WorldWideScience

Sample records for chlorine logging tool

  1. User Behavior Analysis from Web Log using Log Analyzer Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Brijesh Bakariya

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available Now a day, internet plays a role of huge database in which many websites, information and search engines are available. But due to unstructured and semi-structured data in webpage, it has become a challenging task to extract relevant information. Its main reason is that traditional knowledge based technique are not correct to efficiently utilization the knowledge, because it consist of many discover pattern, contains a lots of noise and uncertainty. In this paper, analyzing of web usage mining has been made with the help if web log data for which web log analyzer tool, “Deep Log Analyzer” to find out abstract information from particular server and also tried to find out the user behavior and also developed an ontology which consist the relation among efficient web apart of web usage mining.

  2. SCENARIOS EVALUATION TOOL FOR CHLORINATED SOLVENT MNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, K; Brian02 Looney, B; Michael J. Truex; Charles J. Newell

    2006-08-16

    Over the past three decades, much progress has been made in the remediation of chlorinated solvents from the subsurface. Yet these pervasive contaminants continue to present a significant challenge to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), other federal agencies, and other public and private organizations. The physical and chemical properties of chlorinated solvents make it difficult to rapidly reach the low concentrations typically set as regulatory limits. These technical challenges often result in high costs and long remediation time frames. In 2003, the DOE through the Office of Environmental Management funded a science-based technical project that uses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's technical protocol (EPA, 1998) and directives (EPA, 1999) on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) as the foundation on which to introduce supporting concepts and new scientific developments that will support remediation of chlorinated solvents based on natural attenuation processes. This project supports the direction in which many site owners want to move to complete the remediation of their site(s), that being to complete the active treatment portion of the remedial effort and transition into MNA. The overarching objective of the effort was to examine environmental remedies that are based on natural processes--remedies such as Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) or Enhanced Attenuation (EA). The research program did identify several specific opportunities for advances based on: (1) mass balance as the central framework for attenuation based remedies, (2) scientific advancements and achievements during the past ten years, (3) regulatory and policy development and real-world experience using MNA, and (4) exploration of various ideas for integrating attenuation remedies into a systematic set of ''combined remedies'' for contaminated sites. These opportunities are summarized herein and are addressed in more detail in referenced project documents and

  3. The Design Log: A New Informational Tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spivak, Mayer

    1978-01-01

    The design log is a record of observations, diagnoses, prescriptions, and performance specifications for each space in a structure. It is a systematic approach to design that integrates information about user needs with traditional architectural programming and design. (Author/MLF)

  4. Scenarios Evaluation Tool for Chlorinated Solvent MNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, Karen; Michael J. Truex; Charles J. Newell; Brian Looney

    2007-02-28

    Over the past three decades, much progress has been made in the remediation of chlorinated solvents from the subsurface. Yet these pervasive contaminants continue to present a significant challenge to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), other federal agencies, and other public and private organizations. The physical and chemical properties of chlorinated solvents make it difficult to rapidly reach the low concentrations typically set as regulatory limits. These technical challenges often result in high costs and long remediation time frames. In 2003, the DOE through the Office of Environmental Management funded a science-based technical project that uses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's technical protocol (EPA, 1998) and directives (EPA, 1999) on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) as the foundation on which to introduce supporting concepts and new scientific developments that will support remediation of chlorinated solvents based on natural attenuation processes. This project supports the direction in which many site owners want to move to complete the remediation of their site(s), that being to complete the active treatment portion of the remedial effort and transition into MNA. The overarching objective of the effort was to examine environmental remedies that are based on natural processes--remedies such as Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) or Enhanced Attenuation (EA). The research program did identify several specific opportunities for advances based on: (1) mass balance as the central framework for attenuation based remedies, (2) scientific advancements and achievements during the past ten years, (3) regulatory and policy development and real-world experience using MNA, and (4) exploration of various ideas for integrating attenuation remedies into a systematic set of ''combined remedies'' for contaminated sites. These opportunities are summarized herein and are addressed in more detail in referenced project documents and

  5. Log files as a tool for improving Internet dictionaries

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Henning, Bergenholtz.; Johnsen, Mia

    2005-01-01

    lexicographers to monitor user behaviour in a different and much more precise way. Analyses of log files reveal exactly which lemmas and which types of information have been requested, and, perhaps more significantly, which lemmas and which types of information have been requested but were not found...... in the dictionary. Furthermore, log files allow lexicographers to see the types of information which have not, or not yet, been searched for. All in all, log files may thus be used as a tool for improving internet dictionaries - and perhaps also printed dictionaries - quite considerably....

  6. Dry Machining Tool Design via Chlorine Ion Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TatsuhikoAizawa; AtsushiMitsuo; ShigeoYamamoto; ShinjiMuraishi; TaroSumitomo

    2004-01-01

    Dry machining has become a key issue to significantly reduce the wastes of used lubricants and cleaning agents and to improve the environmental consciousness for medical and food applications of special tooling. Since the tools and metallic works are in direct contact in dry, severe adhesive wear and oxidation are thought to occur even at the presence of hard protective coatings. Self-lubrication mechanism with use of lubricous oxide films is found to be effective for dry machining. Through the chlorine ion implantation to tools, titanium base oxides are in-situ formed on the tool surface. This oxide deforms elasto-plastically so that both friction coefficient and wear volume are reduced even in the high-speed cutting.

  7. Dry Machining Tool Design via Chlorine Ion Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tatsuhiko Aizawa; Atsushi Mitsuo; Shigeo Yamamoto; Shinji Muraishi; Taro Sumitomo

    2004-01-01

    Dry machining has become a key issue to significantly reduce the wastes of used lubricants and cleaning agents and to improve the environmental consciousness for medical and food applications of special tooling. Since the tools and metallic works are in direct contact in dry, severe adhesive wear and oxidation are thought to occur even at the presence of hard protective coatings. Self-lubrication mechanism with use of lubricous oxide films is found to be effective for dry machining. Through the chlorine ion implantation to tools, titanium base oxides are in-situ formed on the tool surface.This oxide deforms elasto-plastically so that both friction coefficient and wear volume are reduced even in the high-speed cutting.

  8. Nuclear Tools For Oilfield Logging-While-Drilling Applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Schlumberger is an international oilfield service company with nearly 80,000 employees of 140 nationalities, operating globally in 80 countries. As a market leader in oilfield services, Schlumberger has developed a suite of technologies to assess the downhole environment, including, among others, electromagnetic, seismic, chemical, and nuclear measurements. In the past 10 years there has been a radical shift in the oilfield service industry from traditional wireline measurements to logging-while-drilling (LWD) analysis. For LWD measurements, the analysis is performed and the instruments are operated while the borehole is being drilled. The high temperature, high shock, and extreme vibration environment of LWD imposes stringent requirements for the devices used in these applications. This has a significant impact on the design of the components and subcomponents of a downhole tool. Another significant change in the past few years for nuclear-based oilwell logging tools is the desire to replace the sealed radioisotope sources with active, electronic ones. These active radiation sources provide great benefits compared to the isotopic sources, ranging from handling and safety to nonproliferation and well contamination issues. The challenge is to develop electronic generators that have a high degree of reliability for the entire lifetime of a downhole tool. LWD tool testing and operations are highlighted with particular emphasis on electronic radiation sources and nuclear detectors for the downhole environment.

  9. Nuclear Tools For Oilfield Logging-While-Drilling Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reijonen, Jani

    2011-06-01

    Schlumberger is an international oilfield service company with nearly 80,000 employees of 140 nationalities, operating globally in 80 countries. As a market leader in oilfield services, Schlumberger has developed a suite of technologies to assess the downhole environment, including, among others, electromagnetic, seismic, chemical, and nuclear measurements. In the past 10 years there has been a radical shift in the oilfield service industry from traditional wireline measurements to logging-while-drilling (LWD) analysis. For LWD measurements, the analysis is performed and the instruments are operated while the borehole is being drilled. The high temperature, high shock, and extreme vibration environment of LWD imposes stringent requirements for the devices used in these applications. This has a significant impact on the design of the components and subcomponents of a downhole tool. Another significant change in the past few years for nuclear-based oilwell logging tools is the desire to replace the sealed radioisotope sources with active, electronic ones. These active radiation sources provide great benefits compared to the isotopic sources, ranging from handling and safety to nonproliferation and well contamination issues. The challenge is to develop electronic generators that have a high degree of reliability for the entire lifetime of a downhole tool. LWD tool testing and operations are highlighted with particular emphasis on electronic radiation sources and nuclear detectors for the downhole environment.

  10. Influence of borehole-eccentred tools on wireline and logging-while-drilling sonic logging measurements

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, David

    2013-02-13

    We describe a numerical study to quantify the influence of tool-eccentricity on wireline (WL) and logging-while-drilling (LWD) sonic logging measurements. Simulations are performed with a height-polynomial-adaptive (hp) Fourier finite-element method that delivers highly accurate solutions of linear visco-elasto-acoustic problems in the frequency domain. The analysis focuses on WL instruments equipped with monopole or dipole sources and LWD instruments with monopole excitation. Analysis of the main propagation modes obtained from frequency dispersion curves indicates that the additional high-order modes arising as a result of borehole-eccentricity interfere with the main modes (i.e., Stoneley, pseudo-Rayleigh and flexural). This often modifies (decreases) the estimation of shear and compressional formation velocities, which should be corrected (increased) to account for borehole-eccentricity effects. Undesired interferences between different modes can occur at different frequencies depending upon the properties of the formation and fluid annulus size, which may difficult the estimation of the formation velocities. © 2013 European Association of Geoscientists & Engineers.

  11. Monte Carlo simulations of neutron oil well logging tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo simulations of simple neutron oil well logging tools into typical geological formations are presented. The simulated tools consist of both 14 MeV pulsed and continuous Am-Be neutron sources with time gated and continuous gamma ray detectors respectively. The geological formation consists of pure limestone with 15% absolute porosity in a wide range of oil saturation. The particle transport was performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System, MCNP-4B. Several gamma ray spectra were obtained at the detector position that allow to perform composition analysis of the formation. In particular, the ratio C/O was analyzed as an indicator of oil saturation. Further calculations are proposed to simulate actual detector responses in order to contribute to understand the relation between the detector response with the formation composition. (author)

  12. Monte Carlo Simulations of Neutron Oil well Logging Tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Monte Carlo simulations of simple neutron oil well logging tools into typical geological formations are presented.The simulated tools consist of both 14 MeV pulsed and continuous Am-Be neutron sources with time gated and continuous gamma ray detectors respectively.The geological formation consists of pure limestone with 15% absolute porosity in a wide range of oil saturation.The particle transport was performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System, MCNP-4B.Several gamma ray spectra were obtained at the detector position that allow to perform composition analysis of the formation.In particular, the ratio C/O was analyzed as an indicator of oil saturation.Further calculations are proposed to simulate actual detector responses in order to contribute to understand the relation between the detector response with the formation composition

  13. Monte Carlo Simulations of Neutron Oil well Logging Tools

    CERN Document Server

    Azcurra, M

    2002-01-01

    Monte Carlo simulations of simple neutron oil well logging tools into typical geological formations are presented.The simulated tools consist of both 14 MeV pulsed and continuous Am-Be neutron sources with time gated and continuous gamma ray detectors respectively.The geological formation consists of pure limestone with 15% absolute porosity in a wide range of oil saturation.The particle transport was performed with the Monte Carlo N-Particle Transport Code System, MCNP-4B.Several gamma ray spectra were obtained at the detector position that allow to perform composition analysis of the formation.In particular, the ratio C/O was analyzed as an indicator of oil saturation.Further calculations are proposed to simulate actual detector responses in order to contribute to understand the relation between the detector response with the formation composition

  14. Scientific LogAnalyzer: a web-based tool for analyses of server log files in psychological research.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reips, Ulf-Dietrich; Stieger, Stefan

    2004-05-01

    Scientific LogAnalyzer is a platform-independent interactive Web service for the analysis of log files. Scientific LogAnalyzer offers several features not available in other log file analysis tools--for example, organizational criteria and computational algorithms suited to aid behavioral and social scientists. Scientific LogAnalyzer is highly flexible on the input side (unlimited types of log file formats), while strictly keeping a scientific output format. Features include (1) free definition of log file format, (2) searching and marking dependent on any combination of strings (necessary for identifying conditions in experiment data), (3) computation of response times, (4) detection of multiple sessions, (5) speedy analysis of large log files, (6) output in HTML and/or tab-delimited form, suitable for import into statistics software, and (7) a module for analyzing and visualizing drop-out. Several methodological features specifically needed in the analysis of data collected in Internet-based experiments have been implemented in the Web-based tool and are described in this article. A regression analysis with data from 44 log file analyses shows that the size of the log file and the domain name lookup are the two main factors determining the duration of an analysis. It is less than a minute for a standard experimental study with a 2 x 2 design, a dozen Web pages, and 48 participants (ca. 800 lines, including data from drop-outs). The current version of Scientific LogAnalyzer is freely available for small log files. Its Web address is http://genpsylab-logcrunsh.unizh.ch/. PMID:15354696

  15. Chlorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... chlorine gas are inhaled. Fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema) that may be delayed for a few hours ... health problems such as fluid in the lungs (pulmonary edema) following the initial exposure. How people can protect ...

  16. Design of a cross-dipole array acoustic logging tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lu Junqiang; Ju Xiaodong; Cheng Xiangyang

    2008-01-01

    When entering an anisotropic formation,a shear wave splits into a fast wave and a slow wave.Based on the principle of four-component cross-dipole acoustic wave measurement,the anisotropy of HTI (Horizontal Transverse Isotropy) formation can be determined.The method of calculating the fast and slow wave data when a shear wave propagates along the borehole axis in anisotropic formation was analyzed,and the implementation of a cross-dipole acoustic logging tool was demonstrated.The tool was composed of transmitter electronics,transmitter mandrel,acoustic isolator,receiver mandrel and main control electronics.Sonde,transmitter circuit,signal receiving and processing circuit,data acquisition system,system control circuit and telemetry interface circuit were presented and analyzed.The test model was used in production wells and standard wells in various areas and the four-component cross-dipole waves were acquired and processed.The waves had good signal-to-noise ratio and clear characteristics,and the fast and slow waveforms,processed slowness curves,anisotropy and fast shear wave azimuth well matched with each other.

  17. The pulsed-neutron, capture-gamma borehole logging tool

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report attempts to give a review of available information on the pulsed-neutron, capture-gamma tool. It starts with a discussion of the general principle of the physics of the tool. Next a review of available tool design data is given, including a special discussion of the source-detector distance. Operational data available on the tool is also considered. These reviews are followed by data on the SIGMAa2200 value of various materials relevant to petroleum technology. Finally the various approaches used to treat the measurements in order to obtain the absorption cross section of the medium are outlined. (author) 20 refs

  18. Modelling tools for assessing bioremediation performance and risk of chlorinated solvents in clay tills

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Chambon, Julie Claire Claudia

    Chlorinated solvents are widespread contaminants in the subsurface. In lowpermeability fractured media, such as clay tills, chlorinated solvents are transported downwards along preferential pathways, formed by fractures and sand lenses, and diffuse into the adjacent clay matrix. These contaminants...... are trapped in the low-permeability matrix and can then slowly back diffuse to the fracture network, forming a long-term secondary contamination source to the underlying aquifers. Because of the complex transport and degradation processes and the mass transfer limitations, risk assessment and...... in the design of future remediation of chlorinated ethenes in low-permeability settings. In conclusion, this PhD-project has developed our understanding on transport and degradation processes of chlorinated solvents in clay tills, and this knowledge was used to develop modelling tools for assessment...

  19. The design of a three-channel nuclear spectrometry tool for express logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a three-channel nuclear spectrometry logging tool, which is designed to meet the needs of platform express logging. The application of complicated programmable logical device (CPLD) expands the tool's function and minimizes its scale. This tool can be used to analyse pulse height for natural gamma spectrometry, long-space and short-space detectors of Litho-density. Compensated neutron log (CNL) and other conventional analog and pulse logging signals can also be acquired. Manchester's code is used in data transmission. Half-duplex mode with 20 kb/s data rate can be selected when it is connected to systems which are compatible with Atlas 3508 telemetry cartridge; or full-duplex mode with 20 kb/s down-link data rate and 93.75 kb/s (or 41.66 kb/s) up-link data rate can be selected when it is connected to systems which are compatible with Atlas WTS telemetry system

  20. A Forensic Log File Extraction Tool for ICQ Instant Messaging Clients

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kim Morfitt

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available Instant messenger programs such as ICQ are often used by hackers and criminals for illicit purposes and consequently the log files from such programs are of interest in a forensic investigation. This paper outlines research that has resulted in the development of a tool for the extraction of ICQ log file entries. Detailed reconstruction of data from log files was achieved with a number of different ICQ software. There are several limitations with the current design including timestamp information not adjusted for the time zone, data could be altered, and conversations must be manually reconstructed. Future research will aim to address these and other limitations as pointed out in this paper.

  1. Imperfect preventive maintenance for numerical control machine tools with log-linear virtual age process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    郭俊锋; 芮执元; 冯瑞成; 魏兴春

    2014-01-01

    Based on the log-linear virtual age process, an imperfect preventive maintenance policy for numerical control (NC) machine tools with random maintenance quality is proposed. The proposed model is a combination of the Kijima type virtual age model and the failure intensity adjustment model. Maintenance intervals of the proposed hybrid model are derived when the failure intensity increase factor and the restoration factor are both random variables with uniform distribution. The optimal maintenance policy in infinite time horizon is presented. A numerical example is given when the failures of NC machine tools are described by the log-linear process. Finally, a discussion is presented to show how the optimal results depend on the different cost parameters.

  2. Research and experimental testing of a new kind electrokinetic logging tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Feng-Bo; Ju, Xiao-Dong; Qiao, Wen-Xiao; Lu, Jun-Qiang; Men, Bai-Rong

    2014-12-01

    We designed a new downhole electrokinetic logging tool based on numerical simulations and petrophysical experiments. Acoustic and electric receivers cannot be arranged at the same depth, and the proposed composite electrokinetic logging tool offers a solution to this problem. The sound field characteristics of the detectors were tested in a water tank in the laboratory. Then, we calculated the sound pressure of the radiated acoustic field and the transmitting voltage response of the transmitting transducers; in addition, we analyzed the directivity and application of the acoustic transmitting probe based on linear phased array. The results suggest that the sound pressure generated at 1500 mm spacing reaches up to 47.2 kPa and decreases with increasing acoustic source frequency. When the excitation signals delay time of adjacent acoustic transmitting subarrays increases, the radiation beam of the main lobe is deflected and its energy gradually increases, which presumably enhances the acoustoelectric conversion efficiency.

  3. GInaFiT, a freeware tool to assess non-log-linear microbial survivor curves.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Geeraerd, A H; Valdramidis, V P; Van Impe, J F

    2005-06-25

    This contribution focuses on the presentation of GInaFiT (Geeraerd and Van Impe Inactivation Model Fitting Tool), a freeware Add-in for Microsoft Excel aiming at bridging the gap between people developing predictive modelling approaches and end-users in the food industry not familiar with or not disposing over advanced non-linear regression analysis tools. More precisely, the tool is useful for testing nine different types of microbial survival models on user-specific experimental data relating the evolution of the microbial population with time. As such, the authors believe to cover all known survivor curve shapes for vegetative bacterial cells. The nine model types are: (i) classical log-linear curves, (ii) curves displaying a so-called shoulder before a log-linear decrease is apparent, (iii) curves displaying a so-called tail after a log-linear decrease, (iv) survival curves displaying both shoulder and tailing behaviour, (v) concave curves, (vi) convex curves, (vii) convex/concave curves followed by tailing, (viii) biphasic inactivation kinetics, and (ix) biphasic inactivation kinetics preceded by a shoulder. Next to the obtained parameter values, the following statistical measures are automatically reported: standard errors of the parameter values, the Sum of Squared Errors, the Mean Sum of Squared Errors and its Root, the R(2) and the adjusted R(2). The tool can help the end-user to communicate the performance of food preservation processes in terms of the number of log cycles of reduction rather than the classical D-value and is downloadable via the KULeuven/BioTeC-homepage at the topic "Downloads" (Version 1.4, Release date April 2005). PMID:15893399

  4. Test-bench system for a borehole azimuthal acoustic reflection imaging logging tool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Xianping; Ju, Xiaodong; Qiao, Wenxiao; Lu, Junqiang; Men, Baiyong; Liu, Dong

    2016-06-01

    The borehole azimuthal acoustic reflection imaging logging tool (BAAR) is a new generation of imaging logging tool, which is able to investigate stratums in a relatively larger range of space around the borehole. The BAAR is designed based on the idea of modularization with a very complex structure, so it has become urgent for us to develop a dedicated test-bench system to debug each module of the BAAR. With the help of a test-bench system introduced in this paper, test and calibration of BAAR can be easily achieved. The test-bench system is designed based on the client/server model. The hardware system mainly consists of a host computer, an embedded controlling board, a bus interface board, a data acquisition board and a telemetry communication board. The host computer serves as the human machine interface and processes the uploaded data. The software running on the host computer is designed based on VC++. The embedded controlling board uses Advanced Reduced Instruction Set Machines 7 (ARM7) as the micro controller and communicates with the host computer via Ethernet. The software for the embedded controlling board is developed based on the operating system uClinux. The bus interface board, data acquisition board and telemetry communication board are designed based on a field programmable gate array (FPGA) and provide test interfaces for the logging tool. To examine the feasibility of the test-bench system, it was set up to perform a test on BAAR. By analyzing the test results, an unqualified channel of the electronic receiving cabin was discovered. It is suggested that the test-bench system can be used to quickly determine the working condition of sub modules of BAAR and it is of great significance in improving production efficiency and accelerating industrial production of the logging tool.

  5. Array processing——a new method to detect and correct errors on array resistivity logging tool measurements

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Philip D.RABINOWITZ; Zhiqiang ZHOU

    2007-01-01

    In recent years more and more multi-array logging tools, such as the array induction and the array lateralog, are applied in place of conventional logging tools resulting in increased resolution, better radial and vertical sounding capability and other features. Multi-array logging tools acquire several times more individual measurements than conventional logging tools. In addition to new information contained in these data, there is a certain redundancy among the measurements. The sum of the measurements actually composes a large matrix. Providing the measurements are error-free, the elements of this matrix show certain consistencies. Taking advantage of these consistencies, an innovative method is developed to detect and correct errors in the array resistivity logging tool raw measurements, and evaluate the quality of the data. The method can be described in several steps. First, data consistency patterns are identified based onthe physics of the measurements. Second, the measurements are compared against the consistency patterns for error and bad data detection. Third, the erroneous data are eliminated and the measurements are re-constructed according to the consistency patterns. Finally, the data quality is evaluated by comparing the raw measurements with the re-constructed measurements. The method can be applied to all array type logging tools, such as array induction tool and array resistivity tool. This paper describes the method and illustrates its application with the High Definition Lateral Log (HDLL, Baker Atlas) instrument. To demonstrate the efficiency of the method, several field examples are shown and discussed.

  6. Adaptation of geophysical logging tools for monitoring and characterization of the unsaturated zone

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Considerable quantities of contaminants reside in the unsaturated zone at waste sites throughout the United States. Characterization and monitoring of vadose formations are difficult and expensive because current practice requires the removal and analysis of physical samples from well borings to measure hydrogeologic properties and waste distributions. The mineral resource (petroleum and mining) industries are leaders in advanced borehole Geophysical logging technologies for characterization and monitoring. In these advanced technologies, downhole geophysical sensors measure key subsurface parameters. These data are transmitted to a truck on the surface where computers process data and interpret results in real time. Borehole geophysical logging is gaining increasing acceptance with regulators because these techniques interrogate a much greater volume of the surrounding formation than physical samples, can cost-effectively replace most sample collection and analysis, and permit reuse of boreholes for long-term monitoring. These logging technologies were developed expressly for the mineral resource industry and require adaptation for use at unsaturated environmental sites. This paper presents the results of DOE-sponsored adaptation for three different sensors: (1) gamma ray spectroscopy tools to determine radionuclide concentrations, (2) neutron-neutron tools to measure total-volume moisture content, and (3) gamma-gamma tools to extract densities, and thence, vadose zone porosities in cased boreholes. These devices allow characterization and monitoring measurements that are relatively inexpensive and that make use of existing, monitoring wells. Data from the Hanford Site in Washington state show that Data Quality Objectives for accuracy and precision were achieved. Example logs from two wellbores will demonstrate the potential for increased understanding of the hydrogeologic parameters

  7. Direct push driven in situ color logging tool (CLT): technique, analysis routines, and application

    Science.gov (United States)

    Werban, U.; Hausmann, J.; Dietrich, P.; Vienken, T.

    2014-12-01

    Direct push technologies have recently seen a broad development providing several tools for in situ parameterization of unconsolidated sediments. One of these techniques is the measurement of soil colors - a proxy information that reveals to soil/sediment properties. We introduce the direct push driven color logging tool (CLT) for real-time and depth-resolved investigation of soil colors within the visible spectrum. Until now, no routines exist on how to handle high-resolved (mm-scale) soil color data. To develop such a routine, we transform raw data (CIEXYZ) into soil color surrogates of selected color spaces (CIExyY, CIEL*a*b*, CIEL*c*h*, sRGB) and denoise small-scale natural variability by Haar and Daublet4 wavelet transformation, gathering interpretable color logs over depth. However, interpreting color log data as a single application remains challenging. Additional information, such as site-specific knowledge of the geological setting, is required to correlate soil color data to specific layers properties. Hence, we exemplary provide results from a joint interpretation of in situ-obtained soil color data and 'state-of-the-art' direct push based profiling tool data and discuss the benefit of additional data. The developed routine is capable of transferring the provided information obtained as colorimetric data into interpretable color surrogates. Soil color data proved to correlate with small-scale lithological/chemical changes (e.g., grain size, oxidative and reductive conditions), especially when combined with additional direct push vertical high resolution data (e.g., cone penetration testing and soil sampling). Thus, the technique allows enhanced profiling by means of providing another reproducible high-resolution parameter for analysis subsurface conditions. This opens potential new areas of application and new outputs for such data in site investigation. It is our intention to improve color measurements by means method of application and data

  8. LoggerMan, a comprehensive logging and visualisation tool to capture computer usage

    OpenAIRE

    Hinbarji, Zaher; Albatal, Rami; O'Connor, Noel E.; Gurrin, Cathal

    2016-01-01

    As we become increasingly dependent on our computers and spending a major part of our day interacting with these machines, it is becoming important for lifeloggers and human-computer interaction (HCI) researchers to capture this aspect of our life. In this paper, we present LoggerMan, a comprehensive logging tool to capture many aspects of our computer usage. It also comes with reporting capabilities to give insights to the data owner about his/her computer usage. By this work, we aim to fill...

  9. Model for water factor measurements with fission-neutron logging tools. National Uranium Resource Evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During 1977 and 1978, a Fission Neutron Water Factor Model was designed and constructed by Bendix Field Engineering Corporation (BFEC) for the United States Department of Energy (DOE) at the Grand Junction facility. This model features seven water-filled boreholes with different diameters. All of these boreholes penetrate, in order from the top of the model, a 5-foot-thick (1.52 m), uniform, concrete upper ''barren zone''; a 6-foot-thick (1.83 m), uniform, uranium-enriched, concrete ''ore zone''; and a 4-foot-thick (1.22 m), uniform, concrete lower ''barren zone''. The response of a fission neutron logging tool in a water-filled borehole is affected by variations in the borehole diameter. This diameter-dependent effect can be deduced from logs run in several different boreholes of the Fission Neutron Water Factor Model. This report describes the construction of the Fission Neutron Water Factor Model and also presents values for model parameters which are of interest in fission-neutron logging

  10. On replacing Am-Be neutron sources in compensated porosity logging tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: The authors are investigating potential replacements for the Americium-Beryllium (Am-Be) neutron source that has been used in neutron porosity logs. Am-Be sources are hazardous and would, therefore, be attractive to terrorists attempting to construct and use radiological dispersal devices (RDDs). This aspect of Am-Be sources makes them undesirable for industrial uses like well logging and in time may increase the difficulties in obtaining licenses for them. There has recently been a National Academy of Sciences Committee commissioned by Congress to author a report on Radiation Source Use and Replacement. This report is expected to be released very soon. There has also been a recent shift in the supplier of these sources to Russia, which represents possible problems in both supply and cost. These concerns led us to initiate the present study on possible replacements for the existing technology of using Am-Be sources in compensated porosity logs. Monte Carlo radiation transport simulations have been conducted with MCNP5 to investigate the responses of a typical wireline compensated neutron porosity logging tool. These results were compared to simulations where the Am-Be source was replaced with a 252Cf spontaneous fission neutron source and a deuterium-tritium fusion-based accelerator neutron source. The average energy of the 252Cf sources is about 2.1 MeV while that from an Am-Be source is about 4.2 MeV. However, the average neutron energy is not the entire story since a range of energies is involved with both the 252Cf and Am-Be sources. We are trying to investigate this problem from a fundamental point of view with the objective of understanding the phenomena underlying the compensated neutron porosity log. Both of these alternative sources would represent significantly reduced hazards in the possible terrorist purpose. A novel method involving the segmenting of the detectors used in the MCNP5 code has been developed to optimize detector spacing for the

  11. Forward modelling of multi-component induction logging tools in layered anisotropic dipping formations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-component induction logging provides great assistance in the exploration of thinly laminated reservoirs. The 1D parametric inversion following an adaptive borehole correction is the key step in the data processing of multi-component induction logging responses. To make the inversion process reasonably fast, an efficient forward modelling method is necessary. In this paper, a modelling method has been developed to simulate the multi-component induction tools in deviated wells drilled in layered anisotropic formations. With the introduction of generalized reflection coefficients, the analytic expressions of magnetic field in the form of a Sommerfeld integral were derived. The fast numerical computation of the integral has been completed by using the fast Fourier–Hankel transform and fast Hankel transform methods. The latter is so time efficient that it is competent enough for real-time multi-parameter inversion. In this paper, some simulated results have been presented and they are in excellent agreement with the finite difference method code's solution. (paper)

  12. A comprehensive tool to analyse dynamic log files from an Elekta-Synergy accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study presents the development of a software tool 'Treat Check' to analyse the dynamic log files from an Elekta – Synergy accelerator. The software generates formatted output in the form of a plot presenting errors in various treatment delivery parameters such as gantry angle, Multi Leaf Collimator (MLC) leaf position, jaw position and Monitor Units (MU) for each of the control-points (CP) of the treatment beam. The plots are automatically saved in Portable Document Format (pdf). The software also has the functionality to introduce these treatment delivery errors into the original plan in the Pinnacle (Philips) treatment planning system (TPS) in order to assess the clinical impact of treatment delivery errors on delivered dose.

  13. Optimized slim-line logging NMR tool to measure soil moisture in situ.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlo, Josefina; Danieli, Ernesto; Perlo, Juan; Blümich, Bernhard; Casanova, Federico

    2013-08-01

    We report the optimization of a slim-line logging NMR tool carried out by maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio of the NMR measurements. The tool, based on cylindrical permanent magnets of 20 cm length and 5 cm diameter, has a penetration depth of about 2 cm measured from its surface. This is obtained thanks to a large radio frequency coil whose dimensions are comparable to the sensor size. An analytical expression of the SNR as a function of parameters which take into account the interaction between the radio frequency coil and the magnet shielding is developed. In view of the external constrains such as the one imposed by the excavation hole, a proper tool size is determined in the optimization process. Due to its size and properties, the sensor is suitable to measure water content in the vadose zone, which is the zone comprised within the first meters of the Earth surface and whose study is important for improving water management in agriculture and for refining climate models. PMID:23757362

  14. Optimized slim-line logging NMR tool to measure soil moisture in situ

    Science.gov (United States)

    Perlo, Josefina; Danieli, Ernesto; Perlo, Juan; Blümich, Bernhard; Casanova, Federico

    2013-08-01

    We report the optimization of a slim-line logging NMR tool carried out by maximizing the signal-to-noise ratio of the NMR measurements. The tool, based on cylindrical permanent magnets of 20 cm length and 5 cm diameter, has a penetration depth of about 2 cm measured from its surface. This is obtained thanks to a large radio frequency coil whose dimensions are comparable to the sensor size. An analytical expression of the SNR as a function of parameters which take into account the interaction between the radio frequency coil and the magnet shielding is developed. In view of the external constrains such as the one imposed by the excavation hole, a proper tool size is determined in the optimization process. Due to its size and properties, the sensor is suitable to measure water content in the vadose zone, which is the zone comprised within the first meters of the Earth surface and whose study is important for improving water management in agriculture and for refining climate models.

  15. A debugging system for azimuthally acoustic logging tools based on modular and hierarchical design ideas

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, K.; Ju, X. D.; Lu, J. Q.; Men, B. Y.

    2016-08-01

    On the basis of modular and hierarchical design ideas, this study presents a debugging system for an azimuthally sensitive acoustic bond tool (AABT). The debugging system includes three parts: a personal computer (PC), embedded front-end machine and function expansion boards. Modular and hierarchical design ideas are conducted in all design and debug processes. The PC communicates with the front-end machine via the Internet, and the front-end machine and function expansion boards connect each other by the extended parallel bus. In this method, the three parts of the debugging system form stable and high-speed data communication. This study not only introduces the system-level debugging and sub-system level debugging of the tool but also the debugging of the analogue signal processing board, which is important and greatly used in logging tools. Experiments illustrate that the debugging system can greatly improve AABT verification and calibration efficiency and that, board-level debugging can examine and improve analogue signal processing boards. The design thinking is clear and the design structure is reasonable, thus making it easy to extend and upgrade the debugging system.

  16. Specific Monte Carlo code development for nuclear well-logging tool responses

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    McPNL is a specific Monte Carlo computer code that has been developed to simulate a pulsed neutron oil well logging tool and uses implicit capture, Russian roulette and statistical estimation techniques as primary variance reduction methods. The code has been validated by benchmarking against six sets of laboratory test pit data on water, limestone and quartz formations with widely varying sets of borehole and formation conditions. McDNL is a specific Monte Carlo computer code that has been developed to simulate a dual-spaced neutron porosity tool. The low counting yield in the far detector of the tool requires the use of biasing schemes to obtain adequate efficiency. Exponential transform and directional biasing techniques have been applied with remarkable success for this problem, along with source biasing, implicit capture, Russian roulette and statistical estimation techniques. The code has been benchmarked against five sets of laboratory test pit data and found to be valid. Correlated sampling can be optionally used in the code to accurately predict the relative change in the detector response due to small perturbations in the formation porosity. (author)

  17. SpaceOps 2012 Plus 2: Social Tools to Simplify ISS Flight Control Communications and Log Keeping

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cowart, Hugh S.; Scott, David W.

    2014-01-01

    A paper written for the SpaceOps 2012 Conference (Simplify ISS Flight Control Communications and Log Keeping via Social Tools and Techniques) identified three innovative concepts for real time flight control communications tools based on social mechanisms: a) Console Log Tool (CoLT) - A log keeping application at Marshall Space Flight Center's (MSFC) Payload Operations Integration Center (POIC) that provides "anywhere" access, comment and notifications features similar to those found in Social Networking Systems (SNS), b) Cross-Log Communication via Social Techniques - A concept from Johnsson Space Center's (JSC) Mission Control Center Houston (MCC-H) that would use microblogging's @tag and #tag protocols to make information/requests visible and/or discoverable in logs owned by @Destination addressees, and c) Communications Dashboard (CommDash) - A MSFC concept for a Facebook-like interface to visually integrate and manage basic console log content, text chat streams analogous to voice loops, text chat streams dedicated to particular conversations, generic and position-specific status displays/streams, and a graphically based hailing display. CoLT was deployed operationally at nearly the same time as SpaceOps 2012, the Cross- Log Communications idea is currently waiting for a champion to carry it forward, and CommDash was approved as a NASA Iinformation Technoloby (IT) Labs project. This paper discusses lessons learned from two years of actual CoLT operations, updates CommDash prototype development status, and discusses potential for using Cross-Log Communications in both MCC-H and/or POIC environments, and considers other ways for synergizing console applcations.

  18. Impact of vegetation and ecosystems on chlorine(-36) cycling and its modeling: from simplified approaches towards more complex biogeochemical tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thiry, Yves; Redon, Paul-Olivier; Gustafsson, Malin; Marang, Laura; Bastviken, David

    2013-04-01

    Chlorine is very soluble at a global scale with chloride (Cl-), the dominating form. Because of its high mobility, chlorine is usually perceived as a good conservative tracer in hydrological studies and by analogy as little reactive in biosphere. Since 36Cl can be considered to have the same behaviour than stable Cl, a good knowledge of chlorine distribution between compartments of terrestrial ecosystems is sufficient to calibrate a specific activity model which supposes rapid dilution of 36Cl within the large pool of stable Cl and isotopic equilibrium between compartments. By assuming 36Cl redistribution similar to that of stable Cl at steady-state, specific activity models are simplified interesting tools for regulatory purposes in environmental safety assessment, especially in case of potential long term chronic contamination of agricultural food chain (IAEA, 2010). In many other more complex scenarios (accidental acute release, intermediate time frame, and contrasted natural ecosystems), new information and tools are necessary for improving (radio-)ecological realism, which entails a non-conservative behavior of chlorine. Indeed observed dynamics of chlorine in terrestrial ecosystems is far from a simple equilibrium notably because of natural processes of organic matter (SOM) chlorination mainly occurring in surface soils (Öberg, 1998) and mediated by microbial activities on a large extent (Bastviken et al. 2007). Our recent studies have strengthened the view that an organic cycle for chlorine should now be recognized, in addition to its inorganic cycle. Major results showed that: organochlorine (Clorg) formation occurs in all type of soils and ecosystems (culture, pasture, forest), leading to an average fraction of the total Cl pool in soil of about 80 % (Redon et al., 2012), chlorination in more organic soils over time leads to a larger Clorg pool and in turn to a possible high internal supply of inorganic chlorine (Clin) upon dechlorination. (Gustafsson et

  19. Insights and Modelling Tools for Designing and Improving Chlorinated Solvent Bioremediation Applications

    OpenAIRE

    Robinson, Clare; Gerhard, Jason I.; Brovelli, Alessandro; Kouznetsova, Irina; Kokkinaki, Amalia; Brent E. Sleep; Bartlett, Craig; Barry, David Andrew

    2010-01-01

    The chlorinated solvents tetrachloroethene (PCE) and trichloroethene (TCE) have been used extensively in industry and are now amongst the most common and hazardous groundwater contaminants. These solvents are typically present as dense, non-aqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs) and represent long-term source zones that produce persistent contamination plumes in aquifers. Under anaerobic conditions, chlorinated ethenes may be biodegraded via reductive dechlorination (the biologically mediated, step-w...

  20. Added value of nuclear magnetic resonance logging as delineation tool in EHO context : an example from Orinoco Heavy oil belt

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cochet, F.; Mus, E. [PDVSA Petroleos de Venezuela SA, Caracas (Venezuela, Bolivarian Republic of). Petrocedeno; Marcos, J. [Baker Hughes, Houston, TX (United States)

    2009-07-01

    In preparation for the upcoming implementation of a thermal oil recovery project, an intensive delineation campaign was recently conducted in a specific area of the Junin block main field of Petrocedeno, operated by Petroleos de Venezuela SA (PDVSA) Petrocedeno joint venture. A complete acquisition program was defined in terms of conventional logging (GR, resistivity, neutron/density, sonic, formation pressure), coring, and unconventional logging with imagery logs and nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) with the objective of delineating the field. The purpose of this paper was to show the significant added value and step forward the NMR acquisition brought in fluid and reservoir characterization. The paper described the input of standard NMR logging, including fluid characterization; petrophysical support; tool limitation; NMR gamma inversion reprocessing; methodology; and application to EOR project area. Applications for field development were also presented including application for cold and hot production development. It was concluded that the NMR is a suitable tool for fluid characterization and for improving future development of the Petrocedeno extra heavy oil field. It has the capability of identifying fluids that are poorly characterized, or not characterized, by conventional logs. 10 refs., 18 figs.

  1. IMPROVED DOWN-HOLE CPT TOOLS FOR THE DETECTION OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS; FINAL

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Conventional soil and groundwater sampling procedures present many opportunities for loss of volatile organic compounds (VOC) by exposing sample media to the atmosphere during transfers between sampling devices and containers, ultimately affecting the quality of the analytical results. Inaccurate characterization data often leads to improperly designed remedial systems that slow the clean-up process and increase the cost. For these reasons, in situ methods for sample extraction and real time analysis provide attractive alternatives to conventional sampling and analysis. Under funding from the U.S. Department of Energy's Federal Energy Technology Center (FETC), the investigators continued development of a system that combines High Speed Gas Chromatography techniques with Cone Penetration Testing to achieve near-real time analysis of soils and groundwater for chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbon contamination (PCE, TCE, BTEX) during site characterization. The system combines three new CPT tools with an up-hole analyzer. The Dynamic Thermal Desorption (DTD) probe provides the up-hole analyzer with continuously sampled soil gas, enhancing detection limits by heating the soil matrix during penetration to thermally desorb volatile organic contaminants. The CPT In Situ Purge Probe (CISP) purges a water sample in situ, transferring the purge gas up-hole for analysis. Alternatively, soil gas or purge gas from the DTD probe or the CISP can be diverted to a Downhole Trap Module (DTM), which traps contaminants on conventional trap media for later analysis in a fixed laboratory. While the effectiveness of the CISP was hampered by the tendency of fine grained materials to clog its sample inlet filter, the DTD probe and the DTM were demonstrated to perform their intended functions well

  2. FEM地层元素测井仪研制%On the Formation Element and Mineralogy Logging Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    岳爱忠; 王树声; 何绪新; 石丽云; 贺晓真; 雷震宇

    2013-01-01

    The formation element and mineralogy logging tool is introduced.In the mechanical design,a large bismuth germinate scintillation detector is used,which can greatly increase detector efficiency for gamma rays compared to the traditional sodium iodide detector.The boron sleeve is wrapped on the outside of the tool to eliminate the background gamma caused by the tool itself.In the circuit design,the design key and procedure of the circuit design for acquisition and control of the tool are analyzed.Element standard spectra obtained by Monte Carlo modeling,the method of spectrum unfolding and oxides closure model are discussed.At last,Results from measurements performed in model wells and oilfield by formation element and mineralogy logging tool are presented to demonstrate that the logging curves of the tool can preferably reflect lithological features.%介绍了FEM地层元素测井仪的研制与设计.采用BGO晶体探测器,相较于传统的NaI(T1)探测器,较大地提高了对伽马射线的探测效率.为了消除仪器自身材料产生的俘获伽马本底,在仪器外表面加了一定厚度的硼套;重点分析了采集控制电路的设计及流程,以及元素标准谱的制作方法、解谱方法和氧化物闭合模型.对FEM地层元素测井仪进行了模型井和现场测井试验,试验结果证实了在不同岩性地区FEM测井曲线均能较好地反映地层岩性特征.

  3. Tool Monitoring and Electronic Event Logging for Sheet Metal Forming Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gerd Heiserich

    2010-06-01

    Full Text Available This contribution describes some innovative solutions regarding sensor systems for tool monitoring in the sheet metal industry. Autonomous and tamper-proof sensors, which are integrated in the forming tools, can detect and count the strokes carried out by a sheet metal forming press. Furthermore, an electronic event logger for documentary purposes and quality control was developed. Based on this technical solution, new business models such as leasing of sheet metal forming tools can be established for cooperation among enterprises. These models allow usage-based billing for the contractors, taking the effectively produced number of parts into account.

  4. Microstratigraphic logging of calcite fabrics in speleothems as tool for palaeoclimate studies

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Silvia Frisia

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The systematic documentation of calcite fabrics in stalagmites and flowstones provides robustness to palaeoclimate interpretation based on geochemical proxies, but it has been neglected because it is difficult to transform crystal morphologies into numerical values, and construct fabric time series. Here, general criteria that allow for coding fabrics of calcite composing stalagmites and flowstones is provided. Being based on known models of fabric development, the coding ascribes sequential numbers to each fabric, which reflect climate-related parameters, such as changes in drip rate variability, bio-mediation or diagenetic modifications. Acronyms are proposed for Columnar types, Dendritic, Micrite, Microsparite and Mosaic fabrics, whose use could then render possible comparison of calcite fabrics in stalagmites and flowstones from diverse latitudinal and altitudinal settings. The climatic and environmental significance of similarities in the geochemical signals and trends analysed in coeval stalagmites and flowstones (or differences in the signals and trends will be more robust when compared with fabric time series. This is particularly true where, such as in the Holocene, changes in geochemical values may be subtle, yet fabrics may show changes related to variations in supersaturation, drip rate or input of detrital particles or organic compounds. The proposed microstratigraphic logging allows recognition of changes in stable isotope ratio or trace element values that can be ascribed to hydrology and diagenesis, with considerable improvement of reconstructions based on the chemical proxies of stalagmites and flowstones composed of calcite.

  5. The specific purpose Monte Carlo code McENL for simulating the response of epithermal neutron lifetime well logging tools

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new specific purpose Monte Carlo code called McENL for modeling the time response of epithermal neutron lifetime tools is described. The code was developed so that the Monte Carlo neophyte can easily use it. A minimum amount of input preparation is required and specified fixed values of the parameters used to control the code operation can be used. The weight windows technique, employing splitting and Russian Roulette, is used with an automated importance function based on the solution of an adjoint diffusion model to improve the code efficiency. Complete composition and density correlated sampling is also included in the code and can be used to study the effect on tool response of small variations in the formation, borehole, or logging tool composition and density. An illustration of the latter application is given here for the density of a thermal neutron filter. McENL was benchmarked against test-pit data for the Mobil pulsed neutron porosity (PNP) tool and found to be very accurate. Results of the experimental validation and details of code performance are presented

  6. LIBSLog: Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy (LIBS) based logging tool for exploration of boreholes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zacny, K.; Chu, P.

    2012-12-01

    We present a novel downhole instrument, currently under development at Honeybee Robotics with SBIR funding from NASA. The device is designed to characterize elemental composition as a function of depth in terrestrial and non-terrestrial geological formations. The instrument consists of a miniaturized LIBS analyzer integrated in a 2" diameter drill string. While the drill provides subsurface access, the LIBS analyzer provides information on the elemental composition of the borehole wall. This instrument has a variety of space applications ranging from exploration of the Moon for which it was originally designed, to Mars and Europa. The system can also be deployed in a wireline configuration as a logging probe, called LIBSLog. The LIBSLog could be lowered into existing boreholes and scan the borehole wall with depth. Subsurface analysis is usually performed by sample acquisition through a drill or excavator, followed by sample preparation and subsequent sample presentation to an instrument or suite of instruments. An alternative approach consisting in bringing a miniaturized version of the instrument to the sample has many advantages over the traditional methodology, as it allows faster response, reduced probability of cross-contamination and a simplification in the sampling mechanisms. The results for lunar simulant NU-LHT-2M show a value for the concentration of iron ranging between 2.29% and 3.05% depending on the atomic line selected. The accepted value for the sample analyzed is 2.83%, showing the capability for the system in development to provide qualitative and semi-quantitative analysis in real-time.

  7. Modified log-activity diagrams as a tool for modelling corrosion of nuclear waste container materials, with particular reference to copper

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Thermochemical data are used to construct a modified log-activity diagram for the system Cu-H-O-Cl-(CO2). This diagram, restricted to standard state of pressure and temperature, serves as a complement to Pourbaix diagrams for the study of equilibria appropriate to solid phases and aqueous ionic species of copper in chloride-bearing waters. Coordinate axes represent activities of chloride and aqueous copper species; other thermodynamic variables are collapsed onto the diagram. Equilibria involving chlorination reactions, some of which cannot be displayed on a Pourbaix diagram, are presented. Also displayed are the various permissible geometric relationships of lines on a Pourbaix diagram. Modified log-activity diagrams may be used to model localized corrosion of copper and are potentially useful for the analysis and prediction of failure mechanisms in high level waste packages. (orig.)

  8. A Risk-Based Decision tool to support remediation decision-making for groundwater contaminated with chlorinated solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Selection of remediation alternatives for large groundwater plumes containing chlorinated solvents are often complex and difficult, in part because they involve competing objectives, e.g. reduction of health risk vs. increased cost. The Department of Energy (DOE) supported development of a Decision Tool to provide a risk-based process for evaluating and comparing remedial options fairly and consistently. The Decision Tool is also intended to provide a process for constructive discussion of alternatives among the appropriate stakeholders. To use the Decision Tool, which is implemented in an Excel spreadsheet, a site manager must evaluate each alternative being considered against six objectives using detailed performance metrics. The impacts of each alternative on the individual objectives are combined through a formal multi-attribute utility analysis. Predetermined or user-specified relative weights for the objectives can be used, and a variety of visual outputs are generated. The usefulness and validity of the Decision Tool was demonstrated through a Pilot Study application for the A-Area Burning Rubble Pits/Miscellaneous Chemical Basin groundwater plume at the DOE Savannah River Site. The Pilot Study results provided a new perspective on the alternatives and objectives by demonstrating: 1) the relatively small public health risks associated with groundwater contamination at this site, 2) that more active approaches had benefits over monitored natural attenuation (MNA) in reducing time required to meet the maximum contaminant level (MCL) and maximizing regulatory responsiveness, 3) that MNA has acceptable public and worker health and safety risks, while enabling a reduction in costs. Use of the Decision Tool also promoted valuable discussion among the various stakeholders, and provided options for sensitivity analyses that can quickly be visualized to assess relative benefits of each of the alternatives. (authors)

  9. Tools and data acquisition of borehole geophysical logging for the Florida Power and Light Company Turkey Point Power Plant in support of a groundwater, surface-water, and ecological monitoring plan, Miami-Dade County, Florida

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Michael A.

    2010-01-01

    Borehole geophysical logs were obtained from selected exploratory coreholes in the vicinity of the Florida Power and Light Company Turkey Point Power Plant. The geophysical logging tools used and logging sequences performed during this project are summarized herein to include borehole logging methods, descriptions of the properties measured, types of data obtained, and calibration information.

  10. Simulations of a spectral gamma-ray logging tool response to a surface source distribution on the borehole wall

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have developed Monte Carlo and discrete ordinates simulation models for the large-detector spectral gamma-ray (SGR) logging tool in use at the Nevada Test Site. Application of the simulation models produced spectra for source layers on the borehole wall, either from potassium-bearing mudcakes or from plate-out of radon daughter products. Simulations show that the shape and magnitude of gamma-ray spectra from sources distributed on the borehole wall depend on radial position with in the air-filled borehole as well as on hole diameter. No such dependence is observed for sources uniformly distributed in the formation. In addition, sources on the borehole wall produce anisotropic angular fluxes at the higher scattered energies and at the source energy. These differences in borehole effects and in angular flux are important to the process of correcting SGR logs for the presence of potassium mudcakes; they also suggest a technique for distinguishing between spectral contributions from formation sources and sources on the borehole wall. These results imply the existence of a standoff effect not present for spectra measured in air-filled boreholes from formation sources. 5 refs., 11 figs

  11. Contribution of logging tools to understanding helium porewater data across the Mesozoic sequence of the East of the Paris Basin

    Science.gov (United States)

    Battani, Anne; Smith, Thomas; Robinet, Jean Charles; Brulhet, Jacques; Lavielle, Bernard; Coelho, Daniel

    2011-12-01

    Helium concentration measurements made on water and rock samples collected at various depths along a 2000 m depth borehole drilled in the eastern part of the Paris basin and reaching the Triassic conglomerates were used to establish a vertical profile of dissolved helium concentration throughout the entire Mesozoic sedimentary pile. Wireline logging tools were used to measure rock density, porosity and U and Th contents every 15 cm in the various formations. Samples from the deepest Muschelkalk and Buntsandstein show a very good agreement between measured and calculated 4He porewater contents. Shallower levels show lower and lower 4He concentrations compared to calculated values when going upwards. The data set obtained by wireline logging measurements was used as inputs for numerical simulations of 1D He production/diffusion throughout the 2000 m profile. Several assumptions regarding the transport properties in the various sedimentary layers were tested and all were found to yield fairly good agreement between modeled and measured He concentrations. There is no need to invoke either a transient regime or a deep crustal He flux in this "quiet" (seismically inactive) part of the Paris basin. Moreover, the modeling results suggest that the Keuper massive halite level associated with the upper Muschelkalk pre-evaporitic series efficiently isolates the overlying layers from any input from deeper formations in the Meuse/Haute Marne area.

  12. ResourceLog: An Embeddable Tool for Dynamically Monitoring the Usage of Web-Based Bioscience Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Nian; Marenco, Luis; Miller, Perry L.

    2006-01-01

    The present study described an open source application, ResourceLog, that allows website administrators to record and analyze the usage of online resources. The application includes four components: logging, data mining, administrative interface, and back-end database. The logging component is embedded in the host website. It extracts and streamlines information about the Web visitors, the scripts, and dynamic parameters from each page request. The data mining component runs as a set of sched...

  13. Integrating the EPICS IOC LOG into the CSS message LOG

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Experimental Physics and Industrial Control System (EPICS) includes the 'IOCLogServer', a tool that logs error messages from front-end computers (Input/Output Controllers, IOCs) into a set of text files. Control System Studio (CSS) includes a distributed message logging system with relational database persistence and various log analysis tools. We implemented a log server that forwards IOC messages to the CSS log database, allowing several ways of monitoring and analyzing the IOC error messages. (authors)

  14. Suitability of the cellular viability technique as a control tool of the chlorine dosage on the activated sludge of a biological process affected by bulking

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work demonstrates the suitability of the cellular viability technique as a control tool of the chlorine dosage on the activated sludge of a biological process affected by the overabundance of the filamentous bacteria (Thiothrix-021N). This technique was used to establish the chlorine dosage according to the observed damages on cellular membranes of both, floc-forming bacteria as well as filamentous bacteria. To identify the filamentous bacteria responsible for the macro-structural alteration of the flocs, several criteria were, met, including morphologic characteristics as well as conventional microbiological stains: Gram, Neisser and polyhydroxy alkanoates. FISH was used to confirm the obtained results, providing a definitive identification of the filamentous bacteria responsible for the alteration. (Author) 11 refs

  15. Development of multi-frequency array induction logging (MAIL) tool. 3; Multi shuhasu array gata induction kenso tool (MAIL) no kaihatsu (genchi shiken data no ichijigen kaiseki). 3

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sato, T.; Osato, K.; Takasugi, S. [Geothermal Energy Research and Development Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Uchida, T. [New Energy and Industrial Technology Development Organization, Tokyo, (Japan)

    1996-05-01

    A field test was carried out in 1995 on a deep-seated geothermal investigation and reduction well WDR (in Kakkonda, Shizuku-ishi, Iwate Prefecture) by utilizing a multi-frequency array induction logging tool which is under development by NEDO. This paper reports results of analyzing the acquired data. With the WDR wells, an investigation has been conducted to a drilling depth of 330 m. Three frequencies in a range from 3 to 24 kHz provided relatively good data, but data with 42 kHz had poor quality that cannot be utilized for the analysis. Precise device calibration is difficult on data acquired from three array type vertical component magnetometers (the difficulty may be due to a signal line from a transmitter passing on the magnetometer side). Because of this difficulty, analysis using one-dimensional inversion program was performed by using ratio of the amplitude for each frequency and phase difference as input data. The analysis allowed to have derived a result that corresponds to the ground bed structure. 5 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs.

  16. Chlorine trifluoride (1963)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This monograph on chlorine trifluoride may be considered as a working tool useful in gaseous diffusion research. It consists of data gathered from the literature and includes furthermore a certain amount of original data. This monograph groups together the physical, chemical and physiological properties of chlorine trifluoride, as well as the preparation and analytical methods. It has been thought wise to add some technological information, and the safety regulations governing its use. (authors)

  17. LogViewer: A Software Tool to Visualize Quality Control Parameters to Optimize Proteomics Experiments using Orbitrap and LTQ-FT Mass Spectrometers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sweredoski, Michael J.; Smith, Geoffrey T.; Kalli, Anastasia; Graham, Robert L. J.; Hess, Sonja

    2011-01-01

    Visualization tools that allow both optimization of instrument's parameters for data acquisition and specific quality control (QC) for a given sample prior to time-consuming database searches have been scarce until recently and are currently still not freely available. To address this need, we have developed the visualization tool LogViewer, which uses diagnostic data from the RAW files of the Thermo Orbitrap and linear trap quadrupole-Fourier transform (LTQ-FT) mass spectrometers to monitor relevant metrics. To summarize and visualize the performance on our test samples, log files from RawXtract are imported and displayed. LogViewer is a visualization tool that allows a specific and fast QC for a given sample without time-consuming database searches. QC metrics displayed include: mass spectrometry (MS) ion-injection time histograms, MS ion-injection time versus retention time, MS2 ion-injection time histograms, MS2 ion-injection time versus retention time, dependent scan histograms, charge-state histograms, mass-to-charge ratio (M/Z) distributions, M/Z histograms, mass histograms, mass distribution, summary, repeat analyses, Raw MS, and Raw MS2. Systematically optimizing all metrics allowed us to increase our protein identification rates from 600 proteins to routinely determine up to 1400 proteins in any 160-min analysis of a complex mixture (e.g., yeast lysate) at a false discovery rate of <1%. Visualization tools, such as LogViewer, make QC of complex liquid chromotography (LC)-MS and LC-MS/MS data and optimization of the instrument's parameters accessible to users. PMID:22131886

  18. Simulation of wireline sonic logging measurements acquired with Borehole-Eccentered tools using a high-order adaptive finite-element method

    KAUST Repository

    Pardo, David

    2011-07-01

    The paper introduces a high-order, adaptive finite-element method for simulation of sonic measurements acquired with borehole-eccentered logging instruments. The resulting frequency-domain based algorithm combines a Fourier series expansion in one spatial dimension with a two-dimensional high-order adaptive finite-element method (FEM), and incorporates a perfectly matched layer (PML) for truncation of the computational domain. The simulation method was verified for various model problems, including a comparison to a semi-analytical solution developed specifically for this purpose. Numerical results indicate that for a wireline sonic tool operating in a fast formation, the main propagation modes are insensitive to the distance from the center of the tool to the center of the borehole (eccentricity distance). However, new flexural modes arise with an increase in eccentricity distance. In soft formations, we identify a new dipole tool mode which arises as a result of tool eccentricity. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

  19. Inactivation of simian rotavirus SA11 by chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine.

    OpenAIRE

    Berman, D.; Hoff, J C

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of inactivation of simian rotavirus SA11 by chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine were studied at 5 degrees C with a purified preparation of single virions and a preparation of cell-associated virions. Inactivation of the virus preparations with chlorine and chlorine dioxide was studied at pH 6 and 10. The monochloramine studies were done at pH 8. With 0.5 mg of chlorine per liter at pH 6, more than 4 logs (99.99%) of the single virions were inactivated in less than 15 s...

  20. Identification of abiotic and biotic reductive dechlorination in a chlorinated ethene plume after thermal source remediation by means of isotopic and molecular biology tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badin, Alice; Broholm, Mette M.; Jacobsen, Carsten S.; Palau, Jordi; Dennis, Philip; Hunkeler, Daniel

    2016-09-01

    Thermal tetrachloroethene (PCE) remediation by steam injection in a sandy aquifer led to the release of dissolved organic carbon (DOC) from aquifer sediments resulting in more reduced redox conditions, accelerated PCE biodegradation, and changes in microbial populations. These changes were documented by comparing data collected prior to the remediation event and eight years later. Based on the premise that dual C-Cl isotope slopes reflect ongoing degradation pathways, the slopes associated with PCE and TCE suggest the predominance of biotic reductive dechlorination near the source area. PCE was the predominant chlorinated ethene near the source area prior to thermal treatment. After thermal treatment, cDCE became predominant. The biotic contribution to these changes was supported by the presence of Dehalococcoides sp. DNA (Dhc) and Dhc targeted rRNA close to the source area. In contrast, dual C-Cl isotope analysis together with the almost absent VC 13C depletion in comparison to cDCE 13C depletion suggested that cDCE was subject to abiotic degradation due to the presence of pyrite, possible surface-bound iron (II) or reduced iron sulphides in the downgradient part of the plume. This interpretation is supported by the relative lack of Dhc in the downgradient part of the plume. The results of this study show that thermal remediation can enhance the biodegradation of chlorinated ethenes, and that this effect can be traced to the mobilisation of DOC due to steam injection. This, in turn, results in more reduced redox conditions which favor active reductive dechlorination and/or may lead to a series of redox reactions which may consecutively trigger biotically induced abiotic degradation. Finally, this study illustrates the valuable complementary application of compound-specific isotopic analysis combined with molecular biology tools to evaluate which biogeochemical processes are taking place in an aquifer contaminated with chlorinated ethenes.

  1. Hillslope Hydrological Modeling in a Boreal Forest - Tools for Assessment of Logging Impacts on Runoff Generation and Nitrogen Loads

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koivusalo, H.; Kokkonen, T.

    2003-12-01

    Advance in runoff generation models requires measurements of water quantity and quality both at the outlet of a catchment and along hillslopes residing within a catchment. Predicting response of streamflow volumes to land-use changes is challenging, but it is even more demanding to produce realistic estimates of surface and subsurface runoff components and solute fluxes within a catchment. This work, which is part of the FEMMA project, presents development and application of a deterministic hillslope hydrological model, which combines hydrological, biological, and solute transport computation schemes. The model simulates canopy processes, snow accumulation and melt, soil and ground water movement, and nitrogen transport. Here the modeling system is applied to two coniferous-forested catchments (56 and 29 ha) located in Eastern Finland. One of the catchments was partially clear-cut (35 %) while the other one was left as a control. Measured meteorological, snow, streamflow, and nitrogen concentration data cover a nine-year period starting five years before the treatment. The model parameterization is based on spatial data on topography, soil types, soil depths, and location of treated areas with respect to the stream network draining the catchment. Spatial data analysis condenses information on catchment physical properties for identification of one or several typical hillslopes, which are assumed to represent the behavior of the entire catchment. Results derivable directly from the measured data suggest that timing and volume of streamflow changed soon after loggings were completed. In the modeling exercise these changes are attributed to increased melt intensity and absence of interception in the logged areas. Measured concentrations of nitrite-nitrate nitrogen showed changes only two years after the logging. This lag can result from slow initiation of felling waste decomposition and long residence of nitrates in mineral soils and wetland areas surrounding the

  2. Digital Photography as an Educational Food Logging Tool in Obese Patients with Type 2 Diabetes: Lessons Learned from A Randomized, Crossover Pilot Trial

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ehrmann, Brett J.; Anderson, Robert M.; Piatt, Gretchen A.; Funnell, Martha M.; Rashid, Hira; Shedden, Kerby; Douyon, Liselle

    2014-01-01

    Purpose The purpose of this pilot study is to investigate the utility of, and areas of refinement for, digital photography as an educational tool for food logging in obese patients with type 2 diabetes (T2DM). Methods Thirty-three patients aged 18-70 with T2DM, BMI at least 30 kg/m2, and A1C 7.5-9% were recruited from an endocrinology clinic and randomized to a week of food logging using a digital camera (DC) or paper diary (PD), crossing over for week two. Patients then viewed a presentation about dietary effects on blood glucose, using patient DC and blood glucose entries. Outcomes of adherence (based on number of weekly entries), changes in mean blood glucose and frequency of blood glucose checks, and patient satisfaction were compared between methods. Patient feedback on the DC intervention and presentation was also analyzed. Results Thirty patients completed the study. Adherence was identical across methods. The mean difference in number of entries was not significant between methods. This difference increased and neared statistical significance (favoring DC) among patients who were adherent for at least one week (21 entries, with 2 entries per day for 5 of 7 days, n=25). Mean blood glucose did not significantly decrease in either method. Patient satisfaction was similar between interventions. Feedback indicated concerns over photograph accuracy, forgetting to use the cameras, and embarrassment using them in public. Conclusion Though comparable to PD in adherence, blood glucose changes, and patient satisfaction in this pilot trial, patient feedback suggested specific areas of refinement to maximize utility of DC-based food logging as an educational tool in T2DM. PMID:24168836

  3. Blog/web log - a new easy and interactive website building tool for a non-net savvy radiologist.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sethi, Sumer K

    2007-05-01

    Recently, there has been no escaping the mention of blogs in the media. Blogging has emerged as a social phenomenon, which has impacted politics, business, and communication. Blogging software has enabled people with limited knowledge of the Internet to publish their thoughts online and participate in a global conversation; whereas the Blogosphere has hyperaccelerated the spread of information. Technorati, a blog search engine is now tracking over 7.8 million Weblogs, and 937 million links, and reports that there are about 30,000 to 40,000 new blogs created a day. The majority of people who blog do so as a hobby, using blogs to publish their thoughts, feelings, and viewpoints on whatever topics interest them. Blogging software also enables people to post pictures, music, and more recently videos. For many people blogs are used as online journals or diaries; other people use blogs to communicate with their family and friends. Whether people generate revenue with their blogs or use them as a hobby the one thing they all have in common is that they are part of the Blogosphere, or network of blogs that gives people a voice and allows them to spread information at an unprecedented rate. Although searching PubMed produces few results for "blog" (6 relevant articles of 24), "weblog" (1 article), web log (8 entries of varying relevance), and "blogging" (4 articles) (none of which were in Radiology, RadioGraphics, AJR, or JVIR), blogging might well become an important means of information transfer in Radiology also. As radiology is an image-based science, a blog is a satisfying endeavor in that you can share your experiences with others instantaneously In this context, I would like to submit my experience with easy method for building a Web site known as blogging (maintaining a Web log). As a radiologist, I use my blog (http://www.sumerdoc.blogspot.com/; or http://www.indianradiology.com/) to post interesting cases from my routine practice along with any interesting

  4. Critical evaluation of a simple retention time predictor based on LogKow as a complementary tool in the identification of emerging contaminants in water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bade, Richard; Bijlsma, Lubertus; Sancho, Juan V; Hernández, Felix

    2015-07-01

    There has been great interest in environmental analytical chemistry in developing screening methods based on liquid chromatography-high resolution mass spectrometry (LC-HRMS) for emerging contaminants. Using HRMS, compound identification relies on the high mass resolving power and mass accuracy attainable by these analyzers. When dealing with wide-scope screening, retention time prediction can be a complementary tool for the identification of compounds, and can also reduce tedious data processing when several peaks appear in the extracted ion chromatograms. There are many in silico, Quantitative Structure-Retention Relationship methods available for the prediction of retention time for LC. However, most of these methods use commercial software to predict retention time based on various molecular descriptors. This paper explores the applicability and makes a critical discussion on a far simpler and cheaper approach to predict retention times by using LogKow. The predictor was based on a database of 595 compounds, their respective LogKow values and a chromatographic run time of 18min. Approximately 95% of the compounds were found within 4.0min of their actual retention times, and 70% within 2.0min. A predictor based purely on pesticides was also made, enabling 80% of these compounds to be found within 2.0min of their actual retention times. To demonstrate the utility of the predictors, they were successfully used as an additional tool in the identification of 30 commonly found emerging contaminants in water. Furthermore, a comparison was made by using different mass extraction windows to minimize the number of false positives obtained. PMID:25882420

  5. Reality of LOG analytical tool of ATM teller machines movement actions%ATM取款机机芯动作LOG文件解析工具的实现

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何惠英; 李纪红; 俞妍; 沈虹

    2013-01-01

    To reduce the demands to general maintenance personnels for bank self-service teller machines, it provides a log files analytical tool of ATM teller machine in Chinese based on Python language. By analyzing data in nearly 20,000 machines of 500G capacity with the analytical tool based on the method mentioned in this article, it can concluded that by using this method , the operating performance of the machines can be obtained fastly, accurately and detailedly, and machine failures can be excluded easily.%文中基于降低对银行自助取款机一般维护人员要求的目的,采用Python编程语言编写了取款机机芯运行记录文件的中文解析工具.通过近两万台500G容量的生产环境下机器运行数据分析,得出采用本文所述方法编写的解析工具可以快速、准确、详细地获得机器的运行性能并能据此排除机器故障的结论.

  6. High resolution petrophysical and geomechanical logging of drill cores as a tool for the evaluation of dimension stone quality and durability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Prikryl, Richard; Lokajíček, Tomáš; Weishauptová, Zuzana; Petružálek, Matěj

    2015-04-01

    Petrophysical and geomechanical properties are significant functional properties of natural stone. In the recent study, an approach employing the entire non-disturb parts of drill cores for determination of the key petrophysical and geomechanical parameters is presented. The drill cores have been obtained during exploration campaign for Carboniferous arkoses and arkosic sandstones to conglomerates in the Bohemian Massif (Czech Republic). The test procedure consists of the sequence of non-destructive methods including determination of index properties, ultrasonic characteristics (speed of longitudinal and transversal waves, recording of the full waveforms). Once non-destructively tested, the specimens are subjected to standard compressive and/or tensile tests encompassing recording of stress-strain behaviour. Broad range of values obtained reflects quite complex petrographical character of rocks investigated. Variable grain size, grain size homogeneity, degree of cementation, overall rock microfabric, and/or presence and distribution of inter- and intraparticle porosity seem to be determinative factors. Once calibrated for a particular petrographical characteristics, high resolution petrophysical and geomechanical logging (HRPGL) can serve as an effective tool for precise evaluation of exploitable natural stone quality.

  7. Inactivation of Aspergillus flavus in drinking water after treatment with UV irradiation followed by chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Al-Gabr, Hamid Mohammad [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China); State Key Laboratory of Environmental Sciences, and Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Coast and Wetland Ecosystems, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Zheng, Tianling [State Key Laboratory of Environmental Sciences, and Key Laboratory of Ministry of Education for Coast and Wetland Ecosystems, School of Life Sciences, Xiamen University, Xiamen 361005 (China); Yu, Xin, E-mail: xyu@iue.ac.cn [Key Laboratory of Urban Environment and Health, Institute of Urban Environment, Chinese Academy of Sciences, Xiamen 361021 (China)

    2013-10-01

    The disinfection process for inactivating microorganisms at drinking water treatment plants is aimed for safety of drinking water for humans from a microorganism, such as bacteria, viruses, algae, fungi by using chlorination, ozonation, UV irradiation, etc. In the present study, a combination of two disinfectants, UV irradiation followed by chlorination, was evaluated for inactivating Aspergillus flavus under low contact time and low dosage of UV irradiation. The results indicated an inverse correlation between the inactivation of A. flavus by using UV irradiation only or chlorination alone. By using UV radiation, the 2 log{sub 10} control of A. flavus was achieved after 30 s of irradiation, while chlorination was observed to be more effective than UV, where the 2 log was achieved at chlorine concentration of 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mg/l, in contact time of 60, 5, 1 and 1 min, respectively. However, combined use (UV irradiation followed by chlorination) was more effective than using either UV or chlorination alone; 5 s UV irradiation followed by chlorination produced 4 log{sub 10} reduction of A. flavus at chlorine concentrations of 2 and 3 mg/l under a contact time of 15 min. The results indicated that efficiency of UV irradiation improves when followed by chlorination at low concentrations. - Highlights: • As a disinfectant, chlorine is more effective than UV in inactivating Aspergillus flavus. • As a combined method, UV irradiation followed by chlorination shows high efficiency. • UV irradiation can improve effectiveness of chlorination in reducing Aspergillus flavus.

  8. Inactivation of Aspergillus flavus in drinking water after treatment with UV irradiation followed by chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disinfection process for inactivating microorganisms at drinking water treatment plants is aimed for safety of drinking water for humans from a microorganism, such as bacteria, viruses, algae, fungi by using chlorination, ozonation, UV irradiation, etc. In the present study, a combination of two disinfectants, UV irradiation followed by chlorination, was evaluated for inactivating Aspergillus flavus under low contact time and low dosage of UV irradiation. The results indicated an inverse correlation between the inactivation of A. flavus by using UV irradiation only or chlorination alone. By using UV radiation, the 2 log10 control of A. flavus was achieved after 30 s of irradiation, while chlorination was observed to be more effective than UV, where the 2 log was achieved at chlorine concentration of 0.5, 1, 2 and 3 mg/l, in contact time of 60, 5, 1 and 1 min, respectively. However, combined use (UV irradiation followed by chlorination) was more effective than using either UV or chlorination alone; 5 s UV irradiation followed by chlorination produced 4 log10 reduction of A. flavus at chlorine concentrations of 2 and 3 mg/l under a contact time of 15 min. The results indicated that efficiency of UV irradiation improves when followed by chlorination at low concentrations. - Highlights: • As a disinfectant, chlorine is more effective than UV in inactivating Aspergillus flavus. • As a combined method, UV irradiation followed by chlorination shows high efficiency. • UV irradiation can improve effectiveness of chlorination in reducing Aspergillus flavus

  9. Injection well logging using viscous EOR fluids

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new tool has been developed that overcomes problems associated with logging injection wells in the presence of viscous fluids. The tool was evaluated in the laboratory and the field in water and polymer injection wells. Results indicate that the tool provides better information than conventional equipment. Special attention to log interpretation is required in zones where the flow pattern changes from turbulent to transition flow. A method is suggested to improve log interpretation that considers changes in flow regime

  10. 核磁共振测井仪刻度系统机械结构设计%Mechanical Design on Calibration System of Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Logging Tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于会媛; 宋公仆; 蔡池渊; 范伟

    2011-01-01

    核磁共振测井仪刻度系统是把探头放在一个特殊的水套里进行测井,从而获得测量的输出数据与被测地层的固有物理参数的标准量值之间的转换关系.对核磁共振测井仪刻度系统的总体布局、刻度筒、刻度筒支架、岩心调节机构、循环系统等主要机械结构进行了优化设计,不仅可以完成仪器的刻度任务,而且可作为核磁共振测井技术的研究试验平台.%The calibration of NMR logging tool is that the probe was placed in ideal water tank and the tool is similar to logging,in order to acquire conversion that output of the logging tool and the inherent physical parameter of the stratum.Mechanical structures of the overall arrangement of the calibration system, calibration tank, bracket, rock adjust set and the circulation were optimized and designed.The calibration system can not only accomplish the calibration of the equipment but can be used as test platform of the NMR logging technology as well.

  11. The UCB particle monitor: A tool for logging frequency of smoking and the intensity of second-hand smoke concentrations in the home

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Second-hand tobacco smoke (SHS) exposure generates a large public health burden. Recent legislation has moved to prohibit smoking in public places and there are concerns that this may lead to an increase in exposures in private homes. Measurement of SHS aerosol has tended to use active pumped samples or longer-term diffusive badges. Pumped methods are noisy and poorly tolerated in home settings while diffusive badges do not provide real-time data. The UCB particle monitor (UCB-PM) is a modified smoke-alarm device capable of logging changes in airborne particulate matter over extended periods and has been used successfully to measure biomass fuel smoke concentrations in developing world settings This study has examined the use of the UCB-PM to measure SHS aerosol in both controlled laboratory conditions and a pilot field trial over a 7 day period in a smoker's home. Comparisons with a pumped sampler (TSI Sidepak Personal Aerosol Monitor) indicate good agreement over a range of exposure concentrations but there is evidence of a threshold effect at approximately 0.5 mg/m3 of fine particulate measured as PM2.5. While this threshold effect undermines the ability of the device to provide useful data on the time-weighted average SHS concentration, the field trial indicates that that the UCB-PM has a sensitivity of about 71% and a specificity of 98%. The device has many advantages including zero noise operation, low cost and long battery life and may be a useful tool in quitting and smoke-free home intervention studies.

  12. 随钻声波测井仪维护系统软件设计%Software design of maintenance system for acoustic logging-while-drilling tool

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈鹏; 师奕兵; 张伟

    2012-01-01

    For solving the difficulties of maintenance for the logging-while-drilling tool, taking the advantages of the chip s3c2440 of Samsung company, the software application of the maintenance system based on Linux embedded operating system was proposed. This application achieved mutual communication ability for this maintenance system with the PC through USB or network. Simultaneously, this system can transport software program to downhole tool and receive data from it through the serial port. It focused on the development of software application based on Linux embedded operating system with Qt and the designation of the USB device driver and the software program for network sever. After the data-transmission test, this system achieved the two-way transmission of a huge number of data with high speed, stable rate and high reliability.%针对随钻测井仪的维护难问题,采用三星公司的s3c2440ARM9微处理器,基于Linux嵌入式系统设计并实现了随钻声波测井仪维护系统的软件部分.该维护系统能够实现与上位机之间的USB和网络双向通信,同时,能够通过串口和井下仪器进行双向数据通信,实现对井下仪器的程序下载和数据读取.着重阐述了基于Linux嵌入式系统的应用程序开发、USB从设备固件程序以及网络服务器端应用程序设计.经过数据测试表明:系统可以实现大数据量的双向传输,数据传输速度快、速率稳定、可靠性高.

  13. Identification of abiotic and biotic reductive dechlorination in a chlorinated ethene plume after thermal source remediation by means of isotopic and molecular biology tools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Badin, Alice; Broholm, Mette Martina; Jacobsen, Carsten S.;

    2016-01-01

    was the predominant chlorinated ethene near the source area prior to thermal treatment. After thermal treatment, cDCE became predominant. The biotic contribution to these changes was supported by the presence of Dehalococcoides sp. DNA (Dhc) and Dhc targeted rRNA close to the source area. In contrast...

  14. Effects of chlorine and chlorine dioxide on human rotavirus infectivity and genome stability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xue, Bin; Jin, Min; Yang, Dong; Guo, Xuan; Chen, Zhaoli; Shen, Zhiqiang; Wang, Xinwei; Qiu, Zhigang; Wang, Jingfeng; Zhang, Bin; Li, Junwen

    2013-06-15

    Despite the health risks posed by waterborne human rotavirus (HRV), little information is available concerning the effectiveness of chlorine or chlorine dioxide (ClO2), two common disinfectants of public water sources, against HRV and their effects on its genome remain poorly understood. This study investigated the effects of chlorine and ClO2 on purified HRV by using cell culture and RT-PCR to assess virus infectivity and genetic integrity, respectively. The disinfection efficacy of ClO2 was found to be higher than that of chlorine. According to the efficiency factor Hom model, Ct value (mg/L min) ranges required for a 4-log reduction of HRV at 20 °C by chlorine and ClO2 were 5.55-5.59 and 1.21-2.47 mg/L min, respectively. Detection of the 11 HRV genome segments revealed that damage to the 1227-2354 bp of the VP4 gene was associated with the disappearance of viral infectivity by chlorine. However, no complete accordance between culturing and RT-PCR assays was observed after treatment of HRV with ClO2. These results collectively indicate that the current practice of chlorine disinfection may be inadequate to manage the risk of waterborne HRV infection, and offer the potential to monitor the infectivity of HRV adapting PCR-based protocols in chlorine disinfection. PMID:23591108

  15. Pulsed neutron porosity logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A borehole logging tool employing a pulsed neutron source and a pair of spaced-apart epithermal neutron detectors is lowered into a borehole traversing a subsurface formation. The formation is irradiated with bursts of fast neutrons and the epithermal neutrons returning to the borehole as a result of such irradiation are detected by the pair of epithermal neutrons detectors. These detected epithermal neutrons are both time resolved and time integrated during their epithermal dieaway spectrum to provide indications of lithology independent porosity and lithology dependent porosity respectively. 6 refs

  16. Logging in Finland.

    OpenAIRE

    Hakkila, Pentti

    1989-01-01

    A review of logging in Finland in relation to new logging technology developed in Nordic countries to meet their own specific requirements and constraints (high salaries, costs of social security, strict ergonomic standards, specific logging conditions, predominance of private ownership, and strong environmental and conservation concerns). Logging technology is based typically on the log-length method and load-carrying forwarders.

  17. Characterization of gas hydrate reservoirs by integration of core and log data in the Ulleung Basin, East Sea

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bahk, J.-J.; Kim, G.-Y.; Chun, J.-H.; Kim, J.-H.; Lee, J.Y.; Ryu, B.-J.; Lee, J.-H.; Son, B.-K.; Collett, Timothy S.

    2013-01-01

    Examinations of core and well-log data from the Second Ulleung Basin Gas Hydrate Drilling Expedition (UBGH2) drill sites suggest that Sites UBGH2-2_2 and UBGH2-6 have relatively good gas hydrate reservoir quality in terms of individual and total cumulative thicknesses of gas-hydrate-bearing sand (HYBS) beds. In both of the sites, core sediments are generally dominated by hemipelagic muds which are intercalated with turbidite sands. The turbidite sands are usually thin-to-medium bedded and mainly consist of well sorted coarse silt to fine sand. Anomalies in infrared core temperatures and porewater chlorinity data and pressure core measurements indicate that “gas hydrate occurrence zones” (GHOZ) are present about 68–155 mbsf at Site UBGH2-2_2 and 110–155 mbsf at Site UBGH2-6. In both the GHOZ, gas hydrates are preferentially associated with many of the turbidite sands as “pore-filling” type hydrates. The HYBS identified in the cores from Site UBGH2-6 are medium-to-thick bedded particularly in the lower part of the GHOZ and well coincident with significant high excursions in all of the resistivity, density, and velocity logs. Gas-hydrate saturations in the HYBS range from 12% to 79% with an average of 52% based on pore-water chlorinity. In contrast, the HYBS from Site UBGH2-2_2 are usually thin-bedded and show poor correlations with both of the resistivity and velocity logs owing to volume averaging effects of the logging tools on the thin HYBS beds. Gas-hydrate saturations in the HYBS range from 15% to 65% with an average of 37% based on pore-water chlorinity. In both of the sites, large fluctuations in biogenic opal contents have significant effects on the sediment physical properties, resulting in limited usage of gamma ray and density logs in discriminating sand reservoirs.

  18. The McLDL code with subspace weight window-biasing combined with the Monte Carlo multiply scattered components approach for simulation of gamma—gamma litho-density logging tools

    Science.gov (United States)

    A. O., Q.; Gardner, R. P.

    1995-12-01

    A new Monte Carlo method for modelling photon transport in the presence of deep-penetration and streaming effects by combining a subspace weight window and biasing schemes has been developed. This method is based on use of an importance map from which an importance subspace is identified for a given particle transport system. Biasing schemes, including direction biasing and the exponential transform, are applied to drive particles into the importance subspace. The subspace weight window approach used consists of splitting and Russian Roulette that acts as a particle weight stabilizer in the subspace to control weight fluctuations caused by the biasing schemes. This approach has been implemented in the optimization of the McLDL code, a specific purpose Monte Carlo code for modelling the spectral response of dual-spaced γ-γ litho-density logging tools. which are highly collimated, deep-penetration, three-dimensional, and low-yield photon transport systems. The McLDL code has been tested on a computational benchmark tool and benchmarked experimentally against laboratory test pit data for a commercial γ-γ litho-density logging tool (the Z-Densilog). The Monte Carlo Multiply Scattered Components (MCMSC) approach has been developed in conjunction with the McLDL code and Library Least-Squares (LLS) analysis. The MCMSC approach consists of constructing component libraries (1 4, 5 8 scatters, etc.) of γ-ray scattered spectra for a reference formation and borehole with the McLDL Monte Carlo code. Then the LLS approach is used with these library spectra to obtain empirical relationships between formation and borehole parameters and the component amounts. These, in turn, can be used to construct the spectra for samples with a range of formation and borehole parameters. This approach should significantly reduce the amount of experimental effort or extent of the Monte Carlo calculations necessary for complete logging tool calibration while maintaining a close physical

  19. CNPC makes major breakthrough in array lateral logging technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2011-01-01

    On October 12, 2011, the array lateral logging tool independently developed by CNPC Well Logging Company was successfully put to use at two production wells at Changqing Oilfield, obtaining high quality logging information. CNPC becomes the second company after Schlumberger in the world to master the array lateral logging technology, which can effectively identify layers as thin as 0.3 meter.

  20. Technology assessment: Chlorine chemistry

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorine is not just one of many chemical feedstocks which is used in a few definitely harmful products like PVC or CFC but is irrelevant in all other respects. Just the opposite is true: There is hardly any product line of the chemical industry that can do without chlorine, from herbicides and pesticides to dyes, plastics, pharmaceuticals, photographic atricles, and cosmetics. Chlorine is not only a key element of chemical production but also an ubiquitous element of everyday life in civilisation. There are even many who would agree that the volume of chlorine production is an indicator of the competitive strength and national wealth of a modern society. By now, however, it has become evident that the unreflected use of chlorine is no longer ecologically acceptable. The consequences of a chlorine phase-out as compared to the continued chlorine production at the present level were investigated scientifically by a PROGNOS team. They are presented in this book. (orig.)

  1. Chlorine Dioxide Gas Treatment of Cantaloupe and Residue Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Kaur, Simran

    2013-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide is a selective oxidant and powerful antimicrobial agent. Previous work has shown that treatment of cantaloupe with chlorine dioxide gas at 5 mg/L for 10 minutes results in a 4.6 and 4.3 log reduction of E. coli O157:H7 and L. monocytogenes respectively. A significant reduction (p Current analytical methods for chlorine dioxide and chloroxyanions are only applicable to aqueous samples. Some of these methods have been used to determine surface residues in treated products by...

  2. Inactivation of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater effluent by chlorination and sequential UV/chlorination disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study investigated disinfection methods including chlorination, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and sequential UV/chlorination treatment on the inactivation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). ARGs including sul1, tetX, tetG, intI1, and 16S rRNA genes in municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) effluent were examined. The results indicated a positive correlation between the removal of ARGs and chlorine dosage (p = 0.007–0.014, n = 6),as well as contact time (p = 0.0001, n = 10). Greater free chlorine (FC) dosage leads to higher removal for all the genes and the maximum removal (1.30–1.49 logs) could be achieved at FC dosage of 30 mg L−1. The transformation kinetic data for ARGs removal (log C0 / C) followed the second-order reaction kinetic model with FC dosage (R2 = 0.6829–0.9999) and contact time (R2 = 0.7353–8634), respectively. Higher ammonia nitrogen (NH3–N) concentration was found to lead to lower removal of ARGs at the same chlorine dosage. When the applied Cl2:NH3–N ratio was over 7.6:1, a significant reduction of ARGs (1.20–1.49 logs) was achieved. By using single UV irradiation, the log removal values of tetX and 16Ss rRNA genes were 0.58 and 0.60, respectively, while other genes were 0.36–0.40 at a fluence of 249.5 mJ cm−2, which was observed to be less effective than chlorination. With sequential UV/chlorination treatment, 0.006 to 0.31 log synergy values of target genes were observed under different operation parameters. - Highlights: • Chlorine is more effective than UV irradiation in removing ARGs from MWTP effluent. • The chlorination reaction followed the second-order reaction kinetic model. • Higher NH3–N contents result in lower ARGs removal in the chlorination process. • FC is more effective than CC on the inactivation of ARGs. • UV irradiation followed by chlorination shows high efficiency in removing ARGs

  3. Inactivation of antibiotic resistance genes in municipal wastewater effluent by chlorination and sequential UV/chlorination disinfection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Yingying; Zhuang, Yao; Geng, Jinju, E-mail: jjgeng@nju.edu.cn; Ren, Hongqiang, E-mail: hqren@nju.edu.cn; Zhang, Yan; Ding, Lili; Xu, Ke

    2015-04-15

    This study investigated disinfection methods including chlorination, ultraviolet (UV) irradiation and sequential UV/chlorination treatment on the inactivation of antibiotic resistance genes (ARGs). ARGs including sul1, tetX, tetG, intI1, and 16S rRNA genes in municipal wastewater treatment plant (MWTP) effluent were examined. The results indicated a positive correlation between the removal of ARGs and chlorine dosage (p = 0.007–0.014, n = 6),as well as contact time (p = 0.0001, n = 10). Greater free chlorine (FC) dosage leads to higher removal for all the genes and the maximum removal (1.30–1.49 logs) could be achieved at FC dosage of 30 mg L{sup −1}. The transformation kinetic data for ARGs removal (log C{sub 0} / C) followed the second-order reaction kinetic model with FC dosage (R{sup 2} = 0.6829–0.9999) and contact time (R{sup 2} = 0.7353–8634), respectively. Higher ammonia nitrogen (NH{sub 3}–N) concentration was found to lead to lower removal of ARGs at the same chlorine dosage. When the applied Cl{sub 2}:NH{sub 3}–N ratio was over 7.6:1, a significant reduction of ARGs (1.20–1.49 logs) was achieved. By using single UV irradiation, the log removal values of tetX and 16Ss rRNA genes were 0.58 and 0.60, respectively, while other genes were 0.36–0.40 at a fluence of 249.5 mJ cm{sup −2}, which was observed to be less effective than chlorination. With sequential UV/chlorination treatment, 0.006 to 0.31 log synergy values of target genes were observed under different operation parameters. - Highlights: • Chlorine is more effective than UV irradiation in removing ARGs from MWTP effluent. • The chlorination reaction followed the second-order reaction kinetic model. • Higher NH{sub 3}–N contents result in lower ARGs removal in the chlorination process. • FC is more effective than CC on the inactivation of ARGs. • UV irradiation followed by chlorination shows high efficiency in removing ARGs.

  4. Pulsed neutron porosity logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved pulsed neutron porosity logging system is provided in the present invention. A logging tool provided with a 14 MeV pulsed neutron source, an epithermal neutron detector, and a fast neutron detector is moved through a borehole. Repetitive bursts of neutrons irradiate the earth formations and, during the bursts, the fast neutron population is sampled. During the interval between bursts the epithermal neutron population is sampled along with background gamma radiation due to lingering thermal neutrons. The fast and epithermal neutron population measurements are combined to provide a measurement of formation porosity

  5. LHCb online log analysis and maintenance system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    History has shown, many times computer logs are the only information an administrator may have for an incident, which could be caused either by a malfunction or an attack. Due to the huge amount of logs that are produced from large-scale IT infrastructures, such as LHCb Online, critical information may be overlooked or simply be drowned in a sea of other messages. This clearly demonstrates the need for an automatic system for long-term maintenance and real time analysis of the logs. We have constructed a low cost, fault tolerant centralized logging system which is able to do in-depth analysis and cross-correlation of every log. This system is capable of handling O(10000) different log sources and numerous formats, while trying to keep the overhead as low as possible. It provides log gathering and management, Offline analysis and online analysis. We call Offline analysis the procedure of analyzing old logs for critical information, while Online analysis refer to the procedure of early alerting and reacting. The system is extensible and cooperates well with other applications such as Intrusion Detection / Prevention Systems. This paper presents the LHCb Online topology, problems we had to overcome and our solutions. Special emphasis is given to log analysis and how we use it for monitoring and how we can have uninterrupted access to the logs. We provide performance plots, code modification in well-known log tools and our experience from trying various storage strategies. (authors)

  6. Effect of turbidity on chlorination efficiency and bacterial persistence in drinking water.

    OpenAIRE

    LeChevallier, M. W.; Evans, T. M.; Seidler, R J

    1981-01-01

    To define interrelationships between elevated turbidities and the efficiency of chlorination in drinking water, experiments were performed to measure bacterial survival, chlorine demand, and interference with microbiological determinations. Experiments were conducted on the surface water supplies for communities which practice chlorination as the only treatment. Therefore, the conclusions of this study apply only to such systems. Results indicated that disinfection efficiency (log10 of the de...

  7. Nuclear data for oil and gas logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The widespread use of nuclear logs for qualitative and semi-quantitative analyses of rock formations is well established. In the petroleum industry, a primary use of nuclear data is for calculation of reserves of oil and gas. For this and other purposes, quantitative data from nuclear logs and from the laboratory analysis of rock and fluid samples are necessary. To achieve quantitative determination of rock properties, including density, porosity, fluid saturation and rock matrix, the nuclear logs must be well calibrated. This paper will present a review of the nuclear data requirements for providing accurate quantitative analyses of nuclear well logs. The requirements fall into two general categories: (a) measurement in the laboratory of the properties of rocks recovered in the drilling process with primary value being given to cores of the formations, and (b) calibration facilities for accurately determining the responses of commercial logging tools. To interpret pulsed neutron capture logs quantitatively, one needs the macroscopic thermal neutron absorption cross section of the rock matrix. Current techniques for making these measurements are reviewed. The principal new porosity logging development is the use of two epithermal neutron detectors and two thermal neutron detectors. This combination improves gas identification and porosity determination in shaly formations. A facility for calibration of natural gamma ray and neutron porosity logging tools is available in the US. A new facility for calibrating natural gamma-ray spectral logs is planned in 1984. A facility for calibrating pulsed neutron logs is urgently needed. Natural gamma-ray spectral logs are now offered by two companies and two additional companies plan to offer commercial service within a year. Spectral analysis of neutron induced gamma rays requires a much more complex system. Logs based on measurement of a broad spectrum of gamma rays induced by 14-MeV neutrons are now in experimental use

  8. http Log Analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bøving, Kristian Billeskov; Simonsen, Jesper

    2004-01-01

    This article documents how log analysis can inform qualitative studies concerning the usage of web-based information systems (WIS). No prior research has used http log files as data to study collaboration between multiple users in organisational settings. We investigate how to perform http log...... analysis; what http log analysis says about the nature of collaborative WIS use; and how results from http log analysis may support other data collection methods such as surveys, interviews, and observation. The analysis of log files initially lends itself to research designs, which serve to test...... hypotheses using a quantitative methodology. We show that http log analysis can also be valuable in qualitative research such as case studies. The results from http log analysis can be triangulated with other data sources and for example serve as a means of supporting the interpretation of interview data. It...

  9. Water Treatment Technology - Chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chlorination provides instructional materials for nine competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of chlorination, chlorine…

  10. Chlorine solar neutrino experiment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chlorine solar neutrino experiment in the Homestake Gold Mine is described and the results obtained with the chlorine detector over the last fourteen years are summarized and discussed. Background processes producing 37Ar and the question of the constancy of the production rate of 37Ar are given special emphasis

  11. DialBetics With a Multimedia Food Recording Tool, FoodLog: Smartphone-Based Self-Management for Type 2 Diabetes

    OpenAIRE

    Waki, Kayo; Aizawa, Kiyoharu; Kato, Shigeko; Fujita, Hideo; Lee, Hanae; Kobayashi, Haruka; Ogawa, Makoto; Mouri, Keisuke; Kadowaki, Takashi; Ohe, Kazuhiko

    2015-01-01

    Background: Diabetes self-management education is an essential element of diabetes care. Systems based on information and communication technology (ICT) for supporting lifestyle modification and self-management of diabetes are promising tools for helping patients better cope with diabetes. An earlier study had determined that diet improved and HbA1c declined for the patients who had used DialBetics during a 3-month randomized clinical trial. The objective of the current study was to test a mo...

  12. Chlorine as a geobarometer tool: Application to the explosive eruptions of the Volcanic Campanian District (Mount Somma-Vesuvius, Phlegrean Fields, Ischia)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Balcone-Boissard, Hélène; Boudon, Georges; Zdanowicz, Géraldine; Orsi, Giovanni; Civetta, Lucia; Webster, Jim D.; Cioni, Raffaello; D'Antonio, Massimo

    2016-04-01

    One of the current stakes in modern volcanology is the definition of magma storage conditions which has direct implications on the eruptive style and thus on the associated risks and the management of likely related crisis. In alkaline differentiated magmas, chlorine (Cl), contrary to H2O, occurs as a minor volatile species but may be used as a geobarometer. Numerous experimental studies on Cl solubility have highlighted its saturation conditions in silicate melts. The NaCl-H2O system is characterized by immiscibility under wide ranges of pressure, temperature and NaCl content (methodology to the explosive eruptions of the three threatening volcanoes of the Neapolitan area: Mount Somma-Vesuvius, Phlegrean Fields and Ischia. We have analysed the products of the representative explosive eruptions of each volcano, including Plinian, sub-Plinian and strombolian events. We have focussed our research on the earliest emitted, most evolved products of each eruption, likely representing the shallower, fluid-saturated portion of the reservoir. As the studied eruptions cover the entire eruptive history of each volcanic system, the results allow better constraining the evolution through time of the shallow plumbing system. We highlighted for Mount Somma - Vesuvius two magma ponding zones, at ~170-200 MPa and ~105-115 MPa, alternatively active in time. For Phlegrean Fields, we evidence a progressive deepening of the shallow reservoirs, from the Campanian Ignimbrite (30-50 MPa) to the Monte Nuovo eruption (115 MPa). Only one eruption was studied for Ischia, the Cretaio eruption, that shows a reservoir at 140 MPa. The results on pressure are in large agreement with literature. The Cl geobarometer may help scientists to define the reservoir dynamics through time and provide strong constraints on pre-eruptive conditions, of utmost importance for the interpretation of the monitoring data and the identification of precursory signals.

  13. Log-concave Observers

    OpenAIRE

    Henningsson, Toivo; Åström, Karl Johan

    2006-01-01

    The Kalman filter is the optimal state observer in the case of linear dynamics and Gaussian noise. In this paper, the observer problem is studied when process noise and measurements are generalized from Gaussian to log-concave. This generalization is of interest for example in the case where observations only give information that the signal is in a given range. It turns out that the optimal observer preserves log-concavity. The concept of strong log-concavity is ...

  14. Reaction products of chlorine dioxide.

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, A A

    1982-01-01

    Inspection of the available literature reveals that a detailed investigation of the aqueous organic chemistry of chlorine dioxide and systematic identification of products formed during water disinfection has not been considered. This must be done before an informed assessment can be made of the relative safety of using chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant alternative to chlorine. Although trihalomethanes are generally not formed by the action of chlorine dioxide, the products of chlorine dioxi...

  15. Zirconia concentrate chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorination experiments were conducted in order to study the kinetics of gasification of the zirconium oxide present in the zirconia concentrate. The variables studied are temperature (1173 to 1373 K), percentage of reducing agent (12 to 36%) and porosity (22 to 30%). The results indicated a greater influence of temperature and percentage of reducing agent as well as allowed the conclusion that a balance between the levels of these variables is an important factor in the appropriate chlorination conditions. (author)

  16. Log-inject-log sand consolidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention concerns a method of detecting an effective placement of a sand consolidating plastic in a producing formation penetrated by a well. Two logs sensitive to the presence of a tracer in the plastic are run, one before and the other after treating the formaton. Wherever a comparison of the logs shows a zone which was to be consolidated having an insufficient increase in neutron capture indicating insufficient plastic, remedial action such as isolating the zone having insufficient plastic and squeezing additional plastic is performed before resuming production, which avoids the well sanding up and results in great savings. Preferably the method uses lithium, boron, indium and/or cadmium tracers incorporated into the plastic, especially in the form of lithium chloride, boron oxide, or cadmium chloride. (author)

  17. Fracture diagnostics with tube wave reflection logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper reports on the Tube Wave Reflection Log (TWRL) which is acoustic logging method which provides information about the height, location and conductivity of hydraulically induced fractures behind perforated casing. The TWRL tool consists of a transmitter and closely spaced receiver. The transmitter is driven with a short, low frequency tone burst to generate long wavelength tube waves which are little attenuated in unperforated casing. They are partially reflected when they pass perforated intervals communicating with a hydraulically induced fracture. The tool listens for such reflections for 0.1 seconds following each excitation burst. As the tool is moved uphole at logging speed, the transmitter is excited at each foot of depth. VDL displays of the TWRL records provide reflection traces whose projections define the uppermost and lower-most perforations communicating with the fracture. The strength of the reflections depends on the ease of fluid flow into the fracture and thus, is an indicator of fracture conductivity

  18. Elephant logging and environment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The natural environment comprises non-biological elements such as air, water, light, heat and biological elements of animal and plant life; all interact with each other to create an ecosystem. Human activities like over-exploitation of forest results in deforestation and desertification. This consequently changes ecological balance. Topics on: (1) history of elephants utilization; (2) elephant logging; (3) classification of elephants; (4) dragging gear; (5) elephant power; (6) elephant logging and environment, are discussed

  19. Well logging for physical properties

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hearst, J.R.; Nelson, P.H.

    1985-01-01

    This book presents the fundamentals of well logging techniques for petroleum and natural gas deposits. Topics considered include the wellbore environment, logging practice; temperature, electrical and magnetic methods; nuclear radiation logging; acoustic logging; borehole gravimetry; ethology; porosity; saturation; permeability; fluid movement; fractures; elemental analysis; cement; directional surveying; dipmeter logging, and some other interesting applications.

  20. Well logging for physical properties

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This book presents the fundamentals of well logging techniques for petroleum and natural gas deposits. Topics considered include the wellbore environment, logging practice; temperature, electrical and magnetic methods; nuclear radiation logging; acoustic logging; borehole gravimetry; ethology; porosity; saturation; permeability; fluid movement; fractures; elemental analysis; cement; directional surveying; dipmeter logging, and some other interesting applications

  1. Log-inject-log in sand consolidation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for gathering information for the determination of the adequacy of placement of sand consolidating plastic for sand control in oil and gas wells. The method uses a high neutron cross-section tracer which becomes part of the plastic and uses pulsed neutron logging before and after injection of the plastic. Preferably, the method uses lithium, boron, indium, and/or cadmium tracers. Boron oxide is especially useful and can be dissolved in alcohol and mixed with the plastic ingredients

  2. Chlorine, Chloramine, Chlorine Dioxide, and Ozone Susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Robert H.; Joseph O. Falkinham; Norton, Cheryl D.; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental and patient isolates of Mycobacterium avium were resistant to chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone. For chlorine, the product of the disinfectant concentration (in parts per million) and the time (in minutes) to 99.9% inactivation for five M. avium strains ranged from 51 to 204. Chlorine susceptibility of cells was the same in washed cultures containing aggregates and in reduced aggregate fractions lacking aggregates. Cells of the more slowly growing strains wer...

  3. Experiences in the use of an electronic tool to measure pressure, temperature and spinner logs in the Mexican geothermal fields; Experiencias en el uso de sondas electronicas de presion, temperatura y flujo en campos geotermicos de Mexico

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flores Armenta, Magaly; Jaimes Maldonado, Guillermo [Gerencia de Proyectos Geotermoelectricos, Comision Federal de Electricidad, Morelia, Michoacan (Mexico)

    1999-08-01

    In this article are exposed the results of an electronic tool to measure pressure-temperature and spinner profiles in the geothermal wells of Mexico, utilized in order to identify unobservable phenomena with traditional Kuster type pressure and temperature logs. Some examples of the applications are the identifications of production zones, interaction from between two or more zones of contribution under several conditions of operation, casing damages and apparition of sink flow intervals into the formation in producer wells. It is also presented the quantitative method utilized to calculate the masic contribution of the intervals of interest. [Spanish] En este articulo se exponen los resultados obtenidos mediante el uso de una sonda electronica para la medicion de presion-temperatura y flujo en los pozos geotermicos de Mexico, utilizada para identificar fenomenos que no son observables con las mediciones tradicionales tipo Kuster de presion y temperatura. Se ejemplifican algunas de las aplicaciones hechas, tales como la identificacion de zonas de produccion, forma de interaccion entre dos o mas zonas de aporte bajo diferentes condiciones de operacion, roturas en tuberias y aparicion de zonas ladronas en pozos. Se presenta brevemente el metodo cuantitativo utilizado para calcular el aporte masico de las intervalos de interes.

  4. Log4J

    CERN Document Server

    Perry, Steven

    2009-01-01

    Log4j has been around for a while now, and it seems like so many applications use it. I've used it in my applications for years now, and I'll bet you have too. But every time I need to do something with log4j I've never done before I find myself searching for examples of how to do whatever that is, and I don't usually have much luck. I believe the reason for this is that there is a not a great deal of useful information about log4j, either in print or on the Internet. The information is too simple to be of real-world use, too complicated to be distilled quickly (which is what most developers

  5. Modes of Log Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Bergshoeff, Eric A; Rosseel, Jan; Townsend, Paul K

    2011-01-01

    The physical modes of a recently proposed D-dimensional "critical gravity", linearized about its anti-de Sitter vacuum, are investigated. All "log mode" solutions, which we categorize as `spin 2' or `Proca', arise as limits of the massive spin 2 modes of the non-critical theory. The linearized Einstein tensor of a spin 2 log mode is itself a 'non-gauge' solution of the linearized Einstein equations whereas the linearized Einstein tensor of a Proca mode takes the form of a linearized general coordinate transformation. Our results suggest the existence of a holographically dual logarithmic conformal field theory.

  6. Analysis of the sporicidal activity of chlorine dioxide disinfectant against Bacillus anthracis (Sterne strain)

    OpenAIRE

    Chatuev, B.A.; Peterson, J W

    2010-01-01

    Routine surface decontamination is an essential hospital and laboratory procedure, but the list of effective, noncorrosive disinfectants that kill spores is limited. We investigated the sporicidal potential of an aqueous chlorine dioxide solution and encountered some unanticipated problems. Quantitative bacteriological culture methods were used to determine the log10 reduction of Bacillus anthracis (Sterne strain) spores following 3 min exposure to various concentrations of aqueous chlorine d...

  7. Modes of log gravity

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bergshoeff, Eric A.; Hohm, Olaf; Rosseel, Jan; Townsend, Paul K.

    2011-01-01

    The physical modes of a recently proposed D-dimensional "critical gravity'', linearized about its anti-de Sitter vacuum, are investigated. All "log mode'' solutions, which we categorize as "spin-2'' or "Proca'', arise as limits of the massive spin-2 modes of the noncritical theory. The linearized Ei

  8. Recent developments in nuclear oil well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper reviews some of the significant developments in nuclear logging over the last seven years, a period which has seen the refinement of existing techniques, plus development of new logs. Density measurements, which make use of the photoelectric effect to distinguish between major rock types, are now common. Spectral gamma ray measurements of natural radioactivity and neutron induced radiation make possible elemental analysis from logging data. Familiar logs, such as compensated neutron and density, have undergone improvements in data analysis for thin bed identification. Nuclear measurements while drilling have greatly advanced in recent years with the introduction of neutron porosity and gamma ray density measurements, in addition to natural gamma ray counting. Multiple radioactive isotopes are now injected into formations and detected by their spectral gamma ray signatures. Computer simulations of logging tool responses have gained wide use in the modelling of these tools and in determining their environmental corrections. Monte Carlo codes now routinely run on small computers and parallel processors, whereas they once required large mainframe computers. (author). 86 refs

  9. Chlorination of zirconyte concentrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorination experiments with zirconyte concentrate were carried out in order to study the effects of temperature, percentage of reducing agent and porosity on the gasification of ZrO2 for 10 and 20 minutes of reaction. Factorial analysis was applied and the results indicated that temperature and percentage of reducing agent were the two only variables effecting the ZrO2 gasification. (author)

  10. VEPP-2000 logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electron-positron collider VEPP-2000 has been constructed in the Budker INP at the beginning of 2007 year. The first experiments on high-energy physics has been started at the end of 2009. The collider state is characterized by many parameters which have to be tracked. These parameters called channels could be divided into continuous (like beam current or beam energy) and pulsed. The main difference is that the first one related to the moment of time while the second one to the beam transport event. There are approximately 3000 continuous channels and about 500 pulsed channels at the VEPP-2000 facility. The Logging system consists of server layer and client layer. Server side are a specialized server with an intermediate embedded database aimed at saving data in case of external database fault. Client layer provide data access via API, CLI and WUI. The system has been deployed and is used as primary logging system on VEPP2000. (author)

  11. Reactions of aqueous chlorine and chlorine dioxide with model food compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    Fukayama, M Y; Tan, H; Wheeler, W B; Wei, C I

    1986-01-01

    Chlorine and chlorine dioxide (ClO2), common disinfecting and bleaching chemicals used in the food industry, are potent oxidizing and chlorinating agents. Unfortunately, little is known about the nature of the reactions of chlorine with organic food constituents. This presentation reviews published information concerning the reactions of chlorine gas (Cl2[g]), aqueous chlorine, and ClO2 with model food compounds, the fate of chlorine during the chlorination of specific food products, and the ...

  12. Ceramic vacuum tubes for geothermal well logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, R.D.

    1977-01-12

    The results of investigations carried out into the availability and suitability of ceramic vacuum tubes for the development of logging tools for geothermal wells are summarized. Design data acquired in the evaluation of ceramic vacuum tubes for the development of a 500/sup 0/C instrumentation amplifier are presented. The general requirements for ceramic vacuum tubes for application to the development of high temperature well logs are discussed. Commercially available tubes are described and future contract activities that specifically relate to ceramic vacuum tubes are detailed. Supplemental data is presented in the appendix. (MHR)

  13. Geophysical borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Most of the available literature on geophysical borehole logging refers to studies carried out in sedimentary rocks. It is only in recent years that any great interest has been shown in geophysical logging in boreholes in metamorphic and igneous rocks following the development of research programmes associated with geothermal energy and nuclear waste disposal. This report is concerned with the programme of geophysical logging carried out on the three deep boreholes at Altnabreac, Caithness, to examine the effectiveness of these methods in crystalline rock. Of particular importance is the assessment of the performance of the various geophysical sondes run in the boreholes in relation to the rock mass properties. The geophysical data can be used to provide additional in-situ information on the geological, hydrogeological and engineering properties of the rock mass. Fracturing and weathering in the rock mass have a considerable effect on both the design parameters for an engineering structure and the flow of water through the rock mass; hence, the relation between the geophysical properties and the degree of fracturing and weathering is examined in some detail. (author)

  14. The chlorination of cooling water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    After reviewing the means of fighting biological pollution of cooling water circuits in nuclear power stations, the authors describe the chlorination treatment methods used by EDF. This deals with the massive shock chlorination of the cooling towers and the continuous low-level chlorination of coastal nuclear power stations. In both areas, the Research and Development Board of EDF has carried out and encouraged research with the aim of improving circuit protection, while still protecting the aquatic eco-system against damage that might be caused by waste chlorinated water

  15. Fast computerized technology for optimizing logging spacing and devising metrological and interpretation means for nuclear logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Presented is a beta-version of computerized technology for interactive modeling ('mathematical workbench') of the following phases of designing the nuclear logging tools: 1. Optimization of spacings and measurement modes of nuclear logging systems; 2. Interpretation and theoretical-and-metrological support of existing and future logging systems; 3. Assessing the efficiency of different nuclear logging systems under new geological and technical conditions. The technology is presented as an integrated software package of applied programs DELTA which includes: (i) a graphical interface providing the problem statement, data input/output, and a control to solution of problems 1-3; (ii) a package of applied programs POLE which provides fast 3-D on-line numerical modeling of nuclear-geophysical fields and vectorization of solutions in a given range of geological and technical well logging conditions (intelligence core of the package with solvers of direct problems); (iii) a set of problem-oriented processing programs which allow one to calculate necessary functionals from modeled radiation fields - response of logging tools, partial and complete errors of a sought formation parameter and target functions, solve problems 1-3 and output the results. The present version of package DELTA covers all the methods and modifications of nuclear logging: thermal NNL, epithermal NNL, multispaced NNL, NGL, PNNL-M, and C/O log in vertical, inclined, and horizontal wells. DELTA offers the following functional capabilities in making the optimization of a nuclear log: (i) selection of an arbitrary set of sought characteristics of spacing: number and length of spacing, type and sensitive zone of detectors, spectrum and yield of a source, material of a screen, position and width of recording channels, etc.; (ii) solution of optimization problems for arbitrary geological and technical conditions, including horizontal wells, with due regard of invasion zone, casing, etc.; (iii) high efficient

  16. A carbon nanotube based resettable sensor for measuring free chlorine in drinking water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Free chlorine from dissolved chlorine gas is widely used as a disinfectant for drinking water. The residual chlorine concentration has to be continuously monitored and accurately controlled in a certain range around 0.5–2 mg/l to ensure drinking water safety and quality. However, simple, reliable, and reagent free monitoring devices are currently not available. Here, we present a free chlorine sensor that uses oxidation of a phenyl-capped aniline tetramer (PCAT) to dope single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and to change their resistance. The oxidation of PCAT by chlorine switches the PCAT-SWCNT system into a low resistance (p-doped) state which can be detected by probing it with a small voltage. The change in resistance is found to be proportional to the log-scale concentration of the free chlorine in the sample. The p-doping of the PCAT-SWCNT film then can be electrochemically reversed by polarizing it cathodically. This sensor not only shows good sensing response in the whole concentration range of free chlorine in drinking water but is also able to be electrochemically reset back many times without the use of any reagents. This simple sensor is ideally suited for measuring free chlorine in drinking water continuously

  17. A carbon nanotube based resettable sensor for measuring free chlorine in drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsu, Leo H. H. [School of Biomedical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton L8S 4L8 (Canada); Hoque, Enamul; Kruse, Peter [Department of Chemistry and Chemical Biology, McMaster University, Hamilton L8S 4L8 (Canada); Ravi Selvaganapathy, P. [School of Biomedical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton L8S 4L8 (Canada); Department of Mechanical Engineering, McMaster University, Hamilton L8S 4L7 (Canada)

    2015-02-09

    Free chlorine from dissolved chlorine gas is widely used as a disinfectant for drinking water. The residual chlorine concentration has to be continuously monitored and accurately controlled in a certain range around 0.5–2 mg/l to ensure drinking water safety and quality. However, simple, reliable, and reagent free monitoring devices are currently not available. Here, we present a free chlorine sensor that uses oxidation of a phenyl-capped aniline tetramer (PCAT) to dope single wall carbon nanotubes (SWCNTs) and to change their resistance. The oxidation of PCAT by chlorine switches the PCAT-SWCNT system into a low resistance (p-doped) state which can be detected by probing it with a small voltage. The change in resistance is found to be proportional to the log-scale concentration of the free chlorine in the sample. The p-doping of the PCAT-SWCNT film then can be electrochemically reversed by polarizing it cathodically. This sensor not only shows good sensing response in the whole concentration range of free chlorine in drinking water but is also able to be electrochemically reset back many times without the use of any reagents. This simple sensor is ideally suited for measuring free chlorine in drinking water continuously.

  18. Allied health applications of a computerized clinical log database system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boyce, K E; Winn, J S; Anderson, S L; Bryant, B G

    1999-01-01

    Preliminary research in the development and use of computerized clinical log records began in 1987 in an allied health college at a midwestern academic health center. This article reviews development and implementation of a computerized system for managing clinical log records to improve and enhance allied health educational programs in the radiation sciences. These clinical log databases are used for quantitative and qualitative analyses of student participation in clinical procedures, and educational planning for each student. Collecting and recording data from clinical log records serves as a valuable instructional tool for students, with both clinical and didactic applications. PMID:10389054

  19. China Offshore Oil Logging Technology

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Duan Kang

    1996-01-01

    @@ China offshore oil logging business entered a faster developing stage sin-ce 1982 with the beginning of international cooperation in its offshore oil exploration. Nearly 90% of the logging expertises of China National Offshore Oil Corporation (CNOOC)are in China Offshore Oil Logging Company (COOLC), headquartered in Yanjiao, Hebei Province.

  20. First Derivative UV Spectra of Surface Water as a Monitor of Chlorination in Drinking Water Treatment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    V. Zitko

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available Many countries require the presence of free chlorine at about 0.1 mg/l in their drinking water supplies. For various reasons, such as cast-iron pipes or long residence times in the distribution system, free chlorine may decrease below detection limits. In such cases it is important to know whether or not the water was chlorinated or if nonchlorinated water entered the system by accident. Changes in UV spectra of natural organic matter in lakewater were used to assess qualitatively the degree of chlorination in the treatment to produce drinking water. The changes were more obvious in the first derivative spectra. In lakewater, the derivative spectra have a maximum at about 280 nm. This maximum shifts to longer wavelengths by up to 10 nm, decreases, and eventually disappears with an increasing dose of chlorine. The water treatment system was monitored by this technique for over 1 year and changes in the UV spectra of water samples were compared with experimental samples treated with known amounts of chlorine. The changes of the UV spectra with the concentration of added chlorine are presented. On several occasions, water, which received very little or no chlorination, may have entered the drinking water system. The results show that first derivative spectra are potentially a tool to determine, in the absence of residual chlorine, whether or not surface water was chlorinated during the treatment to produce potable water.

  1. Advances in nuclear oil well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review is given of some of the significant developments in nuclear logging over the last several years based on publications in scientific journals in the United States and in Europe. Density measurements which make use of the photoelectric effect to distinguish major rock types are now common. Spectral γ-ray measurements of natural radioactivity and neutron-induced radiations make possible elemental analysis from logging data. Familiar logs such as the compensated neutron and density have undergone improvements in data analysis for thin bed identification. Nuclear measurements while drilling have greatly advanced in recent years with the introduction of neutron porosity and γ-ray density measurements in addition to natural γ-ray counting. Multiple radioactive isotopes are now injected into formations and detected by their spectral γ-ray signatures. Computer simulations of logging tool responses have gained wide use in modeling tools and determining their environmental corrections. Monte Carlo codes now routinely run on small computers and parallel processors, whereas they once required large mainframe computers. (Author)

  2. Selective Natural Gamma Logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural gamma logging can be used for determining the bismuth-214 (or RaC) content of uranium-bearing rocks. As the equilibrium coefficient of ores cannot be satisfactorily measured in situ, the log obtained can not be used to determine uranium content directly. The principle of the new technique of selective natural gamma logging is the use of the photoelectric effect due to the presence of uranium in rock. Natural gamma radiations are emitted but then scattered by the ore. The presence of uranium causes a change in the shape of the scattered gamma spectrum and this change can be related to the uranium content. The authors show that, if one applies the similitude principle to the transport equation for gamma radiation, the numerical value of a certain parameter P, representing the ratio of the number of counts obtained in two bands I1 and I2 of the scattered gamma spectrum, depends on the value of the equivalent atomic number of the rock (Zeq). For any given deposit the value of the parameter varies mainly with the uranium content qu and very little with the chemical composition of the matrix. The first laboratory tests were carried out on concrete models of uranium ore. Examination of spectra obtained (using a 400-channel selector) showed that the two boundaries I1 and I2 should range between 100 and 150 keV and 300 and 700 keV respectively. Each value of the parameter P obtained in this manner is divided by the value Ps obtained from one of the models used as a reference. The experiment showed that the normalized parameter, i. e., Px =P/PS, was a function of the content, having the shape log Px = A + Bqu. The coefficients A and B are calibration standards whose precise determination requires measurements taken in as large a number as possible of models with known uranium content. In laboratory conditions the degree of error is between 10 and 20% for contents of about 0.5% A field survey rig mounted on a lorry has been developed. It comprises a Nal

  3. Traitement des diagraphies acoustiques. Troisième partie : caractérisation d'un réservoir par diagraphies acoustiques obtenues avec un outil dipolaire Full-Waveform Acoustic Data Processing. Part Three: Reservoir Characterisation Using Acoustic Logs Obtained with the Dipole Sonic Imaging Tool

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wicquart E.

    2006-11-01

    Full Text Available En formation lente, l'utilisation d'un outil acoustique équipé d'émetteurs et de récepteurs dipolaires permet d'accéder à la lenteur S de la formation. Nous montrons comment un tel outil peut être utilisé pour caractériser un réservoir en formation lente. Le pointé des premières arrivées des différentes ondes composant un enregistrement acoustique en champ total permet d'accéder aux logs acoustiques classiques (lenteur, fréquence, atténuation ainsi qu'aux logs de dispersion de mesure qui leur sont associés. Ces logs conduisent à des logs de paramètres mécaniques notamment au coefficient de Poisson. Dans le cas du puits étudié traversant une formation argilo-gréseuse, le log du coefficient de Poisson et le log de fréquence des ondes de Stoneley sont utilisés comme indicateur lithologique d'argilosité et de présence d'hydrocarbures (gaz. Après correction d'argilosité, les logs de lenteur en onde compression et de cisaillement sont utilisés en combinaison avec un log densité de type Gardner pour estimer les paramètres pétrophysiques de la formation (indices de porosité et de saturation en gaz. Les résultats obtenus sont comparés à ceux fournis par l'analyse de logs classiques (neutron, densité. In slow formations, in which the velocity of the compression wave in mud is greater than the velocity of the shear wave in the formation, the slowness S of the formation can be determined only very indirectly (using Stoneley waves with a conventional monopole tool. For such formations, the use of a dipole tool makes it easier to gain access to this measurement and to obtain more complete information about the formation. This article shows how such a tool can be used for characterizing a slow-formation reservoir. The tool has a monopole transmitter capable of emitting low frequencies so as to favor interface modes and, at high frequencies, head waves (P refraction in the formation. The tool has two dipole transmitters

  4. Cased-hole log analysis and reservoir performance monitoring

    CERN Document Server

    Bateman, Richard M

    2015-01-01

    This book addresses vital issues, such as the evaluation of shale gas reservoirs and their production. Topics include the cased-hole logging environment, reservoir fluid properties; flow regimes; temperature, noise, cement bond, and pulsed neutron logging; and casing inspection. Production logging charts and tables are included in the appendices. The work serves as a comprehensive reference for production engineers with upstream E&P companies, well logging service company employees, university students, and petroleum industry training professionals. This book also: ·       Provides methods of conveying production logging tools along horizontal well segments as well as measurements of formation electrical resistivity through casing ·       Covers new information on fluid flow characteristics in inclined pipe and provides new and improved nuclear tool measurements in cased wells ·       Includes updates on cased-hole wireline formation testing  

  5. Intelligent approaches for the synthesis of petrophysical logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaee, M. Reza; Kadkhodaie-Ilkhchi, Ali; Alizadeh, Pooya Mohammad

    2008-03-01

    Log data are of prime importance in acquiring petrophysical data from hydrocarbon reservoirs. Reliable log analysis in a hydrocarbon reservoir requires a complete set of logs. For many reasons, such as incomplete logging in old wells, destruction of logs due to inappropriate data storage and measurement errors due to problems with logging apparatus or hole conditions, log suites are either incomplete or unreliable. In this study, fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks were used as intelligent tools to synthesize petrophysical logs including neutron, density, sonic and deep resistivity. The petrophysical data from two wells were used for constructing intelligent models in the Fahlian limestone reservoir, Southern Iran. A third well from the field was used to evaluate the reliability of the models. The results showed that fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks were successful in synthesizing wireline logs. The combination of the results obtained from fuzzy logic and neural networks in a simple averaging committee machine (CM) showed a significant improvement in the accuracy of the estimations. This committee machine performed better than fuzzy logic or the neural network model in the problem of estimating petrophysical properties from well logs.

  6. Intelligent approaches for the synthesis of petrophysical logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Log data are of prime importance in acquiring petrophysical data from hydrocarbon reservoirs. Reliable log analysis in a hydrocarbon reservoir requires a complete set of logs. For many reasons, such as incomplete logging in old wells, destruction of logs due to inappropriate data storage and measurement errors due to problems with logging apparatus or hole conditions, log suites are either incomplete or unreliable. In this study, fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks were used as intelligent tools to synthesize petrophysical logs including neutron, density, sonic and deep resistivity. The petrophysical data from two wells were used for constructing intelligent models in the Fahlian limestone reservoir, Southern Iran. A third well from the field was used to evaluate the reliability of the models. The results showed that fuzzy logic and artificial neural networks were successful in synthesizing wireline logs. The combination of the results obtained from fuzzy logic and neural networks in a simple averaging committee machine (CM) showed a significant improvement in the accuracy of the estimations. This committee machine performed better than fuzzy logic or the neural network model in the problem of estimating petrophysical properties from well logs

  7. Using Web Logs in the Science Classroom

    Science.gov (United States)

    Duplichan, Staycle C.

    2009-01-01

    As educators we must ask ourselves if we are meeting the needs of today's students. The science world is adapting to our ever-changing society; are the methodology and philosophy of our educational system keeping up? In this article, you'll learn why web logs (also called blogs) are an important Web 2.0 tool in your science classroom and how they…

  8. Cleaning effectiveness of chlorine-free detergents for use on dairy farms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sundberg, Martin; Christiansson, Anders; Lindahl, Cecilia; Wahlund, Lotten; Birgersson, Carol

    2011-02-01

    A method for evaluating cleaning effect based on Bacillus cereus spores was developed and tested in a model system designed to resemble actual farm conditions. A test rig with four removable sampling plates was mounted in a milk line. The plates were attached at the end of T-junctions protruding either 1·5 or 3-times the milk pipe diameter from the main loop to reflect different levels of cleaning difficulty. In each cleaning test, B. cereus spores were applied to the four sampling plates to simulate soil. A series of cleaning tests was conducted at 35, 45, 55 and 65°C with six commercial chlorine-free, alkaline detergents; three liquid and three powder-based products. A commercial alkaline detergent with chlorine, a sodium hydroxide solution, a sodium hydroxider/hypochlorite solution and pure water were also tested. Triplicate tests were performed with each cleaning solution, giving a total of 120 cleaning tests. The cleaning effect was evaluated by comparing the number of spores before and after cleaning. At all temperatures, the two chlorine-based cleaning solutions gave significantly greater reductions in B. cereus spores than the chlorine-free products. All six commercial chlorine-free, alkaline detergents generally gave similar cleaning effects, with no differences in the performance of powder-based and liquid forms. The mechanical spore reduction effect with water alone was greater (1·5-1·8 log-units) than the additional chemical effect of sodium hydroxide or chlorine-free detergents (0·5-1·2 log-units). The chlorine-based solutions had a considerably more powerful chemical effect (2-4 log-units depending on temperature). In general, an increase in cleaning solution temperature up to 55°C gave a greater reduction in spores. A further increase to 65°C did not improve cleaning effectiveness. PMID:21134310

  9. Studies with solid chlorine chemical for chlorination of sea water systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorination is one of the conventional methods to control biofouling of condenser cooling water systems using either river water, reservoir water or sea water. However, there are many safety concerns associated with handling, storage and application of gaseous chlorine. Studies were carried out with suitable alternative chlorine chemical compounds which do not involve majority of these concerns but meet the functional requirement of gas chlorine. Trichloroisocyanuric Acid (TCCA) is one of the suitable alternatives to Gas chlorine. TCCA is a chlorine stabilized compound, stabilized with Cyanuric acid, thus similar to Gas Chlorine in its functions except that it is available in solid form. Release of chlorine is a gradual process in TCCA unlike Gaseous chlorine. Field studies with TCCA indicated gradual and near uniform release rate of chlorine, for longer duration with the requisite free residual chlorine levels (FRC). Thus, use of TCCA could be considered as a suitable alternative for gas chlorine for regular chlorination requirements. (author)

  10. Radiochemical analysis of chlorine-36

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this paper is to propose a radiochemical separation method of chlorine-36 from other beta-gamma emitters based on an oxidation technique where chlorine is trapped by NaOH. Chlorine-36 beta emissions are measured by liquid scintillation counting by the dual label technique in order to avoid the contamination produced by carbon-14 which is also trapped by NaOH and it is the main contaminant present in graphite samples. The sensitivity of this radiochemical method is high enough to achieve the needed thresholds for the radiological characterization of the radioactive materials in which this method can be applied

  11. Radiation incident in oil well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On June 4th 1997 equipment failure and violation of approved procedures by a crew of workers initiated a series of events that resulted in the unnecessary exposure to neutron and gamma radiation, from a 666 GBq Am241Be source, of forty two workers from a well logging company in Venezuela. Due to the presence of dry mud or drilling fluids inside the logging tool, the nosepiece was screwed off the rest of the source holder; this piece was mistaken for the entire source holder thus leaving the source inside the tool. The tool was labelled for maintenance and electronic laboratory personal worked near the source for seven hours before they identify its presence. As soon as the incident was detected a contingency plan was implemented and the source could be retrieved from the tool and placed in its shipping container. The TLD badges indicate doses well below the annual limit of 20 mSv, and none of the workers involved in the incident seem to show serious health consequences from it. After the incident, in order to avoid the occurrence of similar situations, a better source and tool maintenance program was implemented, all the workers were re-trained, and area monitors were installed in all operations bases. (author)

  12. Enhancing the efficacy of electrolytic chlorination for ballast water treatment by adding carbon dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cha, Hyung-Gon; Seo, Min-Ho; Lee, Heon-Young; Lee, Ji-Hyun; Lee, Dong-Sup; Shin, Kyoungsoon; Choi, Keun-Hyung

    2015-06-15

    We examined the synergistic effects of CO2 injection on electro-chlorination in disinfection of plankton and bacteria in simulated ballast water. Chlorination was performed at dosages of 4 and 6ppm with and without CO2 injection on electro-chlorination. Testing was performed in both seawater and brackish water quality as defined by IMO G8 guidelines. CO2 injection notably decreased from the control the number of Artemia franciscana, a brine shrimp, surviving during a 5-day post-treatment incubation (1.8 and 2.3 log10 reduction in seawater and brackish water, respectively at 6ppm TRO+CO2) compared with water electro-chlorinated only (1.2 and 1.3 log10 reduction in seawater and brackish water, respectively at 6ppm TRO). The phytoplankton Tetraselmis suecica, was completely disinfected with no live cell found at >4ppm TRO with and without CO2 addition. The effects of CO2 addition on heterotrophic bacterial growth was not different from electro-chlorination only. Total residual oxidant concentration (TRO) more rapidly declined in electro-chlorination of both marine and brackish waters compared to chlorine+CO2 treated waters, with significantly higher amount of TRO being left in waters treated with the CO2 addition. Total concentration of trihalomethanes (THMs) and haloacetic acids (HAAs) measured at day 0 in brackish water test were found to be 2- to 3-fold higher in 6ppm TRO+CO2-treated water than in 6ppm TRO treated water. The addition of CO2 to electro-chlorination may improve the efficiency of this sterilizing treatment of ballast water, yet the increased production of some disinfection byproducts needs further study. PMID:25841887

  13. Minimal Log Gravity

    CERN Document Server

    Giribet, Gaston

    2014-01-01

    Minimal Massive Gravity (MMG) is an extension of three-dimensional Topologically Massive Gravity that, when formulated about Anti-de Sitter space, accomplishes to solve the tension between bulk and boundary unitarity that other models in three dimensions suffer from. We study this theory at the chiral point, i.e. at the point of the parameter space where one of the central charges of the dual conformal field theory vanishes. We investigate the non-linear regime of the theory, meaning that we study exact solutions to the MMG field equations that are not Einstein manifolds. We exhibit a large class of solutions of this type, which behave asymptotically in different manners. In particular, we find analytic solutions that represent two-parameter deformations of extremal Banados-Teitelboim-Zanelli (BTZ) black holes. These geometries behave asymptotically as solutions of the so-called Log Gravity, and, despite the weakened falling-off close to the boundary, they have finite mass and finite angular momentum, which w...

  14. ADN* Density log estimation Using Rockcell*

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work is intended to inform on the possibilities of estimating good density data in zones associated with sliding in a reservoir with ADN* tool with or without ADOS in string in cases where repeat sections were not done, possibly due to hole stability or directional concerns. This procedure has been equally used to obtain a better density data in corkscrew holes. Density data (ROBB) was recomputed using neural network in RockCell* to estimate the density over zones of interest. RockCell* is a Schlumberger software that has neural network functionally which can be used to estimate missing logs using the combination of the responses of other log curves and intervals that are not affected by sliding. In this work, an interval was selected and within this interval twelve litho zones were defined using the unsupervised neural network. From this a training set was selected based on intervals of very good log responses outside the sliding zones. This training set was used to train and run the neural network for a specific lithostratigraphic interval. The results matched the known good density curve. Then after this, an estimation of the density curve was done using the supervised neural network. The output from this estimation matched very closely in the good portions of the log, thus providing some density measurements in the sliding zone. This methodology provides a scientific solution to missing data during the process of Formation evaluation

  15. Predicting reservoir wettability via well logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feng, Cheng; Fu, Jinhua; Shi, Yujiang; Li, Gaoren; Mao, Zhiqiang

    2016-06-01

    Wettability is an important factor in controlling the distribution of oil and water. However, its evaluation has so far been a difficult problem because no log data can directly indicate it. In this paper, a new method is proposed for quantitatively predicting reservoir wettability via well log analysis. Specifically, based on the J function, diagenetic facies classification and the piecewise power functions, capillary pressure curves are constructed from conventional logs and a nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) log respectively. Under the influence of wettability, the latter is distorted while the former remains unaffected. Therefore, the ratio of the median radius obtained from the two kinds of capillary pressure curve is calculated to reflect wettability, a quantitative relationship between the ratio and reservoir wettability is then established. According to the low-permeability core sample capillary pressure curve, NMR {{T}2} spectrum and contact angle experimental data from the bottom of the Upper Triassic reservoirs in western Ordos Basin, China, two kinds of constructing capillary pressure curve models and a predictive wettability model are calibrated. The wettability model is verified through the Amott wettability index and saturation exponent from resistivity measurement and their determined wettability levels are comparable, indicating that the proposed model is quite reliable. In addition, the model’s good application effect is exhibited in the field study. Thus, the quantitatively predicting reservoir wettability model proposed in this paper provides an effective tool for formation evaluation, field development and the improvement of oil recovery.

  16. Monte Carlo Numerical Models for Nuclear Logging Applications

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fusheng Li

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available Nuclear logging is one of most important logging services provided by many oil service companies. The main parameters of interest are formation porosity, bulk density, and natural radiation. Other services are also provided from using complex nuclear logging tools, such as formation lithology/mineralogy, etc. Some parameters can be measured by using neutron logging tools and some can only be measured by using a gamma ray tool. To understand the response of nuclear logging tools, the neutron transport/diffusion theory and photon diffusion theory are needed. Unfortunately, for most cases there are no analytical answers if complex tool geometry is involved. For many years, Monte Carlo numerical models have been used by nuclear scientists in the well logging industry to address these challenges. The models have been widely employed in the optimization of nuclear logging tool design, and the development of interpretation methods for nuclear logs. They have also been used to predict the response of nuclear logging systems for forward simulation problems. In this case, the system parameters including geometry, materials and nuclear sources, etc., are pre-defined and the transportation and interactions of nuclear particles (such as neutrons, photons and/or electrons in the regions of interest are simulated according to detailed nuclear physics theory and their nuclear cross-section data (probability of interacting. Then the deposited energies of particles entering the detectors are recorded and tallied and the tool responses to such a scenario are generated. A general-purpose code named Monte Carlo N– Particle (MCNP has been the industry-standard for some time. In this paper, we briefly introduce the fundamental principles of Monte Carlo numerical modeling and review the physics of MCNP. Some of the latest developments of Monte Carlo Models are also reviewed. A variety of examples are presented to illustrate the uses of Monte Carlo numerical models

  17. Logging Concessions Enable Illegal Logging Crisis in the Peruvian Amazon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Finer, Matt; Jenkins, Clinton N.; Sky, Melissa A. Blue; Pine, Justin

    2014-04-01

    The Peruvian Amazon is an important arena in global efforts to promote sustainable logging in the tropics. Despite recent efforts to achieve sustainability, such as provisions in the US-Peru Trade Promotion Agreement, illegal logging continues to plague the region. We present evidence that Peru's legal logging concession system is enabling the widespread illegal logging via the regulatory documents designed to ensure sustainable logging. Analyzing official government data, we found that 68.3% of all concessions supervised by authorities were suspected of major violations. Of the 609 total concessions, nearly 30% have been cancelled for violations and we expect this percentage to increase as investigations continue. Moreover, the nature of the violations indicate that the permits associated with legal concessions are used to harvest trees in unauthorized areas, thus threatening all forested areas. Many of the violations pertain to the illegal extraction of CITES-listed timber species outside authorized areas. These findings highlight the need for additional reforms.

  18. Grundfoss: Chlorination of Swimming Pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Hogan, John; Andreassen, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools.......Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools....

  19. Nuclear Well Log Properties of Natural Gas Hydrate Reservoirs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burchwell, A.; Cook, A.

    2015-12-01

    Characterizing gas hydrate in a reservoir typically involves a full suite of geophysical well logs. The most common method involves using resistivity measurements to quantify the decrease in electrically conductive water when replaced with gas hydrate. Compressional velocity measurements are also used because the gas hydrate significantly strengthens the moduli of the sediment. At many gas hydrate sites, nuclear well logs, which include the photoelectric effect, formation sigma, carbon/oxygen ratio and neutron porosity, are also collected but often not used. In fact, the nuclear response of a gas hydrate reservoir is not known. In this research we will focus on the nuclear log response in gas hydrate reservoirs at the Mallik Field at the Mackenzie Delta, Northwest Territories, Canada, and the Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg 2 sites in the northern Gulf of Mexico. Nuclear logs may add increased robustness to the investigation into the properties of gas hydrates and some types of logs may offer an opportunity to distinguish between gas hydrate and permafrost. For example, a true formation sigma log measures the thermal neutron capture cross section of a formation and pore constituents; it is especially sensitive to hydrogen and chlorine in the pore space. Chlorine has a high absorption potential, and is used to determine the amount of saline water within pore spaces. Gas hydrate offers a difference in elemental composition compared to water-saturated intervals. Thus, in permafrost areas, the carbon/oxygen ratio may vary between gas hydrate and permafrost, due to the increase of carbon in gas hydrate accumulations. At the Mallik site, we observe a hydrate-bearing sand (1085-1107 m) above a water-bearing sand (1107-1140 m), which was confirmed through core samples and mud gas analysis. We observe a decrease in the photoelectric absorption of ~0.5 barnes/e-, as well as an increase in the formation sigma readings of ~5 capture units in the water-bearing sand as

  20. Kinetic study of neodymium oxide chlorination with gaseous chlorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bosco, Marta V., E-mail: marta.bosco@cab.cnea.gov.ar [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Fouga, Gaston G. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Complejo Tecnologico Pilcaniyeu, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida Bustillo 9500, CP 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Bohe, Ana E. [Consejo Nacional de Investigaciones Cientificas y Tecnicas (CONICET) (Argentina); Complejo Tecnologico Pilcaniyeu, Comision Nacional de Energia Atomica, Avenida Bustillo 9500, CP 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina); Centro Regional Universitario Bariloche, Universidad Nacional del Comahue, CP 8400 San Carlos de Bariloche (Argentina)

    2012-07-20

    Highlights: Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer We analyze the kinetics of the neodymium oxide chlorination reactions. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer For temperatures below 425 Degree-Sign C the system is under chemical control. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer The formation of oxychloride progresses through a nucleation and growth mechanism. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer A reaction order of 0.40 with respect to chlorine partial pressure was determined. Black-Right-Pointing-Pointer An activation energy of 161 {+-} 4 kJ mol{sup -1} was determined. - Abstract: The kinetics of the chlorination of neodymium oxide has been investigated by thermogravimetry between 312 Degree-Sign C and 475 Degree-Sign C, and for partial pressures of chlorine ranging from 10 kPa to 50 kPa. The starting temperature for the reaction of neodymium oxide with chlorine was determined to be about 250 Degree-Sign C, leading to neodymium oxychloride as product. The results showed that, for temperatures below 425 Degree-Sign C, the system is under chemical control and the formation of the oxychloride progresses through a nucleation and growth mechanism. The influence of chlorine mass transport through the bulk gas phase and through the boundary layer on the overall reaction rate was analyzed. In the absence of these two mass-transfer steps, a reaction order of 0.39 with respect to chlorine partial pressure, and an activation energy of 161 {+-} 4 kJ mol{sup -1} were determined. A complete rate equation has been successfully developed.

  1. Nuclear Magnetic Resonance Logging While Drilling (NMR-LWD)

    OpenAIRE

    Blanz, Martin; Kruspe, Thomas; Thern, Holger Frank; Kurz, Gerhard Alfons

    2015-01-01

    NMR T2 distribution measurement is our chosen everyday method for NMR logging while drilling oil and gas wells. This method yields straightforward preparation and execution of the job as well as a normally easy interpretation of the measured data. For instance, gas and light oil discrimination against water is feasible by direct observation of the T2 distribution. A condition for this measurement method is a NMR logging tool that hardly moves while drilling and in addition uses a small static...

  2. Nuclear cross section library for oil well logging analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    As part of the IRTMBA (Improved Radiation Transport Modelling for Borehole Applications) Project of the EU Community's 5th Programme a special purpose multigroup cross section library to be used in the deterministic (as well as Monte Carlo) oil well logging particle transport calculations was prepared. This library is expected to improve the prediction of the neutron and gamma spectra at the detector positions of the logging tool, and their use for the interpretation of the neutron logging measurements was studied. Preparation and testing of this library is described. (author)

  3. Appraisal of chlorine contact tank modelling practices.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rauen, William B; Angeloudis, Athanasios; Falconer, Roger A

    2012-11-15

    With new water directives imposing strict regulations to reduce the footprint of treatment operations and contaminant levels, a performance review of water treatment facilities, including Chlorine Contact Tanks (CCTs) is required. This paper includes a critical appraisal of the international literature on CCT modelling practices to date, aiming to assist the identification of areas requiring further development, in particular, relating to the computational modelling capability and availability of tools to assist hydraulic design and optimisation studies of CCTs. It notes that the hydraulic optimisation practice of poorly designed tanks commenced with experimental studies undertaken in the 1960s and 1970s, which involved mainly two types of studies, namely in situ tracer tests and laboratory physical modelling. The former has traditionally been conducted to diagnose the hydraulic performance of existing CCTs, typically based on results such as Residence Time Distribution (RTD) curves and values of the Hydraulic Efficiency Indicators (HEIs). The latter has been useful in trial and error testing of the impact of certain design modifications on those results, with suggestions for later improvements of the field scale unit. In the 1980s mathematical and numerical modelling studies started to be used to assist CCT investigations, offering a greater level of detail in a more cost-effective manner than equivalent experimentally based investigations. With the growth of computing power and the popularisation of computational models, the 1990s saw the development and application of Computational Fluid Dynamics (CFD) tools to simulate the hydraulic performance of CCTs, sometimes independently of experimentation, other than by using available data to calibrate and validate modelling predictions. This has led to the current scenario of CFD models being invaluable assistive tools in optimisation studies of CCTs, with the experimentation practice continuing to allow for specific

  4. Combined logging/penetration methods

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described for studying important soil and rock properties by simultaneous penetration and logging measurements. In penetration measurements, a BORROS Co. probe with a coned tip, 35.6 mm in diameter, a point angle of 60 deg, and with a friction roller 150 cm2 in area was dipped in the soil at a constant speed. Tip resistance and skin friction were measured. At the same time, gamma logging was carried out to determine natural radioactivity, gamma-gamma logging to determine bulk density, neutron-neutron logging to determine bulk density and porosity, and inclinometry. An original probe fitted with a NaI(Tl) scintillation detector with a crystal 25 mm in diameter and 100 mm in length was developed for gamma logging. For gamma-gamma logging, a 137Cs emitter probe was used with the emitter/detector distance of 45 cm. A NaI(Tl) crystal 18 mm in diameter and 50 mm in length was used for radiation detection. For neutron-neutron logging, a NIV 2 probe was purchased in the USSR and modified for simultaneous penetration measurements. A Soviet-made UMI 30 inclinometer with a modified case was used for inclinometry. (Ha)

  5. Chinese Continental Scientific Drilling Logging Database System

    OpenAIRE

    Sinan Fang; Heping Pan

    2013-01-01

    A lot of logging information (logging and logging interpretation results) have been acquired in borehole of Chinese Continent Scientific Drilling (CCSD). The general management method about these logging information are not satisfied with the need of CCSD logging engineering. In order to manage efficiently, insert and inquiry rapidly, and use efficiently logging information, logging database of CCSD will need be specially established and it’s management software system will need be made. We i...

  6. Formation factor determinations by in-situ resistivity logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Matrix diffusion in bedrock is traditionally studied by laboratory liquid diffusion experiments, which are time consuming and expensive. A new way of studying matrix diffusion is to measure the electrical resistivity of the rock. This could be done either in laboratories or in-situ. A fast method of obtaining a formation factor log, later used in matrix diffusion calculations, for an entire borehole is proposed. It is a standard procedure in geophysical well logging to measure rock resistivity and there are well-developed tools for this in the oil industry. The SKB, Sweden, uses boreholes with a small diameter (56 mm) and this reduces the options in choosing resistivity tools. Therefore they have so far relied on the Normal log that only gives quantitative measurements in special cases, after corrections are made. Modern tools, such as the slimhole Dual-Laterolog, are accurate with a high vertical resolution. The pore fluid resistivity is required when obtaining a formation factor log. In previous work the borehole fluid resistivity has been used. A new method measures the resistivity in groundwater from local fractures. These values seem more appropriate to use as new in-situ measurements show that there may be local groundwater resistivity differences. A preliminary study shows that the conductivity could be obtained in saline Swedish groundwater by measuring the chloride concentration only. Anomalies in the formation factor log have to be sorted out by using supporting core logging and non-electrical in-situ methods. Copyright (2001) Material Research Society

  7. Events Classification in Log Audit

    OpenAIRE

    Sabah Al-Fedaghi; Fahad Mahdi

    2010-01-01

    Information security audit is a monitoring/logging mechanism to ensure compliance with regulations and to detect abnormalities, security breaches, and privacy violations; however, auditing too many events causes overwhelming use of system resources and impacts performance. Consequently, a classification of events is used to prioritize events and configure the log system. Rules can be applied according to this classification to make decisions about events to be archived and types of actions in...

  8. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    OpenAIRE

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    2015-01-01

    This paper establishes a remarkable result regarding Palmdistributions for a log Gaussian Cox process: the reduced Palmdistribution for a log Gaussian Cox process is itself a log Gaussian Coxprocess which only differs from the original log Gaussian Cox processin the intensity function. This new result is used to study functionalsummaries for log Gaussian Cox processes.

  9. Influence of Extracellular Cellulose and Colanic Acid Production on the Survival of Shiga Toxin-Producing Escherichia coli on Spinach and Lettuce after Chlorine Treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Chi-Ching; Chen, Jinru; Frank, Joseph F

    2016-04-01

    Shiga toxin-producing Escherichia coli (STEC) strains produce extracellular cellulose and colanic acid, which may influence stress tolerance. This study investigates the role of these extracellular polymers on the tolerance of STEC to chlorine treatment after attachment to lettuce and spinach. Four STEC strains, two wild-type cellulose-producing and their cellulosedeficient derivatives, were used. One strain pair produced colanic acid in addition to cellulose. Spinach and lettuce with attached cells were treated with chlorinated water (50 and 150 ppm of free chlorine). The production of the extracellular polymers by the planktonic cells had small, but significant, effects on the survival of the attached pathogen when subjected to chlorine treatment. On the lettuce surface, the colanic acid-producing, cellulose-negative mutant (49d) was most susceptible to the treatment, declining significantly (P population by 0.9 and 1.4 log units after treatment with 50 and 150 ppm of chlorine, respectively. Chlorine treatment reduced populations of cellulose-deficient cells on the intact spinach surface 1.2 log units more than the wild type when treated with 150 ppm of chlorine (P populations of cellulose-producing cells were reduced by 1.5 log units more than their mutant counterparts when the cells also produced colanic acid (P < 0.05). A greater proportion of cells attached to the spinach leaf edge were injured by chlorine treatment compared with attached to the leaf surface. These results indicate that extracellular polymers do not generally increase the ability of STEC to survive chlorine treatment and that any effects on survival are influenced by location of attachment, type of leafy green, and concentration of chlorine. PMID:27052873

  10. Effects of Chlorine on Enterovirus RNA Degradation

    Science.gov (United States)

    The primary mechanism of disinfection of waterborne pathogens by chlorine has always been believed to be due to the alteration of proteins by free chlorine and subsequent disruption of their biological structure.

  11. Logging in Java with the JDK 1.4 Logging API and Apache log4j

    CERN Document Server

    Gupta, Samudra

    2005-01-01

    Any Java language based application developer will benefit from the topics covered in this book. Also non-Java developers can benefit by reading this book to understand how to implement and architect a robust logging framework in any language.

  12. Bio-logging science: sensing beyond the boundaries

    OpenAIRE

    Boyd,Ian L./Kato,Akiko/Ropert-Coudert,Yan

    2004-01-01

    Bio-logging has emerged as a tool in animal biology much as genomics has emerged as a tool in the study of cellular and organ function. Bio-logging is certain to increase in its importance and to influence the way we study events and processes that are beyond the usual boundaries of perception and that are remote from the observer. It is providing insights into the behaviour and function of organisms in environments that are hostile to the observer and in natural situations. In terms of the w...

  13. Effects of ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and monochloramine on Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst viability.

    OpenAIRE

    Korich, D G; Mead, J R; Madore, M S; Sinclair, N. A.; Sterling, C R

    1990-01-01

    Purified Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were exposed to ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and monochloramine. Excystation and mouse infectivity were comparatively evaluated to assess oocyst viability. Ozone and chlorine dioxide more effectively inactivated oocysts than chlorine and monochloramine did. Greater than 90% inactivation as measured by infectivity was achieved by treating oocysts with 1 ppm of ozone (1 mg/liter) for 5 min. Exposure to 1.3 ppm of chlorine dioxide yielded 90% inactiv...

  14. Plutonium waste crib logging using the prompt fission neutron uranium logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Sandia Laboratories' Uranium Logging Project has demonstrated their prompt fission neutron (PFN) logging system at the Hanford, WA, site for Rockwell-Hanford Operations (RHO). The dates of the demonstration were July 31 through August 2, 1979. The purpose was to show RHO the capabilities of the system for measuring plutonium concentration. An underground effluent disposal crib associated with their processing facilities was used as the test site. The performance criterion was to be able to detect a 10 nCi/g concentration of plutonium. Six test wells penetrating the crib were logged, as were three other wells. The PFN tool was able to maintain a good signal-to-noise ratio even under the most extreme conditions of high count rate and high background. The wells at the center of the crib indicated very high concentrations of plutonium, while those at the periphery indicated much less. Concentrations estimated to be lower than 10 nCi/g were detected. Comparisons with core data were not made. The technique used to obtain physical samples for analysis did not follow uranium-exploration coring practice so comparisons were not possible. The data interpretation model used was originally developed for uranium and was modified to calculate plutonium concentration. Results indicated that the operation of a PFN logging system by RHO personnel would provide a suitable technique for monitoring transuranic waste storage sites

  15. Reducing chlorination of niobium pentoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies of cylindric briquettes of Nb2O5 and carbon are presented. The effects of chlorine flow, dimension of the briquettes, porosity, percentage of the reducing agent in the mixture and temperature are analysed. The volatilization aspect of Nb2O5 by the briquettes and the structural transformations of the samples are described. (M.A.C.)

  16. Novel chlorinated derivatives of BODIPY

    OpenAIRE

    Garcia-Moreno, I.; Costela González, Ángel; Chiara, José Luis; Duran-Sampedro, G.; Ortiz, M. J.; Rodríguez Agarrabeitia, Antonio

    2012-01-01

    [EN] The invention relates to the use of novel dyes with a BODIPY structure, characterised in that they contain at least one chlorine atom bound to the carbons of the boradiazaindacene system, to the use thereof as laser dyes and fluorescent markers, and to a method for obtaining some of these compounds.

  17. Pulsed neutron generator for logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A pulsed neutron generator for uranium logging is described. This generator is one component of a prototype uranium logging probe which is being developed by SLA to detect, and assay, uranium by borehole logging. The logging method is based on the measurement of epithermal neutrons resulting from the prompt fissioning of uranium from a pulsed source of 17.6 MeV neutrons. An objective of the prototype probe was that its diameter not exceed 2.75 inches, which would allow its use in conventional rotary drill holes of 4.75-inch diameter. This restriction limited the generator to a maximum 2.375-inch diameter. The performance requirements for the neutron generator specified that it operate with a nominal output of 5 x 106 neutrons/pulse at up to 100 pulses/second for a one-hour period. The development of a neutron generator meeting the preliminary design goals was completed and two prototype models were delivered to SLA. These two generators have been used by SLA to log a number of boreholes in field evaluation of the probe. The results of the field evaluations have led to the recommendation of several changes to improve the probe's operation. Some of these changes will require additional development effort on the neutron generator. It is expected that this work will be performed during 1977. The design and operation of the first prototype neutron generators is described

  18. Existence of log canonical closures

    CERN Document Server

    Hacon, Christopher D

    2011-01-01

    Let $f:X\\to U$ be a projective morphism of normal varieties and $(X,\\Delta)$ a dlt pair. We prove that if there is an open set $U^0\\subset U$, such that $(X,\\Delta)\\times_U U^0$ has a good minimal model over $U^0$ and the images of all the non-klt centers intersect $U^0$, then $(X,\\Delta)$ has a good minimal model over $U$. As consequences we show the existence of log canonical compactifications for open log canonical pairs, and the fact that the moduli functor of stable schemes satisfies the valuative criterion for properness.

  19. Borehole logging for uranium exploration

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The present text has been prepared taking into account the requirements of both developing countries, which might be at an incipient stage of uranium exploration, and industrialized countries, where more advanced exploration and resource evaluation techniques are commonly in use. While it was felt necessary to include some discussion of exploration concepts and fundamental physical principles underlying various logging methods, it was not the intention of the consultants to provide a thorough, detailed explanation of the various techniques, or even to give a comprehensive listing thereof. However, a list of references has been included, and it is strongly recommended that the serious student of mineral logging consult this list for further guidance

  20. Log-periodic route to fractal functions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gluzman, S; Sornette, D

    2002-03-01

    Log-periodic oscillations have been found to decorate the usual power-law behavior found to describe the approach to a critical point, when the continuous scale-invariance symmetry is partially broken into a discrete-scale invariance symmetry. For Ising or Potts spins with ferromagnetic interactions on hierarchical systems, the relative magnitude of the log-periodic corrections are usually very small, of order 10(-5). In growth processes [diffusion limited aggregation (DLA)], rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes, log-periodic oscillations with amplitudes of the order of 10% have been reported. We suggest a "technical" explanation for this 4 order-of-magnitude difference based on the property of the "regular function" g(x) embodying the effect of the microscopic degrees of freedom summed over in a renormalization group (RG) approach F(x)=g(x)+mu(-1)F(gamma x) of an observable F as a function of a control parameter x. For systems for which the RG equation has not been derived, the previous equation can be understood as a Jackson q integral, which is the natural tool for describing discrete-scale invariance. We classify the "Weierstrass-type" solutions of the RG into two classes characterized by the amplitudes A(n) of the power-law series expansion. These two classes are separated by a novel "critical" point. Growth processes (DLA), rupture, earthquake, and financial crashes thus seem to be characterized by oscillatory or bounded regular microscopic functions that lead to a slow power-law decay of A(n), giving strong log-periodic amplitudes. If in addition, the phases of A(n) are ergodic and mixing, the observable presents self-affine nondifferentiable properties. In contrast, the regular function of statistical physics models with "ferromagnetic"-type interactions at equilibrium involves unbound logarithms of polynomials of the control variable that lead to a fast exponential decay of A(n) giving weak log-periodic amplitudes and smoothed observables. PMID

  1. Effects of chlorine content and position of chlorinated phenols on their oxidation kinetics by potassium permanganate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Chlorine content and position of chlorinated phenols have many significant effects on the reactivity of oxido-reduction. The effects of chlorine content and position of chlorinated phenols on their oxidation kinetics by potassium permanganate were evaluated through different kinetics studies. Since chlorine was an electron withdrawing atom, the substitution of chlorine on the aromatic ring decreased the oxidation rate constant by σ-electron withdrawing conductive effect; at the same time, the substitution of chlorine at ortho or para position on the aromatic ring increased the oxidation rate constant by π-electron donating conjugative effect, and the conjugative effect could counteract the negative impact of the conductive effect to some extent. On the other hand, the substitution of chlorine at ortho position on the aromatic ring decreased the oxidation rate constant by steric hindrance effect. The oxidation rate constants of phenol and chlorinated phenols studied decreased as follow order: 4-chlorophenol>2,4-dichlorophenol>phenol>2,6-dichlorophenol.

  2. Decomposable log-linear models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Eriksen, Poul Svante

    can be characterized by a structured set of conditional independencies between some variables given some other variables. We term the new model class decomposable log-linear models, which is illustrated to be a much richer class than decomposable graphical models.It covers a wide range of non...

  3. Procesador del Log de HPSA

    OpenAIRE

    González Olmedo, José Alberto

    2014-01-01

    El propósito del sistema es el procesamiento y visualización de la información presente en los ficheros de Log de la aplicación HPSA. El sistema proporcionará una forma de realizar consultas sencillas sobre la información tratada anteriormente.

  4. Avoid Logs to Avoid Ticks

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    莫文佳

    2004-01-01

    扁虱是莱姆关节炎的罪魁祸首。研究人员为了弄明白何处扁虱最猖獗, 不惜以身作饵,他们发现:The ticks were all over the log surface。因此告诫人 们:Avoid sitting on logs。

  5. Nuclear logging apparatus and MWD-equipment for formation evaluation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An apparatus for nuclear logging is presented. In accordance with the present invention, nuclear detectors and electronic components are all mounted in chambers within the sub wall with covers being removably attached to the chambers. A single bus for delivering both power and signals extends through the sub wall between either end of the tool. This bus terminates at a modular ring connector positioned on each tool end. This tool construction (including sub wall mounted sensors and electronics, single power and signal bus, and ring connectors) is also well suited for other formation evaluation tools used in measurement-while-drilling applications. 28 refs

  6. Advance reservoir evaluation by using NMR logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Based on brief explanation of the measurement principle for nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) logging, this paper illustrates the importance of NMR logging in reservoir evaluation through typical case examples. These case examples include: Reservoir characterization and productivity evaluation by using NMR logging, determination of reservoir porosity in complex lithology, identification of oil, water and gas zones under complex reservoir conditions where resistivity log data give poor indication, guiding the implementation of completion and drilling programs, etc. Excellent application results indicate that NMR logging has its special features and advantages in comparison with conventional logging techniques. It is a very practical and very promising logging technology

  7. Business process mining from e-commerce web logs

    OpenAIRE

    Poggi N.; Muthusamy V.; Carrera D.; Khalaf R.

    2013-01-01

    The dynamic nature of the Web and its increasing importance as an economic platform create the need of new methods and tools for business efficiency. Current Web analytic tools do not provide the necessary abstracted view of the underlying customer processes and critical paths of site visitor behavior. Such information can offer insights for businesses to react effectively and efficiently. We propose applying Business Process Management (BPM) methodologies to e-commerce Website logs, and pres...

  8. Development of geothermal logging systems in the United States

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lysne, P.

    1994-04-01

    Logging technologies developed for hydrocarbon resource evaluation have not migrated into geothermal applications even though data so obtained would strengthen reservoir characterization efforts. Two causative issues have impeded progress: (1) there is a general lack of vetted, high-temperature instrumentation, and (2) the interpretation of log data generated in a geothermal formation is in its infancy. Memory-logging tools provide a path around the first obstacle by providing quality data at a low cost. These tools feature on-board computers that process and store data, and newer systems may be programmed to make decisions. Since memory tools are completely self-contained, they are readily deployed using the slick line found on most drilling locations. They have proven to be rugged, and a minimum training program is required for operator personnel. Present tools measure properties such as temperature and pressure, and the development of noise, deviation, and fluid conductivity logs based on existing hardware is relatively easy. A more complex geochemical tool aimed at a quantitative analysis of (potassium, uranium and thorium) is in the calibration phase, and it is expandable into all nuclear measurements common in the hydrocarbon industry. A fluid sampling tool is in the design phase. All tools are designed for operation at conditions exceeding 400 C, and for deployment in the slim holes produced by mining-coring operations. Partnerships are being formed between the geothermal industry and scientific drilling programs to define and develop inversion algorithms relating raw tool data to more pertinent information. These cooperative efforts depend upon quality guidelines such as those under development within the international Ocean Drilling Program.

  9. Water Chlorination for human consumption

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Beginning from this issue, an initiative of Federgasacqua (Federal association dealing with the gas and the water) takes place through the activities of the Task Forces Water Quality Control and Materials and Processes, which aim is to offer to the water industry operators and updated information concerning some main subjects, emphasizing in particular the technical and management applied topics. The paper deals with the chlorination processes in drinking water treatment. An overview of the italian situation is presented, concerning disinfection as well as other oxidation processes, together with an historical background on chlorination. Concerning the applications, the chemical technologies and the main processes, the disinfectant effectiveness and the byproducts formation have been described. Further, the regulations in force have been reported and discussed on national and international bases

  10. Unification of acoustic drillhole logging data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Posiva Oy prepares for disposal of spent nuclear fuel in bedrock in Olkiluoto, Eurajoki. This is in accordance of the application filed in 1999, the Decision-in-Principle of the State Council in 2000, and ratification by the Parliament in 2001. The site characterization at Olkiluoto has included comprehensive geological, hydrological, geochemical and geophysical investigations airborne, on ground and in drillholes since 1988. One of key techniques in geophysical drillhole surveys has been acoustic full waveform logging, which has been implemented since 1994. Various tools have been used in acquisition of acoustic data and several processing techniques have been applied. The logging work and processing to P and S wave velocities has been previously carried out on single drillhole basis. Comparisons to actual values and levels have not been made, and the results have not been calibrated. Therefore results for different drillholes have not been comparable. Resolution of the P and S wave velocity has been rather coarse, and depth correlation to the core data has been on tentative level. As the investigation data has been accumulating, it has become possible to correlate the results to geological and laboratory control data and to calibrate the results of separate measurement campaigns and different drillholes together onto same reference level and resolution. The presented technique has been applied for drillhole OL-KR29 onwards and has set the processing standard, settings and reference levels for later surveys. This approach will further assist the application of the method for mapping and numerical description of lithology variation and possible effect of alteration and deformation on it. Further on, the P and S wave velocity data together with density can be used in computing of dynamic in situ rock mechanical parameters, and possibly in correlating rock strength laboratory data to P and S wave velocity logging data. The acoustic logging data from drillholes OL-KR1

  11. The current situation and prospect of fundamental research about nuclear logging technology

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear logging technology is one of the important methods to evaluate complex hydrocarbon reservoir in the process of petroleum exploration and development. The fundamental research of nuclear logging is an important step of logging technology innovation. Through analyzing the current situation of the development of nuclear logging technology at home and abroad in recent years, the problems and gaps are pointed out in the field of fundamental research of nuclear logging at home, and the future development of new nuclear logging technologies is concisely analyzed. Therefore, the optimal design and processing are conducted from aspects of ray source, detector, data acquisition and processing method. In addition, the fundamental research of LWD and pulsed neutron logging technology is taken as the main breach. In the fundamental research of nuclear logging technology, innovative thinking should be expressed and the innovation should be achieved in every field of the development of nuclear logging technology. Meanwhile, the logging key lab should be taken as the platform and the latest achievement in the field of nuclear logging technology should be fully utilized. Thus, the level of independent R and D and technology innovation of logging tools will be raised and service for the exploration and development of petroleum and other mineral resources. (authors)

  12. The Chlorine Isotopic Composition Of Lunar UrKREEP

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barnes, J. J.; Tartese, R.; Anand, M.; McCubbin, F. M.; Neal, C. R.; Franchi, I. A.

    2016-01-01

    Since the long standing paradigm of an anhydrous Moon was challenged there has been a renewed focus on investigating volatiles in a variety of lunar samples. Numerous studies have examined the abundances and isotopic compositions of volatiles in lunar apatite, Ca5(PO4)3(F,Cl,OH). In particular, apatite has been used as a tool for assessing the sources of H2O in the lunar interior. However, current models for the Moon's formation have yet to fully account for its thermal evolution in the presence of H2O and other volatiles. For ex-ample, in the context of the lunar magma ocean (LMO) model, it is anticipated that chlorine (and other volatiles) should have been concentrated in the late-stage LMO residual melts (i.e., the dregs enriched in incompatible elements such as K, REEs (Rare Earth Elements), and P, collectively called KREEP, and in its primitive form - urKREEP, given its incompatibility in mafic minerals like olivine and pyroxene, which were the dominant phases that crystallized early in the cumulate pile of the LMO. When compared to chondritic meteorites and terrestrial rocks, lunar samples have exotic chlorine isotope compositions, which are difficult to explain in light of the abundance and isotopic composition of other volatile species, especially H, and the current estimates for chlorine and H2O in the bulk silicate Moon (BSM). In order to better understand the processes involved in giving rise to the heavy chlorine isotope compositions of lunar samples, we have performed a comprehensive in situ high precision study of chlorine isotopes in lunar apatite from a suite of Apollo samples covering a range of geochemical characteristics and petrologic types.

  13. Metabolic fate of chlorinated paraffins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The disposition of three [1-14C]-chlorododecanes (MCDD, PCDD I and PCDD II; 17.4%, 55.9%, and 68.5% chlorination) was studied in C57Bl mice. [1-14C]-lauric acid (LA) was studied as reference compound. Fifty-two percent (MCDD), 32% (PCDD I), and 8% (PCDD II) of the radioactive doses were exhaled as 14CO2 during 12 h after i.v. injection. Similar results were obtained after p.o. administration. In addition to a marked labelling of the liver and fat, the distribution patterns observed at 24 h after administration revealed an uptake of radioactivity in tissues with high cell turnover/high metabolic activity, e.g., intestinal mucosa, bone marrow, salivary glands and thymus. The concentration of radioactivity in these sites and the exhalation of 14CO2, which were inverse to the degree of chlorination, indicate that the chloroalkanes are degraded to metabolites which can be utilized in the intermediary metabolism. A similar, although more pronounced, distribution pattern and 14CO2-exhalation (70% of i.v. dose) was observed after LA administration. The long time retention of heptane-soluble radioactivity in liver and fat (indicating unmetabolized substance) increased with degree of chlorination. On the contrary, the administration of LA and the chlorododecanes MCDD and PCDD I, but not of PCDD II, resulted in a selective labelling of the central nervous system 30-60 days after injection. (orig.)

  14. Characterization of reservoir fractures using conventional geophysical logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paitoon Laongsakul

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available In hydrocarbon exploration fractures play an important role as possible pathways for the hydrocarbon flow and bythis enhancing the overall formation’s permeability. Advanced logging methods for fracture analysis, like the boreholeacoustic televiewer and Formation Microscanner (FMS are available, but these are additional and expensive tools. However,open and with water or hydrocarbon filled fractures are also sensitive to electrical and other conventional logging methods.For this study conventional logging data (electric, seismic, etc were available plus additional fracture information from FMS.Taking into account the borehole environment the results show that the micro-spherically focused log indicates fractures byshowing low resistivity spikes opposite open fractures, and high resistivity spikes opposite sealed ones. Compressional andshear wave velocities are reduced when passing trough the fracture zone, which are assumed to be more or less perpendicularto borehole axis. The photoelectric absorption curve exhibit a very sharp peak in front of a fracture filled with bariteloaded mud cake. The density log shows low density spikes that are not seen by the neutron log, usually where fractures,large vugs, or caverns exist. Borehole breakouts can cause a similar effect on the logging response than fractures, but fracturesare often present when this occurs. The fracture index calculation by using threshold and input weight was calculatedand there was in general a good agreement with the fracture data from FMS especially in fracture zones, which mainlycontribute to the hydraulic system of the reservoir. Finally, the overall results from this study using one well are promising,however further research in the combination of different tools for fracture identification is recommended as well as the useof core for further validation.

  15. Microbial community response to chlorine conversion in a chloraminated drinking water distribution system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Hong; Proctor, Caitlin R; Edwards, Marc A; Pryor, Marsha; Santo Domingo, Jorge W; Ryu, Hodon; Camper, Anne K; Olson, Andrew; Pruden, Amy

    2014-09-16

    Temporary conversion to chlorine (i.e., "chlorine burn") is a common approach to controlling nitrification in chloraminated drinking water distribution systems, yet its effectiveness and mode(s) of action are not fully understood. This study characterized occurrence of nitrifying populations before, during and after a chlorine burn at 46 sites in a chloraminated distribution system with varying pipe materials and levels of observed nitrification. Quantitative polymerase chain reaction analysis of gene markers present in nitrifying populations indicated higher frequency of detection of ammonia oxidizing bacteria (AOB) (72% of samples) relative to ammonia oxidizing archaea (AOA) (28% of samples). Nitrospira nitrite oxidizing bacteria (NOB) were detected at 45% of samples, while presence of Nitrobacter NOB could not be confirmed at any of the samples. During the chlorine burn, the numbers of AOA, AOB, and Nitrospira greatly reduced (i.e., 0.8-2.4 log). However, rapid and continued regrowth of AOB and Nitrospira were observed along with nitrite production in the bulk water within four months after the chlorine burn, and nitrification outbreaks appeared to worsen 6-12 months later, even after adopting a twice annual burn program. Although high throughput sequencing of 16S rRNA genes revealed a distinct community shift and higher diversity index during the chlorine burn, it steadily returned towards a condition more similar to pre-burn than burn stage. Significant factors associated with nitrifier and microbial community composition included water age and sampling location type, but not pipe material. Overall, these results indicate that there is limited long-term effect of chlorine burns on nitrifying populations and the broader microbial community. PMID:25118569

  16. Detection System of Illegal Logging Image Using Matching Process With Discrete Cosine Transform

    OpenAIRE

    Syarif, Syafruddin; Nadjamuddin, Harun; M, Tola; M.Wihardi Tjaronge

    2013-01-01

    To support the government monitoring system, Logging Detection Tool is used as an implementation of remote sensing technology. It prevents the forest from any damage due to illegal logging activity. Illegal Logging is an actifity of deforestation without any authority and causes many problems in some sectors such as economic, ecology and enviromental inbalance as a result of disruption of the forests. The research is aim to create a syst...

  17. Catalytic hydrogen-chlorine exchange between chlorinated hydrocarbons under oxygen-free conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, A.W.A.M.; Podkolzin, S.G.; Jones, M.E.; Bitter, J.H.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs) remain important industrial chemical intermediates and solvents, especially for the exploration of the potential of La-based materials for the conversion of chlorinated waste compounds.[1] The production of industrially important CHCs frequently occurs with concurrent

  18. Chlorine trifluoride (1963); Le trifluorure de chlore (1963)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vincent, L.M.; Gillardeau, J. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique, Saclay (France). Centre d' Etudes Nucleaires

    1963-07-01

    This monograph on chlorine trifluoride may be considered as a working tool useful in gaseous diffusion research. It consists of data gathered from the literature and includes furthermore a certain amount of original data. This monograph groups together the physical, chemical and physiological properties of chlorine trifluoride, as well as the preparation and analytical methods. It has been thought wise to add some technological information, and the safety regulations governing its use. (authors) [French] Cette monographie sur le trifluorure de chlore doit etre consideree comme un instrument de travail dans le cadre des recherches sur la diffusion gazeuse. Il etait necessaire de grouper les donnees eparses dans la litterature. Elle comprend en outre un certain nombre de donnees originales. Cette monographie groupe les proprietes physiques, chimiques et physiologiques du trifluorure de chlore, ainsi que ses methodes de preparation et d'analyse. On a juge utile de joindre des indications technologiques et les consignes de securite concernant son emploi. (auteurs)

  19. Fracturing graphene by chlorination: a theoretical viewpoint

    OpenAIRE

    Ijäs, M.; Havu, P.; Harju, A.

    2012-01-01

    Motivated by the recent photochlorination experiment [B. Li et al., ACS Nano 5, 5957 (2011)], we study theoretically the interaction of chlorine with graphene. In previous theoretical studies, covalent binding between chlorine and carbon atoms has been elusive upon adsorption to the graphene basal plane. Interestingly, in their recent experiment, Li et al. interpreted their data in terms of chemical bonding of chlorine on top of the graphene plane, associated with a change from sp2 to sp3 in ...

  20. The Log-O-Rithmic

    OpenAIRE

    Fischli, Fredi; Olsen, Niels

    2012-01-01

    The Log-O-Rithmic Slide Rule is an ephemeral work created by architects Trix and Robert Haussmann. Both were educated in the context of Swiss Modernism, but eventually evolved their approach to the practice. In 1967, they began their collaborative work with Anti-Chair, a fragile chair made of neon tubes, and also opened Allgemeine Entwurfsanstalt, their office for design and architecture. In addition to a wide range of realized buildings and furniture designs, the duo has created a rich body ...

  1. Chemical logging of geothermal wells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allen, C.A.; McAtee, R.E.

    The presence of geothermal aquifers can be detected while drilling in geothermal formations by maintaining a chemical log of the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions in the return drilling fluid. A continuous increase in the ratio of the concentrations of calcium to carbonate and bicarbonate ions is indicative of the existence of a warm or hot geothermal aquifer at some increased depth.

  2. Logging-while-drilling (LWD) pressure test

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thirud, Aase P.

    2003-07-01

    Statoil and Halliburton have completed a successful test of a new ground-breaking formation evaluation technology on the Norwegian shelf. An LWD formation tester, the GeoTapTM sensor, was used to quantify formation pressure during drilling operations. The inaugural job was completed by Halliburton's Sperry-Sun product service line onboard the Bideford Dolphin at the Borg Field while drilling a horizontal production well in the Vigdis Extension development. The GeoTap tool, part of Sperry-Sun's StellarTM MWD/LWT suite, was run in combination with a complete logging-while-drilling sensor package and the Geo-Pilot rotary steerable drilling system. Repeat formation pressures were taken and successfully transmitted to surface. This is the first time this type of technology has been successfully applied on the Norwegian shelf.

  3. A database for operation logging of the KEK photon factory

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype database for operation logging of the KEK Photon Factory storage ring has been constructed and tested. This paper describes the basic design of the operation logging system and its performance. Front-end control computers gather various data concerning the operation of the storage ring, and transfer them to a large general-purpose computer through a token-ring network. We have adopted a relational database system so as to save large amounts of data under daily operation. An interactive software tool was developed to retrieve data and to make graphic representations easily. (orig.)

  4. The continuous chlorination of plutonium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rasmussen, M.J.

    1959-08-14

    Previous reports on the chlorination of plutonium dioxide describe numerous small-scale experiments and a few fair-sized batch preparations. The chemistry of chlorination by numerous reagents is covered, but no process had received sufficient study for large-scale preparation of anhydrous plutonium trichloride. The literature search revealed no extensive studies on chlorination rates, exhaust gas filtering, atmospheric requirements, reactor materials, etc. A program was undertaken to select a chlorination process, to develop the necessary information for defining operating conditions and equipment specifications, and then to demonstrate the operation of the process.

  5. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl2–N2 mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated

  6. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  7. Physical habitat and water chemistry changes induced by logging and gold mining in French Guiana streams

    OpenAIRE

    Dedieu N.; Allard L.; Vigouroux R.; Brosse S.; Céréghino R.

    2014-01-01

    Understanding the effects of disturbances on the physical-chemical quality of ecosystems is a crucial step to the development of ecosystem assessment tools. 95 sampling sites distributed among 4 categories of disturbance, i.e.: reference, logging, formerly and currently gold mining, were characterized using stream physical and chemical variables. Our hypotheses were: (i) logging and gold mining activities primarily affect the ph...

  8. Reduction of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in shredded iceberg lettuce by chlorination and gamma irradiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Lettuce was inoculated with a six-strain cocktail of acid-adapted Escherichia coli 0157:H7 at a level of 1x107 CFU/g. Following chlorination at 200 μg/ml, the lettuce was irradiated at 0.15, 0.38, or 0.55 kGy using a 60Co source. Survival of E. coli 0157:H7, aerobic mesophiles and yeast and molds were measured over a period of 10 days. For quality analysis, chlorinated lettuce was subjected to irradiation at 0.33 and 0.53 kGy and stored at 1.0 deg. C, 4.0 deg. C or 7.0 deg. C. Changes in texture and color were determined by instrumental means and changes in flavor, odor, and visual quality were determined by sensory testing. Chlorination plus irradiation at 0.55 kGy produced a 5.4-log reduction in E. coli 0157:H7 levels. Chlorination alone reduced the E. coli 0157:H7 counts by 1-2 logs. Irradiation at 0.55 kGy was also effective in reducing standard plate counts and yeast and mold counts. Irradiation at this level did not cause softening of lettuce and sensory attributes were not adversely affected. In general, appearance and flavor were affected more by the length of storage than by temperature conditions. The 5+log reduction in E. coli counts and lack of adverse effects on sensory attributes indicate that low-dose irradiation can improve the safety and shelf-life of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce for retail sale or food service

  9. Reduction of Escherichia coli 0157:H7 in shredded iceberg lettuce by chlorination and gamma irradiation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Foley, D.M. E-mail: dfoley@chapman.edu; Dufour, A.; Rodriguez, L.; Caporaso, F.; Prakash, A

    2002-03-01

    Lettuce was inoculated with a six-strain cocktail of acid-adapted Escherichia coli 0157:H7 at a level of 1x10{sup 7} CFU/g. Following chlorination at 200 {mu}g/ml, the lettuce was irradiated at 0.15, 0.38, or 0.55 kGy using a {sup 60}Co source. Survival of E. coli 0157:H7, aerobic mesophiles and yeast and molds were measured over a period of 10 days. For quality analysis, chlorinated lettuce was subjected to irradiation at 0.33 and 0.53 kGy and stored at 1.0 deg. C, 4.0 deg. C or 7.0 deg. C. Changes in texture and color were determined by instrumental means and changes in flavor, odor, and visual quality were determined by sensory testing. Chlorination plus irradiation at 0.55 kGy produced a 5.4-log reduction in E. coli 0157:H7 levels. Chlorination alone reduced the E. coli 0157:H7 counts by 1-2 logs. Irradiation at 0.55 kGy was also effective in reducing standard plate counts and yeast and mold counts. Irradiation at this level did not cause softening of lettuce and sensory attributes were not adversely affected. In general, appearance and flavor were affected more by the length of storage than by temperature conditions. The 5+log reduction in E. coli counts and lack of adverse effects on sensory attributes indicate that low-dose irradiation can improve the safety and shelf-life of fresh-cut iceberg lettuce for retail sale or food service.

  10. Behavior of chlorine in lake water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Water from monsoon fed Sagre lake is being used as a source of raw water for Tarapur Atomic Power Station (TAPS--1 and 2). The raw water from the lake is initially pumped to Sagre water treatment plant (SWTP) operated by Maharashtra Industrial Development Corporation (MIDC) from where, the processed water is sent to cater the needs of both the units of TAPS-1 and 2, townships of TAPS and MIDC, and the nearby villages. At the SWTP the raw water is treated with alum to remove the turbidity, filtered and chlorinated using bleaching powder. All these years the raw water is chlorinated in such a way whereby a residual chlorine level of 0.5-1.0 mg/l, is maintained at the outlet of water treatment plant. The adequacy of the current chlorination practice was investigated, at the request of the NPC-500 MWe group during 1990, so that the future requirements of raw water for TAPP-3 and 4, can be met from the expanded SWTP. In this connection experiments on chlorine dose -- residual chlorine relationship and the decay pattern of chlorine with time was carried out in the lake water (with low value of total dissolved solids and total hardness 3 sample at the site. The total bacterial count in the raw water observed to be 107 counts/ml originally came down to 103 counts/ml at the end of one-hour exposure time to chlorine. It was found that the chlorine demand of the water was around 6 mg/l. In addition Jar test to evaluate the aluminum dose was also carried out. Based on these experiments a chlorine dose of 6 mg/l for one hour contact time was arrived at. The experimental findings were in agreement with the current chlorination practices. (author)

  11. LOGGING AND ANALYZING LONG-TERM MOBILE USER BEHAVIOR

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hui-Yin Wu

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available With the rapid evolution of mobile devices, the usage patterns of applications on these devices also change over time. Recently, the topic of how user behavior and usage patterns of applications has adapted to new mobile devices such as smartphones has attracted much attention. This work presents an experimental platform that can log and analyze all user operations on a smartphone used in a real-life context over long periods of time. The collected data are transmitted to a server periodically whenever an Internet connection is available. Analytic tools such as charting, log query, and real-time log pattern analysis have also been developed to facilitate the study of user behavior. This paper illustrates the functionalities of the proposed platform through several examples and a sample case study.

  12. Chlorine dioxide and by-products in water distribution systems

    OpenAIRE

    Ferreira, Francisco Cardoso

    1991-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide is used as both a pre-oxidant and/or a post-disinfectant in several water treatment plants in the United States. Chlorine dioxide is associated with its byproducts chlorite and chlorate. Chlorine dioxide, chlorine, chlori te and chlorate were sampled in four distribution systems where chlorine dioxide is used for disinfection purposes: Charleston, WV, Columbus, GA, New Castle, PA, and Skagit, WA. The fate of chlorine dioxide and its by-products in dist...

  13. Face logging in Copenhagen Limestone, Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jakobsen, Lisa; Foged, Niels Nielsen; Erichsen, Lars;

    2015-01-01

    induration degrees recorded in face logs and boreholes are compared and correlated. Distinct geophysical log markers are used to divide the limestone into three units. These marker horizons are correlated between face logs and geotechnical boreholes. A 3D model of the strength variations recorded within the......The requirement for excavation support can be assessed from face logging. Face logs can also improve our knowledge of lithological and structural conditions within bedrock and supplement information from boreholes and geophysical logs. During the construction of 8 km metro tunnel and 4 km heating...... tunnel in Copenhagen more than 2.5 km face logs were made in 467 locations at underground stations, shafts, caverns and along bored tunnels. Over 160 geotechnical boreholes, many with geophysical logging were executed prior to construction works. The bedrock consists of Paleogene "Copenhagen limestone...

  14. Local regularity analysis of strata heterogeneities from sonic logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Gaci

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Borehole logs provide geological information about the rocks crossed by the wells. Several properties of rocks can be interpreted in terms of lithology, type and quantity of the fluid filling the pores and fractures.

    Here, the logs are assumed to be nonhomogeneous Brownian motions (nhBms which are generalized fractional Brownian motions (fBms indexed by depth-dependent Hurst parameters H(z. Three techniques, the local wavelet approach (LWA, the average-local wavelet approach (ALWA, and Peltier Algorithm (PA, are suggested to estimate the Hurst functions (or the regularity profiles from the logs.

    First, two synthetic sonic logs with different parameters, shaped by the successive random additions (SRA algorithm, are used to demonstrate the potential of the proposed methods. The obtained Hurst functions are close to the theoretical Hurst functions. Besides, the transitions between the modeled layers are marked by Hurst values discontinuities. It is also shown that PA leads to the best Hurst value estimations.

    Second, we investigate the multifractional property of sonic logs data recorded at two scientific deep boreholes: the pilot hole VB and the ultra deep main hole HB, drilled for the German Continental Deep Drilling Program (KTB. All the regularity profiles independently obtained for the logs provide a clear correlation with lithology, and from each regularity profile, we derive a similar segmentation in terms of lithological units. The lithological discontinuities (strata' bounds and faults contacts are located at the local extrema of the Hurst functions. Moreover, the regularity profiles are compared with the KTB estimated porosity logs, showing a significant relation between the local extrema of the Hurst functions and the fluid-filled fractures. The Hurst function may then constitute a tool to characterize underground heterogeneities.

  15. Data Mining of Network Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collazo, Carlimar

    2011-01-01

    The statement of purpose is to analyze network monitoring logs to support the computer incident response team. Specifically, gain a clear understanding of the Uniform Resource Locator (URL) and its structure, and provide a way to breakdown a URL based on protocol, host name domain name, path, and other attributes. Finally, provide a method to perform data reduction by identifying the different types of advertisements shown on a webpage for incident data analysis. The procedures used for analysis and data reduction will be a computer program which would analyze the URL and identify and advertisement links from the actual content links.

  16. 21 CFR 173.300 - Chlorine dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chlorine dioxide. 173.300 Section 173.300 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SECONDARY DIRECT FOOD ADDITIVES PERMITTED IN FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION Specific Usage Additives § 173.300 Chlorine...

  17. Elements from chlorine to calcium nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Wunibald

    1968-01-01

    Nuclear Tables: Part II Nuclear Reactions, Volume 3: The Elements from Chlorine to Calcium contains tabulations of the nuclear reaction values of elements chlorine, argon, potassium, and calcium. These tabulations provide the calculated Q-values of the elements and their isotopes. This book will be of value to general chemistry researchers.

  18. Chlorine demand and residual chlorine decay kinetics of Kali river water at Kaiga project area

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The nuclear power plant at Kaiga would use Kali river water for condenser cooling. This necessitated studies on the chemistry of chlorination such as chlorine demand, kinetics of chlorination and other water characteristics aimed at obtaining base line data. The study revealed significant seasonal variation of chlorine demand ranging from 0.5 ppm to 1.7 ppm (3.0 ppm dose, 30 min contact time) and total consumption of 5.0 ppm (10.0 ppm dose, 48 hours contact time). The reaction follows first order kinetics in chlorine. High correlation of chlorine demand with chlorophyll a, suspended matter, turbidity, silica, nitrite, phosphate and sulphate indicated that chlorine demand is greatly influenced by water quality. (author). 3 refs., 1 tab

  19. 10 CFR 34.71 - Utilization logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-01-01

    ... 10 Energy 1 2010-01-01 2010-01-01 false Utilization logs. 34.71 Section 34.71 Energy NUCLEAR... RADIOGRAPHIC OPERATIONS Recordkeeping Requirements § 34.71 Utilization logs. (a) Each licensee shall maintain utilization logs showing for each sealed source the following information: (1) A description, including...

  20. Log minimal models according to Shokurov

    OpenAIRE

    Birkar, Caucher

    2008-01-01

    Following Shokurov's ideas, we give a short proof of the following klt version of his result: termination of terminal log flips in dimension d implies that any klt pair of dimension d has a log minimal model or a Mori fibre space. Thus, in particular, any klt pair of dimension 4 has a log minimal model or a Mori fibre space.

  1. Internal chlorination of Ni-Cr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berztiss, D.; Hennesen, K.; Grabke, H.J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    In contrast to internal oxidation, sulfidation and carburization, very little information is available regarding internal chlorination, especially diffusion of chlorine in metallic alloys. This paper describes results of experiments on Ni-Cr alloys (<10 wt% Cr) exposed in an atmosphere containing radioactive HCl. The diffusion of chlorine in the alloy can be determined by measurement of residual {beta}-activity from the sample surface. Successively thin layers (0.5-10 {mu}m) of the alloy were removed by lapping and the surface activity was measured to obtain a depth profile. Both single and polycrystalline materials were tested. Through this work it should be determined if there is in fact solubility and diffusion of chlorine in Ni-based alloys as some authors have proposed or if the ingress of chlorine is mainly a grain boundary phenomenon. (orig.)

  2. Chlorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Technorati Yahoo MyWeb Updates Subscribe Listen Page last reviewed April ... Del.icio.us Digg Facebook Google Bookmarks Technorati Yahoo MyWeb Download page Subscribe to RSS Get email ...

  3. Chlorine disinfection by-products in wastewater effluent: Bioassay-based assessment of toxicological impact.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Watson, K; Shaw, G; Leusch, F D L; Knight, N L

    2012-11-15

    The potential ecological impact of disinfection by-products (DBPs) present in chlorinated wastewater effluents is not well understood. In this study, the chlorinated effluent of traditional wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and advanced water reclamation plants (AWRPs) supplying highly-treated recycled water were analyzed for nitrosamines and trihalomethanes (THMs), and a battery of bioassays conducted to assess effluent toxicity. An increase in general toxicity from DBPs was revealed for all wastewaters studied using an in vitro bioluminescence assay. Examples of androgenic activity and estrogenic activity arising from DBPs at specific sampling sites were also observed. The in vivo model (Artemia franciscana) was generally not adversely affected by exposure to DBPs from any of the chlorinated wastewaters studied. The observed toxicity could not be related to the concentrations of THMs and nitrosamines present, indicating that DBPs not monitored in this study were responsible for this. This work highlights the complexity of DBPs mixtures formed in chlorinated wastewaters, illustrating that toxicity of wastewater DBPs cannot be predicted by chemical monitoring of THMs and nitrosamines. The results suggest bioassays may be particularly useful monitoring tools in assessing toxicity arising from DBPs of these complex waters. The research concludes that DBPs formed in the chlorinated wastewaters studied can be toxic and may have a deleterious impact on aquatic organisms that are exposed to them, and therefore, that chlorination or chlorination/dechlorination may not be adequate treatment strategies for the protection of receiving waters. Chlorinated wastewater toxicity (from DBPs) is not well-understood in the Australian context, and this study serves to advise regulators on this issue. PMID:22981491

  4. A revised design and implementation of the ATLAS Log Service package

    Science.gov (United States)

    Murillo Garcia, Raul; Lehamnn Miotto, Giovanna; ATLAS TDAQ Collaboration

    2011-12-01

    This paper presents a revised design and implementation of the Log Service for the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) framework at CERN. A previous version of this utility was rarely used for various reasons, herein explained. The lessons learned set the grounds and motivation for a new redesign. The Log Service consists of the Logger, the entity that collects logs and stores them in an Oracle database; a set of user utilities to access and maintain the database; and a Java based tool, known as the Log Manager, which provides a compact and intuitive interface for browsing the log messages based on a user defined search criteria. The outline of these software components are explained, including various optimization techniques deployed in order to handle the large volume of entries expected to be stored in the database. Finally, a performance study has been conducted to prove the validity and behavior of the Log Service.

  5. A revised design and implementation of the ATLAS Log Service package

    CERN Document Server

    Murillo García, R; The ATLAS collaboration

    2010-01-01

    This paper presents a revised design and implementation of the Log Service for the ATLAS Trigger and Data Acquisition (TDAQ) framework at CERN. A previous version of this utility was rarely used for various reasons, herein explained. The lessons learned set the grounds and motivation for a new redesign. The Log Service consists of the Logger, the entity that collects logs and stores them in an Oracle database; a set of user utilities to access and maintain the database; and a Java based tool, known as the Log Manager, which provides a compact and intuitive interface for browsing the log messages based on a user defined search criteria. The outline of these software components are explained, including various optimization techniques deployed in order to handle the large volume of entries expected to be stored in the database. Finally, a performance study has been conducted to prove the validity and behavior of the Log Service.

  6. Evaluation of the removal and destruction effect of a chlorine and thiamine dilaurylsulfate combined treatment on L. monocytogenes biofilm.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Srey, Sokunrotanak; Park, Shin Young; Jahid, Iqbal Kabir; Oh, Se-Ra; Han, Noori; Zhang, Cheng-Yi; Kim, Soon-Han; Cho, Joon-Il; Ha, Sang-Do

    2014-08-01

    The present study investigated the efficacy of single and combined treatment of both chlorine and thiamine dilaurylsulfate (TDS) on the reduction of Listeria monocytogenes biofilms in microtiter plate. The disinfectants used in this study were 50, 100, and 200 mg/L chlorine and 100, 500, and 1000 mg/L of TDS. Biofilm-forming index (BFI) and culturable cell count were used to evaluate the disinfectant assay. The highest BFI reduction was 0.80, achieved by the combination of 200 mg/L chlorine and 1000 mg/L TDS. In contrast, the highest culturable cell count reduction was 4.80 log colony-forming units/well by the combination of 200 mg/L chlorine and 100 mg/L TDS. The BFI was reduced in a concentration-dependent manner while culturable cell count was significantly reduced only when all chlorine concentration was combined with 100 mg/L TDS. However, when chlorine was combined with a higher concentration of TDS, the reduction decreased significantly. The result in this study showed that the combination of the 200 mg/L chlorine and 1000 mg/L TDS could be a practical application in removing L. monocytogenes biofilms from surfaces in food industry, and for the 200 mg/L chlorine and 100 mg/L, it can be used for killing the pathogen biofilms. However, more studies are still needed in order to show its efficacy on foods surfaces as well as to develop an even more effective treatment in both killing and removing biofilms. PMID:24971770

  7. Sequential disinfection of E. coli O157:H7 on shredded lettuce leaves by aqueous chlorine dioxide, ozonated water, and thyme essential oil

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Nepal; Singh, Rakesh K.; Bhunia, Arun K.; Stroshine, Richard L.; Simon, James E.

    2001-03-01

    There have been numerous studies on effectiveness of different sanitizers for microbial inactivation. However, results obtained from different studies indicate that microorganism cannot be easily removed from fresh cut vegetables because of puncture and cut surfaces with varying surface topographies. In this study, three step disinfection approach was evaluated for inactivation of E. coli O157:H7 on shredded lettuce leaves. Sequential application of thyme oil, ozonated water, and aqueous chlorine dioxide was evaluated in which thyme oil was applied first followed by ozonated water and aqueous chlorine dioxide. Shredded lettuce leaves inoculated with cocktail culture of E. coli O157:H7 (C7927, EDL 933 and 204 P), were washed with ozonated water (15 mg/l for 10min), aqueous chlorine dioxide (10 mg/l,for 10min) and thyme oil suspension (0.1%, v/v for 5min). Washing of lettuce leaves with ozonated water, chlorine dioxide and thyme oil suspension resulted in 0.44, 1.20, and 1.46 log reduction (log10 cfu/g), respectively. However, the sequential treatment achieved approximately 3.13 log reductions (log10 cfu/g). These results demonstrate the efficacy of sequential treatments in decontaminating shredded lettuce leaves containing E. coli O157:H7.

  8. Effectiveness of chlorine, organic acids and UV treatments in reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica on apples.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Escudero, M E; Velázquez, L; Favier, G; de Guzmán, A M

    2003-06-01

    This study assessed the effectiveness of 200 and 500 ppm of chlorine and organic acids (0.5% lactic acid and 0.5% citric acid) in wash solutions, and UV radiation for reducing Escherichia coli O157:H7 and Yersinia enterocolitica on apples contaminated by two different methods. Residual levels of these pathogens after different treatments were compared. On dip inoculated apples, Y. enterocolitica reductions of 2.66 and 2.77 logs were obtained with 200 and 500 ppm chlorine combined with 0.5% lactic acid, respectively. The E. coli O157:H7 population decreased 3.35 log with 0.5% lactic acid wash solution, and 2.72 and 2.62 logs after 500 ppm chlorine and 500 ppm chlorine plus 0.5% lactic acid treatments, respectively. Similar reductions were obtained with UV radiation. On spot inoculated apples, significant (p lactic acid treatment as compared with the control. In sectioned apples, microorganisms infiltrated in inner core region and pulp were not significantly (p lactic acid solution were very proximal to the 5-log score required by FDA for apple disinfection. PMID:12884547

  9. Methodology for planning log stacking using geotechnology and operations research

    OpenAIRE

    Mariana Peres de Lima; Luis Marcelo Tavares de Carvalho; Adriana Zanella Martinhago; Luciano Teixeira de Oliveira; Samuel de Pádua Chaves e Carvalho; Gleyce Campos Dutra; Thomaz Chaves de Andrade Oliveira

    2011-01-01

    In view of the need to improve the planning of timber harvest and transportation, with both activities being the most influential in determining the final cost of timber delivered to the mill yard, this work aims to develop a new methodological proposal using operations research and geotechnology tools in order to determine optimal locations for log stacking and also the amount of timber to be allocated to each selected stack. Analysis was performed using two software applications, geographic...

  10. Efficacy of gaseous chlorine dioxide as a sanitizer against Cryptosporidium parvum, Cyclospora cayetanensis, and Encephalitozoon intestinalis on produce.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega, Ynes R; Mann, Amy; Torres, Maria P; Cama, Vitaliano

    2008-12-01

    The efficacy of gaseous chlorine dioxide to reduce parasite and bacterial burden in produce was studied. Basil and lettuce leaves were inoculated with Cryptosporidium parvum and Cyclospora cayetanensis oocysts, Encephalitozoon intestinalis spores, and a cocktail of two isolates of nalidixic acid-resistant Escherichia coli O157:H7. The inoculated samples were then treated for 20 min with gaseous chlorine dioxide at 4.1 mg/liter. Cryptosporidium had a 2.6 and 3.31 most-probable-number log reduction in basil and lettuce, respectively. Reduction of Encephalitozoon in basil and lettuce was 3.58 and 4.58 CFU/g respectively. E. coli loads were significantly reduced (2.45 to 3.97 log), whereas Cyclospora sporulation was not affected by this treatment. PMID:19244892

  11. logR-logT Figure and Unknown Solar System Planets%logR-logT图与太阳系未知行星

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘彩娟; 王小波; 韦鸿铭

    2011-01-01

    Using logR-logT figure to research the planet-satellite system in Solar system, the moving of satellites are in accordance with the Kepler's Third Law, And there is a relationship between the mass of central celestial body and the straight line distances. The logR-logT figure of the unknown planet-satellite system, Mercury-satellite and Venus-satellite are described, we speculated the mass and the period of the unknown planet, the location and the period of the satellites of Mercury or Venus.%利用log-logT图研究太阳系的行星卫星系统,得出八大行星卫星系统都符合开普勒第三定律,推导出行星卫星系统logR-logT图线截距与中心天体质量的关系;通过描绘未知行星卫星系统、水星卫星系统和金星卫星系统的logR-logT图线,推测未知行星的质量和公转周期,以及水星和金星的未知卫星可能存在的位置与周期.

  12. A comparison of the virucidal properties of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, bromine chloride and iodine.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, G R; Butler, M

    1982-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide, bromine chloride and iodine were compared with chlorine as virucidal agents. Under optimal conditions all disinfectants were effective at low concentrations, but each disinfectant responded differently to acidity and alkalinity. Disinfection by chlorine was impaired by the presence of ammonia, but the other disinfectants retained much of their potency. Disinfection of poliovirus by iodine resulted in structural changes in the virions as seen by electron micrroscopy, but the ...

  13. Catalytic hydrogen-chlorine exchange between chlorinated hydrocarbons under oxygen-free conditions

    OpenAIRE

    van der Heijden, A.W.A.M.; Podkolzin, S.G.; Jones, M. E.; Bitter, J.H.; Weckhuysen, B. M.

    2008-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs) remain important industrial chemical intermediates and solvents, especially for the exploration of the potential of La-based materials for the conversion of chlorinated waste compounds.[1] The production of industrially important CHCs frequently occurs with concurrent formation of less desirable side-products. For example, mixtures of chlorinated C1 and C2 hydrocarbons are still formed as by-products in industrial processes such as the production of vinyl chlor...

  14. Formation of Chloroform and Other Chlorinated Byproducts by the Chlorination of Antibacterial Products

    OpenAIRE

    Fiss, Edward Matthew

    2006-01-01

    Triclosan is a widely used antibacterial agent found in many personal hygiene products. While it has been established that pure triclosan and free chlorine readily react, interactions between triclosan-containing products and free chlorine have not previously been analyzed. Sixteen double-blinded solutions including both triclosan-containing (1.14-3.12 mg triclosan/g product) and triclosan-free products were contacted with free chlorine. Products detected included (chlorophenoxy)phenols, ...

  15. Chlorine demand studies: a need for optimisation of chlorine doses for biofouling control

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Studies on chlorine demand, chlorine decay, rate of HOBr formation and speciation of chlorine residuals of cooling water from Madras Atomic Power Station (MAPS) were carried out. April to September was found to be a high demand period. The rate of reaction is faster and also initial demand is relatively high for this seawater as compared to other sea areas. Decay occurs in two phases, the first being instantaneous and the second being very slow. (author). 9 refs., 1 fig

  16. Chlorination of organic material in different soil types

    OpenAIRE

    Gustavsson, Malin

    2009-01-01

    Research has shown that formation of chlorinated organic matter occurs naturally and that organic chlorine is as abundant as the chloride ion in organic soils. A large number of organisms are known to convert inorganic chloride (Clin) to organic chlorine (Clorg) (e.g. bacteria, lichen, fungi and algae) and some enzymes associated to these organisms are capable of chlorinating soil organic matter. The aim with the study was to compare organic matter chlorination rates in soils from several dif...

  17. The exactness of the log homotopy sequence

    OpenAIRE

    Hoshi, Yuichiro

    2009-01-01

    In the present paper, we develop the theory of log homotopy exact sequences associated to proper log smooth morphisms and morphisms whose characteristic sheaves are locally constant with stalks isomorphic to the monoid of natural numbers. In the process of developing this theory, we also show the existence of a logarithmic version of the Stein factorization and develop the theory of algebraization of log formal schemes.

  18. Logging data representation based on XML

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    As an open standard of data representation, XML breathes new energy to the Web application and the network computing. The development, advantage and status of XML and some standards relating to XML are reviewed. In addition, the authors put forward a method representing logging data and using UML language to establish the conceptual and logical model of logging data; using a logging data, explain how to establish the model as well as how to use XML to display and process geology data.

  19. Ozone depletion and chlorine loading potentials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pyle, John A.; Wuebbles, Donald J.; Solomon, Susan; Zvenigorodsky, Sergei; Connell, Peter; Ko, Malcolm K. W.; Fisher, Donald A.; Stordal, Frode; Weisenstein, Debra

    1991-01-01

    The recognition of the roles of chlorine and bromine compounds in ozone depletion has led to the regulation or their source gases. Some source gases are expected to be more damaging to the ozone layer than others, so that scientific guidance regarding their relative impacts is needed for regulatory purposes. Parameters used for this purpose include the steady-state and time-dependent chlorine loading potential (CLP) and the ozone depletion potential (ODP). Chlorine loading potentials depend upon the estimated value and accuracy of atmospheric lifetimes and are subject to significant (approximately 20-50 percent) uncertainties for many gases. Ozone depletion potentials depend on the same factors, as well as the evaluation of the release of reactive chlorine and bromine from each source gas and corresponding ozone destruction within the stratosphere.

  20. A novel method for quantitative geosteering using azimuthal gamma-ray logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A novel method for quantitative geosteering by using azimuthal gamma-ray logging is proposed. Real-time up and bottom gamma-ray logs when a logging tool travels through a boundary surface with different relative dip angles are simulated with the Monte Carlo method. Study results show that response points of up and bottom gamma-ray logs when the logging tool moves towards a highly radioactive formation can be used to predict the relative dip angle, and then the distance from the drilling bit to the boundary surface is calculated. - Highlights: • A new method is proposed for geosteering by using azimuthal gamma-ray logging. • The new method can quantitatively determine the distance from the drilling bit to the boundary surface while the traditional geosteering method can only qualitatively guide the drilling bit in reservoirs. • The response points of real-time upper and lower gamma line when the logging tool meets high radioactive formation are used to predict the relative dip angles, and then the distance from the drilling bit to the boundary surface is calculated

  1. LEP accelerator logging system using on-line database

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The performance and efficiency of LEP depend on a multitude of factors, including particle beam characteristics, physics parameters, hardware settings, and environmental conditions. Often, these factors interact in unexpected ways and affect the machine performance. In January 1992, a project was started to create a unique logging system using an on-line database. One year's worth of data was to be kept on-line, which was estimated to be a total of 8 GByte. The systems concerned are of different nature (particle beam profile, power converter current, meteorological data, magnet temperature, lep-mode, .s), require sampling at different frequencies (from seconds to several hours) and are of different sample size (from 10 MByte to 1 GByte per year). Major performance criteria included rapid logging of data for useful real-time monitoring of compound measurements, and rapid retrieval and correlation of large amounts of data for efficient off-line analysis. For the database design the NIAM methodology was used as well as some interesting techniques such as tagging the rows with timeslots instead of timestamps and row packing for storage minimisation. A complex structure of servers and clients takes care of data gathering, data logging and management of all real time measurement and logging requests. Several tools have been developed to make the data correlation transparent to non-database experts. ((orig.))

  2. Hydrochloric acid recycling from chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowieja, D. [Sulzer Escher Wyss GmbH, Ravensburg (Germany); Schaub, M. [Sulzer Chemtech Ltd., Winterthur (Switzerland)

    1993-12-31

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons present a major ecological hazard since most of them are only poorly biodegradable. Incineration is an economical process for their destruction, however the usually recovered sodium or calcium chlorides do not present a value and their disposal may even be very costly. Recovery of hydrochloric acid may therefore present an economical solution, mainly were large quantities of highly chlorinated compounds can be processed (author) 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  3. Radiolytic removal of trihalomethane in chlorinated seawater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Biofouling is one of the major operational problems in seawater cooling systems. It is controlled by application of chlorine based biocides in the range of 0.5-2.0 mg L-1. The bromide in seawater reacts with the added chlorine and forms hypobromous acid. The brominated residual biocides react with natural organic matter present in the seawater, resulting in the formation of trihalomethanes (THM) such as bromoform (CHBr3), dibromochloromethane (CHBr2Cl) bromodichloromethane (CHBrCl2). Though THMs represent a small fraction of the added chlorine, they are relatively more persistent than residual chlorine, and hence pose a potential hazard to marine life because of their reported mutagenicity. There have been few reports on removal of THMs from chlorinated seawater. In this work, the efficacy of gamma irradiation technique for the removal of THMs from chlorine-dosed seawater was investigated. Experiments were carried out using seawater collected from Kalpakkam. Irradiation study was conducted in chlorinated (1, 3, and 5 mg L-1 of Cl2) seawater by applying various dosages (0.4-5.0 kGy) of gamma radiation using a 60Co Gamma Chamber 5000. Bromoform showed a faster rate of degradation as compared to other halocarbons like bromodichloromethane and dibromochloromethane. This shows the change in total THM concentration with variation in the radiation dose and initial Cl2 dosing. When the percentage degradation of all the three trihalomethane species was compared with applied doses, it was found that the maximum reduction occurred at a dose of 2.5 kGy. The reduction was almost similar for all the three doses (1, 3, 5 ppm of Cl2) used for chlorination. With a further increase in radiation dose to 5.0 kGy, a slight increase in reduction was observed

  4. Survival and Heat Resistance of Listeria monocytogenes after Exposure to Alkali and Chlorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taormina, P. J.; Beuchat, L. R.

    2001-01-01

    A strain of Listeria monocytogenes isolated from a drain in a food-processing plant was demonstrated, by determination of D values, to be more resistant to the lethal effect of heat at 56 or 59°C following incubation for 45 min in tryptose phosphate broth (TPB) at pH 12.0 than to that of incubation for the same time in TPB at pH 7.3. Cells survived for at least 6 days when they were suspended in TPB at pHs 9.0, 10.0, and 11.0 and stored at 4 or 21°C. Cells of L. monocytogenes incubated at 37°C for 45 min and then stored for 48 or 144 h in TPB at pH 10.0 were more resistant to heat treatment at 56°C than were cells stored in TPB at pH 7.3. The alkaline-stress response in L. monocytogenes may induce resistance to otherwise lethal thermal-processing conditions. Treatment of cells in 0.05 M potassium phosphate buffer (pH 7.00 ± 0.05) containing 2.0 or 2.4 mg of free chlorine per liter reduced populations by as much as 1.3 log10 CFU/ml, while treatment with 6.0 mg of free chlorine per liter reduced populations by as much as 4.02 log10 CFU/ml. Remaining subpopulations of chlorine-treated cells exhibited some injury, and cells treated with chlorine for 10 min were more sensitive to heating at 56°C than cells treated for 5 min. Contamination of foods by L. monocytogenes cells that have survived exposure to processing environments ineffectively cleaned or sanitized with alkaline detergents or disinfectants may have more severe implications than previously recognized. Alkaline-pH-induced cross-protection of L. monocytogenes against heat has the potential to enhance survival in minimally processed as well as in heat-and-serve foods and in foods on holding tables, in food service facilities, and in the home. Cells surviving exposure to chlorine, in contrast, are more sensitive to heat; thus, the effectiveness of thermal processing in achieving desired log10-unit reductions is not compromised in these cells. PMID:11375163

  5. Application of fullbore formation microimager logging in the evaluation of anisotropic resistivity in a thin interbed reservoir

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Fei; Bian, Hui-yuan; Gao, Xu-hua; Pan, Bao-zhi

    2016-08-01

    Oil and gas reserves in sand-shale thin interbeds are extensive, but it is a challenge to achieve satisfactory precision in the identification of these interbeds using traditional logging data. Phasor induction and three-component induction logging are appropriate tools for the identification of sand-shale interbeds. Unfortunately, phasor induction data are expensive and three-component induction logging is rarely used in major domestic oil fields. As a result, evaluation of sand-shale thin interbeds heavily depends on a traditional logging suite, general image logging, array lateral logging and array induction logging, and so on. In this paper, we investigate the sand-shale thin interbed region in the northern part of the Sulige field. We propose a comprehensive method of anisotropic evaluation which is based on the combination of wellbore microresistivity image logging (fullbore formation microimage (FMI)) and high-resolution array induction logging (HRLA), where HRLA can be used instead of a traditional logging suite or high-resolution array lateral logging. The proposed method works well in the evaluation of thin interbeds in the northern part of the Sulige field. In this paper, the combination of FMI and deep resistivity of HRLA is used. It should be noted that it is possible to use deep resistivity of conventional laterolog or array induction log instead of HRLA.

  6. Chlorine isotope investigation of natural attenuation of trichloroethene in an aerobic aquifer

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Natural attenuation of chlorinated aliphatic hydrocarbons (CAHs) can be an important mechanism for groundwater remediation. It is difficult to determine the effectiveness of natural CAH attenuation from chemical analyses of groundwater samples because mixing, dispersion, and secondary reactions can mask the chemical evidence of attenuation. In this paper, the authors explore the application of stable chlorine isotope ratio measurements as a new tool for evaluating natural attenuation of CAHs. They report stable isotope ratios of chlorine in both trichloroethene (TCE) and inorganic chloride in groundwater from an aerobic aquifer beneath an extensively contaminated industrial site, the Paducah Gaseous Diffusion Plant in western Kentucky. Variations in the concentrations and chlorine isotope ratios of TCE and chloride in the groundwater are consistent with those expected from natural attenuation. These data support a model in which partial TCE degradation occurred in relatively impermeable, clay-rich sediments above the aquifer, and little or no further degradation of TCE occurred within the aquifer. A record of changing conditions within the TCE source area can be inferred from the spatial variation of chlorine isotope ratios for TCE and chloride within the plume

  7. Photostability of different chlorine photosensitizers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper, we report the photodegradation of three different chlorine photosensitizers (Photoditazine®, Radachlorin®, and Foscan®). The photosensitizer degradation was analyzed by changes in the fluorescence spectrum during illumination. The rate of fluorescence variation was normalized to the solution absorption and the photon energy resulting in the determination of the necessary number of photons to be absorbed to induce photosensitizer photodegradation. The parameter for rate of the molecules decay, the photon fluence rate and optical properties of the solution allow us to determine the photosensitizer stability in solution during illumination. The results show that the order of susceptibility for photodegradation rate is: Radachlorin® < Photoditazine® < Foscan®. This difference in the photodegradation rate for Foscan can be explained by the high proportion of aggregates in solution that inhibit the photo-oxidative process that impede the singlet oxygen formation. We hypothesize that there is a correlation between photodegradation rate and photodynamic efficacy witch is governed by the singlet oxygen formation responsible for the most relevant reaction of the cell death photodynamic induction. Then its is important to know the photostability of different types of drugs since the photodegradation rate, the photodegradation as well as the photodynamic efficacy are strong correlated to the oxygen concentration in the tissue

  8. Chlorine Abundances in Cool Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Maas, Z G; Hinkle, K

    2016-01-01

    Chlorine abundances are reported in 15 evolved giants and one M dwarf in the solar neighborhood. The Cl abundance was measured using the vibration-rotation 1-0 P8 line of H$^{35}$Cl at 3.69851 $\\mu$m. The high resolution L-band spectra were observed using the Phoenix infrared spectrometer on the Kitt Peak Mayall 4m telescope. The average [$^{35}$Cl/Fe] abundance in stars with --0.72$<$[Fe/H]$<$0.20 is [$^{35}$Cl/Fe]=(--0.10$\\pm$0.15) dex. The mean difference between the [$^{35}$Cl/Fe] ratios measured in our stars and chemical evolution model values is (0.16$\\pm$0.15) dex. The [$^{35}$Cl/Ca] ratio has an offset of $\\sim$0.35 dex above model predictions suggesting chemical evolution models are under producing Cl at the high metallicity range. Abundances of C, N, O, Si, and Ca were also measured in our spectral region and are consistent with F and G dwarfs. The Cl versus O abundances from our sample match Cl abundances measured in planetary nebula and \\ion{H}{2} regions. In one star where both H$^{35}$Cl a...

  9. Image Reconstruction for Invasive ERT in Vertical Oil Well Logging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周海力; 徐立军; 曹章; 胡金海; 刘兴斌

    2012-01-01

    An invasive electrical resistance tomographic sensor was proposed for production logging in vertical oil well.The sensor consists of 24 electrodes that are fixed to the logging tool,which can move in the pipeline to acquire data on the conductivity distribution of oil/water mixture flow at different depths.A sensitivity-based algorithm was introduced to reconstruct the cross-sectional images.Analysis on the sensitivity of the sensor to the distribution of oil/water mixture flow was carried out to optimize the position of the imaging cross-section.The imaging results obtained using various boundary conditions at the pipe wall and the logging tool were compared.Eight typical models with various conductivity distributions were created and the measurement data were obtained by solving the forward problem of the sensor system.Image reconstruction was then implemented by using the simulation data for each model.Comparisons between the models and the reconstructed images show that the number and spatial distribution of the oil bubbles can be clearly identified.

  10. Practical borehole logging procedures for mineral exploration, with emphasis on uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Borehole logging is a basic tool in the exploration for and delineation of uranium deposits. This manual describes recommended procedures for carrying out borehole logging, concentrating on practical aspects of the operation of interest to those actually involved in day-to-day field work. The book begins with a discussion of boreholes and then deals with gamma ray logging as the main method of interest. Information is also provided on other techniques including resistance, spontaneous potential, density and neutron logging. Field procedures are described, and examples of logs and interpretations are given. The appendices provide information on calibration procedures and correction factors, a glossary of useful terms and some relevant basic data regarding drill holes and drilling

  11. Cracking the Code: Web Log Analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nicholas, David; Huntington, Paul; Lievesley, Nat; Withey, Richard

    1999-01-01

    Demonstrates the benefits and problems of using Web log analysis to extract information about the global information customer. The Web logs examined were those of "The Times" and "Sunday Times." Highlights include the measures and metrics; the data and its meaning; and analyses with potential (AEF)

  12. Aggregation of log-linear risks

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Embrechts, Paul; Hashorva, Enkeleijd; Mikosch, Thomas Valentin

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we work in the framework of a k-dimensional vector of log-linear risks. Under weak conditions on the marginal tails and the dependence structure of a vector of positive risks, we derive the asymptotic tail behaviour of the aggregated risk {and present} an application concerning log...

  13. Geophysical well logging using nuclear techniques

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Nuclear logging of boreholes is in world-wide use for locating and evaluating commercial deposits of hydrocarbons, coal, uranium and certain other useful minerals. Within the petroleum industry the principal uses of nuclear logs are for correlation between wells, for measuring the porosity of rocks, for identifying hydrocarbons and for determining rock type. The long-spaced, dual detector neutron log is especially used to measure porosity and, in combination with a scattered gamma-ray density log to identify gas. Small-diameter borehole accelerators are used as sources of pulsed 14-MeV neutrons to make routinely neutron die-away logs to distinguish hydrocarbons from salt water in cased holes. New accelerator logs based on spectral gamma-ray measurements are being developed to distinguish hydrocarbons from fresh water and to improve lithology determinations. Natural gamma-ray spectral measurements are used to solve correlation problems and to identify uranium-, thorium- and potassium-rich minerals. In coal exploration natural gamma-ray and scattered gamma-ray density logs are used to locate the coal and, in favourable circumstances, to estimate ash content. For oil shale evaluation the density log has been used in small-diameter holes in Colorado oil shale to determine potential oil yield. A new method of uranium detection based on measurement of delayed fission neutrons produced by bombardment of the formations with 14-MeV neutrons from a pulsed accelerator source has recently been described. (author)

  14. LHCb Online Log Analysis and Maintenance System

    CERN Document Server

    Garnier, J-C

    2011-01-01

    History has shown, many times computer logs are the only information an administrator may have for an incident, which could be caused either by a malfunction or an attack. Due to the huge amount of logs that are produced from large-scale IT infrastructures, such as LHCb Online, critical information may be overlooked or simply be drowned in a sea of other messages. This clearly demonstrates the need for an automatic system for long-term maintenance and real time analysis of the logs. We have constructed a low cost, fault tolerant centralized logging system which is able to do in-depth analysis and cross-correlation of every log. This system is capable of handling O(10000) different log sources and numerous formats, while trying to keep the overhead as low as possible. It provides log gathering and management, Offline analysis and online analysis. We call Offline analysis the procedure of analyzing old logs for critical information, while Online analysis refer to the procedure of early alerting and reacting. ...

  15. Palm distributions for log Gaussian Cox processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coeurjolly, Jean-Francois; Møller, Jesper; Waagepetersen, Rasmus

    This paper reviews useful results related to Palm distributions of spatial point processes and provides a new result regarding the characterization of Palm distributions for the class of log Gaussian Cox processes. This result is used to study functional summary statistics for a log Gaussian Cox...

  16. Data logging system upgrade for Indus accelerator

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An accelerator has various subsystems like Magnet Power Supply, Beam Diagnostics and Vacuum etc. which are required to work in a stable manner to ensure required machine performance. Logging of system parameters at a faster rate plays a crucial role in analysing and understanding machine behaviour. Logging all the machine parameters consistently at the rate of typically more than 1 Hz has been the aim of a recent data logging system upgrade. Nearly ten thousand parameters are being logged at varying intervals of one second to one minute in Indus accelerator complex. The present logging scheme is augmented to log all these parameters at a rate equal to or more than 1 Hz. The database schema is designed according to the data type of the parameter. The data is distributed into historical table and intermediate table which comprises of recent data. Machine control applications read the parameter values from the control system and store them into the text files of finite time duration for each sub-system. The logging application of each sub-system passes these text files to database for bulk insertion. The detail design of database, logging scheme and its architecture is presented in the paper. (author)

  17. Write-Combined Logging: An Optimized Logging for Consistency in NVRAM

    OpenAIRE

    Wenzhe Zhang; Kai Lu; Mikel Luján; Xiaoping Wang; Xu Zhou

    2015-01-01

    Nonvolatile memory (e.g., Phase Change Memory) blurs the boundary between memory and storage and it could greatly facilitate the construction of in-memory durable data structures. Data structures can be processed and stored directly in NVRAM. To maintain the consistency of persistent data, logging is a widely adopted mechanism. However, logging introduces write-twice overhead. This paper introduces an optimized write-combined logging to reduce the writes to NVRAM log. By leveraging the fast-r...

  18. Methodology for planning log stacking using geotechnology and operations research

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mariana Peres de Lima

    2011-09-01

    Full Text Available In view of the need to improve the planning of timber harvest and transportation, with both activities being the most influential in determining the final cost of timber delivered to the mill yard, this work aims to develop a new methodological proposal using operations research and geotechnology tools in order to determine optimal locations for log stacking and also the amount of timber to be allocated to each selected stack. Analysis was performed using two software applications, geographic information system (GIS and operations research (OR. GIS spatial analyses were based on layers of the study site, which is a property owned by Votorantim Celulose e Papel, located in the municipality of São José dos Campos, in order to obtain three variables: degree of difficulty in operating forestry equipment, degree of difficulty in log stacking, and distance between log stacks and existing roadways. To obtain these variables, layers containing information on terrain inclination and existing roadways were combined in another analysis named weighted overlay. Results were then filtered and inserted into an operations research environment for maximization of the timber volume in each selected stack. With results obtained from the geographic information system, 80 potential sites were selected for log stacking. By using operations research, 59 of these sites were ruled out, a 73% reduction in the number of potential sites, with only 21 sites remaining as potentially optimal for log storage. For each of these 21 sites, an optimal amount of timber was determined to be allocated to each one of them.

  19. Processing well logging data, for example for verification and calibration of well logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described of machine processing well logging data derived from borehole exploring devices which investigate earth formations traversed by boreholes. The method can be used for verifying and recalibrating logs, reconstructing missing logs and combining the data to form a statistical model of the traversed earth formations. (U.K.)

  20. Influencing factors and degradation products of antipyrine chlorination in water with free chlorine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiquan Cai; Liqiu Zhang; Fei Qi; Li Feng

    2013-01-01

    Owing to its low cost,free chlorine is one of the most common disinfectants for wastewater and drinking water treatment.However,the formation of disinfection byproducts has been found to occur after free chlorine disinfection in recent decades.Antipyrine (ANT),an anti-inflammatory analgesic,has been frequently detected in the aquatic environment.In this work.the removal efficiency of ANT by free chlorine oxidation in ultrapure water was investigated with batch experiments.The influencing factors on the removal of ANT were explored at initial concentrations of ANT from 0.04 to 0.64 mg/L,free chlorine dosage from 0.30 to 1.31 mg/L,and pH from 1.5 to 9.0.The main degradation products were identified by solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.The results showed that ANT reacted rapidly with free chlorine in ultrapure water systems and up to 90.6% removal efficiency of ANT was achieved after 25 sec (initial free chlorine 1 mg/L,ANT 0.5 mg/L,pH 7.0).Higher oxidant dosage,lower ANT initial concentration and low pH favor the ANT removal.The main degradation product in ANT chlorination was a monochlorine substitution product (4-chloro-l,2-dihydro1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-one),which can be further chlorinated by free chlorine.In addition,the total organic carbon result indicated that ANT is difficult to be mineralized using chlorine.

  1. 3.6. Chlorination of alumina containing waste products

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorination of alumina containing waste products is considered in this article. Based on conducted studies following optimal conditions of chlorination of alumina containing waste products with reducer - coal were found: temperature - 750-850 deg C, chlorination duration -1-1,5 hours, quantity of reducer - 30% and size of particles - 0,1 mm. Based on conducted studies following optimal conditions of chlorination of alumina containing waste products with reducer - natural gas were found: temperature - 650-750 deg C, chlorination duration - 2 hours, chlorine to methane ratio is 4:1 and size of particles - 0,2-0,3 mm.

  2. Mining of Web Server Logs in a Distributed Cluster Using Big Data Technologies

    OpenAIRE

    Savitha K; Vijaya MS

    2014-01-01

    Big Data is an emerging growing dataset beyond the ability of a traditional database tool. Hadoop rides the big data where the massive quantity of information is processed using cluster of commodity hardware. Web server logs are semi-structured files generated by the computer in large volume usually of flat text files. It is utilized efficiently by Mapreduce as it process one line at a time. This paper performs the session identification in log files using Hadoop in a distributed cluster. Apa...

  3. An Evaluation of Clustering and Classification Algorithms in Life-Logging Devices

    OpenAIRE

    Amlinger, Anton

    2015-01-01

    Using life-logging devices and wearables is a growing trend in today’s society. These yield vast amounts of information, data that is not directly overseeable or graspable at a glance due to its size. Gathering a qualitative, comprehensible overview over this quantitative information is essential for life-logging services to serve its purpose. This thesis provides an overview comparison of CLARANS, DBSCAN and SLINK, representing different branches of clustering algorithm types, as tools for a...

  4. Detection of gas hydrate with downhole logs and assessment of gas hydrate concentrations (saturations) and gas volumes on the Blake Ridge with electrical resistivity log data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, T.S.; Ladd, J.

    2000-01-01

    Let 164 of the Ocean Drilling Program was designed to investigate the occurrence of gas hydrate in the sedimentary section beneath the Blake Ridge on the southeastern continental margin of North America. Site 994, and 997 were drilled on the Blake Ridge to refine our understanding of the in situ characteristics of natural gas hydrate. Because gas hydrate is unstable at surface pressure and temperature conditions, a major emphasis was placed on the downhole logging program to determine the in situ physical properties of the gas hydrate-bearing sediments. Downhole logging tool strings deployed on Leg 164 included the Schlumberger quad-combination tool (NGT, LSS/SDT, DIT, CNT-G, HLDT), the Formation MicroScanner (FMS), and the Geochemical Combination Tool (GST). Electrical resistivity (DIT) and acoustic transit-time (LSS/SDT) downhole logs from Sites 994, 995, and 997 indicate the presence of gas hydrate in the depth interval between 185 and 450 mbsf on the Blake Ridge. Electrical resistivity log calculations suggest that the gas hydrate-bearing sedimentary section on the Blake Ridge may contain between 2 and 11 percent bulk volume (vol%) gas hydrate. We have determined that the log-inferred gas hydrates and underlying free-gas accumulations on the Blake Ridge may contain as much as 57 trillion m3 of gas.

  5. Phosphate valorization by dry chlorination route

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanari N.

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available This work deals with the extraction of phosphorus chlorinated compounds from phosphate materials using chlorination with gaseous chlorine. An industrial sample of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, after transformation into calcium pyrophosphate (Ca2P2O7, is subjected to reactions with Cl2+CO+N2 and Cl2+C+N2 at temperatures ranging from 625 to 950°C using boat experiments. Gathering results of the thermodynamic predictions and TG/DT analysis with those of SEM and XRD examinations of the chlorinated residues allowed the interpretation of phenomena and reactions mechanism occurring during the calcium pyrophosphate carbochlorination. Reaction rate of Ca2P2O7 by Cl2+CO+N2 at 950°C is slowed down due to the formation of a CaCl2 liquid layer acting as a barrier for the diffusion of the reactive gases and further reaction progress. While, the carbochlorination with Cl2+C+N2 led to almost full chlorination of Ca2P2O7 at 750°C and the process proceeds with an apparent activation energy of about 104 kJ/mol between 625 and 750°C. Carbochlorination technique can be considered as an alternative and selective route for the valorization of low grade phosphates and for the phosphorus extraction from its bearing materials.

  6. Accumulation of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beyer, W.N. [Patuxent Wildlife Research Center, Laurel, MD (United States)

    1996-12-31

    Chlorinated benzenes are widespread in the environment. Hexachlorobenzene, pentachlorobenzene and all isomers of dichlorobenzenes, trichlorobenzenes, and tetrachlorobenzenes, have been detected in fish, water, and sediments from the Great Lakes. They probably entered the water as leachates from chemical waste dumps and as effluents from manufacturing. Hexachlorobenzene and pentachlorobenzene are commonly present in Herring gull (Larus argentatus) eggs from the Great Lakes, and some of the isomers of trichlorobenzene and tetrachlorobenzene are occasionally detected at low concentrations. Hexachlorobenzene, which was formerly used as a fungicide, has been the most thoroughly studied chlorinated benzene, and has been detected in many species. Its use as a fungicide in the United States was canceled in 1984. Since about 1975 hexachlorobenzene has been formed mainly in the production of chlorinated solvents. It is highly persistent in the environment and some species are poisoned by hexachlorobenzene at very low chronic dietary exposures. As little as 1 ppm in the diet of mink (Mustela vison) reduced the birth weights of young, and 5 ppm in the diet of Japanese quail (Coturnix coturnix japonica) caused slight liver damage. This paper describes a long-term (26 wk) experiment relating the concentrations of chlorinated benzenes in earthworms to length of exposure and three 8 wk experiments relating concentration to the concentration in soil the soil organic matter content, and the degree of chlorination. 20 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  7. Methods of generating synthetic acoustic logs from resistivity logs for gas-hydrate-bearing sediments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Myung W.

    1999-01-01

    Methods of predicting acoustic logs from resistivity logs for hydrate-bearing sediments are presented. Modified time average equations derived from the weighted equation provide a means of relating the velocity of the sediment to the resistivity of the sediment. These methods can be used to transform resistivity logs into acoustic logs with or without using the gas hydrate concentration in the pore space. All the parameters except the unconsolidation constants, necessary for the prediction of acoustic log from resistivity log, can be estimated from a cross plot of resistivity versus porosity values. Unconsolidation constants in equations may be assumed without rendering significant errors in the prediction. These methods were applied to the acoustic and resistivity logs acquired at the Mallik 2L-38 gas hydrate research well drilled at the Mackenzie Delta, northern Canada. The results indicate that the proposed method is simple and accurate.

  8. Surface water disinfection by chlorination and advanced oxidation processes: Inactivation of an antibiotic resistant E. coli strain and cytotoxicity evaluation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miranda, Andreza Costa; Lepretti, Marilena; Rizzo, Luigi; Caputo, Ivana; Vaiano, Vincenzo; Sacco, Olga; Lopes, Wilton Silva; Sannino, Diana

    2016-06-01

    The release of antibiotics into the environment can result in antibiotic resistance (AR) spread, which in turn can seriously affect human health. Antibiotic resistant bacteria have been detected in different aquatic environments used as drinking water source. Water disinfection may be a possible solution to minimize AR spread but conventional processes, such as chlorination, result in the formation of dangerous disinfection by-products. In this study advanced oxidation processes (AOPs), namely H2O2/UV, TiO2/UV and N-TiO2/UV, have been compared with chlorination in the inactivation of an AR Escherichia coli (E. coli) strain in surface water. TiO2 P25 and nitrogen doped TiO2 (N-TiO2), prepared by sol-gel method at two different synthesis temperatures (0 and -20°C), were investigated in heterogeneous photocatalysis experiments. Under the investigated conditions, chlorination (1.0mgL(-1)) was the faster process (2.5min) to achieve total inactivation (6 Log). Among AOPs, H2O2/UV resulted in the best inactivation rate: total inactivation (6 Log) was achieved in 45min treatment. Total inactivation was not observed (4.5 Log), also after 120min treatment, only for N-doped TiO2 synthesized at 0°C. Moreover, H2O2/UV and chlorination processes were evaluated in terms of cytotoxicity potential by means of 3-(4,5-dime-thylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenylte-trazolium colorimetric test on a human-derived cell line and they similarly affected HepG2 cells viability. PMID:26945469

  9. Sample Log For International Mudlogging Projects

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Wei Xinghua; Yang Haibo; Andrew Romolliwa

    2000-01-01

    Accurate sample logging is very essential part of mud logging at wellsite. During the logging work of the foreign cooperation mudlogging projects, the description of drillling cuttings (sample) required by the foreign companies is quite different from what we did at home.This paper is intended to give some ideas of description of sample at wellsite with the reference of the guidance of standards of several foreign companies and the working experiences of the author, also some problems that the geologists should pay attention to during the description of sample at wellsite.

  10. Computer vision technology in log volume inspection

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    Log volume inspection is very important in forestry research and paper making engineering. This paper proposed a novel approach based on computer vision technology to cope with log volume inspection. The needed hardware system was analyzed and the details of the inspection algorithms were given. A fuzzy entropy based on image enhancement algorithm was presented for enhancing the image of the cross-section of log. In many practical applications the cross-section is often partially invisible, and this is the major obstacle for correct inspection. To solve this problem, a robust Hausdorff distance method was proposed to recover the whole cross-section. Experiment results showed that this method was efficient.

  11. Radioactive logging parameters for common minerals

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmundson, H.; Raymer, L.L.

    1979-09-01

    This paper presents a list of about seventy minerals encountered in sedimentary formations together with their associated radioactive logging parameters. A procedure to calculate the radioactive parameters is given, and exact details are furnished for all logs but the neutron, which requires extensive and complex computation. It is significant that without considering rare elements such as boron, the computed neutron porosities assuming a thermal detecting device are consistently higher in shales, micas and zeolites than with an epithermal detecting device. This confirms our experience in the field. It is hoped that this compilation will serve as a qualititative aid in gauging the effect of most common minerals on the usual radioactive logging devices.

  12. Radioactive logging parameters for common minerals

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents a list of about seventy minerals encountered in sedimentary formations together with their associated radioactive logging parameters. A procedure to calculate the radioactive parameters is given, and exact details are furnished for all logs but the neutron, which requires extensive and complex computation. It is significant that without considering rare elements such as boron, the computed neutron porosities assuming a thermal detecting device are consistently higher in shales, micas and zeolites than with an epithermal detecting device. This confirms our experience in the field. It is hoped that this compilation will serve as a qualititative aid in gauging the effect of most common minerals on the usual radioactive logging devices

  13. Separation of niobium from ferroniobium by chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Separation of niobium from ferroniobium by chlorine metallurgy were investigated. The chlorination of ferroniobium by chlorine gas was carried out under several thermodynamic conditions and the effective conditions were determined. Preliminary separation of niobium pentachloride from ferric chloride is possible by selective condensation with temperature gradient techniques. Selective reduction of ferric chloride to ferrous chloride by iron powder was done to separate niobium pentachloride by their volatility difference. Separation of niobium pentachloride from ferric chloride using organic solvent was tested. The niobium pentachloride with high purity could be separated effectively from ferroniobium chlorides by selective reduction of ferric chloride and selective dissolution of niobium pentachloride in organic solvent. A new dry process which has the possibility of industrial application is presented. (Author

  14. Investigation of molybdenum pentachloride interaction with chlorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In Raman spectra of molybdenum pentachloride solutions in liquid chlorine lines were recorded in case of 397, 312, 410, 217 and 180 cm-1 vibrations of ν1(A1'), ν2(A1'), ν5(E'), ν6(E') and ν8(E'') monomer (symmetry D3h) molecules of MoCl5. Interaction of molten molybdenum pentachloride with chlorine at increased (up to 6 MPa) pressures of Cl2 was studied. In Raman spectra of its vapour distillation in liquid chlorine alongside with MoCl5 lines appearance of new lines at 363 and 272 cm-1, similar in their frequency to the ones calculated for the vibrations ν1(A1g) and ν2(Eg) of MoCl6 molecules (symmetry Oh), was observed

  15. Simultaneous chlorination and sulphation of calcined limestone

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukata, M.; Takeda, K.; Miyatain, T.; Ueyama, K. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Dept. of Chemical Engineering

    1996-06-01

    In order to analyze HCl and SO{sub 2} retention in fluidized bed combustors of coal and wastes, chlorination and sulphation of calcined limestone were investigated at 1023 K and atmospheric pressure using thermogravimetry. The rate of chlorination of calcined limestone slightly depended on its particle size and was kept almost constant against the progress of chlorination. In contrast, the rate of sulphation increased with decreasing particle size and steeply decreased with the progress of sulphation as commonly reported. It was found that the sulphation was markedly accelerated in the presence of HCl. Such acceleration of sulphation was remarkable for larger limestone. The level of conversion of CaO to (CaSO{sub 4} + CaCl{sub 2}) always approached 100% in the simultaneous absorption of HCl and SO{sub 2}. It was observed by SEM that in the chlorination a number of spherical aggregates and large voids were formed on the surface of limestone and that large aggregates with very flat surface and large voids have been formed in the course of the simultaneous chlorination and sulphation. The chlorination behavior and the acceleration of SO{sub 2} absorption in the presence of HCl can be due both to the formation of a mobile Cl{sup -} ion-containing phase and to the formation of voids playing a role of the diffusion paths for HCl and SO{sub 2} toward the interior of a limestone particle. Melting of a eutectic mixture of CaCl{sub 2} and CaSO{sub 4} might largely contribute to the promotion of SO{sub 2} absorption in the case of simultaneous absorption of HCl and SO{sub 2}. 8 refs., 4 figs.

  16. Occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria M; Olsen, Jorn; Villeneuve, Sara;

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the potential association between occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides (MF).......To evaluate the potential association between occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides (MF)....

  17. The effects of low level chlorination and chlorine dioxide on biofouling control in a once-through service water system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Continuous chlorination has been successfully used for the control of Corbicula at a nuclear power plant located on the Chattahoochee River in southeastern Alabama, since 1986. The purpose of this study was to investigate further minimization of chlorine usage and determine if chlorine dioxide is a feasible alternative. Four continuous biocide treatments were evaluated for macro and microfouling control effectiveness, operational feasibility, and environmental acceptability. One semi-continuous chlorination treatment was also evaluated for macrofouling control effectiveness. Higher treatment residuals were possible with chlorine dioxide than with chlorination due to the river discharge limitations. At the levels tested, continuous chlorine dioxide was significantly more effective in providing both macro and microfouling control. Semi-continuous chlorination was just as effective as continuous chlorination for controlling macrofouling. The Corbicula treatment programs that were tested should all provide sufficient control for zebra mussels. Chlorine dioxide was not as cost effective as chlorination for providing macrofouling control. The semi-continuous treatment save 50% on chemical usage and will allow for the simultaneous treatment of two service water systems. Chlorite levels produced during the chlorine dioxide treatments were found to be environmentally acceptable. Levels of trihalomethanes in the chlorinated service water were less than the maximum levels allowed in drinking water

  18. Prediction and Simulation the Breakthrough of Residual Chlorine Removal by Granular Activated Carbon Adsorbent Using Artificial Neural Networks

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rusul Naseer

    2012-07-01

    Full Text Available This study has included two parts. The first part has dealt with carbon production whereas the date Palm was used to produce Granular Activated Carbon (GAC with specific physical characteristics. The new produced of GAC is used to adsorbate the Residual chlorine from water by deep bed filter column. In the second part, the experimental results of the breakthrough of residual chlorine curves is predicted and simulated using artificial neural network with back propagation algorithm whereas the optimum number of neuron was investigated based on RMSE. The removal of residual chlorine has been used as target function in ANN while the other properties of adsorption process such as operation conditions, chlorine concentration in raw water and GAC characteristics has been used as input parameters. The results showed that ANN with back propagation algorithm is a good tool that can be used to predict the best operating parameter for designing GAC layer in multimedia filter whereas 35 neuron gave the best fitting with experimental data. In addition to that, the simulation result was showed that the predictions of breakthrough curve model has been coincided well with the measured values which explained that the depth 25 cm with grain size 1.5 mm of GAC filter bed will be give the optimum removal of residual chlorine from chlorinated water.

  19. LATTE - Log and Time Tracking for Elections

    Data.gov (United States)

    Office of Personnel Management — LATTE - Log and Time Tracking for Elections is a time tracking and voucher preparation system used to schedule employees to cover elections, to document their time...

  20. Well Logging Equipment Updated in China

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xu Lili

    1996-01-01

    @@ As one of the ten principal disciplines in the petroleum industry, well logging has been developed for about 55years in China and is playing an increasingly important role in the country's oil and gas exploration and development.

  1. CMLOG: A common message logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Common Message Logging (CMLOG) system is an object-oriented and distributed system that not only allows applications and systems to log data (messages) of any type into a centralized database but also lets applications view incoming messages in real-time or retrieve stored data from the database according to selection rules. It consists of a concurrent Unix server that handles incoming logging or searching messages, a Motif browser that can view incoming messages in real-time or display stored data in the database, a client daemon that buffers and sends logging messages to the server, and libraries that can be used by applications to send data to or retrieve data from the database via the server. This paper presents the design and implementation of the CMLOG system meanwhile it will also address the issue of integration of CMLOG into existing control systems. CMLOG into existing control systems

  2. Supply of Rubber Wood Log in Malaysia

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Noraida

    2014-06-01

    Full Text Available Issue on shortage of raw material for wood processing solved by discovery of rubber wood log as one of the substitutes the natural log. This paper examines the supply of rubber wood log in Malaysia. We employ ARDL Bound Approach Test and time series data from 1980 to 2010 which represented the whole Malaysia are used to achieve the established objectives. The result shown, in the long run harvested area and wages have 1% and 10% significant level respectively. While in the short run, there was only harvested area having an impact with 1% significant level. This result indicates that, the harvested area become the most impact towards supply of rubber wood log either in short run or in the long run. While wages as input cost gave less impact in another word it become unburden to the producers.

  3. Review of chlorination of zirconium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of chlorination zirconium dioxide is presented.used semi batch process with vertical reactor, horizontal reactor and fluidized reactor. The feed were zircon dioxide from Aldrich, direct zircon sand and briquette of zircon sand. From the study it is obtained that the best reactor is vertical reactor.It needs modification of chlorination reactor and sublimator to obtain the larger conversion. It is come to reality that zirconium tetrachloride preparation by process is significant with zirconium tetrachloride from Aldrich. It needs the sequel research to get the best result of process. (author)

  4. Chlorinated organic compounds produced by Fusarium graminearum.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ntushelo, Khayalethu

    2016-06-01

    Fusarium graminearum, a pathogen of wheat and maize, not only reduces grain yield and degrades quality but also produces mycotoxins in the infected grain. Focus has been on mycotoxins because of the human and animal health hazards associated with them. In addition to work done on mycotoxins, chemical profiling of F. graminearum to identify other compounds produced by this fungus remains critical. With chemical profiling of F. graminearum the entire chemistry of this fungus can be understood. The focus of this work was to identify chlorinated compounds produced by F. graminearum. Various chlorinated compounds were detected and their role in F. graminearum is yet to be understood. PMID:27165533

  5. Accuracy and borehole influences in pulsed neutron gamma density logging while drilling

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A new pulsed neutron gamma density (NGD) logging has been developed to replace radioactive chemical sources in oil logging tools. The present paper describes studies of near and far density measurement accuracy of NGD logging at two spacings and the borehole influences using Monte-Carlo simulation. The results show that the accuracy of near density is not as good as far density. It is difficult to correct this for borehole effects by using conventional methods because both near and far density measurement is significantly sensitive to standoffs and mud properties. - Highlights: → Monte Carlo evaluation of pulsed neutron gamma-ray density tools. → Results indicate sensitivity of the tool to standoff and mudcake properties. → Accuracy of far spaced detector is better than near spaced.

  6. Analyzing Log Files using Data-Mining

    OpenAIRE

    Marius Mihut

    2008-01-01

    Information systems (i.e. servers, applications and communication devices) create a large amount of monitoring data that are saved as log files. For analyzing them, a data-mining approach is helpful. This article presents the steps which are necessary for creating an ‘analyzing instrument’, based on an open source software called Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (Weka) [1]. For exemplification, a system log file created by a Windows-based operating system, is used as input file.

  7. Conversation Threads Hidden within Email Server Logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palus, Sebastian; Kazienko, Przemysław

    Email server logs contain records of all email Exchange through this server. Often we would like to analyze those emails not separately but in conversation thread, especially when we need to analyze social network extracted from those email logs. Unfortunately each mail is in different record and those record are not tided to each other in any obvious way. In this paper method for discussion threads extraction was proposed together with experiments on two different data sets - Enron and WrUT..

  8. DOE/Simplec magnetic susceptibility logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A magnetic susceptibility logging system has been developed which is relatively stable under normal field logging conditions and which produces logs that accurately represent in situ variations in magnetic susceptibility. However, both field and laboratory tests indicate the need for further improvement of temperature stabilization and bridge compensation; a new generation system designed by Simplec may fill that need. A cubic granite block with a magnetic susceptibility of 385 μCGS is designated as the primary calibration standard and is available for public use at the DOE facility in Grand Junction, Colorado. Models are also available for characterization of magnetic susceptibility systems. These include models to provide borehole size correction factors, thin layer interpretation parameters, reproducibility limits, longitudinal resolution, and radius of investigation. The DOE/Simplec system has a 99-percent radius of investigation, approximately equal to the coil length (15 inches), and a 99-percent thickness of investigation, approximately equal to two coil lengths. The true magnetic susceptibility and thickness of isolated layers less than two coil lengths in thickness can be obtained through use of parameters measured from their log responses. Field tests show that the system has a reproducibility of at least 5 μCGS and that logging at 25 ft/min is a good compromise between speed of operation and keeping the probe on the sidewall. Comparison of log and core magnetic susceptibility measurements confirms the fact that the logging system samples a rather large volume and that interpretive aids are necessary to unfold the true variation of magnetic susceptibility with depth. Finally, logs from known uranium-favorable environments show that magnetic susceptibility measurements can give an indication of the degree of geochemical alteration, which is one of the uranium-favorable haloes sought by exploration geologists

  9. Selective Logging, Fire, and Biomass in Amazonia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Houghton, R. A.

    1999-01-01

    Biomass and rates of disturbance are major factors in determining the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere, and neither of them is well known for most of the earth's surface. Satellite data over large areas are beginning to be used systematically to measure rates of two of the most important types of disturbance, deforestation and reforestation, but these are not the only types of disturbance that affect carbon storage. Other examples include selective logging and fire. In northern mid-latitude forests, logging and subsequent regrowth of forests have, in recent decades, contributed more to the net flux of carbon between terrestrial ecosystems and the atmosphere than any other type of land use. In the tropics logging is also becoming increasingly important. According to the FAO/UNEP assessment of tropical forests, about 25% of total area of productive forests have been logged one or more times in the 60-80 years before 1980. The fraction must be considerably greater at present. Thus, deforestation by itself accounts for only a portion of the emissions carbon from land. Furthermore, as rates of deforestation become more accurately measured with satellites, uncertainty in biomass will become the major factor accounting for the remaining uncertainty in estimates of carbon flux. An approach is needed for determining the biomass of terrestrial ecosystems. 3 Selective logging is increasingly important in Amazonia, yet it has not been included in region-wide, satellite-based assessments of land-cover change, in part because it is not as striking as deforestation. Nevertheless, logging affects terrestrial carbon storage both directly and indirectly. Besides the losses of carbon directly associated with selective logging, logging also increases the likelihood of fire.

  10. Applying time series analysis to performance logs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubacki, Marcin; Sosnowski, Janusz

    2015-09-01

    Contemporary computer systems provide mechanisms for monitoring various performance parameters (e.g. processor or memory usage, disc or network transfers), which are collected and stored in performance logs. An important issue is to derive characteristic features describing normal and abnormal behavior of the systems. For this purpose we use various schemes of analyzing time series. They have been adapted to the specificity of performance logs and verified using data collected from real systems. The presented approach is useful in evaluating system dependability.

  11. Defect core detection in radiata pine logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Internal defect cores in Pinus radiata logs arise primarily from the practice in New Zealand of pruning trees to increase the amount of clear wood. Realising the benefits of this practice when milling the logs is hampered by the lack of a practical method for detecting the defect cores. This report attempts to establish industry requirements for detections and examine techniques which may be suitable. Some trials of a novel technique are described. (author) 19 refs.; 11 figs

  12. Critical care procedure logging using handheld computers

    OpenAIRE

    Carlos Martinez-Motta, J; Walker, Robin; Stewart, Thomas E; Granton, John; Abrahamson, Simon; Lapinsky, Stephen E

    2004-01-01

    Introduction We conducted this study to evaluate the feasibility of implementing an internet-linked handheld computer procedure logging system in a critical care training program. Methods Subspecialty trainees in the Interdepartmental Division of Critical Care at the University of Toronto received and were trained in the use of Palm handheld computers loaded with a customized program for logging critical care procedures. The procedures were entered into the handheld device using checkboxes an...

  13. Geophysical logging of the Harwell boreholes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A comprehensive geophysical borehole logging survey was carried out on each of three deep boreholes drilled at the Harwell research site. KOALA and PETRA computer programs were used to analyse and interpret the logs to obtain continuous quantitative estimates of the geological and hydrogeological properties of the sequences penetrated at the Harwell site. Quantitative estimates of the mineral composition and porosity of the cores samples were made. (UK)

  14. Electronic properties, doping and defects in chlorinated silicon nanocrystals

    OpenAIRE

    de Carvalho, A.; Öberg, S; Rayson, M. J.; Briddon, P. R.

    2011-01-01

    Silicon nanocrystals with diameters between 1 and 3 nm and surfaces passivated by chlorine or a mixture of chlorine and hydrogen were modeled using density functional theory, and their properties compared with those of fully hydrogenated nanocrystals. It is found that fully and partially chlorinated nanocrystals are stable, and have higher electron affinity, higher ionization energy and lower optical absorption energy threshold. As the hydrogenated silicon nanocrystals, chlorinated silicon na...

  15. Attacks of Asthma due to Chlorinized Water: Case Report

    OpenAIRE

    Murat Eyup Berdan; Ercan Gocgeldi; Sami Ozturk; Ali Kutlu

    2008-01-01

    The presence of a high prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma-like symptoms in swimmers has been reported. But, attacks of asthma which is related to chlorinized water is rare. Chlorine, a strong oxidizing agent, is an important toxic gas that the swimmer can breath during swimming and a worker can exposed to chlorine while he or she was using water with chlorine at home. We describe a persistent increase in nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness following chronic exposure ...

  16. Immunofluorescence and morphology of Giardia lamblia cysts exposed to chlorine.

    OpenAIRE

    Sauch, J F; Berman, D

    1991-01-01

    Giardia cyst-like objects detected by immunofluorescence in chlorinated water samples often cannot be positively identified by their morphological appearance. To determine the effect of chlorine on cyst immunofluorescence and morphology, Giardia lamblia cysts were exposed to chlorine for 48 h. The majority of cysts exposed to chlorine concentrations of 1 to 11 mg/liter at 5 and 15 degrees C lost their internal morphological characteristics necessary for identification, but most of them were s...

  17. The evolution of the LEP logging database

    CERN Document Server

    Billen, R

    1995-01-01

    In January 1992, a project was started to create a system, using an on-line ORACLE database, to allow logging of a multitude of data on the Large Electron Positron Collider (LEP). The aim of this project was to log particle beam characteristics, physics parameters, hardware settings and environmental conditions. Storing and keeping track of this heterogeneous data for a period of at least one year would permit a better understanding of the behavior of the fairly new LEP Collider.After using the logging system for almost four years, nearly three years of which in full operation, the reliability and performance has been proved, endorsing the design of the database and surrounding software. Moreover, the large number of users of the logging database and the huge amount of new requests for data logging shows the high activity and usefulness of this system. Furthermore, in the context of the 1993 and 1995 energy scans, the logged data turns out to be indispensable for thorough monitoring of the LEP beam energy, wh...

  18. Quantification of pathogen inactivation efficacy by free chlorine disinfection of drinking water for QMRA.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petterson, S R; Stenström, T A

    2015-09-01

    To support the implementation of quantitative microbial risk assessment (QMRA) for managing infectious risks associated with drinking water systems, a simple modeling approach for quantifying Log10 reduction across a free chlorine disinfection contactor was developed. The study was undertaken in three stages: firstly, review of the laboratory studies published in the literature; secondly, development of a conceptual approach to apply the laboratory studies to full-scale conditions; and finally implementation of the calculations for a hypothetical case study system. The developed model explicitly accounted for variability in residence time and pathogen specific chlorine sensitivity. Survival functions were constructed for a range of pathogens relying on the upper bound of the reported data transformed to a common metric. The application of the model within a hypothetical case study demonstrated the importance of accounting for variable residence time in QMRA. While the overall Log10 reduction may appear high, small parcels of water with short residence time can compromise the overall performance of the barrier. While theoretically simple, the approach presented is of great value for undertaking an initial assessment of a full-scale disinfection contactor based on limited site-specific information. PMID:26322749

  19. Chlorine Gas: An Evolving Hazardous Material Threat and Unconventional Weapon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jones, Robert MD

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chlorine gas represents a hazardous material threat from industrial accidents and as a terrorist weapon. This review will summarize recent events involving chlorine disasters and its use by terrorists, discuss pre-hospital considerations and suggest strategies for the initial management for acute chlorine exposure events. [West J Emerg Med. 2010; 11(2:151-156.

  20. Blends of caprolactam/caprolactone copolymers and chlorinated polymers

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Alberda van Ekenstein, G.O.R.; Deuring, H.; ten Brinke, G.; Ellis, T.S.

    1997-01-01

    The phase behaviour of blends of chlorinated polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated PVC with random copolymers of caprolactone and caprolactam has been investigated and the results correlated with a binary interaction model. The known miscibility of polycaprolactone in the chlorinate

  1. Neutral chlorine and molecular hydrogen at high redshift

    CERN Document Server

    Balashev, S A; Klimenko, V V; Petitjean, P; Srianand, R; Ledoux, C; Ivanchik, A V; Varshalovich, D A

    2015-01-01

    Chlorine and molecular hydrogen are known to be tightly linked together in the cold phase of the local interstellar medium through rapid chemical reactions. We present here the first systematic study of this relation at high redshifts using H$_2$-bearing damped Ly$\\alpha$ systems (DLAs) detected along quasar lines of sight. Using high-resolution spectroscopic data from VLT/UVES and Keck/HIRES, we report the detection of Cl$\\,$I in 9 DLAs (including 5 new detections) out of 18 high-$z$ DLAs with $N($H$_2) \\ge 10^{17.3}\\,$cm$^{-2}$ (including a new H$_2$ detection at $z=3.09145$ towards J$\\,$2100$-$0641) and present upper limits for the remaining 9 systems. We find a $\\sim$5$\\,\\sigma$ correlation between $N$(Cl$\\,$I) and $N$(H$_2$) with only $\\sim$0.2$\\,$dex dispersion over the range 18.1$\\,<\\,$log$\\,N$(H$_2$)$\\,<\\,$20.1, thus probing column densities 10 times lower those seen towards nearby stars, roughly following the relation $N$(Cl$\\,$I$) \\approx 1.5\\times10^{-6} \\times N($H$_2)$. This relation betwee...

  2. Photoneutron logging system for direct uranium ore-grade determination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A prototype photoneutron probe for direct uranium assay in exploratory boreholes has been built and field tested. An approx. 10-Ci 124Sb gamma-ray source together with a beryllium converter is used to produce neutrons that diffuse into the surrounding formation and cause fissions in any 235U present. The fission neutrons that return to the probe are energy analyzed and counted by a high-pressure helium detector, thus indicating the concentration of uranium. The response of the probe was measured in concrete models at the US Department of Energy (Grand Junction, Colorado) calibration facility and found to be approx. 35 counts/s for an 1% U3O8 concentration in an 11.4-cm-diam water-filled borehole (4.5 in.). The response is linear up to a concentration of at least 0.25% by weight U3O8. Effects resulting from changes in formation density, porosity, and neutron absorber content were also quantified, as well as the tool response as a function of borehole diameter and fluid. A logging vehicle was outfitted, and the photoneutron-based logging system was field tested at an exploration site near Canon City, Colorado. Logging data obtained in several open holes at this site are presented and compared to core chemical analyses and results obtained in the same holes using other logging methods. In about 1 month of field testing, the photoneutron-based uranium exploration system has proved to be simple to use and very reliable. 22 figures, 12 tables

  3. On-site assessment of rock discontinuities from resistivity logs. T-L log: A new logging technique

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tselentis, Gerasimos-Akis

    1986-03-01

    The direct on-site assessment of the vertical distribution of discontinuities to rock masses is very important since it can give a first estimation of the hydraulic properties of the strata and has many practical applications, such as groundwater resources investigations, radioactive and toxic waste disposal, dam foundation site investigations, etc. In the present work, the effect that fractures have upon some geophysical parameters which can easily be determined from the analysis of conventional normal resistivity logs is examined and a new technique for the on-site processing of resistivity logging data is introduced. Using a microcomputer in series with the logging unit, a zonation process was applied to the logs, which were interpreted in terms of a series of beds, each having a specific thickness and resistivity, and a new parameter defined by the difference between transverse and longitudinal resistivities was computed (T-L log). In almost all the cases that the method was applied, the obtained results were satisfactory and the microcomputer-based software and hardware package that was developed for the automatic processing of the data proved to be very efficient.

  4. Website entries from a web log file perspective : a new log file measure

    OpenAIRE

    Mayr, Philipp

    2004-01-01

    Web log files record user transactions on webservers and offer due to their extent, their properties and potential an excellent investigation field for contemporary information and online behaviour studies [see also Nicholas et al., 1999]. Web log files actually offer the possibility to extract information about user access pattern, site visibility and site interlinking [see also Thelwall, 2001]. Furthermore web log file are excellent sources for informational investigations such as tracking ...

  5. LOG2MARKUP: State module to transform a Stata text log into a markup document

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2016-01-01

    log2markup extract parts of the text version from the Stata log command and transform the logfile into a markup based document with the same name, but with extension markup (or otherwise specified in option extension) instead of log. The author usually uses markdown for writing documents. However...... other users may decide on all sorts of markup languages, eg HTML or LaTex. The key is that markup of Stata code and Stata output can be set by the options....

  6. 46 CFR 151.50-31 - Chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... desired rate of discharge, provided the air or gas is oil-free and thoroughly dried by passing it over activated aluminum oxide, silica gel, or other acceptable drying agent, and provided the supply pressure is...-resistant to chlorine in either the gas or liquid phase. Cast or malleable iron shall not be used....

  7. Chlorinated tyrosine derivatives in insect cuticle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, Svend Olav

    2004-01-01

    , not-yet sclerotized cuticle of adult femur and tibia, the amounts increased rapidly during the first 24 h after ecdysis and more slowly during the next two weeks. Control analyses using stable isotope dilution mass spectrometry have confirmed that the chlorinated tyrosines are not artifacts formed...

  8. Chlorinated organic compounds in urban river sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soma, Y.; Shiraishi, H.; Inaba, K. [National Inst. of Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Among anthropogenic chemicals, many chlorinated organic compounds have been used as insecticides and detected frequently as contaminants in urban river sediments so far. However, the number and total amount of chemicals produced commercially and used are increasing year by year, though each amount of chemicals is not so high. New types of contaminants in the environment may be detected by the use of newly developed chemicals. Chlorinated organic compounds in the urban river sediments around Tokyo and Kyoto, large cities in Japan, were surveyed and recent trends of contaminants were studied. Contaminants of the river sediments in industrial areas had a variety, but PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) was detected in common in industrial areas. Concentration of PCB related well to the number of factories on both sides of rivers, although the use of PCB was stopped 20 years ago. In domestic areas, Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-phenol) and Triclocarban (3,4,4{prime}-trichlorocarbanilide)(both are contained in soap or shampoo for fungicides), p-dichlorobenzene (insecticides for wears) and TCEP(tris-chloroethyl phosphate) were detected. EOX(extracted organic halogen) in the sediments was 5 to 10 times of chlorinated organic compounds detected by GC/MS. Major part of organic halogen was suggested to be included in chlorinated organics formed by bleaching or sterilization.

  9. Anaerobic biodegradability and toxicity of wastewaters from chlorine and total chlorine-free bleaching of eucalyptus kraft pulps.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Vidal, G.; Soto, M.; Field, J.; Mendez-Pampin, R.; Lema, J.M.

    1997-01-01

    Chlorine bleaching effluents are problematic for anaerobic wastewater treatment due to their high methanogenic toxicity and low biodegradability. Presently, alternative bleaching processes are being introduced, such as elemental chlorine-free (ECF) and total chlorine-free (TCF) bleaching. The methan

  10. Cellular Response of the Amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii to Chlorine, Chlorine Dioxide, and Monochloramine Treatments ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Mogoa, Emerancienne; Bodet, Charles; Morel, Franck; Rodier, Marie-Hélène; Legube, Bernard; Héchard, Yann

    2011-01-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii is a free-living amoebae commonly found in water systems. Free-living amoebae might be pathogenic but are also known to bear phagocytosis-resistant bacteria, protecting these bacteria from water treatments. The mode of action of these treatments is poorly understood, particularly on amoebae. It is important to examine the action of these treatments on amoebae in order to improve them. The cellular response to chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine was tested o...

  11. La logística integral como ventaja competitiva y sistema logístico

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mario Anselmo Martínez gallardo

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Esta investigación analiza la logística integral como una ventaja competitiva y el sistema logístico. Es opinión de los autores que la logística integral es esencial para el intercambio de mercancías, toda vez que reduce costos y hace más ágil la actividad comercial. La utilización de esta logística representa una ventaja competitiva con respecto de otras empresas por la optimización del capital y ahorro de tiempo.

  12. Verification of oxygen cross section data for oil well logging applications

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The carbon/oxygen logging tools used in the petroleum industry to determine the ratio of the number of carbon to the number of oxygen nuclei in the formation surrounding the tool, and in this way the oil to water ratio, relies on a good knowledge on the oxygen and carbon cross sections in particular. The objective of this work is to investigate the importance of the oxygen cross section with respect to the needs of the oil well logging applications, and to state the quality of the presently available evaluations. For a few typical oil well logging geometries the radiation transport calculations combined with the cross section sensitivity analyses were performed. The sensitivity profiles of the 3 to 7 MeV gamma rays in the detectors (roughly corresponding to the energy windows used for carbon and oxygen logging) with respect to the major nuclear reaction types of oxygen very obtained, indicating the nuclear data important for oil well logging. Finally, the FNS/JAERI Liquid Oxygen Time-of-Flight benchmark experiment, involving the measurement of the angular neutron spectra leading from a 20 cm liquid oxygen slab, and covering the energy range relevant for oil well logging applications, was analyzed in order to determine the actual state-of-the-art of the oxygen nuclear data. The benchmark experiment was analyzed using the discrete ordinates transport code DORT and compared to the results of the Monte Carlo code MCNP-4B. (author)

  13. FLOZ-the computer program for the primary interpretation of nuclear borehole logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the FLOZ program for nuclear well logging data interpretation. Program has been written in FORTRAN 1900 language for ODRA 1300 computers. The description of the program possibilities and the ways of its application are given. Short presentation of the interpretation method used here and the description of the program work with its complete listing, together with the explanatory commentaries are also presented. The type of interpretation performed by the program depends upon the kind of nuclear logging of interest. For neutron-gamma and gamma-gamma logging the program introduces the corrections for the following disturbing factors: the ratemeter time constant, the logging speed, the apparatus dead time, the gamma-ray background. The gamma-ray logging is corrected for the following disturbing factors: ratemeter time constant, the logging speed, the apparatus dead time of tool, borehole radius, gamma-ray absorbtion in the borehole liquid and the finite thickness of the layers. The calibration constant for gamma-ray probe can be introduced for calculations of radioactivity ore grades. The log deflections being the input data for the FLOZ program, are taken from specially prepared magnetic tape. The results of interpretation are written on magnetic tape, according to the X3GY system for the ODRA 1300 computers. The method of interpretation which is applicated in program FLOZ was elaborated by Prof. J.A. Czubek from Institute of Nuclear Physics in Cracow. (author)

  14. Reaction products of aquatic humic substances with chlorine.

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, J D; Christman, R F; Norwood, D L; Millington, D S

    1982-01-01

    A major concern of the chlorination of aquatic humic materials is the ubiquitous production of trihalomethanes. A large number of other chlorinated organic compounds, however, have been shown to be formed by chlorine's reaction with humic substances. In this study, humic material was concentrated from a coastal North Carolina lake and chlorinated at a chlorine to carbon mole ratio of 1.5 at pH 12. A high pH was necessary for complete dissolution of the humic material and for production of ade...

  15. Web application for recording learners’ mouse trajectories and retrieving their study logs for data analysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yoshinori Miyazaki

    2012-03-01

    Full Text Available With the accelerated implementation of e-learning systems in educational institutions, it has become possible to record learners’ study logs in recent years. It must be admitted that little research has been conducted upon the analysis of the study logs that are obtained. In addition, there is no software that traces the mouse movements of learners during their learning processes, which the authors believe would enable teachers to better understand their students’ behaviors. The objective of this study is to develop a Web application that records students’ study logs, including their mouse trajectories, and to devise an IR tool that can summarize such diversified data. The results of an experiment are also scrutinized to provide an analysis of the relationship between learners’ activities and their study logs.

  16. Full 3-D numerical modeling of borehole electric image logging and the evaluation model of fracture

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    A full 3-D finite element method numerical modeling program is written based on the principle and technical specification of borehole electric image well logging tool. The response of well logging is computed in the formation media model with a single fracture. The effect of changing fracture aperture and resistivity ratio to the logging response is discussed. The identification ability for two parallel fractures is also present. A quantitative evaluation formula of fracture aperture from borehole electric image logging data is set up. A case study of the model well is done to verify the accuracy of the for-mula. The result indicates that the formula is more accurate than the foreign one.

  17. Nuclear borehole logging techniques for coal quality

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The progress achieved by nuclear logging in the coal industry has been significant. The 'in-situ' information about coal seams provided by borehole logging can significantly reduce exploration and development costs. Nuclear borehole logging is used routinely in the exploration for coal and is getting more acceptance in the mining stage for quality control. Nuclear borehole logging is used to delineate the coal strata and to determine their thickness, depth, ash content, calorific value and Fe and Si content of ash. Two techniques have been developed in the last 7 years for coal logging in boreholes: (i) The spectrometric gamma-gamma for the determination of ash content in coal; and (ii) the prompt neutron-gamma method for the determination of ash, calorific value, Si and Fe in coal. In this paper both gamma-gamma and neutron-gamma techniques were developed for delineating the coal seams and predicting the ash content in coal. The neutron-gamma technique is superior because it can also determine the Si and Fe content of coal and it can sample a larger volume of coal. The neutron-gamma technique is less affected by the rugosity and condition of the borehole. (author). 6 refs, 5 figs, 2 tabs

  18. Well logging with natural gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An invention is described for use in natural gamma radiation well logging in which measurements taken in a borehole are used in the search for valuable underground resources such as oil or gas. The invention comprises deriving a log of natural gamma radiation detected in selected energy windows for a selected borehole depth interval and converting it into a log of the selected subsurface materials, e.g. Th, U, K. This log is corrected for the effects of 1) either a gamma ray emitter in the borehole fluid, e.g. potassium salts and/or 2) a gamma ray attenuator in the borehole fluid, e.g. a strong attenuator such as barite and/or hematite. The Th, U, K log is particularly useful in the exploration of oil and gas resources since the Th, U, K concentrations are a good indication as to the presence, type and volume of shale and clay in the formations surrounding the borehole. (U.K.)

  19. Natural and Enhanced Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents Using RT3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Christian D.; Truex, Michael J.; Clement, T P.

    2006-07-25

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a reactive transport code that can be applied to model solute fate and transport for many different purposes. This document specifically addresses application of RT3D for modeling related to evaluation and implementation of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA). Selection of MNA as a remedy requires an evaluation process to demonstrate that MNA will meet the remediation goals. The U.S. EPA, through the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) Directive 9200.4?17P, provides the regulatory context for the evaluation and implementation of MNA. In a complementary fashion, the context for using fate and transport modeling as part of MNA evaluation is described in the EPA?s technical protocol for chlorinated solvent MNA, the Scenarios Evaluation Tool for Chlorinated Solvent MNA, and in this document. The intent of this document is to describe (1) the context for applying RT3D for chlorinated solvent MNA and (2) the attenuation processes represented in RT3D, (3) dechlorination reactions that may occur, and (4) the general approach for using RT3D reaction modules (including a summary of the RT3D reaction modules that are available) to model fate and transport of chlorinated solvents as part of MNA or for combinations of MNA and selected types of active remediation.

  20. QCM-based measurement of chlorine-induced polymer degradation kinetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kearney, Logan T; Howarter, John A

    2014-07-29

    Highly structured network polymers are prepared via a molecular layer by layer technique (mLbL) and used as a model system to study aqueous degradation of polymer thin films in real time. Quantitative analysis of the degradation kinetics was enabled by the use of a quartz crystal microbalance (QCM). We conclude that the common metric of halogen, specifically chlorine, exposure (concentration × time) to be an ineffective normalization unit and showed a multistage adsorption process consistent with the established chemical mechanism. Additionally, degradation progression was tracked at multiple points of exposure to determine the effects of chlorination on the chemical and morphological state of the polymer structure with X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and atomic force microscopy (AFM), respectively. The formation of known halogenation products were corroborated with XPS through the high resolution spectra. Insight into the heterogeneous nature of the nanostructural degradation was derived from the AFM images. Periodic rinsing was found to release adsorbed chlorine but had negligible benefits on extending the exposure limits of the polyamide film. Fluorinated amine monomer (3,4-difluoroaniline) was incorporated into the surface of the polymer to determine the effect of limiting N-halogenation and the formation of the halogenated ring product. The modified surface layer reduced the rate and magnitude of chlorine adsorption relative to the neat polyamide surface. The QCM technique was shown to be an effective tool for rapid and high fidelity evaluation of molecular degradation and modification strategies to increase device lifetimes. PMID:25006981

  1. DNF Sampling for ProbLog Inference

    CERN Document Server

    Shterionov, Dimitar Sht; Mantadelis, Theofrastos; Janssens, Gerda

    2010-01-01

    Inference in probabilistic logic languages such as ProbLog, an extension of Prolog with probabilistic facts, is often based on a reduction to a propositional formula in DNF. Calculating the probability of such a formula involves the disjoint-sum-problem, which is computationally hard. In this work we introduce a new approximation method for ProbLog inference which exploits the DNF to focus sampling. While this DNF sampling technique has been applied to a variety of tasks before, to the best of our knowledge it has not been used for inference in probabilistic logic systems. The paper also presents an experimental comparison with another sampling based inference method previously introduced for ProbLog.

  2. Differential Forms on Log Canonical Spaces

    CERN Document Server

    Greb, Daniel; Kovacs, Sandor J; Peternell, Thomas

    2010-01-01

    The present paper is concerned with differential forms on log canonical varieties. It is shown that any p-form defined on the smooth locus of a variety with canonical or klt singularities extends regularly to any resolution of singularities. In fact, a much more general theorem for log canonical pairs is established. The proof relies on vanishing theorems for log canonical varieties and on methods of the minimal model program. In addition, a theory of differential forms on dlt pairs is developed. It is shown that many of the fundamental theorems and techniques known for sheaves of logarithmic differentials on smooth varieties also hold in the dlt setting. Immediate applications include the existence of a pull-back map for reflexive differentials, generalisations of Bogomolov-Sommese type vanishing results, and a positive answer to the Lipman-Zariski conjecture for klt spaces.

  3. Investigations of the Stenlille-4 borehole logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report contains analyses of the Stenlille-4 borehole logs. They include an interpretation of nuclear logs by use of the NULIP-5 programme. Furhter a number of possible clay indicators has been investigated. The TDT-logs have been analysed to obtain Σa for pure clay and sand. The relation between the natural gamma count rate and the volume percent of clay has been investigated. Finally a number of cross plots has been made. From these the density of pure sand and clay and the absorption cross section of sand, clay, and salt water has been obtained. The analyses seem to confirm that the interpretation programme NULIP-5 yields consistent results. (author)

  4. Relation between chlorine with the quality of crude water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorine as disinfection agent in drinking water was used widely since it was successfully been practiced in drinking water in Jersey City, 1908. Mostly, water treatment plants in Malaysia were using chlorine as disinfection agent to kill pathogen and contaminated materials that can be dangerous to consumer. Because of chlorine was a strongly disinfection agent, it also can react with another chemical components such as manganese, hydrogen, sulfides, ammonia and phenol in water. These reactions happen very fast, and chlorine will not react as disinfection agent unless all the organic and inorganic substitution presented in water reacts with chlorine. These reactions between components will increase demand of chlorine in water. The demand of chlorine in water must be filled before the free radical chlorine occurred. These free radical chlorine will decay into hypochlorous acid and hypochlorite ion that so important in disinfection process to kill pathogens and pollutants in water. Most of water treatment plant to maintain free chlorine up to 0.2 mg/ L in distribution system to consumer. These researches involved determination of parameters that can be trusted to react with the chlorine in nine sampling station along Semenyih River and four stations in water treatment plants. These parameters were determined from ammonia, cyanides, sulfides, phenol, phosphorus, nitrite, manganese, iron and sum of organic carbons. Overall, these researches concluded that ammonia and sum of organic carbons were the most compounds that react with the chlorine to produce tryhalometane and chloramines. Besides that, the concentration of cyanides compounds, sulfide, phenol, phosphorus, nitrite, manganese and iron also decrease after the chlorination process. Results can used to evaluate demanding levels of chlorine in Semenyih River. (author)

  5. Applications of TMD pulsed neutron logs in unusual downhole logging environments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Welex Thermal Multigate Decay logging system utilizes a pulsed 14 MeV neutron generator and two gamma ray detectors to obtain measurements of the capture cross sections of downhole formations. The composite decay curve from both formation and borehole capture ganna rays is detected, and is separated into the two individual components. The paper begins with a brief review of the TMD logging system with emphasis on the physical significance of all the quality control and new support curves. The bulk of the paper is then placed on log examples in unusual borehole conditions: logs run across intervals where borehole conditions change; logs run in air filled boreholes; logs run in badly washed out boreholes; logs run through stuck drill pipe/collars; logs run in flowing wells. The supplemental TMD curves in these situations identify the presence of gravel packs and packers, changes in borehole fluid salinity, possible communication between zones, and water and oil producing perforations. Gas in the borehole can also be differentiated from gas in the formation

  6. Dynamic Planar Convex Hull with Optimal Query Time and O(log n · log log n ) Update Time

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Brodal, Gerth Stølting; Jakob, Riko

    various queries about the convex hull in optimal O(log n) worst-case time. The data structure requires O(n) space. Applications of the new dynamic convex hull data structure are improved deterministic algorithms for the k-level problem and the red-blue segment intersection problem where all red and all...

  7. Analyzing Log Files using Data-Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Marius Mihut

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available Information systems (i.e. servers, applications and communication devices create a large amount of monitoring data that are saved as log files. For analyzing them, a data-mining approach is helpful. This article presents the steps which are necessary for creating an ‘analyzing instrument’, based on an open source software called Waikato Environment for Knowledge Analysis (Weka [1]. For exemplification, a system log file created by a Windows-based operating system, is used as input file.

  8. Geophysical borehole logging test procedure: Final draft

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purpose of geophysical borehole logging from the At-Depth Facility (ADF) is to provide information which will assist in characterizing the site geologic conditions and in classifying the engineering characteristics of the rock mass in the vicinity of the ADF. The direct goals of borehole logging include identification of lithologic units and their correlation from hole to hole, identification of fractured or otherwise porous or permeable zones, quantitative or semi-quantitative estimation of various formation properties, and evaluation of factors such as the borehole diameter and orientation. 11 figs., 4 tabs

  9. Strategies for Mining Web Logs: A Survey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ms. Neha G. Sharma

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available With the expansion of e-commerce and mobile-based commerce, the role of web user on World Wide Web has become pivotal enough to warrant studies to further understand the user’s intent, navigation patterns on websites and usage needs. Using web logs on the servers hosting websites, site owners and in turn companies can extract information to better understand and predict user’s needs, tailoring their sites to meet such needs. Through this paper, an effort is being made to analyze and survey few of the popular web log mining strategies.

  10. Geothermal well log interpretation midterm report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sanyal, S.K.; Wells, L.E.; Bickham, R.E.

    1979-02-01

    Reservoir types are defined according to fluid phase and temperature, lithology, geologic province, pore geometry, and salinity and fluid chemistry. Improvements are needed in lithology and porosity definition, fracture detection, and thermal evaluation for more accurate interpretation. Further efforts are directed toward improving diagnostic techniques for relating rock characteristics and log response, developing petrophysical models for geothermal systems, and developing thermal evaluation techniques. The Geothermal Well Log Interpretation study and report has concentrated only on hydrothermal geothermal reservoirs. Other geothermal reservoirs (hot dry rock, geopressured, etc.) are not considered.

  11. Benefit Analysis for Geothermal Log Interpretation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rigby, F.A.

    1980-12-16

    Formation evaluation is of great importance in geothermal development because of the high capital costs and the fact that successful exploration will only pay off through a subsequent decision to construct a power plant or other utilization facility. Since much formation data is available from well logging, development of new techniques of log interpretation for application to geothermal wells is called for. An analysis of potential nearterm benefits from this program and the types of formation data called for is discussed. Much useful information can be developed by adaptation of techniques used in oil and gas reservoirs, but the different demands of geothermal development from hydrocarbon production also open up new data requirements.

  12. Smartphone log data in a qualitative perspective

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ørmen, Jacob; Thorhauge, Anne Mette

    2015-01-01

    into studies of smartphones in everyday life. Through an illustrative study, we explore a more nuanced perspective on what can be considered “log data” and how these types of data can be collected and analysed. A qualitative approach to log data analysis offers researchers new opportunities to situate...... serve as cues to instigate discussion and reflection as well as act as resources for contextualizing and organizing related empirical material. In the discussion, the advantages of a qualitative perspective for research designs are assessed in relation to issues of validity. Further perspectives on the...

  13. CS model coil experimental log book

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Charging test of the ITER CS Model Coil which is the world's largest superconducting pulse coil and the CS Insert Coil had started at April 11, 2000 and had completed at August 18, 2000. In the campaign, total shot numbers were 356 and the size of the data file in the DAS (Data Acquisition System) was over 20 GB. This report is a database that consists of the log list and the log sheets of every shot. One can access the database, make a search, and browse results via Internet (http://1ogwww.naka.jaeri.go.jp). The database will be useful to quick search to choose necessary shots. (author)

  14. Reservoir analysis by well log data

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kok, M. [Middle East Technical Univ., Ankara (Turkey). Dept. of Petroleum and Natural Gas Engineering; Gokcal, B.; Ersoy, G. [Tulsa Univ., OK (United States). Dept. of Petroleum Engineering

    2005-04-15

    The aim of this research is to describe and characterize the reservoir sections by well log data. Well logs are used to examine the porosity, water saturation and true resistivity properties of the reservoir. Throughout the project, the data is processed using geostatistical tests that are frequency, histograms, auto-correlation, cross-correlations, linear and multiple regression analysis to find the relations between the variables. Statistical analyses are performed using SPSS software. From the output of the software, the data of the reservoir section would be improved resulting in a higher efficiency in the usage of the data. (Author)

  15. Kaizen aplicado à logística

    OpenAIRE

    Santos, Ana Catarina Almeida

    2011-01-01

    O presente trabalho propõe alcançar um aumento de produtividade e consequente redução de custos e desperdícios ajudando o departamento logístico da Empresa Revigrés – Industria de Revestimentos de Grés, Lda, a tornar-se mais eficiente, através da aplicação da filosofia kaizen que propõe melhorias no desempenho por implementação de pequenas ações. O objetivo deste projeto é a melhoria do departamento logístico globalmente, para isso houve o recurso a pesquisas e levantamento ...

  16. Antiradiation effectiveness of the chlorine C

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At present ever more attention of the experimenters in the field of search of high-effective antiray means - is directed to development of preparations from bio-active substances of a natural origin. In this connection all greater interest is caused by researches of antiray activity of these compounds, distinguished, as a rule, from known preparations of synthetic manufacture of low toxicity, absence of expressed collateral effects and possibility of course application. It has biological (antiray) activity in dozes 5-10 mg/kg and chlorine C which is derivative of chlorophil A. At present it passes tests in oncology. Porphyrines (synthetic and natural) are recently subjected to wide study as potential medicinal means, due to their ability to be accumulated in bodies of the reticulo-endothelial system and proliferous tissues, as well as their physical-chemical characteristics (fluorescence, photosensitizing action, colouring). All this testifies for the benefit of perspective use of porphyrin for treatment and diagnostics of tumors. According to the above described properties of porphyrines there is that fact, that for some of them radioprotective properties are revealed during the injections as well as before and after radiation treatment. The above said has formed the basis for study of antiray properties of the chlorine C during the experiments on small-sized laboratory animals. Antiradiation effectivity of chlorine C was studied on the mice (CBA x C57 B1) F1. Chlorine C was applied in a wide range of dozes with its' use in 3 variants: before radiation treatment, after radiation treatment, combined (before and after radiation treatment). Radioprotective activity of chlorine C reduces at an increase of a time of the injection before radiation treatment and at other ways of injection (intramuscularly, subcutaneously, per os). Studies of medical activity of chlorine C in experiments on mice have shown, that the compound does not possess medical activity. The death of

  17. Calibration models for measuring moisture in unsaturated formations by neutron logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Calibration models containing known amounts of hydrogen have been constructed to simulate unsaturated earth formations for calibrating neutron well logging tools. The models are made of dry mixtures of hydrated alumina (Al(OH)3) with either silica sand (SiO2) or aluminum oxide (Al2O3). Hydrogen in the hydrated alumina replaces the hydrogen in water for neutron scattering, making it possible to simulate partially saturated formations. The equivalent water contents for the models are 5%, 12%, 20%, and 40% by volume in seven tanks that have a diameter of 1.5 m and a height of 1.8 m. Steel casings of inside diameter 15.4 cm (for three models) and diameter 20.3 cm (for four models) allow logging tool access to simulate logging through cased boreholes

  18. Method and apparatus for producing a porosity log of a subsurface formation corrected for detector standoff

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper describes a method and apparatus for producing a porosity log of a substance formation corrected for detector stand of. It includes: lowering a logging tool having a neutron source and a neutron detector into the borehole, irradiating the subsurface formation with neutrons from the neutron source as the logging tool is traversed along the subsurface formation, recording die-away signals representing the die-away of nuclear radiation in the subsurface formation as detected by the neutron detector, producing intensity signals representing the variations in intensity of the die-away signals, producing a model of the die-away of nuclear radiation in the subsurface formation having terms varying exponentially in response to borehole, formation and background effects on the die-away of nuclear radiation as detected by the detector

  19. Modeling Tools for Drilling, Reservoir Navigation, and Formation Evaluation

    OpenAIRE

    Sushant Dutta; Fei Le; Alexandre Bespalov; Arcady Reiderman; Michael Rabinovich

    2012-01-01

    The oil and gas industry routinely uses borehole tools for measuring or logging rock and fluid properties of geologic formations to locate hydrocarbons and maximize their production. Pore fluids in formations of interest are usually hydrocarbons or water. Resistivity logging is based on the fact that oil and gas have a substantially higher resistivity than water. The first resistivity log was acquired in 1927, and resistivity logging is still the foremost measurement used for drilling and eva...

  20. Comparative efficacy of chlorine and chlorine dioxide regimes for condenser slime control in seawater cooled heat exchangers

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chlorination has long been used as an effective and economic biocide for biofouling control in seawater cooling systems. However, the efficacy of chlorine is reduced in the presence of organic content of seawater and the inability of chlorine to effectively penetrate biofilms. Chlorine dioxide is being projected as a possible alternative to chlorine. Experiments were carried out with the help of a seawater circulating facility, in which direct comparison of the efficacy of the two biocides was possible using test condenser tube assemblies. The test condenser tubes made of titanium, SS 316L and Cu-Ni 90/10 were dosed with chlorine and chlorine dioxide. Each dose was evaluated for 30 days. Continuous and intermittent additions of chlorine (0.38 - 0.45 mg L-1 TRO) and chlorine dioxide (0.4 - 0.5 mg L-1) were used, along with control. The flow velocity in the tubes was maintained at 1.5 m/s. Results of the study showed that the efficacy of the biocide to control biofilms depended on the biocide and the material. Continuous chlorination resulted in 75% reduction of viable counts on titanium, followed by 24% reduction on CuNi and 6% reduction on SS 316L surfaces, as compared to the control. When compared to continuous chlorination, increase in bacterial density in the tubes was observed at different regimes of intermittent chlorination. On SS 316L and Cu-Ni surfaces, intermittent chlorination for 1h, once every 3 h, appeared to give adequate protection. Continuous addition of chlorine dioxide resulted in 99% reduction of viable counts on titanium surfaces, followed by 28% reduction on SS 316 L surfaces and 52% reduction on Cu-Ni surfaces, as compared to the controls. The data indicate that the efficacy of biocides to control biofilms depend on not only the biocide and its frequency of application but also the material of construction. (author)

  1. Comparative efficacy of chlorine and chlorine dioxide regimes for condenser slime control in seawater cooled heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, P.S.; Veeramani, P.; Ershath, M.; Rajamohan, R.; Harinath, Y.V.; Mohan, T.V.K.; Venugopalan, V.P. [BARC Facilities, Water and Steam Chemistry Div., Kalpakkam, Tamil nadu (India)

    2010-07-01

    Chlorination has long been used as an effective and economic biocide for biofouling control in seawater cooling systems. However, the efficacy of chlorine is reduced in the presence of organic content of seawater and the inability of chlorine to effectively penetrate biofilms. Chlorine dioxide is being projected as a possible alternative to chlorine. Experiments were carried out with the help of a seawater circulating facility, in which direct comparison of the efficacy of the two biocides was possible using test condenser tube assemblies. The test condenser tubes made of titanium, SS 316L and Cu-Ni 90/10 were dosed with chlorine and chlorine dioxide. Each dose was evaluated for 30 days. Continuous and intermittent additions of chlorine (0.38 - 0.45 mg L{sup -1} TRO) and chlorine dioxide (0.4 - 0.5 mg L{sup -1}) were used, along with control. The flow velocity in the tubes was maintained at 1.5 m/s. Results of the study showed that the efficacy of the biocide to control biofilms depended on the biocide and the material. Continuous chlorination resulted in 75% reduction of viable counts on titanium, followed by 24% reduction on CuNi and 6% reduction on SS 316L surfaces, as compared to the control. When compared to continuous chlorination, increase in bacterial density in the tubes was observed at different regimes of intermittent chlorination. On SS 316L and Cu-Ni surfaces, intermittent chlorination for 1h, once every 3 h, appeared to give adequate protection. Continuous addition of chlorine dioxide resulted in 99% reduction of viable counts on titanium surfaces, followed by 28% reduction on SS 316 L surfaces and 52% reduction on Cu-Ni surfaces, as compared to the controls. The data indicate that the efficacy of biocides to control biofilms depend on not only the biocide and its frequency of application but also the material of construction. (author)

  2. A comparison of single oxidants versus advanced oxidation processes as chlorine-alternatives for wild blueberry processing (Vaccinium angustifolium).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Crowe, Kristi M; Bushway, Alfred A; Bushway, Rodney J; Davis-Dentici, Katherine; Hazen, Russell A

    2007-05-01

    Advanced oxidation processes and single chemical oxidants were evaluated for their antimicrobial efficacy against common spoilage bacteria isolated from lowbush blueberries. Predominant bacterial flora were identified using biochemical testing with the assessment of relative abundance using non-selective and differential media. Single chemical oxidants evaluated for postharvest processing of lowbush blueberries included 1% hydrogen peroxide, 100 ppm chlorine, and 1 ppm aqueous ozone while advanced oxidation processes (AOPs) included combinations of 1% hydrogen peroxide/UV, 100 ppm chlorine/UV, and 1 ppm ozone/1% hydrogen peroxide/UV. Enterobacter agglomerans and Pseudomonas fluorescens were found to comprise 90-95% of the bacterial flora on lowbush blueberries. Results of inoculation studies reveal significant log reductions (pagglomerans and P. fluorescens on all samples receiving treatment with 1% hydrogen peroxide, 1% hydrogen peroxide/UV, 1 ppm ozone, or a combined ozone/hydrogen peroxide/UV treatment as compared to chlorine treatments and unwashed control berries. Although population reductions approached 2.5 log CFU/g, microbial reductions among these treatments were not found to be significantly different (p< or 5) from each other despite the synergistic potential that should result from AOPs; furthermore, as a single oxidant, UV inactivation of inoculated bacteria was minimal and did not prove effective as a non-aqueous bactericidal process for fresh pack blueberries. Overall, results indicate that hydrogen peroxide and ozone, as single chemical oxidants, are as effective as AOPs and could be considered as chlorine-alternatives in improving the microbiological quality of lowbush blueberries. PMID:17350128

  3. Antimicrobial activity of controlled-release chlorine dioxide gas on fresh blueberries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Xiuxiu; Bai, Jinhe; Ference, Christopher; Wang, Zhe; Zhang, Yifan; Narciso, Jan; Zhou, Kequan

    2014-07-01

    The effect of chlorine dioxide (ClO2) gas on the safety and quality of blueberries was studied. In vitro studies revealed that both ClO2 gas fumigation and ClO2 direct contact in water killed food pathogen bacterium Escherichia coli and fruit decay pathogen fungus Colletotrichum acutatum. In vivo studies were conducted using noninoculated berries and berries inoculated with postharvest decay and foodborne pathogens. Berries were inoculated with either E. coli (5.2 log CFU/g) or C. acutatum (3.9 log CFU/g). Inoculated fruit were dried for 2 h at room temperature in a climate-controlled laboratory and packed in perforated commercial clamshells, with or without ClO2 pads, and stored at 10°C for up to 9 days. The effects of ClO2 on microbial populations and fruit firmness were monitored during storage. In the inoculation experiment, treatment with ClO2 reduced populations of E. coli and C. acutatum by 2.2 to 3.3 and 1.3 to 2.0 log CFU/g, respectively. For the noninoculated blueberries, the initial total aerobic bacteria count and the yeast and mold count were 4.2 and 4.1 log CFU/g, respectively. ClO2 treatment reduced total aerobic bacteria count and yeast and mold count by 1.5 to 1.8 and 1.3 to 1.7 log CFU/g, respectively. The firmness of both inoculated and noninoculated blueberries was maintained by ClO2 treatment. Thus, controlled-release ClO2 gas fumigation technology shows promise as an effective and practical antimicrobial agent in commercial clamshell packaging of blueberry and other fruits. PMID:24988018

  4. Nuclear borehole logging techniques developed by CSIRO - Exploration and Mining for in situ evaluation of coal and mineral deposits

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    CSIRO - Exploration and Mining Division has developed a spectrometric nuclear techniques for in situ evaluation of coal and mineral deposits. Whilst the use of this technology is seen mainly in coal mining, it is becoming increasingly apparent in metalliferous mining. The logging tools developed by CSIRO are using the gamma-gamma, prompt neutron activation and spectrometric natural gamma techniques. The technology is used both in exploration and mine production for quality control. Nuclear borehole logging is complementary to the laboratory analysis of core samples retrieved from boreholes. Although it can not provide the same detailed information as the analysis of the core, the volume of rock sampled by nuclear borehole logging is much larger than the core samples and the results are provided almost instantaneously. Nuclear logging is particularly useful for mineral deposits where the core can not be fully recovered or in situations when not all the information provided by the analysis of the core is needed. Important savings can be made if the information required is acquired by logging open holes instead of drilling more expensive cored holes. The paper reviews various techniques developed by CSIRO - Exploration and Mining for both the coal and metalliferous mining industry. Emphasis is given to current research for developing logging tools equipped with ultra - low intensity gamma-ray sources (below 3.7 MBq activity). The tools are developed for both borehole logging and face analysis

  5. Recent Achievements in the Radiation-Catalysed Chlorination of Chlorinated Pentane Derivatives

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The radiation-catalysed chlorination of the so-called tetrachloro-cyclopentane, the product obtained from cyclopentadiene by addition of chlorine, has already been studied earlier by the authors with success. On maintaining an adequate dosage rate, no ring cleavage occurs, and, mainly for stereochemical reasons, octachloro-cyclopentene forms as an end product - similarly to conventional chlorination carried out at high temperature (400-500oC), but at substantially lower temperature (170oC) and without any resin formation. It is known that besides other end products, octachloro-cyclopentene forms also from perchlorinated pentane, under simultaneous cyclization. In their recent experiments presented here, the authors investigated how and to what extent the yield of octachloro-cyclopentene is affected by additional chlorination of pentane, previously chlorinated under cooling (at 10 to 30oC). The experiments were carried out with a Co60 radiation source of 330 c at a dosage rate of 8 x 103 to 8 x 104r/hr, in a heated reaction mixture, mixed with a chlorine stream for periods not exceeding 30 hr. It was found that also this type of chlorination and cyclization takes place at a temperature substantially lower than the conventional 500-600oC. According to the experiments, in this case it is advisable to raise the initial temperature of 170oC of the reaction gradually to 220oC with the progress of the reaction, in order to promote the cyclization reaction. It was found, namely, that first the paraffin chain was further chlorinated and later the perchlorinated pentane derivatives cyclize partly to octachloro-cyclopentene, under formation of other chlorinated alkane and alkene derivatives. This reaction mechanism was also supported by thermodynamical calculations. The end product contains three main components; its content of octachloro-cyclopentene ranges between 25 and 35%. The data required for the evaluation of the economy of the method will be available only on the

  6. Comparative effectiveness of membrane bioreactors, conventional secondary treatment, and chlorine and UV disinfection to remove microorganisms from municipal wastewaters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Francy, Donna S.; Erin, A. Stelzer; Bushon, Rebecca N.; Brady, Amie M.G.; Williston, Ashley G.; Riddell, Kimberly R.; Borchardt, Mark A.; Spencer, Susan K.; Gellner, Terry M.

    2012-01-01

    Log removals of bacterial indicators, coliphage, and enteric viruses were studied in three membrane bioreactor (MBR) activated-sludge and two conventional secondary activated-sludge municipal wastewater treatment plants during three recreational seasons (May-Oct.) when disinfection of effluents is required. In total, 73 regular samples were collected from key locations throughout treatment processes: post-preliminary, post-MBR, post-secondary, post-tertiary, and post-disinfection (UV or chlorine). Out of 19 post-preliminary samples, adenovirus by quantitative polymerase chain reaction (qPCR) was detected in all 19, enterovirus by quantitative reverse transcription polymerase chain reaction (qRT-PCR) was detected in 15, and norovirus GI by qRT-PCR was detected in 11. Norovirus GII and Hepatitis A virus were not detected in any samples, and rotavirus was detected in one sample but could not be quantified. Although culturable viruses were found in 12 out of 19 post-preliminary samples, they were not detected in any post-secondary, post-MBR, post-ultraviolet, or post-chlorine samples. Median log removals for all organisms were higher for MBR secondary treatment (3.02 to >6.73) than for conventional secondary (1.53-4.19) treatment. Ultraviolet disinfection after MBR treatment provided little additional log removal of any organism except for somatic coliphage (>2.18), whereas ultraviolet or chlorine disinfection after conventional secondary treatment provided significant log removals (above the analytical variability) of all bacterial indicators (1.18-3.89) and somatic and F-specific coliphage (0.71 and >2.98). Median log removals of adenovirus across disinfection were low in both MBR and conventional secondary plants (no removal detected and 0.24), and few removals of individual samples were near or above the analytical variability of 1.2 log genomic copies per liter. Based on qualitative examinations of plots showing reductions of organisms throughout treatment

  7. Revisiting the thermochemistry of chlorine fluorides

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, H R

    2016-01-01

    In this work, accurate calculations of standard enthalpies of formation of chlorine fluorides (ClF$_n$, n=1--7; Cl$_2$F and Cl$_3$F$_2$) were performed through the isodesmic reactions scheme. It is argued that, for many chlorine fluorides, the gold standard method of quantum chemistry (CCSD(T)) is not capable to predict enthalpy values nearing chemical accuracy if atomization scheme is used. This is underpinned by a thorough analysis of total atomization energy results and the inspection of multireference features of these compounds. Other thermodynamic quantities were also calculated at different temperatures. In order to complement the energetic description, elimination curves were studied through density functional theory as a computationally affordable alternative to highly correlated wave function-based methods.

  8. Chlorine-Free Red-Burning Pyrotechnics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sabatini, Jesse J; Koch, Ernst-Christian; Poret, Jay C; Moretti, Jared D; Harbol, Seth M

    2015-09-01

    The development of a red, chlorine-free pyrotechnic illuminant of high luminosity and spectral purity was investigated. Red-light emission based solely on transient SrOH(g) has been achieved by using either 5-amino-1H-tetrazole or hexamine to deoxidize the combustion flame of a Mg/Sr(NO3 )2 /Epon-binder composition and reduce the amount of both condensed and gaseous SrO, which emits undesirable orange-red light. The new formulations were found to possess high thermal onset temperatures. Avoiding chlorine in these formulations eliminates the risk of the formation of PCBs, PCDDs, and PCDFs. This finding, hence, will have a great impact on both military pyrotechnics and commercial firework sectors. PMID:26333055

  9. Spectrographic determination of chlorine and fluorine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Experimental conditions have been investigated in order to obtain the highest sensitivity in spectrographic determination of chlorine and fluorine using the Fassel method of excitation in an inert atmosphere. The influence of the nature of the atmosphere, of the discharge conditions and of the matrix material has been investigated. The following results have been established: 1. chlorine determination is definitely possible: a working curve has been drawn between 10 μg and 100 μg, the detection limit being around 5 μg; 2. fluorine determination is not satisfactory: the detection limit is still of the order of 80 μg. The best operating conditions have been defined for both elements. (author)

  10. Bacterial responses to reactive chlorine species.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gray, Michael J; Wholey, Wei-Yun; Jakob, Ursula

    2013-01-01

    Hypochlorous acid (HOCl), the active ingredient of household bleach, is the most common disinfectant in medical, industrial, and domestic use and plays an important role in microbial killing in the innate immune system. Given the critical importance of the antimicrobial properties of chlorine to public health, it is surprising how little is known about the ways in which bacteria sense and respond to reactive chlorine species (RCS). Although the literature on bacterial responses to reactive oxygen species (ROS) is enormous, work addressing bacterial responses to RCS has begun only recently. Transcriptomic and proteomic studies now provide new insights into how bacteria mount defenses against this important class of antimicrobial compounds. In this review, we summarize the current knowledge, emphasizing the overlaps between RCS stress responses and other more well-characterized bacterial defense systems, and identify outstanding questions that represent productive avenues for future research. PMID:23768204

  11. Stability and effectiveness of chlorine disinfectants in water distribution systems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Olivieri, V P; Snead, M C; Krusé, C W; Kawata, K

    1986-11-01

    A test system for water distribution was used to evaluate the stability and effectiveness of three residual disinfectants--free chlorine, combined chlorine, and chlorine dioxide--when challenged with a sewage contaminant. The test distribution system consisted of the street main and internal plumbing for two barracks at Fort George G. Meade, MD. To the existing pipe network, 152 m (500 ft) of 13-mm (0.5 in.) copper pipe were added for sampling, and 60 m (200 ft) of 2.54-cm (1.0 in.) plastic pipe were added for circulation. The levels of residual disinfectants tested were 0.2 mg/L and 1.0 mg/L as available chlorine. In the absence of a disinfectant residual, microorganisms in the sewage contaminant were consistently recovered at high levels. The presence of any disinfectant residual reduced the microorganism level and frequency of occurrence at the consumer's tap. Free chlorine was the most effective residual disinfectant and may serve as a marker or flag in the distribution network. Free chlorine and chlorine dioxide were the least stable in the pipe network. The loss of disinfectant in the pipe network followed first-order kinetics. The half-life determined in static tests for free chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and combined chlorine was 140, 93, and 1680 min. PMID:3028767

  12. Advanced of X-ray fluorescence logging technique in China

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper discuses principle of X-ray fluorescence logging, and introduces advanced of X-ray fluorescence logging technique in China. By 2009, third generation XRF logging instrument has been developed in China, and good logging result has been obtained in Lala copper mine. (authors)

  13. Neutron generator for the array borehole logging

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LuHong-Bo; ZhongZhen-Qian; 等

    1998-01-01

    The performance mechanism of the array neutron generator to be used to porosity logging is presented.The neutron generator utilizes a drive-in target ceramic neutron tube,which cursts nerutron with fast-slow period selectively pressure.Regulation of the neutron tube is accomplished by pulse width modulation.The high voltage power supply is poerated at optimum frequency.

  14. Neutron logging in partially saturated media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    At the Lawrence Livermore Laboratory the behavior of epithermal neutron logging equipment in large holes in partially saturated alluvium and in ashfall and ashflow tuff is being studied. Monte Carlo neutron transport calculations indicate that the number of epithermal neutrons from either a fission or 14-MeV source depends not only on the water content of the medium, but also on its bulk density. Curves as functions of both parameters have been developed and an interpolation method devised. Attempts to calibrate neutron logs by comparing log-measured water content with water content from cores result in unacceptably large errors. Part of the error is due to the fact that commercial neutron logs are quite sensitive to hold size variations. It is shown that with proper shielding the hole size effect can be eliminated. An effort is in progress to study the two water contents, bulk density, and material type in a number of holes to determine whether core data calibration would be satisfactory with proper corrections

  15. Lianas and logging in West Africa

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Parren, M.P.E.

    2003-01-01

    The role of lianas in relation to logging activities is analysed in a lowland moist forest in Cameroon. Lianas are an abundant, diverse, and conspicuous growth form in nearly all tropical forests. Lianas are mostly seen as a nuisance by foresters. Cutting of liana stems is an important operation in

  16. Modelling tropical forests response to logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cazzolla Gatti, Roberto; Di Paola, Arianna; Valentini, Riccardo; Paparella, Francesco

    2013-04-01

    Tropical rainforests are among the most threatened ecosystems by large-scale fragmentation due to human activity such as heavy logging and agricultural clearance. Although, they provide crucial ecosystem goods and services, such as sequestering carbon from the atmosphere, protecting watersheds and conserving biodiversity. In several countries forest resource extraction has experienced a shift from clearcutting to selective logging to maintain a significant forest cover and understock of living biomass. However the knowledge on the short and long-term effects of removing selected species in tropical rainforest are scarce and need to be further investigated. One of the main effects of selective logging on forest dynamics seems to be the local disturbance which involve the invasion of open space by weed, vines and climbers at the expense of the late-successional state cenosis. We present a simple deterministic model that describes the dynamics of tropical rainforest subject to selective logging to understand how and why weeds displace native species. We argue that the selective removal of tallest tropical trees carries out gaps of light that allow weeds, vines and climbers to prevail on native species, inhibiting the possibility of recovery of the original vegetation. Our results show that different regime shifts may occur depending on the type of forest management adopted. This hypothesis is supported by a dataset of trees height and weed/vines cover that we collected from 9 plots located in Central and West Africa both in untouched and managed areas.

  17. On existence of log minimal models II

    OpenAIRE

    Birkar, Caucher

    2009-01-01

    We prove that the existence of log minimal models in dimension $d$ essentially implies the LMMP with scaling in dimension $d$. As a consequence we prove that a weak nonvanishing conjecture in dimension $d$ implies the minimal model conjecture in dimension $d$.

  18. Precision Prediction of the Log Power Spectrum

    CERN Document Server

    Repp, Andrew

    2016-01-01

    At translinear scales, the log power spectrum captures significantly more cosmological information than the standard power spectrum. At high wavenumbers $k$, the cosmological information in the standard power spectrum $P(k)$ fails to increase in proportion to $k$ due to correlations between large- and small-scale modes. As a result, $P(k)$ suffers from an information plateau on these translinear scales, so that analysis with the standard power spectrum cannot access the information contained in these small-scale modes. The log power spectrum $P_A(k)$, on the other hand, captures the majority of this otherwise lost information. Until now there has been no means of predicting the amplitude of the log power spectrum apart from cataloging the results of simulations. We here present a cosmology-independent prescription for the log power spectrum, and we find this prescription to display accuracy comparable to that of Smith et al. (2003), over a range of redshifts and smoothing scales, and for wavenumbers up to $1....

  19. Apache Flume distributed log collection for Hadoop

    CERN Document Server

    D'Souza, Subas

    2013-01-01

    A starter guide that covers Apache Flume in detail.Apache Flume: Distributed Log Collection for Hadoop is intended for people who are responsible for moving datasets into Hadoop in a timely and reliable manner like software engineers, database administrators, and data warehouse administrators

  20. 47 CFR 73.1820 - Station log.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ....68). (i) An entry at the beginning of operations in each mode of operation, and thereafter at... observation must be included in each log entry. The following information must be entered: (1) All stations... part. (iii) An entry of each test and activation of the Emergency Alert System (EAS) pursuant to...

  1. OPAC User Logs: Implications for Bibliographic Instruction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kern-Simirenko, Cheryl

    1983-01-01

    Discusses characteristics of typical online public access catalogs (OPACs) and examines patron use via printouts of transaction logs for three separate systems. Desirable features of OPACs (mnemonic search commands, boolean operators, forgiveness or automatic truncation, browsing a subject heading index, suggestive prompts) and need for…

  2. 75 FR 63506 - Logging Operations; Extension of the Office of Management and Budget's (OMB) Approval of...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-15

    ... Paperwork Reduction Act of 1995 (44 U.S.C. 3506 et seq.) and Secretary of Labor's Order No. 4-2010 (75 FR... Occupational Safety and Health Administration Logging Operations; Extension of the Office of Management and..., operation, and maintenance of tools, machines, and vehicles the worker/supervisor uses or operates, as...

  3. Statistics, Structures & Satisfied Customers: Using Web Log Data to Improve Site Performance.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peacock, Darren

    This paper explores some of the ways in which the National Museum of Australia is using Web analysis tools to shape its future directions in the delivery of online services. In particular, it explores the potential of quantitative analysis, based on Web server log data, to convert these ephemeral traces of user experience into a strategic…

  4. Chlorine diffusion in CdTe

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sadaiyandi, K.; Ramachandran, K. (School of Physics, Madurai Kamaraj Univ. (India))

    1991-06-01

    The experimental results of chlorine diffusion in CdTe reveal that the dominant mechanism for diffusion is through neutral defect pair such as (V{sub Cd}V{sub Te}){sup *}. Here, theoretical calculations are carried out for all the possible mechanisms such as single vacancy, single interstitial, neutral defect pair, and Frenkel defect pair. The results suggest that the most possible mechanism for Cl diffusion in CdTe is that through neutral defect pair, supporting the experiment. (orig.).

  5. Chlorine requirement for Japanese laying quails

    OpenAIRE

    Fernando Guilherme Perazzo Costa; Jalceyr Pessoa Figueiredo Júnior; Denise Fontana Figueiredo Lima; Cláudia de Castro Goulart; José Humberto Vilar da Silva; Matheus Ramalho de Lima; Sarah Gomes Pinheiro; Valéria Pereira Rodrigues

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this study was to determine the chlorine nutritional requirement of Japanese Quails during the laying phase, based on performance and egg quality parameters. A total of 240 Japanese quails were distributed according to a randomized block design, with five treatments and six replicates, with 8 birds each. The experiment lasted 84 days, divided in four cycles of 21 days each. Treatments consisted of a basal diet formulated to meet the nutritional requirements, except for chlori...

  6. Radiolytic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons in water

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiolytic degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbons (chloroform, trichloroethylene, and tetrachloroethylene) in water was carried out. Water solutions of the chlorinated hydrocarbons with different concentrations were irradiated with γ rays. Concentrations of methane, ethane, CO, CO2, H2, and O2 after the irradiation were determined by gas chromatography. Concentration of chloride ion in the irradiated sample was determined by ion chromatography. Experimental results show that radiolytic degradation of the chlorinated hydrocarbon increased with the radiation dose. Methane, ethane, CO2, H2, and Cl- concentrations increased with the radiation dose and the sample concentration. On the other hand, O2 concentration decreased with the radiation dose and the sample concentration. When sample concentration was high, dissolved oxygen might be not enough for converting most of the C atoms in the sample into CO2. This resulted in a low decomposition ratio. Addition of H2O2 as an oxygen resource could increase the decomposition ratio greatly. Furthermore, gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy was applied to identify some intermediates of the radiolytic dehalogenation. Radiolytic degradation mechanisms are also discussed. (author)

  7. Radioimmunoassay for chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The invention provides a double-antibody radioimmunoassay method for the determination of chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins, particularly, 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin, in environmental samples including animal tissues such as monkey liver and adipose tissues. The limit of detection is approximately 25 picograms for 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-pdioxin. Assuming an appropriate cleanup procedure is used, chlorinated dibenzofurans are the only likely interferences, and these can be distinguished through the use of two antisers of different dibenzo-furan/dibenzodioxin selectivities. The invention includes the preparation of a reproducible antigen, an appropriate radiolabeled hapten, and effective sample extracts. A feature of the assay method is the use of a nonionic detergent (e.g., ''cutscum'' or ''triton x-305'') to solubilize the extremely hydrophobic dibenzo-p-dioxins in a manner permitting their binding by antibodies. The immunoassay is applicable to screening samples in order to minimize the demand for mass spectrometric screening, and to routine monitoring for exposure to known chlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins in potentially contaminated environments

  8. Chlorination and Carbochlorination of Cerium Oxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chlorination and carbochlorination of cerium oxide were studied by thermogravimetry under controlled atmosphere (TG) in the 7000C 9500C temperature range.Both reactants and products were analyzed by X-ray diffraction (RX), scanning electronic microscopy (SEM) and energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS). Thermodynamic calculations were performed by computer assisted software.The chlorination starts at a temperature close to 8000C.This reaction involves the simultaneous formation and evaporation of CeCl3.Both processes control the reaction rate and their kinetic may not be easily separated.The apparent chlorination activation energy in the 8500C-9500C temperature range is 172 to 5 kJ/ mole.Carbon transforms the CeO2-Cl2 into a more reactive system: CeO2-C-Cl2, where the effects of the carbon content, total flow rate and temperature were analyzed.The carbochlorination starting temperature is 7000C.This reaction is completed in one step controlled by mass transfer with an apparent activation energy of 56 to 5 kJ/mole in the 8500C-9500C temperature range

  9. Seasonal logging, process response, and geomorphic work

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mohr, C. H.; Zimmermann, A.; Korup, O.; Iroumé, A.; Francke, T.; Bronstert, A.

    2013-09-01

    Deforestation is a prominent anthropogenic cause of erosive overland flow and slope instability, boosting rates of soil erosion and concomitant sediment flux. Conventional methods of gauging or estimating post-logging sediment flux focus on annual timescales, but potentially overlook important geomorphic responses on shorter time scales immediately following timber harvest. Sediments fluxes are commonly estimated from linear regression of intermittent measurements of water and sediment discharge using sediment rating curves (SRCs). However, these often unsatisfactorily reproduce non-linear effects such as discharge-load hystereses. We resolve such important dynamics from non-parametric Quantile Regression Forests (QRF) of high-frequency (3 min) measurements of stream discharge and sediment concentrations in similar-sized (~ 0.1 km2) forested Chilean catchments that were logged during either the rainy or the dry season. The method of QRF builds on the Random Forest (RF) algorithm, and combines quantile regression with repeated random sub-sampling of both cases and predictors. The algorithm belongs to the family of decision-tree classifiers, which allow quantifying relevant predictors in high-dimensional parameter space. We find that, where no logging occurred, ~ 80% of the total sediment load was transported during rare but high magnitude runoff events during only 5% of the monitoring period. The variability of sediment flux of these rare events spans four orders of magnitude. In particular dry-season logging dampened the role of these rare, extreme sediment-transport events by increasing load efficiency during more moderate events. We show that QRFs outperforms traditional SRCs in terms of accurately simulating short-term dynamics of sediment flux, and conclude that QRF may reliably support forest management recommendations by providing robust simulations of post-logging response of water and sediment discharge at high temporal resolution.

  10. Requirements-Driven Log Analysis Extended Abstract

    Science.gov (United States)

    Havelund, Klaus

    2012-01-01

    Imagine that you are tasked to help a project improve their testing effort. In a realistic scenario it will quickly become clear, that having an impact is diffcult. First of all, it will likely be a challenge to suggest an alternative approach which is significantly more automated and/or more effective than current practice. The reality is that an average software system has a complex input/output behavior. An automated testing approach will have to auto-generate test cases, each being a pair (i; o) consisting of a test input i and an oracle o. The test input i has to be somewhat meaningful, and the oracle o can be very complicated to compute. Second, even in case where some testing technology has been developed that might improve current practice, it is then likely difficult to completely change the current behavior of the testing team unless the technique is obviously superior and does everything already done by existing technology. So is there an easier way to incorporate formal methods-based approaches than the full edged test revolution? Fortunately the answer is affirmative. A relatively simple approach is to benefit from possibly already existing logging infrastructure, which after all is part of most systems put in production. A log is a sequence of events, generated by special log recording statements, most often manually inserted in the code by the programmers. An event can be considered as a data record: a mapping from field names to values. We can analyze such a log using formal methods, for example checking it against a formal specification. This separates running the system for analyzing its behavior. It is not meant as an alternative to testing since it does not address the important in- put generation problem. However, it offers a solution which testing teams might accept since it has low impact on the existing process. A single person might be assigned to perform such log analysis, compared to the entire testing team changing behavior.

  11. Computers and advanced technology applied to uranium borehole logging systems

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A minicomputer has been employed in a uranium borehole logging system to provide digital data acquisition, real time processing for log output, magnetic tape recording, and on-site log analysis procesing for two nuclear logging techniques: spectral gamma ray and prompt fission neutron. A downhole digital data acquisition system (BDATS) is being built. It can acquire and transmit borehole instrument signals without present limitations and degradation experienced in the analog transmisison mode, which is due to the logging system's electrical cable and is present on all logging system cables. The BDATS can replace the data acquisition instrumentation at the surface. A fiber optic logging cable is being developed that can directly replace the electrician conductor logging cable. This should improve the data transmission capabilities of logging systems at least ten-fold when coupled with digital data transmission systems and minicomputer based logging systems. A feasibility study, prototype cable and light transducer system has been completed. 6 refs

  12. Empirical analysis of Android logs using self-organizing maps

    OpenAIRE

    Finickel, Eric; Lahmadi, Abdelkader; Beck, Frederic; Festor, Olivier

    2014-01-01

    In this paper, we present an empirical analysis of the logs generated by the logging system available in Android environments. The logs are mainly related to the execution of the different components of applications and services running on an Android device. We have analysed the logs using self organizing maps where our goal is to establish behavioural fingerprints of Android applications. Each fingerprint is build using information available in logs and related to the structure of an applica...

  13. HMR Log Analyzer: Analyze Web Application Logs Over Hadoop MapReduce

    OpenAIRE

    Sayalee Narkhede; Tripti Baraskar

    2013-01-01

    In today’s Internet world, log file analysis is becoming a necessary task for analyzing the customer’sbehavior in order to improve advertising and sales as well as for datasets like environment, medical,banking system it is important to analyze the log data to get required knowledge from it. Web mining is theprocess of discovering the knowledge from the web data. Log files are getting generated very fast at therate of 1-10 Mb/s per machine, a single data center can generate tens of terabytes ...

  14. penentuan kualitas batubara berdasarkan log gamma ray, log densitas dan analisis parameter kimia

    OpenAIRE

    afriani, yulia

    2015-01-01

    The research has been carried to determine coal quality at coal mine pit 2a South Block Lamin Project PT Mega Alam Sejahtera Berau East Borneo. The method that used in this research is well logging namely gamma ray log and density log to determine subsurface profile with 13 drilling point. From results of the analysis and interpretation of data obtained by the value of the average density is 1.63 g / cc, shale volume average of 0.2%, The average of ash conten 6:46%, average calorie of 5103.5...

  15. Changes in moisture content detected by the neutron logging probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron logging probe is one of the measurement systems being used to detect changes in rock moisture content. The probe contains a source of high-energy neutrons and a slow (thermal) neutron detector. The hydrogen present in the water in the rock slows down the neutrons for detection. Seven boreholes (NE1 to NE7) were sampled before the heater was turned on; the measurements were repeated after the heater was energized to monitor temporal and spatial changes in moisture content. Measurements were made every 10 cm (3.9 in.) along boreholes NE1, NE2a, NE6, and NE7, with the probe stationary for 16 seconds during each measurement; along the remaining boreholes, measurements were made every 20 cm (7.9 in.), with the probe remaining stationary at each location for 16 seconds. A paraffin shield included with the probe was sampled at the beginning and end of each logging day to verify that the tool was functioning properly. For each borehole, the authors calculated the differences in water content between the before and after measurements (after heating minus before heating) to produce a difference log. They also looked at an ensemble of points along a difference trace to define a trend (i.e., above or below zero). To estimate the precision of an n-point ensemble of already filtered, and thus correlated points, they considered the effect of a two part process, filtering and averaging, on the unfiltered data. In the interpretation that follows, they define ensemble trends (where possible) to establish whether a statistically significant change has occurred along a borehole at a particular time and to determine the sense (i.e., increase or decrease) of the change. Based on these trends, they infer whether the amount of liquid water around the borehole has increased or decreased relative to preheating conditions

  16. A comparison of the moisture gauge and the neutron log in air-filled holes at NTS

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Two methods are commonly used to measure water content of geologic materials by neutron diffusion, the moisture gauge and the neutron log. Both are used at NTS, the moisture gauge in tunnels, the neutron log in vertical drilled holes. In this work, the moisture gauge and the neutron log are compared for use in air-filled holes NTS. The measurement instruments have evolved with very different operational characteristics and one important physics difference, the source to detector spacing. The moisture gauge has a very short, 0--6 cm spacing, with little internal shielding, and count increases with water. The neutron log has a long spacing, 30--50 cm, substantial internal shielding, and exhibits decreasing count with increasing water. The moisture gauge gives better bed resolution than the neutron log. Because its count increases with water, the moisture gauge is more strongly affected by water in the borehole, especially in dry formations. In these conditions the neutron log is the method of choice. In air-filled holes, if source size or logging time is not a constraint, the relative sensitivity of the two tools to water is determined by the relative strengths of borehole effects as fluid, holesize, or tool-wall gap. If source size is a constraint for safety reasons, the short spacing provides higher countrates for a given detector efficiency and thus better relative precision in determining the true count. If source size is limited because of detector or electronics saturation, the short spacing will be better at high water content, while the long spacing will be better at low water content. The short spacing may have an advantage because it can make better contact with the hole wall and can be more easily corrected for gap. The long spacing tool is currently used in vertical holes at NTS because that is the only tool available from logging contractors. Since they are most concerned with high water contents, the short spacing tool could prove to be better

  17. Electrofacies analysis for coal lithotype profiling based on high-resolution wireline log data

    Science.gov (United States)

    Roslin, A.; Esterle, J. S.

    2016-06-01

    The traditional approach to coal lithotype analysis is based on a visual characterisation of coal in core, mine or outcrop exposures. As not all wells are fully cored, the petroleum and coal mining industries increasingly use geophysical wireline logs for lithology interpretation.This study demonstrates a method for interpreting coal lithotypes from geophysical wireline logs, and in particular discriminating between bright or banded, and dull coal at similar densities to a decimetre level. The study explores the optimum combination of geophysical log suites for training the coal electrofacies interpretation, using neural network conception, and then propagating the results to wells with fewer wireline data. This approach is objective and has a recordable reproducibility and rule set.In addition to conventional gamma ray and density logs, laterolog resistivity, microresistivity and PEF data were used in the study. Array resistivity data from a compact micro imager (CMI tool) were processed into a single microresistivity curve and integrated with the conventional resistivity data in the cluster analysis. Microresistivity data were tested in the analysis to test the hypothesis that the improved vertical resolution of microresistivity curve can enhance the accuracy of the clustering analysis. The addition of PEF log allowed discrimination between low density bright to banded coal electrofacies and low density inertinite-rich dull electrofacies.The results of clustering analysis were validated statistically and the results of the electrofacies results were compared to manually derived coal lithotype logs.

  18. Results of investigations at the Zunil geothermal field, Guatemala: Well logging and brine geochemistry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Adams, A.; Dennis, B.; Van Eeckhout, E.; Goff, F.; Lawton, R.; Trujillo, P.E.; Counce, D.; Archuleta, J. (Los Alamos National Lab., NM (USA)); Medina, V. (Instituto Nacional de Electrificacion, Guatemala City (Guatemala). Unidad de Desarollo Geotermico)

    1991-07-01

    The well logging team from Los Alamos and its counterpart from Central America were tasked to investigate the condition of four producing geothermal wells in the Zunil Geothermal Field. The information obtained would be used to help evaluate the Zunil geothermal reservoir in terms of possible additional drilling and future power plant design. The field activities focused on downhole measurements in four production wells (ZCQ-3, ZCQ-4, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6). The teams took measurements of the wells in both static (shut-in) and flowing conditions, using the high-temperature well logging tools developed at Los Alamos National Laboratory. Two well logging missions were conducted in the Zunil field. In October 1988 measurements were made in well ZCQ-3, ZCQ-5, and ZCQ-6. In December 1989 the second field operation logged ZCQ-4 and repeated logs in ZCQ-3. Both field operations included not only well logging but the collecting of numerous fluid samples from both thermal and nonthermal waters. 18 refs., 22 figs., 7 tabs.

  19. Fracture density estimation from petrophysical log data using the adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fractures as the most common and important geological features have a significant share in reservoir fluid flow. Therefore, fracture detection is one of the important steps in fractured reservoir characterization. Different tools and methods are introduced for fracture detection from which formation image logs are considered as the common and effective tools. Due to the economical considerations, image logs are available for a limited number of wells in a hydrocarbon field. In this paper, we suggest a model to estimate fracture density from the conventional well logs using an adaptive neuro-fuzzy inference system. Image logs from two wells of the Asmari formation in one of the SW Iranian oil fields are used to verify the results of the model. Statistical data analysis indicates good correlation between fracture density and well log data including sonic, deep resistivity, neutron porosity and bulk density. The results of this study show that there is good agreement (correlation coefficient of 98%) between the measured and neuro-fuzzy estimated fracture density

  20. Attacks of Asthma due to Chlorinized Water: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Eyup Berdan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a high prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma-like symptoms in swimmers has been reported. But, attacks of asthma which is related to chlorinized water is rare. Chlorine, a strong oxidizing agent, is an important toxic gas that the swimmer can breath during swimming and a worker can exposed to chlorine while he or she was using water with chlorine at home. We describe a persistent increase in nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness following chronic exposure to strong respiratory irritant with chlorinized water in two subjects with no past history of asthma or atopy. We conclude that airway hyperresponsiveness can develop or increase after chronic inhalation of high concentrations of irritants such as chlorinized water an indoor irritant factor and that these changes may be prolonged. [TAF Prev Med Bull. 2008; 7(1: 87-90

  1. Attacks of Asthma due to Chlorinized Water: Case Report

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Murat Eyup Berdan

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available The presence of a high prevalence of bronchial hyperresponsiveness and asthma-like symptoms in swimmers has been reported. But, attacks of asthma which is related to chlorinized water is rare. Chlorine, a strong oxidizing agent, is an important toxic gas that the swimmer can breath during swimming and a worker can exposed to chlorine while he or she was using water with chlorine at home. We describe a persistent increase in nonspecific bronchial hyperresponsiveness following chronic exposure to strong respiratory irritant with chlorinized water in two subjects with no past history of asthma or atopy. We conclude that airway hyperresponsiveness can develop or increase after chronic inhalation of high concentrations of irritants such as chlorinized water an indoor irritant factor and that these changes may be prolonged. [TAF Prev Med Bull 2008; 7(1.000: 87-90

  2. Electric plasma discharge combustion synthesis of chlorine dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process for the production of chlorine dioxide comprises feeding an inert gas to a reaction zone and applying an electrical discharge to the inert gas to produce a high temperature plasma. Chlorine gas and oxygen gas are supplied simultaneously to the reaction zone and reacted in the plasma to produce a gaseous mixture comprised of chlorine dioxide, chlorine, oxygen and inert gas, the molar ratio of oxygen to chlorine in the reaction zone being at least about 2.5;1. The gaseous mixture is recovered from the reaction zone. Chlorine dioxide, which may be recovered as a gas or reacted to produce an alkali metal chlorite, is employed as a bleaching agent and a water treatment agent

  3. Treatment of algae-induced tastes and odors by chlorine, chlorine dioxide and permanganate

    OpenAIRE

    Buffin, Lisa Webster

    1992-01-01

    Chlorine (C12(sq»' chlorine dioxide (Cl02 ) and potassium permanganate (KMn04) were evaluated as oxidants for the removal of grassy and cucumber odors associated with the pure compounds, cis-3-hexenol and trans-2, cis-6-nonadienal, respectively, and for the removal of fishy odors associated with a culture of an alga, Synura petersenii. The effects of the oxidants on the pure compounds were assessed both by Flavor Profile Analysis (FPA) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The ef...

  4. Determination of residual oil saturation from time-lapse pulsed neutron capture logs in a large sandstone reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cased hole logging with pulsed neutron tools finds extensive use for identifying zones of water breakthrough and monitoring oil-water contacts in oil reservoirs being depleted by waterflooding or natural water drive. Results of such surveys then find direct use for planning recompletions and water shutoff treatments. Pulsed neutron capture (PNC) logs are useful for estimating water saturation changes behind casing in the presence of a constant, high-salinity environment. PNC log surveys run at different times, i.e., in a time-lapse mode, are particularly amenable to quantitative analysis. The combined use of the original open hole and PNC time-lapse log information can then provide information on remaining or residual oil saturations in a reservoir. This paper reports analyses of historical pulsed neutron capture log data to assess residual oil saturation in naturally water-swept zones for selected wells from a large sandstone reservoir in the Middle East

  5. Some kinetics aspects of chlorine-solids reactions

    OpenAIRE

    Kanari, N.; Mishra, D.; Mochón, J.; Verdeja, L. F.; Diot, F.; Allain, E.

    2011-01-01

    The present paper describes detailed kinetics investigations on some selected chlorine-solid reactions through thermogravimetric measurements. The solids studied in this article include chemical pure oxides and sulfides as well as their natural bearing materials. The chlorinating agents employed are gaseous mixtures of Cl2+N2 (chlorination), Cl2+O2 (oxychlorination), and Cl2+CO (...

  6. The removal of phenols from oily wastewater by chlorine dioxide

    OpenAIRE

    Hsu, Chung-Jung

    1988-01-01

    Treatability studies were performed on oily wastewaters produced by petroleum and canning industries. Chlorine dioxide was used for the removal of phenolic compounds from these oily wastewaters. Most of phenolic compounds can be destroyed by chlorine dioxide within 15 minutes if CI02-to-phenol ratios of higher than 5.0 are provided. Factors such as pH, temperature, and COD have little effect on phenol removal. The effectiveness of chlorine dioxide treatment depends critic...

  7. Palau’chlor: A Practical and Reactive Chlorinating Reagent

    OpenAIRE

    Rodriguez, Rodrigo A.; Pan, Chung-Mao; Yabe, Yuki; Kawamata, Yu; Eastgate, Martin D.; Baran, Phil S.

    2014-01-01

    Unlike its other halogen atom siblings, the utility of chlorinated arenes and (hetero)arenes are twofold: they are useful in tuning electronic structure as well as acting as points for diversification via cross-coupling. Herein we report the invention of a new guanidine-based chlorinating reagent, CBMG or “Palau’chlor”, inspired by a key chlorospirocyclization en route to pyrrole imidazole alkaloids. This direct, mild, operationally simple, and safe chlorinating method is compatible with a ra...

  8. Blends of caprolactam/caprolactone copolymers and chlorinated polymers

    OpenAIRE

    Alberda van Ekenstein, G.O.R.; Deuring, H.; ten Brinke, G.; Ellis, T. S.

    1997-01-01

    The phase behaviour of blends of chlorinated polyethylene, polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and chlorinated PVC with random copolymers of caprolactone and caprolactam has been investigated and the results correlated with a binary interaction model. The known miscibility of polycaprolactone in the chlorinated polymers is not compromised until a relatively high lactam content in the copolymer is attained. The incorporation of segmental interaction parameters, derived from separate studies involving pol...

  9. Getting to the Source: a Survey of Quantitative Data Sources Available to the Everyday Librarian: Part 1: Web Server Log Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Lisa Goddard

    2007-01-01

    This is the first part of a two‐part article that provides a survey of data sources which are likely to be immediately available to the typical practitioner who wishes to engage instatistical analysis of collections and services within his or her own library. Part I outlines the data elements which can be extracted from web server logs, and discusses web log analysis tools. Part II looks at logs, reports, and data sources from proxy servers, resource vendors, link resolvers, federated search ...

  10. The X-ray log N-log S relation. [background radiation in extragalactic media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boldt, Elihu

    1989-01-01

    Results from various surveys are reviewed as regards X-ray source counts at high galactic latitudes and the luminosity functions determined for extragalactic sources. Constraints on the associated log N-log S relation provided by the extragalactic X-ray background are emphasized in terms of its spatial fluctuations and spectrum as well as absolute flux level. The large number of sources required for this background suggests that there is not a sharp boundary in the redshift distribution of visible matter.

  11. LogBase: A Scalable Log-structured Database System in the Cloud

    OpenAIRE

    Vo, Hoang Tam; Wang, Sheng; Agrawal, Divyakant; Chen, Gang; Ooi, Beng Chin

    2012-01-01

    Numerous applications such as financial transactions (e.g., stock trading) are write-heavy in nature. The shift from reads to writes in web applications has also been accelerating in recent years. Write-ahead-logging is a common approach for providing recovery capability while improving performance in most storage systems. However, the separation of log and application data incurs write overheads observed in write-heavy environments and hence adversely affects the write throughput and recover...

  12. Mechanisms of inactivation of poliovirus by chlorine dioxide and iodine.

    OpenAIRE

    Alvarez, M E; O'Brien, R T

    1982-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide and iodine inactivated poliovirus more efficiently at pH 10.0 than at pH 6.0. Sedimentation analyses of viruses inactivated by chlorine dioxide and iodine at pH 10.9 showed that viral RNA separated from the capsids, resulting in the conversion of virions from 156S structures to 80S particles. The RNAs release from both chlorine dioxide- and iodine-inactivated viruses cosedimented with intact 35S viral RNA. Both chlorine dioxide and iodine reacted with the capsid proteins of p...

  13. Water splitting processes of the iron-chlorine family

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Multi-step processes for thermal water splitting comprise individual chemical reactions which, as far as the iron-chlorine family is concerned, may be generalized: hydrolysis, chlorination, dechlorination, reduction, regeneration of chlorinating agent. These categories comprise series of chemical equations which can be combined to water splitting cycles in different configurations. A systematic estimation of the chemical equations of the five categories is given instead of treating several hundred water-splitting processes of the iron-chlorine family. The individual chemical equations are estimated from published data, by laboratory experiments, and by operating conditions of technical processes. (author)

  14. Learning from Logged Implicit Exploration Data

    CERN Document Server

    Strehl, Alex; Kakade, Sham

    2010-01-01

    We provide a sound and consistent foundation for the use of \\emph{nonrandom} exploration data in "contextual bandit" or "partially labeled" settings where only the value of a chosen action is learned. The primary challenge in a variety of settings is that the exploration policy, in which "offline" data is logged, is not explicitly known. Prior solutions here require either control of the actions during the learning process, recorded random exploration, or actions chosen obliviously in a repeated manner. The techniques reported here lift these restrictions, allowing the learning of a policy for choosing actions given features from historical data where no randomization occurred or was logged. We empirically verify our solution on a reasonably sized set of real-world data obtained from an online advertising company.

  15. Reservoir characterization using nuclear geochemical logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Advances in the technique of nuclear spectroscopy logging have resulted in ability to determine continuous, in situ abundances of most major rock-forming elements. If the use of log-derived geochemistry is to be applied widely, quality assessment must be improved to cover a wider variety of environments. A case study of a producing well from the Gulf of Mexico exposes some of the problems in the processing of the geochemical data, quantitatively assesses the accuracy of that data in comparison to core measurements, and examines the validity of an elemental uncertainty estimate. Neutron transport simulations studies show the measurement of Al to be particularly sensitive to borehole environmental effects. (author). 22 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab

  16. Assessment of radiation safety in well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Radiation safety assessments required by current regulations are a means to verify compliance with the requirements. Different methods have been used for this purpose. In the paper the results of applying the method of risk matrices, applied for the first time in the practice of well logging are exposed. For each initiating event frequency of occurrence, the severity of its consequences and the probability of failure of the barriers identified were evaluated. Starting from these assumptions, the risk associated is determined for each of the identified accident sequences, using for this the SEVRRA code 'Risk Assessment System', originally designed for use in radiotherapy. As an result sequences increased risk associated with the practice of well logging were identified, which is the starting point for the further implementation of a coherent program of dose optimization in practice.

  17. Forecasting Monthly Prices of Japanese Logs

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tetsuya Michinaka

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Forecasts of prices can help industries in their risk management. This is especially true for Japanese logs, which experience sharp fluctuations in price. In this research, the authors used an exponential smoothing method (ETS and autoregressive integrated moving average (ARIMA models to forecast the monthly prices of domestic logs of three of the most important species in Japan: sugi (Japanese cedar, Cryptomeria japonica D. Don, hinoki (Japanese cypress, Chamaecyparis obtusa (Sieb. et Zucc. Endl., and karamatsu (Japanese larch, Larix kaempferi (Lamb. Carr.. For the 12-month forecasting periods, forecasting intervals of 80% and 95% were given. By measuring the accuracy of forecasts of 12- and 6-month forecasting periods, it was found that ARIMA gave better results than did the ETS in the majority of cases. However, the combined method of averaging ETS and ARIMA forecasts gave the best results for hinoki in several cases.

  18. Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II logging-while-drilling data acquisition and analysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Wyung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Mrozewski, Stefan A.; Guerin, Gilles; Cook, Ann E.; Goldberg, Dave S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II (GOM JIP Leg II) was the collection of a comprehensive suite of logging-while-drilling (LWD) data within gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in order to make accurate estimates of the concentration of gas hydrates under various geologic conditions and to understand the geologic controls on the occurrence of gas hydrate at each of the sites drilled during this expedition. The LWD sensors just above the drill bit provided important information on the nature of the sediments and the occurrence of gas hydrate. There has been significant advancements in the use of downhole well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gas hydrate in nature: From using electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gas hydrate occurrences in wells to where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gas hydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gas hydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data can yield accurate gas hydrate saturations in sediment grain supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log analysis models are required to characterize gas hydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. In support of the GOM JIP Leg II effort, well-log data montages have been compiled and presented in this report which includes downhole logs obtained from all seven wells drilled during this expedition with a focus on identifying and characterizing the potential gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in each of the wells. Also presented and reviewed in this report are the gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity logs for each of the wells as calculated from available downhole well logs.

  19. Gulf of Mexico Gas Hydrate Joint Industry Project Leg II logging-while-drilling data acquisition and anaylsis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Collett, Timothy S.; Lee, Myung W.; Zyrianova, Margarita V.; Mrozewski, Stefan A.; Guerin, Gilles; Cook, Ann E.; Goldberg, Dave S.

    2012-01-01

    One of the objectives of the Gulf of MexicoGasHydrateJointIndustryProjectLegII (GOM JIP LegII) was the collection of a comprehensive suite of logging-while-drilling (LWD) data within gas-hydrate-bearing sand reservoirs in order to make accurate estimates of the concentration of gashydrates under various geologic conditions and to understand the geologic controls on the occurrence of gashydrate at each of the sites drilled during this expedition. The LWD sensors just above the drill bit provided important information on the nature of the sediments and the occurrence of gashydrate. There has been significant advancements in the use of downhole well-logging tools to acquire detailed information on the occurrence of gashydrate in nature: From using electrical resistivity and acoustic logs to identify gashydrate occurrences in wells to where wireline and advanced logging-while-drilling tools are routinely used to examine the petrophysical nature of gashydrate reservoirs and the distribution and concentration of gashydrates within various complex reservoir systems. Recent integrated sediment coring and well-log studies have confirmed that electrical resistivity and acoustic velocity data can yield accurate gashydrate saturations in sediment grain supported (isotropic) systems such as sand reservoirs, but more advanced log analysis models are required to characterize gashydrate in fractured (anisotropic) reservoir systems. In support of the GOM JIP LegII effort, well-log data montages have been compiled and presented in this report which includes downhole logs obtained from all seven wells drilled during this expedition with a focus on identifying and characterizing the potential gas-hydrate-bearing sedimentary section in each of the wells. Also presented and reviewed in this report are the gas-hydrate saturation and sediment porosity logs for each of the wells as calculated from available downhole well logs.

  20. Batch processing: definition and event log identification

    OpenAIRE

    Martin, Niels,; SWENNEN, Marijke; Depaire, Benoit; Jans, Mieke; CARIS, An; Vanhoof, Koen

    2015-01-01

    A resource typically executes a particular activity on a series of cases. When a resource performs an activity on several cases simultaneously, (quasi-) sequentially or concurrently, this is referred to as batch processing. Given its influence on process performance, batch processing needs to be taken into account when modeling business processes for performance evaluation purposes. This paper suggests event logs as an information source to gain insight in batching behavior. It marks a first ...

  1. Exploiting log files in video retrieval

    OpenAIRE

    Hopfgartner, F.; Urruty, T.; Villa, R.; Gildea, N.; Jose, J.M.

    2008-01-01

    While research into user-centered text retrieval is based on mature evaluation methodologies, user evaluation in multimedia retrieval is still in its infancy. User evaluations can be expensive and are also often non-repeatable. An alternative way of evaluating such systems is the use of simulations. In this poster, we present an evaluation methodology which is based on exploiting log files recorded from a user-study we conducted.

  2. Method and apparatus for neutron well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An improved technique is described for determining the characteristics of the earth formations (porosity, the presence of gas and the depth of invasion) surrounding a borehole by means of a dual-detector neutron logging system which is provided with a neutron-emitting source that continuously irradiates the formation under study, the resulting neutron population being sampled by a pair of neutron detectors spaced at different distances from the source. (UK)

  3. Ceramic vacuum tubes for geothermal well logging

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kelly, R.D.

    1977-01-01

    Useful design data acquired in the evaluation of ceramic vacuum tubes for the development of a 500/sup 0/C instrumentation amplifier are presented. The general requirements for ceramic vacuum tubes are discussed for application to the development of high temperature well logs. Commercially available tubes are described and future contract activities that specifically relate to ceramic vacuum tubes are detailed. Supplemental data are presented in the appendix.

  4. Aether: A scalable approach to logging

    OpenAIRE

    Johnson, Ryan; Pandis, Ippokratis; Stoica, Radu; Athanassoulis, Manos; Ailamaki, Anastasia

    2010-01-01

    The shift to multi-core hardware brings new challenges to database systems, as the software parallelism determines performance. Even though database systems traditionally accommodate simultaneous requests, a multitude of synchronization barriers serialize execution. Write-ahead logging is a fundamental, omnipresent component in ARIES-style concurrency and recovery, and one of the most important yet-to-be addressed potential bottlenecks, especially in OLTP workloads with small and frequent cha...

  5. Pulsed neutron gama ray logging for minerals associated with uranium

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The tool uses a pulsed neutron generator to irradiate the nuclei in the formation surrounding the borehole, and N type, high purity, germanium detector to observe the returning gamma rays. The presence or absence of particular elements, in conjunction with information gained from other logs, is expected to predict the location of uranium deposits away from the borehole. The Proof of Principle probe has been assembled. Tests have been run using an external power supply with a resolution better than 2.6 keV. Experiments in a simulated borehole configuration with a pulsed neutron generator have established an output level of 1 x 105 neutrons/pulse for the detection of inelastic, capture, and activation gamma rays. Gating of the ADC was shown to improve the signal-to-noise ratio for specific gamma ray lines

  6. Reducing the risk of cyber threats in utilities through log management

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Patnaik, A. [ArcSight, Cupertino, CA (United States)

    2010-01-15

    Electrical blackouts caused by terrorists hacking into targeted control systems have already occurred in Brazil. A patchwork of security tools is needed to reduce potential threats. The continuous collection and analysis of data is also needed to detect cyber threats. The real time correlation of logs across all systems, applications and users is needed to ensure the reliability and security of the power grid. Solutions must also integrate well with identity management sources in order to prevent remote access account hijacking. Effective log management can be used to detect threats and reduce the risk of power outages. 1 fig.

  7. Basis of interpretation for SNG-logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The contents of potassium, uranium and thorium have been measured in a number of Danish sedimentary rock types. This was done by use of γ-spectrometry on 250 rock samples and by use of spectral natural gamma logging (SNG-logs) in 25 wells of well-documented constructions. The analysed rock types included most of the common sedimentary rocks found in Danish strata from the quaternary, tertiary and upper cretaceous periods. The median grain size, the sorting coefficient, the clay content etc. were measured by use of sieve and settling analysis for most of the 250 rock samples considered. Further for all the samples an assessment was made of their colour, mineral compositions, lime content and content of organic material. The results of these investigations are presented together with a description of the geology of the rock types. By comparing the measured K, U and Th contents and the rock types, median grain size, content of organic material etc. of the samples, correlations between sedimentary rocks and their content of K, U and Th were established. Based on these correlations a guide for interpretation of SNG-logs from most Danish wells has been set up. (author)

  8. Mutagenic activity associated with by-products of drinking water disinfection by chlorine, chlorine dioxide, ozone and UV-irradiation.

    OpenAIRE

    Zoeteman, B C; Hrubec, J.; De Greef, E; Kool, H J

    1982-01-01

    A retrospective epidemiological study in The Netherlands showed a statistical association between chlorination by-products in drinking water and cancer of the esophagus and stomach for males. A pilot-plant study with alternative disinfectants was carried out with stored water of the Rivers Rhine and Meuse. It was demonstrated that the increase of direct acting mutagens after treatment with chlorine dioxide is similar to the effect of chlorination. Ozonation of Rhine water reduced the mutageni...

  9. Chlorinated Water Modulates the Development of Colorectal Tumors with Chromosomal Instability and Gut Microbiota in Apc-Deficient Mice.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tatsunari Sasada

    Full Text Available The gastrointestinal tract is continuously exposed to a variety of chemicals and commensal bacteria. Recent studies have shown that changes in gut microbial populations caused by chlorine or other chemicals in the drinking water influence the development of human colorectal cancer, although the mechanism of tumorigenesis in the gut epithelium is obfuscated by the diversity of microflora and complexity of the tumor microenvironment. In this regard, mouse models that recapitulate human colorectal cancer are an invaluable tool. In this study, we used two conditional adenomatous polyposis coli (Apc knockout mouse models to investigate the effect of chlorinated water on tumorigenesis in the digestive tract. Mice with colon-specific carcinoma--caused by either chromosomal (CDX2P 9.5-NLS Cre;Apc(+/flox, abbreviated to CPC;Apc or microsatellite (CDX2P9.5-G19Cre;Apc(flox/flox and CDX2P9.5-G22Cre;Apc(flox/flox instability, respectively--were administered chlorinated (10.0 mg/L chlorine or tap (0.7 mg/L chlorine water and evaluated for colon polyp formation. In CPC;Apc mice given chlorinated drinking water, tumors tended to develop in the colon, whereas in those that drank tap water, tumors were mostly observed in the small intestine. There was no difference in the rate of tumor formation of CDX2P9.5-G19Cre;Apc(flox/flox and CDX2P9.5-G22Cre;Apc(flox/flox mice consuming chlorinated as compared to tap water, suggesting that microsatellite instability in the Apc gene does not significantly affect tumorigenesis. Chlorinated water altered the enteric environment by reducing the fecal populations of the obligatory anaerobes Clostridium perfringens and C. difficile, as well as species belonging to the Atopobium cluster, including Enterobacteriaceae and Staphylococcus sp., which was associated with colon tumorigenesis in CPC;Apc mice. These results suggest that differences in tumorigenesis among CPC;Apc mice consuming chlorinated versus tap water may be due to

  10. Application of Highly Purified Electrolyzed Chlorine Dioxide for Tilapia Fillet Disinfection

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    This research aimed to develop an electrolysis method to generate high-concentration chlorine dioxide (ClO2) for tilapia fillet disinfection. The designed generator produced up to 3500 ppm of ClO2 at up to 99% purity. Tilapia fillets were soaked in a 400 ppm ClO2 solution for 5, 10, and 25 min. Results show that total plate counts of tilapia, respectively, decreased by 5.72 to 3.23, 2.10, and 1.09 log CFU/g. In addition, a 200 ppm ClO2 solution eliminated coliform bacteria and Escherichia col...

  11. Numerical simulation of C/O spectroscopy in logging by Monte-Carlo method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerical simulation of ratio of C/O spectroscopy in logging by Monte-Carlo method is made in this paper. Agree well with the measured spectra, the simulated spectra can meet the requirement of logging practice. Vari- ous kinds of C/O ratios affected by different formation oil saturations,borehole oil fractions, casing sizes and concrete ring thicknesses are investigated. In order to achieve accurate results of processing the spectra, this paper presents a new method for unfolding the C/O inelastic gamma spectroscopy, and analysis for the spectra using the method, The result agrees with the fact. These rules and method can be used as calibrating tools and logging interpretation. (authors)

  12. Generalized localization for the double trigonometric Fourier series and the Walsh-Fourier series of functions in L log +L log + log +L

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For an arbitrary open set Ω subset of I2=[0,1)2 and an arbitrary function f element of L log +L log + log +L(I2) such that f=0 on Ω the double Fourier series of f with respect to the trigonometric system Ψ=E and the Walsh-Paley system Ψ=W is shown to converge to zero (over rectangles) almost everywhere on Ω. Thus, it is proved that generalized localization almost everywhere holds on arbitrary open subsets of the square I2 for the double trigonometric Fourier series and the Walsh-Fourier series of functions in the class L log +L log + log +L (in the case of summation over rectangles). It is also established that such localization breaks down on arbitrary sets that are not dense in I2, in the classes ΦΨ(L)(I2) for the orthonormal system Ψ=E and an arbitrary function such that ΦE(u)=o(u log + log +u) as u→∞ or for ΦW(u)=u( log + log +u)1-ε, 0<ε<1

  13. Generalized localization for the double trigonometric Fourier series and the Walsh-Fourier series of functions in L\\log^+L\\log^+\\log^+L

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bloshanskaya, S. K.; Bloshanskii, I. L.; Y Roslova, T.

    1998-06-01

    For an arbitrary open set \\Omega\\subset I^2= \\lbrack 0,1)^2 and an arbitrary function f\\in L\\log^+L\\log^+\\log^+L(I^2) such that f=0 on \\Omega the double Fourier series of f with respect to the trigonometric system \\Psi=\\mathscr E and the Walsh-Paley system \\Psi=W is shown to converge to zero (over rectangles) almost everywhere on \\Omega. Thus, it is proved that generalized localization almost everywhere holds on arbitrary open subsets of the square I^2 for the double trigonometric Fourier series and the Walsh-Fourier series of functions in the class L\\log^+L\\log^+\\log^+L (in the case of summation over rectangles). It is also established that such localization breaks down on arbitrary sets that are not dense in I^2, in the classes \\Phi_\\Psi(L)(I^2) for the orthonormal system \\Psi=\\mathscr E and an arbitrary function such that \\Phi_{\\mathscr E}(u)=o(u\\log^+\\log^+u) as u\\to\\infty or for \\Phi_W(u)=u(\\log^+\\log^+u)^{1-\\varepsilon}, 0<\\varepsilon<1.

  14. The Research of Through-casing Resistivity Logging Logging Calibration System Leakage Current Measurement Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    ZHANG Jiatian

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available This paper introduces the logging principle of through-casing resistivity logging technology, finds a phenomenon that the leakage current measurements are susceptible to sufferring interferences. The through-casing resistivity logging technology in Russia and that of Schlumberger are studied, and the system of through-casing resistivity logging is established to improve the accuracy of calibrating, testing and measuring of the instrument. In this paper, distribution parameters of the form is replaced by the lumped parameter, and precision resistor array simulation in formation leakage current and scale pool simulation in different resistivity of formation are conducted, which make the dynamic range of the simulation in formation resistivity of the medium increase to 1- 300 Ω·m and meet the requirement of through-casing resistivity logging technology measurement range, 1 Ω·m ~ 100 Ω·m. Since the measuring signals of calibration acquisition and processing systems are extremely weak and calculation signals need to tell the nV (nanovolts level, the high accurate data acquisition system of 24 digits is applied.

  15. Neutron logging method and apparatus for determining a formation characteristic free of environmental effects

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A neutron logging tool is passed through the borehole while irradiating the formation with neutrons. The tool includes a neutron source and first and second detectors spaced from the source by different distances. Neutrons exiting the formation are detected with the neutron detectors and count rate signals are generated. In response to these signals, an indication of porosity, substantially independent of error due to tool standoff from said borehole wall, is produced using the fact that lines each corresponding to a specific porosity and plotted for differing values of tool standoff converge to a common point, and terminate at their other ends in an ''ideal'' tool response for zero standoff, such ideal response being previously determined for the tool. (author)

  16. Some kinetics aspects of chlorine-solids reactions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kanari, N.; Mishra, D.; Mochon, J.; Verdeja, L. F.; Diot, F.; Allain, E.

    2010-07-01

    The present paper describes detailed kinetics investigations on some selected chlorine-solid reactions through thermogravimetric measurements. The solids studied in this article include chemical pure oxides and sulfides as well as their natural bearing materials. The chlorinating agents employed are gaseous mixtures of Cl{sub 2}+N{sub 2} (chlorination), Cl{sub 2}+O{sub 2} (oxy chlorination), and Cl{sub 2}+CO (carbochlorination). Results are presented as effects of various parameters on the reaction rate of these solids with these chlorinating agents. It was observed that the reactivity of these solids towards different chlorinating agents varied widely. Sulfides could be chlorinated at room temperature, while carbochlorination of chromium (III) oxide was possible only above 500 degree centigrade. The variation of the chlorination rate of these complex materials with respect to gas velocity, composition and temperature enabled us to focus some light on the plausible reaction mechanisms and stoichiometries. The obtained results were used for selective removal of iron from chromite concentrates, extraction of valuable metals from sulfide materials, purification of MgO samples, etc.. (Author) 12 refs.

  17. Chlorine-heavy metals interaction on toxicity and metal accumulation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The primary objectives of this study with rainbow trout (Salmo gairdneri) were: to determine whether acute toxic interaction of chlorine, nickel, and temperature is additive, synergistic, antagonistic, or if no interaction occurs; to provide a biological explanation of the mechanisms of the toxic interactions; and to develop a mortality model of the toxic interaction. Twenty chlorine-nickel toxicity tests and a bioaccumulation study, both with and without chlorine, were conducted to accomplish these objectives. Studies using 63Ni were conducted to monitor the effects of chlorine on nickel accumulation in the tissues of trout under conditions similar to those of multiple toxicant studies. The presence of 0.018 ppM TRC (total residual chlorine) increased nickel accumulation in tissues from fish exposed to chlorine and 63Ni. This may be due to an increase in the permeability of the gill to nickel during chlorine exposure. Chlorine and nickel had a synergistic toxic interaction. Mortality in these groups was significantly higher. Temperature did not influence toxicity as strongly

  18. Chlorine Dioxide Induced Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: MMPI Validity Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentoni, Stuart C.

    This paper discusses Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) data obtained from individuals exposed to chlorine dioxide in the workplace who developed Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome. The paper explores current research on chlorine dioxide exposed persons who were misdiagnosed on the basis of MMPI interpretations. Difficulties…

  19. UASB reactor effluent disinfection by ozone and chlorine

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ribeiro da Silvia, G.H.; Bruning, H.; Gerrity, D.; Daniel, L.A.

    2015-01-01

    This research studied the sequential ozone and chlorine process with respect to, the inactivation of indicator bacteria and the formation of ozone disinfection byproducts in sanitary wastewater effluent. The applied ozone doses were 5, 8 and 10 mg.O3.L-1, followed by chlorine doses of 10, 20 and 30

  20. Chlorine-containing natural compounds in higher plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1986-01-01

    More than 130 chlorine-containing compounds have been isolated from higher plants and ferns; about half are polyacetylenes, thiophenes and sesquiterpene lactones from the Asteraceae. A chlorinated chlorophyll may be an important part of photosystem 1. High biological activity is found in 4...

  1. 78 FR 66767 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of September 10, 2013 (78 FR 55293). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Japan Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China and Japan of chlorinated isocyanurates, provided for...

  2. CNPC Sees Rapid Growth in Overseas Oil Logging Service Business

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2004-01-01

    @@ CNPC Logging Technology Service Co Ltd has made breakthrough in market development in the first two months of this year by signing the logging technological service contract with Repsol in Libya, creating a good start for 2004.

  3. PCBs in sediments of the Great Lakes - Distribution and trends, homolog and chlorine patterns, and in situ degradation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A region-wide data analysis on polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs) in the sediment of the Great Lakes reveals a total accumulation of approximately 300 ± 50 tonnes, representing a >30% reduction from the 1980s. Evidence of in situ degradation of sediment PCB was found, with estimated t1/2 of 11 and 17 years, at two open water locations in Lake Ontario. The relative abundance of heavy homologs as well as para-chlorines decreases with increasing depth, while the opposite is true for medium and light homologs and ortho-chlorines. In Lake Michigan, the vertical pattern features enrichment of heavier congeners and reduction of ortho-chlorines in deeper sediment layers, opposite to the trend in Lake Ontario. PCBs decrease log-linearly with increasing latitude and longitude. Air deposition of PCBs to lake sediment decreases at about 0.077 ng cm-2 yr-1 per degree latitude (N) for the geographic region extending from the Great Lakes to within the Arctic Circle. - Data analysis on PCBs in the Great Lakes sediments reveals decline of overall burden, occurrence of in situ degradation, and the geographic gradient in the region and beyond

  4. Biodegradability of Chlorinated Anilines in Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAO WANG; GUAN-GHUA LU; YAN-JIE ZHOU

    2007-01-01

    Objective To identify the bacteria tolerating chlorinated anilines and to study the biodegradability of o-chloroaniline and its coexistent compounds. Methods Microbial community of complex bacteria was identified by plate culture observation techniques and Gram stain method. Bacterial growth inhibition test was used to determine the tolerance of complex bacteria to toxicant. Biodegradability of chlorinated anilines was determined using domesticated complex bacteria as an inoculum by shaking-flask test. Results The complex bacteria were identified, consisting of Xanthomonas, Bacillus alcaligenes,Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Actinomycetaceae nocardia. The obtained complex bacteria were more tolerant to o-chloroaniline than mixture bacteria in natural river waters. The effects of exposure concentration and inoculum size on the biodegradability of o-chloroaniline were analyzed, and the biodegradation characteristics of single o-chloroaniline and 2,4-dichloroaniline were compared with the coexistent compounds. Conclusion The biodegradation rates can be improved by decreasing concentration of compounds and increasing inoculum size of complex bacteria. When o-chloroaniline coexists with aniline, the latter is biodegraded prior to the former, and as a consequence the metabolic efficiency of o-chloroaniline is improved with the increase of aniline concentration. Meanwhile, when o-chloroaniline coexists with 2,4-dichloroaniline, the metabolic efficiency of 2,4-dichloroaniline is markedly improved.

  5. New infrared spectroscopic database for chlorine nitrate

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fourier transform infrared measurements of chlorine nitrate have been performed in the spectral region 500-1330 cm-1 at 0.002-0.008 cm-1 spectral resolution. Absorption cross sections were derived from 23 spectra covering the temperature range from 190 to 296 K and air pressure range from 0 to 150 hPa. For line-by-line analysis, further spectra were recorded at 0.00094 cm-1 spectral resolution at 190 and 296 K. The sample was synthesized from N2O5 and Cl2O. Number densities in the absorption cell were derived from pressure measurements of the purified sample. Quality assurance included measurements with different sample pressures, spectroscopic purity check of the sample, comparison of integrated absorption cross sections over entire band systems, and assessment of residuals from remote-sensing retrievals. Multiplicative and additive errors were considered giving an overall uncertainty of +2.5/-3.5%. Further data reduction was achieved with an interpolation scheme based on two-dimensional polynomials in ln(pressure) and temperature. The worst-case error for the interpolated data is +4.5/-5.5%. The database is well-suited for remote-sensing application and should reduce the atmospheric chlorine nitrate error budget substantially

  6. Application of compound specific 13C isotope investigations of chlorinated hydrocarbons in contaminated groundwaters

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Full text: Chlorinated hydrocarbons are one of the most common pollutants found in groundwater. Due to complex contamination situations with overlapping contamination plumes the assessment of the organic contaminants requires the installation of expensive observation wells and high analytical effort. Here the determination of the stable isotope ratio 13C/12C of the organic compounds offers a promising and efficient tool to investigate the origin and the biodegradation characteristics of the chlorinated hydrocarbons in groundwater. The application of the method is based on characteristic isotope fingerprints, differing in chlorinated solvents. This isotope fingerprint is derived from different production pathways and is not influenced by transport or by retardation processes in the underground. Due to the fact, that two different contaminations can easily be distinguished by isotope ratios, an improved distinction of spatially and temporally different contamination plumes might be possible. In course of biologically mediated degradation processes a shift of the isotope ratios between the precursor and the product can frequently be observed, such as with denitrification or sulfate reduction processes. The isotope fractionation is due to a preferential reaction of the bonds formed by the lighter isotopes and leads to a progressive enrichment of the heavy isotopes in the precursor while the product becomes depleted in the heavy isotopes. Biological degradation of the highly chlorinated hydrocarbons is due to a co-metabolic dechlorinisation. Tetrachloroethene (PCE) for example degrades under anoxic conditions via trichloroethene (TCE) to cis-1,2-dichloroethene (cDCE). Subsequent degradation to vinyl chloride (VC) and ethene may appear under aerobic as well as reducing environments depending on the site specific conditions. In several laboratory studies it has been shown, that biodegradation of the chlorinated hydrocarbons is accompanied by an isotope fractionation of

  7. Ecosystem carbon dynamics in logged forest of Malaysian Borneo

    OpenAIRE

    Saner, P G

    2009-01-01

    The tropical rainforest of Borneo is heavily disturbed by logging, to date less than half of the original forest cover remains. To counteract such development logged forest is rehabilitated to regenerate its natural protective function. In this thesis we consider the carbon budget of logged forest and the ecology of the trees that are planted for rehabilitation. We show that the logged forest under study differs from unlogged forest due to the lack of the dominant trees and hence the organic ...

  8. Release of chlorine from biomass at gasification conditions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The objective of the project was to investigate the influence of different gasifying atmospheres on the release of chlorine from biomass during gasification conditions. Furthermore, the purpose was also to try and identify the formed chloro compounds. The results showed that O2, H2O and CO2 had negligible effect on the chlorine release at temperatures under 700 deg C. At temperatures above 800 deg C the reactivity towards CO2 increased and could be seen as higher chlorine release and less solid residue. No chloro organic compounds (aliphatic one to six carbons or aromatic one to two rings) could be detected in the tar or the fuel gas produced during pyrolysis/gasifying. On the other hand, comparable amounts of chlorinated benzenes were found in the cooling section during combustion of lucerne and of synthetic waste, indicating that oxygen is essential for chlorination reactions. 11 refs, 4 figs, 1 tab

  9. On conditional independence and log-convexity

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Matúš, František

    2012-01-01

    Roč. 48, č. 4 (2012), s. 1137-1147. ISSN 0246-0203 R&D Projects: GA AV ČR IAA100750603; GA ČR GA201/08/0539 Institutional support: RVO:67985556 Keywords : Conditional independence * Markov properties * factorizable distributions * graphical Markov models * log-convexity * Gibbs-Markov equivalence * Markov fields * Gaussian distributions * positive definite matrices * covariance selection model Subject RIV: BA - General Mathematics Impact factor: 0.933, year: 2012 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2013/MTR/matus-0386229.pdf

  10. Isotope Fractionation of chlorine in Aqueous System: One Study on Anion-Exchange Chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Musashi, M.; Oi, T.; Eggenkamp, H.; Van Cappellen, P.

    2001-05-01

    Stable chlorine isotopes such as 37Cl and 35Cl have been paid attention as useful tool identifying the source, and monitoring the transport process and natural fate of chlorinated organic pollutants in air and groundwater. However, it is not established yet whether any isotope effects accompany biodegradation or reductive dehalogenation of the pollutants (Clark and Fritz, 1997). Here we first present an experimental determination of isotope fractionation factor of chlorine in aqueous system by using anion-exchange chromatographic technique. Into the Cl-free anion exchange resin (Muromac, OH- form) packed in a 30 cm long pyrex glass column and controlled temperature at 25 oC, hydrochloric solution was fed with controlling the flow rate constant. Effluent from the column was recovered by an automatic fraction collector and prepared for Cl isotope analysis. The Cl isotope ratio (δ 37Cl vs. SMOC) was measured by IR-MS at the Utrecht University with precision of 0.06 per-mil. Magnitude of the factor obtained was 1.00035 at 25 oC. The result indicates that the lighter isotope (35Cl) was preferably fractionated into the resin phase, while the heavier one (37Cl) was enriched into the aqueous phase. This trend suggests that molecular structure of hydrolysis with Cl in aqueous phase may be more stable than that of Cl ionically bonding with the resin. This result may offer physico-chemical insights into behavior and fate of the pollutants.

  11. An Experimental Survey Towards Engaging Trustable Hypervisor Log Evidence Within a Cloud Forensic Environment

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sean Thorpe

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available In this survey paper the author explores the technical as well as high level conceptual trust issues that arisein acquiring log forensic evidence from the virtual machine (VM hosted operating systems within the dataclouds. This specific survey work is done at the University of Technology [UTECH], Jamaica, whichcurrently functions as its own independent private data cloud provider. The data acquisition is particular tothe hypervisor system logs that can be used to track VM incidences which are later used to compilepotential evidence for a cloud investigation. This work also presents a model to show the layers ofvirtualization trust that can arguably be used to support the collection of such log evidence. The paperprovides the context for the support of such cloud digital investigations and analyzes the choices availableto a forensic investigator using proof of concept experiments. The experimental work is achieved by makinga comparative evaluation of popular forensic acquisition tools including Guidance EnCase andAccessData Forensic Toolkit, as to how volatile and non-volatile hypervisor log data can be collected.Finally the paper explores three solutions for the managed log evidence data acquisition phase within acloud investigation.

  12. In situ fluid typing and quantification with 1D and 2D NMR logging.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Boqin

    2007-05-01

    In situ nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) fluid typing has recently gained momentum due to data acquisition and inversion algorithm enhancement of NMR logging tools. T(2) distributions derived from NMR logging contain information on bulk fluids and pore size distributions. However, the accuracy of fluid typing is greatly overshadowed by the overlap between T(2) peaks arising from different fluids with similar apparent T(2) relaxation times. Nevertheless, the shapes of T(2) distributions from different fluid components are often different and can be predetermined. Inversion with predetermined T(2) distributions allows us to perform fluid component decomposition to yield individual fluid volume ratios. Another effective method for in situ fluid typing is two-dimensional (2D) NMR logging, which results in proton population distribution as a function of T(2) relaxation time and fluid diffusion coefficient (or T(1) relaxation time). Since diffusion coefficients (or T(1) relaxation time) for different fluid components can be very different, it is relatively easy to separate oil (especially heavy oil) from water signal in a 2D NMR map and to perform accurate fluid typing. Combining NMR logging with resistivity and/or neutron/density logs provides a third method for in situ fluid typing. We shall describe these techniques with field examples. PMID:17466778

  13. Why, What, and How to Log? Lessons from LISTEN

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mostow, Jack; Beck, Joseph E.

    2009-01-01

    The ability to log tutorial interactions in comprehensive, longitudinal, fine-grained detail offers great potential for educational data mining--but what data is logged, and how, can facilitate or impede the realization of that potential. We propose guidelines gleaned over 15 years of logging, exploring, and analyzing millions of events from…

  14. SNG-logs and core measurements in boreholes at Skagen

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Spectral Natural Gamma logs (SNG-logs) have been used in boreholes at Skagen (Jutland, Denmark) in order to elucidate some geologic reasons for the town Skagen sinking into the ground. Results of measurements - the SNG-logs and core measurements - are reported and discussed in the present report. (EG)

  15. Radiation incidents in oil well logging industry: an analysis

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Well logging sources are being used for exploratory down hole evaluation technique to find out detailed structural mapping of geological formation in oil, gas and coal industry. Around 443 sources are used for oil well logging in India. Radiation incidents occurred so far in the oil well logging industry are described in this paper. (author)

  16. Interpretation of borehole logging data by use of theoretical models for the nuclear probes used

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The report describes the development of a log interpretation programme, based on logs from 4 nuclear tools. For each of these tools a theoretical model is developed. The model of the neutron porosity tool is based on one-dimensional, 3 group diffusion theory, that of the gamma density tool is based one-dimensional, 5 group modified diffusion theory, that of the pulsed-neutron, capture-gamma tool is based on one-dimensional, Fermi-age theory and that of the natural gamma tool on 2 or 3 dimensional numerical integration and the use of build-up factors. The 4 models are incorporated into a computer programme NULIP. This programme uses as input the experimental data of the 4 tools of each depth value. From this input the programme calculates the water/oil, the gas and the matrix volume fraction as a function of depth. Also the volume fraction of clay and sand of shale layers may be obtained. The computation is performed by use of interation and the computing time is about 6 sec for each depth value. An example of the use of the programme on actual field data is presented. The results look quite promising. (author) 19 refs

  17. Effects of chlorine or chlorine dioxide during immersion chilling on recovery of bacteria from broiler carcasses and chiller water

    Science.gov (United States)

    A study was conducted to determine the microbiological impact of immersion chilling broiler carcasses with chlorine or chlorine dioxide. Eviscerated, pre-chill commercial broiler carcasses were cut into left and right halves along the keel bone, and each half was rinsed (HCR) in 100 mL of 0.1% pept...

  18. Synergetic Inactivation of Microorganisms in Drinking Water by Short-term Free Chlorination and Subsequent Monochloramination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To introduce synergetic inactivation of microorganisms in drinking water by short-term free chlorination for less than 15 minutes followed by monochloramination. Methods Indicator microorganisms such as Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and spores of Bacillus subtilis were used to assess the efficiency of sequential chlorination and free chlorination. Results The sequential chlorination was more efficient in inactivating these microorganisms than free chlorination, indicating that synergy was provided by free chlorine and monochloramine. Ammonia addition time, temperature and pH had influences on this synergy. Conclusion The possible mechanism of this synergy might involve three aspects: free chlorine causing sublethal injury to microorganisms and monochloramine further inactivating them; different ability of free chlorine and monochloramine to penetrate and inactivate microorganism congeries; and higher concentration of residual chlorine in sequential chlorination than in free chlorination.

  19. Public PCs: Log Out or Lose Out

    CERN Multimedia

    Computer Security Team

    2013-01-01

    Do you regularly use one of the public Windows or Linux terminals in the CERN library or in front of the Users' Office? Or do you often give presentations or run meetings, workshops or conferences? Did you recently attend a training session in the CERN Training Centre? If you answered at least once with “yes”, we have a plea for you: LOG OUT when done in order to protect your data!   You might recall that CERN considers that “Your Privacy is Paramount”. But this does not come for free. In the few past months, we have received several reports from vigilant people who have spotted open user sessions on public PCs at CERN. Those users simply forgot to log out once their work, training or meeting was over. Their session continued without them being present. Worse, with CERN using a central Single Sign-On (SSO) portal, their login credentials would allow a malicious person at CERN to use those credentials to access that user’s mailbox, DFS ...

  20. Logging Data High-Resolution Sequence Stratigraphy

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Li Hongqi; Xie Yinfu; Sun Zhongchun; Luo Xingping

    2006-01-01

    The recognition and contrast of bed sets in parasequence is difficult in terrestrial basin high-resolution sequence stratigraphy. This study puts forward new methods for the boundary identification and contrast of bed sets on the basis of manifold logging data. The formation of calcareous interbeds, shale resistivity differences and the relation of reservoir resistivity to altitude are considered on the basis of log curve morphological characteristics, core observation, cast thin section, X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy. The results show that the thickness of calcareous interbeds is between 0.5 m and 2 m, increasing on weathering crusts and faults. Calcareous interbeds occur at the bottom of Reservoir resistivity increases with altitude. Calcareous interbeds may be a symbol of recognition for the boundary of bed sets and isochronous contrast bed sets, and shale resistivity differences may confirm the stack relation and connectivity of bed sets. Based on this, a high-rcsolution chronostratigraphic framework of Xi-1 segment in Shinan area, Junggar basin is presented, and the connectivity of bed sets and oil-water contact is confirmed. In this chronostratigraphic framework, the growth order, stack mode and space shape of bed sets are qualitatively and quantitatively described.

  1. Airborne LiDAR Detects Selectively Logged Tropical Forest Even in an Advanced Stage of Recovery

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rafi Kent

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Identifying historical forest disturbances is difficult, especially in selectively logged areas. LiDAR is able to measure fine-scale variations in forest structure over multiple kilometers. We use LiDAR data from ca. 16 km2 of forest in Sierra Leone, West Africa, to discriminate areas of old-growth from areas recovering from selective logging for 23 years. We examined canopy height variation and gap size distributions. We found that though recovering blocks of forest differed little in height from old-growth forest (up to 3 m, they had a greater area of canopy gaps (average 10.2% gap fraction in logged areas, compared to 5.6% in unlogged area; and greater numbers of gaps penetrating to the forest floor (162 gaps at 2 m height in logged blocks, and 101 in an unlogged block. Comparison of LiDAR measurements with field data demonstrated that LiDAR delivered accurate results. We found that gap size distributions deviated from power-laws reported previously, with substantially fewer large gaps than predicted by power-law functions. Our analyses demonstrate that LiDAR is a useful tool for distinguishing structural differences between old-growth and old-secondary forests. That makes LiDAR a powerful tool for REDD+ (Reduction of Emissions from Deforestation and Forest Degradation programs implementation and conservation planning.

  2. Exploring client logs towards characterizing the user behavior on web applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guarino de Vasconcelos, Leandro; Coelho dos Santos, Rafael D.; Baldochi, Laercio A.

    2013-05-01

    Analysis of user interaction with computer systems can be used for several purposes, the most common being analysis of the effectiveness of the interfaces used for interaction (in order to adapt or enhance its usefulness) and analysis of intention and behavior of the users when interacting with these systems. For web applications, often the analysis of user interaction is done using the web server logs collected for every document sent to the user in response to his/her request. In order to capture more detailed data on the users' interaction with sites, one could collect actions the user performs in the client side. An effective approach to this is the USABILICS system, which also allows the definition and analysis of tasks in web applications. The fine granularity of logs collected by USABILICS allows a much more detailed log of users' interaction with a web application. These logs can be converted into graphs where vertices are users' actions and edges are paths made by the user to accomplish a task. Graph analysis and visualization tools and techniques allow the analysis of actions taken in relation to an expected action path, or characterization of common (and uncommon) paths on the interaction with the application. This paper describes how to estimate users' behavior and characterize their intentions during interaction with a web application, presents the analysis and visualization tools on those graphs and shows some practical results with an educational site, commenting on the results and implications of the possibilities of using these techniques.

  3. Design of acoustic logging signal source of imitation based on field programmable gate array

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An acoustic logging signal source of imitation is designed and realized, based on the Field Programmable Gate Array (FPGA), to improve the efficiency of examining and repairing acoustic logging tools during research and field application, and to inspect and verify acoustic receiving circuits and corresponding algorithms. The design of this signal source contains hardware design and software design,and the hardware design uses an FPGA as the control core. Four signals are made first by reading the Random Access Memory (RAM) data which are inside the FPGA, then dealing with the data by digital to analog conversion, amplification, smoothing and so on. Software design uses VHDL, a kind of hardware description language, to program the FPGA. Experiments illustrate that the ratio of signal to noise for the signal source is high, the waveforms are stable, and also its functions of amplitude adjustment, frequency adjustment and delay adjustment are in accord with the characteristics of real acoustic logging waveforms. These adjustments can be used to imitate influences on sonic logging received waveforms caused by many kinds of factors such as spacing and span of acoustic tools, sonic speeds of different layers and fluids, and acoustic attenuations of different cementation planes. (paper)

  4. Ecogenomics of microbial communities in bioremediation of chlorinated contaminated sites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Farai Maphosa

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available Organohalide compounds such as chloroethenes, chloroethanes and polychlorinated benzenes are among the most significant pollutants in the world. These compounds are often found in contamination plumes with other pollutants such as solvents, pesticides and petroleum derivatives. Microbial bioremediation of contaminated sites, has become commonplace whereby key processes involved in bioremediation include anaerobic degradation and transformation of these organohalides by organohalide respiring bacteria and also via hydrolytic, oxygenic and reductive mechanisms by aerobic bacteria. Microbial ecogenomics has enabled us to not only study the microbiology involved in these complex processes but also develop tools to better monitor and assess these sites during bioremediation. Microbial ecogenomics have capitalized on recent advances in high-throughput and -output genomics technologies in combination with microbial physiology studies to address these complex bioremediation problems at a system level. Advances in environmental metagenomics, transcriptomics and proteomics have provided insights into key genes and their regulation in the environment. They have also given us clues into microbial community structures, dynamics and functions at contaminated sites. These techniques have not only aided us in understanding the lifestyles of common organohalide respirers, for example Dehalococcoides, Dehalobacter and Desulfitobacterium, but also provided insights into novel and yet uncultured microorganisms found in organohalide respiring consortia. In this paper we look at how ecogenomic studies have aided us to understand the microbial structures and functions in response to environmental stimuli such as the presence of chlorinated pollutants.

  5. Min-cuts and Shortest Cycles in Planar Graphs in O(n log log n) Time

    CERN Document Server

    \\L\\kacki, Jakub

    2011-01-01

    We present a deterministic O(n log log n) time algorithm for finding shortest cycles and minimum cuts in planar graphs. The algorithm improves the previously known fastest algorithm by Italiano et al. in STOC'11 by a factor of log n. This speedup is obtained through the use of dense distance graphs combined with a divide-and-conquer approach.

  6. Chlorine Isotopes: As a Possible Tracer of Fluid/Bio-Activities on Mars and a Progress Report on Chlorine Isotope Analysis by TIMs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nakamura, N.; Nyquist, L.E.; Reese, Y.; Shih, C-Y.; Numata, M.; Fujitani, T.; Okano, O.

    2009-01-01

    Significantly large mass fractionations between chlorine isotopes (Cl-35, Cl-37) have been reported for terrestrial materials including both geological samples and laboratory materials. Also, the chlorine isotopic composition can be used as a tracer for early solar system processes. Moreover, chlorine is ubiquitous on the Martian surface. Typical chlorine abundances in Gusev soils are approx.0.5 %. The global surface average chlorine abundance also is approx.0.5 %. Striking variations among outcrop rocks at Meridiani were reported with some chlorine abundances as high as approx.2%. Characterizing conditions under which chlorine isotopic fractionation may occur is clearly of interest to planetary science. Thus, we have initiated development of a chlorine isotopic analysis technique using TIMS at NASA-JSC. We present here a progress report on the current status of development at JSC and discuss the possible application of chlorine isotopic analysis to Martian meteorites in a search for fluid- and possibly biological activity on Mars.

  7. Comparison of electrochemical method with ozonation, chlorination and monochloramination in drinking water disinfection

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: → Electrochemical, O3, NaClO and NH2Cl were compared at respective optimal condition. → Disinfection efficacy was similar for different bacteria in electrolysis. → Harsh Bacillus was inactivated more difficult in O3, NaClO and NH2Cl system. → Efficient disinfection of electrolysis was attributed to nonselectivity of ·OH. → Cell surface damage was more obvious in electrochemical process than the others. - Abstract: Electrochemical process in chloride-free electrolytes was proved to be powerful in disinfection due to the strong oxidants produced in the electrolysis and no formation of disinfection byproducts (DBPs). In this study, disinfection experiments were conducted by electrochemical treatment compared with ordinary and advanced methods (ozonation, chlorination and monochloramination), with Escherichia coli (E. coli) K-12, Staphylococcus aureus (S. aureus) A106, Bacillus subtilis (BST) and an isolated Bacillus as the representative microorganisms. Firstly, factor tests were performed on E. coli to obtain the optimal conditions of the four disinfection procedures. At their respective optimal condition, CT (concentration of disinfectant x contact time) value of a 4-log E. coli inactivation was 33.5, 1440, 1575, 1674 mg min L-1 for electrochemical process, ozonation, chlorination and monochloramination, respectively. It was demonstrated that the disinfection availability was in the following order: electrochemical process > ozonation > chlorination > monochloramination, which could be attributed to the hydroxyl radical generated in the electrolysis, with strong oxidizing ability and non-selectivity compared with the other three disinfectants. Moreover, the disinfection efficacy of the four disinfection procedures was compared for four different bacteria. It was found that the disinfection efficacy was similar for the selected four bacteria in electrochemical process, while in the other three treatments inactivation of the two Bacillus was

  8. Use of pulsed neutron logging to evaluate perforation washing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This invention relates to the use of pulsed neutron logging techniques before and after perforation washing operations are performed to evaluate the degree of success of the perforation washing operations. Well logging operations of a type designed to respond to the difference between a formation immediately behind the well sheath and voids in the formation are performed both before and after the perforation washing operation. differences between the two resulting logs are then indicative of voids created by perforation washing. In a preferred embodiment, pulsed neutron logging is used as the logging technique, while a weighted brine having a high absorption cross section to pulsed neutrons is used as the perforation washing fluid

  9. Desenvolvimento de uma ferramenta para a gestão da logística da captação de leite de uma cooperativa agropecuária Development of a logistic tool to optimized the milk supply of an agricutural cooperative

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ricardo Silveira Martins

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo geral deste artigo é apresentar o desenvolvimento e implementação da racionalização da gestão da logística de captação de leite na Cooperativa Agropecuária Castrolanda (PR. Tal preocupação tem referências na reestruturação experimentada pelo setor e no processo de granelização da coleta, que viabilizou a implementação de nova logística. O modelo utilizou a heurística das economias de Clark e Wright (CW, minimizando a distância total percorrida, como uma proxy dos custos de transporte, sujeita às restrição de produção nas propriedades, capacidade dos tanques, tipo de caminhão acessível nas estradas principais, secundárias e nas vias de acesso. As principais conclusões que podem ser extraídas deste trabalho referem-se às vantagens oferecidas pelo modelo desenvolvido em relação às sistemáticas empíricas e aos modelos comerciais importados, que foram originalmente desenvolvidos para solucionar problemas de otimização aplicáveis aos meios urbanos.This paper discusses the development and implementation of a model for optimizing the milk supply logistics of Cooperativa Agropecuaria Castrolanda, located in the state of Paraná, Brazil. The new logistics are being implemented in response to the restructuring of Brazil's dairy sector and the adoption of bulk milk collection and transportation. The model uses Clark and Wright's economy heuristic, which minimizes the total distance traveled, to represent transportation costs, subject to the constraints of each farm's production volume, tank capacity, and type of truck that can travel on main, secondary and farm roads. The main conclusions to be drawn from this study are the advantages the model offers over current empirical systems and imported commercial models which were originally developed to solve optimization problems in urban environments.

  10. Self-optimizing Monte Carlo method for nuclear well logging simulation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Lianyan

    1997-09-01

    In order to increase the efficiency of Monte Carlo simulation for nuclear well logging problems, a new method has been developed for variance reduction. With this method, an importance map is generated in the regular Monte Carlo calculation as a by-product, and the importance map is later used to conduct the splitting and Russian roulette for particle population control. By adopting a spatial mesh system, which is independent of physical geometrical configuration, the method allows superior user-friendliness. This new method is incorporated into the general purpose Monte Carlo code MCNP4A through a patch file. Two nuclear well logging problems, a neutron porosity tool and a gamma-ray lithology density tool are used to test the performance of this new method. The calculations are sped up over analog simulation by 120 and 2600 times, for the neutron porosity tool and for the gamma-ray lithology density log, respectively. The new method enjoys better performance by a factor of 4~6 times than that of MCNP's cell-based weight window, as per the converged figure-of-merits. An indirect comparison indicates that the new method also outperforms the AVATAR process for gamma-ray density tool problems. Even though it takes quite some time to generate a reasonable importance map from an analog run, a good initial map can create significant CPU time savings. This makes the method especially suitable for nuclear well logging problems, since one or several reference importance maps are usually available for a given tool. Study shows that the spatial mesh sizes should be chosen according to the mean-free-path. The overhead of the importance map generator is 6% and 14% for neutron and gamma-ray cases. The learning ability towards a correct importance map is also demonstrated. Although false-learning may happen, physical judgement can help diagnose with contributon maps. Calibration and analysis are performed for the neutron tool and the gamma-ray tool. Due to the fact that a very

  11. Chlorination of calcium tungstate by mixture of chlorine and sulfur dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Results of thermodynamic calculations and experimental investigations of interaction of calcium tungstate with Cl2+SO2 mixture at 400-850 deg C are presented. It is shown that the processes passes through several sequential and parallel stages with formation of tungsten (6) oxide and calcium chloride as intermediate products. Peculiarities of the process are determined by the ratio of rates of WO3 formation and chlorination stages

  12. Anaerobic Degradation of Chlorinated Hydrocarbons in Groundwater Aquifers or "Chlorinated Hydrocarbon Degradation"

    OpenAIRE

    Nielsen, R. Brent; Jay D Keasling

    1997-01-01

    Groundwater contamination by chlorinated hydrocarbons, such as tetrachloroethene (PCE) or trichloroethene (TCE), is a major concern throughout the United States. A developing strategy for the remediation of PCE and TCE contaminated aquifers is anaerobic biodegradation. From a TCE contaminated groundwater site, microorganisms were enriched with the ability to anaerobically convert PCE and TCE completely to ethene. Kinetic studies performed with this culture showed that degradation of PCE, TCE...

  13. Six-month low level chlorine dioxide gas inhalation toxicity study with two-week recovery period in rats

    OpenAIRE

    Akamatsu Akinori; Lee Cheolsung; Morino Hirofumi; Miura Takanori; Ogata Norio; Shibata Takashi

    2012-01-01

    Abstract Background Chlorine dioxide (CD) gas has a potent antimicrobial activity at extremely low concentration and may serve as a new tool for infection control occupationally as well as publicly. However, it remains unknown whether the chronic exposure of CD gas concentration effective against microbes is safe. Therefore, long-term, low concentration CD gas inhalation toxicity was studied in rats as a six-month continuous whole-body exposure followed by a two-week recovery period, so as to...

  14. Automated lithology prediction from PGNAA and other geophysical logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Different methods of lithology predictions from geophysical data have been developed in the last 15 years. The geophysical logs used for predicting lithology are the conventional logs: sonic, neutron-neutron, γ (total natural-γ) and density (backscattered γ-γ). The prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is another established geophysical logging technique for in situ element analysis of rocks in boreholes. The work described in this paper was carried out to investigate the application of PGNAA to the lithology interpretation. The data interpretation was conducted using the automatic interpretation program LogTrans based on statistical analysis. Limited test suggests that PGNAA logging data can be used to predict the lithology. A success rate of 73% for lithology prediction was achieved from PGNAA logging data only. It can also be used in conjunction with the conventional geophysical logs to enhance the lithology prediction

  15. Automated lithology prediction from PGNAA and other geophysical logs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borsaru, M; Zhou, B; Aizawa, T; Karashima, H; Hashimoto, T

    2006-02-01

    Different methods of lithology predictions from geophysical data have been developed in the last 15 years. The geophysical logs used for predicting lithology are the conventional logs: sonic, neutron-neutron, gamma (total natural-gamma) and density (backscattered gamma-gamma). The prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is another established geophysical logging technique for in situ element analysis of rocks in boreholes. The work described in this paper was carried out to investigate the application of PGNAA to the lithology interpretation. The data interpretation was conducted using the automatic interpretation program LogTrans based on statistical analysis. Limited test suggests that PGNAA logging data can be used to predict the lithology. A success rate of 73% for lithology prediction was achieved from PGNAA logging data only. It can also be used in conjunction with the conventional geophysical logs to enhance the lithology prediction. PMID:16140021

  16. Automated lithology prediction from PGNAA and other geophysical logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Borsaru, M. [CSIRO Exploration and Mining, P.O. Box 883, Kenmore, Qld 4069 (Australia)]. E-mail: mihai.borsaru@csiro.au; Zhou, B. [CSIRO Exploration and Mining, P.O. Box 883, Kenmore, Qld 4069 (Australia); Aizawa, T. [Suncoh Consultants Co., Ltd, 1-8-9, Kameido, Koto-Ku, Tokyo 136-8522 (Japan); Karashima, H. [Japan Coal Energy Center, 9F Meiji Seimei Mita Building, 3-14-10 Mita, Minato-ku, Tokyo 108-0073 (Japan); Hashimoto, T. [Suncoh Consultants Co., Ltd, 1-8-9, Kameido, Koto-Ku, Tokyo 136-8522 (Japan)

    2006-02-15

    Different methods of lithology predictions from geophysical data have been developed in the last 15 years. The geophysical logs used for predicting lithology are the conventional logs: sonic, neutron-neutron, {gamma} (total natural-{gamma}) and density (backscattered {gamma}-{gamma}). The prompt gamma neutron activation analysis (PGNAA) is another established geophysical logging technique for in situ element analysis of rocks in boreholes. The work described in this paper was carried out to investigate the application of PGNAA to the lithology interpretation. The data interpretation was conducted using the automatic interpretation program LogTrans based on statistical analysis. Limited test suggests that PGNAA logging data can be used to predict the lithology. A success rate of 73% for lithology prediction was achieved from PGNAA logging data only. It can also be used in conjunction with the conventional geophysical logs to enhance the lithology prediction.

  17. Comprehensive Analysis of Web Log Files for Mining

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Vikas Verma

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available World Wide Web is a global village and rich source of information. Day by day number of web sites and its users are increasing rapidly. Information extracted from WWW may sometimes do not turn up to desired expec-tations of the user. A refined approach, referred as Web Mining, which is an area of Data Mining dealing with the extraction of interesting knowledge from the World Wide Web, can provide better result. While surfing the web sites, users interactions with web sites are recorded in web log file. These Web Logs are abundant source of information. Such logs when mined properly can provide useful information for decision making. Mining of these Web Logs is referred to as Web Log Mining. This paper analyses web log data of NASA of the month of August 1995 of 15.8MB and depicts certain behavioral aspects of users using web log mining.

  18. Novel drug form of chlorin e6

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abakumova, O. Y.; Baum, Rudolf P.; Ermakova, Natalia Y.; Gradyushko, A. T.; Guseva-Donskaya, T. N.; Karmenyan, Artashes V.; Koraboyev, U. M.; Laptev, V. P.; Mechkov, V. M.; Mikhailova, L. M.; Panferova, N. G.; Rebeko, Aleksei G.; Reshetnickov, Andrei V.; Ryabov, M. V.; Stranadko, Eugeny P.; Tsvetkova, Tatyana A.; Zhukova, O. S.

    1999-12-01

    A novel stable water-soluble form of well known photosensitizer chlorin e6 named `Photodithazine' has been obtained from Spirulina Platensis cyanobacteria as a noncovalent complex with N-methyl-D-glucosamine, and its biological characteristics evaluate, which proved to be as follows: in vitro photocytotoxicity was 1 (mu) M (EC50) as determined by the extent of DNA synthesis inhibition in CaOv cells after irradiation with 650 - 900 nm light, and 5 (mu) M (EC65) as determined using MTT test on PC12 cells after irradiation with 670 nm laser light at the doses of 15 and 20 J/cm2, respectively, with Al-sulfophthalocyanine `Photosense' (Russia; oligomerized hematoporphyrin-IX mixture `Photogen', Russia) being used as permitted reference drugs.

  19. Emission of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons from combustion of biofuels

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The emission of simple chlorinated compounds has been analyzed at five different cases at the district heating plant in Tranaas. The aim of this project has been to investigate the possibilities of finding a method for continuous monitoring of the emissions of chlorinated organic compounds from combustion. Samples were taken only after flue gas condensation. Three easily detectable chlorinated compounds could be quantified in spite of extremely low chlorine content in the fuel: * trichloroethylene, * tetrachloroethylene, * mono chlorinated benzene. Total amount of these compounds were > 0.2 mg/nm3. It is hard to find correlations between the emissions of chlorinated hydrocarbons and combustion conditions. One reason can be the sampling method which did not come up to our expectations. The high volatility of the solvent caused ice in the sampling train and most probably there has been great losses of the most volatile compounds. In spite of the fact that the combustion parameters in several samples were very good with low values of CO (0.2 mg/nm3 of monochlorinated benzene could be detected in the flue gas. Due to the unsatisfactory sampling method the real concentrations of the detected compounds are probably higher than the reported values. The amounts of chlorinated compounds detected are, in this plant, too low for continuous measurements. ( 6 refs., 14 figs., 4 tabs.)

  20. Thermal and under irradiation diffusion of chlorine in uranium dioxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work concerns the study of the thermal and radiation enhanced diffusion of 36Cl in uranium dioxide. We simulated the presence of 36Cl by implanting a quantity of 37Cl comparable to the impurity content of chlorine in UO2. In order to evaluate the diffusion properties of chlorine in the fuel and in particular to assess the influence of the irradiation defects, we performed two kinds of experiments: - the influence of the temperature was studied by carrying out thermal annealings in the temperature range 900 - 1300 C; we showed that implanted chlorine was mobile from temperatures as low as 1000 C and determined a thermal diffusion coefficient D1000 C around 10-16 cm2s-1 - the influence of the irradiation by fission products were studied by irradiating the samples with 127I (energy of 63.5 MeV). We could determine that the diffusion of the implanted chlorine under irradiation and in the range of temperature 30 - 250 C was not purely athermal. We calculated a diffusion coefficient under irradiation D250 C of about 0-14 cm2.s-1. We showed the importance of the implantation and irradiation defects as preferential paths for a fast chlorine transport. We carried out ab initio calculations showing that chlorine is preferentially located in a substitutional site. This is in favour of a Frank-Turnbull diffusion mechanism or a vacancy/chlorine. (author)

  1. Does Chlorination of Seawater Reverse Osmosis Membranes Control Biofouling?

    KAUST Repository

    Khan, Muhammad Tariq

    2015-04-01

    Biofouling is the major problem of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes used for desalting seawater (SW). The use of chlorine is a conventional and common practice to control/prevent biofouling. Unlike polyamide RO membranes, cellulose triacetate (CTA) RO membranes display a high chlorine tolerance. Due to this characteristic, CTA membranes are used in most of the RO plants located in the Middle East region where the elevated seawater temperature and water quality promote the risk of membrane biofouling. However, there is no detailed study on the investigation/characterization of CTA-RO membrane fouling. In this investigation, the fouling profile of a full–scale SWRO desalination plant operating with not only continuous chlorination of raw seawater but also intermittent chlorination of CTA-RO membranes was studied. Detailed water quality and membrane fouling analyses were conducted. Profiles of microbiological, inorganic, and organic constituents of analysed fouling layers were extensively discussed. Our results clearly identified biofilm development on these membranes. The incapability of chlorination on preventing biofilm formation on SWRO membranes could be assigned to its failure in effectively reaching throughout the different regions of the permeators. This failure could have occurred due to three main factors: plugging of membrane fibers, chlorine consumption by organics accumulated on the front side fibers, or chlorine adaptation of certain bacterial populations.

  2. Does chlorination of seawater reverse osmosis membranes control biofouling?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, Muhammad Tariq; Hong, Pei-Ying; Nada, Nabil; Croue, Jean Philippe

    2015-07-01

    Biofouling is the major problem of reverse osmosis (RO) membranes used for desalting seawater (SW). The use of chlorine is a conventional and common practice to control/prevent biofouling. Unlike polyamide RO membranes, cellulose triacetate (CTA) RO membranes display a high chlorine tolerance. Due to this characteristic, CTA membranes are used in most of the RO plants located in the Middle East region where the elevated seawater temperature and water quality promote the risk of membrane biofouling. However, there is no detailed study on the investigation/characterization of CTA-RO membrane fouling. In this investigation, the fouling profile of a full-scale SWRO desalination plant operating with not only continuous chlorination of raw seawater but also intermittent chlorination of CTA-RO membranes was studied. Detailed water quality and membrane fouling analyses were conducted. Profiles of microbiological, inorganic, and organic constituents of analysed fouling layers were extensively discussed. Our results clearly identified biofilm development on these membranes. The incapability of chlorination on preventing biofilm formation on SWRO membranes could be assigned to its failure in effectively reaching throughout the different regions of the permeators. This failure could have occurred due to three main factors: plugging of membrane fibers, chlorine consumption by organics accumulated on the front side fibers, or chlorine adaptation of certain bacterial populations. PMID:25917390

  3. Removal effect on Mesocyclops leukarti and mutagenicity with chlorine dioxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZUO Jin-long; CUI Fu-yi; QU Bo; ZHU Gui-bing

    2006-01-01

    Mesocyclops leukarti of zooplankton propagates excessively in eutrophic water body and it cannot be effectively inactivated by the conventional drinking water treatment process. In order to tackle this problem, a study of removal effect on Mesocyclops leukarti with chlorine dioxide in a waterworks was performed. The results showed that Mesocyclops leukarti could be effectively removed from water by 1.0 mg/L chlorine dioxide preoxidation combined with the conventional drinking water treatment process.Higher oxidizability and molecular state of chlorine dioxide in water is the key to the inactivation of Mesocyclops leukarti. The chlorite, disinfection by-products (DBPs) of chlorine dioxide, was stable at 0.45 mg/L, which is lower than that critical value of the USEPA. GC-MS examination showed that the quantity of organic substance in the water treated by chlorine dioxide obviously decreased. Ames test further revealed that the mutagenicity was reduced by chlorine dioxide with respect to prechlorine. The propagation ofMesocyclops leukarti can be inactivated effectively and safely by chlorine dioxide pre-oxidation.

  4. Corrosion of copper by chlorine trifluoride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The research described called for a considerable amount of preliminary development of the test methods and equipment in order that the various measurements and observations could be carried out without contaminating either the samples or this highly reactive gas. The chlorine trifluoride was highly purified before use, its purity being checked by gas-phase chromatography, micro-sublimation and infrared spectrography. The tests were carried out on copper samples of various purities, in particular a 99.999 per cent copper in the form of mono-crystals. They involved kinetic measurements and the characterization of corrosion products under different temperature and pressure conditions. The kinetics showed reactions of the same order of magnitude as those obtained with elementary fluorine. At atmospheric pressure there occurs formation of cupric fluoride and cuprous chloride. The presence of this latter product shows that it is not possible to consider ClF3 simply as a fluorinating agent. At low pressures an unknown product has been characterized. There are strong grounds for believing that it is the unstable cuprous fluoride which it has not yet been possible to isolate. A germination phenomenon has been shown to exist indicating an analogy between the initial phases of fluorination and those of oxidation. Important effects resulting from the dissociation of the copper fluorides and the solubility of chlorine in this metal have been demonstrated. Finally, tests have shown the considerable influence of the purity of the gas phase and of the nature of the reaction vessel walls on the rates of corrosion which can in certain cases be increased by a factor of several powers of ten. (author)

  5. Behavior and stability of adenosine triphosphate (ATP) during chlorine disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nescerecka, Alina; Juhna, Talis; Hammes, Frederik

    2016-09-15

    Adenosine triphosphate (ATP) analysis is a cultivation-independent alternative method for the determination of bacterial viability in both chlorinated and non-chlorinated water. Here we investigated the behavior and stability of ATP during chlorination in detail. Different sodium hypochlorite doses (0-22.4 mg-Cl2 L(-1); 5 min exposure) were applied to an Escherichia coli pure culture suspended in filtered river water. We observed decreasing intracellular ATP with increasing chlorine concentrations, but extracellular ATP concentrations only increased when the chlorine dose exceeded 0.35 mg L(-1). The release of ATP from chlorine-damaged bacteria coincided with severe membrane damage detected with flow cytometry (FCM). The stability of extracellular ATP was subsequently studied in different water matrixes, and we found that extracellular ATP was stable in sterile deionized water and also in chlorinated water until extremely high chlorine doses (≤11.2 mg-Cl2 L(-1); 5 min exposure). In contrast, ATP decreased relatively slowly (k = 0.145 h(-1)) in 0.1 μm filtered river water, presumably due to degradation by either extracellular enzymes or the fraction of bacteria that were able to pass through the filter. Extracellular ATP decreased considerably faster (k = 0.368 h(-1)) during batch growth of a river water bacterial community. A series of growth potential tests showed that extracellular ATP molecules were utilized as a phosphorus source during bacteria proliferation. From the combined data we conclude that ATP released from bacteria at high chlorine doses could promote bacteria regrowth, contributing to biological instability in drinking water distribution systems. PMID:27295623

  6. Gain stabilization for radioactivity well logging apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Gain stabilization is provided for well logging apparatus of the type having a scintillation crystal optically coupled to a photomultiplier in a sonde to detect radiation in the borehole and formation elements in response to neutron bombardment. The gain stabilization apparatus includes a light emitting diode driven by a pulser to furnish regular scintillations to the photomultiplier, resulting in a stabilization pulse which is furnished to a spectrum stabilizer at the surface. The light emitting diode is provided with means for mounting the LED between the scintillation crystal and the photomultiplier, and for providing optical coupling such that the scintillations from the LED are sensed by and pass through the same system as the operative scintillations from the detector crystal. The mounting means may be provided with a groove for locating temperature-compensating elements. (author)

  7. Chlorination of niobium oxide in the presence of carbon monoxide

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chlorination kinetics of niobium pentoxide in the presence of carbon monoxide between 500-8000C of temperature is studied. The following variable that influences on the reaction rate are analysed: gas flow, geometry and volume of the Nb2O5 samples, reaction temperature and composition of the chlorinated mixture. At the same time, two other materials were studied: the CaO.Nb2O5 (synthetized in laboratory) and pyrochlorine concentrates. The three materials are compared for the chlorination method used. (M.A.C.)

  8. Effect of sulfur dioxide on indium (3) oxide chlorination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    On the basis of thermodynamic calculations and kinetic investigations, it is established that in the temperature range from 550 to 800 deg C in the In2O3-Cl2-SO2 system coupled reactions of InCl3 and In2(SO4)3 formation accompanying by further In2(SO4)3 chlorination with gaseous chlorine are main processes, SO2 accelerates considerably In2O3 chlorination at a temperature below 800 deg C, its influence on the process of chloride sublimation at a temperature higher than 800 deg C is not so noticeable

  9. Stability and effectiveness of chlorine disinfectants in water distribution systems.

    OpenAIRE

    Olivieri, V P; Snead, M C; Krusé, C W; Kawata, K.

    1986-01-01

    A test system for water distribution was used to evaluate the stability and effectiveness of three residual disinfectants--free chlorine, combined chlorine, and chlorine dioxide--when challenged with a sewage contaminant. The test distribution system consisted of the street main and internal plumbing for two barracks at Fort George G. Meade, MD. To the existing pipe network, 152 m (500 ft) of 13-mm (0.5 in.) copper pipe were added for sampling, and 60 m (200 ft) of 2.54-cm (1.0 in.) plastic p...

  10. Effect of Chlorine on Giardia lamblia Cyst Viability

    OpenAIRE

    Jarroll, Edward L.; Bingham, Alan K.; Meyer, Ernest A.

    1981-01-01

    The effect of chlorine concentration on Giardia lamblia cyst viability was tested under a variety of conditions. The ability of Giardia cysts to undergo excystation was used as the criterion of viability. The experimental variables employed included temperature (25, 15, and 5°C), pH (6, 7, and 8), chlorine-cyst contact time (10, 30, and 60 min), and chlorine concentration (1 to 8 mg/liter). In the pH range studied, cyst survival generally was observed to increase as buffer pH increased. Water...

  11. INFRARED VIBRATIONAL SPECTRA OF CHLORINATED AND HYDROGENATED AMORPHOUS SILICON

    OpenAIRE

    Kalem, S; Chevallier, J.; Al Dallal, S.; Bourneix, J.

    1981-01-01

    The infrared spectra of chlorinated and hydrogenated amorphous silicon have been measured. In addition to the hydrogen induced bands at 2110, 1990, 885, 840 and 640 cm-1, we observe two new modes at 545 cm-1 (Si-Cl stretching) and 500 cm-1 ( Si TO modes induced by chlorine). Observation of the 545 cm-1 band proves that chlorine acts as a dangling bond terminator. Upon annealing, some of the Si-Cl groups transform into SiCl4 molecules (SiCl4 stretching at 615 cm-1). A good agreement is found b...

  12. Relationship of pore and permeability models between NMR log and conventional log in tight sandstone gas reservoir

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    For establishing a good log petrophysical model and evaluating productivity of tight sandstone gas reservoir in Tabamiao area of Ordos basin accurately, NMR porosity data of Section 3 of the wells were compared with the core porosity values for 14 cores. A linear relationship was observed. A comparison between the NMR permeability and core permeability gave similar result. This indicates a linear relationship between the porosity and permeability from NMR log and conventional log. Using the NMR porosity and permeability and conventional log data, accurate conventional log porosity model and permeability model were established. As NMR log avoids the non-parallelism of depths with conventional log and the pore-permeability model established by incontinuous core data causes no error, the new models are more appropriate for the porosity and permeability estimation of the gas formation. (authors)

  13. RESEARCH ON MATHEMATICAL SIMULATION OF RESIDUAL CHLORINE DECAY AND OPTIMIZATION OF CHLORINATION ALLOCATION OF URBAN WATER DISTRIBUTION SYSTEM

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Yi-mei; CHI Hai-yan; LI Hong; SHAN Jin-lin; ZHAI Chun-nian

    2005-01-01

    The concentration of Residual Chlorine (RC) frequently violates the standard in situations of urban water distribution system with large water supply area and long time of distribution.If chlorine dosage increases within water treatment plant, although RC in distribution system could meet water quality standard, Disinfection By-Products (DBPs) such as hydrocarbon halide rises.In the paper, a mathematical model of chlorine allocation optimization was presented based on reaction kinetics mechanism and optimization theory to solve the problem.The model includes the objective function of minimizing annual operation cost and constraints of RC standard and rational chlorination station distribution, and solving by 0-1 Integer Programming (IP).The model had been applied to a real water distribution system.The simulation results of the model showed that adding chlorine in water distribution system remarkably improved water quality and reduced the operation cost by 49.3% per year less than chlorine dosed only in water treatment plant to meet RC standard.The results prove adding chlorine in water distribution system based on the model can bring both technological and economic advancement.

  14. Effect of the temperature and the chlorine pressure, over the aluminium chlorides obtained by direct chlorination of the 6061 alloy

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aluminium chloride is synthesized by direct chlorination of aluminium, in agreement with the following reaction: Al(s) + 3/2 Cl2 AlCl3 (s,g).The present work focuses on the preparation of aluminium chlorides by two methods: (a) Chlorination of 6061 aluminium alloy with gaseous chlorine in sealed containers, filled with different pressures of gas, from 0.8 to 74 Kpa and in the range of temperature between 2000 and 5000C.(b) Chlorination of the same alloy in chlorine flow between 1500 and 4000C.In the sealed systems, the hexahydrated aluminium trichloride predominated over the anhydrous form. For pressures lower than 14 Kpa and temperatures under 2500C, the chloride didn't appear.The residues were rich in aluminium, chlorine and magnesium.In the other systems, the anhydrous chloride was found in the areas of the reactor of temperatures above 1000C, for all the thermal treatments. The waste was composed by CrCl3 and AlCl3.6H2O.The influence of the chlorine pressures and the heating temperature over the characteristics of the product, was studied.The characterization techniques were x-ray diffraction and energy dispersive spectroscopy, and the evolution of the structure was followed by scanning electron microscopy

  15. Assessing the Impact of Chlorinated-Solvent Sites on Metropolitan Groundwater Resources

    OpenAIRE

    Brusseau, Mark L.; Narter, Matthew

    2013-01-01

    Chlorinated-solvent compounds are among the most common groundwater contaminants in the U.S.A. The majority of the many sites contaminated by chlorinated-solvent compounds are located in metropolitan areas, and most such areas have one or more chlorinated-solvent contaminated sites. Thus, contamination of groundwater by chlorinated-solvent compounds may pose a potential risk to the sustainability of potable water supplies for many metropolitan areas. The impact of chlorinated-solvent sites on...

  16. TOXICITY OF RESIDUAL CHLORINE COMPOUNDS TO AQUATIC ORGANISMS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laboratory studies on the acute and chronic toxicity of chlorine and inorganic chloramines to trout, salmon, minnows, bullhead, largemouth bass, and bluegill were conducted. Acute toxicity under continuous and intermittent patterns of exposure as well as behavioral, reproduction,...

  17. Complete Non-Radioactive Operability Tests for Cladding Hull Chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Collins, Emory D [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Johnson, Jared A. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hylton, Tom D. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Brunson, Ronald Ray [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Hunt, Rodney Dale [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); DelCul, Guillermo Daniel [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Bradley, Eric Craig [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Spencer, Barry B. [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States)

    2016-04-01

    Non-radioactive operability tests were made to test the metal chlorination reactor and condenser and their accessories using batch chlorinations of non-radioactive cladding samples and to identify optimum operating practices and components that need further modifications prior to installation of the equipment into the hot cell for tests on actual used nuclear fuel (UNF) cladding. The operability tests included (1) modifications to provide the desired heating and reactor temperature profile; and (2) three batch chlorination tests using, respectively, 100, 250, and 500 g of cladding. During the batch chlorinations, metal corrosion of the equipment was assessed, pressurization of the gas inlet was examined and the best method for maintaining solid salt product transfer through the condenser was determined. Also, additional accessing equipment for collection of residual ash and positioning of the unit within the hot cell were identified, designed, and are being fabricated.

  18. MICROEMULSION OF MIXED CHLORINATED SOLVENTS USING FOOD GRADE (EDIBLE) SURFACTANTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ground water contamination frequently consists of mixed chlorinated solvents [e.g., tetrachloroethylene (PCE), trichloroethylene (TCE), and trans-1,2- dichloroethylene (DCE)]. In this research, mixtures of the food grade (edible) surfactants bis(2-ethylhexyl) sodium sulfosuccinat...

  19. The chlorination kinetics of zirconium dioxide mixed with carbon black

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this research, the effects of chlorine gas at different chlorine partial pressures and carbon concentrations on the carbochlorination of zirconia were studied. It was found that in briquettes containing 18.7 %wt carbon, in a chlorine partial pressure range of 0.25-0.75 atm and for a reacted fraction of less than 0.7, the chemical reaction model was dominant for the carbochlorination process of zirconia. The order of reaction into chlorine gas (n) in this situation was 0.57. Moreover, the best weight ratio of carbon to zirconia was 40/60. In this case, the activation energy of the reaction was 209.9 kJ mol-1 in a temperature range of 1023-1223 K, and the dominant model was the chemical reaction model.

  20. Effect of Chlorine Dioxide Gas on Polymeric Packaging Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Permeability, solubility and diffusion coefficients of chlorine dioxide for high-density polyethylene (HDPE), low-density polyethylene (LDPE), linear low-density polyethylene (LLDPE), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polystyrene (PS), polyethylene terephthalate (PET), nylon, and multilayer of ethylene viny...

  1. In situ bioremediation of chlorinated solvent with natural gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A bioremediation system for the removal of chlorinated solvents from ground water and sediments is described. The system involves the the in-situ injection of natural gas (as a microbial nutrient) through an innovative configuration of horizontal wells

  2. Bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes in aquifer thermal energy storage

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ni, Z.

    2015-01-01

      Subjects: bioremediation; biodegradation; environmental biotechnology, subsurface and groundwater contamination; biological processes; geochemistry; microbiology The combination of enhanced natural attenuation (ENA) of chlorinated volatile organic compounds (CVOCs) and aquife

  3. CHLORINE INACTIVATION OF CATEGORY "A" BIO-TERRORISM AGENTS

    Science.gov (United States)

    This poster presents information on the inactivation of select bioterrorist agents. Information will be presented on chlorine disinfection of vegetative cells of Brucella suis, Brucella melitensis, Burkholderia mallei, Burkholderia pseudomallei, Francisella tularensis and endos...

  4. ANAEROBIC AND AEROBIC TREATMENT OF CHLORINATED ALIPHATIC COMPOUNDS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biological degradation of 12 chlorinated aliphatic compounds (CACs) was assessed in bench-top reactors and in serum bottle tests. Three continuously mixed daily batch-fed reactor systems were evaluated: anaerobic, aerobic, and sequential-anaerobic-aerobic (sequential). Glucose,...

  5. Determination of chlorine in graphite by combustion-ion chromatography

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Lianzhong [Academia Sinica, Beijing, BJ (China). Inst. of Atomic Energy; Watanabe, Kazuo; Itoh, Mitsuo

    1995-09-01

    A combustion/ion chromatographic method has been studied for the sensitive determination of chlorine in graphite. A graphite sample was burnt at 900degC in a silica reaction tube at an oxygen flow rate of 200 ml/min. Chlorine evolved was absorbed in 20 ml of a 0.1 mM sodium carbonate solution. The solution was evaporated to dryness. The residue was dissolved with a small volume of water. Chlorine in the solution was determined using ion chromatography. The method was applied to JAERI graphite certified reference materials and practical graphite materials. The detection limit was about 0.8 {mu}gCl/g for a 2.0 g sample. The precision was about 2.5% (relative standard deviation) for samples with chlorine content of 70 {mu}g/g level. The method is also usable for coal samples. (author).

  6. Determination of chlorine in graphite by combustion-ion chromatography

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A combustion/ion chromatographic method has been studied for the sensitive determination of chlorine in graphite. A graphite sample was burnt at 900degC in a silica reaction tube at an oxygen flow rate of 200 ml/min. Chlorine evolved was absorbed in 20 ml of a 0.1 mM sodium carbonate solution. The solution was evaporated to dryness. The residue was dissolved with a small volume of water. Chlorine in the solution was determined using ion chromatography. The method was applied to JAERI graphite certified reference materials and practical graphite materials. The detection limit was about 0.8 μgCl/g for a 2.0 g sample. The precision was about 2.5% (relative standard deviation) for samples with chlorine content of 70 μg/g level. The method is also usable for coal samples. (author)

  7. Kinetics of Chlorine Decay in Water Distribution Systems

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    周建华; 薛罡; 赵洪宾; 汪永辉; 郭美芳

    2004-01-01

    A combined first and second-order model, which includes bulk decay and wall decay, was developed to describe chlorine decay in water distribution systems. In the model the bulk decay has complex relationships with total organic carbon (TOC), the initial chlorine concentration and the temperature. Except for the initial stages they can be simplified into a linear increase with TOC, a linear decrease with initial chlorine concentration and an exponential relationship with the temperature. The model also explains why chlorine decays rapidly in the initial stages. The parameters of model are determined by deriving the best fitness with experimental data. And the accuracy of model has been verified by using the experimental data and the monitoring data in a distribution system.

  8. Characters of chlorine isotopic composition in ocean water

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Xiao, Y.; Zhou, Y.; Liu, W.G.; Hong, A.; Wang, Q.; Wang, Y.; Wei, H.; Shirodkar, P.V.

    The chlorine isotopic composition of ocean water was determined using thermal ionization mass spectrometry based on the measurement of Cs sub(2) Cl sup(+) ion. The results show that the sup(37) Cl/ sup(35) Cl ratios are basically homogeneous...

  9. Modeling of residual chlorine in water distribution system

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Water quality within water distribution system may vary with both location and time. Water quality models are used to predict the spatial and temporal variation of water quality throughout water system. A model of residual chlorine decay in water pipe has been developed,given the consumption of chlorine in reactions with chemicals in bulk water, bio-films on pipe wall, in corrosion process, and the mass transport of chlorine from bulk water to pipe wall. Analytical methods of the flow path from water sources to the observed point and the water age of every observed node were proposed. Model is used to predict the decay of residual chlorine in an actual distribution system. Good agreement between calculated and measured values was obtained.

  10. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE DISINFECTION BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the identification of organic disinfection byproducts (DBPs) at a pilot plant in Evansville, IN, which uses chlorine dioxide as a primary disinfectant. Unconventional multispectral identification techniques (gas chromatography combined with high- and low reso...

  11. MULTISPECTRAL IDENTIFICATION OF CHLORINE DIOXIDE BYPRODUCTS IN DRINKING WATER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This paper discusses the identification of organic disinfectant byproducts (DNPS) at a pilot plant in Evansville, IN, that uses chlorine dioxide as a primary disinfectant. nconventional multispectral identification techniques (gas chromatography combined with high- and low-resolu...

  12. Penerapan Reduced Impact Logging Menggunakan Monocable Winch (Pancang Tarik) (Implementing Reduced Impact Logging with Monocable Winch)

    OpenAIRE

    Yosep Ruslim

    2012-01-01

    Forest harvesting still encounters many problems especially concerning impact to the residual stand  and environmental damage. Implementing the reduced impact monocable winch and planning of good skid trails should have a positive impact on work efficiency as well as, reducing damage to the residual stand and soil during felling and skidding activities. Reduced impact logging (RIL) with a monocable winch (Pancang Tarik) system has been tried in several IUPHHKs and it can be concluded that RIL...

  13. Chlorine dioxide as an oxidant for organoboron compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Practicability of using chlorine dioxide aqueous solution as an oxidant for terpene organoboron compounds prepared by hydroborating (+)α-pinene (1) and (-)β-pinene (2) is studied. By the methods of IR spectroscopy and 13C NMR it is shown that products of 1 and 2 oxidation are (-)-isopinocampheol and (-)-cis-myrtanol, which are formed with a high yield. In terms of its efficiency chlorine dioxide is no worse than hydrogen peroxide in reactions of organoboric compounds oxidation

  14. Oxidation of manganese(II) during chlorination: role of bromide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Allard, S; Fouche, L; Dick, J; Heitz, A; von Gunten, U

    2013-08-01

    The oxidation of dissolved manganese(II) (Mn(II)) during chlorination is a relatively slow process which may lead to residual Mn(II) in treated drinking waters. Chemical Mn(II) oxidation is autocatalytic and consists of a homogeneous and a heterogeneous process; the oxidation of Mn(II) is mainly driven by the latter process. This study demonstrates that Mn(II) oxidation during chlorination is enhanced in bromide-containing waters by the formation of reactive bromine species (e.g., HOBr, BrCl, Br2O) from the oxidation of bromide by chlorine. During oxidation of Mn(II) by chlorine in bromide-containing waters, bromide is recycled and acts as a catalyst. For a chlorine dose of 1 mg/L and a bromide level as low as 10 μg/L, the oxidation of Mn(II) by reactive bromine species becomes the main pathway. It was demonstrated that the kinetics of the reaction are dominated by the adsorbed Mn(OH)2 species for both chlorine and bromine at circumneutral pH. Reactive bromine species such as Br2O and BrCl significantly influence the rate of manganese oxidation and may even outweigh the reactivity of HOBr. Reaction orders in [HOBr]tot were found to be 1.33 (±0.15) at pH 7.8 and increased to 1.97 (±0.17) at pH 8.2 consistent with an important contribution of Br2O which is second order in [HOBr]tot. These findings highlight the need to take bromide, and the subsequent reactive bromine species formed upon chlorination, into account to assess Mn(II) removal during water treatment with chlorine. PMID:23859083

  15. Challenges in subsurface in situ remediation of chlorinated solvents

    OpenAIRE

    Broholm, Mette Martina; Fjordbøge, Annika Sidelmann; Christiansen, Camilla Maymann; Hønning, J.; B. H. Hansen; Nedergaard, L. W.; Kern, Kristina; Uthuppu, Basil; Jakobsen, Mogens Havsteen; Kjeldsen, Peter; Bjerg, Poul Løgstrup; Ottesen, L.

    2014-01-01

    Chlorinated solvent source zones in the subsurface pose a continuous threat to groundwater quality at many sites worldwide. In situ remediation of these sites is particularly challenging in heterogeneous fractured media and where the solvents are present as DNAPL. In situ remediation by chemical as well as biological degradation of chlorinated solvents is a contact sport and requires direct contact between the contaminant and the reactants and/or degrading microorganisms. In fractured geologi...

  16. Bromoform production in tropical open-ocean waters: OTEC chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hartwig, E.O.; Valentine, R.

    1981-09-01

    The bromoform, and other volatile organics produced while chlorinating both the evaporator and condenser seawater during operation of the one megawatt (1 MW) OTEC-1 test facility are reported. Although many halogenated compounds might be produced as a result of chlorination, the quantitative analyses in this study focused on volatile EPA priority pollutants. Bromoform is the compound specifically recognized as a potential pollutant. Its concentration may be indicative of other halogenated species.

  17. Bio-remediation of aquifers polluted by chlorinated solvents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Numerous cases of contamination of aquifers by chlorinated aliphatic solvents, largely utilized during the last decades, constitute a public health problem, because of the toxic effect of such compounds. Different types of aerobic or anaerobic bacteria are able to degrade these molecules. Processes of bio remediation are now experimented in order to restore polluted aquifers. We present here the microorganisms and the enzymatic reactions involved in the biodegradation of chlorinated solvents, and different examples of in situ bio remediation operations are described. (author)

  18. Assessment of the risk of transporting liquid chlorine by rail

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, W.B.

    1980-03-01

    This report presents the risk of shipping liquid chlorine by rail. While chlorine is not an energy material, there are several benefits to studying chlorine transportation risks. First, chlorine, like energy materials, is widely used as a feedstock to industry. Second, it is the major purification agent in municipal water treatment systems and therefore, provides direct benefits to the public. Finally, other risk assessments have been completed for liquid chlorine shipments in the US and Europe, which provide a basis for comparison with this study. None of the previous PNL energy material risk assessments have had other studies for comparison. For these reasons, it was felt that a risk assessment of chlorine transportation by rail could provide information on chlorine risk levels, identify ways to reduce these risks and use previous studies on chlorine risks to assess the strengths and weaknesses of the PNL risk assessment methodology. The risk assessment methodology used in this study is summarized. The methodology is presented in the form of a risk assessment model which is constructed for ease of periodic updating of the data base so that the risk may be reevaluated as additional data become available. The report is sectioned to correspond to specific analysis steps identified in the model. The transport system and accident environment are described. The response of the transport system to accident environments is described. Release sequences are postulated and evaluated to determine both the likelihood and possible consequences of a release. Supportive data and analyses are given in the appendices. The risk assessment results are related to the year 1985 to allow a direct comparison with other reports in this series.

  19. Structural Insights into Regioselectivity in the Enzymatic Chlorination of Tryptophan

    OpenAIRE

    Zhu, Xiaofeng; De Laurentis, Walter; Leang, Khim; Herrmann, Julia; Ihlefeld, Katja; van Pée, Karl-Heinz; Naismith, James H.

    2009-01-01

    The regioselectively controlled introduction of chlorine into organic molecules is an important biological and chemical process. This importance derives from the observation that many pharmaceutically active natural products contain a chlorine atom. Flavin-dependent halogenases are one of the principal enzyme families responsible for regioselective halogenation of natural products. Structural studies of two flavin-dependent tryptophan 7-halogenases (PrnA and RebH) have generated important ins...

  20. Chlorine-containing natural compounds in higher plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1986-01-01

    More than 130 chlorine-containing compounds have been isolated from higher plants and ferns; about half are polyacetylenes, thiophenes and sesquiterpene lactones from the Asteraceae. A chlorinated chlorophyll may be an important part of photosystem 1. High biological activity is found in 4-chloro......-chloroindoleacetic acid from pea and in the cancerostatic maytansinoids. Many compounds are chlorohydrins isolated along with the related epoxides. Some compounds, like gibberellin A6 hydrochloride from bean, are perhaps artefacts....

  1. Penerapan Reduced Impact Logging Menggunakan Monocable Winch (Pancang Tarik (Implementing Reduced Impact Logging with Monocable Winch

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yosep Ruslim

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Forest harvesting still encounters many problems especially concerning impact to the residual stand  and environmental damage. Implementing the reduced impact monocable winch and planning of good skid trails should have a positive impact on work efficiency as well as, reducing damage to the residual stand and soil during felling and skidding activities. Reduced impact logging (RIL with a monocable winch (Pancang Tarik system has been tried in several IUPHHKs and it can be concluded that RIL monocable winch system could be applied practically and reduce impact on residual stand and soil damage. Using this technology has many advantages, among others: cost efficiency, locally made, environmental friendly, and high local community participation. Application of  the monocable winch  system in reduced impact logging is an effort to reduce economical and environment  damages when compared to conventional system of ground based skidding with bulldozer system. The aim of this research is to verify the efficiency (operational cost, effectiveness (productivity and  time consumption of monocable winch system. The results  indicate that the implementation monocable winch system, has reduced the soil damage as much as 8% ha-1.  The skidding cost  with monocable system is Rp95.000 m-3. This figure is significantly cheaper if compare with ground base skidding with bulldozer system in which the skidding cost around Rp165.000 m-3.Keywords: mononocable winch, productivity,  skidding cost, reduced impact logging, local community

  2. An improved process event log artificial negative event generator.

    OpenAIRE

    vanden Broucke, Seppe; De Weerdt, Jochen; Vanthienen, Jan; Baesens, Bart

    2012-01-01

    Process mining is the research area that is concerned with knowledge discovery from event logs and is often situated at the intersection of the fields of data mining and business process management. Although the term entails a collection of a-posteriori analysis methods for extracting knowledge from event logs, most of the attention in the process mining literature has been given to process discovery techniques, focusing specifically on the extraction of control-flow models from event logs. P...

  3. Western tight gas sands advanced logging workshop proceedings

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jennings, J B; Carroll, Jr, H B [eds.

    1982-04-01

    An advanced logging research program is one major aspect of the Western Tight Sands Program. Purpose of this workshop is to help BETC define critical logging needs for tight gas sands and to allow free interchange of ideas on all aspects of the current logging research program. Sixteen papers and abstracts are included together with discussions. Separate abstracts have been prepared for the 12 papers. (DLC)

  4. Prospects of Research on Cable Logging in Forest Engineering Community

    OpenAIRE

    Cavalli, Raffaele

    2012-01-01

    An analysis of researches on cable logging carried out in the past 12 years (2000–2011) as found in the scientific literature at international level is proposed in order to evaluate which have been the main topics of interest of the researchers and to evaluate the evolution of the research in the field of cable logging in the next future. International scientific literature on cable logging was extracted from the main databases, scientific journals and conference proceedings on forest enginee...

  5. Spatial and temporal variability of inorganic chlorine in Northwestern Europe

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sommariva, R.; Hollis, L. D. J.; Baker, A. R.; Ball, S. M.; Bell, T. G.; Cordell, R. L.; Fleming, Z.; Gaget, M.; Yang, M. X.; Monks, P. S.

    2015-12-01

    Chlorine is well known to be a strong oxidant in the atmosphere;chlorine reactivity impacts the formation of tropospheric ozone, theoxidation of methane and non-methane hydrocarbons, and the cycling ofnitrogen, sulphur and mercury. An accurate assessment of the roleplayed by chlorine in tropospheric chemical processes is complicatedby the scarce knowledge of its sources, sinks and distribution.We report observations of inorganic chlorine species (Cl2, ClNO2,particulate chloride) taken over the period 2014-2015 at threedifferent locations in Britain: an urban site a hundred kilometersfrom the ocean (Leicester), a coastal site mostly affected by shiptraffic (Penlee Point, Cornwall) and a coastal site experiencingeither clean air from the North Sea or polluted air from inland(Weybourne, Norfolk).This dataset provides a first look into the geographical distributionand seasonal variability of chlorine in Northwestern Europe: theresults suggest that, during the night, ClNO2 is ubiquitous withconcentrations in the range of hundreds to thousands of pptV at alllocations, whereas Cl2 can be observed only at coastal sites, withconcentrations of a few tens of pptV. The implications of thewidespread presence of these forms of inorganic chlorine for ozoneproduction and, in general, for the oxidative processes in the loweratmosphere are discussed with the help of a wide range of supportingmeasurements.

  6. Carboranyl-Chlorin e6 as a Potent Antimicrobial Photosensitizer.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elena O Omarova

    Full Text Available Antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation is currently being widely considered as alternative to antibiotic chemotherapy of infective diseases, attracting much attention to design of novel effective photosensitizers. Carboranyl-chlorin-e6 (the conjugate of chlorin e6 with carborane, applied here for the first time for antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation, appeared to be much stronger than chlorin e6 against Gram-positive bacteria, such as Bacillus subtilis, Staphyllococcus aureus and Mycobacterium sp. Confocal fluorescence spectroscopy and membrane leakage experiments indicated that bacteria cell death upon photodynamic treatment with carboranyl-chlorin-e6 is caused by loss of cell membrane integrity. The enhanced photobactericidal activity was attributed to the increased accumulation of the conjugate by bacterial cells, as evaluated both by centrifugation and fluorescence correlation spectroscopy. Gram-negative bacteria were rather resistant to antimicrobial photodynamic inactivation mediated by carboranyl-chlorin-e6. Unlike chlorin e6, the conjugate showed higher (compared to the wild-type strain dark toxicity with Escherichia coli ΔtolC mutant, deficient in TolC-requiring multidrug efflux transporters.

  7. Computer method to detect and correct cycle skipping on sonic logs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A simple but effective computer method has been developed to detect cycle skipping on sonic logs and to replace cycle skips with estimates of correct traveltimes. The method can be used to correct observed traveltime pairs from the transmitter to both receivers. The basis of the method is the linearity of a plot of theoretical traveltime from the transmitter to the first receiver versus theoretical traveltime from the transmitter to the second receiver. Theoretical traveltime pairs are calculated assuming that the sonic logging tool is centered in the borehole, that the borehole diameter is constant, that the borehole fluid velocity is constant, and that the formation is homogeneous. The plot is linear for the full range of possible formation-rock velocity. Plots of observed traveltime pairs from a sonic logging tool are also linear but have a large degree of scatter due to borehole rugosity, sharp boundaries exhibiting large velocity contrasts, and system measurement uncertainties. However, this scatter can be reduced to a level that is less than scatter due to cycle skipping, so that cycle skips may be detected and discarded or replaced with estimated values of traveltime. Advantages of the method are that it can be applied in real time, that it can be used with data collected by existing tools, that it only affects data that exhibit cycle skipping and leaves other data unchanged, and that a correction trace can be generated which shows where cycle skipping occurs and the amount of correction applied. The method has been successfully tested on sonic log data taken in two holes drilled at the Nevada Test Site, Nye County, Nevada

  8. Site-selective photofragmentation of chlorinated polymeric films observed around the chlorine K-edge

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arantes, C., E-mail: csilva@inmetro.gov.br [Divisão de Metrologia de Materiais, Instituto Nacional de Metrologia, Qualidade e Tecnologia, Xerém 25250-020, Duque de Caxias, RJ (Brazil); Mendes, L.A.V. [Instituto de Física, Universidade Federal da Bahia, Ondina, 40210-340 Salvador, BA (Brazil); Pinho, R.R. [Departamento de Física-ICE, Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora, Campus Universitário, 36036-330 Juiz de Fora, MG (Brazil); Ferreira, M. [PEMM/COPPE, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitária, Ilha do Fundão, 21941-972 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil); Souza, G.G.B. de; Rocha, A.B.; Rocco, M.L.M. [Instituto de Química, Universidade Federal do Rio de Janeiro, Cidade Universitária, Ilha do Fundão, 21941-909 Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    2013-03-29

    Highlights: ► PVC and PVDC were studied by PSID and NEXAFS techniques at the Chlorine 1s-edge. ► PVC film presented isotope ratio of 3:1 in the PSID spectrum. ► Cl{sup +} ion yield curves reproduce the photoabsorption spectrum for both polymers. ► Site-selectivity of C–Cl bond breaking due to an efficient spectator Auger decay. - Abstract: Photon stimulated ion desorption (PSID) and Near-edge X-ray absorption fine structure (NEXAFS) studies have been performed on poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) and poly(vinyl dichloride) (PVDC) around the chlorine 1s-edge. Experiments were performed using a synchrotron source operating in the single-bunch mode and a time-of-flight mass spectrometry for ion analysis. Cl{sup +} ion yields, as a function of the photon energy, reproduce the photoabsorption spectrum, showing significant increase at the 1s-resonance. Edge-jump ratios, defined as the ratio between edge-jumps (intensity ratio of the yields between above and below the absorption edge) of two different transitions, for Cl{sup +} ion yields were much higher than the equivalent electron yields, indicating site-selectivity in C–Cl bond breaking for both polymers, as a result of efficient spectator Auger decay. The expected isotope ratio of 3:1 for chlorine was measured for PVC. The interpretation of the NEXAFS spectrum was assisted by quantum mechanical calculations at a multireference perturbation theory level.

  9. Backhoe loaders as base machines in logging operations.

    OpenAIRE

    Johansson, Jerry

    1995-01-01

    Time studies and an ergonomic assessment were carried out in logging operations for three logging machines based on backhoe loader chassis. The time studies were completed with a follow-up study of one backhoe loader-based single-grip harvester. The studies indicated a productivity at the same level as that of specialized Nordic logging machines. Ergonomics also proved to be good. Mean ground pressure exerted by the backhoe loader-based logging machines was a little higher than for some of th...

  10. Real Time Face Quality Assessment for Face Log Generation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kamal, Nasrollahi; Moeslund, Thomas B.

    2009-01-01

    Summarizing a long surveillance video to just a few best quality face images of each subject, a face-log, is of great importance in surveillance systems. Face quality assessment is the back-bone for face log generation and improving the quality assessment makes the face logs more reliable....... Developing a real time face quality assessment system using the most important facial features and employing it for face logs generation are the concerns of this paper. Extensive tests using four databases are carried out to validate the usability of the system....

  11. Using a Log Analyser to Assist Research into Haptic Technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jónsson, Fannar Freyr; Hvannberg, Ebba Þóra

    Usability evaluations collect subjective and objective measures. Examples of the latter are time to complete a task. The paper describes use cases of a log analyser for haptic feedback. The log analyser reads a log file and extracts information such as time of each practice and assessment session, analyses whether the user goes off curve and measures the force applied. A study case using the analyser is performed using a PHANToM haptic learning environment application that is used to teach young visually impaired students the subject of polynomials. The paper answers six questions to illustrate further use cases of the log analyser.

  12. Efficient Preprocessing technique using Web log mining

    Science.gov (United States)

    Raiyani, Sheetal A.; jain, Shailendra

    2012-11-01

    Web Usage Mining can be described as the discovery and Analysis of user access pattern through mining of log files and associated data from a particular websites. No. of visitors interact daily with web sites around the world. enormous amount of data are being generated and these information could be very prize to the company in the field of accepting Customerís behaviors. In this paper a complete preprocessing style having data cleaning, user and session Identification activities to improve the quality of data. Efficient preprocessing technique one of the User Identification which is key issue in preprocessing technique phase is to identify the Unique web users. Traditional User Identification is based on the site structure, being supported by using some heuristic rules, for use of this reduced the efficiency of user identification solve this difficulty we introduced proposed Technique DUI (Distinct User Identification) based on IP address ,Agent and Session time ,Referred pages on desired session time. Which can be used in counter terrorism, fraud detection and detection of unusual access of secure data, as well as through detection of regular access behavior of users improve the overall designing and performance of upcoming access of preprocessing results.

  13. Mining Interesting Knowledge from Web-Log

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU Hong-fang; FENG Bo-qin; HEI Xin-hong; LU Lin-tao

    2004-01-01

    Web-log contains a lot of information related with user activities on the Internet.How to mine user browsing interest patterns effectively is an important and challengeable research topic.On the analysis of the present algorithm's advantages and disadvantages, we propose a new concept: support-interest.Its key insight is that visitor will backtrack if they do not find the information where they expect.And the point from where they backtrack is the expected location for the page.We present User Access Matrix and the corresponding algorithm for discovering such expected locations that can handle page caching by the browser.Since the URL-URL matrix is a sparse matrix which can be represented by List of 3-tuples, we can mine user preferred sub-paths from the computation of this matrix.Accordingly, all the sub-paths are merged, and user preferred paths are formed.Experiments showed that it was accurate and scalable.It's suitable for website based application, such as to optimize website's topological structure or to design personalized services.

  14. Natural gamma radiation borehole logging system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A borehole logging system employs a gamma-ray detector for measuring the natural gamma radiation of the earth formations surrounding a borehole. Three energy band selectors, each employing a discriminator and count rate meter, separate the output of the gamma-ray detector into potassium, uranium, and thorium energy band signals. A first operational amplifier determines the difference between the potassium energy band signal and those portions of the uranium and thorium energy band signals which represent the influence of uranium and thorium gamma radiation within the potassium energy band, this difference representing the correct potassium gamma radiation. A second operational amplifier determines the difference between the uranium energy band signal and that portion of the thorium energy band signal which represents the influence of the thorium gamma radiation within the uranium energy band, this difference representing the correct uranium gamma radiation. A third operational amplifier determines the difference between the thorium energy band signal and that portion of the uranium energy band signal which represents the influence of the uranium gamma radiation within the thorium energy band, this difference representing the correct thorium gamma radiation

  15. A practical model for organic richness from porosity and resistivity logs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Passey, Q.R.; Moretti, F.J.; Kulla, J.B. (Exxon Production Research Co., Houston, TX (United States)); Creaney, S.; Stroud, J.D. (Esso Resources Canada Ltd., Calgary, Alberta (Canada))

    1990-12-01

    A practical method, the {Delta} log R technique, for identifying and calculating total organic carbon in organic-rich rocks has been developed using well logs. The method employs the overlaying of a properly scaled porosity log (generally the sonic transit time curve) on a resistivity curve (preferably from a deep-reading tool). In water-saturated, organic-lean rocks, the two curves parallel each other and can be overlain, since both curves respond to variations in formation porosity; however, in either hydrocarbon reservoir rocks or organic-rich non-reservoir rocks, a separation between the curves occurs. Using the gamma-ray curve, reservoir intervals can be identified and eliminated from the analysis. The separation in organic-rich intervals results from two effects: the porosity curve responds to the presence of low-density, low-velocity kerogen, and the resistivity curve responds to the formation fluid. In an immature organic-rich rock, where no hydrocarbons have been generated, the observed curve separation is due solely to the porosity curve response. In mature source rocks, in addition to the porosity curve response, the resistivity increases because of the presence of generated hydrocarbons. The magnitude of the curve separation in non-reservoirs is calibrated to total organic carbon and maturity, and allows for depth profiling of organic richness in the absence of sample data. This method allows organic richness to be accurately assessed in a wide variety of lithologies and maturities using common well logs.

  16. The synergistic effect of Escherichia coli inactivation by sequential disinfection with low level chlorine dioxide followed by free chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Wu; Yang, Dong; Zhu, Sui-Yi; Chen, Bo-Yan; Huo, Ming-Xin; Li, Jun-Wen

    2012-12-01

    To the best of our knowledge, there was little information available on pathogen removal using low level disinfectant followed by free chlorine in sequential disinfection (SD). This study investigated Escherichia coli inactivation by four types of disinfection: single step disinfection (SSD), SD, traditional sequential disinfection (TSD) and mixed disinfectant disinfection (MDD). Results indicated that SD had higher ability to inactivate E. coli than the others, indicating there was a positive synergistic effect on chlorine disinfection by prior dosing with a low level of chlorine dioxide (ClO(2)). The ONPG assay suggested that the permeability of cell wall rather than the viability of E. coli were changed under 0.02 mg/l ClO(2) treatment. The coexistence of residual ClO(2) and free chlorine also plays an active synergistic effect. Additionally, temperature had a positive effect on E. coli inactivation in SD, while inactivation was reduced in alkaline compared to neutral and acidic conditions. PMID:23165713

  17. BitTorrent Swarm Analysis through Automation and Enhanced Logging

    CERN Document Server

    Deaconescu, Răzvan; Drăghici, Adriana; Tăpus, Nicolae

    2011-01-01

    Peer-to-Peer protocols currently form the most heavily used protocol class in the Internet, with BitTorrent, the most popular protocol for content distribution, as its flagship. A high number of studies and investigations have been undertaken to measure, analyse and improve the inner workings of the BitTorrent protocol. Approaches such as tracker message analysis, network probing and packet sniffing have been deployed to understand and enhance BitTorrent's internal behaviour. In this paper we present a novel approach that aims to collect, process and analyse large amounts of local peer information in BitTorrent swarms. We classify the information as periodic status information able to be monitored in real time and as verbose logging information to be used for subsequent analysis. We have designed and implemented a retrieval, storage and presentation infrastructure that enables easy analysis of BitTorrent protocol internals. Our approach can be employed both as a comparison tool, as well as a measurement syste...

  18. Bittorrent Swarm Analysis Through Automation and Enhanced Logging

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    R˘azvan Deaconescu

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Peer-to-Peer protocols currently form the most heavily used protocol class in the Internet,with BitTorrent, the most popular protocol for content distribution, as its flagship.A high number ofstudies and investigations have been undertaken to measure, analyse and improve the inner workings ofthe BitTorrent protocol. Approaches such as tracker message analysis, network probing and packetsniffing have been deployed to understand and enhance BitTorrent’s internal behaviour. In this paper wepresent a novel approach that aims to collect, process and analyse large amounts of local peerinformation in BitTorrent swarms. We classify the information as periodic status information able to bemonitored in real time and as verbose logging information to be used for subsequent analysis. We havedesigned and implemented a retrieval, storage and presentation infrastructure that enables easy analysisof BitTorrent protocol internals. Our approach can be employed both as a comparison tool, as well as ameasurement system of how network characteristics and protocol implementation influence the overallBitTorrent swarm performance.We base our approach on a framework that allows easy swarm creationand control for different BitTorrent clients.With the help of a virtualized infrastructure and a client-serversoftware layer we are able to create, command and manage large sized BitTorrent swarms. Theframework allows a user to run, schedule, start, stop clients within a swarm and collect informationregarding their behavior.

  19. Applications of single crystals in oil well logging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Melcher, C. L.; Schweitzer, J. S.; Manente, R. A.; Peterson, C. A.

    1991-02-01

    Both single crystal scintillators and germanium semiconductor detectors are used in oil well-logging tools for gamma-ray detection. Since the scintillator crystals range in size up to 3 inches in diameter and 12 inches long, extremely high crystal quality is necessary to prevent attenuation of the scintillation light over the long light paths. In addition, the elimination of impurities that quench the scintillation light is crucial. NaI(Tl) is the most common scintillator crystal due to its intense emission and good energy resolution. However, recent advances in the crystal growth of Bi 4Ge 3O 12, BaF 2, and CdWO 4 have improved their scintillation properties and made them viable alternatives for certain applications. The only semiconductor crystal in current use is high purity germanium. Other semiconductors such as CdTe and HgI 2 require improvements in crystal growth techniques to improve stoichiometry and remove defects and impurities which inhibit efficient charge collection.

  20. Method and apparatus for epithermal neutron porosity well logging

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The porosities of subsurface earth formations surrounding a borehole are investigated using a logging tool run in the wellbore by repeatedly irradiating the formations with discrete bursts of high energy neutrons, measuring the populations of epithermal neutrons at near and far locations from the neutron source, and also measuring the rate of decay of the epithermal neutron population at a third location following each neutron burst and deriving therefrom a measurement of the epithermal neutron slowing down time. Formation porosity values derived from the near-and-far location population measurements are corrected for detector standoff effects by use, in accordance with a predetermined empirical relationship, of the epithermal slow down time measurement. Alternatively, formation porosities may be derived both from the near-and-far location measurements and from the epithermal slowing down time measurement, and the two differently-derived porosity values may be used independently to provide enhanced information of formation porosity or they may be compared to derive a standoff-corrected porosity value. 6 figs