WorldWideScience

Sample records for chloride volatility process

  1. Method for preparation of melts of alkali metal chlorides with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for production of alkali metal (Cs, Rb, K) chloride melts with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides is suggested. The method consists, in saturation of alkali metal chlorides, preheated to the melting point, by volatile component vapours (titanium tetrachloride, molybdenum or tantalum pentachloride) in proportion, corresponding to the composition reguired. The saturation is realized in an evacuated vessel with two heating areas for 1-1.5 h. After gradual levelling of temperature in both areas the product is rapidly cooled. 1 fig.; 1 tab

  2. Removal of uranium from simulated fly ash by chloride volatilization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fly ash is generated from LWR nuclear power plant as a low-level waste, which is contaminated with a small amount of radioactive materials, composed mainly of uranium oxide. The constituents of the fly ash are similar to those of the ore; the major components of the ash are oxides of silicon, aluminum, sodium, magnesium, zinc, iron sodium and uranium. In this study, removal of uranium from the simulated fly ash, of which composition was U3O8: 10, CaO:25, SiO2: 25, Al2O3: 20, MgO: 10, ZnO:5, Fe2O3: 3 and Na2CO3: 2 wt%, by chloride volatilization method was examined. The simulated fly ash was chlorinated by the same manner as the dry way processing for the ore; namely, the ash was heated in a flow of chlorine in the presence of carbon at high temperatures. In the case of volatilization of uranium from U3O8 and a simulated fly ash by chlorination using chlorine and carbon, it was seen that uranium of both samples showed similar volatilization behaviour: The volatilization ratio of uranium (VU) increased with increasing temperature from 800 to 1100 C. The VU value attained 99.9% at 1100 C. Iron, silicon and zinc showed similar behaviour to uranium, namely, they vaporized completely. The volatilization ratio of aluminum, magnesium and sodium were still high in a range 80-90%. The volatilization ratio of calcium was ∼40% under the same chlorination condition, though it changed to chloride. For recovery of uranium from fly ash by chlorination using chlorine in the presence of carbon, high volatilization ratio of uranium can be achieved at high temperatures. Volatilization ratio of other components also increases, which decreases the amount of decontaminated residue resulting in the reducing of decontamination effect. Selection of heating condition is important. (author)

  3. Volatilization of cesium-137 from soil with chloride amendments during heating and vitrification

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During vitrification of soil and soil:limestone mixtures, significant volatilization (> 10%) of the radioisotope 137Cs occurred particularly in the presence of small amounts (99% of the 137Cs by repeated amendment and treatment at 1000 degree C. Amendment with sodium borate and subsequent heating to 1200 degree C also stimulated significant volatilization of 137Cs. However, amendments up to 10% of other chemicals including carbonates, nitrates, phosphates, sulfates, fluorides, polystyrene, graphite, stainless steels, iron, zinc oxide, and antimony oxide did not increase 137Cs volatilization compared to unamended samples. The majority of the chloride-induced volatilization occurred between 800 and 1000 degree C for sodium chloride-amended samples of both soil and soil:limestone mixtures. Thus, an effective and potentially efficient soil decontamination technique for 137Cs has been identified. 17 refs., 8 figs., 3 tabs

  4. Method of processing chloride waste

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In a method of applying molten salt electrolysis to chloride wastes discharged from a electrolytic refining step of a dry reprocessing step for spent fuels, and removed with transuranium elements of long half-decaying time, metals capable of alloying with alkali and alkaline earth metals under melting by electrolysis are used as a cathode material, and an electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of salts in a molten salt electrolysis bath, to recover Li, Ca and Na as alloys with the cathode material in a first electrolysis step. Then, the electrolytic temperature is made higher than the melting point of the chloride salts remained in the bath after the electrolysis step described above by using the cathode material, to recover Ba, Rb, Sr and Cs of nuclear fission products also as alloys with the cathode material in a second electrolysis step. Accordingly, the amount of wastes formed can be reduced, and the wastes contain no heat generating nuclear fission elements. (T.M.)

  5. Chloride – a precursor in the formation of volatile organochlorines by forest plants?

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Laturnus, F.; Matucha, Miroslav

    2008-01-01

    Roč. 99, č. 1 (2008), s. 119-125. ISSN 0265-931X R&D Projects: GA ČR GA526/05/0636 Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z50380511 Keywords : 36Chloride * Volatile Organochlorines * VOCl Subject RIV: DF - Soil Science Impact factor: 1.114, year: 2008

  6. Green process to recover magnesium chloride from residue solution of potassium chloride production plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin WANG; Yunliang HE; Yanfei WANG; Ying BAO; Jingkang WANG

    2008-01-01

    The green process to recover magnesium chlor-ide from the residue solution of a potassium chloride pro-duction plant, which comes from the leach solution of a potash mine in Laos, is designed and optimized. The res-idue solution contains magnesium chloride above 25 wt-%, potassium chloride and sodium chloride together below 5 wt-% and a few other ions such as Br-, SO2-4and Ca2+. The recovery process contains two steps: the previous impurity removal operation and the two-stage evapora-tion-cooling crystallization procedure to produce magnes-ium chloride. The crystallized impurity carnallite obtained from the first step is recycled to the potassium chloride plant to recover the potassium salt. The developed process is a zero discharge one and thus fulfills the requirements for green chemical industrial production. The produced magnesium chloride is up to industrial criteria.

  7. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations

  8. Relationships between volatile and non-volatile metabolites and attributes of processed potato flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Wayne L; Shepherd, Tom; Verrall, Susan R; McNicol, James W; Taylor, Mark A

    2010-10-01

    Although the flavour of processed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) is important to consumers, the blend of volatile and non-volatile metabolites that impact on flavour attributes is not well-defined. Additionally, it is important to understand how potato flavour changes during storage. In this study, quantitative descriptive analysis of potato samples by a trained taste panel was undertaken, comparing tubers from S. tuberosum group Phureja with those from S. tuberosum group Tuberosum, both at harvest and following storage. The cooked tuber volatile profile was analysed by solid phase micro extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis in sub-samples of the tubers that were assessed by taste panels. A range of non-volatile metabolites including the major umami compounds, glycoalkaloids and sugars was also measured in tuber sub-samples. Correlation and principal component analyses revealed differences between the potato cultivars and storage conditions and demonstrated associations of metabolites with the different sensory attributes. PMID:20678781

  9. Effect of calcium chloride on abating inhibition due to volatile fatty acids during the start-up period in anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Das, Avijit; Srinivas, G Lohit Kumar; Dhar, Hiya; Ojha, Vivek Kumar; Wong, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Biomethanation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a slow process and the yield of biogas is usually low. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on anaerobic digestion of MSW. Three anaerobic digesters with different concentrations of CaCl2, namely sample without additives (Control), sample with 2.5 g/L CaCl2 (R1) and sample with 5 g/L CaCl2 (R2) were studied separately and the significant results are presented. From the experimental results, it was observed that pH decreased with an increase in the dosage of CaCl2. Total solids and volatile solids reduction percentage in digester R2 was considerably lower than Control and R1 digesters. The significant positive correlation with small increments in volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction were observed with an increase in pH. The cumulative biogas production in all the three digesters (Control, R1 and R2) were observed to be 35.38, 46.46 and 37.56 L, respectively. It was also observed that the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) removal efficiency in digester R1 was the best among all the three digesters. A comparison of the effluent characteristics revealed improvement in the overall performance of the digester R1 amended with 2.5 g/L CaCl2 over the other two digesters. PMID:26609893

  10. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  11. Processing device for volatile ruthenium in off-gas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volatile ruthenium has a nature of forming stable non-volatile ruthenium dioxide solids upon contact with an organic solvent. In view of the above, in a volatile ruthenium processing device comprising an off-gas inlet pipeway, a cooler, a demister and a heater connected to each other, a gas scrubbing tower having an organic solvent as a cleaning solution is disposed between the off-gas inlet pipeway and tahe cooler and the organic solvent and the off-gases are brought into contact in a counter-current manner in the gas scrubging tower. This enables to convert the volatile ruthenium in the gases into stabale ruthenium dioxide solids and deposit them into the organic solvent. Further, since the deposited ruthenium dioxide solides can easily be separated by filters, the organic solvent as the cleaning solution can always be kept clean and the adsorption performance for volatile ruthenium is not reduced even after repeating use. (T.M.)

  12. Volatility: a hidden Markov process in financial time series

    CERN Document Server

    Eisler, Z; Perello, J; Eisler, Zoltan; Masoliver, Jaume; Perello, Josep

    2006-01-01

    The volatility characterizes the amplitude of price return fluctuations. It is a central magnitude in finance closely related to the risk of holding a certain asset. Despite its popularity on trading floors, the volatility is unobservable and only the price is known. Diffusion theory has many common points with the research on volatility, the key of the analogy being that volatility is the time-dependent diffusion coefficient of the random walk for the price return. We present a formal procedure to extract volatility from price data, by assuming that it is described by a hidden Markov process which together with the price form a two-dimensional diffusion process. We derive a maximum likelihood estimate valid for a wide class of two-dimensional diffusion processes. The choice of the exponential Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (expOU) stochastic volatility model performs remarkably well in inferring the hidden state of volatility. The formalism is applied to the Dow Jones index. The main results are: (i) the distribution of...

  13. Adsorption Equilibrium of Volatile in Condensed Mode Polyethylene Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆林; 陈伟; 阳永荣; 戎顺熙

    2000-01-01

    In this paper n-hexane is chosen as typical volatile in condensed mode polymerization process, and the adsorption equilibrium of volatile in polyethylene pva'ticles is studied through experiments at different temperatures, pressures and particle diameters. It is found that more adsorbed quantity of volatile at equilibrium can be obtained with lower temperature, higher pressure and smaller particle diameter. Under polymerization conditions,the adsorbed quantity at equilibrium is more strongly affected by temperature than by pressure, and if the diameter distribution of particles is very wide the effect of diameter on the adsorbed quantity must be taken into consideration.With theoretical analyses a model is proposed for calculating the adsorbed quantity of volatile at equilibrium.

  14. Brownian semistationary processes and volatility/intermittency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    A new class of stochastic processes, termed Brownian semistationary processes (BSS), is introduced and discussed. This class has similarities to that of Brownian semimartingales (BSM), but is mainly directed towards the study of stationary processes, and BSS processes are not in general of the...... turbulent velocity fields and is the purely temporal version of the general tempo-spatial framework of ambit processes. The latter, which may have applications also to the finance of energy markets, is briefly considered at the end of the paper, again with reference to the question of inference on the...

  15. Development of volatile compounds in processed cheese during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; Lund, Pia; Sørensen, J.; Hølmer, Gunhild Kofoed

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work teas to study tire impact of storage conditions, such as light and temperature, on the development of volatile compounds to processed cheese. Cheese in glass containers was stored at 5, 20 or 37 degreesC in light or darkness for up to 1 yr. Dynamic headspace and gas...

  16. Matrix-State Particle Filter for Wishart Stochastic Volatility Processes

    OpenAIRE

    Roberto Casarin; Domenico Sartore

    2007-01-01

    This work deals with multivariate stochastic volatility models, which account for a time-varying variance-covariance structure of the observable variables. We focus on a special class of models recently proposed in the literature and assume that the covariance matrix is a latent variable which follows an autoregressive Wishart process. We review two alternative stochastic representations of the Wishart process and propose Markov-Switching Wishart processes to capture different regimes in the ...

  17. Soret diffusion processes in aqueous sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cygan, R.T.

    1985-01-01

    The mass transport of chemical species induced by a temperature gradient, commonly known as Soret diffusion, has been examined for the case of the sodium chloride and water system. The occurrence of significant thermal gradients in geological media, especially those associated with radioactive waste disposal sites, can produce a measurable flux of sodium chloride and therefore enrich the local solutions. Soret coefficients, or the ratio of thermal to isothermal mass transport factors, describe this rate of mass transfer and are necessary for evaluating certain nonequilibrium processes, such as the migration of fluid inclusions in rock salt. Experimental Soret coefficients for the NaCl-H/sub 2/O system were obtained by the use of a conductimetric thermal diffusion cell. This approach relies on monitoring the electrical conductivity change of two separate isothermal reservoirs which are maintained at different temperatures. The Soret cell is situated between the reservoirs and is comprised of an inert matrix of glass beads in order to minimize any solution convection. The utilization of this porous medium requires corrections for porosity and tortuosity. Measurements were made for 0.1 and 1.0 N NaCl solutions at mean temperatures of 40/sup 0/C and 50/sup 0/C with the mass transport induced by a thermal gradient of 2.6/sup 0/C/cm. The preliminary results indicate a Soret separation on the order of 1 to 2 percent with the attainment of a steady state in approximately 15 hours.

  18. Processes of lithium chlorides purification from Salar de Atacama concentrated brines

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The results of research carried out to obtain lithium chloride, as a suitable electrolyte for the production of high purity lithium metal are presented. Concentrated lithium chloride brines from Salar de Atacama have been used as starting materials. The studied process requires the reduction of the boron content in the brines to levels below 5 ppm, followed by a crystallization process to obtain a crystallized lithium chloride. The elimination of the magnesium chloride co-crystallized with the lithium chloride, is achieved by a complementary washing step and the lixiviation of the impure LiCl crystals with ethanol. (author)

  19. Volatile components of the frying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawar, W. W.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available In the course of deep fat frying, food contacts oil at about 180 °C and is partially exposed to air for various periods of time. Thus frying, more than any other standard food process or handling method, has the greatest potential for causing chemical changes in fat, and sizeable amounts of this fat are carried with the food (5-40% fat by weight is absorbed. During frying, oxidative reactions involving the formation and decomposition of hydroperoxides lead to such compounds as saturated and unsaturated aldehydes, ketones, hydrocarbons, lactones, alcohols, acids and esters. Sulfur compounds and pyrazine derivatives may develop in the food itself or from the interactions between the food and oil. Food absorbs varying amounts of oil during deep-fat frying (potato chips have a final fat content of about 35%. The food itself can release some of its endogenous lipids (e.g., fat from chicken into the frying fat and consequently the oxidative stability of the new mixture may be different from that of the original frying fat. The changes that occur in the oil and food during frying should not be automatically construed as undesirable or harmful. In fact, some of these changes are necessary to provide the sensory qualities typical of fried food. On the other hand, extensive decomposition, resulting from lack of adequate control of the frying operation, can be a potential source of damage not only to sensory quality of the fried food but also to nutritional value.

  20. Option Pricing with Stochastic Volatility and Jump Diffusion Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lupu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Option pricing by the use of Black Scholes Merton (BSM model is based on the assumption that asset prices have a lognormal distribution. In spite of the use of these models on a large scale, both by practioners and academics, the assumption of lognormality is rejected by the history of returns. The objective of this article is to present the methods that developed after the Black Scholes Merton environment and deals with the option pricing model adjustment to the empirical properties of asset returns. The main models that appeared after BSM allowed for special changes of the returns that materialized in jump-diffusion and stochastic volatility processes. The article presents the foundations of risk neutral options evaluation and the empirical evidence that fed the amendment of the lognormal assumption in the first part and shows the evaluation procedure under the assumption of stock prices following the jump-diffusion process and the stochastic volatility process.

  1. Option Pricing with Stochastic Volatility and Jump Diffusion Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lupu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Option pricing by the use of Black Scholes Merton (BSM model is based on the assumption that asset prices have a lognormal distribution. In spite of the use of these models on a large scale, both by practioners and academics, the assumption of lognormality is rejected by the history of returns. The objective of this article is to present the methods that developed after the Black Scholes Merton environment and deals with the option pricing model adjustment to the empirical properties of asset returns. The main models that appeared after BSM allowed for special changes of the returns that materialized in jump-diffusion and stochastic volatility processes. The article presents the foundations of risk neutral options evaluation and the empirical evidence that fed the amendment of the lognormal assumption in the first part and shows the evaluation procedure under the assumption of stock prices following the jump-diffusion process and the stochastic volatility process.

  2. Chlorine/chloride based processes for uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CE Lummus Minerals Division was commissioned by The Department of Supply and Services to develop order-of-magnitude capital and operating cost estimates for chlorine/chloride-based processes for uranium ores. The processes are designed to remove substantially all radioactive consituents from the ores to render the waste products harmless. Two processes were selected, one for a typical low grade ore (2 lb. U3O8/ton ore) and one for a high grade ore (50 lbs U3O8 /ton). For the low grade ore a hydrochloric acid leaching process was chosen. For high grade ore, a more complex process, including gaseous chlorination, was selected. Capital cost estimates were compiled from information obtained from vendors for the specified equipment. Building cost estimates and the piping, electrical and instrumentation costs were developed from the plant layout. Utility diagrams and mass balances were used for estimating utilities and consumables. Detailed descriptions of the bases for capital and operating cost estimates are given

  3. Comparison of purge and trap GC/MS and purgeable organic chloride analysis for monitoring volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barber, Larry B.; Thurman, E. Michael; Takahashi, Yoshi; Noriega, Mary C.

    1992-01-01

    A combined field and laboratory study was conducted to compare purge and trap gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (PT-GC/MS) and purgeable organic chloride (POCl) analysis for measuring volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons (VCH) in ground water. Distilled-water spike and recovery experiments using 10 VCH indicate that at concentrations greater than 1 ??g/l recovery is more than 80 percent for both methods with relative standard deviations of about 10 percent. Ground-water samples were collected from a site on Cape Cod, Massachusetts, where a shallow unconfined aquifer has been contaminated by VCH, and were analyzed by both methods. Results for PT-GC/MS and POCl analysis of the ground-water samples were not significantly different (alpha = 0.05, paired t-test analysis) and indicated little bias between the two methods. Similar conclusions about concentrations and distributions of VCH in the ground-water contamination plume were drawn from the two data sets. However, only PT-GC/MS analysis identified the individual compounds present and determined their concentrations, which was necessary for toxicological and biogeochemical evaluation of the contaminated ground water. POCl analysis was a complimentary method for use with PT-GC/MS analysis for identifying samples with VCH concentrations below the detection limit or with high VCH concentrations that require dilution. Use of POCl as a complimentary monitoring method for PT-GC/MS can result in more efficient use of analytical resources.

  4. Uranium(VI) extraction from chloride solution with benzyloctadecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (BODMAC) in a liquid membrane process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The recovery of uranium(VI) from chloride solution using a liquid emulsion membrane (LEM) technique was studied. The emulsion is constituted by the quaternary salt of benzyloctadecyldimethyl ammonium chloride (BODMAC, R4NCl) as a carrier, kerosene as organic diluent, Span 80 as emulsifying agent and 0.5 mol/l Na2CO3 as stripping phase. The important variables affecting the LEM permeation process such as the concentrations of extractant, internal strip phase, types of organic diluent, and the presence of magnesium chloride or magnesium sulfate were investigated. It was found that, at a given condition, the maximum extraction rate of uranium(VI) reached 80%. The emulsion was stable at low pH in the presence of certain amounts of electrolytes such as NaCl and MgCl2. (author)

  5. Purification process studies for the reprocessing by fluoride volatility method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Along the research and development program for the reprocessing by fluoride volatility method, the fluorination-purification process has been studied with a simulated FBR fuel containing UO2-PuO2 and non-radioactive fission products, in the 2''phi and 3''phi fluid-beds. Behaviors of fission products and other process problems in a proposed flow-sheet were clarified. Described are the flow-sheet aimed to study and its purification principle, experimental results of plutonium and uranium purifications, and analytical methods. (auth.)

  6. Dynamics of the anaerobic process: Effects of volatile fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    A complex and fast dynamic response of the anaerobic biogas system was observed when the system was subjected to pulses of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). It was shown that a pulse of specific VFAs into a well-functioning continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system operating on cow manure affected...... history of the reactor process. It should be pointed out that the observed dynamics of VFA responses were based on hourly measurements, meaning that the response duration was much lower than the hydraulic retention time, which exceeds several days in anaerobic CSTR systems....

  7. Modeling Regolith Temperatures and Volatile Ice Processes (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    Surface and subsurface temperatures are an important tool for exploring the distribution and dynamics of volatile ices on and within planetary regoliths. I will review thermal-analysis approaches and recent applications in the studies of volatile ice processes. Numerical models of regolith temperatures allow us to examine the response of ices to periodic and secular changes in heat sources such as insolation. Used in conjunction with spatially and temporally distributed remotely-sensed temperatures, numerical models can: 1) constrain the stability and dynamics of volatile ices; 2) define the partitioning between phases of ice, gas, liquid, and adsorbate; and 3) in some instances be used to probe the distribution of ice hidden from view beneath the surface. The vapor pressure of volatile ices (such as water, carbon dioxide, and methane) depends exponentially on temperature. Small changes in temperature can result in transitions between stable phases. Cyclic temperatures and the propagation of thermal waves into the subsurface can produce a strong hysteresis in the population and partitioning of various phases (such as between ice, vapor, and adsorbate) and result in bulk transport. Condensation of ice will also have a pronounced effect on the thermal properties of otherwise loose particulate regolith. Cementing grains at their contacts through ice deposition will increase the thermal conductivity, and may enhance the stability of additional ice. Likewise sintering of grains within a predominantly icy regolith will increase the thermal conductivity. Subsurface layers that result from ice redistribution can be discriminated by remote sensing when combined with numerical modeling. Applications of these techniques include modeling of seasonal carbon dioxide frosts on Mars, predicting and interpreting the subsurface ice distribution on Mars and in Antarctica, and estimating the current depth of ice-rich permafrost on Mars. Additionally, understanding cold trapping ices

  8. System of extraction of volatiles from soil using microwave processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Edwin C. (Inventor); Kaukler, William F. (Inventor)

    2013-01-01

    A device for the extraction and collection of volatiles from soil or planetary regolith. The device utilizes core drilled holes to gain access to underlying volatiles below the surface. Microwave energy beamed into the holes penetrates through the soil or regolith to heat it, and thereby produces vapor by sublimation. The device confines and transports volatiles to a cold trap for collection.

  9. Optimal sparse volatility matrix estimation for high-dimensional Itô processes with measurement errors

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Minjing; Wang, Yazhen; Harrison H. Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic processes are often used to model complex scientific problems in fields ranging from biology and finance to engineering and physical science. This paper investigates rate-optimal estimation of the volatility matrix of a high-dimensional It\\^{o} process observed with measurement errors at discrete time points. The minimax rate of convergence is established for estimating sparse volatility matrices. By combining the multi-scale and threshold approaches we construct a volatility matri...

  10. Processing of volatile organic compounds by microwave plasmas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this paper atmospheric pressure microwave discharge methods and devices used for producing the nonthermal plasmas for processing of gases are presented. The main part of the paper concerns the microwave plasma sources (MPSs) for environmental protection applications. A few types of the MPSs, i.e. waveguidebased surface wave sustained MPS, coaxial-line-based and waveguide-based nozzle-type MPSs, waveguidebased nozzleless cylinder-type MPS and MPS for microdischarges are presented. Also, results of the laboratory experiments on the plasma processing of several highly-concentrated (up to several tens percent) volatile organic compounds (VOCs), including Freon-type refrigerants, in the moderate (200-400 W) waveguide-based nozzletype MPS (2.45 GHz) are presented. The results showed that the microwave discharge plasma fully decomposed the VOCs at relatively low energy cost. The energy efficiency of VOCs decomposition reached 1000 g/kWh. This suggests that the microwave discharge plasma can be a useful tool for environmental protection applications. In this paper also results of the use of the waveguide-based nozzleless cylinder-type MPS to methane reforming into hydrogen are presented. (author)

  11. Computer Program for Estimation Multivariate Volatility Processes Using DVEC Model of CRM

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Z. Minović

    2008-01-01

    This article presents computer program for estimation of multivariate (bivariate and trivariate) volatility processes, written in EViews Version 4.1. In order to estimate multivariate volatility processes for analysis of the Serbian financial market, I had to write new subprograms within Eviews software package. The programs are written for the diagonal vector ARCH model (DVEC) in bivariate and trivariate versions.

  12. Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in Laurus cinnamomum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salum, D.C.; Araujo, M.M.; Fanaro, G.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Cidade Universitaria, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, Zip code: 05508-000 Butanta, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Purgatto, E. [Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, FCF/USP, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental. Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 Bloco 14. CEP: 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: epurgatt@usp.br; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Cidade Universitaria, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, Zip code: 05508-000 Butanta, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: villavic@ipen.br

    2009-07-15

    In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as increase its shelf-life, while keeping sensorial properties (e.g., odor and taste), which are important properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. Possible changes in the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties, in order to allow better application of the irradiation technology. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation on cinnamon (Laurus cinnamomum) samples after gamma irradiation. These samples were irradiated into plastic packages using a {sup 60}Co facility. Radiation doses applied were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy. For the analysis of the samples, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation showed the highest decrease in volatile compounds. For L. cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile compounds by nearly 56% and 89.5%, respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which had not been previously irradiated.

  13. Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in Laurus cinnamomum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salum, D. C.; Araújo, M. M.; Fanaro, G. B.; Purgatto, E.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2009-07-01

    In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as increase its shelf-life, while keeping sensorial properties (e.g., odor and taste), which are important properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. Possible changes in the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties, in order to allow better application of the irradiation technology. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation on cinnamon ( Laurus cinnamomum) samples after gamma irradiation. These samples were irradiated into plastic packages using a 60Co facility. Radiation doses applied were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy. For the analysis of the samples, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation showed the highest decrease in volatile compounds. For L. cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile compounds by nearly 56% and 89.5%, respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which had not been previously irradiated.

  14. Characterization and extraction of volatile compounds from pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merril) processing residues

    OpenAIRE

    Lília Calheiros de Oliveira Barretto; Jane de Jesus da Silveira Moreira; João Antônio Belmino dos Santos; Narain Narendra; Raquel Anne Ribeiro dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to extract and identify volatile compounds from pineapple residues generated during concentrated juice processing. Distillates of pineapple residues were obtained using the following techniques: simple hydrodistillation and hydrodistillation by passing nitrogen gas. The volatile compounds present in the distillates were captured by the solid-phase microextraction technique. The volatile compounds were identified in a system of high resolution gas chromatography syste...

  15. ANALYSIS OF MARKET VOLATILITY VIA A DYNAMICALLY PURIFIED OPTION PRICE PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    CHUONG LUONG; NIKOLAI DOKUCHAEV

    2014-01-01

    The paper studies methods of dynamic estimation of volatility for financial time series. We suggest to estimate the volatility as the implied volatility inferred from some artificial "dynamically purified" price process that in theory allows to eliminate the impact of the stock price movements. The complete elimination would be possible if the option prices were available for continuous sets of strike prices and expiration times. In practice, we have to use only finite sets of available price...

  16. Electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides in pyrochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrillejo, Y., E-mail: ycastril@qa.uva.es [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Fernandez, P. [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Medina, J. [Dept Fisica Materia Condensada Cristalografia y Mineralogia, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Hernandez, P. [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, C.P. 42076 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Barrado, E. [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    This work concerns the electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides. In this way, the electrochemical behaviour of samarium ions has been investigated in the eutectic LiCl-KCl at the surface of tungsten, aluminium and aluminium coated tungsten electrodes. On a W inert electrode the electro-reduction of Sm(III) takes place in only one soluble-soluble electrochemical step Sm(III)/Sm(II). The electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) has not been observed within the electrochemical window, because of the prior reduction of Li(I) ions from the solvent, which inhibits the electro-extraction of Sm species from the salt on such a substrate. Sm metal in contact with the melt react to give Li(0) according to the reaction: Sm(0) + 2Li(I) {r_reversible} Sm(II) + 2Li(0). On the contrary, on reactive Al electrodes the electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) was observed within the electroactive range. The potential shift of the redox couple is caused by the decrease of Sm activity in the metal phase due to the formation of Sm-Al alloys at the interface. The formation mechanism of the intermetallic compounds was studied in a melt containing: (i) both Sm(III) and Al(III) ions, using W and Al coated tungsten electrodes, and (ii) Sm(III) ions using an Al electrode. Analysis of the samples after potentiostatic electrolysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), allowed the identification of Al{sub 3}Sm and Al{sub 2}Sm.

  17. Dynamics of the anaerobic process: Effects of volatile fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    A complex and fast dynamic response of the anaerobic biogas system was observed when the system was subjected to pulses of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). It was shown that a pulse of specific VFAs into a well-functioning continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system operating on cow manure affected...

  18. Sodium chloride methanol solution spin-coating process for bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong-Fang; Hu, Yu-Feng; Deng, Zhen-Bo; Li, Xiong; Zhu, Li-Jie; Wang, Yue; Lv, Long-Feng; Wang, Tie-Ning; Lou, Zhi-Dong; Hou, Yan-Bing; Teng, Feng

    2016-08-01

    The sodium chloride methanol solution process is conducted on the conventional poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. The device exhibits a power conversion efficiency of up to 3.36%, 18% higher than that of the device without the solution process. The measurements of the active layer by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) indicate a slight phase separation in the vertical direction and a sodium chloride distributed island-like interface between the active layer and the cathode. The capacitance–voltage (C–V) and impedance spectroscopy measurements prove that the sodium chloride methanol process can reduce the electron injection barrier and improve the interfacial contact of polymer solar cells. Therefore, this one-step solution process not only optimizes the phase separation in the active layers but also forms a cathode buffer layer, which can enhance the generation, transport, and collection of photogenerated charge carriers in the device simultaneously. This work indicates that the inexpensive and non-toxic sodium chloride methanol solution process is an efficient one-step method for the low cost manufacturing of polymer solar cells. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2014JBZ009) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274063, 61377028, 61475014, and 61475017).

  19. Hydrogeologic Processes Impacting Storage, Fate, and Transport of Chloride from Road Salt in Urban Riparian Aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Sarah H; Lautz, Laura K; Stella, John C

    2016-05-17

    Detrimental effects of road salt runoff on urban streams are compounded by its facilitated routing via storm drains, ditches, and flood channels. Elevated in-stream salinity may also result from seasonal storage and discharge of chloride in groundwater, and previous work has hypothesized that groundwater discharge to streams may have the effect of diluting stream chloride concentrations in winter and enriching them in summer. However, the hydrogeological processes controlling these patterns have not been thoroughly investigated. Our research focuses on an urban stream and floodplain system in Syracuse, NY, to understand how groundwater and surface water exchange impacts chloride storage, fate, and transport. We created a 3D groundwater flow and solute transport model of the floodplain, calibrated to the distributions of floodplain hydraulic heads and groundwater fluxes to the stream throughout the reach. We used a sensitivity analysis to calibrate and evaluate the influence of model parameters, and compared model outputs to field observations. The main source mechanism of chloride to the floodplain aquifer was high-concentration, overbank flood events in winter that directly recharged groundwater. The modeled residence time and storage capacity of the aquifer indicate that restoration projects designed to promote floodplain reconnection and the frequency of overbank flooding in winter have the potential to temporarily store chloride in groundwater, buffer surface water concentrations, and reduce stream concentrations following periods of road salting. PMID:27077530

  20. Conservation of minimally processed pineapple using calcium chloride, edible coating and gamma radiation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to obtain a convenience type pineapple subjected to fresh-cut process and calcium chloride, wheat gluten and alginate-base edible coating and irradiation treatments. The fruits were washed, sanitized with Sumaveg (Sodium Dichloro-s-Triazinetrione) in a 200 mg L-1 chlorine-free solution at 7 deg C for 15 minutes, and then manually peeled. The peeled fruits were sliced into 1 cm thick slices, rinsed in 20 mg L-1 chlorine-free solution for 3 minutes and drained for 3 minutes. In the first experiment, the samples were treated with: 1% calcium chloride + vital wheat gluten solution; 1% calcium chloride + 1% alginate solution; and control. In the second experiment, the samples were treated with: 1% calcium chloride + vital wheat gluten solution + 2.3 kGy; 1% calcium chloride + 2.3kGy; irradiation with 2.3kGy; and control. The packing consisted of rigid polyethylene terephthalate (PET) trays with around 250 g of fruit. The irradiation was performed in a Cobalt-60 multipurpose irradiator with 92 kCi activity and dose value of 2.3 kGy h-1. The samples were stored at 5 ± 1 deg C and evaluated every other day for 12 days. In the first experiment pH and titratable acidity values showed slight variations but were similar between the treatments. There was a decrease in ascorbic acid values in all treatments. Browning was noticed in all treatments over the storage period. Although the values between the treatments were similar, the pineapple treated with calcium chloride + gluten showed firmer texture, less liquid loss, and lower values of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities and CO2 and ethylene production. Mesophiles and mold and yeast counts were also reduced. No Salmonella and E. coli were detected. Total coliform counts were low in all the treatments and appeared in just a few isolated samples during the storage period. Sensory analyses showed that the samples treated with calcium chloride + gluten had the lower scores for texture

  1. Simultaneous determination of volatile and non-volatile nitrosamines in processed meat products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and electrospray ionisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Granby, Kit

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive, selective and generic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the contents (μgkg−1 range) of both volatile nitrosamines (VNA) and non-volatile nitrosamines (NVNA) in processed meat products. The extraction procedure only requires basic laboratory equipment and a...

  2. Climate, atmosphere, and volatile inventory evolution: polar processes, climate records, volatile inventories

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Climate change on Mars was driven by long term changes in the solar luminosity, variations in the partitioning of volatiles between the atmosphere and near-surface reservoirs, and astronomical variations in axial and orbital properties. There are important parallels between these drives for Mars and comparable ones for Earth. In the early history of the solar system, the Sun's luminosity was 25 to 30 percent lower than its current value. It is suggested that an early benign climate on Earth was due to the presence of much more carbon dioxide in its atmosphere at these early times than currently resides there. Such a partitioning of carbon dioxide, at the expense of the carbonate rock reservoir, may have resulted from a more vigorous tectonic and volcanic style at early times. Such a line of reasoning may imply that much more carbon dioxide was present in the Martian atmosphere during the planet's early history than resides there today. It is now widely recognized that astronomical variations of the Earth's axial and orbital characteristics have played a dominant role in causing the succession of glacial and interglacial periods characterizing the last several million years. The magnitude of the axial and eccentricity variations are much larger for Mars than for Earth. Such changes on Mars could result in sizeable variations in atmospheric pressure, dust storm activity, and the stability of perennial carbon dioxide and water ice polar caps. These quasi-periodic climate changes occur on periods of 100,000 to 1,000,000 years and may be recorded in the sedimentary layers of the polar layered terrain

  3. Climate, atmosphere, and volatile inventory evolution: Polar processes, climate records, volatile inventories

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pollack, J. B.

    1988-01-01

    Climate change on Mars was driven by long term changes in the solar luminosity, variations in the partitioning of volatiles between the atmosphere and near-surface reservoirs, and astronomical variations in axial and orbital properties. There are important parallels between these drives for Mars and comparable ones for Earth. In the early history of the solar system, the Sun's luminosity was 25 to 30 percent lower than its current value. It is suggested that an early benign climate on Earth was due to the presence of much more carbon dioxide in its atmosphere at these early times than currently resides there. Such a partitioning of carbon dioxide, at the expense of the carbonate rock reservoir, may have resulted from a more vigorous tectonic and volcanic style at early times. Such a line of reasoning may imply that much more carbon dioxide was present in the Martian atmosphere during the planet's early history than resides there today. It is now widely recognized that astronomical variations of the Earth's axial and orbital characteristics have played a dominant role in causing the succession of glacial and interglacial periods characterizing the last several million years. The magnitude of the axial and eccentricity variations are much larger for Mars than for Earth. Such changes on Mars could result in sizeable variations in atmospheric pressure, dust storm activity, and the stability of perennial carbon dioxide and water ice polar caps. These quasi-periodic climate changes occur on periods of 100,000 to 1,000,000 years and may be recorded in the sedimentary layers of the polar layered terrain.

  4. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    There is a large literature that investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate new information (price discovery analysis). We extend this concept to the stochastic volatility process and investigate how markets contribute to the efficient stochastic volatility whi...

  5. Occurrence of volatile and non-volatile N-nitrosamines in processed meat products and the role of heat treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Granby, Kit

    2015-01-01

    processed meat products on the Danish market (N = 70) and for comparison also products on the Belgian market (N = 20). The effect of heat treatment on the NA levels, in selected samples, was also studied, in order to enable an evaluation of how preparation before consumption affects the levels of NA. For......Most of the available data on the occurrence of N-nitrosamines (NA) in processed meat products have been generated in the 1980s and 1990s and especially data on the occurrence of non-volatile NA (NVNA) are scarce. Therefore we have studied the levels of volatile nitrosamines (VNA) and NVNA in...... than 10 μg kg−1 for one Danish sample and two Belgian samples. Levels of up to 2000 and 4000 μg kg−1 of N-nitroso-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NTCA) an NVNA occurred in the Danish and the Belgian samples, respectively. The majority of the Danish processed meat products contain NVNA but also VNA...

  6. Mathematical model of determining heat condition in desublimation process of volatile metal fluorides

    OpenAIRE

    Smolkin, P. А.; Buynovskiy, А. S.; Lazarchuk, V. V.; Matveev, А. А.; Sofronov, V. L.; Brendakov, V. N.

    2007-01-01

    To optimize the technological parameters of the process and to create the automatic regulation system of desublimation process the mathematical model for desublimation process of volatile metal fluorides in surface devices (by the example of uranium hexafluoride) has been developed. Optimal conditions for desublimation process designed with the use of the model developed were tested and showed good agreement with the experimental data.

  7. Dietary exposure to volatile and non-volatile N-nitrosamines from processed meat products in Denmark.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Herrmann, S S; Duedahl-Olesen, L; Christensen, T; Olesen, P T; Granby, K

    2015-06-01

    Recent epidemiological studies show a positive association between cancer incidence and high intake of processed meat. N-nitrosamines (NAs) in these products have been suggested as one potential causative factor. Most volatile NAs (VNAs) are classified as probable human carcinogens, whereas the carcinogenicity for the majority of the non-volatile NA (NVNA) remains to be elucidated. Danish adults (15-75 years) and children (4-6 years) consume 20 g and 16 g of processed meat per day (95th percentile), respectively. The consumption is primarily accounted for by sausages, salami, pork flank (spiced and boiled) and ham. This consumption results in an exposure to NVNA of 33 and 90 ng kg bw(-1) day(-1) for adults and children, respectively. The exposure to VNA is significantly lower amounting to 0.34 and 1.1 ng kg bw(-1) day(-1) for adults and children, respectively. Based on a BMDL10 of 29 µg kg bw(-1) day(-1) a MOE value ≥17,000 was derived for the exposure to NA known to be carcinogenic (VNA including NSAR), indicating an exposure of low concern. The exposure to the NVNA is substantially higher and if found to be of toxicological significance the exposure may be of concern. PMID:25792266

  8. Dietary exposure to volatile and non-volatile N-nitrosamines from processed meat products in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Christensen, Tue;

    2015-01-01

    carcinogenicity for the majority of the non-volatile NA (NVNA) remains to be elucidated. Danish adults (15–75 years) and children (4–6 years) consume 20 g and 16 g of processed meat per day (95th percentile), respectively. The consumption is primarily accounted for by sausages, salami, pork flank (spiced and......Recent epidemiological studies show a positive association between cancer incidence and high intake of processed meat. N-nitrosamines (NAs) in these products have been suggested as one potential causative factor. Most volatile NAs (VNAs) are classified as probable human carcinogens, whereas the...... boiled) and ham. This consumption results in an exposure to NVNA of 33 and 90 ng kg bw−1 day−1 for adults and children, respectively. The exposure to VNA is significantly lower amounting to 0.34 and 1.1 ng kg bw−1 day−1 for adults and children, respectively. Based on a BMDL10 of 29 µg kg bw−1 day−1 a MOE...

  9. Application of Laser Induced Breakdown Spectroscopy to Electrochemical Process Monitoring of Molten Chloride Salts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Techniques for in situ, near real-time analysis of molten salt chlorides used in electro- chemical fuel treatment processes face several challenges including atmospheric isolation, high radiation fields, corrosive environments and high temperatures. Therefore, techniques that can operate in a stand-off manner will have a definitive advantage for implementation in a fuel treatment facility. Laser induced breakdown spectroscopy (LIBS), an elemental analysis technique, is being pursued as a near real-time process monitor of various process streams. LIBS can operate at stand-off distances and has been used in other industries as a process monitoring technique. (author)

  10. Investigation into thermal decomposition processes of chloride-organic complexes of niobium and tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex compounds of niobium and tantalum chlorides with carbon- and nitrogen-bearing (CH3CN, C6H5CN, C6H5CH2CN, CH=CH2CN) ligands are prepared and identified. Correlation of spectra of nuclear quadrupole resonance (93Nb and 181Ta) of complexes prepared with thermochemical characteristics of the complexing reaction is established. The thermal decomposition of complex niobium and tantalum chlorides is studied. The principal possibility of using their thermal decomposition process to prepare refractory and heat resistant binary niobium and tantalum compounds is shown. The properties and composition of thermal decomposition products at different temperatures are studied. The complex dependence of the composition of the final decomposition product on the temperature (20-110 deg) shows that the process is determined by topochemical and kinetic factors

  11. Testing the maximal rank of the volatility process for continuous diffusions observed with noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fissler, Tobias; Podolskij, Mark

    2016-01-01

    In this paper, we present a test for the maximal rank of the volatility process in continuous diffusion models observed with noise. Such models are typically applied in mathematical finance, where latent price processes are corrupted by microstructure noise at ultra high frequencies. Using high...... frequency observations we construct a test statistic for the maximal rank of the time varying stochastic volatility process. Our methodology is based upon a combination of a matrix perturbation approach and pre-averaging. We will show the asymptotic mixed normality of the test statistic and obtain a...... consistent testing procedure....

  12. Testing the maximal rank of the volatility process for continuous diffusions observed with noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fissler, Tobias; Podolskij, Mark

    In this paper, we present a test for the maximal rank of the volatility process in continuous diffusion models observed with noise. Such models are typically applied in mathematical finance, where latent price processes are corrupted by microstructure noise at ultra high frequencies. Using high...... frequency observations we construct a test statistic for the maximal rank of the time varying stochastic volatility process. Our methodology is based upon a combination of a matrix perturbation approach and pre-averaging. We will show the asymptotic mixed normality of the test statistic and obtain a...... consistent testing procedure....

  13. Microwave Processing of Planetary Surfaces for Volatile Extraction

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaukler, William

    2011-01-01

    In-Situ Resource Utilization will be necessary for sustained exploration of space. Volatiles are present in planetary soils, but water by far has the strongest potential for effective utilization. The presence of water at the lunar poles, Mars, and possibly on Phobos opens the possibility of producing LOX for propellant. Water is also a useful radiation shielding material and water (and oxygen) are expendables that are also required for habitation in space. Because of the strong function of water vapor pressure with temperature, heating soil effectively liberates water vapor by sublimation. Microwave energy will penetrate soil and heat from within much more efficiently than heating from the surface with radiant heat. This is especially true under vacuum conditions since the heat transfer rate is very low. The depth of microwave penetration is a strong function of the microwave frequency and to a lesser extent on soil dielectric properties. Methods for measuring the complex electric permittivity and magnetic permeability are being developed and have been measured for some lunar soil simulants at 0.5, 2.45, and 10 GHz from room temperature down to liquid nitrogen temperature. A new method for delivery of microwaves deep into a planetary surface is being prototyped with laboratory experiments and modeled with COMSOL MultiPhysics. We have plans to set up a planetary testbed in a large vacuum chamber in the coming year. Recent results will be presented.

  14. Gas chromatographic thermodynamics on hydration processes of magnesium chloride with low water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建军; 陈关城; 马培华; 保积庆; 马玉涛; 陈丰秋

    2003-01-01

    The dehydration and hydration processes of magnesium chloride hydrates were studied by means of frontal chromatography analysis, calorimetry, thermogravimetry and chemical analysis. The mathematical imitation for the adsorption isotherms of MgCl2*4H2O and MgCl2*2H2O at different temperatures indicates that Boltzmann Function is the ideal equation to describe those adsorption isotherms. Its adsorption heat is -13.06kJ/mol and -16.11kJ/mol, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium constants are also given. From the data obtained, there is a thermodynamical possibility to use partial dehydrated magnesium chloride hydrates as an absorbance to clean water vapor contained in bischophite dehydration equipment and let the protection gas HCl recycle in the fluid bed reaction system.

  15. On stochastic integration for volatility modulated Brownian-driven Volterra processes via white noise analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E. Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Benth, Fred Espen; Szozda, Benedykt

    This paper generalizes the integration theory for volatility modulated Brownian-driven Volterra processes onto the space G* of Potthoff-Timpel distributions. Sufficient conditions for integrability of generalized processes are given, regularity results and properties of the integral are discussed...

  16. Process engineering versus product engineering - A case study on volatile organic compounds removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, João A.P.; Vilela, T.; Pereira, P.;

    2005-01-01

    Three solutions for removing the dangerous volatile organic compound (VOC) xylene from an industrial coating process are presented and compared. Two of them are based on classical process engineering principles, i.e., development of separation-cleaning methods such as incineration and adsorption...

  17. Effects of liquid aluminum chloride additions to poultry litter on broiler performance, ammonia emissions, soluble phosphorus, total volatile Fatty acids, and nitrogen contents of litter.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Choi, I H; Moore, P A

    2008-10-01

    Recent studies have shown that the use of aluminum sulfate [alum, Al2(SO4)3.14H2O] and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) additions to animal manures are more effective than other chemicals in reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions and P solubility. Although the use of Al2(SO4)3.14H2O has been intensively used in the poultry industry for many years, no research has been conducted to evaluate the effect of liquid AlCl3 on these parameters. The objectives of this study were to determine the effects of applying liquid AlCl3 to poultry litter on 1) broiler performance, 2) NH3 fluxes, and 3) litter chemical characteristics, including soluble reactive P, total volatile fatty acids, and N content. Eight hundred broiler chicks were placed into 16 floor pens (50 birds/pen) in a single house for 6 wk. Liquid AlCl3 treatments were sprayed on the litter surface at rates of 100, 200, and 300 g of liquid AlCl3/kg of litter; un-treated litter served as controls. At the 2 lower rates, liquid AlCl3 treatments tended to improve weight gain and feed intake but had no effect on feed conversion or mortality, whereas the higher rate (300 g/kg of litter) had a negative effect on intake. Application of 100, 200, and 300 g of liquid AlCl3 reduced NH3 fluxes by 63, 76, and 76% during the 6-wk period, respectively, compared with the controls. Liquid AlCl3 additions reduced litter soluble reactive P contents by 24, 30, and 36%, respectively, at the low, medium, and high rates. Total volatile fatty acid contents (odor precursors) in litter were reduced by 20, 50, and 51%, respectively, with 100, 200, and 300 g of liquid AlCl3/kg of litter. Liquid AlCl3 additions increased total N, inorganic N, and plant available N contents in litter. These results indicate that liquid AlCl3 additions at the lower rates can provide significant positive environmental benefits to broiler operations. PMID:18809856

  18. Concrete cover cracking with reinforcement corrosion of RC beam during chloride-induced corrosion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the evolution of the corrosion pattern based on two beams corroded by 14 years (beam B1CL1) and 23 years (beam B2CL1) of conservation in a chloride environment. The experimental results indicate that, at the cracking initiation stage and the first stage of cracking propagation, localized corrosion due to chloride ingress is the predominant corrosion pattern and pitting corrosion is the main factor that influences the cracking process. As corrosion cracking increases, general corrosion develops rapidly and gradually becomes predominant in the second stage of cracking propagation. A comparison between existing models and experimental results illustrates that, although Vidal et al.'s model can better predict the reinforcement corrosion of beam B1CL1 under localized corrosion, it cannot predict the corrosion of beam B2CL1 under general corrosion. Also, Rodriguez's model, derived from the general corrosion due to electrically accelerated corrosion experiments, cannot match natural chloride corrosion irrespective of whether corrosion is localized or general. Thus, for natural general corrosion in the second stage of cracking propagation, a new model based on the parameter of average steel cross-section loss is put forward to predict steel corrosion from corrosion cracking.

  19. Potential Signatures of Semi-volatile Compounds Associated With Nuclear Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probasco, Kathleen M.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Maughan, A. D.

    2002-06-01

    Semi-volatile chemicals associated with nuclear processes (e.g., the reprocessing of uranium to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons, or the separation of actinides from processing waste streams), can provide sticky residues or signatures that will attach to piping, ducting, soil, water, or other surface media. Volatile compounds, that are more suitable for electro-optical sensing, have been well studied. However, the semi-volatile compounds have not been well documented or studied. A majority of these semi-volatile chemicals are more robust than typical gaseous or liquid chemicals and can have lifetimes of several weeks, months, or years in the environment. However, large data gaps exist concerning these potential signature compounds and more research is needed to fill these data gaps so that important signature information is not overlooked or discarded. This report investigates key semi-volatile compounds associated with nuclear separations, identifies available chemical and physical properties, and discusses the degradation products that would result from hydrolysis, radiolysis and oxidation reactions on these compounds.

  20. Process model for ammonia volatilization from anaerobic swine lagoons incorporating varying wind speeds and biogas bubbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia volatilization from treatment lagoons varies widely with the total ammonia concentration, pH, temperature, suspended solids, atmospheric ammonia concentration above the water surface, and wind speed. Ammonia emissions were estimated with a process-based mechanistic model integrating ammonia ...

  1. Changes in flavor volatile composition of oolong tea after panning during tea processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibani, Ershad; Duncan, Susan E; Kuhn, David D; Dietrich, Andrea M; Newkirk, Jordan J; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2016-05-01

    Panning is a processing step used in manufacturing of some varieties of oolong tea. There is limited information available on effects of panning on oolong tea flavors. The goal of this study was to determine effects of panning on flavor volatile compositions of oolong using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O). SDE and SPME techniques were applied for extraction of volatiles in panned and unpanned teas. A total of 190 volatiles were identified from SDE and SPME extractions using GC-MS and GC-O. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in aldehyde or terpene contents of unpanned and panned tea. However, alcohols, ketones, acids and esters contents were significantly reduced by panning. Among 12 major volatiles previously used for identification and quality assessment of oolong tea, trans nerolidol, 2- hexenal, benzaldehyde, indole, gernaiol, and benzenacetaldehyde contents were significantly decreased (P compounds with sweet descriptions and decrease of aroma active compounds with fruity and smoky descriptions after panning. Panning significantly changes the volatile compositions of the tea and created new aroma active compounds. Results from this study can be used in quality assessment of panned oolong tea. PMID:27247775

  2. Process of extracting volatile ingredients from powdered or granulated material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, G.A.

    1925-09-08

    A process of treating powdered or granulated shale to produce oil is described consisting in separating the shale into portions adjacent to each other and translating them in one direction and simultaneously subjecting them to heat. The vapors generated from the shale are collected. Shale from one portion is forced to mix with the next adjacent portion simultaneously with the translation of the portions.

  3. Adaptation of the continuous cold trap system of fluidized-bed to the fluoride volatility process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A continuous cold trap system consisting of fluidized condenser and stripper has been evaluated with a view to adapt it to the Fluoride Volatility Process in establishing the continuous purification process without radiation decomposition of PuF6. Its feasibility is shown by the test with UF6-air. Necessary conditions for the cold trap, and performance of the two inch-dia. fluidized bed cold trap system are presented, and also a model of mist formation in the condenser. (auth.)

  4. ASYMPTOTICS FOR EXPONENTIAL LÉVY PROCESSES AND THEIR VOLATILITY SMILE: SURVEY AND NEW RESULTS

    OpenAIRE

    LEIF ANDERSEN; ALEXANDER LIPTON

    2013-01-01

    Exponential Lévy processes can be used to model the evolution of various financial variables such as FX rates, stock prices, and so on. Considerable efforts have been devoted to pricing derivatives written on underliers governed by such processes, and the corresponding implied volatility surfaces have been analyzed in some detail. In the non-asymptotic regimes, option prices are described by the Lewis-Lipton formula, which allows one to represent them as Fourier integrals, and the prices can ...

  5. Asymptotics for Exponential Levy Processes and their Volatility Smile: Survey and New Results

    OpenAIRE

    Leif Andersen; Alexander Lipton

    2012-01-01

    Exponential L\\'evy processes can be used to model the evolution of various financial variables such as FX rates, stock prices, etc. Considerable efforts have been devoted to pricing derivatives written on underliers governed by such processes, and the corresponding implied volatility surfaces have been analyzed in some detail. In the non-asymptotic regimes, option prices are described by the Lewis-Lipton formula which allows one to represent them as Fourier integrals; the prices can be trivia...

  6. Effect of the partial NaCl substitution by other chloride salts on the volatile profile during the ripening of dry-cured lacón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez, R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of three salting treatments (treatment II: 50% NaCl-50% KCl; III: 45% NaCl-25% KCl-20% CaCl2-10% MgCl2; IV: 30% NaCl-50% KCl-15% CaCl2-5% MgCl2 on the formation of volatile compounds throughout the process was studied and compared to those of a control “lacón” (treatment I: 100% NaCl. There was an intense formation of volatile compounds throughout the processing, particularly during the dry-ripening stage. The most abundant chemical family in all the formulations, in the final product was hydrocarbons followed by aldehydes. The total volatile compound release was more intense in the control “lacóns” (1164 AU_106·g-1dry matter than in “lacóns” from formulations II, III and IV (817-891 AUx106·g-1dry matter. The “lacóns” from formulation I showed the highest amounts of aldehydes. The “lacóns” from formulations I and II presented the highest amounts of hydrocarbons. The main conclusion is that the replacement of NaCl produces changes in the volatile profile and could be affect the aroma of “lacón”.Se estudió la influencia de tres tratamientos de salado (tratamiento II: 50 % NaCl-50 % KCl; III: 45 % NaCl-25 % KCl-20 % CaCl2-10 % MgCl2; IV: 30 % NaCl-50 % KCl-15 % CaCl2-5 % MgCl2 en la formación de compuestos volátiles durante la elaboración de lacón, en comparación con un control (tratamiento I: 100 % NaCl. Hubo una intensa formación de compuestos volátiles durante el procesado, principalmente durante la fase de secado-maduración. La familia química más abundante en el producto final fueron los hidrocarbonos, seguidos por los aldehídos. La liberación de volátiles fue más intensa en los lacones control (1164 AU_106·g-1 materia seca que en los otros lacones (817-891 AUx106· g-1 materia seca. Los lacones de la formulación I mostraron las mayores cantidades de aldehídos, y los lacones de las formulaciones I y II presentaron los mayores contenidos de hidrocarburos. La principal conclusi

  7. Lipid oxidation in baked products: impact of formula and process on the generation of volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, Murielle; Rega, Barbara; Cuvelier, Marie-Elisabeth; Soto, Paola; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2013-12-15

    This paper investigates the effect of ingredients on the reactions occurring during the making of sponge cake and leading to the generation of volatile compounds related to flavour quality. To obtain systems sensitive to lipid oxidation (LO), a formulation design was applied varying the composition of fatty matter and eggs. Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and formation of related volatile compounds were followed at the different steps of cake-making. Optimised dynamic Solid Phase Micro Extraction was applied to selectively extract either volatile or semi-volatile compounds directly from the baking vapours. We show for the first time that in the case of alveolar baked products, lipid oxidation occurs very early during the step of dough preparation and to a minor extent during the baking process. The generation of lipid oxidation compounds depends on PUFA content and on the presence of endogenous antioxidants in the raw matter. Egg yolk seemed to play a double role on reactivity: protecting unsaturated lipids from oxidation and being necessary to generate a broad class of compounds of the Maillard reaction during baking and linked to the typical flavour of sponge cake. PMID:23993514

  8. Are volatility correlations in financial markets related to Omori processes occurring on all scales?

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, P; Stanley, H E; Vodenska-Chitkushev, I; Wang, F; Havlin, Shlomo; Vodenska-Chitkushev, Irena; Wang, Fengzhong; Weber, Philipp

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the memory in volatility by studying volatility return intervals, defined as the time between two consecutive fluctuations larger than a given threshold, in time periods following stock market crashes. Such an aftercrash period is characterized by the Omori law, which describes the decay in the rate of aftershocks of a given size with time t by a power law with exponent close to 1. A shock followed by such a power law decay in the rate is here called Omori process. Studying several aftercrash time series, we show that the Omori law holds not only after significant market crashes, but also after ``intermediate shocks''. Moreover, we find self-similar features in the volatility. Specifically, within the aftercrash period there are smaller shocks that themselves constitute Omori processes on smaller scales, similar to the Omori process after the large crash. We call these smaller shocks subcrashes, which are followed by their own aftershocks. We also find similar Omori processes after intermediate cra...

  9. Recovery of volatile products from dilute high-fouling process streams.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Madson, P W; Lococo, D B

    2000-01-01

    As biomass hydrolysis and fermentation technologies approach commercial viability, advancements in product recovery technologies will be required. For cases in which fermentation products are more volatile than water, recovery by distillation is often the technology of choice. Distillation technologies that will allow the economic recovery of dilute volatile products from streams containing a variety of impurities have been developed and commercially demonstrated. Distillation tower and tray designs, along with specialized heat-exchanger designs, allowing for extended processing intervals on solutions containing lignocellulosic residues, organic acids, and inorganic salts concentrations > 100 g/L are in commercial operation. In the case of ethanol, distillation energy consumption efficiencies for processing solutions containing 120 g/L. These proprietary technologies have been applied individually at commercial scale, and designs have been developed that incorporate the combined technologies with only a marginal increase in capital investment compared to traditional methods. PMID:10849857

  10. Option Pricing Model Based on the Stochastic Volatility and Jump Diffusion Process

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xudong

    2014-01-01

    Although the Black and Scholes (1973) model achieved great success in option pricing theory, the two obvious phenomena have received much attention in past decades (Kou, 2002). One is the asymmetric leptokurtic features; the other is the volatility “smiles”. To modify the Black and Scholes (1973) model, we introduce the Kou (2002) double exponential jump-diffusion model. It is more consistent with the price process than the Black and Scholes (1973) model. The Kou (2002) model not only contain...

  11. Using polycarbonate dyed with dansyl chloride for dosimetry in radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizi, Shazad; Ziaie, Farhood [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Radiation Application Research School, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghandi, Mehdi [Univ. Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). School of Chemistry

    2015-07-01

    Preparation and characteristics evaluation of the polycarbonate films 20 μm in thickness containing Dansyl chloride as a routine dosimeter in radiation processing facilities were studied. The sensitivity of these films and the linearity of dose-response curves were investigated under {sup 60}Co γ-rays in a dose range of 0-100 kGy, and the obtained results were compared with the commercial CTA and FWT film dosimeters. The results show that the maximum absorbance appeared at 370 nm in all the investigated dose range. The dyed films were found to be stable enough in mediums with high degrees of humidity and temperature, to be reliably used in radio-applications. The effects of pre-irradiation (shelf-life) and post-irradiation storage in dark and in indirect sunlight were also discussed. The films which were made displayed stable characteristics when stored in dark, within 1% at 25 C, 3 months after irradiation.

  12. Using polycarbonate dyed with dansyl chloride for dosimetry in radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Preparation and characteristics evaluation of the polycarbonate films 20 μm in thickness containing Dansyl chloride as a routine dosimeter in radiation processing facilities were studied. The sensitivity of these films and the linearity of dose-response curves were investigated under 60Co γ-rays in a dose range of 0-100 kGy, and the obtained results were compared with the commercial CTA and FWT film dosimeters. The results show that the maximum absorbance appeared at 370 nm in all the investigated dose range. The dyed films were found to be stable enough in mediums with high degrees of humidity and temperature, to be reliably used in radio-applications. The effects of pre-irradiation (shelf-life) and post-irradiation storage in dark and in indirect sunlight were also discussed. The films which were made displayed stable characteristics when stored in dark, within 1% at 25 C, 3 months after irradiation.

  13. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common i...

  14. Sodium Chloride Diffusion in Low-Acid Foods during Thermal Processing and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Ellen R; Tang, Juming; Sablani, Shyam S

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at modeling sodium chloride (NaCl) diffusion in foods during thermal processing using analytical and numerical solutions and at investigating the changes in NaCl concentrations during storage after processing. Potato, radish, and salmon samples in 1% or 3% NaCl solutions were heated at 90, 105, or 121 °C for 5 to 240 min to simulate pasteurization and sterilization. Selected samples were stored at 4 or 22 °C for up to 28 d. Radish had the largest equilibrium NaCl concentrations and equilibrium distribution coefficients, but smallest effective diffusion coefficients, indicating that a greater amount of NaCl diffused into the radish at a slower rate. Effective diffusion coefficients determined using the analytical solution ranged from 0.2 × 10(-8) to 2.6 × 10(-8) m²/s. Numerical and analytical solutions showed good agreement with experimental data, with average coefficients of determination for samples in 1% NaCl at 121 °C of 0.98 and 0.95, respectively. During storage, food samples equilibrated to a similar NaCl concentration regardless of the thermal processing severity. The results suggest that sensory evaluation of multiphase (solid and liquid) products should occur at least 14 d after processing to allow enough time for the salt to equilibrate within the product. PMID:27060992

  15. Resource Prospector Instrumentation for Lunar Volatiles Prospecting, Sample Acquisition and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captain, J.; Elphic, R.; Colaprete, A.; Zacny, Kris; Paz, A.

    2016-01-01

    Data gathered from lunar missions within the last two decades have significantly enhanced our understanding of the volatile resources available on the lunar surface, specifically focusing on the polar regions. Several orbiting missions such as Clementine and Lunar Prospector have suggested the presence of volatile ices and enhanced hydrogen concentrations in the permanently shadowed regions of the moon. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission was the first to provide direct measurement of water ice in a permanently shadowed region. These missions with other orbiting assets have laid the groundwork for the next step in the exploration of the lunar surface; providing ground truth data of the volatiles by mapping the distribution and processing lunar regolith for resource extraction. This next step is the robotic mission Resource Prospector (RP). Resource Prospector is a lunar mission to investigate 'strategic knowledge gaps' (SKGs) for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The mission is proposed to land in the lunar south pole near a permanently shadowed crater. The landing site will be determined by the science team with input from broader international community as being near traversable landscape that has a high potential of containing elevated concentrations of volatiles such as water while maximizing mission duration. A rover will host the Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload for resource mapping and processing. The science instruments on the payload include a 1-meter drill, neutron spectrometer, a near infrared spectrometer, an operations camera, and a reactor with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer for volatile analysis. After the RP lander safely delivers the rover to the lunar surface, the science team will guide the rover team on the first traverse plan. The neutron spectrometer (NS) and near infrared (NIR) spectrometer instruments will be used as prospecting tools to guide

  16. Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of chloride induced corrosion of steel reinforcement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Živica

    2002-10-01

    The influence of heavy metal oxides on the chloride induced corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete was studied. Significant inhibition and stimulation of chloride induced corrosion have been observed. Basicity and acidity of the relevant metal ions, and their ability to form complexes are considered as the main factors of the observed effects.

  17. DECONTAMINATION OF PLUTONIUM FOR FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE DURING OXALATE PRECIPITATION, FILTRATION AND CALCINATION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyser, E.

    2012-07-25

    Due to analytical limitations for the determination of fluoride (F) and chloride (Cl) in a previous anion exchange study, an additional study of the decontamination of Pu from F and Cl by oxalate precipitation, filtration and calcination was performed. Anion product solution from the previous impurity study was precipitated as an oxalate, filtered, and calcined to produce an oxide for analysis by pyrohydrolysis for total Cl and F. Analysis of samples from this experiment achieved the purity specification for Cl and F for the proposed AFS-2 process. Decontamination factors (DF's) for the overall process (including anion exchange) achieved a DF of {approx}5000 for F and a DF of {approx}100 for Cl. Similar experiments where both HF and HCl were spiked into the anion product solution to a {approx}5000 {micro}g /g Pu concentration showed a DF of 5 for F and a DF of 35 for Cl across the combined precipitation-filtration-calcination process steps.

  18. Electrochemical noise characteristics in corrosion process of AZ91D magnesium alloy in neutral chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-jun; ZHU Xu-bei; ZHANG Zhao; ZHANG Jian-qing

    2009-01-01

    The corrosion process of AZ91D magnesium alloy in neutral 1% (mass fraction) sodium chloride aqueous solution was investigated by electrochemical noise(EN), SEM and EDX. Fractal theory was primarily used to depict the corrosion process of the alloy. The fast wavelet transform(FWT), as well as the fast Fourier transform(FFT), was employed to analyze the EN data. The results show that the overall corrosion process can be described by three stages. The first stage corresponds to the pit nucleation and growth; the second stage involves the growth of a passive oxide layer; and the third stage involves reactivation. With increasing immersion time, fractal dimension increases fast initially, fluctuates in the medium and increases again at last. Pitting corrosion and fractal dimension increase due to the initiation and formation of pits in the initial and the end of immersion, while depresses due to the passivation in the medium period. The results of SEM and EDX support the above conclusions.

  19. Evaluation of purification capability, uranium yield and environmental pollution for fluoride volatility process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The purification principle of fluoride volatility process is explained in this paper. The melting point, boiling point or sublimating temperature of some compounds produced in various stages of the technical process are listed. The purification capability, environmental pollution and uranium yield in each stage are discussed. The findings show that some materials with low boiling point, such as MoF6, dispersed in several stages decrease the uranium yield finally. More than 50% of sulphur presented in the yellow cake go into the air in the form of SO2 to pollute the environment. (authors)

  20. Volatile, anthocyanidin, quality and sensory changes in rabbiteye blueberry from whole fruit through pilot plant juice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: High antioxidant content and keen marketing have increased blueberry demand and increased local production which in turn mandates new uses for abundant harvests. Pilot scale processes were employed to investigate the anthocyanidin profiles, qualitative volatile compositions, and sensori...

  1. Study of the influence of temperature the venting depollution process of soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELA-ALINA BRUSTUREAN; JEAN CARRÉ; DELIA PERJU; TEODOR TODINCA

    2006-01-01

    Venting is one of the most used in situ remediation methods for unsaturated soils contaiminated with volatile organic compounds (VOC). The development of mathematical models and their validation by means of experimental results allowed the identification of the main parameters which influence the soil depollution process. The influence of temperature on the venting depollution process of soils polluted with volatile organic compounds was studied in this investigation. It was found that the de...

  2. Treatment of acidic mine water at uranium mine No. 711 by barium chloride-sludge recycle-fractional neutralization process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The barium chloride-sludge recycle-fractional neutralization process for disposal of acidic mine water at Uranium Mine No. 711 was checked through laboratory and enlarged tests and one-year industrial trial-run. The results showed that the presented technology can meet the requirements of production and environmental protection

  3. Degradation of benzalkonium chloride coupling photochemical advanced oxidation technologies with biological processes

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The combination of Advanced Oxidation Technologies (AOTs) and biological processes can be visualized as a very successful technological option for treatment of effluents, because it combines high oxidizing technologies with a conventional, low-cost and well-established treatment technology.Photochemical AOTs, like UV-C with or without H2O2, photo-Fenton (PF, UV/H2O2/Fe(II-III)) and UV/TiO2 heterogeneous photo catalysis involve the generation and use of powerful oxidizing species, mainly the hydroxyl radical.In almost all AOTs, it is possible to use sunlight. Benzalkonium chloride (dodecyldimetylbencylammonium chloride, BKC) is a widely used surfactant, which has many industrial applications.Due to its antibacterial effect, it cannot be eliminated from effluents by a biological treatment, and the complexity of its chemical structure makes necessary the use of drastic oxidizing treatments to achieve complete mineralization and to avoid the formation of byproducts even more toxic than the initial compound.In this study, different alternatives for BKC treatment using photochemical AOTs followed by bio catalytic techniques are presented.Three AOTs were tested: a) UV-C (254 nm, germicide lamp) with and without H2O2, b) PF (366 nm), c) UV/TiO2 (254 and 366 nm). PF at a 15:1:1 H2O2total/BKC0/Fe0 molar ratio at 55 degree C was the most efficient treatment in order to decrease the tensioactivity and the total organic carbon of the solution . The biocatalysis was studied in a reactor fitted with a biofilm of microorganisms coming from a sludge-water treatment plant. To evaluate the maximal BKC concentration that could be allowed to ingress to the biological reactor after the AOT treatment, the toxicity of solutions of different BKC concentrations was analyzed. The study of the relevant parameters of both processes and their combination allowed to establish the preliminary conditions for optimizing the pollutant degradation

  4. Uranium, thorium and rare earth extraction and separation process by processing their chloride aqueous solutions

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The different steps of the process are the following: uranium and iron extraction by a neutral organic phosphorus compound and thorium and rare earth recovery in an aqueous solution, iron recovery in acid aqueous phase, concentration of the thorium and rare earth aqueous solution followed by thorium extraction with a organic phosphorus compound and rare earth recovery in the aqueous phase, thorium recovery in acid aqueous phase

  5. Effects of liquid aluminum chloride additions to poultry litter on broiler performance, ammonia emissions, soluble phosphorus, total volatile fatty acids, and nitrogen contents of litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have shown that the use of aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3.14H2O) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) additions to animal manures are more effective than other chemicals in reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions and phosphorus (P) solubility. Although the use of alum has been intensively used in the ...

  6. The role of oxygen in the photostimulated luminescence process of europium doped potassium chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A recent suggestion that europium doped potassium chloride (KCl:Eu2+) has the potential to significantly advance the state-of-the-art in radiation therapy dosimetry has generated a renewed interest in a classic storage phosphor material. The purposes of this work are to investigate the role of oxygen in the photostimulated luminescence (PSL) process and to determine if both increased PSL yield and improved temporal stability could be realized in KCl:Eu2+ by incorporating oxygen in the material fabrication process. Regardless of synthesis atmosphere, air or pure nitrogen, PSL amplitude shows a maximum at 1.0 mol % Eu. Depending on europium concentration, dosimeters fabricated in air exhibit stronger PSL by a factor of 2–4 compared to those made in N2. There is no change in PSL stimulation spectrum while noticeable shifts in both photoluminescence and PSL emission spectra are observed for air vs. nitrogen. Almost all charge-storage centers are spatially correlated, suggesting oxygen's stabilization role in the PSL process. However, oxygen alone does not improve material's temporal stability in the first few hours post irradiation at room temperature, probably because a significant portion of radiation-induced holes are stored in the Vk centers which are mobile. - Highlights: • Higher PSL intensity is obtained for dosimeters made in air than in pure nitrogen. • Shifts in emission peaks are observed for air vs. nitrogen. • All charge-storage centers are spatially correlated, suggesting the stabilization role of oxygen. • There is no improvement in temporal stability at RT for an air sample. • Oxygen improves the stability at lower temperature, for example, 50 K

  7. Non-volatile resistive memory devices based on solution-processed ultrathin two-dimensional nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoliang; Liu, Zhengdong; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Hua

    2015-05-01

    Ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, such as graphene and MoS2, hold great promise for electronics and optoelectronics due to their distinctive physical and electronic properties. Recent progress in high-yield, massive production of ultrathin 2D nanomaterials via various solution-based methods allows them to be easily integrated into electronic devices via solution processing techniques. Non-volatile resistive memory devices based on ultrathin 2D nanomaterials have been emerging as promising alternatives for the next-generation data storage devices due to their high flexibility, three-dimensional-stacking capability, simple structure, transparency, easy fabrication and low cost. In this tutorial review, we will summarize the recent progress in the utilization of solution-processed ultrathin 2D nanomaterials for fabrication of non-volatile resistive memory devices. Moreover, we demonstrate how to achieve excellent device performance by engineering the active layers, electrodes and/or device structure of resistive memory devices. On the basis of current status, the discussion is concluded with some personal insights into the challenges and opportunities in future research directions. PMID:25877687

  8. Influence of processing on the volatile profile of strawberry spreads made with isomaltulose.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peinado, I; Rosa, E; Heredia, A; Escriche, I; Andrés, A

    2013-05-01

    A new strawberry spread formulated with fructose and isomaltulose (replacing sucrose partially or totally) and a high percentage of fruit was developed in line with the new trend of healthier products. This work studies the influence of some process variables (percentage of sugar, pectin and citric acid, and time of thermal treatment) on the volatile profile of these spreads with different formulations. The ripeness of the raw strawberries influences the concentrations of some of the compounds in the spreads, such as isobutyl acetate, butyl butyrate, 3-hexen-1-yl acetate or propan-2-ol. The process conditions have an important effect on the volatile profiles. Most of the esters and alcohols decreased whereas 13 new compounds appear, mostly furans (furfural, 2-acetylfurane, 5-methyl furfural, mesifurane) and aldehydes (octanal, nonanal, decanal and benzaldeyhde). In general, the spreads formulated with sucrose-isomaltulose that contained higher levels of pectin and citric acid gave better results in the preservation of the original aromatic compounds in raw strawberries. PMID:23265532

  9. Space-weathering processes and products on volatile-rich asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, D.; Schelling, P.; Consolmagno, G.; Bradley, T.

    2014-07-01

    Space weathering is a generic term for the effects on atmosphereless solid bodies in the solar system from a range of processes associated with direct exposure to the space environment. These include impact processes (shock, vaporization, fragmentation, heating, melting, and ejecta formation), radiation damage (from galactic and solar cosmic rays), solar-wind effects (irradiation, ion implantation, and sputtering), and the chemical reactions driven by these processes. The classic example of space weathering is the formation of the lunar spectral red slope associated with the production of nanophase Fe (npFe0) in the dusty lunar regolith (C.R. Chapman, 2004, Annual Review of Earth & Planet. Sci. 32, C.M. Pieters, 2000, MAPS 35). Similar npFe0 has been recovered from asteroid (25143) Itokawa and some asteroid classes do exhibit modest spectral red slopes (T. Noguchi, 2011, Science 333). Space weathering can be thought of as driven by a combination of the chemical environment of space (hard vacuum, low oxygen fugacity, solar-wind implantation of hydrogen) along with thermal energy supplied by micrometeorite impacts. The forward modeling of space weathering as thermodynamically-driven decomposition of common rock-forming minerals suggests the production of a range of daughter products: (1) The silicate products typically lose oxygen, other volatile elements (i.e., sulfur and sodium), and metallic cations, producing minerals that are typically more disordered and less optically active than the original parent materials. (2) The decomposed metallic cations form in nano-sized blebs including npFe0, on the surfaces or in condensing rims of mineral grains. This creates a powerful optical component as seen in the lunar red slope. Surfaces with exposed npFe0 are an ideal environment for catalyzing further reactions. (3) The liberated volatile elements and gases (O, S, Na) may form an observable exosphere (e.g., Moon and Mercury) and can either escape from the body or

  10. Study on electrodeposition of La-Mg alloys in chloride system with molten salt electrolysis process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This work presents the study on electrochemical codeposition of La-Mg alloys on molybdenum electrode in LaCl3-MgCl2-LiCl-KCl melt. The feasibility of alloy deposition was studied extensively by implementing electro analytical techniques like cyclic voltametry, square wave voltametry and chronopotentiometry in a temperature range of 923 to 1023K. The mechanism of codeposition was also studied implementing the above mentioned transient electrochemical techniques. The components of the alloy element can be controlled by fixing the concentration of feeding salt in the electrolyte. Based on this basic investigation, deposition of La-Mg alloys were attempted on molybdenum electrode at higher operating temperature above 1073K to obtain the product in liquid state to have better purity. The material has been prepared in 200-300g scale to support practical application. Different phases of La-Mg alloys could be prepared by galvanostatic electrolysis by varying the concentration of LaCl3 and MgCl2 in the feed material. X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy with energy dispersive spectroscopy (SEM-EDS) techniques were implemented to characterize the phase and microstructure of the alloys respectively. Inductively couple plasma-atomic emission spectroscopy (ICP-AES) analyses of the obtained products by electrolysis showed that chemical compositions of La-Mg alloys were consistent with XRD results. The effects of various process parameters such as concentration of magnesium chloride in bath, temperature of electrolysis and cathode current density on current efficiency have been investigated. These parameters were standardized to get highest current efficiency and yield in preparing La-Mg alloys in 200-300 g scale in our lab set-up. (author)

  11. Assessment of ferrous chloride and Portland cement for the remediation of chromite ore processing residue.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jagupilla, Santhi C; Wazne, Mahmoud; Moon, Deok Hyun

    2015-10-01

    Chromite Ore Processing Residue (COPR) is an industrial waste containing up to 7% chromium (Cr) including up to 5% hexavalent chromium [Cr(VI)]. The remediation of COPR has been challenging due to the slow release of Cr(VI) from a clinker like material and thereby the incomplete detoxification of Cr(VI) by chemical reagents. The use of sulfur based reagents such as ferrous sulfate and calcium polysulfide to detoxify Cr(VI) has exasperated the swell potential of COPR upon treatment. This study investigated the use of ferrous chloride alone and in combination with Portland cement to address the detoxification of Cr(VI) in COPR and the potential swell of COPR. Chromium regulatory tests, X-ray powder diffraction (XRPD) analyses and X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) analyses were used to assess the treatment results. The treatment results indicated that Cr(VI) concentrations for the acid pretreated micronized COPR as measured by XANES analyses were below the New Jersey Department of Environmental Protection (NJDEP) standard of 20 mg kg(-1). The Toxicity characteristic leaching procedure (TCLP) Cr concentrations for all acid pretreated samples also were reduced below the TCLP regulatory limit of 5 mg L(-1). Moreover, the TCLP Cr concentration for the acid pretreated COPR with particle size ⩽0.010 mm were less than the universal treatment standard (UTS) of 0.6 mg L(-1). The treatment appears to have destabilized all COPR potential swell causing minerals. The unconfined compressive strength (UCS) for the treated samples increased significantly upon treatment with Portland cement. PMID:25966327

  12. Coagulation-Flocculation process to treat Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater by Fenugreek Mucilage Coupled with Alum and Polyaluminum Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Mervit M. Janbi; Suhama E. Salah; Kadhum M. Shabe

    2011-01-01

    The wastewater arising from pulp and paper mills is highly polluted and has to be treated before discharged into rivers. Coagulation-flocculation process using natural polymers has grown rapidly in wastewater treatment. In this work, the performance of alum and Polyaluminum Chloride (PACl) when used alone and when coupled with Fenugreek mucilage on the treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater were studied. The experiments were carried out in jar tests with alum, PACl and Fenugreek mucilage...

  13. Volatile Organic Compounds Produced by Bacteria from the Poultry Processing Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    In recent years the characterization of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from food-borne bacteria has prompted studies on the development of approaches to utilize the profile of volatiles emitted as a way of detecting contamination. We have examined VOCs from poultry with this in mind. Patt...

  14. Purification of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt containing rare earth chlorides delivered from the pyrochemical process of used nuclear fuel using a reactive distillation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the pyrochemical process of used nuclear fuel, the purification of waste salts containing radioactive nuclides can greatly contribute to a radioactive waste reduction. For this reason, the purification of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt containing rare earth chlorides was performed using a series of the phosphorylation process and the distillation process. LiCl-KCl eutectic salt recovered from the purification had a very low concentration (<1 ppm) for the rare earth chlorides. The recycling feasibility of the recovered salt was verified through a uranium electro-deposition test using LiCl-KCl eutectic salt as the electrolyte. Based on these results, one body type of reactive distillation equipment with two top covers was designed. (author)

  15. Release of hydroxycinnamic acids and formation of flavour-active volatile phenols during the beer production process

    OpenAIRE

    Vanbeneden, Nele

    2007-01-01

    Among the flavour-active volatile phenols in beer, most of them originate from the raw materials used in the brewing process. Only some of them can be formed by yeast activity, namely 4-vinylguaiacol (4VG) and 4-vinylphenol (4VP). The presence of these volatile phenolic compounds is considered undesirable when present in excessive concentration in bottom-fermented pilsner beers, hence the term “phenolic off-flavour” (POF). It is attributed to beers with a strong medicinal, clove-like aroma. D...

  16. Clean process for the treatment of volatile organic compounds by selective absorption; Procede propre de traitement de COV par absorption selective

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hadjoudj, R.; Monnier, H.; Lapicque, F.; Roizard, C. [Ecole Nationale Superieure des Industries Chimiques, Lab. des Sciences du Genie Chimique-Groupe ENSIC, 54 - Nancy (France)

    2001-07-01

    This study concerns the development of a selective absorption process for the processing of chlorinated and oxygenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs). One or several solvents will be selected according to their capacity of absorption, to their selectiveness with respect to the other compounds present in the gaseous effluent, to their capacity to be regenerated, and to their low volatility and toxicity. (J.S.)

  17. Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in food and medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as to increase its shelf life while keeping sensorial properties (e.g. odor and taste), once the latter are one of the main properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation from Co irradiation of Laurus Cinnamomum, Piper Nigrum, Origanum Vulgare and Myristica Fragans. Possible changes on the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties in order to allow better application of irradiation technology. l he samples have been irradiated in plastic packages by making use of a 60Co Gamma irradiator. Irradiation doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25kGy have been tested. For the analysis of the samples, SPME has been applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation has promoted mostly decrease in volatile compounds when doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25kGy were used. For Laurus cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile by nearly 56% and 89.5% respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which has not been previously irradiated. Differently from other spices analyzed, irradiation on Myristica Fragans has increased volatile compounds except for 4-terpineol. The miristicine (toxic substance when in large quantities, commonly mentioned as narcotic) has increased by nearly 80%. For Origanum Vulgare and Piper Nigrum, significant decrease in volatile compounds have been found, mainly when it comes to 25 kGy irradiation. In general, results indicate loss of sensorial quality of spices. (author)

  18. Evaluating the potential of high pressure high temperature and thermal processing on volatile compounds, nutritional and structural properties of orange and yellow carrots

    OpenAIRE

    Grauwet, Tara; Kebede, Biniam Tamiru; Delgado, Rosa M.; Lemmens, Lien; Manzoni, Filipa; Vervoort, Liesbeth; Hendrickx, Marc; Elmore, J. Stephen; Van Loey, Ann

    2015-01-01

    The present study compares the impact of thermal and high pressure high temperature(HPHT) processing on volatile profile (via a non-targeted headspace fingerprinting) and structural and nutritional quality parameter (via targeted approaches) of orange and yellow carrot purees. The effect of oil enrichment was also considered. Since oil enrichment affects compounds volatility, the effect of oil was not studied when comparing the volatile fraction. For the targeted part, as yellow carrot purees...

  19. Determination of Key Flavor Components in Methylene Chloride Extracts from Processed Grapefruit Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jella; Rouseff; Goodner; Widmer

    1998-01-19

    The relative correlation of 52 aroma and 5 taste components in commercial not-from-concentrate grapefruit juices with flavor panel preference was determined. Methylene chloride extracts of juice were analyzed using GC/MS with a DB-5 column. Nonvolatiles determined included limonin and naringin by HPLC, degrees Brix, total acids, and degrees Brix/acid ratio. Juice samples were classified into low, medium, or high categories, based on average taste panel preference scores (nine-point hedonic scale). Principal component analysis demonstrated that highest quality juices were tightly clustered. Discriminant analysis indicated that 82% of the samples could be identified in the correct preference category using only myrcene, beta-caryophyllene, linalool, nootkatone, and degrees Brix. Nootkatone alone was not strongly associated with preference scores. The most preferred juices were strongly associated with low myrcene, low linalool, and intermediate levels of beta-caryophyllene. PMID:10554226

  20. Effect of high-pressure-moderate-temperature processing on the volatile profile of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Landaverde, Pedro A; Torres, J Antonio; Qian, Michael C

    2006-11-29

    The effects of high hydrostatic pressure on volatile generation in milk were investigated in this study. Raw milk samples were treated under different pressures (482, 586, and 620 MPa), temperatures (25 and 60 degrees C), and holding times (1, 3, and 5 min). Samples submitted to heat treatments alone (25, 60, and 80 degrees C for 1, 3, and 5 min) were used for comparison. Trace volatile sulfur compounds were analyzed using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography (GC) with pulsed-flame photometric detection (PFPD), whereas the rest of the volatile compounds were analyzed using SPME-GC with flame ionization detection (FID). Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to study the effect of pressure, temperature, and time on volatile generation. Relative concentration increases of 27 selected volatile compounds were compared to an untreated sample. It was found that pressure, temperature, and time, as well as their interactions, all had significant effects (P samples at 60 degrees C was different from that of heated-alone samples. Heat treatment tended to promote the formation of methanethiol, hydrogen sulfide, methyl ketones, and aldehydes, whereas high-pressure treatment favored the formation of hydrogen sulfide and aldehydes. PMID:17117808

  1. Nitrogen compounds in must and volatile profile of white wine: Influence of clarification process before alcoholic fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Burin, Vívian Maria; Caliari, Vinícius; Bordignon-Luiz, Marilde T

    2016-07-01

    The aim of this study was to investigate the effect of adding a fining agent to the must in relation to the fermentation kinetics and the volatile composition of the wine produced. Three fining agents, bentonite, pectinolytic enzyme and silica were applied, separately, to samples of Chardonnay must. It was observed that the addition of a fining agent had a significant influence on the must and wine composition. The must clarified with bentonite showed the lowest nitrogen content and the enzyme addition led to the highest nitrogen content. During the fermentation process, a difference in the consumption rate was observed for each amino acid in relation to the fining agent used in the process. In relation to the volatile composition, the wine produced had different characteristics according to the fining agent added to the must, which was confirmed by separation of the samples using principal component analysis. PMID:26920313

  2. Cultivation of Spirulina platensis by continuous process using ammonium chloride as nitrogen source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassano, C.E.N.; Gioielli, L.A.; Almeida, K.A.; Sato, S.; Carvalho, J.C.M. [Department of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 580, Bloco 16, 05508-900 Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Perego, P.; Converti, A. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering ' ' G.B. Bonino' ' , University of Genoa, via Opera Pia 15, 16145 Genoa (Italy)

    2007-08-15

    This work is focused on the influence of dilution rate (0.08{<=}D{<=}0.32 d{sup -1}) on the kinetics of continuous cultivation of Spirulina platensis at two different concentrations of ammonium chloride (N{sub 0}=1.0 and 10 mM) as nitrogen source. Cell productivity increased in both series of runs up to D{approx_equal}0.12-0.16 d{sup -1}, and then decreased. While at N{sub 0}=1.0 mM biomass washing was certainly the cause of progressive cell concentration decrease, a combination of this phenomenon with the toxic effect of excess ammonia was responsible, at N{sub 0}=10 mM and D{>=}0.20 d{sup -1}, for quick stop of cell growth just beyond the achievement of maximum cell productivity (92.4 mg l{sup -1} d{sup -1}). Similar profile was observed for protein productivity, that achieved a maximum value of 67.0 mg l{sup -1} d{sup -1}, because of the very high protein content (72.5%) of biomass produced under these conditions. The yield of nitrogen-to-biomass was much higher at the lower N{sub 0}, because of the low protein content, and reached a maximum value of 9.7 g g{sup -1} at D=0.08-0.12 d{sup -1}. The yield of nitrogen-to-protein showed less marked difference, being most of the nitrogen present in the cell as proteins or free amino-acids. (author)

  3. Thermogenic respiratory processes drive the exponential increase of volatile organic compound emissions in Macrozamia cycad cones.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Terry, L Irene; Roemer, Robert B; Booth, David T; Moore, Chris J; Walter, Gimme H

    2016-07-01

    An important outcome of plant thermogenesis is increased emissions of volatiles that mediate pollinator behaviour. We investigated whether the large increase in emissions, mainly the monoterpene ß-myrcene (>90%), during daily thermogenic events of Macrozamia macleayi and lucida cycad cones are due solely to the influence of high cone temperatures or are, instead, a result of increased respiratory rates during thermogenesis. We concurrently measured temperature, oxygen consumption and ß-myrcene emission profiles during thermogenesis of pollen cones under typical environmental temperatures and during experimental manipulations of cone temperatures and aerobic conditions, all in the dark. The exponential rise in ß-myrcene emissions never occurred without a prior, large increase in respiration, whereas an increase in cone temperature alone did not increase emissions. When respiration during thermogenesis was interrupted by anoxic conditions, ß-myrcene emissions decreased. The increased emission rates are not a result of increased cone temperature per se (through increased enzyme activity or volatilization of stored volatiles) but are dependent on biosynthetic pathways associated with increased respiration during thermogenesis that provide the carbon, energy (ATP) and reducing compounds (NADPH) required for ß-myrcene production through the methylerythritol phosphate (MEP) pathway. These findings establish the significant contribution of respiration to volatile production during thermogenesis. PMID:26924274

  4. Effect of zirconium and niobium on process of uranium dioxide cathodic deposition in molten alkali metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of electrocrystallization of uranium dioxide from molten chloride electrolytes in the presence of tetravalent and pentavalent niobium has been studied by voltammetric method. it has been ascertained that tetravalent zirconium interacts according o exchange mechanism with uranium dioxide with formation of solid solutions (1-x)UO2·xZrO2. Pentavalent niobium is reduced to tetravalent one on the cathode with formation of solid solution (1-y)UO2·NbO2. In simultaneous presence in electrolyte of Zr(4) and Nb(5) ternary solid solutions (1-y-x)UO2·xZrO2·NbO2 are formed on the cathode. 12 refs., 4 figs

  5. Effect of Ferric Chloride on the Properties of Biological Sludge in Co-precipitation Phosphorus Removal Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhibin; LI Yi; WEI Leilei; L(U) Yufeng; WANG Meng; GAO Baoyu

    2013-01-01

    This paper studied the effect of ferric chloride on waste sludge digestion,dewatering and sedimentation under the optimized doses in co-precipitation phosphorus removal process.The experimental results showed that the concentration of mixed liquid suspended solid (MLSS) was 2436 mg·L-1 and 2385 mg·L-1 in co-precipitation phosphorus removal process (CPR) and biological phosphorous removal process (BPR),respectively.The sludge reduction ratio for each process was 22.6% and 24.6% in aerobic digestion,and 27.6% and 29.9% in anaerobic digestion,respectively.Due to the addition of chemical to the end of aeration tank,the sludge content of CPR was slightly higher than that of BPR,but the sludge reduction rate for both processes had no distinct difference.The sludge volume index (SVI) and sludge specific resistance of BPR were 126 ml·g-1 and 11.7×1012 m·kg-1,respectively,while those of CPR were only 98 ml·g-1 and 7.1×1012 m·kg-1,indicating that CPR chemical could improve sludge settling and dewatering.

  6. Volatilization of cobalt, technetium, and uranium isotopes from soils through salt amendment and calcination

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of alkali and alkaline earth metal chloride salts on the decontamination (through volatilization) of radionuclides from clay soils in a calcination process were examined. Calcium chloride was found to decontaminate 60Co-containing soils to a maximum extent of about 65% of 60Co present before treatment by calcination for 8 h at 1000 deg. C with the addition of about 4 milliequivalents (meq) of chloride per gram of soil. Repeated calcination treatments raised the level of decontamination to 80%, but not beyond. Technetium could be removed from clay soils slightly more effectively using a similar salting and calcination process. No decontamination of strontium or uranium soils was found using this process under reducing or oxidizing conditions. The data presented indicate areas in which the presence of chlorides may result in problems in the thermal treatment of soils or similar matrices; however, no viable decontamination process was achieved

  7. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a two-component volatility model based on first moments of both components to describe the dynamics of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and the persistent part of volatility, respectively. The model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock ma...... markets. A positive or risk-premium effect exists between the return and the volatile component, yet the persistent component is not significantly priced for the return dynamic process....

  8. Cathodic processes in the electrochemical synthesis of niobium borides in chloride-fluoride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathodic processes in the electrochemical synthesis of niobium borides are studied. The possibility of electrochemical synthesis of the niobium boride coatings in the kinetic regime is indicated. The electrolyte composition is selected the process parameters which make it possible to obtain both crystal and roentgenoamorphous niobium boride coatings 20-30 μm thick are determined

  9. Development of a biotransformation process of hydroperoxides into green leaf volatiles using sugar beet leaves [abstract

    OpenAIRE

    Fauconnier, ML.; Ongena, M.; Gigot, C; Thonart, P.

    2010-01-01

    Natural green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are commonly sole AS aldehydic and alcoholic flavors; their synthesis is a great challenge for industry. Especially, the bioconversion step of fatty acid hydroperoxides into aldehydes by the hydroperoxide lyase (HL). This widely studied enzyme is present in cell membranes of green organs from superior plants. Extracted from its natural condition, HL is subject to a suicidal behavior, being irreversibly inhibited by its own substrate. Furthermore, GLVs produ...

  10. Development of a biotransformation process of hydroperoxides into green leaf volatiles using sugar beet leaves

    OpenAIRE

    Gigot, C; Ongena, Marc; Fauconnier, Marie-Laure; Thonart, Philippe

    2010-01-01

    Natural green leaf volatiles (GLVs) are commonly sole AS aldehydic and alcoholic flavors; their synthesis is a great challenge for industry. Especially, the bioconversion step of fatty acid hydroperoxides into aldehydes by the hydroperoxide lyase (HL). This widely studied enzyme is present in cell membranes of green organs from superior plants. Extracted from its natural condition, HL is subject to a suicidal behavior, being irreversibly inhibited by its own substrate. Furthermore, GLVs produ...

  11. the Triple Effect Evaporation Process in Potassium Chloride Production%氯化钾三效蒸发工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宗生; 王景波

    2012-01-01

    Triple effect evaporation process is used in potassium chloride production. The heat energy is fully utilized and cost of production is decreased with the process. The conventional lag behind process is changed and a new idea is opened in potassiuim chlorede production. The automatic control system is used in order to decrease the lahors load and the operation precision also improved. With the successful operation of triple evaporation system, the production cost is reduced and qualified raw material is supplied to downstream production.%氯化钾采用三效蒸发,充分利用了热能,改变了沿用多年的落后工艺、降低了生产成本,为氯化钾生产开辟了新思路;自动控制系统的引用大大降低了工人的劳动负荷,且提高了操作的精度,使氯化钾生产首次实现自动化;三效蒸发系统的成功运行不仅降低了生产成本还为下游产品提供了优质充足的原料.

  12. Study of the influence of temperature the venting depollution process of soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA-ALINA BRUSTUREAN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Venting is one of the most used in situ remediation methods for unsaturated soils contaiminated with volatile organic compounds (VOC. The development of mathematical models and their validation by means of experimental results allowed the identification of the main parameters which influence the soil depollution process. The influence of temperature on the venting depollution process of soils polluted with volatile organic compounds was studied in this investigation. It was found that the depollution efficiency is strongly influenced by the vapour pressuree of the pollutants. The conclusions, derived from the performed experimental determinations allowed characterization of the depollution process by using an "equilibrium" model. This model considers the existence of equilibrium between the four pollution phases (vapour, aqueous, "solid" and non-aqueous phase organic liquids at any moment in time. In order to calculate the vapour pressure, a modified equation of the Antoine model was used in the model. Application of the mathematical model indicates that a 10 °C temperature rise leads to a two-fold increase in the vapor pressure of a compound. Comparison of the modeled and experimental curves, as well as the values of the obtained performance critterions, verified that the chosen mathematical model describes the influence of temperature on the depollution process very well.

  13. Studying the processes of sulphates and chlorides extraction from water at low-waste water demineralization technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna M. Тrus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To solve the disposal problem of high-salinity liquid wastes resulting from the water demineralization, researched are the processes of chlorides’ and sulphates’ ion-exchange separation with further sulphates (in the form of calcium sulphate removal from the technological cycle. It is shown that the desulphatized water can be effectively desalinated by reverse osmosis filters, including low-pressure membranes Filmtec TW30-1812-50. The liquid waste obtained in form of concentrates, does contain chlorides, sodium ions and hardness ions. Established is that at these concentrates processing by lime and sodium carbonate or alkali and sodium carbonate they are softened with hardness decrease up to 0,25…0,95 mg-eq/dm3, which allows these solutions’ further electrolysis to obtain alkali and hydrochloric acid. Through direct electrolysis of concentrates, obtained by reverse osmosis water desalination at anionic membrane two-chamber electrolysers, we obtained a disinfectant solution containing chlorine oxigenates (active chlorine, hypochlorite, chlorite and sodium chlorate and duly effective in water sterilization. The resulting solution well keeps its properties and is promising for disinfection of natural and waste waters.

  14. Effects of chloride ions on electro-coagulation-flotation process with aluminum electrodes for algae removal.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gao, Shanshan; Du, Maoan; Tian, Jiayu; Yang, Jianyu; Yang, Jixian; Ma, Fang; Nan, Jun

    2010-10-15

    Electro-coagulation-flotation (ECF) is one of the most promising technologies that offers an attractive alternative to conventional coagulation and flotation. In this study, the effectiveness and mechanisms of algae removal by ECF process using aluminum electrodes was investigated in the presence of Cl(-) ions. The results showed that the addition of Cl(-) ions (1.0, 3.0, 5.0 and 8.0 mM) had a promoting effect on the algae removal in terms of both the cell density and chlorophyll-a, which could be attributed to the following two reasons. Firstly, active chlorine could be generated in the ECF when Cl(-) ions were present. The electrochemically generated active chlorine was demonstrated to be effective for the inactivation of algae cells with the aid of the electric field in the ECF. Secondly, the Cl(-) ions in the algae solution could enhance the release of Al(3+) from the aluminum electrodes in the ECF. Through SEM-EDX analysis, pitting corrosion and alleviated formation of oxide film by Cl(-) ions were observed on the anode surface. When considering that Cl(-) ions are universally present in natural waters, the effects of Cl(-) on ECF process for algae removal are of great significance. PMID:20667652

  15. Oil and stock market volatility: A multivariate stochastic volatility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility structure in an attempt to extract information intertwined in both markets for risk prediction. It offers four major findings. First, the stock and oil futures prices are inter-related. Their correlation follows a time-varying dynamic process and tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. Second, conditioned on the past information, the volatility in each market is very persistent, i.e., it varies in a predictable manner. Third, there is inter-market dependence in volatility. Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. In other words, conditioned on the persistence and the past volatility in their respective markets, the past volatility of the stock (oil futures) market also has predictive power over the future volatility of the oil futures (stock) market. Finally, the model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry. - Research Highlights: → This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility model. → The correlation between the two markets follows a time-varying dynamic process which tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. → The volatility in each market is very persistent. → Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. → The model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry.

  16. Comparison of a sodium-based and a chloride-based approach for the determination of sodium chloride content of processed foods in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, E.; Veer, van der G.; Verheijen, P.J.J.; Heenan, S.P.; Laak, van de L.F.J.; Koopmans, H.B.M.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports and discusses the sodium content of a set of 1016 processed food samples collected in the Netherlands, which covered 10 food groups (cakes/pastries, chips/nuts, sauces, processed meat, conserves, snacks, ready-to-eat products, cheese, bread, and soups) and 100 food commodities. Th

  17. Volatile Metabolites

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daryl D. Rowan

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available Volatile organic compounds (volatiles comprise a chemically diverse class of low molecular weight organic compounds having an appreciable vapor pressure under ambient conditions. Volatiles produced by plants attract pollinators and seed dispersers, and provide defense against pests and pathogens. For insects, volatiles may act as pheromones directing social behavior or as cues for finding hosts or prey. For humans, volatiles are important as flavorants and as possible disease biomarkers. The marine environment is also a major source of halogenated and sulfur-containing volatiles which participate in the global cycling of these elements. While volatile analysis commonly measures a rather restricted set of analytes, the diverse and extreme physical properties of volatiles provide unique analytical challenges. Volatiles constitute only a small proportion of the total number of metabolites produced by living organisms, however, because of their roles as signaling molecules (semiochemicals both within and between organisms, accurately measuring and determining the roles of these compounds is crucial to an integrated understanding of living systems. This review summarizes recent developments in volatile research from a metabolomics perspective with a focus on the role of recent technical innovation in developing new areas of volatile research and expanding the range of ecological interactions which may be mediated by volatile organic metabolites.

  18. Solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of volatile compounds from avocado puree after microwave processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Mercedes G; Guzmán, G R; Dorantes, A L

    2004-05-14

    Microwave processing offers an alternative to blanch fruits and vegetables, since the application of high temperature and short time often results in minimum damage. An experimental design was used to investigate the effect of microwave time, pH, and avocado leaves (independent variables) on avocado flavor (response) using solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-GC-MS. Among the fully characterized flavor volatiles, 19 compounds were derived from lipid oxidation and only 4 from the avocado leaves. The main components derived from lipids were aldehydes, ketones and alcohols. Terpenoids, estragole, and 2-hexenal [E] were volatiles derived from avocado leaves. When leaves were added to fresh and microwaved avocado terpenoids and 2-hexenal [E]/hexanal ratio increased, this behavior was considered to have a positive effect on the sensorial quality of the product. From the statistical analysis of the experimental design, it was possible to determinate that the most important factors influencing the abundance of flavor compounds derived from lipids were microwave time and pH. Maximum values of these compounds were detected at high levels of microwave time and low values of pH. On the other hand, response surface of terpenoids and estragole showed an increment when microwave time and avocado leaf was increased. The region of optimum response was 30 s microwave time, pH 5.5, and 1% of avocado leaf. PMID:15139417

  19. Changes in guava (Psidium guajava L. var. Paluma nectar volatile compounds concentration due to thermal processing and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ivaneide Coutinho Correa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Guava nectars were formulated for approximately 10, 12, or 14 ºBrix, with 40% guava pulp. Sodium benzoate, 500 mg.kg-1 was used as preservative. The Brix value was adjusted with saturated sucrose syrup. The guava nectar was pasteurized (85 ºC/42 seconds in tubular heat exchanger and then hot filled in 500 mL white glass bottles. The products were stored either at room temperature (25 ± 5 ºC or refrigerated (5 ± 2 ºC under fluorescent light exposure and analyzed on the day after processing (time zero and also 40, 80, and 120 days of storage. Eight compounds were identified and quantified by Gas Chromatography (GC -Mass Spectrometry (MS: hexanal, (E-hex-2-enal, 1-hexenol, (Z-hex-3-enol, (Z-hex-3-enyl acetate, phenyl-3-propyl acetate, cinnamyl acetate, and acetic acid. There was no significant effect of thermal treatment on the volatile compound concentrations, except for a significant decrease (p = 0.0001 in hexanal and (Z-hex-3-enyl acetate (p = 0.0029. As for the storage time, there was a much greater decrease in the esters contents, such as (Z-hex-3-enyl and phenyl-3-propyl acetates. Cinnamyl acetate had the greatest decrease over storage time. Refrigeration was better than room temperature for guava nectar volatile compounds stability over storage time, mainly for esters compounds, which are important for the product aroma and flavor

  20. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    markets. Their in-mean effects on return are also tested. The empirical results show that the persistent component accounts much more for volatility dynamic process than the volatile component. However the volatile component is found to be a significant pricing factor of asset returns for most markets, a...

  1. Vehicular volatile organic compounds losses due to refueling and diurnal process in China: 2010-2050.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yang, Xiaofan; Liu, Huan; Cui, Hongyang; Man, Hanyang; Fu, Mingliang; Hao, Jiming; He, Kebin

    2015-07-01

    Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are crucial to control air pollution in major Chinese cities since VOCs are the dominant factor influencing ambient ozone level, and also an important precursor of secondary organic aerosols. Vehicular evaporative emissions have become a major and growing source of VOC emissions in China. This study consists of lab tests, technology evaluation, emissions modeling, policy projections and cost-benefit analysis to draw a roadmap for China for controlling vehicular evaporative emissions. The analysis suggests that evaporative VOC emissions from China's light-duty gasoline vehicles were approximately 185,000 ton in 2010 and would peak at 1,200,000 ton in 2040 without control. The current control strategy implemented in China, as shown in business as usual (BAU) scenario, will barely reduce the long-term growth in emissions. Even if Stage II gasoline station vapor control policies were extended national wide (BAU+extended Stage II), there would still be over 400,000 ton fuel loss in 2050. In contrast, the implementation of on-board refueling vapor recovery (ORVR) on new cars could reduce 97.5% of evaporative VOCs by 2050 (BAU+ORVR/BAU+delayed ORVR). According to the results, a combined Stage II and ORVR program is a comprehensive solution that provides both short-term and long-term benefits. The net cost to achieve the optimal total evaporative VOC control is approximately 62 billion CNY in 2025 and 149 billion CNY in 2050. PMID:26141881

  2. The Search for a Volatile Human Specific Marker in the Decomposition Process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rosier

    Full Text Available In this study, a validated method using a thermal desorber combined with a gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometry was used to identify the volatile organic compounds released during decomposition of 6 human and 26 animal remains in a laboratory environment during a period of 6 months. 452 compounds were identified. Among them a human specific marker was sought using principle component analysis. We found a combination of 8 compounds (ethyl propionate, propyl propionate, propyl butyrate, ethyl pentanoate, pyridine, diethyl disulfide, methyl(methylthioethyl disulfide and 3-methylthio-1-propanol that led to the distinction of human and pig remains from other animal remains. Furthermore, it was possible to separate the pig remains from human remains based on 5 esters (3-methylbutyl pentanoate, 3-methylbutyl 3-methylbutyrate, 3-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate, butyl pentanoate and propyl hexanoate. Further research in the field with full bodies has to corroborate these results and search for one or more human specific markers. These markers would allow a more efficiently training of cadaver dogs or portable detection devices could be developed.

  3. Latent Integrated Stochastic Volatility, Realized Volatility, and Implied Volatility: A State Space Approach

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bach, Christian; Christensen, Bent Jesper

    We include simultaneously both realized volatility measures based on high-frequency asset returns and implied volatilities backed out of individual traded at the money option prices in a state space approach to the analysis of true underlying volatility. We model integrated volatility as a latent...... process is downward biased. Implied volatility performs better than any of the alternative realized measures when forecasting future integrated volatility. The results are largely similar across the stock market (S&P 500), bond market (30-year U.S. T-bond), and foreign currency exchange market ($/£ )....

  4. Change in Color and Volatile Composition of Skim Milk Processed with Pulsed Electric Field and Microfiltration Treatments or Heat Pasteurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Chugh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-thermal processing methods, such as pulsed electric field (PEF and tangential-flow microfiltration (TFMF, are emerging processing technologies that can minimize the deleterious effects of high temperature short time (HTST pasteurization on quality attributes of skim milk. The present study investigates the impact of PEF and TFMF, alone or in combination, on color and volatile compounds in skim milk. PEF was applied at 28 or 40 kV/cm for 1122 to 2805 µs, while microfiltration (MF was conducted using membranes with three pore sizes (lab-scale 0.65 and 1.2 µm TFMF, and pilot-scale 1.4 µm MF. HTST control treatments were applied at 75 or 95 °C for 20 and 45 s, respectively. Noticeable color changes were observed with the 0.65 µm TFMF treatment. No significant color changes were observed in PEF-treated, 1.2 µm TFMF-treated, HTST-treated, and 1.4 µm MF-treated skim milk (p ≥ 0.05 but the total color difference indicated better color retention with non-thermal preservation. The latter did not affect raw skim milk volatiles significantly after single or combined processing (p ≥ 0.05, but HTST caused considerable changes in their composition, including ketones, free fatty acids, hydrocarbons, and sulfur compounds (p < 0.05. The findings indicate that for the particular thermal and non-thermal treatments selected for this study, better retention of skim milk color and flavor components were obtained for the non-thermal treatments.

  5. Price volatility on the German Agricultural Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Ledebur, Oliver von; Schmitz, Jochen

    2012-01-01

    In this contribution, the development of price volatility on German agricultural markets is analyzed. We quantify the degree of price volatility for selected German agricultural markets and determine how it evolves over time and search for policy driven structural changes in volatility levels measured by the historical volatility. Based on annualised historical volatilities t test were performed to identify if the change in the volatility levels show any relationship to the process of reform ...

  6. Green process for adipic acid synthesis: oxidation by hydrogen peroxide in water micromelusions using Benzalkonium Chloride C12-14 surfactant

    OpenAIRE

    Lesage, Geoffroy; Quesada-Peñate, Isariebel; Cognet, Patrick; Poux, Martine

    2012-01-01

    Adipic acid was synthesized by the oxidation of cyclohexene using 30% hydrogen peroxide in a microemulsion in the presence of sodium tungstate as catalyst. The proposed green process is environmentally friendly since catalyst and surfactant are recycled and pure adipic acid is produced in high yield (70% to 79%). Microemulsions are used as a “green solvent” and give a better contact between the phases. Alkyldimethylbenzylammonium chloride (C12-C14) was used as a surfactant for the generation ...

  7. Preparation and Characteristics of Polyaluminium Chloride by Utilizing Fluorine-Containing Waste Acidic Mother Liquid from Clay-Brine Synthetic Cryolite Process

    OpenAIRE

    2014-01-01

    Clay-brine process employing activated clay, NaCl, HCl, and HF as raw materials is the primarily advanced technology to synthesize cryolite in the present industrial grade. However, plenty of byproducts of fluorine-containing waste HCl at the concentration of about 10%~12% could not be utilized comprehensively and are even hazardous to the environment. This work proposed a new two-step technology to prepare inorganic polymer flocculants polyaluminium chloride (PAC) from synthetic cryolite mot...

  8. A Theory of Volatility Spreads

    OpenAIRE

    Gurdip Bakshi; Dilip Madan

    2006-01-01

    This study formalizes the departure between risk-neutral and physical index return volatilities, termed volatility spreads. Theoretically, the departure between risk-neutral and physical index volatility is connected to the higher-order physical return moments and the parameters of the pricing kernel process. This theory predicts positive volatility spreads when investors are risk averse, and when the physical index distribution is negatively skewed and leptokurtic. Our empirical evidence is ...

  9. Experimental study of concentrated solutions containing sodium and chloride pollutants in SG flow restricted areas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    You, D.; Lefefre, S.; Feron, D. [CEA-Saclay, Lab. d' Etude de la Corrosion Aqueuse, Gif-sur-Yvette (France); Vaillant, F. [EDF-Les Renardieres - DRD/EMA, Moret-sur-Loing (France)

    2002-07-01

    In steam generators, the hideout processes occur in flow restricted areas. Non volatile pollutants, i.e. species less soluble in the vapour phase than in the liquid water phase, accumulate such as sodium hydroxide or sodium chloride. The thermodynamic equilibrium between these two phases is described in terms of liquid-vapour equilibrium constants for soluble species and boiling constant for the solvent. The presented experimental investigation has been realised with the EVA device: the boiling pressure evolution has been measured during the hideout process of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride aqueous solutions. The results clearly demonstrated that high sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions are thermodynamically possible while with sodium chloride, it seems that precipitation occurs before. (authors)

  10. Experimental study of concentrated solutions containing sodium and chloride pollutants in SG flow restricted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In steam generators, the hideout processes occur in flow restricted areas. Non volatile pollutants, i.e. species less soluble in the vapour phase than in the liquid water phase, accumulate such as sodium hydroxide or sodium chloride. The thermodynamic equilibrium between these two phases is described in terms of liquid-vapour equilibrium constants for soluble species and boiling constant for the solvent. The presented experimental investigation has been realised with the EVA device: the boiling pressure evolution has been measured during the hideout process of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride aqueous solutions. The results clearly demonstrated that high sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions are thermodynamically possible while with sodium chloride, it seems that precipitation occurs before. (authors)

  11. Volatility Derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Peter Carr; Roger Lee

    2009-01-01

    Volatility derivatives are a class of derivative securities where the payoff explicitly depends on some measure of the volatility of an underlying asset. Prominent examples of these derivatives include variance swaps and VIX futures and options. We provide an overview of the current market for these derivatives. We also survey the early literature on the subject. Finally, we provide relatively simple proofs of some fundamental results related to variance swaps and volatility swaps.

  12. Selective process of zinc extraction from spent Zn–MnO2 batteries by ammonium chloride leaching

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, C. A.; Margarido, F.

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of spent Zn-MnO2 batteries by hydrometallurgy is usually carried out by leaching in acid media, mainly with sulphuric acid solutions. Another type of leachant was used in this work, specifically solutions of concentrated ammonium chloride. The development of this study has relied on the prediction of the chemical behavior of the constituting phases based on data obtained from theoretical and experimental equilibrium values. The assessment of the effects of factors on leaching effici...

  13. Process development for the separation and recovery of Mo and Co from chloride leach liquors of petroleum refining catalyst by solvent extraction.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Banda, Raju; Sohn, Seong Ho; Lee, Man Seung

    2012-04-30

    The separation and recovery of Mo and Co from the synthetic chloride leach liquors of petroleum refining catalyst has been investigated by employing TOPO and Alamine 308 as extractants. The synthetic leach liquor contained Mo 394 mg/L, Al 1782 mg/L, Co 119 mg/L in 3 M HCl. The separation of Mo from Co and Al was achieved with 0.05 M TOPO in Escaid 110 and complete stripping of Mo was attained with combination of 0.1M NH(4)OH and 0.05 M (NH(4))(2)CO(3). After separation of molybdenum, cobalt can be selectively extracted by Alamine 308 from Mo free raffinate after adjusting the concentration of chloride ion to 5 M by adding AlCl(3). The back-extraction of cobalt was obtained easily from loaded Alamine 308 with acidified water (pH=1.0). McCabe-Thiele diagrams were constructed from the extraction and stripping experiments of each element (Mo and Co). From the batch simulation of the counter-current extraction and stripping experiments, it was confirmed that Mo and Co recovery of 99.4% and 99.1% respectively was obtained from the synthetic leach liquor of the chloride solutions. Finally a hydrometallurgical process flow sheet was developed. PMID:22336581

  14. GC/MS for profiling volatile constituents of red wine and their changes during radiation processing

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of present study was therefore to investigate the effect of radiation processing of grape berries on the quality of Shiraz wines. In order to obtain this objective, wines prepared from control and irradiated grapes were analyzed for total antioxidant potential, total phenolic contents and aroma analysis by HS-SPME and GC/MS

  15. The investment in scent: time-resolved metabolic processes in developing volatile-producing Nigella sativa L. seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Xue

    Full Text Available The interplay of processes in central and specialized metabolisms during seed development of Nigella sativa L. was studied by using a high-throughput metabolomics technology and network-based analysis. Two major metabolic shifts were identified during seed development: the first was characterized by the accumulation of storage lipids (estimated as total fatty acids and N-compounds, and the second by the biosynthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and a 30% average decrease in total fatty acids. Network-based analysis identified coordinated metabolic processes during development and demonstrated the presence of five network communities. Enrichment analysis indicated that different compound classes, such as sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids, are largely separated and over-represented in certain communities. One community displayed several terpenoids and the central metabolites, shikimate derived amino acids, raffinose, xylitol and glycerol-3-phosphate. The latter are related to precursors of the mevalonate-independent pathway for VOC production in the plastid; also plastidial fatty acid 18∶3n-3 abundant in "green" seeds grouped with several major terpenes. The findings highlight the interplay between the components of central metabolism and the VOCs. The developmental regulation of Nigella seed metabolism during seed maturation suggests a substantial re-allocation of carbon from the breakdown of fatty acids and from N-compounds, probably towards the biosynthesis of VOCs.

  16. Fermented beverages : process technology and management, volatile compounds, instrumental methods of analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, J. M.; Genisheva, Zlatina Asenova; Vilanova, Mar

    2009-01-01

    The authors have been developed their main efforts studying fermented beverages, being wine the most important product [1]. Recently, other fermented products, obtained from various fruits, namely tropical fruits, and even from cheese whey have been studied [2]. The main goal is to study the technological parameters which may influence the quality of the final products, in order to manage the process, accurately. As aroma is one of the most important attributes of fermented beverages, the dev...

  17. Uncoupled hydrogen and volatile fatty acids generation in a two-step biotechnological anaerobic process fed with actual site wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Matilde; Scoma, Alberto; Martinez, Gonzalo; Bertin, Lorenzo; Fava, Fabio

    2015-05-25

    Among agro-wastes, olive mill wastewater (OMW) truly qualifies as a high impact organic residue due to its biochemical-rich composition and high annual production. In the present investigation, dephenolized OMW (OMWdeph) was employed as the feedstock for a biotechnological two-stage anaerobic process dedicated to the production of biohydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs), respectively. To this end, two identically configured packed-bed biofilm reactors were operated sequentially. In the first, the hydraulic retention time was set to 1 day, whereas in the second it was equal to 5 days. The rationale was to decouple the hydrolysis of the organic macronutrients held by the OMWdeph, so as to quantitatively generate a biogas enriched in H2 (first stage aim), for the acidogenesis of the residual components left after hydrolysis, to then produce a highly concentrated mixture of VFAs (second stage aim). Results showed that the generation of H2 and VFAs was effectively split, with carbohydrates and lipids, respectively, being the main substrates of the two processes. About 250 ml H2 L(-1) day(-1) was produced, corresponding to a yield of 0.36 mol mol(-1) of consumed carbohydrates (expressed as glucose equivalents). The overall concentration of VFAs in the acidogenic process was 13.80 g COD L(-1), so that 2.76 g COD L(-1) day(-1) was obtained. Second generation biorefineries use a selected fraction of an organic waste to conduct a microbiologically-driven pathway towards the generation of one target molecule. With the proposed approach, a greater value of the waste was attained, since the multi-purpose two-stage process did not entail competition for substrates between the first and the second steps. PMID:25174889

  18. Investigation of non-volatile additives on the process of distillation of hydrocarbon mixtures

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    М.Б. Степанов

    2009-02-01

    Full Text Available  The given results of researches of influence of nonvolatile additives on processes of distillation of individual hydrocarbons and their mixes, including petroleum and mineral oil. With the help of the developed computer system of the continuous control of distillation it is shown, that at the presence of small amounts of the additive decrease of temperature of the beginning of boiling of hydrocarbons is observed, their speeds of banish and exits of light fuel mineral oil grow during initial oil refining

  19. Characterization of phenolic constituents inhibiting the formation of sulfur-containing volatiles produced during garlic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Qing; Zhou, Hua; Zhou, Mei-Yun; Hu, Xing-Peng; Ou, Shi-Yi; Yan, Ri-An; Liao, Xiao-Jian; Huang, Xue-Song; Fu, Liang

    2015-01-28

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.), which is a widely distributed plant, is globally used as both spice and food. This study identified five novel phenolic compounds, namely, 8-(3-methyl-(E)-1-butenyl)diosmetin, 8-(3-methyl-(E)-1-butenyl)chrysin, 6-(3-methyl-(E)-1-butenyl)chrysin, and Alliumones A and B, along with nine known compounds 6-14 from the ethanol extract of garlic. The structures of these five novel phenolic compounds were established via extensive 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. The effects of the phenolic compounds isolated from garlic on the enzymatical or nonenzymatical formation of sulfur-containing compounds produced during garlic processing were examined. Compound 12 significantly reduced the thermal decomposition of alliin, whereas compound 4 exhibited the highest percentage of alliinase inhibition activity (36.6%). PMID:25579175

  20. Stochastic volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Shephard, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Stochastic volatility (SV) is the main concept used in the fields of financial economics and mathematical finance to deal with the endemic time-varying volatility and codependence found in financial markets. Such dependence has been known for a long time, early comments include Mandelbrot (1963) and Officer (1973). It was also clear to the founding fathers of modern continuous time finance that homogeneity was an unrealistic if convenient simplification, e.g. Black and Scholes (1972, p. 416) ...

  1. Evolution process and sources of ambient volatile organic compounds during a severe haze event in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rongrong; Li, Jing; Hao, Yufang; Li, Yaqi; Zeng, Limin; Xie, Shaodong

    2016-08-01

    108 ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured continuously at a time resolution of an hour using an online gas chromatography-frame ionization detector/mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS) in October 2014 in Beijing, and positive matrix factorization (PMF) was performed with online data. The evolution process and causes for high levels of VOCs during a haze event were investigated through comprehensive analysis. Results show that mixing ratios of VOCs during the haze event (89.29 ppbv) were 2 to 5 times as that in non-haze days, There was a distinct accumulation process of VOCs at the beginning of the haze event, and the mixing ratios of VOCs maintained at the high levels until to the end of pollution when the mixing ratios of ambient VOCs recovered to the normal concentration levels in a few hours. Some reactive and toxic species increased remarkably as well, which indicates a potential health risk to the public in terms of VOCs. Eight sources were resolved by PMF, and results revealed gasoline exhaust was the largest contributor (32-46%) to the ambient VOCs in Beijing. Emissions of gasoline exhaust surged from 13.46 to 40.36 ppbv, with a similar variation pattern to total VOCs, indicating that high levels of VOCs were largely driven to by expanded vehicular emissions. Emissions of biomass burning also increased noticeably (from 2.32 to 11.12 ppbv), and backward trajectories analysis indicated regional transport of biomass burning emissions. Our findings suggested that extremely high levels of VOCs during the haze event was primarily attributed to vehicular emissions, biomass burning and regional transport, as well as stationary synoptic conditions. PMID:27093124

  2. Management of metal chlorides in high temperature processes—Application to the nuclear wastes treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We study the differences observed between modelling and analysis for chlorine linked with metals. ► We explain the differences with the adsorption of chlorine on activated surface. ► We explain the conditions of chlorine realise and we study the consequences of the phosphatation in thermal process. ► We propose to revise phosphatising technique to drive the metals in proper place in the process. ► This study allows to enhance the safety and lifetime of process used to treat hazardous materials. - Abstract: Thermal processes are now the benchmark for the destruction of some waste whose toxicity requires special attention and management. Over many years the Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique (French atomic energy commission) has developed technologies to process radioactive waste containing many metals together with chlorine, and thus with a major risk of producing volatile chlorides with potentially catastrophic effects on plant facilities. To mitigate these difficulties in an incineration process for radioactive waste contaminated by plutonium (IRIS), the CEA has investigated the processes by which potentially hazardous compounds are produced in order to eliminate them or prevent their formation. The studies have led to propose a phosphate-based stabilization technique thanks to an addition of phosphorus in the waste. Through a reaction occurring in gas phase, the metals are stabilized under a phosphate form when the formation of volatiles chlorides is avoided. While this technique has substantially improved process maintenance and security, it has revealed other difficulties related to potentially large phosphate deposits capable to cause unacceptable pressure drops detrimental to the gas flow conditions. This article describes the results of recent studies seeking to prevent the formation of volatile chlorides and phosphate deposits liable to obstruct the system flow lines.

  3. On the volatility of volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hsu, Stephen D. H.; Murray, Brian M.

    2007-07-01

    The Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) Volatility Index, VIX, is calculated based on prices of out-of-the-money put and call options on the S&P 500 index (SPX). Sometimes called the “investor fear gauge”, the VIX is a measure of the implied volatility of the SPX, and is observed to be correlated with the 30-day realized volatility of the SPX. Changes in the VIX are observed to be negatively correlated with changes in the SPX. However, no significant correlation between changes in the VIX and changes in the 30-day realized volatility of the SPX are observed. We investigate whether this indicates a mispricing of options following large VIX moves, and examine the relation to excess returns from variance swaps. The sense in which the term “mispricing” is used is discussed in the paper.

  4. On the volatility of volatility

    CERN Document Server

    Hsu, S D H; Hsu, Stephen D. H.; Murray, Brian M.

    2006-01-01

    The Chicago Board Options Exchange (CBOE) Volatility Index, VIX, is calculated based on prices of out-of-the-money put and call options on the S&P 500 index (SPX). Sometimes called the "investor fear gauge," the VIX is a measure of the implied volatility of the SPX, and is observed to be correlated with the 30-day realized volatility of the SPX. Changes in the VIX are observed to be negatively correlated with changes in the SPX. However, no significant correlation between changes in the VIX and changes in the 30-day realized volatility of the SPX are observed. We investigate whether this indicates a mispricing of options following large VIX moves, and examine the relation to excess returns from variance swaps.

  5. Comparison of epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine with other cationic organic polymers as coagulation aids of polyferric chloride in coagulation-ultrafiltration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shenglei; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Ruihua; Song, Wen; Bu, Fan; Zhao, Shuang; Jia, Ruibao; Song, Wuchang

    2016-04-15

    Epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine (DAM-ECH) copolymer was acquired by polycondensation of hazardous reagents: epichlorohydrin (analytical reagent, A.R.) and dimethylamine (A.R.) with ethanediamine (A.R.) as cross-linker. Its coagulation and membrane performance as coagulation aid of polyferric chloride (PFC) was evaluated by comparing with other two cationic coagulation aids: poly dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (PDMDAAC) and polyacrylamide (PAM) in humic acid-kaolin (HA-Kaolin) simulated water treatment. Firstly, optimum dosages of PFC&DAM-ECH, PFC&PDMDAAC and PFC&PAM were identified according to their coagulation performance. Then their impacts (under optimum dosages) on membrane fouling of regenerated cellulose (RC) ultra-membrane disc in coagulation-ultrafiltration (C-UF) process were reviewed. Results revealed that small addition of DAM-ECH was the effective on turbidity and DOC removal polymer. Furthermore, in the following ultra-filtration process, external membrane fouling resistance was demonstrated to be the dominant portion of the total membrane fouling resistance under all circumstances. Meanwhile, the internal membrane fouling resistance was determined by residual of micro-particles(1) that cannot be intercepted by cake layer or ultrafiltration membrane. PMID:26775103

  6. Volatility in energy prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This chapter with 58 references reviews the modelling and empirical behaviour of volatility in energy prices. Constant volatility and stochastic volatility are discussed. Markovian models of stochastic volatility are described and the different classes of Markovian stochastic volatility model are examined including auto-regressive volatility, option implied and forecasted volatility, Garch volatility, Egarch volatility, multivariate Garch volatility, and stochastic volatility and dynamic hedging policies. Other volatility models and option hedging are considered. The performance of several stochastic volatility models as applied to heating oil, light oil, natural gas, electricity and light crude oil are compared

  7. Process development for the separation and recovery of Mo and Co from chloride leach liquors of petroleum refining catalyst by solvent extraction

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Separation of Mo and Co from HCl solution was investigated by solvent extraction. ► The solution was synthetic leaching solution of spent HDS catalysts. ► Extraction with TOPO led to complete separation of Mo. ► Alamine 308 can separate Co from the Mo free raffinate. ► Recovery percentage of both metals was higher than 99%. - Abstract: The separation and recovery of Mo and Co from the synthetic chloride leach liquors of petroleum refining catalyst has been investigated by employing TOPO and Alamine 308 as extractants. The synthetic leach liquor contained Mo 394 mg/L, Al 1782 mg/L, Co 119 mg/L in 3 M HCl. The separation of Mo from Co and Al was achieved with 0.05 M TOPO in Escaid 110 and complete stripping of Mo was attained with combination of 0.1 M NH4OH and 0.05 M (NH4)2CO3. After separation of molybdenum, cobalt can be selectively extracted by Alamine 308 from Mo free raffinate after adjusting the concentration of chloride ion to 5 M by adding AlCl3. The back-extraction of cobalt was obtained easily from loaded Alamine 308 with acidified water (pH = 1.0). McCabe–Thiele diagrams were constructed from the extraction and stripping experiments of each element (Mo and Co). From the batch simulation of the counter-current extraction and stripping experiments, it was confirmed that Mo and Co recovery of 99.4% and 99.1% respectively was obtained from the synthetic leach liquor of the chloride solutions. Finally a hydrometallurgical process flow sheet was developed.

  8. High-rate volatile fatty acid (VFA) production by a granular sludge process at low pH.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tamis, J; Joosse, B M; Loosdrecht, M C M van; Kleerebezem, R

    2015-11-01

    Volatile fatty acids (VFA) are proposed platform molecules for the production of basic chemicals and polymers from organic waste streams. In this study we developed a granular sludge process to produce VFA at high rate, yield and purity while minimizing potential operational costs. A lab-scale anaerobic sequencing batch reactor (ASBR) was fed with 10 g l(-1) glucose as model substrate. Inclusion of a short (2 min) settling phase before effluent discharge enabled effective granulation and very high volumetric conversion rates of 150-300 gCOD l(-1)  d(-1) were observed during glucose conversion. The product spectrum remained similar at the tested pH range with acetate and butyrate as the main products, and a total VFA yield of 60-70% on chemical oxygen demand (COD) basis. The requirement for base addition for pH regulation could be reduced from 1.1 to 0.6 mol OH(-) (mol glucose)(-1) by lowering the pH from 5.5 to 4.5. Solids concentrations in the effluent were 0.6 ± 0.3 g l(-1) but could be reduced to 0.02 ± 0.01 g l(-1) by introduction of an additional settling period of 5 min. The efficient production of VFA at low pH with a virtually solid-free effluent increases the economic feasibility of waste-based chemicals and polymer production. Biotechnol. PMID:25950759

  9. Cooper hydrometallurgy and extraction from chloride media

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The development of copper hydrometallurgy is presented and various processes proposed for copper recovery from sulphide concentrates are discussed. Leaching, extraction and stripping are considered, including reagents and processes. The extraction of copper from chloride solutions is discussed. Various extractants are presented and their use for copper transfer from chloride solutions to the organic phase and back to chloride and to sulphate solutions is discussed. (author) 4 refs

  10. Chasing volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    The realized volatility of financial returns is characterized by persistence and occurrence of unpreditable large increments. To capture those features, we introduce the Multiplicative Error Model with jumps (MEM-J). When a jump component is included in the multiplicative specification, the...... estimate alternative specifications of the model using a set of daily bipower measures for 7 stock indexes and 16 individual NYSE stocks. The estimates of the jump component confirm that the probability of jumps dramatically increases during the financial crisis. Compared to other realized volatility...... models, the introduction of the jump component provides a sensible improvement in the fit, as well as for in-sample and out-of-sample volatility tail forecasts....

  11. Radiochemical study of purification of saturated sodium chloride brines from impurities in precipitation and coprecipitation processes. II. Coprecipitation of microcomponents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coprecipitation of microcomponents (MC) from saturated NaCl brine solutions (5.1 M) has been studied in making use of radionuclides in the course of precipitation of macroimpurities and HO of Fe(III): CaSO4 x 2H2O and HO of Fe(III) at pH = 5-7 (stage I) and CaCO3, Mg(OH)2, and HO of Fe(III) at pH = 10-12.5 (stage II). In this regard, for each MC we calculated the proportion of the ionic forms of the MC in the whole pH range of 4-12.5, allowing for the formation of mononuclear chloride, hydroxo, and mixed complexes using the known K/sub steady/ values of the complexes. The conditions for MC sorption have been determined. It has been proven that precipitates of CaSO4 x 2H2O and CaCO3 play a negligible part in MC coprecipitation. The main sorbent is HO of Fe(III) on which the MC is sorbed following the coordination mechanism under the conditions in which the hydrolysis forms are produced by them

  12. The effects of calcium hydroxide on hydrogen chloride emission characteristics during a simulated densified refuse-derived fuel combustion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kung-Yuh; Jih, Jer-Chyuan; Lin, Kae-Long

    2008-08-30

    This study investigated the effects of different calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) addition methods on the potential for hydrogen chloride (HCl) formation in a simulated densified refuse-derived fuel (RDF-5) with single metal combustion system. These experiments were conducted at 850 degrees C with the Ca(OH)(2) spiked in the RDF-5 production or injection in the flue gas treatment system. The results indicated that the potential for HCl formation was decreased significantly by Ca(OH)(2) spiked in the RDF-5 production or injection in the flue gas treatment system. However, the Ca(OH)(2) injection method in the flue gas for HCl emission reduction was better than other method. According to the relationship between the HCl emission and amount of Ca(OH)(2) injected or spiked, it is interesting to find that when the Ca(OH)(2) injected or spiked ranged from 0% to 5%, the potential for HCl formation in the single metal combustion system decreases significantly with increasing Ca(OH)(2) injected or spiked ratio. A corresponding increase in the amount of CaCl(2) partitioned to the fly ash was observed. However, with the ratio of Ca(OH)(2) higher than 5%, the amount of HCl formation showed that no further significant variation occurred with increasing Ca(OH)(2) spiked ratio. PMID:18272287

  13. Effects of solution pH and synthetic method on destabilization process of polytitanium-silicate-chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Gao, Baoyu; Sun, Yangyang; Yue, Qinyan; Wang, Yan; Li, Qian

    2016-07-01

    Effect of solution pH on coagulation performance and flock properties of a novel inorganic polymer coagulant-polytitanium-silicate-chloride (PTSC) in humic acid-kaolin water treatment was investigated in this work. PTSC was synthesized by two approaches: composite and co-complexion, denoted as PTSCm and PTSCc respectively. The effect of the synthetic method was also considered. Results indicated that turbidity and DOM removal were improved by addition of polysilicic acid, especially under acidic condition. PTSCc achieved slightly better DOM removal than that of PTSCm. Flocks formed under acidic condition was smaller than those form under alkaline condition. In addition, flocks formed by PTSCc were larger than PTSCm flocks. Results also indicated that flock strength and recovery ability was slightly improved by the addition of PSiA. Moreover, under acidic condition, PTSC flocks had larger fractal dimension with more compact structure, especially for PTSCm flocks. In contrast, they were looser compared with PTC flock, especially for PTSCm flocks under neutral and alkaline conditions. PMID:26994354

  14. Stochastic volatility selected readings

    CERN Document Server

    Shephard, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Neil Shephard has brought together a set of classic and central papers that have contributed to our understanding of financial volatility. They cover stocks, bonds and currencies and range from 1973 up to 2001. Shephard, a leading researcher in the field, provides a substantial introduction in which he discusses all major issues involved. General Introduction N. Shephard. Part I: Model Building. 1. A Subordinated Stochastic Process Model with Finite Variance for Speculative Prices, (P. K. Clark). 2. Financial Returns Modelled by the Product of Two Stochastic Processes: A Study of Daily Sugar Prices, 1961-7, S. J. Taylor. 3. The Behavior of Random Variables with Nonstationary Variance and the Distribution of Security Prices, B. Rosenberg. 4. The Pricing of Options on Assets with Stochastic Volatilities, J. Hull and A. White. 5. The Dynamics of Exchange Rate Volatility: A Multivariate Latent Factor ARCH Model, F. X. Diebold and M. Nerlove. 6. Multivariate Stochastic Variance Models. 7. Stochastic Autoregressive...

  15. Partitioning of mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride in a full-scale coal combustion process equipped with selective catalytic reduction, electrostatic precipitation, and flue gas desulfurization systems

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chin-Min Cheng; Pauline Hack; Paul Chu; Yung-Nan Chang; Ting-Yu Lin; Chih-Sheng Ko; Po-Han Chiang; Cheng-Chun He; Yuan-Min Lai; Wei-Ping Pan [Western Kentucky University, Bowling Green, KY (United States). Institute for Combustion Science and Environmental Technology

    2009-09-15

    A full-scale field study was carried out at a 795 MWe coal-fired power plant equipped with selective catalytic reduction (SCR), an electrostatic precipitator (ESP), and wet flue gas desulfurization (FGD) systems to investigate the distribution of selected trace elements (i.e., mercury, arsenic, selenium, boron, and chloride) from coal, FGD reagent slurry, makeup water to flue gas, solid byproduct, and wastewater streams. Flue gases were collected from the SCR outlet, ESP inlet, FGD inlet, and stack. Concurrent with flue gas sampling, coal, bottom ash, economizer ash, and samples from the FGD process were also collected for elemental analysis. By combining plant operation parameters, the overall material balances of selected elements were established. The removal efficiencies of As, Se, Hg, and B by the ESP unit were 88, 56, 17, and 8%, respectively. Only about 2.5% of Cl was condensed and removed from flue gas by fly ash. The FGD process removed over 90% of Cl, 77% of B, 76% of Hg, 30% of Se, and 5% of As. About 90% and 99% of the FGD-removed Hg and Se were associated with gypsum. For B and Cl, over 99% were discharged from the coal combustion process with the wastewater. Mineral trona (trisodium hydrogendicarbonate dehydrate, Na{sub 3}H(CO{sub 3}){sub 2}.2H{sub 2}O) was injected before the ESP unit to control the emission of sulfur trioxide (SO{sub 3}). By comparing the trace elements compositions in the fly ash samples collected from the locations before and after the trona injection, the injection of trona did not show an observable effect on the partitioning behaviors of selenium and arsenic, but it significantly increased the adsorption of mercury onto fly ash. The stack emissions of mercury, boron, selenium, and chloride were for the most part in the gas phase. 47 refs., 3 figs., 11 tabs.

  16. Flash Thermal Conditioning of Olive Pastes during the Oil Mechanical Extraction Process: Cultivar Impact on the Phenolic and Volatile Composition of Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziani, Gianluca; Esposto, Sonia; Taticchi, Agnese; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Di Maio, Ilona; Sordini, Beatrice; Servili, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    The concentration of phenolic and volatile compounds in virgin olive oil (VOO) is closely related to the different operative conditions applied to the mechanical extraction process of the olive oil. However, the great qualitative and quantitative variability of these compounds indicates an important role played by genetic and agronomic aspects. A heat exchanger was placed in front of a traditional, covered malaxer to study the impact of flash thermal conditioning (FTC) of olive paste on the quality of VOO, which is highly influenced by phenolic release and aroma generation. The VOO flash thermal conditioning of five major Italian cultivars showed a higher concentration of phenols (range of increase percentage, 9.9-37.3%) compared to the control trials, whereas the FTC treatment featured a differentiated impact on the volatile fractions, associated with the genetic origins of the olives. PMID:26072976

  17. Application Of Vacuum Salt Distillation Technology For The Removal Of Fluoride And Chloride From Legacy Fissile Materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) HB-Line Facility designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a production-scale system for the distillation of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) from plutonium oxide (PuO2). Subsequent efforts adapted the vacuum salt distillation (VSD) technology for the removal of chloride and fluoride from less-volatile halide salts at the same process temperature and vacuum. Calcium chloride (CaCl2), calcium fluoride (CaF2), and plutonium fluoride (PuF3) were of particular concern. To enable the use of the same operating conditions for the distillation process, SRNL employed in situ exchange reactions to convert the less-volatile halide salts to compounds that facilitated the distillation of halide without removal of plutonium. SRNL demonstrated the removal of halide from CaCl2, CaF2 and PuF3 below 1000 C using VSD technology.

  18. Stripping of volatile organic compounds; Stripping a la vapeur de composes organiques volatils (COV)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cooper, A. [APV Anhydro, Copenhagen (Denmark); Plante, J.L. [APV Anhydro, 27 - Evreux (France)

    1997-12-31

    The pollution of aqueous effluents by volatile organic compounds (VOC) is a real problem for the chemical industry. Steam stripping of such compounds can, when the procedure is well designed, result in extremely low residual levels. This article describes the stripping technique, taking as an example an APV Anhydro installation which carries out the stripping of the methyl-chloride contained in an effluent containing other volatile compounds. This installation was built in 1990 for the Upjohn company in Kalamazoo, Michigan. (authors)

  19. Changes in headspace volatile concentrations of coffee brews caused by the roasting process and the brewing procedure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López-Galilea, Isabel; Fournier, Nicole; Cid, Concepción; Guichard, Elisabeth

    2006-11-01

    Headspace-solid-phase microextraction technique (HS-SPME) coupled with gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) and gas chromatography-olfactometry (GC-O) were used to characterize the aroma compounds of coffee brews from commercial conventional and torrefacto roasted coffee prepared by filter coffeemaker and espresso machine. A total of 47 volatile compounds were identified and quantified. Principal component analysis (PCA) was applied to differentiate coffee brew samples by volatile compounds. Conventional and torrefacto roasted coffee brews were separated successfully by principal component 1 (68.5% of variance), and filter and espresso ones were separated by principal component 2 (19.5% of variance). By GC olfactometry, a total of 34 aroma compounds have been perceived at least in half of the coffee extracts and among them 28 were identified, among which octanal was identified for the first time as a contributor to coffee brew aroma. PMID:17061834

  20. Multivariate volatility models

    OpenAIRE

    Fengler, Matthias R.; Herwartz, Helmut

    2001-01-01

    Multivariate Volatility Models belong to the class of nonlinear models for financial data. Here we want to focus on multivariate GARCH models. These models assume that the variance of the innovation distribution follows a time dependent process conditional on information which is generated by the history of the process. In this chapter we demonstrate how to use the bigarch quantlet of XploRe to estimate the conditional covariance of a bivariate (high frequency) return process. In particular w...

  1. Oenological characteristics, amino acids and volatile profiles of Hongqu rice wines during pottery storage: Effects of high hydrostatic pressure processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuting; Huang, Jiamei; Xie, Tingting; Huang, Luqiang; Zhuang, Weijin; Zheng, Yafeng; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-07-15

    Hongqu rice wines were subjected to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments of 200 MPa and 550 MPa at 25 °C for 30 min and effects on wine quality during pottery storage were examined. HHP treatment can significantly (ppottery storage than untreated wines based on principal component analysis. After only 6 months, treated wines had a volatile composition and an organoleptic quality similar to that of untreated wines stored in pottery for 18 months. PMID:26948638

  2. Volatiles in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Bergin, Edwin A; Brittain, Sean; Marty, Bernard; Mousis, Olvier; Oberg, Karin L

    2014-01-01

    Volatiles are compounds with low sublimation temperatures, and they make up most of the condensible mass in typical planet-forming environments. They consist of relatively small, often hydrogenated, molecules based on the abundant elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Volatiles are central to the process of planet formation, forming the backbone of a rich chemistry that sets the initial conditions for the formation of planetary atmospheres, and act as a solid mass reservoir catalyzing the formation of planets and planetesimals. This growth has been driven by rapid advances in observations and models of protoplanetary disks, and by a deepening understanding of the cosmochemistry of the solar system. Indeed, it is only in the past few years that representative samples of molecules have been discovered in great abundance throughout protoplanetary disks - enough to begin building a complete budget for the most abundant elements after hydrogen and helium. The spatial distributions of key volatiles are being mapped...

  3. Extraction of Citrus Hystrix D.C. (Kaffir Lime) Essential Oil Using Automated Steam Distillation Process: Analysis of Volatile Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated steam distillation was successfully used to extract volatiles from Citrus hystrix D.C (Kaffir lime) peels. The automated steam distillation integrated with robust temperature control can commercially produce large amount of essential oil with efficient heating system. Objective of this study is to quantify the oil production rate using automated steam distillation and analyze the composition of volatiles in Kaffir lime peels oil at different controlled and uncontrolled temperature conditions. From the experimentation, oil extraction from Kaffir lime peels only took approximately less than 3 hours with amount of oil yield was 13.4 % more than uncontrolled temperature. The identified major compounds from Kaffir lime peels oil were sabinene, β-pinene, limonene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, linalool, terpinolene and citronellal which are considered to have good organoleptic quality. In contrast with uncontrolled temperature, oil analysis revealed that some important volatile compounds were absent such as terpinolene, linalool, terpinen-4-ol due to thermal degradation effect from fast heating of extracted material. (author)

  4. Stochastic volatility and stochastic leverage

    OpenAIRE

    Veraart, Almut; Veraart, Luitgard A. M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the new concept of stochastic leverage in stochastic volatility models.Stochastic leverage refers to a stochastic process which replaces the classical constant correlationparameter between the asset return and the stochastic volatility process. We provide a systematictreatment of stochastic leverage and propose to model the stochastic leverage effect explicitly,e.g. by means of a linear transformation of a Jacobi process. Such models are both analyticallytractable and allo...

  5. Forecasting volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Ederington, Louis H; Wei Guan

    2005-01-01

    The forecasting ability of the most popular volatility forecasting models is examined and an alternative model developed. Existing models are compared in terms of four attributes: (1) the relative weighting of recent versus older observations, (2) the estimation criterion, (3) the trade‐off in terms of out‐of‐sample forecasting error between simple and complex models, and (4) the emphasis placed on large shocks. As in previous studies, we find that financial markets have longer memories than ...

  6. In-cloud processes of methacrolein under simulated conditions – Part 3: Hygroscopic and volatility properties of the formed secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Monod

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic and volatility properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced from the nebulization of solutions after aqueous phase photooxidation of methacrolein was experimentally studied in a laboratory, using a Volatility-Hygroscopicity Tandem DMA (VHTDMA. The obtained SOA were 80% 100°C-volatile after 5 h of reaction and only 20% 100°C-volatile after 22 h of reaction. The Hygroscopic Growth Factor (HGF of the SOA produced from the nebulization of solutions after aqueous-phase photooxidation of methacrolein is 1.34–1.43, which is significantly higher than the HGF of SOA formed by gas-phase photooxidation of terpenes, usually found almost hydrophobic. These hygroscopic properties were confirmed for SOA formed by the nebulization of the same solutions where NaCl was added. The hygroscopic properties of the cloud droplet residuals decrease with the reaction time, in parallel with the formation of more refractory compounds. This decrease was mainly attributed to the 250°C-refractive fraction (presumably representative of the highest molecular weight compounds, which evolved from moderately hygroscopic (HGF of 1.52 to less hygroscopic (HGF of 1.36. Oligomerization is suggested as a process responsible for the decrease of both volatility and hygroscopicity with time. The NaCl seeded experiments enabled us to show that 19±4 mg L−1 of SOA was produced after 9.5 h of reaction and 41±9 mg L−1 after 22 h of in-cloud reaction. Because more and more SOA is formed as the reaction time increases, our results show that the reaction products formed during the aqueous-phase OH-oxidation of methacrolein may play a major role in the properties of residual particles upon the droplet's evaporation. Therefore, the specific physical properties of SOA produced during cloud processes should be taken into account for a global estimation of SOA and their atmospheric impacts.

  7. Estimating the importance of multi-phase processing on secondary organic aerosol based on a functional-group resolving volatility basis set approach

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knote, C. J.; Hodzic, A.; Aumont, B.; Madronich, S.

    2014-12-01

    Traditional understanding views secondary organic aerosol (SOA) formation in the atmosphere as continuous gas-phase oxidation of precursors such as isoprene, aromatics or alkanes. Recent research found that these oxidation products are also highly water soluble. It is further understood that the liquid-phase of cloud droplets as well as deliquesced particles could mediate SOA formation through chemistry in the aqueous-phase. While the effect of multi-phase processing has been studied in detailed for specific compounds like glyoxal or methylglyoxal, an integrated approach that considers the large number of individual compounds has been missing due to the complexity involved. In our work we explore the effects of multi-phase processing on secondary organic aerosol from an explicit modeling perspective.Volatility and solubility determine in which phase a given molecule will be found under given atmospheric conditions. Volatility has already been used to simplify the description of SOA formation in the gas-phase in what became known as the Volatility Basis Set approach (VBS). Compounds contributing to SOA formation are grouped by volatility and then treated as a whole. A number of studies extended the VBS by adding a second dimension like oxygen to carbon ratio or the mean oxidation state. In our work we use functional groups as second dimension.Using explicit oxidation chemistry modeling (GECKO-A) we derive SOA yields as well as their composition in terms of functional groups for commonly used precursors. We then investigate the effect of simply partitioning functional-group specific organic mass into cloud droplets and deliquesced aerosol based on their estimated solubility. Finally we apply simple chemistry in the aqueous-phase and relate changes in functional groups to changes in volatility and subsequent changes in partitioning between gas- and aerosol-phase.In our presentation we will explore the sensitivites of the multi-phase system in a box model setting with

  8. Titanium or zirconium reduction process by arc heater

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is provided for the reduction of a refractory metal such as zirconium or titanium from its chloride salt. An electric arc is struck in the reaction chamber, and the arc is blown into an elongated arc stream by a pressurized gas. An alkali metal or alkaline earth metal, for instance sodium or magnesium, is fed into the arc stream, as well as a quantity of the metal chloride. The alkali metal or alkaline earth metal chloride thus formed is volatile and separates from the liquid elemental metal, which flows into an associated receptacle

  9. A note on the pricing and hedging of volatility derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Howison; A. Rafailidis; H.O. Rasmussen

    2001-01-01

    We consider the pricing of volatility products and especially volatility and variance swaps. Under risk-neutral valuation we provide closed form formulae for volatility-average and variance swaps. Also we provide a general partial differential equation for derivatives that have an extra dependence on an average of the volatility. We give approximate solutions of this equation for volatility products written on assets for which the volatility process fluctuates on a timescale that is fast comp...

  10. Membrane chloride transport measured using a chloride-sensitive fluorescent probe

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Transport of chloride across cell membranes through exchange, cotransport, or conductive pathways is a subject of great biological importance. Current methods of measurement are restricted in their sensitivity, time resolution, and applicability. A new transport measurement technique has been developed on the basis of the fluorescence quenching by chloride of the dye 6-methoxy-N-(3-sulfopropyl)quinolinium (SPQ). SPQ fluorescence quenching by chloride is rapid and sensitive, with a greater than 50% decrease in fluorescence at 10 mM chloride. SPQ fluorescence is not altered by other physiological anions or by pH and can be used to measure both neutral and conductive transport processes. The high water solubility and membrane permeability properties of SPQ make it ideal for use in both membrane vesicles and cells. Chloride transport determined with SPQ was validated by measurement of erythrocyte chloride/anion exchange and membrane vesicle chloride conductance using 35SO4 uptake

  11. Pricing Volatility Referenced Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Alan De Genaro Dario

    2006-01-01

    Volatility swaps are contingent claims on future realized volatility. Variance swaps are similar instruments on future realized variance, the square of future realized volatility. Unlike a plain vanilla option, whose volatility exposure is contaminated by its asset price dependence, volatility and variance swaps provide a pure exposure to volatility alone. This article discusses the risk-neutral valuation of volatility and variance swaps based on the framework outlined in the Heston (1993) st...

  12. Studying the processes of sulphates and chlorides extraction from water at low-waste water demineralization technology

    OpenAIRE

    Inna M. Тrus; Iryna M. Маkаrеnko; Тetyana O. Shabliy

    2014-01-01

    To solve the disposal problem of high-salinity liquid wastes resulting from the water demineralization, researched are the processes of chlorides’ and sulphates’ ion-exchange separation with further sulphates (in the form of calcium sulphate) removal from the technological cycle. It is shown that the desulphatized water can be effectively desalinated by reverse osmosis filters, including low-pressure membranes Filmtec TW30-1812-50. The liquid waste obtained in form of concentrates, does cont...

  13. Evolution of the corrosion process of AA 2024-T3 in an alkaline NaCl solution with sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate and lanthanum chloride inhibitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Biner; Wang, Yishan; Zuo, Yu

    2015-12-01

    The evolution of the corrosion process of AA 2024-T3 in 0.58 g L-1 NaCl solution (pH 10) with sodium dodecylbenzenesulfonate (SDBS) and lanthanum chloride inhibitors was studied with electrochemical and surface analysis methods. With the addition of the compounded LaCl3 and SDBS inhibitors, in the early stage the polarization behavior of AA 2024-T3 changed from active corrosion to passivation, and both the general corrosion and pitting corrosion were inhibited. However, with the immersion time extended, the passive behavior gradually disappeared and pitting happened at the Cu-rich phases. After 24 h immersion, the compounded inhibitors still showed good inhibition for general corrosion, but the polarization curve again presented the characteristic similar to active polarization. The compounded inhibitors also inhibited the pitting corrosion to some extent. The acting mechanism of the inhibitors SDBS and La3Cl on the corrosion process of AA 2024-T3 in the test solution was discussed.

  14. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigier, Jean-François; Laplace, Annabelle; Renard, Catherine; Miguirditchian, Manuel; Abraham, Francis

    2016-06-01

    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl2 (30-70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10-4.0, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl3 precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO2 powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation.

  15. Pricing Volatility Referenced Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan De Genaro Dario

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatility swaps are contingent claims on future realized volatility. Variance swaps are similar instruments on future realized variance, the square of future realized volatility. Unlike a plain vanilla option, whose volatility exposure is contaminated by its asset price dependence, volatility and variance swaps provide a pure exposure to volatility alone. This article discusses the risk-neutral valuation of volatility and variance swaps based on the framework outlined in the Heston (1993 stochastic volatility model. Additionally, the Heston (1993 model is calibrated for foreign currency options traded at BMF and its parameters are used to price swaps on volatility and variance of the BRL / USD exchange rate.

  16. Stochastic volatility and stochastic leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veraart, Almut; Veraart, Luitgard A. M.

    models which allow for a stochastic leverage effect: the generalised Heston model and the generalised Barndorff-Nielsen & Shephard model. We investigate the impact of a stochastic leverage effect in the risk neutral world by focusing on implied volatilities generated by option prices derived from our new......This paper proposes the new concept of stochastic leverage in stochastic volatility models. Stochastic leverage refers to a stochastic process which replaces the classical constant correlation parameter between the asset return and the stochastic volatility process. We provide a systematic...... treatment of stochastic leverage and propose to model the stochastic leverage effect explicitly, e.g. by means of a linear transformation of a Jacobi process. Such models are both analytically tractable and allow for a direct economic interpretation. In particular, we propose two new stochastic volatility...

  17. Conservation of minimally processed pineapple using calcium chloride, edible coating and gamma radiation;Conservacao de abacaxi minimamente processado utilizando como coadjuvantes cloreto de calcio, pelicula comestivel e radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilon, Lucimeire

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a convenience type pineapple subjected to fresh-cut process and calcium chloride, wheat gluten and alginate-base edible coating and irradiation treatments. The fruits were washed, sanitized with Sumaveg (Sodium Dichloro-s-Triazinetrione) in a 200 mg L-1 chlorine-free solution at 7 deg C for 15 minutes, and then manually peeled. The peeled fruits were sliced into 1 cm thick slices, rinsed in 20 mg L-1 chlorine-free solution for 3 minutes and drained for 3 minutes. In the first experiment, the samples were treated with: 1% calcium chloride + vital wheat gluten solution; 1% calcium chloride + 1% alginate solution; and control. In the second experiment, the samples were treated with: 1% calcium chloride + vital wheat gluten solution + 2.3 kGy; 1% calcium chloride + 2.3kGy; irradiation with 2.3kGy; and control. The packing consisted of rigid polyethylene terephthalate (PET) trays with around 250 g of fruit. The irradiation was performed in a Cobalt-60 multipurpose irradiator with 92 kCi activity and dose value of 2.3 kGy h-1. The samples were stored at 5 +- 1 deg C and evaluated every other day for 12 days. In the first experiment pH and titratable acidity values showed slight variations but were similar between the treatments. There was a decrease in ascorbic acid values in all treatments. Browning was noticed in all treatments over the storage period. Although the values between the treatments were similar, the pineapple treated with calcium chloride + gluten showed firmer texture, less liquid loss, and lower values of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities and CO{sub 2} and ethylene production. Mesophiles and mold and yeast counts were also reduced. No Salmonella and E. coli were detected. Total coliform counts were low in all the treatments and appeared in just a few isolated samples during the storage period. Sensory analyses showed that the samples treated with calcium chloride + gluten had the lower scores for texture

  18. The Analysis of the Chloride and Fluoride Influences on the Reducer Refinement Processes (Carbo-N-Ox Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Bydałek

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Slag refining slag with west materials was analysed used the DTA methods. In the paper a method of determining the reduction capability, with the Carbo-N-Ox method, of slag solutions was used. Some relations between the stimulators in the environment - slag - metal system allow to initiate mass exchange reactions in the process of slag refining.The presented in work course of behaviour permits on choice of basic composition of slaglite, the of necessary components stimulating quantities, as well as on accomplishment of opinion of ability refinement. The worked out programme Slag-Prop, after introduction of data with experiment, it allows on next corrections in composition of proposed mixtures also, should be put on properly elaborated factors of multistage reaction with essential usage of suitable stimulators.

  19. Preparation and Characteristics of Polyaluminium Chloride by Utilizing Fluorine-Containing Waste Acidic Mother Liquid from Clay-Brine Synthetic Cryolite Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-shan Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clay-brine process employing activated clay, NaCl, HCl, and HF as raw materials is the primarily advanced technology to synthesize cryolite in the present industrial grade. However, plenty of byproducts of fluorine-containing waste HCl at the concentration of about 10%~12% could not be utilized comprehensively and are even hazardous to the environment. This work proposed a new two-step technology to prepare inorganic polymer flocculants polyaluminium chloride (PAC from synthetic cryolite mother liquor. Many specific factors such as the variety of aluminide source, reaction temperature and time, reagent ratio, and manner of alkaline addition were taken into consideration and their influences on the performances of produced PAC were discussed. It was found that synthetic cryolite mother liquor could react with bauxite and calcium aluminate directly to prepare cheap PAC, with plenty amount of water insoluble CaF2 and CaSiF6 produced as well. However, once HCl was introduced into synthetic cryolite mother liquor as well as by utilizing bauxite as aluminide source and sodium aluminate as adjusting basicity agent, the resultant PAC would dissolve out higher amount of aluminum while producing little amount of water insoluble materials. The coagulation behavior of the specially produced PAC could even match the industrial grade PAC conforming to national standard.

  20. Production process and market situation of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride%氯化聚氯乙烯的生产工艺与市场现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林祥; 唐霞

    2001-01-01

    The application,production process and market situation ofchlorinated polyvinyl chloride are introduced, If CPVC can substitute 1 percent of PVC consumed at home, its domestic market demands will be up to 20 000 t/a. So it has bright market prospets. Because CPVC is a kind of product cosuming chlorine and its production can make good use of exiting production equipment of PVC, this kind of product is worth developing in domestic chlor-alkali plants.%介绍了氯化聚氯乙烯的国内外应用、生产工艺、市场现状,国内使用的PVC若有1%用CPVC代替,国内CPVC需求量将达到2万t/a,因此氯化聚氯乙烯具有广阔的市场前景。氯化聚氯乙烯是氯碱厂吃氯的下游产品,生产CPVC既可充分利用现有的PVC生产装置,又可充分发挥烧碱装置的生产能力,因此氯化聚氯乙烯是国内氯碱厂可以大力开发的产品。

  1. Totally solution-processed CuInS2 solar cells based on chloride inks: reduced metastable phases and improved current density

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dehghani, Mehdi; Behjat, Abbas; Tajabadi, Fariba; Taghavinia, Nima

    2015-03-01

    Planar superstrate CuInS2 (CIS) solar cell devices are fabricated using totally solution-processed deposition methods. These Cd-free devices are structured by FTO/TiO2/In2S3/CIS/carbon, where TiO2 and In2S3 are deposited by spray pyrolysis, and a CIS film is deposited using spin-coating followed by annealing at 250 °C. The pasted carbon layer is utilized as the anode. No further sulfurization or selenization is employed. The Cu/In ratio in the ink is found as a critical factor affecting the morphology and crystallinity of the film as well as the photovoltaic performance of the device. An optimum Cu/In = 1.05 results in large-grain films with sharp diffraction peaks and, subsequently, optimal series resistance and shunt conductance. It is also found that the chloride-based ink results in CIS films with considerably reduced metastable phases, compared to the conventional acetate-based inks. A current density of 23.6 mA cm-2 is obtained for the best devices, leading to a conversion efficiency of 4.1%.

  2. Efeito do cloreto de cálcio na qualidade de melancias minimamente processadas Effect of calcium chloride on the quality of minimally processed watermelon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Carolina Almeida Miguel

    2007-09-01

    Full Text Available Foi avaliada a qualidade de melancias minimamente processadas, tratadas com cloreto de cálcio, durante o armazenamento sob refrigeração. Utilizaram-se melancias 'Crimson Sweet', maduras, adquiridas no comércio de Piracicaba, SP, oriundas do Rio Grande do Sul. Os frutos foram lavados e desinfetados com água clorada (200 mg L-1. A polpa foi cortada em cubos (2,5 cm de aresta, os quais foram imersos, por 3 min nas soluções que corresponderam aos tratamentos, imersão em água pura (controle, solução de cloreto de cálcio a 1%. Em seguida foram escorridos por 3 min, acondicionados em copos de tereftalato de polietileno (PET transparente de 450 mL de capacidade, com tampa, e armazenados sob refrigeração a 10,0 ± 3,2°C e 79% UR. A cada dois dias, os pedaços foram avaliados sensorialmente e quanto à perda de massa fresca, aparência, coloração interna, textura, teores de sólidos solúveis (SS e de acidez titulável (AT, pH, relação SS/AT e conteúdos de ácido ascórbico e de pectinas, solúvel e total. O uso da solução de cloreto de cálcio promoveu maior firmeza na textura de melancias minimamente processadas, porém não se mostrou efetivo no prolongamento da vida útil, que foi de 2 dias do ponto de vista sensorial.This study evaluated the refrigerated storage and quality of minimally processed watermelon treated with calcium chloride. Ripe Crimson Sweet watermelons produced in Rio Grande do Sul State, Brazil, and acquired at a local market in Piracicaba, SP, were washed and the surface sanitized with chlorated water (200 mg L-1. Samples were then cut into pulp cubes (2.5 cm across. Cubes were subjected to two treatments: immersion for 3 min in pure water (control and 1% calcium chloride. Subsequently, the cubes were drained for 3 min and packaged in transparent polyethylene terephthalate cups and stored at 10.0 ? 3.2?C and 79% RH. Every two days cubes from each treatment were sensorially evaluated as well as the loss of fresh

  3. Locally stationary volatility modelling

    OpenAIRE

    Van Bellegem, Sébastien

    2011-01-01

    The increasing works on parameter instability, structural changes and regime switches lead to the natural research question whether the assumption of stationarity is appropriate to model volatility processes. Early econometric studies have provided testing procedures of covariance stationarity and have shown empirical evidence for the unconditional time-variation of the dependence structure of many financial time series. After a review of several econometric tests of covariance stationarit...

  4. Volatility and Financial Intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Aizenman; Andrew Powell

    1997-01-01

    Following the Tequila period, its after-effects in Latin America and recent events in South East Asia, the effect of volatility on emerging market economies has become an important topic of research with the domestic financial intermediation process being advanced as one of the most important transmission mechanisms. At the same time there has been continued interest in issues related to imperfect information and rationing in credit markets. In this paper, we consider an economy where risk ne...

  5. Exponential Smoothing, Long Memory and Volatility Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso

    Extracting and forecasting the volatility of financial markets is an important empirical problem. The paper provides a time series characterization of the volatility components arising when the volatility process is fractionally integrated, and proposes a new predictor that can be seen as extension...... originally by Hosking. We investigate the properties of the volatility components and the forecasts arising from these specification, which depend uniquely on the memory and the moving average parameters. For statistical inference we show that, under mild regularity conditions, the Whittle pseudo...... methods for forecasting realized volatility, and that the estimated model confidence sets include the newly proposed fractional lag predictor in all occurrences....

  6. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents the state-of-the art: an analytical model which describes chloride profiles in concrete as function of depth and...... makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....

  7. Removal of iron contaminant from zirconium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a process for eliminating iron contaminant from an aqueous zirconium chloride solution that has been contaminated with FeCl3 in a plant in which zirconium and hafnium chloride solutions are separated by a main MINK solvent extraction system and the FeCl3 is normally removed from the zirconium chloride solution by a secondary MINK solvent extraction system

  8. Improvement of soluble coffee aroma using an integrated process of supercritical CO2 extraction with selective removal of the pungent volatiles by adsorption on activates carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lucas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a two-step integrated process consisting of CO2 supercritical extraction of volatile coffee compounds (the most valuable from roasted and milled coffee, and a subsequent step of selective removal of pungent volatiles by adsorption on activated carbon is presented. Some experiments were carried out with key compounds from roasted coffee aroma in order to study the adsorption step: ethyl acetate as a desirable compound and furfural as a pungent component. Operational parameters such as adsorption pressure and temperature and CO2 flowrate were optimized. Experiments were conducted at adsorption pressures of 12-17 MPa, adsorption temperatures of 35-50ºC and a solvent flow rate of 3-5 kg/h. In all cases, the solute concentration and the activated particle size were kept constant. Results show that low pressures (12 MPa, low temperatures (35ºC and low CO2 flowrates (3 kg/h are suitable for removing the undesirable pungent and smell components (e.g. furfural and retaining the desirable aroma compounds (e.g. ethyl acetate. The later operation with real roasted coffee has corroborated the previous results obtained with the key compounds.

  9. On the second derivative of the at-the-money implied volatility in stochastic volatility models

    OpenAIRE

    Al??s, Elisa; Le??n, Jorge A.

    2014-01-01

    In this paper we compute analytically the at-the-money second derivative of the implied volatility curve as a function of the strike price, for correlated stochastic volatility models. We obtain an expression for the short-time limit of this second derivative in terms of the first and second Malliavin derivatives of the volatility process and the correlation parameter.

  10. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in...... marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...

  11. A Multifactor Volatility Heston Model

    OpenAIRE

    Grasselli, Martino; Da Fonseca, Jose; Tebaldi, Claudio

    2008-01-01

    We consider a model for a single risky asset whose volatility follows a multifactor (matrix)Wishart affine process, recently introduced in finance by Gourieroux and Sufana (2004). As in standard Duffie and Kan (1996) affine models the pricing problem can be solved through the Fast Fourier Transform of Carr and Madan (1999). A numerical illustration shows that this specification provides a separate fit of the long term and short term implied volatility surface and, differently from previous...

  12. [Pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds from wastewater treatment system of vitamin C production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Lu, Guo-Li; Ren, Ai-Ling; Du, Zhao; Xing, Zhi-Xian; Han, Peng; Gao, Bo; Liu, Shu-Ya

    2013-12-01

    Using a portable gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollution in each unit of the wastewater treatment system for vitamin C production was studied, and the species characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed and summarized. The results showed that 32 kinds of volatile organic compounds were identified, and the total mass concentration range of volatilizing VOCs was 0.9629-32.0970 mg x m(-3). The most species and the largest concentration (25 and 32.0970 mg x m(-3)) of volatilizing VOCs were found in grit chamber, which was located in the most front-end of the wastewater treatment system and was in semi-closed state. The proportion of molecular sulfide in the grit chamber was as high as 30.02%; Higher proportions of aromatic hydrocarbons were monitored in the subsequent processing units, with percentages of 21.06%-31.48%. The main types of VOCs monitored were chlorinated hydrocarbons and ketones, accounting for 6.39%-55.80% and 10.40%-58.08% of the total amount, respectively; 14 kinds of VOCs were detected in every unit of the wastewater treatment system: acetone, 2-butanone, n-hexane, chloroform, chlorobenzene etc, among which, vinyl chloride, styrene and 1,3-butadiene belong to the highly toxic substances. The vinyl chloride concentration exceeded the standard of "atmospheric pollutants emission standards" (GB 16297-1996), while 1,3-butadiene and other pollutants have no national standard limits. The results of this study provide a scientific basis for the revision of China's pharmaceutical wastewater VOCs emission standards. PMID:24640904

  13. Binary Nucleation of Water and Sodium Chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Thomas [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Marsik, Frantisek [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Palmer, Donald [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry.

  14. Diffusion behavior of chloride ions in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T.; Gjoerv, O.E. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Div. of Building Materials

    1996-06-01

    In the present paper, an analysis of the diffusion behavior of chloride ions in concrete is presented. In concentrated electrolytic aqueous solutions such as seawater or that typically used in laboratory experiments, the effect of ionic interaction may significantly reduce the chemical potential and thus the driving force of the diffusing species. Because of different drift velocities of the cations and chloride ions in the solution, the lagging motion of the cations will also retard the drift velocity of the chlorides. In addition, both the electrical double layer forming on the solid surface and the chemical binding may significantly interfere with the transport of the chloride ions. As a result, the diffusion behavior of the chloride ions in concrete is a more complex and complicated transport process than what can be described by Fick`s law of diffusion.

  15. Design of the extraction process for terpenes and other volatiles from allspice by solid-phase microextraction and hydrodistillation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bajer, Tomáš; Ligor, Magdalena; Ligor, Tomasz; Buszewski, Bogusław

    2016-02-01

    Methods for the separation and determination of terpenes (mono- and sesqui-) and phenylpropanoids such as eugenol and methyleugenol from samples of allspice berries have been developed. Chromatographic analyses of isolated groups of compounds were carried out by means of gas chromatography coupled with mass spectrometry. A comparison of various types of solid-phase microextraction fibers was performed. The highest yields of terpenes were extracted by polydimethylsiloxane and divinylbenzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fibers (almost the same for these two fibers), approximately twice as much as by Carbowax/divinylbenzene fiber. The highest amounts of monoterpenes were extracted by divinylbenzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber, and the highest amounts of sesquiterpenes were extracted by polydimethylsiloxane fiber. Moreover, the effect of water addition on extraction yields as well as time and temperature of extraction were tested. Aroma profiles of extracts obtained by solid-phase microextraction and essential oil obtained by hydrodistillation of allspice berries were compared. The aroma profile of the divinylbenzene/Carboxen/polydimethylsiloxane fiber extract was similar to the aroma profile of essential oil. Particular characteristics of volatile allspice matters were presented. The linear retention indices for each compound were calculated. PMID:26632088

  16. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  17. Realizing Smiles: Pricing Options with Realized Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Corsi, Fulvio; Fusari, Nicola; Davide LA VECCHIA

    2009-01-01

    We develop a stochastic volatility option pricing model that exploits the informative content of historical high frequency data. Using the Two Scales Realized Volatility as a proxy for the unobservable returns volatility, we propose a simple (affine) but effective long-memory process: the Heterogeneous Auto-Regressive Gamma (HARG) model. This discrete–time process, combined with an exponential affine stochastic discount factor, leads to tractable risk-neutral dynamics. The explicit change of ...

  18. Processes regulating groundwater chloride content in marshes under different environmental conditions: A comparative case study in Península Valdés and Samborombón Bay, Argentina

    Science.gov (United States)

    Carol, Eleonora; Alvarez, María del Pilar

    2016-03-01

    Salt marshes are some of the most important wetlands in many regions of the world. Soil and groundwater salinity plays an important role in coastal wetland ecosystems because of the differences in tolerances of plant species to salinity and tidal inundation. Given that the salinity of these environments is mostly dominated by the chloride anion, it is the aim of this study to identify the geochemical processes that regulate its content in groundwater. A comparison of two intertidal wetlands under different environmental conditions was carried out in Peninsula Valdés and in Samborombón Bay, both on the Atlantic coast of Argentina. The tidal influence over the groundwater marsh dynamics was analyzed from continuous records of groundwater levels and electrical conductivity. Besides, major ion and environmental isotope data were used to identify the geochemical processes that determine the chloride content, based on the study of ion ratios and analytical models. The results show that, despite the hydrological differences between the two studied marshes, the processes regulating the Cl- contents are similar: evaporation, transpiration and halite dissolution. Among them, evaporation/transpiration are the processes that could continuously increase the chloride concentration. However, it is expected that those are not processes that greatly increase the groundwater saline content if compared to the dissolution of halite.

  19. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in...

  20. Assessing Relative Volatility/Intermittency/Energy Dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Pakkanen, Mikko; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    process in particular. While this estimation method is motivated by the assessment of relative energy dissipation in empirical data of turbulence, we apply it also to energy price data. Moreover, we develop a probabilistic asymptotic theory for relative power variations of Brownian semistationary......We introduce the notion of relative volatility/intermittency and demonstrate how relative volatility statistics can be used to estimate consistently the temporal variation of volatility/intermittency even when the data of interest are generated by a non-semimartingale, or a Brownian semistationary...... processes and Ito semimartingales and discuss how it can be used for inference on relative volatility/intermittency....

  1. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....

  2. Advanced treatment of residual nitrogen from biologically treated coke effluent by a microalga-mediated process using volatile fatty acids (VFAs) under stepwise mixotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Byung-Gon; Kim, Woong; Heo, Sung-Woon; Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Gang-Guk; Yang, Ji-Won

    2015-09-01

    This work describes the development of a microalga-mediated process for simultaneous removal of residual ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) and production of lipids from biologically treated coke effluent. Four species of green algae were tested using a sequential mixotrophic process. In the first phase-CO2-supplied mixotrophic condition-all microalgae assimilated NH4(+)-N with no evident inhibition. In second phase-volatile fatty acids (VFAs)-supplied mixotrophic condition-removal rates of NH4(+)-N and biomass significantly increased. Among the microalgae used, Arctic Chlorella sp. ArM0029B had the highest rate of NH4(+)-N removal (0.97 mg/L/h) and fatty acid production (24.9 mg/L/d) which were 3.6- and 2.1-fold higher than those observed under the CO2-supplied mixotrophic condition. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that acetate and butyrate were decisive factors for increasing NH4(+)-N removal and fatty acid production. These results demonstrate that microalgae can be used in a sequential process for treatment of residual nitrogen after initial treatment of activated sludge. PMID:25881553

  3. Finite Difference Schemes for Option Pricing under Stochastic Volatility and Lévy Processes: Numerical Analysis and Computing

    OpenAIRE

    El-Fakharany, Mohamed Mostafa Refaat

    2015-01-01

    [EN] In the stock markets, the process of estimating a fair price for a stock, option or commodity is consider the corner stone for this trade. There are several attempts to obtain a suitable mathematical model in order to enhance the estimation process for evaluating the options for short or long periods. The Black-Scholes partial differential equation (PDE) and its analytical solution, 1973, are considered a breakthrough in the mathematical modeling for the stock markets. Because of the id...

  4. Heterogeneous processing of biomass burning aerosol proxies by OH radicals for a wide range of OH concentrations and detection of volatilization products

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slade, J. H.; Knopf, D. A.

    2012-12-01

    Biomass burning aerosol (BBA) constitutes the majority of primary organic aerosol found in the atmosphere, with emission rates comparable to fossil-fuel burning. BBA affects earth's radiative budget directly through absorption and scattering of radiation or indirectly by modifying cloud radiative properties, and impacts air quality. Quantifying BBA source strength and thus its effects on air quality, human health, and climate can be difficult since these organic particles can chemically transform during atmospheric transport, a process also termed aging, due to heterogeneous reactions with oxidants and radicals such as OH. In this work we investigate the reactive uptake of OH radicals by typical BBA compounds that also serve as molecular markers for source apportionment studies. Organic substrates of cellulose pyrolysis products such as levoglucosan (1,6-anhydro-β-glucopyranose, C6H10O5), resin acids such as abietic acid (1-phenanthrenecarboxylic acid, C20H30O2), and lignin decomposition products such as 5-nitroguaiacol (2-methoxy-5-nitrophenol, C7H7NO4) have been exposed to a wide range of OH concentrations (~107-1011 cm-3), in presence of O2 in a rotating wall flow reactor operated at 2-6 mbar coupled to a custom built chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS). OH radicals were generated through H2 dissociation in an Evenson microwave resonant cavity operated at 2.45 GHz followed by reaction with O2 or NO2. In addition, potential volatilization of organic material due to heterogeneous oxidation by OH has been determined in-situ by monitoring the volatile organic compounds using a high resolution-proton transfer reaction-time of flight-mass spectrometer (HR-PTR-ToF-MS). The volatilization studies are conducted at 1 atm and OH is generated by O3 photolysis in the presence of H2O vapor and quantified using a photochemical box model as well as through reaction with a known concentration of isoprene (2-methyl-1,3-butadiene, C5H8). Reactive uptake validation

  5. Constraints on magma processes, subsurface conditions, and total volatile flux at Bezymianny Volcano in 2007-2010 from direct and remote volcanic gas measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Taryn; Ushakov, Sergey; Izbekov, Pavel; Tassi, Franco; Cahill, Cathy; Neill, Owen; Werner, Cynthia

    2013-08-01

    Direct and remote measurements of volcanic gas composition, SO2 flux, and eruptive SO2 mass from Bezymianny Volcano were acquired between July 2007 and July 2010. Chemical composition of fumarolic gases, plume SO2 flux from ground and air-based ultraviolet remote sensing (FLYSPEC), and eruptive SO2 mass from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite observations were used along with eruption timing to elucidate magma processes and subsurface conditions, and to constrain total volatile flux. Bezymianny Volcano had five explosive magmatic eruptions between May 2007 and June 2010. The most complete volcanic gas datasets were acquired for the October 2007, December 2009, and May 2010 eruptions. Gas measurements collected prior to the October 2007 eruption have a relatively high ratio of H2O/CO2 (81.2), a moderate ratio of CO2/S (5.47), and a low ratio of S/HCl (0.338), along with moderate SO2 and CO2 fluxes of 280 and 980 t/d, respectively, and high H2O and HCl fluxes of ~ 45,000 and ~ 440 t/d, respectively. These results suggest degassing of shallow magma (consistent with observations of lava extrusion) along with potential minor degassing of a deeper magma source. Gas measurements collected prior to the December 2009 eruption are characterized by relatively low H2O/CO2 (4.13), moderate CO2/S (6.84), and high S/HCl (18.7) ratios, along with moderate SO2 and CO2 fluxes of ~ 220 and ~ 1000 t/d, respectively, and low H2O and HCl fluxes of ~ 1700 and ~ 7 t/d, respectively. These trends are consistent with degassing of a deeper magma source. Fumarole samples collected ~ 1.5 months following the May 2010 eruption are characterized by high H2O/CO2 (63.0), low CO2/S (0.986), and moderate S/HCl (6.09) ratios. These data are consistent with degassing of a shallow, volatile-rich magma source, likely related to the May eruption. Passive and eruptive SO2 measurements are used to calculate a total annual SO2 mass of 109 kt emitted in 2007, with passive emissions comprising ~ 87

  6. Bio-hydrogen production based on catalytic reforming of volatiles generated by cellulose pyrolysis: An integrated process for ZnO reduction and zinc nanostructures fabrication

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The paper presents a process of cellulose thermal degradation with bio-hydrogen generation and zinc nanostructures synthesis. Production of zinc nanowires and zinc nanoflowers was performed by a novel processes based on cellulose pyrolysis, volatiles reforming and direct reduction of ZnO. The bio-hydrogen generated in situ promoted the ZnO reduction with Zn nanostructures formation by vapor-solid (VS) route. The cellulose and cellulose/ZnO samples were characterized by thermal analyses (TG/DTG/DTA) and the gases evolved were analyzed by FTIR spectroscopy (TG/FTIR). The hydrogen was detected by TPR (Temperature Programmed Reaction) tests. The results showed that in the presence of ZnO the cellulose thermal degradation produced larger amounts of H2 when compared to pure cellulose. The process was also carried out in a tubular furnace with N2 atmosphere, at temperatures up to 900 oC, and different heating rates. The nanostructures growth was catalyst-free, without pressure reduction, at temperatures lower than those required in the carbothermal reduction of ZnO with fossil carbon. The nanostructures were investigated by X-ray diffraction (XRD), scanning electron microscopy (SEM), energy-dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS) and transmission electron microscopy (TEM). The optical properties were investigated by photoluminescence (PL). One mechanism was presented in an attempt to explain the synthesis of zinc nanostructures that are crystalline, were obtained without significant re-oxidation and whose morphologies are dependent on the heating rates of the process. This route presents a potential use as an industrial process taking into account the simple operational conditions, the low costs of cellulose and the importance of bio-hydrogen and nanostructured zinc.

  7. CAM Stochastic Volatility Model for Option Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coupled additive and multiplicative (CAM noises model is a stochastic volatility model for derivative pricing. Unlike the other stochastic volatility models in the literature, the CAM model uses two Brownian motions, one multiplicative and one additive, to model the volatility process. We provide empirical evidence that suggests a nontrivial relationship between the kurtosis and skewness of asset prices and that the CAM model is able to capture this relationship, whereas the traditional stochastic volatility models cannot. We introduce a control variate method and Monte Carlo estimators for some of the sensitivities (Greeks of the model. We also derive an approximation for the characteristic function of the model.

  8. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, used in mixture which is packed into labels, for absorbing oxygen from the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food supplements. Migration of substances from the labels and formation and release of volatile constituents are not expected under the intended conditions of use. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorbers in labels, which prevent the physical release of their content into the food. When placed in the headspace of the packaging or when used in direct contact with foods, the labels should not intentionally or unintentionally come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have an external aqueous phase on the surface such as sliced fruits.

  9. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality Volatile Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this page: ... Exposure Standards or Guidelines Additional Resources Introduction Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain solids ...

  10. Effects of processing methods on composition and functionality of volatile components isolated from immature fruits of atemoya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tai-Ti; Chao, Louis Kuo-Ping; Peng, Chi-Wei; Yang, Tsung-Shi

    2016-07-01

    Atemoya is one of the most important commercial fruits of the family Annonaceae. The immature fruits of atemoya amply produced from a fruit-thinning process is normally regarded as waste and discarded. This research aimed at studying antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil (EO) isolated from the immature fruits to explore its potential application. The fruits were subjected to different drying methods: solar drying (SD), oven drying at 30°C (OD-30), and at 50°C (OD-50). The oven drying method gave a higher EO yield than the solar drying method. Spathulenol was the largest compound in the EO after the drying process. Antimicrobial effect was not affected by the different drying methods. Antioxidant activity of the EO was measured by DPPH, nitric oxide, and reducing power methods. The EOOD-50 exhibited a stronger antioxidant activity than EOSD and EOOD-30. The EO also showed an anti-inflammatory activity in a cell model. PMID:26920282

  11. Convertible Bonds: Default Risk and Uncertain Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Huang, Haishi

    2009-01-01

    Within a default intensity approach we discuss the optimal exercise of the callable and convertible bonds. Pricing bounds for convertible bonds are derived in an uncertain volatility model, i.e. when the volatility of the stock price process lies between two extreme values.

  12. Normalization for Implied Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Masaaki Fukasawa

    2010-01-01

    We study specific nonlinear transformations of the Black-Scholes implied volatility to show remarkable properties of the volatility surface. Model-free bounds on the implied volatility skew are given. Pricing formulas for the European options which are written in terms of the implied volatility are given. In particular, we prove elegant formulas for the fair strikes of the variance swap and the gamma swap.

  13. Mass transport in aqueous zinc chloride-potassium chloride electrolytes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Leaist, D.G.

    1986-09-01

    Conductimetric and diaphragm cell techniques have been used to measure ternary diffusion coefficients for aqueous zinc chloride-potassium chloride solutions at 25/sup 0/C. At low concentrations where Zn/sup 2 +/ is the major zinc-transporting species, the diffusion-induced electric field along zinc chloride concentration gradients drives large co-current flows of potassium chloride. In concentrated solutions where a large proportion of zinc diffusses as anionic ZnCl/sub 3//sup -/ and ZnCl/sub 4//sup 2 -/ complexes, flow of zinc chloride generates counterflow of potassium chloride. If a sharp zinc chloride is formed in an otherwise uniform solution of potassium chloride, coupled diffusion can concentrate potassium ions within the diffusion boundary. Equations are developed to predict multicomponent transport coefficients for zinc chloride in supporting electrolytes.

  14. 板栗加工工艺对挥发性香气成分的影响%Effect of Processing Technology on Volatile Components of Chinese Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔亚辉; 徐芳; 王丰俊; 王建中; 欧阳杰

    2012-01-01

    Chinese chestnut forms different flavors by different processing technology. An automatic thermal de-sorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (ATD-GC-MS) system was applied to analyze the volatile composition of raw chestnut, boiled chestnut, fried chestnut and roasted chestnut. Herbaceous aroma such as ethyl acetate, hex-anal, butyl acetate, 1-butanol-3-methyl-acetate, alpha-pinene and benzaldehyde were found in raw chestnut; fried chestnut and roasted chestnut were found to have characteristic volatiles such as 2-pentyl-furan, 3-carene, 4-hydroxy-2-butanone and 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-ketone; and in boiled chestnut, spiro [2,4] hepta-4,6-diene was found first time. The results will provide a reference for the further research and development of Chinese chestnut products.%板栗经过不同的加工工艺熟化后会产生不同的风味.文中分别对生板栗,以及煮制、炒制和烤制加工后的板栗进行ATD热脱附以及GC-MS分析,得出不同加工工艺条件下的板栗挥发性香气成分.其中生板栗主要有板栗本身的草本清香香气成分,如乙酸乙酯、己醛、乙酸丁酯、3-甲基-1-丁醇乙酸酯、α-蒎烯和苯甲醛等;炒板栗和烤板栗的特征性挥发物有2-戊基呋喃、3-蒈烯、4-羟基-2-丁酮和2-甲基-四氢呋喃-3-酮;煮板栗中发现了之前未在板栗香气研究中报道过的香气成分螺[2,4]庚-4.6-二烯.

  15. A Retrospective: Active Volatile-Driven Geologic Processes Across the Solar System—Lessons for Planetary Explorers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soderblom, L. A.

    2014-12-01

    When Voyagers 1 and 2 left Earth in 1977, we had little clue as to the rich variety of activity we'd find on the outer Solar System moons. The moons of Jupiter, Saturn, Uranus, and Neptune would likely exhibit little geologic evolution¾much less even than our Moon. We expected battered, cratered, dead worlds. Like the Moon, Mars had showed volcanic activity in the geologic past, but ancient, heavily crater highlands dominated both surfaces. It seemed unlikely that we'd find even extinct volcanism in the cold, dead reaches of the outer Solar System. Voyager 1 shocked us by revealing Io's prolific ongoing volcanism. (Not all were surprised: just days earlier, Peale, Cassen, and Reynolds published a prediction that Io could be volcanically active). Europa, too, was a Voyager surprise; only a small handful of impact craters pocked its surface. It too had to be a geologically young body—likely still actively evolving. We have even found very recent geological activity on tiny cometary nuclei, where young flows have oozed forth across their surfaces. At Neptune, incredibly, Voyager 2 found eruptions on Triton's 37K polar cap—plumes driven by solar-heated nitrogen gas blasting dark dust and bright ice in 8-km-high columns. On Mars, "dark spiders" near the pole signaled similar active eruptions, in this case driven by pressurized carbon dioxide. Cassini witnessed a myriad of jets near tiny Enceladus' south pole, arising from an internal ocean evidently driven by active chemical processes and modulated by Saturn's proximity. Cassini revealed Titan to be Earth's alien twin, with a host of processes borrowed from textbooks on terrestrial geomorphology and meteorology. Akin to Earth's global hydrological cycle, Titan's runs on methane—methane rivers, seas, and rain abound. What lessons can we take from these active places into the next phase of exploration? When the Voyagers were launched, our naiveté allowed that only planet Earth was dynamically active. But exploring

  16. Generation and detection of metal ions and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from the pretreatment processes for recycling spent lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Wang, Guangxu; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-06-01

    The recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries brings benefits to both economic and environmental terms, but it can also lead to contaminants in a workshop environment. This study focused on metals, non-metals and volatile organic compounds generated by the discharging and dismantling pretreatment processes which are prerequisite for recycling spent lithium-ion batteries. After discharging in NaCl solution, metal contents in supernate and concentrated liquor were detected. Among results of condition #2, #3, #4 and #5, supernate and concentrated liquor contain high levels of Na, Al, Fe; middle levels of Co, Li, Cu, Ca, Zn; and low levels of Mn, Sn, Cr, Zn, Ba, K, Mg, V. The Hg, Ag, Cr and V are not detected in any of the analyzed supernate. 10wt% NaCl solution was a better discharging condition for high discharge efficiency, less possible harm to environment. To collect the gas released from dismantled LIB belts, a set of gas collecting system devices was designed independently. Two predominant organic vapour compounds were dimethyl carbonate (4.298mgh(-1)) and tert-amylbenzene (0.749mgh(-1)) from one dismantled battery cell. To make sure the concentrations of dimethyl carbonate under recommended industrial exposure limit (REL) of 100mgL(-1), for a workshop on dismantling capacity of 1000kg spent LIBs, the minimum flow rate of ventilating pump should be 235.16m(3)h(-1). PMID:27021697

  17. Effect of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS and hydraulic retention time (HRT on the performance of activated sludge process during the biotreatment of real textile wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adequate information is available on colour and organics removal in batch mode using pure microbial cultures from dye contaminated wastewater. There was a need to develop environment friendly and cost effective treatment technique for actual field conditions. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the potential of acclimatized mixed microbial consortia for the removal of colour and organics from real textile wastewater. Experiments were performed in laboratory scale activated sludge process (ASP unit under steady state condition, varying mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS (2500, 3500 and 5000 mg/l and hydraulic retention time (HRT (18, 24 and 36 h. The results showed that decolourization and chemical oxygen demand (COD removal increased with increase in MLVSS and HRT. At 18 h HRT, decolourization was found to be 46, 54 and 67%, which increased to 67, 75 and 90% (36 h HRT at 2500, 3500 and 5000 mg/l MLVSS, respectively. COD removal was found to be 62, 73 and 77% (at 18 h HRT which increased to 77, 85 and 91% (36 h HRT at 2000, 3500 and 5000 mg/l MLVSS, respectively. On the basis of the results obtained in this study suitable treatment techniques can be developed for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with variety of dyes in continuous mode of operation. This shall have the advantage of treatment of larger quantity of wastewater in shorter duration.

  18. Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in food and medicinal herbs; Determinacao de volateis produzidos durante o processamento por radiacao em ervas alimenticias e medicinais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salum, Debora Christina

    2008-07-01

    In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as to increase its shelf life while keeping sensorial properties (e.g. odor and taste), once the latter are one of the main properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation from Co irradiation of Laurus Cinnamomum, Piper Nigrum, Origanum Vulgare and Myristica Fragans. Possible changes on the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties in order to allow better application of irradiation technology. l he samples have been irradiated in plastic packages by making use of a {sup 60}Co Gamma irradiator. Irradiation doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25kGy have been tested. For the analysis of the samples, SPME has been applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation has promoted mostly decrease in volatile compounds when doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25kGy were used. For Laurus cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile by nearly 56% and 89.5% respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which has not been previously irradiated. Differently from other spices analyzed, irradiation on Myristica Fragans has increased volatile compounds except for 4-terpineol. The miristicine (toxic substance when in large quantities, commonly mentioned as narcotic) has increased by nearly 80%. For Origanum Vulgare and Piper Nigrum, significant decrease in volatile compounds have been found, mainly when it comes to 25 kGy irradiation. In general, results indicate loss of sensorial quality of spices. (author)

  19. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The Detox trademark process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200 degrees C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl3liquid + H2O → FeOClsolid + 2 HClgas During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOClsolid + H2O → Fe2O3solid + 2 HClgas. The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way

  20. EFFECT OF FEED PROCESSING ON VOLATILE FATTY ACID PRODUCTION RATES MEASURED WITH 13 C-ACETATE IN GRAZING LACTATING DAIRY COWS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Róbert Tóthi

    2007-06-01

    Full Text Available The effect of processed cereal grain supplementation on volatile fatty acid (VFA production rates of grazing, lactating Holstein-Friesian cows were measured in a 5x5 Latin square experiment. The experimental treatments were as follows: control (only grazing, no supplement addition, NS, pelleted barley (PB, pelleted maize (PM, toasted and subsequently pelleted barley (TPB, and toasted and subsequently pelleted maize (TPM as supplements. An isotope dilution technique using stable isotope of carbon (13C as an internalmarker was employed for the estimation of VFA production. At the beginning of a 3-hour long allowed grazing time, 100 mg of 99% enriched 13C2 Na-acetate were introduced in the rumen and repeated after grazing with 50 mg isotope, after which the cows were starved for 6 hours until evening milking. During grazing disappearance rate (kdis and production rate (kprod of acetate, propionate and butyrate were significantly higher (P≤0.05 in supplemented than in NS cows. Moreover the effec t of barley grain and pelleting treatment was higher than the effect of maize grain and toasting. During starvation significantly higher (P≤0.05 kdis and kprod of VFAs were observed in PM and TPM treatments. Total VFA production for the experimental period (grazing + starvation were 49.5, 78.7, 69.9, 88.5, 80.8 mol/day for NS, PB, TPB, PM and TPM, respectively. The higher VFA productions measured in supplemented animals emphasis the extensive digestion that occurs in the rumen after feeding processed grains. In methodological terms, 13C2 Naacetate labelling appears to be a useful means for examining the VFA acetate production in ruminants.

  1. Polyvinyl chloride filled with bismuth oxychloride powder

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Polášková, M.; Sedláček, T.; Kharlamov, Alexander; Pivokonský, Radek; Saha, P.

    Larnaca : Polymer Processing Society, 2009, s. 242. [Polymer Processing Society Europe/Africa Regional Meeting. Larnaca (GR), 18.10.2009-21.10.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : olyvinyl chloride * bismuth oxychloride * radiopaque agents Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  2. Combining sulfate electrowinning with chloride leaching

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fletcher, A. W.; Sudderth, R. B.; Olafson, S. M.

    1991-08-01

    Although the chloride leaching of copper sulfide concentrates has proved highly efficient, electrowinning from chloride solutions presents many difficulties, notably in cell design and the handling of the powder product. Sulfate electrowinning,on the other hand, continues to improve and has played a significant part in the widespread adoption of the solvent extraction-electrowinning process for copper recovery from low-grade ores. It has been found that the two steps can be combined by introducing a novel solvent extraction process after chloride leaching. This article presents the results of laboratory tests to prove the feasibility of this approach and discusses how it can be integrated into a commercially viable flow sheet.

  3. Volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal is: Not more emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) than necessary. The items discussed in this presentation are the VOCs, how to calculate emission of VOCs, how to reduce or avoid them, and different recovery processes. The largest source of Norwegian emissions of non methane VOCs (NMVOCs) is offshore loading of raw petroleum. Emissions of VOCs should be reduced mainly for two reasons: (1) on sunny days NMVOCs may react with NOx to form ozon and smog close to the surface, (2) ozone and smog close to the surface may be harmful to plants and animals, and they are hazardous to human health. As for the calculation of VOC emissions, the VOCON project will release the calculation program HCGASS in 1999. This project is a cooperative project headed by SINTEF/Marintek

  4. Valuation equations for stochastic volatility models

    OpenAIRE

    Bayraktar, Erhan; Kardaras, Constantinos; Xing, Hao

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the valuation partial differential equation for European contingent claims in a general framework of stochastic volatility models where the diffusion coefficients may grow faster than linearly and degenerate on the boundaries of the state space. We allow for various types of model behavior: the volatility process in our model can potentially reach zero and either stay there or instantaneously reflect, and the asset-price process may be a strict local martingale. Our main result is ...

  5. Language, News and Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Byström, Hans

    2014-01-01

    I use Google News TM to study the relation between news volumes and stock market volatilities. More than nine million stock market-related news stories in English and (Mandarin) Chinese are collected and the dynamics of the news volume and the stock market volatility is compared in both the Anglophone world and the Sinophone world. I find that the stock market volatility and the number of publicly available global news stories are strongly linked to each other in both languages. Contemporaneo...

  6. Volatility in Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Sizova, Natalia; Tauchen, George

    Stock market volatility clusters in time, carries a risk premium, is fractionally inte- grated, and exhibits asymmetric leverage effects relative to returns. This paper develops a first internally consistent equilibrium based explanation for these longstanding empirical facts. The model is cast i......, and the dynamic cross-correlations of the volatility measures with the returns calculated from actual high-frequency intra-day data on the S&P 500 aggregate market and VIX volatility indexes....

  7. Calix[4]arene coated QCM sensors for detection of VOC emissions: Methylene chloride sensing studies.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Temel, Farabi; Tabakci, Mustafa

    2016-06-01

    This paper describes the sensing studies of QCM sensors with coated some calixarene derivatives bearing different functional groups for some selected Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs) such as acetone, acetonitrile, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, methylene chloride (MC), N,N-dimethylformamide, 1,4-dioxane, ethanol, ethyl acetate, xylene, methanol, n-hexane and toluene. The initial experiments have revealed that whole the calix[4]arene modified QCM sensors exhibited strongest sensing ability to MC emissions. Thus, the detailed studies were performed for only MC emissions after the determination of relatively more effective calix-coated QCM sensors for MC emissions in aqueous media. The results demonstrated that QCM sensor coated with calix-7 bearing both amino and imidazole groups was most useful sensor for MC emissions with 54.1ppm of detection limit. Moreover, it was understood that cyclic structures, H-bonding capabilities and also good preorganization properties of calixarene derivatives played an important role in VOC sensing processes. PMID:27130112

  8. Assessing relative volatility/intermittency/energy dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Pakkanen, Mikko S.; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    process in particular. This estimation method is motivated by the assessment of relative energy dissipation in empirical data of turbulence, but it is also applicable in other areas. We develop a probabilistic asymptotic theory for realised relative power variations of Brownian semistationary processes......, and introduce inference methods based on the theory. We also discuss how to extend the asymptotic theory to other classes of processes exhibiting stochastic volatility/intermittency. As an empirical application, we study relative energy dissipation in data of atmospheric turbulence.......We introduce the notion of relative volatility/intermittency and demonstrate how relative volatility statistics can be used to estimate consistently the temporal variation of volatility/intermittency when the data of interest are generated by a non-semimartingale, or a Brownian semistationary...

  9. [Degradation of succinylcholine chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, G; Török, I; Paál, T

    1993-05-01

    Quantitative thin-layer chormatographic method has been developed for the investigation of the degradation of injection formulations containing succinylcholinium chloride. The method is based on the denistometric determination of the main degradation product, choline at 430 nm after visualization with iodine vapour. The stability of the injection was investigated under various storage conditions and it has been stated that considerable decomposition takes place during as short a period as one week. PMID:8362654

  10. SEPARATION OF MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE FROM SEA WATER BY PREFERENTIAL SALT SEPARATION (PSS)

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Zohdy, Maha Abdel Kareem and Hussein Abdel-Aal*

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium chloride is typically extracted from sea water on an industrial scale by precipitating it as magnesium hydroxide, then converting it to the chloride by adding hydrochloric acid. This process is known as the Dow process which uses the chemical approach in producing magnesium chloride. Kettani and Abdel-Aal [1], proposed a physical separation procedure known as the Preferential Salt Separation (PSS) to obtain magnesium chloride directly from sea water. In principle, the PSS concept is...

  11. Volatility of volatility and tail risk premiums

    OpenAIRE

    Yang-Ho Park

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on tail risk premiums in two tail risk hedging strategies: the S&P 500 puts and the VIX calls. As a new measure of tail risk, we suggest using a model-free, risk-neutral measure of the volatility of volatility implied by a cross section of the VIX options, which we call the VVIX index. The tail risk measured by the VVIX index has forecasting power for future tail risk hedge returns. Specifically, consistent with the literature on rare disasters, an increase in the VVIX inde...

  12. Concentration effects on biotic and abiotic processes in the removal of 1,1,2-trichloroethane and vinyl chloride using carbon-amended ZVI

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patterson, Bradley M.; Lee, Matthew; Bastow, Trevor P.; Wilson, John T.; Donn, Michael J.; Furness, Andrew; Goodwin, Bryan; Manefield, Mike

    2016-05-01

    A permeable reactive barrier, consisting of both zero valent iron (ZVI) and a biodegradable organic carbon, was evaluated for the remediation of 1,1,2-trichloroethane (1,1,2-TCA) contaminated groundwater. During an 888 day laboratory column study, degradation rates initially stabilized with a degradation half-life of 4.4 ± 0.4 days. Based on the accumulation of vinyl chloride (VC) and limited production of 1,1-dichloroethene (1,1-DCE) and 1,2-dichloroethane (1,2-DCA), the dominant degradation pathway was likely abiotic dichloroelimination to form VC. Degradation of VC was not observed based on the accumulation of VC and limited ethene production. After a step reduction in the influent concentration of 1,1,2-TCA from 170 ± 20 mg L- 1 to 39 ± 11 mg L- 1, the degradation half-life decreased 5-fold to 0.83 ± 0.17 days. The isotopic enrichment factor of 1,1,2-TCA also changed after the step reduction from - 14.6 ± 0.7‰ to - 0.72 ± 0.12‰, suggesting a possible change in the degradation mechanism from abiotic reductive degradation to biodegradation. Microbiological data suggested a co-culture of Desulfitobacterium and Dehalococcoides was responsible for the biodegradation of 1,1,2-TCA to ethene.

  13. Corrosion evaluation of multi-pass welded nickel–aluminum bronze alloy in 3.5% sodium chloride solution: A restorative application of gas tungsten arc welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Corrosion of GTA welded nickel–aluminum bronze (C95800) was studied. • Drastic microstructural changes occurred during the welding operations. • The β′ and α phases acts as anode and cathode, correspondingly, in weld region. • A few nanoamperes couple current was measured in ZRA test as galvanic corrosion. • Corrosion resistance of weld parts could not be weakened in marine environments. - Abstract: In this research, the corrosion behavior of a gas tungsten arc welded nickel–aluminum bronze (NAB) alloy is investigated by DC and AC electrochemical techniques in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Regarding the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic results, uniform corrosion resistance of instantly immersed weld and base samples are almost analogous and increased (more in weld region) during the immersion times. Moreover, zero resistant ammeter results demonstrated that the few nanoampere galvanic currents are attributed to microstructural and morphological differences between these two regions. Therefore, the welding procedure could not deteriorate the general corrosion resistance of the restored damaged NAB parts operating in marine environments

  14. Chloride channels of platelets%血小板氯通道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓琳; 尹松梅

    2004-01-01

    Chloride channels distribute widely in the body, and participate in many physiological actions and regulatory processes. Based on their physiological roles and molecular structures, six kinds of chloride channels have been identified: (1) The chloride channels family; (2) Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; (3) Swelling-activated chloride channels; (4) Calcium-activated chloride channels; (5) The p64 (CLIC) gene family; (6) γ-aminobutyric acid and glycine receptors. The chloride channels do exist in platelets, and their appearances are dependent on the presence of intracellular calcium. Blocking agents of chloride channels inhibit the thrombin-activated platelet aggregation and the elevation of the intracellular calcium concentration in a dose-dependent manner. It is suggested that chloride channels play a role in the activation of platelets. In addition, chloride channels act on both the cell volume regulation and the intracellular pH regulation in platelets.

  15. Volatile metabolites from actinomycetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholler, C.E.G.; Gurtler, H.; Pedersen, R.;

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-six Streptomyces spp. were screened for their volatile production capacity on yeast starch agar. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were concentrated on a porous polymer throughout an 8-day growth period. VOCs were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and...

  16. Volatile metabolites from actinomycetes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Scholler, C.E.G.; Gurtler, H.; Pedersen, R.; Molin, Søren; Wilkins, K.

    2002-01-01

    Twenty-six Streptomyces spp. were screened for their volatile production capacity on yeast starch agar. The volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were concentrated on a porous polymer throughout an 8-day growth period. VOCs were analyzed by gas chromatography with flame ionization detection and ident...

  17. 正交实验法优选润肠通乐丸中挥发油包合工艺%Orthogonal test for optimization of inclusion process for volatile oil in Runchangtongle Pills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕倩; 庞来祥; 郭涛; 王飞; 刘文文

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究β-CD包合润肠通乐丸中当归、枳实挥发油的最佳工艺.方法 采用正交实验设计,以油和β-CD比例、β-CD和水比例、包合温度、包合时间为考察因素,以挥发油利用率和包合物收得率进行综合评分,优选β-CD包合润肠通乐丸中挥发油的最佳工艺条件.结果 最佳挥发油包合工艺条件为:油与β-CD比例为1∶4,加15倍量水,40 ℃包合3 h.结论 该工艺简单、稳定、可行,挥发油利用率和包合物收得率较高,包合效果良好.%Objective To study the optimal inclusion process conditions for volatile oil from Angelica sinensis (Oliv. ) Diels. And Cit-rus auranlium L. In Runchangtongle Pills. Methods The volatile oil utilization efficiency and inclusion yield were evaluated by using four indexes including the ratio of volatile oil to β-CD,The ratio of β-CD to water,inclusion temperature and inclusion time. The saturated water solutions method was used to optimize the technology for preparing β-CD inclusion compound. Results The optimal preparation conditions for inclusion were established as follows:volatile oil : β-CD was 1 : 4 ,β-CD : water was 1 : 15,the temperature was at 40 ℃ ,and the inclusion time was 3 h. Conclusion The whole inclusion technique is simple,stable and feasible, the yield is high in the optimal process conditions,and the purpose of inclusion was achieved.

  18. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time. PMID:27105154

  19. The Age of Lunar South Circumpolar Craters Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini, and Shackleton: Implications for Regional Geology, Surface Processes, and Volatile Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye, A. R.; Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Mazarico, E.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2015-01-01

    The interiors of the lunar south circumpolar craters Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini, and Shackleton contain permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and have been interpreted to contain sequestered volatiles including water ice. Altimetry data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter provide a new means of examining the permanently shadowed interiors of these craters in unprecedented detail. In this study, we used extremely high-resolution gridded LOLA data of Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini, and Shackleton to determine the size-frequency distributions and the spatial density of craters superposing their rims, inner slopes, and floors. Based on their population of superposed D greater than or equal to 2 km craters, Haworth, Shoemaker, and Faustini have pre-Nectarian formation ages. Shackleton is interpreted as having a Late Imbrian age on the basis of craters with diameter D greater than or equal to 0.5 km superposed on its rim. The local density of craters with sub-km diameters across our study area is strongly dependent on slope; because of its steep interior slopes, the lifetime of craters on the interior of Shackleton is limited. The slope-dependence of the small crater population implies that the population in this size range is controlled primarily by the rate at which craters are destroyed. This is consistent with the hypothesis that crater removal and resurfacing is a result of slopedependent processes such as diffusive mass wasting and seismic shaking, linked to micrometeorite and meteorite bombardment. Epithermal neutron flux data and UV albedo data show that these circumpolar PSRs, particularly Shoemaker, may have approximately 1-2% water ice by mass in their highly porous surface regolith, and that Shoemaker may have approximately 5% or more water ice by mass in the near subsurface. The ancient formation ages of Shoemaker, Faustini and Haworth, and the Late Imbrian (approximately 3.5 Ga) crater retention ages of their

  20. The age of lunar south circumpolar craters Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini, and Shackleton: Implications for regional geology, surface processes, and volatile sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye, A. R.; Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Mazarico, E.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2015-07-01

    The interiors of the lunar south circumpolar craters Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini, and Shackleton contain permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and have been interpreted to contain sequestered volatiles including water ice. Altimetry data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter provide a new means of examining the permanently shadowed interiors of these craters in unprecedented detail. In this study, we used extremely high-resolution gridded LOLA data of Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini, and Shackleton to determine the size-frequency distributions and the spatial density of craters superposing their rims, inner slopes, and floors. Based on their population of superposed D ⩾ 2 km craters, Haworth, Shoemaker, and Faustini have pre-Nectarian formation ages. Shackleton is interpreted as having a Late Imbrian age on the basis of craters with diameter D ⩾ 0.5 km superposed on its rim. The local density of craters with sub-km diameters across our study area is strongly dependent on slope; because of its steep interior slopes, the lifetime of craters on the interior of Shackleton is limited. The slope-dependence of the small crater population implies that the population in this size range is controlled primarily by the rate at which craters are destroyed. This is consistent with the hypothesis that crater removal and resurfacing is a result of slope-dependent processes such as diffusive mass wasting and seismic shaking, linked to micrometeorite and meteorite bombardment. Epithermal neutron flux data and UV albedo data show that these circumpolar PSRs, particularly Shoemaker, may have ∼1-2% water ice by mass in their highly porous surface regolith, and that Shoemaker may have ∼5% or more water ice by mass in the near subsurface. The ancient formation ages of Shoemaker, Faustini and Haworth, and the Late Imbrian (∼3.5 Ga) crater retention ages of their floors suggests that any water ice that might have been deposited in

  1. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl2, and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al2O3.CaCl2) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl2. Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl2.

  2. Stochastic Volatility and DSGE Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller

    This paper argues that a specification of stochastic volatility commonly used to analyze the Great Moderation in DSGE models may not be appropriate, because the level of a process with this specification does not have conditional or unconditional moments. This is unfortunate because agents may as a...... result expect productivity and hence consumption to be inifinite in all future periods. This observation is followed by three ways to overcome the problem....

  3. Pyrolysis and volatilization of cocaine

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The increasing popularity of inhaling cocaine vapor prompted the present study, to determine cocaine's fate during this process. The free base of [3H]cocaine (1 microCi/50 mg) was added to a glass pipe, which was then heated in a furnace to simulate freebasing. Negative pressure was used to draw the vapor through a series of glass wool, ethanol, acidic, and basic traps. Air flow rate and temperature were found to have profound effects on the volatilization and pyrolysis of cocaine. At a temperature of 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min, 37% of the radioactivity remained in the pipe, 39% was found in the glass wool trap, and less than 1% in the remainder of the volatilization apparatus after a 10-min volatilization. Reducing the air flow rate to 100 mL/min reduced the amount of radioactivity collected in the glass wool trap to less than 10% of the starting material and increased the amount that remained in the pipe to 58%. GC/MS analysis of the contents of the glass wool trap after volatilization at 260 degrees C and a flow rate of 400 mL/min revealed that 60% of the cocaine remained intact, while approximately 6 and 2% of the starting material was recovered as benzoic acid and methylecgonidine, respectively. As the temperature was increased to 650 degrees C, benzoic acid and methylecgonidine accounted for 83 and 89% of the starting material, respectively, whereas only 2% of the cocaine remained intact. Quantitation of cocaine in the vapor during the course of volatilization revealed high concentrations during the first two min and low concentrations for the remaining time

  4. Processo de organofilização de vermiculia brasileira com cloreto de cetiltrimetilamônio Organophilization process of Brazilian vermiculite with cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. D Gomes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A vermiculita, argila da família dos aluminossilicatos 2:1 proveniente do estado de Goiás, Brasil, foi utilizada para a produção de uma argila organofílica. A vermiculita foi primeiramente submetida ao tratamento com cloreto de sódio para a obtenção de uma argila homoiônica sódica. A argila organofílica foi, então, obtida a partir da síntese com o sal de amônio quaternário, cloreto de cetiltrimetil amônio. As argilas, tratada com o sal orgânico e a não tratada, foram caracterizadas por espectrometria de fluorescência de raios X, espectroscopia de absorção na região do infravermelho, difração de raios X e análise termogravimétrica. Os resultados de fluorescência de raios X evidenciaram a mudança na composição química da vermiculita após as reações de troca com NaCl e sal orgânico. Os resultados obtidos por espectroscopia de absorção na região do infravermelho mostraram a presença dos grupos característicos do sal na argila e os de difração de raios X confirmaram sua intercalação entre as camadas da argila. Os resultados de análise termogravimétrica mostraram que a argila organofílica apresentou outras faixas de decomposição, além daquelas apresentadas pela vermiculita natural, correspondentes à decomposição do sal de amônio quaternário.The vermiculite (VMT, 2:1 aluminosilicate family clay from the state of Goiás, Brazil, was used for the production of an organophilic clay. First, the VMT was treated with sodium chloride to obtain the homo-ionic sodium clay. The organophilic clay was, then, obtained from the reaction with the quaternary ammonium salt, cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride. The clay treated with organic salt and the untreated one were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results of XRF evidenced the change in the chemical composition of the VMT after the

  5. Volume, Volatility and Public News Announcements

    OpenAIRE

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Jia; Xue, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    We provide new empirical evidence for the way in which financial markets process information. Our results are based on high-frequency intraday data along with new econometric techniques for making inference on the relationship between trading intensity and spot volatility around public news announcements. Consistent with the predictions derived from a theoretical model in which investors agree to disagree, our estimates for the intraday volume-volatility elasticity around the most important n...

  6. Hydrolysis of ferric chloride in solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lussiez, G.; Beckstead, L.

    1996-11-01

    The Detox{trademark} process uses concentrated ferric chloride and small amounts of catalysts to oxidize organic compounds. It is under consideration for oxidizing transuranic organic wastes. Although the solution is reused extensively, at some point it will reach the acceptable limit of radioactivity or maximum solubility of the radioisotopes. This solution could be cemented, but the volume would be increased substantially because of the poor compatibility of chlorides and cement. A process has been developed that recovers the chloride ions as HCl and either minimizes the volume of radioactive waste or permits recycling of the radioactive chlorides. The process involves a two-step hydrolysis at atmospheric pressure, or preferably under a slight vacuum, and relatively low temperature, about 200{degrees}C. During the first step of the process, hydrolysis occurs according to the reaction below: FeCl{sub 3 liquid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} FeOCl{sub solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas} During the second step, the hot, solid, iron oxychloride is sprayed with water or placed in contact with steam, and hydrolysis proceeds to the iron oxide according to the following reaction: 2 FeOCl{sub solid} + H{sub 2}O {r_arrow} Fe{sub 2}O{sub 3 solid} + 2 HCl{sub gas}. The iron oxide, which contains radioisotopes, can then be disposed of by cementation or encapsulation. Alternately, these chlorides can be washed off of the solids and can then either be recycled or disposed of in some other way.

  7. Estimation of a multivariate stochastic volatility density by kernel deconvolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Es; P. Spreij

    2011-01-01

    We consider a continuous time stochastic volatility model. The model contains a stationary volatility process. We aim to estimate the multivariate density of the finite-dimensional distributions of this process. We assume that we observe the process at discrete equidistant instants of time. The dist

  8. Armazenamento de sementes tratadas com cloreto de mepiquat e desenvolvimento de plântulas de algodoeiro Processing of seeds treated with mepiquat chloride and the development of cotton seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliege Aparecida de Paiva Oliveira

    2012-04-01

    objective was to evaluate the development of cotton seedlings, grown from seeds treated with chloride mepiquat at different doses, application forms and stored after treatment. The seeds were treated with '120 IPR' solutions mepiquat chloride at doses of zero, 5, 10, 15 and 20g a. i kg-1 seed, via soaking for 12 hours and via direct application in seed. The treated seeds were stored in laboratory conditions and evaluated monthly until 180 days. We evaluated the germination, the length of shoot, root and total, the dry weight of seedlings. The data for each storage period, were subjected to analysis of variance and means of application methods were compared by Tukey test at 5%, under the completely randomized design with four replications in a factorial 5x2 (doses x application forms. The data were subjected to doses of regression studies until 2nd grade. Seeds treated with mepiquat chloride, independent of dose and can be stored for up to 180 days after treatment, without compromising the process of germination and growth regulator action. Treatment via soaking of seeds with mepiquat chloride provides the greatest reduction in seedling growth in relation to direct application. The increased rate of mepiquat chloride causes the reduction the growth and development of cotton seedlings, providing less length and dry mass.

  9. Asymptotic Behavior of the Stock Price Distribution Density and Implied Volatility in Stochastic Volatility Models

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the asymptotic behavior of distribution densities arising in stock price models with stochastic volatility. The main objects of our interest in the present paper are the density of time averages of the squared volatility process and the density of the stock price process in the Stein-Stein and the Heston model. We find explicit formulas for leading terms in asymptotic expansions of these densities and give error estimates. As an application of our results, sharp asymptotic formulas for the implied volatility in the Stein-Stein and the Heston model are obtained.

  10. Volatility persistence in crude oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial market participants and policy-makers can benefit from a better understanding of how shocks can affect volatility over time. This study assesses the impact of structural changes and outliers on volatility persistence of three crude oil markets – Brent, West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) – between January 2, 1985 and June 17, 2011. We identify outliers using a new semi-parametric test based on conditional heteroscedasticity models. These large shocks can be associated with particular event patterns, such as the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq, the Operation Desert Storm, the Operation Desert Fox, and the Global Financial Crisis as well as OPEC announcements on production reduction or US announcements on crude inventories. We show that outliers can bias (i) the estimates of the parameters of the equation governing volatility dynamics; (ii) the regularity and non-negativity conditions of GARCH-type models (GARCH, IGARCH, FIGARCH and HYGARCH); and (iii) the detection of structural breaks in volatility, and thus the estimation of the persistence of the volatility. Therefore, taking into account the outliers on the volatility modelling process may improve the understanding of volatility in crude oil markets. - Highlights: • We study the impact of outliers on volatility persistence of crude oil markets. • We identify outliers and patches of outliers due to specific events. • We show that outliers can bias (i) the estimates of the parameters of GARCH models, (ii) the regularity and non-negativity conditions of GARCH-type models, (iii) the detection of structural breaks in volatility of crude oil markets

  11. Pyrolysis of poly(vinyl chloride) and-electric arc furnacedust mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harahsheh, Mohammad; Al-Otoom, Awni; Al-Makhadmah, Leema; Hamilton, Ian E; Kingman, Sam; Al-Asheh, Sameer; Hararah, Muhanned

    2015-12-15

    An investigation into the pyrolysis kinetics of PVC mixed with electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) was performed. Mixtures of both materials with varying PVC ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:3) were prepared and pyrolyzed in a nitrogen atmosphere under dynamic heating conditions at different heating rates (5, 10, 30 and 50 °C/min). The pyrolysis process proceeded through two main decomposition steps; the first step involved the release of HCl which reacted with the metal oxides present in the dust, subsequently forming metal chlorides and water vapor. Benzene was also found to release as detected by TGA-MS. The remaining hydrocarbons in the polymer backbone decomposed further in the second step releasing further volatile hydrocarbons. Different models were used to fit the kinetic data namely the integral, the Van Krevelen, and Coats and Red fern methods. The presence of EAFD during PVC decomposition resulted in a considerable decrease in the activation energy of the reaction occurring during the first decomposition region. Furthermore, iron oxides were retained in the pyrolysis residue, whilst other valuable metals, including Zn and Pb, were converted to chlorides that are recoverable by leaching in water. It is believed that EAFD can be utilized as an active catalyst to produce energy gases such as propyneas evident from the TGA-MS. PMID:26183236

  12. Modified matrix volatilization setup for characterization of high purity germanium.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meruva, Adisesha Reddy; Raparthi, Shekhar; Kumar, Sunil Jai

    2016-01-01

    Modified matrix volatilization (MV) method has been described to characterize high purity germanium material of 7 N (99.99999%) purity. Transport of both, the chlorine gas generated in-situ in this method and the argon gas (carrier) is fine controlled by means of a mass flow controller. This enabled both uniform reaction of chlorine gas with the germanium matrix and smooth removal of germanium matrix as its chloride. This resulted in improvement in the reproducibility of the analytical results. The use of quartz reaction vessel has lead to the reduction in the process blank levels. The combined effect of these modifications in the MV setup has resulted in very consistent and low process blanks and hence improved detection limits of this method. Applicability of the method has been expanded to rare earth elements and other elements after examining their recoveries. The quantification is done by using inductively coupled plasma quadrupole mass spectrometer (ICP-QMS) and continuum source graphite furnace atomic absorption spectrometry (CS-GFAAS). In the absence of certified reference materials for high pure germanium, the accuracy of the method is established by spike recovery tests. The precision of the method has been found to vary from 1 to 30% for concentrations between 1 and 30 ng g(-1). The limits of detection (LOD) for the target analytes are found to be between 18 and 0.033 ng g(-1). PMID:26695261

  13. Asymptotic Behavior of the Stock Price Distribution Density and Implied Volatility in Stochastic Volatility Models

    OpenAIRE

    Gulisashvili, A.; Stein, E. M.

    2009-01-01

    We study the asymptotic behavior of distribution densities arising in stock price models with stochastic volatility. The main objects of our interest in the present paper are the density of time averages of the squared volatility process and the density of the stock price process in the Stein-Stein and the Heston model. We find explicit formulas for leading terms in asymptotic expansions of these densities and give error estimates. As an application of our results, sharp asymptotic formulas f...

  14. Solidification of spent TBP solvent with aluminium chloride compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new techniques for processing spent TBP was investigated. It was proved that treatment of TBP containing DBP with aluminium chloride resulted in the formation of aluminium phosphate suitable for long term storage and final disposal

  15. Non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2014-01-01

    Written for scientists, researchers, and engineers, Non-volatile Memories describes the recent research and implementations in relation to the design of a new generation of non-volatile electronic memories. The objective is to replace existing memories (DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM, Flash, etc.) with a universal memory model likely to reach better performances than the current types of memory: extremely high commutation speeds, high implantation densities and retention time of information of about ten years.

  16. Volatile halogenated hydrocarbons in foods

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Miyahara, Makoto; Toyoda, Masatake; Saito, Yukio [National Institute of Health Services, Tokyo (Japan)] [and others

    1995-02-01

    Volatile halogenated organic compounds were determined in foods. Statistical treatment of the data for 13 sampled from 20 families living in suburban Tokyo (Saitama prefecture) indicated that the foods were contaminated by water pollution and/or substances introduced by the process of food production. Butter and margarine were contaminated by chlorinated ethylene, ethane, and related compounds released by dry cleaning and other operations. Soybean sprouts and tofu (soybean curd) contained chloroform and related trihalomethanes absorbed during the production process. 27 refs., 6 figs., 5 tabs.

  17. Recovering germanium from coal ash by chlorination with ammonium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new process of enriching germanium from coal ash was developed. The process involves in mixing the coal ash and ammonium chloride and then roasting the mixture to produce germanium chloride that is then absorbed by dilute hydrochloric acid and hydrolyzed to germanium oxide. The germanium recovery reached to 80.2% at the optimum condition: mass ratio of NH4Cl/coal ash is 0.15, roasting temperature 400℃ and roasting time 90 min.

  18. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  19. Does implied volatility of currency futures option imply volatility of exchange rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alan T.

    2007-02-01

    By investigating currency futures options, this paper provides an alternative economic implication for the result reported by Stein [Overreactions in the options market, Journal of Finance 44 (1989) 1011-1023] that long-maturity options tend to overreact to changes in the implied volatility of short-maturity options. When a GARCH process is assumed for exchange rates, a continuous-time relationship is developed. We provide evidence that implied volatilities may not be the simple average of future expected volatilities. By comparing the term-structure relationship of implied volatilities with the process of the underlying exchange rates, we find that long-maturity options are more consistent with the exchange rates process. In sum, short-maturity options overreact to the dynamics of underlying assets rather than long-maturity options overreacting to short-maturity options.

  20. On-line gas chromatography of Mo, W and U (oxy)chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Group 6 elements are known to form volatile chlorides and oxychlorides. These compounds are therefore suited for separations with the on-line gaschemistry apparatus OLGA, a device which is able to isolate volatile species at a maximum temperature of 500 C. OLGA has previously been used to study the group 4 and 5 halides. In preparation of experiments with element 106 (Sg seaborgium), a member of group 6, first, a literature survey on the thermochemical properties of chlorides and oxychlorides of Mo and W as well as of the pseudo-group 6 element U was made. Second, OLGA experiments were performed with short-lived isotopes of Mo, W and U, using Cl2, saturated with SOCl2 for chlorination, and different partial pressures of O2. Under such conditions, these elements formed species, which were volatile in quartz chromatography columns at temperatures ≤ 250 C. (orig.)

  1. Long-memory volatility in derivative hedging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Abby

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this work is to take into account the effects of long memory in volatility on derivative hedging. This idea is an extension of the work by Fedotov and Tan [Stochastic long memory process in option pricing, Int. J. Theor. Appl. Finance 8 (2005) 381-392] where they incorporate long-memory stochastic volatility in option pricing and derive pricing bands for option values. The starting point is the stochastic Black-Scholes hedging strategy which involves volatility with a long-range dependence. The stochastic hedging strategy is the sum of its deterministic term that is classical Black-Scholes hedging strategy with a constant volatility and a random deviation term which describes the risk arising from the random volatility. Using the fact that stock price and volatility fluctuate on different time scales, we derive an asymptotic equation for this deviation in terms of the Green's function and the fractional Brownian motion. The solution to this equation allows us to find hedging confidence intervals.

  2. 尼罗罗非鱼暂养阶段挥发性成分的变化%Changes of Volatile Components in Nile Tilapia during Purging Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜伟光; 李小定; 王术娥; 熊善柏; 付娜; 王红梅; 胡芬; 杨晓波; 龚霞

    2011-01-01

    The volatile compounds in the muscle of Tilapia nilotica during 12 days of purging in autumn were extracted by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Totally 31 kinds of volatile compounds were isolated and identified including aldehydes, hydrocarbons, Kwai alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters, terpenes, and others, in which aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons were the top three most abundant compounds, with a relative level to total volatile compounds of 36.97%, 17.85%, 20.70% at the beginning of the purging period and 44.49%, 34.65%, 8.66% at the end of the purging period, respectively. After 8 days of purging, the contents of octanal and nonanal significantly decreased, and neither octatriene nor cyclohexene were detected, which is desirable for the elimination of undesirable odor. Meanwhile, the contents of benzaldehyde and aromatic benzene ring increased, which was helpful in promoting the formation of desirable flavor in tilapia.%以尼罗罗非鱼为原料,通过固相微萃取和气质联用仪对挥发性成分进行萃取和分离鉴定,测定尼罗罗非鱼肉的气味组成,并对暂养阶段的挥发性成分变化做初步分析。结果表明:从尼罗罗非鱼肉中检测出挥发性醛类、烷烃类、芳烃类、醇类、酯类和烯类等31种有效成分,其中含量由高到低依次为醛类、芳烃类和烷烃类,暂养初期和末期分别占挥发性化合物总量的36.97%、17.85%、20.70%和44.49%、34.65%、8.66%。暂养时间为8d时,辛醛和工醛含量有明显的下降,有利于脱除不良风味;辛三烯和环己烯同时未检出,消除了不良气味

  3. Asymmetry Effects of shocks in Chinese Stock Markets Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Ai Jun

    2013-01-01

    The unique characteristics of the Chinese stock markets make it difficult to assume a particular distribution for innovations in returns and the specification form of the volatility process when modelling return volatility with the parametric GARCH family models. This paper therefore applies a...... nonparametric model demonstrates a better performance for return volatility forecasts, particularly for the out-of-sample forecast. The results from this paper have important implications in risk management, portfolio selection, and hedging strategy....

  4. Electrochemical behaviours of scandium in chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrochemical behaviour of scandium(3) ions in an eutectic melt of NaCl-KCl-CsCl at 810-850 K is studied by cyclic voltammetry and chronoamperometry. The process of cathodic reduction of scandium complex ions in chloride melts is found to proceed according to the scheme: Sc(3) → Sc(0) and to be controlled by the rate of ScCl63- complex dissociation

  5. Stochastic Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Structures Exposed to Chloride Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frier, Christian

    2003-01-01

    For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in expensive maintenance and repair actions. Further, a significant reduction of the load-bearing capacity can occur. One mode of corrosion initiation is that the chloride content around...... the reinforcement exceeds a critical threshold value. In the present paper a stochastic model is described by which the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be estimated. The chloride ingress is modeled by a 2-dimensional diffusion process and the diffusion coefficient, surface...

  6. Stochastic modeling of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frier, Christian

    2004-01-01

    For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in expensive maintenance and repair actions. Further, a significant reduction of the load-bearing capacity can occur. One mode of corrosion initiation is that the chloride content around...... the reinforcement exceeds a critical threshold value. In the present paper a stochastic model is described by which the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be estimated. The chloride ingress is modeled by a 2-dimensional diffusion process and the diffusion coefficient, surface...

  7. Tetracycline removal and effect on the formation and degradation of extracellular polymeric substances and volatile fatty acids in the process of hydrogen fermentation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hou, Guangying; Hao, Xiaoyan; Zhang, Rui; Wang, Jing; Liu, Rutao; Liu, Chunguang

    2016-07-01

    Many research indicate antibiotics show adverse effect on methane fermentation, while few research focus on their effect on hydrogen fermentation. The present study aimed to gain insight of the effect of antibiotics on hydrogen fermentation with waste sludge and corn straw as substrate. For this purpose, tetracycline, as a model, was investigated with regard to tetracycline removal, hydrogen production, interaction with extracellular polymeric substances (EPSs) of substrate and volatile fatty acids (VFAs) on concentration and composition. Results show that tetracycline could be removed efficiently by hydrogen fermentation, and relative low-dose tetracycline (200mg/l) exposure affects little on hydrogen production. While tetracycline exposure could change hydrogen fermentation from butyric acid-type to propionic acid-type depending on tetracycline level. Based upon three-dimensional excitation-emission matrix fluorescence spectroscopy and UV-vis tetracycline changed the component and content of EPSs, and static quenching was the main mechanism between EPSs with tetracycline. PMID:27070285

  8. Review of irradiated uranium recycling processes by non-aqueous method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recycling processes of irradiated uranium fuel by non aqueous method have been reviewed. The fluoride volatilization process is carried out by dissolving irradiated uranium fuel in BrF3 or CIF3 to produce UF6 volatile gas and PuF4 and fission products in fluoride form which are then separated by distillation. The chloride volatility process is used for U-Zr alloy fuel by using hydro chlorination process at temperature of 350-600oC to separate ZrCl4 volatile from UCI3 which is then dissolved and distilled. The processes which are carried out at high temperature are pyrochemical and pyrometallurgical. Development of fluorides volatility process for the separation of U-Pu from irradiated uranium fuel is fluidization technique. Oxidation and fluorination reaction can be carried out in a fluidized bed reactor. DUPIC process uses spent fuel of PWR which is directly pulverized into powder for Candu reactor fuel. The review shows that due to the advantage and simplicity, the pyrochemical and oxidation-reduction process can be developed in Indonesia to study the separation of U-Pu from fission products in the irradiated fuel. The fluidization technique can also be developed, but it needs a special facility to handle gaseous reagent. (author)

  9. Volatile organic compound sensor system

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Schabron, John F. (Laramie, WY); Rovani, Jr., Joseph F. (Laramie, WY); Bomstad, Theresa M. (Waxahachie, TX); Sorini-Wong, Susan S. (Laramie, WY); Wong, Gregory K. (Laramie, WY)

    2011-03-01

    Generally, this invention relates to the development of field monitoring methodology for new substances and sensing chemical warfare agents (CWAs) and terrorist substances. It also relates to a portable test kit which may be utilized to measure concentrations of halogenated volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the field. Specifically it relates to systems for reliably field sensing the potential presence of such items while also distinguishing them from other elements potentially present. It also relates to overall systems and processes for sensing, reacting, and responding to an indicated presence of such substance, including modifications of existing halogenated sensors and arrayed sensing systems and methods.

  10. Supercritical fluid extraction of volatile and non-volatile compounds from Schinus molle L.

    OpenAIRE

    M. S. T. Barroso; Villanueva, G.; A. M. Lucas; G. P. Perez; R. M. F. Vargas; G. W. Brun; E. Cassel

    2011-01-01

    Schinus molle L., also known as pepper tree, has been reported to have antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antitumoural and cicatrizing properties. This work studies supercritical fluid extraction (SFE) to obtain volatile and non-volatile compounds from the aerial parts of Schinus molle L. and the influence of the process on the composition of the extracts. Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale extractor with a capacity of 1 L at pressures of 9, 10,...

  11. Lead removal from cathode ray tube glass by the action of calcium hydroxide and poly(vinyl chloride)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • About 99.9% of lead is removed from CRT glass by PbCl2 volatilization. • PVC is used as chlorination agent with the aid of Ca(OH)2 as HCl absorbing material. • The residual calcium silicate has a lead content as low as 140 mg kg−1. • Lead leaching from the residue was below the detection limit. - Abstract: With the development of flat screen technology, the cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used in TV sets became obsolete, leaving huge amounts of lead-containing CRT glass for disposal. We developed a novel lead volatilization process in which PbCl2 was generated in the presence of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as a chlorination agent and Ca(OH)2 as an HCl absorber. PVC was incinerated in air atmosphere and the resulting HCl was captured by Ca(OH)2 before exiting the reactor with the air flow. CaCl2 and Ca(OH)2 reacted with the lead glass forming volatile PbCl2 and crystalline Ca-silicates. Since the reactivity of lead glass with gaseous HCl is negligible, the presence of Ca(OH)2 was essential for the success of this method. At a temperature of 1000 °C, a molar Cl/Pb ratio of 16, and a molar Ca/Si ratio of about 2, approximately 99.9% of the lead was volatilized, leaving a residue with a lead content of 140 mg kg−1. The residual calcium silicate, with its low lead level, has the potential to be repurposed for other uses

  12. Microwave Extraction of Volatiles for Mars Science and ISRU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaulker, William F.

    2012-01-01

    The greatest advantage of microwave heating for volatiles extraction is that excavation can be greatly reduced. Surface support operations would be simple consisting of rovers with drilling capability for insertion of microwaves down bore holes to heat at desired depths. The rovers would also provide support to scientific instruments for volatiles analysis and for volatiles collection and storage. The process has the potential for a much lower mass and a less complex system than other in-situ processes. Microwave energy penetrates the surface heating within with subsequent sublimation of water or decomposition of volatile containing minerals. On Mars the volatiles should migrate to the surface to be captured with a cold trap. The water extraction and transport process coupled with atmospheric CO2 collection could readily lead to a propellant production process, H2O + CO2 yields CH4 + O2.

  13. Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and virulence in Listeria monocytogenes.

    OpenAIRE

    MYERS, E. R.; Dallmier, A W; Martin, S E

    1993-01-01

    Virulence, as determined in a mouse model, and the virulence factor activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and listeriolysin O were examined in a parental strain (10403S) and in a nonhemolytic mutant strain (DP-L224) of Listeria monocytogenes. The cells were propagated in media containing various concentrations of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. Strains 10403S and DP-L224 exhibited significant increases in catalase activity and listeriolysin O activity when grown in medium conta...

  14. The ANAMMOX reactor under transient-state conditions: process stability with fluctuations of the nitrogen concentration, inflow rate, pH and sodium chloride addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-Jin; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2012-09-01

    The process stability of an anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) was investigated in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor subjected to overloads of 2.0- to 3.0-fold increases in substrate concentrations, inflow rates lasting 12 or 24h, extreme pH levels of 4 and 10 for 12h and a 12-h 30 g l(-1) NaCl addition. During the overloads, the nitrogen removal rate improved, and the shock period was an important factor affecting the reactor performance. In the high pH condition, the reactor performance significantly degenerated; while in the low pH condition, it did not happen. The NaCl addition caused the most serious deterioration in the reactor, which took 108 h to recover and was accompanied by a stoichiometric ratio divergence. There are well correlations between the total nitrogen and the electrical conductivity which is considered to be a convenient signal for controlling and monitoring the ANAMMOX process under transient-state conditions. PMID:22728197

  15. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty and ...... are self-contained and can be read independently. There is however a common thread in the themes covered as all essays focus on the understanding of interest rate volatility, its time-variation and main determinants....

  16. The implied volatility smirk

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, JE; Xiang, Y.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an industry standard on how to quantify the shape of the implied volatility smirk in the equity index options market. Our local expansion method uses a second-order polynomial to describe the implied volatility-moneyness function and relates the coefficients of the polynomial to the properties of the implied risk-neutral distribution of the equity index return. We present a formal, two-way representation of the link between the level, slope and curvature of the implied vol...

  17. Evidence of Production of Neutral Cl35 Atoms by the Cl35 (n, p)S35 Process in Alkali Metal Chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A number of investigations reported in the literature have shown that S35 produced by the Cl35 (n, p)S35 process in neutron-irradiated alkali metal halides may be separated as S= , SO=3 and SO=4 after the irradiated crystals are dissolved in aqueous solutions of the appropriate carriers. The relative amounts of the three chemical forms depend on the purity of the sample and the conditions of irradiation and analysis. Attempts to identify neutral S35 atoms among the products of the neutron irradiation have been limited by the fact that elemental sulphur is too insoluble to use as a carrier in aqueous solution and by the exchange and adsorption processes which interfere when heterogeneous extraction processes are used. However, we have observed chemical evidence for an S35 species with properties which might be expected for neutral monatomic sulphur. When vacuum-sublimed, neutron-irradiated KCl is dissolved in degassed 0.3N aqueous NaOH containing S=, SO=3 and SO=4 , analysis for the three species typically shows 90% of the S35 activity as S=, 7% as SO=3 and 3% as SO=4 . When an identical experiment is done in which the carriers are added to the 0.3N NaOH solution after adding the KCl the typical S35 yields are 30% S=, 30% SO3 and 40% SO=4. Thus some 60% of the S35 species found in the S=3 fraction when the KCl is dissolved in the presence of carriers is found as SO=4 and SO=3 when the carriers are added after dissolution of the KCl. Since monatomic sulphur is thermodynamically unstable in H2O with respect to oxidation (ΔF = -5900 kcal/mole for S + 4H2O → 3H2O → 3H2 + H2SO4), and since it would also be expected to exchange readily with S= carrier these results suggest that some 60% of the S35 may be present in the irradiated KCl crystals as neutral monatomic S. Similar evidence for neutral S35 atoms has been obtained from neutron-irradiated crystals of NaCl, RbCl and CsCl. The effects of S= carrier concentration at the time of dissolution and of gamma

  18. Experimental determination and chemical modelling of radiolytic processes at the spent fuel/water interface. Experiments carried out in carbonate solutions in absence and presence of chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bruno, Jordi; Cera, Esther; Grive, Mireia; Duro, Lara [Enviros Spain SL (Spain); Eriksen, Trygve [Royal Inst. of Tech., Stockholm (Sweden). Dept. of Nuclear Chemistry

    2003-01-01

    We report on the recent experimental and modelling results of a research programme that started in 1995. The aim has been to understand the kinetic and thermodynamic processes that control the radiolytic generation of oxidants and reductants at the spent fuel water interface and their consequences for spent fuel matrix stability and radionuclide release. This has been done by carrying out well-controlled dissolution experiments of PWR Ringhals spent fuel fragments in an initially anoxic closed system and by using different solution compositions. Experimental series started with several tests carried out with deionised water as solvent, in a second phase experiments were conducted with 10 mM bicarbonate solutions. New experimental series were set up during the last two years by using the same bicarbonate content in solutions with varying NaCl concentrations in order to ascertain the role of this ligand on the radiolytic products and its consequence for radionuclide release. The selected NaCl concentrations are in the range of 0.1 to 10 mM. Experimental data shows that uranium dissolution at early contact times is controlled by the oxidation of the UO{sub 2} matrix. This process controls the co-dissolution of most of the analysed radionuclides, including Sr, Mo, Tc, Np and surprisingly enough, Cs. In the overall the release rates for U and the matrix associated radionuclides are in the range of 10{sup -6} moles/day with a clear decreasing trend with exposure time and after 2 years the initial release rates have decreased down to 3x10{sup -8} moles/day. The solubility of the released actinides appears to be limited by the formation of An(IV) hydroxide phases, although Np concentrations in solution did not reach solubility levels during the time intervals of the present tests. No secondary solid phase appears to control the solubility of the rest of the elements.

  19. Experimental determination and chemical modelling of radiolytic processes at the spent fuel/water interface. Experiments carried out in carbonate solutions in absence and presence of chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We report on the recent experimental and modelling results of a research programme that started in 1995. The aim has been to understand the kinetic and thermodynamic processes that control the radiolytic generation of oxidants and reductants at the spent fuel water interface and their consequences for spent fuel matrix stability and radionuclide release. This has been done by carrying out well-controlled dissolution experiments of PWR Ringhals spent fuel fragments in an initially anoxic closed system and by using different solution compositions. Experimental series started with several tests carried out with deionised water as solvent, in a second phase experiments were conducted with 10 mM bicarbonate solutions. New experimental series were set up during the last two years by using the same bicarbonate content in solutions with varying NaCl concentrations in order to ascertain the role of this ligand on the radiolytic products and its consequence for radionuclide release. The selected NaCl concentrations are in the range of 0.1 to 10 mM. Experimental data shows that uranium dissolution at early contact times is controlled by the oxidation of the UO2 matrix. This process controls the co-dissolution of most of the analysed radionuclides, including Sr, Mo, Tc, Np and surprisingly enough, Cs. In the overall the release rates for U and the matrix associated radionuclides are in the range of 10-6 moles/day with a clear decreasing trend with exposure time and after 2 years the initial release rates have decreased down to 3x10-8 moles/day. The solubility of the released actinides appears to be limited by the formation of An(IV) hydroxide phases, although Np concentrations in solution did not reach solubility levels during the time intervals of the present tests. No secondary solid phase appears to control the solubility of the rest of the elements

  20. Computational modelling of chloride ion transport in reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Meijers, S.J.H.; Bijen, J.M.J.M.; De Borst, R.; Fraaij, A.L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Exposure to a saline environment is a major threat with respect to the durability of reinforced concrete structures. The chloride ions, which are present in seawater and de-icing salts, are able to penetrate the concrete up to the depth of the reinforcement. They can eventually trigger a pitting corrosion process. The assessment of a corrosion-free service life of concrete structures is of paramount economic interest. However, the modelling of the ingress of chloride ions is complicated due t...

  1. Valuation equations for stochastic volatility models

    CERN Document Server

    Bayraktar, Erhan; Xing, Hao

    2010-01-01

    We study the valuation partial differential equation for European contingent claims in a general framework of stochastic volatility models. The standard Feynman-Kac theorem cannot be directly applied because the diffusion coefficients may degenerate on the boundaries of the state space and grow faster than linearly. We allow for various types of model behavior; for example, the volatility process in our model can potentially reach zero and either stay there or instantaneously reflect, and asset-price processes may be strict local martingales under a given risk-neutral measure. Our main result is an extension of the standard Feynman-Kac theorem in the context of stochastic volatility models. Sharp results on the existence and uniqueness of classical solutions to the valuation equation are obtained using a combination of probabilistic and analytical techniques. The role of boundary conditions is also discussed.

  2. Detecting instability in the volatility of carbon prices

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article investigates the presence of outliers in the volatility of carbon prices. We compute three different measures of volatility for European Union Allowances, based on daily data (EGARCH model), option prices (implied volatility), and intraday data (realized volatility). Based on the methodology developed by Zeileis et al. (2003) and Zeileis (2006), we detect instability in the volatility of carbon prices based on two kinds of tests: retrospective tests (OLS-/Recursive-based CUSUM processes, F-statistics, and residual sum of squares), and forward-looking tests (by monitoring structural changes recursively or with moving estimates). We show evidence of strong shifts mainly for the EGARCH and IV models during the time period. Overall, we suggest that yearly compliance events, and growing uncertainties in post-Kyoto international agreements, may explain the instability in the volatility of carbon prices. (author)

  3. Option Valuation with Observable Volatility and Jump Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunou, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    Under very general conditions, the total quadratic variation of a jump-diffusion process can be decomposed into diffusive volatility and squared jump variation. We use this result to develop a new option valuation model in which the underlying asset price exhibits volatility and jump intensity...... dynamics. The volatility and jump intensity dynamics in the model are directly driven by model-free empirical measures of diffusive volatility and jump variation. Because the empirical measures are observed in discrete intervals, our option valuation model is cast in discrete time, allowing for...

  4. Explicit implied volatilities for multifactor local-stochastic volatility models

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Lorig; Stefano Pagliarani; Andrea Pascucci

    2013-01-01

    We consider an asset whose risk-neutral dynamics are described by a general class of local-stochastic volatility models and derive a family of asymptotic expansions for European-style option prices and implied volatilities. Our implied volatility expansions are explicit; they do not require any special functions nor do they require numerical integration. To illustrate the accuracy and versatility of our method, we implement it under five different model dynamics: CEV local volatility, quadrat...

  5. Idiosyncratic volatility, stock market volatility, and expected stock returns

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Guo; Robert Savickas

    2005-01-01

    We find that the value-weighted idiosyncratic stock volatility and aggregate stock market volatility jointly exhibit strong predictive power for excess stock market returns. The stock market risk-return relation is found to be positive, as stipulated by the CAPM; however, idiosyncratic volatility is negatively related to future stock market returns. Also, idiosyncratic volatility appears to be a pervasive macrovariable, and its forecasting abilities are very similar to those of the consumptio...

  6. It’s all about volatility of volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    the realized volatility series. It emerges that during the recent financial crisis the relative weight of the daily component dominates over the monthly term. The estimates of the two factor stochastic volatility model suggest that the change in the dynamic structure of the realized volatility during...

  7. Chloride channels in stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-ping ZHANG; Hao ZHANG; Dayue Darrel DUAN

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles,including proliferation,migration,and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs),is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain,ie,stroke.Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Clˉ) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke.At least three Clˉ channel genes are expressed in VSMCs:1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1),which may encode the calcium-activated Clˉ channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Clˉ channel and Clˉ/H+ antiporter,which is closely related to the volume-regulated Clˉ channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR),which encodes the PKA-and PKC-activated Clˉ channels.Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization,vasoconstriction,and inhibition of VSMC proliferation.Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species,induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs.Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension.In addition,Clˉ current mediated by gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death.This review focuses on the functional roles of Clˉ channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Clˉ channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke.

  8. Metal dissolution and maximum stress during SCC process of ferritic (type 430) and austenitic (type 304 and type 316) stainless steels in acidic chloride solutions under constant applied stress

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    By using a constant load method and inductive coupled plasma (ICP) spectrometer, the metal dissolution and maximum stress (σmair) of type 430 ferritic stainless, and type 304 and type 316 austenitic stainless steels during stress corrosion cracking (SCC) process were investigated under a constant applied stress condition in 0.82 kmol/m3 hydrochloric acid (HCl) and 0.82 kmol/m3 acidic chloride (pH 1.0) solutions. The σmair of the specimens interrupted at various elongations up to failure under the same constant applied stress condition was measured at room temperature and air atmosphere by using an Instron type tensile machine. The metal dissolution behaviour of the stainless steels changed at the transition time (tss) in the corrosion elongation curve; that is, the dissolution rate before tss was larger than that after tss. The σmair decreased gradually with increasing elongation, but showed a rapid small reduction at tss and then decreased with elongation with a sudden reduction around fracture. The results obtained were discussed in terms of the amount of metal ions per the number of cracks, selective dissolution, reduction in cross sectional area and so on

  9. Dynamic Volatility Arbitrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorn, Jochen

    concepts, next to nothing is known about position reverting strategies and how, and -even more important- in which context they are applied in practice. In the recent market downturn only one sector generated signicant profits for the leading investment banks: Volatility trading activities, namely on Forex...... industry so far....

  10. Idiosyncratic Volatility Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Lambertides, Neophytos;

    from a large pool of macroeconomic and Önancial variables. Cleaning for macro-Önance e§ects reverses the puzzling negative relation between returns and idiosyncratic volatility documented previously. Portfolio analysis shows that the e§ects from macro-Önance factors are economically strong. The...

  11. A Jump Diffusion Model for Volatility and Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Wei; Pelletier, Denis

    the market microstructure theory. Traditional measures of volatility do not utilize durations. I adopt a jump diffusion process to model the persistence of intraday volatility and conditional duration, and their interdependence. The jump component is disentangled from the continuous part of the price...

  12. Option Valuation with Observable Volatility and Jump Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    Under very general conditions, the total quadratic variation of a jump-diffusion process can be decomposed into diffusive volatility and squared jump variation. We use this result to develop a new option valuation model in which the underlying asset price exhibits volatility and jump intensity dy...

  13. Configuration of Pluto's Volatile Ices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grundy, William M.; Binzel, R. P.; Cook, J. C.; Cruikshank, D. P.; Dalle Ore, C. M.; Earle, A. M.; Ennico, K.; Jennings, D. E.; Howett, C. J. A.; Linscott, I. R.; Lunsford, A. W.; Olkin, C. B.; Parker, A. H.; Parker, J. Wm; Protopapa, S.; Reuter, D. C.; Singer, K. N.; Spencer, J. R.; Stern, S. A.; Tsang, C. C. C.; Verbiscer, A. J.; Weaver, H. A.; Young, L. A.; Berry, K.; Buie, M. W.; Stansberry, J. A.

    2015-11-01

    We report on near-infrared remote sensing by New Horizons' Ralph instrument (Reuter et al. 2008, Space Sci. Rev. 140, 129-154) of Pluto's N2, CO, and CH4 ices. These especially volatile ices are mobile even at Pluto's cryogenic surface temperatures. Sunlight reflected from these ices becomes imprinted with their characteristic spectral absorption bands. The detailed appearance of these absorption features depends on many aspects of local composition, thermodynamic state, and texture. Multiple-scattering radiative transfer models are used to retrieve quantitative information about these properties and to map how they vary across Pluto's surface. Using parameter maps derived from New Horizons observations, we investigate the striking regional differences in the abundances and scattering properties of Pluto's volatile ices. Comparing these spatial patterns with the underlying geology provides valuable constraints on processes actively modifying the planet's surface, over a variety of spatial scales ranging from global latitudinal patterns to more regional and local processes within and around the feature informally known as Sputnik Planum. This work was supported by the NASA New Horizons Project.

  14. Implied Volatility Functions: Empirical Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Bernard J; Fleming, Jeff; Robert E. Whaley

    1996-01-01

    Black and Scholes (1973) implied volatilities tend to be systematically related to the option's exercise price and time to expiration. Derman and Kani (1994), Dupire (1994), and Rubinstein (1994) attribute this behavior to the fact that the Black-Scholes constant volatility assumption is violated in practice. These authors hypothesize that the volatility of the underlying asset's return is a deterministic function of the asset price and time and develop the deterministic volatility function (...

  15. Dividend Taxes and Stock Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, Erin E. Syron

    2015-01-01

    How do dividend taxes affect stock volatility? In this paper, I use a decrease in dividend taxes as a natural experiment to identify their impact on firm's price volatility. If a risk-averse executive faces price risk through his incentive contract, changes in stock volatility due to dividend taxes may increase agency costs and therefore decrease overall welfare. Stock volatility decreased after the tax cut for firms where an executive has large holdings of shares and options relative to firm...

  16. Volatility investing with variance swaps

    OpenAIRE

    Härdle, Wolfgang Karl; Silyakova, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally volatility is viewed as a measure of variability, or risk, of an underlying asset. However recently investors began to look at volatility from a different angle. It happened due to emergence of a market for new derivative instruments - variance swaps. In this paper first we introduse the general idea of the volatility trading using variance swaps. Then we describe valuation and hedging methodology for vanilla variance swaps as well as for the 3-rd generation volatility derivativ...

  17. Alternative Asymmetric Stochastic Volatility Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe stochastic volatility model usually incorporates asymmetric effects by introducing the negative correlation between the innovations in returns and volatility. In this paper, we propose a new asymmetric stochastic volatility model, based on the leverage and size effects. The model is

  18. The exploitation of volatile oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Teng; ZHANG Da; TENG Xiangjin; LINing; HAO Zaibin

    2007-01-01

    Rose is a kind of favorite ornamental plant. This article briefly introduced the cultivation and the use of rose around the world both in ancient time and nowadays. Today, volatile oil becomes the mainstream of the rose industry. People pay attention to the effect of volatile oil; meanwhile, they speed up their research on extracting volatile oil and the ingredients.

  19. Mechanisms of chloride decomposition in upgrading oil sands bitumen

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Le, T.; Diaz, D.; Gray, M. [Alberta Univ., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Dept. of Chemical and Materials Engineering; Eaton, P. [Champion Technologies, Fresno, TX (United States); Wu, A. [Syncrude Canada Ltd., Edmonton, AB (Canada). Edmonton Research Centre

    2004-07-01

    In addition to clay minerals, bitumens from mining operations contain chloride salts because of the salinity of the extraction process water and the connate water in the ore. These chlorides form corrosive hydrochloric acid. High concentrations of organic acid components known as naphthenic acids are also found in bitumen from Alberta's oil sands. These also cause corrosion. Chloride salts, clays and organic acids may interact in the presence of steam to promote hydrochloric acid formation causing major corrosion problems in downstream facilities. This study examined the behaviour of these components under upgrading conditions. In particular, it examined the rate and the extent of the hydrolysis reactions for salts found in bitumen. Mixtures of bitumen, salts and organic acids were exposed to flowing steam at 100 to 400 degrees C under nitrogen purge. Ion chromatography was used to analyze the condensed vapours for chloride.

  20. Pricing foreign equity option with stochastic volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Qi; Xu, Weidong

    2015-11-01

    In this paper we propose a general foreign equity option pricing framework that unifies the vast foreign equity option pricing literature and incorporates the stochastic volatility into foreign equity option pricing. Under our framework, the time-changed Lévy processes are used to model the underlying assets price of foreign equity option and the closed form pricing formula is obtained through the use of characteristic function methodology. Numerical tests indicate that stochastic volatility has a dramatic effect on the foreign equity option prices.

  1. 海洋潮汐区混凝土中氯离子传输过程的试验室模拟方法%An accelerated simulation experimental method of transport process of chloride in concrete exposed to splash from seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔巍; 姬永生; 张博雅; 马会荣; 张领雷

    2012-01-01

    The chloride contamination is one of the main causes that induce the corrosion of steel in concrete. The research on the accelerated simulation experimental method is very significant for studying transport process of chloride in concrete. A contrast experiment was carried out to study transport process of chloride in ocean environment in the paper. The test results indicate that the rate of chloride transport in concrete under wet and dry cycles (exposed to splash from seawater) is faster than that immersed in seawater. It suggests that the mechanisms of chloride transport process are quite different in various environments. The transport mechanism of chloride in concrete exposed to splash from seawater in ocean environments was analyzed. An accelerated experimental method of "spray-air-dry" wet and dry recycling was found. The further study shows that it is a very effective method,by which the transport mechanism of chloride is in correspondence with that exposed to splash from seawater.%Cl-侵蚀是造成混凝土内钢筋锈蚀的主要原因,研究混凝土中氯离子侵蚀过程的试验室模拟方法是进行氯离子侵蚀过程研究的重要条件.本文通过实际海洋工程潮汐区和水下浸泡区氯离子传输过程的对比试验,揭示了干湿循环条件下氯离子在混凝土中的传输速率远大于饱水混凝土内外浓差引起的氯离子扩散速率,从而证明传统的浸泡试验方法无法用来预测干湿循环条件下氯离子传输速率,并在此基础上提出了实际海洋工程潮汐区氯离子传输过程的模拟试验方法,试验证明氯盐溶液喷淋—风干循环加速试验的氯离子传输机理和实际海洋环境潮汐区相同,是模拟海洋潮汐区的氯离子传输过程非常有效的方法.

  2. Asymmetry and Leverage in Conditional Volatility Models

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Michael McAleer

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available The three most popular univariate conditional volatility models are the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH model of Engle (1982 and Bollerslev (1986, the GJR (or threshold GARCH model of Glosten, Jagannathan and Runkle (1992, and the exponential GARCH (or EGARCH model of Nelson (1990, 1991. The underlying stochastic specification to obtain GARCH was demonstrated by Tsay (1987, and that of EGARCH was shown recently in McAleer and Hafner (2014. These models are important in estimating and forecasting volatility, as well as in capturing asymmetry, which is the different effects on conditional volatility of positive and negative effects of equal magnitude, and purportedly in capturing leverage, which is the negative correlation between returns shocks and subsequent shocks to volatility. As there seems to be some confusion in the literature between asymmetry and leverage, as well as which asymmetric models are purported to be able to capture leverage, the purpose of the paper is three-fold, namely, (1 to derive the GJR model from a random coefficient autoregressive process, with appropriate regularity conditions; (2 to show that leverage is not possible in the GJR and EGARCH models; and (3 to present the interpretation of the parameters of the three popular univariate conditional volatility models in a unified manner.

  3. Investment timing under hybrid stochastic and local volatility

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • The effects of hybrid stochastic volatility on real option prices are studied. • The stochastic volatility consists of a fast mean-reverting component and a CEV type one. • A fast mean-reverting factor lowers real option prices and investment thresholds. • The increase of elasticity raises real option prices and investment thresholds. • The effects of the addition of a slowly varying factor depend upon the project value. - Abstract: We consider an investment timing problem under a real option model where the instantaneous volatility of the project value is given by a combination of a hidden stochastic process and the project value itself. The stochastic volatility part is given by a function of a fast mean-reverting process as well as a slowly varying process and the local volatility part is a power (the elasticity parameter) of the project value itself. The elasticity parameter controls directly the correlation between the project value and the volatility. Knowing that the project value represents the market price of a real asset in many applications and the value of the elasticity parameter depends on the asset, the elasticity parameter should be treated with caution for investment decision problems. Based on the hybrid structure of volatility, we investigate the simultaneous impact of the elasticity and the stochastic volatility on the real option value as well as the investment threshold

  4. Volatile species retention during metallic fuel casting

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fielding, Randall S., E-mail: randall.fielding@inl.gov; Porter, Douglas L.

    2013-10-15

    Metallic nuclear fuels are candidate transmutation fuel forms for advanced fuel cycles. Through the operation of the Experimental Breeder Reactor II metallic nuclear fuels have been shown to be robust and easily manufactured. However, concerns have been raised concerning loss of americium during the casting process because of its high vapor pressure. In order to address these concerns a gaseous diffusion model was developed and a series of experiments using both manganese and samarium as surrogates for americium were conducted. The modeling results showed that volatility losses can be controlled to essentially no losses with a modest overpressure. Experimental results also showed volatile species retention down to no detectable losses through overpressure, and although the loss values varied from the model results the same trend was seen. Based on these results it is very probable that americium losses through volatility can be controlled to no detectable losses through application of a modest overpressure during casting.

  5. Inflation, volatility and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Judson; Athanasios Orphanides

    1996-01-01

    This paper re-examines the relationship between inflation, inflation volatility and growth using cross-country panel data for the past 30 years. With regard to the level of inflation, we find that in contrast to current findings which are based on cross-sectional time-average regression comparisons, exploiting the time dimension of the data reveals a strong negative correlation between inflation and income growth for all but very low inflation countries. To examine the role of inflation uncer...

  6. Stochastic Volatility Demand Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolos Serletis; Maksim Isakin

    2014-01-01

    We address the estimation of stochastic volatility demand systems. In particular, we relax the homoscedasticity assumption and instead assume that the covariance matrix of the errors of demand systems is time-varying. Since most economic and fiÂ…nancial time series are nonlinear, we achieve superior modeling using parametric nonlinear demand systems in which the unconditional variance is constant but the conditional variance, like the conditional mean, is also a random variable depending on c...

  7. Modelling the Volatility-Return Trade-off when Volatility may be Nonstationary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian Møller; Iglesias, Emma M.

    Picard (1992b). Furthermore, allowing for nonstationary volatility, the asymptotic properties of the estimated parameters by quasi-maximum likelihood in the GARCH-AR process are established. Finally, we stress the importance of being able to choose correctly between AR-GARCH and GARCH-AR processes: First...

  8. Silicon isotopes in angrites and volatile loss in planetesimals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pringle, Emily A; Moynier, Frédéric; Savage, Paul S; Badro, James; Barrat, Jean-Alix

    2014-12-01

    Inner solar system bodies, including the Earth, Moon, and asteroids, are depleted in volatile elements relative to chondrites. Hypotheses for this volatile element depletion include incomplete condensation from the solar nebula and volatile loss during energetic impacts. These processes are expected to each produce characteristic stable isotope signatures. However, processes of planetary differentiation may also modify the isotopic composition of geochemical reservoirs. Angrites are rare meteorites that crystallized only a few million years after calcium-aluminum-rich inclusions and exhibit extreme depletions in volatile elements relative to chondrites, making them ideal samples with which to study volatile element depletion in the early solar system. Here we present high-precision Si isotope data that show angrites are enriched in the heavy isotopes of Si relative to chondritic meteorites by 50-100 ppm/amu. Silicon is sufficiently volatile such that it may be isotopically fractionated during incomplete condensation or evaporative mass loss, but theoretical calculations and experimental results also predict isotope fractionation under specific conditions of metal-silicate differentiation. We show that the Si isotope composition of angrites cannot be explained by any plausible core formation scenario, but rather reflects isotope fractionation during impact-induced evaporation. Our results indicate planetesimals initially formed from volatile-rich material and were subsequently depleted in volatile elements during accretion. PMID:25404309

  9. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore

    OpenAIRE

    Shiwei Zhou; Yonggang Wei; Bo Li; Hua Wang; Baozhong Ma; Chengyan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and...

  10. Chloride in vesicular trafficking and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Tobias; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Luminal acidification is of pivotal importance for the physiology of the secretory and endocytic pathways and its diverse trafficking events. Acidification by the proton-pumping V-ATPase requires charge compensation by counterion currents that are commonly attributed to chloride. The molecular identification of intracellular chloride transporters and the improvement of methodologies for measuring intraorganellar pH and chloride have facilitated the investigation of the physiology of vesicular chloride transport. New data question the requirement of chloride for pH regulation of various organelles and furthermore ascribe functions to chloride that are beyond merely electrically shunting the proton pump. This review surveys the currently established and proposed intracellular chloride transporters and gives an overview of membrane-trafficking steps that are affected by the perturbation of chloride transport. Finally, potential mechanisms of membrane-trafficking modulation by chloride are discussed and put into the context of organellar ion homeostasis in general. PMID:23092411

  11. Stability of succinylcholine chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, C W; Mühlebach, S F

    1991-03-01

    The stability of succinylcholine chloride injection prepared by a hospital pharmacy was studied under a wide variety of conditions. Batches of succinylcholine chloride injection 10 mg/mL containing sodium chloride, methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, hydrochloric acid, and water were prepared. Samples were tested for the effect of initial pH (3.0 and 4.2) and sterilization (steam treatment at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes and 121 degrees C for 20 minutes) on stability after three weeks; long-term stability under refrigeration (12, 17, and 23 months of storage at 4 degrees C); and the effect of storage temperature (4-6 degrees C, 20-26 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 70 degrees C) and light exposure at various intervals up to 12 months. Samples were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Unlike heating at 121 degrees C, heating at 100 degrees C produced no significant loss of succinylcholine chloride, independent of the initial pH. Succinylcholine chloride was hydrolyzed only minimally over 23 months if the solution was stored at 4-6 degrees C. A 10% loss of drug content occurred if solutions were kept at 20-26 degrees C for five months, at 35 degrees C for one month, or at 70 degrees C for one day. Initial degradation was slowed if the solution was protected from light. The assessments by TLC proved to be more sensitive than the HPLC measurements. Succinylcholine chloride injection sterilized at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes can be stored for up to five months at room temperature if protected from light. The preparation is stable for at least two years under refrigeration. PMID:2028996

  12. Chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environment - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Q.; Shi, C; Schutter, G. de; Audenaert, K.; Deng, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environments. Chloride ion exist either in the pore solution, chemically bound to the hydration products, or physically held to the surface of the hydration products. Chloride binding of cement-based material is very complicated and influenced by many factors, such as chloride concentration, cement composition, hydroxyl concentration, cation of chloride salt, temperature, supplementary cementing m...

  13. Functional relationships between price and volatility jumps and their consequences for discretely observed data

    OpenAIRE

    Jacod, Jean; Klüppelberg, Claudia; Müller, Gernot

    2012-01-01

    Many prominent continuous-time stochastic volatility models exhibit certain functional relationships between price jumps and volatility jumps. We show that stochastic volatility models like the Ornstein--Uhlenbeck and other continuous-time CARMA models as well as continuous-time GARCH and EGARCH models all exhibit such functional relations. We investigate the asymptotic behaviour of certain functionals of price and volatility processes for discrete observations of the pri...

  14. The macroeconomic forecasting performance of autoregressive models with alternative specifications of time-varying volatility

    OpenAIRE

    CLARK, Todd E.; Francesco Ravazzolo

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares alternative models of time-varying macroeconomic volatility on the basis of the accuracy of point and density forecasts of macroeconomic variables. In this analysis, we consider both Bayesian autoregressive and Bayesian vector autoregressive models that incorporate some form of time-varying volatility, precisely stochastic volatility (both with constant and time-varying autoregressive coeffi cients), stochastic volatility following a stationary AR process, stochastic volat...

  15. Hedging electricity price volatility using nuclear power

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Nuclear power is an important asset to reduce the volatility of electricity prices. • Unpredictability of fossil fuels and carbon prices makes power prices very volatile. • The dynamics of fossil fuels and carbon prices is described by Brownian motions. • LCOE values, volatilities and correlations are obtained via Monte Carlo simulations. • Optimal portfolios of generating technologies are get using a mean–variance approach. - Abstract: The analysis presented in this paper aims to put in some evidence the role of nuclear power as hedging asset against the volatility of electricity prices. The unpredictability of natural gas and coal market prices as well as the uncertainty in environmental policies may affect power generating costs, thus enhancing volatility in electricity market prices. The nuclear option, allowing to generate electricity without carbon emissions, offers the possibility to reduce the volatility of electricity prices through optimal diversification of power generating technologies. This paper provides a methodological scheme to plan well diversified “portfolios” of generating capacity that minimize the electricity price risk induced by random movements of fossil fuels market prices and by unpredictable fluctuations of carbon credits prices. The analysis is developed within a stochastic environment in which the dynamics of fuel prices as well as the dynamics of carbon credits prices is assumed to evolve in time according to well defined Brownian processes. Starting from market data and using Monte Carlo techniques to simulate generating cost values, the hedging argument is developed by selecting optimal portfolio of power generating technologies using a mean–variance approach

  16. Polyvinyl chloride catheters with repressed migration of plasticizers

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Sedláček, T.; Polášková, M.; Kašpárková, V.; Filip, Petr; Sáha, P.

    Larnaca : Polymer Processing Society, 2009, s. 243. [Polymer Processing Society Europe/Africa Regional Meeting. Larnaca (GR), 18.10.2009-21.10.2009] Institutional research plan: CEZ:AV0Z20600510 Keywords : Polyvinyl chloride * catheter * repressed migration of plasticizers Subject RIV: BK - Fluid Dynamics

  17. Preparation of pure uranyl chloride from crude yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is described for the preparation of pure uranyl chloride solution from crude yellow cake. The process involves dissolution of the latter in hydrochloric acid followed by uranium extraction using TBP-kerosene mixture. A series of experiments were carried out in order to determine the optimum conditions for both the dissolution and the extraction steps

  18. Inference, arbitrage, and asset price volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian, Tobias

    2004-01-01

    This paper models the impact of arbitrageurs on stock prices when arbitrageurs are uncertain about the drift of the dividend process of a risky asset. Under perfect information, the presence of risk-neutral arbitrageurs unambiguously reduces the volatility of asset returns. When arbitrageurs are uncertain about the drift of the dividend process, they condition their investment strategy on the observation of dividends and trading volume. In such a setting, the presence of arbitrageurs can lead...

  19. Calibration of Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone flow and transport model using porewater chloride data

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Jianchun; Sonnenthal, Eric L.; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S.

    2002-01-01

    In this study, porewater chloride data from Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are analyzed and modeled by 3-D chemical transport simulations and analytical methods. The simulation modeling approach is based on a continuum formulation of coupled multiphase fluid flow and tracer transport processes through fractured porous rock, using a dual-continuum concept. Infiltration-rate calibrations were using the pore water chloride data. Model results of chloride distributions were improved in matching the...

  20. Prediction of the Service Life of a Reinforced Concrete Column under Chloride Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad K. Alkam; Maha Alqam

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, service life of a reinforced concrete column exposed to chloride environment has been predicted. This study has been based on numerical simulation of chloride ion diffusion in a concrete column during its anticipated life span. The simulation process has included the concrete cover replacement whenever chloride ion concentration has reached the critical threshold value at the reinforcement surface. Repair scheduling of the concrete column under consideration has ...

  1. Ruthenium(III Chloride Catalyzed Acylation of Alcohols, Phenols, and Thiols in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhong Cai

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruthenium(III chloride-catalyzed acylation of a variety of alcohols, phenols, and thiols was achieved in high yields under mild conditions (room temperature in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]. The ionic liquid and ruthenium catalyst can be recycled at least 10 times. Our system not only solves the basic problem of ruthenium catalyst reuse, but also avoids the use of volatile acetonitrile as solvent.

  2. Ruthenium(III) Chloride Catalyzed Acylation of Alcohols, Phenols, and Thiols in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Mingzhong Cai; Pingping Wang; Wenyan Hao; Zhiwen Xi

    2009-01-01

    Ruthenium(III) chloride-catalyzed acylation of a variety of alcohols, phenols, and thiols was achieved in high yields under mild conditions (room temperature) in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]). The ionic liquid and ruthenium catalyst can be recycled at least 10 times. Our system not only solves the basic problem of ruthenium catalyst reuse, but also avoids the use of volatile acetonitrile as solvent.

  3. Immune Modulation by Volatile Anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollings, Lindsay M; Jia, Li-Jie; Tang, Pei; Dou, Huanyu; Lu, Binfeng; Xu, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Volatile general anesthetics continue to be an important part of clinical anesthesia worldwide. The impact of volatile anesthetics on the immune system has been investigated at both mechanistic and clinical levels, but previous studies have returned conflicting findings due to varied protocols, experimental environments, and subject species. While many of these studies have focused on the immunosuppressive effects of volatile anesthetics, compelling evidence also exists for immunoactivation. Depending on the clinical conditions, immunosuppression and activation due to volatile anesthetics can be either detrimental or beneficial. This review provides a balanced perspective on the anesthetic modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses as well as indirect effectors of immunity. Potential mechanisms of immunomodulation by volatile anesthetics are also discussed. A clearer understanding of these issues will pave the way for clinical guidelines that better account for the impact of volatile anesthetics on the immune system, with the ultimate goal of improving perioperative management. PMID:27286478

  4. 1,5-Diaminotetrazolium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qiao Meng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CH5N6+·Cl−, crystallized with two indepedent 1,5-diaminotetrazolium cations and two independent chloride anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, there are a number of N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions, which generate a three-dimensional network.

  5. Ethyl Chloride Wastewater Treatment by Stripping-Fenton Oxidizing-Sedimentation Treatment Process%吹脱-Fenton氧化-沉淀工艺处理乙基氯化物废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲毅; 柯爌琼; 吴翔; 王丽; 杜冬云

    2012-01-01

    乙基氯化物是重要的农药中间体,广泛用于生产高效低毒有机磷农药,在生产过程中产生大量高COD、高磷、高硫等污染物的有毒废水.文章针对该废水的水质,提出了一种新的预处理工艺:吹脱-Fenton氧化-沉淀反应.试验结果表明:当吹脱时间为20 min,pH为3.10,Fenton反应双氧水与亚铁离子摩尔比为4∶1,双氧水投加量为5 mL/L以及沉淀反应石灰投加量为14.5 g/L时,废水中的COD从228 g/L降低到56.60 g/L,硫离子浓度从88.94 g/L降低到12.26 g/L,总磷含量从10.37 g/L降低到0.98 g/L.%Ethyl chloride as an important intermediate product of pesticide is widely used to produce higher effective and lower toxic organophosphorus pesticide. Toxic wastewater generated in the production process contains high levels of COD, total phosphorus and sulfur ion.According to nature of the wastewater, a new pretreatment process was proposed, including stripping, Fenton oxidation and calcium precipitation.Results showed that COD concentration reduced from 228 g/L to 56.60 g/L, sulfur ion concentration reduced from 88.94 g/L to 12.26 g/L and total phosphorus concentration reduced from 10.37 g/L to 0.98 g/L after pretreatment in condition that stripping time was 20 min, pH 3.10, Fenton reactor H2O2/FeSO,, mole rate was 4:1, H2O2 dosage was 5 mL/L and precipitation reaction lime dosage was 14.5 g/L.

  6. Volatile compounds released during ripening in Italian dried sausage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; Dorigoni, V.; Zanardi, E.;

    2001-01-01

    A commercial production was analysed at six stages during ripening. Water content, pH and bacterial counts were followed, and volatile compounds from sausages were extracted by dynamic headspace sampling and analysed by gas chromatography/mass spectrometry. Total concentrations of all classes inc...... appear late in the processing. Benzeneacetaldehyde was absent in fresh mince, but increased to become one of the most abundant volatiles. Compounds from carbohydrate catabolism disappeared during the processing....

  7. Modeling and forecasting implied volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Ahoniemi, Katja

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation contains four essays, all of which model time series of implied volatility (IV) and assess the forecast performance of the models. The overall finding is that implied volatility is indeed forecastable, and its modeling can benefit from a new class of time series models, so-called multiplicative error models. It is often beneficial to model IV with two (or more) regimes to allow for periods of relative stability and periods of higher volatility in markets. The first essa...

  8. Path-conditional forward volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    In derivatives modelling, it has often been necessary to make assumptions about the volatility of the underlying variable over the life of the contract. This can involve specifying an exact trajectory, as in the Black and Scholes (1973), Merton (1973) or Black (1976) models; one that depends on the level of the underlying variable as in the local volatility models of Dupire (1994), Derman and Kani (1994) and Rubinstein (1994); or fixing the parameters of a more general stochastic volatility p...

  9. Volatility, Investment and Disappointment Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Aizenman; Nancy Marion

    1995-01-01

    This study uncovers a statistically significant negative correlation between volatility and private investment over the 1970-93 period in a set of almost fifty developing countries and provides a possible interpretation of this result by using the disappointment- aversion expected utility framework first described by Gul (1991). We consider a number of different volatility measures related to domestic policies or to external factors. As the various volatility measures tend to be positively co...

  10. Financial Market Volatility: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Louis O. Scott

    1991-01-01

    Volatility in financial markets has forced economists to re-examine the validity of the efficient markets hypothesis, and new empirical approaches have been applied to the study of this important issue in recent years. Many of the recent studies have found evidence of excessive volatility. In the aftermath of the stock market crash of 1987 and the perceived increase in market volatility, some economists have advocated additional market regulations. This paper presents a review of recent studi...

  11. Evaporation Behaviors of Rare Earth Chlorides in LiCl-KCl Eutectic salt

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrorefining process is one of the important processes of a pyro-process. In the electrorefining process, uranium metal is deposited at the solid cathode as dendritic form. Uranium deposits from an electrorefining process contain about 30 wt% of salts. In order to recover pure metal and convert it into metal ingots, the salt has to be removed. In the salt, there are actinide chlorides and rare earth chlorides in addition to uranium chloride. In order to design the salt evaporation system, it should be investigated the evaporation behaviors of actinide and rare earth chlorides in the salt. In this work, the experiments for a salt evaporation of rare earth chlorides in LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were carried out with a salt distiller with respect to the vacuum pressure and the hold temperature. The vapor pressure of rare earth chlorides are lower than those of LiCl and KCl. But the rare earth chlorides were co-evaporized with LiCl-KCl salt during the salt evaporation process. A simple model based on the Hertz-Langmuir relation was applied for this evaporation system and the co-evaporation of rare earth chlorides was discussed. (authors)

  12. Aluminum chloride restoration of in-situ leached uranium ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, D.C.; Burgman, H.A.

    1984-01-01

    During in-situ uranium mining using ammonium bicarbonate lixiviant, the ammonium exchanges with cations on the ore's clay. After mining is complete, the ammonium may desorb into post-leach ground water. For the particular ore studied, other elements (uranium and selenium) that are mobilized during the leaching process, have also been found in post-leach ground water. Laboratory column tests, used to simulate the leaching process, have shown that aluminum chloride can rapidly remove ammonium from the ore and, thus, greatly reduce the subsequent ammonium leakage level into ground water. The aluminum chloride has also been found to reduce the leakage levels of uranium and selenium. In addition, the aluminum chloride treatment produces a rapid increase in permeability.

  13. Aluminum chloride restoration of in situ leached uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    During in situ uranium mining using ammonium bicarbonate lixiviant, the ammonium exchanges with cations on the ore's clay. After mining is complete, the ammonium may desorb into post-leach ground water. For the particular ore studied, other chemicals (i.e., uranium and selenium) which are mobilized during the leach process, have also been found in the post-leach ground water. Laboratory column tests, used to simulate the leaching process, have shown that aluminum chloride can rapidly remove ammonium from the ore and thus greatly reduce the subsequent ammonium leakage level into ground water. The aluminum chloride has also been found to reduce the leakage levels of uranium and selenium. In addition, the aluminum chloride treatment produces a rapid improvement in permeability

  14. Aluminum chloride restoration of in situ leached uranium ores

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Grant, D.C.; Burgman, M.A.

    1982-09-01

    During in situ uranium mining using ammonium bicarbonate lixiviant, the ammonium exchanges with cations on the ore's clay. After mining is complete, the ammonium may desorb into post-leach ground water. For the particular ore studied, other chemicals (i.e., uranium and selenium) which are mobilized during the leach process, have also been found in the post-leach ground water. Laboratory column tests, used to simulate the leaching process, have shown that aluminum chloride can rapidly remove ammonium from the ore and thus greatly reduce the subsequent ammonium leakage level into ground water. The aluminum chloride has also been found to reduce the leakage levels of uranium and selenium. In addition, the aluminum chloride treatment produces a rapid improvement in permeability.

  15. An ultra-low-power area-efficient non-volatile memory in a 0.18 μm single-poly CMOS process for passive RFID tags

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper presents an ultra-low-power area-efficient non-volatile memory (NVM) in a 0.18 μm single-poly standard CMOS process for passive radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. In the memory cell, a novel low-power operation method is proposed to realize bi-directional Fowler—Nordheim tunneling during write operation. Furthermore, the cell is designed with PMOS transistors and coupling capacitors to minimize its area. In order to improve its reliability, the cell consists of double floating gates to store the data, and the 1 kbit NVM was implemented in a 0.18 μm single-poly standard CMOS process. The area of the memory cell and 1 kbit memory array is 96 μm2 and 0.12 mm2, respectively. The measured results indicate that the program/erase voltage ranges from 5 to 6 V The power consumption of the read/write operation is 0.19 μW/0.69 μW at a read/write rate of (268 kb/s)/(3.0 kb/s). (semiconductor integrated circuits)

  16. Progress of Carbonation in Chloride Contaminated Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yaocheng; Basheer, P.A.M.; Nanukuttan, S; Bai, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Concretes used in marine environment are generally under the cyclic effect of CO2 and chloride ions (Cl-). To date, the influence of carbonation on ingress of chloride ions in concretes has been widely studied; in comparison, study on the influence of Cl- on the progress of carbonation is limited. During the study, concretes were exposed to independent and combined mechanisms of carbonation and chloride ingress regimes. Profiles of apparent pH and chloride concentration were used to indicate ...

  17. biogenic aerosol precursors: volatile amines from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Uwe; Sintermann, Jörg; Spirig, Christoph; Ammann, Christof; Neftel, Albrecht

    2010-05-01

    Information on the occurrence of volatile biogenic amines in the atmosphere is marginal. This group of N-bearing organic compounds are assumed to be a small, though significant component of the atmospheric N-cycle, but are not accounted for in global assessments due to the scarceness of available data. There is increasing evidence for an important role of biogenic amines in the formation of new particulate matter, as well as for aerosol secondary growth. Volatile amines are ubiquitously formed by biodegradation of organic matter, and agriculture is assumed to dominantly contribute to their atmospheric burden. Here we show that the mixing ratios of volatile amines within livestock buildings scale about 2 orders of magnitude lower than NH3, confirming the few literature data available (e.g., Schade and Crutzen, J. Atm. Chem. 22, 319-346, 1995). Flux measurements after manure application in the field, mixing ratios in the headspace of manure storage pools, and concentrations in distilled manure all indicate major depletion of amines relative to NH3 during manure processing. We conclude that the agricultural source distribution of NH3 and amines is not similar. While for NH3 the spreading of manure in the field dominates agricultural emissions, the direct release from livestock buildings dominates the budget of volatile biogenic amines.

  18. Indium sulfide precipitation from hydrochloric acid solutions of calcium and sodium chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of precipitation duration, acid concentration, indium complexing with chloride ions on the process of indium sulfide chemical precipitation in hydrochloric acid solutions, precipitate composition and dispersity are studied. It is established that indium sulfide solubility increases in solutions with acid concentration exceeding 0.40-0.45 mol/l. Calcium and indium chloride addition to diluted hydrochloric solutions greatly increases the solubility of indium sulfide. The effect of calcium chloride on In2S3 solubility is higher than that of sodium chloride

  19. Open cycle lithium chloride cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, T. G.; Loef, G. O. G.; Iyer, R.; Wenger, J.

    1983-05-01

    A lithium chloride open cycle absorption chiller has been designed, built and tested. Solution reconcentration takes place in a small counter current packed column supplied with solar heated air. Removal of noncondensable gases that enter the chiller dissolved in the strong solution and the make-up refrigerant streams is accomplished by a liquid-jet ejector and a small vacuum pump. Cooling capacities approaching 1.4 tons and COP levels of 0.58 have been achieved at non-optimum operating conditions. Test results from preliminary system operation suggest that mass transfer processes in both the packed column reconcentrator and the absorber are controlled by concentration gradients in the lithium chloride solution. Liquid phase controlled mass transfer dictates an operating strategy different from the previously assumed gas phase controlled process to obtain maximum rates of evaporation in the packed column. Determination of optimal operating conditions leading to decreased electrical power consumption and improved cooling capacity and coefficient of performance will require further analysis and testing.

  20. Fault locator of an allyl chloride plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savković-Stevanović Jelenka B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Process safety analysis, which includes qualitative fault event identification, the relative frequency and event probability functions, as well as consequence analysis, was performed on an allye chloride plant. An event tree for fault diagnosis and cognitive reliability analysis, as well as a troubleshooting system, were developed. Fuzzy inductive reasoning illustrated the advantages compared to crisp inductive reasoning. A qualitative model forecast the future behavior of the system in the case of accident detection and then compared it with the actual measured data. A cognitive model including qualitative and quantitative information by fuzzy logic of the incident scenario was derived as a fault locator for an ally! chloride plant. The obtained results showed the successful application of cognitive dispersion modeling to process safety analysis. A fuzzy inductive reasoner illustrated good performance to discriminate between different types of malfunctions. This fault locator allowed risk analysis and the construction of a fault tolerant system. This study is the first report in the literature showing the cognitive reliability analysis method.

  1. Chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates. The results of studies of chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic comprising concentrates of Chore deposit of Tajikistan are considered. It is found that by application sodium chloride for gold-arsenic comprising concentrates it is possible to extract gold and silver from flotation concentrates.

  2. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use....

  3. Supercritical Fractionation of Volatiles and Non-volatiles from Different Plant Sources

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Topiař, Martin

    Prague: Institute of Chemical Process Fundamental of the CAS, v. v. i, 2015 - (Bendová, M.; Wagner, Z.), s. 7-8 ISBN 978-80-86186-70-2. [Bažant Postgraduate Conference 2015. Prague (CZ)] Institutional support: RVO:67985858 Keywords : plants * fractionation techniques * volatiles Subject RIV: CI - Industrial Chemistry, Chemical Engineering

  4. Supercritical fluid extraction of volatile and non-volatile compounds from Schinus molle L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. T. Barroso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schinus molle L., also known as pepper tree, has been reported to have antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antitumoural and cicatrizing properties. This work studies supercritical fluid extraction (SFE to obtain volatile and non-volatile compounds from the aerial parts of Schinus molle L. and the influence of the process on the composition of the extracts. Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale extractor with a capacity of 1 L at pressures of 9, 10, 12, 15 and 20 MPa at 323.15 K. The volatile compounds were obtained by CO2 supercritical extraction with moderate pressure (9 MPa, whereas the non-volatile compounds were extracted at higher pressure (12 to 20 MPa. The analysis of the essential oil was carried out by GC-MS and the main compounds identified were sabinene, limonene, D-germacrene, bicyclogermacrene, and spathulenol. For the non-volatile extracts, the total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Moreover, one of the goals of this study was to compare the experimental data with the simulated yields predicted by a mathematical model based on mass transfer. The model used requires three adjustable parameters to predict the experimental extraction yield curves.

  5. Impact of high hydrostatic pressure on non-volatile and volatile compounds of squid muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jin; Zhang, Yifeng; Jin, Yafang; Deng, Yun; Zhao, Yanyun

    2016-03-01

    The effects of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HHP at 200, 400 or 600MPa) on non-volatile and volatile compounds of squid muscles during 10-day storage at 4°C were investigated. HHP increased the concentrations of Cl(-) and volatile compounds, reduced the level of PO4(3-), but did not affect the contents of 5'-uridine monophosphate (UMP), 5'-guanosine monophosphate (GMP), 5'-inosine monophosphate (IMP), Na(+) and Ca(2+) in squids on Day 0. At 600MPa, squids had the highest levels of 5'-adenosine monophosphate, Cl(-) and lactic acid, but the lowest contents of CMP and volatile compounds on Day 10. Essential free amino acids and succinic acids were lower on Day 0 than on Day 10. HHP at 200MPa caused higher equivalent umami concentration (EUC) on Day 0, and the EUC decreased with increasing pressure on Day 10. Generally, HHP at 200MPa was beneficial for improving EUC and volatile compounds of squids. PMID:26471521

  6. Consistent ranking of volatility models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger

    2006-01-01

    We show that the empirical ranking of volatility models can be inconsistent for the true ranking if the evaluation is based on a proxy for the population measure of volatility. For example, the substitution of a squared return for the conditional variance in the evaluation of ARCH-type models can...

  7. A stochastic volatility model with flexible extremal dependence structure

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Anja; Drees, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Stochastic volatility processes with heavy-tailed innovations are a well-known model for financial time series. In these models, the extremes of the log returns are mainly driven by the extremes of the i.i.d. innovation sequence which leads to a very strong form of asymptotic independence, that is, the coefficient of tail dependence is equal to $1/2$ for all positive lags. We propose an alternative class of stochastic volatility models with heavy-tailed volatilities and examine their extreme ...

  8. Jakartans, Institutionally Volatile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki OKAMOTO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta recently has gained even more central political attention in Indonesia since Joko Widodo (Jokowi and Basuki Purnama (Ahok became, respectively, the province’s governor and vice-governor in 2012. They started a series of eye-catching and populist programmes, drawing popular support from not only the people of Jakarta, but also among Indonesians in general. Jokowi is now even the most popular candidate for the presidential election in 2014. Their rise is phenomenal in this sense, but it is understandable if we look at Jakartan voters’ behaviour and the institutional arrangement that leads to it. Jakarta, as the national capital, has a unique arrangement in that the province has no autonomous regency or city. This paper argues that this arrangement causes Jakartans to be more politically volatile and describes how this institutional arrangement was created by analysing the minutes of the meeting to discuss the laws concerning Jakarta Province.

  9. Volume, Volatility and Public News Announcements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Jia; Xue, Yuan

    We provide new empirical evidence for the way in which financial markets process information. Our results are based on high-frequency intraday data along with new econometric techniques for making inference on the relationship between trading intensity and spot volatility around public news annou...... measures of disagreements in beliefs, economic uncertainty, and textual-based sentiment, further highlighting the key role played by differences-of-opinion....

  10. Volatile binders for nuclear fuel materials

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method is described to form and sinter nuclear fuel particles made of uranium dioxide (or other uranium compounds) to which a volatile binder (about 0.5 to 7 wt.%) is added for better processing. Ammonium bicarbonate, ammonium carbonate, and other ammonium compounds are mentioned as binders. The components are mixed, pressed, preheated, then further heated and sintered, and cooling takes place in a controlled atmosphere. 3 examples illustrate the method. (UA)

  11. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from wood

    OpenAIRE

    Granström, Karin

    2005-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis is to support the efforts to counteract certain environmental problems caused by emissions of volatile organic compounds. The purpose of this work was (1) to develop a method to establish the amount of emitted substances from dryers, (2) to determine the effect of drying medium temperature and end moisture content of the processed material on emissions of monoterpenes and other hydrocarbons, (3) to examine the emissions of monoterpenes during production of pelle...

  12. A spectroscopic study of uranium species formed in chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chlorination of uranium metal or uranium oxides in chloride melts offers an acceptable process for the head-end of pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. The reactions of uranium metal and ceramic uranium dioxide with chlorine and with hydrogen chloride were studied in the alkali metal chloride melts, NaCl-KCl at 973K, NaCl-CsCl between 873 and 923K and LiCl-KCl at 873K. The uranium species formed therein were characterized from their electronic absorption spectra measured in situ. The kinetic parameters of the reactions depend on melt composition, temperature and chlorinating agent used. The reaction of uranium dioxide with oxygen in the presence of alkali metal chlorides results in the formation of alkali metal uranates. A spectroscopic study, between 723 and 973K, on their formation and their solutions was undertaken in LiCl, LiCl-KCl eutectic and NaCl-CsCl eutectic melts. The dissolution of uranium dioxide in LiCl-KCl eutectic at 923K containing added aluminium trichloride in the presence of oxygen has also been investigated. In this case, the reaction leads to the formation of uranyl chloride species. (author)

  13. SiC epitaxy growth using chloride-based CVD

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The growth of thick epitaxial SiC layers needed for high-voltage, high-power devices is investigated with the chloride-based chemical vapor deposition. High growth rates exceeding 100 μm/h can be obtained, however to obtain device quality epilayers adjustments of the process parameters should be carried out appropriately for the chemistry used. Two different chemistry approaches are compared: addition of hydrogen chloride to the standard precursors or using methyltrichlorosilane, a molecule that contains silicon, carbon and chlorine. Optical and electrical techniques are used to characterize the layers.

  14. Mass-spectrometric investigation of thermochemical properties of lanthanide chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sapegin, A.M.; Baluev, A.V.; Evdokimov, V.I. (AN SSSR, Chernogolovka. Inst. Novykh Khimicheskikh Problem)

    1984-12-01

    Ionization potentials are measured for ions formed during lanthanide chloride molecules ionization by an electron shock with the use of the improved technique of mass-spectral data processing. Energies of atomization and atomic bond scission in molecules of tri-, di-, and monochlorides are defined along with enthalpies of formation of these molecules in a gaseous state.

  15. Mass-spectrometric investigation of thermochemical properties of lanthanide chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Ionization potentials are measured for ions formed during lanthanide chloride molecules ionization by an electron shock with the use of the improved technique of mass-spectral data processing. Energies of atomization and atomic bond scission in molecules of tri-, di-, and monochlorides are defined along with enthalpies of formation of these molecules in a gaseous state

  16. A preliminary assessment of salt and radionuclide volatilities in the molten salt processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have applied thermodynamic methods to analyze the volatilities of plutonium (Pu), uranium (U), iodine (I), and salts from molten salt processor baths in bench-scale runs conducted by Rockwell International on oxidation of laboratory mixed waste. Good agreement is obtained between calculated and observed volatilities. The volatilizing species of Pu and U have been identified as gaseous PuO2(OH)2 and UO2(OH)2, both with volatilities that are strongly dependent upon temperature, chemical activity of condensed phase Pu and U, and steam pressure. Hence, for example, orders of magnitude reduction can be achieved in Pu and U volatilities by operating the bath at lower temperatures. Iodine is found to volatilize from the bath as gaseous sodium iodide (NaI) but a small portion of the NaI is converted to gaseous I2 during cooldown of the off-gas. Observations by Rockwell of trace amounts of sodium chloride (NaCl) particulates in the off-gas as a result of NaCl volatilization from the bath are confirmed by our calculations. 24 refs., 1 fig., 16 tabs

  17. An Intelligent Analysis Model for Multisource Volatile Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For the rapidly development of network and distributed computing environment, it make researchers harder to do analysis examines only from one or few pieces of data source in persistent data-oriented approaches, so as the volatile memory analysis either. Therefore, mass data automatically analysis and action modeling needs to be considered for reporting entire network attack process. To model multiple volatile data sources situation can help understand and describe both thinking process of investigator and possible action step for attacker. This paper presents a Game model for multisource volatile data and applies it to main memory images analysis with the definition of space-time feature for volatile element information. Abstract modeling allows the lessons gleaned in performing intelligent analysis, evidence filing and automating presentation. Finally, a test demo based on the model is also present to illustrate the whole procedure

  18. Synthesis and structure characterization of diethyldiallylammonium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立华; 龚竹青; 郑雅杰

    2003-01-01

    The unsaturated quaternary ammonium salt diethyldiallylammonium chloride(DEDAAC) was synthesized in a two-step synthetic method. The influences of the adding method of raw materials and temperature on the yields of diethylallylamine (DEAA), and drying and temperature on the synthesis of DEDAAC were investigated. The content of in-process product DEAA was determined by non-aqueous titration. The structure of product DEDAAC was identified with IR, 1 H NMR and elemental analysis. The results show that adding allyl chloride and sodium hydroxide alternately can increase the yield of DEAA and decrease by-products. In further synthesizing of DEDAAC from DEAA, the step of drying DEAA is very necessary. When DEAA is dried by solid sodium hydroxide, good columnar crystals with a high purity(mp 199.5-201.0 ℃) are obtained; when DEAA is undried or the content of water in DEAA is above 20%, only platelets with bad quality are obtained even without crystals. The suitable synthesis conditions for DEAA and DEDAAC are 35 ℃, 6 h and 40 ℃, 36 h, respectively, and their yields are 69.7% and 67.3%, respectively.

  19. Cobalt electrodeposition using urea and choline chloride

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The electrochemical behavior of Co(II) in urea-choline chloride-CoCl2 melt was investigated by cyclic voltammetry at 373 K. The results show that the reaction of Co(II) to Co is irreversible and it proceeds via a one-step two electrons transfer process. The diffusion coefficient of Co(II) was estimated to be 1.7 × 10−6 cm2 s−1 at 373 K. Electrodeposition of cobalt was studied at different cathodic potentials (-0.80 to -0.95 V) and at different temperatures (353 to 383 K) in eutectic mixture of choline chloride and urea (1:2 molar ratio). The deposits were characterized using scanning electron microscope (SEM), energy-dispersive spectroscopy (EDS), and X-ray diffraction (XRD). SEM images show that uniform, dense, and compact deposits were obtained at -0.80 V within a temperature range of 353 K to 373 K. EDS and XRD analysis confirm that high-purity metallic Co deposits were obtained

  20. Isopropanol and acetone induces vinyl chloride degradation in Rhodococcus rhodochrous.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuntz, Robin L; Brown, Lewis R; Zappi, Mark E; French, W Todd

    2003-11-01

    In situ bioremediation of vinyl chloride (VC)-contaminated waste sites requires a microorganism capable of degrading VC. While propane will induce an oxygenase to accomplish this goal, its use as a primary substrate in bioremediation is complicated by its flammability and low water solubility. This study demonstrates that two degradation products of propane, isoproponal and acetone, can induce the enzymes in Rhodococcus rhodochrous that degrade VC. Additionally, a reasonable number of cells for bioremediation can be grown on conventional solid bacteriological media (nutrient agar, tryptic soy agar, plate count agar) in an average microbiological laboratory and then induced to produce the necessary enzymes by incubation of a resting cell suspension with isopropanol or acetone. Since acetone is more volatile than isopropanol and has other undesirable characteristics, isopropanol is the inducer of choice. It offers a non-toxic, water-soluble, relatively inexpensive alternative to propane for in situ bioremediation of waste sites contaminated with VC. PMID:14605909

  1. Feasibility of halogen determination in noncombustible inorganic matrices by ion chromatography after a novel volatilization method using microwave-induced combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rodrigo M; Costa, Vanize C; Hartwig, Carla A; Picoloto, Rochele S; Flores, Erico M M; Duarte, Fabio A; Mesko, Marcia F

    2016-01-15

    A microwave-induced combustion (MIC) system based on the volatilization process was applied for subsequent halogen determination from noncombustible inorganic matrices. Portland cement samples were selected to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method, allowing the subsequent determination of Cl and F by ion chromatography (IC). Samples were mixed with high-purity microcrystalline cellulose, wrapped with a polyethylene film and combusted in quartz closed vessels pressurized with oxygen (20bar). Water and NH4OH (10, 25 or 50m mol L(-1)) were evaluated for Cl and F absorption, but water was selected, using 5min of reflux after volatilization. Final solutions were also suitable for analysis by pontentiometry with ion-selective electrode (ISE) for both analytes, and no difference was found when comparing the results with IC. The accuracy of the proposed method for Cl was evaluated by analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs), and agreement with certified values ranged from 98% to 103%. Results were also compared to those using the procedure recommended by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) for the determination of total chlorides (C114-13), and no difference was found. Volatilization by MIC using a mixture of cement, cellulose and a biological CRM was carried out in order to evaluate the accuracy for F, and recovery was about 96%. The proposed method allowed suitable limits of detection for Cl and F by IC (99 and 18mg kg(-1), respectively) for routine analysis of cement. Using the proposed method, a relatively low standard deviation (<7%), high throughput (up to eight samples can be processed in less than 30min) and lower generation of laboratory effluents, when compared to the ASTM method, were obtained. Therefore, the method for volatilization of Cl and F by MIC and subsequent determination by IC can be proposed as a suitable alternative for cement analysis. PMID:26592579

  2. Safe, Selective, and High-Yielding Synthesis of Acryloyl Chloride in a Continuous-Flow System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsisyan, Marine; Heugebaert, Thomas S A; Dams, Rudy; Stevens, Christian V

    2016-08-01

    Acid chlorides are an important class of compounds and their high reactivity and instability has prompted us to develop a straightforward procedure for their synthesis with on-demand and on-site synthesis possibilities. The focus of this report is acryloyl chloride, mainly important for the acrylate and polymer industry. A continuous-flow methodology was developed for the fast and selective synthesis of the otherwise highly unstable acryloyl chloride. Three routes were investigated in a microreactor setup and all three can potentially be used for its production. The methodology was further expanded to the synthesis of other unstable acid chlorides by both the thionyl chloride and the oxalyl chloride mediated processes. The most sustainable method was the oxalyl chloride mediated procedure under solvent-free conditions, in which near-equimolar amounts of carboxylic acid and oxalyl chloride were used in the presence of catalytic amounts of DMF at room temperature. Within 1 to 3 min, nearly full conversions into the acid chlorides were achieved. PMID:27325562

  3. Silicon isotopes in angrites and volatile loss in planetesimals

    OpenAIRE

    Pringle, Emily A.; Moynier, Frédéric; Savage, Paul S.; Badro, James; Barrat, Jean-Alix

    2014-01-01

    Understanding volatile elements in the early solar system is a key step toward understanding the processes of planetary formation and the composition of Earth, but the origin of volatiles on Earth is not well understood. In this article, we present measurements of silicon isotope ratios in angrites, a class of meteorites dating from the first few million years after condensation of solids from the solar nebula. We show that the silicon isotope composition of angrites is consistent with a depl...

  4. An Uncertain Volatility Explanation for Delayed Calls of Convertible Bonds

    OpenAIRE

    Ali Bora Yigibasioglu; Carol Alexandra

    2004-01-01

    Arbitrage-free price bounds for convertible bonds are obtained assuming a stochastic volatility process for the common stock that lies within a band but makes few other assumptions about volatility dynamics. Equity-linked hazard rates, stochastic interest rates and different assumptions about default and recovery behavior are accommodated within this approach. A non-linear multi-factor reduced-form equity-linked default model leads to a set of non-linear partial differential complementarity e...

  5. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan

    2016-07-01

    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and iron oxides, moreover, interactions between metallic oxides and sodium chloride are also a way for chlorination at high temperature (>802 °C) subsequently, the metal chloride would be reduced by reductant. In the absence of moisture, the magnetic separation results show that the recoveries of iron and nickel have a significant increase; moreover, olivine structure would be destroyed gradually with the increase of roasting temperature in the action of sodium chloride, and the sodium chloride existed in high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore could make the NiO isolate from NiO-bearing minerals. The NiO reacts with Fe2O3 at high temperature to form NiFe2O4, which is conductive to the formation of Ni-Fe alloy during the reduction process.

  6. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan

    2016-01-01

    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and iron oxides, moreover, interactions between metallic oxides and sodium chloride are also a way for chlorination at high temperature (>802 °C); subsequently, the metal chloride would be reduced by reductant. In the absence of moisture, the magnetic separation results show that the recoveries of iron and nickel have a significant increase; moreover, olivine structure would be destroyed gradually with the increase of roasting temperature in the action of sodium chloride, and the sodium chloride existed in high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore could make the NiO isolate from NiO-bearing minerals. The NiO reacts with Fe2O3 at high temperature to form NiFe2O4, which is conductive to the formation of Ni-Fe alloy during the reduction process. PMID:27374991

  7. Neutron diffraction study of aluminum chloride imidazolium chloride molten salts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, S. [Nisshin Steel Co. Ltd., Tokyo (Japan); Saboungi, M.L.; Suzuya, K. [Argonne National Lab., IL (United States); Koura, N. [Tokyo University of Science, Tokyo (Japan). Faculty of Science and Technology

    1994-02-01

    The structure of molten mixtures of (AlCl{sub 3}){sub x}(1-ethyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride){sub 1-x} was investigated by neutron diffraction techniques for x=0.46, 0.50, 0.60 and 0.67. Results derived from earlier ab initio molecular orbital (6-31G* basis set) computations for AlCl{sub 4}{sup {minus}}, Al{sub 2}Cl{sub 7}{sup {minus}}, and EMI{sup +} were used to calculate the diffraction patterns; the calculated contributions of each species are thus obtained and overall results are in good agreement with measurements.

  8. NEW TOOLS FOR VOLATILITY MODELS

    OpenAIRE

    SANTILLI, MANOLA

    2014-01-01

    In the first part of this work, we propose a new estimation method of the spot volatility, based on a semi-nonparametric model, which employs the information content of a complete panel of European options, daily quoted in the market, under no arbitrage assumptions. The technique we propose is based on the idea of model-free implied volatility and exploits the observed VIX term structure to make inference on the unobserved spot volatility. We show that this new estimation method can be applie...

  9. Thermodynamics of Volatile Species in the Silicon-Oxygen-Hydrogen System Studied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Copland, Evan H.; Myers, Dwight

    2005-01-01

    The volatilization of silica (SiO2) to silicon hydroxides and oxyhydroxides because of reaction with water vapor is important in a variety of high-temperature corrosion processes. For example, the lifetimes of silicon carbide (SiC) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) - based components in combustion environments are limited by silica volatility. To understand and model this process, it is essential to have accurate thermodynamic data for the formation of volatile silicon hydroxides and oxyhydroxides.

  10. Nonparametric volatility density estimation for discrete time models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Es; P.J.C. Spreij; J.H. van Zanten

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: We consider discrete time models for asset prices with a stationary volatility process. We aim at estimating the multivariate density of this process at a set of consecutive time instants. A Fourier type deconvolution kernel density estimator based on the logarithm of the squared process i

  11. Synthesis of Zirconium Lower Chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This research is accurately related to the Halox concept of research reactor spent fuel element treatment.The aim of this project is to work the conditioning through selected chlorination of the element that make the spent fuel element. This research studied the physical chemistry conditions which produce formation of the lower zirconium chlorides through the reaction between metallic Zr and gaseous ZrCl4 in a silica reactor.This work focused special attention in the analysis and confrontation of the published results among the different authors in order to reveal coincidences and contradictions.Experimental section consisted in a set of synthesis with different reaction conditions and reactor design. After reaction were analyzed the products on Zr shavings and the deposit growth on wall reactor.The products were strongly dependent of reactor design. It was observed that as the distance between Zr and wall reactor increased greater was tendency to lower chlorides formation.In reactors with small distance the reaction follows other way without formation of lower chlorides.Analysis on deposit growth on reactor showed that may be formed to a mixture of SixZry intermetallics and zirconium oxides.Presence of oxygen in Zr and Zr-Si compounds on wall reactor reveals that there is an interaction between quartz and reactants.This interaction is in gaseous phase because contamination is observed in experiences where Zr was not in contact with reactor.Finally, it was made a global analysis of all experiences and a possible mechanism that interprets reaction ways is proposed

  12. Protection from radioaerosols and volatile radionuclides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Increasing the safety of nuclear power plants is a problem of the utmost importance in the nuclear energy industry. Particular attention is given to severe accidents at nuclear reactors. Although the probability of these accidents is low (-5), their consequences are the most disastrous. Severe accidents result in the release of tens of thousands of curies of radioactive products into the area under the containment. Modern protective systems for the localization of radioactive aerosols and volatile radionuclides are based mainly on the filtration of gas flow, using various solid and liquid sorbents. The main principle of these filters is based on the precipitation of suspended particles on any surface (grids, liquid drops, or film, fiber, and electrode surfaces). In these processes, physical phenomena such as gravitation, inertia, diffusion, electricity, magnetism, and supersonics are used. A disadvantage of the available systems is that they may not trap radioaerosols present in the vapor-gas mixture in the form of finely dispersed (much smaller than 0.1 microm) hydrophobic particles. A new concept of protection from radioaerosols and volatile radionuclides has been suggested. A basically new method of the localization of radioactive aerosols and volatile radionuclides is based on the physicochemical process occurring in the gas phase. The proposed concept of protection from radioaerosols and volatile fission products uses unconventional approaches based not on the filtration of vapor-gas flow but on the extraction of radioaerosols and radioiodine from them by the formation of mixed micelles with manufactured hydrophilic aerosols, such as MoO3 and NH4Cl-(NH4)2SO3, and the cocrystallization of ionic iodine with them. The new concept may be used for protection from radioaerosols at various types of nuclear reactors

  13. Thermogravimetric Investigation of the Lead Volatilization from Waste Cathode-Ray Tube Glass

    OpenAIRE

    Grause, Guido; Takahashi, Kenshi; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of lead-containing cathode-ray tube (CRT) glass is an important environmental issue. One approach is the removal of lead by chloride volatilization. In the present work, the reaction of CRT glass with PVC as the chlorinating agent and Ca(OH)2 as the chlorine absorber was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in air. Seven reaction steps occurring at different temperatures were identified as dehydrochlorination of PVC/HCl absorption, CO2 absorption, Ca(OH)2 dehydration...

  14. Dietary Impact of Adding Potassium Chloride to Foods as a Sodium Reduction Technique.

    Science.gov (United States)

    van Buren, Leo; Dötsch-Klerk, Mariska; Seewi, Gila; Newson, Rachel S

    2016-01-01

    Potassium chloride is a leading reformulation technology for reducing sodium in food products. As, globally, sodium intake exceeds guidelines, this technology is beneficial; however, its potential impact on potassium intake is unknown. Therefore, a modeling study was conducted using Dutch National Food Survey data to examine the dietary impact of reformulation (n = 2106). Product-specific sodium criteria, to enable a maximum daily sodium chloride intake of 5 grams/day, were applied to all foods consumed in the survey. The impact of replacing 20%, 50% and 100% of sodium chloride from each product with potassium chloride was modeled. At baseline median, potassium intake was 3334 mg/day. An increase in the median intake of potassium of 453 mg/day was seen when a 20% replacement was applied, 674 mg/day with a 50% replacement scenario and 733 mg/day with a 100% replacement scenario. Reformulation had the largest impact on: bread, processed fruit and vegetables, snacks and processed meat. Replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, particularly in key contributing product groups, would result in better compliance to potassium intake guidelines (3510 mg/day). Moreover, it could be considered safe for the general adult population, as intake remains compliant with EFSA guidelines. Based on current modeling potassium chloride presents as a valuable, safe replacer for sodium chloride in food products. PMID:27110818

  15. Water Vapor-Mediated Volatilization of High-Temperature Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschter, Peter J.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2013-07-01

    Volatilization in water vapor-containing atmospheres is an important and often unexpected mechanism of degradation of high-temperature materials during processing and in service. Thermodynamic properties data sets for key (oxy)hydroxide vapor product species that are responsible for material transport and damage are often uncertain or unavailable. Estimation, quantum chemistry calculation, and measurement methods for thermodynamic properties of these species are reviewed, and data judged to be reliable are tabulated and referenced. Applications of water vapor-mediated volatilization include component and coating recession in turbine engines, oxidation/volatilization of ferritic steels in steam boilers, chromium poisoning in solid-oxide fuel cells, vanadium transport in hot corrosion and degradation of hydrocracking catalysts, Na loss from Na β"-Al2O3 tubes, and environmental release of radioactive isotopes in a nuclear reactor accident or waste incineration. The significance of water vapor-mediated volatilization in these applications is described.

  16. Volatility Smile and Delta Hedging

    OpenAIRE

    Stolbov, Anatoly

    2014-01-01

    The thesis describes and applies two parametric option pricing models which partially ease the well-known discrepancy between real world and Black-Scholes model. Stochastic volatility and jumps encompassed by Heston and SVJ models explain implied volatility smile and its heterogeneous term-structure. Both models are calibrated to market data observed for EURUSD currency options on January 23, 2015. While SVJ model provided a better fit for the market, especially for mid-term expiry smile curv...

  17. Management strategy impacts on ammonia volatilization from swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, Diane M; Powers, Wendy J; Lorimor, Jeffery C

    2005-01-01

    Ammonia emitted from manure can have detrimental effects on health, environmental quality, and fertilizer value. The objective of this study was to measure the potential for reduction in ammonia volatilization from swine (Sus scrofa domestica) manure by temperature control, stirring, addition of nitrogen binder (Mohave yucca, Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies) or urease inhibitor [N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT)], segregation of urine from feces, and pH modification. Swine manure [total solids (TS) = 7.6-11.2%, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) = 3.3-6.2 g/L, ammonium nitrogen NH(+)(4)-N = 1.0-3.3 g/L] was stored for 24, 48, 72, or 96 h in 2-L polyvinyl chloride vessels. The manure was analyzed to determine pre- and post-storage concentrations of TS and volatile solids (VS), TKN, and NH(+)(4)-N. The concentration of accumulated ammonia N in the vessel headspace (HSAN), post-storage, was measured using grab sample tubes. Headspace NH(3) concentrations were reduced 99.3% by segregation of urine from feces (P acidification to pH 5.3 (9.4%), and increased with stirring (4.8%) and increasing temperature (0.06 g/L per 1 degree C increase in temperature over 35 degrees C). Temperature control, urine-feces segregation, and acidification of swine manure are strategies with potential to reduce or slow NH(+)(4)-N formation and NH(3) volatilization. PMID:15888898

  18. Analysis of Yucca Mountain Pore-Water Chloride Data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Distribution of chemical constituents in the unsaturated zone (UZ) system of Yucca Mountain, Nevada, depends on many factors, such as hydrological and geochemical processes of surface precipitation, evapotranspiration, the water-fracture-matrix interactions, large-scale mixing via lateral flow and transport, and the history of climate changes. This study analyzes pore-water chloride-concentration data and models the transport processes. The model results are then used to calibrate the UZ flow model with the aim of refining the infiltration distribution and percolation fluxes to the potential repository. The major chemical data used in this study were pore-water chloride (Cl) concentrations. The sensitivity of this conservative tracer to the UZ flow system is well known. This constituent was directly incorporated into a three-dimensional dual-permeability flow model. Chemical transport properties were taken into account. The surface flux of chloride was determined by the total amount of precipitation reaching the surface and chemical concentration in the precipitation. The entire flow system was divided into domains based on the distribution of pore-water chemical data, infiltration data, hydrogeological and hydrostructural features. Model calibration proceeded by adjusting the site-scale infiltration map and anisotropy permeabilities to reach a satisfying agreement between the simulated subsurface chloride distribution and measured data

  19. Dechlorinating reaction of organic chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Dechlorination has been examined by the reaction between iron, aluminum powder or CaO and organic chlorides such as C2HCl3 and CH2Cl2. Progress of the reaction was analyzed with mass spectrometer. The reaction between iron and organic chloride was rapidly occurred at the temperature between 350 and 440degC in an atmosphere of argon. Above 380degC, more than 99.5% of C2HCl3 was decomposed within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, approximately 60% of C2HCl3 was decomposed by the reaction with aluminium powder within approximately 100 minutes. At 440degC, reaction between C2HCl3 and CaO powder were occurred rapidly in an atmosphere of argon to form CaCl2 and free carbon. Also in an atmosphere of air, nearly the same result was obtained. In this reaction, CaCl2, CO and CO2 were formed. CH2Cl2 was also decomposed by the reaction with iron at the temperature between 380 and 440degC. In the reaction, FeCl2, carbon and hydrogen were formed. CH3+ and CH4 were observed during the dechlorinating reaction of CH2Cl2. Variation in particle size of iron powder such as 100, 150 and 250 mesh did not affect the reaction rate. (author)

  20. Steel corrosion in anoxic mediums with high chloride concentrations

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Carbon steels are widely used in contact with chloride containing mediums, however most of the literature reports corrosion problems in solutions in contact with air, for example, sea water. There are other applications where the steel is in contact with freshwater in the absence of oxygen as is the case with materials for nuclear repositories or in petroleum production. These mediums can have varied composition but their corrosivity is usually related to the concentration of chlorides. There are no systematic studies in the literature about the influence of high chloride concentrations on the speed of steel corrosion for carbon steels in the absence of oxygen. Some work has been done using Raman and XPS spectroscopy, but these techniques have been carried out ex situ in samples submitted to the action of high chloride concentrations. This results in the appearance of corrosion products on the metal surface due to the oxidation of the surface from exposure to air before and during the use of these techniques, generating confusing and uncertain data. The lack of reliable data is due to the difficulty of applying these techniques in situ under very low oxygen conditions (less than 10 ppb) without allowing any air into the system. Since there are no studies in the literature about the influence of high concentrations of chloride on the corrosion speed of carbon steels in the absence of oxygen, this work aims to generate experimental data to evaluate the influence of high concentrations of this anion on the corrosion speed of steel under anoxic conditions. The corrosivity of each solution was evaluated using electrochemical techniques such as corrosion potential, corrosion speed, anodic and cathodic polarization curves, cyclic voltammetries and electrochemical impedance spectroscopy to study the oxidation-reduction processes that occur with specific temperature, pH and chloride concentration conditions. Concentrated solutions of sodium chloride (50,000, 100,000 and 180

  1. Incomplete Continuous-time Securities Markets with Stochastic Income Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christensen, Peter Ove; Larsen, Kasper

    2014-01-01

    We derive closed-form solutions for the equilibrium interest rate and market price of risk processes in an incomplete continuous-time market with uncertainty generated by Brownian motions. The economy has a finite number of heterogeneous exponential utility investors, who receive partially...... unspanned income and can trade continuously. Countercyclical stochastic income volatility generates a countercyclical equilibrium market price of risk process and a procyclical equilibrium interest rate process. We show that when the investors' unspanned income volatility is countercyclical, the resulting...... equilibrium displays both lower interest rates and higher risk premia compared to the equilibrium in an otherwise identical complete market....

  2. TESTING OF 304L STAINLESS STEEL IN NITRIC ACID ENVIRONMENTS WITH FLUORIDES AND CHLORIDES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mickalonis, J.

    2010-10-04

    Impure radioactive material processed in nitric acid solutions resulted in the presence of chlorides in a dissolver fabricated from 304L stainless steel. An experimental program was conducted to study the effects of chloride in nitric acid/fluoride solutions on the corrosion of 304L stainless steel. The test variables included temperature (80, 95, and 110 C) and the concentrations of nitric acid (6, 12, and 14 M), fluoride (0.01, 0.1, and 0.2 M) and chloride (100, 350, 1000, and 2000 ppm). The impact of welding was also investigated. Results showed that the chloride concentration alone was not a dominant variable affecting the corrosion, but rather the interaction of chloride with fluoride significantly affected corrosion.

  3. Corrosion of reinforcement induced by environment containing chloride and carbon dioxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vladimír Živica

    2003-10-01

    Reinforced concrete structures during their exploitation may be exposed to the common action of carbonation and chlorides causing corrosion of steel reinforcement. Therefore, the related data seem to be interesting and important when the evaluation of the service life of the structures is the object of interest. This fact was a motivation for the present experimental study on the sequence of action of chloride solutions and carbonation of the embedding concrete. The results obtained show that carbonation of concrete foregoing the action of chloride solutions may intensify the process of corrosion of steel reinforcement in comparison to the converse sequence of the action of mentioned media. At the same time the natrium chloride solution has been shown as a more aggressive medium opposite to the calcium and magnesium chloride solutions.

  4. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    OpenAIRE

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; Makhnin, O.; A. S. Kayaalp

    2010-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construc...

  5. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    OpenAIRE

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; Makhnin, O.; A. S. Kayaalp

    2010-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this st...

  6. Selenium Uptake and Volatilization by Marine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxem, Katja E.; Vriens, Bas; Wagner, Bettina; Behra, Renata; Winkel, Lenny H. E.

    2015-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient for humans. An estimated one half to one billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency, which is due to low concentrations and bioavailability of Se in soils where crops are grown. It has been hypothesized that more than half of the atmospheric Se deposition to soils is derived from the marine system, where microorganisms methylate and volatilize Se. Based on model results from the late 1980s, the atmospheric flux of these biogenic volatile Se compounds is around 9 Gt/year, with two thirds coming from the marine biosphere. Algae, fungi, and bacteria are known to methylate Se. Although algal Se uptake, metabolism, and methylation influence the speciation and bioavailability of Se in the oceans, these processes have not been quantified under environmentally relevant conditions and are likely to differ among organisms. Therefore, we are investigating the uptake and methylation of the two main inorganic Se species (selenate and selenite) by three globally relevant microalgae: Phaeocystis globosa, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, and the diatom Thalassiosira oceanica. Selenium uptake and methylation were quantified in a batch experiment, where parallel gas-tight microcosms in a climate chamber were coupled to a gas-trapping system. For E. huxleyi, selenite uptake was strongly dependent on aqueous phosphate concentrations, which agrees with prior evidence that selenite uptake by phosphate transporters is a significant Se source for marine algae. Selenate uptake was much lower than selenite uptake. The most important volatile Se compounds produced were dimethyl selenide, dimethyl diselenide, and dimethyl selenyl sulfide. Production rates of volatile Se species were larger with increasing intracellular Se concentration and in the decline phase of the alga. Similar experiments are being carried out with P. globosa and T. oceanica. Our results indicate that marine algae are important for the global cycling of Se

  7. The Limiting Phenomena at the Anode of the Electrowinning of Zinc from Zinc Chloride in a Molten Chloride Electrolyte

    OpenAIRE

    Lans, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the possibilities and technological viability for the electrowinning of zinc from zinc chloride. This research contributes to development of an alternative process, because it provides: ⢠A clear understanding and overview of the present zinc industry and future developments. ⢠A thorough literature investigation, leading to: o Understanding the reasons to abandon the proposed process route previously used (molten salt electrowinning in parti...

  8. Heterogeneous volatility cascade in financial markets

    OpenAIRE

    Gilles Zumbach; Paul Lynch

    2001-01-01

    Using high frequency data, we have studied empirically the change of volatility, also called volatility derivative, for various time horizons. In particular, the correlation between the volatility derivative and the volatility realized in the next time period is a measure of the response function of the market participants. This correlation shows explicitly the heterogeneous structure of the market according to the characteristic time horizons of the differents agents. It reveals a volatility...

  9. Ammonia volatilization from surface application of organic residues and urea on Marandu palisadegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álisson Vanin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure ammonia volatilization from surface application of pig slurry, poultry litter, urea and no fertilization. An experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, in plots repeated over time, with four treatments and four replications. The fertilizers tested were: mineral fertilizer (70 kg ha-1 N, 100 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 30 kg ha-1 of K2O, as urea, triple superphosphate and potassium chloride, respectively, pig slurry (200 m³ ha-1 applied in November 2008 and 200 m³ ha-1 applied in April 2009 and poultry litter (10 t ha-1 applied in November 2008 and 10 t ha-1 applied in April 2009. Five evaluations were performed with 24-hour intervals. Foams were used with glycerin and sulfuric acid, internally fixed in PET bottles for collecting ammonia. After collected, the samples were sent to the laboratory to determine volatilized ammonia levels by the semi-micro Kjedahl distillation method. Fertilization with chicken litter had lower ammonia volatilization in relation to urea and pig slurry. Most of the ammonia volatilization from pig slurry occurred within 48 hours after application, totaling losses of 630 g kg-1 of a total of 8.25 kg ha-1 of volatilized ammonia. The biggest loss by ammonia volatilization was from fertilization with urea, totaling approximately 80 g kg-1 of N applied.

  10. The Role of Chloride Ions during the Formation of Akaganéite Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Johanna Scheck

    2015-11-01

    Full Text Available Iron(III hydrolysis in the presence of chloride ions yields akaganéite, an iron oxyhydroxide mineral with a tunnel structure stabilized by the inclusion of chloride. Yet, the interactions of this anion with the iron oxyhydroxide precursors occurring during the hydrolysis process, as well as its mechanistic role during the formation of a solid phase are debated. Using a potentiometric titration assay in combination with a chloride ion-selective electrode, we have monitored the binding of chloride ions to nascent iron oxyhydroxides. Our results are consistent with earlier studies reporting that chloride ions bind to early occurring iron complexes. In addition, the data suggests that they are displaced with the onset of oxolation. Chloride ions in the akaganéite structure must be considered as remnants from the early stages of precipitation, as they do not influence the basic mechanism, or the kinetics of the hydrolysis reactions. The structure-directing role of chloride is based upon the early stages of the reaction. The presence of chloride in the tunnel-structure of akagenéite is due to a relatively strong binding to the earliest iron oxyhydroxide precursors, whereas it plays a rather passive role during the later stages of precipitation.

  11. Resistance of Alkali-Activated Slag Concrete to Chloride-Induced Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Woo Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion resistance of steel in alkali-activated slag (AAS mortar was evaluated by a monitoring of the galvanic current and half-cell potential with time against a chloride-contaminated environment. For chloride transport, rapid chloride penetration test was performed, and chloride binding capacity of AAS was evaluated at a given chloride. The mortar/paste specimens were manufactured with ground granulated blast-furnace slag, instead of Portland cement, and alkali activators were added in mixing water, including Ca(OH2, KOH and NaOH, to activate hydration process. As a result, it was found that the corrosion behavior was strongly dependent on the type of alkali activator: the AAS containing the Ca(OH2 activator was the most passive in monitoring of the galvanic corrosion and half-cell potential, while KOH, and NaOH activators indicated a similar level of corrosion to Portland cement mortar (control. Despite a lower binding of chloride ions in the paste, the AAS had quite a higher resistance to chloride transport in rapid chloride penetration, presumably due to the lower level of capillary pores, which was ensured by the pore distribution of AAS mortar in mercury intrusion porosimetry.

  12. A review of the contrasting behavior of two magmatic volatiles: Chlorine and carbon dioxide

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lowenstern, J. B.

    2000-01-01

    Chlorine (Cl) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are common magmatic volatiles with contrasting behaviors. CO2 solubility increases with pressure whereas Cl solubility shows relatively little pressure or temperature effect. CO2 speciation changes with silicate melt composition, dissolving as carbonate in basaltic magmas and molecular CO2 in more silicic compositions. In H2O-bearing systems, the strongly non-ideal behavior of alkali chlorides causes unmixing of the volatile phase to form a H2O-rich vapor and a hydrosaline phase with important implications for the maximum concentration of Cl in magmas. Addition of CO2 to magma hastens immiscibility at crustal pressures (Chlorine (Cl) and carbon dioxide (CO2) are common magmatic volatiles with contrasting behaviors. CO2 solubility increases with pressure whereas Cl solubility shows relatively little pressure or temperature effect. CO2 speciation changes with silicate melt composition, dissolving as carbonate in basaltic magmas and molecular CO2 in more silicic compositions. In H2O-bearing systems, the strongly non-ideal behavior of alkali chlorides causes unmixing of the volatile phase to form a H2O-rich vapor and a hydrosaline phase with important implications for the maximum concentration of Cl in magmas. Addition of CO2 to magma hastens immiscibility at crustal pressures (<500 MPa), inducing the formation of CO2-rich vapors and Cl-rich hydrosaline melts.

  13. Inclusions of chlorides in natural diamonds from Siberia

    Science.gov (United States)

    Titkov, Sergey; Ryabchikov, Igor; Pomazansky, Bogdan; Magazina, Larisa

    2010-05-01

    .6 wt% Si, 23,2 wt% Cl, 39.5 wt% O. The majority of oxygen may be due to the presence of water. The empty space of the cavity was filled with specific dendrites made up of K, Na, Cl, and O in variable proportions. In polycrystalline aggregate of diamond, empty cavity, about 70 m across, was found. Its walls were covered by elongated crystals of chlorides. They consisted of Na, K, Cl, and minor O, with Na sharply predominating over K. It appears that this inclusion contained a large amount of water and volatile components which were possibly lost. Cl-bearing fluids revealed in natural diamonds in the previous studies contained both K, Cl, water and variable amounts of Na, divalent ions (Ca, Mg, Fe, Ba), carbonate and silica. While it was suggested that pure Cl-brines may occurred in deep-seated diamond-forming system (Tomlinson et al., 2006; Klein-BenDavid et al., 2007). Our results indicate that evolution of diamond-forming systems actually may give birth to practically pure alkaline-chloride brines. These brines were trapped by growing diamonds as inclusions. Upon cooling, K-Na-chlorides crystallized from the brines. Water and volatile components of the system appeared to be removed under decrepitation of the inclusions. References Palyanov Y.N., Shatsky V.S., Sobolev N.V., Sokol A.G. (2007) Proc. Natl. Acad. Sci. U.S.A., 104, 9122-9127. Klein-BenDavid O., Izraeli E.S., Hauri E., Navon O. (2007) Geochim. Cosmochim. Acta, 71, 723-744. Tomlinson E.L., Jones A.P., Harris J.W. (2006) Earth Planet. Sci. Lett., 250, 581-595 Titkov S.V., Zudin N.G., Gorshkov A.I., Sivtsov A.V., Magazina L.O. (2003) Gems & Gemology, 39, 200-209.

  14. 利用铝灰制备聚合氯化铝工艺参数的优化%Optimization on Process Parameters About Preparation of Polyaluminum Chloride from Aluminum Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石健; 邹开云

    2011-01-01

    以铝灰为原料,用一步酸溶法制备高效无机高分子的多价聚合电解质混凝剂聚合氯化铝.研究了铝灰、HCl、水三者配比,以及反应温度、反应时间、熟化温度、熟化时间、搅拌速度等参数对聚合氯化铝的性能影响,确定了制备聚合氯化铝的最佳工艺条件:初始加水量为15 mL,酸水比为1,投加量3 g,反应时间2 h,反应温度85℃,熟化时间48 h,熟化温度50℃.氯化铝的质量分数由原生产工艺的6%~8%提高到现在的12%~14%.%Polyaluminum chloride are prepared from aluminum ash by acid dissolution, parameters that influence the performance of PAC, such as reaction, temperature, reaction time, aging temperature, aging time, the ratio of aluminum ash, HCI and water, are investigated. The optimum conditions for the preparation of PAC are determined, namely the initial waterl5ml, ratio of water and acid is 1, dosing quantity is 3 g, react 2 h in 85℃, aging 48 h in 50℃ The precent of chloride is increased to 12%-14% from the past 6%-8%.

  15. Ion exchange in a zeolite-molten chloride system

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Electrometallurgical treatment of spent nuclear fuel results in a secondary waste stream of radioactive fission products dissolved in chloride salt. Disposal plans include a waste form that can incorporate chloride forms featuring one or more zeolites consolidated with sintered glass. A candidate method for incorporating fission products in the zeolites is passing the contaminated salt over a zeolite column for ion exchange. To date, the molten chloride ion-exchange properties of four zeolites have been investigated for this process: zeolite A, IE95 reg-sign, clinoptilolite, and mordenite. Of these, zeolite A has been the most promising. Treating zeolite 4A, the sodium form of zeolite A , with the solvent salt for the waste stream-lithium-potassium chloride of eutectic melting composition, is expected to provide a material with favorable ion-exchange properties for the treatment of the waste salt. The authors constructed a pilot-plant system for the ion-exchange column. Initial results indicate that there is a direct relationship between the two operating variable of interest, temperature, and initial sodium concentration. Also, the mass ratio has been about 3--5 to bring the sodium concentration of the effluent below 1 mol%

  16. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM ACIDIC SOLUTIONS USING NO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloride (Cl-) salt processing in strong acids is used to recycle plutonium (Pu) from pyrochemical residues. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is studying the potential application of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas to effectively convert dissolved pyrochemical salt solutions to chloride-free solutions and improve recovery operations. An NO2 sparge has been shown to effectively remove Cl- from solutions containing 6-8 M acid (H+) and up to 5 M Cl-. Chloride removal occurs as a result of the competition of at least two reactions, one which is acid-dependent. Below 4 M H+, NO2 reacts with Cl- to produce nitrosyl chloride (ClNO). Between 6 M and 8 M H+, the reaction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with nitric acid (HNO3), facilitated by the presence of NO2, strongly affects the rate of Cl- removal. The effect of heating the acidic Cl- salt solution without pre-heating the NO2 gas has minimal effect on Cl- removal rates when the contact times between NO2 and the salt solution are on the order of seconds

  17. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF MAGNOLIAE FARGESII VOLATILE OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng; CHEN Zhi-dong; XING Tao; WANG Nian-song

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the anti-inflammatory effects of magnoliae fargesii volatile oil.Methods Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were stimulated by TNF-α to express the adhesion molecules. Then the anti-adhesion effects of magnoliae fargesii volatile oil between HUVECs and human peripheral neutrophils were observed. The ischemia-reperfusion animal models were established by 60min renal ischemia followed by 1, 3, 6 and 24h reperfusion. Rats were randomly divided into the following groups: the sham-operation controls, ischemic group only treated with normal saline, and treated group infused magnoliae fargesii volatile oil before reperfusion. Then the renal injury of rats was detected. Results High rate of cell adhesion between HUVECs and neutrophils was observed. Magnoliae fargesii volatile oil could inhibit the adhesion process at the concentration of 0.5μL/mL (191.6±8.6), 1.0μL/mL (158.2±9.0) and 2.0μL/mL (155.2±9.7) (P<0.05). The anti-adhesion effects were strengthened with the increase of volatile oil concentration. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels of the animal models were significantly increased after 24h reperfusion while the increase was remarkably attenuated by the treatment with magnoliae fargesii volatile oil. The renal injury was severe after 1h reperfusion, which was significantly attenuated by the treatment of magnoliae fargesii volatile oil. Conclusion Magnoliae fargesii volatile oil has anti-inflammatory effects.

  18. Volatility of secondary organic aerosol during OH radical induced ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Salo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate oxidation of SOA formed from ozonolysis of α-pinene and limonene by hydroxyl radicals. This paper focuses on changes of particle volatility, using a Volatility Tandem DMA (VTDMA set-up, in order to explain and elucidate the mechanism behind atmospheric ageing of the organic aerosol. The experiments were conducted at the AIDA chamber facility of KIT in Karlsruhe and at the SAPHIR chamber of FZJ in Jülich. A fresh SOA was produced from ozonolysis of α-pinene or limonene and then aged by enhanced OH exposure. As an OH-radical source in the AIDA-chamber the ozonolysis of tetramethylethylene (TME was used while in the SAPHIR-chamber the OH was produced by natural light photochemistry. A general feature is that SOA produced from ozonolysis of α-pinene and limonene initially were rather volatile and becomes less volatile with time in the ozonolysis part of the experiment. Inducing OH chemistry or adding a new portion of precursors made the SOA more volatile due to addition of new semi-volatile material to the aged aerosol. The effect of OH chemistry was less pronounced in high concentration and low temperature experiments when lower relative amounts of semi-volatile material were available in the gas phase. Conclusions drawn from the changes in volatility were confirmed by comparison with the measured and modelled chemical composition of the aerosol phase. Three quantified products from the α-pinene oxidation; pinonic acid, pinic acid and methylbutanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA were used to probe the processes influencing aerosol volatility. A major conclusion from the work is that the OH induced ageing can be attributed to gas phase oxidation of products produced in the primary SOA formation process and that there was no indication on significant bulk or surface reactions. The presented results, thus, strongly emphasise the importance of gas phase oxidation of semi- or intermediate-volatile organic compounds

  19. The shape of option implied volatility: a study based on market net demand pressure

    OpenAIRE

    Tianyu Mo; Zhenlong Zheng; Lin, William T.

    2012-01-01

    Purpose–Due to disequilibrium between supply and demand in the option market, the option market-maker is under exposure to certain risks because of their net option positions. This paper aims to pay attention to whether the risk award affects the option price and the shape of implied volatility in the market-maker system. Design/methodology/approach–The paper first eliminates the part of implied volatility explained by underlying asset's stochastic volatility-jump price process, and second so...

  20. Do Jumps Matter? Forecasting Multivariate Realized Volatility allowing for Common Jumps

    OpenAIRE

    Yin Liao; Heather M. Anderson; Farshid Vahid

    2010-01-01

    Realized volatility of stock returns is often decomposed into two distinct components that are attributed to continuous price variation and jumps. This paper proposes a tobit multivariate factor model for the jumps coupled with a standard multivariate factor model for the continuous sample path to jointly forecast volatility in three Chinese Mainland stocks. Out of sample forecast analysis shows that separate multivariate factor models for the two volatility processes outperform a single mult...

  1. Solid phase microextraction for profiling volatile compounds in liquered white wines

    OpenAIRE

    Henryk H. Jeleń; Anna Szczurek

    2010-01-01

    Background. Profile of volatile compounds is a distinct feature of wine, which is dependent on the type of wine, grapes, fermentation and ageing processes. Profiling volatile compounds in wine using fast method provides information on major groups of compounds and can be used for classification/differentiation purposes. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used for the profiling of volatile compounds in liquered white wines in this study. Material and methods. Different fibers were tes...

  2. Correction to Black-Scholes formula due to fractional stochastic volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Garnier, Josselin; Solna, Knut

    2015-01-01

    Empirical studies show that the volatility may exhibit correlations that decay as a fractional power of the time offset. The paper presents a rigorous analysis for the case when the stationary stochastic volatility model is constructed in terms of a fractional Ornstein Uhlenbeck process to have such correlations. It is shown how the associated implied volatility has a term structure that is a function of maturity to a fractional power.

  3. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    cathode. However, some unwanted side effects can occur, including alkali-silica reaction and in some cases hydrogen embrittlement. It is also suggested also to use electrochemical chloride extraction in a preventive way in constructions where chloride induced corrosion is likely to be a problem after a...

  4. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei;

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...

  5. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.; Glasser, Fred P.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements are...

  6. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.;

    1999-01-01

    modelled on Fick's law modified by a term for chloride binding. Inclusion of chloride binding significantly improves the profile shape of the modelled ingress profiles. The presence of fine aggregate and formation of interfacial transition zones at paste-aggregate boundaries does not significantly affect...

  7. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics...

  8. Properties of silver chloride track detectors

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The experiments on preparation of silver chloride track detectors and their properties are described. The results of X-ray structural analysis and data on sensitivity to charged particles and actinic light of silver chloride crystals, doped with several elements, are presented. (orig.)

  9. Volatile and Non-Volatile Single Electron Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Touati 

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Multi Tunnel Junctions (MTJs have attracted much attention recently in the fields of Single-Electron Devices (SED in particular Single-Electron Memory (SEM. In this paper, we have design and study a nano-device structure using a two dimensional array MTJs for Volatile and Non-Volatile-SEM, in order to analyze the impact of physical parameters on the performances. We investigate the single-electron circuit characteristics in our devices qualitatively, using single-electron Monte Carlo simulator SIMON.

  10. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used in continu......The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  11. The hydrogen concentration as parameter to identify natural attenuation processes of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in ground water; Die Wasserstoffkonzentration als Parameter zur Identifizierung des natuerlichen Abbaus von leichtfluechtigen Chlorkohlenwasserstoffen (LCKW) im Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alter, M.D.

    2006-06-15

    In this study, the hydrogen concentration as parameter to identify natural attenuation processes of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons was investigated. The currently accepted and recommended bubble strip method for hydrogen sampling was optimized, and a storage method for hydrogen samples was developed. Furthermore batch experiments with a dechlorinating mixed culture and pure cultures were carried out to study H{sub 2}-concentrations of competing redox processes. The extraction of hydrogen from ground water was optimized by a reduced inlet diameter of the usually applied gas sampling bulbs, allowing a maximal turbulent ow and gas transfer. With a gas volume of 10 ml and flow rates of 50 to 140 ml/min, the course of extraction almost followed the theoretical course of equilibration. At flow rates > 100 ml/min a equilibrium of 98% was achieved within 20 min. Until recently it was generally accepted that hydrogen samples can be stored only for 2 hours and therefore have to be analyzed immediately in the eld. Here, it was shown that eld samples can be stored for 1-3 days until analysis. For the dechlorination of tetrachloroethene (PCE), a hydrogen threshold concentration of 1-2 nM was found with the dechlorinating mixed culture as well as with a pure culture of Sulfurospirillum multivorans in combination with another pure culture Methanosarcina mazei. No dechlorination was detectable below this concentration. With the dechlorinating mixed culture, this finding is valid for all successive dechlorination steps until ethene. The hydrogen threshold concentration for denitrification were below the detection limit of 0,2 nM with the dechlorinating mixed culture. A threshold concentration of 3,1-3,5 nM was found for sulphate reduction and a threshold of 7-9 nM H{sub 2} for hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. This implies that the natural dechlorination at contaminated sites is preferred to competing processes like sulphate reduction and methanogenesis. The threshold

  12. Volatile metal species in coal combustion flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pavageau, M.-P.; Pecheyran, C.; Krupp, E.; Morin, A.; Donard, O.F.X. [UMR CNRS, Helioparc Pau Pyrenes (France). Lab. de Chimie Analytique Bio Inorganique et Environnement

    2002-04-01

    Metals are released in effluent from most combustion processes and are under intensive regulations. To improve our knowledge of the combustion process and their resulting emission of metal to the atmosphere, we have developed an approach allowing us to distinguish between gaseous and particulate state of the elements emitted. This study was conducted on the emission of volatile metallic species emitted from a coal combustion plant where low/medium volatile coal (high-grade ash) was burnt. The occurrence of volatile metal species emission was investigated by a cryofocusing sampling procedure and detection using low-temperature packed-column gas chromatography coupled with inductively coupled plasma-mass spectrometry as multielement detector (LT-GC/ICP-MS). Samples were collected in the stack through the routine heated sampling line of the plant downstream from the electrostatic precipitator. The gaseous samples were trapped with a cryogenic device and analyzed by LT-GC/ICP-MS. During the combustion process, seven volatile metal species were detected. The quantification of volatile species was compared to results traditionally obtained by standardized impinger-based sampling and analysis techniques recommended for flue gas combustion characterization. Results showed that concentrations obtained with the standard impinger approach are at least 10 times higher than obtained with cryogenic sampling, suggesting the trapping microaerosols in the traditional methods. Total metal concentrations in particles are also reported and discussed. 46 refs., 9 figs., 4 tabs.

  13. Understanding volatility dynamics in the EU-ETS market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the short-term price behavior of Phase 2 EU emission allowances. We model returns and volatility dynamics, and we demonstrate that a standard ARMAX-GARCH framework is inadequate for this modeling and that the gaussianity assumption is rejected due to a number of outliers. To improve the fitness of the model, we combine the underlying price process with an additive stochastic jump process. We improve the model's performance by introducing a time-varying jump probability that is explained by two variables: the daily relative change in the volume of transactions and the European Commission's announcements regarding the supply of permits. We show that (i) sharp increases in volume have led to increased volatility during the April 2005–December 2007 period but not for the period beginning in January 2008, and (ii) announcements induce jumps in the process that tend to increase volatility across both periods. Thus, authorities face a trade off between disseminating information effectively and promoting market stability. -- Highlights: •Phase 2 EUA price fundamentals differ before and after January 2008. •Sharp rises in volume increased volatility during before January 2008 but not after. •EC announcements regarding supply of EUAs increase volatility before and after January 2008. •The previous effect is weaker from January 2008 on. •Trade off between providing information effectively and promoting market stability

  14. The price of fixed income market volatility

    CERN Document Server

    Mele, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Fixed income volatility and equity volatility evolve heterogeneously over time, co-moving disproportionately during periods of global imbalances and each reacting to events of different nature. While the methodology for options-based "model-free" pricing of equity volatility has been known for some time, little is known about analogous methodologies for pricing various fixed income volatilities. This book fills this gap and provides a unified evaluation framework of fixed income volatility while dealing with disparate markets such as interest-rate swaps, government bonds, time-deposits and credit. It develops model-free, forward looking indexes of fixed-income volatility that match different quoting conventions across various markets, and uncovers subtle yet important pitfalls arising from naïve superimpositions of the standard equity volatility methodology when pricing various fixed income volatilities. The ultimate goal of the authors´ efforts is to make interest rate volatility standardization a valuable...

  15. On the role of volatile fatty acids in the anaerobic fermentation of liquid manure and the way in which its properties are affected by the process of biogas production. Zur Bedeutung der fluechtigen Fettsaeuren bei der anaeroben Fermentation von Guelle und der Veraenderung der Guelleeigenschaften durch den Prozess der Biogaserzeugung

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Reinhold, G.; Breitschuh, G. (Forschungszentrum fuer Bodenfruchtbarkeit Muencheberg, Jena (German Democratric Republic))

    1989-01-01

    After mathematical-statistical evaluations of production data collected over five years at the Vippachedelhausen biogas station for large-scale experiments it was possible to quantify the effects of volatile fatty acids on the anaerobic fermentation of liquid manure and to analyse the ways in which the properties and constituents of liquid manure are changed by biogas production and storage of the putrefaction products. The study essentially led to the following conclusions: - Apart from the fact that the quantity of volatile fatty acids in liquid manure varies from case to case, it is further determined by two main factors, which are storage temperature on the one hand and dry solids content on the other hand. - The content of propionic acid has a substantial bearing on the process of fermentation. The relationship between certain parameters of biogas formation and the content of propionic acid or the degree to which it is degraded in the biogas reactor could be confirmed on a statistical basis. - As long as the content of fatty acids remained below 6 g l{sup -1}, biogas formation did not appear to be adversely affected by industrial-scale operating conditions. - 20-60% of the biogas produced are solely attributable to the degradation of volatile acids and this quantity varies according to load factors. - The degradation of dry solids through the process of biogas formation averaged 16.7% and thus remained considerably below the values frequently given in the relevant literature (30%). (orig.).

  16. Regolith Volatile Characterization (RVC) in RESOLVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captain, Janine; Lueck, Dale; Gibson, Tracy; Levine, Lanfang

    2010-01-01

    Resource investigation in the lunar poles is of importance to the potential impact of in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The RESOLVE project developed a payload to investigate the permanently shadowed areas of the lunar poles and demonstrate ISRU technology. As a part of the RESOLVE project, the regolith volatile characterization (RVC) subsystem was designed to examine the release of volatiles from sample cores. The test sample was heated in the reactor to release the volatiles where they were analyzed with gas chromatography. Subsequently, the volatile sample was introduced into the lunar water resource demonstration (LWRD) subsystem where the released hydrogen and water were selectively captured. The objective of the Regolith Volatile Characterization (RVC) subsystem was to heat the crushed core sample and determine the desorption of volatile species of interest. The RVC subsystem encompasses the reactor and the system for volatile analysis. The system was designed to analyze H2, He, CO, CO2, N2, 02, CH4, H2S and H2O. The GC chosen for this work is a Siemens MicroSAM process GC with 3 columns and 8 TCD detectors. Neon was chosen as the carrier gas to enhance the analysis of hydrogen and helium.The limit of detection for the gases is approx.1000ppm for H2, CO. CO2 , N2, O2 and H2 S. The limit of detection for CH4 is approx.4000ppm and the water limit of detection is -10000 ppm with a sample analysis time of 2-3 minutes. These values (with the exception of water and H2S) were determined by dilution of a six gas mixture from Scott Gas (5% CO2, CO, O2, N2, 4% CH4 and H2) using mass flow controllers (MFC5). Water was calibrated at low levels using an in house relative humidity (RH) generator. H 2S and high concentrations of H2 were calibrated by diluting a pure stream of gas with MFCs. Higher concentrations of N2 and 02 were calibrated using Air again diluting with MFCs. There were three modification goals for the GC in EBU2 that would allow this process GC to be

  17. Higher-order volatility: dynamics and sensitivities

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    In this addendum to Carey (2005), we draw several more analogies with the Black-Scholes model. We derive the characteristic function of the underlying log process as a function of the volatilities of all orders. Option prices are shown to satisfy an infinite-order version of the Black-Scholes partial differential equation. We find that in the same way that the option sensitivity to the cost of carry is related to delta and vega to gamma in the Black-Scholes model, the option sensitivity to j-...

  18. Stability and `volatility ` of element 104 oxychloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichler, B.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The formation enthalpies {Delta}H{sup *} of solid and gaseous oxychlorides of element 104 from free atoms were estimated by extrapolation. Stability and volatility of these compounds are compared to those of the homologous and neighbouring elements in the periodic system. It can be supposed that in a gas adsorption chromatographic process with oxygen containing chlorinating carrier gas the transport with the carrier gas flow occurs in the chemical state 104Cl{sub 4}. Only in the absorbed state the compound 104OCl{sub 2} is formed. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  19. Observability of market daily volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  20. Nitrate and chloride in Antarctic ice cores - postdepositional effects and the preservation of atmospheric signals (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasteris, D.; McConnell, J. R.; Edwards, R.; Isaksson, E. D.; Albert, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Continuous nitrate and chloride measurements have been made from an array of ice cores located in interior Dronning Maud Land that cover the last 2000 years. The average snow accumulation rates at the ice core sites range from 2.7 to 10 cm weq yr-1, which has enabled the study of how accumulation rate affects the preservation and diffusion of nitrate and chloride in the snow. High-resolution dating of the ice cores by tie-point matching with the WAIS Divide ice core has allowed the effects of temporal changes in accumulation rate to also be observed. Results show a strong linear dependence of nitrate concentration on site-average accumulation rate, suggesting that fresh snow concentrations and reemission rates of nitrate from the snowpack are homogenous across the study area. Bulk chloride to sodium ratios over scales greater than 1 m are close to bulk sea salt composition at all of the sites, suggesting that little net gain or loss of volatile chloride has occurred. However, the chloride signal is heavily diffused relative to sodium and the extent of diffusion does not increase with depth in the ice cores, suggesting that it is a near-surface phenomenon. Possible mechanisms behind the observed chloride diffusion pattern will be discussed. Lastly, a sustained decline in nitrate concentration occurred during the Little Ice Age (LIA, 1500-1900 C.E.), but the high-resolution snow accumulation records show that it is not caused by a decrease in accumulation rate during that time. The nitrate record is highly correlated with published methane isotope data from Antarctica (δ13CH4), suggesting that the decline during the LIA was caused by a decrease in a biomass burning nitrate source. Average nitrate concentration versus site-average inverse accumulation rate Composite time series of nitrate (thick black line), δ13CH4 (thin red line with diamonds), and black carbon (dashed black line).

  1. Effects of minerals in ferric bauxite on sodium carbonate decomposition and volatilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文韬; 王化军; 刘欣伟; 孙传尧

    2015-01-01

    Direct reduction is an emerging technology for ferric bauxite utilization. However, because of sodium volatilization, its sodium carbonate consumption is considerably higher than that in ordinary bauxite processing technology. TG-DSC and XRD were applied to detecting phase transformation and mass loss in direct reduction to reveal the mechanism on sodium volatilization. The results show that the most significant influence factor of ferric bauxite on sodium volatilization in direct reduction system is its iron content. Sodium volatilization is probably ascribed to the instability of amorphous substances structure. Amorphous substances are the intermediate-products of the reaction, and the volatilization rate of sodium increases with its generating rate. These amorphous substances are volatile, thus, more sodium is volatilized with its generation. A small amount of amorphous substances are generated in the reaction between Na2CO3and Al2O3; thus, only 3.15% of sodium is volatilized. Similarly, the volatilization rate is 1.87% in the reaction between Na2CO3and SiO2. However, the volatilization rate reaches 7.64% in the reaction between Na2CO3 and Fe2O3 because of the generation of a large amount of amorphous substances.

  2. Volatility of secondary organic aerosol during OH radical induced ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Salo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate oxidation of SOA formed from ozonolysis of α-pinene and limonene by hydroxyl radicals. This paper focuses on changes of particle volatility, using a Volatility Tandem DMA (VTDMA set-up, in order to explain and elucidate the mechanism behind atmospheric ageing of the organic aerosol. The experiments were conducted at the AIDA chamber facility of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT in Karlsruhe and at the SAPHIR chamber of Forchungzentrum Jülich (FZJ in Jülich. A fresh SOA was produced from ozonolysis of α-pinene or limonene and then aged by enhanced OH exposure. As an OH radical source in the AIDA-chamber the ozonolysis of tetramethylethylene (TME was used while in the SAPHIR-chamber the OH was produced by natural light photochemistry. A general feature is that SOA produced from ozonolysis of α-pinene and limonene initially was rather volatile and becomes less volatile with time in the ozonolysis part of the experiment. Inducing OH chemistry or adding a new portion of precursors made the SOA more volatile due to addition of new semi-volatile material to the aged aerosol. The effect of OH chemistry was less pronounced in high concentration and low temperature experiments when lower relative amounts of semi-volatile material were available in the gas phase. Conclusions drawn from the changes in volatility were confirmed by comparison with the measured and modelled chemical composition of the aerosol phase. Three quantified products from the α-pinene oxidation; pinonic acid, pinic acid and methylbutanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA were used to probe the processes influencing aerosol volatility. A major conclusion from the work is that the OH induced ageing can be attributed to gas phase oxidation of products produced in the primary SOA formation process and that there was no indication on significant bulk or surface reactions. The presented results, thus, strongly emphasise

  3. Rhenium volatilization in waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Kai; Pierce, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Hrma, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.hrma@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Kruger, Albert A. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Re did not volatilize from a HLW feed until 1000 °C. • Re began to volatilize from LAW feeds at ∼600 °C. • The vigorous foaming and generation of gases from salts enhanced Re evaporation in LAW feeds. • The HLW glass with less foaming and salts is a promising medium for Tc immobilization. - Abstract: We investigated volatilization of rhenium (Re), sulfur, cesium, and iodine during the course of conversion of high-level waste melter feed to glass and compared the results for Re volatilization with those in low-activity waste borosilicate glasses. Whereas Re did not volatilize from high-level waste feed heated at 5 K min{sup −1} until 1000 °C, it began to volatilize from low-activity waste borosilicate glass feeds at ∼600 °C, a temperature ∼200 °C below the onset temperature of evaporation from pure KReO{sub 4}. Below 800 °C, perrhenate evaporation in low-activity waste melter feeds was enhanced by vigorous foaming and generation of gases from molten salts as they reacted with the glass-forming constituents. At high temperatures, when the glass-forming phase was consolidated, perrhenates were transported to the top surface of glass melt in bubbles, typically together with sulfates and halides. Based on the results of this study (to be considered preliminary at this stage), the high-level waste glass with less foaming and salts appears a promising medium for technetium immobilization.

  4. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  5. Forecasting Volatility Using A Continuous Time Model

    OpenAIRE

    Lopes Moreira da Veiga, Maria Helena

    2003-01-01

    This paper evaluates the forecasting performance of a continuous stochastic volatility model with two factors of volatility (SV2F) and compares it to those of GARCH and ARFIMA models. The empirical results show that the volatility forecasting ability of the SV2F model is better than that of the GARCH and ARFIMA models, especially when volatility seems to change pattern. We use ex-post volatility as a proxy of the realized volatility obtained from intraday data and the forecasts from the SV2F ...

  6. Aid Volatility and Poverty Traps

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Richard Agénor; Joshua Aizenman

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of aid volatility in a two-period model where production may occur with either a traditional or a modern technology. Public spending is productive and "time to build" requires expenditure in both periods for the modern technology to be used. The possibility of a poverty trap induced by high aid volatility is first examined in a benchmark case where taxation is absent. The analysis is then extended to account for self insurance (taking the form of a first-period c...

  7. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    OpenAIRE

    Sonnenthal Eric; Spycher Nicolas; Zhang Guoxiang; Steefel Carl

    2009-01-01

    Abstract Background This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes...

  8. Discoloration of Synthetic Dyeing Wastewater Using Polyaluminium Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Bogoeva-Gaceva, Gordana; BUŽAROVSKA, Aleksandra; DIMZOSKI, Bojan

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) in discoloration of synthetic dyeing wastewater composed of reactive or direct dye has been investigated, taking into account the proven advantages of PAC in water purification processes (compared to the conventional coagulants such as Al2(SO4)3, FeSO4, etc.). The efficiency of PAC was determined by UV/VIS spectroscopy, controlling the UV/VIS absorbance changes of the wastewater samples after their treatment with the appropriate amount of PAC. Co...

  9. Preparation of polymeric aluminium ferric chloride from bauxite tailings

    OpenAIRE

    Ma D; Guo M; Zhang M

    2013-01-01

    Bauxite tailings are the main solid wastes in the ore dressing process. The Al2O3 and Fe2O3 contents in bauxite tailings can reach 50% and 13% respectively. The present study proposed a feasible method to use bauxite tailings to prepare polymeric aluminium ferric chloride (PAFC), a new composite inorganic polymer for water purification. Bauxite tailings roasted reacting with hydrochloric acid under air, pickle liquor which mainly contains Fe3+, Al3+ was generated, then calcium aluminate...

  10. Study on Extraction and Inclusion Process of Mixed Volatile Oil from Cinnamomi Ramulus, Zingibers Rhizoma, Cinnamomi Cortex and Magnoliae Flos%桂枝、干姜、肉桂、辛夷混合挥发油提取及包合工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛丹; 倪健; 尹兴斌; 张鹏; 杨春静; 白颖; 付京; 李友林

    2016-01-01

    Objective To optimize the processes of extraction of mixed volatile oil from Cinnamomi Ramulus, Zingibers Rhizoma, Cinnamomi Cortex and Magnoliae Flos and inclusion of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). Methods With yield ratio of volatile oil as evaluation index, single factor experiments were used to study the extraction process of volatile oil; saturated aqueous solution was used, with inclusion rate of volatile oil as index, and orthogonal design was adopted to examine effects of charge ratio of volatile oil and β-CD, inclusion temperature and inclusion time on the inclusion process; X-ray scattering technique and IR spectrum were used to characterize the inclusion complex. Results The optimum extraction process of volatile oil was extracted 10 hours with 8 folds the amount of water, and without soaking. The optimum conditions of inclusion process were as follows: mixed volatile oil-β-CD ratio was 1:8;inclusion temperature was 40 ℃; the inclusion time was 3 hour. X-ray scattering technique and IR spectrum preliminary proved the inclusion compound had been formed. Conclusion Optimal extraction and inclusion process was stable and feasible, which can provide certain references for preparation.%目的:优选桂枝、干姜、肉桂、辛夷混合油提取及β-环糊精(β-CD)包合的最佳工艺。方法以挥发油得率为指标,单因素试验考察混合油的提取工艺;采用饱和水溶液法,以挥发油包合率为评价指标,正交设计考察混合油与β-CD 投料比、包合温度、包合时间对包合工艺的影响;通过 X 射线衍射法、红外光谱法对包合物进行表征。结果挥发油提取最优工艺为饮片不浸泡,加8倍量水,提取10 h;最佳包合工艺为混合油与β-CD 的比例为1∶8,包合温度为40℃,包合3 h;X 射线衍射法、红外光谱法均表明混合油包合物已形成。结论优选的提取、包合工艺稳定可行,可为制剂提供一定依据。

  11. Studies on poly (vinyl chloride/silica dioxide composite hollow fiber membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly (vinyl chloride/silica dioxide composite hollow fiber membranes were prepared by using the method of immersion-precipitation process. The influences of stretching ratio on the formation of the interfacial microporous of poly (vinyl chloride/silica dioxide composite hollow fiber membranes were specifically investigated by scanning electron microscope, dynamic mechanical analysis, and finite element method. Results show that with the stretching ratio increasing, numerous IFM appear on the surface of membranes. Finite element method actually reflects the dynamic change of microporous structure of poly (vinyl chloride/silica dioxide composite hollow fiber membranes.

  12. Emission of Volatile OrganoHalogens by Southern African Solar Salt Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotte, Karsten; Weissflog, Ludwig; Lange, Christian Albert; Huber, Stefan; Pienaar, Jacobus J.

    2010-05-01

    hyper-saline environments, rich in chloride, bromide and partly iodide. They can be seen as semi natural reactors for hypersaline microorganisms like bacteria, algae and archaea as they can be found in natural hypersaline environments as well. To assess possible VOX emission of solar salt works the Walfishbay Salt Refiners (PTY) LTD (Namibia) were investigated and sediments of several crystallizer pans where collected. Only affected by natural temperature and radiation regime the VOX production inside the tightly closed incubation vials were determined regularly for several months by using headspace GC combined with an electron capture detector. Besides a number of non halogenated volatile hydrocarbons, detected by a self modified purge and trap GC/MS system the following VOX have been identified: CHCl3, CH3J, CH3Br, CCl4, C2HCl3, C2Cl4. According to earlier experiments on natural salt sediments of Southern Russia a biosynthesis process involving halophilic archaea is highly probable. Although the metabolic routes entailed are not yet identified. Obtained long term emission data are presented by focussing on possible meteorological propulsion as solar and UV radiation as well as temperature. Discussing the incubation experiments Southern African solar salt works reveal to represent interesting sources of chemically active VOX.

  13. Modeling the Implied Volatility Surface-: A Study for S&P 500 Index Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zheng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to demonstrate a framework to model the implied volatilities of S&P 500 index options and estimate the implied volatilities of stock prices using stochastic processes. In this paper, three models are established to estimate whether the implied volatilities are constant during the whole life of options. We mainly concentrate on the Black-Scholes and Dumas’ option models and make the empirical comparisons. By observing the daily-recorded data of S&P 500 index, we study the volatility model and volatility surface. Results from numerical experiments show that the stochastic volatilities are determined by moneyness rather than constant. Our research is of vital importance, especially for forecasting stock market shocks and crises, as one of the applications.

  14. Factors affecting the volatilization of volatile organic compounds from wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Intamanee

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the influence of the wind speed (U10cm, water depth (h and suspended solids (SS on mass transfer coefficient (KOLa of volatile organic compounds (VOCs volatilized from wastewater. The novelty of this work is not the method used to determine KOLa but rather the use of actual wastewater instead of pure water as previously reported. The influence of U10cm, h, and SS on KOLa was performed using a volatilization tank with the volume of 100-350 L. Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK was selected as a representative of VOCs investigated here in. The results revealed that the relationship between KOLa and the wind speeds falls into two regimes with a break at the wind speed of 2.4 m/s. At U10cm 2.4 m/s, KOLa increased more rapidly. The relationship between KOLa and U10cm was also linear but has a distinctly higher slope. For the KOLa dependency on water depth, the KOLa decreased significantly with increasing water depth up to a certain water depth after that the increase in water depth had small effect on KOLa. The suspended solids in wastewater also played an important role on KOLa. Increased SS resulted in a significant reduction of KOLa over the investigated range of SS. Finally, the comparison between KOLa obtained from wastewater and that of pure water revealed that KOLa from wastewater were much lower than that of pure water which was pronounced at high wind speed and at small water depth. This was due the presence of organic mass in wastewater which provided a barrier to mass transfer and reduced the degree of turbulence in the water body resulting in low volatilization rate and thus KOLa. From these results, the mass transfer model for predicting VOCs emission from wastewater should be developed based on the volatilization of VOCs from wastewater rather than that from pure water.

  15. DOES ENERGY CONSUMPTION VOLATILITY AFFECT REAL GDP VOLATILITY? AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS FOR THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relation between energy consumption volatility and unpredictable variations in real gross domestic product (GDP in the UK. Estimating the Markov switching ARCH model we find a significant regime switching in the behavior of both energy consumption and GDP volatility. The results from the Markov regime-switching model show that the variability of energy consumption has a significant role to play in determining the behavior of GDP volatilities. Moreover, the results suggest that the impacts of unpredictable variations in energy consumption on GDP volatility are asymmetric, depending on the intensity of volatility. In particular, we find that while there is no significant contemporaneous relationship between energy consumption volatility and GDP volatility in the first (low-volatility regime, GDP volatility is significantly positively related to the volatility of energy utilization in the second (high-volatility regime.

  16. Saturated vapor pressure over molten mixtures of GaCl3 and alkali metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volatilities of GaCl3 and alkali metal chlorides over diluted (up to 3 mol %) solutions of GaCl3 in LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl were measured at 1100 K by dynamic and indirect static methods. Chemical composition of saturated vapor over the mixed melts was determined. Partial pressures of the components were calculated. Their values depend essentially on specific alkali metal cation and on concentration of GaCl3; their variation permits altering parameters of GaCl3 distillation from the salt melt in a wide range

  17. Textural and chemical properties of zinc chloride activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effects of activation temperature on the textural and chemical properties of the activated carbons prepared from pistachio-nut shells using zinc chloride activation under both inert nitrogen gas atmosphere and vacuum condition were studied. Relatively low temperature of 400 deg. C was beneficial for the development of pore structures. Too high an activation temperature would lead to sintering of volatiles and shrinkage of the carbon structure. The microstructures and microcrystallinity of the activated carbons prepared were examined by scanning electron microscope and powder X-ray diffraction techniques, respectively, while Fourier transform infrared spectra determined the changes in the surface functional groups at the various stages of preparation

  18. Chloride Transport in Undersea Concrete Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on water penetration in unsaturated concrete of underwater tunnel, a diffusion-advection theoretical model of chloride in undersea concrete tunnel was proposed. The basic parameters including porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, chloride diffusion coefficient, initial water saturation, and moisture retention function of concrete specimens with two water-binder ratios were determined through lab-scale experiments. The variation of chloride concentration with pressuring time, location, solution concentration, initial saturation, hydraulic pressure, and water-binder ratio was investigated through chloride transport tests under external water pressure. In addition, the change and distribution of chloride concentration of isothermal horizontal flow were numerically analyzed using TOUGH2 software. The results show that chloride transport in unsaturated concrete under external water pressure is a combined effect of diffusion and advection instead of diffusion. Chloride concentration increased with increasing solution concentration for diffusion and increased with an increase in water pressure and a decrease in initial saturation for advection. The dominant driving force converted with time and saturation. When predicting the service life of undersea concrete tunnel, it is suggested that advection is taken into consideration; otherwise the durability tends to be unsafe.

  19. Shelf life of unrefrigerated succinylcholine chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, J J; Dutton, D M; Poust, R I

    1984-02-01

    The shelf life of succinylcholine chloride injection at several pH values when stored at room temperature was evaluated. Solutions containing 20 mg/ml of succinylcholine chloride were stored at 25 and 40 degrees C. The reaction was studied at pH values ranging from 3.0 to 4.5. At two-week intervals, the solutions were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The initial amount of succinylcholine chloride in all samples was 100.1 +/- 2.37% of label claim. Hydrolysis of succinylcholine chloride in unbuffered solutions followed apparent zero-order kinetics. The pH range of maximum stability was found to be from 3.75 to 4.50. Succinylcholine chloride decomposed at a considerably higher rate at 40 degrees C. Allowing for the effects of pH adjustment during manufacture and degradation during shipping, losses of 7.0% and 9.0% potency can be expected after storage at 25 degrees C for four and six weeks, respectively. Succinylcholine Chloride Injection, USP, should be stored in the refrigerator; if unbuffered succinylcholine chloride injection complying with USP pH limits must be stored at room temperature, it should not be kept for longer than four weeks. PMID:6702837

  20. Investigating Long-Range Dependence in American Treasury Bills Variations and Volatilities during Stable and Unstable Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    2016-05-01

    Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is used to examine long-range dependence in variations and volatilities of American treasury bills (TB) during periods of low and high movements in TB rates. Volatility series are estimated by generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model under Gaussian, Student, and the generalized error distribution (GED) assumptions. The DFA-based Hurst exponents from 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year TB data indicates that in general the dynamics of the TB variations process is characterized by persistence during stable time period (before 2008 international financial crisis) and anti-persistence during unstable time period (post-2008 international financial crisis). For volatility series, it is found that; for stable period; 3-month volatility process is more likely random, 6-month volatility process is anti-persistent, and 1-year volatility process is persistent. For unstable period, estimation results show that the generating process is persistent for all maturities and for all distributional assumptions.

  1. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construct a chloride deposition map in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia. We examined geographic (related to coastal distance, orographic, and atmospheric factors that may influence chloride deposition, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, elevation, as well as terrain aspect and slope, appear to be significant factors controlling chloride deposition in the study area. Coastal distance accounts for 70% of spatial variability in bulk chloride deposition, with elevation, terrain aspect and slope an additional 15%. The results are incorporated into a de-trended residual kriging model (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution bulk chloride deposition and concentration maps. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 20–30% in the western MLR, and 40–50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a useful basis for examining catchment chloride balance for the CMB application in the study area.

  2. Chloride substitution in sodium borohydride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ravnsbæk, Dorthe B.; Rude, Line H.; Jensen, Torben R.

    2011-07-01

    The dissolution of sodium chloride and sodium borohydride into each other resulting in formation of solid solutions of composition Na(BH 4) 1- xCl x is studied. The dissolution reaction is facilitated by two methods: ball milling or combination of ball milling and annealing at 300 °C for three days of NaBH 4-NaCl samples in molar ratios of 0.5:0.5 and 0.75:0.25. The degree of dissolution is studied by Rietveld refinement of synchrotron radiation powder X-ray diffraction (SR-PXD) data. The results show that dissolution of 10 mol% NaCl into NaBH 4, forming Na(BH 4) 0.9Cl 0.1, takes place during ball milling. A higher degree of dissolution of NaCl in NaBH 4 is obtained by annealing resulting in solid solutions containing up to 57 mol% NaCl, i.e. Na(BH 4) 0.43Cl 0.57. In addition, annealing results in dissolution of 10-20 mol% NaBH 4 into NaCl. The mechanism of the dissolution during annealing and the decomposition pathway of the solid solutions are studied by in situ SR-PXD. Furthermore, the stability upon hydrogen release and uptake were studied by Sieverts measurements.

  3. Probabilistic failure modelling of reinforced concrete structures subjected to chloride penetration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nogueira, Caio Gorla; Leonel, Edson Denner; Coda, Humberto Breves

    2012-12-01

    Structural durability is an important criterion that must be evaluated for every type of structure. Concerning reinforced concrete members, chloride diffusion process is widely used to evaluate durability, especially when these structures are constructed in aggressive atmospheres. The chloride ingress triggers the corrosion of reinforcements; therefore, by modelling this phenomenon, the corrosion process can be better evaluated as well as the structural durability. The corrosion begins when a threshold level of chloride concentration is reached at the steel bars of reinforcements. Despite the robustness of several models proposed in literature, deterministic approaches fail to predict accurately the corrosion time initiation due the inherent randomness observed in this process. In this regard, structural durability can be more realistically represented using probabilistic approaches. This paper addresses the analyses of probabilistic corrosion time initiation in reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride penetration. The chloride penetration is modelled using the Fick's diffusion law. This law simulates the chloride diffusion process considering time-dependent effects. The probability of failure is calculated using Monte Carlo simulation and the first order reliability method, with a direct coupling approach. Some examples are considered in order to study these phenomena. Moreover, a simplified method is proposed to determine optimal values for concrete cover.

  4. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    OpenAIRE

    Rene Kizek; Petr Babula; Jaromir Hubalek; Vojtech Adam; Libuse Trnkova

    2008-01-01

    Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE) and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N) for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the mo...

  5. The volatile compound BinBase mass spectral database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barupal Dinesh K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Volatile compounds comprise diverse chemical groups with wide-ranging sources and functions. These compounds originate from major pathways of secondary metabolism in many organisms and play essential roles in chemical ecology in both plant and animal kingdoms. In past decades, sampling methods and instrumentation for the analysis of complex volatile mixtures have improved; however, design and implementation of database tools to process and store the complex datasets have lagged behind. Description The volatile compound BinBase (vocBinBase is an automated peak annotation and database system developed for the analysis of GC-TOF-MS data derived from complex volatile mixtures. The vocBinBase DB is an extension of the previously reported metabolite BinBase software developed to track and identify derivatized metabolites. The BinBase algorithm uses deconvoluted spectra and peak metadata (retention index, unique ion, spectral similarity, peak signal-to-noise ratio, and peak purity from the Leco ChromaTOF software, and annotates peaks using a multi-tiered filtering system with stringent thresholds. The vocBinBase algorithm assigns the identity of compounds existing in the database. Volatile compound assignments are supported by the Adams mass spectral-retention index library, which contains over 2,000 plant-derived volatile compounds. Novel molecules that are not found within vocBinBase are automatically added using strict mass spectral and experimental criteria. Users obtain fully annotated data sheets with quantitative information for all volatile compounds for studies that may consist of thousands of chromatograms. The vocBinBase database may also be queried across different studies, comprising currently 1,537 unique mass spectra generated from 1.7 million deconvoluted mass spectra of 3,435 samples (18 species. Mass spectra with retention indices and volatile profiles are available as free download under the CC-BY agreement (http

  6. Extractant of copper(II) and zinc(II) from chloride media with mixed extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction of copper(II) and zinc(II) from acidic chloride solutions with mixtures of two extractants: a basic or solvating one and a chelating extractant was discussed. The processes for recovery and separation of Cu(II) from Zn(II) were proposed. The processes consist of the following steps: extraction from chloride media with the formation of metal chloro-complex ion pair or solvate, scrubbing of chloride ions with an aqueous solution of appropriate pH with simultaneous transfer of the metal ion to the chelate, traditional stripping with sulphuric acid and conditioning of the basic extractant. Both effective recovery and separation of metal ions with simultaneous change of the system from the chloride to sulphate one can be achieved. A bifunctional reagent, such as alkyl-derivative of 8-hydroxyquinoline, can be also used instead of the extractant mixture. (authors)

  7. Chloride diffusivity in red mud-ordinary portland cement concrete determined by migration tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Véras Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Red mud, which is a solid waste produced in the alumina production process, is classified as dangerous due to its high pH. In this work, the concentration of chlorides was monitored by measuring the conductivity of the anolyte, which initially was distilled water. The steady and nonsteady-state chloride diffusion coefficients were estimated from the "time lag"� and "equivalent time" between diffusion and migration experiments. The capillary water absorption, apparent porosity and pore size distribution of concretes were also analyzed. The addition of red mud apparently ensured lower chloride diffusion in the tested mixtures due to its superfine particle-size distribution and its "filler"� effect. Red mud lengthened the service life of the concrete to 35 years (double that of the reference concrete. This finding is very positive since it indicates a delay in the onset of the rebar corrosion process caused by the migration of chloride ions.

  8. Volatility Spillovers Across Petroleum Markets

    Czech Academy of Sciences Publication Activity Database

    Baruník, Jozef; Kočenda, Evžen; Vácha, Lukáš

    2015-01-01

    Roč. 36, č. 3 (2015), s. 309-329. ISSN 0195-6574 R&D Projects: GA ČR GA14-24129S Keywords : Volatility spillovers * Asymmetry * Petroleum markets Subject RIV: AH - Economics Impact factor: 1.772, year: 2014 http://library.utia.cas.cz/separaty/2014/E/barunik-0438407.pdf

  9. Volatile Hydrocarbon Pheromones from Beetles

    Science.gov (United States)

    This chapter reviews literature about hydrocarbons from beetles that serve as long-range pheromones. The most thoroughly studied beetles that use volatile hydrocarbon pheromones belong to the family Nitidulidae in the genera Carpophilus and Colopterus. Published pheromone research deals with behav...

  10. Fluctuation behaviors of financial return volatility duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yunfan

    2016-04-01

    It is of significantly crucial to understand the return volatility of financial markets because it helps to quantify the investment risk, optimize the portfolio, and provide a key input of option pricing models. The characteristics of isolated high volatility events above certain threshold in price fluctuations and the distributions of return intervals between these events arouse great interest in financial research. In the present work, we introduce a new concept of daily return volatility duration, which is defined as the shortest passage time when the future volatility intensity is above or below the current volatility intensity (without predefining a threshold). The statistical properties of the daily return volatility durations for seven representative stock indices from the world financial markets are investigated. Some useful and interesting empirical results of these volatility duration series about the probability distributions, memory effects and multifractal properties are obtained. These results also show that the proposed stock volatility series analysis is a meaningful and beneficial trial.

  11. Modeling the Volatility in Global Fertilizer Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P-Y. Chen (Ping-Yu); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); C-C. Chen (Chi-Chung); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe main purpose of this paper is to estimate the volatility in global fertilizer prices. The endogenous structural breakpoint unit root test and alternative volatility models, including the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model, Exponential GARCH (EGARC

  12. Stock Market Volatility and Corporate Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Zuliu Hu

    1995-01-01

    Despite concerns are often voiced on the so called “excess volatility” of the stock market, little is known about the implications of market volatility for the real economy. This paper examines whether the stock market volatility affects real fixed investment. The empirical evidence obtained from the US data shows that market volatility has independent effects on investment over and above that of stock returns. Volatility and its changes are negatively related to investment growth. To the ext...

  13. Measuring Volatility Clustering in Stock Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Gabjin Oh; Seunghwan Kim; Cheoljun Eom; Taehyuk Kim

    2007-01-01

    We propose a novel method to quantify the clustering behavior in a complex time series and apply it to a high-frequency data of the financial markets. We find that regardless of used data sets, all data exhibits the volatility clustering properties, whereas those which filtered the volatility clustering effect by using the GARCH model reduce volatility clustering significantly. The result confirms that our method can measure the volatility clustering effect in financial market.

  14. Can risk aversion explain stock price volatility?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen F. LeRoy

    2013-01-01

    Why are the prices of stocks and other assets so volatile? Efficient capital markets theory implies that stock prices should be much less volatile than actually observed, reflecting an unrealistic assumption that investors are risk neutral. If instead investors are assumed to be risk averse, predicted volatility is higher. However, models that incorporate investor avoidance of risk can explain real-world stock price volatility only under levels of risk aversion that are unrealistically high. ...

  15. Asymmetric Volatility Risk : Evidence from Option Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Jackwerth, Jens; Vilkov, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Using non-parametric methods to model the dependencies between risk-neutral distributions of the market index (S&P 500) and its expected volatility (VIX), we show how to extract the expected risk-neutral correlation between the index and its future expected volatility. Comparing the implied correlation to its realized counterpart reveals a significant risk premium priced into the index-volatility correlation, which can be interpreted as the compensation for the fear of rising volatility durin...

  16. Volatility, the Macroeconomy and Asset Prices

    OpenAIRE

    Ravi Bansal; Dana Kiku; Ivan Shaliastovich; Amir Yaron

    2012-01-01

    We show that volatility movements have first-order implications for consumption dynamics and asset prices. Volatility news affects the stochastic discount factor and carries a separate risk premium. In the data, volatility risks are persistent and are strongly correlated with discount-rate news. This evidence has important implications for the return on aggregate wealth and the cross-sectional differences in risk premia. Estimation of our volatility risks based model yields an economically pl...

  17. A nonparametric approach to forecasting realized volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Adam Clements; Ralf Becker

    2009-01-01

    A well developed literature exists in relation to modeling and forecasting asset return volatility. Much of this relate to the development of time series models of volatility. This paper proposes an alternative method for forecasting volatility that does not involve such a model. Under this approach a forecast is a weighted average of historical volatility. The greatest weight is given to periods that exhibit the most similar market conditions to the time at which the forecast is being formed...

  18. Calibration of Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone flow and transport model using porewater chloride data.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Jianchun; Sonnenthal, Eric L; Bodvarsson, Gudmundur S

    2003-01-01

    In this study, porewater chloride data from Yucca Mountain, NV are analyzed and modeled by three-dimensional chemical transport simulation and analytical methods. The simulation modeling approach is based on a continuum formulation of coupled multiphase fluid flow and tracer transport processes through fractured porous rock using a dual-continuum concept. Infiltration rate calibrations were performed using the porewater chloride data. Model results of chloride distributions were improved in matching the observed data with the calibrated infiltration rates. Statistical analyses of the frequency distribution for overall percolation fluxes and chloride concentration in the unsaturated zone system demonstrate that the use of the calibrated infiltration rates had an insignificant effect on the distribution of simulated percolation fluxes but significantly changed the predicted distribution of simulated chloride concentrations. An analytical method was also applied to model transient chloride transport. The method was verified by three-dimensional simulation results to be capable of capturing major chemical transient behavior and trends. Effects of lateral flow in the Paintbrush nonwelded unit on percolation fluxes and chloride distribution were studied by three-dimensional simulations with increased horizontal permeability. The combined results from these model calibrations furnish important information for the UZ model studies, contributing to performance assessment of the potential repository. PMID:12714292

  19. Calibration of Yucca Mountain unsaturated zone flow and transport model using porewater chloride data

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In this study, porewater chloride data from Yucca Mountain, Nevada, are analyzed and modeled by 3-D chemical transport simulations and analytical methods. The simulation modeling approach is based on a continuum formulation of coupled multiphase fluid flow and tracer transport processes through fractured porous rock, using a dual-continuum concept. Infiltration-rate calibrations were using the pore water chloride data. Model results of chloride distributions were improved in matching the observed data with the calibrated infiltration rates. Statistical analyses of the frequency distribution for overall percolation fluxes and chloride concentration in the unsaturated zone system demonstrate that the use of the calibrated infiltration rates had insignificant effect on the distribution of simulated percolation fluxes but significantly changed the predicated distribution of simulated chloride concentrations. An analytical method was also applied to model transient chloride transport. The method was verified by 3-D simulation results as able to capture major chemical transient behavior and trends. Effects of lateral flow in the Paintbrush nonwelded unit on percolation fluxes and chloride distribution were studied by 3-D simulations with increased horizontal permeability. The combined results from these model calibrations furnish important information for the UZ model studies, contributing to performance assessment of the potential repository

  20. Chloride diffusivity in red mud-ordinary portland cement concrete determined by migration tests

    OpenAIRE

    Daniel Véras Ribeiro; João Antonio Labrincha; Márcio Raymundo Morelli

    2011-01-01

    Red mud, which is a solid waste produced in the alumina production process, is classified as dangerous due to its high pH. In this work, the concentration of chlorides was monitored by measuring the conductivity of the anolyte, which initially was distilled water. The steady and nonsteady-state chloride diffusion coefficients were estimated from the "time lag"� and "equivalent time" between diffusion and migration experiments. The capillary water absorption, apparent porosity and pore size di...

  1. Evaluating capacitive deionization for water desalination by direct determination of chloride ions

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Baizán, Patricia; González Arias, Zoraida; Granda Ferreira, Marcos; Menéndez López, Rosa María; Santamaría Ramírez, Ricardo; Blanco Rodríguez, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Ionic conductivity and capacitance measurements are widely used methods for evaluating the desalination efficiency in capacity deionization processes. In this study, these methods are revised and several problems associated to them are identified and evaluated. Furthermore, a new method based on the determination of the chloride ion concentration by means of a chloride selective electrode is proposed as a more reliable alternative for evaluating the desalination performance in these systems. ...

  2. Hidrolisis Hasil Delignifikasi Tandan Kosong Kelapa Sawit Dalam Sistem Cairan Ionik Choline Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Aisyah, Shinta

    2016-01-01

    This research aims to determine the hydrolysis of delignification results on palm empty fruit bunches and determine the best conditions of hydrolysis obtained in the hydrolysis process in the choline chloride ionic liquid system. The main raw material used is cellulose delignification results TKKS, choline chloride, sulfatl acid, and distilled water. The hydrolysis stage in this research was carried out at temperature 105 0C, concentration of catalyst (H2SO4) 10% (w / w) cellul...

  3. Occurrence and volatility of several trace elements in pulverized coal boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ya-ji; JIN Bao-sheng; ZHONG Zhao-ping; XIAO Rui; TANG Zhi-yong; REN Hui-feng

    2004-01-01

    The contents of eight trace elements(Mn, Cr, Pb, As, Se, Zn, Cd, Hg) in raw coal, bottom ash and flyash were measured in a 220 t/h pulverized coal boiler. Factors affecting distribution of trace elements wereinvestigated, including fly ash diameter, furnace temperature, oxygen content and trace elements' characters. Onecoefficient of Meij was also improved to more directly show element enrichment in combustion products. Theseelements may be classified into three groups according to their distribution: Group 1: Hg, which is very volatile.Group 2: Pb, Zn, Cd, which are partially volatile. Group 3: Mn, which is hardly volatile. Se may be locatedbetween groups 1 and 2. Cr has properties of both group 1 and 3. In addition, the smaller diameter of fly ash, themore relative enrichment of trace elements( except Mn). The fly ash showed different adsorption mechanisms oftrace elements and the volatilization of trace elements rises with furnace temperature. Relative enrichments of traceelements(except Mn and Cr) in fly ash are larger than that in bottom ash. Low oxygen content can not alwaysimprove the volatilization of trace elements. Pb is easier to form chloride than Cd during coal combustion. Traceelements should be classified in accordance with factors.

  4. 复方金铃四逆四物失笑散颗粒挥发油提取及羟丙基-β-环糊精包合工艺研究%Study on Extraction Process of Volatile Oil and Inclusion Preparation of Hydroxypropyl-β- cyclodextrin from CompoundJinling Sini Siwu Shixiaosan Granules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白春霞; 谢萍; 冯俭; 蒋川; 宁海燕

    2015-01-01

    目的:优选复方金铃四逆四物失笑散颗粒中挥发油提取工艺及羟丙基-β-环糊精(HP-β-CD)包合工艺。方法采用L9(34)正交试验,以挥发油提取量为评价指标,确定最佳提取工艺。以挥发油包合率和包合物收得率综合评分为评价指标,优选最佳包合工艺。采用薄层层析法(TLC)对包合物进行表征分析。结果最佳提取工艺:药材粉碎度为20目,加8倍量水,蒸馏提取8 h。最优包合工艺:挥发油与HP-β-CD投料配比为1∶6,包合温度30℃,研磨2 h。TLC图谱显示挥发油已被包合并形成稳定包合物。结论优选的提取和包合工艺质量稳定、可行性强。%Objective To optimize the extraction process of volatile oil and inclusion preparation of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin from compoundJinling Sini Siwu Shixiaosan Granules.Methods The orthogonal approach of L9 (34) was applied to investigate the volume of volatile oil extraction by 3 factors to obtain the optimum extraction conditions. With inclusion rate of volatile oil and yield of inclusion compound as comprehensive evaluation indexes, the optimum preparation conditions were discussed. The characterization of this prepared inclusion was analyzed by TLC.Results The optimum extraction conditions were as follows:the crude medicine with medicinal powder was shattered into 20 meshes;8 times the amount of water was added and was extracted for 8 h. The best inclusion conditions were as follows:the proportion of volatile oil to HP-β-CD was 1∶6, with inclusion temperature of 30℃, grinding time of 2 h. Analysis results of TLC showed that stable inclusion compound was formed from volatile oil and HP-β-CD.Conclusion The optimized extraction process and inclusion preparation are with stable quality and high feasibility.

  5. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...

  6. CPP-603 Chloride Removal System Decontamination and Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CPP-603 (annex) Chloride Removal System (CRS) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Project is described in this report. The CRS was used for removing Chloride ions and other contaminants that were suspended in the waters of the underwater fuel storage basins in the CPP-603 Fuel Receiving and Storage Facility (FRSF) from 1975 to 1981. The Environmental Checklist and related documents, facility characterization, decision analysis', and D ampersand D plans' were prepared in 1991. Physical D ampersand D activities were begun in mid summer of 1992 and were completed by the end of November 1992. All process equipment and electrical equipment were removed from the annex following accepted asbestos and radiological contamination removal practices. The D ampersand D activities were performed in a manner such that no radiological health or safety hazard to the public or to personnel at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) occurred

  7. Sodium chloride's effect on self-assembly of diphenylalanine bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Junpyo; Lee, Myeongsang; Na, Sungsoo

    2016-07-15

    Understanding self-assembling peptides becomes essential in nanotechnology, thereby providing a bottom-up method for fabrication of nanostructures. Diphenylalanine constitutes an outstanding building block that can be assembled into various nanostructures, including two-dimensional bilayers or nanotubes, exhibiting superb mechanical properties. It is known that the effect of the ions is critical in conformational and chemical interactions of bilayers or membranes. In this study, we analyzed the effect of sodium chloride on diphenylalanine bilayer using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, and calculated the bending Young's modulus and the torsional modulus by applying normal modal analysis using an elastic network model. The results showed that sodium chloride dramatically increases the assembling efficiency and stability, thereby promising to allow the precise design and control of the fabrication process and properties of bio-inspired materials. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27241039

  8. Monoclonal antibodies to the apical chloride channel in Necturus gallbladder inhibit the chloride conductance.

    OpenAIRE

    Finn, A L; Tsai, L M; Falk, R J

    1989-01-01

    Monoclonal antibodies raised by injecting Necturus gallbladder cells into mice were tested for their ability to inhibit the apical chloride conductance induced by elevation of cellular cAMP. Five of these monoclonal antibodies bound to the apical cells, as shown by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, and inhibited the chloride conductance; one antibody that bound only to subepithelial smooth muscle, by indirect immunofluorescence microscopy, showed no inhibition of chloride transport. The...

  9. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    OpenAIRE

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; A. S. Kayaalp

    2009-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many...

  10. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  11. The kinetics of the hydrogen chloride oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Martinez Isai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen chloride (HCl oxidation has been investigated on technical membrane electrode assemblies in a cyclone flow cell. Influence of Nafion loading, temperature and hydrogen chloride mole fraction in the gas phase has been studied. The apparent kinetic parameters like reaction order with respect to HCl, Tafel slope and activation energy have been determined from polarization data. The apparent kinetic parameters suggest that the recombination of adsorbed Cl intermediate is the rate determining step.

  12. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    OpenAIRE

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method prov...

  13. A Hull and White Formula for a General Stochastic Volatility Jump-Diffusion Model with Applications to the Study of the Short-Time Behavior of the Implied Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Alòs

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain a Hull and White type formula for a general jump-diffusion stochastic volatility model, where the involved stochastic volatility process is correlated not only with the Brownian motion driving the asset price but also with the asset price jumps. Towards this end, we establish an anticipative Itô's formula, using Malliavin calculus techniques for Lévy processes on the canonical space. As an application, we show that the dependence of the volatility process on the asset price jumps has no effect on the short-time behavior of the at-the-money implied volatility skew.

  14. Environmental Volatility, Development Decisions, and Software Volatility: A Longitudinal Analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Evelyn J. Barry; Kemerer, Chris F.; Slaughter, Sandra A.

    2006-01-01

    Although product development research often focuses on activities prior to product launch, for long-lived, adaptable products like software, development can continue over the entire product life cycle. For managers of these products the challenges are to predict when and how much the products will change and to understand how their development decisions influence the timing and magnitude of future change activities. We develop a two-stage model that relates environmental volatility to product...

  15. Improved fluoride volatility reprocessing for MOX fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, M.; Fukasawa, T.; Sawa, T.; Yamashita, J.; Kamoshida, M.; Sasahira, A.; Kawamura, F. [Nuclear Systems Div., Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Several countries had stopped developing fluoride volatility reprocessing method in the 1970's due to difficulties in recovering pure Pu. Although, nuclear societies recently favor dirty Pu (MOX). which has high proliferation resistance and needs remote fuel fabrication technologies. This situation reminded the authors to re-evaluate the fluoride volatility process. Preliminary investigation clarified that conventional fluoride volatility process could be simplified to recover dirty MOX and pure U from spent LWR fuels. Pure U is suitable to transfer it to re-enrichment (LWR cycle again), to storage certain period for future FBRs, and to dispose with relatively simple barrier. The improved process also enables to prepare directly the dirty MOX particles which are suitable for remote fuel fabrication (vibration packing). This paper describes the system of improved fluoride volatility reprocessing, and compatibility of each elemental process such as thermal decladding, two stage fluorination of U and U+Pu, U purification, direct conversion. of mixed fluoride into oxide particles and vibration packing fuel fabrication. (authors)

  16. Design of zirconium tetra chloride purification apparatus

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Design of zirconium tetrachloride purification apparatus was done. The purification was done by sublimation and desublimation of zirconium tetrachloride compound. Zirconium tetrachloride,which was produced by the chlorination processes, was sublimated at 600oC then was desublimated at 331oC. The impurities could be separated. Zirconium tetra chloride was put at the tray in the column heated by the furnace, so that it sublimated. Ferri and Chromi salt was reduced to be ferro and chromo which could not be sublimated. Desublimation, was done in the cooler from pipe which was flowed by water. Cooler mode from 6 pieces of pipe, 1/4 inch in diameter and 30 cm in length. The water flow was 2.8 l/minute. Air was entered in the annulus surrounding the column. From the 80 cm length of the column, 50 cm was used for sublimation, and 30 cm for desublimation. Heat requirement was supplied by a furnace outside of the column. Heat flux could be arranged by the controller. (author)

  17. Evaluation of γ-radiation on oolong tea odor volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The aim of this study was to evaluate the gamma radiation effects on odor volatiles in oolong tea at doses of 0, 5, 10, 15 and 20 kGy. The volatile organic compounds were extracted by hydrodistillation and analyzed by GC/MS. The irradiation has a large influence on oolong tea odor profile, once it was identified 40% of new compounds after this process, the 5 kGy and 20 kGy were the doses that degraded more volatiles found naturally in this kind of tea and the dose of 10 kGy was the dose that formed more new compounds. Statistical difference was found between the 5 kGy and 15 kGy volatile profiles, however the sensorial analysis showed that the irradiation at dose up 20 kGy did not interfere on consumer perception. - Highlights: ► Forty percent of compounds identified with odor were formed after irradiation. ► Dose of 5 kGy and 20 kGy were the radiation dose that degraded more odors compounds. ► Gamma radiation showed has a direct influence on volatile compounds in oolong tea.

  18. Analysis of the Behavior of Volatility in Crude Oil Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Lucena Aiube

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes volatility in the spot price of crude oil. In recent years the price has also increased reaching more than US$ 140/barrel in the last decade. Moreover, the negotiated trading volume in the futures market in recent years higher than the trading volume of the earlier years. How these changes have affected the volatility in the oil prices? Does the presence of huge players, which leads to an increase in the volume under negotiation, increase volatility? Has the persistence been affected? To answer these questions, we first estimated spot prices using the two-factor model of Schwartz and Smith. With this filtering process we can capture the entire information from the future term-structure. We then analyzed the estimated spot-price series to identify the stylized facts and then adjusted conditional volatility models of GARCH family. Our findings show that the volatility in the high prices period is not different from that of low prices. The shocks behaved as transitory and the persistence in the high prices period decreased. This fact has pricing and hedging implications for short-term derivatives.

  19. Effect of Chloride Type on Penetration of Chloride Ions in Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The influence of chloride type on the diffusivity of chloride ions in concrete was studied by experiment. The result shows that the glectric resistance of concrete and the chloride diffusion coefficient are influenced by chloride type. For the same water/cement ratio (W/C), the diffusion coefficient D in KCl solution is larger than that in NaCl solution; however, the concrete resistance in KCl solution is smaller than that in NaCl solution. The experimental result is analyzed with theory of diffusion.

  20. Chloride stress triggers maturation and negatively affects the postharvest quality of persimmon fruit. Involvement of calyx ethylene production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besada, Cristina; Gil, Rebeca; Bonet, Luis; Quiñones, Ana; Intrigliolo, Diego; Salvador, Alejandra

    2016-03-01

    In recent years many hectares planted with persimmon trees in E Spain have been diagnosed with chloride toxicity. An effect of this abiotic stress on fruit quality has been reported in different crops. However, the impact of chloride stress on persimmon fruit quality is unknown. The harvest and postharvest quality of persimmons harvested from trees that manifest different intensities of chloride toxicity foliar symptoms was evaluated herein. Our results revealed that fruits from trees under chloride stress conditions underwent chloride accumulation in the calyx, which was more marked the greater the salt stress intensity trees were exposed to. Increased chloride concentrations in the calyx stimulated ethylene production in this tissue. In the fruits affected by slight and moderate chloride stress, calyx ethylene production accelerated the maturity process, as reflected by increased fruit colour and diminished fruit firmness. In the fruits under severe chloride stress, the high ethylene levels in the calyx triggered autocatalytic ethylene production in other fruit tissues, which led fruit maturity to drastically advance. In these fruits effectiveness of CO2 deastringency treatment was not complete and fruit softening enhanced during the postharvest period. Moreover, chloride stress conditions had a marked effect on reducing fruit weight, even in slightly stressed trees. PMID:26807935

  1. Forecast performance of implied volatility and the impact of the volatility risk premium

    OpenAIRE

    Ralf Becker; Adam Clements; Christopher Coleman-Fenn

    2009-01-01

    Forecasting volatility has received a great deal of research attention, with the relative performance of econometric models based on time-series data and option implied volatility forecasts often being considered. While many studies find that implied volatility is the preferred approach, a number of issues remain unresolved. Implied volatilities are risk-neutral forecasts of spot volatility, whereas time-series models are estimated on risk-adjusted or real world data of the underlying. Recent...

  2. Chloride effect on the early photolysis intermediates of a gecko cone-type visual pigment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lewis, J W; Liang, J; Ebrey, T G; Sheves, M; Kliger, D S

    1995-05-01

    Nanosecond laser photolysis measurements were conducted on the cone-type visual pigment P521 in digitonin extracts of Tokay gecko (Gekko gekko) retina containing physiological chloride ion levels and also on samples which had been chloride depleted or which contained high levels (4 M) of chloride. Absorbance difference spectra were recorded at a sequence of time delays from 30 ns to 60 microseconds following excitation with a pulse of either 532- or 477-nm actinic light. Global analysis showed the kinetic decay data for gecko pigment P521 to be best fit by two exponential processes under all chloride conditions. The initial photoproduct detected had a broad spectrum characteristic of an equilibrated mixture of a Batho P521 intermediate with its blue-shifted intermediate (BSI P521) decay product. The first exponential process was assigned to the decay of this mixture to the Lumi P521 intermediate. The second exponential process was identified as the decay of Lumi P521 to Meta I P521. The initial photoproduct's spectrum exhibited a strong dependence on chloride concentration, indicating that chloride affects the composition of the equilibrated mixture of Batho P521 and BSI P521. These results suggest that the affinity for chloride is reduced approximately 5-fold in the Batho P521 intermediate and approximately 50-fold in the BSI P521 intermediate. Chloride concentration also affects the apparent decay rate of the equilibrated mixture. When the apparent decay rate is corrected for the composition of the equilibrated mixture, a relatively invariant microscopic rate constant is obtained for BSI decay (k = 1/55 ns-1).(ABSTRACT TRUNCATED AT 250 WORDS) PMID:7727442

  3. Nonparametric estimation of the volatility under microstructure noise: wavelet adaptation

    CERN Document Server

    Hoffmann, Marc; Schmidt-Hieber, Johannes

    2010-01-01

    We study nonparametric estimation of the volatility function of a diffusion process from discrete data, when the data are blurred by additional noise. This noise can be white or correlated, and serves as a model for microstructure effects in financial modeling, when the data are given on an intra-day scale. By developing pre-averaging techniques combined with wavelet thresholding, we construct adaptive estimators that achieve a nearly optimal rate within a large scale of smoothness constraints of Besov type. Since the underlying signal (the volatility) is genuinely random, we propose a new criterion to assess the quality of estimation; we retrieve the usual minimax theory when this approach is restricted to deterministic volatility.

  4. Estimating Stochastic Volatility Models using Prediction-based Estimating Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Asger; Brix, Anne Floor

    In this paper prediction-based estimating functions (PBEFs), introduced in Sørensen (2000), are reviewed and PBEFs for the Heston (1993) stochastic volatility model are derived. The finite sample performance of the PBEF based estimator is investigated in a Monte Carlo study, and compared to the...... performance of the GMM estimator based on conditional moments of integrated volatility from Bollerslev and Zhou (2002). The case where the observed log-price process is contaminated by i.i.d. market microstructure (MMS) noise is also investigated. First, the impact of MMS noise on the parameter estimates from...... the two estimation methods without noise correction are studied. Second, a noise robust GMM estimator is constructed by approximating integrated volatility by a realized kernel instead of realized variance. The PBEFs are also recalculated in the noise setting, and the two estimation methods ability to...

  5. Alumina Volatility in Water Vapor at Elevated Temperatures

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opila, Elizabeth J.; Myers, Dwight L.

    2003-01-01

    The volatility of alumina in high temperature water vapor was determined by a weight loss technique. Sapphire coupons were exposed at temperatures between 1250 and 1500 C, water partial pressures between 0.15 and 0.68 atm in oxygen, total pressure of 1 atm, and flowing gas velocities of 4.4 cm/s. The pressure dependence of sapphire volatility was consistent with AI(OH)3(g) formation. The enthalpy of reaction to form Al(OH)3(g) from sapphire and water vapor was determined to be 210 +/- 20 kJ/mol, comparing favorably to other studies. Microstructural examination of tested sapphire coupons revealed surface etching features consistent with a volatilization process.

  6. Real options valuation with changing volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Čulík

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at the valuation of real options with changing volatility. Volatility change is a typical feature of real investment projects, where the riskiness of cash flow generated by the project can change significantly during the project life span. In this paper, there is explained how the problem of changing volatility can be considered if binomial lattice and replication strategy is used for real option valuation. There are recombining and non-recombining lattice used and constant and increasing volatility are analysed and results compared. In situation when volatility is changing, two approaches overcoming this problem are employed and compared.

  7. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-17...) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride... on or after March 16, 2009 used for the transportation of hydrogen chloride, refrigerated...

  8. 21 CFR 178.3290 - Chromic chloride complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromic chloride complexes. 178.3290 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3290 Chromic chloride complexes. Myristo chromic chloride complex and stearato chromic chloride complex may be safely used as release agents in the...

  9. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachev, A. V.

    2007-10-01

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  10. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachev, A V [N.N. Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-31

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  11. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  12. Effects of Catalysts on Emissions of Pollutants from Combustion Processes of Liquid Fuels

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bok Agnieszka

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available The dynamic growth of the use of non-renewable fuels for energy purposes results in demand for catalysts to improve their combustion process. The paper describes catalysts used mainly in the processes of combustion of motor fuels and fuel oils. These catalysts make it possible to raise the efficiency of oxidation processes simultanously reducing the emission of pollutants. The key to success is the selection of catalyst compounds that will reduce harmful emissions of combustion products into the atmosphere. Catalysts are introduced into the combustion zone in form of solutions miscible with fuel or with air supplied to the combustion process. The following compounds soluble in fuel are inclused in the composition of the described catalysts: organometallic complexes, manganese compounds, salts originated from organic acids, ferrocen and its derivatives and sodium chloride and magnesium chloride responsible for burning the soot (chlorides. The priority is to minimize emissions of volatile organic compounds, nitrogen oxides, sulphur oxides, and carbon monoxide, as well as particulate matter.

  13. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  14. Volatilization of metal powders in plasma sprays

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vardelle, A.; Vardelle, M.; Zhang, H.; Themelis, N. J.; Gross, K.

    2002-06-01

    Ideally, plasma spraying of metal powders must take place within a narrow processing “window” where the particles become fully molten before they hit the substrate, but are not overheated to the point that substantial volatilization occurs. Metal evaporation in flight results in a decrease in the deposition efficiency. In addiiton, the emission of vapors leads to the formation of metal and oxide fumes that are undesirable from the viewpoints of both resource conservation and environmental control. This study examines the vaporization and fume formation in the plasma spraying of iron powders of different size ranges. The experimental part involves the determination of the population (number density) of metal atoms at different cross sections along the trajectory of the plasma jet, and the collection of the submicronic particles resulting from vapor condensation. The experimental results are compared with the projections of a mathematical model that computes the gas/particle velocity and temperature fields within the jet envelope, projects the rate of heat/mass transfer at the surface of individual particles, and determines the rate of volatilization that results in the formation of metal and metal oxide fumes.

  15. Extraction of copper(II) and zinc(II) from chloride media with mixed extractants

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Extraction of copper(II) and zinc(II) from acidic chloride solutions with mixtures of two extractants: a basic or solvating one and a chelating extractant was discussed. Processes for recovery and separation of Cu(II) from Zn(II) were proposed, which consist of the following steps: extraction from chloride media with the formation of metal chlorocomplex ion pair or solvate, scrubbing of chloride ions with an aqueous solution of appropriate pH with simultaneous transfer of the metal ion to the chelate, traditional stripping with sulphuric acid and conditioning of the basic extractant. Both effective recovery and separation of metal ions with simultaneous change of the system from the chloride to the sulphate state can be achieved. A bifunctional reagent, such as alkyl derivative of 8-hydroxyquinoline, can be also used instead of the extractant mixture. (author)

  16. Interaction between lactose and cadmium chloride in aqueous solutions as seen by diffusion coefficients measurements

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► Diffusion coefficients of aqueous systems containing lactose and cadmium chloride. ► Influence of the lactose on the diffusion of cadmium chloride. ► Interactions between Cd2+ and lactose. -- Abstract: Diffusion coefficients of an aqueous system containing cadmium chloride 0.100 mol · dm−3 and lactose at different concentrations at 25 °C have been measured, using a conductimetric cell and an automatic apparatus to follow diffusion. The cell relies on an open-ended capillary method and a conductimetric technique is used to follow the diffusion process by measuring the resistance of a solution inside the capillaries, at recorded times. From these results and by ab initio calculations, it was possible to obtain a better understanding of the effect of lactose on transport of cadmium chloride in aqueous solutions

  17. The Humidity Sensor Using the Polyacrylic Emulsion Containing Magnesium Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Han Yu; Jung-Chuan Chou; Tai-Ping Sun; Shen-Kan Hsiung

    2006-01-01

    An impedance type humidity sensor based on the polyacrylic emulsion containing magnesium chloride (MgCl2)without chemical modification was investigated. The impedances of the sensor were measured from various relative humidity in the frequency range between 0.1kHz and 100 kHz. The sensor has a good sensitivity from 60%RH to 90%RH. According to the experimental results, the response time is about 240 seconds in the adsorption process and 310 seconds in the desorption process.

  18. Inelastic neutron scattering studies of methyl chloride synthesis over alumina

    OpenAIRE

    Lennon, David; Parker, Stewart F.

    2014-01-01

    Not only is alumina the most widely used catalyst support material in the world, it is also an important catalyst in its own right. One major chemical process that uses alumina in this respect is the industrial production of methyl chloride. This is a large scale process (650 000 metric tons in 2010 in the United States), and a key feedstock in the production of silicones that are widely used as household sealants. In this Account, we show how, in partnership with conventional spectroscopic a...

  19. Stock Market Volatility under Sanctions

    OpenAIRE

    Hojatallah Goudarzi

    2014-01-01

    Since 1979, Iran has faced with unilateral and multilateral harsh sanctions due to its nuclear energy program. These sanctions have resulted in significant problem to both sanctioned and sanctioning parties. Given the fact that sanctions have had significant impacts on Iran’s economy and since Iran stock market is the barometer of its economy, it is assumed that sanctions affect the Iranian stock market as well. To test this hypothesis, this study studied the Iranian stock market volatility d...

  20. Market Volatility and Macroeconomic Factors

    OpenAIRE

    Gao, Kang

    2012-01-01

    This study investigates the relationship between macroeconomic factors and the stock market volatility. Following macroeconomic variables are used: industrial production, inflation rate, interest rate and exchange rate. Shanghai Exchange Composite Index, Standard & Poor’s 500, FTSE 100 and Deutscher Aktien Index are chosen to represent the China, United States, United Kingdom and Germany market. Monthly time series data of mentioned variables are the time period is from November 2001 to April...