important for not only stabilising the clear-water state and maintaining high diversity of organisms associated, but also it seems to be a good alternative to maintaining desirable water-supply quality for aquaculture farms.

  1. Pérdidas de suelo y nutrientes bajo diferentes coberturas vegetales en la zona Andina de Colombia

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    J. Alexander Rodríguez

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available El estudio se realizó en la reserva natural El Ciprés, ubicada en la vereda Bellavista, municipio de El Dovio (Valle del Cauca. La vereda se encuentra en la zona Andina de la cordillera occidental, en el departamento del Valle del Cauca, entre 1700 y 1800 m.s.n.m., con una temperatura promedio de 18 °C. Según la clasificación climática de Holdridge, corresponde a una zona de bosque húmedo Montano Bajo, con una precipitación promedio entre 2500 y 2700 mm/año, una humedad relativa de 90% y una pendiente del suelo de 62%. Las mediciones se hicieron en parcelas de escorrentía de 32 m² cada una y siete tipos de coberturas: guadua (Guadua angustifolia Kunth, bosque secundario, pastura (Brachiaria decumbens, café (Coffea arabica; banco de proteína (Trichanthera gigantea, caña forrajera (Saccharum officinarum y cultivo limpio conformado por yuca (Manihot esculenta, maíz (Zea mays y arracacha (Arracacia zanthorrhiza Brancroft. Para la evaluación se midieron las pérdidas de suelo y los nutrientes calcio, magnesio, potasio y fósforo en un periodo de 7 meses. Los resultados mostraron diferencias (P < 0.05 entre las coberturas evaluadas. Las pérdidas más altas de suelo y nutrientes ocurrieron bajo cultivos limpios (2.61 t/ha y las más bajas en guadua (0.08 t/ha. Estos resultados sugieren ventajas de los bosques de guadua en esta zona de Colombia, ya que además de contribuir a la conservación de los suelos y al mantenimiento de la fertilidad, es una alternativa económica complementaria para los productores rurales a partir de su manejo y aprovechamiento.

  2. Habitat characteristics and eggshell distribution of the salt marsh mosquito, Aedes vigilax, in marshes in subtropical Eastern Australia.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dale, Pat E R; Knight, Jon; Kay, Brian H; Chapman, Heather; Ritchie, Scott A; Brown, Michael D

    2008-01-01

    Research at 10 locations in coastal subtropical Queensland, Australia, has shown that salt marshes contained heterogeneous distributions of eggshells of the pest and vector mosquito Aedes vigilax (Skuse) (Diptera:Culicidae). The eggshell distribution was related to specific vegetation assemblages, with a mix of the grass, Sporobolus virginicus (L.) Kunth (Poales: Poaceae), and the beaded glasswort, Sarcocornia quinqueflora (Bunge ex (Ung.-Stern) A.J. Scott (Caryophyllales: Chenopodiaceae), as significantly higher in eggshells than any other vegetation. There were also high numbers in the mix of S. virginicus with the arrowgrass, Triglochin striata Ruiz & Pavón (Alismatales: Juncaginaceae). Both mixed types are found in relatively wetter areas, despite very few eggshells being found generally in the low marsh. Most sites contained S. virginicus and eggshell locations were variable for this species alone. This was probably related to its life form variability in response to salinity and location on the marsh. Location on the marsh was important for eggshell distribution with most eggshells around the edges of pools and depressions, followed by, but to a significantly lesser extent, the marsh surface. Eggshells were fewest in the low marsh. Partition analysis resulted in a tree that simplified and summarised the factors important for eggshell distribution confirming the individual analyses. The potential effects of climate, sea level and other change are also briefly discussed in the context of likely changes to land cover and relative location on the marsh. For example, increased sea level may lead to low marsh conditions extending into higher marsh area with implications for oviposition and numbers of eggshells.

  3. Efecto citoprotector del camu-camu Myrciaria dubia en tres líneas celulares de ratón expuestos in vivo a bromato de potasio

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alvis Rafael

    2011-05-01

    Full Text Available Se evaluó in vivo la capacidad citoprotectora del fruto de Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh Camu-camu frente al daño mutagénico producido por bromato de potasio (68,5 mg/k sobre tres líneas celulares de ratón (hígado, riñón y células sanguíneas. Se utilizó ratones (n= 120 divididos en tres grupos los cuales bebieron ad libitum: TI= control negativo (solo agua y el grupo TIII (control positivo; El grupo TII bebió el extracto acuoso (2% p/v del fruto de camu-camu. A los diez días se inyectó una dosis única de KBr03 (68,5 mg/kg peso corporal vía intraperitoneal, a los grupos TII y TIII. El tratamiento con camu-camu continuo 35 días más, luego los ratones fueron eutanizados para determinar la frecuencia del daño al DNA mediante el protocolo del ensayo cometa alcalino. El grupo TII mostró en todas las líneas celulares el efecto citoprotector del camu-camu (p< 0,05. El efecto dañino al DNA por la acción oxidativa del KBrO3 es inhibido por el extracto acuoso del fruto de camu camu, probablemente por la presencia de los agentes antioxidantes como el Acido ascórbico y los flavonoides.

  4. 莫莫格湿地植被结构研究及其对碱性湿地演替的启示%Vegetation composition of Momoge wetland and its implications for succession in alkaline wetland

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    宁宇; 张志翔; 崔丽娟; 孙孝维

    2014-01-01

    community, Phragmites australis community, Digitaria ciliaris community, Setaria viridis community, Chloris virgata community and Artemisia sp. community, of which the C. virgata community and the Artemisia sp. community are of high prevalence. Vegetation in the Momoge wetland is dominated by communities of mesophytes, indicating that degradation is ongoing and the vegetation of this wetland can be classified as degraded meadow. The fundamental cause for vegetation differentiation in this wetland is the change of water regime though soil PH value, conductivity and the amount of organic matter are identified as the significant environmental factors associated with it. A certain degree of disturbance caused the prevalence of the C. virgata community, independent of previous vegetation or over-grazing.

  5. 东北地区四种常见禾本科杂草病原真菌资源调查及其致病性测定%A survey of pathogenic fungi on four common gramineous weeds in northeastern China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何伟; 邓晖; 牛永春; 赵杏利; 高洁

    2011-01-01

    为了解我国东北地区常见禾本科杂草病原真菌资源状况,于禾草生长季节对东北三省19个县市的稗草、狗尾草、马唐和虎尾草的发病情况进行了调查和采样.对病害样品用组织分离法分离获得186个真菌菌株,经形态学观察和rDNA ITS序列比对分析,鉴定到10个属的真菌.对其中分离率较高具代表性的或来自发病严重样品的31个菌株用人工接种法进行了致病性测定,明确了新月弯孢(Curvularia lunata)对稗草、狗尾草、马唐和虎尾草均有较强致病性,梭形凸脐蠕孢(Exserohilum fusiforme)和尖角凸脐蠕孢(E.monocera5)对稗草具有较强致病性,麦根腐平脐蠕孢(Bipolaris sorokiniana)、狗尾草平脐蠕孢(B.setariae)、嘴突凸脐蠕孢(E.rostratum)和链格孢(Alter-naria spp.)对狗尾草具有较强致病性.不同菌株致病性有差异,一般来讲,对原寄主的致病性强于对其他寄主的致病性.研究结果丰富了禾草的病菌资源和信息,为真菌除草剂的研发奠定了基础.%In order to understand the resources of pathogenic fungi on common gramineous weeds in northeastern China, field survey and sample collection of diseases of the barnyard grass Echinochloa crusgalli, the green bristlegrass Setaria viridis, the crabgrass Digitaria sanguinalis and the fingergrass Chloris virgata were carried out in grass growing seasons. With the tissue isolation method, 186 fungal strains were obtained. Out of them 10 genera were identified by means of morphological observation and alignment of rDNA ITS sequences. Pathogenicity of 31 strains, with high isolating frequency or from severely diseased samples, was tested with artificial inoculation.Curvularia lunata showed stronger pathogenicity on barnyard grass, green bristlegrass, crabgrass and fingergrass.Exserohilum fusiforme and E. monoceras showed stronger pathogenicity on barnyard grass. Bipolaris sorokiniana ,B. setariae, E. rostratum and Alternaria spp. showed

  6. Current land bird distribution and trends in population abundance between 1982 and 2012 on Rota, Mariana Islands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Camp, Richard J.; Brinck, Kevin W.; Gorresen, P. Marcos; Amidon, Fred A.; Radley, Paul M.; Berkowitz, S. Paul; Banko, Paul C.

    2015-01-01

    The western Pacific island of Rota is the fourth largest human-inhabited island in the Mariana archipelago and designated an Endemic Bird Area. Between 1982 and 2012, 12 point-transect distance-sampling surveys were conducted to assess bird population status. Surveys did not consistently sample the entire island; thus, we used a ratio estimator to estimate bird abundances in strata not sampled during every survey. Trends in population size were reliably estimated for 11 of 13 bird species, and 7 species declined over the 30-y time series, including the island collared-dove Streptopelia bitorquata, white-throated ground-dove Gallicolumba xanthonura, Mariana fruit-dove Ptilinopus roseicapilla, collared kingfisher Todiramphus chloris orii, Micronesian myzomela Myzomela rubratra, black drongo Dicrurus macrocercus, and Mariana crow Corvus kubaryi. The endangered Mariana crow (x̄  =  81 birds, 95% CI 30–202) declined sharply to fewer than 200 individuals in 2012, down from 1,491 birds in 1982 (95% CI  =  815–3,115). Trends increased for white tern Gygis alba, rufous fantail Rhipidura rufifrons mariae, and Micronesian starling Aplonis opaca. Numbers of the endangered Rota white-eye Zosterops rotensis declined from 1982 to the late 1990s but returned to 1980s levels by 2012, resulting in an overall stable trend. Trends for the yellow bittern Ixobrychus sinensis were inconclusive. Eurasian tree sparrow Passer montanus trends were not assessed; however, their numbers in 1982 and 2012 were similar. Occupancy models of the 2012 survey data revealed general patterns of land cover use and detectability among 12 species that could be reliably modeled. Occupancy was not assessed for the Eurasian tree sparrow because of insufficient detections. Based on the 2012 survey, bird distribution and abundance across Rota revealed three general patterns: 1) range restriction, including Mariana crow, Rota white-eye, and Eurasian tree sparrow; 2) widespread distribution, low

  7. 玉米田主要杂草对烟嘧磺隆的抗性%Resistance of weeds to nicosulfuron in corn fields in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴翠霞; 张宏军; 张佳; 宋敏; 孔繁华; 路兴涛

    2016-01-01

    为明确我国玉米田杂草对烟嘧磺隆的抗性水平及分布现状,于2010—2011年自山东、吉林、四川、河北4省采集连续多年施用烟嘧磺隆的玉米田杂草种子样本121个,在温室内采用盆栽法测定了其对烟嘧磺隆的抗性。结果显示:4个杂草样本对烟嘧磺隆产生了抗性,其中山东淄博张店区傅家镇高家村的牛筋草抗性种群的 GR50为25.76 g/hm2,是敏感种群(1.33 g/hm2)的19.37倍,已产生明显的抗药性;四川彭山县谢家镇岳油村的稗草、河北大城县广安镇夏屯村的虎尾草和河北邯郸的狗尾草分别产生了6.14、5.43和5.65倍的低水平抗性;其余杂草样本均无明显抗性。同一杂草不同采集地点的敏感样本对烟嘧磺隆的敏感性存在差异。%To investigate the resistance level and distribution of weed species to nicosulfuron in corn fields in Chi-na,a total of 121 populations of weed in nicosulfuron continuously used fields were collected from Shandong,Ji-lin,Sichuan and Hebei provinces from 2010 to 2011.The resistance was detected in the greenhouse by whole plant pot method.The results showed that four populations of weeds were resistant to nicosulfuron.Among them,the GR50 value of a resistant Eleusine indica population collected from Gaojia village,Fujia Town,Zhangdian Dis-trict,Zibo,Shandong Province was 25.76 g/hm2 ,which was 19.37-fold higher than the corresponding susceptible population (GR50 =1.33 g/hm2 ).The Echinochloa crusgalli from Pengshan,Sichuan Province,Chloris virgata from Dacheng,and Setaria viridis from Handan,Hebei Province showed low level resistance to nicosulfuron with resist-ance ratios of 6.14,5.43 and 5.65,respectively.The rest samples were all susceptible to the nicosulfuron.

  8. Anoxic Corrosion of Steel and Lead in Na - Cl ± Mg-Dominated Brines in Atmospheres Containing CO2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roselle, G. T.; Johnsen, S.; Allen, C.; Roselle, R.

    2009-12-01

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) is a deep geologic repository developed by the U.S. Department of Energy for the disposal of transuranic radioactive waste in bedded salt (Permian Salado Fm.). In order to minimize radionuclide release from the repository it is desirable to maintain these species in their least-soluble form (i.e., low oxidation states). Post-closure conditions in the WIPP will control the speciation and solubility of radionuclides in the waste. Microbially-produced CO2 from cellulosic, plastic and rubber materials in the waste may acidify any brine present and increase the actinide solubilities. Thus, the DOE emplaces MgO in the repository to buffer fCO2 and pH within ranges favoring lower actinide solubilities. Large quantities of low-C steel and Pb present in the WIPP may also consume CO2. We present initial results from a series of multiyear experiments investigating the corrosion of steel and Pb alloys under WIPP-relevant conditions. The objective is to determine the extent to which these alloys consume CO2 via the formation of carbonates or other phases, potentially supporting MgO in CO2 sequestration. In these experiments steel and Pb coupons are immersed in brines under WIPP-relevant conditions using a continuous gas flow-through system. The experimental apparatus maintains the following conditions: pO2 citrate, and oxalate); and ERDA-6 with the same organic ligands. Steel coupons removed after 6 months show formation of several phases dependent on the pCO2. SEM analysis with EDS shows the presence of a green Fe (±Mg)-chlori-hydroxide phase at pCO2 values 350 ppm. Multiple cleaning cycles were used to remove all corrosion products from the coupons, which were then weighed to determine corrosive mass loss. These data are used to calculate average corrosion rates for each experimental condition. The data show that steel corrosion rates are a strong function of pCO2 for all brine types. ERDA-6 brines appear to be more corrosive than GWB

  9. Effects of highway on the vegetation species composition along a distance gradient from road edge in southeastern margin of Tengeer Desert%腾格里沙漠东南缘公路对路域植被物种组成的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冯丽; 李新荣; 郭群; 张景光; 张志山

    2011-01-01

    -tolerant species Pennisetum centrasiaticum, Chloris virgata, and Agropyron cristatum accounting for 68.6% of the total. C. virgata beyond 1 m to the road edge had a rapid decrease in its individual number and presence frequency,P. centrasiaticum and A. cristatum beyond 2 m also showed a similar trend. while the composite plants Artemisia capillaris and A. frigida beyond 2 m from the road edge had a rapid increase in its individual number. accounting for 70% of the herbaceous plants. At the road edge, the coverage and density of shrubs were significantly lower than those of the control, but the species composition had no significant difference.

  10. Study on the Drought Resistance of Some Ornamental Plants on Roof%屋顶观赏植物的抗旱性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡小京; 刘进平; 吴小波; 李晓慧

    2011-01-01

    以佛甲草(Sedum lineare Thunb)、鸭跖草(Commelina communis L.)、太阳花(Portulaca grandiflora Hook.)、鸢尾(Iris tectorum Maxim.)、常春藤(Caulis hederae Sinensis)、吉祥草(Reineckea carnea Kunth)、露草(Mesembryanthemum cordifolium L.f.)等7种植物为试验材料进行耐旱性试验,筛选适合贵阳市屋顶绿化的植物材料,为当地今后屋顶绿化植物的应用提供科学的理论依据.结果表明,7种植物在干旱胁迫下,表现出相对含水量逐渐降低、可溶性糖与丙二醛含量逐渐升高、细胞膜透性逐渐增大、过氧化物酶活性与叶绿素含量先升后降的趋势.综合各植物的表现,7种植物的抗旱性从高到低依次为太阳花>佛甲草>常春藤>露草>吉祥草>鸢尾>鸭跖草.%The drought resistance of seven ornamental plants (Sedum lineare Thunb, Commelina communis L., Portulaca grctndiflora rlook., Iris tectorum Maxim, , Conlis hederoe Sinensis , Heineekea corneo Ivunth and. Itlesembryanthemiim cordifoli-urn L. F.) was studied in order to select perfect ornamental plants suited for Guiyang roof garden. The results showed that for seven plants under drought stress, the relative water content reduced; the content of soluble sugar and MDA increased; their plasma membranes penetrability increased gradually; POD activities and chlorophyll content increased firstly, and then decreased. Overall, the drought resistance degree from high to low of the seven plants was P. Grandiflora > S. Lineare > C. Hederae > M. Cordifolium > R. Cornea > I. Tectorum > C. Communis.

  11. Estudio bromatológico y de digestibilidad in-situ dela gramínea chusque (Chusquea scandens K a diferentes edades de corte .

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Dueñas-Tamayo

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available El  chusque  es un planta que hace parte de  los sistemas silvopastoriles naturales en el  trópico alto y, por ende, es aprovechada como alimento para los animales que pastan en dichos sistemas; no obstante, esta planta no cuenta con ningún reporte científico  que  indique  el  valor  y  los  aportes nutricionales que brinda a  los  rumiantes que  la consumen.  Con  esta  investigación  se  logró determinar  la  calidad  nutricional  del  chusque (Chusquea scandens, KUNTH por medio de un análisis bromatológico, digestibilidad aparente de la materia seca,  egradabilidad  in  situ  de  la proteína  (P,  fibra en detergente neutro  (FDN,  fibra en detergente acido  (FDA, contenido celular  (CC, complejo  lignina-celulosa  (CLC ý cenizas (C, a diferentes edades de corte del rebrote  (30, 45 y 60 días. Se empleó como testigo positivo (forraje de buena calidad alfalfa cortada a una edad de rebrote de 25 días y como  testigo negativo (forraje de mala calidad el kikuyo de más de 120 días. La unidad experimental estuvo constituida por dos muestreos con periodos de incubación en rumen de 96, 72, 48, 24, 12 y 0 h. Luego de  la realización del  trabajo  de  campo  y  de  las  pruebas  de laboratorio,  los  resultados  determinaron que  el chusque presenta un alto contenido de P, pero éste no es asimilable por efecto del complejo lignina-celulosa que  se encuentra elevado en  las muestras estudiadas. De  igual manera se encontró que el chusque  tiene un alto grado de FDN-FDA, además es  un  alimento  con  alto  contenido  celular transformándolo en un forraje energético.

  12. Almacenamiento de carbono en especies predominantes de flora en el lago Chinchaycocha

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ronald Medrano Yanqui

    2012-12-01

    Full Text Available Objetivos: Evaluar la cantidad de carbono que almacenan las especies predominantes de flora del lago Chinchaycocha. Métodos: La investigación fue de tipo básica, de corte transversal y con un nivel exploratorio-comparativo. El estudio se hizo en tres ecosistemas dentro del humedal: bofedal, pajonal y totoral, las áreas fueron identificadas con ayuda de imágenes satelitales Landsat. El procedimiento estuvo basado en la recolección de muestras divididas en: biomasa aérea, biomasa radicular y muestras de suelo, hallándose el contenido de carbono de cada una. Resultados: En el totoral se obtuvo que Schoenoplectus californicus Var. Tatora almacena 30,65 tC/ha y Juncos arcticus Var. Andicola 8,70 tC/ha. En el pajonal Deyeuxia recta Kunth almacena 7,02 tC/ha en su biomasa aérea y 8,41 tC/ha en su biomasa radicular. En el bofedal: Plantago tubulosa almacena 0,81 t C/ha en su biomasa aérea y 1,88 t C/ha en su biomasa radicular, Eleocharis albibracteata almacena 0,22 t C/ha en su biomasa aérea y 2,95 tC/ha en su biomasa radicular, y Limosella australis almacena 0,22 tC/ha en su biomasa aérea y 0,38 tC/ha en su biomasa radicular. En el almacenamiento de carbono en suelos se determinó 774,76 tC/ ha en pajonales y 684,58 tC/ha en bofedales. Conclusiones: Se concluye que en el lago Chinchaycocha el ecosistema que brinda mayor almacenamiento de carbono es el totoral, seguido por el pajonal y en menor proporción el bofedal. Asimismo los suelos son considerados los mayores sumideros de carbono.

  13. Microparticles containing guaraná extract obtained by spray-drying technique: development and characterization

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    Traudi Klein

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available AbstractGuaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth, Sapindaceae is well known for its dietary and pharmaceutical potential, and the semipurified extract of guaraná shows antidepressant and panicolytic effects. However, the low solubility, bioavailability and stability of the semipurified extract limit its use as a component of pharmaceutical agents. Delivery of the semipurified extract in a microparticle form could help to optimize its stability. In this study, microparticles containing semipurified extract of guaraná were obtained by the spray-drying technique, using a combination of maltodextrin and gum arabic. The raw materials and microparticles produced were characterized by particle size analysis, differential scanning calorimetry, thermogravimetric analysis, and scanning electron microscopy. The drug content and antioxidant capacity were also evaluated. In vitrodissolution tests using flow cell dissolution apparatus, were carried out to investigate the influence of formulation parameters on the release of semipurified extract of guaraná from the microparticles. The spray-drying technique and the processing conditions selected gave satisfactory encapsulation efficiency (80–110% and product yield (55–60%. The mean diameter of microparticles was around 4.5 µm. The DPPH radical scavenging capacity demonstrated that microparticles can protect the semipurified extract of guaraná from the effect of high temperatures during the process maintained the antioxidant capacity. Differential scanning calorimetry results indicated an interaction between semipurified extract of guaraná and gum arabic: maltodextrin in the microparticles, and thermogravimetric analysis indicate that the profile curves of the microparticles are similar to the adjuvants used in drying, probably due to the higher proportion of adjuvants compared to semipurified extract of guaraná. In vitro dissolution tests demonstrate that all formulations complete dissolution within 60 min

  14. COMPOSITION AND BACTERICIDAL ACTIVITY AGAINST BENEFICIAL AND PATHOGENIC BACTERIA OF OREGANO ESSENTIAL OILS FROM FOUR CHEMOTYPES OF Origanum AND Lippia GENUS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    L. Betancourt

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Diversos estudios demuestran la actividad antibacterial de distintos quimiotipos de aceites esenciales de orégano (OEO, carvacrol y timol, contra bacterias patógenas Gram positivas y Gram negativas, pero muy poca información está disponible sobre el efecto de los OEO en bacterias benéficas. El objetivo de este estudio fue comparar la composición y concentración mínima bactericida (CMB de OEO de quimiotipos del género Origanum: O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum (OH, O. majorana (OM y O. vulgare L. (OL cultivados en Colombia, frente Lippia origanoides Kunth (LO nativo del Alto Pa-tía en Colombia y O. vulgare L. ssp. hirtum cultivado en Grecia (OG. Los OEO se ob-tuvieron por arrastre de vapor, la composición se determinó por cromatografía de gases acoplada a espectrometría de masas y la actividad antibacteriana mediante el método de dilución en caldo y cultivo en agar. Se evaluaron tres quimiotipos de OEO: OH y OG tipo-carvacrol, LO y OL tipo-timol y OM rico en compuestos sabinilo. Las variedades de orégano producidas bajo condiciones de invernadero a alta altitud mostraron un alto contenido de precursores. Un valor similar de concentración mínima bactericida contra Salmonella enteritidis (0.098 mg/mL fue observada para carvacrol, OH y LO. La más baja actividad bactericida contra las bacterias benéficas Lactobacillusacidophilusy Bifidobacterium breve fue observada para OM (6.25 mg/mL y LO (50 mg/mL, respectivamente. Estos resultados mostraron que LO, nativo de Colombia presentó un efecto antibacteriano comparable a OH y carvacrol contra enterobacterias patógenas y una baja actividad bactericida contra las bacterias benéficas. Estos resultados mostraron un efecto bactericida selectivo contra bacterias benéficas y patógenas de los quimiotiposOriganum ssp. y L. origanoides. Se comprobó un buen potencial de L. origanoides para uso como aditivo antimicrobiano para la salud humana y animal.

  15. Caracterización morfológica y molecular de Leptochloa dubia (Poaceae en Chihuahua, México

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Carlos Morales-Nieto

    2015-08-01

    Full Text Available El gigante [Leptochloa dubia(Kunth Nees.] es una importante gramínea forrajera nativa de México, cuyas poblaciones naturales se han reducido debido a malas prácticas de pastoreo. En este trabajo se analizó la variabilidad morfológica y genética de 32 poblaciones del gigante en el estado de Chihuahua, México. Nueve características morfológicas fueron evaluadas en estas poblaciones, después de dos años de trasplantadas y establecidos en un jardín de observación y bajo condiciones de temporal. La variabilidad genética se determinó utilizando los perfiles de amplificación de cuatro pares de iniciadores u oligonucleótidos. El análisis de componentes principales mostró que los tres primeros componentes explicaron el 75.3% de la variación morfológica. Los cuatro pares de iniciadores produjeron un total de 186 bandas, de las cuales el 56.45% presentó polimorfismo. La combinación de iniciadores EcoRI-AAC+MseI-CAG detectó el mayor porcentaje de polimorfismo (69.57% y 32 bandas polimórficas. El coeficiente de Dice y análisis de agrupamiento generaron cinco grupos. La variabilidad genética y morfológica encontrada en las diferentes poblaciones, podrían servir de base para la selección de ecotipos de gigante para diversos propósitos como producción de semilla, retención de suelo, restauración de ecosistemas y forraje para libre pastoreo o de corte, entre otros. Así también, los resultados de este trabajo son la base para iniciar programas de mejoramiento genético en esta especie.

  16. Plantas úteis para revestimento do solo: II - Gramíneas de porte médio e grande

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    F. M. Aires de Alencar

    1952-12-01

    Full Text Available Preliminary results have been obtained on the development of 11 types of grasses with average height varying from 0.70 to 1.15 m and from 11 other types with average height from 1.30 to 5.00 m. From plots with an area of 25 m², from the collection of useful plants of the Soil Conservation Department of the Instituto Agronômico de Campinas, one sample of the plants was taken for each plot the sampled area being of 0,50 and 1.00 m², for the grasses of medium and large size, respectively. The above-ground parts of the plants were cut at the heights of 80, 26, 8, 2 and 0 cm (ground level respectively and determinations were made of the weight and volume of each portion of the plants under investigation. The results obtained are presented in tables 1 to 3. The underground parts of the grasses were studied in the same areas where the aerial parts were cut. Blocks of soil were taken with depths of 2, 8, 26 and 80 cm. The underground portions of the plants in each block were separated by the dry method, using wire screen, their weight and volume being determined (table 1 to 3. The soil particles holding capacity of each species of grass was determined by adding to the weight of the above-ground part at the lowest cut (block Aa the weight of the underground portion found at the first block (block Ba, table 2 and 3. It has been observed that among the medium sized grasses the capim chorão (Eragrostis curvula Nees var. valida Stapf, capim de boi (Setaria poiretiana Kunth, capim Araguai (Paspalum fasdculatum Willd. and capim de planta (Panicum purpurascens Raddi and among the taller grasses the capim sempre-verde (Panicum maximum Jacq. var. gongylodes, capim elefante Merker, Napier and AxB (Pennisetum purpureum Schum. as well as capim vetiver (Vetiveria zizanioides Nash, seem to be more promissing for holding the soil particles and more useful for soil conservation purposes.

  17. Aplicação exógena de quitosana no sistema antioxidante de jaborandi

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sara Dousseau

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available A aplicação de eliciadores em plantas é utilizada em estudos de fisiologia para compreensão dos mecanismos de defesa ao ataque de herbívoros ou infecção por patógenos. Em virtude disso, foi avaliado o efeito do eliciador exógeno quitosana no sistema antioxidante enzimático de jaborandi (Piper mollicomum Kunth. Foram avaliadas as atividades das enzimas ascorbato peroxidase (APX, catalase (CAT e superóxido dismutase (SOD e as concentrações de peróxido de hidrogênio (H2O2 e malonaldeído (MDA, ambas análises para verificar a peroxidação lipídica. O delineamento experimental utilizado foi o de blocos casualizados (DBC, constituído de um fatorial (5x2 composto pelos controles sem quitosana (plantas sem pulverização e plantas pulverizadas apenas com o solvente de diluição da quitosana e concentrações de quitosana (2,5; 5,0 e 10,0 g L-1 em dois estádios de desenvolvimento foliar (em desenvolvimento e completamente expandida. Nas folhas completamente expandidas, o sistema antioxidante foi mais ativo. A CAT teve maior participação no sequestro de radicais livres, induzido pela aplicação da quitosana em ambos os estádios de desenvolvimento foliar. A APX foi induzida somente nas folhas completamente expandidas e na maior concentração de quitosana. O método do MDA foi melhor para evidenciar a diferença nos teores de peróxido de hidrogênio, em função do estresse induzido pela quitosana. De acordo com os resultados obtidos neste ensaio, pode-se sugerir que, nas plantas de jaborandi, as enzimas antioxidativas são requisitadas em resposta ao eliciador em questão, a quitosana, compondo, assim, o mecanismo de defesa dessas plantas.

  18. CHOICE OF MACROPHYTE SUBSTRATE IN THE USE OF DIATOMS AS INDICATORS OF POND WATER QUALITY ASSESSMENT: PRELIMINARY DATA ON THE CASE OF ALALAY POND (COCHABAMBA, BOLIVIA

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    Eduardo A. Morales

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Alalay Pond is a 230-hectare, shallow aquatic ecosystem within Cochabamba, the third largest city in Bolivia. With the aim to determine the suitability of epiphytic diatoms for water quality assessment in the pond and to choose a substrate that would hold a representative bioindicator epiphytic community, the macrophytes Schoenoplectus californicus subsp. tatora (Kunth T. Koyama, Typha dominguensis Pers., Myriophyllum verticillatum L. and Azolla filiculoides Lam. were selected and differences in diatom community composition and structure were tested. Diatoms were collected during four sampling campaigns in the March-September, 2011 period, from three stations contiguous to the pelagic zone and prepared for analysis using standard, internationally used protocols. In all, 27 samples were collected from which 28 taxa characteristic of eutrophic environments were identified and 17 others could not be assigned names from the literature. Although many of the species are shared among sampling sites, the epiphytic communities developing at each station were different in structure and composition. Although, there are marked temporal variations in community features on each of the macrophytes, Shannon-Wiener and Pielou indexes, as well as canonical correspondence analysis, showed no marked differences within a single campaign and station among the 4 macrophytes. Shifts in structure and composition are denoted less commonly by species replacement and more often by changes in percent relative abundance of dominant and rare species. Very few species are restricted to a station or seem to show strong preference for a particular substrate. Taking into account growth, structural and ecological characteristics, as well as some phenological features of the macrophytes, S. californicus subsp. tatora and T. dominguensis are the most suitable substrates for water quality assessments in the pond. As demonstrated by multivariate analyses, among-site and time

  19. Estimating peach palm fruit surface area using allometric relationships Estimativa da área superficial de frutos de pupunheira por relações alométricas

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    Marilene Leão Alves Bovi

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruit surface area is an important trait in studies of developmental physiology, as well as in entomological and phytopathological research, where damage caused by insects and/or microorganisms needs to be quantified. Nonetheless, direct measurement of this trait is difficult, not very precise and destructive. This study establishes allometric relationships to estimate the surface area of peach palm (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Palmae fruits. Five fruits were harvested, at different maturation stages, from each of 18 plants. Image digitalization and edition methodology was adapted and compared with the traditional gravimetric method. Regression analysis and curve fitting were used to compare the two methods and establish allometric relationships among fruit surface area and fruit weight and size. The method based on image digitalization was twice as fast as the gravimetric method. Curve fitting for all pairs of independent and dependent variables was better with the image method. For most relationships, the best model was the exponential function (Y = ax b, although, due to its simplicity, the linear model is also adequated. The best allometric estimates of fruit surface area (Y were obtained using the product of fruit length by maximum width (x were: Y = 2.077 x 1.189 (R² = 94.8%; and Y = - 6.261 + 3.961 x (R² = 94.5%. Traits needed to establish this relationship are easily measured and non-destructive in nature. Validation of the allometric equations is essential when applied to other populations or landraces.A área superficial do fruto é de importância fundamental em estudos relacionados à fisiologia do desenvolvimento, bem como em pesquisas entomológicas e fitopatológicas, onde o dano causado por insetos e/ou microorganismos precisa ser quantificado. No entanto, a medição direta dessa característica é difícil, além de não muito precisa e destrutiva. Neste estudo foram estabelecidas relações alométricas visando estimar a

  20. Use of AFLPS to distinguish landraces of pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes in brazilian Amazonia Uso de AFLPS para discriminar raças primitivas de pupunha (Bactris gasipaes na Amazônia brasileira

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    Charles R. Clement

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available Although the first inhabitants of western Amazonia domesticated pejibaye (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Palmae or peach palm for its fruits, today it is widely planted for its heart-of-palm. Like other domesticates, pejibaye presents a complex hierarchy of landraces developed before the conquest of the Americas. The existence of three landraces (Pará, Solimões, Putumayo was proposed along the Amazonas and Solimões Rivers, Brazil, based on morphological characteristics. There are some questions remaining about the intermediate landrace being an artifact of the morphometric analysis. AFLPs were used to evaluate the relationships among samples of these putative landraces. DNA was extracted from 99 plants representing 13 populations maintained in the Pejibaye Germplasm Bank, Manaus, AM; six primer combinations generated 245 markers via PCR, which were scored in an ABI Prism 310 sequencer and analyzed with GeneScan Software; Jaccard similarities were estimated and a dendrogram was generated with UPGMA. Two groups of plants were observed in the dendrogram instead of three, and were similar at 0.795. Each group contained two subgroups, similar at 0.815. One group (n=41 contained 73% Pará landrace plants, with one subgroup (n=22 containing 91% Pará, and the other (n=19 containing 53% Pará. The other group (n=58 contained 53% Solimões and 40% Putumayo landrace plants, with one subgroup (n=21 containing 52% Solimões and 43% Putumayo, and the other (n=35 containing 57% Solimões and 37% Putumayo. The first group confirmed the Pará landrace. The second group suggested that the Solimões landrace does not exist, but that the Putumayo landrace extends along the Solimões River to Central Amazonia.Os primeiros povos da Amazônia ocidental domesticaram a pupunha (Bactris gasipaes Kunth, Palmae por seu fruto, embora hoje seja muito plantada por seu palmito. Como outros cultivos domesticados, a pupunha apresenta uma hierarquia complexa de raças primitivas

  1. Fertilization and cover crop effects on soil nitrogen and plant nutrition in a young guarana plantation Efeitos da fertilização mineral e da cobertura do solo sobre a dinâmica do Nitrogênio e na nutrição de plantas jovens de guaraná

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    Lucerina Trujillo

    2003-12-01

    Full Text Available Fruit tree production is gaining an increasing importance in the central Amazon and elsewhere in the humid tropics, but very little is known about the nutrient dynamics in the soil-plant system. The present study quantified the effects of fertilization and cover cropping with a legume (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb. Benth. on soil nitrogen (N dynamics and plant nutrition in a young guarana plantation (Paullinia cupana Kunth. (H.B. and K. var. sorbilis (Mart. Ducke on a highly weathered Xanthic Ferralsol. Large subsoil nitrate (NO3- accumulation at 0.3-3 m below the guarana plantation indicated N leaching from the topsoil. The NO3- contents to a depth of 2 m were 2.4 times greater between the trees than underneath unfertilized trees (P0.05. Even without a legume intercrop, large amounts of NO3- were found in the subsoil between unfertilized trees. Subsoil NO3- between the trees could be utilized, however, by fertilized guarana. This can be explained by a more vigorous growth of fertilized trees which had a larger nutrient demand and exploited a larger soil volume. With a legume cover crop, however, more mineral N was available at the topsoil which was leached into the subsoil and consequently accumulated at 0.3-3 m depth. Fertilizer additions of P and K were needed to increase subsoil NO3- use between trees.A produção de fruteiras está ganhando grande importância na Amazônia Central e em outras partes dos trópicos úmidos mas, muito pouco ainda é conhecido sobre a dinâmica de nutrientes no sistema solo-planta. O presente estudo quantificou os efeitos da fertilização mineral e da cobertura do solo com uma leguminosa (Pueraria phaseoloides (Roxb Benth. sobre a dinâmica do N no solo e sobre a nutrição de plantas jovens de guaraná (Paullinia cupana Kunth. (H.B. and K. var. sorbilis (Mart. Ducke, em um Latossolo Amarelo muito argiloso. Grande acúmulo de nitrato (NO3- encontrado na profundidade de 0,3 - 3,0m abaixo do plantio de guaraná

  2. Estimativas da área foliar e da biomassa aérea da pupunheira por meio de relações alométricas Leaf area and aboveground biomass estimates in peach palm using allometric relationships

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    Adriana Ramos

    2008-06-01

    Full Text Available Relações alométricas para estimativa da área foliar e da biomassa total em pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth têm sido empregadas por diversos autores, sendo úteis especialmente em pesquisas relacionadas à fisiologia vegetal. No entanto, área foliar e biomassa aérea são características de elevada plasticidade, podendo variar acentuadamente por causas genéticas e edafoclimáticas. O presente trabalho foi desenvolvido com o objetivo de identificar as equações mais adequadas para determinação da área foliar e da biomassa aérea (foliar e total da pupunheira, em condições de limitações sazonais hídricas e térmicas. Foram utilizadas 14 plantas de pupunheiras da raça Putumayo (Yurimaguas, cultivadas no espaçamento de 2,0 m x 1,0 m. Foram mensurados altura e diâmetro da haste principal, número de folhas, comprimento, espessura e largura da ráquis foliar de plantas apresentando altura entre 0,37 e 2,00 m, com duas plantas por altura. Obtiveram-se ainda as massas fresca e seca da ráquis, dos folíolos, dos palmitos e dos estipes das plantas. Os dados foram submetidos à análise de regressão e ajustes de equações. A equação para determinação da área foliar da pupunheira foi obtida pela regressão para o peso seco dos folíolos. Dentre os modelos testados, as equações não lineares do tipo Y= ax b e Y= a bx apresentaram melhor ajuste (R²>0,88. Os valores de área foliar, biomassa foliar e biomassa aérea total variaram de 0,84 a 14,06 m², de 0,78 a 2,45 kg planta-1 e de 0,14 a 4,44 kg planta-1, respectivamente. Dentre as características avaliadas, a altura da haste e a espessura da ráquis foliar se mostraram as mais adequadas para estimativa da área foliar, da biomassa foliar e da biomassa aérea total da pupunheira, tanto pela sua facilidade de mensuração, quanto pela sua alta correlação com os demais caracteres.Allometric relations for estimation of leaf area and biomass in peach palm (Bactris gasipaes

  3. 忽地笑酌-生育酚甲基转移酶基因LaTMT的克隆与表达分析%Cloning and expression analysis on γ-tocopherol methyltransferase gene LaTMT from Lycoris ;aurea

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    蔡黎丽; 徐晟; 马蕊; 汪仁; 夏冰

    2016-01-01

    采用RACE技术从忽地笑也Lycoris aurea ( L'Hér.) Herb.页叶片中克隆获得γ-生育酚甲基转移酶(γ-TMT)基因,命名为LaTMT。序列分析结果显示:该基因cDNA全长1458 bp,其中开放阅读框( ORF)长1017 bp,编码338个氨基酸残基。 LaTMT基因编码蛋白质的理论相对分子质量37560,理论等电点pI 8.70,为亲水性蛋白,无跨膜结构但具有信号肽结构;并具有S-腺苷甲硫氨酸( SAM)甲基转移酶保守结构域,包含3个SAM结合位点;该蛋白的二级结构中包含44.08%的α-螺旋、32.84%的无规则卷曲、12.72%的延伸链和10.36%的β-转角。序列比对和系统进化树分析结果显示:LaTMT蛋白属于S-腺苷甲硫氨酸-依赖性γ-生育酚甲基转移酶家族,与其他植物γ-TMT蛋白的一致性为64%~75%;在 NJ系统树上, LaTMT蛋白与单子叶植物γ-TMT蛋白聚为同一大类,并与油棕( Elaeis guineensis Jacq.) EgTMT和美洲油棕也Elaeis oleifera ( Kunth) Cortés页EoTMT聚为同一类,亲缘关系最近。基因表达分析结果显示:LaTMT基因可在大肠杆菌中成功表达,且表达量随异丙基硫代半乳糖苷( IPTG)诱导时间的延长而增加;在忽地笑的根、叶片、花苞、子房、雄蕊、花瓣和鳞茎中LaTMT基因均可表达,其中在叶片中的相对表达量最高,在子房、雄蕊和鳞茎中的相对表达量相对较低,具有明显的组织特异性。研究结果表明:忽地笑LaTMT基因在进化过程中具有很高的保守性;该基因主要定位于叶绿体中,并与忽地笑对非生物逆境胁迫的抗性相关。%Using RACE method,γ-tocopherol methyltransferase (γ-TMT) gene was cloned from leaf of Lycoris aurea ( L'Hér.) Herb., which was named LaTMT. The result of sequence analysis shows that full-length cDNA of LaTMT gene is 1 458 bp, in which, length of open reading frame ( ORF) is 1 017 bp, and 338 amino acid residues are encoded. Theoretical relative molecular mass of the protein encoded by

  4. Características de carcaça, componentes não-carcaça e composição tecidual e química da 12ª costela de cordeiros Santa Inês terminados em pasto com três gramíneas no período seco Carcass traits, non-carcass components and tissues and chemical composition the 12th rib of Santa Inês sheep finished on three different grasses during the dry season

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    Luizângele Figueiredo de Oliveira Menezes

    2008-07-01

    Full Text Available Foram avaliadas as características de carcaça, os componentes não-carcaça e o rendimento da 12ª costela de cordeiros Santa Inês terminados em pastejo rotacionado com três forrageiras tropicais (A. gayanus Kunth, cv. Planaltina, P. maximum Jacq., cv. Aruana e P. maximum Jacq., cv. Tanzânia, no período seco do ano. Utilizou-se delineamento inteiramente casualizado, com 11 ovinos (3 meses de idade e 18,8 ± 2,88 kg PV em cada tratamento. Os animais receberam suplementação com concentrado em níveis crescentes, conforme o avançar do período seco, além de sal mineral à vontade. Ao final de 82 dias de experimento, os animais foram abatidos; no dia anterior ao abate, a área de olho-de-lombo (AOL foi mensurada com ultra-som (AOLUS. Avaliaram-se o peso ao abate (PA, o peso de carcaça quente (PCQ, o rendimento de carcaça quente (RCQ, o comprimento da carcaça (CC, o escore de gordura subcutânea (EGS, o peso da meia-carcaça quente (PMCQ, os cortes da meia-carcaça (costela/fralda, costeleta, lombo, paleta, pernil, e pescoço e os pesos da pele (PELE, das vísceras torácicas (VT e abdominais (VA e dos testículos (TE. A 12ª costela foi avaliada quanto ao peso total (PT, AOL, aos pesos e às porcentagens de músculo (MUSC, osso (OSSO e gordura (GORD e os constituintes químicos. As características PA, PCQ, RCQ, PELE e GORD não diferiram entre os animais terminados em pastos de capim-aruana e capim-tanzânia, mas foram superiores nos animais terminados em pasto de capim-andropogon. Os rendimentos de pescoço, costela/fralda e costeleta dos animais terminados em capim-tanzânia foram superiores aos obtidos nos animais terminados em capim-andropogon e aruana, que não diferiram entre si. As demais características de carcaça, dos componentes não-carcaça e da 12ª costela não diferiram entre os tratamentos. Os ovinos mantidos em pastagem de capim-aruana e capim-tanzânia apresentaram melhores características de carcaça e desempenho

  5. Estudos experimentais em coelhos com plantas cianogênicas Experiments in rabbits with cyanogenic plants

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    Marilene F. Brito

    2000-06-01

    Full Text Available A administração por via oral das folhas dessecadas de Piptadenia macrocarpa (Benth. [=Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan], Piptadenia viridiflora (Kunth. Benth. e Holocalyx glaziovii Taub. [=Holocalyx balansae Micheli], plantas cianogênicas da família Leguminosae Mimosoideae, revelou a sensibilidade do coelho à elas, caracterizando-se a intoxicação por sintomatologia de natureza neuromuscular. A dose letal de P. macrocarpa foi de 6 g/kg para a brotação dessecada, até 5 meses após sua coleta; 6 meses depois da coleta a planta havia perdido a toxidez. A dose letal de P. viridiflora foi também de 6 g/kg para a brotação dessecada, coletada dois meses antes dos experimentos; 10 meses após a coleta a planta havia perdido metade da toxidez. Com H. glaziovii foram realizadas duas séries experimentais; estabeleceu-se a dose letal entre 0,75 e 1,5 g/kg com a planta coletada 2 meses antes, também com perda aproximada de metade da toxidez no período de 12 meses. O experimentos indicam, que H. glaziovii, moída logo após a coleta e armazenada em vidros fechados com tampa plástica, conserva melhor a toxidez nos primeiros meses do que a planta guardada em sacos de algodão, porém, ao final de um ano, essa diferença deixa de existir. A toxidez das folhas dessecadas foi proporcional à intensidade das reações das mesmas ao teste do papel picro-sódico, com raras exceçõesThe dried leaves of Piptadenia macrocarpa Benth. [=Anadenanthera macrocarpa (Benth. Brenan], Piptadenia viridiflora (Kunth. Benth. and Holocalyx glaziovii Taub.[=Holocalyx balansae Micheli], all trees of the Leguminosae Mimosoideae family, were given orally to rabbits in single doses. In the case of H. glaziovii, leaves were fed after being stored in two different ways. In the first series of experiments, Piptadenia macrocarpa failed to poison rabbits although the leaves were collected when sprouting, the most toxic stage for cattle. The experiments were performed 4

  6. Efeito hipolipidêmico do suco de camu-camu em ratos

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    Maíra Cássia Schwertz

    2012-02-01

    Full Text Available OBJETIVO: Este estudo teve como objetivo avaliar o potencial hipolipidêmico do suco de camu-camu (Myrciaria dubia (Kunth McVaugh em ratos dislipidêmicos. MÉTODOS: Foram utilizados 72 ratos (Rattus norvegicus var. albinus machos adultos da linhagem Wistar, com peso médio de 200g. O experimento foi dividido em duas fases: indução da dislipidemia e tratamento. Para indução da dislipidemia, todos os ratos receberam ração hiperlipídica (ração comercial adicionada a 10,0% de banha suína, 1,0% colesterol e 0,1% de ácido cólico durante 21 dias. Na fase de tratamento, 40 ratos dislipidêmicos foram divididos aleatoriamente em 5 grupos (n=8, sendo 3 deles submetidos a tratamento com diferentes concentrações de suco de camu-camu (0,4mL.kg-1, 4,0mL.kg-1 e 10mL.kg-1 por 14 dias, 1 grupo submetido a tratamento com quercetina (10mL.kg-1 e 1 grupo hiperlidêmico. Estes dois últimos foram mantidos como parâmetro, ao lado do grupo basal. Para avaliar o efeito modulador do suco de camu-camu no perfil lipídico dos ratos, foram verificadas as concentrações de triacilgliceróis, colesterol total, lipoproteína de alta intensidade e lipoproteína de baixa intensidade, no plasma, assim como os níveis de colesterol fecal e hepático. Também foram observados o controle da ingestão de ração e a avaliação da massa corporal. RESULTADOS: As diferentes doses de suco de camu-camu e de quercetina apresentaram efeitos moduladores do perfil lipídico, ou seja, redução de triacilgliceróis, colesterol total, excreção fecal de colesterol, bem como redução do colesterol hepático. Salienta-se que os melhores resultados foram obtidos com a concentração de 10mL.kg-1. Em relação à massa corporal, os ratos que receberam essa concentração de suco de camu e quercetina mantiveram peso significativamente inferior ao obervado nos demais tratamentos, tanto no início quanto ao final da intervenção. Resultado similar foi observado quanto ao consumo

  7. Análisis filogenético de Paepalanthus (Eriocaulaceae Andinos seleccionados con énfasis en las especies presentes en Colombia

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    González Favio

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available El género Paepalanthus Kunth, el más grande de la familia Eriocaulaceae, comprende aproximadamente 485 especies
    distribuidas en el neotrópico con unos pocos representantes en las regiones tropicales de África. En América, se encuentra desde México hasta Bolivia y Brasil, con una distribución altitudinal disyunta entre tierras bajas como los llanos de Colombia y Venezuela, los tepuyes de Venezuela y Guyana y la región amazónica de Colombia, Venezuela y Brasil, y regiones de alta montaña como los páramos de Costa Rica, Colombia, Venezuela, Ecuador y Perú. Estudios recientes con base en especies brasileñas y caracteres tanto morfológicos como anatómicos, sugieren que Paepalanthus es un grupo polifilético. El presente estudio se realizó con el propósito de integrar en un análisis filogenético tanto especies de zonas altas como de zonas bajas de Paepalanthus con el fin de evaluar la monofilia del grupo mediante un muestreo más riguroso, y de explorar las posibles relaciones biogeográficas de las especies de páramo. Los resultados confirman que Paepalanthus es un grupo polifilético, con P. saxicola en la
    base de las eriocaulaceae muestreadas, seguida por un grado conformado en su orden por especies de Philodice, Leiothrix y Blastocaulon. Enseguida, se encuentra el clado mayor formado por un subclado donde están (P. subtilis (P. barkleyi-P. lamarckii-P. tortilis. El segundo subclado presenta a P. fasciculatus en la base, seguida de dos subclados menores, uno de ellos conformado por especies de Paepalanthus, Tonina y Lachnocaulon, y el otro por especies de los géneros Actinocephalus, Leiothrix, Syngonanthus, Eriocaulon y la mayoría de las especies de Paepalanthus propias de los páramos. De esta forma, el subgénero Psilandra representado por la especie P. saxicola se propone como el más basal y el subgénero Platycaulon, que resulta monofilético con el muestreo disponible, es el grupo más anidado dentro de la

  8. A NEW SPECIES AND A COMBINATION IN CARDIOSPERMUM (SAPINDACEAE UNA NUEVA ESPECIE Y UNA NUEVA COMBINACION EN CARDIOSPERMUM (SAPINDACEAE

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    María Silvia Ferrucci

    2010-11-01

    Full Text Available

    Cardiospermum heringeri Ferrucci, a new species from Brazil is
    described and illustrated. It shares the sect. Ceratadenia ·RadJk.· with C. grandiflorum Sw. and C. integerrimum Radlk., a key for recognizing them is given. C. integerrimum is closely related with the new taxa, observations on the morphology of seed tegument and pollen of both species, complement this study.
    Based on Paullinia urvilleoides Radlk., the new combination
    Cardiospermum urvilleoides (Radlk. Ferrucci is established; it belongs to the sect. Cardiospermum. Fruit characters and a detailed palynological description provides evidence in favour of its removal from Paullinia L. Cardiospermum L. comparte la subtribu Paulliniinae Radlk. con los géneros Serjania Miller, Houssayanthus Hunz., Paullinia L., Urvillea Kunth y Lophostigma Radlk. Los caracteres comunes a todos los géneros son las flores zigomorfas, con las escamas de los pétalos en forma de capucha, y los frutos, que pueden ser esquizocárpicos o bien cápsulas. Dentro de la subtribu, Cardiospermum es el género más heterogéneo e interesante
    por la variabilidad morfológica y cromosómica.
    El estudio de una colección de Sapindáceas procedentes de Brasil (Bahia, Minas Gerais y Espírito Santo, permite presentar una especie nueva para la ciencia: C. heringeri Ferrucci que en este trabajo se compara
    con la especie afín C. integerrimum Radlk. También se establece una nueva
    combinación en la sección Cardiospermum
    Cardiospermum heringeri Ferrucci, una nueva especie de Brasil es describe e ilustra.  Comparte la sect. Ceratadenia Radlk. con C.grandiflorum Sw. y C.integerrimum Radlk., se da una clave para su reconocimiento.  C.integerrimum está estrechamente relacionado con los nuevos taxones, observaciones sobre la

  9. 冀西北马铃薯田杂草群落分布及防控对策%Distribution of Weed Communities and Control Strategies in Potato Fields in the Northwest of Hebei Province

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    张玉慧; 康爱国; 赵志英; 冯青

    2014-01-01

    调查表明,冀西北马铃薯田杂草种类约32种,隶属于18科;以藜、萹蓄、卷茎蓼、苦荞、苣荬菜、草地风毛菊、狗尾草、野黍等为优势种群,个别地块牻牛儿苗比例偏高。2012年出现频率最高的是狗尾草,为41.77%;其次为野黍(18.99%)、牻牛儿苗(18.70%)、苦荞(5.32%)、卷茎蓼(3.40%)和萹蓄(3.30%)。同一生态区域不同年份马铃薯田之间,不同农田生态区域坡梁地与下湿滩地杂草群落结构存在差异。一些马铃薯田狗尾草、野黍、苣荬菜、草地风毛菊杂草比重上升,传播蔓延加快。采取农业措施及化学防除相结合的综合防治技术,可有效控制马铃薯田草害发生与危害。%Thirty-two weed species belonging to 18 families were found in potato fields in the northwest of Hebei Prov-ince.The dominant species mainly include Chenopodium album L.,Polygonum aviculare L.,P.convolvulus L.,Fagopy-tum tataricum (L.) Gaertn,Sonchus brachyotus DC.,Saussurea amara,Setaria viridis (L) Beauv,and Eriochloa villosa ( Thunb.) Kunth.Erodium stephanianum Willd.predominated in several individual regions .The most frequent weed in 2012 was S.viridis (42%),followed by E.villosa (9%),E.Stephanianum(19%),F.tataricum(5%),P.convolvulus (3%) and P.aviculare(3%).The structure of weed communities in potato fields varied among years within an ecore-gion or in diverse ecoregions such as sloping land and hummock under wet beach .The proportion of some weeds ,inclu-ding S.viridis,E.villosa,S.arvensis and S.amara is increasing in some potato fields;they are also spreading rapidly . Adopting an integrated management technology ,that is agricultural measures combined with chemical control methods ,can effectively control weeds and prevent their damage in potato fields .

  10. ESTRUTURA GENÉTICA DE POPULAÇÕES DE ESPÉCIES ARBÓREAS NATIVAS DO CERRADO ENCONTRADAS EM TERRENOS SERPENTÍNICOS GENETIC STRUCTURE OF POPULATIONS OF ARBOREAL SPECIES NATIVE TO SERPENTINE SOILS OF THE CERRADO

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    Marlei de Fátima Pereira

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available

    O objetivo dessa pesquisa foi avaliar os efeitos da adaptação a terrenos serpentínicos sobre a estrutura genética de populações de plantas da região dos Cerrados do Brasil Central, bem como estabelecer um protocolo para extração de DNA das espécies estudadas. Quatro populações de cada uma de duas espécies, Hymenaea stignocarpa Mart.(jatobá e Bowdichia virgiloides Kunth. (sucupira-preta, foram estudadas, duas em terrenos serpentínicos e duas em solos livres de metais pesados. Foram usados dados de marcadores moleculares RAPD para avaliar o nível de variabilidade e de divergência genética entre populações da mesma espécie. A estrutura genética de cada espécie foi estudada usando o procedimento AMOVA, pela estimação dos componentes de variância genética associados a regiões (serpentínico vs não serpentínico. Os resultados foram estatisticamente não significativos, embora algum nível de divergência entre regiões tenha sido sugerido pelo dendrograma UPGMA baseado no índice de similaridade de Jaccard. A estimativa da divergência genética entre populações dentro de grupos ( foi significativa para sucupira-preta (0,1189 e jatobá (0,0692. Estes resultados sugerem que, apesar da forte pressão de seleção derivada da presença de elementos tóxicos nos solos serpentínicos, isso não foi suficiente para promover o isolamento reprodutivo necessário para permitir a divergência genética entre populações localizadas nos diferentes tipos de solos.

    PALAVRAS-CHAVE: Solos serpentínicos; deriva genética; RAPD.

    This research was carried out to evaluate the effects of the adaptation to serpentine soils on the genetic structure of plant populations from the Cerrado region of Central Brazil, and establish a DNA extraction protocol

  11. Desenvolvimento vegetativo da pupunheira irrigada por gotejamento em função de níveis de depleção de água no solo Effects of soil water depletion levels on the vegetative development of drip irrigated peach palm plants

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    Adriana Ramos

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Avaliou-se o efeito da irrigação complementar por gotejamento no desenvolvimento vegetativo de pupunheiras (Bactris gasipaes Kunth com três anos de idade. Durante 94 dias (agosto a novembro/97 foram estabelecidos quatro níveis de irrigação, baseados nas porcentagens de 25% (T1, 50% (T2, 75% (T3 de água disponível consumida em função da evapotranspiração de referência, medida em um par de lisímetros de lençol freático constante, e a testemunha (T4, sem irrigação, com turnos de rega de 2, 4 e 6 dias respectivamente. O delineamento experimental empregado foi em blocos casualizados com parcelas subdivididas, com quatro tratamentos, oito repetições e dezesseis plantas úteis por parcela. A resposta das plantas aos diferentes tratamentos foi avaliada por meio da taxa absoluta de crescimento das características diâmetro do estipe na região do colo, altura da planta, comprimento de ráquis, número de perfilhos, número de folhas e emissão de folhas novas. As avaliações tiveram início quatro dias antes da imposição dos tratamentos e foram repetidas aos 34; 68; 83; 98; 133 e 168 dias. Houve diferenças entre os tratamentos para número de folhas emitidas, diâmetro e altura da planta. O tratamento 1 (25% foi superior aos demais para número de folhas emitidas (pThe effects of soil water depletion levels on the vegetative development of drip irrigated three-years-old peach palm plants were evaluated. Four irrigation levels were established for a 94-day period (August to November of 1997, based on 25% (T1, 50% (T2 and 75% (T3 of available water consumed in function of the evapotranspiration of measured reference in a lysimeter of constant water table, and the control (T4 without irrigation. A split randomized block design, with four treatments, eight replications and sixteen inner plants per plot was utilized. Peach palm response to the different treatments was evaluated throughout the absolute growth rate of the

  12. Resistencia a la flexión de la guadua Agustifolia kunt a escala natural.

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    González C Eugenia

    2002-12-01

    Full Text Available En los laboratorios de productos forestales y en el de construcciones rurales de la Universidad Nacional de Colombia Sede Medellín, se realizaron dieciocho (18 ensayos de flexión estática a escala natural con luces entre 2,50 y 3,50 metros de la sobrebasa del elemento, las cuales son las más utilizadas y recomendadas para este tipo de esfuerzo, donde el material seleccionado corresponde a la especie Guadua (Angustifolia kunth, colectada en la Finca Cotové ubicada en Santafé de Antioquia y cuya zona de vida corresponde a un bosque seco tropical (bs-t. Las pruebas fueron realizadas basadas en las Normas COPANT 455 (1972 para selección y colección de muestras de madera, 459 acondicionamiento de maderas destinadas a ensayos físicos y mecánicos y 460 para la determinación del contenido de humedad y las normas de la American Society for Testing and Materials, 1975. Estas normas son empleadas para maderas macizas, por lo tanto debieron ser ajustadas a las condiciones particulares de la guadua circular hueca de acuerdo a la metodología utilizada por González y Díaz 1992. Este trabajo presenta los resultados de las ecuaciones de diseños para elementos de guadua sometidos a flexión estática, los valores de esfuerzos unitarios en el límite proporcional (RLP, módulo de elasticidad (MOE y el esfuerzo de rotura (MOR, los cuales fueron comparados con los valores obtenidos por González y Días, 1.992, cuyos ensayos fueron hechos bajo probetas, obteniéndose variaciones menores del 7% entre estos, y a la vez se hallaron unos coeficientes de varianza con rangos entre el 20 y el 30% para los parámetros establecidos los cuales fueron considerados aceptables. Para la obtención de los parámetros anteriores se tuvieron en cuenta aspectos como la longitud, diámetro promedio, espesor de las paredes medidas en los extremos, el contenido de humedad en base seca y la carga de falla del elemento. Finalmente, se recomienda utilizar las ecuaciones de

  13. Photosynthetic responses to temperature and light of Antarctic and Andean populations of Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae Respuestas fotosintéticas a la temperatura y a la luz de poblaciones antarticas y andinas de Colobanthus quitensis (Caryophyllaceae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ÁNGELA SIERRA-ALMEIDA

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Colobanthus quitensis (Kunth, 1831 Bartling (Caryophyllaceae is characterized by a wide latitudinal distribution, ranging between the tropical high Andes and the Antarctic Peninsula. Although both habitat types are characterized by cold and freezing temperatures, important microclimatic differences exist during the growing season. Hence, important differences in the response of the photosynthetic apparatus to abiotic factors could be expected between Antarctic and Andean populations of C. quitensis. We studied the relationship between net photosynthesis, leaf temperature and light intensity in two populations of C. quitensis, one from La Parva in the Andes of central Chile and the other from King George Island, in the Maritime Antarctic. Plants from both populations were grown in the laboratory at 15 °C under 250 μmol photons m-2 s-1, with a 16/8 h light/dark photoperiod. Twenty plants (about two months old of each population were transferred to a 4 °C chamber with the same light and photoperiod conditions as above to assess the photosynthetic acclimation capacity. At 15 °C, populations differed in their optimum leaf temperature for photosynthesis, being 24.0 °C in individuals from the Andes and 18.6 °C in individuals from the Antarctic. In contrast, Antarctic individuals showed the highest net photosynthesis rate under both temperature treatments, with the lowest light compensation and saturation points. Antarctic individuals had higher photosynthetic activity at lower temperatures compared to individuals from the Andes. Our results suggest that C. quitensis has adapted photosynthetic performance of individuals growing in different localities to the prevailing climatic conditions. Differences in photosynthetic responses to temperature and light are discussed in relation to ecotypic differentiation between two populations studiedColobanthus quitensis es una especie ampliamente distribuida, que crece desde los Andes tropicales hasta la Pen

  14. Adaptability and Reproductive Characteristics of Mikania micrantha H.B.K under Different Habitats%异质环境下入侵植物薇甘菊的适应性与繁殖特性

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐高峰; 申时才; 张付斗

    2014-01-01

    varied habitats in functional traits. In the low light (plotⅠ) and strongly interspecific competition (plotⅥ), leaf area and SMF were lowest than others, but showed no significant difference of each other, but SLA and LMF were significantly greater than the others. Invasive alien species M. micrantha adapt to the stress habitat (such as low light, drought and interspecific competition) by increasing SLA and LMF and decreasing leaf area and SMF, but using opposite strategy to adapt to the favorable habitat. Our study suggests that invasive alien species M. micrantha using different reproductive strategies, such as changes the value of different functional traits, to adapt to environmental.%薇甘菊(MikaniamicranthaH.B.Kunth)为世界上最具有入侵性和危害性的外来入侵物种之一,对其控制与管理已成为长期以来世界性难题。了解入侵植物薇甘菊在异质环境下的适应性与繁殖特性对安全有效预警、监测和防治该入侵物种具有重要意义。本文于薇甘菊盛花期,根据薇甘菊入侵生境的光照条件、群落结构和生长方式差异,在薇甘菊常见的4种入侵生境(林地、荒地、农田和和河边)选取10个样地,调查研究了不同生境条件下薇甘菊的开花结实和繁殖分配,并运用植物叶片功能性状的研究方法研究了不同生境条件下薇甘菊的比叶面积(SLA)、叶干物质比例(LMF)和茎干物质比例(SMF)的3种叶片功能性状。研究结果表明,生境条件对薇甘菊的开花结实和繁殖分配具有显著影响。其中抛荒农田(样地Ⅷ)和河流边缘(样地Ⅸ和Ⅹ)薇甘菊的总花数、种子量、生殖枝茎生物量分配和花生物量分配均显著大于其他生境,显示在有利于其生长的条件下,薇甘菊种群倾向于有性繁殖;而在不利于薇甘菊生长的低光照林地(样地Ⅰ)和种间竞争强的农田红薯地(样地Ⅵ)生境条件下,薇甘菊的总花

  15. Explained: Why many surveys of distant galaxies miss 90% of their targets

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-03-01

    ève, Switzerland), Göran Östlin and Jens Melinder (Stockholm University, Sweden), J. Miguel Mas-Hesse (CSIC-INTA, Madrid, Spain), Claus Leitherer (Space Telescope Science Institute, Baltimore, USA), Hakim Atek and Daniel Kunth (Institut d'Astrophysique de Paris, France), and Anne Verhamme (Oxford Astrophysics, U.K.). ESO, the European Southern Observatory, is the foremost intergovernmental astronomy organisation in Europe and the world's most productive astronomical observatory. It is supported by 14 countries: Austria, Belgium, the Czech Republic, Denmark, France, Finland, Germany, Italy, the Netherlands, Portugal, Spain, Sweden, Switzerland and the United Kingdom. ESO carries out an ambitious programme focused on the design, construction and operation of powerful ground-based observing facilities enabling astronomers to make important scientific discoveries. ESO also plays a leading role in promoting and organising cooperation in astronomical research. ESO operates three unique world-class observing sites in Chile: La Silla, Paranal and Chajnantor. At Paranal, ESO operates the Very Large Telescope, the world's most advanced visible-light astronomical observatory and VISTA, the world's largest survey telescope. ESO is the European partner of a revolutionary astronomical telescope ALMA, the largest astronomical project in existence. ESO is currently planning a 42-metre European Extremely Large optical/near-infrared Telescope, the E-ELT, which will become "the world's biggest eye on the sky".

  16. Prediction of potential invasion range of alien plant Peperomia pellucida in China%外来入侵植物草胡椒在我国的潜分布范围预测

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    董旭; 陈秀芝; 娄玉霞; 郭水良

    2013-01-01

    Summary In recent years,new alien plants have constantly been invading China as a result of an increase of foreign exchanges.Peperomia pellucida (L.) Kunth,a species that originated from tropical America,is one of the alien species recently found in Shanghai.Its potential geographical distribution range and habitats of the species are still unknown.Scientists have applied a variety of ecological niche models to predict the risk of exotic plant invasions in China.Among these ecological niche models,maximum entropy (MaxEnt) model has higher accuracy of predicted results with small sample size. According to 12 environmental variables from the global climate environment database (http://www. worldclim.org/) and 649 occurrence records of P.pellucida in the world from the global biodiversity database (http://data.gbif.org/welcome.htm) and the Chinese Virtual Herbarium (http://www.cvh.org.cn/cms/),a prediction of P.pellucida potential distribution was conducted using MaxEnt model and ArcGis 9.3 software.In this prediction,12 environmental variables were used,including precipitation of wettest month,mean diurnal temperature range,isothermality,precipitation of warmest quarter,mean temperature of coldest quarter,variance in precipitation seasonality,precipitation of coldest quarter,temperature annual range,altitude,precipitation of driest month,mean temperature of warmest quarter,and mean temperature of driest quarter.When modeling,the occurrence data and environmental variables were firstly imported into the MaxEnt,and 75% of the occurrence data to predict the risk(training data)and the other(testing data)to test the accuracy were used.The raster layer of P.pellucida was gotten in the global potential distribution in ASCII format,then was imported into ArcGis for further analyses,and the potential suitable areas of P.pellucida in China was gotten.Finally,the result was confirmed by the ROC(receiver operating characteristics) curve analytical method,and the AUC(area under