WorldWideScience

Sample records for chlorinated waste streams

  1. Conversion of chlorinated waste streams from the production of polyvinyl chloride over La-based catalysts

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, A.W.A.M.

    2008-01-01

    Annually, more than one third of all chlorine consumption is used for the production of C2H3Cl. This is the monomer for the production of polyvinyl chloride (PVC). Even though the production process of C2H3Cl is rather selective, by-products are formed in large amounts due to the large scale of the

  2. Olefin Recovery from Chemical Industry Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    A.R. Da Costa; R. Daniels; A. Jariwala; Z. He; A. Morisato; I. Pinnau; J.G. Wijmans

    2003-11-21

    The objective of this project was to develop a membrane process to separate olefins from paraffins in waste gas streams as an alternative to flaring or distillation. Flaring these streams wastes their chemical feedstock value; distillation is energy and capital cost intensive, particularly for small waste streams.

  3. Dietary change and fate of related waste streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Korpalska, Magdalena

    2008-01-01

    Food consumption patterns or dietary patterns are repeated arrangements observed in food consumption by a population group. Organic waste streams are by-products of the food production which are not suitable for human consumption. Nowadays, waste streams

  4. Electrochemical/Pyrometallurgical Waste Stream Processing and Waste Form Fabrication

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Steven Frank; Hwan Seo Park; Yung Zun Cho; William Ebert; Brian Riley

    2015-07-01

    This report summarizes treatment and waste form options being evaluated for waste streams resulting from the electrochemical/pyrometallurgical (pyro ) processing of used oxide nuclear fuel. The technologies that are described are South Korean (Republic of Korea – ROK) and United States of America (US) ‘centric’ in the approach to treating pyroprocessing wastes and are based on the decade long collaborations between US and ROK researchers. Some of the general and advanced technologies described in this report will be demonstrated during the Integrated Recycle Test (IRT) to be conducted as a part of the Joint Fuel Cycle Study (JFCS) collaboration between US Department of Energy (DOE) and ROK national laboratories. The JFCS means to specifically address and evaluated the technological, economic, and safe guard issues associated with the treatment of used nuclear fuel by pyroprocessing. The IRT will involve the processing of commercial, used oxide fuel to recover uranium and transuranics. The recovered transuranics will then be fabricated into metallic fuel and irradiated to transmutate, or burn the transuranic elements to shorter lived radionuclides. In addition, the various process streams will be evaluated and tested for fission product removal, electrolytic salt recycle, minimization of actinide loss to waste streams and waste form fabrication and characterization. This report specifically addresses the production and testing of those waste forms to demonstrate their compatibility with treatment options and suitability for disposal.

  5. Formulation and Analysis of Compliant Grouted Waste Forms for SHINE Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, William [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Pereira, Candido [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Heltemes, Thad A. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Youker, Amanda [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Makarashvili, Vakhtang [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Vandegrift, George F. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2014-01-01

    Optional grouted waste forms were formulated for waste streams generated during the production of 99Mo to be compliant with low-level radioactive waste regulations. The amounts and dose rates of the various waste form materials that would be generated annually were estimated and used to determine the effects of various waste processing options, such as the of number irradiation cycles between uranium recovery operations, different combinations of waste streams, and removal of Pu, Cs, and Sr from waste streams for separate disposition (which is not evaluated in this report). These calculations indicate that Class C-compliant grouted waste forms can be produced for all waste streams. More frequent uranium recovery results in the generation of more chemical waste, but this is balanced by the fact that waste forms for those waste streams can accommodate higher waste loadings, such that similar amounts of grouted waste forms are required regardless of the recovery schedule. Similar amounts of grouted waste form are likewise needed for the individual and combined waste streams. Removing Pu, Cs, and Sr from waste streams lowers the waste form dose significantly at times beyond about 1 year after irradiation, which may benefit handling and transport. Although these calculations should be revised after experimentally optimizing the grout formulations and waste loadings, they provide initial guidance for process development.

  6. Characterization of industrial process waste heat and input heat streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wilfert, G.L.; Huber, H.B.; Dodge, R.E.; Garrett-Price, B.A.; Fassbender, L.L.; Griffin, E.A.; Brown, D.R.; Moore, N.L.

    1984-05-01

    The nature and extent of industrial waste heat associated with the manufacturing sector of the US economy are identified. Industry energy information is reviewed and the energy content in waste heat streams emanating from 108 energy-intensive industrial processes is estimated. Generic types of process equipment are identified and the energy content in gaseous, liquid, and steam waste streams emanating from this equipment is evaluated. Matchups between the energy content of waste heat streams and candidate uses are identified. The resultant matrix identifies 256 source/sink (waste heat/candidate input heat) temperature combinations. (MHR)

  7. Waste Stream Analyses for Nuclear Fuel Cycles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    N. R. Soelberg

    2010-08-01

    A high-level study was performed in Fiscal Year 2009 for the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Nuclear Energy (NE) Advanced Fuel Cycle Initiative (AFCI) to provide information for a range of nuclear fuel cycle options (Wigeland 2009). At that time, some fuel cycle options could not be adequately evaluated since they were not well defined and lacked sufficient information. As a result, five families of these fuel cycle options are being studied during Fiscal Year 2010 by the Systems Analysis Campaign for the DOE NE Fuel Cycle Research and Development (FCRD) program. The quality and completeness of data available to date for the fuel cycle options is insufficient to perform quantitative radioactive waste analyses using recommended metrics. This study has been limited thus far to qualitative analyses of waste streams from the candidate fuel cycle options, because quantitative data for wastes from the front end, fuel fabrication, reactor core structure, and used fuel for these options is generally not yet available.

  8. Method and equipment to eliminate gaseous sulphur dioxide and chlorine components from a gas stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dahlstrom, D.A.; Ellison, W.S.; Wilhelm, J.H.

    1977-10-27

    The known method to clean waste gases from coal combustion which besides SO/sub 2/ still contain chlorine compounds by treatment with aqueous washing solutions is improved upon. A combination of two wash systems is suggested which are particularly economical as the washing solutions can be regenerated and recycled into the system. Calcium compounds and sodium sulphite are used, the solids formed are removed from the system. The apparatus is described.

  9. Using Financial Incentives to Manage the Solid Waste Stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Spindler, Charles J.

    1991-01-01

    This paper reviews two approaches to solid waste stream management that encourage recycling in the beverage industry, a model categorizing public policies directed at diverting postconsumer waste from the waste system, and industry initiatives in the context of these policies. Preemptive and compelled partnerships represent innovations in…

  10. Mixed and Low-Level Treatment Facility Project. Appendix B, Waste stream engineering files, Part 1, Mixed waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1992-04-01

    This appendix contains the mixed and low-level waste engineering design files (EDFS) documenting each low-level and mixed waste stream investigated during preengineering studies for Mixed and Low-Level Waste Treatment Facility Project. The EDFs provide background information on mixed and low-level waste generated at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. They identify, characterize, and provide treatment strategies for the waste streams. Mixed waste is waste containing both radioactive and hazardous components as defined by the Atomic Energy Act and the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act, respectively. Low-level waste is waste that contains radioactivity and is not classified as high-level waste, transuranic waste, spent nuclear fuel, or 11e(2) byproduct material as defined by DOE 5820.2A. Test specimens of fissionable material irradiated for research and development only, and not for the production of power or plutonium, may be classified as low-level waste, provided the concentration of transuranic is less than 100 nCi/g. This appendix is a tool that clarifies presentation format for the EDFS. The EDFs contain waste stream characterization data and potential treatment strategies that will facilitate system tradeoff studies and conceptual design development. A total of 43 mixed waste and 55 low-level waste EDFs are provided.

  11. Chlorine

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... but it is also used to make pesticides (insect killers), rubber, and solvents. Chlorine is used in ... the following signs and symptoms may develop: Blurred vision Burning pain, redness, and blisters on the skin ...

  12. Ultrasonic treatment to improve anaerobic digestibility of dairy waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Palmowski, L; Simons, L; Brooks, R

    2006-01-01

    The dairy-processing industry generates various types of organic wastes, which are utilised as stock feed, for anaerobic digestion, spread on land or alternatively land-filled at high costs. Owing to the generation of renewable energy, anaerobic digestion is an attractive option for many factories. To enhance the biological degradation process, a mechanical disintegration of various waste dairy streams was undertaken. While the successful application of ultrasonic treatment has been reported for various municipal waste streams, limited information was available for dairy industry applications. The results of this study showed that ultrasonic treatment can improve the digestibility of the more problematic dairy waste streams, such as sludges, by breaking down micro-organisms' cell walls and releasing soluble cell compounds. For more soluble streams, such as dairy factory effluent, an increased gas production was observed and attributed to the reduced particle size of the fat globules.

  13. Chlorine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Talmage, Sylvia Smith [ORNL

    2009-01-01

    Following a brief description of the use of chlorine as a chemical warfare agent in World War I, this chapter summarizes physical and chemical data and recent clinical and controlled laboratory studies on the irritant and lethal effects of chlorine. The mechanism of toxicity for both irritation and lethal effects is described. The mathematical relationship between concentration and exposure duration for a set endpoint is given for both an irritancy response and mortality. This information can be used to assist in time-scaling for the set endpoint to other exposure durations. Risk assessment addresses the potential for greater effects in sensitive populations such as asthmatics. A concentration of 0.5 ppm for up to 8 hours is a no-adverse-effect concentration in most sensitive subjects; whereas, a concentration of 1.0 ppm induces some sensory irritation and transient changes in respiratory tract airflow parameters. Treatment and intervention of exposed individuals is dependent upon symptoms

  14. Pectin content and composition from different food waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Müller-Maatsch, Judith; Bencivenni, Mariangela; Caligiani, Augusta; Tedeschi, Tullia; Bruggeman, Geert; Bosch, Montse; Petrusan, Janos; Van Droogenbroeck, Bart; Elst, Kathy; Sforza, Stefano

    2016-06-15

    In the present paper, 26 food waste streams were selected according to their exploitation potential and investigated in terms of pectin content. The isolated pectin, subdivided into calcium bound and alkaline extractable pectin, was fully characterized in terms of uronic acid and other sugar composition, methylation and acetylation degree. It was shown that many waste streams can be a valuable source of pectin, but also that pectin structures present a huge structural diversity, resulting in a broad range of pectin structures. These can have different physicochemical and biological properties, which are useful in a wide range of applications. Even if the data could not cover all the possible batch by batch and country variabilities, to date this represents the most complete pectin characterization from food waste streams ever reported in the literature with a homogeneous methodology.

  15. Extending value stream mapping through waste definition beyond customer perspective

    OpenAIRE

    Khurum, Mahvish; Petersen, Kai; Gorschek, Tony

    2014-01-01

    Value Stream Mapping is one of the several Lean practices, which has recently attracted interest in the software engineering community. In other contexts (such as military, health, production), Value Stream Mapping has achieved considerable improvements in processes and products. The goal is to also leverage on these benefits in the software intensive product development context. The primary contribution is that we are extending the definition of waste to fit in the software intensive product...

  16. Environmentally acceptable incineration of chlorinated chemical waste: review of theory and practice

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    De Zeeuw, M.A.; Lemkowitz, S.M.

    1987-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons in the form of chemical waste, represent a threat to the environment and public health of the world. Their proper handling, removal and destruction is critical to long term safety. Increasingly strict government legislation is leading to an increase in the quantity of chlori

  17. High-temperature waste-heat-stream selection and characterization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wikoff, P.M.; Wiggins, D.J.; Tallman, R.L.; Forkel, C.E.

    1983-08-01

    Four types of industrial high-temperature, corrosive waste heat streams are selected that could yield significant energy savings if improved heat recovery systems were available. These waste heat streams are the flue gases from steel soaking pits, steel reheat furnaces, aluminum remelt furnaces, and glass melting furnaces. Available information on the temperature, pressure, flow, and composition of these flue gases is given. Also reviewed are analyses of corrosion products and fouling deposits resulting from the interaction of these flue gases with materials in flues and heat recovery systems.

  18. Engineering Options Assessment Report: Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-18

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 aboveground UNS, and 79 candidate belowground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  19. Engineering Options Assessment Report. Nitrate Salt Waste Stream Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-11-13

    This report examines and assesses the available systems and facilities considered for carrying out remediation activities on remediated nitrate salt (RNS) and unremediated nitrate salt (UNS) waste containers at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The assessment includes a review of the waste streams consisting of 60 RNS, 29 above-ground UNS, and 79 candidate below-ground UNS containers that may need remediation. The waste stream characteristics were examined along with the proposed treatment options identified in the Options Assessment Report . Two primary approaches were identified in the five candidate treatment options discussed in the Options Assessment Report: zeolite blending and cementation. Systems that could be used at LANL were examined for housing processing operations to remediate the RNS and UNS containers and for their viability to provide repackaging support for remaining LANL legacy waste.

  20. Classification of the Z-Pinch Waste Stream as Low-Level Waste for Disposal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singledecker, Steven John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2017-03-10

    The purpose of this document is to describe the waste stream from Z-Pinch Residual Waste Project that due to worker safety concerns and operational efficiency is a candidate for blending Transuranic and low level waste together and can be safely packaged as low-level waste consistent with DOE Order 435.1 requirements and NRC guidance 10 CFR 61.42. This waste stream consists of the Pu-ICE post-shot containment systems, including plutonium targets, generated from the Z Machine experiments requested by LANL and conducted by SNL/NM. In the past, this TRU waste was shipped back to LANL after Sandia sends the TRU data package to LANL to certify the characterization (by CCP), transport and disposition at WIPP (CBFO) per LANL MOU-0066. The Low Level Waste is managed, characterized, shipped and disposed of at NNSS by SNL/NM per Sandia MOU # 11-S-560.

  1. Redesigning Urban Carbon Cycles: from Waste Stream to Commodity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brabander, D. J.; Fitzstevens, M. G.

    2013-12-01

    While there has been extensive research on the global scale to quantify the fluxes and reservoirs of carbon for predictive climate change models, comparably little attention has been focused on carbon cycles in the built environment. The current management of urban carbon cycles presents a major irony: while cities produce tremendous fluxes of organic carbon waste, their populations are dependent on imported carbon because most urban have limited access to locally sourced carbon. The persistence of outdated management schemes is in part due to the fact that reimagining the handling of urban carbon waste streams requires a transdisciplinary approach. Since the end of the 19th century, U.S. cities have generally relied on the same three options for managing organic carbon waste streams: burn it, bury it, or dilute it. These options still underpin the framework for today's design and management strategies for handling urban carbon waste. We contend that urban carbon management systems for the 21st century need to be scalable, must acknowledge how climate modulates the biogeochemical cycling of urban carbon, and should carefully factor local political and cultural values. Urban waste carbon is a complex matrix ranging from wastewater biosolids to municipal compost. Our first goal in designing targeted and efficient urban carbon management schemes has been examining approaches for categorizing and geochemically fingerprinting these matrices. To date we have used a combination of major and trace element ratio analysis and bulk matrix characteristics, such as pH, density, and loss on ignition, to feed multivariable statistical analysis in order to identify variables that are effective tracers for each waste stream. This approach was initially developed for Boston, MA, US, in the context of identifying components of municipal compost streams that were responsible for increasing the lead inventory in the final product to concentrations that no longer permitted its use in

  2. Bentonite-Clay Waste Form for the Immobilization of Cesium and Strontium from Fuel Processing Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kaminski, Michael D. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Mertz, Carol J. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-01-01

    The physical properties of a surrogate waste form containing cesium, strontium, rubidium, and barium sintered into bentonite clay were evaluated for several simulant feed streams: chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide/polyethylene glycol (CCD-PEG) strip solution, nitrate salt, and chloride salt feeds. We sintered bentonite clay samples with a loading of 30 mass% of cesium, strontium, rubidium, and barium to a density of approximately 3 g/cm3. Sintering temperatures of up to 1000°C did not result in volatility of cesium. Instead, there was an increase in crystallinity of the waste form upon sintering to 1000ºC for chloride- and nitrate-salt loaded clays. The nitrate salt feed produced various cesium pollucite phases, while the chloride salt feed did not produce these familiar phases. In fact, many of the x-ray diffraction peaks could not be matched to known phases. Assemblages of silicates were formed that incorporated the Sr, Rb, and Ba ions. Gas evolution during sintering to 1000°C was significant (35% weight loss for the CCD-PEG waste-loaded clay), with significant water being evolved at approximately 600°C.

  3. Future radioactive liquid waste streams study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rey, A.S.

    1993-11-01

    This study provides design planning information for the Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility (RLWTF). Predictions of estimated quantities of Radioactive Liquid Waste (RLW) and radioactivity levels of RLW to be generated are provided. This information will help assure that the new treatment facility is designed with the capacity to treat generated RLW during the years of operation. The proposed startup date for the RLWTF is estimated to be between 2002 and 2005, and the life span of the facility is estimated to be 40 years. The policies and requirements driving the replacement of the current RLW treatment facility are reviewed. Historical and current status of RLW generation at Los Alamos National Laboratory are provided. Laboratory Managers were interviewed to obtain their insights into future RLW activities at Los Alamos that might affect the amount of RLW generated at the Lab. Interviews, trends, and investigation data are analyzed and used to create scenarios. These scenarios form the basis for the predictions of future RLW generation and the level of RLW treatment capacity which will be needed at LANL.

  4. Combustion Characteristics of Chlorine-Free Solid Fuel Produced from Municipal Solid Waste by Hydrothermal Processing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kunio Yoshikawa

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available An experimental study on converting municipal solid waste (MSW into chlorine-free solid fuel using a combination of hydrothermal processing and water-washing has been performed. After the product was extracted from the reactor, water-washing experiments were then conducted to obtain chlorine-free products with less than 3000 ppm total chlorine content. A series of combustion experiments were then performed for the products before and after the washing process to determine the chlorine content in the exhaust gas and those left in the ash after the combustion process at a certain temperature. A series of thermogravimetric analyses were also conducted to compare the combustion characteristics of the products before and after the washing process. Due to the loss of ash and some volatile matter after washing process, there were increases in the fixed carbon content and the heating value of the product. Considering the possible chlorine emission, the washing process after the hydrothermal treatment should be necessary only if the furnace temperature is more than 800 °C.

  5. Glass Ceramic Waste Forms for Combined CS+LN+TM Fission Products Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Crum, Jarrod V.; Turo, Laura A.; Riley, Brian J.; Tang, Ming; Kossoy, Anna; Sickafus, Kurt E.

    2010-09-23

    In this study, glass ceramics were explored as an alternative waste form for glass, the current baseline, to be used for immobilizing alkaline/alkaline earth + lanthanide (CS+LN) or CS+LN+transition metal (TM) fission-product waste streams generated by a uranium extraction (UREX+) aqueous separations type process. Results from past work on a glass waste form for the combined CS+LN waste streams showed that as waste loading increased, large fractions of crystalline phases precipitated upon slow cooling.[1] The crystalline phases had no noticeable impact on the waste form performance by the 7-day product consistency test (PCT). These results point towards the development of a glass ceramic waste form for treating CS+LN or CS+LN+TM combined waste streams. Three main benefits for exploring glass ceramics are: (1) Glass ceramics offer increased solubility of troublesome components in crystalline phases as compared to glass, leading to increased waste loading; (2) The crystalline network formed in the glass ceramic results in higher heat tolerance than glass; and (3) These glass ceramics are designed to be processed by the same melter technology as the current baseline glass waste form. It will only require adding controlled canister cooling for crystallization into a glass ceramic waste form. Highly annealed waste form (essentially crack free) with up to 50X lower surface area than a typical High-Level Waste (HLW) glass canister. Lower surface area translates directly into increased durability. This was the first full year of exploring glass ceramics for the Option 1 and 2 combined waste stream options. This work has shown that dramatic increases in waste loading are achievable by designing a glass ceramic waste form as an alternative to glass. Table S1 shows the upper limits for heat, waste loading (based on solubility), and the decay time needed before treatment can occur for glass and glass ceramic waste forms. The improvements are significant for both combined waste

  6. Waste stream utilisation for sustainable viticulture.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agnew, R H; Mundy, D C; Spiers, T M; Greven, M M

    2005-01-01

    Field trials were established at four vineyards in January 1999 to evaluate the effects of four mulch mixtures on different soil and plant parameters. Mulches were made from wine industry and other commercially available plant and animal wastes. Soil, grape petioles, grape leaves and grape juice were analysed over three seasons. The mulches applied released considerable quantities of nutrients, which were available for use by the grapevines. Generally, the type of mulch used had little impact on the parameters that were measured and the greatest differences occurred between non-mulched and mulch treatments. Soil pH showed an increase at three of the four sites after application of mulch. Soil phosphorus increased moderately at one site and substantially at the other three sites in the first year and soil potassium levels increased dramatically at all sites in the first year. After the application of mulches in 1999 the petiole nitrate levels increased dramatically at all sites, however there were no differences in the second year. In the third year petiole nitrate levels were again high indicating that the differences between years was probably largely attributable to differences in rainfall received among the three seasons. Petiole potassium levels also increased after the application of mulch, however the increase was nowhere near as large as the increase in soil potassium. The use of mulch increased leaf nitrogen and potassium levels but not phosphorus levels. The use of mulch did increase juice potassium, however there was greater seasonal and site variation than variation due to the effect of mulch.

  7. Separation of technetium from nuclear waste stream simulants. Final report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Strauss, S.H. [Colorado State Univ., Fort Collins, CO (United States). Dept. of Chemistry

    1995-09-11

    The author studied liquid anion exchangers, such as Aliquat-336 nitrate, various pyridinium nitrates, and related salts, so that they may be applied toward a specific process for extracting (partitioning) and recovering {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} from nuclear waste streams. Many of the waste streams are caustic and contain a variety of other ions. For this reason, the author studied waste stream simulants that are caustic and contain appropriate concentrations of selected, relevant ions. Methods of measuring the performance of the exchangers and extractant systems included contact experiments. Batch contact experiments were used to determine the forward and reverse extraction parameters as a function of temperature, contact time, phase ratio, concentration, solvent (diluent), and other physical properties. They were also used for stability and competition studies. Specifically, the author investigated the solvent extraction behavior of salts of perrhenate (ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}), a stable (non-radioactive) chemical surrogate for {sup 99}TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}. Results are discussed for alternate organic solvents; metalloporphyrins, ferrocenes, and N-cetyl pyridium nitrate as alternate extractant salts; electroactive polymers; and recovery of ReO{sub 4}{sup {minus}} and TcO{sub 4}{sup {minus}}.

  8. Hanford Site Hazardous waste determination report for transuranic debris waste streams NPFPDL2A

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    WINTERHALDER, J.A.

    1999-09-29

    This hazardous waste determination report (Report) describes the process and information used on the Hanford Site to determine that waste stream number NPFPDLZA, consisting of 30 containers of contact-handled transuranic debris waste, is not hazardous waste regulated by the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) or the New Mexico Hazardous Waste Act. For a waste to be hazardous under these statutes, the waste either must be specifically listed as a hazardous waste, or exhibit one or more of the characteristics of a hazardous waste, Le., ignitability, corrosivity, reactivity, or toxicity. Waste stream NPFPDLZA was generated, packaged, and placed into storage between 1993 and 1997. Extensive knowledge of the waste generating process, facility operational history, and administrative controls and operating procedures in effect at the time of generation, supported the initial nonhazardous waste determination. Because of the extent and reliability of information pertaining to this waste type, and the total volume of waste in the debris matrix parameter category, the Hanford Site is focusing initial efforts on this and similar waste streams for the first shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). RCRA regulations authorize hazardous waste determinations to be made either by using approved sampling and analysis methods or by applying knowledge of the waste in light of the materials or the process(es) used. This latter approach typically is referred to as process knowledge. The Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Program Plan (CAO-94-1010) for WIPP refers to acceptable knowledge in essentially the same terms; acceptable knowledge as used throughout this Report is synonymous with the term process knowledge. The 30 containers addressed in this Report were characterized by the following methods: Acceptable knowledge; Nondestructive examination using real-time radiography; Visual examination; and Headspace gas sampling and analysis. The initial

  9. Recovering Y and Eu from Waste Phosphors Using Chlorination Roasting—Water Leaching Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingming Yu

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Recovering Y and Eu from waste phosphors using chlorination roasting followed by a water leaching process was investigated in this study. Firstly, by chlorination roasting and water leaching, Y and Eu elements present in waste phosphors were efficiently extracted into a leach solution. Secondly, the majority of the impurities in the solution can be removed by adjusting the pH to 4.5 using a Na2S and NH3·H2O solution. Thirdly, the rare earths can be precipitated afterwards by adding a H2C2O4 solution and adjusting the pH to 2.0. Then rare earth oxides (REOs can be obtained after calcining at 800 °C for 1 h. The characterization study of the waste phosphors and the rare earth oxide products was performed by XRD, XRF, and SEM-EDS analysis to determine the phase and morphological features. Influences of the factors, such as roasting temperatures and time, the addition of ammonium chloride on the roasting of waste phosphors, as well as the pH and the amount of oxalates on the precipitation of Y and Eu, were investigated. The maximum grade (99.84% of mixed rare earth oxides and recovery rate (87.35% of Y and Eu were obtained at the optimized conditions.

  10. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams. Volume 1, Methodology and liquid photographic waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, V.

    1994-04-01

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. This report examines the usefulness of benchmarking as a waste minimization tool, specifically regarding common waste streams at DOE sites. A team of process experts from a variety of sites, a project leader, and benchmarking consultants completed the project with management support provided by the Waste Minimization Division EM-352. Using a 12-step benchmarking process, the team examined current waste minimization processes for liquid photographic waste used at their sites and used telephone and written questionnaires to find ``best-in-class`` industrv partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies through a site visit. Eastman Kodak Co., and Johnson Space Center/National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) agreed to be partners. The site visits yielded strategies for source reduction, recycle/recovery of components, regeneration/reuse of solutions, and treatment of residuals, as well as best management practices. An additional benefit of the work was the opportunity for DOE process experts to network and exchange ideas with their peers at similar sites.

  11. Effect of chlorine content in feeding wastes of incineration on the emission of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Lin-Chi; Lee, Wen-Jhy; Lee, Wei-Shan; Chang-Chien, Guo-Ping; Tsai, Perng-Jy

    2003-01-20

    This study attempts to clarify the effects of chlorine content in waste on the formation mechanisms of polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs) in full scale incinerators by proposing and using the principal component analysis (PCA) to compare the congener profiles of PCDD/Fs in the stack flue gases of 17 emission sources, including incinerators and vehicles. Four incinerators, among these 17 emission sources, were sampled and analyzed in this study, and the data for the other 13 emission sources were selected from previous studies. These 17 emission sources can be classified into four categories, including medical waste incinerators (MWIs, H1-H5), municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs, M1-M8), vehicle fuel combustion (unleaded gas-fueled vehicles, UGFV; diesel-fueled vehicles, DFV, n = 2) and polyvinylchloride (PVC) facility vent combustors (PVC1 and PVC2, n = 2). PCA was conducted for these emission sources with the fractions of 17 2,3,7,8-congeners in the stack flue gases as variables to clarify the effect of chlorine content in feeding wastes on the emission of PCDD/Fs. From the results of PCA, we extrapolated that the threshold value of the chlorine content was at 0.8-1.1%, and the formation mechanisms of PCDD/Fs are influenced first by whether the chlorine content in the feeding waste is over or below the threshold value then by other factors, which furnaces or APCDs represent. When the chlorine level in the waste is below the threshold value at 0.8-1.1%, the formation of PCDDs dominates, probably because the chlorine is used to chlorinate the non-substituted phenol to produce chlorophenols, which are important precursors for PCDDs. rather than chlorinate the dibenzofuran. While the chlorine level in the waste exceeds this threshold (0.8-1.1%), the rates of formation of PCDFs increase faster than those of PCDDs, probably because the chlorine content in the waste contributes to the deterioration of combustion conditions, and many

  12. Production of degradable polymers from food-waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, S.P.: Coleman, R.D.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Moon, S.H.

    1992-01-01

    In the United States, billions of pounds of cheese whey permeate and approximately 10 billion pounds of potatoes processed each year are typically discarded or sold as cattle feed at $3{endash}6/ton; moreover, the transportation required for these means of disposal can be expensive. As a potential solution to this economic and environmental problem, Argonne National Laboratory is developing technology that: Biologically converts existing food-processing waste streams into lactic acid and uses lactic acid for making environmentally safe, degradable polylactic acid (PLA) and modified PLA plastics and coatings. An Argonne process for biologically converting high-carbohydrate food waste will not only help to solve a waste problem for the food industry, but will also save energy and be economically attractive. Although the initial substrate for Argonne's process development is potato by-product, the process can be adapted to convert other food wastes, as well as corn starch, to lactic acid. Proprietary technology for biologically converting greater than 90% of the starch in potato wastes to glucose has been developed. Glucose and other products of starch hydrolysis are subsequently fermented by bacteria that produce lactic acid. The lactic acid is recovered, concentrated, and further purified to a polymer-grade product.

  13. Production of degradable polymers from food-waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tsai, S.P.: Coleman, R.D.; Bonsignore, P.V.; Moon, S.H.

    1992-07-01

    In the United States, billions of pounds of cheese whey permeate and approximately 10 billion pounds of potatoes processed each year are typically discarded or sold as cattle feed at $3{endash}6/ton; moreover, the transportation required for these means of disposal can be expensive. As a potential solution to this economic and environmental problem, Argonne National Laboratory is developing technology that: Biologically converts existing food-processing waste streams into lactic acid and uses lactic acid for making environmentally safe, degradable polylactic acid (PLA) and modified PLA plastics and coatings. An Argonne process for biologically converting high-carbohydrate food waste will not only help to solve a waste problem for the food industry, but will also save energy and be economically attractive. Although the initial substrate for Argonne`s process development is potato by-product, the process can be adapted to convert other food wastes, as well as corn starch, to lactic acid. Proprietary technology for biologically converting greater than 90% of the starch in potato wastes to glucose has been developed. Glucose and other products of starch hydrolysis are subsequently fermented by bacteria that produce lactic acid. The lactic acid is recovered, concentrated, and further purified to a polymer-grade product.

  14. Occurrence mode and concentration of chlorine in liquid product from co-pyrolysis of waste plastic and coal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zhen; Liu Ze-chang; Zhou Li-xia [Chemical and Environmental Department of Taishan College, Taian (China)

    2009-08-15

    The occurrence mode and concentration of chlorine in liquid product including tar and water from co-pyrolysis of waste plastic (WP) and coal were studied. The effect of temperature, holding time, heating rate and gas flow on chlorine concentration in the liquid product was examined. The result indicates that the addition of WP to coal in co-pyrolysis does not increase the organic chlorine compound in the liquid product. However, the tar yield increases, and the water yield decreases. The chlorine in water mainly exists as inorganic form (NH{sub 4}Cl) and organic amine hydrochloride. There is no obvious C-Cl band in IR spectra of tar is observed. This indicates that the organic chlorine in tar is very little. 10 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  15. Hazardous Waste Code Determination for First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream (IDCs 001, 002, 800)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbon, R.E.

    2001-01-31

    This document, Hazardous Waste Code Determination for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream, summarizes the efforts performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to make a hazardous waste code determination on Item Description Codes (IDCs) 001, 002, and 800 drums. This characterization effort included a thorough review of acceptable knowledge (AK), physical characterization, waste form sampling, chemical analyses, and headspace gas data. This effort included an assessment of pre-Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) solidified sampling and analysis data (referred to as preliminary data). Seventy-five First/Second-Stage Sludge Drums, provided in Table 1-1, have been subjected to core sampling and analysis using the requirements defined in the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Based on WAP defined statistical reduction, of preliminary data, a sample size of five was calculated. That is, five additional drums should be core sampled and analyzed. A total of seven drums were sampled, analyzed, and validated in compliance with the WAP criteria. The pre-WAP data (taken under the QAPP) correlated very well with the WAP compliant drum data. As a result, no additional sampling is required. Based upon the information summarized in this document, an accurate hazardous waste determination has been made for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream.

  16. RADIOACTIVE WASTE STREAMS FROM VARIOUS POTENTIAL NUCLEAR FUEL CYCLE OPTIONS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nick Soelberg; Steve Piet

    2010-11-01

    Five fuel cycle options, about which little is known compared to more commonly known options, have been studied in the past year for the United States Department of Energy. These fuel cycle options, and their features relative to uranium-fueled light water reactor (LWR)-based fuel cycles, include: • Advanced once-through reactor concepts (Advanced Once-Through, or AOT) – intended for high uranium utilization and long reactor operating life, use depleted uranium in some cases, and avoid or minimize used fuel reprocessing • Fission-fusion hybrid (FFH) reactor concepts – potential variations are intended for high uranium or thorium utilization, produce fissile material for use in power generating reactors, or transmute transuranic (TRU) and some radioactive fission product (FP) isotopes • High temperature gas reactor (HTGR) concepts - intended for high uranium utilization, high reactor thermal efficiencies; they have unique fuel designs • Molten salt reactor (MSR) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, use on-line reprocessing of the used fuel, produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements, and avoid fuel assembly fabrication • Thorium/U-233 fueled LWR (Th/U-233) concepts – can breed fissile U-233 from Th fuel and avoid or minimize U fuel enrichment, and produce lesser amounts of long-lived, highly radiotoxic TRU elements. These fuel cycle options could result in widely different types and amounts of used or spent fuels, spent reactor core materials, and waste streams from used fuel reprocessing, such as: • Highly radioactive, high-burnup used metal, oxide, or inert matrix U and/or Th fuels, clad in Zr, steel, or composite non-metal cladding or coatings • Spent radioactive-contaminated graphite, SiC, carbon-carbon-composite, metal, and Be reactor core materials • Li-Be-F salts containing U, TRU, Th, and fission products • Ranges of separated or un-separated activation

  17. Waste Information Management System with 2012-13 Waste Streams - 13095

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Upadhyay, H.; Quintero, W.; Lagos, L.; Shoffner, P.; Roelant, D. [Applied Research Center, Florida International University, 10555 West Flagler Street, Suite 2100, Miami, FL 33174 (United States)

    2013-07-01

    The Waste Information Management System (WIMS) 2012-13 was updated to support the Department of Energy (DOE) accelerated cleanup program. The schedule compression required close coordination and a comprehensive review and prioritization of the barriers that impeded treatment and disposition of the waste streams at each site. Many issues related to waste treatment and disposal were potential critical path issues under the accelerated schedule. In order to facilitate accelerated cleanup initiatives, waste managers at DOE field sites and at DOE Headquarters in Washington, D.C., needed timely waste forecast and transportation information regarding the volumes and types of radioactive waste that would be generated by DOE sites over the next 40 years. Each local DOE site historically collected, organized, and displayed waste forecast information in separate and unique systems. In order for interested parties to understand and view the complete DOE complex-wide picture, the radioactive waste and shipment information of each DOE site needed to be entered into a common application. The WIMS application was therefore created to serve as a common application to improve stakeholder comprehension and improve DOE radioactive waste treatment and disposal planning and scheduling. WIMS allows identification of total forecasted waste volumes, material classes, disposition sites, choke points, technological or regulatory barriers to treatment and disposal, along with forecasted waste transportation information by rail, truck and inter-modal shipments. The Applied Research Center (ARC) at Florida International University (FIU) in Miami, Florida, developed and deployed the web-based forecast and transportation system and is responsible for updating the radioactive waste forecast and transportation data on a regular basis to ensure the long-term viability and value of this system. (authors)

  18. Waste minimization/pollution prevention study of high-priority waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ogle, R.B. [comp.

    1994-03-01

    Although waste minimization has been practiced by the Metals and Ceramics (M&C) Division in the past, the effort has not been uniform or formalized. To establish the groundwork for continuous improvement, the Division Director initiated a more formalized waste minimization and pollution prevention program. Formalization of the division`s pollution prevention efforts in fiscal year (FY) 1993 was initiated by a more concerted effort to determine the status of waste generation from division activities. The goal for this effort was to reduce or minimize the wastes identified as having the greatest impact on human health, the environment, and costs. Two broad categories of division wastes were identified as solid/liquid wastes and those relating to energy use (primarily electricity and steam). This report presents information on the nonradioactive solid and liquid wastes generated by division activities. More specifically, the information presented was generated by teams of M&C staff members empowered by the Division Director to study specific waste streams.

  19. Treatability study of Tank E-3-1 waste: mixed waste stream SR-W049

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Langton, C.A. [Westinghouse Savannah River Company, AIKEN, SC (United States)

    1997-08-21

    Treatability studies were conducted for tank E-3-1 waste which was previously characterized in WSRC-RP-87-0078. The waste was determined to be mixed waste because it displayed the characteristic of metal toxicity for Hg and Cr and was also contaminated with low levels of radionuclides. Two types of treatments for qualifying this waste suitable for land disposal were evaluated: ion exchange and stabilization with hydraulic materials (portland cement, slag and magnesium phosphate cement). These treatments were selected for testing because: (1) Both treatments can be carried out as in-drum processes., (2) Cement stabilization is the RCRA/LDR best developed available technology (BDAT) for Hg (less than 280 mg/L) and for Cr., and (3) Ion exchange via Mag-Sep is a promising alternative technology for in drum treatment of liquid wastes displaying metal toxicity. Cement stabilization of the E-3-1 material ( supernate and settled solids) resulted in waste forms which passed the TCLP test for both Hg and Cr. However, the ion exchange resins tested were ineffective in removing the Hg from this waste stream. Consequently, cement stabilization is recommended for a treatment of the five drums of the actual waste.

  20. Using benchmarking to minimize common DOE waste streams: Volume 5. Office paper waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Levin, V.

    1995-10-01

    Finding innovative ways to reduce waste streams generated at US Department of Energy (DOE) sites by 50% by the year 2000 is a challenge for DOE`s waste minimization efforts. A team composed of members from several DOE facilities used the quality tool known as benchmarking to improve waste minimization efforts. First the team examined office waste generation and handling processes at their sites. Then team members developed telephone and written questionnaires to help identify potential ``best-in-class`` industry partners willing to share information about their best waste minimization techniques and technologies. The team identified two benchmarking partners, NIKE, Inc., in Beaverton, Oregon, and Microsoft, Inc., in Redmond, Washington. Both companies have proactive, employee-driven environmental issues programs. Both companies report strong employee involvement, management commitment, and readily available markets for recyclable materials such as white paper and nonwhite assorted paper. The availability of markets, the initiative and cooperation of employees, and management support are the main enablers for their programs. At both companies, recycling and waste reduction programs often cut across traditional corporate divisions such as procurement, janitorial services, environmental compliance, grounds maintenance, cafeteria operations, surplus sales, and shipping and receiving. These companies exhibited good cooperation between these functions to design and implement recycling and waste reduction programs.

  1. Landfill taxes and Enhanced Waste Management: Combining valuable practices with respect to future waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoogmartens, Rob; Eyckmans, Johan; Van Passel, Steven

    2016-09-01

    Both landfill taxes and Enhanced Waste Management (EWM) practices can mitigate the scarcity issue of landfill capacity by respectively reducing landfilled waste volumes and valorising future waste streams. However, high landfill taxes might erode incentives for EWM, even though EWM creates value by valorising waste. Concentrating on Flanders (Belgium), the paper applies dynamic optimisation modelling techniques to analyse how landfill taxation and EWM can reinforce each other and how taxation schemes can be adjusted in order to foster sustainable and welfare maximising ways of processing future waste streams. Based on the Flemish simulation results, insights are offered that are generally applicable in international waste and resource management policy. As shown, the optimal Flemish landfill tax that optimises welfare in the no EWM scenario is higher than the one in the EWM scenario (93 against €50/ton). This difference should create incentives for applying EWM and is driven by the positive external effects that are generated by EWM practices. In Flanders, as the current landfill tax is slightly lower than these optimal levels, the choice that can be made is to further increase taxation levels or show complete commitment to EWM. A first generally applicable insight that was found points to the fact that it is not necessarily the case that the higher the landfill tax, the more effective waste management improvements can be realised. Other insights are about providing sufficient incentives for applying EMW practices and formulating appropriate pleas in support of technological development. By these insights, this paper should provide relevant information that can assist in triggering the transition towards a resource-efficient, circular economy in Europe.

  2. Design of a static mixer reactor for copper recovery from waste streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Van Wageningen, W.F.C.

    2005-01-01

    The main goal of the project was the development of a plug flow reactor for the reduction of heavy metals (Cu2+) from industrial waste streams. Potential application of the reduction process inside The Netherlands lies in the IC and galvanic industry, where small waste streams containing aqueous co

  3. Biological treatment of habitation waste streams using full scale MABRs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackson, William; Barta, Daniel J.; Morse, Audra; Christenson, Dylan; Sevanthi, Ritesh

    Recycling waste water is a critical step to support sustainable long term habitation in space. Water is one of the largest contributors to life support requirements. In closed loop life support systems, membrane aerated biological reactors (MABRs) can reduce the dissolved organic carbon (DOC) and ammonia (NH3) concentration as well as decrease the pH, leading to a more stable solution with less potential to support biological growth or promote carryover of unionized ammonia as well as producing a higher quality brine. Over the last three years we have operated 3 full size MABRs ( 120L) treating a habitation type waste stream composed of urine, hygiene, and laundry water. The reactors varied in the specific surface area (260, 200, and 150 m2/m3) available for biofilm growth and gas transfer. The liquid side system was continually monitored for pH, TDS, and DO, and the influent and effluent monitored daily for DOC, TN, NOx, and NH4. The gas side system was continuously monitored for O2, CO2, and N2O in the effluent gas as well as pressure and flow rates. These systems have all demonstrated greater than 90% DOC reductions and ammonium conversion rates of 50-70% over a range of loading rates with effluent pH from 5-7.5. We have evaluated. In addition, to evaluating the impact of loading rates (10-70 l/d) we have also evaluated the impact of forced hibernation, the use of pure O2 on performance, the impact of pressurize operation to prevent de-gassing of N2 and to promote higher O2 transfer and a discontinuous feeding cycle to allow integration with desalination. Our analysis includes quantification of consumables (power and O2), waste products such as CO2 and N2O as well as solids production. Our results support the use of biological reactors to treat habitation waste streams as an alternative to the use of pretreatment and desalination alone.

  4. Is chlorination one of the major pathways in the formation of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in municipal solid waste combustion?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Jae-Yong; Kim, Do-Hyong; Jang, Seong-Ho

    2013-03-01

    The chlorination patterns of unsubstituted naphthalene were studied using a laminar flow reactor with a 1 cm particle bed of 0.5% (mass) copper(II) chloride (CuCl2) mixed with silicon dioxide (SiO2), operated over a temperature range of 100 to 400 °C and at gas velocities of 2.7 and 0.32 cm/s. The polychlorinated naphthalene (PCN) yield increased until a temperature reached at 250 °C, where a peak yield of 3.07% (percent of naphthalene input, carbon basis) was observed. All PCN homologue groups, mono- through octa-chlorinated naphthalenes, were observed. To test the hypothesis that PCNs in combustion processes are formed via chlorination pathways, the PCN homologue and isomer patterns from the experiments were compared with those observed in municipal solid waste combustion (MSW) incinerators. PCN congeners with 1,4-substituents dominated formation in the naphthalene chlorination experiments, whereas 2,3-substituents were major congeners in both MSW combustion flue gas and fly ash samples. These results suggest that contrary to the hypothesis, chlorination is not a primary PCN formation route in either the flue gas or fly ash from MSW combustion. Even so, naphthalene chlorination pathways presented in this paper provide an improved means for evaluating PCN formation mechanisms in combustion processes.

  5. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the INL Waste Associated with the Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Gregory [National Security Technologies, LLC, Las Vegas, NV (United States)

    2017-03-21

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Waste Associated with the Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) waste stream (INEL167203QR1, Revision 0) is suitable for shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). Disposal of the INL Waste Associated with the Unirradiated LWBR waste meets all U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management Manual,” Chapter IV, Section P performance objectives (DOE 1999). The INL Waste Associated with the Unirradiated LWBR waste stream is recommended for acceptance with the condition that the total uranium-233 (233U) inventory be limited to 2.7E13 Bq (7.2E2 Ci).

  6. Experimental and thermodynamic investigation on transfer of cadmium influenced by sulfur and chlorine during municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yanguo; Chen, Yong; Meng, Aihong; Li, Qinghai; Cheng, Hefa

    2008-05-01

    We used two approaches to investigate the impact of sulfur and chlorine compounds on transfer of a semivolatile heavy metal, cadmium, during municipal solid waste (MSW) incineration: experiments using a tubular furnace reactor and thermodynamic equilibrium calculations. Artificial wastes representative of typical MSW in China with and without the presence of sulfur and chlorine compounds were combusted at 850 degrees C, and the partitioning of Cd among bottom ash, fly ash and flue gas was quantified. The results indicate that sulfur compounds in the elemental form and reduced state could stabilize Cd in the form of CdS due to local reducing environment, while sulfur in the oxidized forms slightly increased Cd volatilization during incineration. In contrast, the presence of chlorine compounds significantly increased the partitioning of Cd on fly ash. Chemical equilibrium calculations show that sulfur binds with Cd and alters Cd speciation at low temperatures (<700 degrees C), while chlorine significantly increases the volatilization of Cd through formation of volatile CdCl(2) and thus its partitioning on the fly ash between 400 and 1000 degrees C. The equilibrium calculation results also suggest that SiO(2)- and Al(2)O(3)-containing minerals could function as sorbents stabilizing Cd as condensed phase solids (CdSiO(3) and CdAl(2)O(4)). These findings provide useful information on understanding the partitioning behavior of Cd and can help development of strategies to control volatilization of Cd during MSW incineration.

  7. Sequestering agents for the removal of actinides from waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Raymond, K.N.; White, D.J.; Xu, Jide; Mohs, T.R. [Univ. of California, Berkeley, CA (United States)

    1997-10-01

    The goal of this project is to take a biomimetic approach toward developing new separation technologies for the removal of radioactive elements from contaminated DOE sites. To achieve this objective, the authors are investigating the fundamental chemistry of naturally occurring, highly specific metal ion sequestering agents and developing them into liquid/liquid and solid supported actinide extraction agents. Nature produces sideophores (e.g., Enterobactin and Desferrioxamine B) to selectivity sequester Lewis acidic metal ions, in particular Fe(III), from its surroundings. These chelating agents typically use multiple catechols or hydroxamic acids to form polydentate ligands that chelate the metal ion forming very stable complexes. The authors are investigating and developing analogous molecules into selective chelators targeting actinide(IV) ions, which display similar properties to Fe(III). By taking advantage of differences in charge, preferred coordination number, and pH stability range, the transition from nature to actinide sequestering agents has been applied to the development of new and highly selective actinide extraction technologies. Additionally, the authors have shown that these chelating ligands are versatile ligands for chelating U(VI). In particular, they have been studying their coordination chemistry and fundamental interactions with the uranyl ion [UO{sub 2}]{sup 2+}, the dominant form of uranium found in aqueous media. With an understanding of this chemistry, and results obtained from in vivo uranium sequestration studies, it should be possible to apply these actinide(IV) extraction technologies to the development of new extraction agents for the removal of uranium from waste streams.

  8. Pressurized-fluid extraction (PFE) of chlorinated paraffins from the biodegradable fraction of source-separated household waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nilsson, M L; Waldebäck, M; Liljegren, G; Kulin, H; Markides, K E

    2001-08-01

    A method is presented in which pressurized-fluid extraction (PFE) is used for the extraction of chlorinated paraffins (CP) from the biodegradable fraction of source-separated household waste. The conditions that were optimized for high recovery in the extraction procedure were extraction time, temperature, and the use of different solvents and different sample particle sizes, Recoveries of CP from fortified household waste material were over 90%, with only few interferences when cyclohexane was used as solvent. Extraction yields from contaminated samples containing CP were further compared with recoveries obtained by use of Soxtec extraction. The results showed that PFE is a rapid, low-solvent-consuming technique, giving high yields.

  9. GEOTECHNICAL/GEOCHEMICAL CHARACTERIZATION OF ADVANCED COAL PROCESS WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edwin S. Olson; Charles J. Moretti

    1999-11-01

    Thirteen solid wastes, six coals and one unreacted sorbent produced from seven advanced coal utilization processes were characterized for task three of this project. The advanced processes from which samples were obtained included a gas-reburning sorbent injection process, a pressurized fluidized-bed coal combustion process, a coal-reburning process, a SO{sub x}, NO{sub x}, RO{sub x}, BOX process, an advanced flue desulfurization process, and an advanced coal cleaning process. The waste samples ranged from coarse materials, such as bottom ashes and spent bed materials, to fine materials such as fly ashes and cyclone ashes. Based on the results of the waste characterizations, an analysis of appropriate waste management practices for the advanced process wastes was done. The analysis indicated that using conventional waste management technology should be possible for disposal of all the advanced process wastes studied for task three. However, some wastes did possess properties that could present special problems for conventional waste management systems. Several task three wastes were self-hardening materials and one was self-heating. Self-hardening is caused by cementitious and pozzolanic reactions that occur when water is added to the waste. All of the self-hardening wastes setup slowly (in a matter of hours or days rather than minutes). Thus these wastes can still be handled with conventional management systems if care is taken not to allow them to setup in storage bins or transport vehicles. Waste self-heating is caused by the exothermic hydration of lime when the waste is mixed with conditioning water. If enough lime is present, the temperature of the waste will rise until steam is produced. It is recommended that self-heating wastes be conditioned in a controlled manner so that the heat will be safely dissipated before the material is transported to an ultimate disposal site. Waste utilization is important because an advanced process waste will not require

  10. Monitoring priority waste streams, data 1997; Monitoring prioritaire afvalstoffen, gegevens 1997

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verhagen, H.; Van den Brink, R.M.M.; Elzenga, H.E.; Elzenga, J.G.; Joosten, J.M.; Kamphuis, Ch.; Meijer, P.J.; Stein, D.

    1999-07-01

    The report presents the results for the year 1997 of the monitoring programme on priority waste streams in the Netherlands. This programme is being carried out by RIVM by order of the Directorate of Waste Management Policy of the Ministry of Housing, Spatial Planning and the Environment. Basic data and additional information on the quantities, specified into origin and method of disposal, as well as the composition, are presented in a standard format for 27 priority waste streams. The sources of information and procedures used to determine the data are outlined.

  11. Review of Potential Candidate Stabilization Technologies for Liquid and Solid Secondary Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Eric M.; Mattigod, Shas V.; Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey; Icenhower, Jonathan P.; Scheele, Randall D.; Um, Wooyong; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2010-01-30

    Pacific Northwest National Laboratory has initiated a waste form testing program to support the long-term durability evaluation of a waste form for secondary wastes generated from the treatment and immobilization of Hanford radioactive tank wastes. The purpose of the work discussed in this report is to identify candidate stabilization technologies and getters that have the potential to successfully treat the secondary waste stream liquid effluent, mainly from off-gas scrubbers and spent solids, produced by the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP). Down-selection to the most promising stabilization processes/waste forms is needed to support the design of a solidification treatment unit (STU) to be added to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF). To support key decision processes, an initial screening of the secondary liquid waste forms must be completed by February 2010.

  12. Management of New Production Reactor waste streams at Savannah River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonell, W.R.; Newman, J.L.

    1992-12-31

    To ensure the adequacy of available facilities, the disposition of the several waste types generated in support of a heavy-water NPR operation at the Savannah River Site were projected through waste- treatment and disposal facilities after the year 2000. Volumes of high-level, low-level radioactive, TRU, hazardous, mixed and non-radioactive waste were predicted for early assessments of environmental impacts and to provide a baseline for future waste-minimization initiatives. Life-cycle unit costs for disposal of the waste, adjusted to reflect waste management capabilities in the NPR operating time frame, were developed to evaluate the economic effectiveness of waste-minimization activities in the NPR program.

  13. Management of New Production Reactor waste streams at Savannah River

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDonell, W.R.; Newman, J.L.

    1992-01-01

    To ensure the adequacy of available facilities, the disposition of the several waste types generated in support of a heavy-water NPR operation at the Savannah River Site were projected through waste- treatment and disposal facilities after the year 2000. Volumes of high-level, low-level radioactive, TRU, hazardous, mixed and non-radioactive waste were predicted for early assessments of environmental impacts and to provide a baseline for future waste-minimization initiatives. Life-cycle unit costs for disposal of the waste, adjusted to reflect waste management capabilities in the NPR operating time frame, were developed to evaluate the economic effectiveness of waste-minimization activities in the NPR program.

  14. ERM 593 Applied Project_Guidance for Reviewing and Approving a Waste Stream Profile in the Waste Compliance and Tracking System_Final_05-05-15

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elicio, Andy U. [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2015-05-05

    My ERM 593 applied project will provide guidance for the Los Alamos National Laboratory Waste Stream Profile reviewer (i.e. RCRA reviewer) in regards to Reviewing and Approving a Waste Stream Profile in the Waste Compliance and Tracking System. The Waste Compliance and Tracking system is called WCATS. WCATS is a web-based application that “supports the generation, characterization, processing and shipment of LANL radioactive, hazardous, and industrial waste.” The LANL generator must characterize their waste via electronically by filling out a waste stream profile (WSP) in WCATS. Once this process is completed, the designated waste management coordinator (WMC) will perform a review of the waste stream profile to ensure the generator has completed their waste stream characterization in accordance with applicable state, federal and LANL directives particularly P930-1, “LANL Waste Acceptance Criteria,” and the “Waste Compliance and Tracking System User's Manual, MAN-5004, R2,” as applicable. My guidance/applied project will describe the purpose, scope, acronyms, definitions, responsibilities, assumptions and guidance for the WSP reviewer as it pertains to each panel and subpanel of a waste stream profile.

  15. Waste Stream Analysis of Two United States Army Dining Facilities

    Science.gov (United States)

    1993-01-01

    do not handle foods excessively during preparation could hold more foods as leftovers and thereby reduce food waste . TB Med 530 prohibits the...practice at commercial and school foodservice operations and could reduce food waste . TB M-d 530 currently provides guidelines that include labeling with...should prepare all sandwiches in this manner in order to reduce food waste and cost. Individual portions of food once served to a diner in a U.S. Army

  16. Current EU-27 technical potential of organic waste streams for biogas and energy production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorenz, Helge; Fischer, Peter; Schumacher, Britt; Adler, Philipp

    2013-11-01

    Anaerobic digestion of organic waste generated by households, businesses, agriculture, and industry is an important approach as method of waste treatment - especially with regard to its potential as an alternative energy source and its cost-effectiveness. Separate collection of biowaste from households or vegetal waste from public green spaces is already established in some EU-27 countries. The material recovery in composting plants is common for biowaste and vegetal waste. Brewery waste fractions generated by beer production are often used for animal feeding after a suitable preparation. Waste streams from paper industry generated by pulp and paper production such as black liquor or paper sludge are often highly contaminated with toxic substances. Recovery of chemicals and the use in thermal processes like incineration, pyrolysis, and gasification are typical utilization paths. The current utilization of organic waste from households and institutions (without agricultural waste) was investigated for EU-27 countries with Germany as an in-depth example. Besides of biowaste little is known about the suitability of waste streams from brewery and paper industry for anaerobic digestion. Therefore, an evaluation of the most important biogas process parameters for different substrates was carried out, in order to calculate the biogas utilization potential of these waste quantities. Furthermore, a calculation of biogas energy potentials was carried out for defined waste fractions which are most suitable for anaerobic digestion. Up to 1% of the primary energy demand can be covered by the calculated total biogas energy potential. By using a "best-practice-scenario" for separately collected biowaste, the coverage of primary energy demand may be increased above 2% for several countries. By using sector-specific waste streams, for example the German paper industry could cover up to 4.7% and the German brewery industry up to 71.2% of its total energy demand.

  17. Inductively coupled plasma torch efficiency at atmospheric pressure for organo-chlorine liquid waste removal: chloroform destruction in oxidative conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kamgang-Youbi, Georges; Poizot, Karine; Lemont, Florent

    2013-01-15

    The performance of a plasma reactor for the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbon waste is reported. Chloroform was used as a target for a recently patented destruction process based using an inductive plasma torch. Liquid waste was directly injected axially into the argon plasma with a supplied power of ~4kW in the presence of oxygen as oxidant and carrier gas. Decomposition was performed at CHCl(3) feed rates up to 400 g h(-1) with different oxygen/waste molar ratios, chloroform destruction was obtained with at least 99% efficiency and the energy efficiency reached 100 g kWh(-1). The conversion end products were identified and assayed by online FTIR spectroscopy (CO(2), HCl and H(2)O) and redox titration (Cl(2)). Considering phosgene as representative of toxic compounds, only very small quantities of toxics were released (mineral salts, hence, only CO(2) and H(2)O have been found in the final off-gases composition.

  18. Hazardous Waste Code Determinations for the First/Second Stage Sludge Waste Stream (IDCs 001, 002, 800)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arbon, Rodney Edward

    2001-01-01

    This document, Hazardous Waste Code Determination for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream, summarizes the efforts performed at the Idaho National Engineering and Environmental Laboratory (INEEL) to make a hazardous waste code determination on Item Description Codes (IDCs) 001, 002, and 800 drums. This characterization effort included a thorough review of acceptable knowledge (AK), physical characterization, waste form sampling, chemical analyses, and headspace gas data. This effort included an assessment of pre-Waste Analysis Plan (WAP) solidified sampling and analysis data (referred to as preliminary data). Seventy-five First/Second-Stage Sludge Drums, provided in Table 1-1, have been subjected to core sampling and analysis using the requirements defined in the Quality Assurance Program Plan (QAPP). Based on WAP defined statistical reduction, of preliminary data, a sample size of five was calculated. That is, five additional drums should be core sampled and analyzed. A total of seven drums were sampled, analyzed, and validated in compliance with the WAP criteria. The pre-WAP data (taken under the QAPP) correlated very well with the WAP compliant drum data. As a result, no additional sampling is required. Based upon the information summarized in this document, an accurate hazardous waste determination has been made for the First/Second-Stage Sludge Waste Stream.

  19. Microbial degradation of chlorinated compounds. Application of specialized bacteria in the treatment of contaminated soil and waste water.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Oldenhuis, Roelof

    1992-01-01

    The development of (aerobic) treatment technologies for polluted environments and waste streams will require an understanding of the microbial potential and the ecophysiology of the most suitable organisms. Therefore, we have studied physiological pathways and some kinetic aspects of the biotransfor

  20. Recovery of uranium and plutonium from Redox off-standard aqueous waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holm, C.H.; Matheson, A.R.

    1949-12-31

    In the operation of countercurrent extraction columns as in the Redox process, it is possible, and probable, that from unexpected behaviour of a column, operator error, colloid formation, etc., there will result from time to time excessive losses of uranium and plutonium in the overall process. These losses will naturally accumulate in the waste streams, particularly in the aqueous waste streams. If the loss is excessively high, and such lost material can be recovered by some additional method, then if economical and within reason, the recovered materials ran be returned to a ISF column for further processing. The objective of this work has been to develop such a method to recover uranium and plutonium from such off-standard waste streams in a form whereby the uranium send plutonium can be returned to the process line and subsequently purified and separated.

  1. Depolymerization of the waste polymers in municipal solid waste streams using induction-coupled plasma technology

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guddeti, Ravikishan Reddy

    2000-10-01

    A significant, valuable percentage of today's municipal solid waste stream consists of polymeric materials, for which almost no economic recycling technology currently exists. This polymeric waste is incinerated, landfilled or recycled via downgraded usage. Thermal plasma treatment is a potentially viable means of recycling these materials by converting them back into monomers or into other useful compounds. The technical, laboratory scale, feasibility of using an induction-coupled RF plasma [ICP] heated reactor for this purpose has been demonstrated in the present study. Polyethylene [PE], polypropylene [PP] and polyethylene terephthalate [PET], the model polymers chosen for the study, were injected axially through the center of an ICP torch. 68% of PE, 78% of PP and 75% of PET were converted into gaseous products. Ethylene and propylene were the primary gaseous products of decomposition of the former two polymers and acetylene was the primary product of the depolymerization of PET. The amount of propylene obtained in PE depolymerization was significantly higher than anticipated and was believed to be due to beta-scission reactions occurring at the high plasma temperatures. Statistical design of experiments was used to determine the influence of individual variables. Analysis of results showed that plasma plate power, central gas flow rate, probe gas flow rate, powder feed rate and the interaction between the quench gas flow rate and power input were the key process parameters affecting the yield of monomer in the product gas stream. Depolymerization of a PE + PP mixture yielded concentrations of propylene and ethylene close to those predicted from weighting the concentrations of products from the individual polymers. 75.5 wt.% of the mixture was converted into monomers. TEM analysis of the carbon residues collected from different locations of the reactor indicated the formation of some novel carbon structures, including carbon nanotubes. The presence of these

  2. Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy`s anticipated mixed waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-07-01

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) has established the Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA), which represents a national effort to develop and coordinate treatment solutions for mixed waste among all DOE facilities. The hazardous waste component of mixed waste is regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA), while the radioactive component is regulated under the Atomic Energy Act, as implemented by the DOE, making mixed waste one of the most complex types of waste for the DOE to manage. The MWFA has the mission to support technologies that meet the needs of the DOE`s waste management efforts to characterize, treat, and dispose of mixed waste being generated and stored throughout the DOE complex. The technologies to be supported must meet all regulatory requirements, provide cost and risk improvements over available technologies, and be acceptable to the public. The most notable features of the DOE`s mixed-waste streams are the wide diversity of waste matrices, volumes, radioactivity levels, and RCRA-regulated hazardous contaminants. Table 1-1 is constructed from data from the proposed site treatment plans developed by each DOE site and submitted to DOE Headquarters. The table shows the number of mixed-waste streams and their corresponding volumes. This table illustrates that the DOE has a relatively small number of large-volume mixed-waste streams and a large number of small-volume mixed-waste streams. There are 1,033 mixed-waste streams with volumes less than 1 cubic meter; 1,112 mixed-waste streams with volumes between 1 and 1,000 cubic meters; and only 61 mixed-waste streams with volumes exceeding 1,000 cubic meters.

  3. Real-time alpha monitoring of a radioactive liquid waste stream at Los Alamos National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, J.D.; Whitley, C.R.; Rawool-Sullivan, M. [Los Alamos National Lab., NM (United States)

    1995-12-31

    This poster display concerns the development, installation, and testing of a real-time radioactive liquid waste monitor at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL). The detector system was designed for the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Treatment Facility so that influent to the plant could be monitored in real time. By knowing the activity of the influent, plant operators can better monitor treatment, better segregate waste (potentially), and monitor the regulatory compliance of users of the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System. The detector system uses long-range alpha detection technology, which is a nonintrusive method of characterization that determines alpha activity on the liquid surface by measuring the ionization of ambient air. Extensive testing has been performed to ensure long-term use with a minimal amount of maintenance. The final design was a simple cost-effective alpha monitor that could be modified for monitoring influent waste streams at various points in the LANL Radioactive Liquid Waste Collection System.

  4. Selection and Evaluation of Chemical Indicators for Waste Stream Identification

    Science.gov (United States)

    DeVita, W. M.; Hall, J.

    2015-12-01

    Human and animal wastes pose a threat to the quality of groundwater, surface water and drinking water. This is especially of concern for private and public water supplies in agricultural areas of Wisconsin where land spreading of livestock waste occurs on thin soils overlaying fractured bedrock. Current microbial source tracking (MST) methods for source identification requires the use of polymerase chain reaction (PCR) techniques. Due to cost, these tests are often not an option for homeowners, municipalities or state agencies with limited resources. The Water and Environmental Analysis Laboratory sought to develop chemical methods to provide lower cost processes to determine sources of fecal waste using fecal sterols, pharmaceuticals (human and veterinary) and human care/use products in ground and surface waters using solid phase extraction combined with triple quadrupole mass spectrometry. The two separate techniques allow for the detection of fecal sterol and other chemical markers in the sub part per billion-range. Fecal sterol ratios from published sources were used to evaluate drinking water samples and wastewater from onsite waste treatment systems and municipal wastewater treatment plants. Pharmaceuticals and personal care products indicative of human waste included: acetaminophen, caffeine, carbamazepine, cotinine, paraxanthine, sulfamethoxazole, and the artificial sweeteners; acesulfame, saccharin, and sucralose. The bovine antibiotic sulfamethazine was also targeted. Well water samples with suspected fecal contamination were analyzed for fecal sterols and PPCPs. Results were compared to traditional MST results from the Wisconsin State Laboratory of Hygiene. Chemical indicators were found in 6 of 11 drinking water samples, and 5 of 11 were in support of MST results. Lack of detection of chemical indicators in samples contaminated with fecal waste supports the need for confirmatory methods and advancement of chemical indicator detection technologies.

  5. Inductively coupled plasma torch efficiency at atmospheric pressure for organo-chlorine liquid waste removal: Chloroform destruction in oxidative conditions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kamgang-Youbi, Georges, E-mail: kamyougeo@yahoo.fr [French Atomic Commission-CEA, Marcoule-DTCD/SCDV/LPIC, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-Sur-Cèze Cedex (France); Department of Inorganic Chemistry, The University of Yaounde I, P.O Box, 812 Yaounde (Cameroon); Poizot, Karine; Lemont, Florent [French Atomic Commission-CEA, Marcoule-DTCD/SCDV/LPIC, BP 17171, 30207 Bagnols-Sur-Cèze Cedex (France)

    2013-01-15

    Highlights: ► Inductively plasma torch is used for the decomposition of organochlorine molecule. ► We examine the impact of liquid water substitution by oxygen gas as oxidant. ► Complete and safe decomposition is achieved with the presence of oxygen. ► The energy efficiency and capabilities of process are better with O{sub 2} than H{sub 2}O. -- Abstract: The performance of a plasma reactor for the degradation of chlorinated hydrocarbon waste is reported. Chloroform was used as a target for a recently patented destruction process based using an inductive plasma torch. Liquid waste was directly injected axially into the argon plasma with a supplied power of ∼4 kW in the presence of oxygen as oxidant and carrier gas. Decomposition was performed at CHCl{sub 3} feed rates up to 400 g h{sup −1} with different oxygen/waste molar ratios, chloroform destruction was obtained with at least 99% efficiency and the energy efficiency reached 100 g kWh{sup −1}. The conversion end products were identified and assayed by online FTIR spectroscopy (CO{sub 2}, HCl and H{sub 2}O) and redox titration (Cl{sub 2}). Considering phosgene as representative of toxic compounds, only very small quantities of toxics were released (<1 g h{sup −1}) even with high waste feed rates. The experimental results were very close to the equilibrium composition predicted by thermodynamic calculations. At the bottom of the reactor, the chlorinated acids were successfully trapped in a scrubber and transformed into mineral salts, hence, only CO{sub 2} and H{sub 2}O have been found in the final off-gases composition.

  6. Biofuels and Bioproducts from Wet and Gaseous Waste Streams: Challenges and Opportunities

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None, None

    2017-01-09

    This report draws together activities related to wet and gaseous waste feedstocks into a single document. It enables an amplified focus on feedstocks in the relevant technology and potential markets category. Also, this report helps to inform and support ongoing wet and gaseous resource recovery activities in the Bioenergy Technologies Office (BETO) and in the broader federal space. Historically, the office has identified wet and gaseous waste feedstocks as potentially advantageous, but has not pursued them with a sustained focus. This document seeks to position these waste streams appropriately alongside more traditional feedstocks in BETO efforts.

  7. Dealing with emerging waste streams: used tyre assessment in Thailand using material flow analysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacob, Paul; Kashyap, Prakriti; Suparat, Tasawan; Visvanathan, Chettiyappan

    2014-09-01

    Increasing urbanisation and automobile use have given rise to an increase in global tyre waste generation. A tyre becomes waste once it wears out and is no longer fit for its original purpose, and is thus in its end-of-life state. Unlike in developed countries, where waste tyre management has already become a significant issue, it is rarely a priority waste stream in developing countries. Hence, a large quantity of waste tyres ends up either in the open environment or in landfill. In Thailand, waste tyre management is in its infancy, with increased tyre production and wider use of vehicles, but low levels of recycling, leaving scope for more appropriate policies, plans and strategies to increase waste tyre recycling. This article describes the journey of waste tyres in Thailand in terms of recycling and recovery, and disposal. Material flow analysis was used as a tool to quantify the flows and accumulation of waste tyres in Thailand in 2012. The study revealed that, in Thailand in 2012, waste tyre management was still biased towards destructive technologies (48.9%), rather than material recovery involving rubber reclamation, retreading tyres and whole and shredded tyre applications (6.7%). Despite having both economic and environmental benefits, 44.4% of used tyres in 2012 were dumped in the open environment, and the remaining 0.05% in landfills.

  8. Evaluating potential chlorinated methanes degradation mechanisms and treatments in interception trenches filled with concrete-based construction wastes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez-Fernandez, Diana; Torrentó, Clara; Rosell, Mònica; Audí-Miró, Carme; Soler, Albert

    2014-05-01

    A complex mixture of chlorinated organic compounds is located in an unconfined carbonated bedrock aquifer with low permeability in a former industrial area next to Barcelona (NE Spain). The site exhibited an especially high complexity due to the presence of multiple contaminant sources, wide variety of pollutants (mainly chlorinated ethenes but also chlorinated methanes) and unknown system of fractures (Palau et al., 2014). Interception trenches were installed in the place of the removed pollution sources and were filled with construction wastes with the aim of retaining and treating the accumulated contaminated recharge water before reaching the aquifer. Recycled concrete-based aggregates from a construction and demolition waste recycling plant were used to maintain alkaline conditions in the water accumulated in the trenches (pH 11.6±0.3) and thus induce chloroform (CF) degradation by alkaline hydrolysis. An efficacy of around 30-40% CF degradation in the interception trenches was calculated from the significant and reproducible CF carbon isotopic fractionation (-53±3o obtained in batch experiments (Torrentó et al., 2014). Surprisingly, although hydrolysis of carbon tetrachloride (CT) is extremely slow, a significant CT carbon isotopic enrichment was also observed in the trenches. The laboratory experiments verified the low capability of concrete to hydrolyze the CT and showed the high adsorption of CT on the concrete particles (73% after 50 days) with invariability in its δ13C values. Therefore, the significant CT isotopic fractionation observed in the interception trenches could point out the occurrence of other degradation processes distinct than alkaline hydrolysis. Geochemical speciation modelling using the code PHREEQC showed that water collected at the trenches is supersaturated with respect to several iron oxy-hydroxides and therefore, CT degradation processes related to these iron minerals cannot be discarded. In addition, the combination of alkaline

  9. Simultaneous Recovery of Hydrogen and Chlorine from Industrial Waste Dilute Hydrochloric Acid

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    N. Paidimarri

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recovery of chlorine from byproduct HCl has inevitable commercial importance in industries lately because of insufficient purity or too low concentration to recycle it. Instead it is being neutralized in industries before disposing to meet stringent environmental conditions. Although recovery through catalytic oxidation processes is studied since the 19th century, their high operating conditions combined with sluggish reaction kinetics and low single pass conversions make electrolysis a better alternative. The present motive of this work is to develop a novel electrolysis process which in contrast to traditional processes effectively recovers both hydrogen and chlorine from dilute HCl. For this, an electrolytic cell with an Anionic Exchange Membrane has been designed which only allows the passage of chlorine anions from catholyte to anolyte separating the gasses in a single step. The catholyte can be as low as 3.59 wt% because of fixed anolyte concentration of 1.99 wt% which minimizes oxygen formation. Preliminary results show that the simultaneous recovery of hydrogen and chlorine is possible with high conversion up to 98%. The maximum current density value for 4.96 cm2 membrane surface area (70% active surface area is 2.54 kAm−2, which is comparable with reported commercial processes. This study is expected to be useful for process intensification of the same in a continuous process environment.

  10. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-01-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients. PMID:26140376

  11. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsouko, Erminda; Kourmentza, Constantina; Ladakis, Dimitrios; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Mandala, Ioanna; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Paloukis, Fotis; Alves, Vitor; Koutinas, Apostolis

    2015-07-01

    The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen) 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L) and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L) were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L) were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102-138 g · water/g · dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7-9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1-2672.8, stress at break of 72.3-139.5 MPa and Young's modulus of 0.97-1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients.

  12. Bacterial Cellulose Production from Industrial Waste and by-Product Streams

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Erminda Tsouko

    2015-07-01

    Full Text Available The utilization of fermentation media derived from waste and by-product streams from biodiesel and confectionery industries could lead to highly efficient production of bacterial cellulose. Batch fermentations with the bacterial strain Komagataeibacter sucrofermentans DSM (Deutsche Sammlung von Mikroorganismen 15973 were initially carried out in synthetic media using commercial sugars and crude glycerol. The highest bacterial cellulose concentration was achieved when crude glycerol (3.2 g/L and commercial sucrose (4.9 g/L were used. The combination of crude glycerol and sunflower meal hydrolysates as the sole fermentation media resulted in bacterial cellulose production of 13.3 g/L. Similar results (13 g/L were obtained when flour-rich hydrolysates produced from confectionery industry waste streams were used. The properties of bacterial celluloses developed when different fermentation media were used showed water holding capacities of 102–138 g·water/g·dry bacterial cellulose, viscosities of 4.7–9.3 dL/g, degree of polymerization of 1889.1–2672.8, stress at break of 72.3–139.5 MPa and Young’s modulus of 0.97–1.64 GPa. This study demonstrated that by-product streams from the biodiesel industry and waste streams from confectionery industries could be used as the sole sources of nutrients for the production of bacterial cellulose with similar properties as those produced with commercial sources of nutrients.

  13. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 2, Industrial liquid waste processing, industrial gaseous waste processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarize the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Individual reports are indexed separately.

  14. Proceedings of waste stream minimization and utilization innovative concepts: An experimental technology exchange. Volume 1, Industrial solid waste processing municipal waste reduction/recycling

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, V.E. [ed.; Watts, R.L.

    1993-04-01

    This two-volume proceedings summarizes the results of fifteen innovations that were funded through the US Department of Energy`s Innovative Concept Program. The fifteen innovations were presented at the sixth Innovative Concepts Fair, held in Austin, Texas, on April 22--23, 1993. The concepts in this year`s fair address innovations that can substantially reduce or use waste streams. Each paper describes the need for the proposed concept, the concept being proposed, and the concept`s economics and market potential, key experimental results, and future development needs. The papers are divided into two volumes: Volume 1 addresses innovations for industrial solid waste processing and municipal waste reduction/recycling, and Volume 2 addresses industrial liquid waste processing and industrial gaseous waste processing. Selected papers have been indexed separately for inclusion in the Energy Science and Technology Database.

  15. Selective enrichment of a methanol-utilizing consortium using pulp & paper mill waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory R. Mockos; William A. Smith; Frank J. Loge; David N. Thompson

    2007-04-01

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater . Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Waste activated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of four days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24 hour feed/decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89 %, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen limited conditions. This indicates that selectively-enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  16. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in terrestrial bird species inhabiting an e-waste recycling site in South China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luo, Xiao-Jun; Sun, Yu-Xin; Wu, Jiang-Ping; Chen, She-Jun; Mai, Bi-Xian

    2015-03-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) are under review by the Stockholm Convention on Persistent Organic Pollutants. Currently, limited data are available about SCCPs in terrestrial organisms. In the present study, SCCP concentration in the muscles of seven terrestrial bird species (n = 38) inhabiting an e-waste recycling area in South China was determined. This concentration varied from 620 to 17,000 ng/g lipid. Resident birds accumulated significantly higher SCCP concentrations than migratory birds (p < 0.01). Trophic magnification was observed for migratory bird species but not for resident, which was attributed to high heterogeneity of SCCP in e-waste area. Two different homologue group patterns were observed in avian samples. The first pattern was found in five bird species dominated by C10 and C11 congeners, while the second was found in the remains, which show rather equal abundance of homologue groups. This may be caused by two sources of SCCPs (local and e-waste) in the study area.

  17. Technological process and optimum design of organic materials vacuum pyrolysis and indium chlorinated separation from waste liquid crystal display panels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, En; Xu, Zhenming

    2013-12-15

    In this study, a technology process including vacuum pyrolysis and vacuum chlorinated separation was proposed to convert waste liquid crystal display (LCD) panels into useful resources using self-design apparatuses. The suitable pyrolysis temperature and pressure are determined as 300°C and 50 Pa at first. The organic parts of the panels were converted to oil (79.10 wt%) and gas (2.93 wt%). Then the technology of separating indium was optimized by central composite design (CCD) under response surface methodology (RSM). The results indicated the indium recovery ratio was 99.97% when the particle size is less than 0.16 mm, the weight percentage of NH4Cl to glass powder is 50 wt% and temperature is 450°C. The research results show that the organic materials, indium and glass of LCD panel can be recovered during the recovery process efficiently and eco-friendly.

  18. Pilot-scale incineration of wastes with high content of chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants used as alternatives for PBDEs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsukami, Hidenori, E-mail: matsukami.hidenori@nies.go.jp [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8563 (Japan); Kose, Tomohiro [Faculty of Applied Life Sciences, Niigata University of Pharmacy and Applied Life Sciences, 265-1, Higashijima, Akiha-ku, Niigata 956-8603 (Japan); Watanabe, Mafumi [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Takigami, Hidetaka [Center for Material Cycles and Waste Management Research, National Institute for Environmental Studies (NIES), 16-2 Onogawa, Tsukuba 305-8506 (Japan); Graduate School of Frontier Sciences, The University of Tokyo, 5-1-5 Kashiwanoha, Kashiwa 277-8563 (Japan)

    2014-09-15

    Chlorinated and non-halogenated organophosphorus flame retardants (OPFRs) including tris(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate (TCIPP), diethylene glycol bis(di(2-chloroisopropyl) phosphate) (DEG-BDCIPP), triphenyl phosphate (TPHP), and bisphenol A bis(diphenyl phosphate) (BPA-BDPP) have been used increasingly as alternatives to polybrominated diphenyl ethers and other brominated flame retardants. For this study, five batches of incineration experiments of wastes containing approximately 1% of TCIPP, DEG-BDCIPP, TPHP, and BPA-BDPP were conducted using a pilot-scale incinerator. Destruction and emission behaviors of OPFRs were investigated along with the effects on behaviors of unintentional persistent organic pollutants (POPs) such as polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins (PCDDs), polychlorinated dibenzofurans (PCDFs), dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (dl-PCBs), hexachlorobenzene (HCB), pentachlorobenzene (PeCB), and pentachlorophenol (PCP). Incineration conditions were chosen according to current regulations for waste incinerators in Japan and UNEP. The OPFRs in the input materials were mainly destroyed in the primary combustion with destruction efficiencies greater than 99.999%. Concentrations of the OPFRs in the exhaust gases and ash were, respectively, < 0.01–0.048 μg m{sup −3} and < 0.5–68 μg kg{sup −1}. Almost all of the total phosphorus in the input materials was partitioned into the ash, but less into final exit gases, indicating negligible emissions of volatile phosphorus compounds during incineration. Inputs of chlorinated OPFRs did not affect the formation markedly. Destruction and emission behaviors of unintentional POPs were investigated. Emissions of such POPs in exhaust gases and the ash were lower than the Japanese and international standards. Results show that even in wastes with high contents of chlorinated and non-halogenated OPFRs, waste incineration by the current regulations for the waste incinerators can control environmental emissions of

  19. State Waste Discharge Permit application for industrial discharge to land: 200 East Area W-252 streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-12-01

    This document constitutes the WAC 173-216 State Waste Discharge Permit application for six W-252 liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site. Appendices B through H correspond to Section B through H in the permit application form. Within each appendix, sections correspond directly to the respective questions on the application form. The appendices include: Product or service information; Plant operational characteristics; Water consumption and waterloss; Wastewater information; Stormwater; Other information; and Site assessment.

  20. Economic assessment of flash co-pyrolysis of short rotation coppice and biopolymer waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuppens, T; Cornelissen, T; Carleer, R; Yperman, J; Schreurs, S; Jans, M; Thewys, T

    2010-12-01

    The disposal problem associated with phytoextraction of farmland polluted with heavy metals by means of willow requires a biomass conversion technique which meets both ecological and economical needs. Combustion and gasification of willow require special and costly flue gas treatment to avoid re-emission of the metals in the atmosphere, whereas flash pyrolysis mainly results in the production of (almost) metal free bio-oil with a relatively high water content. Flash co-pyrolysis of biomass and waste of biopolymers synergistically improves the characteristics of the pyrolysis process: e.g. reduction of the water content of the bio-oil, more bio-oil and less char production and an increase of the HHV of the oil. This research paper investigates the economic consequences of the synergistic effects of flash co-pyrolysis of 1:1 w/w ratio blends of willow and different biopolymer waste streams via cost-benefit analysis and Monte Carlo simulations taking into account uncertainties. In all cases economic opportunities of flash co-pyrolysis of biomass with biopolymer waste are improved compared to flash pyrolysis of pure willow. Of all the biopolymers under investigation, polyhydroxybutyrate (PHB) is the most promising, followed by Eastar, Biopearls, potato starch, polylactic acid (PLA), corn starch and Solanyl in order of decreasing profits. Taking into account uncertainties, flash co-pyrolysis is expected to be cheaper than composting biopolymer waste streams, except for corn starch. If uncertainty increases, composting also becomes more interesting than flash co-pyrolysis for waste of Solanyl. If the investment expenditure is 15% higher in practice than estimated, the preference for flash co-pyrolysis compared to composting biopolymer waste becomes less clear. Only when the system of green current certificates is dismissed, composting clearly is a much cheaper processing technique for disposing of biopolymer waste.

  1. Results of Toxicity Studies Conducted on Outfall X-08 and Its Contributing Waste Streams, November 1999 - June 2000

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Specht, W.L.

    2000-06-28

    This interim report summarizes the results of toxicity tests, Toxicity Identification Evaluations, and chemical analyses that have been conducted on SRS's NPDES Outfall X-08 and its contributing waste streams between November 1999 and June 2000.

  2. Biodegradation of chlorinated and unsaturated hydrocarbons in relation to biological waste-gas treatment.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hartmans, S.

    1993-01-01

    The original goal of the research described in this thesis was to develop a biological process for the removal of vinyl chloride from waste gases. The gaseous and carcinogenic vinyl chloride is used to produce the plastic polyvinyl chloride (PVC). During this production process waste gases containin

  3. Selective Enrichment of a Methanol-Utilizing Consortium Using Pulp and Paper Mill Waste Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mockos, Gregory R.; Smith, William A.; Loge, Frank J.; Thompson, David N.

    Efficient utilization of carbon inputs is critical to the economic viability of the current forest products sector. Input carbon losses occur in various locations within a pulp mill, including losses as volatile organics and wastewater. Opportunities exist to capture this carbon in the form of value-added products such as biodegradable polymers. Wasteactivated sludge from a pulp mill wastewater facility was enriched for 80 days for a methanol-utilizing consortium with the goal of using this consortium to produce biopolymers from methanol-rich pulp mill waste streams. Five enrichment conditions were utilized: three high-methanol streams from the kraft mill foul condensate system, one methanol-amended stream from the mill wastewater plant, and one methanol-only enrichment. Enrichment reactors were operated aerobically in sequencing batch mode at neutral pH and 25°C with a hydraulic residence time and a solids retention time of 4 days. Non-enriched waste activated sludge did not consume methanol or reduce chemical oxygen demand. With enrichment, however, the chemical oxygen demand reduction over 24-h feed/ decant cycles ranged from 79 to 89%, and methanol concentrations dropped below method detection limits. Neither the non-enriched waste-activated sludge nor any of the enrichment cultures accumulated polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) under conditions of nitrogen sufficiency. Similarly, the non-enriched waste activated sludge did not accumulate PHAs under nitrogen-limited conditions. By contrast, enriched cultures accumulated PHAs to nearly 14% on a dry weight basis under nitrogen-limited conditions. This indicates that selectively enriched pulp mill waste activated sludge can serve as an inoculum for PHA production from methanol-rich pulp mill effluents.

  4. Trace element partitioning in ashes from boilers firing pure wood or mixtures of solid waste with respect to fuel composition, chlorine content and temperature.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saqib, Naeem; Bäckström, Mattias

    2014-12-01

    Trace element partitioning in solid waste (household waste, industrial waste, waste wood chips and waste mixtures) incineration residues was investigated. Samples of fly ash and bottom ash were collected from six incineration facilities across Sweden including two grate fired and four fluidized bed incinerators, to have a variation in the input fuel composition (from pure biofuel to mixture of waste) and different temperature boiler conditions. As trace element concentrations in the input waste at the same facilities have already been analyzed, the present study focuses on the concentration of trace elements in the waste fuel, their distribution in the incineration residues with respect to chlorine content of waste and combustion temperature. Results indicate that Zn, Cu and Pb are dominating trace elements in the waste fuel. Highly volatile elements mercury and cadmium are mainly found in fly ash in all cases; 2/3 of lead also end up in fly ash while Zn, As and Sb show a large variation in distribution with most of them residing in the fly ash. Lithophilic elements such as copper and chromium are mainly found in bottom ash from grate fired facilities while partition mostly into fly ash from fluidized bed incinerators, especially for plants fuelled by waste wood or ordinary wood chips. There is no specific correlation between input concentration of an element in the waste fuel and fraction partitioned to fly ash. Temperature and chlorine content have significant effects on partitioning characteristics by increasing the formation and vaporization of highly volatile metal chlorides. Zinc and cadmium concentrations in fly ash increase with the incineration temperature.

  5. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Neutron Products Incorporated Sealed Source Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Gregory

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Neutron Products Incorporated (NPI) Sealed Sources waste stream (DRTK000000056, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream consists of 850 60Co sealed sources (Duratek [DRTK] 2013). The NPI Sealed Sources waste stream requires a special analysis (SA) because the waste stream 60Co activity concentration exceeds the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  6. The recovery and recycling of Cr(VI) from waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hendou, M. [Lacaze S.A., Leyme (France); Solozabal, R. [INASMET, San Sebastian (Spain); Dalrymple, I. [EA Technology, Capenhurst, Chester (United Kingdom)

    2001-07-01

    The objective of the multi-party project discussed in this paper is to develop a process for the recovery of hexavalent chromium waste from dilute waste streams resulting from industrial processes such as chromium electroplating, conversion coating and surface etching of metal and polymer surfaces. Hexavalent chromium is highly toxic and processes currently in use require specialised waste treatment, including the addition of chemical reagents. Development of a clean electrochemical process would allow removal of the chromium from the dilute effluents without the addition of chemical reagents, and permit it to be recycled directly for use in the surface treatment baths used in manufacturing process lines. This paper describes the recovery and recycling methods, and associated technologies, and outlines the advantages and benefits expected from the new method.

  7. Savannah River Site Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Disposal Program - Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221-HET

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsford, G.F.

    2001-01-24

    This document, along with referenced supporting documents provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for one of the waste streams from the FB-Line. This heterogeneous debris transuranic waste stream was generated after January 25, 1990 and before March 20, 1997. The waste was packaged in 55-gallon drums, then shipped to the transuranic waste storage facility in ''E'' area of the Savannah River Site. This acceptable knowledge report includes information relating to the facility's history, configuration, equipment, process operations and waste management practices. Information contained in this report was obtained from numerous sources including: facility safety basis documentation, historical document archives, generator and storage facility waste records and documents, and interviews with cognizant personnel.

  8. Occurrence mode of chlorine in solid products from co-pyrolysis of coal and waste plastic and its emission characteristic during combustion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li Zheng; Liu Ze-chang; Zhao Ying; Shi Yu-miao [Chemical and Environmental Engineering College of Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China)

    2006-12-15

    The occurrence mode of chlorine in solid products from co-pyrolysis of coal and waste plastic was studied by IR and TG-MS. In addition, the emission characteristic of those solid products during combustion was studied. The results indicates that when co-pyrolysis temperature is below 600{sup o}C, there are some organic as well as inorganic chlorine compounds in coke; when the temperature is above 600{sup o}C, there is only inorganic one in the coke. The emission ratio of chlorine is relative to combustion temperature, the co-pyrolysing temperature as well as the percentage of PVC. The emission ratio of chlorine increases with the rising temperature of combustion. When the combustion temperature is 900{sup o}C, the emission ratio is up to 94%. On the contrary, the emission ratio is lower for the solid product from higher co-pyrolysis temperature as the combustion temperature is the same. The highest chlorine emission ratio from pyrolysis at 400{sup o}C is 99.86%, but that from 1000{sup o}C pyrolysis is 94.35%. 7 refs., 7 figs., 1 tab.

  9. Review of LLNL Mixed Waste Streams for the Application of Potential Waste Reduction Controls

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Belue, A; Fischer, R P

    2007-01-08

    In July 2004, LLNL adopted the International Standard ISO 14001 as a Work Smart Standard in lieu of DOE Order 450.1. In support of this new requirement the Director issued a new environmental policy that was documented in Section 3.0 of Document 1.2, ''ES&H Policies of LLNL'', in the ES&H Manual. In recent years the Environmental Management System (EMS) process has become formalized as LLNL adopted ISO 14001 as part of the contract under which the laboratory is operated for the Department of Energy (DOE). On May 9, 2005, LLNL revised its Integrated Safety Management System Description to enhance existing environmental requirements to meet ISO 14001. Effective October 1, 2005, each new project or activity is required to be evaluated from an environmental aspect, particularly if a potential exists for significant environmental impacts. Authorizing organizations are required to consider the management of all environmental aspects, the applicable regulatory requirements, and reasonable actions that can be taken to reduce negative environmental impacts. During 2006, LLNL has worked to implement the corrective actions addressing the deficiencies identified in the DOE/LSO audit. LLNL has begun to update the present EMS to meet the requirements of ISO 14001:2004. The EMS commits LLNL--and each employee--to responsible stewardship of all the environmental resources in our care. The generation of mixed radioactive waste was identified as a significant environmental aspect. Mixed waste for the purposes of this report is defined as waste materials containing both hazardous chemical and radioactive constituents. Significant environmental aspects require that an Environmental Management Plan (EMP) be developed. The objective of the EMP developed for mixed waste (EMP-005) is to evaluate options for reducing the amount of mixed waste generated. This document presents the findings of the evaluation of mixed waste generated at LLNL and a proposed plan for

  10. The upcycling of post-industrial PP/PET waste streams through in-situ microfibrillar preparation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Delva, Laurens, E-mail: Laurens.Delva@ugent.be; Ragaert, Kim, E-mail: Kim.Ragaert@ugent.be; Cardon, Ludwig, E-mail: Ludwig.Cardon@ugent.be [Centre for Polymer and Materials Technologies (CPMT), Department of Materials Science and Engineering, Ghent University, Technologiepark 915, 9052 Zwijnaarde (Belgium)

    2015-12-17

    Post-industrial plastic waste streams can be re-used as secondary material streams for polymer processing by extrusion or injection moulding. One of the major commercially available waste stream contains polypropylene (PP) contaminated with polyesters (mostly polyethylene tereftalate - PET). An important practical hurdle for the direct implementation of this waste stream is the immiscibility of PP and PET in the melt, which leads to segregation within the polymer structure and adversely affects the reproducibility and mechanical properties of the manufactured parts. It has been indicated in literature that the creation of PET microfibrils in the PP matrix could undo these drawbacks and upcycle the PP/PET combination. Within the current research, a commercially available virgin PP/PET was evaluated for the microfibrillar preparation. The mechanical (tensile and impact) properties, thermal properties and morphology of the composites were characterized at different stages of the microfibrillar preparation.

  11. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING MINERALIZATION FOR HIGH ORGANIC AND NITRATE WASTE STREAMS FOR THE GLOBAL NUCLEAR ENERGY PARTNERSHIP

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jantzen, C; Michael Williams, M

    2008-01-11

    Waste streams that may be generated by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) Advanced Energy Initiative may contain significant quantities of organics (0-53 wt%) and/or nitrates (0-56 wt%). Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce the NO{sub x} in the off-gas to N{sub 2} to meet the Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during waste form stabilization regardless of which GNEP processes are chosen, e.g. organics in the feed or organics for nitrate destruction. High organic containing wastes cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by preprocessing. Alternative waste stabilization processes such as Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operate at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). FBSR converts organics to CAA compliant gases, creates no secondary liquid waste streams, and creates a stable mineral waste form that is as durable as glass. For application to the high Cs-137 and Sr-90 containing GNEP waste streams a single phase mineralized Cs-mica phase was made by co-reacting illite clay and GNEP simulated waste. The Cs-mica accommodates up to 30% wt% Cs{sub 2}O and all the GNEP waste species, Ba, Sr, Rb including the Cs-137 transmutation to Ba-137. For reference, the cesium mineral pollucite (CsAlSi{sub 2}O{sub 6}), currently being studied for GNEP applications, can only be fabricated at {ge} 1000 C. Pollucite mineralization creates secondary aqueous waste streams and NO{sub x}. Pollucite is not tolerant of high concentrations of Ba, Sr or Rb and forces the divalent species into different mineral host phases. The pollucite can accommodate up to 33% wt% Cs{sub 2}O.

  12. PAPER STUDY EVALUATIONS OF THE INTRODUCTION OF SMALL COLUMN ION EXCHANGE WASTE STREAMS TO THE DEFENSE WASTE PROCESSING FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fox, K.; Edwards, T.; Stone, M.; Koopman, D.

    2010-06-29

    The objective of this paper study is to provide guidance on the impact of Monosodium Titanate (MST) and Crystalline Silicotitanate (CST) streams from the Small Column Ion Exchange (SCIX) process on the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF) flowsheet and glass waste form. A series of waste processing scenarios was evaluated, including projected compositions of Sludge Batches 8 through 17 (SB8 through SB17), MST additions, CST additions to Tank 40 or to a sludge batch preparation tank (Tank 42 or Tank 51, referred to generically as Tank 51 in this report), streams from the Salt Waste Processing Facility (SWPF), and two canister production rates. A wide array of potential glass frit compositions was used to support this assessment. The sludge and frit combinations were evaluated using the predictive models in the current DWPF Product Composition Control System (PCCS). The results were evaluated based on the number of frit compositions available for a particular sludge composition scenario. A large number of candidate frit compositions (e.g., several dozen to several hundred) is typically a good indicator of a sludge composition for which there is flexibility in forming an acceptable waste glass and meeting canister production rate commitments. The MST and CST streams will significantly increase the concentrations of certain components in glass, such as Nb{sub 2}O{sub 5}, TiO{sub 2}, and ZrO{sub 2}, to levels much higher than have been previously processed at DWPF. Therefore, several important assumptions, described in detail in the report, had to be made in performing the evaluations. The results of the paper studies, which must be applied carefully given the assumptions made concerning the impact of higher Ti, Zr, and Nb concentrations on model validity, provided several observations: (1) There was difficulty in identifying a reasonable number of candidate frits (and in some cases an inability to identify any candidate frits) when a waste loading of 40% is

  13. FORMATION OF CHLORINATED DIOXINS AND FURANS IN A HAZARDOUS-WASTE-FIRING INDUSTRIAL BOILER

    Science.gov (United States)

    This research examined the potential for emissions of polychlorinated diebnzodioxin and dibenzofuran (PCDD/F) from industrial boilers that cofire hazardous waste. PCDD/F emissions were sampled from a 732 kW (2.5 x 106 Btu/h), 3-pass, firetube boiler using #2 fuel oil cofired wit...

  14. Standard test method for determining elements in waste Streams by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy

    CERN Document Server

    American Society for Testing and Materials. Philadelphia

    2010-01-01

    1.1 This test method covers the determination of trace, minor, and major elements in waste streams by inductively coupled plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) following an acid digestion of the sample. Waste streams from manufacturing processes of nuclear and non-nuclear materials can be analyzed. This test method is applicable to the determination of total metals. Results from this test method can be used to characterize waste received by treatment facilities and to formulate appropriate treatment recipes. The results are also usable in process control within waste treatment facilities. 1.2 This test method is applicable only to waste streams that contain radioactivity levels that do not require special personnel or environmental protection. 1.3 A list of the elements determined in waste streams and the corresponding lower reporting limit is found in Table 1. 1.4 This test method has been used successfully for treatment of a large variety of waste solutions and industrial process liquids. The com...

  15. Improved method generates more chlorine dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jordan, R.W.; Kosinski, A.J.; Baker, R.J.

    1980-10-01

    The addition of acid can greatly improve the chlorine-chlorite process and enhance the use of chlorine dioxide as an alternative to chlorine for disinfection. The process is economical for use in taste and odor control, and for manganese, oxidation. The maximum yield is obtained using no excess chlorine, and the amount of unreacted sodium chlorite and chlorine in the product stream is reduced. (1 diagram, 4 graphs, 9 references)

  16. Personal Review: Sources of sulfide in waste streams and current biotechnologies for its removal

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MAHMOOD Qaisar; ZHENG Ping; CAI Jing; HAYAT Yousaf; HASSAN Muhammad Jaffar; WU Dong-lei; HU Bao-lan

    2007-01-01

    Sulfide-containing waste streams are generated by a number of industries. It is emitted into the environment as dissolved sulfide (S2- and HS-) in wastewaters and as H2S in waste gases. Due to its corrosive nature, biological hydrogen sulfide removal processes are being investigated to overcome the chemical and disposal costs associated with existing chemically based removal processes. The nitrogen and sulfur metabolism interacts at various levels of the wastewater treatment process. Hence, the sulfur cycle offers possibilities to integrate nitrogen removal in the treatment process, which needs to be further optimized by appropriate design of the reactor configuration, optimization of performance parameters, retention of biomass and optimization of biomass growth. The present paper reviews the biotechnological advances to remove sulfides from various environments.

  17. Recovery of ammonia and sulfate from waste streams and bioenergy production via bipolar bioelectrodialysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-01-01

    Ammonia and sulfate, which are prevalent pollutants in agricultural and industrial wastewaters, can cause serious inhibition in several biological treatment processes, such as anaerobic digestion. In this study, a novel bioelectrochemical approach termed bipolar bioelectrodialysis was developed...... to recover ammonia and sulfate from waste streams and thereby counteracting their toxicity during anaerobic digestion. Furthermore, hydrogen production and wastewater treatment were also accomplished. At an applied voltage of 1.2 V, nitrogen and sulfate fluxes of 5.1 g View the MathML sourceNH4+-N/m2/d...... bioelectrodialysis was successfully demonstrated with cattle manure. The results provide new possibilities for development of cost-effective technologies, capable of waste resources recovery and renewable energy production....

  18. Reaction Kinetic Studies of Waste Polymer and Hydrolytic Chlorine in EOCN Production

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Koyo Murakami

    2005-01-01

    @@ 1Results and Discussion EOCNs are widely used by electric and electronics industries and coating and adhesive fields(see Tab. 1 ). EOCNs( =Epoxy O-Cresol Novolac)can be produced commercially in a two-step reaction, which consistsmainly of a novolac reaction step of o-cresol with formalin and an epoxidising step of the the novolac resins with epichlorohydrine in the presence of alkari hydroxide such as caustic soda, byproducing waste polymers which affect adversely fromthe viewpoint of process economy.

  19. Environmental technology applications: fact file on toxic contaminants in industrial waste process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Newkirk, H.W.

    1977-05-11

    This report is a compendium of facts related to chemical materials present in industrial waste process streams which have already been declared or are being evaluated as hazardous under the Toxic Substances Control Act. Since some 400 chemicals are presently covered by consensus standards, the substances reviewed are only those considered to be a major threat to public health and welfare by Federal and State regulatory agencies. For each hazardous material cited, the facts relate, where possible, to an identification of the stationary industrial sources, the kind of waste stream impacted, proposed regulations and established effluent standards, the volume of emissions produced each year, the volume of emissions per unit of industrial product produced, present clean-up capabilities, limitations, and costs. These data should be helpful in providing information for the assessment of potential problems, should be of use to the manufacturers of pollution control equipment or of chemicals for pollution control, should be of use to the operators or potential operators of processes which produce pollutants, and should help to define industry-wide emission practices and magnitudes.

  20. Recycling of Waste Streams of the Biotechnological Poly(hydroxyalkanoate Production by Haloferax mediterranei on Whey

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Martin Koller

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available For manufacturing “bioplastics” such as poly(hydroxyalkanoates (PHA, the combination of utilization of inexpensive carbon sources with the application of robust microbial production strains is considered a decisive step to make this process more cost-efficient and sustainable. PHA production based on surplus whey from dairy industry was accomplished by the extremely halophile archaeon Haloferax mediterranei. After fermentative production of PHA-rich biomass and the subsequent cell harvest and downstream processing for PHA recovery, environmentally hazardous, highly saline residues, namely spent fermentation broth and cell debris, remain as residues. These waste streams were used for recycling experiments to assess their recyclability in subsequent production processes. It was demonstrated that spent fermentation broth can be used to replace a considerable part of fresh saline fermentation medium in subsequent production processes. In addition, 29% of the expensive yeast extract, needed as nitrogen and phosphate source for efficient cultivation of the microorganism, can be replaced by cell debris from prior cultivations. The presented study provides strategies to combine the reduction of costs for biomediated PHA production with minimizing ecological risks by recycling precarious waste streams. Overall, the presented work shall contribute to the quick economic success of these promising biomaterials.

  1. Characterization and monitoring of 300 Area facility liquid waste streams: 1994 Annual report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Riley, R.G.; Ballinger, M.Y.; Damberg, E.G.; Evans, J.C.; Julya, J.L.; Olsen, K.B.; Ozanich, R.M.; Thompson, C.J.; Vogel, H.R.

    1995-04-01

    This report summarizes the results of characterizing and monitoring the following sources during calendar year 1994: liquid waste streams from Buildings 306, 320, 324, 326, 331, and 3720 in the 300 Area of Hanford Site and managed by the Pacific Northwest Laboratory; treated and untreated Columbia River water (influent); and water at the confluence of the waste streams (that is, end-of-pipe). Data were collected from March to December before the sampling system installation was completed. Data from this initial part of the program are considered tentative. Samples collected were analyzed for chemicals, radioactivity, and general parameters. In general, the concentrations of chemical and radiological constituents and parameters in building wastewaters which were sampled and analyzed during CY 1994 were similar to historical data. Exceptions were the occasional observances of high concentrations of chloride, nitrate, and sodium that are believed to be associated with excursions that were occurring when the samples were collected. Occasional observances of high concentrations of a few solvents also appeared to be associated with infrequent building r eases. During calendar year 1994, nitrate, aluminum, copper, lead, zinc, bis(2-ethylhexyl) phthalate, and gross beta exceeded US Environmental Protection Agency maximum contaminant levels.

  2. Economic and environmental characterization of an evolving Li-ion battery waste stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Xue; Gaustad, Gabrielle; Babbitt, Callie W; Bailey, Chelsea; Ganter, Matthew J; Landi, Brian J

    2014-03-15

    While disposal bans of lithium-ion batteries are gaining in popularity, the infrastructure required to recycle these batteries has not yet fully emerged and the economic motivation for this type of recycling system has not yet been quantified comprehensively. This study combines economic modeling and fundamental material characterization methods to quantify economic trade-offs for lithium ion batteries at their end-of-life. Results show that as chemistries transition from lithium-cobalt based cathodes to less costly chemistries, battery recovery value decreases along with the initial value of the raw materials used. For example, manganese-spinel and iron phosphate cathode batteries have potential material values 73% and 79% less than cobalt cathode batteries, respectively. A majority of the potentially recoverable value resides in the base metals contained in the cathode; this increases disassembly cost and time as this is the last portion of the battery taken apart. A great deal of compositional variability exists, even within the same cathode chemistry, due to differences between manufacturers with coefficient of variation up to 37% for some base metals. Cathode changes over time will result in a heavily co-mingled waste stream, further complicating waste management and recycling processes. These results aim to inform disposal, collection, and take-back policies being proposed currently that affect waste management infrastructure as well as guide future deployment of novel recycling techniques.

  3. DM100 AND DM1200 MELTER TESTING WITH HIGH WASTE LOADING GLASS FORMULATIONS FOR HANFORD HIGH-ALUMINUM HLW STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    KRUGER AA; MATLACK KS; KOT WK; PEGG IL; JOSEPH I

    2009-12-30

    This Test Plan describes work to support the development and testing of high waste loading glass formulations that achieve high glass melting rates for Hanford high aluminum high level waste (HLW). In particular, the present testing is designed to evaluate the effect of using low activity waste (LAW) waste streams as a source of sodium in place ofchemical additives, sugar or cellulose as a reductant, boehmite as an aluminum source, and further enhancements to waste processing rate while meeting all processing and product quality requirements. The work will include preparation and characterization of crucible melts in support of subsequent DuraMelter 100 (DM 100) tests designed to examine the effects of enhanced glass formulations, glass processing temperature, incorporation of the LAW waste stream as a sodium source, type of organic reductant, and feed solids content on waste processing rate and product quality. Also included is a confirmatory test on the HLW Pilot Melter (DM1200) with a composition selected from those tested on the DM100. This work builds on previous work performed at the Vitreous State Laboratory (VSL) for Department of Energy's (DOE's) Office of River Protection (ORP) to increase waste loading and processing rates for high-iron HLW waste streams as well as previous tests conducted for ORP on the same waste composition. This Test Plan is prepared in response to an ORP-supplied statement of work. It is currently estimated that the number of HLW canisters to be produced in the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is about 12,500. This estimate is based upon the inventory ofthe tank wastes, the anticipated performance of the sludge treatment processes, and current understanding of the capability of the borosilicate glass waste form. The WTP HLW melter design, unlike earlier DOE melter designs, incorporates an active glass bubbler system. The bubblers create active glass pool convection and thereby improve heat

  4. Chlorinated and parent polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons in environmental samples from an electronic waste recycling facility and a chemical industrial complex in China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ma, Jing; Horii, Yuichi; Cheng, Jinping; Wang, Wenhua; Wu, Qian; Ohura, Takeshi; Kannan, Kurunthachalam

    2009-02-01

    Chlorinated polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (CIPAHs) are a class of halogenated contaminants found in the urban atmosphere; they have toxic potential similar to that of dioxins. Information on the sources of CIPAHs is limited. In this study, concentrations of 20 CIPAHs and 16 parent PAHs were measured in electronic wastes, workshop-floor dust, vegetation, and surface soil collected from the vicinity of an electronic waste (e-waste) recycling facility and in surface soil from a chemical industrial complex (comprising a coke-oven plant, a coal-fired power plant, and a chlor-alkali plant), and agricultural areas in central and eastern China. High concentrations of SigmaCIPAHs were found in floor dust (mean, 103 ng/g dry wt), followed in order of decreasing concentration by leaves (87.5 ng/g drywt), electronic shredder waste (59.1 ng/g dry wt), and soil (26.8 ng/g dry wt) from an e-waste recycling facility in Taizhou. The mean concentration of SigmaCIPAHs in soil from the chemical industrial complex (88 ng/g dry wt) was approximately 3-fold higher than the concentration in soil from e-waste recycling facilities. The soils from e-waste sites and industrial areas contained mean concentrations of SigmaCIPAHs 2 to 3 orders of magnitude higher than the concentrations in agricultural soils (ND-0.76 ng/g), suggesting that e-waste recycling and chlorine-chemical industries are potential emission sources of CIPAHs. The profiles of CIPAHs in soil and dust were similar to a profile that has been reported previously for fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (6-CIBaP was the predominant compound), but the profiles in vegetation and electronic shredder waste were different from those found in fly ash. Concentrations of 16 parent PAHs were high (150-49,700 ng/g) in samples collected from the e-waste recycling facility. Significant correlation between SigmaCIPAH and SigmaPAH concentrations suggests that direct chlorination of parent PAHs is the major pathway of formation of

  5. Material stream management of biomass wastes for the optimization of organic wastes utilization; Stoffstrommanagement von Biomasseabfaellen mit dem Ziel der Optimierung der Verwertung organischer Abfaelle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Knappe, Florian; Boess, Andreas; Fehrenbach, Horst; Giegrich, Juergen; Vogt, Regine [ifeu-Institut fuer Energie- und Umweltforschung GmbH, Heidelberg (Germany); Dehoust, Guenter; Schueler, Doris; Wiegmann, Kirsten; Fritsche, Uwe [Oeko-Institut, Inst. fuer Angewandte Oekologie, Darmstadt (Germany)

    2007-02-15

    The effective use of the valuable substances found in waste materials can make an important contribution to climate protection and the conservation of fossil and mineral resources. In order to harness the potential contribution of biomass waste streams, it is necessary to consider the potential of the waste in connection with that of the total biomass. In this project, relevant biogenous material streams in the forestry, the agriculture as well as in several industries are studied, and their optimization potentials are illustrated. Scenarios are then developed, while taking various other environmental impacts into considerations, to explore possible optimized utilization of biomass streams and biomass waste substances for the future. Straw that is not needed for humus production and currently left on the field can be used for its energy content. The realisation of this potential would be significant contribution towards climate protection. The energetic use of liquid manure without negatively influencing its application as commercial fertilizer can also be similarly successful because of its large volume. The results of our study also support an increased energetic use of saw residues as fuel (in form of pellets) in small furnaces. For household organic wastes, the report suggests the fermentation with optimized energy use and intensified marketing of the aerobically treated compost as peat substitution. While for waste cooking fat that is currently disposed in the residual waste, a separate collection and direct use in motors that are used as combined heat and power generation are recommended. For meat and bone meal and communal sludge that are not being used substantial currently or in the future, phosphorus can be recovered with promising success from the ash produced when the waste is burnt in mono incinerators. These technical options should however be tested against disposal standard. (orig.)

  6. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, H.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2016-01-01

    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water qu

  7. Wetting Resistance of Commercial Membrane Distillation Membranes in Waste Streams Containing Surfactants and Oil

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lies Eykens

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Water management is becoming increasingly challenging and several technologies, including membrane distillation (MD are emerging. This technology is less affected by salinity compared to reverse osmosis and is able to treat brines up to saturation. The focus of MD research recently shifted from seawater desalination to industrial applications out of the scope of reverse osmosis. In many of these applications, surfactants or oil traces are present in the feed stream, lowering the surface tension and increasing the risk for membrane wetting. In this study, the technological boundaries of MD in the presence of surfactants are investigated using surface tension, contact angle and liquid entry pressure measurements together with lab-scale MD experiments to predict the wetting resistance of different membranes. Synthetic NaCl solutions mixed with sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS were used as feed solution. The limiting surfactant concentration was found to be dependent on the surface chemistry of the membrane, and increased with increasing hydrophobicity and oleophobicity. Additionally, a hexadecane/SDS emulsion was prepared with a composition simulating produced water, a waste stream in the oil and gas sector. When hexadecane is present in the emulsion, oleophobic membranes are able to resist wetting, whereas polytetrafluoretheen (PTFE is gradually wetted by the feed liquid.

  8. Release of chlorinated, brominated and mixed halogenated dioxin-related compounds to soils from open burning of e-waste in Agbogbloshie (Accra, Ghana).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tue, Nguyen Minh; Goto, Akitoshi; Takahashi, Shin; Itai, Takaaki; Asante, Kwadwo Ansong; Kunisue, Tatsuya; Tanabe, Shinsuke

    2016-01-25

    Although complex mixtures of dioxin-related compounds (DRCs) can be released from informal e-waste recycling, DRC contamination in African e-waste recycling sites has not been investigated. This study examined the concentrations of DRCs including chlorinated, brominated, mixed halogenated dibenzo-p-dioxins/dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, PBDD/Fs, PXDD/Fs) and dioxin-like polychlorinated biphenyls (DL-PCBs) in surface soil samples from the Agbogbloshie e-waste recycling site in Ghana. PCDD/F and PBDD/F concentrations in open burning areas (18-520 and 83-3800 ng/g dry, respectively) were among the highest reported in soils from informal e-waste sites. The concentrations of PCDFs and PBDFs were higher than those of the respective dibenzo-p-dioxins, suggesting combustion and PBDE-containing plastics as principal sources. PXDFs were found as more abundant than PCDFs, and higher brominated analogues occurred at higher concentrations. The median total WHO toxic equivalent (TEQ) concentration in open burning soils was 7 times higher than the U.S. action level (1000 pg/g), with TEQ contributors in the order of PBDFs>PCDD/Fs>PXDFs. DRC emission to soils over the e-waste site as of 2010 was estimated, from surface soil lightness based on the correlations between concentrations and lightness, at 200mg (95% confidence interval 93-540 mg) WHO-TEQ over three years. People living in Agbogbloshie are potentially exposed to high levels of not only chlorinated but also brominated DRCs, and human health implications need to be assessed in future studies.

  9. Catalytic hydrogen-chlorine exchange between chlorinated hydrocarbons under oxygen-free conditions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    van der Heijden, A.W.A.M.; Podkolzin, S.G.; Jones, M.E.; Bitter, J.H.; Weckhuysen, B.M.

    2008-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons (CHCs) remain important industrial chemical intermediates and solvents, especially for the exploration of the potential of La-based materials for the conversion of chlorinated waste compounds.[1] The production of industrially important CHCs frequently occurs with concurrent

  10. Recovery of ammonia and sulfate from waste streams and bioenergy production via bipolar bioelectrodialysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Yifeng; Angelidaki, Irini

    2015-11-15

    Ammonia and sulfate, which are prevalent pollutants in agricultural and industrial wastewaters, can cause serious inhibition in several biological treatment processes, such as anaerobic digestion. In this study, a novel bioelectrochemical approach termed bipolar bioelectrodialysis was developed to recover ammonia and sulfate from waste streams and thereby counteracting their toxicity during anaerobic digestion. Furthermore, hydrogen production and wastewater treatment were also accomplished. At an applied voltage of 1.2 V, nitrogen and sulfate fluxes of 5.1 g NH4(+)-N/m(2)/d and 18.9 g SO4(2-)/m(2)/d were obtained, resulting in a Coulombic and current efficiencies of 23.6% and 77.4%, respectively. Meanwhile, H2 production of 0.29 L/L/d was achieved. Gas recirculation at the cathode increased the nitrogen and sulfate fluxes by 2.3 times. The applied voltage, initial (NH4)2SO4 concentrations and coexistence of other ions were affecting the system performance. The energy balance revealed that net energy (≥ 16.8 kWh/kg-N recovered or ≥ 4.8 kWh/kg-H2SO4 recovered) was produced at all the applied voltages (0.8-1.4 V). Furthermore, the applicability of bipolar bioelectrodialysis was successfully demonstrated with cattle manure. The results provide new possibilities for development of cost-effective technologies, capable of waste resources recovery and renewable energy production.

  11. ANALISIS WASTE DALAM ALIRAN MATERIAL INTERNAL DENGAN VALUE STREAM MAPPING PADA PT XYZ

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ketut Gita Ayu

    2012-05-01

    Full Text Available The main focus of the research is excess inventory and motion waste which commonly occur in warehouse and production floor. This research is carried out to minimize the average level and eliminate unnecessary motions, with consideration of electronic pull and traceability system characteristics. Product X, the highest-selling product, is the object of this research. To identify the current condition, the current state Value Stream Mapping (VSM is developed as the basis to arrange improvement plan to minimize the wastes. Safety stock is determined through average and maximum consumption difference; and reorder point is determined to comply with pull approach. Average inventory level is calculated using continuous review method. The simulation was conducted and it was shown that 8.29 minutes is the maximum lateness. Thus, safety stock and reorder point are adjusted accordingly to anticipate stockout due to lateness. The improvement of process cycle efficiency is shown to increase from 4.1 % to 5.1 % as projected in future state VSM.

  12. Biological technologies for the removal of sulfur containing compounds from waste streams: bioreactors and microbial characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Lin; Zhang, Jingying; Lin, Jian; Liu, Junxin

    2015-10-01

    Waste gases containing sulfur compounds, such as hydrogen sulfide, sulfur dioxide, thioethers, and mercaptan, produced and emitted from industrial processes, wastewater treatment, and landfill waste may cause undesirable issues in adjacent areas and contribute to atmospheric pollution. Their control has been an area of concern and research for many years. As alternative to conventional physicochemical air pollution control technologies, biological treatment processes which can transform sulfur compounds to harmless products by microbial activity, have gained in popularity due to their efficiency, cost-effectiveness and environmental acceptability. This paper provides an overview of the current biological techniques used for the treatment of air streams contaminated with sulfur compounds as well as the advances made in the past year. The discussion focuses on bioreactor configuration and design, mechanism of operation, insights into the overall biological treatment process, and the characterization of the microbial species present in bioreactors, their populations and their interactions with the environment. Some bioreactor case studies are also introduced. Finally, the perspectives on future research and development needs in this research area were also highlighted.

  13. Valorization of industrial waste and by-product streams via fermentation for the production of chemicals and biopolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koutinas, Apostolis A; Vlysidis, Anestis; Pleissner, Daniel; Kopsahelis, Nikolaos; Lopez Garcia, Isabel; Kookos, Ioannis K; Papanikolaou, Seraphim; Kwan, Tsz Him; Lin, Carol Sze Ki

    2014-04-21

    The transition from a fossil fuel-based economy to a bio-based economy necessitates the exploitation of synergies, scientific innovations and breakthroughs, and step changes in the infrastructure of chemical industry. Sustainable production of chemicals and biopolymers should be dependent entirely on renewable carbon. White biotechnology could provide the necessary tools for the evolution of microbial bioconversion into a key unit operation in future biorefineries. Waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors (e.g., food industry, pulp and paper industry, biodiesel and bioethanol production) could be used as renewable resources for both biorefinery development and production of nutrient-complete fermentation feedstocks. This review focuses on the potential of utilizing waste and by-product streams from current industrial activities for the production of chemicals and biopolymers via microbial bioconversion. The first part of this review presents the current status and prospects on fermentative production of important platform chemicals (i.e., selected C2-C6 metabolic products and single cell oil) and biopolymers (i.e., polyhydroxyalkanoates and bacterial cellulose). In the second part, the qualitative and quantitative characteristics of waste and by-product streams from existing industrial sectors are presented. In the third part, the techno-economic aspects of bioconversion processes are critically reviewed. Four case studies showing the potential of case-specific waste and by-product streams for the production of succinic acid and polyhydroxyalkanoates are presented. It is evident that fermentative production of chemicals and biopolymers via refining of waste and by-product streams is a highly important research area with significant prospects for industrial applications.

  14. Hierarchical porous structured zeolite composite for removal of ionic contaminants from waste streams and effective encapsulation of hazardous waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Jubouri, Sama M; Curry, Nicholas A; Holmes, Stuart M

    2016-12-15

    A hierarchical structured composite made from clinoptilolite supported on date stones carbon is synthesized using two techniques. The composites are manufactured by fixing a natural zeolite (clinoptilolite) to the porous surface of date stones carbon or by direct hydrothermal synthesis on to the surface to provide a supported high surface area ion-exchange material for metal ion removal from aqueous streams. The fixing of the clinoptilolite is achieved using sucrose and citric acid as a binder. The composites and pure clinoptilolite were compared to test the efficacy for the removal of Sr(2+) ions from an aqueous phase. The encapsulation of the Sr(2+) using either vitrification or a geo-polymer addition was tested to ensure that the hazardous waste can be made safe for disposal. The hierarchical structured composites were shown to achieve a higher ion exchange capacity per gram of zeolite than the pure clinoptilolite (65mg/g for the pure natural clinoptilolite and 72mg/g for the pure synthesized clinoptilolite) with the synthesized composite (160mg/g) having higher capacity than the natural clinoptilolite composite (95mg/g). The rate at which the equilibria were established followed the same trend showing the composite structure facilitates diffusion to the ion-exchange sites in the zeolite.

  15. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laarhoven, Bob; Elissen, H J H; Temmink, H; Buisman, C J N

    2016-01-01

    An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv). The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml), 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin). With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates.

  16. Agar Sediment Test for Assessing the Suitability of Organic Waste Streams for Recovering Nutrients by the Aquatic Worm Lumbriculus variegatus.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bob Laarhoven

    Full Text Available An agar sediment test was developed to evaluate the suitability of organic waste streams from the food industry for recovering nutrients by the aquatic worm Lumbriculus variegatus (Lv. The effects of agar gel, sand, and food quantities in the sediment test on worm growth, reproduction, and water quality were studied. Agar gel addition ameliorated growth conditions by reducing food hydrolysis and altering sediment structure. Best results for combined reproduction and growth were obtained with 0.6% agar-gel (20 ml, 10 g. fine sand, 40 g. coarse sand, and 105 mg fish food (Tetramin. With agar gel, ingestion and growth is more the result of addition of food in its original quality. Final tests with secondary potato starch sludge and wheat bran demonstrated that this test is appropriate for the comparison of solid feedstuffs and suspended organic waste streams. This test method is expected to be suitable for organic waste studies using other sediment dwelling invertebrates.

  17. 氯分种类对垃圾焚烧过程重金属迁移特性的影响%Effect of chlorine species on transfer characteristics of heavy metals during municipal solid waste incineration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曹晓非; 徐觉慧; 李和平; 刘静

    2014-01-01

    在管式反应炉上,通过加入有机氯(PVC)和无机氯(NaCl)研究了垃圾焚烧时氯对重金属迁移特性的影响。结果表明,氯分在低温下对重金属挥发几乎没有影响,只有在较高的焚烧温度下氯分才对重金属的挥发特性产生影响,且垃圾焚烧过程中氯分存在使重金属更易向飞灰或烟气中迁移,垃圾中有机氯对重金属迁移特性的影响要大于无机氯。氯的存在会显著改变分布在飞灰和烟气或底渣和飞灰间的重金属的分布特性。%Effects of chlorine on heavy metals distribution at different temperatures are studied with mixed wastes incinerated in a quartz tube by adding organic chlorine(PVC) and inorganic chlorine (NaCl).The results indicate that the chlorine content in wastes has no influences on heavy metals distribution at lower temperature.Only at higher temperature the influences can be detected.When chlorine is contained in wastes incineration,heavy metals will transfer to fly ash or flue gas more easily.The organic chlorine has more impacts on heavy metals transfer characteristics than inorganic chlorine.The chlorine can obviously alter distribution characteristics of the heavy metals that disperse between fly ash and flue gas or between bottom ash and fly ash.

  18. Quantities and characteristics of the contact-handled low-level mixed waste streams for the DOE complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Huebner, T.L.; Wilson, J.M.; Ruhter, A.H.; Bonney, S.J. [SAIC, Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Waste Management Technology Div.

    1994-08-01

    This report supports the Integrated Thermal Treatment System (ITTS) Study initiated by the Department of Energy (DOE) Office of Technology Development (EM-50), which is a system engineering assessment of a variety of mixed waste treatment process. The DOE generates and stores large quantities of mixed wastes that are contaminated with both chemically hazardous and radioactive species. The treatment of these mixed wastes requires meeting the standards established by the Environmental Protection Agency for the specific hazardous contaminants regulated under the Resource Conservation and Recovery Act while also providing adequate control of the radionuclides. The thrust of the study is to develop preconceptual designs and life-cycle cost estimates for integrated thermal treatment systems ranging from conventional incinerators, such as rotary kiln and controlled air systems, to more innovative but not yet established technologies, such as molten salt and molten metal waste destruction systems. Prior to this engineering activity, the physical and chemical characteristics of the DOE low-level mixed waste streams to be treated must be defined or estimated. This report describes efforts to estimate the DOE waste stream characteristics.

  19. Commercial treatability study capabilities for application to the US Department of Energy`s anticipated mixed waste streams. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1996-09-01

    US DOE mixed low-level and mixed transuranic waste inventory was estimated at 181,000 cubic meters (about 2,000 waste streams). Treatability studies may be used as part of DOE`s mixed waste management program. Commercial treatability study suppliers have been identified that either have current capability in their own facilities or have access to licensed facilities. Numerous federal and state regulations, as well as DOE Order 5820.2A, impact the performance of treatability studies. Generators, transporters, and treatability study facilities are subject to regulation. From a mixed- waste standpoint, a key requirement is that the treatability study facility must have an NRC or state license that allows it to possess radioactive materials. From a RCRA perspective, the facility must support treatability study activities with the applicable plans, reports, and documentation. If PCBs are present in the waste, TSCA will also be an issue. CERCLA requirements may apply, and both DOE and NRC regulations will impact the transportation of DOE mixed waste to an off-site treatment facility. DOE waste managers will need to be cognizant of all applicable regulations as mixed-waste treatability study programs are initiated.

  20. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory EnergyX Macroencapsulated Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Gregory J. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-06-01

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream (B LAMACRONCAP, Revision 1) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream is macroencapsulated mixed waste generated during research laboratory operations and maintenance (LLNL 2015). The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream required a special analysis due to tritium (3H), cobalt-60 (60Co), cesium-137 (137Cs), and radium-226 (226Ra) exceeding the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015).The results indicate that all performance objectives can be met with disposal of the waste stream in a SLB trench. Addition of the LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated inventory slightly increases multiple performance assessment results, with the largest relative increase occurring for the all-pathways annual total effective dose (TED). The maximum mean and 95th percentile 222Rn flux density remain less than the performance objective throughout the compliance period. The LLNL EnergyX Macroencapsulated waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. The waste stream is recommended for approval without conditions.

  1. Development of an integrated enzymatic treatment system for phenolic waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mao, X; Buchanan, I D; Stanley, S J

    2006-12-01

    An integrated enzymatic treatment system, which includes Coprinus cinereus peroxidase (CIP) production, processing, and usage in batch or plug flow reactors, is being developed to remove phenolic compounds from the aqueous waste streams. CIP production at bench scale yielded a maximum growth medium activity of approximately 60 U CIP ml(-1). A CIP enzyme solution was prepared for use in treatment by successive filtration steps. This yielded a 4.5-fold increase in enzyme activity, with 87% enzyme activity recovery, and 83% reduction in the solution's Chemical Oxygen Demand. The purity of CIP was observed to have no effect on the ability of the enzyme to remove phenol from the aqueous solutions within the range of enzyme solution purities tested. Contrary to observations reported for phenol removal from buffered solutions, the addition of polyethylene glycol to non-buffered reaction solutions had no positive effect on the phenol removal accomplished at pH 7 in these experiments. The efficiency of enzyme use in a plug flow reactor was improved by step additions of CIP and H2O2.

  2. Ammonia removal in food waste anaerobic digestion using a side-stream stripping process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Serna-Maza, A; Heaven, S; Banks, C J

    2014-01-01

    Three 35-L anaerobic digesters fed on source segregated food waste were coupled to side-stream ammonia stripping columns and operated semi-continuously over 300 days, with results in terms of performance and stability compared to those of a control digester without stripping. Biogas was used as the stripping medium, and the columns were operated under different conditions of temperature (55, 70, 85 °C), pH (unadjusted and pH 10), and RT (2-5 days). To reduce digester TAN concentrations to a useful level a high temperature (≥70 °C) and a pH of 10 were needed; under these conditions 48% of the TAN was removed over a 138-day period without any detrimental effects on digester performance. Other effects of the stripping process were an overall reduction in digestate organic nitrogen-containing fraction compared to the control and a recovery in the acetoclastic pathway when TAN concentration was 1770±20 mg kg(-1).

  3. Fractionation and Purification of Bioactive Compounds Obtained from a Brewery Waste Stream

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Letricia Barbosa-Pereira

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available The brewery industry generates waste that could be used to yield a natural extract containing bioactive phenolic compounds. We compared two methods of purifying the crude extract—solid-phase extraction (SPE and supercritical fluid extraction (SFE—with the aim of improving the quality of the final extract for potential use as safe food additive, functional food ingredient, or nutraceutical. The predominant fractions yielded by SPE were the most active, and the fraction eluted with 30% (v/v of methanol displayed the highest antioxidant activity (0.20 g L−1, similar to that of BHA. The most active fraction yielded by SFE (EC50 of 0.23 g L−1 was obtained under the following conditions: temperature 40°C, pressure 140 bar, extraction time 30 minutes, ethanol (6% as a modifier, and modifier flow 0.2 mL min−1. Finally, we found that SFE is the most suitable procedure for purifying the crude extracts and improves the organoleptic characteristics of the product: the final extract was odourless, did not contain solvent residues, and was not strongly coloured. Therefore, natural extracts obtained from the residual stream and purified by SFE can be used as natural antioxidants with potential applications in the food, cosmetic, and pharmaceutical industries.

  4. Application of coals as sorbents for the removal of Cr from aqueous waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lakatos, J.; Brown, S.D.; Snape, C.E. [University of Miskolc, Miskolc (Hungary). Dept. of Analytical Chemistry

    2001-09-01

    The study reported further understanding of how various electron transfer processes operate for Cr(VI) with a view to using coals for the removal of Cr(VI) from waste streams. Skye peat, Spanish and German lignites, UK high and low volatility bituminous coals and an activated carbon were used. After treatment to remove exchangeable cations, ion exchange experiments were conducted in 0.1 M acetic acid-sodium acetate (1:1) buffer and 0.05 M sulphuric acid solutions and the slurries were agitated once a day. The ion concentrations in the solutions were determined by flame atomic absorption spectroscopy. The Cr(VI) renaming in solution was determined by the standard calorimetric 1,5-diphenylcarbazide method. Peat and low rank (Spanish Mequinenza) coal exhibited a larger capacity for Cr(VI) removal than bituminous coal. Redox mechanisms are operative coupled with the oxidation of the coal and peat surfaces. Desorption of Cr(III) formed by reduction which occurs in strongly acidic media also needs to be considered. 1 ref., 3 figs.

  5. Model of truly closed circuit of waste stream flow in metallurgical enterprise

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    B. Gajdzik

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The publication presents flows of metallurgical waste in manufacturing metallurgical enterprise. On the basis of analysis the structure of waste flows and the way of waste management within the enterprise or outside it were described. In the observation of the metallurgical waste flow a universal model of waste flow structure was created. It may be used in waste management of a metallurgical enterprise with full production cycle (from raw materials processes, through steel production up to final products.

  6. Chlorination of Wastewater, Manual of Practice No. 4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water Pollution Control Federation, Washington, DC.

    This manual reviews chlorination practices in the treatment and disposal of wastes from the earliest known applications. The application of chlorination for various purposes is described but no attempt has been made to compare chlorination with other methods. Included are chapters on the development and practice of wastewater chlorination,…

  7. Spatial and taxonomic variation in trace element bioaccumulation in two herbivores from a coal combustion waste contaminated stream.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Dean E; Lindell, Angela H; Stillings, Garrett K; Mills, Gary L; Blas, Susan A; Vaun McArthur, J

    2014-03-01

    Dissimilarities in habitat use, feeding habits, life histories, and physiology can result in syntopic aquatic taxa of similar trophic position bioaccumulating trace elements in vastly different patterns. We compared bioaccumulation in a clam, Corbicula fluminea and mayfly nymph Maccaffertium modestum from a coal combustion waste contaminated stream. Collection sites differed in distance to contaminant sources, incision, floodplain activity, and sources of flood event water and organic matter. Contaminants variably accumulated in both sediment and biofilm. Bioaccumulation differed between species and sites with C. fluminea accumulating higher concentrations of Hg, Cs, Sr, Se, As, Be, and Cu, but M. modestum higher Pb and V. Stable isotope analyses suggested both spatial and taxonomic differences in resource use with greater variability and overlap between species in the more physically disturbed site. The complex but essential interactions between organismal biology, divergence in resource use, and bioaccumulation as related to stream habitat requires further studies essential to understand impacts of metal pollution on stream systems.

  8. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Mixed TRU Waste Streams: SR-W026-221F-HET-A through D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsford, G.F.

    2001-10-02

    This document, along with referenced supporting documents provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for the heterogeneous debris mixed transuranic waste streams generated in the FB-Line after January 25, 1990 and before March 20, 1997.

  9. SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HANFORD LAW WASTE STREAM PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF NEAR-TANK CONTINUOUS SLUDGE LEACHING AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M.; Johnson, F.; Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2011-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the

  10. Impacts by point and diffuse micropollutant sources on the stream water quality at catchment scale

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Petersen, Mette Fjendbo; Eriksson, Eva; Binning, Philip John

    2012-01-01

    pollution sources were identified including a pharmaceutical factory site with a contaminated old drainage ditch, two waste deposits, a wastewater treatment plant, overflow structures, fish farms, industrial discharges and diffuse agricultural and urban sources. Six water samples were collected along...... at the pharmaceutical factory site, the drainage ditch and the waste deposits is similar in composition containing among others sulfonamides and chlorinated solvents (including vinyl chloride). Vinyl chloride concentrations surpassed Danish stream water quality criteria with a factor 10. The largest chemical impact...

  11. Impact of Unconventional Shale Gas Waste Water Disposal on Surficial Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cozzarelli, I.; Akob, D.; Mumford, A. C.

    2014-12-01

    The development of unconventional natural gas resources has been rapidly increasing in recent years, however, the environmental impacts and risks are not yet well understood. A single well can generate up to 5 million L of produced water (PW) consisting of a blend of the injected fluid and brine from a shale formation. With thousands of wells completed in the past decade, the scope of the challenge posed in the management of this wastewater becomes apparent. The USGS Toxic Substances Hydrology Program is studying both intentional and unintentional releases of PW and waste solids. One method for the disposal of PW is underground injection; we are assessing the potential risks of this method through an intensive, interdisciplinary study at an injection disposal facility in the Wolf Creek watershed in WV. Disposal of PW via injection begun in 2002, with over 5.5 mil. L of PW injected to date. The facility consists of the injection well, a tank farm, and two former holding ponds (remediated in early 2014) and is bordered by two small tributaries of Wolf Creek. Water and sediments were acquired from these streams in June 2014, including sites upstream, within, and downstream from the facility. We are analyzing aqueous and solid phase geochemistry, mineralogy, hydrocarbon content, microbial community composition, and potential toxicity. Field measurements indicated that conductivity downstream (416 μS/cm) was elevated in comparison to upstream (74 μS/cm) waters. Preliminary data indicated elevated Cl- (115 mg/L) and Br- (0.88 mg/L) concentrations downstream, compared to 0.88 mg/L Cl- and streams. In addition, total Fe concentrations downstream were 8.1 mg/L, far in excess of the 0.13 mg/L found upstream from the facility, suggesting the potential for microbial Fe cycling. We are conducting a broad suite of experiments to assess the potential for microbial metabolism of the organic components of PW, and to determine the effects of this metabolism on the geochemistry of

  12. Feasibility of Biomass Briquette Production from Municipal Waste Streams by Integrating the Informal Sector in the Philippines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aries Roda D. Romallosa

    2017-02-01

    Full Text Available A technical and socio-economic feasibility study of biomass briquette production was performed in Iloilo City, Philippines, by integrating a registered group of the informal sector. The study has shown that the simulated production of biomass briquettes obtained from the municipal waste stream could lead to a feasible on-site fuel production line after determining its usability, quality and applicability to the would-be users. The technology utilized for briquetting is not complicated when operated due to its simple, yet sturdy design with suggestive results in terms of production rate, bulk density and heating value of the briquettes produced. Quality briquettes were created from mixtures of waste paper, sawdust and carbonized rice husk, making these material flows a renewable source of cost-effective fuels. An informal sector that would venture into briquette production can be considered profitable for small business enterprising, as demonstrated in the study. The informal sector from other parts of the world, having similar conditionality with that of the Uswag Calajunan Livelihood Association, Inc. (UCLA, could play a significant role in the recovery of these reusable waste materials from the waste stream and can add value to them as alternative fuels and raw materials (AFR for household energy supply using appropriate technologies.

  13. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsford, G.F.

    1999-08-23

    Since beginning operations in 1954, the Department of Energy's Savannah River Site FB-Line conducted atomic energy defense activities consistent with the listing in Section 10101(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act of 1982. The facility mission was to process and convert dilute plutonium solution into highly purified weapons grade plutonium metal. As a result of various activities conducted in support of the mission (e.g., operation, maintenance, repair, clean up, and facility modifications), the facility generated transuranic waste. This document, along with referenced supporting documents, provides a defensible and auditable record of acceptable knowledge for one of the waste streams from the FB-Line. The waste was packaged in 55-gallon drums, then shipped to the transuranic waste storage facility in ''E'' area of the Savannah River Site. This acceptable knowledge report includes information relating to the facility's history, configuration,equipment, process operations, and waste management practices.

  14. Hybrid selective surface hydrophilization and froth flotation separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste with novel nanoscale metallic calcium composite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mallampati, Srinivasa Reddy; Heo, Je Haeng; Park, Min Hee

    2016-04-05

    Treatment by a nanometallic Ca/CaO composite has been found to selectively hydrophilize the surface of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), enhancing its wettability and thereby promoting its separation from E-waste plastics by means of froth flotation. The treatment considerably decreased the water contact angle of PVC, by about 18°. The SEM images of the PVC plastic after treatment displayed significant changes in their surface morphology compared to other plastics. The SEM-EDS results reveal that a markedly decrease of [Cl] concentration simultaneously with dramatic increase of [O] on the surface of the PCV samples. XPS results further confirmed an increase of hydrophilic functional groups on the PVC surface. Froth flotation at 100rpm mixing speed was found to be optimal, separating 100% of the PVC into a settled fraction of 96.4% purity even when the plastics fed into the reactor were of nonuniform size and shape. The total recovery of PVC-free plastics in E-waste reached nearly 100% in the floated fraction, significantly improved from the 20.5wt% of light plastics that can be recovered by means of conventional wet gravity separation. The hybrid method of nanometallic Ca/CaO treatment and froth flotation is effective in the separation of hazardous chlorinated plastics from E-waste plastics.

  15. Approach of technical decision-making by element flow analysis and Monte-Carlo simulation of municipal solid waste stream

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TIAN Bao-guo; SI Ji-tao; ZHAO Yan; WANG Hong-tao; HAO Ji-ming

    2007-01-01

    This paper deals with the procedure and methodology which can be used to select the optimal treatment and disposal technology of municipal solid waste (MSW), and to provide practical and effective technical support to policy-making, on the basis of study on solid waste management status and development trend in China and abroad. Focusing on various treatment and disposal technologies and processes of MSW, this study established a Monte-Carlo mathematical model of cost minimization for MSW handling subjected to environmental constraints. A new method of element stream (such as C, H, O, N, S) analysis in combination with economic stream analysis of MSW was developed. By following the streams of different treatment processes consisting of various techniques from generation, separation, transfer, transport, treatment, recycling and disposal of the wastes, the element constitution as well as its economic distribution in terms of possibility functions was identified. Every technique step was evaluated economically. The Mont-Carlo method was then conducted for model calibration. Sensitivity analysis was also carried out to identify the most sensitive factors. Model calibration indicated that landfill with power generation of landfill gas was economically the optimal technology at the present stage under the condition of more than 58% of C, H, O, N, S going to landfill. Whether or not to generate electricity was the most sensitive factor. If landfilling cost increases, MSW separation treatment was recommended by screening first followed with incinerating partially and composting partially with residue landfilling. The possibility of incineration model selection as the optimal technology was affected by the city scale. For big cities and metropolitans with large MSW generation, possibility for constructing large-scale incineration facilities increases, whereas, for middle and small cities, the effectiveness of incinerating waste decreases.

  16. Characterization of past and present waste streams from the 325 Radiochemistry Building

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns-Rollosson, M.I.; Dicenso, K.D.; DeLorenzo, D.S. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States)

    1993-12-01

    The purpose of this report is to characterize, as far as possible, the solid waste generated by the 325 Radiochemistry Building since its construction in 1953. Solid waste as defined in this document is any containerized or self-contained material that has been declared waste. This characterization is of particular interest in the planning of transuranic (TRU) waste retrieval operations including the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility. Westinghouse Hanford Company (Westinghouse Hanford) and Battelle Pacific Northwest Laboratory (PNL) activities at Building 325 have generated approximately 4.4% and 2.4%, respectively, of the total volume of TRU waste currently stored at the Hanford Site.

  17. Organic waste compounds in streams: Occurrence and aquatic toxicity in different stream compartments, flow regimes, and land uses in southeast Wisconsin, 2006–9

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baldwin, Austin K.; Corsi, Steven R.; Richards, Kevin D.; Geis, Steven W.; Magruder, Christopher

    2013-01-01

    An assessment of organic chemicals and aquatic toxicity in streams located near Milwaukee, Wisconsin, indicated high potential for adverse impacts on aquatic organisms that could be related to organic waste compounds (OWCs). OWCs used in agriculture, industry, and households make their way into surface waters through runoff, leaking septic-conveyance systems, regulated and unregulated discharges, and combined sewage overflows, among other sources. Many of these compounds are toxic at elevated concentrations and (or) known to have endocrine-disrupting potential, and often they occur as complex mixtures. There is still much to be learned about the chronic exposure effects of these compounds on aquatic populations. During 2006–9, the U.S. Geological Survey, in cooperation with the Milwaukee Metropolitan Sewerage District (MMSD), conducted a study to determine the occurrence and potential toxicity of OWCs in different stream compartments and flow regimes for streams in the Milwaukee area. Samples were collected at 17 sites and analyzed for a suite of 69 OWCs. Three types of stream compartments were represented: water column, streambed pore water, and streambed sediment. Water-column samples were subdivided by flow regime into stormflow and base-flow samples. One or more compounds were detected in all 196 samples collected, and 64 of the 69 compounds were detected at least once. Base-flow samples had the lowest detection rates, with a median of 12 compounds detected per sample. Median detection rates for stormflow, pore-water, and sediment samples were more than double that of base-flow samples. Compounds with the highest detection rates include polycyclic aromatic hydrocarbons (PAHs), insecticides, herbicides, and dyes/pigments. Elevated occurrence and concentrations of some compounds were detected in samples from urban sites, as compared with more rural sites, especially during stormflow conditions. These include the PAHs and the domestic waste

  18. Geotechnical/geochemical characterization of advanced coal process waste streams: Task 2

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Moretti, C.J.; Olson, E.S.

    1992-09-01

    Successful disposal practices for solid wastes produced from advanced coal combustion and coal conversion processes must provide for efficient management of relatively large volumes of wastes in a cost-effective and environmentally safe manner. At present, most coal-utilization solid wastes are disposed of using various types of land-based systems, and it is probable that this disposal mode will continue to be widely used in the future for advanced process wastes. Proper design and operation of land-based disposal systems for coal combustion wastes normally require appropriate waste transfer, storage, and conditioning subsystems at the plant to prepare the waste for transport to an ultimate disposal site. Further, the overall waste management plan should include a by-product marketing program to minimize the amount of waste that will require disposal. In order to properly design and operate waste management systems for advanced coal-utilization processes, a fundamental understanding of the physical properties, chemical and mineral compositions, and leaching behaviors of the wastes is required. In order to gain information about the wastes produced by advanced coal-utilization processes, 55 waste samples from 16 different coal gasification, fluidized-bed coal combustion (FBC), and advanced flue gas scrubbing processes were collected. Thirty-four of these wastes were analyzed for their bulk chemical and mineral compositions and tested for a detailed set of disposal-related physical properties. The results of these waste characterizations are presented in this report. In addition to the waste characterization data, this report contains a discussion of potentially useful waste management practices for advanced coal utilization processes.

  19. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Idaho National Laboratory Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor Rods and Pellets Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Gregory [NSTec

    2014-08-31

    The purpose of this special analysis (SA) is to determine if the Idaho National Laboratory (INL) Unirradiated Light Water Breeder Reactor (LWBR) Rods and Pellets waste stream (INEL103597TR2, Revision 2) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS). The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream consists of 24 containers with unirradiated fabricated rods and pellets composed of uranium oxide (UO2) and thorium oxide (ThO2) fuel in zirconium cladding. The INL Unirradiated LWBR Rods and Pellets waste stream requires an SA because the 229Th, 230Th, 232U, 233U, and 234U activity concentrations exceed the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS) Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels.

  20. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shott, Gregory J. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-06-01

    This special analysis (SA) evaluates whether the Lawrence Livermore National Laboratory (LLNL) Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream (BCLALADOEOSRP, Revision 0) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream consists of sealed sources that are no longer needed. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream required a special analysis because cobalt-60 (60Co), strontium-90 (90Sr), cesium-137 (137Cs), and radium-226 (226Ra) exceeded the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015). The results indicate that all performance objectives can be met with disposal of the LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources in a SLB trench. The LLNL Low Activity Beta/Gamma Sources waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. However, the activity concentration of 226Ra listed on the waste profile sheet significantly exceeds the action level. Approval of the waste profile sheet could potentially allow the disposal of high activity 226Ra sources. To ensure that the generator does not include large 226Ra sources in this waste stream without additional evaluation, a control is need on the maximum 226Ra inventory. A limit based on the generator’s estimate of the total 226Ra inventory is recommended. The waste stream is recommended for approval with the control that the total 226Ra inventory disposed shall not exceed 5.5E10 Bq (1.5 Ci).

  1. Environmental performance of hydrothermal carbonization of four wet biomass waste streams at industry-relevant scales

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Owsianiak, Mikolaj; Ryberg, Morten; Renz, Michael

    2016-01-01

    Hydrothermal carbonization (HTC) of green waste, food waste, organic fraction of municipal solid waste (MSW), and digestate is assessed using life cycle assessment as a potential technology to treat biowaste. Water content of the biowaste and composition of the resulting hydrochar are important...

  2. Evaluation of Cyanex 923-coated magnetic particles for the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shaibu, B.S. [Chemical Sciences Division, Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Thiruvananthapuram-695019 (India); Reddy, M.L.P. [Chemical Sciences Division, Regional Research Laboratory (CSIR), Thiruvananthapuram-695019 (India)]. E-mail: mlpreddy@yahoo.co.uk; Bhattacharyya, A. [Radiochemistry Division, B.A.R.C, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India); Manchanda, V.K. [Radiochemistry Division, B.A.R.C, Trombay, Mumbai-400085 (India)

    2006-06-15

    In the magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process, tiny ferromagnetic particles coated with solvent extractant are used to selectively separate radionuclides and hazardous metals from aqueous waste streams. The contaminant-loaded particles are then recovered from the waste solutions using a magnetic field. The contaminants attached to the magnetic particles are subsequently removed using a small volume of stripping agent. In the present study, Cyanex 923 (trialkylphosphine oxide) coated magnetic particles (cross-linked polyacrylamide and acrylic acid entrapping charcoal and iron oxide, 1:1:1, particle size=1-60 {mu}m) are being evaluated for the possible application in the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams. The uptake behaviour of Th(IV), U(VI), Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid solutions was investigated by batch studies. The effects of sorption kinetics, extractant and nitric acid concentrations on the uptake behaviour of metal ions were systematically studied. The influence of fission products (Cs(I), Sr(II)) and interfering ions including Fe(III), Cr(VI), Mg(II), Mn(II), and Al(III) were investigated. The recycling capacity of the extractant-coated magnetic particles was also evaluated.

  3. Evaluation of Cyanex 923-coated magnetic particles for the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shaibu, B. S.; Reddy, M. L. P.; Bhattacharyya, A.; Manchanda, V. K.

    2006-06-01

    In the magnetically assisted chemical separation (MACS) process, tiny ferromagnetic particles coated with solvent extractant are used to selectively separate radionuclides and hazardous metals from aqueous waste streams. The contaminant-loaded particles are then recovered from the waste solutions using a magnetic field. The contaminants attached to the magnetic particles are subsequently removed using a small volume of stripping agent. In the present study, Cyanex 923 (trialkylphosphine oxide) coated magnetic particles (cross-linked polyacrylamide and acrylic acid entrapping charcoal and iron oxide, 1:1:1, particle size=1-60 μm) are being evaluated for the possible application in the extraction and separation of lanthanides and actinides from nuclear waste streams. The uptake behaviour of Th(IV), U(VI), Am(III) and Eu(III) from nitric acid solutions was investigated by batch studies. The effects of sorption kinetics, extractant and nitric acid concentrations on the uptake behaviour of metal ions were systematically studied. The influence of fission products (Cs(I), Sr(II)) and interfering ions including Fe(III), Cr(VI), Mg(II), Mn(II), and Al(III) were investigated. The recycling capacity of the extractant-coated magnetic particles was also evaluated.

  4. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from 231-Z

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pottmeyer, J.A.; DeLorenzo, D.S.; Weyns-Rollosson, M.I.; Berkwitz, D.E.; Vejvoda, E.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM (US); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (US)

    1993-06-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 8% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has been generated at the Plutonium Metallurgy Laboratory (231-Z) Facility. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by 231-Z using process knowledge, existing records and oral history interviews. Since 1944 research and development programs utilizing plutonium have been conducted at 231-Z in the fields of physical metallurgy, property determination, alloy development, and process development. The following are sources of solid waste generation at the 231-Z Facility: (1) General Weapons Development Program, (2) process waste from gloveboxes, (3) numerous classified research and development programs, (4) advanced decontamination and decommissioning technologies, including sectioning, vibratory finishing, electropolishing, solution process, and small bench-scale work, (5) general laboratory procedures, (6) foundry area, (7) housekeeping activities, and (8) four cleanout campaigns. All solid wastes originating at 231-Z were packaged for onsite-offsite storage or disposal. Waste packaging and reporting requirements have undergone significant changes throughout the history of 231-Z. Current and historical procedures are provided in Section 4.0. Information on the radioactive wastes generated at 231-Z can be found in a number of documents and databases, most importantly the Solid Waste Information and Tracking System database and Solid Waste Burial Records. Facility personnel also provide excellent information about past waste generation and the procedures used to handle that waste. Section 5.0 was compiled using these sources.

  5. Selective determination of chlorine dioxide using gas diffusion flow injection analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollowell, D.A.; Pacey, G.E.; Gordon, G.

    1985-12-01

    An automated absorbance technique for the determination of aqueous chlorine dioxide has been developed by utilizing gas diffusion flow injection analysis. A gas diffusion membrane is used to separate the donor (sampling) stream from the acceptor (detecting) stream. The absorbance of chlorine dioxide is monitored at 359 nm. The first method uses distilled water as the acceptor stream and gives a detection limit of 0.25 mg/L chlorine dioxide. This system is over 550 times more selective for chlorine dioxide than chlorine. To further minimize chlorine interference, oxalic acid is used in the acceptor stream. The detection limit for this system is 0.45 mg/L chlorine dioxide. This second system is over 5400 times more selective for chlorine dioxide than chlorine. Both methods show excellent selectivity for chlorine dioxide over iron and manganese compounds, as well as other oxychlorinated compounds such as chlorite and perchlorate ions. 18 references, 7 figures, 3 tables.

  6. Removal of benzene and toluene from a refinery waste air stream by water sorption and biotrickling filtration

    OpenAIRE

    Paolo Viotti; Marco Schiavon; Renato Gavasci; Capodaglio,Andrea G.

    2015-01-01

    The paper presents the results of an analysis of a two-stage pilot plant for the removal of toluene and benzene from the exhaust air of an industrial wastewater treatment plant (WWTP). The two-stage air process combines a water scrubber and a biotrickling filter (BTF) in sequence, and treats air stripped from the liquid phase compartments of the WWTP. During the experimental period, the pilot plant treated an airflow of 600 Nm3h-1. Average concentrations of the waste air stream entering the w...

  7. Optimizing Urban Material Flows and Waste Streams in Urban Development through Principles of Zero Waste and Sustainable Consumption

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Steffen Lehmann

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Beyond energy efficiency, there are now urgent challenges around the supply of resources, materials, energy, food and water. After debating energy efficiency for the last decade, the focus has shifted to include further resources and material efficiency. In this context, urban farming has emerged as a valid urban design strategy, where food is produced and consumed locally within city boundaries, turning disused sites and underutilized public space into productive urban landscapes and community gardens. Furthermore, such agricultural activities allow for effective composting of organic waste, returning nutrients to the soil and improving biodiversity in the urban environment. Urban farming and resource recovery will help to feed the 9 billion by 2050 (predicted population growth, UN-Habitat forecast 2009. This paper reports on best practice of urban design principles in regard to materials flow, material recovery, adaptive re-use of entire building elements and components (‘design for disassembly’; prefabrication of modular building components, and other relevant strategies to implement zero waste by avoiding waste creation, reducing wasteful consumption and changing behaviour in the design and construction sectors. The paper touches on two important issues in regard to the rapid depletion of the world’s natural resources: the built environment and the education of architects and designers (both topics of further research. The construction and demolition (C&D sector: Prefabricated multi-story buildings for inner-city living can set new benchmarks for minimizing construction wastage and for modular on-site assembly. Today, the C&D sector is one of the main producers of waste; it does not engage enough with waste minimization, waste avoidance and recycling. Education and research: It’s still unclear how best to introduce a holistic understanding of these challenges and to better teach practical and affordable solutions to architects, urban

  8. The mass flow and proposed management of bisphenol A in selected Norwegian waste streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arp, Hans Peter H; Morin, Nicolas A O; Hale, Sarah E; Okkenhaug, Gudny; Breivik, Knut; Sparrevik, Magnus

    2017-02-01

    Current initiatives for waste-handling in a circular economy favor prevention and recycling over incineration or landfilling. However, the impact of such a transition on environmental emissions of contaminants like bisphenol A (BPA) during waste-handling is not fully understood. To address this, a material flow analysis (MFA) was constructed for selected waste categories in Norway, for which the amount recycled is expected to increase in the future; glass, vehicle, electronic, plastic and combustible waste. Combined, 92tons/y of BPA are disposed of via these waste categories in Norway, with 98.5% associated with plastic and electronic waste. During the model year 2011, the MFA showed that BPA in these waste categories was destroyed through incineration (60%), exported for recycling into new products (35%), stored in landfills (4%) or released into the environment (1%). Landfilling led to the greatest environmental emissions (up to 13% of landfilled BPA), and incinerating the smallest (0.001% of incinerated BPA). From modelling different waste management scenarios, the most effective way to reduce BPA emissions are to incinerate BPA-containing waste and avoid landfilling it. A comparison of environmental and human BPA concentrations with CoZMoMAN exposure model estimations suggested that waste emissions are an insignificant regional source. Nevertheless, from monitoring studies, landfill emissions can be a substantial local source of BPA. Regarding the transition to a circular economy, it is clear that disposing of less BPA-containing waste and less landfilling would lead to lower environmental emissions, but several uncertainties remain regarding emissions of BPA during recycling, particularly for paper and plastics. Future research should focus on the fate of BPA, as well as BPA alternatives, in emerging reuse and recycling processes, as part of the transition to a circular economy.

  9. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the plutonium finishing plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Duncan, D R; Mayancsik, B A [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Pottmeyer, J A; Vejvoda, E J; Reddick, J A; Sheldon, K M; Weyns, M I [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Kennewick, WA (United States)

    1993-02-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic (TRU) wastes now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing (WRAP) Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 50% of the TRU waste to be retrieved for shipment to the WIPP has been generated at the Plutonium Finishing Plant (PFP), also known as the Plutonium Processing and Storage Facility and Z Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by the PFP since its construction in 1947 using process knowledge, existing records, and history-obtained from interviews. The PFP is currently operated by Westinghouse Hanford Company (WHC) for the US Department of Energy (DOE).

  10. Design of a Eutectic Freeze Crystallization process for multicomponent waste water stream

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lewis, Alison E.; Nathoo, J.; Thomsen, Kaj

    2010-01-01

    Complex, hypersaline brines originating from the mining and extractive metallurgical industries have the potential to be treated using Eutectic Freeze Crystallization (EFC). Although EFC has been shown to be effective in separating a single salt and water, it has yet to be applied to the complex...... hypersaline brines that are typical of reverse osmosis retentates in South Africa. This paper focuses on the application of EFC for the purification of a typical brine containing high levels of sodium, chlorine, sulphate and ammonia that cannot be achieved with other separation techniques. The presence...

  11. Energy recovery from waste streams with microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, Y.

    2012-09-15

    Microbial fuel cell (MFC)-based technologies are promising technologies for direct energy production from various wastewaters and waste streams. Beside electrical power production, more emphasis is recently devoted to alternative applications such as hydrogen production, bioremediation, seawater desalination, and biosensors. Although the technologies are promising, a number of hurdles need to be overcome before that field applications are economically feasible. The main purpose of this work was to improve the performance, reduce the construction cost, and expand the application scopes of MFC-based bio-electrochemical systems. To reduce the energy cost in nitrogen removal and during the same process achieve phosphorus elimination, a sediment-type photomicrobial fuel cell was developed based on the cooperation between microalgae (Chlorella vulgaris) and electrochemically active bacteria. The main removal mechanism of nitrogen and phosphorus was algae biomass uptake, while nitrification and denitrification process contributed to part of nitrogen removal. The key factors such as algae concentration, COD/N ratios and photoperiod were systemically studied. A self-powered submersible microbial electrolysis cell was developed for in situ biohydrogen production from anaerobic reactors. The hydrogen production increased along with acetate and buffer concentration. The hydrogen production rate of 32.2 mL/L/d and yield of 1.43 mol-H2/mol-acetate were achieved. Alternate exchanging the function between the two cell units was found to be an effective approach to inhibit methanogens. A sensor, based on a submersible microbial fuel cell, was developed for in situ monitoring of microbial activity and biochemical oxygen demand in groundwater. Presence or absence of a biofilm on the anode was a decisive factor for the applicability of the sensor. Temperature, pH, conductivity and inorganic solid content were significantly affecting the sensitivity of the sensor. The sensor showed

  12. Using Biosurfactants Produced from Agriculture Process Waste Streams to Improve Oil Recovery in Fractured Carbonate Reservoirs

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stephen Johnson; Mehdi Salehi; Karl Eisert; Sandra Fox

    2009-01-07

    This report describes the progress of our research during the first 30 months (10/01/2004 to 03/31/2007) of the original three-year project cycle. The project was terminated early due to DOE budget cuts. This was a joint project between the Tertiary Oil Recovery Project (TORP) at the University of Kansas and the Idaho National Laboratory (INL). The objective was to evaluate the use of low-cost biosurfactants produced from agriculture process waste streams to improve oil recovery in fractured carbonate reservoirs through wettability mediation. Biosurfactant for this project was produced using Bacillus subtilis 21332 and purified potato starch as the growth medium. The INL team produced the biosurfactant and characterized it as surfactin. INL supplied surfactin as required for the tests at KU as well as providing other microbiological services. Interfacial tension (IFT) between Soltrol 130 and both potential benchmark chemical surfactants and crude surfactin was measured over a range of concentrations. The performance of the crude surfactin preparation in reducing IFT was greater than any of the synthetic compounds throughout the concentration range studied but at low concentrations, sodium laureth sulfate (SLS) was closest to the surfactin, and was used as the benchmark in subsequent studies. Core characterization was carried out using both traditional flooding techniques to find porosity and permeability; and NMR/MRI to image cores and identify pore architecture and degree of heterogeneity. A cleaning regime was identified and developed to remove organic materials from cores and crushed carbonate rock. This allowed cores to be fully characterized and returned to a reproducible wettability state when coupled with a crude-oil aging regime. Rapid wettability assessments for crushed matrix material were developed, and used to inform slower Amott wettability tests. Initial static absorption experiments exposed limitations in the use of HPLC and TOC to determine

  13. Materials Discarded in the U.S. Municipal Waste Stream, 1960 to 2009 (in tons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has collected and reported data on the generation and disposal of waste in the United States for more than 30 years....

  14. Materials in the U.S. Municipal Waste Stream, 1960 to 2012 (in tons)

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) has collected and reported data on the generation and disposal of waste in the United States for more than 30 years....

  15. Characterization of past and present solid waste streams from the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction Plant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pottmeyer, J.A.; Weyns, M.I.; Lorenzo, D.S.; Vejvoda, E.J. [Los Alamos Technical Associates, Inc., NM (US); Duncan, D.R. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (US)

    1993-04-01

    During the next two decades the transuranic wastes, now stored in the burial trenches and storage facilities at the Hanford Site, are to be retrieved, processed at the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, and shipped to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant near Carlsbad, New Mexico for final disposal. Over 7% of the transuranic waste to be retrieved for shipment to the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant has been generated at the Plutonium-Uranium Extraction (PUREX) Plant. The purpose of this report is to characterize the radioactive solid wastes generated by PUREX using process knowledge, existing records, and oral history interviews. The PUREX Plant is currently operated by the Westinghouse Hanford Company for the US Department of Energy and is now in standby status while being prepared for permanent shutdown. The PUREX Plant is a collection of facilities that has been used primarily to separate plutonium for nuclear weapons from spent fuel that had been irradiated in the Hanford Site`s defense reactors. Originally designed to reprocess aluminum-clad uranium fuel, the plant was modified to reprocess zirconium alloy clad fuel elements from the Hanford Site`s N Reactor. PUREX has provided plutonium for research reactor development, safety programs, and defense. In addition, the PUREX was used to recover slightly enriched uranium for recycling into fuel for use in reactors that generate electricity and plutonium. Section 2.0 provides further details of the PUREX`s physical plant and its operations. The PUREX Plant functions that generate solid waste are as follows: processing operations, laboratory analyses and supporting activities. The types and estimated quantities of waste resulting from these activities are discussed in detail.

  16. Removal of Xylene fromWaste Air Stream Using Catalytic Ozonation Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H Mokarami

    2010-10-01

    Full Text Available "n "n "nBackgrounds and Objectives: Volatile organic compounds (VOCs are one of the common groups of contaminants encountered in the industrial activities, emitted through air stream into the atmosphere. To prevent the human and environmental health from the adverse effects of VOCs, air streams containing VOCs need to be treated before discharging to environment. This study was aimed at investigating the catalytic ozonation process for removing xylene from a contaminated air stream."nMaterials and Methods: In the present work, a bench scale experimental setup was constructed and used for catalytic ozonation of xylene. The performance of catalytic ozonation process was compared with that of single adsorption and ozonation in removal of several concentration of xylene under the similar experimental conditions."nResults: The results indicated that the efficiency of catalytic ozonation was higher than that of single adsorption and ozonation in removal of xylene. The emerging time and elimination capacity of xylene for inlet concentration of 300 ppm was 1.4 and 5.8 times of those in adsorption system. The activated carbon acted as catalyst in the presence of ozone and thus attaining the synergistic effect for xylene degradation."nConclusion: catalytic ozonation process is an efficient technique the treatment of air streams containing high concentrations of xylene. The adsorption systems can also be simply retrofitted to catalytic ozonation process and thereby improving their performance for treating VOCs.

  17. SOLIDIFICATION OF THE HANFORD LAW WASTE STREAM PRODUCED AS A RESULT OF NEAR-TANK CONTINUOUS SLUDGE LEACHING AND SODIUM HYDROXIDE RECOVERY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reigel, M.; Johnson, F.; Crawford, C.; Jantzen, C.

    2011-09-20

    The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), is responsible for the remediation and stabilization of the Hanford Site tank farms, including 53 million gallons of highly radioactive mixed wasted waste contained in 177 underground tanks. The plan calls for all waste retrieved from the tanks to be transferred to the Waste Treatment Plant (WTP). The WTP will consist of three primary facilities including pretreatment facilities for Low Activity Waste (LAW) to remove aluminum, chromium and other solids and radioisotopes that are undesirable in the High Level Waste (HLW) stream. Removal of aluminum from HLW sludge can be accomplished through continuous sludge leaching of the aluminum from the HLW sludge as sodium aluminate; however, this process will introduce a significant amount of sodium hydroxide into the waste stream and consequently will increase the volume of waste to be dispositioned. A sodium recovery process is needed to remove the sodium hydroxide and recycle it back to the aluminum dissolution process. The resulting LAW waste stream has a high concentration of aluminum and sodium and will require alternative immobilization methods. Five waste forms were evaluated for immobilization of LAW at Hanford after the sodium recovery process. The waste forms considered for these two waste streams include low temperature processes (Saltstone/Cast stone and geopolymers), intermediate temperature processes (steam reforming and phosphate glasses) and high temperature processes (vitrification). These immobilization methods and the waste forms produced were evaluated for (1) compliance with the Performance Assessment (PA) requirements for disposal at the IDF, (2) waste form volume (waste loading), and (3) compatibility with the tank farms and systems. The iron phosphate glasses tested using the product consistency test had normalized release rates lower than the waste form requirements although the CCC glasses had higher release rates than the

  18. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2013-01-31

    The purpose of this Special Analysis (SA) is to determine if the Oak Ridge (OR) Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project (CEUSP) uranium-233 (233U) waste stream (DRTK000000050, Revision 0) is acceptable for shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The CEUSP 233U waste stream requires a special analysis because the concentrations of thorium-229 (229Th), 230Th, 232U, 233U, and 234U exceeded their NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria action levels. The acceptability of the waste stream is evaluated by determining if performance assessment (PA) modeling provides a reasonable expectation that SLB disposal is protective of human health and the environment. The CEUSP 233U waste stream is a long-lived waste with unique radiological hazards. The SA evaluates the long-term acceptability of the CEUSP 233U waste stream for near-surface disposal as a two tier process. The first tier, which is the usual SA process, uses the approved probabilistic PA model to determine if there is a reasonable expectation that disposal of the CEUSP 233U waste stream can meet the performance objectives of U.S. Department of Energy Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management,” for a period of 1,000 years (y) after closure. The second tier addresses the acceptability of the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream for near-surface disposal by evaluating long-term site stability and security, by performing extended (i.e., 10,000 and 60,000 y) modeling analyses, and by evaluating the effect of containers and the depth of burial on performance. Tier I results indicate that there is a reasonable expectation of compliance with all performance objectives if the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream is disposed in the Area 5 RWMS SLB disposal units. The maximum mean and 95th percentile PA results are all less than the performance objective for 1,000 y. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis indicates that there is a high likelihood of

  19. Assessment of the Regenerative Potential of Organic Waste Streams in Lagos Mega-City

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opejin, Adenike Kafayat

    There is never a better time for this study than now when Nigeria as a country is going through the worst time in power supply. In Lagos city about 12,000 tons of waste is generated daily, and is expected to increase as the city adds more population. The management of these waste has generated great concern among professionals, academia and government agencies. This study examined the regenerative management of organic waste, which accounts for about 45% of the total waste generated in Lagos. To do this, two management scenarios were developed: landfill methane to electricity and compost; and analyzed using data collected during field work and from government reports. While it is understood that landfilling waste is the least sustainable option, this study argued that it could be a viable method for developing countries. Using U.S EPA LandGEM and the IPCC model, estimates of capturable landfill methane gas was derived for three landfills studied. Furthermore, a 35-year projection of waste and landfill methane was done for three newly proposed landfills. Assumptions were made that these new landfills will be sanitary. It was established that an average of 919,480,928m3 methane gas could be captured to generate an average of 9,687,176 MW of electricity annually. This makes it a significant source of power supply to a city that suffers from incessant power outages. Analysis of composting organics in Lagos was also done using descriptive method. Although, it could be argued that composting is the most regenerative way of managing organics, but it has some problems associated with it. Earthcare Compost Company processes an average of 600 tons of organics on a daily basis. The fraction of waste processed is infinitesimal compared to the rate of waste generated. One major issue identified in this study as an obstacle to extensive use of this method is the marketability of compost. The study therefore suggests that government should focus on getting the best out of the

  20. Valorization of waste streams, "From food by-products to worm biomass"

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Laarhoven, B.; Elissen, H.J.H.; Temmink, B.G.; Buisman, C.J.N.

    2013-01-01

    A new technology is investigated to produce a high quality animal feed source by converting safe industrial food wastes into worm biomass. The freshwater worm Lumbriculus variegatus (common name: blackworm) has been selected for this purpose. This species can be used to reduce and concentrate munici

  1. Removal of radioactive caesium from low level radioactive waste (LLW) streams using cobalt ferrocyanide impregnated organic anion exchanger.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Valsala, T P; Roy, S C; J G Shah; Gabriel, J; Raj, Kanwar; Venugopal, V

    2009-07-30

    The volumes of low level waste (LLW) generated during the operation of nuclear reactor are very high and require a concentration step before suitable matrix fixation. The volume reduction (concentration) is achieved either by co-precipitating technique or by the use of highly selective sorbents and ion exchange materials. The present study details the preparation of cobalt ferrocyanide impregnated into anion exchange resin and its evaluation with respect to removal of Cs in LLW streams both in column mode and batch mode operations. The Kd values of the prepared exchanger materials were found to be very good in actual reactor LLW solutions also. It was observed that the exchanger performed very well in the pH range of 3-9. A batch size of 6 g l(-1) of the exchanger was enough to give satisfactory decontamination for Cs in actual reactor LLW streams. The lab scale and pilot plant scale performance of the exchanger material in both batch mode and column mode operations was very good.

  2. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project Waste Stream at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Management

    2013-01-31

    The purpose of this Special Analysis (SA) is to determine if the Oak Ridge (OR) Consolidated Edison Uranium Solidification Project (CEUSP) uranium-233 (233U) waste stream (DRTK000000050, Revision 0) is acceptable for shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) on the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The CEUSP 233U waste stream requires a special analysis because the concentrations of thorium-229 (229Th), 230Th, 232U, 233U, and 234U exceeded their NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria action levels. The acceptability of the waste stream is evaluated by determining if performance assessment (PA) modeling provides a reasonable expectation that SLB disposal is protective of human health and the environment. The CEUSP 233U waste stream is a long-lived waste with unique radiological hazards. The SA evaluates the long-term acceptability of the CEUSP 233U waste stream for near-surface disposal as a two tier process. The first tier, which is the usual SA process, uses the approved probabilistic PA model to determine if there is a reasonable expectation that disposal of the CEUSP 233U waste stream can meet the performance objectives of U.S. Department of Energy Manual DOE M 435.1-1, “Radioactive Waste Management,” for a period of 1,000 years (y) after closure. The second tier addresses the acceptability of the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream for near-surface disposal by evaluating long-term site stability and security, by performing extended (i.e., 10,000 and 60,000 y) modeling analyses, and by evaluating the effect of containers and the depth of burial on performance. Tier I results indicate that there is a reasonable expectation of compliance with all performance objectives if the OR CEUSP 233U waste stream is disposed in the Area 5 RWMS SLB disposal units. The maximum mean and 95th percentile PA results are all less than the performance objective for 1,000 y. Monte Carlo uncertainty analysis indicates that there is a high likelihood of

  3. Pretreatment of different waste streams for improvement in biogas production; Foerbehandlingsteknikers betydelse foer oekat biogasutbyte

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sarvari Horvath, Ilona (Hoegskolan i Boraas (Sweden)); del Pilar Castillo, Maria (JTI (Sweden)); Loren, Anders; Brive, Lena; Ekendahl, Susanne; Nordman, Roger (SP, Boraas (Sweden)); Kanerot, Mija (Boraas Energi och Miljoe AB (Sweden))

    2010-07-01

    Biological breakdown of organic municipal and industrial waste to biogas is already in use today. The technology is of outmost importance to attain the environmental goals that our society has set regarding to sustainable development. Of decisive economic importance is the ability to obtain an increased amount of biogas from the same amount of substrate. Alternative resources for biogas production are at the same time of great interest in order to enable a large expansion of biogas production. The goal of applying a suitable pre-treatment step before anaerobic digestion is to open up the molecular structure of inaccessible biopolymers in order to facilitate access to the carbon for microorganisms involved in biological breakdown and fermentation to biogas. Our study shows that introducing a pretreatment step opens new perspectives for biogas production. Treatment of paper residuals by steam explosion increased methane production up to 400 Nm3/ton dry matter, to a double amount of methane yield compared to that of untreated paper. A novel method for pretreatment with an environment-friendly solvent N-methylmorpholine-N-oxide (NMMO) was also tested on lignocellulose-rich waste fractions from forest and agricultural. The NMMO-treatment increased the methane yields of spruce chips and triticale straw by 25 times (250 Nm3/ton dry matter), and by 6 times (200 Nm3/ton dry matter), respectively, compared to that of the untreated materials. Keratin-rich feather waste yielded around 200 Nm3 methane/ton dry matter, which could be increased to 450 Nm3/ton after enzymatic treatment and to 360 Nm3/ton after either chemical treatment with lime, or after biological treatment with a recombinant bacterial strain of Bacillus megaterium. However, the gain in increased amount of methane after a pretreatment step should be weighted against a possible increase in energy usage generated by the pretreatment. We have therefore performed a case study in which the energy balance for a biogas

  4. Material-stream-specific waste treatment with particular regard to thermal processes; Stoffstromspezifische Abfallbehandlung im Hinblick auf thermische Verfahren. Fachseminar

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1998-09-01

    The experts` seminar on ``Material-stream-specific waste treatment with particular regard to thermal processes`` is the third event of its kind to be held by the Zentrum fuer Abfallforschung (ZAF=Centre for Waste Research). The purpose of the seminar is to de-emotionalise the debate going on between environment-oriented citizens, authorities, scientists, operators, and manufacturers and to find solutions that are acceptable in terms of costs as well as environmental impact. The seminar deals with traditional methods such as grate firing as well as with new methods such as low-temperature carbonisation, thermoselect, Noell-KRC, or RCP processes. [Deutsch] Das Fachseminar `Stoffstromspezifische Abfallbehandlung im Hinblick auf thermische Verfahren` ist die 13. Veranstaltung dieser Art, die durch das Zentrum fuer Abfallforschung (ZAF) durchgefuehrt wird. Das Seminar soll dazu beitragen, die Diskussion zwischen umweltbewuessten Bevoelkerungsgruppen, Behoerden, Wissenschaft, Betreibern und Herstellern zu versachlichen und dabei Loesungen zu finden, die hinsichtlich der Kosten und der Umweltbeeintraechtigung vertretbar sind. Es werden sowohl die traditionellen Verfahren wie Rostfeuerung als auch neue Verfahren wie Schwelbrenn-, Thermoselekt-, Noell-KRC- oder RCP-Verfahren behandelt. (orig.)

  5. Preliminary treatment of chlorinated streams containing fission products: mechanisms leading to crystalline phases in molten chloride media; Pretraitement pyrochimique de flux charges en produits de fission: mecanismes conduisant a l'obtention de phases cristallines en milieux chlorures fondus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hudry, D

    2008-10-15

    The world of the nuclear power gets ready for profound modifications so that 'the atom' can aspire in conformance with long-lasting energy: it is what we call the development of generation IV nuclear systems. So, the new pyrochemical separation processes for the spent fuel reprocessing are currently being investigated. Techniques in molten chloride media generate an ultimate flow (with high chlorine content) which cannot be incorporated in conventional glass matrices. This flow is entirely water-soluble and must be conditioned in a chemical form which is compatible with a long-term disposal. This work of thesis consists in studying new ways for the management of the chlorinated streams loaded with fission products (FP). To do it, a strategy of selective FP extraction via the in situ formation of crystalline phases was retained. The possibility of extracting rare earths in the eutectic LiCl-KCl was demonstrated via the development of a new way of synthesis of rare earth phosphates (TRPO{sub 4}). As regards alkaline earths, the conversion of strontium and barium chlorides to the corresponding tungstates or molybdates was studied in different solvents. Mechanisms leading to the crystalline phases in molten chloride media were studied via the coupling of NMR and XRD techniques. First of all, it has been shown that these mechanisms are dependent on the stability of the used precursors. So in the case of the formation of rare earth phosphates the solvent is chemically active. On the other hand, in the case of the formation of alkaline earth tungstates it would seem that the solvent plays the role of structuring agent which can control the ability to react of chlorides. (author)

  6. Early containment of high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream in clay-bearing blended cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, A.A. [Westinghouse Hanford Co., Richland, WA (United States); Olson, R.A.; Tennis, P.D. [Northwestern Univ., Evanston, IL (United States). Center for Advanced Cement-Based Materials] [and others

    1995-04-01

    Portland cement blended with fly ash and attapulgite clay was mixed with high-alkaline solution simulating low-level radioactive waste stream at a one-to-one weight ratio. Mixtures were adiabatically and isothermally cured at various temperatures and analyzed for phase composition, total alkalinity, pore solution chemistry, and transport properties as measured by impedance spectroscopy. Total alkalinity is characterized by two main drops. The early one corresponds to a rapid removal of phosphorous, aluminum, sodium, and to a lesser extent potassium solution. The second drop from about 10 h to 3 days is mainly associated with the removal of aluminum, silicon, and sodium. Thereafter, the total alkalinity continues descending, but at a lower rate. All pastes display a rapid flow loss that is attributed to an early precipitation of hydrated products. Hemicarbonate appears as early as one hour after mixing and is probably followed by apatite precipitation. However, the former is unstable and decomposes at a rate that is inversely related to the curing temperature. At high temperatures, zeolite appears at about 10 h after mixing. At 30 days, the stabilized crystalline composition Includes zeolite, apatite and other minor amounts of CaCO{sub 3}, quartz, and monosulfate Impedance spectra conform with the chemical and mineralogical data. The normalized conductivity of the pastes shows an early drop, which is followed by a main decrease from about 12 h to three days. At three days, the permeability of the cement-based waste as calculated by Katz-Thompson equation is over three orders of magnitude lower than that of ordinary portland cement paste. However, a further decrease in the calculated permeability is questionable. Chemical stabilization is favorable through incorporation of waste species into apatite and zeolite.

  7. Comparative ecology of nuclear waste ponds and streams on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Emery, R.M.; McShane, M.C.

    1978-10-01

    Limnological and radiological parameters were investigated in ponds and streams on the Hanford Site to develop comprehensive radioecological profiles. While Hanford ponds and streams can be grouped into three categories of nuclide content, only one system (100-N trench) has dose rates exceeding 1 R/week. However, maximum ..cap alpha.. concentrations in Z-19 ditch water and maximum ..beta..-..gamma.. concentrations in 100-N trench water both exceeded 10/sup 4/ pCi/l. These aquatic environments support populations of commonly occurring algae, macrophytes, invertebrates, and in some cases, fish. Although the variety in algal populations is reduced in 100-N trench and Z-19 ditch, variety in other types of biota are not apparently associated with amounts of radioactivity. The productivity rates of plant life, invertebrates and fish in these systems resemble those in aquatic environments not associated with nuclear activities. Only 100-N trench contains enough radioactivity to be potentially harmful to some aquatic organisms and terrestrial communities. 7 figures, 7 tables.

  8. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WAST STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Brown

    2003-10-01

    The corrosion behavior of two coagulants used in water treatment, ferric chloride (FC) and polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) prepared from SO{sub 2} was investigated. Corrosion tests were performed to compare the corrosivity of these two coagulants on aluminum 6061 and steel 4140 specimens. Results showed that both temperature and concentration of the coagulants substantially impact corrosion rates. The corrosion rates increased with the increase of temperature and concentration. The results from a scanning electron microscope (SEM) showed that chloride caused more serious pitting than sulfate anion on both aluminum and steel specimens. Although SEM confirmed the existence of pitting corrosion, the results of weight loss indicated that the uniform corrosion predominate the corrosion mechanism, and pitting corrosion played a less important role. The test proved that PFS was less corrosive than FC, which may lead to the large-scale application of PFS in waste treatment in the near future.

  9. Catalytic oxidation for treatment of ECLSS and PMMS waste streams. [Process Material Management Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    Akse, James R.; Thompson, John; Scott, Bryan; Jolly, Clifford; Carter, Donald L.

    1992-01-01

    Catalytic oxidation was added to the baseline multifiltration technology for use on the Space Station Freedom in order to convert low-molecular weight organic waste components such as alcohols, aldehydes, ketones, amides, and thiocarbamides to CO2 at low temperature (121 C), thereby reducing the total organic carbon (TOC) to below 500 ppb. The rate of reaction for the catalytic oxidation of aqueous organics to CO2 and water depends primarily upon the catalyst, temperature, and concentration of reactants. This paper describes a kinetic study conducted to determine the impact of each of these parameters upon the reaction rate. The results indicate that a classic kinetic model, the Langmuir-Hinshelwood rate equation for heterogeneous catalysis, can accurately represent the functional dependencies of this rate.

  10. Investigation and development of liquid-liquid extraction systems for the removal of pertechnetate from aqueous nuclear waste stream simulants

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gansle, Kristina Marie Rohal

    1998-11-01

    The solvent extraction behavior of perrhenate (ReO 4-) and pertechnetate (TcO4- ) from aqueous nuclear waste stream simulants was examined using the anion-exchange reagent Aliquat-336 nitrate. The extraction tendencies of ReO 4- followed those of TcO4- from both acidic and basic media, demonstrating that ReO4 - was a suitable nonradioactive surrogate for TcO4 -. For ICP-AES analysis of Re in high salt solutions, a V-groove nebulizer and 1:1 dilution of the sample and standards with 0.1% Triton X-100 surfactant reduced deposition of solids within the sample introduction system, thus minimizing memory effects. A new approach to waste remediation technology, Redox-Recyclable Extraction and Recovery (R2ER), was also studied. The redox-active species 1,1',3,3'-tetrakis(2-methyl-2-hexyl)ferrocene (HEP) was oxidized to its cationic form for extraction of TcO4 - or ReO4- from aqueous waste and reduced to its neutral form for recovery of the anion. The thermodynamics of liquid-liquid interfacial electron transfer for the oxidation/activation of HEP were shown to be controlled by three factors: the reduction potentials of the redox-active species in the aqueous and organic phases and the transfer of an ion across the liquid-liquid interface. The deactivation/reduction rate of HEP+NO3- by iron was affected by organic solvent diluent and improved by treating the iron with hexanes and 1 M HCl. The volume of solid secondary-waste in the R2ER cycle was reduced by a factor of 3000. In complete extraction/recovery cycles, HEP+NO3- in 2-nonanone removed greater than 99% TcO4- from the 101-SY, 103-SY, 1 M HCl and 1 M NaOH/1.5 M NaNO3 Hanford Tank waste simulants. Another redox-active extractant, bis(hydridotris(1-pyrazolyl)borato)iron(III) nitrate (FeTp2+NO3-), was also selective for ReO4- remediation from simulated aqueous waste. Organic solutions of the alkyl substituted ferricenium extractants were not stable in the presence of nucleophilic anions and/or reducing agents. HEP+NO3

  11. Variation in trace-element accumulation in predatory fishes from a stream contaminated by coal combustion waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, Dean E; Lindell, Angela H; Stillings, Garrett K; Mills, Gary L; Blas, Susan A; McArthur, J Vaun

    2014-04-01

    Extensive and critical evaluation can be required to assess contaminant bioaccumulation in large predatory fishes. Species differences in habitat use, resource use, and trophic level, often influenced by body form, can result in diverging contaminant bioaccumulation patterns. Moreover, the broad size ranges inherent with large-bodied fish provide opportunity for trophic and habitat shifts within species that can further influence contaminant exposure. We compared contaminant bioaccumulation in four fish species, as well as two herbivorous invertebrates, from a coal combustion waste contaminated stream. Muscle, liver, and gonad tissue were analyzed from fish stratified across the broadest size ranges available. Effects of trophic position (δ (15)N), carbon sources (δ (13)C), and body size varied among and within species. Mercury and cesium concentrations were lowest in the invertebrates and increased with trophic level both among and within fish species. Other elements, such as vanadium, cadmium, barium, nickel, and lead, had greater levels in herbivorous invertebrates than in fish muscle. Sequestration by the fish livers averted accumulation in muscle. Consequently, fish liver tissue appeared to be a more sensitive indicator of bioavailability, but exceptions existed. Despite liver sequestration, within fishes, muscle concentrations of many elements still tended to increase by trophic level. Notable variation within some species was observed. These results illustrate the utility of stable isotope data in exploring differences of bioaccumulation within taxa. Our analyses suggest a need for further evaluation of the underlying sources of this variability to better understand contaminant bioaccumulation in large predatory fishes.

  12. Removal of benzene and toluene from a refinery waste air stream by water sorption and biotrickling filtration

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paolo Viotti

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available The paper presents the results of an analysis of a two-stage pilot plant for the removal of toluene and benzene from the exhaust air of an industrial wastewater treatment plant (WWTP. The two-stage air process combines a water scrubber and a biotrickling filter (BTF in sequence, and treats air stripped from the liquid phase compartments of the WWTP. During the experimental period, the pilot plant treated an airflow of 600 Nm3h-1. Average concentrations of the waste air stream entering the water scrubber were 10.61 mg Nm-3 benzene and 9.26 mg Nm-3 toluene. The water scrubber obtained medium-high removal efficiencies (averages 51% and 60%, for benzene and toluene, respectively. Subsequent passage through the BTF allowed a further reduction of average concentrations, which decreased to 2.10 mg Nm-3 benzene and to 0.84 mg Nm-3 toluene, thereby allowing overall average removal efficiencies (REs of 80% and 91% for benzene and toluene, respectively. Results prove the benefits obtained from a combination of different removal technologies: water scrubbers to remove peak concentrations and soluble compounds, and BTFs to remove compounds with lower solubility, due to the biodegradation performed by microorganisms.

  13. Energy Efficient Removal of Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) and Organic Hazardous Air Pollutants (o-HAPs) from Industrial Waste Streams by Direct Electron Oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Testoni, A. L.

    2011-10-19

    This research program investigated and quantified the capability of direct electron beam destruction of volatile organic compounds and organic hazardous air pollutants in model industrial waste streams and calculated the energy savings that would be realized by the widespread adoption of the technology over traditional pollution control methods. Specifically, this research determined the quantity of electron beam dose required to remove 19 of the most important non-halogenated air pollutants from waste streams and constructed a technical and economic model for the implementation of the technology in key industries including petroleum refining, organic & solvent chemical production, food & beverage production, and forest & paper products manufacturing. Energy savings of 75 - 90% and green house gas reductions of 66 - 95% were calculated for the target market segments.

  14. Examination of the influence of redox conditions, sulphur and chlorine on the evaporation of heavy metals during solid waste incineration; Untersuchung des Einflusses von Redoxbedingungen, Schwefel und Chlor auf die Verdampfung von Schwermetallen in Muellverbrennungsanlagen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mueller, Christian [Sandoz GmbH, Kundl, Tirol (Austria); Valle, Massimiliano [Ladurner Sanierung GmbH - Ladurner Umwelt AG (Italy)

    2008-12-15

    In order to facilitate the riskless landfilling or utilization of slags from solid waste incineration plants for example in road construction, low heavy metal contents of these slags and therefore the enrichment of heavy metals in the gas cleaning residues is crucial. A thesis and a dissertation written at the Institute of Environmental Engineering of the University of Innsbruck focused amongst others on the factors determining the behaviour of heavy metals during solid waste incineration. Several heavy metal evaporation experiments in the lab should primarily clarify the influence of redox conditions, sulphur and chlorine on the evaporation of the selected elements zinc, lead, cadmium, antimony and tin. The article describes the methods applied and the achieved results of these lab experiments. (orig.)

  15. Two-phase anaerobic digestion of mixed waste streams to separate generation of bio-hydrogen and bio-methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Siddiqui, Z.; Horam, N.J. [Leeds Univ. (United Kingdom). School of Civil Engineering

    2010-07-01

    The purpose of this study was to investigate the net energy potential of single stage mesophilic reactor and two phase mesophilic reactor (hydrogeniser followed by methaniser) using the mix of process industrial food waste (IFW) and sewage sludge (SS). Two-phase reactor efficiency was analysed based on individual optimum influent/environmental (C:N and pH) and reactor/engineering (HRT and OLR) conditions achieved using the batch and continuous reactor study for the hydrogen and methane. Optimum C:N 20 and pH 5.5{+-}0.5 was observed using the Bio-H{sub 2} potential (BHP) and C:N 15 and pH 6.5{+-}0.3 for the biochemical methane potential (BMP) test. The maximum hydrogen content of 47% (v/v) was achieved using OLR 6 g VS/L/d and HRT of 5 days. Increase in hydrogen yield was noticed with consistent decrease in OLR. The volatile solids (VS) removal and hydrogen yield was observed in range 41.3 to 47% and 112.3 to 146.7 mL/ gVS{sub removed}. The specific hydrogen production rate improved at low OLR, 0.2 to 0.4 L/(L.d) using OLR 7.1 and 6 g VS/L/d respectively was well corroborated comparable to previous reported results at OLR 6 gVS/L/d using the enriched carbohydrate waste stream in particular to food wastes. A significant increase in VFA concentrations were noticed shifting OLR higher from 6 g VS/L/d thereby unbalancing the reactor pH and the biogas yield respectively. In similar, maximum methane content of 70% (v/v) was achieved using OLR of 3.3 gVS/L/d and HRT of 10 days. Slight decrease in methane content was noticed thereby increasing HRT to 12 and 15 days respectively. The volatile solids (VS) removal and specific methane production rate was observed in range 57.6 to 68.7 and 0.22 to 1.19 L/(L.d). The specific methane production potential improved thereby reducing the HRT and optimum yield was recorded as 476.6 mL/gVS{sub removed} using OLR 3.3 gVS/L/d. The energy potential of optimum condition in single stage hydorgeniser is 2.27 MW/tonne VS{sub fed}. Using the

  16. FINAL REPORT FOR THE REDUCTION OF CHROME (VI) TO CHROME (III) IN THE SECONDARY WASTE STREAM OF THE EFFLUENT TREATMENT FACILITY

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    DUNCAN JB; GUTHRIE MD

    2008-08-29

    This report documents the laboratory results of RPP-PLAN-35958, Test Plan for the Effluent Treatment Facility to Reduce Chrome (VI) to Chrome (III) in the Secondary Waste Stream With the exception of the electrochemical corrosion scans, all work was carried out at the Center for Laboratory Science (CLS) located at the Columbia Basin College. This document summarizes the work carried out at CLS and includes the electrochemical scans and associated corrosion rates for 304 and 316L stainless steel.

  17. SYNTHESIS OF SULFUR-BASED WATER TREATMENT AGENT FROM SULFUR DIOXIDE WASTE STREAMS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Robert C. Brown; Maohong Fan; Adrienne Cooper

    2004-11-01

    Absorption of sulfur dioxide from a simulated flue gas was investigated for the production of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS), a highly effective coagulant useful in treatment of drinking water and wastewater. The reaction for PFS synthesis took place near atmospheric pressure and at temperatures of 30-80 C. SO{sub 2} removal efficiencies greater than 90% were achieved, with ferrous iron concentrations in the product less than 0.1%. A factorial analysis of the effect of temperature, oxidant dosage, SO{sub 2} concentration, and gas flow rate on SO{sub 2} removal efficiency was carried out, and statistical analyses are conducted. The solid PFS was also characterized with different methods. Characterization results have shown that PFS possesses both crystalline and non-crystalline structure. The kinetics of reactions among FeSO{sub 4} {center_dot} 7H{sub 2}O, NaHSO{sub 3} and NaClO{sub 3} was investigated. Characterizations of dry PFS synthesized from SO{sub 2} show the PFS possesses amorphous structure, which is desired for it to be a good coagulant in water and wastewater treatment. A series of lab-scale experiments were conducted to evaluate the performance of PFS synthesized from waste sulfur dioxide, ferrous sulfate and sodium chlorate. The performance assessments were based on the comparison of PFS and other conventional and new coagulants for the removal of turbidity and arsenic under different laboratory coagulant conditions. Pilot plant studies were conducted at Des Moines Water Works in Iowa and at the City of Savannah Industrial and Domestic (I&D) Water Treatment Plant in Port Wentworth, Georgia. PFS performances were compared with those of conventional coagulants. The tests in both water treatment plants have shown that PFS is, in general, comparable or better than other coagulants in removal of turbidity and organic substances. The corrosion behavior of polymeric ferric sulfate (PFS) prepared from SO{sub 2} and ferric chloride (FC) were compared. Results

  18. Elemental balance of SRF production process: solid recovered fuel produced from municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nasrullah, Muhammad; Vainikka, Pasi; Hannula, Janne; Hurme, Markku; Oinas, Pekka

    2016-01-01

    In the production of solid recovered fuel (SRF), certain waste components have excessive influence on the quality of product. The proportion of rubber, plastic (hard) and certain textiles was found to be critical as to the elemental quality of SRF. The mass flow of rubber, plastic (hard) and textiles (to certain extent, especially synthetic textile) components from input waste stream into the output streams of SRF production was found to play the decisive role in defining the elemental quality of SRF. This paper presents the mass flow of polluting and potentially toxic elements (PTEs) in SRF production. The SRF was produced from municipal solid waste (MSW) through mechanical treatment (MT). The results showed that of the total input chlorine content to process, 55% was found in the SRF and 30% in reject material. Of the total input arsenic content, 30% was found in the SRF and 45% in fine fraction. In case of cadmium, lead and mercury, of their total input content to the process, 62%, 38% and 30%, respectively, was found in the SRF. Among the components of MSW, rubber material was identified as potential source of chlorine, containing 8.0 wt.% of chlorine. Plastic (hard) and textile components contained 1.6 and 1.1. wt.% of chlorine, respectively. Plastic (hard) contained higher lead and cadmium content compared with other waste components, i.e. 500 mg kg(-1) and 9.0 mg kg(-1), respectively.

  19. Short-chain chlorinated paraffins in soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa) and snails (Ampullariidae) in an e-waste dismantling area in China: Homologue group pattern, spatial distribution and risk assessment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yuan, Bo; Fu, Jianjie; Wang, Yawei; Jiang, Guibin

    2017-01-01

    Short-chain chlorinated paraffins (SCCPs) in multi-environmental matrices are studied in Taizhou, Zhejiang Province, China, which is a notorious e-waste dismantling area. The investigated matrices consist of paddy field soil, paddy seeds (Oryza sativa, separated into hulls and rice unpolished) and apple snails (Ampullariidae, inhabiting the paddy fields). The sampling area covered a 65-km radius around the contamination center. C10 and C11 are the two predominant homologue groups in the area, accounting for about 35.7% and 33.0% of total SCCPs, respectively. SCCPs in snails and hulls are generally higher than in soil samples (30.4-530 ng/g dw), and SCCPs in hulls are approximate five times higher than in corresponding rice samples (4.90-55.1 ng/g dw). Homologue pattern analysis indicates that paddy seeds (both hull and rice) tend to accumulate relatively high volatile SCCP homologues, especially the ones with shorter carbon chain length, while snails tend to accumulate relatively high lipophilic homologues, especially the ones with more substituted chlorines. SCCPs in both paddy seeds and snails are linearly related to those in the soil. The e-waste dismantling area, which covers a radius of approximate 20 km, shows higher pollution levels for SCCPs according to their spatial distribution in four matrices. The preliminary assessment indicates that SCCP levels in local soils pose no significant ecological risk for soil dwelling organisms, but higher risks from dietary exposure of SCCPs are suspected for people living in e-waste dismantling area.

  20. Influence of the contaminated wastes/soils on the geochemical characteristics of the Bodelhão stream waters and sediments from Panasqueira mine area, Portugal

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abreu, Maria Manuela; Godinho, Berta; Magalhães, Maria Clara F.; Anjos, Carla; Santos, Erika

    2013-04-01

    Panasqueira is a famous Portuguese tin-tungsten mine operating more or less continuously since the end of the nineteenth century. This mine is located in the Central Iberian Zone, northwest of Castelo Branco, about 35 km from Fundão, being the greatest producer of tungsten in Europe. Panasqueira mine also produces copper and tin. The ore exploitation has caused huge local visual and chemical impact from the large waste tailings, together with water drainage from mine galleries, seepage and effluents from water plant treatment. The objective of this work was to evaluate the influence of the contaminated wastes and soils on the water and sediments characteristics of the Bodelhão stream. This stream crosses the mine area at the bottom of the main tailings, receiving sediments, seepage and drainage waters from wastes and/or soils developed on the waste materials which cover the host rocks (schists), and also from the water treatment plant. Waste materials contain different levels of hazardous chemical elements depending on their age and degree of weathering (mg/kg - As: 466-632; Cd: 2.6-4.2; Cu: 264-457; Zn: 340-456; W: 40-1310). Soils developed on old wastes (60-80 years old) are mainly silty loam, acidic (except one soil (pH 8.2) developed on waste materials covered by leakage mud from a pipe conducting effluent to a pond), with relatively high concentration of organic carbon (median 48.6 g/kg). The majority of soils are heavily contaminated in As (158-7790 mg/kg), Cd (0.6-138 mg/kg), Cu (51-4081 mg/kg), W (19-1450 mg/kg), and Zn (142-12300 mg/kg). The fraction of these elements extracted with DTPA solution, relatively to total concentration, varies from low to As (bank sediments (g/kg, As: 5.56-44.0; Cu: 1.99- >10; Zn: 1.29-14.1; S: 7.2-66.9; W: 1.04-6.32, and Cd: 11.4-138 mg/kg) when compared with the same elements in soils, indicate high dispersion of the chemical elements through waters both in solution and particulate material. Bed and river banks are

  1. Use of thermal analysis techniques (TG-DSC) for the characterization of diverse organic municipal waste streams to predict biological stability prior to land application.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fernández, José M; Plaza, César; Polo, Alfredo; Plante, Alain F

    2012-01-01

    The use of organic municipal wastes as soil amendments is an increasing practice that can divert significant amounts of waste from landfill, and provides a potential source of nutrients and organic matter to ameliorate degraded soils. Due to the high heterogeneity of organic municipal waste streams, it is difficult to rapidly and cost-effectively establish their suitability as soil amendments using a single method. Thermal analysis has been proposed as an evolving technique to assess the stability and composition of the organic matter present in these wastes. In this study, three different organic municipal waste streams (i.e., a municipal waste compost (MC), a composted sewage sludge (CS) and a thermally dried sewage sludge (TS)) were characterized using conventional and thermal methods. The conventional methods used to test organic matter stability included laboratory incubation with measurement of respired C, and spectroscopic methods to characterize chemical composition. Carbon mineralization was measured during a 90-day incubation, and samples before and after incubation were analyzed by chemical (elemental analysis) and spectroscopic (infrared and nuclear magnetic resonance) methods. Results were compared with those obtained by thermogravimetry (TG) and differential scanning calorimetry (DSC) techniques. Total amounts of CO(2) respired indicated that the organic matter in the TS was the least stable, while that in the CS was the most stable. This was confirmed by changes detected with the spectroscopic methods in the composition of the organic wastes due to C mineralization. Differences were especially pronounced for TS, which showed a remarkable loss of aliphatic and proteinaceous compounds during the incubation process. TG, and especially DSC analysis, clearly reflected these differences between the three organic wastes before and after the incubation. Furthermore, the calculated energy density, which represents the energy available per unit of organic

  2. Valorization of two waste streams into activated carbon and studying its adsorption kinetics, equilibrium isotherms and thermodynamics for methylene blue removal

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Zeid Abdullah AlOthman

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available Wastes must be managed properly to avoid negative impacts that may result. Open burning of waste causes air pollution which is particularly hazardous. Flies, mosquitoes and rats are major problems in poorly managed surroundings. Uncollected wastes often cause unsanitary conditions and hinder the efforts to keep streets and open spaces in a clean and attractive condition. During final disposal methane is generated, it is much more effective than carbon dioxide as a greenhouse gas, leading to climate change. Therefore, this study describes the possible valorization of two waste streams into activated carbon (AC with added value due to copyrolysis. High efficiency activated carbon was prepared by the copyrolysis of palm stem waste and lubricating oil waste. The effects of the lubricating oil waste to palm stem ratio and the carbonization temperature on the yield and adsorption capacity of the activated carbon were investigated. The results indicated that the carbon yield depended strongly on both the carbonization temperature and the lubricating oil to palm stem ratio. The efficiency of the adsorption of methylene blue (MB onto the prepared carbons increased when the lubricating oil to palm stem ratio increased due to synergistic effect. The effects of pH, contact time, and the initial adsorbate concentration on the adsorption of methylene blue were investigated. The maximum adsorption capacity (128.89 mg/g of MB occurred at pH 8.0. The MB adsorption kinetics were analyzed using pseudo-first order, pseudo-second order and intraparticle diffusion kinetic models. The results indicated that the adsorption of MB onto activated carbon is best described using a second order kinetic model. Adsorption data are well fitted with Langmuir and Freundlich isotherms. The thermodynamic parameters; ΔG°, ΔH° and ΔS° indicate that the adsorption is spontaneous and endothermic.

  3. Study on the melting characteristics of slag from the incinerator of hazardous wastes containing fluorine and chlorine%含氟氯类危险废物焚烧灰渣的熔融特性研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    钱剑杰; 蒋旭光; 王飞; 张月辉; 沈兴龙

    2011-01-01

    While the hazardous wastes containing fluorine and chlorine were incinerated in the rotary kiln incinerator,the slag was melted because of the low fusion temperature.The molten slag stuck on the inner side of rotary kiln,leading to the instable operation of the incinerator.Analytical reagents (SiO2,Al2O3,CaO,Fe2O3,Al2O3,NaCl,KCl and NaF) were substituted for slag components of this kind of hazardous waste to investigate the melting characteristics.Neural network analysis was used to predict the slag fusion temperatures of hazardous wastes containing fluorine and chlorine.The experimental results showed that SiO2,Al2O3 and CaO increased the slag fusion temperature,and Na2O decreased fusion temperature sharply.Effect of NaF on slag fusion temperature of this kind of hazardous waste was dependent on the content of NaF.Neural network-predicted slag fusion temperatures agreed well with the experimental values.%为了解决低熔点含氟氯类危险废物(简称"危废")在回转窑焚烧炉内燃烧时,灰渣熔化导致窑内结圈的问题,实验采用氧化物分析纯(SiO2、Al2O3、CaO、Fe2O3、Al2O3)和NaCl、KCl、NaF分析纯来模拟危废炉渣组分,研究了危废焚烧炉灰渣的熔融特性,并采用神经网络预测危废灰渣的熔融温度.结果表明,SiO2、Al2O3和CaO能够提高危废炉渣的熔融温度,Na2O会大幅度降低危废炉渣的熔融温度,NaF对危废炉渣熔融温度的影响与NaF的含量有关.神经网络计算结果显示,危废灰渣熔融温度的预测值和实验值吻合较好.

  4. Spatial distribution of short chain chlorinated paraffins in soils from Taizhou, an e-waste dismantling area%短链氯化石蜡在台州电子拆解地区的分布特征

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈茹; 王亚韡; 王璞; 江桂斌

    2014-01-01

    以峰江为中心,采集了台州电子垃圾拆解区域的26个表层土壤样品,调查台州地区短链氯化石蜡( SCCPs)的污染状况、空间分布和单体构成情况.结果表明, SCCPs在所有土壤样品中均有检出,其浓度水平介于47�95-1298 ng·g-1干重,平均值为276.7 ng·g-1干重. C10和Cl6-7为土壤中SCCPs最主要的碳原子和氯原子同族体.空间分布表明短链氯化石蜡的浓度水平总体呈现随距采样点中心峰江距离增加而减少的趋势,说明电子垃圾拆解活动可能是SCCPs的一个潜在释放源.%Taizhou is a major e-waste dismantling area in China. A large quantity of contaminants in the electronic and electrical equipments can be released to the ambient environment through the unregulated e-waste dismantling activities. In this study, 26 soil samples from Fengjiang, a typical e-waste dismantling site in Taizhou, were collected in 2008-2009 to investigate the pollution levels, spatial distribution and congener patterns of short chain chlorinated paraffins ( SCCPs) in the soils. SCCPs were detected in all soil samples, with the total concentrations ranging from 47.95 to 1298 ng·g-1 dw (mean value of 276.7 ng·g-1). The chlorine content of SCCPs in soil samples were in the range of 59.1%-62.8%. C10 and Cl6,7 were the dominant homologue groups among all SCCPs congeners. A significant decreasing trend of the total concentrations of∑SCCPs was found in the soil samples with increasing distance from Fengjiang, suggesting that e-waste dismantling activities might be a major source of SCCPs released to the ambient environment.

  5. Impacts by point and diffuse micropollutant sources on the stream water quality at catchment scale

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petersen, M. F.; Eriksson, E.; Binning, P. J.; Bjerg, P. L.

    2012-04-01

    The water quality of surface waters is threatened by multiple anthropogenic pollutants and the large variety of pollutants challenges the monitoring and assessment of the water quality. The aim of this study was to characterize and quantify both point and diffuse sources of micropollutants impacting the water quality of a stream at catchment scale. Grindsted stream in western Jutland, Denmark was used as a study site. The stream passes both urban and agricultural areas and is impacted by severe groundwater contamination in Grindsted city. Along a 12 km reach of Grindsted stream, the potential pollution sources were identified including a pharmaceutical factory site with a contaminated old drainage ditch, two waste deposits, a wastewater treatment plant, overflow structures, fish farms, industrial discharges and diffuse agricultural and urban sources. Six water samples were collected along the stream and analyzed for general water quality parameters, inorganic constituents, pesticides, sulfonamides, chlorinated solvents, BTEXs, and paracetamol and ibuprofen. The latter two groups were not detected. The general water quality showed typical conditions for a stream in western Jutland. Minor impacts by releases of organic matter and nutrients were found after the fish farms and the waste water treatment plant. Nickel was found at concentrations 5.8 - 8.8 μg/l. Nine pesticides and metabolites of both agricultural and urban use were detected along the stream; among these were the two most frequently detected and some rarely detected pesticides in Danish water courses. The concentrations were generally consistent with other findings in Danish streams and in the range 0.01 - 0.09 μg/l; except for metribuzin-diketo that showed high concentrations up to 0.74 μg/l. The groundwater contamination at the pharmaceutical factory site, the drainage ditch and the waste deposits is similar in composition containing among others sulfonamides and chlorinated solvents (including vinyl

  6. Summary Report of Laboratory Testing to Establish the Effectiveness of Proposed Treatment Methods for Unremediated and Remediated Nitrate Salt Waste Streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anast, Kurt Roy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Funk, David John [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-05-12

    The inadvertent creation of transuranic waste carrying hazardous waste codes D001 and D002 requires the treatment of the material to eliminate the hazardous characteristics and allow its eventual shipment and disposal at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP). This report documents the effectiveness of two treatment methods proposed to stabilize both the unremediated and remediated nitrate salt waste streams (UNS and RNS, respectively). The two technologies include the addition of zeolite (with and without the addition of water as a processing aid) and cementation. Surrogates were developed to evaluate both the solid and liquid fractions expected from parent waste containers, and both the solid and liquid fractions were tested. Both technologies are shown to be effective at eliminating the characteristic of ignitability (D001), and the addition of zeolite was determined to be effective at eliminating corrosivity (D002), with the preferred option1 of zeolite addition currently planned for implementation at the Waste Characterization, Reduction, and Repackaging Facility. During the course of this work, we established the need to evaluate and demonstrate the effectiveness of the proposed remedy for debris material, if required. The evaluation determined that Wypalls absorbed with saturated nitrate salt solutions exhibit the ignitability characteristic (all other expected debris is not classified as ignitable). Follow-on studies will be developed to demonstrate the effectiveness of stabilization for ignitable Wypall debris. Finally, liquid surrogates containing saturated nitrate salts did not exhibit the characteristic of ignitability in their pure form (those neutralized with Kolorsafe and mixed with sWheat did exhibit D001). As a result, additional nitrate salt solutions (those exhibiting the oxidizer characteristic) will be tested to demonstrate the effectiveness of the remedy.

  7. Integrated assessment of sources, chemical stressors and stream quality along a groundwater fed stream system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Løgstrup Bjerg, Poul; Sonne, Anne T.; Rønde, Vinni; McKnight, Ursula S.

    2016-04-01

    Streams are impacted by significant contamination at the catchment scale, as they are often locations of multiple chemical stressor inputs. The European Water Framework Directive requires EU member states to ensure good chemical and ecological status of surface water bodies by 2027. This requires monitoring of stream water quality, comparison with environmental quality standards (EQS) and assessment of ecological status. However, the achievement of good status of stream water also requires a strong focus on contaminant sources, pathways and links to stream water impacts, so source management and remedial measures can be implemented. Fate and impacts of different contaminant groups are governed by different processes and are dependent on the origin (geogenic, anthropogenic), source type (point or diffuse) and pathway of the contaminant. To address this issue, we identified contaminant sources and chemical stressors on a groundwater-fed stream to quantify the contaminant discharges, link the chemical impact and stream water quality and assess the main chemical risk drivers in the stream system potentially driving ecological impact. The study was conducted in the 8 m wide Grindsted stream (Denmark) along a 16 km stream stretch that is potentially impacted by two contaminated sites (Grindsted Factory site, Grindsted Landfill), fish farms, waste water discharges, and diffuse sources from agriculture and urban areas. Water samples from the stream and the hyporheic zone as well as bed sediment samples were collected during three campaigns in 2012 and 2014. Data for xenobiotic organic groundwater contaminants, pesticides, heavy metals, general water chemistry, physical conditions and stream flow were collected. The measured chemical concentrations were converted to toxic units (TU) based on the 48h acute toxicity tests with D. magna. The results show a substantial impact of the Grindsted Factory site at a specific stretch of the stream. The groundwater plume caused

  8. Electrodriven selective transport of Cs+ using chlorinated cobalt dicarbollide in polymer inclusion membrane: a novel approach for cesium removal from simulated nuclear waste solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chaudhury, Sanhita; Bhattacharyya, Arunasis; Goswami, Asok

    2014-11-04

    The work describes a novel and cleaner approach of electrodriven selective transport of Cs from simulated nuclear waste solutions through cellulose tri acetate (CTA)/poly vinyl chloride (PVC) based polymer inclusion membrane. The electrodriven cation transport together with the use of highly Cs+ selective hexachlorinated derivative of cobalt bis dicarbollide, allows to achieve selective separation of Cs+ from high concentration of Na+ and other fission products in nuclear waste solutions. The transport selectivity has been studied using radiotracer technique as well as atomic emission spectroscopic technique. Transport studies using CTA based membrane have been carried out from neutral solution as well as 0.4 M HNO3, while that with PVC based membrane has been carried out from 3 M HNO3. High decontamination factor for Cs+ over Na+ has been obtained in all the cases. Experiment with simulated high level waste solution shows selective transport of Cs+ from most of other fission products also. Significantly fast Cs+ transport rate along with high selectivity is an interesting feature observed in this membrane. The current efficiency for Cs+ transport has been found to be ∼100%. The promising results show the possibility of using this kind of electrodriven membrane transport methods for nuclear waste treatment.

  9. Acceptable Knowledge Summary Report for Waste Stream: SR-T001-221F-HET/Drums

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lunsford, G.F.

    1999-06-14

    This report is fully responsive to the requirements of Section 4.0 Acceptable Knowledge from the WIPP Transuranic Waste Characterization Quality Assurance Plan, CAO-94-1010, and provides a sound, (and auditable) characterization that satisfies the WIPP criteria for Acceptable Knowledge.

  10. Selective Reduction of Cr(VI in Chromium, Copper and Arsenic (CCA Mixed Waste Streams Using UV/TiO2 Photocatalysis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shan Zheng

    2015-02-01

    Full Text Available The highly toxic Cr(VI is a critical component in the Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA formulations extensively employed as wood preservatives. Remediation of CCA mixed waste and discarded treated wood products is a significant challenge. We demonstrate that UV/TiO2 photocatalysis effectively reduces Cr(VI to less toxic Cr(III in the presence of arsenate, As(V, and copper, Cu(II. The rapid conversion of Cr(VI to Cr(III during UV/TiO2 photocatalysis occurs over a range of concentrations, solution pH and at different Cr:As:Cu ratios. The reduction follows pseudo-first order kinetics and increases with decreasing solution pH. Saturation of the reaction solution with argon during UV/TiO2 photocatalysis had no significant effect on the Cr(VI reduction demonstrating the reduction of Cr(VI is independent of dissolved oxygen. Reduction of Cu(II and As(V does not occur under the photocatalytic conditions employed herein and the presence of these two in the tertiary mixtures had a minimal effect on Cr(VI reduction. The Cr(VI reduction was however, significantly enhanced by the addition of formic acid, which can act as a hole scavenger and enhance the reduction processes initiated by the conduction band electron. Our results demonstrate UV/TiO2 photocatalysis effectively reduces Cr(VI in mixed waste streams under a variety of conditions.

  11. Pulling History from the Waste Stream: Identification and Collection of Manhattan Project and Cold War Era Artifacts on the Hanford Site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Marceau, Thomas E.; Watson, Thomas L.

    2013-11-13

    One man's trash is another man's treasure. Not everything called "waste" is meant for the refuse pile. The mission of the Curation Program is at direct odds with the remediation objectives of the Hanford Site. While others are busily tearing down and burying the Site's physical structures and their associated contents, the Curation Program seeks to preserve the tangible elements of the Site's history from these structures for future generations before they flow into the waste stream. Under the provisions of a Programmatic Agreement, Cultural Resources staff initiated a project to identify and collect artifacts and archives that have historic or interpretive value in documenting the role of the Hanford Site throughout the Manhattan Project and Cold War Era. The genesis of Hanford's modern day Curation Program, its evolution over nearly two decades, issues encountered, and lessons learned along the way -- particularly the importance of upper management advocacy, when and how identification efforts should be accomplished, the challenges of working within a radiological setting, and the importance of first hand information -- are presented.

  12. Selective reduction of Cr(VI) in chromium, copper and arsenic (CCA) mixed waste streams using UV/TiO2 photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zheng, Shan; Jiang, Wenjun; Rashid, Mamun; Cai, Yong; Dionysiou, Dionysios D; O'Shea, Kevin E

    2015-02-03

    The highly toxic Cr(VI) is a critical component in the Chromated Copper Arsenate (CCA) formulations extensively employed as wood preservatives. Remediation of CCA mixed waste and discarded treated wood products is a significant challenge. We demonstrate that UV/TiO2 photocatalysis effectively reduces Cr(VI) to less toxic Cr(III) in the presence of arsenate, As(V), and copper, Cu(II). The rapid conversion of Cr(VI) to Cr(III) during UV/TiO2 photocatalysis occurs over a range of concentrations, solution pH and at different Cr:As:Cu ratios. The reduction follows pseudo-first order kinetics and increases with decreasing solution pH. Saturation of the reaction solution with argon during UV/TiO2 photocatalysis had no significant effect on the Cr(VI) reduction demonstrating the reduction of Cr(VI) is independent of dissolved oxygen. Reduction of Cu(II) and As(V) does not occur under the photocatalytic conditions employed herein and the presence of these two in the tertiary mixtures had a minimal effect on Cr(VI) reduction. The Cr(VI) reduction was however, significantly enhanced by the addition of formic acid, which can act as a hole scavenger and enhance the reduction processes initiated by the conduction band electron. Our results demonstrate UV/TiO2 photocatalysis effectively reduces Cr(VI) in mixed waste streams under a variety of conditions.

  13. On site sodium hypochlorite generation using electro chlorination. Disinfection of potable waste in small communities; Produccion in situ de NaClO, mediante electrocloracion. Aplicaciona la desinfeccion de agua de consumo en pequenas comunidades

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Valero, F.; Todra, F.; Gomez, J. L.

    2008-07-01

    This works deals with the experience of ATLL in the re chlorination of its distribution system.Besides security problems that present the disinfection using chlorine in local tanks near the houses, in some cases, the irregular consumption leads to new problems related with maintenance and management of the system. To improve the process, ATLL has installed some on site electro chlorination systems to generate sodium hypochlorite (0,8%) from salt, at request. (Author) 8 refs.

  14. Water Treatment Technology - Chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ross-Harrington, Melinda; Kincaid, G. David

    One of twelve water treatment technology units, this student manual on chlorination provides instructional materials for nine competencies. (The twelve units are designed for a continuing education training course for public water supply operators.) The competencies focus on the following areas: purpose and process of chlorination, chlorine…

  15. SALTSTONE VAULT CLASSIFICATION SAMPLES MODULAR CAUSTIC SIDE SOLVENT EXTRACTION UNIT/ACTINIDE REMOVAL PROCESS WASTE STREAM APRIL 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eibling, R.

    2011-09-28

    Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) was asked to prepare saltstone from samples of Tank 50H obtained by SRNL on April 5, 2011 (Tank 50H sampling occurred on April 4, 2011) during 2QCY11 to determine the non-hazardous nature of the grout and for additional vault classification analyses. The samples were cured and shipped to Babcock & Wilcox Technical Services Group-Radioisotope and Analytical Chemistry Laboratory (B&W TSG-RACL) to perform the Toxic Characteristic Leaching Procedure (TCLP) and subsequent extract analysis on saltstone samples for the analytes required for the quarterly analysis saltstone sample. In addition to the eight toxic metals - arsenic, barium, cadmium, chromium, mercury, lead, selenium and silver - analytes included the underlying hazardous constituents (UHC) antimony, beryllium, nickel, and thallium which could not be eliminated from analysis by process knowledge. Additional inorganic species determined by B&W TSG-RACL include aluminum, boron, chloride, cobalt, copper, fluoride, iron, lithium, manganese, molybdenum, nitrate/nitrite as Nitrogen, strontium, sulfate, uranium, and zinc and the following radionuclides: gross alpha, gross beta/gamma, 3H, 60Co, 90Sr, 99Tc, 106Ru, 106Rh, 125Sb, 137Cs, 137mBa, 154Eu, 238Pu, 239/240Pu, 241Pu, 241Am, 242Cm, and 243/244Cm. B&W TSG-RACL provided subsamples to GEL Laboratories, LLC for analysis for the VOCs benzene, toluene, and 1-butanol. GEL also determines phenol (total) and the following radionuclides: 147Pm, 226Ra and 228Ra. Preparation of the 2QCY11 saltstone samples for the quarterly analysis and for vault classification purposes and the subsequent TCLP analyses of these samples showed that: (1) The saltstone waste form disposed of in the Saltstone Disposal Facility in 2QCY11 was not characteristically hazardous for toxicity. (2) The concentrations of the eight RCRA metals and UHCs identified as possible in the saltstone waste form were present at levels below the UTS. (3) Most of the

  16. Chlorobenzene outputs from combustion of chlorinated organic and inorganic compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Green, A.E.S.; Vitali, J.A.; Miller, T.L. [Univ. of Florida, Gainesville, FL (United States)

    1994-12-31

    The authors consider the gas phase formation of chlorinated benzenes and phenols as precursors of chlorinated dioxins and furans from the combustion of solid fuels containing organically bound chlorine. The model investigated is intended to apply to the combustion of medical waste, municipal waste and coals containing chlorine. Assuming a temperature-time profile drawn from incinerator experiments, the authors use kinetic modeling with known reaction rates to further investigate four models of chlorinated benzene formation. Since reaction rates for most chlorination processes are now known, the authors choose simple systems of reaction rates that yield outputs that can be made approximately compatible with results of the Pittsfield-Vicon incinerator and Clean Combustion Technology Laboratory experiments. The authors also consider recent measurements of HCI emissions from crematoria and the implication of this work with respect to the benefits of material substitution in medical and municipal waste incineration. These benefits should also accompany the dechlorination of coals. The authors note the disparity between the prevailing USA position and the emerging position of Germany on the issue of halogenated plastics. The authors also note that Europe and Asia are beginning to address solid fuel issues as a consolidated discipline. This pattern should be helpful in broadening the understanding of solid fuels combustion processes and in ferreting out erroneous data and conclusions. This is important in view of the recent concern about the role of low dioxin exposure levels on fetal development and the immune system.

  17. Rapid determination of total chlorine in waste cooking oils and edible oils by elemental analysis%元素分析法快速测定餐厨废油脂和食用油中总氯

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈凤香; 包杰; 曹洁; 薛斌; 方冬梅

    2014-01-01

    Samples were diluted by isooctane as diluent with the proportion of 1∶1 ,then the total chlorine was determined directly by element analysis. Using different concentrations of 2,4, 6-trichlorophenol as standard solution,two power-concentration standard curves were set up. The relative standard deviation of the determination was 1.37%~3.60%(n=12). Results showed that the total chloride content of waste cooking oils was much higher than that of edible oils. This method was simple,rapid,accurate and high sensitive.%样品采用异辛烷为稀释剂,按1∶1的比例进行稀释后直接用元素分析法测定总氯含量。采用不同浓度的异辛烷基质的2,4,6-三氯酚作为标准溶液,用元素分析仪测定,建立两条电量-浓度标准曲线。方法测定结果的相对标准偏差为1.37%~3.60%(n=12)。测定结果表明:餐厨废油脂的总氯含量远高于食用油中总氯含量。该方法快速、准确、灵敏度高、操作简单。

  18. Increased Lifetime for Biomass and Waste to Energy Power Plant Boilers with HVOF Coatings: High Temperature Corrosion Testing Under Chlorine-Containing Molten Salt

    Science.gov (United States)

    Oksa, Maria; Tuurna, Satu; Varis, Tommi

    2013-06-01

    Heat exchanger surfaces of waste to energy and biomass power plant boilers experience often severe corrosion due to very aggressive components in the used fuels. High velocity oxy-fuel (HVOF) coatings offer excellent protection for boiler tubes against high temperature corrosion due to their high density and good adherence to the substrate material. Several thermal spray coatings with high chromium content were sprayed with HVOF technique. Their mechanical properties and high temperature corrosion resistance were tested and analyzed. The coating materials included NiCr, IN625, Ni-21Cr-10W-9Mo-4Cu, and iron-based partly amorphous alloy SHS9172 (Fe-25Cr-15W-12Nb-6Mo). High temperature corrosion testing was performed in NaCl-KCl-Na2SO4 salt with controlled H2O atmosphere at 575 and 625 °C. The corrosion test results of the coatings were compared to corrosion resistance of tube materials (X20, Alloy 263 and Sanicro 25).

  19. Reutilization of waste scrap tyre as the immobilization matrix for the enhanced bioremoval of a monoaromatic hydrocarbons, methyl tert-butyl ether, and chlorinated ethenes mixture from water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lu, Qihong; de Toledo, Renata Alves; Xie, Fei; Li, Junhui; Shim, Hojae

    2017-04-01

    BTEX (benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, ortho-, meta-, and para-xylenes), methyl tert-butyl ether (MTBE), cis-1,2-dichloroethylene (cis-DCE), and trichloroethylene (TCE) are among the major soil and groundwater contaminants frequently co-existing, as a result of their widespread uses. Pseudomonas plecoglossicida was immobilized on waste scrap tyre to remove these contaminants mixture from synthetic contaminated water. The microbial activity was enhanced in the immobilized system, shown by the higher colony forming units (CFUs) (40%), while BTEX were used as growth substrates. The adsorption capacity of tyres toward contaminants reached a maximum within one day, with BTEX (76.3%) and TCE (64.3%) showing the highest sorption removal capacities, followed by cis-DCE (30.0%) and MTBE (11.0%). The adsorption data fitted the Freundlich isotherm with a good linear correlation (0.989-0.999) for the initial contaminants concentration range applied (25-125mg/L). The monoaromatic hydrocarbons were almost completely removed in the immobilized system and the favourable removal efficiencies of 78% and 90% were obtained for cis-DCE and TCE, respectively. The hybrid (biological, immobilization/physical, sorption) system was further evaluated with the contaminants spiked intermittently for the stable performance. The addition of mineral salt medium further enhanced the bioremoval of contaminants by stimulating the microbial growth to some extent.

  20. Reaction products of chlorine dioxide.

    OpenAIRE

    Stevens, A A

    1982-01-01

    Inspection of the available literature reveals that a detailed investigation of the aqueous organic chemistry of chlorine dioxide and systematic identification of products formed during water disinfection has not been considered. This must be done before an informed assessment can be made of the relative safety of using chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant alternative to chlorine. Although trihalomethanes are generally not formed by the action of chlorine dioxide, the products of chlorine dioxi...

  1. A comparison between ultraviolet disinfection and copper alginate beads within a vortex bioreactor for the deactivation of bacteria in simulated waste streams with high levels of colour, humic acid and suspended solids.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Simon F Thomas

    Full Text Available We show in this study that the combination of a swirl flow reactor and an antimicrobial agent (in this case copper alginate beads is a promising technique for the remediation of contaminated water in waste streams recalcitrant to UV-C treatment. This is demonstrated by comparing the viability of both common and UV-C resistant organisms in operating conditions where UV-C proves ineffective - notably high levels of solids and compounds which deflect UV-C. The swirl flow reactor is easy to construct from commonly available plumbing parts and may prove a versatile and powerful tool in waste water treatment in developing countries.

  2. A Comparison between Ultraviolet Disinfection and Copper Alginate Beads within a Vortex Bioreactor for the Deactivation of Bacteria in Simulated Waste Streams with High Levels of Colour, Humic Acid and Suspended Solids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, Simon F.; Rooks, Paul; Rudin, Fabian; Atkinson, Sov; Goddard, Paul; Bransgrove, Rachel M.; Mason, Paul T.; Allen, Michael J.

    2014-01-01

    We show in this study that the combination of a swirl flow reactor and an antimicrobial agent (in this case copper alginate beads) is a promising technique for the remediation of contaminated water in waste streams recalcitrant to UV-C treatment. This is demonstrated by comparing the viability of both common and UV-C resistant organisms in operating conditions where UV-C proves ineffective - notably high levels of solids and compounds which deflect UV-C. The swirl flow reactor is easy to construct from commonly available plumbing parts and may prove a versatile and powerful tool in waste water treatment in developing countries. PMID:25541706

  3. Development of materials for the removal of metal ions from radioactive and non-radioactive waste streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hasan, Md. Shameem

    Nuclear wastes that were generated during cold-war era from various nuclear weapon programs are presently stored in hundreds of tanks across the United States. The composition of these wastes is rather complex containing both radionuclides and heavy metals, such as 137Cs, 90Sr, Al, Pb, Cr, and Cd. In this study, chitosan based biosorbents were prepared to adsorb some of these metal ions. Chitosan is a partially acetylated glucosamine biopolymer encountered in the cell walls of fungi. In its natural form this material is soft and has a tendency to agglomerate or form gels. Various methods were used to modify chitosan to avoid these problems. Chitosan is generally available commercially in the form of flakes. For use in an adsorption system, chitosan was made in the form of beads to reduce the pressure drop in an adsorption column. In this research, spherical beads were prepared by mixing chitosan with perlite and then by dropwise addition of the slurry mixture into a NaOH precipitation bath. Beads were characterized using Fourier Transform InfraRed Spectroscopy (FTIR), Scanning Electron Microscopy (SEM), Energy dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), Tunneling Electron Microscopy (TEM), X-ray Photoelectron Spectroscopy (XPS), and Thermogravimetric Analysis (TGA). The SEM, EDS, and TEM data indicated that the beads were porous in nature. The TGA data showed that bead contained about 32% chitosan. The surface area, pore volume, and porosity of the beads were determined from the BET surface area that was measured using N2 as adsorbate at 77K. Adsorption and desorption of Cr(VI), Cr(III), Cd(II), U(VI), Cu(II), from aqueous solutions of these metal ions were studied to evaluate the adsorption capacities of the beads for these metals ions. Equilibrium adsorption data of these metals on the beads were found to correlate well with the Langmuir isotherm equation. Chitosan coated perlite beads had negligible adsorption capacity for Sr(II) and Cs(I). It was found that Fullers earth

  4. Sequential Extraction Results and Mineralogy of Mine Waste and Stream Sediments Associated With Metal Mines in Vermont, Maine, and New Zealand

    Science.gov (United States)

    Piatak, N.M.; Seal, R.R.; Sanzolone, R.F.; Lamothe, P.J.; Brown, Z.A.; Adams, M.

    2007-01-01

    We report results from sequential extraction experiments and the quantitative mineralogy for samples of stream sediments and mine wastes collected from metal mines. Samples were from the Elizabeth, Ely Copper, and Pike Hill Copper mines in Vermont, the Callahan Mine in Maine, and the Martha Mine in New Zealand. The extraction technique targeted the following operationally defined fractions and solid-phase forms: (1) soluble, adsorbed, and exchangeable fractions; (2) carbonates; (3) organic material; (4) amorphous iron- and aluminum-hydroxides and crystalline manganese-oxides; (5) crystalline iron-oxides; (6) sulfides and selenides; and (7) residual material. For most elements, the sum of an element from all extractions steps correlated well with the original unleached concentration. Also, the quantitative mineralogy of the original material compared to that of the residues from two extraction steps gave insight into the effectiveness of reagents at dissolving targeted phases. The data are presented here with minimal interpretation or discussion and further analyses and interpretation will be presented elsewhere.

  5. Evolution of Lignocellulosic Macrocomponents in the Wastewater Streams of a Sulfite Pulp Mill: A Preliminary Biorefining Approach

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Tamara Llano

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The evolution of lignin, five- and six-carbon sugars, and other decomposition products derived from hemicelluloses and cellulose was monitored in a sulfite pulp mill. The wastewater streams were characterized and the mass balances throughout digestion and total chlorine free bleaching stages were determined. Summative analysis in conjunction with pulp parameters highlights some process guidelines and valorization alternatives towards the transformation of the traditional factory into a lignocellulosic biorefinery. The results showed a good separation of cellulose (99.64% during wood digestion, with 87.23% of hemicellulose and 98.47% lignin dissolved into the waste streams. The following steps should be carried out to increase the sugar content into the waste streams: (i optimization of the digestion conditions increasing hemicellulose depolymerization; (ii improvement of the ozonation and peroxide bleaching stages, avoiding deconstruction of the cellulose chains but maintaining impurity removal; (iii fractionation of the waste water streams, separating sugars from the rest of toxic inhibitors for 2nd generation biofuel production. A total of 0.173 L of second-generation ethanol can be obtained in the spent liquor per gram of dry wood. The proposed methodology can be usefully incorporated into other related industrial sectors.

  6. Toluene removal from waste air stream by the catalytic ozonation process with MgO/GAC composite as catalyst.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rezaei, Fatemeh; Moussavi, Gholamreza; Bakhtiari, Alireza Riyahi; Yamini, Yadollah

    2016-04-05

    This paper investigates the catalytic potential of MgO/GAC composite for toluene elimination from waste air in the catalytic ozonation process (COP). The MgO/GAC composite was a micro-porous material with the BET surface area of 1082m(2)/g. Different functional groups including aromatic CC, saturated CO of anhydrates, hydroxyl groups and SH bond of thiols were identified on the surface of MgO/GAC. Effects of residence time (0.5-4s), inlet toluene concentration (100-400ppmv) and bed temperature (25-100°C) were investigated on degradation of toluene in COP. Impregnation of GAC with MgO increased the breakthrough time and removal capacity by 73.9% and 64.6%, respectively, at the optimal conditions. The catalytic potential of the GAC and MgO/GAC for toluene degradation was 11.1% and 90.6%, respectively, at the optimum condition. The highest removal capacity using MgO/GAC (297.9gtoulene/gMgO/GAC) was attained at 100°C, whereas the highest removal capacity of GAC (128.5mgtoulene/gGAC) was obtained at 25°C. Major by-products of the toluene removal in COP with GAC were Formic acid, benzaldehyde, O-nitro-p-cresol and methyl di-phenyl-methane. MgO/GAC could greatly catalyze the decomposition of toluene in COPand formic acid was the main compound desorbed from the catalyst. Accordingly, the MgO/GAC is an efficient material to catalyze the ozonation of hydrocarbon vapors.

  7. Removal of TcO4- from Representative Nuclear Waste Streams with Layered Potassium Metal Sulfide Materials

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neeway, James J.; Asmussen, Robert M.; Lawter, Amanda R.; Bowden, Mark E.; Lukens, Wayne W.; Sarma, Debajit; Riley, Brian J.; Kanatzidis, Mercouri G.; Qafoku, Nikolla

    2016-06-01

    Many efforts have focused on the sequestration and immobilization of 99Tc because the radionuclide is highly mobile in oxidizing environments and presents serious health risks due to its radiotoxicity and long half-life (t1/2 = 213 000 a). One of the more common methods for Tc removal from solution and immobilization in solids is based on reducing Tc from highly soluble Tc(VII) to sparingly soluble Tc(IV). In order to remove solution Tc through this reduction process, the Tc-sequestering solid must contain a reducing agent and, ideally, the Tc-sequestering material would function in a large range of chemical environments. For long-term stability, the reduced Tc would preferentially be incorporated into the resulting mineral structure instead of simply being sorbed onto the mineral surface. Here, we report results obtained from batch sorption experiments performed in anoxic and oxic conditions with two sulfide-containing potassium metal sulfide (KMS) materials, known as KMS-2 and KMS-2-SS. In deionized water in anoxic conditions after 15 d of contact, KMS-2 is capable of removing ~45% of Tc and KMS-2-SS is capable of removing ~90% of Tc. The improved performance of KMS-2-SS compared to KMS-2 in deionized water in anoxic conditions appears to be linked both to a higher pH resulting from the batch sorption experiments performed with KMS-2-SS and a higher overall purity of KMS-2-SS. Both materials perform even better in highly caustic (pH~13.5), high ionic strength (8.0 M) simulated Hanford low-activity waste solutions, removing more than 90% Tc after 15 d of contact in anoxic conditions. Post-reaction solids analysis indicate that Tc(VII) is reduced to Tc(IV) and that Tc(IV) is bonded to S atoms in the resulting KMS-2 structure in a Tc2S7 form. In contrast to previous ion exchange experiments with other KMS materials, the batch sorption experiments examining Tc removal cause the initially crystalline KMS materials to lose much of their initial long-range order.

  8. BIOVENTING OF CHLORINATED SOLVENTS FOR GROUND-WATER CLEANUP THROUGH BIOREMEDIATION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chlorinated solvents such as tetrachloroethylene, trichloroethylene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, 1,2-dichloroethane, and dichloromethane (methylene chloride) can exist in contaminated subsurface material as (1) the neat oil, (2) a component of a mixed oily waste, (3) a solu...

  9. Chlorine, Chloramine, Chlorine Dioxide, and Ozone Susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, Robert H; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Norton, Cheryl D.; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental and patient isolates of Mycobacterium avium were resistant to chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone. For chlorine, the product of the disinfectant concentration (in parts per million) and the time (in minutes) to 99.9% inactivation for five M. avium strains ranged from 51 to 204. Chlorine susceptibility of cells was the same in washed cultures containing aggregates and in reduced aggregate fractions lacking aggregates. Cells of the more slowly growing strains wer...

  10. Streams with Strahler Stream Order

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — Stream segments with Strahler stream order values assigned. As of 01/08/08 the linework is from the DNR24K stream coverages and will not match the updated...

  11. Mixed and low-level waste treatment project: Appendix C, Health and safety criteria for the mixed and low-level waste treatment facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Part 1, Waste streams and treatment technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Neupauer, R.M.; Thurmond, S.M.

    1992-09-01

    This report describes health and safety concerns associated with the Mixed and Low-level Waste Treatment Facility at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory. Various hazards are described such as fire, electrical, explosions, reactivity, temperature, and radiation hazards, as well as the potential for accidental spills, exposure to toxic materials, and other general safety concerns.

  12. Production of polyhydroxyalkanoates in open, mixed cultures from a waste sludge stream containing high levels of soluble organics, nitrogen and phosphorus.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morgan-Sagastume, Fernando; Karlsson, Anton; Johansson, Peter; Pratt, Steven; Boon, Nico; Lant, Paul; Werker, Alan

    2010-10-01

    In this study, the production of polyhydroxyalkanoates (PHAs) from waste activated sludge (WAS) was evaluated. PHAs were produced from fermented WAS pretreated via high-pressure thermal hydrolysis, a stream characterised by high levels of nutrients (approximately 3.5 g N L(-1) and 0.5 g P L(-1)) and soluble organics. PHA-storing organisms were successfully enriched at high organic loading rates (6 g COD(sol) L(-1) d(-1)) under aerobic dynamic feeding in sequencing batch reactors at a sludge retention time of 6 d with a short feast length less than 20% of the cycle, and a maximum substrate concentration during feast of 1 g COD(VFA) L(-1). The biomass enrichment, characterised by a decrease in species evenness based on Lorenz curves, provided a biomass that accumulated 25% PHA on a dry-biomass basis with yields on VFA of 0.4 Cmol Cmol(-1) in batch tests. The PHA consisted of ∼70 mol% 3-hydroxybutyrate and ∼30 mol% 3-hydroxyvalerate, and presented high thermal stability (T(d) = 283-287 °C) and a molecular mass ranging from 0.7 to 1.0 × 10(6) g mol(-1). Overall PHA storage was comparable to that achieved with other complex substrates; however, lower PHA storage rates (0.04-0.05 Cmol PHA(-1) Cmol X(-1) h(-1)) and productivities (3-4 Cmol PHA L(-1) h(-1)) were probably associated with a biomass-growth and high-respiration response induced by high levels of non-VFA organics (40-50% of COD(sol) in feed) and nutrients. PHA production is feasible from pretreated WAS, but the enrichment and accumulation process require further optimisation. A milder WAS pretreatment yielding lower levels of non-VFA organics and readily available nutrients may be more amenable for improved performance.

  13. Chlorine-36 and chlorine concentrations within several compartments of a deciduous forest ecosystem in Meuse/Haute-Marne (France)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pupier, Julie; Benedetti, Lucilla; Bourles, Didier; Leclerc, Elisabeth; Thiry, Yves

    2013-04-01

    Chlorine-36 is a cosmogenic nuclide mainly produced in the atmosphere by interactions between energetic particles originating from the cosmic radiations and 40Ar. Because of its long half-life (T1-2 = 3.01 105 yr) and its high mobility, chlorine-36 is a critical radionuclide concerning radioactive waste repository sites. Moreover, it has been shown that inorganic chlorine could be enriched along the trophic chain due to its high solubility and bioavailability (Ashworth and Shaw, 2006). Additionally, many studies during the last decades have established that due to chlorination process, organic chlorine may account for a large proportion of the total soil chlorine pool (more than 80 % in surface soils of temperate ecosystems. Redon et al., 2012). The aim of this study is thus to measure chlorine-36 in all the compartments of the biogeochemical cycle, to better understand its recycling in the biosphere. The study site is the experimental beech forest site of the Andra long-term monitoring and testing system (OPE*). It is located at Montiers-sur-Saulx, North-East of France and is associated to the future radioactive waste repository site of Bure. Since March 2012, rainwater above (rainfall collected from a 45 m high tower built on purpose) and below (throughfall and stemflow) the canopy, has been collected monthly, as well as soil solutions (gravitational and bound waters) at four depths (0, 10, 30, 60 cm deep). Chlorine-36 and chlorine have been measured in the rainfall samples between March and July 2012 and in water solutions collected from all compartments of the biosphere using isotope dilution mass spectrometry at the french AMS national facility ASTER located at CEREGE. The results yielded from the rainfall samples allow to study the temporal fluctuations of chlorine-36 in the atmosphere, which represents the main inflow of chlorine-36 in its biogeochemical cycle. The first results indicate a flow increase during the late spring-early summer. Santos et al

  14. Reaction products of chlorine dioxide.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stevens, A A

    1982-01-01

    Inspection of the available literature reveals that a detailed investigation of the aqueous organic chemistry of chlorine dioxide and systematic identification of products formed during water disinfection has not been considered. This must be done before an informed assessment can be made of the relative safety of using chlorine dioxide as a disinfectant alternative to chlorine. Although trihalomethanes are generally not formed by the action of chlorine dioxide, the products of chlorine dioxide treatment of organic materials are oxidized species, some of which also contain chlorine. The relative amounts of species types may depend on the amount of chlorine dioxide residual maintained and the concentration and nature of the organic material present in the source water. The trend toward lower concentrations of chlorinated by-products with increasing ClO2 concentration, which was observed with phenols, has not been observed with natural humic materials as measured by the organic halogen parameter. Organic halogen concentrations have been shown to increase with increasing chlorine dioxide dose, but are much lower than those observed when chlorine is applied. Aldehydes have been detected as apparent by-products of chlorine dioxide oxidation reactions in a surface water that is a drinking water source. Some other nonchlorinated products of chlorine dioxide treatment may be quinones and epoxides. The extent of formation of these moieties within the macromolecular humic structure is also still unknown. PMID:7151750

  15. Co-destruction of organic pollutants in municipal solid waste leachate and dioxins in fly ash under supercritical water using H2O2 as oxidant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, Daoan; Chi, Yong; Fu, Chao; Dong, Jun; Wang, Fei; Ni, Mingjiang

    2013-03-15

    Supercritical water oxidation (SCWO), with hydrogen peroxide as oxidant, is applied to the co-disposal of two distinct waste streams: municipal solid waste leachate and incineration fly ash. The chemical oxygen demand (COD) removal efficiency increases rapidly with rising temperature and excess oxygen. Rising residence time from 1 to 2 min has surprisingly little effect. The addition of fly ash accelerates COD conversion markedly and also polychlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxins and dibenzofurans (PCDD/Fs, dioxins) in the original fly ash are efficiently destroyed. High-chlorinated PCDD/Fs are more likely to be destroyed than low-chlorinated PCDD/Fs, at all experimental conditions. In addition, PCDDs are much more reactive than PCDFs, since the PCDDs/PCDFs ratio declines from 0.17 to 0.12 as excess oxygen rises from 0% to 300%.

  16. Literature survey: methods for the removal of iodine species from off-gases and liquid waste streams of nuclear power and nuclear fuel reprocessing plants, with emphasis on solid sorbents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Holladay, D.W.

    1979-01-01

    Emphasis was focused on the operating parameters that most strongly affected the optimization of the processes used to treat actual process or feed streams which simulated actual compositions occurring at nuclear facilities. These parameters included gas superficial velocity, temperature, types of organic and inorganic contaminants, relative humidity, iodine feed-gas concentration, iodine species, column design (for both acid-scrub and solid sorbent-based processes), sorbent particle size, run time, intense radiation (solid sorbents only), and scrub-acid concentration. The most promising acid-scrub process for removal of iodine species from off-gases appears to be Iodox. The most promising solid sorbent for removal of iodine species from off-gases is the West German Ag-KTB--AgNO/sub 3/-impregnated amorphous silicic acid. The tandem silver mordenite--lead mordenite sorbent system is also quite attractive. Only a limited number of processes have thus far been studied for removal of iodine species from low-level liquid waste streams. The most extensive successful operating experience has been obtained with anion exchange resins utilized at nuclear power reactors. Bench-scale engineering tests have indicated that the best process for removal of all types of iodine species from liquid waste streams may be treatment on a packed bed containing a mixture of sorbents with affinity for both elemental and anionic species of iodine. 154 references, 7 figures, 21 tables.

  17. Chlorine dioxide and hemodialysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Smith, R.P. (Dartmouth Coll., Hanover, NH (USA). Dept. of Pharmacology and Toxicology)

    1989-05-01

    Because it has little or no tendency to generate carcinogenic trihalomethanes such as chloroform, chlorine dioxide is an attractive alternative to chlorine for drinking water disinfection. There are, however, concerns about its acute toxicity, and the toxic effects of its by-products, chlorite and chlorate. The human experience with chlorine dioxide in both controlled, prospective studies and in actual use situations in community water supplies have as yet failed to reveal adverse health effects. The EPA has recommended standards of 0.06 mg/L for chlorine dioxide and standards of 0.007 mg/L for chlorite and chlorate in drinking water. Among groups who may be at special risk from oxychlorines in drinking water are patients who must undergro chronic extracorporeal hemodialysis. Although even units for home hemodialysis are supposed to be equipped with devices which effectively remove oxychlorines, there is a always a possibility of operator error or equipment failure. When the equipment is adequately maintained, it is likely that dialysis patients will have more intensive exposures from drinking water than from dialysis fluids despite the much larger volumes of water that are involved in dialysis. This paper discusses a hemodialysis and the standards and effects of oxychlorines. 90 refs., 2 tabs.

  18. Disinfection of swine wastewater using chlorine, ultraviolet light and ozone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Macauley, John J; Qiang, Zhimin; Adams, Craig D; Surampalli, Rao; Mormile, Melanie R

    2006-06-01

    Veterinary antibiotics are widely used at concentrated animal feeding operations (CAFOs) to prevent disease and promote growth of livestock. However, the majority of antibiotics are excreted from animals in urine, feces, and manure. Consequently, the lagoons used to store these wastes can act as reservoirs of antibiotics and antibiotic-resistant bacteria. There is currently no regulation or control of these systems to prevent the spread of these bacteria and their genes for antibiotic resistance into other environments. This study was conducted to determine the disinfection potential of chlorine, ultraviolet light and ozone against swine lagoon bacteria. Results indicate that a chlorine dose of 30 mg/L could achieve a 2.2-3.4 log bacteria reduction in lagoon samples. However, increasing the dose of chlorine did not significantly enhance the disinfection activity due to the presence of chlorine-resistant bacteria. The chlorine resistant bacteria were identified to be closely related to Bacillus subtilis and Bacillus licheniformis. A significant percentage of lagoon bacteria were not susceptible to the four selected antibiotics: chlortetracycline, lincomycin, sulfamethazine and tetracycline (TET). However, the presence of both chlorine and TET could inactivate all bacteria in one lagoon sample. The disinfection potential of UV irradiation and ozone was also examined. Ultraviolet light was an effective bacterial disinfectant, but was unlikely to be economically viable due to its high energy requirements. At an ozone dose of 100 mg/L, the bacteria inactivation efficiency could reach 3.3-3.9 log.

  19. High-grade use of waste propane streams in the Dutch chemical industry. An exploratory study in the context of the Chemical Industry Roadmap; Hoogwaardig gebruik van reststromen propaan in de Nederlandse chemische industrie. Een verkenning binnen de Routekaart Chemie

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Buck, A.; Afman, M.R.; Croezen, H.J.; Van Lieshout, M.

    2012-09-15

    In the context of the Dutch chemical industry's Roadmap the industry is actively seeking concrete ways of improving the efficiency of its products and processes. One option is to make higher-grade use of current waste streams, as feedstocks for other products, for example. This study focuses on propane waste streams from the oil and gas processing industry. Today these are used partly as fuel (fuel gas) but there are no technical barriers to converting propane to propylene, which can then be used as a feedstock. Higher-grade use of this particular waste stream leads to CO2 emission reductions in the production chain. Given the high market price of propylene, such a move may also be economically attractive. The study focuses on the Rotterdam region, because propane suppliers and companies seeking propylene are in closest proximity there [Dutch] In het kader van de Routekaart Chemie is de chemische industrie actief op zoek naar concrete opties om in haar processen en producten de efficiency te verhogen. Een route is daarbij om reststromen hoogwaardiger te benutten en in te zetten als grondstof voor andere producten. Dit onderzoek richt zich op reststromen propaan uit de olie- en gasverwerkende industrie. Deze worden nu deels als brandstof (stookgas) ingezet maar technisch is het mogelijk propaan om te zetten in propeen, dat als grondstof voor de chemische industrie kan worden gebruikt. Door het hoogwaardiger benutten van deze reststroom wordt in de keten een reductie van CO2 gerealiseerd. Tegelijk kan het economisch interessant zijn, vanwege de hoge marktprijzen van propeen. De studie focust op de regio Rotterdam, omdat leveranciers van propaan en afnemers van propeen daar het meest dichtbij elkaar gevestigd zijn.

  20. Emission characteristics of chlorine in the process of coal and WP co-pyrolysising and exploring on its mechanism

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, Z.; Liu, Z.; Zhao, Y.; Shi, Y.; Zhao, S. [Shandong University of Science and Technology, Qingdao (China)

    2007-04-15

    The emission characteristics of chlorine as well a the yield of coke during the process of waste plastic (WP) and coal co-pyrolysis was studied. The result indicates that the emission ratio of chlorine and yield of coke are dependent on pyrolysing temperature, percentage of WP and time of constant temperature. When percentage of WP is big the remains of chlorine in the coke is the same as it in common coal, even though pyrolysis temperature is 1000{sup o}C. However the remains of chlorine in coke decreases with the increase of constant temperature time. So the remains of chlorine in coke can be controlled by controlling the constant temperature time. Additionally, the mechanism of chlorine emission was studied base don the experimental data and comparison with co-pyrolysis of coal and PVC, and a dynamic equation of chlorine emission was derived. 9 refs., 5 figs., 2 tabs.

  1. Using the nuclear activation AMS method for determining chlorine in solids at ppb-levels and below

    Science.gov (United States)

    Winkler, Stephan R.; Eigl, Rosmarie; Forstner, Oliver; Martschini, Martin; Steier, Peter; Sterba, Johannes H.; Golser, Robin

    2015-10-01

    Neutron activation analysis using decay counting of the activated element is a well-established method in elemental analysis. However, for chlorine there is a better alternative to measuring decay of the short-lived activation product chlorine-38 (t1/2 = 37.24 min) - accelerator mass spectrometry (AMS) of 36Cl: the relatively high neutron capture cross section of chlorine-35 for thermal neutrons (43.7 b) and combined the AMS technique for chlorine-36 (t1/2 = 301 ka) allow for determination of chlorine down to ppb-levels using practical sample sizes and common exposure durations. The combination of neutron activation and AMS can be employed for a few other elements (nitrogen, thorium, and uranium) as well. For bulk solid samples an advantage of the method is that lab contamination can be rendered irrelevant. The chlorine-35 in the sample is activated to chlorine-36, and surface chlorine can be removed after the irradiation. Subsequent laboratory contamination, however, will not carry a prominent chlorine-36 signature. After sample dissolution and addition of sufficient amounts of stable chlorine carrier the produced chlorine-36 and thus the original chlorine-35 of the sample can be determined using AMS. We have developed and applied the method for analysis of chlorine in steel samples. The chlorine content of steel is of interest to nuclear industry, precisely because of above mentioned high neutron capture cross section for chlorine-35, which leads to accumulation of chlorine-36 as long-term nuclear waste. The samples were irradiated at the TRIGA Mark II reactor of the Atominstitut in Vienna and the 36Cl-AMS setup at the Vienna Environmental Research Accelerator (VERA) was used for 36Cl/Cl analysis.

  2. Sonochemical Treatment of Water Polluted by Chlorinated Organocompounds. A Review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Olivier Louisnard

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available As one of several types of pollutants in water, chlorinated compounds have been routinely subjected to sonochemical analysis to check the environmental applications of this technology. In this review, an extensive study of the influence of the initial concentration, ultrasonic intensity and frequency on the kinetics, degradation efficiency and mechanism has been analyzed. The sonochemical degradation follows a radical mechanism which yields a very wide range of chlorinated compounds in very low concentrations. Special attention has been paid to the mass balance comparing the results from several analytical techniques. As a conclusion, sonochemical degradation alone is not an efficient treatment to reduce the organic pollutant level in waste water.

  3. Selective chlorine dioxide determination using gas-diffusion flow injection analysis with chemiluminescent detection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hollowell, D.A.; Gord, J.R.; Gordon, G.; Pacey, G.E.

    1986-06-01

    An automated chemiluminescent technique has been developed utilizing the advantages of gas-diffusion flow injection analysis. A gas-diffusion membrane separates the donor (sampling) stream from the acceptor (detecting) stream and removes ionic interferences. A novel chemiluminescence flow-through detector cell is used to measure the concentration of chlorine dioxide as a function of the intensity of the chemiluminescence produced from its reaction with luminol. The chemiluminescent reagent merges with the analyte directly in front of the photomultiplier tube in order to maximize the sensitivity of the system. The detection limit for chlorine dioxide is approximately 5 ppb. The method is over 1500 times more selective for chlorine dioxide than for chlorine on a mole basis. This method eliminates interference from iron and manganese compounds, as well as other oxychlorinated compounds such as chlorite ion and chlorate ion.

  4. Reactions of aqueous chlorine and chlorine dioxide with model food compounds.

    OpenAIRE

    Fukayama, M Y; Tan, H; Wheeler, W B; Wei, C I

    1986-01-01

    Chlorine and chlorine dioxide (ClO2), common disinfecting and bleaching chemicals used in the food industry, are potent oxidizing and chlorinating agents. Unfortunately, little is known about the nature of the reactions of chlorine with organic food constituents. This presentation reviews published information concerning the reactions of chlorine gas (Cl2[g]), aqueous chlorine, and ClO2 with model food compounds, the fate of chlorine during the chlorination of specific food products, and the ...

  5. Sequential flow injection determination of chlorine species using a triiodide-selective electrode detector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saad, Bahruddin; Wai, Wan Tatt; Ali, Abdussalam Salhin M; Saleh, Muhammad Idiris

    2006-01-01

    A flow injection analysis (FIA) method for the determination of four residual chlorine species, namely combined available chlorine (CAC), free available chlorine (FAC), total available chlorine (TAC) and chlorite (ClO2-) was developed using a flow-through triiodide-selective electrode as a detector. An important strategy of speciation studies utilized the kinetic discrimination of reactions between the CAC and FAC with Fe2+, which was applied to the speciation of FAC, CAC and TAC. The speciation of available chlorine species and chlorite (an oxychlorine species) was achieved by using the same set-up, but using flow streams of different pH. The effects of the pH of the carrier stream, the flow rate and the sample volume were studied. The method exhibited linearity from 2.8 x 10(-6) to 2.8 x 10(-4) M active chlorine (expressed as OCl-) with a detection limit of 1.4 x 10(-6) M. The selectivity of the method was studied by examining the minimum pH for the oxidation of iodide by other oxidants, and also by assessing the potentiometric selectivity coefficients. The proposed method was successfully applied to the determination of chlorine species in tap water, and disinfecting formulations where good agreement occurred between the proposed and standard methods were found.

  6. A comparison of chlorinated organic material produced by chlorine and chlorine dioxide bleaching

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McKaque, A.B.; Reeve, D.W. [Univ. of Toronto (Canada)

    1995-12-31

    Chlorine and chlorine dioxide react differently with pulp during bleaching and produce different types of organic by-products. The main differences are the large reduction in the amount of AOX (adsorbable organic halogen) in the effluent and EOX (extractable organic halogen) in the pulp. This talk reviews the differences in the amounts and types of chlorinated organic by-products produced by the two different bleaching agents.

  7. Chlorine, Chloramine, Chlorine Dioxide, and Ozone Susceptibility of Mycobacterium avium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Taylor, Robert H.; Falkinham, Joseph O.; Norton, Cheryl D.; LeChevallier, Mark W.

    2000-01-01

    Environmental and patient isolates of Mycobacterium avium were resistant to chlorine, monochloramine, chlorine dioxide, and ozone. For chlorine, the product of the disinfectant concentration (in parts per million) and the time (in minutes) to 99.9% inactivation for five M. avium strains ranged from 51 to 204. Chlorine susceptibility of cells was the same in washed cultures containing aggregates and in reduced aggregate fractions lacking aggregates. Cells of the more slowly growing strains were more resistant to chlorine than were cells of the more rapidly growing strains. Water-grown cells were 10-fold more resistant than medium-grown cells. Disinfectant resistance may be one factor promoting the persistence of M. avium in drinking water. PMID:10742264

  8. Chlorinated solvent replacements recycle/recovery review report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Beal, M.; Hsu, D.; McAtee, R.E.; Weidner, J.R. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Berg, L.; McCandless, F.P.; Waltari, S.; Peterson, C. (Montana State Univ., Bozeman, MT (United States). Dept. of Chemical Engineering)

    1992-08-01

    This report is a literature review of waste solvents recycle/recovery methods and shows the results of solvent separations using membrane and distillation technologies. The experimental solvent recovery methods were conducted on solvent replacements for chlorinated solvents at Montana State University. The literature review covers waste solvents separation using distillation, membranes decantation, filtration, carbon adsorption, solvent extraction, and other vapor-phase separation techniques. The results of this study identify solvent distillation methods as the most common separation technique. The alternative separation methods typically supplement distillation. The study shows the need for industries to identify waste solvent disposal methods and investigate the economics of waste solvent recycling as a possible waste reduction method.

  9. Waste Isolation Pilot Plant Transuranic Waste Baseline inventory report. Volume 2. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-02-01

    This document is the Baseline Inventory Report for the transuranic (alpha-bearing) wastes stored at the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) in New Mexico. Waste stream profiles including origin, applicable EPA codes, typical isotopic composition, typical waste densities, and typical rates of waste generation for each facility are presented for wastes stored at the WIPP.

  10. Background chemistry for chemical warfare agents and decontamination processes in support of delisting waste streams at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground, Utah

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rosenblatt, D.H.; Small, M.J.; Kimmell, T.A.; Anderson, A.W.

    1996-04-01

    The State of Utah, Department of Environmental Quality (DEQ), Division of Solid and Hazardous Waste (DSHW), has declared residues resulting from the demilitarization, treatment, cleanup, and testing of military chemical agents to be hazardous wastes. These residues have been designated as corrosive, reactive, toxic, and acute hazardous (Hazardous Waste No. F999). The RCRA regulations (40 Code of Federal Regulations [CFR] 260-280), the Utah Administrative Code (R-315), and other state hazardous waste programs list specific wastes as hazardous but allow generators to petition the regulator to {open_quotes}delist,{close_quotes} if it can be demonstrated that such wastes are not hazardous. The U.S. Army Test and Evaluation Command (TECOM) believes that certain categories of F999 residues are not hazardous and has obtained assistance from Argonne National Laboratory (Argonne) to make the delisting demonstration. The objective of this project is to delist chemical agent decontaminated residues resulting from materials testing activities and to delist a remediation residue (e.g., contaminated soil). To delist these residues, it must be demonstrated that the residues (1) do not contain hazardous quantities of the listed agents; (2) do not contain hazardous quantities of constituents listed in 40 CFR Part 261, Appendix VIII; (3) do not exhibit other characteristics that could define the residues as hazardous; and (4) do not fail a series of acute toxicity tests. The first phase will focus on a subset of the F999 wastes generated at the U.S. Army Dugway Proving Ground (DPG), where the Army tests the effects of military chemical agents and agent-decontamination procedures on numerous military items. This effort is identified as Phase I of the Delisting Program. Subsequent phases will address other DPG chemical agent decontaminated residues and remediation wastes and similar residues at other installations.

  11. DOE Waste Treatability Group Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kirkpatrick, T.D.

    1995-01-01

    This guidance presents a method and definitions for aggregating U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) waste into streams and treatability groups based on characteristic parameters that influence waste management technology needs. Adaptable to all DOE waste types (i.e., radioactive waste, hazardous waste, mixed waste, sanitary waste), the guidance establishes categories and definitions that reflect variations within the radiological, matrix (e.g., bulk physical/chemical form), and regulated contaminant characteristics of DOE waste. Beginning at the waste container level, the guidance presents a logical approach to implementing the characteristic parameter categories as part of the basis for defining waste streams and as the sole basis for assigning streams to treatability groups. Implementation of this guidance at each DOE site will facilitate the development of technically defined, site-specific waste stream data sets to support waste management planning and reporting activities. Consistent implementation at all of the sites will enable aggregation of the site-specific waste stream data sets into comparable national data sets to support these activities at a DOE complex-wide level.

  12. Inactivation of Chironomid Larvae with Chlorine Dioxide and Chlorine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Xin-bin; CUI Fu-yi

    2008-01-01

    Chironomid larvae propagate prolifically in eutrophic water body and they cannot be exterminated by conventional disinfection process.The inactivation effects of chlorine and chlorine dioxide on Chironomid larvae were investigated and some boundary values in practice were determined under conditions of various oxidant dosage,organic precursor concentration and pH value.In addition,removal effect of differmt pre-oxidation combined with coagulation process on Chironomid larvae in law water was evaluated.It was found that chlorine dioxide possessed better inactivation effect than chlorine.Complete inactivation of Chironomid larvae in raw water was resulted by 1.5mg/L of chlorine dioxide with 30min of contact time. Additionally,the ocgallic precursor concentration,pH value had little influence on the inactivation effect.The coagulation jar test showed that Chironomid larvae in the raw water could be completely ronxwed by chlorine dioxide pre-oxidation in combination with the omgulation process at chlorine dioxide dosage of 0.8 mg/L.

  13. The influence of industrial and agricultural waste on water quality in the Água Boa stream (Dourados, Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil).

    Science.gov (United States)

    da Rocha, Monyque Palagano; Dourado, Priscila Leocadia Rosa; de Souza Rodrigues, Mayara; Raposo, Jorge Luiz; Grisolia, Alexeia Barufatti; de Oliveira, Kelly Mari Pires

    2015-07-01

    Water quality monitoring is used to determine the impact of human activities on the environment. We evaluated water quality in the Água Boa stream, located within the municipality of Dourados, State of Mato Grosso do Sul, Brazil, by analyzing physico-chemical, chemical, and microbiological parameters, as well as chlorophyll concentrations. Five sets of water samples were collected between December 2012 and November 2013 from three locations within the stream. The results showed the presence of Escherichia coli and antibiotic-resistant Pseudomonas spp. strains and high concentrations of organic matter (total dissolved solids), inorganic species (Mg, Ca, and Fe), and agrochemical residues (thiamethoxam). The main stream water contaminants are derived from urban, industrial, and agricultural activities within the watershed. Given the presence of contaminants, it is important that such findings are disseminated in order to highlight the risks that contact with this water may pose to human health. To preserve the environment and improve site conditions, people would need to participate by demanding that normative national and international standards be respected and that the situation be supervised by the competent governmental agencies; this would make it possible to reverse or minimize contamination problems within the Água Boa stream.

  14. Development and trends in chlorine dioxide bleaching with integrated chlorate electrolysis for the cellulose industry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wintzer, P.

    1980-05-01

    Rising demand for cellulose and paper and the environmental measures necessary in this branch of industry compel the companies involved to invest large sums. In particular, waste water from bleaching operations causes difficulties in biological waste water purification owing to high chlorolignin content. The sequence of chlorination steps have been optimized for each quality of wood, and the increasing use of chlorine dioxide leads to an expansion of chlorate electrolysis and chlorine dioxide plant at the expense of chlorine. The consumption of chemicals for the various cellulose qualities is considered. During the past 30 years, the Muenchner process for production of ClO/sub 2/ has proved environmentally sound and is being continuously improved. Only hydrochloric acid and water are needed as raw materials. The chlorine formed in this process is converted into hydrochloric acid, hypochlorite, and chlorine water. All steps of the processes require only liquids and gases permitting a favourable, closed mode of operation without by-products or waste salts. New chlorate cells built since 1969 are equipped exclusively with coated titanium anodes (load between 6 and 100 kA) with DC efficiencies of 92 to 95%. Annual world production of sodium chlorate exceeds 1 million tonnes. The rate of increase has long remained steady at 5%.

  15. Characterization of chlorinated tire-derived mesoporous activated carbon for adsorptive removal of toluene

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu, Jianzhong [College of Environment, HoHai University, Nanjing (China); Department of Civil and Environmental Engineering, University of Missouri, Columbia, MO (United States); Liang, Hao [Logistic Department of Guangzhou Military District, Guangzhou (China); Fang, Jun [Delon Hampton and Associates District of Columbia Water and Sewer Authority, Washington, DC (United States); Zhu, Jianguo [Wistron NeWeb (Kunshan) Corporation, Kunshan, Jiangsu Province (China); Shi, Buchang [Department of Chemistry, Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States)

    2011-06-15

    A series of chlorinated mesoporous activated carbons were derived from waste tires by pyrolysis, activation, and chlorination at different temperatures. The physical and chemical properties of the samples were studied by Brunauer-Emmett-Teller (BET) analysis, Fourier Transform IR Spectroscopy (FT-IR), point of zero charge measurement, thermogravimetric analysis, and by testing their behavior as adsorbents for toluene removal. Our results showed that the tire-derived activated carbon samples have highly mesoporous volumes and surface areas, and chlorination treatment has a slight effect on the pore structure. Lewis acidity of the sample increases after chlorination and the chlorine content increases from 0.24 to 2.32% with chlorination temperature increasing from 50 to 400 C. The higher the chlorine content, the more is the toluene adsorption. In comparison with the commercial carbon (F-400), all the samples have significantly higher adsorption capacity for toluene due to the presence of mesopores, inductive effect of the partial positive chemisorbed chlorine and resonance effects of C-Cl structures. The mesopores probably render easier diffusion of toluene molecule to inner carbon matrix and the strong {pi}-{pi} interaction between toluene and C-Cl resonance structure in the carbon significantly affects the interplay bonding process thus enhances the toluene removal. (Copyright copyright 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim)

  16. Mixed waste management options

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Owens, C.B.; Kirner, N.P. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States). Idaho National Engineering Lab.

    1991-12-31

    Disposal fees for mixed waste at proposed commercial disposal sites have been estimated to be $15,000 to $40,000 per cubit foot. If such high disposal fees are imposed, generators may be willing to apply extraordinary treatment or regulatory approaches to properly dispose of their mixed waste. This paper explores the feasibility of several waste management scenarios and attempts to answer the question: Can mixed waste be managed out of existence? Existing data on commercially generated mixed waste streams are used to identify the realm of mixed waste known to be generated. Each waste stream is evaluated from both a regulatory and technical perspective in order to convert the waste into a strictly low-level radioactive or a hazardous waste. Alternative regulatory approaches evaluated in this paper include a delisting petition, no migration petition, and a treatability variance. For each waste stream, potentially available treatment options are identified that could lead to these variances. Waste minimization methodology and storage for decay are also considered. Economic feasibility of each option is discussed broadly.

  17. Gaseous, chlorine-free chlorine dioxide for drinking water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gordon, G. [Miami Univ., Oxford, OH (United States); Rosenblatt, A. [CDG Technology Inc., New York, NY (United States)

    1996-11-01

    The benefits of applying chlorine dioxide (ClO{sub 2}) for the oxidative treatment of drinking water are well established. Chlorine dioxide treated finished water typically has substantially lower trihalomethane (THM) levels because ClO{sub 2} will not form chlorinated organic species as a by-product of disinfection. The THMs that are formed are probably due to chlorine from the generator or chlorine used to maintain a post-disinfection residual. An emerging regulatory issue concerning the formation of disinfection by-products (DBPs) is causing the water industry to set standards for the generation and delivery of ClO{sub 2}. The Federal Register (11 February 1994) contains language developed to limit the production of the unwanted inorganic by-products chlorite (ClO{sub 2}{sup -}), chlorate (ClO{sub 3}{sup -}), and bromate (BrO{sub 3}{sup -}) ions by requiring utilities to maintain high (95%) generation efficiencies and by limiting the amount of excess Cl{sub 2} that can be used during the generation process. The efficiency and excess Cl{sub 2} regulations may be problematic for utilities that over-chlorinate to attain chlorine dioxide high yields. Many utilities will have to decide either to reduce the amount of Cl{sub 2} used to react with sodium chlorite (NaClO{sub 2}), thereby increasing the ClO{sub 2}{sup -} residual in finished water, or over-chlorinate to increase yields and surpass the excess Cl{sub 2} limits.

  18. Waste Generation Overview, Course 23263

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Lewis Edward [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-11-28

    This course, Waste Generation Overview Live (COURSE 23263), provides an overview of federal and state waste management regulations, as well as Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) policies and procedures for waste management operations. The course covers the activities involved in the cradle-to-grave waste management process and focuses on waste characterization, waste compatibility determinations and classification, and the storage requirements for temporary waste accumulation areas at LANL. When you have completed this course, you will be able to recognize federal, state, and LANL environmental requirements and their impact on waste operations; recognize the importance of the cradle-to-grave waste management process; identify the roles and responsibilities of key LANL waste management personnel (e.g., Waste Generator, Waste Management Coordinator, Waste Stream Profile approver, and Waste Certification Official); characterize a waste stream to determine whether it meets the definition of a hazardous waste, as well as characterize the use and minimum requirements for use of acceptable knowledge (AK) for waste characterization and waste compatibility documentation requirements; and identify the requirements for setting up and managing temporary waste accumulation areas.

  19. Stream Evaluation

    Data.gov (United States)

    Kansas Data Access and Support Center — Digital representation of the map accompanying the "Kansas stream and river fishery resource evaluation" (R.E. Moss and K. Brunson, 1981.U.S. Fish and Wildlife...

  20. Stream Lab

    OpenAIRE

    Kummel, Miro; Bruder, Andrea; Powell, Jim; Kohler, Brynja; Lewis, Matt

    2016-01-01

    Dead leaves, ping-pong balls or plastic golf balls are floated down a small stream. The number of leaves/balls passing recording stations along the stream are tallied. Students are then challenged to develop a transport model for the resulting data. From this exercise students gain greater understanding of PDE modeling, conservation laws, parameter estimation as well as mass and momentum transport processes.

  1. Grundfoss: Chlorination of Swimming Pools

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hjorth, Poul G.; Hogan, John; Andreassen, Viggo

    1998-01-01

    Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools.......Grundfos asked for a model, describing the problem of mixing chemicals, being dosed into water systems, to be developed. The application of the model should be dedicated to dosing aqueous solution of chlorine into swimming pools....

  2. Process Development and Design of Chlorine Dioxide Production Based on Hydrogen Peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈赟; 江燕斌; 钱宇

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a process development and design of chlorine dioxide production based on hydrogen peroxide. The process is characterized by cleaner production, high efficiency, and waste minimization. Optimization of process conditions, selection of equipment, and experiment of recycle of waste acid are carried out. The process design is realized in consideration of several aspects such as operation, material, equipment design and safety. An industrialized process flowsheet is developed according to experiment. A pilot testing is carried out to confirm the lab results. Process design of chlorine dioxide production based on hydrogen peroxide is realized.

  3. Transformation of iopamidol during chlorination.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wendel, Friedrich M; Lütke Eversloh, Christian; Machek, Edward J; Duirk, Stephen E; Plewa, Michael J; Richardson, Susan D; Ternes, Thomas A

    2014-11-01

    The transformation of the iodinated X-ray contrast media (ICM) iopamidol, iopromide, iohexol, iomeprol, and diatrizoate was examined in purified water over the pH range from 6.5 to 8.5 in the presence of sodium hypochlorite, monochloramine, and chlorine dioxide. In the presence of aqueous chlorine, only iopamidol was transformed. All other ICM did not show significant reactivity, regardless of the oxidant used. Chlorination of iopamidol followed a second order reaction, with an observed rate constant of up to 0.87 M(-1) s(-1) (±0.021 M(-1) s(-1)) at pH 8.5. The hypochlorite anion was identified to be the reactive chlorine species. Iodine was released during the transformation of iopamidol, and was mainly oxidized to iodate. Only a small percentage (less than 2% after 24 h) was transformed to known organic iodinated disinfection byproducts (DBPs) of low molecular weight. Some of the iodine was still present in high-molecular weight DBPs. The chemical structures of these DBPs were elucidated via MSn fragmentation and NMR. Side chain cleavage was observed as well as the exchange of iodine by chlorine. An overall transformation pathway was proposed for the degradation of iopamidol. CHO cell chronic cytotoxicity tests indicate that chlorination of iopamidol generates a toxic mixture of high molecular weight DBPs (LC50 332 ng/μL).

  4. 76 FR 48073 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-08-08

    ... Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Streams in Geologic Sequestration Activities AGENCY... Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are hazardous... of carbon dioxide streams that would otherwise be regulated as hazardous wastes under the...

  5. Automated radioanalytical system incorporating microwave-assisted sample preparation, chemical separation, and online radiometric detection for the monitoring of total 99Tc in nuclear waste processing streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Egorov, Oleg B; O'Hara, Matthew J; Grate, Jay W

    2012-04-03

    An automated fluidic instrument is described that rapidly determines the total (99)Tc content of aged nuclear waste samples, where the matrix is chemically and radiologically complex and the existing speciation of the (99)Tc is variable. The monitor links microwave-assisted sample preparation with an automated anion exchange column separation and detection using a flow-through solid scintillator detector. The sample preparation steps acidify the sample, decompose organics, and convert all Tc species to the pertechnetate anion. The column-based anion exchange procedure separates the pertechnetate from the complex sample matrix, so that radiometric detection can provide accurate measurement of (99)Tc. We developed a preprogrammed spike addition procedure to automatically determine matrix-matched calibration. The overall measurement efficiency that is determined simultaneously provides a self-diagnostic parameter for the radiochemical separation and overall instrument function. Continuous, automated operation was demonstrated over the course of 54 h, which resulted in the analysis of 215 samples plus 54 hly spike-addition samples, with consistent overall measurement efficiency for the operation of the monitor. A sample can be processed and measured automatically in just 12.5 min with a detection limit of 23.5 Bq/mL of (99)Tc in low activity waste (0.495 mL sample volume), with better than 10% RSD precision at concentrations above the quantification limit. This rapid automated analysis method was developed to support nuclear waste processing operations planned for the Hanford nuclear site.

  6. Cleaning without chlorinated solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thompson, L.M.; Simandl, R.F.

    1994-12-31

    Because of health and environmental concerns, many regulations have been passed in recent years regarding the use of chlorinated solvents. The Oak Ridge Y-12 Plant has had an active program to find alternatives for these solvents used in cleaning applications for the past 7 years. During this time frame, the quantity of solvents purchased has been reduced by 92%. The program has been a twofold effort. Vapor degreasers used in batch cleaning-operations have been replaced by ultrasonic cleaning with aqueous detergent, and other organic solvents have been identified for use in hand-wiping or specialty operations. In order to qualify these alternatives for use, experimentation was conducted on cleaning ability as well as effects on subsequent operations such as welding, painting and bonding. Cleaning ability was determined using techniques such as X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) and Fourier Transform Infrared Spectroscopy (FTIR) which are capable of examining monolayer levels of contamination on a surface. Solvents have been identified for removal of rust preventative oils, lapping oils, machining coolants, lubricants, greases, and mold releases. Solvents have also been evaluated for cleaning urethane foam spray guns, swelling of urethanes and swelling of epoxies.

  7. Chlorine behavior during co-hydrothermal treatment of high alkali coal and PVC

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, N.; Zhao, P. T.; Li, Z. Z.; Li, T.

    2016-08-01

    The hydrothermal treatment (HT) is an effective method to remove chlorine from chlorinated wastes under mild conditions. However, the alkali was required to improve the dechlorination efficiency. Meanwhile, the alkalis contents removed was necessary to realize the clean and highly efficient utilization of coal. This work was trying to investigate the feasibility of simultaneously removal alkalis and chlorine by co-hydrothermal treatment of PVC and high-alkali coal. The effect of operating conditions including the HT temperature, the holding time and particle sizes of coal on the dechlorination efficiency (DE) of PVC during the HT process was experimentally studied in this work. The results show that the DE increased with the rise of: 1) particle sizes (0.054~0.22mm), 2) holding time (30~90 min) and 3) temperature (240~300 °C). In detail, under 300 °C and 60min of holding time, the 85.18% of DE with first PS was lower than the 93.93% of DE with second PS and 100% of DE with third PS. The organic chlorine mainly transferred into chloridion in aqueous solution in HT process. All the results indicate that it is a prospective way to simultaneously removal alkalis and chlorine by co-hydrothermal treatment of chlorinated wastes and high-alkali coal.

  8. Solid Waste from the Operation and Decommissioning of Power Plants

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brown, Marilyn Ann [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); D' Arcy, Daniel [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States); Lapsa, Melissa Voss [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Sharma, Isha [Oak Ridge National Lab. (ORNL), Oak Ridge, TN (United States); Li, Yufei [Georgia Inst. of Technology, Atlanta, GA (United States)

    2017-01-05

    This baseline report examines the solid waste generated by the U.S. electric power industry, including both waste streams resulting from electricity generation and wastes resulting from the decommissioning of power plants

  9. Dioxin emissions from coal combustion in domestic stove: Formation in the chimney and coal chlorine content influence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Paradiz Bostjan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Combustion experiments conducted in domestic stove burning hard coal demonstrated a predominant influence of the coal chlorine content on the PCDD/F emissions, together with a pronounced effect of the flue gas temperature. PCDD/F concentrations of over 100 ng TEQ/m3, three orders of magnitude higher than in a modern waste incinerator, were measured in the flue gases of a domestic stove when combusting high chlorine coal (0.31 %. The PCDD/F concentrations in the flue gases dropped below 0,5 ng TEQ/m3, when low chlorine coal (0.07 % was used. When low chlorine coal was impregnated with NaCl to obtain 0.38 % chlorine content, the emission of the PCDD/Fs increased by two orders of magnitude. Pronounced nonlinearity of the PCDD/F concentrations related to chlorine content in the coal was observed. The combustion of the high chlorine coal yielded PCDD/F concentrations in flue gases one order of magnitude lower in a fan cooled chimney when compared to an insulated one, thus indicating formation in the chimney. The influence of flue gas temperature on the PCDD/F emissions was less pronounced when burning low chlorine coal. The predominant pathway of the PCDD/F emissions is via flue gases, 99 % of the TEQ in the case of the high chlorine coal for insulated chimney.

  10. stream-stream: Stellar and dark-matter streams interactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bovy, Jo

    2017-02-01

    Stream-stream analyzes the interaction between a stellar stream and a disrupting dark-matter halo. It requires galpy (ascl:1411.008), NEMO (ascl:1010.051), and the usual common scientific Python packages.

  11. Occurence of antibiotic compounds found in the water column and bottom sediments from a stream receiving two waste water treatment plant effluents in northern New Jersey, 2008

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gibs, Jacob; Heckathorn, Heather A.; Meyer, Michael T.; Klapinski, Frank R.; Alebus, Marzooq; Lippincott, Robert

    2013-01-01

    An urban watershed in northern New Jersey was studied to determine the presence of four classes of antibiotic compounds (macrolides, fluoroquinolones, sulfonamides, and tetracyclines) and six degradates in the water column and bottom sediments upstream and downstream from the discharges of two wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) and a drinking-water intake (DWI). Many antibiotic compounds in the four classes not removed by conventional WWTPs enter receiving waters and partition to stream sediments. Samples were collected at nine sampling locations on 2 days in September 2008. Two of the nine sampling locations were background sites upstream from two WWTP discharges on Hohokus Brook. Another background site was located upstream from a DWI on the Saddle River above the confluence with Hohokus Brook. Because there is a weir downstream of the confluence of Hohokus Brook and Saddle River, the DWI receives water from Hohokus Brook at low stream flows. Eight antibiotic compounds (azithromycin (maximum concentration 0.24 μg/L), ciprofloxacin (0.08 μg/L), enrofloxacin (0.015 μg/L), erythromycin (0.024 μg/L), ofloxacin (0.92 μg/L), sulfamethazine (0.018 μg/L), sulfamethoxazole (0.25 μg/L), and trimethoprim (0.14 μg/L)) and a degradate (erythromycin-H2O (0.84 μg/L)) were detected in the water samples from the sites downstream from the WWTP discharges. The concentrations of six of the eight detected compounds and the detected degradate compound decreased with increasing distance downstream from the WWTP discharges. Azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, ofloxacin, and trimethoprim were detected in stream-bottom sediments. The concentrations of three of the four compounds detected in sediments were highest at a sampling site located downstream from the WWTP discharges. Trimethoprim was detected in the sediments from a background site. Pseudo-partition coefficients normalized for streambed sediment organic carbon concentration were calculated for azithromycin, ciprofloxacin, and

  12. Impact of chlorine dioxide and ozone on the oxidation of NTA during drinking water treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hrubec, J.; ' t Hart, M.J.; Marsman, P.; Luijten, J.A.

    1984-11-01

    The use, as it is proposed, of nitrilotriacetic acid (NTA) for phosphate replacement in detergents will lead to its discharge in surface water at relatively high concentrations. Questions have been raised about potential health hazards related to the uptake and treatment of the NTA containing riverwater for drinking water supply. Degradation of NTA by biological oxidation in waste water treatment systems, soil and surface water under aerobic conditions has been demonstrated many times. However reports on degradation of NTA by chemical oxidation applied in water treatment processes are scarce. The aim of the present investigation was to determine removal of nitrilotriacetic acid upon chlorine, chlorine dioxide and ozone treatment under conditions characteristic for drinking water treatment practice; possible formation of mutagenic substances from the reaction of NTA with these oxidants; and formation of halogenated reaction products of NTA with chlorine and chlorine dioxide.

  13. Hazardous household waste management in Vinnytsia region

    OpenAIRE

    Ishchenko, Vitalii; Petruk, Roman; Kozak, Yana

    2016-01-01

    The article analyzes hazardous household waste, including detergents, paints, adhesives, expired medicines, luminescent lamps, pesticides, fertilizers, batteries and accumulators, electrical and electronic waste, mercury-containing materials. Research shows that they contain a large quantity of dangerous and toxic substances (compounds of heavy metals, chlorinated polymers, aromatic hydrocarbons, surfactants, etc.), which pose a significant risk to the environment and ...

  14. Removal of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) present in a synthetic waste gas stream by a bio-filter packed with wood bark; Elimination de composes organiques volatils (COV) presents dans l'air par un biofiltre a garnissage naturel structure

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ramirez Lopez, E.M.

    2001-10-01

    The Environmental Council of the European Union requires the reduction of 54 % of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted in waste gas streams to the ambient air. Nowadays, bio-filtration is a bio-process used to treat large waste air streams with low concentration of pollutants. Bio-filters have the advantage of low cost operation and maintenance. Bio-filters are generally packed with organic material as a support to fix microorganisms. These microorganisms degrade pollutants in waste gas streams to carbon dioxide, water and mineral salts. The performance of a bio-filter depends on the biological, physical and chemical properties of the support. Parameters studied in this research include water holding capacity of the support, specific surface area, void fraction, uniform pore size distribution, bulk density of the support, pressure drop, and buffer capacity. The support must provide enough nutrients. These parameters were measured for wood bark. A hydrodynamic study was carried out in the experimental bio-filter using wood bark as a support. The Comiti and Renaud model was used in order to determine the tortuosity and the dynamic specific surface area of the packing material. This model takes into consideration the wall effect corrections. The bio-filter performance was evaluated for ethanol biodegradation by varying either the superficial gas velocity (99 to 1288 m.h{sup -1}) or the ethanol concentration (35 to 480 g.m{sup -3}.h{sup -1}) of the simulated gas stream. The experimental values were validated by using the Ottengraf's model. In this model, zero-order kinetics with diffusion limitation was assumed. Microorganisms fixed in the support include yeast, fungi and bacteria. Biodegradation of a mixture of ethanol, dichloromethane, methyl ethyl ketone and toluene in the simulated waste stream was also evaluated. The influence of parameters such as pH, pressure drop, temperature and humidity were measured in this system. (author)

  15. Movement and fate of chlorinated solvents in ground water; research activities at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fusillo, T.V.; Ehlke, T.A.; Martin, Mary

    1987-01-01

    The USGS, through its Toxic Waste--Ground-Water Contamination Program, is undertaking an interdisciplinary research study of contaminants. The purpose of the study is to gain a better understanding of the chemical, physical, and biological processes that affect the movement and fate of these contaminants in groundwater. The study is being conducted at Picatinny Arsenal, New Jersey, where metal plating and metal etching wastes have contaminated part of the glacial stratified drift aquifers. Major areas of research at the site are described, including: (1) distribution and movement of chlorinated solvents in groundwater, (2) behavior of chlorinated solvents in the unsaturated zone, (3) geochemistry of the contaminated groundwater, and (4) microbial transformations of chlorinated solvents. (Author 's abstract)

  16. Utilisation of chlorine-dioxide and peracetic acid as disinfectants of effluents from Bologna waste water treatment plant; Sperimentazione di tecniche di disinfezione mediante biossido di cloro e acido peracetico applicate alle acque reflue dell'impianto di trattamento della citta' di Bologna

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mancini, M.L. [Bologna Univ., Bologna (Italy). Dipt. di Ingegneria delle Strutture, dei Trasporti, delle Acque, del Rilevamento e del Territorio; Sorrentino, M.

    2000-01-01

    The necessity to optimize the disinfection phase in the treatment plant of waste water of Bologna made possible an experimental survey about the efficacy of two disinfectant agents utilized: chlorine-dioxide and peracetic acid. Object of the survey is to verify the possibility of utilize, full scale, also peracetic acid as disinfection agent. The experimentation regarded the reals flows adduced and discharged from the plant and it may be an useful reference to verify performance of post-treatment constructed wetlands. Particularly it has been possible to assay the efficacy of the different treatment in waste water with residual concentrations of suspended solids. [Italian] La necessita' di ottimizzare la fase di disinfezione nell'impianto di trattamento acque reflue della citta' di Bologna, sia per il miglioramento delle rese di inattivazione, sia per la riduzione dei costi di esercizio, ha reso necessaria un'indagine sperimentale sull'efficacia di due agenti disinfettanti utilizzati: il biossido di cloro e l'acido peracetico. Scopo dell'indagine e' quello di verificare la possibilita' di impiegare, a scala reale, per il refluo tipico dell'impianto di Bologna, anche l'acido peracetico quale agente di disinfezione. La sperimentazione, condotta ha interessato le portate reali addotte e scaricate dall'impianto e puo' costituire un riferimento utile verificare la fattibilita' igienico-sanitaria di post-trattamenti di lagunaggio o fertirrigazione. In particolare si e' potuta saggiare l'efficacia dei diversi sistemi di trattamento sui reflui aventi concentrazioni residue non trascurabili di solidi sospesi.

  17. Liquid secondary waste. Waste form formulation and qualification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cozzi, A. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Dixon, K. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Hill, K. A. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); King, W. D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nichols, R. L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2016-03-01

    The Hanford Site Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) currently treats aqueous waste streams generated during Site cleanup activities. When the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) begins operations, a liquid secondary waste (LSW) stream from the WTP will need to be treated. The volume of effluent for treatment at the ETF will increase significantly. Washington River Protection Solutions is implementing a Secondary Liquid Waste Immobilization Technology Development Plan to address the technology needs for a waste form and solidification process to treat the increased volume of waste planned for disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility IDF). Waste form testing to support this plan is composed of work in the near term to demonstrate the waste form will provide data as input to a performance assessment (PA) for Hanford’s IDF.

  18. 影响配煤与废塑料共热解煤气中氯含量的因素及氯的脱除方法%Influence Factors and Removing Method of Chlorine in the Co - pyrolysing Gas Products of Coal and Waste Plastic

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李震; 王宗臣; 周丽霞

    2011-01-01

    通过对配煤与废塑料共热解煤气有机吸收液的液相色谱一质谱联用分析,以及蒸馏水吸收液的离子色谱分析,探索了热解煤气中氯的赋存形态.结果表明,煤气中氯主要以HCl的形式存在,有机吸收液中没有检测出含氯有机化合物.在此基础上,讨论了升温速率、气体流速等热解条件对煤气中氯含量的影响及对脱氯剂脱氯效果的影响.%In this article, occurrence model and concentration of chlorine in gas product from the pyrolysis process of waste plastic and coal were studied. By analyzing the data of experiments, it is found that there are relativities between concentration of chlori

  19. National Institutes of Health: Mixed waste minimization and treatment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-08-01

    The Appalachian States Low-Level Radioactive Waste Commission requested the US Department of Energy`s National Low-Level Waste Management Program (NLLWMP) to assist the biomedical community in becoming more knowledgeable about its mixed waste streams, to help minimize the mixed waste stream generated by the biomedical community, and to identify applicable treatment technologies for these mixed waste streams. As the first step in the waste minimization process, liquid low-level radioactive mixed waste (LLMW) streams generated at the National Institutes of Health (NIH) were characterized and combined into similar process categories. This report identifies possible waste minimization and treatment approaches for the LLMW generated by the biomedical community identified in DOE/LLW-208. In development of the report, on site meetings were conducted with NIH personnel responsible for generating each category of waste identified as lacking disposal options. Based on the meetings and general waste minimization guidelines, potential waste minimization options were identified.

  20. The potential feasibility of chlorinic photosynthesis on exoplanets.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Haas, Johnson R

    2010-11-01

    The modern search for life-bearing exoplanets emphasizes the potential detection of O(2) and O(3) absorption spectra in exoplanetary atmospheres as ideal signatures of biology. However, oxygenic photosynthesis may not arise ubiquitously in exoplanetary biospheres. Alternative evolutionary paths may yield planetary atmospheres tinted with the waste products of other dominant metabolisms, including potentially exotic biochemistries. This paper defines chlorinic photosynthesis (CPS) as biologically mediated photolytic oxidation of aqueous Cl(-) to form halocarbon or dihalogen products, coupled with CO(2) assimilation. This hypothetical metabolism appears to be feasible energetically, physically, and geochemically, and could potentially develop under conditions that approximate the terrestrial Archean. It is hypothesized that an exoplanetary biosphere in which chlorinic photosynthesis dominates primary production would tend to evolve a strongly oxidizing, halogen-enriched atmosphere over geologic time. It is recommended that astronomical observations of exoplanetary outgoing thermal emission spectra consider signs of halogenated chemical species as likely indicators of the presence of a chlorinic biosphere. Planets that favor the evolution of CPS would probably receive equivalent or greater surface UV flux than is produced by the Sun, which would promote stronger abiotic UV photolysis of aqueous halides than occurred during Earth's Archean era and impose stronger evolutionary selection pressures on endemic life to accommodate and utilize halogenated compounds. Ocean-bearing planets of stars with metallicities equivalent to, or greater than, the Sun should especially favor the evolution of chlorinic biospheres because of the higher relative seawater abundances of Cl, Br, and I such planets would tend to host. Directed searches for chlorinic biospheres should probably focus on G0-G2, F, and A spectral class stars that have bulk metallicities of +0.0 Dex or greater.

  1. Colorectal cancers and chlorinated water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ahmed Mahmoud El-Tawil

    2016-01-01

    Published reports have revealed increased risk of colorectal cancers in people exposed to chlorinated drinking water or chemical derivatives of chlorination. Oestrogen plays a dual positive functions for diminishing the possibilities of such risk by reducing the entrance, and increasing the excretion, of these chemicals. In addition, there are supplementary measures that could be employed in order to reduce this risk further, such as boiling the drinking water, revising the standard concentrations of calcium, magnesium and iron in the public drinking water and prescribing oestrogen in susceptible individuals. Hypo-methylation of genomic DNA could be used as a biological marker for screening for the potential development of colorectal cancers.

  2. Vitrification of hazardous and radioactive wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bickford, D.F.; Schumacher, R.

    1995-12-31

    Vitrification offers many attractive waste stabilization options. Versatility of waste compositions, as well as the inherent durability of a glass waste form, have made vitrification the treatment of choice for high-level radioactive wastes. Adapting the technology to other hazardous and radioactive waste streams will provide an environmentally acceptable solution to many of the waste challenges that face the public today. This document reviews various types and technologies involved in vitrification.

  3. Waste Heat to Power Market Assessment

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Elson, Amelia [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Tidball, Rick [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States); Hampson, Anne [ICF International, Fairfax, VA (United States)

    2015-03-01

    Waste heat to power (WHP) is the process of capturing heat discarded by an existing process and using that heat to generate electricity. In the industrial sector, waste heat streams are generated by kilns, furnaces, ovens, turbines, engines, and other equipment. In addition to processes at industrial plants, waste heat streams suitable for WHP are generated at field locations, including landfills, compressor stations, and mining sites. Waste heat streams are also produced in the residential and commercial sectors, but compared to industrial sites these waste heat streams typically have lower temperatures and much lower volumetric flow rates. The economic feasibility for WHP declines as the temperature and flow rate decline, and most WHP technologies are therefore applied in industrial markets where waste heat stream characteristics are more favorable. This report provides an assessment of the potential market for WHP in the industrial sector in the United States.

  4. Formation and chlorination of polychlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) in the post-combustion zone during MSW combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jansson, Stina; Fick, Jerker; Marklund, Stellan

    2008-07-01

    Non- to octa-chlorinated naphthalenes (PCNs) were analyzed in flue gas samples collected simultaneously at three different temperatures (450 degrees C, 300 degrees C and 200 degrees C, respectively) in the post-combustion zone during waste combustion experiments using a laboratory-scale fluidized-bed reactor. PCN homologue profiles in all samples were dominated by the lower chlorinated homologues (mono- to triCN), with successive reductions in abundance with each additional degree of chlorination. The isomer distribution patterns reflected ortho-directionality behavior of the first chlorine substituent, and the beta-positions, i.e. the 2,3,6,7-substitution sites, seemed to be favored for chlorination. Injection of naphthalene into the post-combustion zone resulted in increased PCN levels at 200 degrees C, demonstrating the occurrence of chlorination reactions in the post-combustion zone. However, the increases were restricted to the least-chlorinated homologue (monoCN), probably because there was insufficient residence time for further chlorination. In addition, an episode of poor combustion (manifested by high CO levels) was accompanied by extensive formation of 1,8-diCN, 1,2,3- and 1,2,8-triCN; congeners with substitution patterns that are not thermodynamically favorable. These are believed to be products of PAH breakdown reactions and/or chlorophenol condensation. Overall, PCN formation is likely to occur via more than one pathway, including chlorination of naphthalene that is already present, de novo synthesis from PAHs and, possibly, chlorophenol condensation.

  5. Process Waste Assessment - Paint Shop

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Phillips, N.M.

    1993-06-01

    This Process Waste Assessment was conducted to evaluate hazardous wastes generated in the Paint Shop, Building 913, Room 130. Special attention is given to waste streams generated by the spray painting process because it requires a number of steps for preparing, priming, and painting an object. Also, the spray paint booth covers the largest area in R-130. The largest and most costly waste stream to dispose of is {open_quote}Paint Shop waste{close_quotes} -- a combination of paint cans, rags, sticks, filters, and paper containers. These items are compacted in 55-gallon drums and disposed of as solid hazardous waste. Recommendations are made for minimizing waste in the Paint Shop. Paint Shop personnel are very aware of the need to minimize hazardous wastes and are continuously looking for opportunities to do so.

  6. Effects of ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and monochloramine on Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst viability.

    OpenAIRE

    Korich, D. G.; Mead, J R; Madore, M S; Sinclair, N A; Sterling, C R

    1990-01-01

    Purified Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were exposed to ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and monochloramine. Excystation and mouse infectivity were comparatively evaluated to assess oocyst viability. Ozone and chlorine dioxide more effectively inactivated oocysts than chlorine and monochloramine did. Greater than 90% inactivation as measured by infectivity was achieved by treating oocysts with 1 ppm of ozone (1 mg/liter) for 5 min. Exposure to 1.3 ppm of chlorine dioxide yielded 90% inactiv...

  7. Disinfectants: Chlorine and chlorine dioxide. (Latest citations from the Life Sciences Collection database). Published Search

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-05-01

    The bibliography contains citations concerning the antimicrobial properties of chlorine and chlorine dioxide. The use of chlorine for the inactivation of viruses, bacteria, and fungi in wastewater treatment plants is discussed, including the mode of action and factors influencing inactivation. The use of chlorine dioxide as an alternative to chlorine disinfection in swimming pools and water supplies, and possible adverse effects are also discussed. (Contains a minimum of 157 citations and includes a subject term index and title list.)

  8. Development of industrial catalysts for sustainable chlorine production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mondelli, Cecilia; Amrute, Amol P; Moser, Maximilian; Schmidt, Timm; Pérez-Ramírez, Javier

    2012-01-01

    The heterogeneously catalyzed gas-phase oxidation of HCl to Cl(2) offers an energy-efficient and eco- friendly route to recover chlorine from HCl-containing byproduct streams in the chemical industry. This process has attracted renewed interest in the last decade due to an increased chlorine demand and the growing excess of byproduct HCl from chlorination processes. Since its introduction (by Deacon in 1868) and till recent times, the industrialization of this reaction has been hindered by the lack of sufficiently active and durable materials. Recently, RuO(2)-based catalysts with outstanding activity and stability have been designed and they are being implemented for large-scale Cl(2) recycling. Herein, we review the main limiting features of traditional Cu-based catalysts and survey the key steps in the development of the new generation of industrial RuO(2)-based materials. As the expansion of this technology would benefit from cheaper, but comparably robust, alternatives to RuO(2)-based catalysts, a nov el CeO(2)-based catalyst which offers promising perspectives for application in this field has been introduced.

  9. SECONDARY WASTE MANAGEMENT STRATEGY FOR EARLY LOW ACTIVITY WASTE TREATMENT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    TW, CRAWFORD

    2008-07-17

    This study evaluates parameters relevant to River Protection Project secondary waste streams generated during Early Low Activity Waste operations and recommends a strategy for secondary waste management that considers groundwater impact, cost, and programmatic risk. The recommended strategy for managing River Protection Project secondary waste is focused on improvements in the Effiuent Treatment Facility. Baseline plans to build a Solidification Treatment Unit adjacent to Effluent Treatment Facility should be enhanced to improve solid waste performance and mitigate corrosion of tanks and piping supporting the Effiuent Treatment Facility evaporator. This approach provides a life-cycle benefit to solid waste performance and reduction of groundwater contaminants.

  10. Environmental factors regulating soil organic matter chlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    Svensson, Teresia; Montelius, Malin; Reyier, Henrik; Rietz, Karolina; Karlsson, Susanne; Lindberg, Cecilia; Andersson, Malin; Danielsson, Åsa; Bastviken, David

    2016-04-01

    Natural chlorination of organic matter is common in soils. Despite the widespread abundance of soil chlorinated soil organic matter (SOM), frequently exceeding soil chloride abundance in surface soils, and a common ability of microorganisms to produce chlorinated SOM, we lack fundamental knowledge about dominating processes and organisms responsible for the chlorination. To take one step towards resolving the terrestrial chlorine (Cl) puzzle, this study aims to analyse how environmental factors influence chlorination of SOM. Four factors were chosen for this study: soil moisture (W), nitrogen (N), chloride (Cl) and organic matter quality (C). These factors are all known to be important for soil processes. Laboratory incubations with 36Cl as a Cl tracer were performed in a two soil incubation experiments. It was found that addition of chloride and nitrogen seem to hamper the chlorination. For the C treatment, on the other hand, the results show that chlorination is enhanced by increased availability of labile organic matter (glucose and maltose). Even higher chlorination was observed when nitrogen and water were added in combination with labile organic matter. The effect that more labile organic matter strongly stimulated the chlorination rates was confirmed by the second separate experiment. These results indicate that chlorination was not primarily a way to cut refractory organic matter into digestible molecules, representing one previous hypothesis, but is related with microbial metabolism in other ways that will be further discussed in our presentation.

  11. Sustainable utilization of ressources. Production of ethanol from dairy waste streams; Nachhaltige Verwertung von Wertstoffstroemen. Gewinnung von Ethanol aus einem Reststoff der Molkeverarbeitung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Benecke, Christian

    2011-07-01

    The worldwide increasing demand for cheese and dairy products leads to a steady increase of whey production. Today, whey is no more considered as waste, but serves as source for materials like lactose and proteins. At the end of this process a whey concentrate is released, which contains still a significant content of lactose. This lactose could not be obtained in the desired quality. This thesis describes a method to increase added value from the utilization-process of whey. To achieve this intent, methods where evaluated, to use the remaining lactose as a substrate for the fermentation to ethanol. Yeasts of the strain Kluyveromyces marxianus were evaluated for the use in this process. The degradation rate of the substrate and a maximized conversion were the main objectives. For the growth of the yeast cells, a method was developed, which uses only whey concentrate as substrate and avoids the usage of other materials for nutrition. The method was optimized in consideration of initial substrate concentration and degradation rate. The high content of salts in the whey concentrate leads to the further investigations of inhabitating or proliferating effects of different anions and cations on the used yeast cells. It becomes obvious, that a desalting or dilution of the used whey concentrate is mandatory. For that purpose, the nanofiltration was applied successfully to this process. The usage of not desalted whey concentrate is also possible. With an adequate dilution of the whey concentrate, relative yields of ca. 90% could be achieved. With a significant increase of the initial biomass, the duration of the fermentation process could be halved to ca. 25 h. (orig.)

  12. Chlorine Stable Isotopes to reveal contribution of magmatic chlorine in subduction zones: the case of the Kamchatka-Kuril and the Lesser Antilles Volcanic Arcs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Agrinier, Pierre; Shilobreeva, Svetlana; Bardoux, Gerard; Michel, Agnes; Maximov, Alexandr; Kalatcheva, Elena; Ryabinin, Gennady; Bonifacie, Magali

    2015-04-01

    By using the stable isotopes of chlorine (δ 37Cl), we have shown that magmatic chlorine (δ 37Cl ≤ -0.6 ‰ [1]) is different from surface chlorine (δ 37Cl ≈ 0 ‰ [1]) in hydrothermal system of Soufrière and Montagne Pelé from the young arc volcanic system of Lesser Antilles. First measurements on condensed chlorides from volcanic gases (e.g. [2], [3]) did not permitted to get sensible δ 37Cl values on degassed chlorine likely because chlorine isotopes are fractionated during the HClgas - chloride equilibrium in the fumaroles or during sampling artifacts. Therefore we have developed an alternative strategy based on the analysis of chloride in thermal springs, streams, sout{f}lowing on the flanks of the volcanoes. Due to the highly hydrophilic behavior of Cl, we hypothesize that thermal springs incorporate chlorine without fractionation of chlorine isotopes and might reflect the chlorine isotopic composition degassed by magmas [1]. Indeed Thermal spring with low δ 37Cl chlorides (≤ -0.6 perthousand{}) are linked with magmatic volatiles characters (3He ratio at 5 Ra at and δ 13C CO2 quad ≈ -3 perthousand{}). To go further in the potentiality of using the Chlorine isotopes to reveal contribution of magmatic chlorine in volcanic systems, we have started the survey of thermal springs and wells waters in the Kamchatka-Kuril volcanic mature Arc (on sites Mutnovsky, Paratunka, Nalychevsky, Khodutkinsky, Paramushir Island, identified by Taran, 2009 [4] for concentrations of chloride). Preliminary results show δ 37Cl values ranging from 0.5 to -0.2 ‰ and generally higher chloride concentrations. The δ 37Cl values are higher than the value recorded for the young arc volcanic system of lesser Antilles. At present moment very few negative δ 37Cl have been measured in the Kamchatka-Kuril volcanic mature Arc. [1] Li et al., 2015 EPSL in press. [2] Sharp et al. 2010 GCA. [3] Rizzo et al., 2013, EPSL, 371, 134. [4] Taran, 2009, GCA, 73, 1067

  13. WCATS: Waste Documentation, Course No. 8504

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Simpson, Sandy [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-04-14

    This course was developed for individuals at Los Alamos National Laboratory (LANL) who characterize and document waste streams in the Waste Compliance and Tracking System (WCATS) according to Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) Department of Transportation (DOT) regulations, Department of Energy Orders, and other applicable criteria. When you have completed this course, you will be able to recognize how waste documentation enables LANL to characterize and classify hazardous waste for compliant treatment, storage, and disposal, identify the purpose of the waste stream profile (WSP), identify the agencies that provide guidance for waste management, and more.

  14. ICDF Complex Operations Waste Management Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W.M. Heileson

    2006-12-01

    This Waste Management Plan functions as a management and planning tool for managing waste streams generated as a result of operations at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility (ICDF) Complex. The waste management activities described in this plan support the selected remedy presented in the Waste Area Group 3, Operable Unit 3-13 Final Record of Decision for the operation of the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex. This plan identifies the types of waste that are anticipated during operations at the Idaho CERCLA Disposal Facility Complex. In addition, this plan presents management strategies and disposition for these anticipated waste streams.

  15. Effects of chlorine content and position of chlorinated phenols on their oxidation kinetics by potassium permanganate

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2003-01-01

    Chlorine content and position of chlorinated phenols have many significant effects on the reactivity of oxido-reduction. The effects of chlorine content and position of chlorinated phenols on their oxidation kinetics by potassium permanganate were evaluated through different kinetics studies. Since chlorine was an electron withdrawing atom, the substitution of chlorine on the aromatic ring decreased the oxidation rate constant by σ-electron withdrawing conductive effect; at the same time, the substitution of chlorine at ortho or para position on the aromatic ring increased the oxidation rate constant by π-electron donating conjugative effect, and the conjugative effect could counteract the negative impact of the conductive effect to some extent. On the other hand, the substitution of chlorine at ortho position on the aromatic ring decreased the oxidation rate constant by steric hindrance effect. The oxidation rate constants of phenol and chlorinated phenols studied decreased as follow order: 4-chlorophenol>2,4-dichlorophenol>phenol>2,6-dichlorophenol.

  16. Natural chlorine and fluorine in the atmosphere, water and precipitation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friend, James P.

    1990-01-01

    The geochemical cycles of chlorine and fluorine are surveyed and summarized as framework for the understanding of the global natural abundances of these species in the atmosphere, water, and precipitation. In the cycles the fluxes into and out of the atmosphere can be balanced within the limits of our knowledge of the natural sources and sinks. Sea salt from the ocean surfaces represent the predominant portion of the source of chlorine. It is also an important source of atmospheric fluorine, but volcanoes are likely to be more important fluorine sources. Dry deposition of sea salt returns about 85 percent of the salt released there. Precipitation removes the remainder. Most of the sea salt materials are considered to be cyclic, moving through sea spray over the oceans and either directly back to the oceans or deposited dry and in precipitation on land, whence it runs off into rivers and streams and returns to the oceans. Most of the natural chlorine in the atmosphere is in the form of particulate chloride ion with lesser amounts as gaseous inorganic chloride and methyl chloride vapor. Fluorine is emitted from volcanoes primarily as HF. It is possible that HF may be released directly form the ocean surface but this has not been confirmed by observation. HCl and most likely HF gases are released into the atmosphere by sea salt aerosols. The mechanism for the release is likely to be the provision of protons from the so-called excess sulfate and HNO3. Sea salt aerosol contains fluorine as F(-), MgF(+), CaF(+), and NaF. The concentrations of the various species of chlorine and fluorine that characterize primarily natural, unpolluted atmospheres are summarized in tables and are discussed in relation to their fluxes through the geochemical cycle.

  17. Draft Title 40 CFR 191 compliance certification application for the Waste Isolation Pilot Plant. Volume 3: Appendix BIR Volume 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-03-31

    The Waste Isolation Pilot Plant (WIPP) Transuranic Waste Baseline Inventory Report (WTWBIR) establishes a methodology for grouping wastes of similar physical and chemical properties, from across the US Department of Energy (DOE) transuranic (TRU) waste system, into a series of ``waste profiles`` that can be used as the basis for waste form discussions with regulatory agencies. The majority of this document reports TRU waste inventories of DOE defense sites. An appendix is included which provides estimates of commercial TRU waste from the West Valley Demonstration Project. The WIPP baseline inventory is estimated using waste streams identified by the DOE TRU waste generator/storage sites, supplemented by information from the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR) and the 1994 Integrated Data Base (IDB). The sites provided and/or authorized all information in the Waste Stream Profiles except the EPA (hazardous waste) codes for the mixed inventories. These codes were taken from the MWIR (if a WTWBIR mixed waste stream was not in MWIR, the sites were consulted). The IDB was used to generate the WIPP radionuclide inventory. Each waste stream is defined in a waste stream profile and has been assigned a waste matrix code (WMC) by the DOE TRU waste generator/storage site. Waste stream profiles with WMCs that have similar physical and chemical properties can be combined into a waste matrix code group (WMCG), which is then documented in a site-specific waste profile for each TRU waste generator/storage site that contains waste streams in that particular WMCG.

  18. Secondary Waste Cast Stone Waste Form Qualification Testing Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.; Serne, R. Jeffrey

    2012-09-26

    The Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) is being constructed to treat the 56 million gallons of radioactive waste stored in 177 underground tanks at the Hanford Site. The WTP includes a pretreatment facility to separate the wastes into high-level waste (HLW) and low-activity waste (LAW) fractions for vitrification and disposal. The LAW will be converted to glass for final disposal at the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). Cast Stone – a cementitious waste form, has been selected for solidification of this secondary waste stream after treatment in the ETF. The secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form must be acceptable for disposal in the IDF. This secondary waste Cast Stone waste form qualification testing plan outlines the testing of the waste form and immobilization process to demonstrate that the Cast Stone waste form can comply with the disposal requirements. Specifications for the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form have not been established. For this testing plan, Cast Stone specifications are derived from specifications for the immobilized LAW glass in the WTP contract, the waste acceptance criteria for the IDF, and the waste acceptance criteria in the IDF Permit issued by the State of Washington. This testing plan outlines the testing needed to demonstrate that the waste form can comply with these waste form specifications and acceptance criteria. The testing program must also demonstrate that the immobilization process can be controlled to consistently provide an acceptable waste form product. This testing plan also outlines the testing needed to provide the technical basis for understanding the long-term performance of the waste form in the disposal environment. These waste form performance data are needed to support performance assessment analyses of the long-term environmental impact of the secondary-waste Cast Stone waste form in the IDF

  19. CLAB Transuranic Waste Spreadsheets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leyba, J.D.

    2000-08-11

    The Building 772-F Far-Field Transuranic (TRU) Waste Counting System is used to measure the radionuclide content of waste packages produced at the Central Laboratory Facilities (CLAB). Data from the instrument are entered into one of two Excel spreadsheets. The waste stream associated with the waste package determines which spreadsheet is actually used. The spreadsheets calculate the necessary information required for completion of the Transuranic Waste Characterization Form (OSR 29-90) and the Radioactive Solid Waste Burial Ground Record (OSR 7-375 or OSR 7-375A). In addition, the spreadsheets calculate the associated Low Level Waste (LLW) stream information that potentially could be useful if the waste container is ever downgraded from TRU to LLW. The spreadsheets also have the capability to sum activities from source material added to a waste container after assay. A validation data set for each spreadsheet along with the appropriate results are also presented in this report for spreadsheet verification prior to each use.

  20. Behavior and control of chlorine in dyestuff residue incineration

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YAN Jian-hua; TAN Zhong-xin; JIANG Xue-guang; CHI Yong; CEN Ke-fa

    2006-01-01

    Dyestuff residue, a type of hazardous waste, is incinerated in the tubular furnace, and thermodynamic equilibrium model is used to calculate and analyze the chlorine behavior. The HCl emission and its effects on the behaviors of heavy metals are studied.Meanwhile, the effects of three dechlorine reagents are predicted at a high temperature. Results show that HCl emission is dependent on incineration temperature. The HCl evaporated mainly derives from the organic chlorine. Under the working condition of 500--900℃, the main products of Hg, Pb, Cu, Ni, Zn, and Mn in reaction with HCl are HgCl2 (g), PbCl4(g), PbCl2 (g), (CuCl)3 (g), NiCl2 (s),NiCl2 (g), ZnCl2 (s), ZnCl2 (g), Zn (g), MnCl2 (s), and MnCl2 (g), respectively. Among the three dechlorine reagents, CaCO3 is optimal to remove chlorine at high temperature, little of HCl is released below 800℃, whereas Fe3O4 is unstable at high temperature.

  1. Immobilization of fission products in phosphate ceramic waste forms

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, D. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States)

    1996-10-01

    The goal of this project is to develop and demonstrate the feasibility of a novel low-temperature solidification/stabilization (S/S) technology for immobilizing waste streams containing fission products such as cesium, strontium, and technetium in a chemically bonded phosphate ceramic. This technology can immobilize partitioned tank wastes and decontaminate waste streams containing volatile fission products.

  2. Chloride and organic chlorine in forest soils: storage, residence times, and influence of ecological conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Redon, Paul-Olivier; Abdelouas, Abdesselam; Bastviken, David; Cecchini, Sébastien; Nicolas, Manuel; Thiry, Yves

    2011-09-01

    Recent studies have shown that extensive chlorination of natural organic matter significantly affects chlorine (Cl) residence time in soils. This natural biogeochemical process must be considered when developing the conceptual models used as the basis for safety assessments regarding the potential health impacts of 36-chlorine released from present and planned radioactive waste disposal facilities. In this study, we surveyed 51 French forested areas to determine the variability in chlorine speciation and storage in soils. Concentrations of total chlorine (Cl(tot)) and organic chlorine (Cl(org)) were determined in litterfall, forest floor and mineral soil samples. Cl(org) constituted 11-100% of Cl(tot), with the highest concentrations being found in the humus layer (34-689 mg Cl(org) kg(-1)). In terms of areal storage (53 - 400 kg Cl(org) ha(-1)) the mineral soil dominated due to its greater thickness (40 cm). Cl(org) concentrations and estimated retention of organochlorine in the humus layer were correlated with Cl input, total Cl concentration, organic carbon content, soil pH and the dominant tree species. Cl(org) concentration in mineral soil was not significantly influenced by the studied environmental factors, however increasing Cl:C ratios with depth could indicate selective preservation of chlorinated organic molecules. Litterfall contributions of Cl were significant but generally minor compared to other fluxes and stocks. Assuming steady-state conditions, known annual wet deposition and measured inventories in soil, the theoretical average residence time calculated for total chlorine (inorganic (Cl(in)) and organic) was 5-fold higher than that estimated for Cl(in) alone. Consideration of the Cl(org) pool is therefore clearly important in studies of overall Cl cycling in terrestrial ecosystems.

  3. Chlorine signal attenuation in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Naqvi, A A; Maslehuddin, M; ur-Rehman, Khateeb; Al-Amoudi, O S B

    2015-11-01

    The intensity of prompt gamma-ray was measured at various depths from chlorine-contaminated silica fume (SF) concrete slab concrete specimens using portable neutron generator-based prompt gamma-ray setup. The intensity of 6.11MeV chloride gamma-rays was measured from the chloride contaminated slab at distance of 15.25, 20.25, 25.25, 30.25 and 35.25cm from neutron target in a SF cement concrete slab specimens. Due to attenuation of thermal neutron flux and emitted gamma-ray intensity in SF cement concrete at various depths, the measured intensity of chlorine gamma-rays decreases non-linearly with increasing depth in concrete. A good agreement was noted between the experimental results and the results of Monte Carlo simulation. This study has provided useful experimental data for evaluating the chloride contamination in the SF concrete utilizing gamma-ray attenuation method.

  4. Medical waste: a minimal hazard.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Keene, J H

    1991-11-01

    Medical waste is a subset of municipal waste, and regulated medical waste comprises less than 1% of the total municipal waste volume in the United States. As part of the overall waste stream, medical waste does contribute in a relative way to the aesthetic damage of the environment. Likewise, some small portion of the total release of hazardous chemicals and radioactive materials is derived from medical wastes. These comments can be made about any generated waste, regulated or unregulated. Healthcare professionals, including infection control personnel, microbiologists, public health officials, and others, have unsuccessfully argued that there is no evidence that past methods of treatment and disposal of regulated medical waste constitute any public health hazard. Historically, discovery of environmental contamination by toxic chemical disposal has followed assurances that the material was being disposed of in a safe manner. Therefore, a cynical public and its elected officials have demanded proof that the treatment and disposal of medical waste (i.e., infectious waste) do not constitute a public health hazard. Existent studies on municipal waste provide that proof. In order to argue that the results of these municipal waste studies are demonstrative of the minimal potential infectious environmental impact and lack of public health hazard associated with medical waste, we must accept the following: that the pathogens are the same whether they come from the hospital or the community, and that the municipal waste studied contained waste materials we now define as regulated medical waste.(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS)

  5. Reactions of aqueous chlorine and chlorine dioxide with model food compounds

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fukayama, M.Y.; Tan, H.; Wheeler, W.B.; Wei, C.

    1986-11-01

    This presentation reviews published information concerning the reactions of chlorine gas (CL/sub 2/(g)), aqueous chlorine, and ClO/sub 2/ with model food compounds, the fate of chlorine during the chlorination of specific food products, and the potential toxicity of the reaction products. Fatty acids and their methyl esters react with chlorine with the degree of incorporation corresponding to their degree of unsaturation. Aqueous chlorine oxidizes and chlorinates lipids and amino acids much more readily than ClO/sub 2/. Several amino acids are highly susceptible to oxidation and chlorination by chlorine compounds. Reactions of chlorine and ClO/sub 2/ with several food products, including flour and shrimp, have also been characterized. Although significant quantities of chlorine can be incorporated into specific model compounds and food products, the health risks associated with exposure to chlorinated organic products are unknown. Preliminary studies using the Ames Salmonella/microsome mutagenicity assay indicate that the reaction products from mixtures of aqueous chlorine and various lipids or tryptophan are nonmutagenic. Nevertheless, additional studies are warranted, so that the toxicological significance of these reaction products can be understood more fully.

  6. The effect of chlorine and combined chlorine/UV treatment on coliphages in drinking water disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zyara, Alyaa M; Torvinen, Eila; Veijalainen, Anna-Maria; Heinonen-Tanski, Helvi

    2016-08-01

    Chlorine disinfection is a globally used method to ensure the safety of drinking water. However, it has not always been successful against viruses and, therefore, it is important to find new methods to disinfect water. Seventeen different coliphages were isolated from the treated municipal wastewater. These coliphages and MS2 were treated with different dosages of chlorine in drinking water, and a combined chlorine/ultraviolet irradiation treatment for the chlorine-resistant coliphages. Chlorine disinfection with 0.3-0.5 mg/L total chlorine (free Cl-dosage 0.12-0.21 mg/L) for 10 min achieved 2.5-5.7 Log10-reductions for 11 sensitive coliphages. The six most resistant coliphages showed no reduction with these chlorine concentrations. MS2 was intermediate in chlorine resistance, and thus it is not a good indicator for viruses in chlorine disinfection. In the combined treatment total chlorine of 0.05-0.25 mg/L (free Cl-dosage 0.02-0.08 mg/L) and ultraviolet irradiation (14-22 mWs/cm(2)) were more effective than chlorine alone, and 3-5 Log10-reductions were achieved for the chlorine-resistant strains. The chlorination efficiency could be increased by higher dosages and longer contact times, but this could increase the formation of disinfection by-products. Therefore, the combination treatment is a recommended disinfection method.

  7. Experimental investigation of the quality characteristics of agricultural plastic wastes regarding their recycling and energy recovery potential.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Briassoulis, D; Hiskakis, M; Babou, E; Antiohos, S K; Papadi, C

    2012-06-01

    A holistic environmentally sound waste management scheme that transforms agricultural plastic waste (APW) streams into labelled guaranteed quality commodities freely traded in open market has been developed by the European research project LabelAgriWaste. The APW quality is defined by the APW material requirements, translated to technical specifications, for recycling or energy recovery. The present work investigates the characteristics of the APW quality and the key factors affecting it from the introduction of the virgin product to the market to the APW stream reaching the disposer. Samples of APW from different countries were traced from their application to the field through their storage phase and transportation to the final destination. The test results showed that the majority of APW retained their mechanical properties after their use preserving a "very good quality" for recycling in terms of degradation. The degree of soil contamination concerning the APW recycling and energy recovery potential fluctuates depending on the agricultural plastic category and application. The chlorine and heavy metal content of the tested APW materials was much lower than the maximum acceptable limits for their potential use in cement industries.

  8. Mixed wasted integrated program: Logic diagram

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mayberry, J.; Stelle, S. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); O`Brien, M. [Univ. of Arizona, Tucson, AZ (United States); Rudin, M. [Univ. of Nevada, Las Vegas, NV (United States); Ferguson, J. [Lockheed Idaho Technologies Co., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); McFee, J. [I.T. Corp., Albuquerque, NM (United States)

    1994-11-30

    The Mixed Waste Integrated Program Logic Diagram was developed to provide technical alternative for mixed wastes projects for the Office of Technology Development`s Mixed Waste Integrated Program (MWIP). Technical solutions in the areas of characterization, treatment, and disposal were matched to a select number of US Department of Energy (DOE) treatability groups represented by waste streams found in the Mixed Waste Inventory Report (MWIR).

  9. RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility, Permit Number NEV HW0101, Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Patrick [NSTec

    2014-02-14

    This report summarizes the EPA identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream, a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility, the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream, a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken, a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received, any unusual occurrences, and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101.

  10. Monte Carlo simulation and radiometric characterization of proton irradiated [{sup 18}O]H{sub 2}O for the treatment of the waste streams originated from [{sup 18}F]FDG synthesis process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Remetti, Romolo, E-mail: romolo.remetti@uniroma1.i [' Sapienza' University of Rome, Department of Energetics, via A.Scarpa 14, 00161 Rome (Italy); Burgio, Nunzio T. [ENEA, Casaccia Research Centre, Via Anguillarese, 301, 00060 S. Maria Di Galeria, Rome (Italy); Maciocco, Luca; Arcese, Manuele; Filannino, M. Azzurra [Advanced Accelerator Applications (AAA), 20 rue du Diesel, 01630, Saint-Genis Pouilly (France)

    2011-07-15

    The aim of this work is quantifying the radionuclidic impurities of the irradiated [{sup 18}O]water originated by the [{sup 18}F]FDG synthesis process, and characterizing, from a radioprotection point of view, the waste streams produced. Two samples of 2.4 ml [{sup 18}O]H{sub 2}O, contained in two different target cells, have been irradiated with a proton current of 37 {mu}A in a PETtrace cyclotron for about one hour each; after irradiation, without performing any chemical purification process but waiting only for the {sup 18}F decay, they have been transferred in two vials and measured by HPGe gamma spectrometry and, subsequently, by Liquid Scintillation Counting. Previously, Monte Carlo calculations had been carried out in order to estimate the radionuclides generated within the target components ([{sup 18}O]H{sub 2}O, silver body and Havar (registered) foil), with the aim to identify the nuclides expected to be found in the irradiated water. Experimental results for the two samples, normalized to the same irradiation time, show practically the same value of tritium concentration (about 36 kBq/ml) while gamma emitters activity concentrations exhibit a greater spread. Considering that tritium derives from water activation while other pollutants are caused by activated cell materials released into water through erosion/corrosion mechanisms, such a spread is likely to be attributable to differences in the proton beam shape and position (production of different natural circulation patterns inside the target and different erosion mechanisms of the target cell walls). Both tritium and the other radioactive pollutants exhibit absolute values of activity and activity concentrations below the exemption limits set down in EURATOM Council Directive 96/29.

  11. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  12. The chlorination of cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Maatman, Hendrik

    1980-01-01

    In this thesis the results of an investigation of the chlorination of cyclopentanone and cyclohexanone in the solvent carbontetrachloride and catalyzed by hydrogen chloride are described. ... Zie: Summary

  13. High resolution spectrophotometry for identification of chlorine dioxide in concentrated chlorine solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gauw, R D; Emmert, G L; Bubnis, B; Gordon, G

    1999-12-06

    Electrolyzed salt brine generators hold great promise for water disinfection in small communities and remote locations. Electrolysis cell liquors have been reported to contain chlorine, chlorine dioxide and ozone. High resolution spectrophotometry was used to observe the presence (or absence) of a unique spectral absorbance pattern present in solutions containing 1-2 mg/l chlorine dioxide.

  14. Purification of highly chlorinated dioxins degrading enzyme

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ishii, K.; Furuichi, T.; Koike, K.; Kuboshima, M. [Hokkaido Univ. (Japan). Division of Environment Resource Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering

    2004-09-15

    Soil contamination caused by dioxins in and around sites of incinerators for municipal solid waste (MSW) is a concern in Japan. For example, scattering wastewater from a wet gas scrubber at an MSW incinerator facility in Nose, Osaka caused soil and surface water contamination. The concentration of dioxins in the soil was about 8,000 pg-TEQ/g. Other contamination sites include soils on which fly ash has been placed directly or improperly stored and landfill sites that have received bottom and fly ash over a long period. Some countermeasures are required immediately at these dioxins-contaminated sites. We have previously developed bioreactor systems for dioxin-contaminated water and soil. We have shown that a fungus, Pseudallescheria boydii (P. boydii), isolated from activated sludge treating wastewater that contained dioxins, has the ability to degrade highly chlorinated dioxins. A reaction product of octachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin (OCDD) was identified as heptachlorinated dibenzo-p-dioxin. Therefore, one of the pathways for degradation of OCDD by this fungus was predicted to be as follows: OCDD is transformed by dechlorination and then one of the remaining aromatic rings is oxidized. To apply P. boydii to on-site technologies (e.g., bioreactor systems), as well as in situ technologies, enzyme treatment using a dioxin-degrading enzyme from P. boydii needs to be developed because P. boydii is a weak pathogenic fungus, known to cause opportunistic infection. As a result, we have studied enzyme purification of nonchlorinated dioxin, namely, dibenzo-pdioxin (DD). However, we did not try to identify enzymes capable of degrading highly chlorinated dioxins. This study has elucidated a method of enzyme assay for measuring OCDD-degrading activity, and has attempted to purify OCDD-degrading enzymes from P. boydii using enzyme assay. In addition, as first step toward purifying 2,3,7,8-tetrachlorodibenzo-p-dioxin (2,3,7,8-TCDD), 2,3,7,8-TCDD degradation tests were carried out

  15. FLUIDIZED BED STEAM REFORMING ENABLING ORGANIC HIGH LEVEL WASTE DISPOSAL

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, M

    2008-05-09

    Waste streams planned for generation by the Global Nuclear Energy Partnership (GNEP) and existing radioactive High Level Waste (HLW) streams containing organic compounds such as the Tank 48H waste stream at Savannah River Site have completed simulant and radioactive testing, respectfully, by Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL). GNEP waste streams will include up to 53 wt% organic compounds and nitrates up to 56 wt%. Decomposition of high nitrate streams requires reducing conditions, e.g. provided by organic additives such as sugar or coal, to reduce NOX in the off-gas to N2 to meet Clean Air Act (CAA) standards during processing. Thus, organics will be present during the waste form stabilization process regardless of the GNEP processes utilized and exists in some of the high level radioactive waste tanks at Savannah River Site and Hanford Tank Farms, e.g. organics in the feed or organics used for nitrate destruction. Waste streams containing high organic concentrations cannot be stabilized with the existing HLW Best Developed Available Technology (BDAT) which is HLW vitrification (HLVIT) unless the organics are removed by pretreatment. The alternative waste stabilization pretreatment process of Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming (FBSR) operates at moderate temperatures (650-750 C) compared to vitrification (1150-1300 C). The FBSR process has been demonstrated on GNEP simulated waste and radioactive waste containing high organics from Tank 48H to convert organics to CAA compliant gases, create no secondary liquid waste streams and create a stable mineral waste form.

  16. 1993 annual report of hazardous waste activities for the Oak Ridge K-25 site

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1994-02-01

    This report is a detailed listing of all of the Hazardous Waste activities occurring at Martin Marietta`s K-25 site. Contained herein are hazardous waste notification forms, waste stream reports, generator fee forms and various TSDR reports.

  17. 76 FR 55846 - Hazardous Waste Management System: Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide...

    Science.gov (United States)

    2011-09-09

    ... Listing of Hazardous Waste: Carbon Dioxide (CO2) Streams in Geologic Sequestration Activities AGENCY...) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are hazardous from the definition of... Recovery Act (RCRA) to conditionally exclude carbon dioxide (CO 2 ) streams that are hazardous from...

  18. Inactivation of simian rotavirus SA11 by chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine.

    OpenAIRE

    Berman, D; Hoff, J C

    1984-01-01

    The kinetics of inactivation of simian rotavirus SA11 by chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine were studied at 5 degrees C with a purified preparation of single virions and a preparation of cell-associated virions. Inactivation of the virus preparations with chlorine and chlorine dioxide was studied at pH 6 and 10. The monochloramine studies were done at pH 8. With 0.5 mg of chlorine per liter at pH 6, more than 4 logs (99.99%) of the single virions were inactivated in less than 15 s...

  19. The photoreactivity of chlorine dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaida, V. [Univ. of Colorado, Boulder, CO (United States); Simon, J.D. [Univ. of California, San Diego, La Jolla, CA (United States)

    1995-06-09

    Determining the detailed photoreactivity of radicals that are of importance in atmospheric processes requires information from both laboratory and field measurements and theoretical calculations. Laboratory experiments and quantum calculations have been used to develop a comprehensive understanding of the photoreactivity of chlorine dioxide (OClO). The photoreactivity is strongly dependent on the medium (gas phase, liquid solution, or cryogenic matrix). These data reveal details of the complex chemistry of OClO. The potential role of this radical in stratospheric ozone depletion is discussed in accord with these laboratory measurements. 53 refs., 4 figs.

  20. Effects of ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and monochloramine on Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst viability

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Korich, D.G.; Mead, J.R.; Madore, M.S.; Sinclair, N.A.; Sterling, C.R. (Univ. of Arizona, Tucson (USA))

    1990-05-01

    Purified Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were exposed to ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and monochloramine. Excystation and mouse infectivity were comparatively evaluated to assess oocyst viability. Ozone and chlorine dioxide more effectively inactivated oocysts than chlorine and monochloramine did. Greater than 90% inactivation as measured by infectivity was achieved by treating oocysts with 1 ppm of ozone (1 mg/liter) for 5 min. Exposure to 1.3 ppm of chlorine dioxide yielded 90% inactivation after 1 h, while 80 ppm of chlorine and 80 ppm of monochloramine required approximately 90 min for 90% inactivation. The data indicate that C. parvum oocysts are 30 times more resistant to ozone and 14 times more resistant to chlorine dioxide than Giardia cysts exposed to these disinfectants under the same conditions. With the possible exception of ozone, the use of disinfectants alone should not be expected to inactivate C. parvum oocysts in drinking water.

  1. Effects of ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and monochloramine on Cryptosporidium parvum oocyst viability.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Korich, D G; Mead, J R; Madore, M S; Sinclair, N A; Sterling, C R

    1990-01-01

    Purified Cryptosporidium parvum oocysts were exposed to ozone, chlorine dioxide, chlorine, and monochloramine. Excystation and mouse infectivity were comparatively evaluated to assess oocyst viability. Ozone and chlorine dioxide more effectively inactivated oocysts than chlorine and monochloramine did. Greater than 90% inactivation as measured by infectivity was achieved by treating oocysts with 1 ppm of ozone (1 mg/liter) for 5 min. Exposure to 1.3 ppm of chlorine dioxide yielded 90% inactivation after 1 h, while 80 ppm of chlorine and 80 ppm of monochloramine required approximately 90 min for 90% inactivation. The data indicate that C. parvum oocysts are 30 times more resistant to ozone and 14 times more resistant to chlorine dioxide than Giardia cysts exposed to these disinfectants under the same conditions. With the possible exception of ozone, the use of disinfectants alone should not be expected to inactivate C. parvum oocysts in drinking water. PMID:2339894

  2. Heavy metal removal from MSS fly ash by thermal and chlorination treatments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingyong; Chen, Jiacong; Huang, Limao

    2015-11-01

    The thermal behavior of heavy metals in the co-incineration of municipal solid waste-sludge incinerator fly ash (MSS fly ash) was studied using a laboratory-scale tube furnace. The results indicate that without the addition of chlorinating agents, temperature was an important parameter and had significantly influenced on heavy metal removal, whereas the residence time had a weak effect. Between 900 and 1000 °C for 60 to 300 min, heavy metals reacted with chloride-inherent in the fly ash, and approximately 80 to 89% of Pb, 48% to 56% of Cd, 27% to 36% of Zn and 6% to 24% of Cu were removed. After the adding chlorinating agents, the evaporation rate of the heavy metals improved dramatically, where the evaporation rates of Cu and Zn were larger than that of Pb and Cd. As the amount of added chlorinating agents increased, the removal rate of heavy metals increased. However, the effect of the type of chlorinating agent on the chlorination of heavy metals differed considerably, where NaCl had the weakest effect on the removal rate of Cu, Cd and Zn. In terms of resource recovery and decontamination, MgCl2 and CaCl2 are the best choices due to their efficient removal of Zn.

  3. Heavy metal removal from MSS fly ash by thermal and chlorination treatments.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jingyong; Chen, Jiacong; Huang, Limao

    2015-11-25

    The thermal behavior of heavy metals in the co-incineration of municipal solid waste-sludge incinerator fly ash (MSS fly ash) was studied using a laboratory-scale tube furnace. The results indicate that without the addition of chlorinating agents, temperature was an important parameter and had significantly influenced on heavy metal removal, whereas the residence time had a weak effect. Between 900 and 1000 °C for 60 to 300 min, heavy metals reacted with chloride-inherent in the fly ash, and approximately 80 to 89% of Pb, 48% to 56% of Cd, 27% to 36% of Zn and 6% to 24% of Cu were removed. After the adding chlorinating agents, the evaporation rate of the heavy metals improved dramatically, where the evaporation rates of Cu and Zn were larger than that of Pb and Cd. As the amount of added chlorinating agents increased, the removal rate of heavy metals increased. However, the effect of the type of chlorinating agent on the chlorination of heavy metals differed considerably, where NaCl had the weakest effect on the removal rate of Cu, Cd and Zn. In terms of resource recovery and decontamination, MgCl2 and CaCl2 are the best choices due to their efficient removal of Zn.

  4. Mutagenic compounds from chlorination of humic substances

    Science.gov (United States)

    Holmbom, Bjarne

    Chlorination of natural humic substances, as well as of lignin, produces a myriad of non-chlorinated and chlorinated compounds. The identification of an important class of strongly mutagenic compounds is reviewed. The most important Ames mutagen in chlorinated drinking waters of various origin is the compound 3-chloro-4-(dichloromethyl)-5-hydroxy-2(5H)-furanone ("MX"). This compound occurs at neutral pH in the acyclic form, i.e. in the form of Z-2-chloro-3-(dichloromethyl)-4-oxobutenoic acid. Its E-isomer (E-MX) is present in chlorinated drinking waters at a similar concentration, but is less mutagenic in Ames test. Both oxidised and reduced forms of MX and E-MX are also present in chlorinated waters. The present knowledge of the chemistry and toxicology of these mutagens is examined. The formation and possible elimination of the chlorination mutagens is discussed. The need of understanding the mechanisms of formation of these mutagens from humic substances during drinking water chlorination is emphasized.

  5. Elements from chlorine to calcium nuclear reactions

    CERN Document Server

    Kunz, Wunibald

    1968-01-01

    Nuclear Tables: Part II Nuclear Reactions, Volume 3: The Elements from Chlorine to Calcium contains tabulations of the nuclear reaction values of elements chlorine, argon, potassium, and calcium. These tabulations provide the calculated Q-values of the elements and their isotopes. This book will be of value to general chemistry researchers.

  6. Uptake, turnover and distribution of chlorinated fatty acids in aquatic biota

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bjoern, Helena

    1999-09-01

    Chlorinated fatty acids (CIFAs) are the major contributors of extractable, organically bound chlorine in fish lipids. A known anthropogenic source of CIFAs is chlorine bleached pulp production. Additional anthropogenic sources may exist, e.g., chlorine-containing discharge from industrial and household waste and they may also occur naturally. CIFAs have a wide geographic distribution. They have, for instance, been identified in fish both from Alaskan and Scandinavian waters. In toxicological studies of CIFAs, the most pronounced effects have been found in reproductive related processes. CIFAs have also been shown to disrupt cell membrane functions. The present study was carried out to further characterise the ecotoxicological properties of CIFAs and their presence in biota. To investigate the biological stability of CIFAs, two experiments were carried out using radiolabelled chlorinated and non-chlorinated fatty acids. In both experiments, CIFAs were taken up from food by fish and assimilated to lipids. From the first experiment it was concluded that the chlorinated fatty acid investigated was turned over in the fish to a lower degree than the non-chlorinated analogue. In the second experiment, the transfer of a chlorinated fatty acid was followed over several trophic levels and the chlorinated fatty acid was transferred to the highest trophic level. In samples with differing loads of persistent organic pollutants (POPs) from both fish and marine mammals, high concentrations and diversity of CIFAs were detected. This was also observed in samples with low POP concentration. Chlorohydroxy fatty acids made up a considerable portion of the CIFAs in certain samples, both from limnic fish and marine mammals. CIFAs in fish were found to be bound in complex lipids such as triacylglycerols (storage lipids) and phospholipids, as well as in acyl sterols (membrane lipids). In the marine mammals investigated, high concentrations of CIFAs were mainly bound in phospholipids. If

  7. Treatment of Molybdate Containing Waste Streams

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Witkamp, G.J.; Van Spronsen, J.; Hasselaar, M.

    2008-01-01

    The invention is directed to a process for the treatment of an aqueous solution comprising sodium carbonate and/or sodium bicarbonate and sodium molybdate, said process comprising freeze crystallising the solution at the eutectic freezing point thereof and recovering substantially pure ice crystals,

  8. Phosphorus recovery and reuse from waste streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Phosphorus (P) is a macronutrient essential for all living organisms. Regrettably, it is a finite resource since phosphate rock (PR) is the main material used for production of P fertilizers. Globally, the demand for quality PR is escalating due to many factors including increasing human population....

  9. Hanford Site Secondary Waste Roadmap

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Westsik, Joseph H.

    2009-01-29

    Summary The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE) is making plans to dispose of 54 million gallons of radioactive tank wastes at the Hanford Site near Richland, Washington. The high-level wastes and low-activity wastes will be vitrified and placed in permanent disposal sites. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents, and these need to be processed and disposed of also. The Department of Energy Office of Waste Processing sponsored a meeting to develop a roadmap to outline the steps necessary to design the secondary waste forms. Representatives from DOE, the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the Washington State Department of Ecology, the Oregon Department of Energy, Nuclear Regulatory Commission, technical experts from the DOE national laboratories, academia, and private consultants convened in Richland, Washington, during the week of July 21-23, 2008, to participate in a workshop to identify the risks and uncertainties associated with the treatment and disposal of the secondary wastes and to develop a roadmap for addressing those risks and uncertainties. This report describes the results of the roadmap meeting in Richland. Processing of the tank wastes will generate secondary wastes, including routine solid wastes and liquid process effluents. The secondary waste roadmap workshop focused on the waste streams that contained the largest fractions of the 129I and 99Tc that the Integrated Disposal Facility risk assessment analyses were showing to have the largest contribution to the estimated IDF disposal impacts to groundwater. Thus, the roadmapping effort was to focus on the scrubber/off-gas treatment liquids with 99Tc to be sent to the Effluent Treatment Facility for treatment and solidification and the silver mordenite and carbon beds with the captured 129I to be packaged and sent to the IDF. At the highest level, the secondary waste roadmap includes elements addressing regulatory and

  10. Internal chlorination of Ni-Cr alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Berztiss, D.; Hennesen, K.; Grabke, H.J. [Max-Planck-Institut fuer Eisenforschung GmbH, Duesseldorf (Germany)

    1998-12-31

    In contrast to internal oxidation, sulfidation and carburization, very little information is available regarding internal chlorination, especially diffusion of chlorine in metallic alloys. This paper describes results of experiments on Ni-Cr alloys (<10 wt% Cr) exposed in an atmosphere containing radioactive HCl. The diffusion of chlorine in the alloy can be determined by measurement of residual {beta}-activity from the sample surface. Successively thin layers (0.5-10 {mu}m) of the alloy were removed by lapping and the surface activity was measured to obtain a depth profile. Both single and polycrystalline materials were tested. Through this work it should be determined if there is in fact solubility and diffusion of chlorine in Ni-based alloys as some authors have proposed or if the ingress of chlorine is mainly a grain boundary phenomenon. (orig.)

  11. Thermal loading of natural streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jackman, Alan P.; Yotsukura, Nobuhiro

    1977-01-01

    The impact of thermal loading on the temperature regime of natural streams is investigated by mathematical models, which describe both transport (convection-diffusion) and decay (surface dissipation) of waste heat over 1-hour or shorter time intervals. The models are derived from the principle of conservation of thermal energy for application to one- and two-dimensional spaces. The basic concept in these models is to separate water temperature into two parts, (1) excess temperature due to thermal loading and (2) natural (ambient) temperature. This separation allows excess temperature to be calculated from the models without incoming radiation data. Natural temperature may either be measured in prototypes or calculated from the model. If use is made of the model, however, incoming radiation is required as input data. Comparison of observed and calculated temperatures in seven natural streams shows that the models are capable of predicting transient temperature regimes satisfactorily in most cases. (Woodard-USGS)

  12. Impact of wastewater infrastructure upgrades on the urban water cycle: Reduction in halogenated reaction byproducts following conversion from chlorine gas to ultraviolet light disinfection

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barber, Larry B. [U.S. Geological Survey, 3215 Marine St., Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); Hladik, Michelle L. [U.S. Geological Survey, 6000 J Street Placer Hall, Sacramento, CA 95819 (United States); Vajda, Alan M. [University of Colorado, Department of Integrative Biology, CB 171, Denver, CO 80217 (United States); Fitzgerald, Kevin C. [U.S. Geological Survey, 3215 Marine St., Boulder, CO 80303 (United States); AECOM, 500 West Jefferson St., Ste. 1600, Louisville, KY 40202 (United States); Douville, Chris [City of Boulder, 4049 75th Street, Boulder, CO 80301 (United States)

    2015-10-01

    The municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) infrastructure of the United States is being upgraded to expand capacity and improve treatment, which provides opportunities to assess the impact of full-scale operational changes on water quality. Many WWTFs disinfect their effluent prior to discharge using chlorine gas, which reacts with natural and synthetic organic matter to form halogenated disinfection byproducts (HDBPs). Because HDBPs are ubiquitous in chlorine-disinfected drinking water and have adverse human health implications, their concentrations are regulated in potable water supplies. Less is known about the formation and occurrence of HDBPs in disinfected WWTF effluents that are discharged to surface waters and become part of the de facto wastewater reuse cycle. This study investigated HDBPs in the urban water cycle from the stream source of the chlorinated municipal tap water that comprises the WWTF inflow, to the final WWTF effluent disinfection process before discharge back to the stream. The impact of conversion from chlorine-gas to low-pressure ultraviolet light (UV) disinfection at a full-scale (68,000 m{sup 3} d{sup −1} design flow) WWTF on HDBP concentrations in the final effluent was assessed, as was transport and attenuation in the receiving stream. Nutrients and trace elements (boron, copper, and uranium) were used to characterize the different urban source waters, and indicated that the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade water chemistry was similar and insensitive to the disinfection process. Chlorinated tap water during the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade samplings contained 11 (mean total concentration = 2.7 μg L{sup −1}; n = 5) and 10 HDBPs (mean total concentration = 4.5 μg L{sup −1}), respectively. Under chlorine-gas disinfection conditions 13 HDBPs (mean total concentration = 1.4 μg L{sup −1}) were detected in the WWTF effluent, whereas under UV disinfection conditions, only one HDBP was detected. The chlorinated WWTF effluent had

  13. Iron-based materials as tar cracking catalyst in waste gasification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nordgreen, Thomas

    2011-07-01

    The treatment of municipal solid waste (MSW) in Sweden has changed during the past decades due to national legislation and European Union directives. The former landfills have more or less been abandoned in favour of material recycling and waste incineration. On a yearly basis approximately 2.2 million tonnes waste are incinerated in Sweden with heat recovery and to some extent also with electricity generation, though at a low efficiency. It is desirable to alter this utilisation and instead employ MSW as fuel in a fluid bed gasification process. Then electrical energy may be produced at a much higher efficiency. However, MSW contain about 1 % chlorine in the form of ordinary table salt (NaCl) from food scraps. This implies that the tar cracking catalyst, dolomite, which is normally employed in gasification, will suffer from poisoning if applied under such conditions. Then the tar cracking capacity will be reduced or vanish completely with time. Consequently, an alternative catalyst, more resistant to chlorine, is needed. Preliminary research at KTH has indicated that iron in its metallic state may possess tar cracking ability. With this information at hand and participating in the project 'Energy from Waste' an experimental campaign was launched. Numerous experiments were conducted using iron as tar cracking catalyst. First iron sinter pellets from LKAB were employed. They were reduced in situ with a stream of hydrogen before they were applied. Later iron-based granules from Hoeganaes AB were tested. These materials were delivered in the metallic state. In all tests the KTH atmospheric fluidised bed gasifier with a secondary catalytic reactor housing the catalytic material was deployed. Mostly, the applied fuel was birch. The results show that metallic iron possesses an intrinsic ability, almost in the range of dolomite, to crack tars. Calculations indicate that iron may be more resistant to chlorine than dolomite. The exploration of metallic iron

  14. Eleventh annual Department of Energy low-level waste management conference. Volume 3: Waste characterization, waste reduction and minimization, prototype licensing application

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1989-11-01

    Thirteen papers are presented in volume 3. The seven papers on waste characterization discuss sampling, analysis, and certification techniques for low-level radioactive wastes. Three papers discuss US DOE waste minimization policies and regulations, Y-12 Plant`s reduction of chlorinated solvents, and C-14 removal from spent resins. The last three papers discuss the licensing studies for earth-mounded concrete bunkers for LLW disposal. Papers have been processed separately for inclusion on the data base.

  15. Combustible radioactive waste treatment by incineration and chemical digestion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stretz, L.A.; Crippen, M.D.; Allen, C.R.

    1980-05-28

    A review is given of present and planned combustible radioactive waste treatment systems in the US. Advantages and disadvantages of various systems are considered. Design waste streams are discussed in relation to waste composition, radioactive contaminants by amount and type, and special operating problems caused by the waste.

  16. Engineering Greener Processes--Laser Cutter Transforms Printing Waste

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xu, Renmei; Flowers, Jim

    2011-01-01

    Many of today's students have embraced an environmental ethic and are motivated by efforts to reduce waste or to remanufacture waste into viable products. In-class efforts to reuse and remanufacture waste can be especially motivating. They can also help students develop a better understanding of life-cycle analysis, waste-stream management,…

  17. Comparison of chlorine and chloramine in the release of mercury from dental amalgam.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stone, Mark E; Scott, John W; Schultz, Stephen T; Berry, Denise L; Wilcoxon, Monte; Piwoni, Marv; Panno, Brent; Bordson, Gary

    2009-01-01

    The purpose of this project was to compare the ability of chlorine (HOCl/OCl(-)) and monochloramine (NH(2)Cl) to mobilize mercury from dental amalgam. Two types of amalgam were used in this investigation: laboratory-prepared amalgam and samples obtained from dental-unit wastewater. For disinfectant exposure simulations, 0.5 g of either the laboratory-generated or clinically obtained amalgam waste was added to 250 mL amber bottles. The amalgam samples were agitated by end-over-end rotation at 30 rpm in the presence of 1 mg/L chlorine, 10 mg/L chlorine, 1 mg/L monochloramine, 10 mg/L monochloramine, or deionized water for intervals of 0 h, 2 h, 4 h, 8 h, and 24 h for the clinically obtained amalgam waste samples and 4 h and 24 h for the laboratory-prepared samples. Chlorine and monochloramine concentrations were measured with a spectrophotometer. Samples were filtered through a 0.45 microm membrane filter and analyzed for mercury with USEPA standard method 245.7. When the two sample types were combined, the mean mercury level in the 1 mg/L chlorine group was 0.020 mg/L (n=25, SD=0.008). The 10 mg/L chlorine group had a mean mercury concentration of 0.59 mg/L (n=25, SD=1.06). The 1 mg/L chloramine group had a mean mercury level of 0.023 mg/L (n=25, SD=0.010). The 10 mg/L chloramine group had a mean mercury level of 0.024 mg/L (n=25, SD=0.011). Independent samples t-tests showed that there was a significant difference between the natural log mercury measurements of 10 mg/L chlorine compared to those of 1 mg/L and 10 mg/L chloramine. Changing from chlorine to chloramine disinfection at water treatment plants would not be expected to produce substantial increases in dissolved mercury levels in dental-unit wastewater.

  18. Electron affinity of chlorine dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Babcock, L.M.; Pentecost, T.; Koppenol, W.H. (Louisiana State Univ., Baton Rouge (USA))

    1989-12-14

    The flowing afterglow technique was used to determine the electron affinity of chlorine dioxide. A value of 2.37 {plus minus} 0.10 eV was found by bracketing between the electron affinities of HS* and SF{sub 4} as a lower limit and that of NO{sub 2} as an upper limit. This value is in excellent agreement with 2.32 eV predicted from a simple thermodynamic cycle involving the reduction potential of the ClO{sub 2}/ClO{sub 2}{sup {minus}} couple and a Gibbs hydration energy identical with that of SO{sub 2}{sup {sm bullet}{minus}}.

  19. Food Waste Auditing at Three Florida Schools

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ann C. Wilkie

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available School cafeterias are a significant source of food waste and represent an ideal opportunity for diverting food waste from landfills. In this study, cafeteria waste audits were conducted at three Florida schools. Food waste comprised the largest fraction of school cafeteria waste streams, ranging from 47% to 58%, followed by milk, paper products (tissue, milk cartons, pasteboard, paper plates, and cardboard, and plastics (plastic wrap, packaging, and utensils. Metal and glass comprised the smallest fraction of the waste stream. Average total waste generation ranged from 50.5 to 137.6 g·student−1·day−1. The mean generation rates for food waste ranged from 24.7 to 64.9 g·student−1·day−1. The overall average for cafeteria waste generation among all three schools was 102.3 g·student−1·day−1, with food waste alone contributing 52.2 g·student−1·day−1. There are two primary approaches to diverting school food waste from landfills: reduction and recycling. Food waste can be reduced through educating students and staff in order to change behaviors that cause food waste. Food waste can be collected and recycled through composting or anaerobic digestion in order to generate beneficial end products, including soil amendments and bioenergy. Over 75% of the cafeteria waste measured in this study could be recycled in this manner.

  20. CRYSTALLINE CERAMIC WASTE FORMS: REFERENCE FORMULATION REPORT

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Brinkman, K.; Fox, K.; Marra, J.

    2012-05-15

    The research conducted in this work package is aimed at taking advantage of the long term thermodynamic stability of crystalline ceramics to create more durable waste forms (as compared to high level waste glass) in order to reduce the reliance on engineered and natural barrier systems. Durable ceramic waste forms that incorporate a wide range of radionuclides have the potential to broaden the available disposal options and to lower the storage and disposal costs associated with advanced fuel cycles. Assemblages of several titanate phases have been successfully demonstrated to incorporate radioactive waste elements, and the multiphase nature of these materials allows them to accommodate variation in the waste composition. Recent work has shown that they can be successfully produced from a melting and crystallization process. The objective of this report is to explain the design of ceramic host systems culminating in a reference ceramic formulation for use in subsequent studies on process optimization and melt property data assessment in support of FY13 melter demonstration testing. The waste stream used as the basis for the development and testing is a combination of the projected Cs/Sr separated stream, the Trivalent Actinide - Lanthanide Separation by Phosphorous reagent Extraction from Aqueous Komplexes (TALSPEAK) waste stream consisting of lanthanide fission products, the transition metal fission product waste stream resulting from the transuranic extraction (TRUEX) process, and a high molybdenum concentration with relatively low noble metal concentrations. In addition to the combined CS/LN/TM High Mo waste stream, variants without Mo and without Mo and Zr were also evaluated. Based on the results of fabricating and characterizing several simulated ceramic waste forms, two reference ceramic waste form compositions are recommended in this report. The first composition targets the CS/LN/TM combined waste stream with and without Mo. The second composition targets

  1. Phosphate valorization by dry chlorination route

    OpenAIRE

    Kanari N.; Menad N.; Diot F.; Allain E.; Yvon J.

    2016-01-01

    International audience; This work deals with the extraction of phosphorus chlorinated compounds from phosphate materials using chlorination with gaseous chlorine. An industrial sample of dicalcium phosphate dihydrate, after transformation into calcium pyrophosphate (Ca 2 P 2 O 7), is subjected to reactions with Cl 2 +CO+N 2 and Cl 2 +C+N 2 at temperatures ranging from 625 to 950 °C using boat experiments. Gathering results of the thermodynamic predictions and TG/DT analysis with those of SEM ...

  2. A comparison of the virucidal properties of chlorine, chlorine dioxide, bromine chloride and iodine.

    OpenAIRE

    Taylor, G. R.; Butler, M.

    1982-01-01

    Chlorine dioxide, bromine chloride and iodine were compared with chlorine as virucidal agents. Under optimal conditions all disinfectants were effective at low concentrations, but each disinfectant responded differently to acidity and alkalinity. Disinfection by chlorine was impaired by the presence of ammonia, but the other disinfectants retained much of their potency. Disinfection of poliovirus by iodine resulted in structural changes in the virions as seen by electron micrroscopy, but the ...

  3. Preliminary ECLSS waste water model

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carter, Donald L.; Holder, Donald W., Jr.; Alexander, Kevin; Shaw, R. G.; Hayase, John K.

    1991-01-01

    A preliminary waste water model for input to the Space Station Freedom (SSF) Environmental Control and Life Support System (ECLSS) Water Processor (WP) has been generated for design purposes. Data have been compiled from various ECLSS tests and flight sample analyses. A discussion of the characterization of the waste streams comprising the model is presented, along with a discussion of the waste water model and the rationale for the inclusion of contaminants in their respective concentrations. The major objective is to establish a methodology for the development of a waste water model and to present the current state of that model.

  4. RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report Calendar Year 2011

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NSTec Environmental Restoration

    2012-02-16

    This report summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream; a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility; the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream; a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken; a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received; any unusual occurrences; and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101.

  5. RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report - Calendar Year 2014

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, Patrick [NSTec

    2015-02-17

    This report summarizes the EPA identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream, a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility, the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream, a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken, a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received, any unusual occurrences, and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101.

  6. RCRA Permit for a Hazardous Waste Management Facility Permit Number NEV HW0101 Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report Calendar Year 2012, Nevada National Security Site, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Arnold, P. M.

    2013-02-21

    This report summarizes the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) identification number of each generator from which the Permittee received a waste stream, a description and quantity of each waste stream in tons and cubic feet received at the facility, the method of treatment, storage, and/or disposal for each waste stream, a description of the waste minimization efforts undertaken, a description of the changes in volume and toxicity of waste actually received, any unusual occurrences, and the results of tank integrity assessments. This Annual Summary/Waste Minimization Report is prepared in accordance with Section 2.13.3 of Permit Number NEV HW0101, issued 10/17/10.

  7. Dry Machining Tool Design via Chlorine Ion Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Tatsuhiko Aizawa; Atsushi Mitsuo; Shigeo Yamamoto; Shinji Muraishi; Taro Sumitomo

    2004-01-01

    Dry machining has become a key issue to significantly reduce the wastes of used lubricants and cleaning agents and to improve the environmental consciousness for medical and food applications of special tooling. Since the tools and metallic works are in direct contact in dry, severe adhesive wear and oxidation are thought to occur even at the presence of hard protective coatings. Self-lubrication mechanism with use of lubricous oxide films is found to be effective for dry machining. Through the chlorine ion implantation to tools, titanium base oxides are in-situ formed on the tool surface.This oxide deforms elasto-plastically so that both friction coefficient and wear volume are reduced even in the high-speed cutting.

  8. Dry Machining Tool Design via Chlorine Ion Implantation

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    TatsuhikoAizawa; AtsushiMitsuo; ShigeoYamamoto; ShinjiMuraishi; TaroSumitomo

    2004-01-01

    Dry machining has become a key issue to significantly reduce the wastes of used lubricants and cleaning agents and to improve the environmental consciousness for medical and food applications of special tooling. Since the tools and metallic works are in direct contact in dry, severe adhesive wear and oxidation are thought to occur even at the presence of hard protective coatings. Self-lubrication mechanism with use of lubricous oxide films is found to be effective for dry machining. Through the chlorine ion implantation to tools, titanium base oxides are in-situ formed on the tool surface. This oxide deforms elasto-plastically so that both friction coefficient and wear volume are reduced even in the high-speed cutting.

  9. Behavior of chlorine during coal pyrolysis

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shao, D.; Hutchinson, E.J.; Cao, H.; Pan, W.-P.; Chou, C.-L.

    1994-01-01

    The behavior of chlorine in Illinois coals during pyrolysis was evaluated by combined thermo-gravimetry-Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy-ion chromatography (TG-FTIR-IC) techniques. It was found that more than 90% of chlorine in Illinois coals (IBC-103, 105, 106, and 109) was liberated as HCl gas during pyrolysis from 300 to 600??C, with the rate reaching a maximum at 440 ??C. Similarity of the HCl and NH3 release profiles during pyrolysis of IBC-109 supports the hypothesis that the chlorine in coal may be associated with nitrogen and the chlorine is probably bonded to the basic nitrogen sites on the inner walls of coal micropores. ?? 1994 American Chemical Society.

  10. Chlorine Salts at the Phoenix Landing Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hanley, J.; Horgan, B.

    2016-09-01

    Although chlorine salts (perchlorates, chlorides) are known to exist at the Phoenix landing site, their distribution and type have not been positively identified yet. We look for these salts through a novel NIR remote sensing technique.

  11. Waste Receiving and Processing, Module 2A, feed specification: Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kruger, O.L.; Sheriff, M.L.

    1994-11-14

    Detailed descriptions of the various mixed low-level waste feed streams that will be processed in the Waste Receiving and Processing Facility, Module 2A (WRAP 2A) are provided. Feed stream descriptions are based on available reports, the solid waste information tracking system database, and the 1993 solid waste forecast data. Available chemical and physical attributes, radionuclide data, waste codes, and packaging information are shown for 15 feed streams. The information sources and methodology for obtaining projections for WRAP 2A expected feed stream volumes also are described.

  12. Hydrochloric acid recycling from chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sowieja, D. [Sulzer Escher Wyss GmbH, Ravensburg (Germany); Schaub, M. [Sulzer Chemtech Ltd., Winterthur (Switzerland)

    1993-12-31

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons present a major ecological hazard since most of them are only poorly biodegradable. Incineration is an economical process for their destruction, however the usually recovered sodium or calcium chlorides do not present a value and their disposal may even be very costly. Recovery of hydrochloric acid may therefore present an economical solution, mainly were large quantities of highly chlorinated compounds can be processed (author) 6 refs., 4 figs., 1 tab.

  13. Modeling Trihalomethane Formation Potential from Wastewater Chlorination

    Science.gov (United States)

    1994-09-01

    chemically with each other, and with living organisms, particularly bacteria ( Manahan , 1991:435). To ensure effective disinfection, to meet the CWA...halogens are strong oxidants and are highly reactive ( Manahan , 1991:504). Chlorine is never found uncombined in nature, it exists only as the...HOCI) according to the following reaction: Cl2 (gas) + H20 =• HOC1 + H+ + Cl The hydrogen is oxidized and the chlorine gas is reduced ( Manahan , 1991

  14. STUDY ON THE PYROLYSIS AND RECYCLING OF PVC WASTE AS AN ENERGY SOURCE

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    IntroductionIn China, the production of Poly (vinyl chloride)have reached 2 million tons in 1995, accounts forabout 33% of the total plastics market. PVC is themost common chlorinated plastic and accounts forabout half the chlorine in municipal solid waste. Themost obvious possibility of recycling of waste Plasticsas an enelgy source to Obtain fuel oil is pyrolysisl' (4].The Pyrolysis of chlorine containing polymers such asPVC has been studied extensively. Generally thethermal decomPOsition of PVC is a tWo ...

  15. Prioritized Contact Transport Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hunt, Walter Lee, Jr. (Inventor)

    2015-01-01

    A detection process, contact recognition process, classification process, and identification process are applied to raw sensor data to produce an identified contact record set containing one or more identified contact records. A prioritization process is applied to the identified contact record set to assign a contact priority to each contact record in the identified contact record set. Data are removed from the contact records in the identified contact record set based on the contact priorities assigned to those contact records. A first contact stream is produced from the resulting contact records. The first contact stream is streamed in a contact transport stream. The contact transport stream may include and stream additional contact streams. The contact transport stream may be varied dynamically over time based on parameters such as available bandwidth, contact priority, presence/absence of contacts, system state, and configuration parameters.

  16. StreamCat

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The StreamCat Dataset provides summaries of natural and anthropogenic landscape features for ~2.65 million streams, and their associated catchments, within the...

  17. Report: New reliable method for the measurement of chlorine in refuse-derived fuels through combustion experiments in a pilot plant.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schröer, Ramona; Urban, A I

    2010-02-01

    The calorific values and the chlorine contents of refuse-derived fuels were measured in the pilot combustion plant (PCP) by means of combustion experiments followed by mass and energy balancing. This plant reaches an increased precision by measuring the integrated values throughout the whole experimental period of three hours, based on a fuel capacity of 10 kg per test, allowing a more reliable measurement of pollutants than for experimental analysis of only a few grams of the sample. The combustion experiments are shown for the verification of the quality of the chlorine balancing in the PCP. The test evaluation was carried out by balancing the inputs and outputs of chlorine in the mass streams, and the recovery rates for chlorine were determined. An emission pattern for the chlorine is described by the transfer coefficients and via the temporal fluctuation of the hydrogen chloride concentration in the flue gas. The results of the combustion experiments prove that the balancing via combustion experiments in the PCP provides reliable data on the chlorine concentrations in the fuels, and is a new and reliable method for measuring polluting chlorine in refuse-derived fuels.

  18. Chlorinated drinking water for lightweight laying hens

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A.F. Schneider

    Full Text Available ABSTRACT The study aimed to evaluate the effect of different levels of chlorine in drinking water of laying hens on zootechnical performance, eggs shell quality, hemogasometry levels and calcium content in tibia. 144 Hy-Line laying hens, 61 weeks old, were used distributed in 24 metabolism cages. They were subjected to water diets, for a period of 28 days, using sodium hypochlorite as a chlorine source in order to obtain the following concentrations: 5ppm (control, 20ppm, 50ppm, and 100ppm. Their performance was evaluated through water consumption, feed intake, egg production and weight, egg mass, feed conversion. Shell quality was measured by specific gravity. At the end of the experiment, arterial blood was collected for blood gas level assessment and a poultry of each replicate was sacrificed to obtain tibia and calcium content measurement. There was a water consumption reduction from 20ppm of chlorine and feed intake reduction in poultry receiving water with 100ppm of chlorine. The regression analysis showed that the higher the level of chlorine in water, the higher the reduction in consumption. There were no differences in egg production and weight, egg mass, feed conversion, specific gravity, tibia calcium content, and hemogasometry levels (hydrogenionic potential, carbon dioxide partial pressure, oxygen partial pressure, sodium, potassium, chloride, bicarbonate, carbon dioxide total concentration, anion gap and oxygen saturation. The use of levels above 5ppm of chlorine is not recommended in the water of lightweight laying hens.

  19. 40 CFR 60.3012 - What should I include in my waste management plan?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Compliance Times for Other Solid Waste Incineration Units That Commenced Construction On or Before December 9, 2004 Model Rule-Waste Management Plan § 60.3012 What should I include in my waste management plan? A waste management plan must include consideration of the reduction or separation of waste-stream...

  20. Productivity of Stream Definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, Jörg; Grabmayer, Clemens; Hendriks, Dimitri; Isihara, Ariya; Klop, Jan

    2007-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continuously in such a way that a uniquely determined stream is obtained as the limit. Whereas productivity is undecidable

  1. Productivity of stream definitions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Endrullis, J.; Grabmayer, C.A.; Hendriks, D.; Isihara, A.; Klop, J.W.

    2008-01-01

    We give an algorithm for deciding productivity of a large and natural class of recursive stream definitions. A stream definition is called ‘productive’ if it can be evaluated continually in such a way that a uniquely determined stream in constructor normal form is obtained as the limit. Whereas prod

  2. Laboratory optimization tests of technetium decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant low activity waste melter off-gas condensate simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, Kathryn M.L. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States); McCabe, Daniel J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States)

    2015-11-01

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility again. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable simplified operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  3. High Solids Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) Wastes Stabilization with Ceramicrete and Super Cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B.W.

    1999-09-14

    High Solids ash and scrubber solution waste streams were generated at the incinerator facility at SRS by burning radioactive diatomaceous filter rolls which contained small amounts of uranium, and listed solvents (F and U). This report details solidification activities using selected Mixed Waste Focus Area (MWFA) technologies with the High Solids waste streams.

  4. Estimated vapor pressure for WTP process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    Design assumptions during the vacuum refill phase of the Pulsed Jet Mixers (PJMs) in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) equate the vapor pressure of all process streams to that of water when calculating the temperature at which the vacuum refill is reduced or eliminated. WTP design authority asked the authors to assess this assumption by performing calculations on proposed feed slurries to calculate the vapor pressure as a function of temperature. The vapor pressure was estimated for each WTP waste group. The vapor pressure suppression caused by dissolved solids is much greater than the increase caused by organic components such that the vapor pressure for all of the waste group compositions is less than that of pure water. The vapor pressure for each group at 145°F ranges from 81% to 98% of the vapor pressure of water. If desired, the PJM could be operated at higher temperatures for waste groups with high dissolved solids that suppress vapor pressure. The SO4 group with the highest vapor pressure suppression could be operated up to 153°F before reaching the same vapor pressure of water at 145°F. However, most groups would reach equivalent vapor pressure at 147 to 148°F. If any of these waste streams are diluted, the vapor pressure can exceed the vapor pressure of water at mass dilution ratios greater than 10, but the overall effect is less than 0.5%.

  5. A new kind of Molotov? Gasoline-pool chlorinator mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hutches, Katherine; Lord, James

    2012-07-01

    This paper investigates the reaction between pool chlorinators and gasoline. In particular, the propensity for self-ignition and the resulting chemical products were studied. An organic pool chlorinator was combined with gasoline in varying proportions in an attempt to form a hypergolic mixture. None of the combinations resulted in self-ignition, but larger quantities of chlorinator produced vigorous light-colored smoke and a solid mass containing isocyanuric acid and copper chloride. Additionally, the chlorinating abilities of different commercially available pool chlorinators were explored. When Ca(ClO)(2) and sodium dichloro-s-triazinetrione-based chlorinators were used, the presence of gasoline was still visible after 10 days, despite limited chlorination. The trichloro-s-triazinetrione-based chlorinator, however, caused efficient chlorination of the C(2)- and C(3)-alkylbenzenes, making gasoline no longer identifiable.

  6. Maxillofacial prostheses of chlorinated polyethylene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    May, P D

    1978-05-01

    There is clearly a need for maxillofacial prosthetic materials with improved properties. The chlorinated polyethylenes are thermoplastic elastomers which have particularly promising properties, and were used by us to prepare improved maxillofacial prostheses. Suitable CPE resins were compounded with other polymers and with pigments on a heated rubber mill to form thin sheets in a variety of shades. These were heated at 190 degrees C for 10 min and placed between heated linotype mold halves. The prosthesis was formed in a hand press. Sometimes heating and pressing were repeated. After cooling in water, the prosthesis was removed and hand-shaded with oil-soluble dyes. Physical properties were evaluated using standard techniques; skin irritation studies were conducted by 14-day insult patch tests on rabbits. Clinical evaluations were conducted on human volunteers. Parallel evaluations were conducted on commerically available materials for comparison. The CPE was superior to all of the three commerical materials in most properties, and comparable to the better of the three in the remaining properties. On balance, CPE was significantly superior. Early results indicate that the materials and techniques required are easily handled in the dental lab and that the final prosthesis has excellent aesthetic and patient acceptability.

  7. Chlorine Abundances in Cool Stars

    CERN Document Server

    Maas, Z G; Hinkle, K

    2016-01-01

    Chlorine abundances are reported in 15 evolved giants and one M dwarf in the solar neighborhood. The Cl abundance was measured using the vibration-rotation 1-0 P8 line of H$^{35}$Cl at 3.69851 $\\mu$m. The high resolution L-band spectra were observed using the Phoenix infrared spectrometer on the Kitt Peak Mayall 4m telescope. The average [$^{35}$Cl/Fe] abundance in stars with --0.72$<$[Fe/H]$<$0.20 is [$^{35}$Cl/Fe]=(--0.10$\\pm$0.15) dex. The mean difference between the [$^{35}$Cl/Fe] ratios measured in our stars and chemical evolution model values is (0.16$\\pm$0.15) dex. The [$^{35}$Cl/Ca] ratio has an offset of $\\sim$0.35 dex above model predictions suggesting chemical evolution models are under producing Cl at the high metallicity range. Abundances of C, N, O, Si, and Ca were also measured in our spectral region and are consistent with F and G dwarfs. The Cl versus O abundances from our sample match Cl abundances measured in planetary nebula and \\ion{H}{2} regions. In one star where both H$^{35}$Cl a...

  8. Natural and Enhanced Attenuation of Chlorinated Solvents Using RT3D

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Johnson, Christian D.; Truex, Michael J.; Clement, T P.

    2006-07-25

    RT3D (Reactive Transport in 3-Dimensions) is a reactive transport code that can be applied to model solute fate and transport for many different purposes. This document specifically addresses application of RT3D for modeling related to evaluation and implementation of Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA). Selection of MNA as a remedy requires an evaluation process to demonstrate that MNA will meet the remediation goals. The U.S. EPA, through the Office of Solid Waste and Emergency Response (OSWER) Directive 9200.4?17P, provides the regulatory context for the evaluation and implementation of MNA. In a complementary fashion, the context for using fate and transport modeling as part of MNA evaluation is described in the EPA?s technical protocol for chlorinated solvent MNA, the Scenarios Evaluation Tool for Chlorinated Solvent MNA, and in this document. The intent of this document is to describe (1) the context for applying RT3D for chlorinated solvent MNA and (2) the attenuation processes represented in RT3D, (3) dechlorination reactions that may occur, and (4) the general approach for using RT3D reaction modules (including a summary of the RT3D reaction modules that are available) to model fate and transport of chlorinated solvents as part of MNA or for combinations of MNA and selected types of active remediation.

  9. Reactions of polynuclear aromatic hydrocarbons with chlorine and chlorine dioxide in coal tar lined pipes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Merkel, T.; Maier, M.; Sacher, F.; Maier, D. [University of Karlsruhe, Karlsruhe (Germany). Engler Bunte Institut

    1997-12-31

    In the presence of disinfectants, PAH are remobilised from the coal tar lining of water distribution mains. Reactions of the PAH with chlorine and chlorine dioxide can lead to chlorinated PAH that might show higher mutagenic effects that the parent PAH. Detection limits in the lower nanogram-per-litre level for the determination of PAH and chlorinated PAH were achieved by using solid phase micro extraction and a gas chromatographic mass spectrometric device. Thus, the reactions of four PAH (anthracene, fluoranthene, fluorene and phenanthrene) with chlorine and chlorine dioxide under conditions and at concentrations of common practice in the drinking water distribution system could be investigated. In batch experiments with demineralised and drinking water at pH 7, the concentrations of fluoranthene, fluorene and phenanthrene remained constant, whereas anthracene reacted quantitatively with both disinfectants. The reaction of anthracene followed by pseudo-first order kinetics. In these reactions no chlorinated products could be detected, only monohydroxyanthracene and anthraquinone were identified. The toxic effect of a set of chlorinated and oxidised PAH was also examined.

  10. Bromate ion formation in dark chlorination and ultraviolet/chlorination processes for bromide-containing water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2008-01-01

    Bormate (BrO3-) is a carcinogenic chemical produced in ozonation or chlorination of bromide-containing water. Although its formation in seawater with or without sunlight has been previously investigated, the formation of bromate in dilute solutions,particularly raw water for water treatment plant, is unknown. In this article, the results of bench scale tests to measure the formation rates of bromate formation in dilute solutions, including de-ionized water and raw water from Yangtze River, were presented in dark chlorination and ultraviolet (UV)/chlorination processes. And the effects of initial pH, initial concentration of NaOCl, and UV light intensity on bromate formation in UV/chlorination of the diluted solutions were investigated. Detectable bromate was formed in dark chlorination of the two water samples with a relatively slow production rate. Under routine disinfecting conditions, the amount of formed bromate is not likely to exceed the national standards (10 μg/L). UV irradiation enhanced the decay of free chlorine, and,simultaneously, 6.6%-32% of Br- was oxidized to BrO3-. And the formation of bromate exhibited three stages: rapid stage, slow stage and plateau. Under the experimental conditions (pH = 4.41-11.07, CCl2= 1.23-4.50 mg/L), low pH and high chlorine concentration favored the generation of bromate. High light intensity promoted the production rate of bromate, but decreased its total generation amount due to acceleration of chlorine decomposition.

  11. Waste minimization promotes biophysical treatment of complex petrochemical wastes in Israel

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lebel, A. [Invirotreat International Ltd., Fulleron, CA (United States); Raveh, A. [Raveh Ecology Ltd., Haifa (Israel)

    1993-12-31

    This work describes a full-scale waste treatment system which was put into operation in a petrochemical manufacturing plant in Israel for the purpose of detoxifying its complex organic waste stream. The treatment plant design incorporates an innovative waste management approach to accommodate the limited space allocated for the facility. Initial performance data indicate a high efficient inorganic waste reduction. 4 refs., 6 figs., 2 tabs.

  12. Chlorine dioxide treatment for zebra mussel control

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rybarik, D. [Dairyland Power Cooperative, La Crosse, WI (United States); Byron, J. [Nalco Chemical Company, Naperville, IL (United States); Germer, M. [Rio Linda Chemical Company, Sacramento, CA (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Chlorine is recognized and commonly used biocide for power plant cooling water and service water treatment programs, including the control of zebra mussels. Chlorine dioxide has recently become a popular method of zebra mussel control because of its economy, safety, environmental acceptability, and effectiveness when compared to other mussel control methods. This control technique was recently demonstrated at Dairyland Power Cooperative`s Alma Generating Station on the east bank of the upper Mississippi River in Alma, Wisconsin. The project was assisted with EPRI Tailored Collaboration Program funds. The Dairyland Power Alam Generating Station consists of five generating units that utilize raw, untreated Mississippi River water for condenser, circulating, and service water supplies. The first units were built in 1947, with the final and largest unit being completed in 1960. Total station generating capacity is 200 MW. Because of recent increases in the zebra mussel density at the station intake, Dairyland Power selected the team of Nalco and Rio Linda to perform a chlorine dioxide treatment of the station`s new water systems to eradicate and control the mussels before their presence created operational difficulties. This paper will present the results of the treatment including treatment theory, design and construction of the treatment system, the method of chlorine dioxide generation, treatment concentration, analytical methods o monitoring chlorine dioxide generation, residuals and trihalomethane (THM) concentrations, protocol for monitoring treatment mortality, and the effects of chlorine dioxide and detoxification on other water chemistry parameters and equipment materials. The goal of this paper is to inform and assist users with establishing consistent and uniform practices for safely utilizing and monitoring chlorine dioxide in the eradication and control of zebra mussels.

  13. Persistent Temporal Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hilley, David; Ramachandran, Umakishore

    Distributed continuous live stream analysis applications are increasingly common. Video-based surveillance, emergency response, disaster recovery, and critical infrastructure protection are all examples of such applications. They are characterized by a variety of high- and low-bandwidth streams as well as a need for analyzing both live and archived streams. We present a system called Persistent Temporal Streams (PTS) that supports a higher-level, domain-targeted programming abstraction for such applications. PTS provides a simple but expressive stream abstraction encompassing transport, manipulation and storage of streaming data. In this paper, we present a system architecture for implementing PTS. We provide an experimental evaluation which shows the system-level primitives can be implemented in a lightweight and high-performance manner, and an application-based evaluation designed to show that a representative high-bandwidth stream analysis application can be implemented relatively simply and with good performance.

  14. Influencing factors and degradation products of antipyrine chlorination in water with free chlorine

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Meiquan Cai; Liqiu Zhang; Fei Qi; Li Feng

    2013-01-01

    Owing to its low cost,free chlorine is one of the most common disinfectants for wastewater and drinking water treatment.However,the formation of disinfection byproducts has been found to occur after free chlorine disinfection in recent decades.Antipyrine (ANT),an anti-inflammatory analgesic,has been frequently detected in the aquatic environment.In this work.the removal efficiency of ANT by free chlorine oxidation in ultrapure water was investigated with batch experiments.The influencing factors on the removal of ANT were explored at initial concentrations of ANT from 0.04 to 0.64 mg/L,free chlorine dosage from 0.30 to 1.31 mg/L,and pH from 1.5 to 9.0.The main degradation products were identified by solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry.The results showed that ANT reacted rapidly with free chlorine in ultrapure water systems and up to 90.6% removal efficiency of ANT was achieved after 25 sec (initial free chlorine 1 mg/L,ANT 0.5 mg/L,pH 7.0).Higher oxidant dosage,lower ANT initial concentration and low pH favor the ANT removal.The main degradation product in ANT chlorination was a monochlorine substitution product (4-chloro-l,2-dihydro1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-one),which can be further chlorinated by free chlorine.In addition,the total organic carbon result indicated that ANT is difficult to be mineralized using chlorine.

  15. Influencing factors and degradation products of antipyrine chlorination in water with free chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cai, Meiquan; Zhang, Liqiu; Qi, Fei; Feng, Li

    2013-01-01

    Owing to its low cost, free chlorine is one of the most common disinfectants for wastewater and drinking water treatment. However, the formation of disinfection byproducts has been found to occur after free chlorine disinfection in recent decades. Antipyrine (ANT), an anti-inflammatory analgesic, has been frequently detected in the aquatic environment. In this work, the removal efficiency of ANT by free chlorine oxidation in ultrapure water was investigated with batch experiments. The influencing factors on the removal of ANT were explored at initial concentrations of ANT from 0.04 to 0.64 mg/L, free chlorine dosage from 0.30 to 1.31 mg/L, and pH from 1.5 to 9.0. The main degradation products were identified by solid phase extraction-gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. The results showed that ANT reacted rapidly with free chlorine in ultrapure water systems and up to 90.6% removal efficiency of ANT was achieved after 25 sec (initial free chlorine 1 mg/L, ANT 0.5 mg/L, pH 7.0). Higher oxidant dosage, lower ANT initial concentration and low pH favor the ANT removal. The main degradation product in ANT chlorination was a monochlorine substitution product (4-chloro-1,2-dihydro-1,5-dimethyl-2-phenyl-3H-pyrazol-3-one), which can be further chlorinated by free chlorine. In addition, the total organic carbon result indicated that ANT is difficult to be mineralized using chlorine.

  16. Effect of chlorination on the development of marine biofilms dominated by diatoms

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Patil, J.S.; Jagadeesan, V.

    , and Thalassionema did not increase in density after chlorine treatment. It was also demonstrated that diatoms can colonize, grow and photosynthesize on chlorine-treated surfaces. Under pulse chlorination (treatment every 6 h), irrespective of chlorine concentration...

  17. A comparison of thermal treatment processes for hazardous waste : Strategic EIA for the Dutch national hazardous waste management plan 1997- 2007

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Tukker, A.

    1999-01-01

    This paper (the second in a series of three) compares incineration options for hazardous waste with LCA. Provided that acceptance criteria are met with regard to metals, PAHs and chlorine, Dutch Municipal Solid Waste Incinerators (MSWIs) appeared to be preferable above rotary kilns since they have a

  18. Chlorination of organophosphorus pesticides in natural waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Acero, Juan L; Benítez, F Javier; Real, Francisco J; González, Manuel

    2008-05-01

    Unknown second-order rate constants for the reactions of three organophosphorus pesticides (chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon) with chlorine were determined in the present study, and the influence of pH and temperature was established. It was found that an increase in the pH provides a negative effect on the pesticides degradation rates. Apparent second-order rate constants at 20 degrees C and pH 7 were determined to be 110.9, 0.004 and 191.6 M(-1) s(-1) for chlorpyrifos, chlorfenvinfos and diazinon, respectively. A higher reactivity of chlorine with the phosphorothioate group (chlorpyrifos and diazinon) than with the phosphate moiety (chlorfenvinfos) could explain these results. Intrinsic rate constant for the elementary reactions of chlorine species with chlorpyrifos and diazinon were also calculated, leading to the conclusion that the reaction between hypochlorous acid and the pesticide is predominant at neutral pH. The elimination of these pesticides in surface waters was also investigated. A chlorine dose of 2.5 mg L(-1) was enough to oxidize chlorpyrifos and diazinon almost completely, with a formation of trihalomethanes below the EU standard for drinking water. However, the removal of chlorfenvinfos was not appreciable. Therefore, chlorination is a feasible option for the removal of organophosphorus pesticides with phosphorothioate group during oxidation and disinfection processes, but not for the elimination of pesticides with phosphate moiety.

  19. An overview of waste crime, its characteristics, and the vulnerability of the EU waste sector.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Baird, J; Curry, R; Cruz, P

    2014-02-01

    While waste is increasingly viewed as a resource to be globally traded, increased regulatory control on waste across Europe has created the conditions where waste crime now operates alongside a legitimate waste sector. Waste crime,is an environmental crime and a form of white-collar crime, which exploits the physical characteristics of waste, the complexity of the collection and downstream infrastructure, and the market opportunities for profit. This paper highlights some of the factors which make the waste sector vulnerable to waste crime. These factors include new legislation and its weak regulatory enforcement, the economics of waste treatment, where legal and safe treatment of waste can be more expensive than illegal operations, the complexity of the waste sector and the different actors who can have some involvement, directly or indirectly, in the movement of illegal wastes, and finally that waste can be hidden or disguised and creates an opportunity for illegal businesses to operate alongside legitimate waste operators. The study also considers waste crime from the perspective of particular waste streams that are often associated with illegal shipment or through illegal treatment and disposal. For each, the nature of the crime which occurs is shown to differ, but for each, vulnerabilities to waste crime are evident. The paper also describes some approaches which can be adopted by regulators and those involved in developing new legislation for identifying where opportunities for waste crime occurs and how to prevent it.

  20. Numeric Analysis for Relationship-Aware Scalable Streaming Scheme

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Heung Ki Lee

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Frequent packet loss of media data is a critical problem that degrades the quality of streaming services over mobile networks. Packet loss invalidates frames containing lost packets and other related frames at the same time. Indirect loss caused by losing packets decreases the quality of streaming. A scalable streaming service can decrease the amount of dropped multimedia resulting from a single packet loss. Content providers typically divide one large media stream into several layers through a scalable streaming service and then provide each scalable layer to the user depending on the mobile network. Also, a scalable streaming service makes it possible to decode partial multimedia data depending on the relationship between frames and layers. Therefore, a scalable streaming service provides a way to decrease the wasted multimedia data when one packet is lost. However, the hierarchical structure between frames and layers of scalable streams determines the service quality of the scalable streaming service. Even if whole packets of layers are transmitted successfully, they cannot be decoded as a result of the absence of reference frames and layers. Therefore, the complicated relationship between frames and layers in a scalable stream increases the volume of abandoned layers. For providing a high-quality scalable streaming service, we choose a proper relationship between scalable layers as well as the amount of transmitted multimedia data depending on the network situation. We prove that a simple scalable scheme outperforms a complicated scheme in an error-prone network. We suggest an adaptive set-top box (AdaptiveSTB to lower the dependency between scalable layers in a scalable stream. Also, we provide a numerical model to obtain the indirect loss of multimedia data and apply it to various multimedia streams. Our AdaptiveSTB enhances the quality of a scalable streaming service by removing indirect loss.

  1. The Puzzling Ophiuchus Stream

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kohler, Susanna

    2016-01-01

    Dwarf galaxies or globular clusters orbiting the Milky Way can be pulled apart by tidal forces, leaving behind a trail of stars known as a stellar stream. One such trail, the Ophiuchus stream, has posed a serious dynamical puzzle since its discovery. But a recent study has identified four stars that might help resolve this streams mystery.Conflicting TimescalesThe stellar stream Ophiuchus was discovered around our galaxy in 2014. Based on its length, which appears to be 1.6 kpc, we can calculate the time that has passed since its progenitor was disrupted and the stream was created: ~250 Myr. But the stars within it are ~12 Gyr old, and the stream orbits the galaxy with a period of ~350 Myr.Given these numbers, we can assume that Ophiuchuss progenitor completed many orbits of the Milky Way in its lifetime. So why would it only have been disrupted 250 million years ago?Fanning StreamLed by Branimir Sesar (Max Planck Institute for Astronomy), a team of scientists has proposed an idea that might help solve this puzzle. If the Ophiuchus stellar stream is on a chaotic orbit common in triaxial potentials, which the Milky Ways may be then the stream ends can fan out, with stars spreading in position and velocity.The fanned part of the stream, however, would be difficult to detect because of its low surface brightness. As a result, the Ophiuchus stellar stream could actually be longer than originally measured, implying that it was disrupted longer ago than was believed.Search for Fan StarsTo test this idea, Sesar and collaborators performed a search around the ends of the stream, looking for stars thatare of the right type to match the stream,are at the predicted distance of the stream,are located near the stream ends, andhave velocities that match the stream and dont match the background halo stars.Histogram of the heliocentric velocities of the 43 target stars. Six stars have velocities matching the stream velocity. Two of these are located in the main stream; the other

  2. The effects of low level chlorination and chlorine dioxide on biofouling control in a once-through service water system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Garrett, W.E. Jr. [Alabama Power Co./GSC No. 8, Birmingham, AL (United States); Laylor, M.M. [Univ. of Alabama, Birmingham, AL (United States)

    1995-06-01

    Continuous chlorination has been successfully used for the control of Corbicula at a nuclear power plant located on the Chattahoochee River in southeastern Alabama, since 1986. The purpose of this study was to investigate further minimization of chlorine usage and determine if chlorine dioxide is a feasible alternative. Four continuous biocide treatments were evaluated for macro and microfouling control effectiveness, operational feasibility, and environmental acceptability. One semi-continuous chlorination treatment was also evaluated for macrofouling control effectiveness. Higher treatment residuals were possible with chlorine dioxide than with chlorination due to the river discharge limitations. At the levels tested, continuous chlorine dioxide was significantly more effective in providing both macro and microfouling control. Semi-continuous chlorination was just as effective as continuous chlorination for controlling macrofouling. The Corbicula treatment programs that were tested should all provide sufficient control for zebra mussels. Chlorine dioxide was not as cost effective as chlorination for providing macrofouling control. The semi-continuous treatment save 50% on chemical usage and will allow for the simultaneous treatment of two service water systems. Chlorite levels produced during the chlorine dioxide treatments were found to be environmentally acceptable. Levels of trihalomethanes in the chlorinated service water were less than the maximum levels allowed in drinking water.

  3. Microbiological aspects of the removal of chlorinated hydrocarbons from air

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dolfing, Jan; Wijngaard, Arjan J. van den; Janssen, Dick B.

    1993-01-01

    Chlorinated hydrocarbons are widely used synthetic chemicals that are frequently present in industrial emissions. Bacterial degradation has been demonstrated for several components of this class of compounds. Structural features that affect the degradability include the number of chlorine atoms and

  4. Occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Morales-Suárez-Varela, Maria M; Olsen, Jørn; Villeneuve, Sara;

    2013-01-01

    To evaluate the potential association between occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides (MF).......To evaluate the potential association between occupational exposure to chlorinated and petroleum solvents and mycosis fungoides (MF)....

  5. Characterization of Some Real Mixed Plastics from WEEE: A Focus on Chlorine and Bromine Determination by Different Analytical Methods

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beatrice Beccagutti

    2016-10-01

    Full Text Available Bromine and chlorine are almost ubiquitous in waste of electrical and electronic equipment (WEEE and the knowledge of their content in the plastic fraction is an essential step for proper end of life management. The aim of this study is to compare the following analytical methods: energy dispersive X-ray fluorescence spectroscopy (ED-XRF, ion chromatography (IC, ion-selective electrodes (ISEs, and elemental analysis for the quantitative determination of chlorine and bromine in four real samples taken from different WEEE treatment plants, identifying the best analytical technique for waste management workers. Home-made plastic standard materials with known concentrations of chlorine or bromine have been used for calibration of ED-XRF and to test the techniques before the sample analysis. Results showed that IC and ISEs, based upon dissolution of the products of the sample combustion, have not always achieved a quantitative absorption of the analytes in the basic solutions and that bromine could be underestimated since several oxidation states occur after combustion. Elemental analysis designed for chlorine determination is subjected to strong interference from bromine and required frequent regeneration and recalibration of the measurement cell. The most reliable method seemed to be the non-destructive ED-XRF. Calibration with home-made standards, having a similar plastic matrix of the samples, enabled us to carry out quantitative determinations, which have been revealed to be satisfactorily accurate and precise. In all the analyzed samples a total concentration of chlorine and/or bromine between 0.6 and 4 w/w% was detected, compromising the feasibility of a mechanical recycling and suggesting the exploration of an alternative route for managing these plastic wastes.

  6. Identification of intermediates leading to chloroform and C-4 diacids in the chlorination of humic acid

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Sinninghe Damsté, J.S.; Leer, E.W.B. de; Erkelens, Corrie; Galan, L.

    1985-01-01

    The chlorination of terrestrial humic acid was studied at pH 7. 2 with varying chlorine to carbon ratios. The principal products are chloroform, di- and trichloroacetic acid, and chlorinated C-4 diacids. At a high chlorine dose many new chlorination products were detected, among them chlorinated aro

  7. Secondary Waste Form Down-Selection Data Package—Fluidized Bed Steam Reforming Waste Form

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Qafoku, Nikolla; Westsik, Joseph H.; Strachan, Denis M.; Valenta, Michelle M.; Pires, Richard P.

    2011-09-12

    The Hanford Site in southeast Washington State has 56 million gallons of radioactive and chemically hazardous wastes stored in 177 underground tanks (ORP 2010). The U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), Office of River Protection (ORP), through its contractors, is constructing the Hanford Tank Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) to convert the radioactive and hazardous wastes into stable glass waste forms for disposal. Within the WTP, the pretreatment facility will receive the retrieved waste from the tank farms and separate it into two treated process streams. These waste streams will be vitrified, and the resulting waste canisters will be sent to offsite (high-level waste [HLW]) and onsite (immobilized low-activity waste [ILAW]) repositories. As part of the pretreatment and ILAW processing, liquid secondary wastes will be generated that will be transferred to the Effluent Treatment Facility (ETF) on the Hanford Site for further treatment. These liquid secondary wastes will be converted to stable solid waste forms that will be disposed of in the Integrated Disposal Facility (IDF). To support the selection of a waste form for the liquid secondary wastes from WTP, Washington River Protection Solutions (WRPS) has initiated secondary waste form testing work at Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL). In anticipation of a down-selection process for a waste form for the Solidification Treatment Unit to be added to the ETF, PNNL is developing data packages to support that down-selection. The objective of the data packages is to identify, evaluate, and summarize the existing information on the four waste forms being considered for stabilizing and solidifying the liquid secondary wastes. At the Hanford Site, the FBSR process is being evaluated as a supplemental technology for treating and immobilizing Hanford LAW radioactive tank waste and for treating secondary wastes from the WTP pretreatment and LAW vitrification processes.

  8. The effect of sulfur dioxide on the formation of molecular chlorine during co-combustion of fuels

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xie, Y.; Xie, W.; Liu, K.; Dicken, L.; Pan, W.-P.; Riley, J.T. [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (USA). Combustion Lab., Dept. of Chemistry

    2000-06-01

    This project was designed to evaluate the combustion performance of and emissions from a fluidized bed combustor during the combustion of mixtures of high sulfur and/or high chlorine coals and municipal solid waste (MSW). The effect of sulfur dioxide on the formation of molecular chlorine during co-combustion of fuels was examined in this study. Sulfur dioxide was shown to be an effective inhibitor for the formation of molecular chlorine through the Deacon Reaction and subsequently, the formation of chlorinated organics. Theoretically, co-firing high sulfur coals with MSW will decrease the possibility of polychlorodibenzodioxin/furan (PCDD/F) formation during the combustion process. A mixture of coal and PVC pellets was burned in a 0.1 MW{sub th} bench-scale fluidized bed system at WKU and no detectable amounts of chlorinated organics were found in the flue gas and bed ash. The results from this study indicated the practical effects of using coal as a combustion support fuel when burning MSW. 23 refs., 3 figs., 3 tabs.

  9. ESTIMATION OF THE TEMPERATURE RISE OF A MCU ACID STREAM PIPE IN NEAR PROXIMITY TO A SLUDGE STREAM PIPE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fondeur, F; Michael Poirier, M; Samuel Fink, S

    2007-07-12

    Effluent streams from the Modular Caustic-Side Solvent Extraction Unit (MCU) will transfer to the tank farms and to the Defense Waste Processing Facility (DWPF). These streams will contain entrained solvent. A significant portion of the Strip Effluent (SE) pipeline (i.e., acid stream containing Isopar{reg_sign} L residues) length is within one inch of a sludge stream. Personnel envisioned the sludge stream temperature may reach 100 C during operation. The nearby SE stream may receive heat from the sludge stream and reach temperatures that may lead to flammability issues once the contents of the SE stream discharge into a larger reservoir. To this end, personnel used correlations from the literature to estimate the maximum temperature rise the SE stream may experience if the nearby sludge stream reaches boiling temperature. Several calculation methods were used to determine the temperature rise of the SE stream. One method considered a heat balance equation under steady state that employed correlation functions to estimate heat transfer rate. This method showed the maximum temperature of the acid stream (SE) may exceed 45 C when the nearby sludge stream is 80 C or higher. A second method used an effectiveness calculation used to predict the heat transfer rate in single pass heat exchanger. By envisioning the acid and sludge pipes as a parallel flow pipe-to-pipe heat exchanger, this method provides a conservative estimation of the maximum temperature rise. Assuming the contact area (i.e., the area over which the heat transfer occurs) is the whole pipe area, the results found by this method nearly matched the results found with the previous calculation method. It is recommended that the sludge stream be maintained below 80 C to minimize a flammable vapor hazard from occurring.

  10. Residential Waste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Thomas Højlund; Fruergaard, Thilde; Matsufuji, Y.

    2011-01-01

    twice a year or bringing their used furniture to the flea markets organized by charity clubs. Thus, much of the data available on residential waste represents collected waste and not necessarily all generated waste. The latter can only be characterized by careful studies directly at the source......Residential waste comes from residential areas with multi-family and single-family housing and includes four types of waste: household waste, garden waste, bulky waste and household hazardous waste. Typical unit generation rates, material composition, chemical composition and determining factors...... are discussed in this chapter. Characterizing residential waste is faced with the problem that many residences already divert some waste away from the official collection systems, for example performing home composting of vegetable waste and garden waste, having their bundled newspaper picked up by the scouts...

  11. Diurnal variation of stratospheric chlorine monoxide - A critical test of chlorine chemistry in the ozone layer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Solomon, P. M.; De Zafra, R.; Parrish, A.; Barrett, J. W.

    1984-01-01

    Ground-based observations of a mm-wave spectral line at 278 GHz have yielded stratospheric chlorine monoxide column density diurnal variation records which indicate that the mixing ratio and column density of this compound above 30 km are about 20 percent lower than model predictions based on 2.1 parts/billion of total stratospheric chlorine. The observed day-to-night variation is, however, in good agreement with recent model predictions, both confirming the existence of a nighttime reservoir for chlorine and verifying the predicted general rate of its storage and retrieval.

  12. Chlorine: Undergraduate Research on an Element of Controversy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chang, Hasok

    2009-04-01

    If chemical elements were people, chlorine would be a celebrity. Although intrinsically no more or less important than any other element, chlorine has had a knack of making headlines. The genre of "object biography" has been quite successful in popular science recently. We took this opportunity to write a "biographical" study of chlorine. Chlorine's wide range of interesting controversies is well suited for attracting and maintaining the enthusiasm of the diverse range of students we teach in our department.

  13. Determination of chlorine in silicate rocks

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peck, L.C.

    1959-01-01

    In a rapid accurate method for the determination of chlorine in silicate rocks, the rock powder is sintered with a sodium carbonate flux containing zinc oxide and magnesium carbonate. The sinter cake is leached with water, the resulting solution is filtered, and the filtrate is acidified with nitric acid. Chlorine is determined by titrating this solution with mercuric nitrate solution using sodium nitroprusside as the indicator. The titration is made in the dark with a beam of light shining through the solution. The end point of the titration is found by visually comparing the intensity of this beam of light with that of a similar beam of light in a reference solution.

  14. 40 CFR 265.1084 - Waste determination procedures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... the exit concentration limit (Ct) for a treated hazardous waste. (i) The point of waste origination... limit (Ct) shall be 500 ppmw. (iii) If more than one hazardous waste stream is identified in paragraph... this section. The exit concentration limit (Ct) shall be calculated by using the results determined...

  15. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, M.J.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This report, Volume 3 of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses the radiological and chemical characteristics of carbon-14. The report also discusses waste streams that contain carbon-14, waste forms that contain carbon-14, and carbon-14 behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  16. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, M.J.; Stanton, C.; Patterson, R.G.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This report, Volume 2 of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses radiological and chemical characteristics of technetium-99. This report also includes discussions about waste streams in which technetium-99 can be found, waste forms that contain technetium-99, and technetium-99's behavior in the environment and in the human body.

  17. National Low-Level Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rudin, M.J.; Garcia, R.S.

    1992-02-01

    This report, Volume 4 of the National Low-Level Radioactive Waste Management Program Radionuclide Report Series, discusses radiological and chemical characteristics about iodine-129. This report also includes discussions about waste streams that contain iodine-129, waste forms that contain iodine-129, and iodine-129's behavior in the environment, as well as in the human body.

  18. Inventory of miscellaneous streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lueck, K.J.

    1995-09-01

    On December 23, 1991, the US Department of Energy, Richland Operations Office (RL) and the Washington State Department of Ecology (Ecology) agreed to adhere to the provisions of the Department of Ecology Consent Order. The Consent Order lists the regulatory milestones for liquid effluent streams at the Hanford Site to comply with the permitting requirements of Washington Administrative Code. The RL provided the US Congress a Plan and Schedule to discontinue disposal of contaminated liquid effluent into the soil column on the Hanford Site. The plan and schedule document contained a strategy for the implementation of alternative treatment and disposal systems. This strategy included prioritizing the streams into two phases. The Phase 1 streams were considered to be higher priority than the Phase 2 streams. The actions recommended for the Phase 1 and 2 streams in the two reports were incorporated in the Hanford Federal Facility Agreement and Consent Order. Miscellaneous Streams are those liquid effluents streams identified within the Consent Order that are discharged to the ground but are not categorized as Phase 1 or Phase 2 Streams. This document consists of an inventory of the liquid effluent streams being discharged into the Hanford soil column.

  19. Hydrography - Streams and Shorelines

    Data.gov (United States)

    California Department of Resources — The hydrography layer consists of flowing waters (rivers and streams), standing waters (lakes and ponds), and wetlands -- both natural and manmade. Two separate...

  20. The Andromeda Stream

    CERN Document Server

    Lewis, G F; Ferguson, A M N; Ibata, R A; Irwin, M J; McConnachie, A W; Tanvir, N

    2004-01-01

    The existence of a stream of tidally stripped stars from the Sagittarius Dwarf galaxy demonstrates that the Milky Way is still in the process of accreting mass. More recently, an extensive stream of stars has been uncovered in the halo of the Andromeda galaxy (M31), revealing that it too is cannibalizing a small companion. This paper reports the recent observations of this stream, determining it spatial and kinematic properties, and tracing its three-dimensional structure, as well as describing future observations and what we may learn about the Andromeda galaxy from this giant tidal stream.

  1. Influence of Plants on Chlorine Cycling in Terrestrial Environments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montelius, Malin; Thiry, Yves; Marang, Laura; Ranger, Jacques; Cornelis, Jean-Thomas; Svensson, Teresia; Bastviken, David

    2016-04-01

    Chlorine (Cl), one of the 20 most abundant elements on Earth, is crucial for life as a regulator of cellular ionic strength and an essential co-factor in photosynthesis. Chlorinated organic compounds (Clorg) molecules are surprisingly abundant in soils, in fact many studies during the last decades show that Clorg typically account for more than 60% of the total soil Cl pool in boreal and temperate forest soils and frequently exceed chloride (Cl-) levels. The natural and primarily biotic formation of this Clorg pool has been confirmed experimentally but the detailed content of the Clorg pool and the reasons for its high abundance remains puzzling and there is a lack of Cl budgets for different ecosystems. Recently, the radioisotope 36Cl has caused concerns because of presence in radioactive waste, a long half-life (301 000 years), potential high mobility, and limited knowledge about Cl residence times, speciation and uptake by organisms in terrestrial environments. The chlorination of organic molecules may influence the pool of available Cl- to organisms and thereby the Cl cycling dynamics. This will prolong residence times of total Cl in the soil-vegetation system, which affects exposure times in radioactive 36Cl isotope risk assessments. We tested to what extent the dominating tree species influences the overall terrestrial Cl cycling and the balance between Cl- and Clorg. Total Cl and Clorg were measured in different tree compartments and soil horizons in the Breuil experimental forest, Bourgogne, established in 1976 and located at Breuil-Chenue in Eastern France. The results from this field experiment show how the dominating tree species affected Cl cycling and accumulation over a time period of 30 years. Cl uptake by trees as well as content of both total Cl and Clorg in soil humus was much higher in experimental plots with coniferous forests compared to deciduous forests. The amounts of Clorg found in plant tissue indicate significant Clorg production inside

  2. Hydrogeologic characterization and assessment of bioremediation of chlorinated benzenes and benzene in wetland areas, Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site, New Castle County, Delaware, 2009-12

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lorah, Michelle M.; Walker, Charles W.; Baker, Anna C.; Teunis, Jessica A.; Majcher, Emily H.; Brayton, Michael J.; Raffensperger, Jeff P.; Cozzarelli, Isabelle M.

    2014-01-01

    Wetlands at the Standard Chlorine of Delaware, Inc. Superfund Site (SCD) in New Castle County, Delaware, are affected by contamination with chlorobenzenes and benzene from past waste storage and disposal, spills, leaks, and contaminated groundwater discharge. In cooperation with the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency, the U.S. Geological Survey began an investigation in June 2009 to characterize the hydrogeology and geochemistry in the wetlands and assess the feasibility of monitored natural attenuation and enhanced bioremediation as remedial strategies. Groundwater flow in the wetland study area is predominantly vertically upward in the wetland sediments and the underlying aquifer, and groundwater discharge accounts for a minimum of 47 percent of the total discharge for the subwatershed of tidal Red Lion Creek. Thus, groundwater transport of contaminants to surface water could be significant. The major contaminants detected in groundwater in the wetland study area included benzene, monochlorobenzene, and tri- and di-chlorobenzenes. Shallow wetland groundwater in the northwest part of the wetland study area was characterized by high concentrations of total chlorinated benzenes and benzene (maximum about 75,000 micrograms per liter [μg/L]), low pH, and high chloride. In the northeast part of the wetland study area, wetland groundwater had low to moderate concentrations of total chlorinated benzenes and benzene (generally not greater than 10,000 μg/L), moderate pH, and high sulfate concentrations. Concentrations in the groundwater in excess of 1 percent of the solubility of the individual chlorinated benzenes indicate that a contaminant source is present in the wetland sediments as dense nonaqueous phase liquids (DNAPLs). Consistently higher contaminant concentrations in the shallow wetland groundwater than deeper in the wetland sediments or the aquifer also indicate a continued source in the wetland sediments, which could include dissolution of DNAPLs and

  3. Impact of wastewater infrastructure upgrades on the urban water cycle: Reduction in halogenated reaction byproducts following conversion from chlorine gas to ultraviolet light disinfection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B; Hladik, Michelle L; Vajda, Alan M; Fitzgerald, Kevin C; Douville, Chris

    2015-10-01

    The municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) infrastructure of the United States is being upgraded to expand capacity and improve treatment, which provides opportunities to assess the impact of full-scale operational changes on water quality. Many WWTFs disinfect their effluent prior to discharge using chlorine gas, which reacts with natural and synthetic organic matter to form halogenated disinfection byproducts (HDBPs). Because HDBPs are ubiquitous in chlorine-disinfected drinking water and have adverse human health implications, their concentrations are regulated in potable water supplies. Less is known about the formation and occurrence of HDBPs in disinfected WWTF effluents that are discharged to surface waters and become part of the de facto wastewater reuse cycle. This study investigated HDBPs in the urban water cycle from the stream source of the chlorinated municipal tap water that comprises the WWTF inflow, to the final WWTF effluent disinfection process before discharge back to the stream. The impact of conversion from chlorine-gas to low-pressure ultraviolet light (UV) disinfection at a full-scale (68,000 m(3) d(-1) design flow) WWTF on HDBP concentrations in the final effluent was assessed, as was transport and attenuation in the receiving stream. Nutrients and trace elements (boron, copper, and uranium) were used to characterize the different urban source waters, and indicated that the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade water chemistry was similar and insensitive to the disinfection process. Chlorinated tap water during the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade samplings contained 11 (mean total concentration=2.7 μg L(-1); n=5) and 10 HDBPs (mean total concentration=4.5 μg L(-1)), respectively. Under chlorine-gas disinfection conditions 13 HDBPs (mean total concentration=1.4 μg L(-1)) were detected in the WWTF effluent, whereas under UV disinfection conditions, only one HDBP was detected. The chlorinated WWTF effluent had greater relative proportions of

  4. Impact of wastewater infrastructure upgrades on the urban water cycle: Reduction in halogenated reaction byproducts following conversion from chlorine gas to ultraviolet light disinfection

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Hladik, Michelle L.; Vajda, Alan M.; Fitzgerald, Kevin C.; Douville, Chris

    2015-01-01

    The municipal wastewater treatment facility (WWTF) infrastructure of the United States is being upgraded to expand capacity and improve treatment, which provides opportunities to assess the impact of full-scale operational changes on water quality. Many WWTFs disinfect their effluent prior to discharge using chlorine gas, which reacts with natural and synthetic organic matter to form halogenated disinfection byproducts (HDBPs). Because HDBPs are ubiquitous in chlorine-disinfected drinking water and have adverse human health implications, their concentrations are regulated in potable water supplies. Less is known about the formation and occurrence of HDBPs in disinfected WWTF effluents that are discharged to surface waters and become part of the de facto wastewater reuse cycle. This study investigated HDBPs in the urban water cycle from the stream source of the chlorinated municipal tap water that comprises the WWTF inflow, to the final WWTF effluent disinfection process before discharge back to the stream. The impact of conversion from chlorine-gas to low-pressure ultraviolet light (UV) disinfection at a full-scale (68,000 m3 d−1 design flow) WWTF on HDBP concentrations in the final effluent was assessed, as was transport and attenuation in the receiving stream. Nutrients and trace elements (boron, copper, and uranium) were used to characterize the different urban source waters, and indicated that the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade water chemistry was similar and insensitive to the disinfection process. Chlorinated tap water during the pre-upgrade and post-upgrade samplings contained 11 (mean total concentration = 2.7 μg L−1; n=5) and 10 HDBPs (mean total concentration = 4.5 μg L−1), respectively. Under chlorine-gas disinfection conditions 13 HDBPs (mean total concentration = 1.4 μg L−1) were detected in the WWTF effluent, whereas under UV disinfection conditions, only one HDBP was detected. The chlorinated WWTF effluent had greater relative

  5. Chlorination of nickel ore by gaseous chlorine in the presence of active additives

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ilić Ilija B.

    2003-01-01

    Full Text Available Paper presents a thermodynamic analysis of chemical reactions occurring during chlorination with and without additives for both nickel oxides and nickel ferrites, which are component parts of nickel ore. The experimental research investigated the influence of temperature in the range from 600 up to 1000 °C and time (up to 3 h on the chlorination degree of nickel ores with and without additives. It was found that the introduction of additives such as C, S, BaS and NaCl intensified the chlorination of nickel ore. The results can be applied and may help determine the optimal conditions for the chlorination of low-grade ferrous nickel ores.

  6. An approach for removing redundant data from RFID data streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mahdin, Hairulnizam; Abawajy, Jemal

    2011-01-01

    Radio frequency identification (RFID) systems are emerging as the primary object identification mechanism, especially in supply chain management. However, RFID naturally generates a large amount of duplicate readings. Removing these duplicates from the RFID data stream is paramount as it does not contribute new information to the system and wastes system resources. Existing approaches to deal with this problem cannot fulfill the real time demands to process the massive RFID data stream. We propose a data filtering approach that efficiently detects and removes duplicate readings from RFID data streams. Experimental results show that the proposed approach offers a significant improvement as compared to the existing approaches.

  7. Waste Management Facilities Cost Information Report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizollahi, F.; Shropshire, D.

    1992-10-01

    The Waste Management Facility Cost Information (WMFCI) Report, commissioned by the US Department of Energy (DOE), develops planning life-cycle cost (PLCC) estimates for treatment, storage, and disposal facilities. This report contains PLCC estimates versus capacity for 26 different facility cost modules. A procedure to guide DOE and its contractor personnel in the use of estimating data is also provided. Estimates in the report apply to five distinctive waste streams: low-level waste, low-level mixed waste, alpha contaminated low-level waste, alpha contaminated low-level mixed waste, and transuranic waste. The report addresses five different treatment types: incineration, metal/melting and recovery, shredder/compaction, solidification, and vitrification. Data in this report allows the user to develop PLCC estimates for various waste management options.

  8. Cellular Response of the Amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii to Chlorine, Chlorine Dioxide, and Monochloramine Treatments ▿

    OpenAIRE

    Mogoa, Emerancienne; Bodet, Charles; Morel, Franck; Rodier, Marie-Hélène; Legube, Bernard; Héchard, Yann

    2011-01-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii is a free-living amoebae commonly found in water systems. Free-living amoebae might be pathogenic but are also known to bear phagocytosis-resistant bacteria, protecting these bacteria from water treatments. The mode of action of these treatments is poorly understood, particularly on amoebae. It is important to examine the action of these treatments on amoebae in order to improve them. The cellular response to chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine was tested o...

  9. Chlorinated organic compounds in urban river sediments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soma, Y.; Shiraishi, H.; Inaba, K. [National Inst. of Environmental Studies, Tsukuba, Ibaraki (Japan)

    1995-12-31

    Among anthropogenic chemicals, many chlorinated organic compounds have been used as insecticides and detected frequently as contaminants in urban river sediments so far. However, the number and total amount of chemicals produced commercially and used are increasing year by year, though each amount of chemicals is not so high. New types of contaminants in the environment may be detected by the use of newly developed chemicals. Chlorinated organic compounds in the urban river sediments around Tokyo and Kyoto, large cities in Japan, were surveyed and recent trends of contaminants were studied. Contaminants of the river sediments in industrial areas had a variety, but PCB (polychlorinated biphenyls) was detected in common in industrial areas. Concentration of PCB related well to the number of factories on both sides of rivers, although the use of PCB was stopped 20 years ago. In domestic areas, Triclosan (5-chloro-2-(2,4-dichlorophenoxy)-phenol) and Triclocarban (3,4,4{prime}-trichlorocarbanilide)(both are contained in soap or shampoo for fungicides), p-dichlorobenzene (insecticides for wears) and TCEP(tris-chloroethyl phosphate) were detected. EOX(extracted organic halogen) in the sediments was 5 to 10 times of chlorinated organic compounds detected by GC/MS. Major part of organic halogen was suggested to be included in chlorinated organics formed by bleaching or sterilization.

  10. Method and apparatus for producing chlorine dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Santillie, P.W.; Ramras, D.M.

    1984-05-29

    A continuous method and apparatus are described for the efficient production of gaseous chlorine dioxide by the reaction between gaseous sulfur dioxide and an aqueous solution of a metallic chlorate. The chlorate solution and a highly concentrated sulfur dioxide gas are introduced into a packed columnar chamber at closely adjacent locations at the bottom of the chamber so as to flood the chamber and maximize both the contact area and contact time of the two reactants. Throughout the reaction the chamber is subjected to high vacuum imposed by an eductor which exhausts the chlorine dioxide gas and spent reactants. For use of the chlorine dioxide to produce potable water or treat foodstuffs, the chlorine dioxide and spent reactants are exhausted from the chamber separately by respective eductors substantially balanced with respect to each other to impose comparable vacuums upon the chamber. Because of the high efficency of the reaction, substantial heat is generated therefrom which is absorbed by a coolant flowing through a jacket surrounding the chamber. The flow rate of the coolant and flow rate of the reactants into the chamber are porportional due to the dependency of the reactant flow rate on the coolant flow rate.

  11. Photoabsorption and photoionization of chlorine dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Flesch, R.; Ruehl, E.; Hottmann, K.; Baumgaertel, H. (Freie Universitaet Berlin (Germany))

    1993-01-28

    Photoprocesses of chlorine dioxide in the near-UV have become highly important for stratospheric photoprocesses at high latitudes, especially in Antarctica. Chlorine dioxide has been identified among other absorbers because of its specific absorption cross section in the near-UV. Possible contributions of chlorine dioxide photochemistry to polar ozone depletion have been discussed recently. The high-resolution He I photoelectron spectrum and the absolute (vacuum-UV) absorption cross section (6-25 eV) as well as the ionic fragmentation of chlorine dioxide (OCIO) are reported. The photoelectron spectrum is interpreted in terms of exchange splitting effects of the various singlet and triplet cation states as well as by comparison to chemically related molecules. The vacuum-UV absorption spectrum shows different Rydberg series converging to the cation states. These Rydberg series and their vibrational progressions are assigned by term value arguments, dipole selection rules, and comparison with the photoelectron spectrum. Photoionization mass spectrometry is used for measurements of the ionization and fragmentation threshold of OCIO. The major fragment is ClO[sup +] which occurs above 13.4 eV. Thermomechanical data such as heats of formation and bond dissociation energies are derived. No evidence for isomerization of OClO[sup +] is found, as observed for the electronically excited neutral molecule. 54 refs., 6 figs., 7 tabs.

  12. Inhibitor treatment program for chlorine dioxide corrosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Edmondson, J.G.; Holder, E.P.

    1991-11-12

    This patent describes a method of inhibiting corrosion by chlorine dioxide in oil field waterflood systems by adding a sufficient amount of a corrosion inhibiting composition. It comprises a phosphonate, a copolymer consisting of repeating units of acrylic acid/allyl hydroxy propyl sulfonate ether, and a permangante.

  13. Halogenase-Inspired Oxidative Chlorination Using Flavin Photocatalysis.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hering, Thea; Mühldorf, Bernd; Wolf, Robert; König, Burkhard

    2016-04-18

    Chlorine gas or electropositive chlorine reagents are used to prepare chlorinated aromatic compounds, which are found in pharmaceuticals, agrochemicals, and polymers, and serve as synthetic precursors for metal-catalyzed cross-couplings. Nature chlorinates with chloride anions, FAD-dependent halogenases, and O2 as the oxidant. A photocatalytic oxidative chlorination is described based on the organic dye riboflavin tetraacetate mimicking the enzymatic process. The chemical process allows within the suitable arene redox potential window a broader substrate scope compared to the specific activation in the enzymatic binding pocket.

  14. Kinetic models and pathways of ronidazole degradation by chlorination, UV irradiation and UV/chlorine processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Qin, Lang; Lin, Yi-Li; Xu, Bin; Hu, Chen-Yan; Tian, Fu-Xiang; Zhang, Tian-Yang; Zhu, Wen-Qian; Huang, He; Gao, Nai-Yun

    2014-11-15

    Degradation kinetics and pathways of ronidazole (RNZ) by chlorination (Cl2), UV irradiation and combined UV/chlorine processes were investigated in this paper. The degradation kinetics of RNZ chlorination followed a second-order behavior with the rate constants calculated as (2.13 ± 0.15) × 10(2) M(-2) s(-1), (0.82 ± 0.52) × 10(-2) M(-1) s(-1) and (2.06 ± 0.09) × 10(-1) M(-1) s(-1) for the acid-catalyzed reaction, as well as the reactions of RNZ with HOCl and OCl(-), respectively. Although UV irradiation degraded RNZ more effectively than chlorination did, very low quantum yield of RNZ at 254 nm was obtained as 1.02 × 10(-3) mol E(-1). RNZ could be efficiently degraded and mineralized in the UV/chlorine process due to the generation of hydroxyl radicals. The second-order rate constant between RNZ and hydroxyl radical was determined as (2.92 ± 0.05) × 10(9) M(-1) s(-1). The degradation intermediates of RNZ during the three processes were identified with Ultra Performance Liquid Chromatography - Electrospray Ionization - mass spectrometry and the degradation pathways were then proposed. Moreover, the variation of chloropicrin (TCNM) and chloroform (CF) formation after the three processes were further evaluated. Enhanced formation of CF and TCNM precursors during UV/chlorine process deserves extensive attention in drinking water treatment.

  15. Turbidity and chlorine demand reduction using alum and moringa flocculation before household chlorination in developing countries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preston, Kelsey; Lantagne, Daniele; Kotlarz, Nadine; Jellison, Kristen

    2010-03-01

    Over 1.1 billion people in the world lack access to improved drinking water. Diarrhoeal and other waterborne diseases cause an estimated 1.87 million deaths per year. The Safe Water System (SWS) is a household water treatment intervention that reduces diarrhoeal disease incidence among users in developing countries. Turbid waters pose a particular challenge to implementation of SWS programmes; although research shows that a 3.75 mg l(-1) sodium hypochlorite dose effectively treats turbid waters, users sometimes object to the strong chlorine taste and prefer to drink water that is more aesthetically pleasing. This study investigated the efficacy of two locally available chemical water treatments-alum and Moringa oleifera flocculation-to reduce turbidity and chlorine demand at turbidities of 10, 30, 70, 100 and 300 NTU. Both treatments effectively reduced turbidity (alum flocculation 23.0-91.4%; moringa flocculation 14.2-96.2%). Alum flocculation effectively reduced chlorine demand compared with controls at 30, 70, 100 and 300 NTU (p=0.01-0.06). Moringa flocculation increased chlorine demand to the point where adequate free chlorine residual was not maintained for 24 hours after treatment. Alum pretreatment is recommended in waters>or=30 NTU for optimum water disinfection. Moringa flocculation is not recommended before chlorination.

  16. Combined Waste Form Cost Trade Study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dirk Gombert; Steve Piet; Timothy Trickel; Joe Carter; John Vienna; Bill Ebert; Gretchen Matthern

    2008-11-01

    A new generation of aqueous nuclear fuel reprocessing, now in development under the auspices of the DOE Office of Nuclear Energy (NE), separates fuel into several fractions, thereby partitioning the wastes into groups of common chemistry. This technology advance enables development of waste management strategies that were not conceivable with simple PUREX reprocessing. Conventional wisdom suggests minimizing high level waste (HLW) volume is desirable, but logical extrapolation of this concept suggests that at some point the cost of reducing volume further will reach a point of diminishing return and may cease to be cost-effective. This report summarizes an evaluation considering three groupings of wastes in terms of cost-benefit for the reprocessing system. Internationally, the typical waste form for HLW from the PUREX process is borosilicate glass containing waste elements as oxides. Unfortunately several fission products (primarily Mo and the noble metals Ru, Rh, Pd) have limited solubility in glass, yielding relatively low waste loading, producing more glass, and greater disposal costs. Advanced separations allow matching the waste form to waste stream chemistry, allowing the disposal system to achieve more optimum waste loading with improved performance. Metals can be segregated from oxides and each can be stabilized in forms to minimize the HLW volume for repository disposal. Thus, a more efficient waste management system making the most effective use of advanced waste forms and disposal design for each waste is enabled by advanced separations and how the waste streams are combined. This trade-study was designed to juxtapose a combined waste form baseline waste treatment scheme with two options and to evaluate the cost-benefit using available data from the conceptual design studies supported by DOE-NE.

  17. Preliminary study for the management of construction and demolition waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kourmpanis, B; Papadopoulos, A; Moustakas, K; Stylianou, M; Haralambous, K J; Loizidou, M

    2008-06-01

    This paper refers to the management of the construction and demolition (C&D) waste since, according to the EU Waste Strategy, C&D waste is considered to be one of the priority waste streams and appropriate actions need to be taken with respect to its effective management. Initially, the paper presents the state-of-the-art of the problem of C&D waste, including the amount and composition of C&D waste in EU countries, differences in the characteristics of this waste stream depending on its origin, as well as collection and management practices that are applied. A methodology is described for the estimation of the quantities of the waste stream under examination, since in most cases quantitative primary data is not available. Next, the fundamentals for the development of an integrated scheme for the management of C&D waste are presented and discussed, such as appropriate demolition procedures and location of waste management (off-site waste management, on-site waste management, direct on-site recovery, centralized on-site recovery). Finally, taking into consideration all relevant parameters, alternative systems that could be applied for the management of the C&D waste are suggested.

  18. 77 FR 41720 - Hazardous Waste Management System; Identification and Listing of Hazardous Waste; Proposed Exclusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-16

    ... wastewater treated). The biological waste streams include sanitary wastewaters, dilute organic waste (DOW... copper sulfate plating bath solutions (totaling less than 0.1 percent of the wastewater treated through... exclude (or ``delist'') up to 3,150 cubic yards per calendar year of F006 wastewater treatment...

  19. Test plan for formulation and evaluation of grouted waste forms with shine process wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ebert, W. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Jerden, J. L. [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2015-09-01

    The objective of this experimental project is to demonstrate that waste streams generated during the production of Mo99 by the SHINE Medical Technologies (SHINE) process can be immobilized in cement-based grouted waste forms having physical, chemical, and radiological stabilities that meet regulatory requirements for handling, storage, transport, and disposal.

  20. Modeling Groundwater-Surface Water Interaction and Contaminant Transport of Chlorinated Solvent Contaminated Site

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yimer Ebrahim, Girma; Jonoski, Andreja; van Griensven, Ann; Dujardin, Juliette; Baetelaan, Okke; Bronders, Jan

    2010-05-01

    Chlorinated-solvent form one of the largest groups of environmental chemicals. Their use and misuse in industry have lead to a large entry of these chemicals into the environment, resulting in widespread dissemination and oftentimes environmental contamination. Chlorinated solvent contamination of groundwater resources has been widely reported. For instance, there has been much interest in the assessment of these contaminant levels and their evolutions with time in the groundwater body below the Vilvoorde-Machelen industrial area (Belgium). The long industrial history of the area has lead to complex patterns of pollution from multiple sources and the site has been polluted to the extent that individual plumes are not definable any more. Understanding of groundwater/surface water interaction is a critical component for determining the fate of contaminant both in streams and ground water due to the fact that groundwater and surface water are in continuous dynamic interaction in the hydrologic cycle. The interaction has practical consequences in the quantity and quality of water in either system in the sense that depletion and/or contamination of one of the system will eventually affect the other one. The transition zone between a stream and its adjacent aquifer referred to as the hyporheic zone plays a critical role in governing contaminant exchange and transformation during water exchange between the two water bodies. The hyporheic zone of Zenne River ( the main receptor ) is further complicated due to the fact that the river banks are artificially trained with sheet piles along its reach extending some 12 m below the surface. This study demonstrates the use of MODFLOW, a widely used modular three-dimensional block-centred finite difference, saturated flow model for simulating the flow and direction of movement of groundwater through aquifer and stream-aquifer interaction and the use of transport model RT3D, a three-dimensional multi-species reactive transport model

  1. 40 CFR 62.14431 - What must my waste management plan include?

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... POLLUTANTS Federal Plan Requirements for Hospital/Medical/Infectious Waste Incinerators Constructed on or... components of solid waste from the health care waste stream in order to reduce the amount of toxic emissions... American Hospital Association publication entitled “Ounce of Prevention: Waste Reduction Strategies...

  2. Percent Forest Adjacent to Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  3. Percent Agriculture Adjacent to Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — The type of vegetation along a stream influences the water quality in the stream. Intact buffer strips of natural vegetation along streams tend to intercept...

  4. Problems associated with solid wastes from energy systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chiu, S.Y.; Fradkin, L.; Barisas, S.; Surles, T.; Morris, S.; Crowther, A.; DeCarlo, V.

    1980-09-01

    Waste streams from many energy-related technologies including coal, oil shale, tar sands, geothermal, oil and gas extraction, and nuclear power generation are reviewed with an emphasis on waste streams from coal and oil shale technologies. This study has two objectives. The first objective is to outline the available information on energy-related solid wastes. Data on chemical composition and hazardous biological characteristics are included, supplemented by regulatory reviews and data on legally designated hazardous waste streams. The second objective is to provide disposal and utilization options. Solid waste disposal and recovery requirements specified under the RCRA are emphasized. Information presented herein should be useful for policy, environmental control, and research and development decision making regarding solid and hazardous wastes from energy production.

  5. Global responses for recycling waste CRTs in e-waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Narendra; Li, Jinhui; Zeng, Xianlai

    2016-11-01

    The management of used cathode ray tube (CRT) devices is a major problem worldwide due to rapid uptake of the technology and early obsolescence of CRT devices, which is considered an environment hazard if disposed improperly. Previously, their production has grown in step with computer and television demand but later on with rapid technological innovation; TVs and computer screens has been replaced by new products such as Liquid Crystal Displays (LCDs) and Plasma Display Panel (PDPs). This change creates a large volume of waste stream of obsolete CRTs waste in developed countries and developing countries will be becoming major CRTs waste producers in the upcoming years. We studied that there is also high level of trans-boundary movement of these devices as second-hand electronic equipment into developing countries in an attempt to bridge the 'digital divide'. Moreover, the current global production of e-waste is estimated to be '41million tonnes per year' where a major part of the e-waste stream consists of CRT devices. This review article provides a concise overview of world's current CRTs waste scenario, namely magnitude of the demand and processing, current disposal and recycling operations.

  6. Academic streaming in Europe

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Falaschi, Alessandro; Mønster, Dan; Doležal, Ivan;

    2004-01-01

    The TF-NETCAST task force was active from March 2003 to March 2004, and during this time the mem- bers worked on various aspects of streaming media related to the ultimate goal of setting up common services and infrastructures to enable netcasting of high quality content to the academic community...... in Europe. We report on a survey of the use of streaming media in the academic community in Europe, an open source content delivery network, and a portal for announcing live streaming events to the global academic community....

  7. Military Munitions Waste Working Group report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1993-11-30

    This report presents the findings of the Military Munitions Waste Working Group in its effort to achieve the goals directed under the Federal Advisory Committee to Develop On-Site Innovative Technologies (DOIT Committee) for environmental restoration and waste management. The Military Munitions Waste Working Group identified the following seven areas of concern associated with the ordnance (energetics) waste stream: unexploded ordnance; stockpiled; disposed -- at known locations, i.e., disposal pits; discharged -- impact areas, unknown disposal sites; contaminated media; chemical sureties/weapons; biological weapons; munitions production; depleted uranium; and rocket motor and fuel disposal (open burn/open detonation). Because of time constraints, the Military Munitions Waste Working Group has focused on unexploded ordnance and contaminated media with the understanding that remaining waste streams will be considered as time permits. Contents of this report are as follows: executive summary; introduction; Military Munitions Waste Working Group charter; description of priority waste stream problems; shortcomings of existing approaches, processes and technologies; innovative approaches, processes and technologies, work force planning, training, and education issues relative to technology development and cleanup; criteria used to identify and screen potential demonstration projects; list of potential candidate demonstration projects for the DOIT committee decision/recommendation and appendices.

  8. Oxidative elimination of cyanotoxins: comparison of ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide and permanganate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rodríguez, Eva; Onstad, Gretchen D; Kull, Tomas P J; Metcalf, James S; Acero, Juan L; von Gunten, Urs

    2007-08-01

    As the World Health Organization (WHO) progresses with provisional Drinking Water Guidelines of 1 microg/L for microcystin-LR and a proposed Guideline of 1 microg/L for cylindrospermopsin, efficient treatment strategies are needed to prevent cyanotoxins such as these from reaching consumers. A kinetic database has been compiled for the oxidative treatment of three cyanotoxins: microcystin-LR (MC-LR), cylindrospermopsin (CYN), and anatoxin-a (ANTX) with ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide and permanganate. This kinetic database contains rate constants not previously reported and determined in the present work (e.g. for permanganate oxidation of ANTX and chlorine dioxide oxidation of CYN and ANTX), together with previously published rate constants for the remaining oxidation processes. Second-order rate constants measured in pure aqueous solutions of these toxins could be used in a kinetic model to predict the toxin oxidation efficiency of ozone, chlorine, chlorine dioxide and permanganate when applied to natural waters. Oxidants were applied to water from a eutrophic Swiss lake (Lake Greifensee) in static-dose testing and dynamic time-resolved experiments to confirm predictions from the kinetic database, and to investigate the effects of a natural matrix on toxin oxidation and by-product formation. Overall, permanganate can effectively oxidize ANTX and MC-LR, while chlorine will oxidize CYN and MC-LR and ozone is capable of oxidizing all three toxins with the highest rate. The formation of trihalomethanes (THMs) in the treated water may be a restriction to the application of sufficiently high-chlorine doses.

  9. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Technetium Decontamination of Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Direct Feed Low Activity Waste Melter Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-12-23

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  10. Laboratory Optimization Tests of Decontamination of Cs, Sr, and Actinides from Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Off-Gas Condensate Simulant

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taylor-Pashow, K. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Nash, C. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); McCabe, D. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-06

    The Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility will generate an aqueous condensate recycle stream (LAW Off-Gas Condensate) from the off-gas system. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to send it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be blended with LAW, concentrated by evaporation and recycled to the LAW vitrification facility. Alternate disposition of this stream would eliminate recycling of problematic components, and would enable less integrated operation of the LAW melter and the Pretreatment Facilities. Eliminating this stream from recycling within WTP would also substantially decrease the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste.

  11. Chlorine hazard evaluation for the zinc-chlorine electric vehicle battery. Final technical report. [50 kWh

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zalosh, R. G.; Bajpai, S. N.; Short, T. P.; Tsui, R. K.

    1980-04-01

    Hazards associated with conceivable accidental chlorine releases from zinc-chlorine electric vehicle batteries are evaluated. Since commercial batteries are not yet available, this hazard assessment is based on both theoretical chlorine dispersion models and small-scale and large-scale spill tests with chlorine hydrate (which is the form of chlorine storage in the charged battery). Six spill tests involving the chlorine hydrate equivalent of a 50-kWh battery indicate that the danger zone in which chlorine vapor concentrations intermittently exceed 100 ppM extends at least 23 m directly downwind of a spill onto a warm (30 to 38/sup 0/C) road surface. Other accidental chlorine release scenarios may also cause some distress, but are not expected to produce the type of life-threatening chlorine exposures that can result from large hydrate spills. Chlorine concentration data from the hydrate spill tests compare favorably with calculations based on a quasi-steady area source dispersion model and empirical estimates of the hydrate decomposition rate. The theoretical dispersion model was combined with assumed hydrate spill probabilities and current motor vehicle accident statistics in order to project expected chlorine-induced fatality rates. These calculations indicate that expected chlorine fataility rates are several times higher in a city such as Los Angeles with a warm and calm climate than in a colder and windier city such as Boston. Calculated chlorine-induced fatality rate projections for various climates are presented as a function of hydrate spill probability in order to illustrate the degree of vehicle/battery crashworthiness required to maintain chlorine-induced fatality rates below current vehicle fatality rates due to fires and asphyxiations. 37 figures, 19 tables.

  12. Comparative efficacy of chlorine and chlorine dioxide regimes for condenser slime control in seawater cooled heat exchangers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Murthy, P.S.; Veeramani, P.; Ershath, M.; Rajamohan, R.; Harinath, Y.V.; Mohan, T.V.K.; Venugopalan, V.P. [BARC Facilities, Water and Steam Chemistry Div., Kalpakkam, Tamil nadu (India)

    2010-07-01

    Chlorination has long been used as an effective and economic biocide for biofouling control in seawater cooling systems. However, the efficacy of chlorine is reduced in the presence of organic content of seawater and the inability of chlorine to effectively penetrate biofilms. Chlorine dioxide is being projected as a possible alternative to chlorine. Experiments were carried out with the help of a seawater circulating facility, in which direct comparison of the efficacy of the two biocides was possible using test condenser tube assemblies. The test condenser tubes made of titanium, SS 316L and Cu-Ni 90/10 were dosed with chlorine and chlorine dioxide. Each dose was evaluated for 30 days. Continuous and intermittent additions of chlorine (0.38 - 0.45 mg L{sup -1} TRO) and chlorine dioxide (0.4 - 0.5 mg L{sup -1}) were used, along with control. The flow velocity in the tubes was maintained at 1.5 m/s. Results of the study showed that the efficacy of the biocide to control biofilms depended on the biocide and the material. Continuous chlorination resulted in 75% reduction of viable counts on titanium, followed by 24% reduction on CuNi and 6% reduction on SS 316L surfaces, as compared to the control. When compared to continuous chlorination, increase in bacterial density in the tubes was observed at different regimes of intermittent chlorination. On SS 316L and Cu-Ni surfaces, intermittent chlorination for 1h, once every 3 h, appeared to give adequate protection. Continuous addition of chlorine dioxide resulted in 99% reduction of viable counts on titanium surfaces, followed by 28% reduction on SS 316 L surfaces and 52% reduction on Cu-Ni surfaces, as compared to the controls. The data indicate that the efficacy of biocides to control biofilms depend on not only the biocide and its frequency of application but also the material of construction. (author)

  13. Extraction of Valuable Substances from E-Waste

    OpenAIRE

    P.I. Okwu; I.N. Onyeje

    2016-01-01

    Globally, e-waste is the fastest growing waste stream due to rapid growth in technology, planned obsolesces in electronics industry and increased desire for new electronic products. E- waste has the ugly and good sides because it contains substances that can be classified as hazardous and non-hazardous. This paper focuses on the good side-extraction of valuable substances by means of recycling. Millions of dollars of gold, silver and other precious metals are hidden away e-waste landfills ...

  14. The Mixed Waste Management Facility. Preliminary design review

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    1995-12-31

    This document presents information about the Mixed Waste Management Facility. Topics discussed include: cost and schedule baseline for the completion of the project; evaluation of alternative options; transportation of radioactive wastes to the facility; capital risk associated with incineration; radioactive waste processing; scaling of the pilot-scale system; waste streams to be processed; molten salt oxidation; feed preparation; initial operation to demonstrate selected technologies; floorplans; baseline revisions; preliminary design baseline; cost reduction; and project mission and milestones.

  15. Reduction of excess sludge production in sequencing batch reactor through incorporation of chlorine dioxide oxidation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wang Guanghua [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration area, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); Guangzhou municipal engineering design and research institute, Guangzhou, 510060 (China); Sui Jun [Guangzhou municipal engineering design and research institute, Guangzhou, 510060 (China); Shen Huishan; Liang Shukun [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration area, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006 (China); He Xiangming; Zhang Minju; Xie Yizhong; Li Lingyun [Nanhai Limited Liability Development Company, Foshan, 528200 (China); Hu Yongyou, E-mail: ppyyhu@scut.edu.cn [Ministry of Education Key Laboratory of Pollution Control and Ecological Remediation for Industrial Agglomeration area, College of Environmental Science and Engineering, South China University of Technology, Guangzhou, 510006 (China) and State Key Lab of Pulp and Paper Engineering, College of Light Industry and Food Science, South China University of Technology; Guangzhou, 510640 (China)

    2011-08-15

    In this study, chlorine dioxide (ClO{sub 2}) instead of chlorine (Cl{sub 2}) was proposed to minimize the formation of chlorine-based by-products and was incorporated into a sequencing batch reactor (SBR) for excess sludge reduction. The results showed that the sludge disintegrability of ClO{sub 2} was excellent. The waste activated sludge at an initial concentration of 15 g MLSS/L was rapidly reduced by 36% using ClO{sub 2} doses of 10 mg ClO{sub 2}/g dry sludge which was much lower than that obtained using Cl{sub 2} based on similar sludge reduction efficiency. Maximum sludge disintegration was achieved at 10 mg ClO{sub 2}/g dry sludge for 40 min. ClO{sub 2} oxidation can be successfully incorporated into a SBR for excess sludge reduction without significantly harming the bioreactor performance. The incorporation of ClO{sub 2} oxidation resulted in a 58% reduction in excess sludge production, and the quality of the effluent was not significantly affected.

  16. DNR 24K Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — 1:24,000 scale streams captured from USGS seven and one-half minute quadrangle maps, with perennial vs. intermittent classification, and connectivity through lakes,...

  17. Future Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly into...

  18. Channelized Streams in Iowa

    Data.gov (United States)

    Iowa State University GIS Support and Research Facility — This draft dataset consists of all ditches or channelized pieces of stream that could be identified using three input datasets; namely the1:24,000 National...

  19. Roads Near Streams

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — Roads are a source of auto related pollutants (e.g. gasoline, oil and other engine fluids). When roads are near streams, rain can wash these pollutants directly...

  20. Trout Stream Special Regulations

    Data.gov (United States)

    Minnesota Department of Natural Resources — This layer shows Minnesota trout streams that have a special regulation as described in the 2006 Minnesota Fishing Regulations. Road crossings were determined using...

  1. Streaming tearing mode

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shigeta, M.; Sato, T.; Dasgupta, B.

    1985-01-01

    The magnetohydrodynamic stability of streaming tearing mode is investigated numerically. A bulk plasma flow parallel to the antiparallel magnetic field lines and localized in the neutral sheet excites a streaming tearing mode more strongly than the usual tearing mode, particularly for the wavelength of the order of the neutral sheet width (or smaller), which is stable for the usual tearing mode. Interestingly, examination of the eigenfunctions of the velocity perturbation and the magnetic field perturbation indicates that the streaming tearing mode carries more energy in terms of the kinetic energy rather than the magnetic energy. This suggests that the streaming tearing mode instability can be a more feasible mechanism of plasma acceleration than the usual tearing mode instability.

  2. 基于过氧化氢制备生产二氧化氯的过程开发研究%Process Development and Design of Chlorine Dioxide Production Based on Hydrogen Peroxide

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈赟; 江燕斌; 钱宇

    2004-01-01

    This paper presents a process development and design of chlorine dioxide production based on hydrogen peroxide. The process is characterized by cleaner production, high efficiency, and waste minimization. Optimization of process conditions, selection of equipment, and experiment of recycle of waste acid are carried out. The process design is realized in consideration of several aspects such as operation, material, equipment design and safety. An industrialized process flowsheet is developed according to experiment. A pilot testing is carried out to confirm the lab results. Process design of chlorine dioxide production based on hydrogen peroxide is realized.

  3. Reincarnation of Streaming Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    2009-10-01

    AFRL-RY-WP-TR-2009-1033 REINCARNATION OF STREAMING APPLICATIONS Saman Amarsinghe, Robert Miller, and Michael Ernst Massachusetts...2007 – 31 December 2008 4. TITLE AND SUBTITLE REINCARNATION OF STREAMING APPLICATIONS 5a. CONTRACT NUMBER 5b. GRANT NUMBER FA8650-07-C-7737 5c...Program Reincarnation , using a simple prototype. A Program Reincarnation tool will assist the programmer in replacing the program’s code (the body

  4. Revisiting the thermochemistry of chlorine fluorides

    CERN Document Server

    Sánchez, H R

    2016-01-01

    In this work, accurate calculations of standard enthalpies of formation of chlorine fluorides (ClF$_n$, n=1--7; Cl$_2$F and Cl$_3$F$_2$) were performed through the isodesmic reactions scheme. It is argued that, for many chlorine fluorides, the gold standard method of quantum chemistry (CCSD(T)) is not capable to predict enthalpy values nearing chemical accuracy if atomization scheme is used. This is underpinned by a thorough analysis of total atomization energy results and the inspection of multireference features of these compounds. Other thermodynamic quantities were also calculated at different temperatures. In order to complement the energetic description, elimination curves were studied through density functional theory as a computationally affordable alternative to highly correlated wave function-based methods.

  5. Behavioral toxicology, risk assessment, and chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Evangelista de Duffard, A.M.; Duffard, R. [Laboratorio de Toxicologia Experimental, Santa Fe (Argentina)

    1996-04-01

    Behavioral end points are being used with greater frequency in neurotoxicology to detect and characterize the adverse effects of chemicals on the nervous system. Behavioral measures are particularly important for neurotoxicity risk assessment since many known neurotoxicants do not result in neuropathology. The chlorinated hydrocarbon class consists of a wide variety of chemicals including polychlorinated biphenyls, clioquinol, trichloroethylene, hexachlorophene, organochlorine insecticides (DDT, dicofol, chlordecone, dieldrin, and lindane), and phenoxyherbicides. Each of these chemicals has effects on motor, sensory, or cognitive function that are detectable using functional measures such as behavior. Furthermore, there is evidence that if exposure occurs during critical periods of development, many of the chlorinated hydrocarbons are developmental neurotoxicants. Developmental neurotoxicity is frequently expressed as alterations in motor function or cognitive abilities or charges in the ontogeny of sensorimotor reflexes. Neurotoxicity risk assessment should include assessments of the full range of possible neurotoxicological effects, including both structural and functional indicators of neurotoxicity. 121 refs., 1 tab.

  6. A comparison of iodinated trihalomethane formation from chlorine, chlorine dioxide and potassium permanganate oxidation processes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Tian-Yang; Xu, Bin; Hu, Chen-Yan; Lin, Yi-Li; Lin, Lin; Ye, Tao; Tian, Fu-Xiang

    2015-01-01

    This study compared the formation of iodinated trihalomethanes (I-THMs) from iodide-containing raw waters oxidized by chlorine, chlorine dioxide (ClO₂) and potassium permanganate (KMnO₄) at different oxidant concentrations, reaction times, pHs, initial iodide concentrations and bromide to iodide mass ratios. Among the six investigated I-THMs, iodoform was the major species formed during the oxidation using chlorine, ClO₂ and KMnO₄. When oxidant concentration increased from 0.1 to 3.0 mg/L, the formation of I-THMs increased and then decreased for chlorine and ClO₂, but kept increasing for KMnO₄. As the reaction time went by, I-THM concentration increased to a plateau within 10 h (ClO₂ within only 1 h, especially) for all the three oxidants. I-THM formation gradually increased from pH 3.0 to 9.0 and remained stable at pH values higher than 7.5 for chlorine; however, for ClO₂ and KMnO₄ the highest I-THM formation showed at pH 7.0 and 7.5, respectively. As initial iodide concentration increased from 20 to 800 μg/L, the total amount and species of I-THMs increased for the three oxidants. Iodide contributed to I-THM formation much more significantly than bromide.

  7. Two-dimensional Value Stream Mapping: Integrating the design of the MPC system in the value stream map

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Powell, Daryl; Olesen, Peter Bjerg

    2013-01-01

    Companies use value stream mapping to identify waste, often in the early stages of a lean implementation. Though the tool helps users to visualize material and information flows and to identify improvement opportunities, a limitation of this approach is the lack of an integrated method...... the material and information flow map....

  8. Gulf stream separation dynamics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoonover, Joseph

    Climate models currently struggle with the more traditional, coarse ( O(100 km) ) representation of the ocean. In these coarse ocean simulations, western boundary currents are notoriously difficult to model accurately. The modeled Gulf Stream is typically seen exhibiting a mean pathway that is north of observations, and is linked to a warm sea-surface temperature bias in the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Although increased resolution ( O(10 km) ) improves the modeled Gulf Stream position, there is no clean recipe for obtaining the proper pathway. The 70 year history of literature on the Gulf Stream separation suggests that we have not reached a resolution on the dynamics that control the current's pathway just south of the Mid-Atlantic Bight. Without a concrete knowledge on the separation dynamics, we cannot provide a clean recipe for accurately modeling the Gulf Stream at increased resolutions. Further, any reliable parameterization that yields a realistic Gulf Stream path must express the proper physics of separation. The goal of this dissertation is to determine what controls the Gulf Stream separation. To do so, we examine the results of a model intercomparison study and a set of numerical regional terraforming experiments. It is argued that the separation is governed by local dynamics that are most sensitive to the steepening of the continental shelf, consistent with the topographic wave arrest hypothesis of Stern (1998). A linear extension of Stern's theory is provided, which illustrates that wave arrest is possible for a continuously stratified fluid.

  9. The gas phase chlorination of ethane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Olsbye, Unni; Myhrvold, Elisabeth M.; Slagtern, Aase; Dahl, Ivar M. [SINTEF Applied Chemistry, Oslo (Norway)

    1999-07-01

    Light alkanes are dehydrogenated to their corresponding olefins before further reactions to more valuable chemicals. The conversion of ethane to ethene in a steam cracker requires the addition of a substantial amount of heat (90 kJ/mol). Oxidative processes for ethane dehydrogenation could in principle be carried out adiabatically, however, the oxidation selectivity towards hydrogen is too low in existing systems, which leads to low ethene selectivities. This paper discusses the potential for light alkane derivatization through chlorination.

  10. Thermal diffusion of chlorine in uranium dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pipon, Y.; Toulhoat, N.; Moncoffre, N.; Jaffrezic, H.; Gavarini, S. [Inst. de Physique Nucleaire de Lyon (IPNL), Villeurbanne (France); Martin, P. [Commissariat a l' Energie Atomique (CEA), Centre de Cadarache, DEN/DEC/SESC/LLCC, Saint-Paul lez Durance (France); Raimbault, L. [Centre d' Informatique Geologique (CIG), Ecole des Mines, Fontainebleau (France); Scheidegger, A.M. [Lab. for Waste Management, Nuclear Energy and Safety Dept. (NES), Paul Scherrer Inst. Villigen PSI (Switzerland)

    2006-07-01

    In a nuclear reactor, isotopes such as {sup 35}Cl present as impurities in the nuclear fuel are activated by thermal neutron capture. During interim storage or geological disposal of nuclear fuel, the activation products such as {sup 36}Cl may be released from the fuel to the geo/biosphere and contribute to the ''instant release fraction'' as they are likely to migrate in defects and grain boundaries. In order to differentiate diffusion mechanisms due to ''athermal'' processes during irradiation from thermally activated diffusion, both irradiation and thermal effects must be assessed. This work concerns the measurement of the thermal diffusion coefficient of chlorine in UO{sub 2}. {sup 37}Cl was implanted at a 10{sup 13} at/cm{sup 2} fluence in depleted UO{sub 2} samples which were then annealed in the 900-1200 C temperature range and finally analyzed by secondary ion mass spectrometry (SIMS) to obtain {sup 37}Cl depth profiles. The migration process appears to be rather complex, involving mechanisms such as atomic, grain boundary, directed diffusion along preferential patterns as well as trapping into sinks before successive effusion. However, using a diffusion model based on general equation of transport, apparent diffusion coefficients could be calculated for 1000 and 1100 C and a mean activation energy of 4.3 eV is proposed. This value is one of the lowest values compared to those found in literature for other radionuclides pointing out a great ability of chlorine to migrate in UO{sub 2} at relatively low temperatures. In order to unequivocally determine the diffusion behaviour of both implanted and pristine chlorine before and after thermal annealing, the structural environment of chlorine in UO{sub 2} was examined using micro X-ray fluorescence (micro-XRF) and micro X-ray absorption spectroscopy (micro-XAS). (orig.)

  11. Streaming Pool: reuse, combine and create reactive streams with pleasure

    CERN Document Server

    CERN. Geneva

    2017-01-01

    When connecting together heterogeneous and complex systems, it is not easy to exchange data between components. Streams of data are successfully used in industry in order to overcome this problem, especially in the case of "live" data. Streams are a specialization of the Observer design pattern and they provide asynchronous and non-blocking data flow. The ongoing effort of the ReactiveX initiative is one example that demonstrates how demanding this technology is even for big companies. Bridging the discrepancies of different technologies with common interfaces is already done by the Reactive Streams initiative and, in the JVM world, via reactive-streams-jvm interfaces. Streaming Pool is a framework for providing and discovering reactive streams. Through the mechanism of dependency injection provided by the Spring Framework, Streaming Pool provides a so called Discovery Service. This object can discover and chain streams of data that are technologically agnostic, through the use of Stream IDs. The stream to ...

  12. RED-IMPACT. Impact of partitioning, transmutation and waste reduction technologies on the final nuclear waste disposal. Synthesis report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lensa, Werner von; Nabbi, Rahim; Rossbach, Matthias (eds.) [Forschungszentrum Juelich GmbH (Germany)

    2008-07-01

    The impact of partitioning and transmutation (P and T) and waste reduction technologies on the nuclear waste management and particularly on the final disposal has been analysed within the EU-funded RED-IMPACT project. Five representative scenarios, ranging from direct disposal of the spent fuel to fully closed cycles (including minor actinide (MA) recycling) with fast neutron reactors or accelerator-driven systems (ADS), were chosen in the project to cover a wide range of representative waste streams, fuel cycle facilities and process performances. High and intermediate level waste streams have been evaluated for all of these scenarios with the aim of analysing the impact on geological disposal in different host formations such as granite, clay and salt. For each scenario and waste stream, specific waste package forms have been proposed and their main characteristics identified. Both equilibrium and transition analyses have been applied to those scenarios. The performed assessments have addressed parameters such as the total radioactive and radiotoxic inventory, discharges during reprocessing, thermal power and radiation emission of the waste packages, corrosion of matrices, transport of radioisotopes through the engineered and geological barriers or the resulting doses from the repository. The major conclusions of include the fact, that deep geological repository to host the remaining high level waste (HLW) and possibly the long-lived intermediate level waste (ILW) is unavoidable whatever procedure is implemented to manage waste streams from different fuel cycle scenarios including P and T of long-lived transuranic actinides.

  13. Hydraulic fracturing with chlorine dioxide cleanup

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Williams, D.A.; Newlove, J.C.; Horton, R.L.

    1990-10-23

    This patent describes a method for fracturing a subterranean formation penetrated by a wellbore. It comprises: injecting a fracturing fluid into the formation to form a vertical fracture therein, the fracturing fluid being gelled with a polymer selected from guar, guar derivatives, acrylamide, acrylamide derivatives, cellulose, cellulose derivatives, and mixtures thereof and crosslinked with an organometallic crosslinking compound and having temperature stability above about 175{degrees} F.; packing the fracture with particulate propping agent; backflowing fluids from the formation through the propped fracture to remove a portion of the polymer; injecting at matrix rates sufficient aqueous solution of chlorine dioxide down the wellbore and into the propped fracture to penetrate at least 60 feet of the propped fracture length and contact polymer in the fracturing fluid and polymer residue in the propped fracture and on the fracture walls, the amount of the chlorine dioxide in the aqueous medium being sufficient to degrade polymer in the fracturing fluid and polymer residue; permitting the chlorine dioxide to remain in contact with the polymer in the fracturing fluid and with the polymer residue on the fracture walls and in the fracture for sufficient time to degrade the polymer thereby reducing the fracturing fluid viscosity and dissolving portions of the polymer residue; and flowing formation fluid from the formation through the propped fracture and into the wellbore to remove substantial portions of the polymer and degraded polymer from the fracture.

  14. Chlorine Monoxide in the Antarctic Spring Stratosphere.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jaramillo-Ayerbe, Mauricio

    1988-06-01

    A series of observations of stratospheric chlorine monoxide (ClO) were carried out during the austral springs of 1986 and 1987 in McMurdo Station, Antarctica, as part of two experimental campaigns sent to investigate the seasonal decrease in ozone over the antarctic continent (the ozone "hole"). Measurements of the vertical distribution of ClO were obtained by high resolution ground-based emission spectroscopy at 278 GHz, using the Stony Brook mm-wave receiver. They show the presence of an anomalous layer of lower stratospheric ClO which is not observed at other latitudes. This anomalous layer is centered at ~20 km altitude and exhibits a pronounced diurnal variation, reaching a maximum at midday and disappearing at night. During the period of Sep. 20-24, 1987, the lower-stratospheric ClO had a maximum volume mixing ratio of 1.8_sp{+0cdot5}{ -0cdot9} ppbv. A normal ClO layer centered at ~36 km was also observed, with concentrations and diurnal behavior similar to those seen in tropical latitudes. These findings are evidence of anomalous chlorine chemistry taking place in the lower stratosphere during the antarctic spring, and indicate that increasing anthropogenic chlorine is a prime causative agent in the formation of the ozone hole.

  15. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. (EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. (Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States))

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  16. Waste minimization for commercial radioactive materials users generating low-level radioactive waste. Revision 1

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fischer, D.K.; Gitt, M.; Williams, G.A.; Branch, S. [EG and G Idaho, Inc., Idaho Falls, ID (United States); Otis, M.D.; McKenzie-Carter, M.A.; Schurman, D.L. [Science Applications International Corp., Idaho Falls, ID (United States)

    1991-07-01

    The objective of this document is to provide a resource for all states and compact regions interested in promoting the minimization of low-level radioactive waste (LLW). This project was initiated by the Commonwealth of Massachusetts, and Massachusetts waste streams have been used as examples; however, the methods of analysis presented here are applicable to similar waste streams generated elsewhere. This document is a guide for states/compact regions to use in developing a system to evaluate and prioritize various waste minimization techniques in order to encourage individual radioactive materials users (LLW generators) to consider these techniques in their own independent evaluations. This review discusses the application of specific waste minimization techniques to waste streams characteristic of three categories of radioactive materials users: (1) industrial operations using radioactive materials in the manufacture of commercial products, (2) health care institutions, including hospitals and clinics, and (3) educational and research institutions. Massachusetts waste stream characterization data from key radioactive materials users in each category are used to illustrate the applicability of various minimization techniques. The utility group is not included because extensive information specific to this category of LLW generators is available in the literature.

  17. Letter report: Minor component study for low-level radioactive waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Li, H.

    1996-03-01

    During the waste vitrification process, troublesome minor components in low-level radioactive waste streams could adversely affect either waste vitrification rate or melter life-time. Knowing the solubility limits for these minor components is important to determine pretreatment options for waste streams and glass formulation to prevent or to minimize these problems during the waste vitrification. A joint study between Pacific Northwest Laboratory and Rensselaer Polytechnic Institute has been conducted to determine minor component impacts in low-level nuclear waste glass.

  18. Automated Sorting of Transuranic Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shurtliff, Rodney Marvin

    2001-03-01

    The HANDSS-55 Transuranic Waste Sorting Module is designed to sort out items found in 55-gallon drums of waste as determined by an operator. Innovative imaging techniques coupled with fast linear motor-based motion systems and a flexible end-effector system allow the operator to remove items from the waste stream by a touch of the finger. When all desired items are removed from the waste stream, the remaining objects are automatically moved to a repackaging port for removal from the glovebox/cell. The Transuranic Waste Sorting Module consists of 1) a high accuracy XYZ Stereo Measurement and Imaging system, 2) a vibrating/tilting sorting table, 3) an XY Deployment System, 4) a ZR Deployment System, 5) several user-selectable end-effectors, 6) a waste bag opening system, 7) control and instrumentation, 8) a noncompliant waste load-out area, and 9) a Human/Machine Interface (HMI). The system is modular in design to accommodate database management tools, additional load-out ports, and other enhancements. Manually sorting the contents of a 55-gallon drum takes about one day per drum. The HANDSS-55 Waste Sorting Module is designed to significantly increase the throughput of this sorting process by automating those functions that are strenuous and tiresome for an operator to perform. The Waste Sorting Module uses the inherent ability of an operator to identify the items that need to be segregated from the waste stream and then, under computer control, picks that item out of the waste and deposits it in the appropriate location. The operator identifies the object by locating the visual image on a large color display and touches the image on the display with his finger. The computer then determines the location of the object, and performing a highspeed image analysis determines its size and orientation, so that a robotic gripper can be deployed to pick it up. Following operator verification by voice or function key, the object is deposited into a specified location.

  19. ICDF Complex Waste Profile and Verification Sample Guidance

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    W. M. Heileson

    2006-10-01

    This guidance document will assist waste generators who characterize waste streams destined for disposal at the Idaho Comprehensive Environmental Response, Compensation, and Liability Act (CERCLA) Disposal Facility (ICDF) Complex. The purpose of this document is to develop a conservative but appropriate way to (1) characterize waste for entry into the ICDF; (2) ensure compliance with the waste acceptance criteria; and (3) facilitate disposal at the ICDF landfill or evaporation pond. In addition, this document will establish the waste verification process used by ICDF personnel to ensure that untreated waste meets applicable ICDF acceptance limits

  20. Streams and their future inhabitants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sand-Jensen, K.; Friberg, N.

    2006-01-01

    In this fi nal chapter we look ahead and address four questions: How do we improve stream management? What are the likely developments in the biological quality of streams? In which areas is knowledge on stream ecology insuffi cient? What can streams offer children of today and adults of tomorrow?...

  1. A Review: Value stream mapping implementation in manufacturing industry.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nirav Patel

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available Lean Manufacturing can be considered as a business strategy which originated and developed in japan. It tries to identify waste and eliminate it. Thus it leads to improvement in productivity of manufacturing organization and quality of products leading to a competitive advantage over others. Non-value-adding work is described as elements of work that a customer is unwilling to pay for. This required a detailed understanding of all the processes involved so that waste can be identified and eliminated. Value Stream Mapping is a powerful lean tool for identifying the waste and this paper defines concept of Value Stream Mapping and various literatures related on VSM and will be useful for new research in current field. This paper illustrates the review of VSM techniques and its benefits in machining industry. The purpose of this paper is to highlight the effective utilization of the VSM tools for process and productivity improvements by different authors.

  2. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-01

    (TRUPACT-11 SARP). In addition, a TRU waste is eligible for disposal at WIPP only if it has been generated in whole or in part by one or more of the activities listed in Section 10101(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. DOE sites must determine that each waste stream to be disposed of at WIPP is ''defense'' TRU waste. (See also the definition of ''defense'' TRU waste.). Only CH TRU wastes meeting the requirements of the QAPjP, WIPP-WAP, WPP-WAC, and other requirements documents described above will be accepted for transportation and disposal at WIPP.

  3. Hanford Site Transuranic (TRU) Waste Certification Plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    GREAGER, T.M.

    2000-12-06

    (TRUPACT-11 SARP). In addition, a TRU waste is eligible for disposal at WIPP only if it has been generated in whole or in part by one or more of the activities listed in Section 10101(3) of the Nuclear Waste Policy Act. DOE sites must determine that each waste stream to be disposed of at WIPP is ''defense'' TRU waste. (See also the definition of ''defense'' TRU waste.). Only CH TRU wastes meeting the requirements of the QAPjP, WIPP-WAP, WPP-WAC, and other requirements documents described above will be accepted for transportation and disposal at WIPP.

  4. Electric plasma discharge combustion synthesis of chlorine dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dotson, R. L.; Geren, G. W.

    1984-09-18

    A process for the production of chlorine dioxide comprises feeding an inert gas to a reaction zone and applying an electrical discharge to the inert gas to produce a high temperature plasma. Chlorine gas and oxygen gas are supplied simultaneously to the reaction zone and reacted in the plasma to produce a gaseous mixture comprised of chlorine dioxide, chlorine, oxygen and inert gas, the molar ratio of oxygen to chlorine in the reaction zone being at least about 2.5;1. The gaseous mixture is recovered from the reaction zone. Chlorine dioxide, which may be recovered as a gas or reacted to produce an alkali metal chlorite, is employed as a bleaching agent and a water treatment agent.

  5. Special Analysis for the Disposal of the Sandia National Laboratory Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site, Nevada National Security Site, Nye County, Nevada

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gregory, Louis B. [National Security Technologies, LLC

    2015-12-01

    This special analysis evaluates whether the Sandia National Laboratory (SNL) Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream (ASLA000001007, Revision 4) is suitable for disposal by shallow land burial (SLB) at the Area 5 Radioactive Waste Management Site (RWMS) at the Nevada National Security Site (NNSS). The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream consists of debris from classified nuclear weapons components (SNL 2015). The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream required a special analysis due to tritium (3H) exceeding the NNSS Waste Acceptance Criteria (WAC) Action Levels (U.S. Department of Energy, National Nuclear Security Administration Nevada Field Office [NNSA/NFO] 2015). The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream had no significant effect on the maximum mean and 95th percentile results for the resident air pathway and all-pathways annual total effective dose (TED). The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream increases the mean air pathway and all-pathways annual TED from approximately 100 to 200 years after closure. Addition of the SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream inventory shifts the maximum TED to approximately 100 years after closure and increases the TED for several alternative exposure scenarios. The maximum mean and the 95th percentile 222Rn flux density remain less than the performance objective throughout the compliance period. The SNL Classified Macroencapsulated Mixed Waste stream is suitable for disposal by SLB at the Area 5 RWMS. The waste stream is recommended for approval without conditions.

  6. B-Cell waste classification sampling and analysis plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HOBART, R.L.

    1999-09-22

    This report documents the methods used to collect and analyze samples to obtain data necessary to verify and/or determine the radionuclide content of the 324 Facility B-Cell decontamination and decommissioning waste stream.

  7. Method of improving formation permeability using chlorine dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDougall, L.A.; Williams, D.A.

    1991-07-16

    This patent describes a method of treating a sandstone formation containing clays or silicates. It comprises injection a treating liquid into the formation comprising an aqueous solution of: from 50 to 4,200 ppm chlorine dioxide and from 1 to 85 volume percent of carbon dioxide; permitting the chlorine dioxide to react with material in the formation; and thereafter injecting into the formation an acid solution capable of dissolving the reaction products of chlorine dioxide and the clays and silicates.

  8. Radium/Barium Waste Project

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McDowell, Allen K.; Ellefson, Mark D.; McDonald, Kent M.

    2015-06-25

    The treatment, shipping, and disposal of a highly radioactive radium/barium waste stream have presented a complex set of challenges requiring several years of effort. The project illustrates the difficulty and high cost of managing even small quantities of highly radioactive Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA)-regulated waste. Pacific Northwest National Laboratory (PNNL) research activities produced a Type B quantity of radium chloride low-level mixed waste (LLMW) in a number of small vials in a facility hot cell. The resulting waste management project involved a mock-up RCRA stabilization treatment, a failed in-cell treatment, a second, alternative RCRA treatment approach, coordinated regulatory variances and authorizations, alternative transportation authorizations, additional disposal facility approvals, and a final radiological stabilization process.

  9. Treatment of algae-induced tastes and odors by chlorine, chlorine dioxide and permanganate

    OpenAIRE

    Buffin, Lisa Webster

    1992-01-01

    Chlorine (C12(sq»' chlorine dioxide (Cl02 ) and potassium permanganate (KMn04) were evaluated as oxidants for the removal of grassy and cucumber odors associated with the pure compounds, cis-3-hexenol and trans-2, cis-6-nonadienal, respectively, and for the removal of fishy odors associated with a culture of an alga, Synura petersenii. The effects of the oxidants on the pure compounds were assessed both by Flavor Profile Analysis (FPA) and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS). The ef...

  10. Cyclopalladated Ferrocenylimine Catalyzed Chlorination of 2-Arylbenzoxazoles%Cyclopalladated Ferrocenylimine Catalyzed Chlorination of 2-Arylbenzoxazoles

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    冷瑜婷; 杨帆; 吴养洁; 李克

    2011-01-01

    An efficient and facile protocol for palladacycle-catalyzed chlorination of 2-arylbenzoxazoles was developed. The results represent the first examples involving the palladacycle as the catalyst for such chlorination. This chlori- nation was not a ligand-directed ortho-C--H activation, but an electrophilic substitution process at the para-position of the nitrogen atom in the benzo ring of benzoxazole moiety, the regiochemistry of which had been confirmed by HMBC spectral analysis. The catalytic system could tolerate various halogen atoms, such as F, Cl and Br, affording the corresponding products in moderate to excellent yields.

  11. Impact of RCRA on coal gasification wastes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    1979-08-01

    Coal conversion processes offer the potential for almost every possible mode of environmental contamination. Potential environmental pollution will occur from huge streams of wastewater, scores of gaseous vents and enormous quantities of solid materials. The nature of the waste streams is of particular concern in view of the recently enacted Resource Conservation and Recovery Act (RCRA). The passage and implementation of RCRA poses new levels of control for the traditional solid waste disposal process and establishes a new set of material standards for hazardous wastes in which conforming materials will require even more stringent controls. Key definitions in the Act which may pertain to coal gasification wastes include hazardous waste, sludge and solid waste. It is the goal of this report to collect, analyze, and interpret data and other technical information relevant to solid waste by-product generation, handling, and disposal at existing and future coal conversion plants. The analysis and interpretation of the collected data has been directed towards identifying gaps in the data, potential problem areas in solid waste disposal in view of RCRA, and needed research activities in the area of solid waste disposal.

  12. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERTING, D.L.

    2006-10-18

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 222-S Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cs-137 sulfate, and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  13. FRACTIONAL CRYSTALLIZATION FLOWSHEET TESTS WITH ACTUAL TANK WASTE

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    HERTING, D.L.

    2007-04-13

    Laboratory-scale flowsheet tests of the fractional crystallization process were conducted with actual tank waste samples in a hot cell at the 2224 Laboratory. The process is designed to separate medium-curie liquid waste into a low-curie stream for feeding to supplemental treatment and a high-curie stream for double-shell tank storage. Separations criteria (for Cesium-137 sulfate and sodium) were exceeded in all three of the flowsheet tests that were performed.

  14. Montana StreamStats

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-04-05

    About this volumeMontana StreamStats is a Web-based geographic information system (http://water.usgs.gov/osw/streamstats/) application that provides users with access to basin and streamflow characteristics for gaged and ungaged streams in Montana. Montana StreamStats was developed by the U.S. Geological Survey (USGS) in cooperation with the Montana Departments of Transportation, Environmental Quality, and Natural Resources and Conservation. The USGS Scientific Investigations Report consists of seven independent but complementary chapters dealing with various aspects of this effort.Chapter A describes the Montana StreamStats application, the basin and streamflow datasets, and provides a brief overview of the streamflow characteristics and regression equations used in the study. Chapters B through E document the datasets, methods, and results of analyses to determine streamflow characteristics, such as peak-flow frequencies, low-flow frequencies, and monthly and annual characteristics, for USGS streamflow-gaging stations in and near Montana. The StreamStats analytical toolsets that allow users to delineate drainage basins and solve regression equations to estimate streamflow characteristics at ungaged sites in Montana are described in Chapters F and G.

  15. Low-level waste characterization plan for the WSCF Laboratory Complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Morrison, J.A.

    1994-10-04

    The Waste Characterization Plan for the Waste Sampling and Characterization Facility (WSCF) complex describes the organization and methodology for characterization of all waste streams that are transferred from the WSCF Laboratory Complex to the Hanford Site 200 Areas Storage and Disposal Facilities. Waste generated at the WSCF complex typically originates from analytical or radiological procedures. Process knowledge is derived from these operations and should be considered an accurate description of WSCF generated waste. Sample contribution is accounted for in the laboratory waste designation process and unused or excess samples are returned to the originator for disposal. The report describes procedures and processes common to all waste streams; individual waste streams; and radionuclide characterization methodology.

  16. Waste management

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    2000-01-01

    The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark.......The case study deals with public accountability issues connected to household waste management in the municipality of Copenhagen, Denmark....

  17. River and Stream Pollution

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Topics Environment & Health Healthy Living Pollution Reduce, Reuse, Recycle Science – How It Works The Natural World Games ... rainstorms and runoff of animal waste from farms, pets, and wildlife. Sewage systems can be improved to ...

  18. Chlorinated and nitrogenous disinfection by-product formation from ozonation and post-chlorination of natural organic matter surrogates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bond, Tom; Templeton, Michael R; Rifai, Omar; Ali, Hussain; Graham, Nigel J D

    2014-09-01

    Ozonation before chlorination is associated with enhanced formation of chloropicrin, a halonitromethane disinfection by-product (DBP), during drinking water treatment. In order to elucidate reasons for this, five natural organic matter (NOM) surrogates were treated using both chlorination and ozonation-chlorination under controlled laboratory conditions. Selected surrogates comprised two phenolic compounds, two free amino acids and one dipeptide; these were resorcinol, 3-aminophenol, L-aspartic acid, β-alanine and ala-ala, respectively. Quantified DBPs included chloropicrin, chloroform, dichloroacetonitrile and trichloroacetonitrile. Relative to chlorination alone, increases in the formation of chloropicrin from ozonation-chlorination varied from 138% for 3-aminophenol to 3740% for ala-ala for the four amine surrogates. This indicates that ozone is more effective than chlorine in mediating a rate-limiting oxidation step in chloropicrin formation, most plausibly involving conversion of an amine group to a nitro group. While both hydrophilic and hydrophobic surrogates acted as chloropicrin precursors, ala-ala was the most reactive precursor following ozonation-chlorination. Since peptides are far commoner in drinking water sources than free amino acids, further research into chemical oxidation of these species by ozone and chlorine is recommended. In contrast, oxidation with ozone prior to chlorination reduced chloroform formation moderately for the two phenolic compounds.

  19. Lump corrections for radioactive waste assay.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miller, T J

    2009-09-01

    Previous studies have shown that automated radioactive waste assay techniques, such as segmented gamma scanner (SGS) and automated qualitative and quantitative (AQ2), have severely underestimated fissile material due to either the malfunction or absence of appropriate lump correction routines. This paper examines the application of manual techniques, such as Monte Carlo N particle (MCNP) and spectral non-destructive assay platform (SNAP) software, to lump corrections in plutonium (Pu), enriched uranium (EU) and depleted uranium (DU) waste streams. Excellent results have been obtained when comparing MCNP with SNAP and applying the SNAP lump correction routine to a range of simulated and typical wastes containing various Pu and EU lump sizes. It has been concluded that the need for lump corrections was relatively rare and usually apparent from abnormal gamma ray peak area ratios, since most AWE waste streams are only lightly shielded.

  20. Effects of chlorine and chlorine dioxide on mutagenic activity of Lake Kinnereth water

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Guttman-Bass, N.; Bairey-Albuquerque, M.; Ulitzur, S.; Chartrand, A.; Rav-Acha, C.

    1987-03-01

    Water from Lake Kinnereth (Israel) was tested for the presence of mutagenic activity, with and without disinfection by chlorine and chlorine dioxide. The samples were assayed for activity with two Ames Salmonella typhimurium tester strains, TA 104 and TA 100, and by a luminescent genotoxic assay with a dark mutant strain of Photobacterium fischeri. The water concentrates were mutagenic in strain TA 104 and in the luminescent assay, reaching positive mutagenic activities in the equivalent of 20 mL of water. Chlorination did not greatly affect the net mutagenic activity, although ClO/sub 2/ apparently reduced it. Humic acids were isolated from lake sediment and were assayed with and without disinfection in distilled water and in lake water from which the organic components were removed. The humic acids were mutagenic in both test systems, and treatment with Cl/sub 2/ generally decreased the net activity. ClO/sub 2/ also tended to decrease the mutagenic activity, and cytotoxic effects were observed in some of the samples. Conversely, commercial humic acid was mutagenic only after chlorination on strain TA 100. 54 references, 3 figures, 6 tables.

  1. Cellular Response of the Amoeba Acanthamoeba castellanii to Chlorine, Chlorine Dioxide, and Monochloramine Treatments ▿

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mogoa, Emerancienne; Bodet, Charles; Morel, Franck; Rodier, Marie-Hélène; Legube, Bernard; Héchard, Yann

    2011-01-01

    Acanthamoeba castellanii is a free-living amoebae commonly found in water systems. Free-living amoebae might be pathogenic but are also known to bear phagocytosis-resistant bacteria, protecting these bacteria from water treatments. The mode of action of these treatments is poorly understood, particularly on amoebae. It is important to examine the action of these treatments on amoebae in order to improve them. The cellular response to chlorine, chlorine dioxide, and monochloramine was tested on A. castellanii trophozoites. Doses of disinfectants leading to up to a 3-log reduction were compared by flow cytometry and electron microscopy. Chlorine treatment led to size reduction, permeabilization, and retraction of pseudopods. In addition, treatment with chlorine dioxide led to a vacuolization of the cytoplasm. Monochloramine had a dose-dependent effect. At the highest doses monochloramine treatment resulted in almost no changes in cell size and permeability, as shown by flow cytometry, but the cell surface became smooth and dense, as seen by electron microscopy. We show that these disinfectants globally induced size reduction, membrane permeabilization, and morphological modifications but that they have a different mode of action on A. castellanii. PMID:21602398

  2. Scenarios Evaluation Tool for Chlorinated Solvent MNA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vangelas, Karen; Michael J. Truex; Charles J. Newell; Brian Looney

    2007-02-28

    Over the past three decades, much progress has been made in the remediation of chlorinated solvents from the subsurface. Yet these pervasive contaminants continue to present a significant challenge to the U.S. Department of Energy (DOE), other federal agencies, and other public and private organizations. The physical and chemical properties of chlorinated solvents make it difficult to rapidly reach the low concentrations typically set as regulatory limits. These technical challenges often result in high costs and long remediation time frames. In 2003, the DOE through the Office of Environmental Management funded a science-based technical project that uses the U.S. Environmental Protection Agency's technical protocol (EPA, 1998) and directives (EPA, 1999) on Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) as the foundation on which to introduce supporting concepts and new scientific developments that will support remediation of chlorinated solvents based on natural attenuation processes. This project supports the direction in which many site owners want to move to complete the remediation of their site(s), that being to complete the active treatment portion of the remedial effort and transition into MNA. The overarching objective of the effort was to examine environmental remedies that are based on natural processes--remedies such as Monitored Natural Attenuation (MNA) or Enhanced Attenuation (EA). The research program did identify several specific opportunities for advances based on: (1) mass balance as the central framework for attenuation based remedies, (2) scientific advancements and achievements during the past ten years, (3) regulatory and policy development and real-world experience using MNA, and (4) exploration of various ideas for integrating attenuation remedies into a systematic set of ''combined remedies'' for contaminated sites. These opportunities are summarized herein and are addressed in more detail in referenced project documents and

  3. Chemical fractionation of the waste fuels - A comparison of methods; Kemisk fraktionering av avfallsbraenslen - En jaemfoerelse av metoder

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pettersson, Anita; Claesson, Frida

    2009-07-01

    Striving to improve the waste handling in an energy and environmental manner has led to an increased flow of waste fractions interesting for energy recovery by combustion, both for heat and power production. The increased flow of various waste fractions with varying chemical compositions results in new demands on the combustion plants. This because operational problems, such as bed sintering, corrosion and deposit formation resulting in expensive shut downs can be caused by relatively small changes in the fuel stream. It is primarily alkali metals in combination with chlorine that cause problems like fouling and corrosion. To avoid these problems, tools for characterization of these fuels to predict combustion processes are needed. Two such tools are the Aabo- and the CEN/TS 15105 methods which both are chemical characterization methods based on leaching. The Aabo-method is a more advanced method and also more time consuming compared to the CEN/TS 15105-method. These methods aim to dissolve and identify the compounds that are reactive during combustion and therefore able to cause combustion problems. Both these methods are developed for the characterization of biofuels but only the Aabo-method has been evaluated for waste fuels. The aim of this study was to evaluate the two methods by characterization of six waste fuels with different composition. In addition also four more homogeneous fuels: coal, straw, wood pellets and municipal sewage sludge. The analyses showed that the Aabo-method gave a more clear picture of the reactive elements in the waste fuel in comparison to the CEN/TS 15105-method. An advantage with the Aabo-method is also that the solid rest obtained after the leaching is analysed giving an element balance of the sample without having to make assumptions. The comparison of the methods showed that the CEN/TS 15105-method does not dissolve large parts of the available calcium in the waste fuel resulting in a large underestimation of the reactive

  4. Advantages and disadvantages of chemical oxidation and disinfection by ozone and chlorine dioxide

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fiessinger, F.; Richard, Y.; Montiel, A.; Musquere, P.

    1981-04-01

    Ozone and chlorine dioxide present definite advantages and disadvantages over chlorination. Chlorination, particularly for the removal of ammonia and the maintenance of a disinfectant residual in the distribution system has decisive advantages and will be difficult to replace. Ozone and chlorine dioxide seem to produce fewer carcinogenic by-products but the risk for acute toxicity, especially from the chlorites which follow chlorine dioxide, is higher than with chlorine. Chlorine dioxide and more particularly ozone should be considered as useful complements to chlorination, but no strong oxidative treatment should be applied before most of the organic matter has been removed.

  5. DOE mixed waste treatment capacity analysis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ross, W.A.; Wehrman, R.R.; Young, J.R.; Shaver, S.R.

    1994-06-01

    This initial DOE-wide analysis compares the reported national capacity for treatment of mixed wastes with the calculated need for treatment capacity based on both a full treatment of mixed low-level and transuranic wastes to the Land Disposal Restrictions and on treatment of transuranic wastes to the WIPP waste acceptance criteria. The status of treatment capacity is reported based on a fifty-element matrix of radiation-handling requirements and functional treatment technology categories. The report defines the classifications for the assessment, describes the models used for the calculations, provides results from the analysis, and includes appendices of the waste treatment facilities data and the waste stream data used in the analysis.

  6. Stream Water Quality Model

    Data.gov (United States)

    U.S. Environmental Protection Agency — QUAL2K (or Q2K) is a river and stream water quality model that is intended to represent a modernized version of the QUAL2E (or Q2E) model (Brown and Barnwell 1987).

  7. Clustering Text Data Streams

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Yu-Bao Liu; Jia-Rong Cai; Jian Yin; Ada Wai-Chee Fu

    2008-01-01

    Clustering text data streams is an important issue in data mining community and has a number of applications such as news group filtering, text crawling, document organization and topic detection and tracing etc. However, most methods are similarity-based approaches and only use the TF*IDF scheme to represent the semantics of text data and often lead to poor clustering quality. Recently, researchers argue that semantic smoothing model is more efficient than the existing TF.IDF scheme for improving text clustering quality. However, the existing semantic smoothing model is not suitable for dynamic text data context. In this paper, we extend the semantic smoothing model into text data streams context firstly. Based on the extended model, we then present two online clustering algorithms OCTS and OCTSM for the clustering of massive text data streams. In both algorithms, we also present a new cluster statistics structure named cluster profile which can capture the semantics of text data streams dynamically and at the same time speed up the clustering process. Some efficient implementations for our algorithms are also given. Finally, we present a series of experimental results illustrating the effectiveness of our technique.

  8. Music Streaming in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pedersen, Rasmus Rex

    This report analyses how a ’per user’ settlement model differs from the ‘pro rata’ model currently used. The analysis is based on data for all streams by WiMP users in Denmark during August 2013. The analysis has been conducted in collaboration with Christian Schlelein from Koda on the basis of d...

  9. The Rabbit Stream Cipher

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Boesgaard, Martin; Vesterager, Mette; Zenner, Erik

    2008-01-01

    The stream cipher Rabbit was first presented at FSE 2003, and no attacks against it have been published until now. With a measured encryption/decryption speed of 3.7 clock cycles per byte on a Pentium III processor, Rabbit does also provide very high performance. This paper gives a concise...... description of the Rabbit design and some of the cryptanalytic results available....

  10. Stream Automata Are Coalgebras

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Ciancia, V.; Venema, Y.

    2012-01-01

    Stream automata (also called ω-automata) and ω-regular languages are of paramount importance in Computer Science and Logic. A coalgebraic treatment of these structures has not been given yet. We study a simple two-sorted setting where deterministic Muller automata can be cast as coalgebras, so that

  11. On Meteoroid Streams Identification

    CERN Document Server

    Klacka, J

    1999-01-01

    Criterion for the membership of individual meteors to meteoroid streams presented by Valsecchi {\\it et. al.} (1999) and Jopek {\\it et. al.} (1999) is discussed. The authors characterize and use their criterion as a distance function. However, it is not a distance function. Some practical aspects are also discussed. Correct criterion is presented.

  12. Numerical Modelling of Streams

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, Kristian

    In recent years there has been a sharp increase in the use of numerical water quality models. Numeric water quality modeling can be divided into three steps: Hydrodynamic modeling for the determination of stream flow and water levels. Modelling of transport and dispersion of a conservative...

  13. Streaming-video produktion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grønkjær, Poul

    2004-01-01

     E-learning Lab på Aalborg Universitet har i forbindelse med forskningsprojektet Virtuelle Læringsformer og Læringsmiljøer foretaget en række praktiske eksperimenter med streaming-video produktioner. Hensigten med denne artikel er at formidle disse erfaringer. Artiklen beskriver hele produktionsf...... E-learning Lab på Aalborg Universitet har i forbindelse med forskningsprojektet Virtuelle Læringsformer og Læringsmiljøer foretaget en række praktiske eksperimenter med streaming-video produktioner. Hensigten med denne artikel er at formidle disse erfaringer. Artiklen beskriver hele...... produktionsforløbet: fra ide til færdigt produkt, forskellige typer af præsentationer, dramaturgiske overvejelser samt en konceptskitse. Streaming-video teknologien er nu så udviklet med et så tilfredsstillende audiovisuelt udtryk at vi kan begynde at fokusere på, hvilket indhold der er velegnet til at blive gjort...... tilgængeligt uafhængigt af tid og sted. Afslutningsvis er der en række kildehenvisninger, blandt andet en oversigt over de streaming-video produktioner, som denne artikel bygger på....

  14. Environmentally Lean Production: The Development and Incorporation of an Environmental Impact Index into Value Stream Mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    T. J. Roosen

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available There is a need to include environmental waste alongside other lean wastes. Current concepts of environmental waste focus on the total production of waste from a plant. However waste is generated by individual processes within the production. Therefore focused management of waste requires engineers to know what and where waste is being generated. This is often simply not known with any accuracy. This work offer a solution by developing a method to integrate environmental waste into the lean method of Value Stream Mapping (VSM. Specifically it integrate corporate environmental standards with the VSM process, thereby permitting established lean improvement process to be focused at specific environmental improvement actions. Application of the method is demonstrated in a manufacturing setting, representing a variety of environmental impacts. The deployment is capable of being generalised to any number of environmental factors. It is able to represent a customised waste index for a particular industry. Several ways to represent the multidimensional environmental wastes were explored via industry focus group. The resulting method can be used by production staff to quantify environmental impacts at the level of the individual process and aggregated to report wastes for the whole value stream.

  15. Effect of continuous pilot-scale study of direct recycling waste streams on effluent quality of drinking water treatment plant%连续回流生产废水对净水厂出水水质影响的中试研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐勇鹏; 朱世俊; 崔福义

    2016-01-01

    To investigate the effects of direct continuous recycling of waste streams generated from drinking water treatment plant on effluent water quality, polite⁃scale experimental models was constructed and the changing rule of water quality was studied for 14 days both in summer and winter in the northeast China. The optimal recycle ratios of sedimentation sludge and filter backwash water were found to be 4% and 6% in summer, respectively, and was 2% and 6%in winter. Under the optimal recycle ratios, the continuous direct recycling waste streams could reduced the coagulant dosage by 33.3% in summer and 18.2% in winter compared to control trials based on reaching the sedimentation effluent standard (<2.5 NTU). Water quality parameters such as turbidity, color, UV254, TOC in settled and filtrated water were monitored periodically. Results indicated that contaminants could be removed more effectively in the recycling process compared to the control trials. Moreover, relative higher temperature could improve removal efficiencies. Over the entire operation period, there was no significant contaminants accumulation. Recycling waste steams was a feasible approach for enhancing coagulation process.%为考察连续回流净水厂生产废水对出水水质的影响,采用中试实验模型,研究东北地区夏冬两季连续回流净水厂生产废水14 d的水质变化规律.夏季沉淀池污泥和反冲洗水最佳回流比分别为4%和6%,冬季为2%和6%.在满足沉后水出水浊度达标(<2.5 NTU)的前提下,夏、冬两季废水连续直接回流工艺与不回用相比,可分别节约33.3%和18.2%的混凝剂投加量.在整个回流运行周期中,连续监测浊度、色度、UV254、TOC等出水水质指标,结果表明,与不回流相比,回流工艺可以有效提高污染物的去除,而且,较高温度时还可以提高污染物的去除率.在连续回流过程中,出水水质稳定,未发现明显

  16. Intrinsic Kinetics of the Chlorination of RuO2 with Cl2 Between 973 K and 1073 K (700 °C and 800 °C)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guibaldo, Cristina N.; De Micco, Georgina; Bohe, Ana E.

    2016-04-01

    Ruthenium, as well as the rest of the platinum-group metals, is of crucial importance for industry due to its extraordinary catalytic activity and high-tech applications. Because of its scarcity and high value, there is an increasing interest towards its recovery from wastes. Chlorination metallurgy arises as one possible recovery method. The intrinsic kinetics of the chlorination of ruthenium oxide was studied with the aim of applying this process in a suitable recovery technology. Chlorination of RuO2 was investigated for temperatures between 973 K and 1073 K (700 °C and 800 °C) and chlorine partial pressure from 50 to 90 kPa. The reaction rate was measured by gravimetry and the rate equation was obtained. An activation energy of 259 ± 6 kJ mol-1 and a reaction order of 0.5 with respect of chlorine partial pressure were determined. The reaction product is unstable at atmospheric conditions. Formation of RuO2Cl2 is proposed based on experimental evidence; however, such product has not been confirmed yet.

  17. 78 FR 66767 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Japan

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-11-06

    ... publishing the notice in the Federal Register of September 10, 2013 (78 FR 55293). The conference was held in... COMMISSION Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Japan Determinations On the basis of the record \\1... injured by reason of imports from China and Japan of chlorinated isocyanurates, provided for...

  18. Experimental and Theoretical Studies of Atmosphereic Inorganic Chlorine Chemistry

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sander, Stanley P.; Friedl, Randall R.

    1993-01-01

    Over the last five years substantial progress has been made in defining the realm of new chlorine chemistry in the polar stratosphere. Application of existing experimental techniques to potentially important chlorine-containing compounds has yielded quantitative kinetic and spectroscopic data as well as qualitative mechanistic insights into the relevant reactions.

  19. Chlorine Dioxide Induced Multiple Chemical Sensitivity: MMPI Validity Problems.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tentoni, Stuart C.

    This paper discusses Minnesota Multiphasic Personality Inventory (MMPI) data obtained from individuals exposed to chlorine dioxide in the workplace who developed Multiple Chemical Sensitivity Syndrome. The paper explores current research on chlorine dioxide exposed persons who were misdiagnosed on the basis of MMPI interpretations. Difficulties…

  20. 75 FR 23303 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-05-03

    ... COMMISSION Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain AGENCY: United States International Trade... isocyanurates from China and Spain. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it has instituted reviews... revocation of the antidumping duty orders on chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Spain would be...

  1. 75 FR 51113 - Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-08-18

    ... COMMISSION Chlorinated Isocyanurates From China and Spain AGENCY: United States International Trade... chlorinated isocyanurates from China and Spain. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice of the scheduling... from China and Spain would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material injury within...

  2. Chlorine-containing natural compounds in higher plants

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Engvild, Kjeld Christensen

    1986-01-01

    More than 130 chlorine-containing compounds have been isolated from higher plants and ferns; about half are polyacetylenes, thiophenes and sesquiterpene lactones from the Asteraceae. A chlorinated chlorophyll may be an important part of photosystem 1. High biological activity is found in 4...

  3. Reduced waste generation technical work plan

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    1987-05-01

    The United States Department of Energy has established policies for avoiding plutonium losses to the waste streams and minimizing the generation of wastes produced at its nuclear facilities. This policy is evidenced in DOE Order 5820.2, which states Technical and administrative controls shall be directed towards reducing the gross volume of TRU waste generated and the amount of radioactivity in such waste.'' To comply with the DOE directive, the Defense Transuranic Waste Program (DTWP) supports and provides funding for specific research and development tasks at the various DOE sites to reduce the generation of waste. This document has been prepared to give an overview of current and past Reduced Waste Generation task activities which are to be based on technical and cost/benefit factors. The document is updated annually, or as needed, to reflect the status of program direction. Reduced Waste Generation (RWG) tasks encompass a wide range of goals which are basically oriented toward (1) avoiding the generation of waste, (2) changing processes or operations to reduce waste, (3) converting TRU waste into LLW by sorting or decontamination, and (4) reducing volumes through operations such as incineration or compaction.

  4. Storing Waste in Ceramic

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bourcier, W L; Sickafus, K

    2004-07-20

    form is designed, the atomic environment of the radionuclides is chosen to maximize chemical durability. Elements such as zirconium and phosphorus can be included in the waste form that react with and make some radionuclides less soluble and therefore less likely to be released. The long-term performance assessment of radionuclide containment requires the development of models for each part of the barrier system. It is almost certainly easier to model the corrosion and alteration of waste forms than it is to develop coupled hydrologic, chemical, and geophysical models of radionuclide transport away from a repository. Therefore, much time and effort has been spent optimizing the chemical durability of both glass and ceramic waste forms for radionuclide containment. This has not been an easy task. Three problems in particular posed the greatest challenges. The first is that radionuclides decay, transmuting into daughter elements that may have different chemical properties. These new elements might degrade the existing mineral by making it unstable. A good waste form that works well for uranium may work poorly for lead, its final decay product. The second problem is that the radioactive decay itself damages the solid over time. Radioactive decay is an energetic process in which ejected particles and the recoiling nucleus disrupt the surrounding atoms. A single alpha-decay event can displace thousands of atoms in the surrounding volume. We know from laboratory measurements that radionuclides are more easily released from radiation-damaged structures than from materials that do not sustain radiation damage. The third problem is that radioactive waste, particularly the high level waste from reprocessing of spent nuclear fuel to extract plutonium and uranium, contains a variety of elements with widely varying chemistry. The waste form must incorporate the radionuclides, as well as non-radioactive elements such as silicon and sodium that are present in the waste stream as a

  5. Waste reduction plan for The Oak Ridge National Laboratory

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schultz, R.M.

    1990-04-01

    The Oak Ridge National Laboratory (ORNL) is a multipurpose Research and Development (R D) facility. These R D activities generate numerous small waste streams. Waste minimization is defined as any action that minimizes the volume or toxicity of waste by avoiding its generation or recycling. This is accomplished by material substitution, changes to processes, or recycling wastes for reuse. Waste reduction is defined as waste minimization plus treatment which results in volume or toxicity reduction. The ORNL Waste Reduction Program will include both waste minimization and waste reduction efforts. Federal regulations, DOE policies and guidelines, increased costs and liabilities associated with the management of wastes, limited disposal options and facility capacities, and public consciousness have been motivating factors for implementing comprehensive waste reduction programs. DOE Order 5820.2A, Section 3.c.2.4 requires DOE facilities to establish an auditable waste reduction program for all LLW generators. In addition, it further states that any new facilities, or changes to existing facilities, incorporate waste minimization into design considerations. A more recent DOE Order, 3400.1, Section 4.b, requires the preparation of a waste reduction program plan which must be reviewed annually and updated every three years. Implementation of a waste minimization program for hazardous and radioactive mixed wastes is sited in DOE Order 5400.3, Section 7.d.5. This document has been prepared to address these requirements. 6 refs., 1 fig., 2 tabs.

  6. Effects of short-chain chlorinated paraffins on soil organisms.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bezchlebová, Jitka; Cernohlávková, Jitka; Kobeticová, Klára; Lána, Jan; Sochová, Ivana; Hofman, Jakub

    2007-06-01

    Despite the fact that chlorinated paraffins have been produced in relatively large amounts, and high concentrations have been found in sewage sludge applied to soils, there is little information on their concentrations in soils and the effect on soil organisms. The aim of this study was to investigate the toxicity of chlorinated paraffins in soils. The effects of short-chain chlorinated paraffins (64% chlorine content) on invertebrates (Eisenia fetida, Folsomia candida, Enchytraeus albidus, Enchytraeus crypticus, Caenorhabditis elegans) and substrate-induced respiration of indigenous microorganisms were studied. Differences were found in the sensitivity of the tested organisms to short-chain chlorinated paraffins. F. candida was identified as the most sensitive organism with LC(50) and EC(50) values of 5733 and 1230 mg/kg, respectively. Toxicity results were compared with available studies and the predicted no effect concentration (PNEC) of 5.28 mg/kg was estimated for the soil environment, based on our data.

  7. Low-Cost Graphite-Based Free Chlorine Sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pan, Si; Deen, M Jamal; Ghosh, Raja

    2015-11-01

    Pencil lead was used to fabricate a graphite-based electrode for sensing applications. Its surface was electrochemically modified using ammonium carbamate to make it suitable for sensing free chlorine in water samples. Chlorine is widely used as a disinfectant in the water industry, and the residual free chlorine concentration in water distributed to the consumers must be lower than that stipulated by regulatory bodies. The graphite-based amperometric sensor gave a selective and linear response to free chlorine in the relevant concentration range and no response to commonly interfering ions. It was evaluated further for storage stability, response time, and hysteresis. This sensor is being proposed as a low-cost device for determining free chlorine in water samples. Its ease-of-use, limitations, and feasibility for mass-production and application is discussed.

  8. Evaluation of the potential of different high calorific waste fractions for the preparation of solid recovered fuels.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Garcés, Diego; Díaz, Eva; Sastre, Herminio; Ordóñez, Salvador; González-LaFuente, José Manuel

    2016-01-01

    Solid recovered fuels constitute a valuable alternative for the management of those non-hazardous waste fractions that cannot be recycled. The main purpose of this research is to assess the suitability of three different wastes from the landfill of the local waste management company (COGERSA), to be used as solid recovered fuels in a cement kiln near their facilities. The wastes analyzed were: End of life vehicles waste, packaging and bulky wastes. The study was carried out in two different periods of the year: November 2013 and April 2014. In order to characterize and classify these wastes as solid recovered fuels, they were separated into homogeneous fractions in order to determine different element components, such as plastics, cellulosic materials, packagings or textile compounds, and the elemental analysis (including chlorine content), heavy metal content and the heating value of each fraction were determined. The lower heating value of the waste fractions on wet basis varies between 10 MJ kg(-1) and 42 MJ kg(-1). One of the packaging wastes presents a very high chlorine content (6.3 wt.%) due to the presence of polyvinylchloride from pipe fragments, being the other wastes below the established limits. Most of the wastes analyzed meet the heavy metals restrictions, except the fine fraction of the end of life vehicles waste. In addition, none of the wastes exceed the mercury limit content, which is one of the parameters considered for the solid recovered fuels classification. A comparison among the experimental higher heating values and empirical models that predict the heating value from the elemental analysis data was carried out. Finally, from the three wastes measured, the fine fraction of the end of life vehicles waste was discarded for its use as solid recovered fuels due to the lower heating value and its high heavy metals content. From the point of view of the heating value, the end of life vehicles waste was the most suitable residue with a lower

  9. Biodegradability of Chlorinated Anilines in Waters

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    CHAO WANG; GUAN-GHUA LU; YAN-JIE ZHOU

    2007-01-01

    Objective To identify the bacteria tolerating chlorinated anilines and to study the biodegradability of o-chloroaniline and its coexistent compounds. Methods Microbial community of complex bacteria was identified by plate culture observation techniques and Gram stain method. Bacterial growth inhibition test was used to determine the tolerance of complex bacteria to toxicant. Biodegradability of chlorinated anilines was determined using domesticated complex bacteria as an inoculum by shaking-flask test. Results The complex bacteria were identified, consisting of Xanthomonas, Bacillus alcaligenes,Acinetobacter, Pseudomonas, and Actinomycetaceae nocardia. The obtained complex bacteria were more tolerant to o-chloroaniline than mixture bacteria in natural river waters. The effects of exposure concentration and inoculum size on the biodegradability of o-chloroaniline were analyzed, and the biodegradation characteristics of single o-chloroaniline and 2,4-dichloroaniline were compared with the coexistent compounds. Conclusion The biodegradation rates can be improved by decreasing concentration of compounds and increasing inoculum size of complex bacteria. When o-chloroaniline coexists with aniline, the latter is biodegraded prior to the former, and as a consequence the metabolic efficiency of o-chloroaniline is improved with the increase of aniline concentration. Meanwhile, when o-chloroaniline coexists with 2,4-dichloroaniline, the metabolic efficiency of 2,4-dichloroaniline is markedly improved.

  10. CHARACTERIZATION AND RECYCLING OF WASTE WATER FROM GUAYULE LATEX EXTRACTION

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guayule commercialization for latex production to be used in medical products and other applications is now a reality. Currently, waste water following latex extraction is discharged into evaporation ponds. As commercialization reaches full scale, the liquid waste stream from latex extraction will b...

  11. Synergetic Inactivation of Microorganisms in Drinking Water by Short-term Free Chlorination and Subsequent Monochloramination

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2007-01-01

    To introduce synergetic inactivation of microorganisms in drinking water by short-term free chlorination for less than 15 minutes followed by monochloramination. Methods Indicator microorganisms such as Escherichia coli,Staphylococcus aureus, Candida albicans, and spores of Bacillus subtilis were used to assess the efficiency of sequential chlorination and free chlorination. Results The sequential chlorination was more efficient in inactivating these microorganisms than free chlorination, indicating that synergy was provided by free chlorine and monochloramine. Ammonia addition time, temperature and pH had influences on this synergy. Conclusion The possible mechanism of this synergy might involve three aspects: free chlorine causing sublethal injury to microorganisms and monochloramine further inactivating them; different ability of free chlorine and monochloramine to penetrate and inactivate microorganism congeries; and higher concentration of residual chlorine in sequential chlorination than in free chlorination.

  12. Waste Treatment Technology Process Development Plan For Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste Recycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McCabe, Daniel J.; Wilmarth, William R.; Nash, Charles A.

    2013-08-29

    The purpose of this Process Development Plan is to summarize the objectives and plans for the technology development activities for an alternative path for disposition of the recycle stream that will be generated in the Hanford Waste Treatment Plant Low Activity Waste (LAW) vitrification facility (LAW Recycle). This plan covers the first phase of the development activities. The baseline plan for disposition of this stream is to recycle it to the WTP Pretreatment Facility, where it will be concentrated by evaporation and returned to the LAW vitrification facility. Because this stream contains components that are volatile at melter temperatures and are also problematic for the glass waste form, they accumulate in the Recycle stream, exacerbating their impact on the number of LAW glass containers. Approximately 32% of the sodium in Supplemental LAW comes from glass formers used to make the extra glass to dilute the halides to acceptable concentrations in the LAW glass, and reducing the halides in the Recycle is a key component of this work. Additionally, under possible scenarios where the LAW vitrification facility commences operation prior to the WTP Pretreatment facility, this stream does not have a proven disposition path, and resolving this gap becomes vitally important. This task seeks to examine the impact of potential future disposition of this stream in the Hanford tank farms, and to develop a process that will remove radionuclides from this stream and allow its diversion to another disposition path, greatly decreasing the LAW vitrification mission duration and quantity of glass waste. The origin of this LAW Recycle stream will be from the Submerged Bed Scrubber (SBS) and the Wet Electrostatic Precipitator (WESP) from the LAW melter off-gas system. The stream is expected to be a dilute salt solution with near neutral pH, and will likely contain some insoluble solids from melter carryover or precipitates of scrubbed components (e.g. carbonates). The soluble

  13. Chlorine inactivation of Tubifex tubifex in drinking water and the synergistic effect of sequential inactivation with UV irradiation and chlorine.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nie, Xiao-Bao; Li, Zhi-Hong; Long, Yuan-Nan; He, Pan-Pan; Xu, Chao

    2017-06-01

    The inactivation of Tubifex tubifex is important to prevent contamination of drinking water. Chlorine is a widely-used disinfectant and the key factor in the inactivation of T. tubifex. This study investigated the inactivation kinetics of chlorine on T. tubifex and the synergistic effect of the sequential use of chlorine and UV irradiation. The experimental results indicated that the Ct (concentration × timereaction) concept could be used to evaluate the inactivation kinetics of T. tubifex with chlorine, thus allowing for the use of a simpler Ct approach for the assessment of T. tubifex chlorine inactivation requirements. The inactivation kinetics of T. tubifex by chlorine was found to be well-fitted to a delayed pseudo first-order Chick-Watson expression. Sequential experiments revealed that UV irradiation and chlorine worked synergistically to effectively inactivate T. tubifex as a result of the decreased activation energy, Ea, induced by primary UV irradiation. Furthermore, the inactivation effectiveness of T. tubifex by chlorine was found to be affected by several drinking water quality parameters including pH, turbidity, and chemical oxygen demand with potassium permanganate (CODMn) concentration. High pH exhibited pronounced inactivation effectiveness and the decrease in turbidity and CODMn concentrations contributed to the inactivation of T. tubifex.

  14. Change in genotoxicity of wastewater during chlorine dioxide and chlorine disinfections and the influence of ammonia nitrogen

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Lisha; HU Hongying; WANG Chao; Koichi Fujie

    2007-01-01

    The effects of chlorine dioxide and chlorine disinfections on the genotoxicity of different biologically treated sewage wastewater samples were studied by umu-test.The experiment results showed that when chlorine dioxide dosage was increased from 0 to 30 mg/L,the genotoxicity of wastewater first decreased rapidly and then tended to be stable,while when the chlorine dosage was increased from 0 to 30 mg/L,the genotoxicity of wastewater changed diversely for different samples.It was then found that ammonia nitrogen did not affect the change of genotoxicity during chlorine dioxide disinfection of wastewater,while it greatly affected the change of genotoxicity during chlorine disinfection of wastewater.When the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was low(<10-20mg/L),the genotoxicity of wastewater decreased after chlorine disinfection,and when the concentration of ammonia nitrogen was high(>10-20 mg/L),the genotoxicity of wastewater increased after chlorine disinfection.

  15. Lightweight query authentication on streams

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    We consider a stream outsourcing setting, where a data owner delegates the management of a set of disjoint data streams to an untrusted server. The owner authenticates his streams via signatures. The server processes continuous queries on the union of the streams for clients trusted by the owner. Along with the results, the server sends proofs of result correctness derived from the owner's signatures, which are easily verifiable by the clients. We design novel constructions for a collection o...

  16. Groundwater-derived contaminant fluxes along a channelized Coastal Plain stream

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    LaSage, Danita m [JL Sexton and Son; Fryar, Alan E [Dept of Earth and Geoligical Sciences, Univ of KY,; Mukherjee, Abhijit [Univ of Tx, Jackson School of Geosciences, Bur of Econ. Geology; Sturchio, Neil C [Dept of earth and Env. Sciences, Univ of Ill at Chicago; Heraty, Linnea J [Dept of earth and Env. Sciences, Univ of Ill at Chicago

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies in various settings across eastern North America have examined the movement of volatile organic compound (VOC) plumes from groundwater to streams, but few studies have addressed focused discharge of such plumes in unlithified sediments. From 1999 through 2002, we monitored concentrations of trichloroethene (TCE) and the non-volatile co-contaminant technetium-99 along Little Bayou Creek, a first -order perennial stream in the Coastal Plain of western Kentucky. Spring flow contributed TCE and technetium-99 to the creek, and TCE concentrations tended to vary with technetium-99 in springs. Contaminant concentrations in stream water fluctuated seasonally, but not always synchronously with stream flow. However, contaminant influxes varied seasonally with stream flow and were dominated by a few springs. Concentrations of O2, NO3⁻, and SO2-4, values of δ37CL in groundwater, and the lack of less-chlorinated ethenes in groundwater and stream water indicated that aerobic biodegradation of TCE was unlikely. Losses of TCE along Little Bayou Creek resulted mainly from volatilization, in contrast to streams receiving diffuse contaminated discharge, where intrinsic bioremediation of VOCs appears to be prevalent.

  17. Identification and measurement of chlorinated organic pesticides in water by electron-capture gas chromatography

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lamar, William L.; Goerlitz, Donald F.; Law, LeRoy M.

    1965-01-01

    Pesticides, in minute quantities, may affect the regimen of streams, and because they may concentrate in sediments, aquatic organisms, and edible aquatic foods, their detection and their measurement in the parts-per-trillion range are considered essential. In 1964 the U.S. Geological Survey at Menlo Park, Calif., began research on methods for monitoring pesticides in water. Two systems were selected--electron-capture gas chromatography and microcoulometric-titration gas chromatography. Studies on these systems are now in progress. This report provides current information on the development and application of an electron-capture gas chromatographic procedure. This method is a convenient and extremely sensitive procedure for the detection and measurement of organic pesticides having high electron affinities, notably the chlorinated organic pesticides. The electron-affinity detector is extremely sensitive to these substances but it is not as sensitive to many other compounds. By this method, the chlorinated organic pesticide may be determined on a sample of convenient size in concentrations as low as the parts-per-trillion range. To insure greater accuracy in the identifications, the pesticides reported were separated and identified by their retention times on two different types of gas chromatographic columns.

  18. Stabilization of high and low solids Consolidated Incinerator Facility (CIF) waste with super cement

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Walker, B.W.

    2000-01-11

    This report details solidification activities using selected Mixed Waste Focus Area technologies with the High and Low Solid waste streams. Ceramicrete and Super Cement technologies were chosen as the best possible replacement solidification candidates for the waste streams generated by the SRS incinerator from a list of several suggested Mixed Waste Focus Area technologies. These technologies were tested, evaluated, and compared to the current Portland cement technology being employed. Recommendation of a technology for replacement depends on waste form performance, process flexibility, process complexity, and cost of equipment and/or raw materials.

  19. Application of fluidized-bed technology to the recovery of waste heat

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vogel, G.J.; Grogan, P.J.; Evans, A.R.

    1979-08-01

    The fluidized-bed, waste-heat boiler (FBWHB) may represent a significant opportunity for industrial energy conservation. The applications of FBWHBs to the recovery of heat from waste streams are examined. Compared to other waste-heat recovery units, FBWHBs can transfer more heat per unit volume and are physically smaller - an important consideration for retrofit and construction costs. A detailed discussion of fluidized beds, including their application in waste-heat recovery and the factors affecting FBWHB design is presented. Design methodology is discussed along with a preliminary engineering design for recovering heat from a waste-gas stream, a typical FBWHB application.

  20. Stabilization and Solidification of Nitric Acid Effluent Waste at Y-12

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Singh, Dileep [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States); Lorenzo-Martin, Cinta [Argonne National Lab. (ANL), Argonne, IL (United States)

    2016-12-16

    Consolidated Nuclear Security, LLC (CNS) at the Y-12 plant is investigating approaches for the treatment (stabilization and solidification) of a nitric acid waste effluent that contains uranium. Because the pH of the waste stream is 1-2, it is a difficult waste stream to treat and stabilize by a standard cement-based process. Alternative waste forms are being considered. In this regard, Ceramicrete technology, developed at Argonne National Laboratory, is being explored as an option to solidify and stabilize the nitric acid effluent wastes.