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Sample records for chloride volatility process

  1. Method for preparation of melts of alkali metal chlorides with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A method for production of alkali metal (Cs, Rb, K) chloride melts with highly volatile polyvalent metal chlorides is suggested. The method consists, in saturation of alkali metal chlorides, preheated to the melting point, by volatile component vapours (titanium tetrachloride, molybdenum or tantalum pentachloride) in proportion, corresponding to the composition reguired. The saturation is realized in an evacuated vessel with two heating areas for 1-1.5 h. After gradual levelling of temperature in both areas the product is rapidly cooled. 1 fig.; 1 tab

  2. Removal of uranium from simulated fly ash by chloride volatilization method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Fly ash is generated from LWR nuclear power plant as a low-level waste, which is contaminated with a small amount of radioactive materials, composed mainly of uranium oxide. The constituents of the fly ash are similar to those of the ore; the major components of the ash are oxides of silicon, aluminum, sodium, magnesium, zinc, iron sodium and uranium. In this study, removal of uranium from the simulated fly ash, of which composition was U3O8: 10, CaO:25, SiO2: 25, Al2O3: 20, MgO: 10, ZnO:5, Fe2O3: 3 and Na2CO3: 2 wt%, by chloride volatilization method was examined. The simulated fly ash was chlorinated by the same manner as the dry way processing for the ore; namely, the ash was heated in a flow of chlorine in the presence of carbon at high temperatures. In the case of volatilization of uranium from U3O8 and a simulated fly ash by chlorination using chlorine and carbon, it was seen that uranium of both samples showed similar volatilization behaviour: The volatilization ratio of uranium (VU) increased with increasing temperature from 800 to 1100 C. The VU value attained 99.9% at 1100 C. Iron, silicon and zinc showed similar behaviour to uranium, namely, they vaporized completely. The volatilization ratio of aluminum, magnesium and sodium were still high in a range 80-90%. The volatilization ratio of calcium was ∼40% under the same chlorination condition, though it changed to chloride. For recovery of uranium from fly ash by chlorination using chlorine in the presence of carbon, high volatilization ratio of uranium can be achieved at high temperatures. Volatilization ratio of other components also increases, which decreases the amount of decontaminated residue resulting in the reducing of decontamination effect. Selection of heating condition is important. (author)

  3. Green process to recover magnesium chloride from residue solution of potassium chloride production plant

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Lin WANG; Yunliang HE; Yanfei WANG; Ying BAO; Jingkang WANG

    2008-01-01

    The green process to recover magnesium chlor-ide from the residue solution of a potassium chloride pro-duction plant, which comes from the leach solution of a potash mine in Laos, is designed and optimized. The res-idue solution contains magnesium chloride above 25 wt-%, potassium chloride and sodium chloride together below 5 wt-% and a few other ions such as Br-, SO2-4and Ca2+. The recovery process contains two steps: the previous impurity removal operation and the two-stage evapora-tion-cooling crystallization procedure to produce magnes-ium chloride. The crystallized impurity carnallite obtained from the first step is recycled to the potassium chloride plant to recover the potassium salt. The developed process is a zero discharge one and thus fulfills the requirements for green chemical industrial production. The produced magnesium chloride is up to industrial criteria.

  4. PROCESS FOR TREATING VOLATILE METAL FLUORIDES

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudge, A.J.; Lowe, A.J.

    1957-10-01

    This patent relates to the purification of uranium hexafluoride, made by reacting the metal or its tetrafluoride with fluorine, from the frequently contained traces of hydrofluoric acid. According to the present process, UF/sub 6/ containing as an impurity a small amount of hydrofluoric acid, is treated to remove such impurity by contact with an anhydrous alkali metal fluoride such as sodium fluoride. In this way a non-volatile complex containing hydrofluoric acid and the alkali metal fluoride is formed, and the volatile UF /sub 6/ may then be removed by distillation.

  5. Effect of the partial replacement of sodium chloride by other salts on the formation of volatile compounds during ripening of dry-cured ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armenteros, Mónica; Toldrá, Fidel; Aristoy, M-Concepción; Ventanas, Jesús; Estévez, Mario

    2012-08-01

    The effect of the partial NaCl replacement by other salts (potassium, calcium, and magnesium chloride) on the formation of volatile compounds through the processing of dry-cured ham was studied using solid-phase microextraction (SPME). Three salt formulations were considered, namely, I (100% NaCl), II (50% NaCl and 50% KCl), and III (55% NaCl, 25% KCl, 15% CaCl(2), and 5% MgCl(2)). There was an intense formation of volatile compounds throughout the processing of dry-cured hams, particularly during the "hot-cellar" stage. The differences between treatments were found to be more remarkable at the end of the curing process. Hams from formulations I and II had significantly higher amounts of lipid-derived volatiles such as hexanal than hams from formulation III, whereas the latter had significantly higher amounts of Strecker aldehydes and alcohols. Plausible mechanisms by which salt replacement may affect the generation of volatile compounds include the influence of such replacement on lipid oxidation and proteolysis phenomena. The potential influence of the volatiles profile on the aroma of the products is also addressed in the present paper.

  6. Modeling Multivariate Volatility Processes: Theory and Evidence

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jelena Z. Minovic

    2009-05-01

    Full Text Available This article presents theoretical and empirical methodology for estimation and modeling of multivariate volatility processes. It surveys the model specifications and the estimation methods. Multivariate GARCH models covered are VEC (initially due to Bollerslev, Engle and Wooldridge, 1988, diagonal VEC (DVEC, BEKK (named after Baba, Engle, Kraft and Kroner, 1995, Constant Conditional Correlation Model (CCC, Bollerslev, 1990, Dynamic Conditional Correlation Model (DCC models of Tse and Tsui, 2002, and Engle, 2002. I illustrate approach by applying it to daily data from the Belgrade stock exchange, I examine two pairs of daily log returns for stocks and index, report the results obtained, and compare them with the restricted version of BEKK, DVEC and CCC representations. The methods for estimation parameters used are maximum log-likehood (in BEKK and DVEC models and twostep approach (in CCC model.

  7. Chloride removal from vitrification offgas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This study identified and investigated techniques of selectively purging chlorides from the low-level waste (LLW) vitrification process with the purge stream acceptable for burial on the Hanford Site. Chlorides will be present in high concentration in several individual feeds to the LLW Vitrification Plant. The chlorides are highly volatile in combustion type melters and are readily absorbed by wet scrubbing of the melter offgas. The Tank Waste Remediation System (TWRS) process flow sheets show that the resulting chloride rich scrub solution is recycled back to the melter. The chlorides must be purged from the recycle loop to prevent the buildup of excessively high chloride concentrations

  8. Relationships between volatile and non-volatile metabolites and attributes of processed potato flavour.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Morris, Wayne L; Shepherd, Tom; Verrall, Susan R; McNicol, James W; Taylor, Mark A

    2010-10-01

    Although the flavour of processed potatoes (Solanum tuberosum L.) is important to consumers, the blend of volatile and non-volatile metabolites that impact on flavour attributes is not well-defined. Additionally, it is important to understand how potato flavour changes during storage. In this study, quantitative descriptive analysis of potato samples by a trained taste panel was undertaken, comparing tubers from S. tuberosum group Phureja with those from S. tuberosum group Tuberosum, both at harvest and following storage. The cooked tuber volatile profile was analysed by solid phase micro extraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry analysis in sub-samples of the tubers that were assessed by taste panels. A range of non-volatile metabolites including the major umami compounds, glycoalkaloids and sugars was also measured in tuber sub-samples. Correlation and principal component analyses revealed differences between the potato cultivars and storage conditions and demonstrated associations of metabolites with the different sensory attributes. PMID:20678781

  9. Nitrogen Trifluoride-Based Fluoride- Volatility Separations Process: Initial Studies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    McNamara, Bruce K.; Scheele, Randall D.; Casella, Andrew M.; Kozelisky, Anne E.

    2011-09-28

    This document describes the results of our investigations on the potential use of nitrogen trifluoride as the fluorinating and oxidizing agent in fluoride volatility-based used nuclear fuel reprocessing. The conceptual process uses differences in reaction temperatures between nitrogen trifluoride and fuel constituents that produce volatile fluorides to achieve separations and recover valuable constituents. We provide results from our thermodynamic evaluations, thermo-analytical experiments, kinetic models, and provide a preliminary process flowsheet. The evaluations found that nitrogen trifluoride can effectively produce volatile fluorides at different temperatures dependent on the fuel constituent.

  10. Effect of calcium chloride on abating inhibition due to volatile fatty acids during the start-up period in anaerobic digestion of municipal solid waste.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kumar, Sunil; Das, Avijit; Srinivas, G Lohit Kumar; Dhar, Hiya; Ojha, Vivek Kumar; Wong, Jonathan

    2016-01-01

    Biomethanation of municipal solid waste (MSW) is a slow process and the yield of biogas is usually low. The present study was carried out to examine the effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2) on anaerobic digestion of MSW. Three anaerobic digesters with different concentrations of CaCl2, namely sample without additives (Control), sample with 2.5 g/L CaCl2 (R1) and sample with 5 g/L CaCl2 (R2) were studied separately and the significant results are presented. From the experimental results, it was observed that pH decreased with an increase in the dosage of CaCl2. Total solids and volatile solids reduction percentage in digester R2 was considerably lower than Control and R1 digesters. The significant positive correlation with small increments in volatile solids and chemical oxygen demand (COD) reduction were observed with an increase in pH. The cumulative biogas production in all the three digesters (Control, R1 and R2) were observed to be 35.38, 46.46 and 37.56 L, respectively. It was also observed that the volatile fatty acids (VFAs) removal efficiency in digester R1 was the best among all the three digesters. A comparison of the effluent characteristics revealed improvement in the overall performance of the digester R1 amended with 2.5 g/L CaCl2 over the other two digesters. PMID:26609893

  11. Volatility: a hidden Markov process in financial time series

    CERN Document Server

    Eisler, Z; Perello, J; Eisler, Zoltan; Masoliver, Jaume; Perello, Josep

    2006-01-01

    The volatility characterizes the amplitude of price return fluctuations. It is a central magnitude in finance closely related to the risk of holding a certain asset. Despite its popularity on trading floors, the volatility is unobservable and only the price is known. Diffusion theory has many common points with the research on volatility, the key of the analogy being that volatility is the time-dependent diffusion coefficient of the random walk for the price return. We present a formal procedure to extract volatility from price data, by assuming that it is described by a hidden Markov process which together with the price form a two-dimensional diffusion process. We derive a maximum likelihood estimate valid for a wide class of two-dimensional diffusion processes. The choice of the exponential Ornstein-Uhlenbeck (expOU) stochastic volatility model performs remarkably well in inferring the hidden state of volatility. The formalism is applied to the Dow Jones index. The main results are: (i) the distribution of...

  12. Hafnium(IV) chloride complexes with chelating β-ketiminate ligands: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and volatility study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Siddappa A.; Medina, Phillip A.; Antic, Aleks; Ziller, Joseph W.; Vohs, Jason K.; Fahlman, Bradley D.

    2015-09-01

    The synthesis and characterization of four new β-ketiminate hafnium(IV) chloride complexes dichloro-bis[4-(phenylamido)pent-3-en-2-one]-hafnium (4a), dichloro-bis[4-(4-methylphenylamido)pent-3-en-2-one]-hafnium (4b), dichloro-bis[4-(4-methoxyphenylamido)pent-3-en-2-one]-hafnium (4c), and dichloro-bis[4-(4-chlorophenylamido)pent-3-en-2-one]-hafnium (4d) are reported. All the complexes (4a-d) were characterized by spectroscopic methods (1H NMR, 13C NMR, IR), and elemental analysis while the compound 4c was further examined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, revealing that the complex is monomer with the hafnium center in octahedral coordination environment and oxygens of the chelating N-O ligands are trans to each other and the chloride ligands are in a cis arrangement. Volatile trends are established for four new β-ketiminate hafnium(IV) chloride complexes (4a-d). Sublimation enthalpies (ΔHsub) were calculated from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data, which show that, the dependence of ΔHsub on the molecular weight (4a-c) and inductive effects from chlorine (4d).

  13. Adsorption Equilibrium of Volatile in Condensed Mode Polyethylene Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王兆林; 陈伟; 阳永荣; 戎顺熙

    2000-01-01

    In this paper n-hexane is chosen as typical volatile in condensed mode polymerization process, and the adsorption equilibrium of volatile in polyethylene pva'ticles is studied through experiments at different temperatures, pressures and particle diameters. It is found that more adsorbed quantity of volatile at equilibrium can be obtained with lower temperature, higher pressure and smaller particle diameter. Under polymerization conditions,the adsorbed quantity at equilibrium is more strongly affected by temperature than by pressure, and if the diameter distribution of particles is very wide the effect of diameter on the adsorbed quantity must be taken into consideration.With theoretical analyses a model is proposed for calculating the adsorbed quantity of volatile at equilibrium.

  14. Brownian semistationary processes and volatility/intermittency

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole Eiler; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    A new class of stochastic processes, termed Brownian semistationary processes (BSS), is introduced and discussed. This class has similarities to that of Brownian semimartingales (BSM), but is mainly directed towards the study of stationary processes, and BSS processes are not in general of the...... turbulent velocity fields and is the purely temporal version of the general tempo-spatial framework of ambit processes. The latter, which may have applications also to the finance of energy markets, is briefly considered at the end of the paper, again with reference to the question of inference on the...

  15. Development of volatile compounds in processed cheese during storage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sunesen, Lars Oddershede; Lund, Pia; Sørensen, J.;

    2002-01-01

    The purpose of this work teas to study tire impact of storage conditions, such as light and temperature, on the development of volatile compounds to processed cheese. Cheese in glass containers was stored at 5, 20 or 37 degreesC in light or darkness for up to 1 yr. Dynamic headspace and gas...

  16. Volatile components of the frying process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Nawar, W. W.

    1998-08-01

    Full Text Available In the course of deep fat frying, food contacts oil at about 180 °C and is partially exposed to air for various periods of time. Thus frying, more than any other standard food process or handling method, has the greatest potential for causing chemical changes in fat, and sizeable amounts of this fat are carried with the food (5-40% fat by weight is absorbed. During frying, oxidative reactions involving the formation and decomposition of hydroperoxides lead to such compounds as saturated and unsaturated aldehydes, ketones, hydrocarbons, lactones, alcohols, acids and esters. Sulfur compounds and pyrazine derivatives may develop in the food itself or from the interactions between the food and oil. Food absorbs varying amounts of oil during deep-fat frying (potato chips have a final fat content of about 35%. The food itself can release some of its endogenous lipids (e.g., fat from chicken into the frying fat and consequently the oxidative stability of the new mixture may be different from that of the original frying fat. The changes that occur in the oil and food during frying should not be automatically construed as undesirable or harmful. In fact, some of these changes are necessary to provide the sensory qualities typical of fried food. On the other hand, extensive decomposition, resulting from lack of adequate control of the frying operation, can be a potential source of damage not only to sensory quality of the fried food but also to nutritional value.

  17. Option Pricing with Stochastic Volatility and Jump Diffusion Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lupu

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available Option pricing by the use of Black Scholes Merton (BSM model is based on the assumption that asset prices have a lognormal distribution. In spite of the use of these models on a large scale, both by practioners and academics, the assumption of lognormality is rejected by the history of returns. The objective of this article is to present the methods that developed after the Black Scholes Merton environment and deals with the option pricing model adjustment to the empirical properties of asset returns. The main models that appeared after BSM allowed for special changes of the returns that materialized in jump-diffusion and stochastic volatility processes. The article presents the foundations of risk neutral options evaluation and the empirical evidence that fed the amendment of the lognormal assumption in the first part and shows the evaluation procedure under the assumption of stock prices following the jump-diffusion process and the stochastic volatility process.

  18. Option Pricing with Stochastic Volatility and Jump Diffusion Processes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Radu Lupu

    2006-03-01

    Full Text Available Option pricing by the use of Black Scholes Merton (BSM model is based on the assumption that asset prices have a lognormal distribution. In spite of the use of these models on a large scale, both by practioners and academics, the assumption of lognormality is rejected by the history of returns. The objective of this article is to present the methods that developed after the Black Scholes Merton environment and deals with the option pricing model adjustment to the empirical properties of asset returns. The main models that appeared after BSM allowed for special changes of the returns that materialized in jump-diffusion and stochastic volatility processes. The article presents the foundations of risk neutral options evaluation and the empirical evidence that fed the amendment of the lognormal assumption in the first part and shows the evaluation procedure under the assumption of stock prices following the jump-diffusion process and the stochastic volatility process.

  19. Chlorine/chloride based processes for uranium ores

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CE Lummus Minerals Division was commissioned by The Department of Supply and Services to develop order-of-magnitude capital and operating cost estimates for chlorine/chloride-based processes for uranium ores. The processes are designed to remove substantially all radioactive consituents from the ores to render the waste products harmless. Two processes were selected, one for a typical low grade ore (2 lb. U3O8/ton ore) and one for a high grade ore (50 lbs U3O8 /ton). For the low grade ore a hydrochloric acid leaching process was chosen. For high grade ore, a more complex process, including gaseous chlorination, was selected. Capital cost estimates were compiled from information obtained from vendors for the specified equipment. Building cost estimates and the piping, electrical and instrumentation costs were developed from the plant layout. Utility diagrams and mass balances were used for estimating utilities and consumables. Detailed descriptions of the bases for capital and operating cost estimates are given

  20. Modeling Regolith Temperatures and Volatile Ice Processes (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mellon, M. T.

    2013-12-01

    Surface and subsurface temperatures are an important tool for exploring the distribution and dynamics of volatile ices on and within planetary regoliths. I will review thermal-analysis approaches and recent applications in the studies of volatile ice processes. Numerical models of regolith temperatures allow us to examine the response of ices to periodic and secular changes in heat sources such as insolation. Used in conjunction with spatially and temporally distributed remotely-sensed temperatures, numerical models can: 1) constrain the stability and dynamics of volatile ices; 2) define the partitioning between phases of ice, gas, liquid, and adsorbate; and 3) in some instances be used to probe the distribution of ice hidden from view beneath the surface. The vapor pressure of volatile ices (such as water, carbon dioxide, and methane) depends exponentially on temperature. Small changes in temperature can result in transitions between stable phases. Cyclic temperatures and the propagation of thermal waves into the subsurface can produce a strong hysteresis in the population and partitioning of various phases (such as between ice, vapor, and adsorbate) and result in bulk transport. Condensation of ice will also have a pronounced effect on the thermal properties of otherwise loose particulate regolith. Cementing grains at their contacts through ice deposition will increase the thermal conductivity, and may enhance the stability of additional ice. Likewise sintering of grains within a predominantly icy regolith will increase the thermal conductivity. Subsurface layers that result from ice redistribution can be discriminated by remote sensing when combined with numerical modeling. Applications of these techniques include modeling of seasonal carbon dioxide frosts on Mars, predicting and interpreting the subsurface ice distribution on Mars and in Antarctica, and estimating the current depth of ice-rich permafrost on Mars. Additionally, understanding cold trapping ices

  1. Host-Guest Strategy to Reversibly Control a Chloride Carrier Process with Cyclodextrins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gravel, Julien; Kempf, Julie; Schmitzer, Andreea

    2015-12-14

    Herein, we report a reversible modular chloride transport process based on host-guest competitive interactions between an imidazolium-based chloride carrier and beta-cyclodextrin. We report evidence for the formation of the supramolecular complex between 1,3-bis(2-(adamantan-1-yl)ethyl)imidazolium bis(trifluorometyl-sulfonyl)imide with two β-cyclodextrins. Through fluorescence assays in liposomes and black lipid membrane experiments, we demonstrate that the formation of the supramolecular complex results in the inhibition of the chloride transport. We show that the chloride transport process can be entirely restored in the presence of competitive adamantyl-functionalized guests. This is the first example of an entirely reversible modular chloride transport process in phospholipid bilayers involving a mobile carrier transporter and cyclodextrin supramolecular complex.

  2. Contact dermatitis in workers processing polyvinyl chloride plastics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vidović, R; Kansky, A

    1985-01-01

    Out of 401 workers employed in a factory producing shoes from polyvinyl chloride (PVC) granulate, 388 were investigated. By patch testing with the standard tests and 4 phthalate compounds, a diagnosis of allergic contact dermatitis was confirmed in 11 of these. Six of them were sensitized to phthalates and 5 to coal tar.

  3. Optimal sparse volatility matrix estimation for high-dimensional Itô processes with measurement errors

    OpenAIRE

    Tao, Minjing; Wang, Yazhen; Harrison H. Zhou

    2013-01-01

    Stochastic processes are often used to model complex scientific problems in fields ranging from biology and finance to engineering and physical science. This paper investigates rate-optimal estimation of the volatility matrix of a high-dimensional It\\^{o} process observed with measurement errors at discrete time points. The minimax rate of convergence is established for estimating sparse volatility matrices. By combining the multi-scale and threshold approaches we construct a volatility matri...

  4. Dietary exposure to volatile and non-volatile N-nitrosamines from processed meat products in Denmark

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Christensen, Tue;

    2015-01-01

    the carcinogenicity for the majority of the non-volatile NA (NVNA) remains to be elucidated. Danish adults (15–75 years) and children (4–6 years) consume 20 g and 16 g of processed meat per day (95th percentile), respectively. The consumption is primarily accounted for by sausages, salami, pork flank (spiced...

  5. Computer Program for Estimation Multivariate Volatility Processes Using DVEC Model of CRM

    OpenAIRE

    Jelena Z. Minović

    2008-01-01

    This article presents computer program for estimation of multivariate (bivariate and trivariate) volatility processes, written in EViews Version 4.1. In order to estimate multivariate volatility processes for analysis of the Serbian financial market, I had to write new subprograms within Eviews software package. The programs are written for the diagonal vector ARCH model (DVEC) in bivariate and trivariate versions.

  6. 40 CFR Table 4 to Subpart Ddddd of... - Operating Limits for Boilers and Process Heaters With Hydrogen Chloride Emission Limits

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... Process Heaters With Hydrogen Chloride Emission Limits 4 Table 4 to Subpart DDDDD of Part 63 Protection of... Heaters With Hydrogen Chloride Emission Limits As stated in § 63.7500, you must comply with the following applicable operating limits: If you demonstrate compliance with applicable hydrogen chloride emission...

  7. Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in Laurus cinnamomum

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salum, D.C.; Araujo, M.M.; Fanaro, G.B. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Cidade Universitaria, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, Zip code: 05508-000 Butanta, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil); Purgatto, E. [Faculdade de Ciencias Farmaceuticas, FCF/USP, Departamento de Alimentos e Nutricao Experimental. Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes, 580 Bloco 14. CEP: 05508-900 Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: epurgatt@usp.br; Villavicencio, A.L.C.H. [Instituto de Pesquisas Energeticas e Nucleares (IPEN/CNEN-SP), Cidade Universitaria, Av. Professor Lineu Prestes 2242, Zip code: 05508-000 Butanta, Sao Paulo, SP (Brazil)], E-mail: villavic@ipen.br

    2009-07-15

    In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as increase its shelf-life, while keeping sensorial properties (e.g., odor and taste), which are important properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. Possible changes in the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties, in order to allow better application of the irradiation technology. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation on cinnamon (Laurus cinnamomum) samples after gamma irradiation. These samples were irradiated into plastic packages using a {sup 60}Co facility. Radiation doses applied were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy. For the analysis of the samples, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation showed the highest decrease in volatile compounds. For L. cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile compounds by nearly 56% and 89.5%, respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which had not been previously irradiated.

  8. Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in Laurus cinnamomum

    Science.gov (United States)

    Salum, D. C.; Araújo, M. M.; Fanaro, G. B.; Purgatto, E.; Villavicencio, A. L. C. H.

    2009-07-01

    In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as increase its shelf-life, while keeping sensorial properties (e.g., odor and taste), which are important properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. Possible changes in the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties, in order to allow better application of the irradiation technology. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation on cinnamon ( Laurus cinnamomum) samples after gamma irradiation. These samples were irradiated into plastic packages using a 60Co facility. Radiation doses applied were 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25 kGy. For the analysis of the samples, solid-phase microextraction (SPME) was applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation showed the highest decrease in volatile compounds. For L. cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile compounds by nearly 56% and 89.5%, respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which had not been previously irradiated.

  9. ANALYSIS OF MARKET VOLATILITY VIA A DYNAMICALLY PURIFIED OPTION PRICE PROCESS

    OpenAIRE

    CHUONG LUONG; NIKOLAI DOKUCHAEV

    2014-01-01

    The paper studies methods of dynamic estimation of volatility for financial time series. We suggest to estimate the volatility as the implied volatility inferred from some artificial "dynamically purified" price process that in theory allows to eliminate the impact of the stock price movements. The complete elimination would be possible if the option prices were available for continuous sets of strike prices and expiration times. In practice, we have to use only finite sets of available price...

  10. Characterization and extraction of volatile compounds from pineapple (Ananas comosus L. Merril) processing residues

    OpenAIRE

    Lília Calheiros de Oliveira Barretto; Jane de Jesus da Silveira Moreira; João Antônio Belmino dos Santos; Narain Narendra; Raquel Anne Ribeiro dos Santos

    2013-01-01

    The aim of this study was to extract and identify volatile compounds from pineapple residues generated during concentrated juice processing. Distillates of pineapple residues were obtained using the following techniques: simple hydrodistillation and hydrodistillation by passing nitrogen gas. The volatile compounds present in the distillates were captured by the solid-phase microextraction technique. The volatile compounds were identified in a system of high resolution gas chromatography syste...

  11. Electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides in pyrochemical processes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Castrillejo, Y., E-mail: ycastril@qa.uva.es [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Fernandez, P. [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Medina, J. [Dept Fisica Materia Condensada Cristalografia y Mineralogia, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain); Hernandez, P. [Centro de Investigaciones Quimicas, Universidad Autonoma del Estado de Hidalgo, Carr. Pachuca-Tulancingo Km. 4.5, C.P. 42076 Pachuca, Hidalgo (Mexico); Barrado, E. [QUIANE/Dept Quimica Analitica, F. de Ciencias, Universidad de Valladolid, Prado de la Magdalena s/n, 47005 Valladolid (Spain)

    2011-10-01

    This work concerns the electrochemical extraction of samarium from molten chlorides. In this way, the electrochemical behaviour of samarium ions has been investigated in the eutectic LiCl-KCl at the surface of tungsten, aluminium and aluminium coated tungsten electrodes. On a W inert electrode the electro-reduction of Sm(III) takes place in only one soluble-soluble electrochemical step Sm(III)/Sm(II). The electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) has not been observed within the electrochemical window, because of the prior reduction of Li(I) ions from the solvent, which inhibits the electro-extraction of Sm species from the salt on such a substrate. Sm metal in contact with the melt react to give Li(0) according to the reaction: Sm(0) + 2Li(I) {r_reversible} Sm(II) + 2Li(0). On the contrary, on reactive Al electrodes the electrochemical system Sm(II)/Sm(0) was observed within the electroactive range. The potential shift of the redox couple is caused by the decrease of Sm activity in the metal phase due to the formation of Sm-Al alloys at the interface. The formation mechanism of the intermetallic compounds was studied in a melt containing: (i) both Sm(III) and Al(III) ions, using W and Al coated tungsten electrodes, and (ii) Sm(III) ions using an Al electrode. Analysis of the samples after potentiostatic electrolysis by X-ray diffraction and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) with energy dispersive X-ray spectroscopy (EDS), allowed the identification of Al{sub 3}Sm and Al{sub 2}Sm.

  12. [Effects of processing on volatile oil constituents in nutmeg and on the contents of myristicin].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T; Zhou, J; Jiang, W; Li, C

    1990-08-01

    This paper reports a GC analysis of the volatile oil contained in the nutmeg (Semen Myristicae) prepared by simmering wrapped in flour in hot purified talc, scalding in hot purified talc and stir-frying in smoking wheat bran. The experimental results showed that before and after processing the volatile oil compounds in nutmeg are the same and during processing no known compounds disappeared. The contents of the main volatile oil compounds in nutmeg changed, however, before and after processing, including the amounts of myristicin, one of the toxic compounds in nutmeg. It is suggested that the amounts of myristicin could be decreased notably under certain processing conditions. PMID:2093319

  13. Sodium chloride methanol solution spin-coating process for bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong-Fang; Hu, Yu-Feng; Deng, Zhen-Bo; Li, Xiong; Zhu, Li-Jie; Wang, Yue; Lv, Long-Feng; Wang, Tie-Ning; Lou, Zhi-Dong; Hou, Yan-Bing; Teng, Feng

    2016-08-01

    The sodium chloride methanol solution process is conducted on the conventional poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. The device exhibits a power conversion efficiency of up to 3.36%, 18% higher than that of the device without the solution process. The measurements of the active layer by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) indicate a slight phase separation in the vertical direction and a sodium chloride distributed island-like interface between the active layer and the cathode. The capacitance–voltage (C–V) and impedance spectroscopy measurements prove that the sodium chloride methanol process can reduce the electron injection barrier and improve the interfacial contact of polymer solar cells. Therefore, this one-step solution process not only optimizes the phase separation in the active layers but also forms a cathode buffer layer, which can enhance the generation, transport, and collection of photogenerated charge carriers in the device simultaneously. This work indicates that the inexpensive and non-toxic sodium chloride methanol solution process is an efficient one-step method for the low cost manufacturing of polymer solar cells. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2014JBZ009) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274063, 61377028, 61475014, and 61475017).

  14. Sodium chloride methanol solution spin-coating process for bulk-heterojunction polymer solar cells

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tong-Fang; Hu, Yu-Feng; Deng, Zhen-Bo; Li, Xiong; Zhu, Li-Jie; Wang, Yue; Lv, Long-Feng; Wang, Tie-Ning; Lou, Zhi-Dong; Hou, Yan-Bing; Teng, Feng

    2016-08-01

    The sodium chloride methanol solution process is conducted on the conventional poly(3-hexylthiophene) (P3HT)/[6,6]-phenyl-C61-butyric acid methyl ester (PC61BM) polymer bulk heterojunction solar cells. The device exhibits a power conversion efficiency of up to 3.36%, 18% higher than that of the device without the solution process. The measurements of the active layer by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS), atomic force microscopy (AFM), and ultraviolet photoelectron spectroscopy (UPS) indicate a slight phase separation in the vertical direction and a sodium chloride distributed island-like interface between the active layer and the cathode. The capacitance-voltage (C-V) and impedance spectroscopy measurements prove that the sodium chloride methanol process can reduce the electron injection barrier and improve the interfacial contact of polymer solar cells. Therefore, this one-step solution process not only optimizes the phase separation in the active layers but also forms a cathode buffer layer, which can enhance the generation, transport, and collection of photogenerated charge carriers in the device simultaneously. This work indicates that the inexpensive and non-toxic sodium chloride methanol solution process is an efficient one-step method for the low cost manufacturing of polymer solar cells. Project supported by the Fundamental Research Funds for the Central Universities, China (Grant No. 2014JBZ009) and the National Natural Science Foundation of China (Grant Nos. 61274063, 61377028, 61475014, and 61475017).

  15. Hydrogeologic Processes Impacting Storage, Fate, and Transport of Chloride from Road Salt in Urban Riparian Aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Sarah H; Lautz, Laura K; Stella, John C

    2016-05-17

    Detrimental effects of road salt runoff on urban streams are compounded by its facilitated routing via storm drains, ditches, and flood channels. Elevated in-stream salinity may also result from seasonal storage and discharge of chloride in groundwater, and previous work has hypothesized that groundwater discharge to streams may have the effect of diluting stream chloride concentrations in winter and enriching them in summer. However, the hydrogeological processes controlling these patterns have not been thoroughly investigated. Our research focuses on an urban stream and floodplain system in Syracuse, NY, to understand how groundwater and surface water exchange impacts chloride storage, fate, and transport. We created a 3D groundwater flow and solute transport model of the floodplain, calibrated to the distributions of floodplain hydraulic heads and groundwater fluxes to the stream throughout the reach. We used a sensitivity analysis to calibrate and evaluate the influence of model parameters, and compared model outputs to field observations. The main source mechanism of chloride to the floodplain aquifer was high-concentration, overbank flood events in winter that directly recharged groundwater. The modeled residence time and storage capacity of the aquifer indicate that restoration projects designed to promote floodplain reconnection and the frequency of overbank flooding in winter have the potential to temporarily store chloride in groundwater, buffer surface water concentrations, and reduce stream concentrations following periods of road salting.

  16. Hydrogeologic Processes Impacting Storage, Fate, and Transport of Chloride from Road Salt in Urban Riparian Aquifers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, Sarah H; Lautz, Laura K; Stella, John C

    2016-05-17

    Detrimental effects of road salt runoff on urban streams are compounded by its facilitated routing via storm drains, ditches, and flood channels. Elevated in-stream salinity may also result from seasonal storage and discharge of chloride in groundwater, and previous work has hypothesized that groundwater discharge to streams may have the effect of diluting stream chloride concentrations in winter and enriching them in summer. However, the hydrogeological processes controlling these patterns have not been thoroughly investigated. Our research focuses on an urban stream and floodplain system in Syracuse, NY, to understand how groundwater and surface water exchange impacts chloride storage, fate, and transport. We created a 3D groundwater flow and solute transport model of the floodplain, calibrated to the distributions of floodplain hydraulic heads and groundwater fluxes to the stream throughout the reach. We used a sensitivity analysis to calibrate and evaluate the influence of model parameters, and compared model outputs to field observations. The main source mechanism of chloride to the floodplain aquifer was high-concentration, overbank flood events in winter that directly recharged groundwater. The modeled residence time and storage capacity of the aquifer indicate that restoration projects designed to promote floodplain reconnection and the frequency of overbank flooding in winter have the potential to temporarily store chloride in groundwater, buffer surface water concentrations, and reduce stream concentrations following periods of road salting. PMID:27077530

  17. Molecular Dynamics Simulation Studies on the Cooling Process of Polyvinyl Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    By means of molecular dynamics simulation, the transition of the conformations of polyvinyl chloride during a cooling process from 600 to 300 K was studied. The results show that the amorphous polyvinyl chloride chain experiences the melting state, elastic state and glass state and the conformations can be characterized by the increases of the trans-state of C-C-C-C and the near gauche-state of C-C-C-Cl with the decrease of temperature. It is found that the transition of the conformations is driven mainly by the Coulomb interaction between chain segments.

  18. Evolution of volatile aldehydes in Iberian ham matured under different processing conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, L; Timón, M L; Petrón, M J; Ventanas, J; Antequera, T

    2000-04-01

    To evaluate the influence of the Iberian ham processing conditions in the evolution of volatile aldehydes, 35 hams were processed in two plants following different conditions of relative humidity and temperature. For this, free fatty acids, peroxide values and volatile aldehydes were quantified in the hams. The highest increases in free fatty acids were noted during the drying stage in both processing plants. The drying period also revealed the greatest increase in peroxide values, where the highest values were in those hams processed at higher temperatures. The temperature during post-salting and drying had a marked influence on the formation of volatile aldehydes, being responsible for the differences in volatile compounds of matured hams.

  19. Simultaneous determination of volatile and non-volatile nitrosamines in processed meat products by liquid chromatography tandem mass spectrometry using atmospheric pressure chemical ionisation and electrospray ionisation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Granby, Kit

    2014-01-01

    A sensitive, selective and generic method has been developed for the simultaneous determination of the contents (μgkg−1 range) of both volatile nitrosamines (VNA) and non-volatile nitrosamines (NVNA) in processed meat products. The extraction procedure only requires basic laboratory equipment and...

  20. Occurrence of volatile and non-volatile N-nitrosamines in processed meat products and the role of heat treatment

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Herrmann, Susan Strange; Duedahl-Olesen, Lene; Granby, Kit

    2015-01-01

    Most of the available data on the occurrence of N-nitrosamines (NA) in processed meat products have been generated in the 1980s and 1990s and especially data on the occurrence of non-volatile NA (NVNA) are scarce. Therefore we have studied the levels of volatile nitrosamines (VNA) and NVNA...... in processed meat products on the Danish market (N = 70) and for comparison also products on the Belgian market (N = 20). The effect of heat treatment on the NA levels, in selected samples, was also studied, in order to enable an evaluation of how preparation before consumption affects the levels of NA...... μg kg−1 for one Danish sample and two Belgian samples. Levels of up to 2000 and 4000 μg kg−1 of N-nitroso-thiazolidine-4-carboxylic acid (NTCA) an NVNA occurred in the Danish and the Belgian samples, respectively. The majority of the Danish processed meat products contain NVNA but also VNA occur...

  1. Mathematical model of determining heat condition in desublimation process of volatile metal fluorides

    OpenAIRE

    Smolkin, P. А.; Buynovskiy, А. S.; Lazarchuk, V. V.; Matveev, А. А.; Sofronov, V. L.; Brendakov, V. N.

    2007-01-01

    To optimize the technological parameters of the process and to create the automatic regulation system of desublimation process the mathematical model for desublimation process of volatile metal fluorides in surface devices (by the example of uranium hexafluoride) has been developed. Optimal conditions for desublimation process designed with the use of the model developed were tested and showed good agreement with the experimental data.

  2. Volatility Discovery

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dias, Gustavo Fruet; Scherrer, Cristina; Papailias, Fotis

    There is a large literature that investigates how homogenous securities traded on different markets incorporate new information (price discovery analysis). We extend this concept to the stochastic volatility process and investigate how markets contribute to the efficient stochastic volatility whi...

  3. Dynamics of the anaerobic process: Effects of volatile fatty acids

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pind, Peter Frode; Angelidaki, Irini; Ahring, Birgitte Kiær

    2003-01-01

    both CH4 yield, pH, and gas production and that a unique reaction pattern was seen for the higher VFAs as a result of these pulses. In this study, two thermophilic laboratory reactors were equipped with a novel VFA-sensor for monitoring specific VFAs online. Pulses of VFAs were shown to have a positive......A complex and fast dynamic response of the anaerobic biogas system was observed when the system was subjected to pulses of volatile fatty acids (VFAs). It was shown that a pulse of specific VFAs into a well-functioning continuous stirred tank reactor (CSTR) system operating on cow manure affected...... or inhibition was shown for the degradation of all VFAs tested. Based on the results, it was concluded that measurements of all specific VFAs are important for control purposes and increase and decrease in a specific VFA should always be evaluated in close relationship to the conversion of other VFAs...

  4. Investigation into thermal decomposition processes of chloride-organic complexes of niobium and tantalum

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Complex compounds of niobium and tantalum chlorides with carbon- and nitrogen-bearing (CH3CN, C6H5CN, C6H5CH2CN, CH=CH2CN) ligands are prepared and identified. Correlation of spectra of nuclear quadrupole resonance (93Nb and 181Ta) of complexes prepared with thermochemical characteristics of the complexing reaction is established. The thermal decomposition of complex niobium and tantalum chlorides is studied. The principal possibility of using their thermal decomposition process to prepare refractory and heat resistant binary niobium and tantalum compounds is shown. The properties and composition of thermal decomposition products at different temperatures are studied. The complex dependence of the composition of the final decomposition product on the temperature (20-110 deg) shows that the process is determined by topochemical and kinetic factors

  5. Gas chromatographic thermodynamics on hydration processes of magnesium chloride with low water

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈建军; 陈关城; 马培华; 保积庆; 马玉涛; 陈丰秋

    2003-01-01

    The dehydration and hydration processes of magnesium chloride hydrates were studied by means of frontal chromatography analysis, calorimetry, thermogravimetry and chemical analysis. The mathematical imitation for the adsorption isotherms of MgCl2*4H2O and MgCl2*2H2O at different temperatures indicates that Boltzmann Function is the ideal equation to describe those adsorption isotherms. Its adsorption heat is -13.06kJ/mol and -16.11kJ/mol, respectively. The adsorption equilibrium constants are also given. From the data obtained, there is a thermodynamical possibility to use partial dehydrated magnesium chloride hydrates as an absorbance to clean water vapor contained in bischophite dehydration equipment and let the protection gas HCl recycle in the fluid bed reaction system.

  6. On stochastic integration for volatility modulated Brownian-driven Volterra processes via white noise analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    E. Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole; Benth, Fred Espen; Szozda, Benedykt

    This paper generalizes the integration theory for volatility modulated Brownian-driven Volterra processes onto the space G* of Potthoff-Timpel distributions. Sufficient conditions for integrability of generalized processes are given, regularity results and properties of the integral are discussed...

  7. On stochastic integration for volatility modulated Brownian-driven Volterra processes via white noise analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Benth, Fred Espen; Szozda, Benedykt

    This paper generalizes the integration theory for volatility modulated Brownian-driven Volterra processes onto the space G∗ of Potthoff--Timpel distributions. Sufficient conditions for integrability of generalized processes are given, regularity results and properties of the integral are discussed...

  8. Testing the maximal rank of the volatility process for continuous diffusions observed with noise

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Fissler, Tobias; Podolskij, Mark

    In this paper, we present a test for the maximal rank of the volatility process in continuous diffusion models observed with noise. Such models are typically applied in mathematical finance, where latent price processes are corrupted by microstructure noise at ultra high frequencies. Using high...

  9. [Determination of myristicin and safrol in volatile oil of nutmeg and its processed products by HPLC].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, T; Sha, M; Wang, Z; Cao, A

    1997-07-01

    The contents of myristicin and safrol in the volatile oil of nutmeg and its processed products were determined by HPLC. This method is fast, accurate and gives good resolution. It has also been confirmed that myristicin tends to decrease in varying degrees after the nutmeg has been processed. PMID:11038899

  10. [Determination of eugenol, methyleugenol and methylisoeugenol in volatile oil of differently processed nutmeg].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jia, T; Sha, M; Cao, A; Wamg, Z; Xia, F

    1997-08-01

    A HPLC method for the determination of eugenol, methyleugenol and methylisoeugenol in the volatile oil of differently processed natmeg has been used. The result has shown that the content of eugenol is only sliahtly changed before and after processing, but that of methyleugenol and methylisoeugenol has obviously increased. PMID:11038913

  11. Concrete cover cracking with reinforcement corrosion of RC beam during chloride-induced corrosion process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper deals with the evolution of the corrosion pattern based on two beams corroded by 14 years (beam B1CL1) and 23 years (beam B2CL1) of conservation in a chloride environment. The experimental results indicate that, at the cracking initiation stage and the first stage of cracking propagation, localized corrosion due to chloride ingress is the predominant corrosion pattern and pitting corrosion is the main factor that influences the cracking process. As corrosion cracking increases, general corrosion develops rapidly and gradually becomes predominant in the second stage of cracking propagation. A comparison between existing models and experimental results illustrates that, although Vidal et al.'s model can better predict the reinforcement corrosion of beam B1CL1 under localized corrosion, it cannot predict the corrosion of beam B2CL1 under general corrosion. Also, Rodriguez's model, derived from the general corrosion due to electrically accelerated corrosion experiments, cannot match natural chloride corrosion irrespective of whether corrosion is localized or general. Thus, for natural general corrosion in the second stage of cracking propagation, a new model based on the parameter of average steel cross-section loss is put forward to predict steel corrosion from corrosion cracking.

  12. Potential Signatures of Semi-volatile Compounds Associated With Nuclear Processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Probasco, Kathleen M.; Birnbaum, Jerome C.; Maughan, A. D.

    2002-06-01

    Semi-volatile chemicals associated with nuclear processes (e.g., the reprocessing of uranium to produce plutonium for nuclear weapons, or the separation of actinides from processing waste streams), can provide sticky residues or signatures that will attach to piping, ducting, soil, water, or other surface media. Volatile compounds, that are more suitable for electro-optical sensing, have been well studied. However, the semi-volatile compounds have not been well documented or studied. A majority of these semi-volatile chemicals are more robust than typical gaseous or liquid chemicals and can have lifetimes of several weeks, months, or years in the environment. However, large data gaps exist concerning these potential signature compounds and more research is needed to fill these data gaps so that important signature information is not overlooked or discarded. This report investigates key semi-volatile compounds associated with nuclear separations, identifies available chemical and physical properties, and discusses the degradation products that would result from hydrolysis, radiolysis and oxidation reactions on these compounds.

  13. Method for removing volatile components from a ceramic article, and related processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Klug, Frederic Joseph; DeCarr, Sylvia Marie

    2002-01-01

    A method of removing substantially all of the volatile component in a green, volatile-containing ceramic article is disclosed. The method comprises freezing the ceramic article; and then subjecting the frozen article to a vacuum for a sufficient time to freeze-dry the article. Frequently, the article is heated while being freeze-dried. Use of this method efficiently reduces the propensity for any warpage of the article. The article is often formed from a ceramic slurry in a gel-casting process. A method for fabricating a ceramic core used in investment casting is also described.

  14. Low-temperature process steps for realization of non-volatile memory devices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Brunets, I.; Boogaard, A.; Aarnink, A.A.I.; Kovalgin, A.Y.; Wolters, R.A.M.; Holleman, J.; Schmitz, J.

    2007-01-01

    In this work, the low-temperature process steps required for the realization of nano-crystal non-volatile memory cells are discussed. An amorphous silicon film, crystallized using a diode pumped solid state green laser irradiating at 532 nm, is proposed as an active layer. The deposition of the subs

  15. Process model for ammonia volatilization from anaerobic swine lagoons incorporating varying wind speeds and biogas bubbling

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammonia volatilization from treatment lagoons varies widely with the total ammonia concentration, pH, temperature, suspended solids, atmospheric ammonia concentration above the water surface, and wind speed. Ammonia emissions were estimated with a process-based mechanistic model integrating ammonia ...

  16. Process of extracting volatile ingredients from powdered or granulated material

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bronder, G.A.

    1925-09-08

    A process of treating powdered or granulated shale to produce oil is described consisting in separating the shale into portions adjacent to each other and translating them in one direction and simultaneously subjecting them to heat. The vapors generated from the shale are collected. Shale from one portion is forced to mix with the next adjacent portion simultaneously with the translation of the portions.

  17. Changes in flavor volatile composition of oolong tea after panning during tea processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sheibani, Ershad; Duncan, Susan E; Kuhn, David D; Dietrich, Andrea M; Newkirk, Jordan J; O'Keefe, Sean F

    2016-05-01

    Panning is a processing step used in manufacturing of some varieties of oolong tea. There is limited information available on effects of panning on oolong tea flavors. The goal of this study was to determine effects of panning on flavor volatile compositions of oolong using Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometry (GC-MS) and Gas Chromatography-Olfactometry (GC-O). SDE and SPME techniques were applied for extraction of volatiles in panned and unpanned teas. A total of 190 volatiles were identified from SDE and SPME extractions using GC-MS and GC-O. There were no significant differences (P > 0.05) in aldehyde or terpene contents of unpanned and panned tea. However, alcohols, ketones, acids and esters contents were significantly reduced by panning. Among 12 major volatiles previously used for identification and quality assessment of oolong tea, trans nerolidol, 2- hexenal, benzaldehyde, indole, gernaiol, and benzenacetaldehyde contents were significantly decreased (P compounds with sweet descriptions and decrease of aroma active compounds with fruity and smoky descriptions after panning. Panning significantly changes the volatile compositions of the tea and created new aroma active compounds. Results from this study can be used in quality assessment of panned oolong tea. PMID:27247775

  18. Synthesis of polyaluminum chloride with a membrane reactor: Process characteristics and membrane fouling

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Zhiqian Jia; Fei He; Zhongzhou Liu

    2011-01-01

    Polyaluminum chloride was synthesized with a membrane reactor,in which NaOH was added into AlCl3 solution through the membrane's micropores to reduce the NaOH droplets size.The content of the most efficient species increased to about 80%.The process characteristics in the reaction (i.e.,flow velocity,pressure drop),and membrane fouling and cleaning were investigated.The evolution of both flow velocity and pressure drop during the reaction were related to changes in species distribution and solution viscosity.The process characteristics were well interpreted in terms of the Bernoulli equation.After reaction,the membranes were recovered by cleaning with diluted hydrochloride acid.This study is crucial for process design and scale-up of membrane reactors.

  19. Chlorinated aromatic compounds in a thermal process promoted by oxychlorination of ferric chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fujimori, Takashi; Takaoka, Masaki; Morisawa, Shinsuke

    2010-03-15

    The relationship between the formation of chlorinated aromatic (aromatic-Cl) compounds and ferric chloride in the solid phase during a thermal process motivated us to study the chemical characteristics of iron in a model solid sample, a mixture of FeCl(3) x 6H(2)O, activated carbon, and boron nitride, with increasing temperature. Fe K-edge extended X-ray absorption fine structure (EXAFS) spectroscopy revealed drastic changes in the chemical form of amorphous iron, consistent with other analytical methods, such as X-ray diffraction using synchrotron radiation (SR-XRD) and Fourier-transform infrared (FT-IR) spectroscopy. Atomic-scale evidence of the chlorination of aromatic carbon was detected by Cl-K X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) spectroscopy. These results showed the thermal formation mechanism of aromatic-Cl compounds in the solid phase with ferric chloride. We attribute the formation of aromatic-Cl compounds to the chlorination of carbon, based on the oxychlorination reaction of FeCl(3) at temperatures in excess of ca. 300 degrees C, when the carbon matrix is activated by carbon gasification, catalyzed by Fe(2)O(3), and surface oxygen complexes (SOC) generated by a catalytic cycle of FeCl(2) and FeOCl. Chemical changes of trace iron in a thermal process may offer the potential to generate aromatic-Cl compounds in the solid phase.

  20. Adaptation of the continuous cold trap system of fluidized-bed to the fluoride volatility process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A continuous cold trap system consisting of fluidized condenser and stripper has been evaluated with a view to adapt it to the Fluoride Volatility Process in establishing the continuous purification process without radiation decomposition of PuF6. Its feasibility is shown by the test with UF6-air. Necessary conditions for the cold trap, and performance of the two inch-dia. fluidized bed cold trap system are presented, and also a model of mist formation in the condenser. (auth.)

  1. Free amino acids and other non-volatile compounds formed during processing of Iberian ham.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martín, L; Antequera, T; Ventanas, J; Benítez-Donoso, R; Córdoba, J J

    2001-12-01

    Fifty-five legs from Iberian pigs were traditionally processed into dry cured hams. Free amino acids and other non-volatile compounds in the water-soluble fraction from the biceps femoris muscle were analyzed by HPLC. At the drying stage and in the last months in the cellar the largest increases in these water-soluble compounds took place. There was a clear influence on free amino acid formation of salt content and on the formation of peptides of the temperature at each processing stage. As the amount of non-volatile compounds in the water-soluble fraction increases with processing time, their determination could provide a maturation index for Iberian ham.

  2. Effect of the partial NaCl substitution by other chloride salts on the volatile profile during the ripening of dry-cured lacón

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Domínguez, R.

    2016-06-01

    Full Text Available The influence of three salting treatments (treatment II: 50% NaCl-50% KCl; III: 45% NaCl-25% KCl-20% CaCl2-10% MgCl2; IV: 30% NaCl-50% KCl-15% CaCl2-5% MgCl2 on the formation of volatile compounds throughout the process was studied and compared to those of a control “lacón” (treatment I: 100% NaCl. There was an intense formation of volatile compounds throughout the processing, particularly during the dry-ripening stage. The most abundant chemical family in all the formulations, in the final product was hydrocarbons followed by aldehydes. The total volatile compound release was more intense in the control “lacóns” (1164 AU_106·g-1dry matter than in “lacóns” from formulations II, III and IV (817-891 AUx106·g-1dry matter. The “lacóns” from formulation I showed the highest amounts of aldehydes. The “lacóns” from formulations I and II presented the highest amounts of hydrocarbons. The main conclusion is that the replacement of NaCl produces changes in the volatile profile and could be affect the aroma of “lacón”.Se estudió la influencia de tres tratamientos de salado (tratamiento II: 50 % NaCl-50 % KCl; III: 45 % NaCl-25 % KCl-20 % CaCl2-10 % MgCl2; IV: 30 % NaCl-50 % KCl-15 % CaCl2-5 % MgCl2 en la formación de compuestos volátiles durante la elaboración de lacón, en comparación con un control (tratamiento I: 100 % NaCl. Hubo una intensa formación de compuestos volátiles durante el procesado, principalmente durante la fase de secado-maduración. La familia química más abundante en el producto final fueron los hidrocarbonos, seguidos por los aldehídos. La liberación de volátiles fue más intensa en los lacones control (1164 AU_106·g-1 materia seca que en los otros lacones (817-891 AUx106· g-1 materia seca. Los lacones de la formulación I mostraron las mayores cantidades de aldehídos, y los lacones de las formulaciones I y II presentaron los mayores contenidos de hidrocarburos. La principal conclusi

  3. Lipid oxidation in baked products: impact of formula and process on the generation of volatile compounds.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maire, Murielle; Rega, Barbara; Cuvelier, Marie-Elisabeth; Soto, Paola; Giampaoli, Pierre

    2013-12-15

    This paper investigates the effect of ingredients on the reactions occurring during the making of sponge cake and leading to the generation of volatile compounds related to flavour quality. To obtain systems sensitive to lipid oxidation (LO), a formulation design was applied varying the composition of fatty matter and eggs. Oxidation of polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFA) and formation of related volatile compounds were followed at the different steps of cake-making. Optimised dynamic Solid Phase Micro Extraction was applied to selectively extract either volatile or semi-volatile compounds directly from the baking vapours. We show for the first time that in the case of alveolar baked products, lipid oxidation occurs very early during the step of dough preparation and to a minor extent during the baking process. The generation of lipid oxidation compounds depends on PUFA content and on the presence of endogenous antioxidants in the raw matter. Egg yolk seemed to play a double role on reactivity: protecting unsaturated lipids from oxidation and being necessary to generate a broad class of compounds of the Maillard reaction during baking and linked to the typical flavour of sponge cake. PMID:23993514

  4. Are volatility correlations in financial markets related to Omori processes occurring on all scales?

    CERN Document Server

    Weber, P; Stanley, H E; Vodenska-Chitkushev, I; Wang, F; Havlin, Shlomo; Vodenska-Chitkushev, Irena; Wang, Fengzhong; Weber, Philipp

    2006-01-01

    We analyze the memory in volatility by studying volatility return intervals, defined as the time between two consecutive fluctuations larger than a given threshold, in time periods following stock market crashes. Such an aftercrash period is characterized by the Omori law, which describes the decay in the rate of aftershocks of a given size with time t by a power law with exponent close to 1. A shock followed by such a power law decay in the rate is here called Omori process. Studying several aftercrash time series, we show that the Omori law holds not only after significant market crashes, but also after ``intermediate shocks''. Moreover, we find self-similar features in the volatility. Specifically, within the aftercrash period there are smaller shocks that themselves constitute Omori processes on smaller scales, similar to the Omori process after the large crash. We call these smaller shocks subcrashes, which are followed by their own aftershocks. We also find similar Omori processes after intermediate cra...

  5. [Effects of processing methods on the amounts of volatile oil of nutmeg and on isolation and characterization of the volatile oil constituents].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, T; Zhou, J; Xu, Z; Pan, J; Mao, S

    1990-07-01

    In this paper, the authors investigated the effects of various processing methods, i.e., scalding in hot purified talc, simmering wrapped in flour in hot purified talc and stir-frying in smoking wheat bran, on nutmeg (Semen Myristicae) in terms of the quantities of the volatile oil. The experimental results revealed that the amounts of volatile oil contained in nutmeg vary remarkably with the lengths of cooking time and the fluctuation of temperature. Detected by GC-MS-computer, 32 compounds of nutmeg were characterized, and their contents were determined by GC respectively. PMID:2261071

  6. Automated Signal Processing Applied to Volatile-Based Inspection of Greenhouse Crops

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eldert van Henten

    2010-07-01

    Full Text Available Gas chromatograph–mass spectrometers (GC-MS have been used and shown utility for volatile-based inspection of greenhouse crops. However, a widely recognized difficulty associated with GC-MS application is the large and complex data generated by this instrument. As a consequence, experienced analysts are often required to process this data in order to determine the concentrations of the volatile organic compounds (VOCs of interest. Manual processing is time-consuming, labour intensive and may be subject to errors due to fatigue. The objective of this study was to assess whether or not GC-MS data can also be automatically processed in order to determine the concentrations of crop health associated VOCs in a greenhouse. An experimental dataset that consisted of twelve data files was processed both manually and automatically to address this question. Manual processing was based on simple peak integration while the automatic processing relied on the algorithms implemented in the MetAlignTM software package. The results of automatic processing of the experimental dataset resulted in concentrations similar to that after manual processing. These results demonstrate that GC-MS data can be automatically processed in order to accurately determine the concentrations of crop health associated VOCs in a greenhouse. When processing GC-MS data automatically, noise reduction, alignment, baseline correction and normalisation are required.

  7. Option Pricing Model Based on the Stochastic Volatility and Jump Diffusion Process

    OpenAIRE

    Liu, Xudong

    2014-01-01

    Although the Black and Scholes (1973) model achieved great success in option pricing theory, the two obvious phenomena have received much attention in past decades (Kou, 2002). One is the asymmetric leptokurtic features; the other is the volatility “smiles”. To modify the Black and Scholes (1973) model, we introduce the Kou (2002) double exponential jump-diffusion model. It is more consistent with the price process than the Black and Scholes (1973) model. The Kou (2002) model not only contain...

  8. Using polycarbonate dyed with dansyl chloride for dosimetry in radiation processing

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feizi, Shazad; Ziaie, Farhood [Nuclear Science and Technology Research Institute, Radiation Application Research School, Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of); Ghandi, Mehdi [Univ. Tehran (Iran, Islamic Republic of). School of Chemistry

    2015-07-01

    Preparation and characteristics evaluation of the polycarbonate films 20 μm in thickness containing Dansyl chloride as a routine dosimeter in radiation processing facilities were studied. The sensitivity of these films and the linearity of dose-response curves were investigated under {sup 60}Co γ-rays in a dose range of 0-100 kGy, and the obtained results were compared with the commercial CTA and FWT film dosimeters. The results show that the maximum absorbance appeared at 370 nm in all the investigated dose range. The dyed films were found to be stable enough in mediums with high degrees of humidity and temperature, to be reliably used in radio-applications. The effects of pre-irradiation (shelf-life) and post-irradiation storage in dark and in indirect sunlight were also discussed. The films which were made displayed stable characteristics when stored in dark, within 1% at 25 C, 3 months after irradiation.

  9. Unstable volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Casas, Isabel; Gijbels, Irène

    2012-01-01

    The objective of this paper is to introduce the break-preserving local linear (BPLL) estimator for the estimation of unstable volatility functions for independent and asymptotically independent processes. Breaks in the structure of the conditional mean and/or the volatility functions are common i...

  10. A reactive distillation process for the treatment of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt containing rare earth chlorides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Eun, H. C.; Choi, J. H.; Kim, N. Y.; Lee, T. K.; Han, S. Y.; Lee, K. R.; Park, H. S.; Ahn, D. H.

    2016-11-01

    The pyrochemical process, which recovers useful resources (U/TRU metals) from used nuclear fuel using an electrochemical method, generates LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt containing radioactive rare earth chlorides (RECl3). It is necessary to develop a simple process for the treatment of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt in a hot-cell facility. For this reason, a reactive distillation process using a chemical agent was achieved as a method to separate rare earths from the LiCl-KCl waste salt. Before conducting the reactive distillation, thermodynamic equilibrium behaviors of the reactions between rare earth (Nd, La, Ce, Pr) chlorides and the chemical agent (K2CO3) were predicted using software. The addition of the chemical agent was determined to separate the rare earth chlorides into an oxide form using these equilibrium results. In the reactive distillation test, the rare earth chlorides in LiCl-KCl eutectic salt were decontaminated at a decontamination factor (DF) of more than 5000, and were mainly converted into oxide (Nd2O3, CeO2, La2O3, Pr2O3) or oxychloride (LaOCl, PrOCl) forms. The LiCl-KCl was purified into a form with a very low concentration (<1 ppm) for the rare earth chlorides.

  11. Sodium Chloride Diffusion in Low-Acid Foods during Thermal Processing and Storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bornhorst, Ellen R; Tang, Juming; Sablani, Shyam S

    2016-05-01

    This study aimed at modeling sodium chloride (NaCl) diffusion in foods during thermal processing using analytical and numerical solutions and at investigating the changes in NaCl concentrations during storage after processing. Potato, radish, and salmon samples in 1% or 3% NaCl solutions were heated at 90, 105, or 121 °C for 5 to 240 min to simulate pasteurization and sterilization. Selected samples were stored at 4 or 22 °C for up to 28 d. Radish had the largest equilibrium NaCl concentrations and equilibrium distribution coefficients, but smallest effective diffusion coefficients, indicating that a greater amount of NaCl diffused into the radish at a slower rate. Effective diffusion coefficients determined using the analytical solution ranged from 0.2 × 10(-8) to 2.6 × 10(-8) m²/s. Numerical and analytical solutions showed good agreement with experimental data, with average coefficients of determination for samples in 1% NaCl at 121 °C of 0.98 and 0.95, respectively. During storage, food samples equilibrated to a similar NaCl concentration regardless of the thermal processing severity. The results suggest that sensory evaluation of multiphase (solid and liquid) products should occur at least 14 d after processing to allow enough time for the salt to equilibrate within the product. PMID:27060992

  12. Resource Prospector Instrumentation for Lunar Volatiles Prospecting, Sample Acquisition and Processing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captain, J.; Elphic, R.; Colaprete, A.; Zacny, Kris; Paz, A.

    2016-01-01

    Data gathered from lunar missions within the last two decades have significantly enhanced our understanding of the volatile resources available on the lunar surface, specifically focusing on the polar regions. Several orbiting missions such as Clementine and Lunar Prospector have suggested the presence of volatile ices and enhanced hydrogen concentrations in the permanently shadowed regions of the moon. The Lunar Crater Observation and Sensing Satellite (LCROSS) mission was the first to provide direct measurement of water ice in a permanently shadowed region. These missions with other orbiting assets have laid the groundwork for the next step in the exploration of the lunar surface; providing ground truth data of the volatiles by mapping the distribution and processing lunar regolith for resource extraction. This next step is the robotic mission Resource Prospector (RP). Resource Prospector is a lunar mission to investigate 'strategic knowledge gaps' (SKGs) for in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The mission is proposed to land in the lunar south pole near a permanently shadowed crater. The landing site will be determined by the science team with input from broader international community as being near traversable landscape that has a high potential of containing elevated concentrations of volatiles such as water while maximizing mission duration. A rover will host the Regolith & Environment Science and Oxygen & Lunar Volatile Extraction (RESOLVE) payload for resource mapping and processing. The science instruments on the payload include a 1-meter drill, neutron spectrometer, a near infrared spectrometer, an operations camera, and a reactor with a gas chromatograph-mass spectrometer for volatile analysis. After the RP lander safely delivers the rover to the lunar surface, the science team will guide the rover team on the first traverse plan. The neutron spectrometer (NS) and near infrared (NIR) spectrometer instruments will be used as prospecting tools to guide

  13. Electrochemical activity of heavy metal oxides in the process of chloride induced corrosion of steel reinforcement

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    V Živica

    2002-10-01

    The influence of heavy metal oxides on the chloride induced corrosion of steel reinforcement in concrete was studied. Significant inhibition and stimulation of chloride induced corrosion have been observed. Basicity and acidity of the relevant metal ions, and their ability to form complexes are considered as the main factors of the observed effects.

  14. New Potentiometric Wireless Chloride Sensors Provide High Resolution Information on Chemical Transport Processes in Streams

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smettem, Keith; Harris, Nick; Cranny, Andy; Klaus, Julian; Pfister, Laurent

    2016-04-01

    Quantifying the travel times, pathways and dispersion of solutes moving through stream environments is critical for understanding the biogeochemical cycling processes that control ecosystem functioning. Validation of stream solute transport and exchange process models requires data obtained from in-stream measurement of chemical concentration changes through time. This can be expensive and time consuming, leading to a need for cheap distributed sensor arrays that respond instantly and record chemical transport at points of interest on timescales of seconds. To meet this need we apply new, low-cost (in the order of a euro per sensor) potentiometric chloride sensors used in a distributed array to obtain data with high spatial and temporal resolution. The application here is to monitoring in-stream hydrodynamic transport and dispersive mixing of an injected chemical, in this case NaCl. We present data obtained from the distributed sensor array under baseflow conditions for three stream reaches in Luxembourg. Sensor results are comparable to data obtained from more expensive electrical conductivity meters and allow spatial resolution of hydrodynamic mixing processes and identification of chemical 'dead zones' in the study reaches.

  15. Electrochemical noise characteristics in corrosion process of AZ91D magnesium alloy in neutral chloride solution

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Li-jun; ZHU Xu-bei; ZHANG Zhao; ZHANG Jian-qing

    2009-01-01

    The corrosion process of AZ91D magnesium alloy in neutral 1% (mass fraction) sodium chloride aqueous solution was investigated by electrochemical noise(EN), SEM and EDX. Fractal theory was primarily used to depict the corrosion process of the alloy. The fast wavelet transform(FWT), as well as the fast Fourier transform(FFT), was employed to analyze the EN data. The results show that the overall corrosion process can be described by three stages. The first stage corresponds to the pit nucleation and growth; the second stage involves the growth of a passive oxide layer; and the third stage involves reactivation. With increasing immersion time, fractal dimension increases fast initially, fluctuates in the medium and increases again at last. Pitting corrosion and fractal dimension increase due to the initiation and formation of pits in the initial and the end of immersion, while depresses due to the passivation in the medium period. The results of SEM and EDX support the above conclusions.

  16. DECONTAMINATION OF PLUTONIUM FOR FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE DURING OXALATE PRECIPITATION, FILTRATION AND CALCINATION PROCESSES

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kyser, E.

    2012-07-25

    Due to analytical limitations for the determination of fluoride (F) and chloride (Cl) in a previous anion exchange study, an additional study of the decontamination of Pu from F and Cl by oxalate precipitation, filtration and calcination was performed. Anion product solution from the previous impurity study was precipitated as an oxalate, filtered, and calcined to produce an oxide for analysis by pyrohydrolysis for total Cl and F. Analysis of samples from this experiment achieved the purity specification for Cl and F for the proposed AFS-2 process. Decontamination factors (DF's) for the overall process (including anion exchange) achieved a DF of {approx}5000 for F and a DF of {approx}100 for Cl. Similar experiments where both HF and HCl were spiked into the anion product solution to a {approx}5000 {micro}g /g Pu concentration showed a DF of 5 for F and a DF of 35 for Cl across the combined precipitation-filtration-calcination process steps.

  17. Understanding the determinants of volatility clustering in terms of stationary Markovian processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Miccichè, S.

    2016-11-01

    Volatility is a key variable in the modeling of financial markets. The most striking feature of volatility is that it is a long-range correlated stochastic variable, i.e. its autocorrelation function decays like a power-law τ-β for large time lags. In the present work we investigate the determinants of such feature, starting from the empirical observation that the exponent β of a certain stock's volatility is a linear function of the average correlation of such stock's volatility with all other volatilities. We propose a simple approach consisting in diagonalizing the cross-correlation matrix of volatilities and investigating whether or not the diagonalized volatilities still keep some of the original volatility stylized facts. As a result, the diagonalized volatilities result to share with the original volatilities either the power-law decay of the probability density function and the power-law decay of the autocorrelation function. This would indicate that volatility clustering is already present in the diagonalized un-correlated volatilities. We therefore present a parsimonious univariate model based on a non-linear Langevin equation that well reproduces these two stylized facts of volatility. The model helps us in understanding that the main source of volatility clustering, once volatilities have been diagonalized, is that the economic forces driving volatility can be modeled in terms of a Smoluchowski potential with logarithmic tails.

  18. Process engineering versus product engineering - A case study on volatile organic compounds removal

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Coutinho, João A.P.; Vilela, T.; Pereira, P.;

    2005-01-01

    Three solutions for removing the dangerous volatile organic compound (VOC) xylene from an industrial coating process are presented and compared. Two of them are based on classical process engineering principles, i.e., development of separation-cleaning methods such as incineration and adsorption....... The last approach is somewhat different and is based on the so-called product engineering concept, i.e., in this case, a change of the formulation so that xylene is entirely eliminated from the process. It is shown that both the process and the product engineering approaches yield viable solutions...... to the problem-need specified in the beginning of the project, but producing a novel formulation (chemical product design) represents a method that results to a completely xylene-free process which is environmentally and economically more interesting than those generated via the more traditional process...

  19. Volatile, anthocyanidin, quality and sensory changes in rabbiteye blueberry from whole fruit through pilot plant juice processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: High antioxidant content and keen marketing have increased blueberry demand and increased local production which in turn mandates new uses for abundant harvests. Pilot scale processes were employed to investigate the anthocyanidin profiles, qualitative volatile compositions, and sensori...

  20. Study of the influence of temperature the venting depollution process of soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds

    OpenAIRE

    GABRIELA-ALINA BRUSTUREAN; JEAN CARRÉ; DELIA PERJU; TEODOR TODINCA

    2006-01-01

    Venting is one of the most used in situ remediation methods for unsaturated soils contaiminated with volatile organic compounds (VOC). The development of mathematical models and their validation by means of experimental results allowed the identification of the main parameters which influence the soil depollution process. The influence of temperature on the venting depollution process of soils polluted with volatile organic compounds was studied in this investigation. It was found that the de...

  1. Influence of temporal resolution and processing of exposure data on modeling of chloride ingress and reinforcement corrosion in concrete

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flint, Madeleine; Michel, Alexander; Billington, Sarah L.;

    2014-01-01

    a numerical heat and mass transport model that includes full coupling of heat, moisture and ion transport. Heat, moisture, and chloride concentration distributions were passed to a simplified reinforcement corrosion initiation and propagation model. The numerical study indicates that processing and temporal...... resolution of the exposure data has a considerable impact on long-term hygrothermal distribution, chloride ingress, and reinforcement section loss results. Use of time-averaged exposure data in the heat and mass transport model reduces the rate of chloride ingress in concrete and affects prediction...... of reinforcement corrosion initiation and propagation. Randomly sampled exposure data at daily, weekly, or monthly resolution yields prediction of reinforcement corrosion initiation and propagation closer to original resolution results than time-averaged exposure data....

  2. Effects of liquid aluminum chloride additions to poultry litter on broiler performance, ammonia emissions, soluble phosphorus, total volatile fatty acids, and nitrogen contents of litter

    Science.gov (United States)

    Recent studies have shown that the use of aluminum sulfate (Al2(SO4)3.14H2O) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) additions to animal manures are more effective than other chemicals in reducing ammonia (NH3) emissions and phosphorus (P) solubility. Although the use of alum has been intensively used in the ...

  3. Optimization of process parameters for production of volatile fatty acid, biohydrogen and methane from anaerobic digestion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khan, M A; Ngo, H H; Guo, W S; Liu, Y; Nghiem, L D; Hai, F I; Deng, L J; Wang, J; Wu, Y

    2016-11-01

    The anaerobic digestion process has been primarily utilized for methane containing biogas production over the past few years. However, the digestion process could also be optimized for producing volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and biohydrogen. This is the first review article that combines the optimization approaches for all three possible products from the anaerobic digestion. In this review study, the types and configurations of the bioreactor are discussed for each type of product. This is followed by a review on optimization of common process parameters (e.g. temperature, pH, retention time and organic loading rate) separately for the production of VFA, biohydrogen and methane. This review also includes additional parameters, treatment methods or special additives that wield a significant and positive effect on production rate and these products' yield.

  4. Non-volatile resistive memory devices based on solution-processed ultrathin two-dimensional nanomaterials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Chaoliang; Liu, Zhengdong; Huang, Wei; Zhang, Hua

    2015-05-01

    Ultrathin two-dimensional (2D) nanomaterials, such as graphene and MoS2, hold great promise for electronics and optoelectronics due to their distinctive physical and electronic properties. Recent progress in high-yield, massive production of ultrathin 2D nanomaterials via various solution-based methods allows them to be easily integrated into electronic devices via solution processing techniques. Non-volatile resistive memory devices based on ultrathin 2D nanomaterials have been emerging as promising alternatives for the next-generation data storage devices due to their high flexibility, three-dimensional-stacking capability, simple structure, transparency, easy fabrication and low cost. In this tutorial review, we will summarize the recent progress in the utilization of solution-processed ultrathin 2D nanomaterials for fabrication of non-volatile resistive memory devices. Moreover, we demonstrate how to achieve excellent device performance by engineering the active layers, electrodes and/or device structure of resistive memory devices. On the basis of current status, the discussion is concluded with some personal insights into the challenges and opportunities in future research directions. PMID:25877687

  5. Space-weathering processes and products on volatile-rich asteroids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Britt, D.; Schelling, P.; Consolmagno, G.; Bradley, T.

    2014-07-01

    Space weathering is a generic term for the effects on atmosphereless solid bodies in the solar system from a range of processes associated with direct exposure to the space environment. These include impact processes (shock, vaporization, fragmentation, heating, melting, and ejecta formation), radiation damage (from galactic and solar cosmic rays), solar-wind effects (irradiation, ion implantation, and sputtering), and the chemical reactions driven by these processes. The classic example of space weathering is the formation of the lunar spectral red slope associated with the production of nanophase Fe (npFe0) in the dusty lunar regolith (C.R. Chapman, 2004, Annual Review of Earth & Planet. Sci. 32, C.M. Pieters, 2000, MAPS 35). Similar npFe0 has been recovered from asteroid (25143) Itokawa and some asteroid classes do exhibit modest spectral red slopes (T. Noguchi, 2011, Science 333). Space weathering can be thought of as driven by a combination of the chemical environment of space (hard vacuum, low oxygen fugacity, solar-wind implantation of hydrogen) along with thermal energy supplied by micrometeorite impacts. The forward modeling of space weathering as thermodynamically-driven decomposition of common rock-forming minerals suggests the production of a range of daughter products: (1) The silicate products typically lose oxygen, other volatile elements (i.e., sulfur and sodium), and metallic cations, producing minerals that are typically more disordered and less optically active than the original parent materials. (2) The decomposed metallic cations form in nano-sized blebs including npFe0, on the surfaces or in condensing rims of mineral grains. This creates a powerful optical component as seen in the lunar red slope. Surfaces with exposed npFe0 are an ideal environment for catalyzing further reactions. (3) The liberated volatile elements and gases (O, S, Na) may form an observable exosphere (e.g., Moon and Mercury) and can either escape from the body or

  6. Generalized Fractional Processes with Long Memory and Time Dependent Volatility Revisited

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. Shelton Peiris

    2016-09-01

    Full Text Available In recent years, fractionally-differenced processes have received a great deal of attention due to their flexibility in financial applications with long-memory. This paper revisits the class of generalized fractionally-differenced processes generated by Gegenbauer polynomials and the ARMA structure (GARMA with both the long-memory and time-dependent innovation variance. We establish the existence and uniqueness of second-order solutions. We also extend this family with innovations to follow GARCH and stochastic volatility (SV. Under certain regularity conditions, we give asymptotic results for the approximate maximum likelihood estimator for the GARMA-GARCH model. We discuss a Monte Carlo likelihood method for the GARMA-SV model and investigate finite sample properties via Monte Carlo experiments. Finally, we illustrate the usefulness of this approach using monthly inflation rates for France, Japan and the United States.

  7. Coagulation-Flocculation process to treat Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater by Fenugreek Mucilage Coupled with Alum and Polyaluminum Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Mervit M. Janbi; Suhama E. Salah; Kadhum M. Shabe

    2011-01-01

    The wastewater arising from pulp and paper mills is highly polluted and has to be treated before discharged into rivers. Coagulation-flocculation process using natural polymers has grown rapidly in wastewater treatment. In this work, the performance of alum and Polyaluminum Chloride (PACl) when used alone and when coupled with Fenugreek mucilage on the treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater were studied. The experiments were carried out in jar tests with alum, PACl and Fenugreek mucilage...

  8. Effect of high pressure high temperature processing on the volatile fraction of differently coloured carrots.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebede, Biniam T; Grauwet, Tara; Palmers, Stijn; Vervoort, Liesbeth; Carle, Reinhold; Hendrickx, Marc; Van Loey, Ann

    2014-06-15

    To get deeper insight into the effect of high pressure high temperature (HPHT) processing on the volatile fraction of carrots, differently coloured cultivars exhibiting orange, purple, red and yellow hues were investigated. The impact of HPHT sterilisation was compared with thermal sterilisation based on equivalent microbiological inactivation. The results of this study demonstrated HPHT sterilisation to exert a distinct effect on important chemical reactions in comparison to thermal sterilisation. A comprehensive integration of MS-based metabolomic fingerprinting (HS-SPME-GC-MS) and chemometric tools has been implemented as an untargeted multivariate screening tool to identify differences. In all carrot cultivars, two dominant discriminative quality-related reactions were found: oxidative degradation and the Maillard reaction. Regarding the first reaction, oxidative terpenes, free fatty acids and carotenoids degradation products were detected at higher levels after HPHT sterilisation. Regarding the latter reaction, HPHT sterilisation appeared to suppress the formation of Maillard and Strecker degradation products.

  9. Effects of volatile fatty acids on a thermophilic anaerobic hydrogen fermentation process degrading peptone.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, S S; Chang, S M; Chen, S T

    2002-01-01

    Hydrogen fermentation using glucose as a single substrate caused abrupt pH drops and the gradual losses of hydrogen producers, which in turn led to system failure. In this study the use of a proteinaceous substrate, peptone, avoided the abrupt pH drops in the reactive system and allowed for further exploration of volatile fatty acids (VFAs) and pH effects on the hydrogen fermentation process. Our results showed that: (1) during the hydrogen fermentation tests, the abrupt pH drops were avoided thus system stability increased due to the production of ammonia from the peptone fermented, (2) pH control was not necessary and the addition of acetate to the process had little effect on the hydrogen fermentation process, (3) at the extreme pHs the addition of acetate either lengthened the lag phase (pH hydrogen production rate (pH > or = 8), and both situations were not desired, and (4) high VFA content in the system sped up the consumption of hydrogen gas. Results of this study suggested that the hydrogen fermentation using the protein-containing substances as substrate was beneficial in maintaining the system pH. As long as the pH was maintained around 6-8, system inhibition due to VFAs accumulation was minimized. Thus, the optimal operation of a hydrogen fermentation process would be achievable via the control of substrate composition at a certain carbohydrate-to-protein ratio.

  10. Purification of LiCl-KCl eutectic waste salt containing rare earth chlorides delivered from the pyrochemical process of used nuclear fuel using a reactive distillation process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In the pyrochemical process of used nuclear fuel, the purification of waste salts containing radioactive nuclides can greatly contribute to a radioactive waste reduction. For this reason, the purification of LiCl-KCl eutectic salt containing rare earth chlorides was performed using a series of the phosphorylation process and the distillation process. LiCl-KCl eutectic salt recovered from the purification had a very low concentration (<1 ppm) for the rare earth chlorides. The recycling feasibility of the recovered salt was verified through a uranium electro-deposition test using LiCl-KCl eutectic salt as the electrolyte. Based on these results, one body type of reactive distillation equipment with two top covers was designed. (author)

  11. Release of hydroxycinnamic acids and formation of flavour-active volatile phenols during the beer production process

    OpenAIRE

    Vanbeneden, Nele

    2007-01-01

    Among the flavour-active volatile phenols in beer, most of them originate from the raw materials used in the brewing process. Only some of them can be formed by yeast activity, namely 4-vinylguaiacol (4VG) and 4-vinylphenol (4VP). The presence of these volatile phenolic compounds is considered undesirable when present in excessive concentration in bottom-fermented pilsner beers, hence the term “phenolic off-flavour” (POF). It is attributed to beers with a strong medicinal, clove-like aroma. D...

  12. New technology for volatile components stripping in process fluids; Nova tecnologia para estripagem de componentes volateis em fluidos de processo

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yoshida, Roberto Massao [White Martins Gases Industriais, Rio de Janeiro, RJ (Brazil)

    1992-12-31

    Stripping is a process used in order to remove volatile contaminants during the purification step by bubbling inert gas in a contaminated liquid. This work defines the stripping process and its process parameters, describes some stripping techniques and introduces the supersonic stripper, that works at supersonic velocity. Dissolved oxygen reduction and stripping time reduction results are shown. The conclusion is that the supersonic stripper is superior to the in-line conventional systems. (author) 6 refs., 2 figs.

  13. Determination of volatile and non-volatile products of milk fermentation processes using capillary zone electrophoresis and solid phase microextraction coupled to gas chromatography.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ligor, Magdalena; Jarmalaviciene, Reda; Szumski, Michal; Maruska, Audrius; Buszewski, Boguslaw

    2008-08-01

    The aim of the investigations was to develop analytical methods for the determination of selected volatile and non-volatile organic compounds numbering among the final products of milk fermentation. The analyzed compounds were as follows: biacetyl and carboxylic acids (formic, acetic, citric, and lactic). The model yogurt was prepared under controlled conditions in our laboratory by addition of the selected bacteria (Lactobacillus bulgaricus and Streptococcus thermophilus) to the milk sample. The temperature, time, and stirring were controlled during the fermentation process. Factors considered in SPMPE-GC-FID method development included fiber exposure time, salt addition, temperature of extraction, and temperature of desorption. Various SPME fibers, for example with PDMS, CAR/PDMS, PA, and PDMS/DVB coatings, were tested to obtain the highest recovery of the investigated compounds extracted from yogurt samples. Based on these preliminary experiments, qualitative and quantitative analyses for the determination of biacetyl were performed by SPME-GC-FID. Moreover, a capillary zone electrophoresis method was developed for the determination of carboxylic acids in the yogurt samples. The buffer composition as well as deproteinization by acetonitrile were found to have a crucial effect on the analysis.

  14. [Emission characteristics and safety evaluation of volatile organic compounds in manufacturing processes of automotive coatings].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zeng, Pei-Yuan; Li, Jian-Jun; Liao, Dong-Qi; Tu, Xiang; Xu, Mei-Ying; Sun, Guo-Ping

    2013-12-01

    Emission characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were investigated in an automotive coating manufacturing enterprise. Air samples were taken from eight different manufacturing areas in three workshops, and the species of VOCs and their concentrations were measured by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS). Safety evaluation was also conducted by comparing the concentration of VOCs with the permissible concentration-short term exposure limit (PC-STEL) regulated by the Ministry of Health. The results showed that fifteen VOCs were detected in the indoor air of the automotive coatings workshop, including benzene, toluene, ethylbenzene, xylene, ethyl acetate, butyl acetate, methyl isobutyl ketone, propylene glycol monomethyl ether acetate, trimethylbenzene and ethylene glycol monobutyl ether, Their concentrations widely ranged from 0.51 to 593.14 mg x m(-3). The concentrations of TVOCs were significantly different among different manufacturing processes. Even in the same manufacturing process, the concentrations of each component measured at different times were also greatly different. The predominant VOCs of indoor air in the workshop were identified to be ethylbenzene and butyl acetate. The concentrations of most VOCs exceeded the occupational exposure limits, so the corresponding control measures should be taken to protect the health of the workers.

  15. Oxidation of diesel-generated volatile organic compounds in the selective catalytic reduction process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Koebel, M.; Elsener, M. [Paul Scherrer Inst., Villigen (Switzerland). Combustion Research

    1998-10-01

    The main part of the VOCs (volatile organic compounds) contained in diesel exhaust ({approx}80%) is oxidized to CO and CO{sub 2} over an SCR (selective catalytic reduction) catalyst. CO is the major product of this oxidation, representing about 50--70% of the formed products (CO + CO{sub 2}). This preferential formation of CO leads to a pronounced increase of CO emissions when an SCR process is added to a diesel engine. A small fraction of the VOCs is selectively oxidized to carboxylic acids over the SCR catalyst. This selectivity is due to the acidic properties of the catalyst causing the preferential desorption at the oxidation state of the acid. The main products of these oxidation reactions are the lower monocarboxylic acids and some dicarboxylic acids forming stable anhydrides, especially maleic and phthalic acid. The highest emissions of these acids are found at low temperatures; they decrease at higher temperatures. Formic acid is preferentially decomposed into carbon monoxide and water. It must therefore be assumed that the strong increase of CO mentioned above is due to a mechanism involving the thermal decomposition of formic acid formed from various primary VOCs.

  16. Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in food and medicinal herbs

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as to increase its shelf life while keeping sensorial properties (e.g. odor and taste), once the latter are one of the main properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation from Co irradiation of Laurus Cinnamomum, Piper Nigrum, Origanum Vulgare and Myristica Fragans. Possible changes on the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties in order to allow better application of irradiation technology. l he samples have been irradiated in plastic packages by making use of a 60Co Gamma irradiator. Irradiation doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25kGy have been tested. For the analysis of the samples, SPME has been applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation has promoted mostly decrease in volatile compounds when doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25kGy were used. For Laurus cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile by nearly 56% and 89.5% respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which has not been previously irradiated. Differently from other spices analyzed, irradiation on Myristica Fragans has increased volatile compounds except for 4-terpineol. The miristicine (toxic substance when in large quantities, commonly mentioned as narcotic) has increased by nearly 80%. For Origanum Vulgare and Piper Nigrum, significant decrease in volatile compounds have been found, mainly when it comes to 25 kGy irradiation. In general, results indicate loss of sensorial quality of spices. (author)

  17. Determination of Key Flavor Components in Methylene Chloride Extracts from Processed Grapefruit Juice.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jella; Rouseff; Goodner; Widmer

    1998-01-19

    The relative correlation of 52 aroma and 5 taste components in commercial not-from-concentrate grapefruit juices with flavor panel preference was determined. Methylene chloride extracts of juice were analyzed using GC/MS with a DB-5 column. Nonvolatiles determined included limonin and naringin by HPLC, degrees Brix, total acids, and degrees Brix/acid ratio. Juice samples were classified into low, medium, or high categories, based on average taste panel preference scores (nine-point hedonic scale). Principal component analysis demonstrated that highest quality juices were tightly clustered. Discriminant analysis indicated that 82% of the samples could be identified in the correct preference category using only myrcene, beta-caryophyllene, linalool, nootkatone, and degrees Brix. Nootkatone alone was not strongly associated with preference scores. The most preferred juices were strongly associated with low myrcene, low linalool, and intermediate levels of beta-caryophyllene. PMID:10554226

  18. Safety and reliability analysis in a polyvinyl chloride batch process using dynamic simulator-case study: Loss of containment incident.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rizal, Datu; Tani, Shinichi; Nishiyama, Kimitoshi; Suzuki, Kazuhiko

    2006-10-11

    In this paper, a novel methodology in batch plant safety and reliability analysis is proposed using a dynamic simulator. A batch process involving several safety objects (e.g. sensors, controller, valves, etc.) is activated during the operational stage. The performance of the safety objects is evaluated by the dynamic simulation and a fault propagation model is generated. By using the fault propagation model, an improved fault tree analysis (FTA) method using switching signal mode (SSM) is developed for estimating the probability of failures. The timely dependent failures can be considered as unavailability of safety objects that can cause the accidents in a plant. Finally, the rank of safety object is formulated as performance index (PI) and can be estimated using the importance measures. PI shows the prioritization of safety objects that should be investigated for safety improvement program in the plants. The output of this method can be used for optimal policy in safety object improvement and maintenance. The dynamic simulator was constructed using Visual Modeler (VM, the plant simulator, developed by Omega Simulation Corp., Japan). A case study is focused on the loss of containment (LOC) incident at polyvinyl chloride (PVC) batch process which is consumed the hazardous material, vinyl chloride monomer (VCM).

  19. Effect of high-pressure-moderate-temperature processing on the volatile profile of milk.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vazquez-Landaverde, Pedro A; Torres, J Antonio; Qian, Michael C

    2006-11-29

    The effects of high hydrostatic pressure on volatile generation in milk were investigated in this study. Raw milk samples were treated under different pressures (482, 586, and 620 MPa), temperatures (25 and 60 degrees C), and holding times (1, 3, and 5 min). Samples submitted to heat treatments alone (25, 60, and 80 degrees C for 1, 3, and 5 min) were used for comparison. Trace volatile sulfur compounds were analyzed using solid-phase microextraction (SPME) and gas chromatography (GC) with pulsed-flame photometric detection (PFPD), whereas the rest of the volatile compounds were analyzed using SPME-GC with flame ionization detection (FID). Multivariate analysis of variance (MANOVA) and principal component analysis (PCA) were used to study the effect of pressure, temperature, and time on volatile generation. Relative concentration increases of 27 selected volatile compounds were compared to an untreated sample. It was found that pressure, temperature, and time, as well as their interactions, all had significant effects (P samples at 60 degrees C was different from that of heated-alone samples. Heat treatment tended to promote the formation of methanethiol, hydrogen sulfide, methyl ketones, and aldehydes, whereas high-pressure treatment favored the formation of hydrogen sulfide and aldehydes. PMID:17117808

  20. Automated signal processing applied to volatile-based inspection of greenhouse crops

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Jansen, R.M.C.; Hofstee, J.W.; Bouwmeester, H.J.; Henten, van E.J.

    2010-01-01

    Gas chromatograph–mass spectrometers (GC-MS) have been used and shown utility for volatile-based inspection of greenhouse crops. However, a widely recognized difficulty associated with GC-MS application is the large and complex data generated by this instrument. As a consequence, experienced analyst

  1. Cultivation of Spirulina platensis by continuous process using ammonium chloride as nitrogen source

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sassano, C.E.N.; Gioielli, L.A.; Almeida, K.A.; Sato, S.; Carvalho, J.C.M. [Department of Biochemical and Pharmaceutical Technology, Faculty of Pharmaceutical Sciences, University of Sao Paulo, Av. Prof. Lineu Prestes 580, Bloco 16, 05508-900 Sao Paulo-SP (Brazil); Perego, P.; Converti, A. [Department of Chemical and Process Engineering ' ' G.B. Bonino' ' , University of Genoa, via Opera Pia 15, 16145 Genoa (Italy)

    2007-08-15

    This work is focused on the influence of dilution rate (0.08{<=}D{<=}0.32 d{sup -1}) on the kinetics of continuous cultivation of Spirulina platensis at two different concentrations of ammonium chloride (N{sub 0}=1.0 and 10 mM) as nitrogen source. Cell productivity increased in both series of runs up to D{approx_equal}0.12-0.16 d{sup -1}, and then decreased. While at N{sub 0}=1.0 mM biomass washing was certainly the cause of progressive cell concentration decrease, a combination of this phenomenon with the toxic effect of excess ammonia was responsible, at N{sub 0}=10 mM and D{>=}0.20 d{sup -1}, for quick stop of cell growth just beyond the achievement of maximum cell productivity (92.4 mg l{sup -1} d{sup -1}). Similar profile was observed for protein productivity, that achieved a maximum value of 67.0 mg l{sup -1} d{sup -1}, because of the very high protein content (72.5%) of biomass produced under these conditions. The yield of nitrogen-to-biomass was much higher at the lower N{sub 0}, because of the low protein content, and reached a maximum value of 9.7 g g{sup -1} at D=0.08-0.12 d{sup -1}. The yield of nitrogen-to-protein showed less marked difference, being most of the nitrogen present in the cell as proteins or free amino-acids. (author)

  2. When should fig fruit produce volatiles? Pattern in a ripening process

    Science.gov (United States)

    Borges, Renee M.; Ranganathan, Yuvaraj; Krishnan, Anusha; Ghara, Mahua; Pramanik, Gautam

    2011-11-01

    Ripe fruit need to signal their presence to attract dispersal agents. Plants may employ visual and/or olfactory sensory channels to signal the presence of ripe fruit. Visual signals of ripe fruit have been extensively investigated. However, the volatile signatures of ripe fruit that use olfactorily-oriented dispersers have been scarcely investigated. Moreover, as in flowers, where floral scents are produced at times when pollinators are active (diurnal versus nocturnal), whether plants can modulate the olfactory signal to produce fruit odours when dispersers are active in the diel cycle is completely unknown. We investigated day-night differences in fruit odours in two species of figs, Ficus racemosa and Ficus benghalensis. The volatile bouquet of fruit of F. racemosa that are largely dispersed by bats and other mammals was dominated by fatty acid derivatives such as esters. In this species in which the ripe fig phase is very short, and where the figs drop off soon after ripening, there were no differences between day and night in fruit volatile signature. The volatile bouquet of fruit of F. benghalensis that has a long ripening period, however, and that remain attached to the tree for extended periods when ripe, showed an increase in fatty acid derivatives such as esters and of benzenoids such as benzaldehyde at night when they are dispersed by bats, and an elevation of sesquiterpenes during the day when they are dispersed by birds. For the first time we provide data that suggest that the volatile signal produced by fruit can show diel differences based on the activity period of the dispersal agent.

  3. Influence of brine concentration on sugar and sodium chloride diffusion during the processing of the green olive variety Arauco

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miras, N.

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available The green olive variety Arauco were debittered using lye concentrations of, 2.50% NaOH.They were then subjected to two rinsing processes with tap water. Next, the olives were cured with brines at 7%, 10% and 13% sodium chloride concentration. During this curing process, the loss of reducing sugars from the olives, and the diffusion of sodium chloride into the olives were quantified. Effective diffusion coefficients of both solutes in the skin and the flesh were calculated for this period using a diffusion model for a composite hollow sphere. The skin effective diffusion coefficients for both solutes ranged from entre 8,27x10-14- m2/s to 4,04x10-13 m2/s. The flesh coefficients varied from 2,92x10-9 m2/s to 3,99x10-9 m2/s for sodium chloride and from 9,76x10-11 m2/s to 2,22x10-10 m2/s for reducing sugars.Aceitunas verdes variedad Arauco fueron tratadas con soluciones de hidróxido de sodio al 2,5%. Estas fueron luego sometidas a dos procesos de lavado con agua corriente. Posteriormente, las aceitunas fueron curadas en salmueras con concentraciones de 7%, 10% y 13% de cloruro de sodio. Durante este proceso de curado, se cuantificó la pérdida de azúcares reductores desde, y la difusión de cloruro de sodio hacia el interior de las aceitunas. Durante este período se calcularon los coeficientes efectivos de difusión de ambos solutos en la piel y la pulpa, utilizando un modelo de difusión en una esfera hueca compuesta. Los coeficientes efectivos de difusión de ambos solutos en la piel estuvieron en un rango entre 8,27x10-14- m2/s y 4,04x10-13 m2/s. Los coeficientes de la pulpa variaron entre 2,92x10-9 m2/s y 3,99x10-9 m2/s para el cloruro de sodio, y entre 9,76x10-11 m2/s y 2,22x10-10 m2/s para los azúcares reductores.

  4. Effect of zirconium and niobium on process of uranium dioxide cathodic deposition in molten alkali metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The process of electrocrystallization of uranium dioxide from molten chloride electrolytes in the presence of tetravalent and pentavalent niobium has been studied by voltammetric method. it has been ascertained that tetravalent zirconium interacts according o exchange mechanism with uranium dioxide with formation of solid solutions (1-x)UO2·xZrO2. Pentavalent niobium is reduced to tetravalent one on the cathode with formation of solid solution (1-y)UO2·NbO2. In simultaneous presence in electrolyte of Zr(4) and Nb(5) ternary solid solutions (1-y-x)UO2·xZrO2·NbO2 are formed on the cathode. 12 refs., 4 figs

  5. Effect of Ferric Chloride on the Properties of Biological Sludge in Co-precipitation Phosphorus Removal Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHANG Zhibin; LI Yi; WEI Leilei; L(U) Yufeng; WANG Meng; GAO Baoyu

    2013-01-01

    This paper studied the effect of ferric chloride on waste sludge digestion,dewatering and sedimentation under the optimized doses in co-precipitation phosphorus removal process.The experimental results showed that the concentration of mixed liquid suspended solid (MLSS) was 2436 mg·L-1 and 2385 mg·L-1 in co-precipitation phosphorus removal process (CPR) and biological phosphorous removal process (BPR),respectively.The sludge reduction ratio for each process was 22.6% and 24.6% in aerobic digestion,and 27.6% and 29.9% in anaerobic digestion,respectively.Due to the addition of chemical to the end of aeration tank,the sludge content of CPR was slightly higher than that of BPR,but the sludge reduction rate for both processes had no distinct difference.The sludge volume index (SVI) and sludge specific resistance of BPR were 126 ml·g-1 and 11.7×1012 m·kg-1,respectively,while those of CPR were only 98 ml·g-1 and 7.1×1012 m·kg-1,indicating that CPR chemical could improve sludge settling and dewatering.

  6. Cathodic processes in the electrochemical synthesis of niobium borides in chloride-fluoride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Cathodic processes in the electrochemical synthesis of niobium borides are studied. The possibility of electrochemical synthesis of the niobium boride coatings in the kinetic regime is indicated. The electrolyte composition is selected the process parameters which make it possible to obtain both crystal and roentgenoamorphous niobium boride coatings 20-30 μm thick are determined

  7. Application of control technology developed in the polyvinyl chloride industry to polymerization processes using acrylonitrile.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schoultz, K S; Gideon, J A; Bochinski, J H

    1979-02-01

    Polymerization processes for PVC are sufficiently similar to acrylonitrile polymerization processes to allow a significant transfer of control technology. This transfer should be of value to manufacturers of polyacrylonitrile, ABS/SAN resins, nitrile elastomer and latex who will need to install extensive additional controls to comply with the new permanent standard for acrylonitrile scheduled to be issued by OSHA in late 1978. Control strategies and individual controls developed to limit worker exposure in the PVC industry are described and evaluated relative to applicability to acrylonitrile polymerization processes. PMID:495444

  8. the Triple Effect Evaporation Process in Potassium Chloride Production%氯化钾三效蒸发工艺

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吴宗生; 王景波

    2012-01-01

    Triple effect evaporation process is used in potassium chloride production. The heat energy is fully utilized and cost of production is decreased with the process. The conventional lag behind process is changed and a new idea is opened in potassiuim chlorede production. The automatic control system is used in order to decrease the lahors load and the operation precision also improved. With the successful operation of triple evaporation system, the production cost is reduced and qualified raw material is supplied to downstream production.%氯化钾采用三效蒸发,充分利用了热能,改变了沿用多年的落后工艺、降低了生产成本,为氯化钾生产开辟了新思路;自动控制系统的引用大大降低了工人的劳动负荷,且提高了操作的精度,使氯化钾生产首次实现自动化;三效蒸发系统的成功运行不仅降低了生产成本还为下游产品提供了优质充足的原料.

  9. Study of the influence of temperature the venting depollution process of soils contaminated with volatile organic compounds

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    GABRIELA-ALINA BRUSTUREAN

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Venting is one of the most used in situ remediation methods for unsaturated soils contaiminated with volatile organic compounds (VOC. The development of mathematical models and their validation by means of experimental results allowed the identification of the main parameters which influence the soil depollution process. The influence of temperature on the venting depollution process of soils polluted with volatile organic compounds was studied in this investigation. It was found that the depollution efficiency is strongly influenced by the vapour pressuree of the pollutants. The conclusions, derived from the performed experimental determinations allowed characterization of the depollution process by using an "equilibrium" model. This model considers the existence of equilibrium between the four pollution phases (vapour, aqueous, "solid" and non-aqueous phase organic liquids at any moment in time. In order to calculate the vapour pressure, a modified equation of the Antoine model was used in the model. Application of the mathematical model indicates that a 10 °C temperature rise leads to a two-fold increase in the vapor pressure of a compound. Comparison of the modeled and experimental curves, as well as the values of the obtained performance critterions, verified that the chosen mathematical model describes the influence of temperature on the depollution process very well.

  10. Effects of Benzalkonium Chloride, Proxel LV, P3 Hypochloran, Triton X-100 and DOWFAX 63N10 on anaerobic digestion processes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Flores, German Antonio Enriquez; Fotidis, Ioannis; Karakashev, Dimitar Borisov;

    2015-01-01

    In this study, the individual and synergistic toxicity of the following xenobiotics: Benzalkonium Chloride (BKC), Proxel LV (PRX), P3 Hypochloran (HPC), Triton X-100 (TRX), and DOWFAX 63N10 (DWF), on anaerobic digestion (AD) process, was assessed. The experiments were performed in batch and conti...

  11. Removal of ammonium chloride generated by ammonia slip from the SNCR process in municipal solid waste incinerators.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hwang, In-Hee; Minoya, Hiroshi; Matsuto, Toshihiko; Matsuo, Takayuki; Matsumoto, Akihiro; Sameshima, Ryoji

    2009-03-01

    The selective non-catalytic reduction (SNCR) process is one of the methods used to reduce NO(x) to N(2) and H(2)O by injecting NH(3) or urea solution into a high-temperature furnace. Merits of this method include simple handling, low cost, and energy savings. However, a critical problem of the SNCR process is the generation of ammonia slip; in reactions with HCl in flue gas, ammonium chloride is generated and forms detached white plumes near the stack. Using a laboratory-scale experimental apparatus, we examined the possibility of NH(4)Cl collection and removal by a bag filter (BF). The molar NH(3)/HCl ratio of the compound collected at the filter was nearly one, regardless of gas temperature, retention time, and concentration, confirming the formation of NH(4)Cl. The NH(4)Cl generation ratio increased as reaction temperature decreased, indicating that the collection efficiency of NH(4)Cl should increase if the BF is operated at the lowest possible temperature while avoiding the critical point causing low-temperature corrosion (e.g., 150 degrees C). In addition, the use of activated carbon injection in the front of the BF and the dust layer on the BF are expected to capture slipped ammonia at the BF and reduce NH(4)Cl fume generation in the stack.

  12. Studying the processes of sulphates and chlorides extraction from water at low-waste water demineralization technology

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Inna M. Тrus

    2014-12-01

    Full Text Available To solve the disposal problem of high-salinity liquid wastes resulting from the water demineralization, researched are the processes of chlorides’ and sulphates’ ion-exchange separation with further sulphates (in the form of calcium sulphate removal from the technological cycle. It is shown that the desulphatized water can be effectively desalinated by reverse osmosis filters, including low-pressure membranes Filmtec TW30-1812-50. The liquid waste obtained in form of concentrates, does contain chlorides, sodium ions and hardness ions. Established is that at these concentrates processing by lime and sodium carbonate or alkali and sodium carbonate they are softened with hardness decrease up to 0,25…0,95 mg-eq/dm3, which allows these solutions’ further electrolysis to obtain alkali and hydrochloric acid. Through direct electrolysis of concentrates, obtained by reverse osmosis water desalination at anionic membrane two-chamber electrolysers, we obtained a disinfectant solution containing chlorine oxigenates (active chlorine, hypochlorite, chlorite and sodium chlorate and duly effective in water sterilization. The resulting solution well keeps its properties and is promising for disinfection of natural and waste waters.

  13. Impact of aluminum chloride on process performance and microbial community structure of granular sludge in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor for natural rubber processing wastewater treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thanh, Nguyen Thi; Watari, Takahiro; Thao, Tran Phuong; Hatamoto, Masashi; Tanikawa, Daisuke; Syutsubo, Kazuaki; Fukuda, Masao; Tan, Nguyen Minh; Anh, To Kim; Yamaguchi, Takashi; Huong, Nguyen Lan

    2016-01-01

    In this study, granular sludge formation was carried out using an aluminum chloride supplement in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket (UASB) reactor treating natural rubber processing wastewater. Results show that during the first 75 days after the start-up of the UASB reactor with an organic loading rate (OLR) of 2.65 kg-COD·m(-3)·day(-1), it performed stably with a removal of 90% of the total chemical oxygen demand (COD) and sludge still remained in small dispersed flocs. However, after aluminum chloride was added at a concentration of 300 mg·L(-1) and the OLR range was increased up to 5.32 kg-COD·m(-3)·day(-1), the total COD removal efficiency rose to 96.5 ± 2.6%, with a methane recovery rate of 84.9 ± 13.4%, and the flocs began to form granules. Massively parallel 16S rRNA gene sequencing of the sludge retained in the UASB reactor showed that total sequence reads of Methanosaeta sp. and Methanosarcina sp., reported to be the key organisms for granulation, increased after 311 days of operation. This indicates that the microbial community structure of the retained sludge in the UASB reactor at the end of the experiment gave a good account of itself in not only COD removal, but also granule formation.

  14. Mechanism of scaling on oxidation reactor wall in TiO2 synthesis by chloride process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHOU E; YUAN Zhang-fu; WANG Zhi; FANG Xian-Guo; GONG Jia-Zhu

    2006-01-01

    The mechanism of scaling on the oxidation reactor wall in TiO2 synthesis process was investigated. The formation of wall scale is mostly due to being deposited and sintered of TiO2 particle formed in the gas phase reaction of TiCl4 with O2. The gas-phase oxidation of TiCl4 was in a high temperature tubular flow reactor with quartz and ceramic rods put in center respectively. Scale layers are formed on reactor wall and two rods. Morphology and phase composition of them were characterized by transmission electron microscope(TEM), scan electron micrographs(SEM) and X-ray diffraction(XRD). The state of reactor wall has a little effect on scaling formation. With uneven temperature distribution along axial of reactor, the higher the reaction temperature is, the thicker the scale layer and the more compact the scale structure is.

  15. Coagulation-Flocculation process to treat Pulp and Paper Mill Wastewater by Fenugreek Mucilage Coupled with Alum and Polyaluminum Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mervit M. Janbi

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available The wastewater arising from pulp and paper mills is highly polluted and has to be treated before discharged into rivers. Coagulation-flocculation process using natural polymers has grown rapidly in wastewater treatment. In this work, the performance of alum and Polyaluminum Chloride (PACl when used alone and when coupled with Fenugreek mucilage on the treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater were studied. The experiments were carried out in jar tests with alum, PACl and Fenugreek mucilage dosages range of 50-2000 mg/L, rapid mixing at 200 rpm for 2 min, followed by slow mixing at 40 rpm for 15 min and settling time of 30 min. The effectiveness of Fenugreek mucilage was measured by the reduction of turbidity and Chemical Oxygen Demand (COD. The results show that the combination of PACl and Fenugreek mucilage is more effective than alum, PACl and alum + Fenugreek mucilage. It can achieve greater than 97% of turbidity reduction and greater than 98% of COD reduction at low dosage of PACl (50 mg/L and Fenugreek mucilage (100 mg/L. The results indicate that lower quantities of PACl are needed to obtain an acceptable reduction in turbidity and COD in the treatment of pulp and paper mill wastewater.

  16. Oil and stock market volatility: A multivariate stochastic volatility perspective

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility structure in an attempt to extract information intertwined in both markets for risk prediction. It offers four major findings. First, the stock and oil futures prices are inter-related. Their correlation follows a time-varying dynamic process and tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. Second, conditioned on the past information, the volatility in each market is very persistent, i.e., it varies in a predictable manner. Third, there is inter-market dependence in volatility. Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. In other words, conditioned on the persistence and the past volatility in their respective markets, the past volatility of the stock (oil futures) market also has predictive power over the future volatility of the oil futures (stock) market. Finally, the model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry. - Research Highlights: → This paper models the volatility of stock and oil futures markets using the multivariate stochastic volatility model. → The correlation between the two markets follows a time-varying dynamic process which tends to increase when the markets are more volatile. → The volatility in each market is very persistent. → Innovations that hit either market can affect the volatility in the other market. → The model produces more accurate Value-at-Risk estimates than other benchmarks commonly used in the financial industry.

  17. Comparison of a sodium-based and a chloride-based approach for the determination of sodium chloride content of processed foods in the Netherlands

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Capuano, E.; Veer, van der G.; Verheijen, P.J.J.; Heenan, S.P.; Laak, van de L.F.J.; Koopmans, H.B.M.; Ruth, van S.M.

    2013-01-01

    This study reports and discusses the sodium content of a set of 1016 processed food samples collected in the Netherlands, which covered 10 food groups (cakes/pastries, chips/nuts, sauces, processed meat, conserves, snacks, ready-to-eat products, cheese, bread, and soups) and 100 food commodities. Th

  18. Uranium (III) precipitation in molten chloride by wet argon sparging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vigier, Jean-François; Laplace, Annabelle; Renard, Catherine; Miguirditchian, Manuel; Abraham, Francis

    2016-06-01

    In the context of pyrochemical processes for nuclear fuel treatment, the precipitation of uranium (III) in molten salt LiCl-CaCl2 (30-70 mol%) at 705 °C is studied. First, this molten chloride is characterized with the determination of the water dissociation constant. With a value of 10-4.0, the salt has oxoacid properties. Then, the uranium (III) precipitation using wet argon sparging is studied. The salt is prepared using UCl3 precursor. At the end of the precipitation, the salt is totally free of solubilized uranium. The main part is converted into UO2 powder but some uranium is lost during the process due to the volatility of uranium chloride. The main impurity of the resulting powder is calcium. The consequences of oxidative and reductive conditions on precipitation are studied. Finally, coprecipitation of uranium (III) and neodymium (III) is studied, showing a higher sensitivity of uranium (III) than neodymium (III) to precipitation.

  19. Volatile compounds of dry-cured Iberian ham as affected by the length of the curing process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruiz, J; Ventanas, J; Cava, R; Andrés, A; García, C

    1999-05-01

    Volatile compounds from 10 dry-cured Iberian hams ripened for two different processing times, a prolonged traditional one (600 days) and a shortened process (420 days), were analysed by purge and trap coupled to gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy. Eighty-three compounds were identified which agreed with the major classes found in other ham types. The amount of methyl branched alkanes was much higher than in other dry-cured ham types, probably due to the feeding regime. The percentages of 2- and 3-methylbutanal were higher (p<0.0001 and p<0.0003, respectively) in the longer aged hams, whereas the amounts of some compounds from lipid oxidation decreased from 420 to 600 days aging. In agreement with these observations, 600-day hams had higher scores for those odour and flavour traits usually considered to be positive attributes and lower scores for rancidity. A positive and significant correlation between 2-methyl butanal and cured flavour was found.

  20. Changes in guava (Psidium guajava L. var. Paluma nectar volatile compounds concentration due to thermal processing and storage

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Maria Ivaneide Coutinho Correa

    2010-12-01

    Full Text Available Guava nectars were formulated for approximately 10, 12, or 14 ºBrix, with 40% guava pulp. Sodium benzoate, 500 mg.kg-1 was used as preservative. The Brix value was adjusted with saturated sucrose syrup. The guava nectar was pasteurized (85 ºC/42 seconds in tubular heat exchanger and then hot filled in 500 mL white glass bottles. The products were stored either at room temperature (25 ± 5 ºC or refrigerated (5 ± 2 ºC under fluorescent light exposure and analyzed on the day after processing (time zero and also 40, 80, and 120 days of storage. Eight compounds were identified and quantified by Gas Chromatography (GC -Mass Spectrometry (MS: hexanal, (E-hex-2-enal, 1-hexenol, (Z-hex-3-enol, (Z-hex-3-enyl acetate, phenyl-3-propyl acetate, cinnamyl acetate, and acetic acid. There was no significant effect of thermal treatment on the volatile compound concentrations, except for a significant decrease (p = 0.0001 in hexanal and (Z-hex-3-enyl acetate (p = 0.0029. As for the storage time, there was a much greater decrease in the esters contents, such as (Z-hex-3-enyl and phenyl-3-propyl acetates. Cinnamyl acetate had the greatest decrease over storage time. Refrigeration was better than room temperature for guava nectar volatile compounds stability over storage time, mainly for esters compounds, which are important for the product aroma and flavor

  1. Problem Solving for Volatilizing Situation in Nursing: Developing Thinking Process Supporting System using NursingNAVI® Contents.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsuru, Satoko; Wako, Fumiko; Omori, Miho; Sudo, Kumiko

    2015-01-01

    We have identified three foci of the nursing observation and nursing action respectively. Using these frameworks, we have developed the structured knowledge model for a number of diseases and medical interventions. We developed this structure based NursingNAVI® contents collaborated with some quality centered hospitals. Authors analysed the nursing care documentations of post-gastrectomy patients in light of the standardized nursing care plan in the "NursingNAVI®" developed by ourselves and revealed the "failure to observe" and "failure to document", which leaded to the volatility of the patients' data, conditions and some situation. This phenomenon should have been avoided if nurses had employed a standardized nursing care plan. So, we developed thinking process support system for planning, delivering, recording and evaluating in daily nursing using NursingNAVI® contents. A hospital decided to use NursingNAVI® contents in HIS. It was suggested that the system has availability for nursing OJT and time reduction of planning and recording without volatilizing situation.

  2. Solid-phase microextraction and gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of volatile compounds from avocado puree after microwave processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Mercedes G; Guzmán, G R; Dorantes, A L

    2004-05-14

    Microwave processing offers an alternative to blanch fruits and vegetables, since the application of high temperature and short time often results in minimum damage. An experimental design was used to investigate the effect of microwave time, pH, and avocado leaves (independent variables) on avocado flavor (response) using solid-phase microextraction (SPME)-GC-MS. Among the fully characterized flavor volatiles, 19 compounds were derived from lipid oxidation and only 4 from the avocado leaves. The main components derived from lipids were aldehydes, ketones and alcohols. Terpenoids, estragole, and 2-hexenal [E] were volatiles derived from avocado leaves. When leaves were added to fresh and microwaved avocado terpenoids and 2-hexenal [E]/hexanal ratio increased, this behavior was considered to have a positive effect on the sensorial quality of the product. From the statistical analysis of the experimental design, it was possible to determinate that the most important factors influencing the abundance of flavor compounds derived from lipids were microwave time and pH. Maximum values of these compounds were detected at high levels of microwave time and low values of pH. On the other hand, response surface of terpenoids and estragole showed an increment when microwave time and avocado leaf was increased. The region of optimum response was 30 s microwave time, pH 5.5, and 1% of avocado leaf. PMID:15139417

  3. The Search for a Volatile Human Specific Marker in the Decomposition Process.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E Rosier

    Full Text Available In this study, a validated method using a thermal desorber combined with a gas chromatograph coupled to mass spectrometry was used to identify the volatile organic compounds released during decomposition of 6 human and 26 animal remains in a laboratory environment during a period of 6 months. 452 compounds were identified. Among them a human specific marker was sought using principle component analysis. We found a combination of 8 compounds (ethyl propionate, propyl propionate, propyl butyrate, ethyl pentanoate, pyridine, diethyl disulfide, methyl(methylthioethyl disulfide and 3-methylthio-1-propanol that led to the distinction of human and pig remains from other animal remains. Furthermore, it was possible to separate the pig remains from human remains based on 5 esters (3-methylbutyl pentanoate, 3-methylbutyl 3-methylbutyrate, 3-methylbutyl 2-methylbutyrate, butyl pentanoate and propyl hexanoate. Further research in the field with full bodies has to corroborate these results and search for one or more human specific markers. These markers would allow a more efficiently training of cadaver dogs or portable detection devices could be developed.

  4. Change in Color and Volatile Composition of Skim Milk Processed with Pulsed Electric Field and Microfiltration Treatments or Heat Pasteurization

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Anupam Chugh

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available Non-thermal processing methods, such as pulsed electric field (PEF and tangential-flow microfiltration (TFMF, are emerging processing technologies that can minimize the deleterious effects of high temperature short time (HTST pasteurization on quality attributes of skim milk. The present study investigates the impact of PEF and TFMF, alone or in combination, on color and volatile compounds in skim milk. PEF was applied at 28 or 40 kV/cm for 1122 to 2805 µs, while microfiltration (MF was conducted using membranes with three pore sizes (lab-scale 0.65 and 1.2 µm TFMF, and pilot-scale 1.4 µm MF. HTST control treatments were applied at 75 or 95 °C for 20 and 45 s, respectively. Noticeable color changes were observed with the 0.65 µm TFMF treatment. No significant color changes were observed in PEF-treated, 1.2 µm TFMF-treated, HTST-treated, and 1.4 µm MF-treated skim milk (p ≥ 0.05 but the total color difference indicated better color retention with non-thermal preservation. The latter did not affect raw skim milk volatiles significantly after single or combined processing (p ≥ 0.05, but HTST caused considerable changes in their composition, including ketones, free fatty acids, hydrocarbons, and sulfur compounds (p < 0.05. The findings indicate that for the particular thermal and non-thermal treatments selected for this study, better retention of skim milk color and flavor components were obtained for the non-thermal treatments.

  5. Influence of physicochemical parameters and high pressure processing on the volatile compounds of Serrano dry-cured ham after prolonged refrigerated storage.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martínez-Onandi, N; Rivas-Cañedo, A; Picon, A; Nuñez, M

    2016-12-01

    One hundred and three volatile compounds were detected by solid-phase microextraction followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry in 30 ripened Serrano dry-cured hams, submitted or not to high pressure processing (HPP) and afterwards held for 5months at 4°C. The effect of ham physicochemical parameters and HPP (600MPa for 6min) on volatile compounds was assessed. Physicochemical parameters primarily affected the levels of acids, alcohols, alkanes, esters, benzene compounds, sulfur compounds and some miscellaneous compounds. Intramuscular fat content was the physicochemical parameter with the most pronounced effect on the volatile fraction of untreated Serrano ham after refrigerated storage, influencing the levels of 38 volatile compounds while aw, salt content and salt-in-lean ratio respectively influenced the levels of 4, 4 and 5 volatile compounds. HPP treatment affected 21 volatile compounds, resulting in higher levels of alkanes and ketones and lower levels of esters and secondary alcohols, what might affect Serrano ham odor and aroma after 5months of refrigerated storage. PMID:27513944

  6. A Theory of Volatility Spreads

    OpenAIRE

    Gurdip Bakshi; Dilip Madan

    2006-01-01

    This study formalizes the departure between risk-neutral and physical index return volatilities, termed volatility spreads. Theoretically, the departure between risk-neutral and physical index volatility is connected to the higher-order physical return moments and the parameters of the pricing kernel process. This theory predicts positive volatility spreads when investors are risk averse, and when the physical index distribution is negatively skewed and leptokurtic. Our empirical evidence is ...

  7. Experimental study of concentrated solutions containing sodium and chloride pollutants in SG flow restricted areas

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    In steam generators, the hideout processes occur in flow restricted areas. Non volatile pollutants, i.e. species less soluble in the vapour phase than in the liquid water phase, accumulate such as sodium hydroxide or sodium chloride. The thermodynamic equilibrium between these two phases is described in terms of liquid-vapour equilibrium constants for soluble species and boiling constant for the solvent. The presented experimental investigation has been realised with the EVA device: the boiling pressure evolution has been measured during the hideout process of sodium hydroxide and sodium chloride aqueous solutions. The results clearly demonstrated that high sodium hydroxide aqueous solutions are thermodynamically possible while with sodium chloride, it seems that precipitation occurs before. (authors)

  8. Coagulation/flocculation process with polyaluminum chloride for the remediation of oil sands process-affected water: Performance and mechanism study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Chengjin; Alpatova, Alla; McPhedran, Kerry N; Gamal El-Din, Mohamed

    2015-09-01

    This study investigated the application of polyaluminum chloride (PACl) for the treatment of the oil sands process-affected water (OSPW). These coagulants are commonly used in water treatment with the most effective species reported to be Al13. PACl with 83.6% Al13 was synthesized using the slow base titration method and compared with a commercially available PACl in terms of aluminum species distribution, coagulation/flocculation (CF) performance, floc morphology, and contaminant removal. Both coagulants were effective in removing suspended solids, achieving over 96% turbidity removal at all applied coagulant doses (0.5-3.0 mM Al). The removal efficiencies of metals varied among different metals depending on their pKa values with metal cations having pKa values (Fe, Al, Ga, and Ti) below OSPW pH of 6.9-8.1 (dose dependent) being removed by more than 90%, while cations with higher pKa values (K, Na, Ca, Mg and Ni) had removals of less than 40%. Naphthenic acids were not removed due to their low molecular weights, negative charges, and hydrophilic characteristics at the OSPW pH. At the highest applied coagulant dose of 3.0 mM Al, the synthetic PACl reduced Vibrio fischeri inhibition effect to 43.3 ± 3.0% from 49.5 ± 0.4% in raw OSPW. In contrast, no reduction of toxicity was found for OSPW treated with the commercial PACl. Based on water quality and floc analyses, the dominant CF mechanism for particle removal during OSPW treatment was considered to be enmeshment in the precipitates (i.e., sweep flocculation). Overall, the CF using synthesized PACl can be a valuable pretreatment process for OSPW to create wastewater that is more easily treated by downstream processes.

  9. Selective process of zinc extraction from spent Zn–MnO2 batteries by ammonium chloride leaching

    OpenAIRE

    Nogueira, C. A.; Margarido, F.

    2015-01-01

    Recycling of spent Zn-MnO2 batteries by hydrometallurgy is usually carried out by leaching in acid media, mainly with sulphuric acid solutions. Another type of leachant was used in this work, specifically solutions of concentrated ammonium chloride. The development of this study has relied on the prediction of the chemical behavior of the constituting phases based on data obtained from theoretical and experimental equilibrium values. The assessment of the effects of factors on leaching effici...

  10. The investment in scent: time-resolved metabolic processes in developing volatile-producing Nigella sativa L. seeds.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wentao Xue

    Full Text Available The interplay of processes in central and specialized metabolisms during seed development of Nigella sativa L. was studied by using a high-throughput metabolomics technology and network-based analysis. Two major metabolic shifts were identified during seed development: the first was characterized by the accumulation of storage lipids (estimated as total fatty acids and N-compounds, and the second by the biosynthesis of volatile organic compounds (VOCs and a 30% average decrease in total fatty acids. Network-based analysis identified coordinated metabolic processes during development and demonstrated the presence of five network communities. Enrichment analysis indicated that different compound classes, such as sugars, amino acids, and fatty acids, are largely separated and over-represented in certain communities. One community displayed several terpenoids and the central metabolites, shikimate derived amino acids, raffinose, xylitol and glycerol-3-phosphate. The latter are related to precursors of the mevalonate-independent pathway for VOC production in the plastid; also plastidial fatty acid 18∶3n-3 abundant in "green" seeds grouped with several major terpenes. The findings highlight the interplay between the components of central metabolism and the VOCs. The developmental regulation of Nigella seed metabolism during seed maturation suggests a substantial re-allocation of carbon from the breakdown of fatty acids and from N-compounds, probably towards the biosynthesis of VOCs.

  11. Fermented beverages : process technology and management, volatile compounds, instrumental methods of analysis

    OpenAIRE

    Oliveira, J. M.; Genisheva, Zlatina Asenova; Vilanova, Mar

    2009-01-01

    The authors have been developed their main efforts studying fermented beverages, being wine the most important product [1]. Recently, other fermented products, obtained from various fruits, namely tropical fruits, and even from cheese whey have been studied [2]. The main goal is to study the technological parameters which may influence the quality of the final products, in order to manage the process, accurately. As aroma is one of the most important attributes of fermented beverages, the dev...

  12. A Push-Pull Test to Measure Volatilization Fluxes of Organic Pollutants without Flux Chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Reid, M. C.; Jaffe, P. R.

    2011-12-01

    Volatilization of organic contaminants is a potentially significant removal mechanism from wetlands, but field measurements are scarce and the physiochemical controls on volatilization from wetland soils remain poorly understood. It has been established that volatilization rates of certain pollutants are enhanced by vegetation and are strongly correlated with evapotranspiration (ET). These observations rely on flux chambers measurements, which are characterized by significant uncertainty due the chamber's effects on the meteorological variables around the plant and consequent impact on the biophysical processes governing ET and plant uptake of soil contaminants. Here we present data from a mesocosm study using a modified single-well push-pull test to measure in-situ volatilization rates from inundated soils vegetated with the wetland macrophytes Scirpus acutus and Typha latifolia, as well as from unplanted soil. This new method uses a test solution containing the volatile tracers sulfur hexafluoride (SF6), helium (He), and dichlorodifluoromethane (CFC-12) to estimate first-order volatilization rates and examine the relationship between physiochemical properties and volatilization rates. The test also yields an estimate for the volume of subsurface gas bubbles, which is used to derive a retardation factor for the effect of interphase partitioning on the estimation of kinetic parameters. We evaluate models to partition observed fluxes into different pathways for plant-mediated volatilization: transpirational uptake and consequent volatilization, and gas-phase diffusion through porous root aerenchyma. Those models are then used to scale tracer-derived volatilization fluxes to priority organic pollutants including benzene, trichloroethylene, and vinyl chloride. We also discuss the implementation of this method at field scales to estimate volatilization as a component of phytoremediation applications.

  13. Uncoupled hydrogen and volatile fatty acids generation in a two-step biotechnological anaerobic process fed with actual site wastewater.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Monti, Matilde; Scoma, Alberto; Martinez, Gonzalo; Bertin, Lorenzo; Fava, Fabio

    2015-05-25

    Among agro-wastes, olive mill wastewater (OMW) truly qualifies as a high impact organic residue due to its biochemical-rich composition and high annual production. In the present investigation, dephenolized OMW (OMWdeph) was employed as the feedstock for a biotechnological two-stage anaerobic process dedicated to the production of biohydrogen and volatile fatty acids (VFAs), respectively. To this end, two identically configured packed-bed biofilm reactors were operated sequentially. In the first, the hydraulic retention time was set to 1 day, whereas in the second it was equal to 5 days. The rationale was to decouple the hydrolysis of the organic macronutrients held by the OMWdeph, so as to quantitatively generate a biogas enriched in H2 (first stage aim), for the acidogenesis of the residual components left after hydrolysis, to then produce a highly concentrated mixture of VFAs (second stage aim). Results showed that the generation of H2 and VFAs was effectively split, with carbohydrates and lipids, respectively, being the main substrates of the two processes. About 250 ml H2 L(-1) day(-1) was produced, corresponding to a yield of 0.36 mol mol(-1) of consumed carbohydrates (expressed as glucose equivalents). The overall concentration of VFAs in the acidogenic process was 13.80 g COD L(-1), so that 2.76 g COD L(-1) day(-1) was obtained. Second generation biorefineries use a selected fraction of an organic waste to conduct a microbiologically-driven pathway towards the generation of one target molecule. With the proposed approach, a greater value of the waste was attained, since the multi-purpose two-stage process did not entail competition for substrates between the first and the second steps. PMID:25174889

  14. Facilities for pyrochemical process studies at ENEA

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    De Angelis, G.; Fedeli, C.; Tiranti, G. [Italian National Agency for New Technology, Energy and the Environment - ENEA, Casaccia Research Center, Via Anguillarese 301, 00123 S. Maria di Galeria, Roma (Italy); Baicchi, E. [ENEA, Brasimone Research Center, 40032 Camugnano, Bologna (Italy)

    2013-07-01

    Some facilities have successfully been installed at ENEA laboratories for pyrochemical process studies under inactive conditions. PYREL III, MECRYP and OGATA plants allow to perform experiments about electrorefining and electroreduction of simulated fuel, melt crystallization of lithium chloride containing impurities from electroreduction campaigns, and trapping of volatile and semi-volatile fission products. Moreover, an argon-atmosphere glove-box is used for conditioning of chloride salt wastes with sodalite or SAP (SiO{sub 2}-Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}-P{sub 2}O{sub 5}) matrix.

  15. Characterization of phenolic constituents inhibiting the formation of sulfur-containing volatiles produced during garlic processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Wen-Qing; Zhou, Hua; Zhou, Mei-Yun; Hu, Xing-Peng; Ou, Shi-Yi; Yan, Ri-An; Liao, Xiao-Jian; Huang, Xue-Song; Fu, Liang

    2015-01-28

    Garlic (Allium sativum L.), which is a widely distributed plant, is globally used as both spice and food. This study identified five novel phenolic compounds, namely, 8-(3-methyl-(E)-1-butenyl)diosmetin, 8-(3-methyl-(E)-1-butenyl)chrysin, 6-(3-methyl-(E)-1-butenyl)chrysin, and Alliumones A and B, along with nine known compounds 6-14 from the ethanol extract of garlic. The structures of these five novel phenolic compounds were established via extensive 1D- and 2D-nuclear magnetic resonance spectroscopy experiments. The effects of the phenolic compounds isolated from garlic on the enzymatical or nonenzymatical formation of sulfur-containing compounds produced during garlic processing were examined. Compound 12 significantly reduced the thermal decomposition of alliin, whereas compound 4 exhibited the highest percentage of alliinase inhibition activity (36.6%). PMID:25579175

  16. Optimization of the Inclusion Process of Volatile Oil from Lavandula augustifolia Mill.%薰衣草挥发油包合工艺的优化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    何沙沙; 廉宜君; 赵文彬; 任艳艳; 慕永歌; 陈韩英

    2011-01-01

    [目的] 优化薰衣草挥发油超声包合工艺,为薰衣草挥发油制剂的开发研究提供试验依据.[方法]以挥发油利用率为考察指标,采用单因素试验对薰衣草挥发油包合前溶解的乙醇浓度、乙醇用量进行考察;采用正交试验设计对薰衣草挥发油包合过程中各工艺参数进行优选.[结果] 薰衣草挥发油最佳包合工艺:挥发油用85%乙醇按1:25 的比例溶解,油:B-CD值为1:10,β-CD 浓度为12%,包合温度为55℃,超声包结时间为2.0 h.在最佳工艺条件下,薰衣草挥发油的利用率达到87.63%.[结论]该试验得到的包合工艺挥发油利用率高,操作简便,为薰衣草挥发油制剂的开发提供了试验依据.%[Objective] To optimize the inclusion process of Lavandula augustifolia Mill. volatile oil,so as to provide experimental basis for the developing and study of essential oil preparation products from Lavandula augustifolia Mill.. [ Method] Using utilization rate of volatile oil as an indicator,the concentration and use amount of ethanol employed to dissolve Lavandula augustifolia Mill. volatile oil were optimized by single factor test, and the inclusion process parameters were optimized by orthogonal test. [ Result ] With the proportion of 1:25,85% ethanol was used to dissolve the volatile oil. The optimum inclusion conditions for lavender volatile oil were as follows:ratio of essential oil to β-CD of 1: 10, β-CD concentration of 12% ,inclusion temperature of 55 ℃ and ultrasonic inclusion duration of 2.0 hours. Under the optimal inclusion process,the use rate of Lavandula augustifolia Mill. volatile oil reached as high as 87.63%. [ Conclusion] Simple in operation ,the inclusion process for Lavandula augustifolia Mill. volatile oil was high in utilization ratio,which provided experimental basis for the developing and study of essential oil preparation products from Lavandula augustifolia Mill.

  17. Stochastic volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Shephard, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Stochastic volatility (SV) is the main concept used in the fields of financial economics and mathematical finance to deal with the endemic time-varying volatility and codependence found in financial markets. Such dependence has been known for a long time, early comments include Mandelbrot (1963) and Officer (1973). It was also clear to the founding fathers of modern continuous time finance that homogeneity was an unrealistic if convenient simplification, e.g. Black and Scholes (1972, p. 416) ...

  18. Evolution process and sources of ambient volatile organic compounds during a severe haze event in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rongrong; Li, Jing; Hao, Yufang; Li, Yaqi; Zeng, Limin; Xie, Shaodong

    2016-08-01

    108 ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured continuously at a time resolution of an hour using an online gas chromatography-frame ionization detector/mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS) in October 2014 in Beijing, and positive matrix factorization (PMF) was performed with online data. The evolution process and causes for high levels of VOCs during a haze event were investigated through comprehensive analysis. Results show that mixing ratios of VOCs during the haze event (89.29 ppbv) were 2 to 5 times as that in non-haze days, There was a distinct accumulation process of VOCs at the beginning of the haze event, and the mixing ratios of VOCs maintained at the high levels until to the end of pollution when the mixing ratios of ambient VOCs recovered to the normal concentration levels in a few hours. Some reactive and toxic species increased remarkably as well, which indicates a potential health risk to the public in terms of VOCs. Eight sources were resolved by PMF, and results revealed gasoline exhaust was the largest contributor (32-46%) to the ambient VOCs in Beijing. Emissions of gasoline exhaust surged from 13.46 to 40.36 ppbv, with a similar variation pattern to total VOCs, indicating that high levels of VOCs were largely driven to by expanded vehicular emissions. Emissions of biomass burning also increased noticeably (from 2.32 to 11.12 ppbv), and backward trajectories analysis indicated regional transport of biomass burning emissions. Our findings suggested that extremely high levels of VOCs during the haze event was primarily attributed to vehicular emissions, biomass burning and regional transport, as well as stationary synoptic conditions. PMID:27093124

  19. Evolution process and sources of ambient volatile organic compounds during a severe haze event in Beijing, China.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Rongrong; Li, Jing; Hao, Yufang; Li, Yaqi; Zeng, Limin; Xie, Shaodong

    2016-08-01

    108 ambient volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were measured continuously at a time resolution of an hour using an online gas chromatography-frame ionization detector/mass spectrometry (GC-FID/MS) in October 2014 in Beijing, and positive matrix factorization (PMF) was performed with online data. The evolution process and causes for high levels of VOCs during a haze event were investigated through comprehensive analysis. Results show that mixing ratios of VOCs during the haze event (89.29 ppbv) were 2 to 5 times as that in non-haze days, There was a distinct accumulation process of VOCs at the beginning of the haze event, and the mixing ratios of VOCs maintained at the high levels until to the end of pollution when the mixing ratios of ambient VOCs recovered to the normal concentration levels in a few hours. Some reactive and toxic species increased remarkably as well, which indicates a potential health risk to the public in terms of VOCs. Eight sources were resolved by PMF, and results revealed gasoline exhaust was the largest contributor (32-46%) to the ambient VOCs in Beijing. Emissions of gasoline exhaust surged from 13.46 to 40.36 ppbv, with a similar variation pattern to total VOCs, indicating that high levels of VOCs were largely driven to by expanded vehicular emissions. Emissions of biomass burning also increased noticeably (from 2.32 to 11.12 ppbv), and backward trajectories analysis indicated regional transport of biomass burning emissions. Our findings suggested that extremely high levels of VOCs during the haze event was primarily attributed to vehicular emissions, biomass burning and regional transport, as well as stationary synoptic conditions.

  20. Electrical conduction processes in as-deposited indium phthalocyanine chloride thin films using gold and aluminium electrode combination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Samuel, Mammen; Menon, C S; Unnikrishnan, N V [School of Pure and Applied Physics, Mahatma Gandhi University, Kottayam-686 560, Kerala (India)

    2006-01-11

    Sandwich structures of the type (Au-InPcCl-Al) have been fabricated by successive vacuum deposition of indium phthalocyanine chloride (InPcCl) thin films and aluminium (Al) fingers onto Ohmic gold (Au) electrodes on glass substrates. Device characteristics of as-deposited Au/InPcCl/Al are obtained and found to show rectification properties. Current density-voltage characteristics under forward bias (aluminium electrode negative) are found to be due to Ohmic conduction at lower voltages. At higher voltages there is space charge limited conductivity (SCLC) controlled by an exponential trapping distribution above the valence edge. Transport properties of the material at ambient temperature have been obtained from the analysis of the samples in the Ohmic and SCLC regions. Under the reverse bias, Schottky emission is identified at lower voltages.

  1. Nonparametric methods for volatility density estimation

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Es; P. Spreij; H. van Zanten

    2011-01-01

    Stochastic volatility modeling of financial processes has become increasingly popular. The proposed models usually contain a stationary volatility process. We will motivate and review several nonparametric methods for estimation of the density of the volatility process. Both models based on discrete

  2. Comparison of epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine with other cationic organic polymers as coagulation aids of polyferric chloride in coagulation-ultrafiltration process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Shenglei; Gao, Baoyu; Yue, Qinyan; Li, Ruihua; Song, Wen; Bu, Fan; Zhao, Shuang; Jia, Ruibao; Song, Wuchang

    2016-04-15

    Epichlorohydrin-dimethylamine (DAM-ECH) copolymer was acquired by polycondensation of hazardous reagents: epichlorohydrin (analytical reagent, A.R.) and dimethylamine (A.R.) with ethanediamine (A.R.) as cross-linker. Its coagulation and membrane performance as coagulation aid of polyferric chloride (PFC) was evaluated by comparing with other two cationic coagulation aids: poly dimethyl diallyl ammonium chloride (PDMDAAC) and polyacrylamide (PAM) in humic acid-kaolin (HA-Kaolin) simulated water treatment. Firstly, optimum dosages of PFC&DAM-ECH, PFC&PDMDAAC and PFC&PAM were identified according to their coagulation performance. Then their impacts (under optimum dosages) on membrane fouling of regenerated cellulose (RC) ultra-membrane disc in coagulation-ultrafiltration (C-UF) process were reviewed. Results revealed that small addition of DAM-ECH was the effective on turbidity and DOC removal polymer. Furthermore, in the following ultra-filtration process, external membrane fouling resistance was demonstrated to be the dominant portion of the total membrane fouling resistance under all circumstances. Meanwhile, the internal membrane fouling resistance was determined by residual of micro-particles(1) that cannot be intercepted by cake layer or ultrafiltration membrane. PMID:26775103

  3. Management of metal chlorides in high temperature processes—Application to the nuclear wastes treatment

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: ► We study the differences observed between modelling and analysis for chlorine linked with metals. ► We explain the differences with the adsorption of chlorine on activated surface. ► We explain the conditions of chlorine realise and we study the consequences of the phosphatation in thermal process. ► We propose to revise phosphatising technique to drive the metals in proper place in the process. ► This study allows to enhance the safety and lifetime of process used to treat hazardous materials. - Abstract: Thermal processes are now the benchmark for the destruction of some waste whose toxicity requires special attention and management. Over many years the Commissariat à l’Énergie Atomique (French atomic energy commission) has developed technologies to process radioactive waste containing many metals together with chlorine, and thus with a major risk of producing volatile chlorides with potentially catastrophic effects on plant facilities. To mitigate these difficulties in an incineration process for radioactive waste contaminated by plutonium (IRIS), the CEA has investigated the processes by which potentially hazardous compounds are produced in order to eliminate them or prevent their formation. The studies have led to propose a phosphate-based stabilization technique thanks to an addition of phosphorus in the waste. Through a reaction occurring in gas phase, the metals are stabilized under a phosphate form when the formation of volatiles chlorides is avoided. While this technique has substantially improved process maintenance and security, it has revealed other difficulties related to potentially large phosphate deposits capable to cause unacceptable pressure drops detrimental to the gas flow conditions. This article describes the results of recent studies seeking to prevent the formation of volatile chlorides and phosphate deposits liable to obstruct the system flow lines.

  4. Chasing volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Caporin, Massimiliano; Rossi, Eduardo; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    The realized volatility of financial returns is characterized by persistence and occurrence of unpreditable large increments. To capture those features, we introduce the Multiplicative Error Model with jumps (MEM-J). When a jump component is included in the multiplicative specification, the...... estimate alternative specifications of the model using a set of daily bipower measures for 7 stock indexes and 16 individual NYSE stocks. The estimates of the jump component confirm that the probability of jumps dramatically increases during the financial crisis. Compared to other realized volatility...... models, the introduction of the jump component provides a sensible improvement in the fit, as well as for in-sample and out-of-sample volatility tail forecasts....

  5. Radiochemical study of purification of saturated sodium chloride brines from impurities in precipitation and coprecipitation processes. II. Coprecipitation of microcomponents

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Coprecipitation of microcomponents (MC) from saturated NaCl brine solutions (5.1 M) has been studied in making use of radionuclides in the course of precipitation of macroimpurities and HO of Fe(III): CaSO4 x 2H2O and HO of Fe(III) at pH = 5-7 (stage I) and CaCO3, Mg(OH)2, and HO of Fe(III) at pH = 10-12.5 (stage II). In this regard, for each MC we calculated the proportion of the ionic forms of the MC in the whole pH range of 4-12.5, allowing for the formation of mononuclear chloride, hydroxo, and mixed complexes using the known K/sub steady/ values of the complexes. The conditions for MC sorption have been determined. It has been proven that precipitates of CaSO4 x 2H2O and CaCO3 play a negligible part in MC coprecipitation. The main sorbent is HO of Fe(III) on which the MC is sorbed following the coordination mechanism under the conditions in which the hydrolysis forms are produced by them

  6. The effects of calcium hydroxide on hydrogen chloride emission characteristics during a simulated densified refuse-derived fuel combustion process.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chiang, Kung-Yuh; Jih, Jer-Chyuan; Lin, Kae-Long

    2008-08-30

    This study investigated the effects of different calcium hydroxide (Ca(OH)(2)) addition methods on the potential for hydrogen chloride (HCl) formation in a simulated densified refuse-derived fuel (RDF-5) with single metal combustion system. These experiments were conducted at 850 degrees C with the Ca(OH)(2) spiked in the RDF-5 production or injection in the flue gas treatment system. The results indicated that the potential for HCl formation was decreased significantly by Ca(OH)(2) spiked in the RDF-5 production or injection in the flue gas treatment system. However, the Ca(OH)(2) injection method in the flue gas for HCl emission reduction was better than other method. According to the relationship between the HCl emission and amount of Ca(OH)(2) injected or spiked, it is interesting to find that when the Ca(OH)(2) injected or spiked ranged from 0% to 5%, the potential for HCl formation in the single metal combustion system decreases significantly with increasing Ca(OH)(2) injected or spiked ratio. A corresponding increase in the amount of CaCl(2) partitioned to the fly ash was observed. However, with the ratio of Ca(OH)(2) higher than 5%, the amount of HCl formation showed that no further significant variation occurred with increasing Ca(OH)(2) spiked ratio. PMID:18272287

  7. Effects of solution pH and synthetic method on destabilization process of polytitanium-silicate-chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huang, Xin; Gao, Baoyu; Sun, Yangyang; Yue, Qinyan; Wang, Yan; Li, Qian

    2016-07-01

    Effect of solution pH on coagulation performance and flock properties of a novel inorganic polymer coagulant-polytitanium-silicate-chloride (PTSC) in humic acid-kaolin water treatment was investigated in this work. PTSC was synthesized by two approaches: composite and co-complexion, denoted as PTSCm and PTSCc respectively. The effect of the synthetic method was also considered. Results indicated that turbidity and DOM removal were improved by addition of polysilicic acid, especially under acidic condition. PTSCc achieved slightly better DOM removal than that of PTSCm. Flocks formed under acidic condition was smaller than those form under alkaline condition. In addition, flocks formed by PTSCc were larger than PTSCm flocks. Results also indicated that flock strength and recovery ability was slightly improved by the addition of PSiA. Moreover, under acidic condition, PTSC flocks had larger fractal dimension with more compact structure, especially for PTSCm flocks. In contrast, they were looser compared with PTC flock, especially for PTSCm flocks under neutral and alkaline conditions. PMID:26994354

  8. Stochastic volatility selected readings

    CERN Document Server

    Shephard, Neil

    2005-01-01

    Neil Shephard has brought together a set of classic and central papers that have contributed to our understanding of financial volatility. They cover stocks, bonds and currencies and range from 1973 up to 2001. Shephard, a leading researcher in the field, provides a substantial introduction in which he discusses all major issues involved. General Introduction N. Shephard. Part I: Model Building. 1. A Subordinated Stochastic Process Model with Finite Variance for Speculative Prices, (P. K. Clark). 2. Financial Returns Modelled by the Product of Two Stochastic Processes: A Study of Daily Sugar Prices, 1961-7, S. J. Taylor. 3. The Behavior of Random Variables with Nonstationary Variance and the Distribution of Security Prices, B. Rosenberg. 4. The Pricing of Options on Assets with Stochastic Volatilities, J. Hull and A. White. 5. The Dynamics of Exchange Rate Volatility: A Multivariate Latent Factor ARCH Model, F. X. Diebold and M. Nerlove. 6. Multivariate Stochastic Variance Models. 7. Stochastic Autoregressive...

  9. Flash Thermal Conditioning of Olive Pastes during the Oil Mechanical Extraction Process: Cultivar Impact on the Phenolic and Volatile Composition of Virgin Olive Oil.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Veneziani, Gianluca; Esposto, Sonia; Taticchi, Agnese; Selvaggini, Roberto; Urbani, Stefania; Di Maio, Ilona; Sordini, Beatrice; Servili, Maurizio

    2015-07-01

    The concentration of phenolic and volatile compounds in virgin olive oil (VOO) is closely related to the different operative conditions applied to the mechanical extraction process of the olive oil. However, the great qualitative and quantitative variability of these compounds indicates an important role played by genetic and agronomic aspects. A heat exchanger was placed in front of a traditional, covered malaxer to study the impact of flash thermal conditioning (FTC) of olive paste on the quality of VOO, which is highly influenced by phenolic release and aroma generation. The VOO flash thermal conditioning of five major Italian cultivars showed a higher concentration of phenols (range of increase percentage, 9.9-37.3%) compared to the control trials, whereas the FTC treatment featured a differentiated impact on the volatile fractions, associated with the genetic origins of the olives.

  10. APPLICATION OF VACUUM SALT DISTILLATION TECHNOLOGY FOR THE REMOVAL OF FLUORIDE AND CHLORIDE FROM LEGACY FISSILE MATERIALS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, R.; Peters, T.

    2011-11-01

    Between September 2009 and January 2011, the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) and the Savannah River Site (SRS) HB-Line Facility designed, developed, tested, and successfully deployed a production-scale system for the distillation of sodium chloride (NaCl) and potassium chloride (KCl) from plutonium oxide (PuO{sub 2}). Subsequent efforts adapted the vacuum salt distillation (VSD) technology for the removal of chloride and fluoride from less-volatile halide salts at the same process temperature and vacuum. Calcium chloride (CaCl{sub 2}), calcium fluoride (CaF{sub 2}), and plutonium fluoride (PuF{sub 3}) were of particular concern. To enable the use of the same operating conditions for the distillation process, SRNL employed in situ exchange reactions to convert the less-volatile halide salts to compounds that facilitated the distillation of halide without removal of plutonium. SRNL demonstrated the removal of halide from CaCl{sub 2}, CaF{sub 2} and PuF{sub 3} below 1000 C using VSD technology.

  11. Oenological characteristics, amino acids and volatile profiles of Hongqu rice wines during pottery storage: Effects of high hydrostatic pressure processing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tian, Yuting; Huang, Jiamei; Xie, Tingting; Huang, Luqiang; Zhuang, Weijin; Zheng, Yafeng; Zheng, Baodong

    2016-07-15

    Hongqu rice wines were subjected to high hydrostatic pressure (HHP) treatments of 200 MPa and 550 MPa at 25 °C for 30 min and effects on wine quality during pottery storage were examined. HHP treatment can significantly (ppottery storage than untreated wines based on principal component analysis. After only 6 months, treated wines had a volatile composition and an organoleptic quality similar to that of untreated wines stored in pottery for 18 months. PMID:26948638

  12. Extraction of Citrus Hystrix D.C. (Kaffir Lime) Essential Oil Using Automated Steam Distillation Process: Analysis of Volatile Compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    An automated steam distillation was successfully used to extract volatiles from Citrus hystrix D.C (Kaffir lime) peels. The automated steam distillation integrated with robust temperature control can commercially produce large amount of essential oil with efficient heating system. Objective of this study is to quantify the oil production rate using automated steam distillation and analyze the composition of volatiles in Kaffir lime peels oil at different controlled and uncontrolled temperature conditions. From the experimentation, oil extraction from Kaffir lime peels only took approximately less than 3 hours with amount of oil yield was 13.4 % more than uncontrolled temperature. The identified major compounds from Kaffir lime peels oil were sabinene, β-pinene, limonene, α-pinene, camphene, myrcene, terpinen-4-ol, α-terpineol, linalool, terpinolene and citronellal which are considered to have good organoleptic quality. In contrast with uncontrolled temperature, oil analysis revealed that some important volatile compounds were absent such as terpinolene, linalool, terpinen-4-ol due to thermal degradation effect from fast heating of extracted material. (author)

  13. Volatiles in protoplanetary disks

    CERN Document Server

    Pontoppidan, Klaus M; Bergin, Edwin A; Brittain, Sean; Marty, Bernard; Mousis, Olvier; Oberg, Karin L

    2014-01-01

    Volatiles are compounds with low sublimation temperatures, and they make up most of the condensible mass in typical planet-forming environments. They consist of relatively small, often hydrogenated, molecules based on the abundant elements carbon, nitrogen and oxygen. Volatiles are central to the process of planet formation, forming the backbone of a rich chemistry that sets the initial conditions for the formation of planetary atmospheres, and act as a solid mass reservoir catalyzing the formation of planets and planetesimals. This growth has been driven by rapid advances in observations and models of protoplanetary disks, and by a deepening understanding of the cosmochemistry of the solar system. Indeed, it is only in the past few years that representative samples of molecules have been discovered in great abundance throughout protoplanetary disks - enough to begin building a complete budget for the most abundant elements after hydrogen and helium. The spatial distributions of key volatiles are being mapped...

  14. Industrialization of New Process to Electrolysis Zinc from Zinc Chloride and Ammonia Complex%氯化锌氨络合物制锌新工艺的工业化实践

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    邓良勋; 吴保庆

    2011-01-01

    用氯化铵与含氧化锌原料反应生成氯化锌氨络合物,净化后电解制取阴极锌.介绍了该流程的原理及工业试生产的有关情况.%The zinc chloride and ammonia complex was produced by reacting ammonium chloride with zinc oxide containing raw materials, after purification which was used to produce cathode zinc via electrolysis process.The principles of this process and industrialization pilot production were introduced in detail.

  15. Simulation and Revamp of Vinyl Chloride Distillation Process%氯乙烯精馏工艺流程的模拟计算及技术改造

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李群生; 于颖; 郭增昌

    2012-01-01

    A vinyl chloride distillation process for 250 kt/a polyvinyl chloride installation adopting calcium carbide method was simulated and optimized using Aspen Plus software. Appropriate operation parameters such as feed position, reflux ratio and distillate ratio were obtained through sensitivity analysis. The design parameters for the low-boiler tower and high-boiler tower were calculated by computer simulation and the results were as follows: actual plate numbers of 34 and 40, reflux ratios of 2 and 0.8, feed positions of the sixteenth and fourteenth plates, and distillate ratios of 0.1-0.3 and 0.8-0.9, respectively. Based on the parameters, the low-boiler tower and high-boiler tower were revamped by employing efficient guide sieve trays. After the revamping, the energy consumption and cooling water consumption of the low-boiler tower reduced by 50% and 6.6 t/h respectively, while those of the high-boiler tower reduced by 36% and 42 t/h respectively. The mass fraction of the vinyl chloride in the products was above 99.99%.%采用Aspen Plus化工流程模拟软件对250kt/a聚氯乙烯装置的精馏过程进行模拟和优化,对回流比、进料位置及馏出比等操作参数进行灵敏度分析.模拟计算得到低沸塔和高沸塔的设计参数分别为:实际塔板数34和40、回流比2.0和0.8、进料位置第16和第14块塔板、馏出比0.1~0.3和0.8~0.9.以设计参数为基础.采用高效导向筛板对低沸塔和高沸塔进行改造,低沸塔能耗降低50%,冷凝水用量节省6.6t/h;高沸塔能耗降低36%,冷凝水用量节省42t/h;产品中氯乙烯的含量达99.99% (w)以上,改造效果良好.

  16. In-cloud processes of methacrolein under simulated conditions – Part 3: Hygroscopic and volatility properties of the formed secondary organic aerosol

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. Monod

    2009-07-01

    Full Text Available The hygroscopic and volatility properties of secondary organic aerosol (SOA produced from the nebulization of solutions after aqueous phase photooxidation of methacrolein was experimentally studied in a laboratory, using a Volatility-Hygroscopicity Tandem DMA (VHTDMA. The obtained SOA were 80% 100°C-volatile after 5 h of reaction and only 20% 100°C-volatile after 22 h of reaction. The Hygroscopic Growth Factor (HGF of the SOA produced from the nebulization of solutions after aqueous-phase photooxidation of methacrolein is 1.34–1.43, which is significantly higher than the HGF of SOA formed by gas-phase photooxidation of terpenes, usually found almost hydrophobic. These hygroscopic properties were confirmed for SOA formed by the nebulization of the same solutions where NaCl was added. The hygroscopic properties of the cloud droplet residuals decrease with the reaction time, in parallel with the formation of more refractory compounds. This decrease was mainly attributed to the 250°C-refractive fraction (presumably representative of the highest molecular weight compounds, which evolved from moderately hygroscopic (HGF of 1.52 to less hygroscopic (HGF of 1.36. Oligomerization is suggested as a process responsible for the decrease of both volatility and hygroscopicity with time. The NaCl seeded experiments enabled us to show that 19±4 mg L−1 of SOA was produced after 9.5 h of reaction and 41±9 mg L−1 after 22 h of in-cloud reaction. Because more and more SOA is formed as the reaction time increases, our results show that the reaction products formed during the aqueous-phase OH-oxidation of methacrolein may play a major role in the properties of residual particles upon the droplet's evaporation. Therefore, the specific physical properties of SOA produced during cloud processes should be taken into account for a global estimation of SOA and their atmospheric impacts.

  17. Stochastic volatility and stochastic leverage

    OpenAIRE

    Veraart, Almut; Veraart, Luitgard A. M.

    2009-01-01

    This paper proposes the new concept of stochastic leverage in stochastic volatility models.Stochastic leverage refers to a stochastic process which replaces the classical constant correlationparameter between the asset return and the stochastic volatility process. We provide a systematictreatment of stochastic leverage and propose to model the stochastic leverage effect explicitly,e.g. by means of a linear transformation of a Jacobi process. Such models are both analyticallytractable and allo...

  18. Ammonia volatilization from intensively managed dairy pastures.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bussink, D.W.

    1996-01-01

    The objectives of this thesis are (i) to quantify NH 3 volatilization from grassland, (ii) to gain understanding of the NH3 volatilization processes on grassland and (iii) to study measures how to reduce NH 3 volatilization from gra

  19. A note on the pricing and hedging of volatility derivatives

    OpenAIRE

    Sam Howison; A. Rafailidis; H.O. Rasmussen

    2001-01-01

    We consider the pricing of volatility products and especially volatility and variance swaps. Under risk-neutral valuation we provide closed form formulae for volatility-average and variance swaps. Also we provide a general partial differential equation for derivatives that have an extra dependence on an average of the volatility. We give approximate solutions of this equation for volatility products written on assets for which the volatility process fluctuates on a timescale that is fast comp...

  20. Pricing Volatility Referenced Assets

    OpenAIRE

    Alan De Genaro Dario

    2006-01-01

    Volatility swaps are contingent claims on future realized volatility. Variance swaps are similar instruments on future realized variance, the square of future realized volatility. Unlike a plain vanilla option, whose volatility exposure is contaminated by its asset price dependence, volatility and variance swaps provide a pure exposure to volatility alone. This article discusses the risk-neutral valuation of volatility and variance swaps based on the framework outlined in the Heston (1993) st...

  1. Studying the processes of sulphates and chlorides extraction from water at low-waste water demineralization technology

    OpenAIRE

    Inna M. Тrus; Iryna M. Маkаrеnko; Тetyana O. Shabliy

    2014-01-01

    To solve the disposal problem of high-salinity liquid wastes resulting from the water demineralization, researched are the processes of chlorides’ and sulphates’ ion-exchange separation with further sulphates (in the form of calcium sulphate) removal from the technological cycle. It is shown that the desulphatized water can be effectively desalinated by reverse osmosis filters, including low-pressure membranes Filmtec TW30-1812-50. The liquid waste obtained in form of concentrates, does cont...

  2. Pricing Volatility Referenced Assets

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alan De Genaro Dario

    2006-12-01

    Full Text Available Volatility swaps are contingent claims on future realized volatility. Variance swaps are similar instruments on future realized variance, the square of future realized volatility. Unlike a plain vanilla option, whose volatility exposure is contaminated by its asset price dependence, volatility and variance swaps provide a pure exposure to volatility alone. This article discusses the risk-neutral valuation of volatility and variance swaps based on the framework outlined in the Heston (1993 stochastic volatility model. Additionally, the Heston (1993 model is calibrated for foreign currency options traded at BMF and its parameters are used to price swaps on volatility and variance of the BRL / USD exchange rate.

  3. Stochastic volatility and stochastic leverage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Veraart, Almut; Veraart, Luitgard A. M.

    This paper proposes the new concept of stochastic leverage in stochastic volatility models. Stochastic leverage refers to a stochastic process which replaces the classical constant correlation parameter between the asset return and the stochastic volatility process. We provide a systematic...... treatment of stochastic leverage and propose to model the stochastic leverage effect explicitly, e.g. by means of a linear transformation of a Jacobi process. Such models are both analytically tractable and allow for a direct economic interpretation. In particular, we propose two new stochastic volatility...... models which allow for a stochastic leverage effect: the generalised Heston model and the generalised Barndorff-Nielsen & Shephard model. We investigate the impact of a stochastic leverage effect in the risk neutral world by focusing on implied volatilities generated by option prices derived from our new...

  4. 氯离子在非饱和混凝土中传输过程的数值模拟%Numerical Simulation of Chloride Transportation Process in Unsaturated Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    潘子超; 陈艾荣

    2011-01-01

    为确定氯离子在非饱和混凝土构件中的传输过程,推导了基于物质守恒定律的氯离子对流扩散方程;并对控制方程中的计算参数以及有限元计算过程的稳定性进行了初步讨论.在此基础上,定量分析了对流效应对氯离子传输过程的影响.分析结果表明,对流和扩散效应的耦合作用主要出现于构件表层;对流效应在传输过程初期较为显著.最后,对计算模型的参数敏感性分析结果表明,水分和氯离子的扩散系数比对氯离子传输过程影响较大.%In order to describe the chloride transportation process in unsaturated concrete components, the convectiondiffusion equation of chloride was developed based on the mass conservation law.The parameters in the governing equation and the stabilization of FEM solution process were preliminary discussed.Based on the discussion, the influence of convection effect on chloride transportation process was analyzed quantitatively.The results show that the coupled effect of convection and diffusion will mainly occur in the surface layer of components,and the convection effect will be more obvious in the initial stage of transportation process.Finally, the results of the parameter sensitivity analysis of the numerical model show that the diffusion coefficient ratio between moisture and chloride will greatly affect the chloride transportation process.

  5. The Analysis of the Chloride and Fluoride Influences on the Reducer Refinement Processes (Carbo-N-Ox Aluminum Alloys

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    A. W. Bydałek

    2013-07-01

    Full Text Available Slag refining slag with west materials was analysed used the DTA methods. In the paper a method of determining the reduction capability, with the Carbo-N-Ox method, of slag solutions was used. Some relations between the stimulators in the environment - slag - metal system allow to initiate mass exchange reactions in the process of slag refining.The presented in work course of behaviour permits on choice of basic composition of slaglite, the of necessary components stimulating quantities, as well as on accomplishment of opinion of ability refinement. The worked out programme Slag-Prop, after introduction of data with experiment, it allows on next corrections in composition of proposed mixtures also, should be put on properly elaborated factors of multistage reaction with essential usage of suitable stimulators.

  6. Conservation of minimally processed pineapple using calcium chloride, edible coating and gamma radiation;Conservacao de abacaxi minimamente processado utilizando como coadjuvantes cloreto de calcio, pelicula comestivel e radiacao gama

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pilon, Lucimeire

    2007-07-01

    The aim of this study was to obtain a convenience type pineapple subjected to fresh-cut process and calcium chloride, wheat gluten and alginate-base edible coating and irradiation treatments. The fruits were washed, sanitized with Sumaveg (Sodium Dichloro-s-Triazinetrione) in a 200 mg L-1 chlorine-free solution at 7 deg C for 15 minutes, and then manually peeled. The peeled fruits were sliced into 1 cm thick slices, rinsed in 20 mg L-1 chlorine-free solution for 3 minutes and drained for 3 minutes. In the first experiment, the samples were treated with: 1% calcium chloride + vital wheat gluten solution; 1% calcium chloride + 1% alginate solution; and control. In the second experiment, the samples were treated with: 1% calcium chloride + vital wheat gluten solution + 2.3 kGy; 1% calcium chloride + 2.3kGy; irradiation with 2.3kGy; and control. The packing consisted of rigid polyethylene terephthalate (PET) trays with around 250 g of fruit. The irradiation was performed in a Cobalt-60 multipurpose irradiator with 92 kCi activity and dose value of 2.3 kGy h-1. The samples were stored at 5 +- 1 deg C and evaluated every other day for 12 days. In the first experiment pH and titratable acidity values showed slight variations but were similar between the treatments. There was a decrease in ascorbic acid values in all treatments. Browning was noticed in all treatments over the storage period. Although the values between the treatments were similar, the pineapple treated with calcium chloride + gluten showed firmer texture, less liquid loss, and lower values of polyphenoloxidase and peroxidase activities and CO{sub 2} and ethylene production. Mesophiles and mold and yeast counts were also reduced. No Salmonella and E. coli were detected. Total coliform counts were low in all the treatments and appeared in just a few isolated samples during the storage period. Sensory analyses showed that the samples treated with calcium chloride + gluten had the lower scores for texture

  7. Production process and market situation of chlorinated polyvinyl chloride%氯化聚氯乙烯的生产工艺与市场现状

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    王林祥; 唐霞

    2001-01-01

    The application,production process and market situation ofchlorinated polyvinyl chloride are introduced, If CPVC can substitute 1 percent of PVC consumed at home, its domestic market demands will be up to 20 000 t/a. So it has bright market prospets. Because CPVC is a kind of product cosuming chlorine and its production can make good use of exiting production equipment of PVC, this kind of product is worth developing in domestic chlor-alkali plants.%介绍了氯化聚氯乙烯的国内外应用、生产工艺、市场现状,国内使用的PVC若有1%用CPVC代替,国内CPVC需求量将达到2万t/a,因此氯化聚氯乙烯具有广阔的市场前景。氯化聚氯乙烯是氯碱厂吃氯的下游产品,生产CPVC既可充分利用现有的PVC生产装置,又可充分发挥烧碱装置的生产能力,因此氯化聚氯乙烯是国内氯碱厂可以大力开发的产品。

  8. Preparation and Characteristics of Polyaluminium Chloride by Utilizing Fluorine-Containing Waste Acidic Mother Liquid from Clay-Brine Synthetic Cryolite Process

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Feng-shan Zhou

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Clay-brine process employing activated clay, NaCl, HCl, and HF as raw materials is the primarily advanced technology to synthesize cryolite in the present industrial grade. However, plenty of byproducts of fluorine-containing waste HCl at the concentration of about 10%~12% could not be utilized comprehensively and are even hazardous to the environment. This work proposed a new two-step technology to prepare inorganic polymer flocculants polyaluminium chloride (PAC from synthetic cryolite mother liquor. Many specific factors such as the variety of aluminide source, reaction temperature and time, reagent ratio, and manner of alkaline addition were taken into consideration and their influences on the performances of produced PAC were discussed. It was found that synthetic cryolite mother liquor could react with bauxite and calcium aluminate directly to prepare cheap PAC, with plenty amount of water insoluble CaF2 and CaSiF6 produced as well. However, once HCl was introduced into synthetic cryolite mother liquor as well as by utilizing bauxite as aluminide source and sodium aluminate as adjusting basicity agent, the resultant PAC would dissolve out higher amount of aluminum while producing little amount of water insoluble materials. The coagulation behavior of the specially produced PAC could even match the industrial grade PAC conforming to national standard.

  9. Volatility and Financial Intermediation

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Aizenman; Andrew Powell

    1997-01-01

    Following the Tequila period, its after-effects in Latin America and recent events in South East Asia, the effect of volatility on emerging market economies has become an important topic of research with the domestic financial intermediation process being advanced as one of the most important transmission mechanisms. At the same time there has been continued interest in issues related to imperfect information and rationing in credit markets. In this paper, we consider an economy where risk ne...

  10. Exponential Smoothing, Long Memory and Volatility Prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Proietti, Tommaso

    Extracting and forecasting the volatility of financial markets is an important empirical problem. The paper provides a time series characterization of the volatility components arising when the volatility process is fractionally integrated, and proposes a new predictor that can be seen as extension...... originally by Hosking. We investigate the properties of the volatility components and the forecasts arising from these specification, which depend uniquely on the memory and the moving average parameters. For statistical inference we show that, under mild regularity conditions, the Whittle pseudo...... methods for forecasting realized volatility, and that the estimated model confidence sets include the newly proposed fractional lag predictor in all occurrences....

  11. A hybrid magnetic/complementary metal oxide semiconductor process design kit for the design of low-power non-volatile logic circuits

    Science.gov (United States)

    Di Pendina, G.; Prenat, G.; Dieny, B.; Torki, K.

    2012-04-01

    Since the advent of the MOS transistor, the performance of microelectronic circuits has followed Moore's law, stating that their speed and density would double every 18 months. Today, this trend tends to get out of breath: the continuously decreasing size of devices and increasing operation frequency result in power consumption and heating issues. Among the solutions investigated to circumvent these limitations, the use of non-volatile devices appears particularly promising. It allows easing, for example, the power gating technique, which consists in cutting-off the power supply of inactive blocks without losing information, drastically reducing the standby power consumption. In this approach, the advantages of magnetic tunnel junctions (MTJs) compared with other non-volatile devices allow one to design hybrid CMOS/magnetic circuits with high performance and new functionalities. Designing such circuits requires integrating MTJs in standard microelectronics design suites. This is performed by means of a process design kit (PDK) for the hybrid CMOS/magnetic technology. We present here a full magnetic PDK, which contains a compact model of the MTJ for electrical simulation, technology files for layout and physical verifications, and standard cells for the design of complex logic circuits and which is compatible with standard design suites. This PDK allows designers to accurately and comfortably design high-performance hybrid CMOS/magnetic logic circuits in the same way as standard CMOS circuits.

  12. Improvement of soluble coffee aroma using an integrated process of supercritical CO2 extraction with selective removal of the pungent volatiles by adsorption on activates carbon

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    S. Lucas

    2006-06-01

    Full Text Available In this paper a two-step integrated process consisting of CO2 supercritical extraction of volatile coffee compounds (the most valuable from roasted and milled coffee, and a subsequent step of selective removal of pungent volatiles by adsorption on activated carbon is presented. Some experiments were carried out with key compounds from roasted coffee aroma in order to study the adsorption step: ethyl acetate as a desirable compound and furfural as a pungent component. Operational parameters such as adsorption pressure and temperature and CO2 flowrate were optimized. Experiments were conducted at adsorption pressures of 12-17 MPa, adsorption temperatures of 35-50ºC and a solvent flow rate of 3-5 kg/h. In all cases, the solute concentration and the activated particle size were kept constant. Results show that low pressures (12 MPa, low temperatures (35ºC and low CO2 flowrates (3 kg/h are suitable for removing the undesirable pungent and smell components (e.g. furfural and retaining the desirable aroma compounds (e.g. ethyl acetate. The later operation with real roasted coffee has corroborated the previous results obtained with the key compounds.

  13. Removal of iron contaminant from zirconium chloride solution

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    This patent describes a process for eliminating iron contaminant from an aqueous zirconium chloride solution that has been contaminated with FeCl3 in a plant in which zirconium and hafnium chloride solutions are separated by a main MINK solvent extraction system and the FeCl3 is normally removed from the zirconium chloride solution by a secondary MINK solvent extraction system

  14. Volatile phytochemicals as mosquito semiochemicals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nyasembe, Vincent O.; Torto, Baldwyn

    2014-01-01

    Plant biochemical processes result in the release of an array of volatile chemical substances into the environment, some of which are known to play important plant fitness enhancing functions, such as attracting pollinators, thermal tolerance of photosynthesis, and defense against herbivores. Cunningly, phytophagous insects have evolved mechanisms to utilize these volatiles to their own advantage, either to colonize a suitable host for feeding, reproduction and oviposition or avoid an unsuitable one. The volatile compounds involved in plant–insect chemical interactions have been widely exploited in the management of agricultural pests. On the other hand, use of plant volatiles in the management of medically important insects is limited, mainly due to paucity of information on their role in disease vector–plant interactions. To date, a total of 29 plant volatile compounds from various chemical classes, including phenols, aldehydes, alcohols, ketones and terpenes, have been identified as mosquito semiochemicals. In this review, we present highlights of mosquito–plant interactions, the available evidence of nectar feeding, with particular emphasis on sources of plant attractants, methods of plant volatile collection and the candidate plant volatile compounds that attract mosquitoes to nectar sources. We also highlight the potential application of these phytochemical attractants in integrated mosquito management. PMID:25383131

  15. [Pollution characteristics of volatile organic compounds from wastewater treatment system of vitamin C production].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Guo, Bin; Lu, Guo-Li; Ren, Ai-Ling; Du, Zhao; Xing, Zhi-Xian; Han, Peng; Gao, Bo; Liu, Shu-Ya

    2013-12-01

    Using a portable gas chromatography and mass spectrometry (GC-MS), the volatile organic compounds (VOCs) pollution in each unit of the wastewater treatment system for vitamin C production was studied, and the species characteristics of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) were analyzed and summarized. The results showed that 32 kinds of volatile organic compounds were identified, and the total mass concentration range of volatilizing VOCs was 0.9629-32.0970 mg x m(-3). The most species and the largest concentration (25 and 32.0970 mg x m(-3)) of volatilizing VOCs were found in grit chamber, which was located in the most front-end of the wastewater treatment system and was in semi-closed state. The proportion of molecular sulfide in the grit chamber was as high as 30.02%; Higher proportions of aromatic hydrocarbons were monitored in the subsequent processing units, with percentages of 21.06%-31.48%. The main types of VOCs monitored were chlorinated hydrocarbons and ketones, accounting for 6.39%-55.80% and 10.40%-58.08% of the total amount, respectively; 14 kinds of VOCs were detected in every unit of the wastewater treatment system: acetone, 2-butanone, n-hexane, chloroform, chlorobenzene etc, among which, vinyl chloride, styrene and 1,3-butadiene belong to the highly toxic substances. The vinyl chloride concentration exceeded the standard of "atmospheric pollutants emission standards" (GB 16297-1996), while 1,3-butadiene and other pollutants have no national standard limits. The results of this study provide a scientific basis for the revision of China's pharmaceutical wastewater VOCs emission standards. PMID:24640904

  16. Binary Nucleation of Water and Sodium Chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nemec, Thomas [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Marsik, Frantisek [Institute of Thermomechanics ASCR, Prague, Czech Republic; Palmer, Donald [ORNL

    2005-01-01

    Nucleation processes in the binary water-sodium chloride system are investigated in the sense of the classical nucleation theory (CNT). The CNT is modified to be able to handle the electrolytic nature of the system and is employed to investigate the acceleration of the nucleation process due to the presence of sodium chloride in the steam. This phenomenon, frequently observed in the Wilson zone of steam turbines, is called early condensation. Therefore, the nucleation rates of the water-sodium chloride mixture are of key importance in the power cycle industry.

  17. Diffusion behavior of chloride ions in concrete

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhang, T.; Gjoerv, O.E. [Norwegian Univ. of Science and Technology, Trondheim (Norway). Div. of Building Materials

    1996-06-01

    In the present paper, an analysis of the diffusion behavior of chloride ions in concrete is presented. In concentrated electrolytic aqueous solutions such as seawater or that typically used in laboratory experiments, the effect of ionic interaction may significantly reduce the chemical potential and thus the driving force of the diffusing species. Because of different drift velocities of the cations and chloride ions in the solution, the lagging motion of the cations will also retard the drift velocity of the chlorides. In addition, both the electrical double layer forming on the solid surface and the chemical binding may significantly interfere with the transport of the chloride ions. As a result, the diffusion behavior of the chloride ions in concrete is a more complex and complicated transport process than what can be described by Fick`s law of diffusion.

  18. Catastrophic event modeling. [lithium thionyl chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Frank, H. A.

    1981-01-01

    A mathematical model for the catastrophic failures (venting or explosion of the cell) in lithium thionyl chloride batteries is presented. The phenomenology of the various processes leading to cell failure is reviewed.

  19. Realizing Smiles: Pricing Options with Realized Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Corsi, Fulvio; Fusari, Nicola; Davide LA VECCHIA

    2009-01-01

    We develop a stochastic volatility option pricing model that exploits the informative content of historical high frequency data. Using the Two Scales Realized Volatility as a proxy for the unobservable returns volatility, we propose a simple (affine) but effective long-memory process: the Heterogeneous Auto-Regressive Gamma (HARG) model. This discrete–time process, combined with an exponential affine stochastic discount factor, leads to tractable risk-neutral dynamics. The explicit change of ...

  20. Economic process to produce biohydrogen and volatile fatty acids by a mixed culture using vinasse from sugarcane ethanol industry as nutrient source.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sydney, Eduardo Bittencourt; Larroche, Christian; Novak, Alessandra Cristine; Nouaille, Regis; Sarma, Saurabh Jyoti; Brar, Satinder Kaur; Letti, Luiz Alberto; Soccol, Vanete Thomaz; Soccol, Carlos Ricardo

    2014-05-01

    This work evaluates the potential of vinasse (a waste obtained at the bottom of sugarcane ethanol distillation columns) as nutrient source for biohydrogen and volatile fatty acids production by means of anaerobic consortia. Two different media were proposed, using sugarcane juice or molasses as carbon source. The consortium LPBAH1 was selected for fermentation of vinasse supplemented with sugarcane juice, resulting in a higher H2 yield of 7.14 molH2 molsucrose(-1) and hydrogen content in biogas of approx. 31%, while consortium LPBAH2 resulted in 3.66 molH2/molsucrose and 32.7% hydrogen content in biogas. The proposed process showed a rational and economical use for vinasse, a mandatory byproduct of the renewable Brazilian energy matrix.

  1. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in...

  2. A Comprehensive Review of Volatile Data Forensics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dilpreet Singh Bajwa

    2016-05-01

    Full Text Available Volatile data forensics is a new challenging field required attention. Volatile data forensics must consider be a part of digital forensic process rather than individual process. It provides important and crucial information not acquired by following traditional forensic process. While we are following traditional forensic process, the important information like current state of system, running processes, open ports, recent established connections, username and passwords, unencrypted data and keys, traces of malwares and anti-forensic activities may be missed out which are present in volatile memory of system while system is in running state.. Volatile data is a source of this type of information and leads investigation fast in right direction. This paper provides a detailed view of need, challenges, tools, techniques required for volatile data forensics and importance of this field in digital investigation process.

  3. Assessing Relative Volatility/Intermittency/Energy Dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Pakkanen, Mikko; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    process in particular. While this estimation method is motivated by the assessment of relative energy dissipation in empirical data of turbulence, we apply it also to energy price data. Moreover, we develop a probabilistic asymptotic theory for relative power variations of Brownian semistationary......We introduce the notion of relative volatility/intermittency and demonstrate how relative volatility statistics can be used to estimate consistently the temporal variation of volatility/intermittency even when the data of interest are generated by a non-semimartingale, or a Brownian semistationary...... processes and Ito semimartingales and discuss how it can be used for inference on relative volatility/intermittency....

  4. Studies on the pore water sulfate, chloride and sedimentary methane to understand the sulfate reduction process in the eastern Arabian Sea

    Digital Repository Service at National Institute of Oceanography (India)

    Karisiddaiah, S.M.; Borole, D.V.; Rao, B.R.; Paropkari, A.L.; Joao, H.M.; Kocherla, M.; Sarkar, G.P.; Biswas, G.; Kumar, N.

    - reduction. Similarly chloride concentration varies from 561 to 407 mM. The SO42- / Cl- ratio is in the range of 0.025 to 0.072 with an average ratio of ~ 0.05 indicating that there is no significant loss of sulfate in the pore water. The down-core methane...

  5. Finite Difference Schemes for Option Pricing under Stochastic Volatility and Lévy Processes: Numerical Analysis and Computing

    OpenAIRE

    El-Fakharany, Mohamed Mostafa Refaat

    2015-01-01

    [EN] In the stock markets, the process of estimating a fair price for a stock, option or commodity is consider the corner stone for this trade. There are several attempts to obtain a suitable mathematical model in order to enhance the estimation process for evaluating the options for short or long periods. The Black-Scholes partial differential equation (PDE) and its analytical solution, 1973, are considered a breakthrough in the mathematical modeling for the stock markets. Because of the id...

  6. Advanced treatment of residual nitrogen from biologically treated coke effluent by a microalga-mediated process using volatile fatty acids (VFAs) under stepwise mixotrophic conditions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryu, Byung-Gon; Kim, Woong; Heo, Sung-Woon; Kim, Donghyun; Choi, Gang-Guk; Yang, Ji-Won

    2015-09-01

    This work describes the development of a microalga-mediated process for simultaneous removal of residual ammonium nitrogen (NH4(+)-N) and production of lipids from biologically treated coke effluent. Four species of green algae were tested using a sequential mixotrophic process. In the first phase-CO2-supplied mixotrophic condition-all microalgae assimilated NH4(+)-N with no evident inhibition. In second phase-volatile fatty acids (VFAs)-supplied mixotrophic condition-removal rates of NH4(+)-N and biomass significantly increased. Among the microalgae used, Arctic Chlorella sp. ArM0029B had the highest rate of NH4(+)-N removal (0.97 mg/L/h) and fatty acid production (24.9 mg/L/d) which were 3.6- and 2.1-fold higher than those observed under the CO2-supplied mixotrophic condition. Redundancy analysis (RDA) indicated that acetate and butyrate were decisive factors for increasing NH4(+)-N removal and fatty acid production. These results demonstrate that microalgae can be used in a sequential process for treatment of residual nitrogen after initial treatment of activated sludge. PMID:25881553

  7. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....

  8. Wildlife ecological screening levels for inhalation of volatile organic chemicals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gallegos, Patricia; Lutz, Jill; Markwiese, James; Ryti, Randall; Mirenda, Rich

    2007-06-01

    For most chemicals, evaluation of ecological risk typically does not address inhalation because ingestion dominates exposure. However, burrowing ecological receptors have an increased exposure potential from inhalation at sites contaminated with volatile chemicals in the subsurface. Evaluation of ecological risk from contaminants like volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) is constrained by a lack of relevant ecological screening levels (ESLs). To address this need, inhalation ESLs were developed for 16 VOCs: Acetone, benzene, carbon tetrachloride, chloroform, chloromethane, dichlorodifluoromethane, 1,1-dichloroethane, 1,2-dichloroethane, 1,1-dichloroethene, methylene chloride, tetrachloroethene, toluene, 1,1,1-trichloroethane, trichloroethene, trichlorofluoromethane, and total xylene. These ESLs are based on Botta's pocket gopher (Thomomys bottae) as a representative fossorial receptor. The ESLs are presented with an emphasis on the process for developing inhalation toxicity reference values to illustrate the selection of suitable toxicity data and effect levels from the literature. The resulting ESLs provide a quantitative method for evaluating ecological risk of VOCs through comparison to relevant exposure data such as direct burrow-air measurements. The toxicity reference value development and ESL calculation processes and assumptions detailed here are provided as bases from which risk assessors can use or refine to suit site-specific needs with respect to toxicity and exposure inputs.

  9. Constraints on magma processes, subsurface conditions, and total volatile flux at Bezymianny Volcano in 2007-2010 from direct and remote volcanic gas measurements

    Science.gov (United States)

    López, Taryn; Ushakov, Sergey; Izbekov, Pavel; Tassi, Franco; Cahill, Cathy; Neill, Owen; Werner, Cynthia

    2013-08-01

    Direct and remote measurements of volcanic gas composition, SO2 flux, and eruptive SO2 mass from Bezymianny Volcano were acquired between July 2007 and July 2010. Chemical composition of fumarolic gases, plume SO2 flux from ground and air-based ultraviolet remote sensing (FLYSPEC), and eruptive SO2 mass from Ozone Monitoring Instrument (OMI) satellite observations were used along with eruption timing to elucidate magma processes and subsurface conditions, and to constrain total volatile flux. Bezymianny Volcano had five explosive magmatic eruptions between May 2007 and June 2010. The most complete volcanic gas datasets were acquired for the October 2007, December 2009, and May 2010 eruptions. Gas measurements collected prior to the October 2007 eruption have a relatively high ratio of H2O/CO2 (81.2), a moderate ratio of CO2/S (5.47), and a low ratio of S/HCl (0.338), along with moderate SO2 and CO2 fluxes of 280 and 980 t/d, respectively, and high H2O and HCl fluxes of ~ 45,000 and ~ 440 t/d, respectively. These results suggest degassing of shallow magma (consistent with observations of lava extrusion) along with potential minor degassing of a deeper magma source. Gas measurements collected prior to the December 2009 eruption are characterized by relatively low H2O/CO2 (4.13), moderate CO2/S (6.84), and high S/HCl (18.7) ratios, along with moderate SO2 and CO2 fluxes of ~ 220 and ~ 1000 t/d, respectively, and low H2O and HCl fluxes of ~ 1700 and ~ 7 t/d, respectively. These trends are consistent with degassing of a deeper magma source. Fumarole samples collected ~ 1.5 months following the May 2010 eruption are characterized by high H2O/CO2 (63.0), low CO2/S (0.986), and moderate S/HCl (6.09) ratios. These data are consistent with degassing of a shallow, volatile-rich magma source, likely related to the May eruption. Passive and eruptive SO2 measurements are used to calculate a total annual SO2 mass of 109 kt emitted in 2007, with passive emissions comprising ~ 87

  10. An ultra-low-power area-efficient non-volatile memory in a 0.18 μ m single-poly CMOS process for passive RFID tags

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Jia Xiaoyun; Feng Peng; Zhang Shengguang; Wu Nanjian; Zhao Baiqin; Liu Su

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents an ultra-low-power area-efficient non-volatile memory (NVM) in a 0.18μm singlepoly standard CMOS process for passive radio frequency identification (RFID) tags.In the memory cell,a novel low-power operation method is proposed to realize bi-directional Fowler-Nordheim tunneling during write operation.Furthermore,the cell is designed with PMOS transistors and coupling capacitors to minimize its area.In order to improve its reliability,the cell consists of double floating gates to store the data,and the 1 kbit NVM was implemented in a 0.18μm single-poly standard CMOS process.The area of the memory cell and 1 kbit memory array is 96μm2 and 0.12 mm2,respectively.The measured results indicate that the program/erase voltage ranges from 5 to 6 V.The power consumption of the read/write operation is 0.19μW/0.69 μW at a read/write rate of (268 kb/s)/(3.0 kb/s).

  11. CAM Stochastic Volatility Model for Option Pricing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wanwan Huang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The coupled additive and multiplicative (CAM noises model is a stochastic volatility model for derivative pricing. Unlike the other stochastic volatility models in the literature, the CAM model uses two Brownian motions, one multiplicative and one additive, to model the volatility process. We provide empirical evidence that suggests a nontrivial relationship between the kurtosis and skewness of asset prices and that the CAM model is able to capture this relationship, whereas the traditional stochastic volatility models cannot. We introduce a control variate method and Monte Carlo estimators for some of the sensitivities (Greeks of the model. We also derive an approximation for the characteristic function of the model.

  12. Effects of processing methods on composition and functionality of volatile components isolated from immature fruits of atemoya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tai-Ti; Chao, Louis Kuo-Ping; Peng, Chi-Wei; Yang, Tsung-Shi

    2016-07-01

    Atemoya is one of the most important commercial fruits of the family Annonaceae. The immature fruits of atemoya amply produced from a fruit-thinning process is normally regarded as waste and discarded. This research aimed at studying antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil (EO) isolated from the immature fruits to explore its potential application. The fruits were subjected to different drying methods: solar drying (SD), oven drying at 30°C (OD-30), and at 50°C (OD-50). The oven drying method gave a higher EO yield than the solar drying method. Spathulenol was the largest compound in the EO after the drying process. Antimicrobial effect was not affected by the different drying methods. Antioxidant activity of the EO was measured by DPPH, nitric oxide, and reducing power methods. The EOOD-50 exhibited a stronger antioxidant activity than EOSD and EOOD-30. The EO also showed an anti-inflammatory activity in a cell model. PMID:26920282

  13. Effects of processing methods on composition and functionality of volatile components isolated from immature fruits of atemoya.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Liu, Tai-Ti; Chao, Louis Kuo-Ping; Peng, Chi-Wei; Yang, Tsung-Shi

    2016-07-01

    Atemoya is one of the most important commercial fruits of the family Annonaceae. The immature fruits of atemoya amply produced from a fruit-thinning process is normally regarded as waste and discarded. This research aimed at studying antimicrobial, antioxidant, and anti-inflammatory activities of the essential oil (EO) isolated from the immature fruits to explore its potential application. The fruits were subjected to different drying methods: solar drying (SD), oven drying at 30°C (OD-30), and at 50°C (OD-50). The oven drying method gave a higher EO yield than the solar drying method. Spathulenol was the largest compound in the EO after the drying process. Antimicrobial effect was not affected by the different drying methods. Antioxidant activity of the EO was measured by DPPH, nitric oxide, and reducing power methods. The EOOD-50 exhibited a stronger antioxidant activity than EOSD and EOOD-30. The EO also showed an anti-inflammatory activity in a cell model.

  14. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of the EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride, used in mixture which is packed into labels, for absorbing oxygen from the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food supplements. Migration of substances from the labels and formation and release of volatile constituents are not expected under the intended conditions of use. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of substances iron powder, activated carbon, calcined kaolin, sodium chloride, polyacrylic acid, sodium salt, crosslinked and calcium chloride does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorbers in labels, which prevent the physical release of their content into the food. When placed in the headspace of the packaging or when used in direct contact with foods, the labels should not intentionally or unintentionally come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have an external aqueous phase on the surface such as sliced fruits.

  15. Freeze-Drying of L-Arginine/Sucrose-Based Protein Formulations, Part 2: Optimization of Formulation Design and Freeze-Drying Process Conditions for an L-Arginine Chloride-Based Protein Formulation System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stärtzel, Peter; Gieseler, Henning; Gieseler, Margit; Abdul-Fattah, Ahmad M; Adler, Michael; Mahler, Hanns-Christian; Goldbach, Pierre

    2015-12-01

    We recently reported that the presence of chloride counter ions in freeze-dried l-arginine/sucrose formulations provided the greatest protein stability, but led to low collapse temperatures and glass transition temperatures of the freeze concentrates. The objectives of this study were to identify l-arginine chloride-based formulations and optimize freeze-drying process conditions to deliver a freeze-dried product with good physical quality attributes (including cake appearance, residual moisture, and reconstitution time). Additional properties were tested such as thermal properties, cake microstructure, and protein physical stability. Excipient concentrations were varied with and without a model protein (bovine serum albumin, BSA). Formulations were frozen with and without annealing or with and without controlled nucleation. Primary drying was conducted at high and low shelf temperature. Cakes with least defects and optimum physical attributes were achieved when protein to excipient ratios were high. Controlled nucleation led to elegant cakes for most systems at a low shelf temperature. Replacing BSA by a monoclonal antibody showed that protein (physical) stability was slightly improved under stress storage temperature (i.e., 40°C) in the presence of a low concentration of l-arginine in a sucrose-based formulation. At higher l-arginine concentrations, cake defects increased. Using optimized formulation design, addition of l-arginine chloride to a sucrose-based formulation provided elegant cakes and benefits for protein stability.

  16. Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs)

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality Volatile Organic Compounds' Impact on Indoor Air Quality On this page: ... Exposure Standards or Guidelines Additional Resources Introduction Volatile organic compounds (VOCs) are emitted as gases from certain solids ...

  17. 板栗加工工艺对挥发性香气成分的影响%Effect of Processing Technology on Volatile Components of Chinese Chestnut

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    崔亚辉; 徐芳; 王丰俊; 王建中; 欧阳杰

    2012-01-01

    Chinese chestnut forms different flavors by different processing technology. An automatic thermal de-sorption-gas chromatography-mass spectrometric (ATD-GC-MS) system was applied to analyze the volatile composition of raw chestnut, boiled chestnut, fried chestnut and roasted chestnut. Herbaceous aroma such as ethyl acetate, hex-anal, butyl acetate, 1-butanol-3-methyl-acetate, alpha-pinene and benzaldehyde were found in raw chestnut; fried chestnut and roasted chestnut were found to have characteristic volatiles such as 2-pentyl-furan, 3-carene, 4-hydroxy-2-butanone and 2-methyl-tetrahydrofuran-3-ketone; and in boiled chestnut, spiro [2,4] hepta-4,6-diene was found first time. The results will provide a reference for the further research and development of Chinese chestnut products.%板栗经过不同的加工工艺熟化后会产生不同的风味.文中分别对生板栗,以及煮制、炒制和烤制加工后的板栗进行ATD热脱附以及GC-MS分析,得出不同加工工艺条件下的板栗挥发性香气成分.其中生板栗主要有板栗本身的草本清香香气成分,如乙酸乙酯、己醛、乙酸丁酯、3-甲基-1-丁醇乙酸酯、α-蒎烯和苯甲醛等;炒板栗和烤板栗的特征性挥发物有2-戊基呋喃、3-蒈烯、4-羟基-2-丁酮和2-甲基-四氢呋喃-3-酮;煮板栗中发现了之前未在板栗香气研究中报道过的香气成分螺[2,4]庚-4.6-二烯.

  18. Production of poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) from waste organics by the two-stage process: focus on the intermediate volatile fatty acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Liang; Hu, Hongyou; Ji, Hongfang; Cai, Jiyuan; He, Ning; Li, Qingbiao; Wang, Yuanpeng

    2014-08-01

    The two-stage process, coupling volatile fatty acids (VFAs) fermentation and poly(hydroxybutyrate-hydroxyvalerate) (P(HB/HV)) biosynthesis, was investigated for five waste organic materials. The overall conversion efficiencies were glycerol>starch>molasses>waste sludge>protein, meanwhile the maximum P(HB/HV) (1.674 g/L) was obtained from waste starch. Altering the waste type brought more effects on VFAs composition other than the yield in the first stage, which in turn greatly changed the yield in the second stage. Further study showed that even-number carbon VFAs (or odd-number ones) had a good positive linear relationship with P(HB/HV) content of HB (or HV). Additionally, VFA producing microbiota was analyzed by pyrosequencing methods for five wastes, which indicated that specific species (e.g., Lactobacillus for protein; Ethanoligenens for starch; Ruminococcus and Limnobacter for glycerol) were dominant in the community for VFAs production. Potential competition among acidogenic bacteria specially involved to produce some VFA was proposed as well.

  19. Effect of mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS and hydraulic retention time (HRT on the performance of activated sludge process during the biotreatment of real textile wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kapil Kumar

    2014-03-01

    Full Text Available Adequate information is available on colour and organics removal in batch mode using pure microbial cultures from dye contaminated wastewater. There was a need to develop environment friendly and cost effective treatment technique for actual field conditions. Therefore, the present study was undertaken with an aim to evaluate the potential of acclimatized mixed microbial consortia for the removal of colour and organics from real textile wastewater. Experiments were performed in laboratory scale activated sludge process (ASP unit under steady state condition, varying mixed liquor volatile suspended solids (MLVSS (2500, 3500 and 5000 mg/l and hydraulic retention time (HRT (18, 24 and 36 h. The results showed that decolourization and chemical oxygen demand (COD removal increased with increase in MLVSS and HRT. At 18 h HRT, decolourization was found to be 46, 54 and 67%, which increased to 67, 75 and 90% (36 h HRT at 2500, 3500 and 5000 mg/l MLVSS, respectively. COD removal was found to be 62, 73 and 77% (at 18 h HRT which increased to 77, 85 and 91% (36 h HRT at 2000, 3500 and 5000 mg/l MLVSS, respectively. On the basis of the results obtained in this study suitable treatment techniques can be developed for the treatment of wastewater contaminated with variety of dyes in continuous mode of operation. This shall have the advantage of treatment of larger quantity of wastewater in shorter duration.

  20. Generation and detection of metal ions and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emissions from the pretreatment processes for recycling spent lithium-ion batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Jia; Wang, Guangxu; Xu, Zhenming

    2016-06-01

    The recycling of spent lithium-ion batteries brings benefits to both economic and environmental terms, but it can also lead to contaminants in a workshop environment. This study focused on metals, non-metals and volatile organic compounds generated by the discharging and dismantling pretreatment processes which are prerequisite for recycling spent lithium-ion batteries. After discharging in NaCl solution, metal contents in supernate and concentrated liquor were detected. Among results of condition #2, #3, #4 and #5, supernate and concentrated liquor contain high levels of Na, Al, Fe; middle levels of Co, Li, Cu, Ca, Zn; and low levels of Mn, Sn, Cr, Zn, Ba, K, Mg, V. The Hg, Ag, Cr and V are not detected in any of the analyzed supernate. 10wt% NaCl solution was a better discharging condition for high discharge efficiency, less possible harm to environment. To collect the gas released from dismantled LIB belts, a set of gas collecting system devices was designed independently. Two predominant organic vapour compounds were dimethyl carbonate (4.298mgh(-1)) and tert-amylbenzene (0.749mgh(-1)) from one dismantled battery cell. To make sure the concentrations of dimethyl carbonate under recommended industrial exposure limit (REL) of 100mgL(-1), for a workshop on dismantling capacity of 1000kg spent LIBs, the minimum flow rate of ventilating pump should be 235.16m(3)h(-1). PMID:27021697

  1. Determination of volatiles produced during radiation processing in food and medicinal herbs; Determinacao de volateis produzidos durante o processamento por radiacao em ervas alimenticias e medicinais

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salum, Debora Christina

    2008-07-01

    In order to protect food from pathogenic microorganisms as well as to increase its shelf life while keeping sensorial properties (e.g. odor and taste), once the latter are one of the main properties required by spice buyers, it is necessary to analyze volatile formation from irradiation of medicinal and food herbs. The aim of the present study was to analyze volatile formation from Co irradiation of Laurus Cinnamomum, Piper Nigrum, Origanum Vulgare and Myristica Fragans. Possible changes on the odor of these herbs are evaluated by characterizing different radiation doses and effects on sensorial properties in order to allow better application of irradiation technology. l he samples have been irradiated in plastic packages by making use of a {sup 60}Co Gamma irradiator. Irradiation doses of 0, 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25kGy have been tested. For the analysis of the samples, SPME has been applied, while for the analysis of volatile compounds, CG/MS. Spice irradiation has promoted mostly decrease in volatile compounds when doses of 5, 10, 15, 20 and 25kGy were used. For Laurus cinnamomum, the irradiation decreased volatile by nearly 56% and 89.5% respectively, comparing to volatile from a sample which has not been previously irradiated. Differently from other spices analyzed, irradiation on Myristica Fragans has increased volatile compounds except for 4-terpineol. The miristicine (toxic substance when in large quantities, commonly mentioned as narcotic) has increased by nearly 80%. For Origanum Vulgare and Piper Nigrum, significant decrease in volatile compounds have been found, mainly when it comes to 25 kGy irradiation. In general, results indicate loss of sensorial quality of spices. (author)

  2. Implementation of online volatile fatty acids sensor for control and optimization of anaerobic process for low cost biogas production from manure. Project report

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Boe, K.; Angelidaki, I.

    2010-10-15

    Proper monitoring and control can improve process stability and enhance process performance for better economy of the biogas plants. Volatile fatty acid (VFA) is the most widely recognized as a direct, relevant measure of stability. Classic on-line measurement of individual VFA is based on filtration, which suffers from fouling when applied with manure slurries. A VFA sensor developed at DTU Environment, based on headspace chromatography technique could avoid the problems from particulate matters. In this work, the sensor had been implemented for online monitoring of the lab-scale and the pilot-scale manure digester. The industrial prototype of the VFA sensor and sample acquisition system has been constructed and implemented at a pilot scale biogas plant, located at Lundtofte, DTU. The VFA sensor has shown very satisfying results in terms of sensitivity and reliability for monitoring the biogas process. Moreover, the online VFA and biogas registration data were used as process indicators for automatic control of the biogas reactor. The results from control experiments confirmed that the combination of biogas production, total VFA concentration and propionate concentration could effectively reflect the dynamic state of the process which was very crucial for automatic control. Due to the standardized analyzing condition (pH<2, temperature>70 deg. C), the sensor responses were not affected by the manure composition (TS, VS or the addition of extra organics), which made these results representative for implementing in the full-scale biogas plant where some industrial organic wastes were added to increase the biogas production. During the project period, the sensor design and construction had been modified and tested several times to improve the robustness. However, the implementation of the sensor in full-scale biogas plant would need some further development such as improvement of mechanical design and further up-scaling depending on the dry solid content in the

  3. 陈皮炮制前后挥发性成分的比较研究%Study on the Difference between Components in Volatile Oil of Citrus reticulata before and after Being Processed

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    高明; 徐小飞; 陈康; 汪金玉; 黄佩宣

    2012-01-01

    Objective:To analyze the change of components in volatile oil of Citrus reticulata before and after being processed. Methods:The volatile oil of Citrus reticulata was extracted by steam distillation and comparatively studied by GC-MS. Results;The content of volatile of Citrus reticulata after being steamed decreased from 1. 13% to 1. 06%. 34 components was detected in Citrus reticulata. ,30 components was detected in the processed Citrus reticulata ,24 components in volatile oil of Citrus reticulata were identified. 15 components in volatile oil of Citrus reticulata before and after being processed were the same,9 components were not detected after steamed,but there were 9 new kinds being detected. The relative contents of 4 components increased, 10 components decreased. Conclusion : There are many differences between the components in the volatile oil of Citrus reticulata before and after being processed and also the content of the components may offer some theoretical evidence for drug property transform and different clinical application.%目的:分析陈皮炮制前后挥发性化学成分的变化,为探讨炮制原理提供实验依据.方法:以水蒸气蒸馏法提取陈皮炮制品中的挥发油,采用GC-MS联用技术对所提取挥发油的化学成分进行比较分析研究.结果:陈皮蒸制后挥发油含量减少(1.13%→1.06%).陈皮生品挥发油中检测出33个成分,制陈皮挥发油中检测出30个成分,分别鉴定出24个化合物.其中蒸制前后共有的有15种,蒸制后未检出的有9种,新检出的有9种.相对含量增加的有4种,降低的有10种.结论:陈皮蒸制后挥发油的组分及相对含量都发生了变化,为陈皮炮制后药性改变和不同的临床应用提供一定的理论依据.

  4. Volatile organic compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The goal is: Not more emission of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) than necessary. The items discussed in this presentation are the VOCs, how to calculate emission of VOCs, how to reduce or avoid them, and different recovery processes. The largest source of Norwegian emissions of non methane VOCs (NMVOCs) is offshore loading of raw petroleum. Emissions of VOCs should be reduced mainly for two reasons: (1) on sunny days NMVOCs may react with NOx to form ozon and smog close to the surface, (2) ozone and smog close to the surface may be harmful to plants and animals, and they are hazardous to human health. As for the calculation of VOC emissions, the VOCON project will release the calculation program HCGASS in 1999. This project is a cooperative project headed by SINTEF/Marintek

  5. Language, News and Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Byström, Hans

    2014-01-01

    I use Google News TM to study the relation between news volumes and stock market volatilities. More than nine million stock market-related news stories in English and (Mandarin) Chinese are collected and the dynamics of the news volume and the stock market volatility is compared in both the Anglophone world and the Sinophone world. I find that the stock market volatility and the number of publicly available global news stories are strongly linked to each other in both languages. Contemporaneo...

  6. Valuation equations for stochastic volatility models

    OpenAIRE

    Bayraktar, Erhan; Kardaras, Constantinos; Xing, Hao

    2012-01-01

    We analyze the valuation partial differential equation for European contingent claims in a general framework of stochastic volatility models where the diffusion coefficients may grow faster than linearly and degenerate on the boundaries of the state space. We allow for various types of model behavior: the volatility process in our model can potentially reach zero and either stay there or instantaneously reflect, and the asset-price process may be a strict local martingale. Our main result is ...

  7. Modelling the Volatility-Return Trade-off when Volatility may be Nonstationary

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dahl, Christian Møller; Iglesias, Emma M.

    In this paper a new GARCH-M type model, denoted the GARCH-AR, is proposed. In particular, it is shown that it is possible to generate a volatility-return trade-off in a regression model simply by introducing dynamics in the standardized disturbance process. Importantly, the volatility in the GARCH...

  8. Investigation of factors influencing chloride extraction efficiency during electrochemical chloride extraction from reinforcing concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sharp, Stephen R.

    2005-11-01

    Electrochemical chloride extraction (ECE) is an accelerated bridge restoration method similar to cathodic protection, but operates at higher current densities and utilizes a temporary installation. Both techniques prolong the life of a bridge by reducing the corrosion rate of the reinforcing bar when properly applied. ECE achieves this by moving chlorides away from the reinforcement and out of the concrete while simultaneously increasing the alkalinity of the electrolyte near the reinforcing steel. Despite the proven success, significant use of ECE has not resulted in part due to an incomplete understanding in the following areas: (1) An estimation of the additional service life that can be expected following treatment when the treated member is again subjected to chlorides; (2) The cause of the decrease in current flow and, therefore, chloride removal rate during treatment; (3) Influence of water-to-cement (w/c) ratio and cover depth on the time required for treatment. This dissertation covers the research that is connected to the last two areas listed above. To begin examining these issues, plain carbon steel reinforcing bars (rebar) were embedded in portland cement concrete slabs of varying water-to-cement (w/c) ratios and cover depths, and then exposed to chlorides. A fraction of these slabs had sodium chloride added as an admixture, with all of the slabs subjected to cyclical ponding with a saturated solution of sodium chloride. ECE was then used to remove the chlorides from these slabs while making electrical measurements in the different layers between the rebar (cathode) and the titanium mat (anode) to follow the progress of the ECE process. During this study, it was revealed that the resistance of the outer concrete surface layer increases during ECE, inevitably restricting current flow, while the resistance of the underlying concrete decreases or remains constant. During ECE treatment, a white residue formed on the surface of the concrete. Analyses of the

  9. Direct hydride derivatization of methyl- and ethylmercury chlorides in aqueous solution with KBH4

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2000-01-01

    A convenient hydride derivatization procedure of methyl-and ethylmercury chlorides to volatile hydrides was reported. In sealed vials methylmercury and ethylmercury compounds in acidic aqueous solutions were converted into their volatile forms by the reaction with potassium tetrahydroborate(KBH4) and elvolved to the headspace of the vials. The gaseous analytes in the headspace were extracted and concentrated by solid phase microextraction(SPME) and injected into gas chromatography (GC) for separation and identified by mass selective detector(MS).

  10. Assessing relative volatility/intermittency/energy dissipation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Barndorff-Nielsen, Ole E.; Pakkanen, Mikko S.; Schmiegel, Jürgen

    2014-01-01

    process in particular. This estimation method is motivated by the assessment of relative energy dissipation in empirical data of turbulence, but it is also applicable in other areas. We develop a probabilistic asymptotic theory for realised relative power variations of Brownian semistationary processes......, and introduce inference methods based on the theory. We also discuss how to extend the asymptotic theory to other classes of processes exhibiting stochastic volatility/intermittency. As an empirical application, we study relative energy dissipation in data of atmospheric turbulence.......We introduce the notion of relative volatility/intermittency and demonstrate how relative volatility statistics can be used to estimate consistently the temporal variation of volatility/intermittency when the data of interest are generated by a non-semimartingale, or a Brownian semistationary...

  11. [Degradation of succinylcholine chloride].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Németh, G; Török, I; Paál, T

    1993-05-01

    Quantitative thin-layer chormatographic method has been developed for the investigation of the degradation of injection formulations containing succinylcholinium chloride. The method is based on the denistometric determination of the main degradation product, choline at 430 nm after visualization with iodine vapour. The stability of the injection was investigated under various storage conditions and it has been stated that considerable decomposition takes place during as short a period as one week. PMID:8362654

  12. Volatility of volatility and tail risk premiums

    OpenAIRE

    Yang-Ho Park

    2013-01-01

    This paper reports on tail risk premiums in two tail risk hedging strategies: the S&P 500 puts and the VIX calls. As a new measure of tail risk, we suggest using a model-free, risk-neutral measure of the volatility of volatility implied by a cross section of the VIX options, which we call the VVIX index. The tail risk measured by the VVIX index has forecasting power for future tail risk hedge returns. Specifically, consistent with the literature on rare disasters, an increase in the VVIX inde...

  13. SEPARATION OF MAGNESIUM CHLORIDE FROM SEA WATER BY PREFERENTIAL SALT SEPARATION (PSS)

    OpenAIRE

    Khaled Zohdy, Maha Abdel Kareem and Hussein Abdel-Aal*

    2013-01-01

    Magnesium chloride is typically extracted from sea water on an industrial scale by precipitating it as magnesium hydroxide, then converting it to the chloride by adding hydrochloric acid. This process is known as the Dow process which uses the chemical approach in producing magnesium chloride. Kettani and Abdel-Aal [1], proposed a physical separation procedure known as the Preferential Salt Separation (PSS) to obtain magnesium chloride directly from sea water. In principle, the PSS concept is...

  14. The Age of Lunar South Circumpolar Craters Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini, and Shackleton: Implications for Regional Geology, Surface Processes, and Volatile Sequestration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tye, A. R.; Fassett, C. I.; Head, J. W.; Mazarico, E.; Basilevsky, A. T.; Neumann, G. A.; Smith, D. E.; Zuber, M. T.

    2015-01-01

    The interiors of the lunar south circumpolar craters Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini, and Shackleton contain permanently shadowed regions (PSRs) and have been interpreted to contain sequestered volatiles including water ice. Altimetry data from the Lunar Orbiter Laser Altimeter (LOLA) onboard the Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter provide a new means of examining the permanently shadowed interiors of these craters in unprecedented detail. In this study, we used extremely high-resolution gridded LOLA data of Haworth, Shoemaker, Faustini, and Shackleton to determine the size-frequency distributions and the spatial density of craters superposing their rims, inner slopes, and floors. Based on their population of superposed D greater than or equal to 2 km craters, Haworth, Shoemaker, and Faustini have pre-Nectarian formation ages. Shackleton is interpreted as having a Late Imbrian age on the basis of craters with diameter D greater than or equal to 0.5 km superposed on its rim. The local density of craters with sub-km diameters across our study area is strongly dependent on slope; because of its steep interior slopes, the lifetime of craters on the interior of Shackleton is limited. The slope-dependence of the small crater population implies that the population in this size range is controlled primarily by the rate at which craters are destroyed. This is consistent with the hypothesis that crater removal and resurfacing is a result of slopedependent processes such as diffusive mass wasting and seismic shaking, linked to micrometeorite and meteorite bombardment. Epithermal neutron flux data and UV albedo data show that these circumpolar PSRs, particularly Shoemaker, may have approximately 1-2% water ice by mass in their highly porous surface regolith, and that Shoemaker may have approximately 5% or more water ice by mass in the near subsurface. The ancient formation ages of Shoemaker, Faustini and Haworth, and the Late Imbrian (approximately 3.5 Ga) crater retention ages of their

  15. Corrosion evaluation of multi-pass welded nickel–aluminum bronze alloy in 3.5% sodium chloride solution: A restorative application of gas tungsten arc welding process

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • Corrosion of GTA welded nickel–aluminum bronze (C95800) was studied. • Drastic microstructural changes occurred during the welding operations. • The β′ and α phases acts as anode and cathode, correspondingly, in weld region. • A few nanoamperes couple current was measured in ZRA test as galvanic corrosion. • Corrosion resistance of weld parts could not be weakened in marine environments. - Abstract: In this research, the corrosion behavior of a gas tungsten arc welded nickel–aluminum bronze (NAB) alloy is investigated by DC and AC electrochemical techniques in 3.5% sodium chloride solution. Regarding the electrochemical impedance spectroscopy and potentiodynamic results, uniform corrosion resistance of instantly immersed weld and base samples are almost analogous and increased (more in weld region) during the immersion times. Moreover, zero resistant ammeter results demonstrated that the few nanoampere galvanic currents are attributed to microstructural and morphological differences between these two regions. Therefore, the welding procedure could not deteriorate the general corrosion resistance of the restored damaged NAB parts operating in marine environments

  16. 正交实验法优选润肠通乐丸中挥发油包合工艺%Orthogonal test for optimization of inclusion process for volatile oil in Runchangtongle Pills

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    吕倩; 庞来祥; 郭涛; 王飞; 刘文文

    2013-01-01

    目的 研究β-CD包合润肠通乐丸中当归、枳实挥发油的最佳工艺.方法 采用正交实验设计,以油和β-CD比例、β-CD和水比例、包合温度、包合时间为考察因素,以挥发油利用率和包合物收得率进行综合评分,优选β-CD包合润肠通乐丸中挥发油的最佳工艺条件.结果 最佳挥发油包合工艺条件为:油与β-CD比例为1∶4,加15倍量水,40 ℃包合3 h.结论 该工艺简单、稳定、可行,挥发油利用率和包合物收得率较高,包合效果良好.%Objective To study the optimal inclusion process conditions for volatile oil from Angelica sinensis (Oliv. ) Diels. And Cit-rus auranlium L. In Runchangtongle Pills. Methods The volatile oil utilization efficiency and inclusion yield were evaluated by using four indexes including the ratio of volatile oil to β-CD,The ratio of β-CD to water,inclusion temperature and inclusion time. The saturated water solutions method was used to optimize the technology for preparing β-CD inclusion compound. Results The optimal preparation conditions for inclusion were established as follows:volatile oil : β-CD was 1 : 4 ,β-CD : water was 1 : 15,the temperature was at 40 ℃ ,and the inclusion time was 3 h. Conclusion The whole inclusion technique is simple,stable and feasible, the yield is high in the optimal process conditions,and the purpose of inclusion was achieved.

  17. Chloride channels of platelets%血小板氯通道

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    陈晓琳; 尹松梅

    2004-01-01

    Chloride channels distribute widely in the body, and participate in many physiological actions and regulatory processes. Based on their physiological roles and molecular structures, six kinds of chloride channels have been identified: (1) The chloride channels family; (2) Cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator; (3) Swelling-activated chloride channels; (4) Calcium-activated chloride channels; (5) The p64 (CLIC) gene family; (6) γ-aminobutyric acid and glycine receptors. The chloride channels do exist in platelets, and their appearances are dependent on the presence of intracellular calcium. Blocking agents of chloride channels inhibit the thrombin-activated platelet aggregation and the elevation of the intracellular calcium concentration in a dose-dependent manner. It is suggested that chloride channels play a role in the activation of platelets. In addition, chloride channels act on both the cell volume regulation and the intracellular pH regulation in platelets.

  18. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time. PMID:27105154

  19. Stochastic Volatility and DSGE Models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andreasen, Martin Møller

    This paper argues that a specification of stochastic volatility commonly used to analyze the Great Moderation in DSGE models may not be appropriate, because the level of a process with this specification does not have conditional or unconditional moments. This is unfortunate because agents may...... as a result expect productivity and hence consumption to be inifinite in all future periods. This observation is followed by three ways to overcome the problem....

  20. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl2, and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl2 decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al2O3.CaCl2) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl2. Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl2.

  1. Processo de organofilização de vermiculia brasileira com cloreto de cetiltrimetilamônio Organophilization process of Brazilian vermiculite with cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    E. V. D Gomes

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available A vermiculita, argila da família dos aluminossilicatos 2:1 proveniente do estado de Goiás, Brasil, foi utilizada para a produção de uma argila organofílica. A vermiculita foi primeiramente submetida ao tratamento com cloreto de sódio para a obtenção de uma argila homoiônica sódica. A argila organofílica foi, então, obtida a partir da síntese com o sal de amônio quaternário, cloreto de cetiltrimetil amônio. As argilas, tratada com o sal orgânico e a não tratada, foram caracterizadas por espectrometria de fluorescência de raios X, espectroscopia de absorção na região do infravermelho, difração de raios X e análise termogravimétrica. Os resultados de fluorescência de raios X evidenciaram a mudança na composição química da vermiculita após as reações de troca com NaCl e sal orgânico. Os resultados obtidos por espectroscopia de absorção na região do infravermelho mostraram a presença dos grupos característicos do sal na argila e os de difração de raios X confirmaram sua intercalação entre as camadas da argila. Os resultados de análise termogravimétrica mostraram que a argila organofílica apresentou outras faixas de decomposição, além daquelas apresentadas pela vermiculita natural, correspondentes à decomposição do sal de amônio quaternário.The vermiculite (VMT, 2:1 aluminosilicate family clay from the state of Goiás, Brazil, was used for the production of an organophilic clay. First, the VMT was treated with sodium chloride to obtain the homo-ionic sodium clay. The organophilic clay was, then, obtained from the reaction with the quaternary ammonium salt, cetyltrimethyl ammonium chloride. The clay treated with organic salt and the untreated one were characterized by X-ray fluorescence spectrometry (XRF, Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy (FTIR, X-ray diffraction (XRD and thermogravimetric analysis (TGA. The results of XRF evidenced the change in the chemical composition of the VMT after the

  2. Volume, Volatility and Public News Announcements

    OpenAIRE

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Jia; Xue, Yuan

    2016-01-01

    We provide new empirical evidence for the way in which financial markets process information. Our results are based on high-frequency intraday data along with new econometric techniques for making inference on the relationship between trading intensity and spot volatility around public news announcements. Consistent with the predictions derived from a theoretical model in which investors agree to disagree, our estimates for the intraday volume-volatility elasticity around the most important n...

  3. Armazenamento de sementes tratadas com cloreto de mepiquat e desenvolvimento de plântulas de algodoeiro Processing of seeds treated with mepiquat chloride and the development of cotton seedlings

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eliege Aparecida de Paiva Oliveira

    2012-04-01

    objective was to evaluate the development of cotton seedlings, grown from seeds treated with chloride mepiquat at different doses, application forms and stored after treatment. The seeds were treated with '120 IPR' solutions mepiquat chloride at doses of zero, 5, 10, 15 and 20g a. i kg-1 seed, via soaking for 12 hours and via direct application in seed. The treated seeds were stored in laboratory conditions and evaluated monthly until 180 days. We evaluated the germination, the length of shoot, root and total, the dry weight of seedlings. The data for each storage period, were subjected to analysis of variance and means of application methods were compared by Tukey test at 5%, under the completely randomized design with four replications in a factorial 5x2 (doses x application forms. The data were subjected to doses of regression studies until 2nd grade. Seeds treated with mepiquat chloride, independent of dose and can be stored for up to 180 days after treatment, without compromising the process of germination and growth regulator action. Treatment via soaking of seeds with mepiquat chloride provides the greatest reduction in seedling growth in relation to direct application. The increased rate of mepiquat chloride causes the reduction the growth and development of cotton seedlings, providing less length and dry mass.

  4. Estimation of a multivariate stochastic volatility density by kernel deconvolution

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    B. van Es; P. Spreij

    2011-01-01

    We consider a continuous time stochastic volatility model. The model contains a stationary volatility process. We aim to estimate the multivariate density of the finite-dimensional distributions of this process. We assume that we observe the process at discrete equidistant instants of time. The dist

  5. Volatility persistence in crude oil markets

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Financial market participants and policy-makers can benefit from a better understanding of how shocks can affect volatility over time. This study assesses the impact of structural changes and outliers on volatility persistence of three crude oil markets – Brent, West Texas Intermediate (WTI) and Organization of Petroleum Exporting Countries (OPEC) – between January 2, 1985 and June 17, 2011. We identify outliers using a new semi-parametric test based on conditional heteroscedasticity models. These large shocks can be associated with particular event patterns, such as the invasion of Kuwait by Iraq, the Operation Desert Storm, the Operation Desert Fox, and the Global Financial Crisis as well as OPEC announcements on production reduction or US announcements on crude inventories. We show that outliers can bias (i) the estimates of the parameters of the equation governing volatility dynamics; (ii) the regularity and non-negativity conditions of GARCH-type models (GARCH, IGARCH, FIGARCH and HYGARCH); and (iii) the detection of structural breaks in volatility, and thus the estimation of the persistence of the volatility. Therefore, taking into account the outliers on the volatility modelling process may improve the understanding of volatility in crude oil markets. - Highlights: • We study the impact of outliers on volatility persistence of crude oil markets. • We identify outliers and patches of outliers due to specific events. • We show that outliers can bias (i) the estimates of the parameters of GARCH models, (ii) the regularity and non-negativity conditions of GARCH-type models, (iii) the detection of structural breaks in volatility of crude oil markets

  6. Expression and cellular localisation of chloride intracellular channel 3 in human placenta and fetal membranes

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Money, T. T.; King, R. G.; Wong, M.H.; Stevenson, J. L.; Kalionis, B.; Erwich, J. J. H. M.; Huisman, Marcel; Timmer, A.; Hiden, U.; Desoye, G.; Gude, N. M.

    2007-01-01

    Chloride channels regulate the movement of a major cellular anion and are involved in fundamental processes that are critical for cell viability. Regulation of intracellular chloride is achieved by multiple classes of channel proteins. One class of putative channels are the chloride intracellular ch

  7. Pricing Volatility of Stock Returns with Volatile and Persistent Components

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Zhu, Jie

    2009-01-01

    This paper introduces a two-component volatility model based on first moments of both components to describe the dynamics of speculative return volatility. The two components capture the volatile and the persistent part of volatility, respectively. The model is applied to 10 Asia-Pacific stock...

  8. Dynamic Volatility Arbitrage

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Dorn, Jochen

    profit on well-developed markets. Dynamic participation features on cross asset portfolios are at rst sight a remedy to that dilemma. Based on volatility thresholds and portfolio re-balancing, the fund engineers try to create a "volatility guaranteed" investment opportunity by surfing on the unusual high...... concepts, next to nothing is known about position reverting strategies and how, and -even more important- in which context they are applied in practice. In the recent market downturn only one sector generated signicant profits for the leading investment banks: Volatility trading activities, namely on Forex......, interest rates and commodities. If an investor positions himself on the (volatility) market within a long/short trading framework, he typically bets on a traditional mispricing arbitrage. However as this corresponds to a call spread with equal exercise prices, this strategy alone would not generate enough...

  9. Model studies on retention of added volatiles during breadcrumb production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dimelow, Christopher P; Linforth, Robert S T; Taylor, Andrew J

    2005-05-01

    Breadcrumb samples were prepared with a range of volatile compounds at known concentrations. The retention of these volatiles was assessed via solvent extraction and quantification by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry. Volatile loss during processing was shown to be substantial and dependent upon the compound's vapor pressure. The influence of initial concentration levels on the retention of volatiles was linear within the bounds of the experimental concentrations (0-300 mg/kg). Comparison of volatile concentration at various stages throughout the production process (by headspace analysis) showed that the greatest losses occurred during the processing stages that involved heat, namely, microwave heating and drying. The production of samples by freeze drying showed an increased average retention of 17% as compared to fluidized bed drying and flat bed drying, which showed the highest volatile losses. PMID:15853403

  10. Pyrolysis of poly(vinyl chloride) and-electric arc furnacedust mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harahsheh, Mohammad; Al-Otoom, Awni; Al-Makhadmah, Leema; Hamilton, Ian E; Kingman, Sam; Al-Asheh, Sameer; Hararah, Muhanned

    2015-12-15

    An investigation into the pyrolysis kinetics of PVC mixed with electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) was performed. Mixtures of both materials with varying PVC ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:3) were prepared and pyrolyzed in a nitrogen atmosphere under dynamic heating conditions at different heating rates (5, 10, 30 and 50 °C/min). The pyrolysis process proceeded through two main decomposition steps; the first step involved the release of HCl which reacted with the metal oxides present in the dust, subsequently forming metal chlorides and water vapor. Benzene was also found to release as detected by TGA-MS. The remaining hydrocarbons in the polymer backbone decomposed further in the second step releasing further volatile hydrocarbons. Different models were used to fit the kinetic data namely the integral, the Van Krevelen, and Coats and Red fern methods. The presence of EAFD during PVC decomposition resulted in a considerable decrease in the activation energy of the reaction occurring during the first decomposition region. Furthermore, iron oxides were retained in the pyrolysis residue, whilst other valuable metals, including Zn and Pb, were converted to chlorides that are recoverable by leaching in water. It is believed that EAFD can be utilized as an active catalyst to produce energy gases such as propyneas evident from the TGA-MS. PMID:26183236

  11. Pyrolysis of poly(vinyl chloride) and-electric arc furnacedust mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Al-Harahsheh, Mohammad; Al-Otoom, Awni; Al-Makhadmah, Leema; Hamilton, Ian E; Kingman, Sam; Al-Asheh, Sameer; Hararah, Muhanned

    2015-12-15

    An investigation into the pyrolysis kinetics of PVC mixed with electric arc furnace dust (EAFD) was performed. Mixtures of both materials with varying PVC ratios (1:1, 1:2, 1:3) were prepared and pyrolyzed in a nitrogen atmosphere under dynamic heating conditions at different heating rates (5, 10, 30 and 50 °C/min). The pyrolysis process proceeded through two main decomposition steps; the first step involved the release of HCl which reacted with the metal oxides present in the dust, subsequently forming metal chlorides and water vapor. Benzene was also found to release as detected by TGA-MS. The remaining hydrocarbons in the polymer backbone decomposed further in the second step releasing further volatile hydrocarbons. Different models were used to fit the kinetic data namely the integral, the Van Krevelen, and Coats and Red fern methods. The presence of EAFD during PVC decomposition resulted in a considerable decrease in the activation energy of the reaction occurring during the first decomposition region. Furthermore, iron oxides were retained in the pyrolysis residue, whilst other valuable metals, including Zn and Pb, were converted to chlorides that are recoverable by leaching in water. It is believed that EAFD can be utilized as an active catalyst to produce energy gases such as propyneas evident from the TGA-MS.

  12. Non-volatile memories

    CERN Document Server

    Lacaze, Pierre-Camille

    2014-01-01

    Written for scientists, researchers, and engineers, Non-volatile Memories describes the recent research and implementations in relation to the design of a new generation of non-volatile electronic memories. The objective is to replace existing memories (DRAM, SRAM, EEPROM, Flash, etc.) with a universal memory model likely to reach better performances than the current types of memory: extremely high commutation speeds, high implantation densities and retention time of information of about ten years.

  13. It’s all about volatility of volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Grassi, Stefano; Santucci de Magistris, Paolo

    2015-01-01

    for the realized volatility series. It emerges that during the recent financial crisis the relative weight of the daily component dominates over the monthly term. The estimates of the two factor stochastic volatility model suggest that the change in the dynamic structure of the realized volatility during...... the financial crisis is due to the increase in the volatility of the persistent volatility term. A set of Monte Carlo simulations highlights the robustness of the methodology adopted in tracking the dynamics of the parameters....

  14. Solidification of spent TBP solvent with aluminium chloride compounds

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The new techniques for processing spent TBP was investigated. It was proved that treatment of TBP containing DBP with aluminium chloride resulted in the formation of aluminium phosphate suitable for long term storage and final disposal

  15. Treatment and utilization of waste residue produced from polyaluminium chloride process%聚合氯化铝生产废渣的处理与利用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    李娜; 向浩; 鲁义军; 陈济美; 杜冬云

    2011-01-01

    湖北某公司在生产聚合氯化铝(PAC)的过程中产生的黏稠胶状泥渣具有弱酸性、含水量大的特点,若直接堆放填埋,易污染环境.针对该泥渣的处理和利用途径进行了实验探讨,提出了中和改性处理废渣及其利用的两种新途径.一是作建筑材料,取代部分黏土,制备烧结普通砖;二是作石油产品精炼用脱色剂的添加剂.研究结果表明:加入泥渣质量2%的生石灰,可将具有刺激性气味的酸性泥浆变成近中性或中性,无味无毒,不污染环境;改性废渣掺入质量在10%~20%时,所制成砖的质量能达到国家标准,且可降低焙烧温度50~100℃;改性后的废渣可作为脱色剂的添加剂,当渣料/基料比控制在(1:9)~(2:8)时渣料的加入不仅降低产品成本,且对脱色力和比表面两项指标影响不大,性能符合相关要求,该成果已应用于实际生产.%The polyaluminium chloride (PAC) waste residue produced by a company in Hubei province is viscous and colloidal, and of weak acidity and large moisture. If it was piled or landfilled directly,environment would be polluted. The experimental investigation was carried out for treatment and utilization of the waste. Two ways were proposed for modification and utilization of the waste. One is to be used as building materials in stead of part cement to produce fired common brick; the other is to be used as additive of decolorant for refinement of petrochemical. The results show that the acidic mud with pungent swell can be changed to near neutral or neutral, and become odorless, non-toxic and environment-friendly by adding 2% of calcium lime. When the adding amount for modifying waste is within 10%-20%, the fired bricks with it could reach the requirements of the national standard and calcination temperature did reduce about 50-100℃. The modified waste could be used as additive of decolorant. When the ratio of waste/base material was in the range of (1 : 9)-(2: 8

  16. Recovering germanium from coal ash by chlorination with ammonium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2002-01-01

    A new process of enriching germanium from coal ash was developed. The process involves in mixing the coal ash and ammonium chloride and then roasting the mixture to produce germanium chloride that is then absorbed by dilute hydrochloric acid and hydrolyzed to germanium oxide. The germanium recovery reached to 80.2% at the optimum condition: mass ratio of NH4Cl/coal ash is 0.15, roasting temperature 400℃ and roasting time 90 min.

  17. Does implied volatility of currency futures option imply volatility of exchange rates?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Alan T.

    2007-02-01

    By investigating currency futures options, this paper provides an alternative economic implication for the result reported by Stein [Overreactions in the options market, Journal of Finance 44 (1989) 1011-1023] that long-maturity options tend to overreact to changes in the implied volatility of short-maturity options. When a GARCH process is assumed for exchange rates, a continuous-time relationship is developed. We provide evidence that implied volatilities may not be the simple average of future expected volatilities. By comparing the term-structure relationship of implied volatilities with the process of the underlying exchange rates, we find that long-maturity options are more consistent with the exchange rates process. In sum, short-maturity options overreact to the dynamics of underlying assets rather than long-maturity options overreacting to short-maturity options.

  18. Valyl benzyl ester chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Grzegorz Dutkiewicz

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title compound (systematic name: 1-benzyloxy-3-methyl-1-oxobutan-2-aminium chloride, C12H18NO2+·Cl−, the ester group is approximately planar, with a maximum deviation of 0.040 (2 Å from the least-squares plane, and makes a dihedral angle of 28.92 (16° with the phenyl ring. The crystal structure is organized by N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds which join the two components into a chain along the b axis. Pairs of chains arranged antiparallel are interconnected by further N—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, forming eight-membered rings. Similar packing modes have been observed in a number of amino acid ester halides with a short unit-cell parameter of ca 5.5 Å along the direction in which the chains run.

  19. A Jump-Diffusion Model with Stochastic Volatility and Durations

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Wei; Pelletier, Denis

    Market microstructure theories suggest that the durations between transactions carry information about volatility. This paper puts forward a model featuring stochastic volatility, stochastic conditional duration, and jumps to analyze high frequency returns and durations. Durations affect price...... jumps in two ways: as exogenous sampling intervals, and through the interaction with volatility. We adopt a bivariate Ornstein-Ulenbeck process to model intraday volatility and conditional duration. We develop a MCMC algorithm for the inference on irregularly spaced multivariate processes with jumps....... The algorithm provides smoothed estimates of the latent variables such as spot volatility, conditional duration, jump times, and jump sizes. We apply this model to IBM data and find that volatility and conditional duration are interdependent. We also find that jumps play an important role in return variation...

  20. 尼罗罗非鱼暂养阶段挥发性成分的变化%Changes of Volatile Components in Nile Tilapia during Purging Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    杜伟光; 李小定; 王术娥; 熊善柏; 付娜; 王红梅; 胡芬; 杨晓波; 龚霞

    2011-01-01

    The volatile compounds in the muscle of Tilapia nilotica during 12 days of purging in autumn were extracted by solid phase micro-extraction (SPME) and analyzed by gas chromatography-mass spectroscopy (GC-MS). Totally 31 kinds of volatile compounds were isolated and identified including aldehydes, hydrocarbons, Kwai alkenes, aromatic hydrocarbons, alcohols, esters, terpenes, and others, in which aldehydes, aromatic hydrocarbons and hydrocarbons were the top three most abundant compounds, with a relative level to total volatile compounds of 36.97%, 17.85%, 20.70% at the beginning of the purging period and 44.49%, 34.65%, 8.66% at the end of the purging period, respectively. After 8 days of purging, the contents of octanal and nonanal significantly decreased, and neither octatriene nor cyclohexene were detected, which is desirable for the elimination of undesirable odor. Meanwhile, the contents of benzaldehyde and aromatic benzene ring increased, which was helpful in promoting the formation of desirable flavor in tilapia.%以尼罗罗非鱼为原料,通过固相微萃取和气质联用仪对挥发性成分进行萃取和分离鉴定,测定尼罗罗非鱼肉的气味组成,并对暂养阶段的挥发性成分变化做初步分析。结果表明:从尼罗罗非鱼肉中检测出挥发性醛类、烷烃类、芳烃类、醇类、酯类和烯类等31种有效成分,其中含量由高到低依次为醛类、芳烃类和烷烃类,暂养初期和末期分别占挥发性化合物总量的36.97%、17.85%、20.70%和44.49%、34.65%、8.66%。暂养时间为8d时,辛醛和工醛含量有明显的下降,有利于脱除不良风味;辛三烯和环己烯同时未检出,消除了不良气味

  1. Long-memory volatility in derivative hedging

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tan, Abby

    2006-10-01

    The aim of this work is to take into account the effects of long memory in volatility on derivative hedging. This idea is an extension of the work by Fedotov and Tan [Stochastic long memory process in option pricing, Int. J. Theor. Appl. Finance 8 (2005) 381-392] where they incorporate long-memory stochastic volatility in option pricing and derive pricing bands for option values. The starting point is the stochastic Black-Scholes hedging strategy which involves volatility with a long-range dependence. The stochastic hedging strategy is the sum of its deterministic term that is classical Black-Scholes hedging strategy with a constant volatility and a random deviation term which describes the risk arising from the random volatility. Using the fact that stock price and volatility fluctuate on different time scales, we derive an asymptotic equation for this deviation in terms of the Green's function and the fractional Brownian motion. The solution to this equation allows us to find hedging confidence intervals.

  2. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection of Environment... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride, and/or polyvinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section....

  3. Asymmetry Effects of shocks in Chinese Stock Markets Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hou, Ai Jun

    2013-01-01

    The unique characteristics of the Chinese stock markets make it difficult to assume a particular distribution for innovations in returns and the specification form of the volatility process when modelling return volatility with the parametric GARCH family models. This paper therefore applies...... nonparametric model demonstrates a better performance for return volatility forecasts, particularly for the out-of-sample forecast. The results from this paper have important implications in risk management, portfolio selection, and hedging strategy....

  4. Removal of chloride from electric arc furnace dust.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Wei-Sheng; Shen, Yun-Hwei; Tsai, Min-Shing; Chang, Fang-Chih

    2011-06-15

    Electric arc furnace (EAF) dust with high chloride content increases the threat of dioxin emissions and the high chloride content reduces the value of recycled zinc oxide produced by EAF dust recycling plants. This study conducts a number of laboratory experiments to determine the technical feasibility of a new dechlorination method. These methods consist of a series of roasting processes and water washing processes. In the roasting process, EAF dust was heated in a tube furnace to evaluate the parameters of atmospheric conditions, roasting temperature, and roasting time. Results indicate that sulfation roasting is more efficient in reducing chloride content than other roasting processes. The water washing process can totally remove water-soluble chloride at a solid to liquid ratio of 1:10. However, the remaining water-insoluble substance is difficult to dechlorinate. For example, lead chloride forms a hydroxyl-halide (PbOHCl) and lead chloride carbonate (Pb(2)CO(3)Cl(2)) agglutinative matrix that is hard to wash away.

  5. Ionometric determination of chloride ion in circulating and waste waters

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Bebeshko, G.I.; Afanas' eva, V.I.; Danielova, I.I.; Dmitriev, M.A.; Radchenko, A.F.

    1986-09-01

    The authors attempt to develop selective ionometric methods to determine chloride ion in waste and circulating waters from technological ore processing, containing significant amounts of sulfide ion and various flotation reagents. These waters contain practically no cations that form hard to dissolve compounds with chloride ion such as Ag/sup +/, Cu/sup +/, Hg/sup +/ or Pb/sup 2 +/. The chloride ion concentration in water varies between 10 and 100 mg/liter. Information is shown on the concentration of the main anions and flotation reagents in waters that were analyzed.

  6. Stochastic Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Structures Exposed to Chloride Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frier, Christian

    2003-01-01

    concentration and reinforcement cover depth are modeled by stochastic fields. The paper contains a description of the parameters to be included in a stochastic model and a proposal for the information needed to obtain values for the parameters in order to be ab le to perform reliability investigations...... the reinforcement exceeds a critical threshold value. In the present paper a stochastic model is described by which the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be estimated. The chloride ingress is modeled by a 2-dimensional diffusion process and the diffusion coefficient, surface chloride...

  7. Review of irradiated uranium recycling processes by non-aqueous method

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Recycling processes of irradiated uranium fuel by non aqueous method have been reviewed. The fluoride volatilization process is carried out by dissolving irradiated uranium fuel in BrF3 or CIF3 to produce UF6 volatile gas and PuF4 and fission products in fluoride form which are then separated by distillation. The chloride volatility process is used for U-Zr alloy fuel by using hydro chlorination process at temperature of 350-600oC to separate ZrCl4 volatile from UCI3 which is then dissolved and distilled. The processes which are carried out at high temperature are pyrochemical and pyrometallurgical. Development of fluorides volatility process for the separation of U-Pu from irradiated uranium fuel is fluidization technique. Oxidation and fluorination reaction can be carried out in a fluidized bed reactor. DUPIC process uses spent fuel of PWR which is directly pulverized into powder for Candu reactor fuel. The review shows that due to the advantage and simplicity, the pyrochemical and oxidation-reduction process can be developed in Indonesia to study the separation of U-Pu from fission products in the irradiated fuel. The fluidization technique can also be developed, but it needs a special facility to handle gaseous reagent. (author)

  8. Understanding Interest Rate Volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Volker, Desi

    This thesis is the result of my Ph.D. studies at the Department of Finance of the Copenhagen Business School. It consists of three essays covering topics related to the term structure of interest rates, monetary policy and interest rate volatility. The rst essay, \\Monetary Policy Uncertainty...... and Interest Rates", examines the role of monetary policy uncertainty on the term structure of interest rates. The second essay, \\A Regime-Switching A ne Term Structure Model with Stochastic Volatility" (co-authored with Sebastian Fux), investigates the ability of the class of regime switching models...... with and without stochastic volatility to capture the main stylized features of U.S. interest rates. The third essay, \\Variance Risk Premia in the Interest Rate Swap Market", investigates the time-series and cross-sectional properties of the compensation demanded for holding interest rate variance risk. The essays...

  9. The ANAMMOX reactor under transient-state conditions: process stability with fluctuations of the nitrogen concentration, inflow rate, pH and sodium chloride addition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jin-Jin; Jin, Ren-Cun

    2012-09-01

    The process stability of an anaerobic ammonium oxidation (ANAMMOX) was investigated in an upflow anaerobic sludge blanket reactor subjected to overloads of 2.0- to 3.0-fold increases in substrate concentrations, inflow rates lasting 12 or 24h, extreme pH levels of 4 and 10 for 12h and a 12-h 30 g l(-1) NaCl addition. During the overloads, the nitrogen removal rate improved, and the shock period was an important factor affecting the reactor performance. In the high pH condition, the reactor performance significantly degenerated; while in the low pH condition, it did not happen. The NaCl addition caused the most serious deterioration in the reactor, which took 108 h to recover and was accompanied by a stoichiometric ratio divergence. There are well correlations between the total nitrogen and the electrical conductivity which is considered to be a convenient signal for controlling and monitoring the ANAMMOX process under transient-state conditions. PMID:22728197

  10. Microwave Extraction of Volatiles for Mars Science and ISRU

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ethridge, Edwin C.; Kaulker, William F.

    2012-01-01

    The greatest advantage of microwave heating for volatiles extraction is that excavation can be greatly reduced. Surface support operations would be simple consisting of rovers with drilling capability for insertion of microwaves down bore holes to heat at desired depths. The rovers would also provide support to scientific instruments for volatiles analysis and for volatiles collection and storage. The process has the potential for a much lower mass and a less complex system than other in-situ processes. Microwave energy penetrates the surface heating within with subsequent sublimation of water or decomposition of volatile containing minerals. On Mars the volatiles should migrate to the surface to be captured with a cold trap. The water extraction and transport process coupled with atmospheric CO2 collection could readily lead to a propellant production process, H2O + CO2 yields CH4 + O2.

  11. The implied volatility smirk

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, JE; Xiang, Y.

    2008-01-01

    This paper provides an industry standard on how to quantify the shape of the implied volatility smirk in the equity index options market. Our local expansion method uses a second-order polynomial to describe the implied volatility-moneyness function and relates the coefficients of the polynomial to the properties of the implied risk-neutral distribution of the equity index return. We present a formal, two-way representation of the link between the level, slope and curvature of the implied vol...

  12. Lead removal from cathode ray tube glass by the action of calcium hydroxide and poly(vinyl chloride)

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Highlights: • About 99.9% of lead is removed from CRT glass by PbCl2 volatilization. • PVC is used as chlorination agent with the aid of Ca(OH)2 as HCl absorbing material. • The residual calcium silicate has a lead content as low as 140 mg kg−1. • Lead leaching from the residue was below the detection limit. - Abstract: With the development of flat screen technology, the cathode ray tubes (CRTs) used in TV sets became obsolete, leaving huge amounts of lead-containing CRT glass for disposal. We developed a novel lead volatilization process in which PbCl2 was generated in the presence of poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as a chlorination agent and Ca(OH)2 as an HCl absorber. PVC was incinerated in air atmosphere and the resulting HCl was captured by Ca(OH)2 before exiting the reactor with the air flow. CaCl2 and Ca(OH)2 reacted with the lead glass forming volatile PbCl2 and crystalline Ca-silicates. Since the reactivity of lead glass with gaseous HCl is negligible, the presence of Ca(OH)2 was essential for the success of this method. At a temperature of 1000 °C, a molar Cl/Pb ratio of 16, and a molar Ca/Si ratio of about 2, approximately 99.9% of the lead was volatilized, leaving a residue with a lead content of 140 mg kg−1. The residual calcium silicate, with its low lead level, has the potential to be repurposed for other uses

  13. Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, and virulence in Listeria monocytogenes.

    OpenAIRE

    MYERS, E. R.; Dallmier, A W; Martin, S E

    1993-01-01

    Virulence, as determined in a mouse model, and the virulence factor activities of catalase, superoxide dismutase, and listeriolysin O were examined in a parental strain (10403S) and in a nonhemolytic mutant strain (DP-L224) of Listeria monocytogenes. The cells were propagated in media containing various concentrations of sodium chloride or potassium chloride. Strains 10403S and DP-L224 exhibited significant increases in catalase activity and listeriolysin O activity when grown in medium conta...

  14. Valuation equations for stochastic volatility models

    CERN Document Server

    Bayraktar, Erhan; Xing, Hao

    2010-01-01

    We study the valuation partial differential equation for European contingent claims in a general framework of stochastic volatility models. The standard Feynman-Kac theorem cannot be directly applied because the diffusion coefficients may degenerate on the boundaries of the state space and grow faster than linearly. We allow for various types of model behavior; for example, the volatility process in our model can potentially reach zero and either stay there or instantaneously reflect, and asset-price processes may be strict local martingales under a given risk-neutral measure. Our main result is an extension of the standard Feynman-Kac theorem in the context of stochastic volatility models. Sharp results on the existence and uniqueness of classical solutions to the valuation equation are obtained using a combination of probabilistic and analytical techniques. The role of boundary conditions is also discussed.

  15. Explicit implied volatilities for multifactor local-stochastic volatility models

    OpenAIRE

    Matthew Lorig; Stefano Pagliarani; Andrea Pascucci

    2013-01-01

    We consider an asset whose risk-neutral dynamics are described by a general class of local-stochastic volatility models and derive a family of asymptotic expansions for European-style option prices and implied volatilities. Our implied volatility expansions are explicit; they do not require any special functions nor do they require numerical integration. To illustrate the accuracy and versatility of our method, we implement it under five different model dynamics: CEV local volatility, quadrat...

  16. Idiosyncratic volatility, stock market volatility, and expected stock returns

    OpenAIRE

    Hui Guo; Robert Savickas

    2005-01-01

    We find that the value-weighted idiosyncratic stock volatility and aggregate stock market volatility jointly exhibit strong predictive power for excess stock market returns. The stock market risk-return relation is found to be positive, as stipulated by the CAPM; however, idiosyncratic volatility is negatively related to future stock market returns. Also, idiosyncratic volatility appears to be a pervasive macrovariable, and its forecasting abilities are very similar to those of the consumptio...

  17. Option Valuation with Observable Volatility and Jump Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunoua, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    2015-01-01

    Under very general conditions, the total quadratic variation of a jump-diffusion process can be decomposed into diffusive volatility and squared jump variation. We use this result to develop a new option valuation model in which the underlying asset price exhibits volatility and jump intensity...... dynamics. The volatility and jump intensity dynamics in the model are directly driven by model-free empirical measures of diffusive volatility and jump variation. Because the empirical measures are observed in discrete intervals, our option valuation model is cast in discrete time, allowing...

  18. Option Valuation with Observable Volatility and Jump Dynamics

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunou, Bruno; Jeon, Yoontae

    Under very general conditions, the total quadratic variation of a jump-diffusion process can be decomposed into diffusive volatility and squared jump variation. We use this result to develop a new option valuation model in which the underlying asset price exhibits volatility and jump intensity...... dynamics. The volatility and jump intensity dynamics in the model are directly driven by model-free empirical measures of diffusive volatility and jump variation. Because the empirical measures are observed in discrete intervals, our option valuation model is cast in discrete time, allowing...

  19. Changes of volatile composition during fumigating process of Liangzhou fumigated vinegar%凉州熏醋熏醅前后挥发性成分的变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    韩庆辉; 贠建民; 宋勇强; 文玉

    2012-01-01

    采用顶空固相微萃取技术(SPME)和气质联用技术(GC-MS)相结合的方法对凉州熏醋熏醅前后的挥发性成分进行了分析。结果表明,凉州熏醋熏醅前后的挥发性成分分别为58种和57种,主要包括醇类、酸类、酯类、醛类、酮类、杂环类、烃类七大类化合物;凉州熏醋在熏醅前的主要挥发性成分为乙酸铵(18.223%)、乙酸乙酯(15.853%)、乙酸(15.236%)、3-羟基-2-丁酮(19.532%)等;熏醅后为乙酸铵(49.959%)、乙酸乙酯(5.352%)、3-羟基-2-丁酮(9.530%)、糠醛(12.007%)等。初步探明了凉州熏醋熏醅前、后主要挥发性成分的变化。%The volatile components of Liangzhou fumigated vinegar before and after fumigating were inspected by headspace solid phase micro-extraction(SPME) and gas chromatography-mass spectrum(GC-MS) technique.The results showed that 58 and 57 kinds of compounds existed in two samples respectively,the major compounds were alcohols,acids,esters,aldehydes,ketones,herterocylics and alkanes in both materials.The major volatile compounds of liangzhou fumigated materials before fumigating were ammonium acetate(18.223%),ethyl acetate(15.853%),acetic acid(15.236%) and 3-hydroxybu-2-tanone(19.532%).The compounds after fumigating were ammonium acetate(49.959%),ethyl,acetate(5.352%),3-hydroxybu-2-tanone(9.530%),furfural(12.007%).Preliminary proved the changes of flavor substancesin roasted materials of liangzhou fumigated vinegar before and after fumigating.

  20. Macrocycle Synthesis by Chloride-Templated Amide Bond Formation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Martí-Centelles, Vicente; Burguete, M Isabel; Luis, Santiago V

    2016-03-01

    A new family of pseudopeptidic macrocyclic compounds has been prepared involving an anion-templated amide bond formation reaction at the macrocyclization step. Chloride anion was found to be the most efficient template in the macrocyclization process, producing improved macrocyclization yields with regard to the nontemplated reaction. The data suggest a kinetic effect of the chloride template, providing an appropriate folded conformation of the open-chain precursor and reducing the energy barrier for the formation of the macrocyclic product. PMID:26820908

  1. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For Americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  2. Computational modelling of chloride ion transport in reinforced concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Meijers, S.J.H.; Bijen, J.M.J.M.; De Borst, R.; Fraaij, A.L.A.

    2001-01-01

    Exposure to a saline environment is a major threat with respect to the durability of reinforced concrete structures. The chloride ions, which are present in seawater and de-icing salts, are able to penetrate the concrete up to the depth of the reinforcement. They can eventually trigger a pitting corrosion process. The assessment of a corrosion-free service life of concrete structures is of paramount economic interest. However, the modelling of the ingress of chloride ions is complicated due t...

  3. Analysis of Volatile Chemical Constituents in Vinegar-Processed Schisandrae Sphenantherae Fructus and Vinegar-Processed Schisandrae Chinesis Fructus by HS-SPME-GC-MS%HS-SPME-GC-MS联用分析醋制南北五味子中挥发性成分

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    叶欣; 卢金清; 曹利; 林杰; 万丽娟

    2016-01-01

    Objective:To analyze and compare the volatile components in vinegar-processed schisandrae sphenantherae fructus and vinegar-processed schisandrae chinesis fructus.Methods:The volatile components in vinegar-processed schisandrae sphenantherae fruc-tus and vinegar-processed schisandrae chinesis fructus were extracted by headspace solid phase-microextraction (HS-SPME) and quali-tatively analyzed by GC-MS.Results:Totally 20 kinds of constituents were identified from vinegar-processed schisandra sphenanthera fructus, which accounted for 99.55%of the total volatile components , and totally 21 kinds of constituents were identified from vinegar-processed schisandra sphenanthera fructus, which accounted for 99.90% of the total volatile components .Conclusion: The type and content of volatile components in vinegar-processed schisandrae sphenantherae fructus and vinegar-processed schisandrae chinesis fructus are quite different , and the study can provide scientific basis for the two traditional Chinese medicinal materials .%目的:分析和比较醋制南北五味子挥发性成分。方法:采用顶空固相微萃取法( HS-SPME)萃取醋制南北五味子中挥发性成分,结合GC-MS法对其挥发性成分进行分析。结果:从醋制南五味子中鉴定出20种化学成分,从醋制北五味子中鉴定出21种化学成分,分别占各自挥发性成分总量的99.55%和99.90%。结论:醋制南北五味子的挥发性成分在种类和含量上差异较大,为快速鉴定醋制南北五味子提供科学依据。

  4. Idiosyncratic Volatility Puzzle

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Aslanidis, Nektarios; Christiansen, Charlotte; Lambertides, Neophytos;

    from a large pool of macroeconomic and Önancial variables. Cleaning for macro-Önance e§ects reverses the puzzling negative relation between returns and idiosyncratic volatility documented previously. Portfolio analysis shows that the e§ects from macro-Önance factors are economically strong...

  5. Volatility in Equilibrium

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Sizova, Natalia; Tauchen, George

    Stock market volatility clusters in time, carries a risk premium, is fractionally inte- grated, and exhibits asymmetric leverage effects relative to returns. This paper develops a first internally consistent equilibrium based explanation for these longstanding empirical facts. The model is cast...

  6. Chloride channels in stroke

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ya-ping ZHANG; Hao ZHANG; Dayue Darrel DUAN

    2013-01-01

    Vascular remodeling of cerebral arterioles,including proliferation,migration,and apoptosis of vascular smooth muscle cells (VSMCs),is the major cause of changes in the cross-sectional area and diameter of the arteries and sudden interruption of blood flow or hemorrhage in the brain,ie,stroke.Accumulating evidence strongly supports an important role for chloride (Clˉ) channels in vascular remodeling and stroke.At least three Clˉ channel genes are expressed in VSMCs:1) the TMEM16A (or Ano1),which may encode the calcium-activated Clˉ channels (CACCs); 2) the CLC-3 Clˉ channel and Clˉ/H+ antiporter,which is closely related to the volume-regulated Clˉ channels (VRCCs); and 3) the cystic fibrosis transmembrane conductance regulator (CFTR),which encodes the PKA-and PKC-activated Clˉ channels.Activation of the CACCs by agonist-induced increase in intracellular Ca2+ causes membrane depolarization,vasoconstriction,and inhibition of VSMC proliferation.Activation of VRCCs by cell volume increase or membrane stretch promotes the production of reactive oxygen species,induces proliferation and inhibits apoptosis of VSMCs.Activation of CFTR inhibits oxidative stress and may prevent the development of hypertension.In addition,Clˉ current mediated by gammaaminobutyric acid (GABA) receptor has also been implicated a role in ischemic neuron death.This review focuses on the functional roles of Clˉ channels in the development of stroke and provides a perspective on the future directions for research and the potential to develop Clˉ channels as new targets for the prevention and treatment of stroke.

  7. A Jump Diffusion Model for Volatility and Duration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Wei, Wei; Pelletier, Denis

    by the market microstructure theory. Traditional measures of volatility do not utilize durations. I adopt a jump diffusion process to model the persistence of intraday volatility and conditional duration, and their interdependence. The jump component is disentangled from the continuous part of the price......, volatility and conditional duration process. I develop a MCMC algorithm for the inference of irregularly spaced multivariate process with jumps. The algorithm provides smoothed estimates of the latent variables such as spot volatility, jump times and jump sizes. I apply this model to IBM data and I find...... meaningful relationship between volatility and conditional duration. Also, jumps play an important role in the total variation, but the jump variation is smaller than traditional measures that use returns sampled at lower frequency....

  8. Implied Volatility Functions: Empirical Tests

    OpenAIRE

    Dumas, Bernard J; Fleming, Jeff; Robert E. Whaley

    1996-01-01

    Black and Scholes (1973) implied volatilities tend to be systematically related to the option's exercise price and time to expiration. Derman and Kani (1994), Dupire (1994), and Rubinstein (1994) attribute this behavior to the fact that the Black-Scholes constant volatility assumption is violated in practice. These authors hypothesize that the volatility of the underlying asset's return is a deterministic function of the asset price and time and develop the deterministic volatility function (...

  9. Volatility investing with variance swaps

    OpenAIRE

    Härdle, Wolfgang Karl; Silyakova, Elena

    2010-01-01

    Traditionally volatility is viewed as a measure of variability, or risk, of an underlying asset. However recently investors began to look at volatility from a different angle. It happened due to emergence of a market for new derivative instruments - variance swaps. In this paper first we introduse the general idea of the volatility trading using variance swaps. Then we describe valuation and hedging methodology for vanilla variance swaps as well as for the 3-rd generation volatility derivativ...

  10. Dividend Taxes and Stock Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Ferris, Erin E. Syron

    2015-01-01

    How do dividend taxes affect stock volatility? In this paper, I use a decrease in dividend taxes as a natural experiment to identify their impact on firm's price volatility. If a risk-averse executive faces price risk through his incentive contract, changes in stock volatility due to dividend taxes may increase agency costs and therefore decrease overall welfare. Stock volatility decreased after the tax cut for firms where an executive has large holdings of shares and options relative to firm...

  11. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Fenfen, E-mail: zhu@hse.gcoe.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Institute of Material Structure Science (IMSS), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl{sub 2}, and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl{sub 2} decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.CaCl{sub 2}) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl{sub 2}. Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl{sub 2}.

  12. Study and Test of Process of Production of Potassium Chloride from High Calcium Potassium Bearing Brine in Salt Lake%利用盐湖高钙含钾卤水制取氯化钾工艺试验研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱晓东; 郑秀洁

    2011-01-01

    In some of chloride - type brine in Salt Lake of Qinghai. The cycling accumulation of calcium results in increasing growth of its concetration, which probably will make some effect on the production of potassium chloride from brine. This paper makes research on impact this type of high calcium potassium bearing brine has on production of potassium chloride by 4# Process . The research results show that calcium content in brine would have less impact on production of potassium chloride by 4# Process.%青海盐湖部分氯化物型卤水中,由于钙的循环积累,其浓度不断增高,这可能对从卤水中提取氯化钾带来一定影响.实验研究了该类型高钙含钾卤水对4#工艺制取氯化钾的影响,研究结果表明卤水中钙含量对4#工艺制取氯化钾影响较小.

  13. The exploitation of volatile oil

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    MENG Teng; ZHANG Da; TENG Xiangjin; LINing; HAO Zaibin

    2007-01-01

    Rose is a kind of favorite ornamental plant. This article briefly introduced the cultivation and the use of rose around the world both in ancient time and nowadays. Today, volatile oil becomes the mainstream of the rose industry. People pay attention to the effect of volatile oil; meanwhile, they speed up their research on extracting volatile oil and the ingredients.

  14. Alternative Asymmetric Stochastic Volatility Models

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    M. Asai (Manabu); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe stochastic volatility model usually incorporates asymmetric effects by introducing the negative correlation between the innovations in returns and volatility. In this paper, we propose a new asymmetric stochastic volatility model, based on the leverage and size effects. The model is

  15. Stochastic modeling of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frier, Christian

    2004-01-01

    For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in expensive maintenance and repair actions. Further, a significant reduction of the load-bearing capacity can occur. One mode of corrosion initiation is that the chloride content around...... the reinforcement exceeds a critical threshold value. In the present paper a stochastic model is described by which the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be estimated. The chloride ingress is modeled by a 2-dimensional diffusion process and the diffusion coefficient, surface chloride...... concentration and reinforcement cover depth are modeled by stochastic fields. The paper contains a description of the parameters to be included in a stochastic model and a proposal for the information needed to obtain values for the parameters in order to be able to perform reliability investigations...

  16. Effects of Processing Temperature on Volatile Compouds in Katsuwonus Pelamis%加工温度对鲣鱼挥发性成分的影响

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    全晶晶; 侯云丹; 黄健; 王求娟; 陈义芳; 苏秀榕

    2012-01-01

    目的:探明不同温度对鲣鱼普通肉和暗色肉挥发性成分的影响.方法:利用电子鼻定性区分新鲜肉及加热至70,80,90,100,110,120,150℃的鲣鱼肉挥发性风味物质,通过项空固相微萃取(HS-SPME)和气-质联用仪(GC-MS)分析新鲜及95℃和150℃鲣鱼普通肉和暗色肉的挥发性成分.结果:电子鼻对不同温度下的鲣鱼肉挥发性物质的定性分析快速、灵敏;由GC-MS分析可知,新鲜鲣鱼普通肉以鲜香味为主(2,4-戊二烯醛、苯甲醛、辛醇、1-辛烯-3-醇、1-戊烯-3-醇),略有腥味(壬醛、庚醛);经95℃加热后,腥味大大减弱,并产生肉香味(2-戊基-呋喃、2,5-二甲基吡嗪、2-乙酰吡咯、2-异丙基呋喃).相比于普通肉,新鲜暗色肉的鲜香味较弱(2,4-戊二烯醛、苯甲醛、1,5-辛二烯-3-醇),腥味大(辛醛、壬醛、庚醛);加热后,腥味增强(壬醛、辛醛、三甲胺),同时也产生肉香味(苯甲醛、2,4-戊二烯醛、反式-2-(2-戊烯基)呋喃、2-戊基呋喃、2-乙基呋喃).经150℃加热后,普通肉和暗色肉均产生不良风味,失去食用价值.%Objective: Investigations were carried out to explore the effect of tempertaure on volatile compounds of ordinary muscle and dark muscle in Katsuwonus pelamis. Method: Flavor of Katsuwonus pelamis in fresh and at 70, 80, 90, 100, 120, 150℃, was distinguished from each other, using electronic nose. Headspace solid-phase microextraction (HS-SPME) and gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC-MS) were adopted to determine the composition of volatile compounds of ordinary muscle and dark muscle in fresh and at 95, 150℃. Result: It showed that electronic nose was rapid and sensitive enough to make a qualitative analysis on volatile compounds. It could be known from GC-MS analysis that the fresh ordinary muscle has more fresh ordor (2,4-pentadiene aldehyde, benzaldehyde, octanol, 1-octen-3-ol, 1-penten-3-ol) with less fishy smell (nonyl aldehyde, heptaldehyde). Yet

  17. Explaining output volatility: The case of taxation

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Posch, Olaf

    the second moment of output growth rates without (long-run) effects on the first moment. Taking the model to the data, we exploit observed heterogeneity patterns to estimate effects of tax rates on macro volatility using panel estimation, explicitly modeling the unobserved variance process. We find a strong...

  18. 海洋潮汐区混凝土中氯离子传输过程的试验室模拟方法%An accelerated simulation experimental method of transport process of chloride in concrete exposed to splash from seawater

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    乔巍; 姬永生; 张博雅; 马会荣; 张领雷

    2012-01-01

    The chloride contamination is one of the main causes that induce the corrosion of steel in concrete. The research on the accelerated simulation experimental method is very significant for studying transport process of chloride in concrete. A contrast experiment was carried out to study transport process of chloride in ocean environment in the paper. The test results indicate that the rate of chloride transport in concrete under wet and dry cycles (exposed to splash from seawater) is faster than that immersed in seawater. It suggests that the mechanisms of chloride transport process are quite different in various environments. The transport mechanism of chloride in concrete exposed to splash from seawater in ocean environments was analyzed. An accelerated experimental method of "spray-air-dry" wet and dry recycling was found. The further study shows that it is a very effective method,by which the transport mechanism of chloride is in correspondence with that exposed to splash from seawater.%Cl-侵蚀是造成混凝土内钢筋锈蚀的主要原因,研究混凝土中氯离子侵蚀过程的试验室模拟方法是进行氯离子侵蚀过程研究的重要条件.本文通过实际海洋工程潮汐区和水下浸泡区氯离子传输过程的对比试验,揭示了干湿循环条件下氯离子在混凝土中的传输速率远大于饱水混凝土内外浓差引起的氯离子扩散速率,从而证明传统的浸泡试验方法无法用来预测干湿循环条件下氯离子传输速率,并在此基础上提出了实际海洋工程潮汐区氯离子传输过程的模拟试验方法,试验证明氯盐溶液喷淋—风干循环加速试验的氯离子传输机理和实际海洋环境潮汐区相同,是模拟海洋潮汐区的氯离子传输过程非常有效的方法.

  19. Chlorine distribution and its isotopic composition in “rusty rock” 66095. Implications for volatile element enrichments of “rusty rock” and lunar soils, origin of “rusty” alteration, and volatile element behavior on the Moon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shearer, C. K.; Sharp, Z. D.; Burger, P. V.; McCubbin, F. M.; Provencio, P. P.; Brearley, A. J.; Steele, A.

    2014-08-01

    An interesting characteristic of the pyroclastic glass bead deposits, select impact produced lithologies such as the “rusty rock” 66095, and unique lunar soils from the Apollo 16 landing site, is their unusual enrichments in 204Pb, Cd, Bi, Br, I, Ge, Sb, Tl, Zn, and Cl which indicates that portions of these sample contain a substantial volatile component. Sample 66095, a fine-grained, subophitic to ophitic polymict melt breccia, also hosts a pervasive low-temperature, volatile-rich, oxyhydrated mineral assemblage. The volatile element enrichments in these assorted lunar lithologies have been attributed to a variety of extra-lunar and lunar processes, whereas the oxyhydration in 66095 has long been thought to represent either terrestrial alteration of lunar chlorides and Fe-Ni metal to βFeO(OH,Cl) or indigenous lunar processes. In 66095, Cl is accommodated in FeO(OH,Cl), phosphates, and chlorides and is heterogeneously distributed. The low-temperature alteration occurs as rims around Fe-Ni metal and sulfide grains, and as dispersed grains in the adjacent matrix. Micro-Raman and transmission electron microscope (TEM) imaging indicate that akaganéite (βFeO(OH,Cl)) is the dominant FeO(OH) polymorph and is intergrown with goethite (αFeO(OH)) and hematite (αFe2O3). TEM observations indicate a well-defined “nanometer-scale” stratigraphy” to the alteration. For example, kamacite (body centered cubic) → face-centered cubic (fcc) Fe-Ni alloy → lawrencite (FeCl2) → akaganéite. The lunar lawrencite (Fe,Ni)Cl2 in 66095 does not react directly to akaganéite on Earth. Rather, lawrencite exposed to terrestrial conditions reacts to form an amorphous Fe- and Cl-bearing phase, nano-crystalline goethite, and hematite. The morphology of these terrestrial alteration products is significantly different than that of the akaganéite occurring in 66095. The chlorine isotopic compositions of these volatile-rich samples are enriched in heavy Cl. For 66095, the δ37Cl

  20. Involvement of chloride anion in photocatalytic process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    YANG Shi-ying; CHEN Ying-xu; LOU Li-ping; WU Xiao-na

    2005-01-01

    The effect of Cl- on photocatalytic degradation(PCD) of pollutants is an important factor since it is ubiquitous in nature. In examine the effects of Cl- on the PCD of Methylene Blue (MB) and Orange Ⅱ (Oll) in aqueous TiO2 suspensions under UV light illumination. It was found that low concentration of Cl- ( 0.10 mol/L) had a very different influence on the decolorization of dyes: a significant inhibition for MB but a great promotion for Oll. In the presence of 0.50 mol/L Cl- , the rate decreased by 70% for MB while increased 7.5-fold for Oll. Furthermore, two bands in the ultraviolet region of Oll were rapidly broken down. The proposed mechanism was discussed in detail.

  1. Trichoderma volatiles effecting Arabidopsis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ramadan, Metwaly; Gigolashvili, Tamara; Grosskinsky, Dominik Kilian;

    2015-01-01

    Trichoderma species are present in many ecosystems and some strains have the ability to reduce the severity of plant diseases by activating various defense pathways via specific biologically active signaling molecules. Hence we investigated the effects of low molecular weight volatile compounds...... of Trichoderma asperellum IsmT5 on Arabidopsis thaliana. During co-cultivation of T. asperellum IsmT5 without physical contact to A. thaliana we observed smaller but vital and robust plants. The exposed plants exhibit increased trichome numbers, accumulation of defense-related compounds such as H2O2, anthocyanin......, camalexin, and increased expression of defense-related genes. We conclude that A. thaliana perceives the Trichoderma volatiles as stress compounds and subsequently initiates multilayered adaptations including activation of signaling cascades to withstand this environmental influence. The prominent headspace...

  2. Stochastic Volatility Demand Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Apostolos Serletis; Maksim Isakin

    2014-01-01

    We address the estimation of stochastic volatility demand systems. In particular, we relax the homoscedasticity assumption and instead assume that the covariance matrix of the errors of demand systems is time-varying. Since most economic and fiÂ…nancial time series are nonlinear, we achieve superior modeling using parametric nonlinear demand systems in which the unconditional variance is constant but the conditional variance, like the conditional mean, is also a random variable depending on c...

  3. Inflation, volatility and growth

    OpenAIRE

    Ruth Judson; Athanasios Orphanides

    1996-01-01

    This paper re-examines the relationship between inflation, inflation volatility and growth using cross-country panel data for the past 30 years. With regard to the level of inflation, we find that in contrast to current findings which are based on cross-sectional time-average regression comparisons, exploiting the time dimension of the data reveals a strong negative correlation between inflation and income growth for all but very low inflation countries. To examine the role of inflation uncer...

  4. OPC 技术在氯乙烯聚合过程软测量中的应用%Application of OPC Technology in Soft Measurement of Vinyl Chloride Polymerization Process

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    朱鹏飞; 夏陆岳; 周猛飞; 潘海天

    2014-01-01

    For the application of soft measurement technology , the OPC technology-based method was de-signed.This method contains a server station and an operator station which operating independently .The serv-er station connecting with control system can read online data , calculate target variables through the soft meas-urement model and can write values into control system before having results fed back to the control system and sent via OPC server .The operator station connecting with server station via the industrial Ethernet can ex-change data with OPC server through OPC client so as to monitor target variables .Applying this method to on-line monitoring reaction rate and conversion of a vinyl chloride polymerization process proves the stability and reliability of this method .%针对软测量技术的应用问题,设计了基于OPC通信技术的解决方案。服务器站与操作站独立运行,服务器站计算机与控制系统连接,进行现场数据采集与软测量模型计算,计算出目标变量,并将结果反馈给控制系统,再由OPC服务器发送。操作站计算机通过工业以太网与服务器站计算机连接,利用OPC客户端与OPC服务器进行数据交换,实现对目标变量的监控。将该方案应用于氯乙烯聚合过程聚合速率与单体转化率的在线检测中,运行结果表明该方案稳定可靠。

  5. Silicon isotopes in angrites and volatile loss in planetesimals

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moynier, Frédéric; Savage, Paul S.; Badro, James; Barrat, Jean-Alix

    2014-01-01

    Inner solar system bodies, including the Earth, Moon, and asteroids, are depleted in volatile elements relative to chondrites. Hypotheses for this volatile element depletion include incomplete condensation from the solar nebula and volatile loss during energetic impacts. These processes are expected to each produce characteristic stable isotope signatures. However, processes of planetary differentiation may also modify the isotopic composition of geochemical reservoirs. Angrites are rare meteorites that crystallized only a few million years after calcium–aluminum-rich inclusions and exhibit extreme depletions in volatile elements relative to chondrites, making them ideal samples with which to study volatile element depletion in the early solar system. Here we present high-precision Si isotope data that show angrites are enriched in the heavy isotopes of Si relative to chondritic meteorites by 50–100 ppm/amu. Silicon is sufficiently volatile such that it may be isotopically fractionated during incomplete condensation or evaporative mass loss, but theoretical calculations and experimental results also predict isotope fractionation under specific conditions of metal–silicate differentiation. We show that the Si isotope composition of angrites cannot be explained by any plausible core formation scenario, but rather reflects isotope fractionation during impact-induced evaporation. Our results indicate planetesimals initially formed from volatile-rich material and were subsequently depleted in volatile elements during accretion. PMID:25404309

  6. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore

    OpenAIRE

    Shiwei Zhou; Yonggang Wei; Bo Li; Hua Wang; Baozhong Ma; Chengyan Wang

    2016-01-01

    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and...

  7. Stability of succinylcholine chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schmutz, C W; Mühlebach, S F

    1991-03-01

    The stability of succinylcholine chloride injection prepared by a hospital pharmacy was studied under a wide variety of conditions. Batches of succinylcholine chloride injection 10 mg/mL containing sodium chloride, methyl-4-hydroxybenzoate, hydrochloric acid, and water were prepared. Samples were tested for the effect of initial pH (3.0 and 4.2) and sterilization (steam treatment at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes and 121 degrees C for 20 minutes) on stability after three weeks; long-term stability under refrigeration (12, 17, and 23 months of storage at 4 degrees C); and the effect of storage temperature (4-6 degrees C, 20-26 degrees C, 35 degrees C, and 70 degrees C) and light exposure at various intervals up to 12 months. Samples were analyzed by thin-layer chromatography (TLC) and high-performance liquid chromatography (HPLC). Unlike heating at 121 degrees C, heating at 100 degrees C produced no significant loss of succinylcholine chloride, independent of the initial pH. Succinylcholine chloride was hydrolyzed only minimally over 23 months if the solution was stored at 4-6 degrees C. A 10% loss of drug content occurred if solutions were kept at 20-26 degrees C for five months, at 35 degrees C for one month, or at 70 degrees C for one day. Initial degradation was slowed if the solution was protected from light. The assessments by TLC proved to be more sensitive than the HPLC measurements. Succinylcholine chloride injection sterilized at 100 degrees C for 30 minutes can be stored for up to five months at room temperature if protected from light. The preparation is stable for at least two years under refrigeration. PMID:2028996

  8. Chloride in vesicular trafficking and function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stauber, Tobias; Jentsch, Thomas J

    2013-01-01

    Luminal acidification is of pivotal importance for the physiology of the secretory and endocytic pathways and its diverse trafficking events. Acidification by the proton-pumping V-ATPase requires charge compensation by counterion currents that are commonly attributed to chloride. The molecular identification of intracellular chloride transporters and the improvement of methodologies for measuring intraorganellar pH and chloride have facilitated the investigation of the physiology of vesicular chloride transport. New data question the requirement of chloride for pH regulation of various organelles and furthermore ascribe functions to chloride that are beyond merely electrically shunting the proton pump. This review surveys the currently established and proposed intracellular chloride transporters and gives an overview of membrane-trafficking steps that are affected by the perturbation of chloride transport. Finally, potential mechanisms of membrane-trafficking modulation by chloride are discussed and put into the context of organellar ion homeostasis in general. PMID:23092411

  9. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical methods for the removal of chloride from concrete have been developed and the methods are primarily designed for situations where corrosion has started due to an increased chloride concentration in the vicinity of the reinforcement. In these methods the reinforcement is used...... as the cathode. However, some unwanted side effects can occur, including alkali-silica reaction and in some cases hydrogen embrittlement. It is also suggested also to use electrochemical chloride extraction in a preventive way in constructions where chloride induced corrosion is likely to be a problem after...... a period of time, i.e. remove the chlorides before the chloride front reaches the reinforcement. If the chlorides are removed from outer few centimetres from the surface, the chloride will not reach the reinforcement and cause damage. By using the electrochemical chloride removal in this preventive way...

  10. Chloride ion transport performance in slag mortar under fatigue loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG CaiHui; SUN Wei; JIANG JinYang; HAN JianDe; YE BangTu

    2012-01-01

    The transport performance of chloride ion in slag cement mortar was investigated experimentally.In the self-designed experiment,fatigue loading was coupled simultaneously with ion transportation process,the diffusion law of chloride ion was obtained by titration and the AE (acoustic emission) technique was employed to detect the real-time damage distribution in the mortar specimen.The results for fatigue stress levels of 0.3,0.4 and 0.5 and slag contents of 0,10%,30% and 50% showed that fatigue loading accelerated the diffusion of chloride ion in mortar and the acceleration effect increased with the increase in stress levels.Slag addition was found to improve anti-chloride ion erosion performance effectively with the best substitution level at 30%,because the inhibition effect of slag on chloride ion diffusion diminished when the slag content exceeded 30%.The comparative experiments indicated that dynamic load has a significant effect on the transport performance of chloride ion in slag cement mortar.

  11. PHASE EQUILIBRIUM FOR THE TERNARY SYSTEM VINYL CHLORIDE-CHLORINATED POLYETHYLENE-POLY (VINYL CHLORIDE)

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    LOU Jianfeng; WENG Zhixue; HUANG Zhiming; PAN Zuren

    1991-01-01

    Swelling capacity of vinyl chloride (VC) in chlorinated polyethylene (CPE) with 25- 40 wt% Cl at temperature 30- 57 ℃ was studied and their relationships were correlated with Langmuir and Freundlich adsorption equations. A ternary phase diagram for VC-CPE-PVC was also established.In-situ polymerization conditions of CPE-g -VC were proposed and CPE content control was analyzed for the manufacturing process of CPE-g-VC graft product based on results of phase equilibrium study.

  12. Chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environment - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Q.; Shi, C; Schutter, G. de; Audenaert, K.; Deng, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environments. Chloride ion exist either in the pore solution, chemically bound to the hydration products, or physically held to the surface of the hydration products. Chloride binding of cement-based material is very complicated and influenced by many factors, such as chloride concentration, cement composition, hydroxyl concentration, cation of chloride salt, temperature, supplementary cementing m...

  13. The macroeconomic forecasting performance of autoregressive models with alternative specifications of time-varying volatility

    OpenAIRE

    CLARK, Todd E.; Francesco Ravazzolo

    2012-01-01

    This paper compares alternative models of time-varying macroeconomic volatility on the basis of the accuracy of point and density forecasts of macroeconomic variables. In this analysis, we consider both Bayesian autoregressive and Bayesian vector autoregressive models that incorporate some form of time-varying volatility, precisely stochastic volatility (both with constant and time-varying autoregressive coeffi cients), stochastic volatility following a stationary AR process, stochastic volat...

  14. Inference, arbitrage, and asset price volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Adrian, Tobias

    2004-01-01

    This paper models the impact of arbitrageurs on stock prices when arbitrageurs are uncertain about the drift of the dividend process of a risky asset. Under perfect information, the presence of risk-neutral arbitrageurs unambiguously reduces the volatility of asset returns. When arbitrageurs are uncertain about the drift of the dividend process, they condition their investment strategy on the observation of dividends and trading volume. In such a setting, the presence of arbitrageurs can lead...

  15. Preparation of pure uranyl chloride from crude yellow cake

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A process is described for the preparation of pure uranyl chloride solution from crude yellow cake. The process involves dissolution of the latter in hydrochloric acid followed by uranium extraction using TBP-kerosene mixture. A series of experiments were carried out in order to determine the optimum conditions for both the dissolution and the extraction steps

  16. Prediction of the Service Life of a Reinforced Concrete Column under Chloride Environment

    OpenAIRE

    Mohammad K. Alkam; Maha Alqam

    2015-01-01

    In the present investigation, service life of a reinforced concrete column exposed to chloride environment has been predicted. This study has been based on numerical simulation of chloride ion diffusion in a concrete column during its anticipated life span. The simulation process has included the concrete cover replacement whenever chloride ion concentration has reached the critical threshold value at the reinforcement surface. Repair scheduling of the concrete column under consideration has ...

  17. Immune Modulation by Volatile Anesthetics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stollings, Lindsay M; Jia, Li-Jie; Tang, Pei; Dou, Huanyu; Lu, Binfeng; Xu, Yan

    2016-08-01

    Volatile general anesthetics continue to be an important part of clinical anesthesia worldwide. The impact of volatile anesthetics on the immune system has been investigated at both mechanistic and clinical levels, but previous studies have returned conflicting findings due to varied protocols, experimental environments, and subject species. While many of these studies have focused on the immunosuppressive effects of volatile anesthetics, compelling evidence also exists for immunoactivation. Depending on the clinical conditions, immunosuppression and activation due to volatile anesthetics can be either detrimental or beneficial. This review provides a balanced perspective on the anesthetic modulation of innate and adaptive immune responses as well as indirect effectors of immunity. Potential mechanisms of immunomodulation by volatile anesthetics are also discussed. A clearer understanding of these issues will pave the way for clinical guidelines that better account for the impact of volatile anesthetics on the immune system, with the ultimate goal of improving perioperative management. PMID:27286478

  18. Ethyl Chloride Wastewater Treatment by Stripping-Fenton Oxidizing-Sedimentation Treatment Process%吹脱-Fenton氧化-沉淀工艺处理乙基氯化物废水

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    曲毅; 柯爌琼; 吴翔; 王丽; 杜冬云

    2012-01-01

    乙基氯化物是重要的农药中间体,广泛用于生产高效低毒有机磷农药,在生产过程中产生大量高COD、高磷、高硫等污染物的有毒废水.文章针对该废水的水质,提出了一种新的预处理工艺:吹脱-Fenton氧化-沉淀反应.试验结果表明:当吹脱时间为20 min,pH为3.10,Fenton反应双氧水与亚铁离子摩尔比为4∶1,双氧水投加量为5 mL/L以及沉淀反应石灰投加量为14.5 g/L时,废水中的COD从228 g/L降低到56.60 g/L,硫离子浓度从88.94 g/L降低到12.26 g/L,总磷含量从10.37 g/L降低到0.98 g/L.%Ethyl chloride as an important intermediate product of pesticide is widely used to produce higher effective and lower toxic organophosphorus pesticide. Toxic wastewater generated in the production process contains high levels of COD, total phosphorus and sulfur ion.According to nature of the wastewater, a new pretreatment process was proposed, including stripping, Fenton oxidation and calcium precipitation.Results showed that COD concentration reduced from 228 g/L to 56.60 g/L, sulfur ion concentration reduced from 88.94 g/L to 12.26 g/L and total phosphorus concentration reduced from 10.37 g/L to 0.98 g/L after pretreatment in condition that stripping time was 20 min, pH 3.10, Fenton reactor H2O2/FeSO,, mole rate was 4:1, H2O2 dosage was 5 mL/L and precipitation reaction lime dosage was 14.5 g/L.

  19. Ruthenium(III Chloride Catalyzed Acylation of Alcohols, Phenols, and Thiols in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mingzhong Cai

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Ruthenium(III chloride-catalyzed acylation of a variety of alcohols, phenols, and thiols was achieved in high yields under mild conditions (room temperature in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]. The ionic liquid and ruthenium catalyst can be recycled at least 10 times. Our system not only solves the basic problem of ruthenium catalyst reuse, but also avoids the use of volatile acetonitrile as solvent.

  20. Ruthenium(III) Chloride Catalyzed Acylation of Alcohols, Phenols, and Thiols in Room Temperature Ionic Liquids

    OpenAIRE

    Mingzhong Cai; Pingping Wang; Wenyan Hao; Zhiwen Xi

    2009-01-01

    Ruthenium(III) chloride-catalyzed acylation of a variety of alcohols, phenols, and thiols was achieved in high yields under mild conditions (room temperature) in the ionic liquid 1-butyl-3-methylimidazolium hexafluorophosphate ([bmim][PF6]). The ionic liquid and ruthenium catalyst can be recycled at least 10 times. Our system not only solves the basic problem of ruthenium catalyst reuse, but also avoids the use of volatile acetonitrile as solvent.

  1. 1,5-Diaminotetrazolium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qiao Meng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CH5N6+·Cl−, crystallized with two indepedent 1,5-diaminotetrazolium cations and two independent chloride anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, there are a number of N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions, which generate a three-dimensional network.

  2. Chloride : The queen of electrolytes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O. B.

    2012-01-01

    Background: Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms and have been documented extensively over the past decade. In contrast, despite the important role of chloride in serum, textbooks in general d

  3. Financial Market Volatility: A Survey

    OpenAIRE

    Louis O. Scott

    1991-01-01

    Volatility in financial markets has forced economists to re-examine the validity of the efficient markets hypothesis, and new empirical approaches have been applied to the study of this important issue in recent years. Many of the recent studies have found evidence of excessive volatility. In the aftermath of the stock market crash of 1987 and the perceived increase in market volatility, some economists have advocated additional market regulations. This paper presents a review of recent studi...

  4. Modeling and forecasting implied volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Ahoniemi, Katja

    2009-01-01

    This dissertation contains four essays, all of which model time series of implied volatility (IV) and assess the forecast performance of the models. The overall finding is that implied volatility is indeed forecastable, and its modeling can benefit from a new class of time series models, so-called multiplicative error models. It is often beneficial to model IV with two (or more) regimes to allow for periods of relative stability and periods of higher volatility in markets. The first essa...

  5. Path-conditional forward volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    In derivatives modelling, it has often been necessary to make assumptions about the volatility of the underlying variable over the life of the contract. This can involve specifying an exact trajectory, as in the Black and Scholes (1973), Merton (1973) or Black (1976) models; one that depends on the level of the underlying variable as in the local volatility models of Dupire (1994), Derman and Kani (1994) and Rubinstein (1994); or fixing the parameters of a more general stochastic volatility p...

  6. Volatility, Investment and Disappointment Aversion

    OpenAIRE

    Joshua Aizenman; Nancy Marion

    1995-01-01

    This study uncovers a statistically significant negative correlation between volatility and private investment over the 1970-93 period in a set of almost fifty developing countries and provides a possible interpretation of this result by using the disappointment- aversion expected utility framework first described by Gul (1991). We consider a number of different volatility measures related to domestic policies or to external factors. As the various volatility measures tend to be positively co...

  7. Reaction Mech a Nism in the Process Control and Application of Hydrogen Chloride Synthetic Furnace Structure Design%反应机理在氯化氢合成炉结构设计中的过程控制与应用

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    孟海波; 宁永林; 李喜生; 田宇

    2015-01-01

    Hydrogen chloride synthesis furnace is the core equipment of hydrogen chloride preparation"synthesis". As chemical processes of chemical equipment, must be followed in the design of the chemical reaction mechanism.Through rational structural design for chemical reaction process of every detail and achieve safe, reasonable and effective control.This paper introduces the reaction mechanism of hydrogen chloride synthesis; Through microscopic analysis of reaction mechanism, combined with a macro equipment structure design;The implementation of effective control of the process. Make the design of hydrogen chloride synthetic furnace work to target, scientific and reasonable.%氯化氢合成炉是“合成法”制取氯化氢的核心设备。作为实现化工工艺过程的化工设备,设计中必须遵循化工反应机理。通过合理的结构设计对化工反应的每一个细节和过程做到安全、合理、有效的控制。本文介绍了氯化氢合成的反应机理;通过微观的反应机理分析,与宏观的设备结构设计相结合,实现工艺过程的有效控制。使氯化氢合成炉的设计工作能够有的放矢、科学合理。

  8. Palatability of sous vide processed chicken breast.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, B E; Larick, D K

    1996-08-01

    The influences of brine composition, internal temperature, heating rate, and storage periods up to 28 d on flavor, texture, and color of sous vide processed chicken breast were evaluated. Pectoralis major muscles containing water and sodium chloride, with or without sodium lactate, were browned and vacuum packaged. Sous vide processing was by fast or slow heating to an internal temperature of 77 or 94 C. Product was evaluated after 0, 14, and 28 d storage at 4 C. Quality was evaluated by gas chromatographic analyses of flavor volatiles, shear, color, and sensory panels. Incorporation of sodium lactate into brine did not influence oxidative stability (as measured by headspace gas chromatography) or sensory warmed-over flavor. Presence of sodium lactate did result in enhanced fresh roasted or meaty and saltiness sensory scores as well as a more yellow color. The more rapid heating rate decreased sulfur-containing compounds and did not influence other volatile concentrations. Products processed to 94 C were less juicy, less tender, and contained higher quantities of alcohols and hydrocarbons than those processed to 77 C. Storage resulted in a decline in fresh roasted or meaty flavor note and an increase in warmed-over flavor note and quantities of alcohols, aldehydes and ketones, hydrocarbons, and total headspace volatiles. PMID:8829240

  9. Volatilization of heavy metals during incineration of municipal solid wastes

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUN Lu-shi; S. Abanades; J.D.Lu; G.Flamant; D.Gauthier

    2004-01-01

    Incineration experiments with MSW, which had been impregnated with heavy metals, were presented toobtain information on the volatilization behavior of the elements cadmium (Cd), lead (Pb), and zinc (Zn) underdifferent conditions. Experiments were carried out in a bubbling fluid bed system connected to a customizedinductively coupled plasma optical emission spectroscopy(ICP-OES) for analyzing metals in the flue gas. The resultsindicated that the combustion temperature, the gas atmosphere, and the chlorine content in the flue gas could affectthe volatilization behavior of heavy metals. In the fluidized bed combustion, a large surface area was provided by thebed sand particles, and they may act as absorbents for the gaseous ash-forming compound. Comparer with themetals Cd and Pb, the vaporization of Zn was Iow. The formation of stable compounds such as ZnO·Al2O3 couldgreatly decrease the metals volatilization. The presence of chlorine would enhance the volatilization of heavy metalsby increasing the formation of metal chlorides. However, when the oxygen content was high, the chlorinatingreaction was kinetically hindered, which heavy metals release would be delayed.

  10. Behavior and products of mechano-chemical dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride and poly (vinylidene chloride).

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiao, Xiao; Zeng, Zigao; Xiao, Songwen

    2008-02-28

    The mechano-chemical (MC) dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) was performed by mechanical milling PVC/PVDC powder with zinc powder in a planetary ball mill, and the products of dechlorination were characterized by Infrared spectra (IR), X-ray diffraction (XRD), Raman spectroscopy, gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS), and 13C solid-state nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR). The experimental results show that PVC/PVDC can be easily dechlorinated by milling with zinc powder, and formed various kinds of inorganic and organic products. Inorganic compounds included Zn2OCl(2).2H2O, Zn5(OH)8Cl2.H2O etc., and organic products involved diamond-like carbon, carbyne fragment, polyacetylene etc. Organic products formed following the paths of dechlorination, dehydrochlorination, crosslink, and oxidation. The mechano-chemical dechlorination process of PVC/PVDC may be an effective approach for carbyne synthesizing in the appropriate condition.

  11. An ultra-low-power area-efficient non-volatile memory in a 0.18 μm single-poly CMOS process for passive RFID tags

    Science.gov (United States)

    Xiaoyun, Jia; Peng, Feng; Shengguang, Zhang; Nanjian, Wu; Baiqin, Zhao; Su, Liu

    2013-08-01

    This paper presents an ultra-low-power area-efficient non-volatile memory (NVM) in a 0.18 μm single-poly standard CMOS process for passive radio frequency identification (RFID) tags. In the memory cell, a novel low-power operation method is proposed to realize bi-directional Fowler—Nordheim tunneling during write operation. Furthermore, the cell is designed with PMOS transistors and coupling capacitors to minimize its area. In order to improve its reliability, the cell consists of double floating gates to store the data, and the 1 kbit NVM was implemented in a 0.18 μm single-poly standard CMOS process. The area of the memory cell and 1 kbit memory array is 96 μm2 and 0.12 mm2, respectively. The measured results indicate that the program/erase voltage ranges from 5 to 6 V The power consumption of the read/write operation is 0.19 μW/0.69 μW at a read/write rate of (268 kb/s)/(3.0 kb/s).

  12. Volatility Mean Reversion and the Market Price of Volatility Risk

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    H.P. Boswijk

    2001-01-01

    This paper analyzes sources of derivative pricing errors in a stochastic volatility model estimated on stock return data. It is shown that such pricing errors may reflect the existence of a market price of volatility risk, but also may be caused by estimation errors due to a slow mean reversion in t

  13. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  14. Progress of Carbonation in Chloride Contaminated Concretes

    OpenAIRE

    Wang, Yaocheng; Basheer, P.A.M.; Nanukuttan, S; Bai, Y.

    2016-01-01

    Concretes used in marine environment are generally under the cyclic effect of CO2 and chloride ions (Cl-). To date, the influence of carbonation on ingress of chloride ions in concretes has been widely studied; in comparison, study on the influence of Cl- on the progress of carbonation is limited. During the study, concretes were exposed to independent and combined mechanisms of carbonation and chloride ingress regimes. Profiles of apparent pH and chloride concentration were used to indicate ...

  15. biogenic aerosol precursors: volatile amines from agriculture

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuhn, Uwe; Sintermann, Jörg; Spirig, Christoph; Ammann, Christof; Neftel, Albrecht

    2010-05-01

    Information on the occurrence of volatile biogenic amines in the atmosphere is marginal. This group of N-bearing organic compounds are assumed to be a small, though significant component of the atmospheric N-cycle, but are not accounted for in global assessments due to the scarceness of available data. There is increasing evidence for an important role of biogenic amines in the formation of new particulate matter, as well as for aerosol secondary growth. Volatile amines are ubiquitously formed by biodegradation of organic matter, and agriculture is assumed to dominantly contribute to their atmospheric burden. Here we show that the mixing ratios of volatile amines within livestock buildings scale about 2 orders of magnitude lower than NH3, confirming the few literature data available (e.g., Schade and Crutzen, J. Atm. Chem. 22, 319-346, 1995). Flux measurements after manure application in the field, mixing ratios in the headspace of manure storage pools, and concentrations in distilled manure all indicate major depletion of amines relative to NH3 during manure processing. We conclude that the agricultural source distribution of NH3 and amines is not similar. While for NH3 the spreading of manure in the field dominates agricultural emissions, the direct release from livestock buildings dominates the budget of volatile biogenic amines.

  16. Groundwater geochemical and selected volatile organic compound data, Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington, June 2011

    Science.gov (United States)

    Huffman, Raegan L.; Frans, L.M.

    2012-01-01

    Previous investigations indicate that concentrations of chlorinated volatile organic compounds are substantial in groundwater beneath the 9-acre former landfill at Operable Unit 1, Naval Undersea Warfare Center, Division Keyport, Washington. Phytoremediation combined with ongoing natural attenuation processes was the preferred remedy selected by the U.S. Navy, as specified in the Record of Decision for the site. The U.S. Navy planted two hybrid poplar plantations on the landfill in spring 1999 to remove and to control the migration of chlorinated volatile organic compounds in shallow groundwater. The U.S. Geological Survey has continued to monitor groundwater geochemistry to ensure that conditions remain favorable for contaminant biodegradation as specified in the Record of Decision. This report presents groundwater geochemical and selected volatile organic compound data collected at Operable Unit 1 by the U.S. Geological Survey during June 20-22, 2011, in support of long-term monitoring for natural attenuation. In 2011, groundwater samples were collected from 13 wells and 9 piezometers. Samples from all wells and piezometers were analyzed for redox sensitive constituents and dissolved gases, and samples from 5 of 13 wells and all piezometers also were analyzed for chlorinated volatile organic compounds. Concentrations of redox sensitive constituents measured in 2011 were consistent with previous years, with dissolved oxygen concentrations all at 0.4 milligram per liter or less; little to no detectable nitrate; abundant dissolved manganese, iron, and methane; and commonly detected sulfide. The reductive declorination byproducts - methane, ethane, and ethene - were either not detected in samples collected from the upgradient wells in the landfill and the upper aquifer beneath the northern phytoremediation plantation or were detected at concentrations less than those measured in 2010. Chlorinated volatile organic compound concentrations in 2011 at most piezometers

  17. Open cycle lithium chloride cooling system

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lenz, T. G.; Loef, G. O. G.; Iyer, R.; Wenger, J.

    1983-05-01

    A lithium chloride open cycle absorption chiller has been designed, built and tested. Solution reconcentration takes place in a small counter current packed column supplied with solar heated air. Removal of noncondensable gases that enter the chiller dissolved in the strong solution and the make-up refrigerant streams is accomplished by a liquid-jet ejector and a small vacuum pump. Cooling capacities approaching 1.4 tons and COP levels of 0.58 have been achieved at non-optimum operating conditions. Test results from preliminary system operation suggest that mass transfer processes in both the packed column reconcentrator and the absorber are controlled by concentration gradients in the lithium chloride solution. Liquid phase controlled mass transfer dictates an operating strategy different from the previously assumed gas phase controlled process to obtain maximum rates of evaporation in the packed column. Determination of optimal operating conditions leading to decreased electrical power consumption and improved cooling capacity and coefficient of performance will require further analysis and testing.

  18. Fault locator of an allyl chloride plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savković-Stevanović Jelenka B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Process safety analysis, which includes qualitative fault event identification, the relative frequency and event probability functions, as well as consequence analysis, was performed on an allye chloride plant. An event tree for fault diagnosis and cognitive reliability analysis, as well as a troubleshooting system, were developed. Fuzzy inductive reasoning illustrated the advantages compared to crisp inductive reasoning. A qualitative model forecast the future behavior of the system in the case of accident detection and then compared it with the actual measured data. A cognitive model including qualitative and quantitative information by fuzzy logic of the incident scenario was derived as a fault locator for an ally! chloride plant. The obtained results showed the successful application of cognitive dispersion modeling to process safety analysis. A fuzzy inductive reasoner illustrated good performance to discriminate between different types of malfunctions. This fault locator allowed risk analysis and the construction of a fault tolerant system. This study is the first report in the literature showing the cognitive reliability analysis method.

  19. Indium sulfide precipitation from hydrochloric acid solutions of calcium and sodium chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The effect of precipitation duration, acid concentration, indium complexing with chloride ions on the process of indium sulfide chemical precipitation in hydrochloric acid solutions, precipitate composition and dispersity are studied. It is established that indium sulfide solubility increases in solutions with acid concentration exceeding 0.40-0.45 mol/l. Calcium and indium chloride addition to diluted hydrochloric solutions greatly increases the solubility of indium sulfide. The effect of calcium chloride on In2S3 solubility is higher than that of sodium chloride

  20. Chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Present article is devoted to chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic concentrates. The results of studies of chloride sublimation of gold-arsenic comprising concentrates of Chore deposit of Tajikistan are considered. It is found that by application sodium chloride for gold-arsenic comprising concentrates it is possible to extract gold and silver from flotation concentrates.

  1. 21 CFR 172.180 - Stannous chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... Preservatives § 172.180 Stannous chloride. The food additive stannous chloride may be safely used for color... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Stannous chloride. 172.180 Section 172.180 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR...

  2. Supercritical fluid extraction of volatile and non-volatile compounds from Schinus molle L.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    M. S. T. Barroso

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Schinus molle L., also known as pepper tree, has been reported to have antimicrobial, antifungal, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antipyretic, antitumoural and cicatrizing properties. This work studies supercritical fluid extraction (SFE to obtain volatile and non-volatile compounds from the aerial parts of Schinus molle L. and the influence of the process on the composition of the extracts. Experiments were performed in a pilot-scale extractor with a capacity of 1 L at pressures of 9, 10, 12, 15 and 20 MPa at 323.15 K. The volatile compounds were obtained by CO2 supercritical extraction with moderate pressure (9 MPa, whereas the non-volatile compounds were extracted at higher pressure (12 to 20 MPa. The analysis of the essential oil was carried out by GC-MS and the main compounds identified were sabinene, limonene, D-germacrene, bicyclogermacrene, and spathulenol. For the non-volatile extracts, the total phenolic content was determined by the Folin-Ciocalteau method. Moreover, one of the goals of this study was to compare the experimental data with the simulated yields predicted by a mathematical model based on mass transfer. The model used requires three adjustable parameters to predict the experimental extraction yield curves.

  3. Impact of high hydrostatic pressure on non-volatile and volatile compounds of squid muscles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yue, Jin; Zhang, Yifeng; Jin, Yafang; Deng, Yun; Zhao, Yanyun

    2016-03-01

    The effects of high hydrostatic pressure processing (HHP at 200, 400 or 600MPa) on non-volatile and volatile compounds of squid muscles during 10-day storage at 4°C were investigated. HHP increased the concentrations of Cl(-) and volatile compounds, reduced the level of PO4(3-), but did not affect the contents of 5'-uridine monophosphate (UMP), 5'-guanosine monophosphate (GMP), 5'-inosine monophosphate (IMP), Na(+) and Ca(2+) in squids on Day 0. At 600MPa, squids had the highest levels of 5'-adenosine monophosphate, Cl(-) and lactic acid, but the lowest contents of CMP and volatile compounds on Day 10. Essential free amino acids and succinic acids were lower on Day 0 than on Day 10. HHP at 200MPa caused higher equivalent umami concentration (EUC) on Day 0, and the EUC decreased with increasing pressure on Day 10. Generally, HHP at 200MPa was beneficial for improving EUC and volatile compounds of squids. PMID:26471521

  4. Political institutions and economic volatility

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klomp, Jeroen; de Haan, Jakob

    2009-01-01

    We examine the effect of political 'institutions' on economic growth volatility, using data from more than 100 countries over the period 1960 to 2005, taking into account various control variables as suggested in previous studies. Our indicator of volatility is the relative standard deviation of the

  5. Consistent ranking of volatility models

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Peter Reinhard; Lunde, Asger

    2006-01-01

    We show that the empirical ranking of volatility models can be inconsistent for the true ranking if the evaluation is based on a proxy for the population measure of volatility. For example, the substitution of a squared return for the conditional variance in the evaluation of ARCH-type models can...

  6. CEN standard for water-soluble chloride, sodium and potassium in solid bio-fuels; CEN standard for vandoploeseligt chlorid, natrium og kalium i faste biobraendsler

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    NONE

    2002-10-01

    In 2000 a European work of standardization for 'Solid bio-fuels' under CEN/TC 335 was started. In Denmark this work is followed through the Danish mirror committee S-358. Denmark was asked to prepare a draft for a European standard concerning determination of the water-soluble content of chloride, sodium and potassium in solid bio-fuels. The draft should be based on the Danish 'Recommended analysis methods' no. 10 and 11 concerning respectively the determination of the water-soluble content of chloride and the water soluble content of sodium and potassium in solid bio-fuels. The content of chlorine, sodium and potassium in a fuel is important for the use of the fuel, as high contents can contribute significantly to utilisation problems such as corrosion, fouling and slagging in furnaces. The gaseous emissions from the thermal processes may also be affected. Concerning sodium and potassium it is furthermore the content of the water-soluble and readily volatile salts which is problematic in relation with energy conversion processes. Sodium and potassium bound in non-water soluble compounds as clay minerals (silicates) normally will not volatilises during the process and therefore do not contribute to the formation of deposits. A determination of the water-soluble content of sodium and potassium is therefore not an alternative routine method for sodium and potassium, but a separate method for a determination of the 'aggressive' contents of sodium and potassium. For some solid bio-fuels the water-soluble contents will however be equal to the total contents, this goes for instance for potassium in straw. There is a very large variation in the content of chlorine, sodium and potassium for the different types of solid bio-fuel, from the low contents in clean wood to contents in percentage in straw. Knowledge of the content of chlorine, sodium and potassium in a bio-fuel is thus important in relation to e.g. plant design and fuel purchasing

  7. Jakartans, Institutionally Volatile

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Masaaki OKAMOTO

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Jakarta recently has gained even more central political attention in Indonesia since Joko Widodo (Jokowi and Basuki Purnama (Ahok became, respectively, the province’s governor and vice-governor in 2012. They started a series of eye-catching and populist programmes, drawing popular support from not only the people of Jakarta, but also among Indonesians in general. Jokowi is now even the most popular candidate for the presidential election in 2014. Their rise is phenomenal in this sense, but it is understandable if we look at Jakartan voters’ behaviour and the institutional arrangement that leads to it. Jakarta, as the national capital, has a unique arrangement in that the province has no autonomous regency or city. This paper argues that this arrangement causes Jakartans to be more politically volatile and describes how this institutional arrangement was created by analysing the minutes of the meeting to discuss the laws concerning Jakarta Province.

  8. A stochastic volatility model with flexible extremal dependence structure

    OpenAIRE

    Janssen, Anja; Drees, Holger

    2016-01-01

    Stochastic volatility processes with heavy-tailed innovations are a well-known model for financial time series. In these models, the extremes of the log returns are mainly driven by the extremes of the i.i.d. innovation sequence which leads to a very strong form of asymptotic independence, that is, the coefficient of tail dependence is equal to $1/2$ for all positive lags. We propose an alternative class of stochastic volatility models with heavy-tailed volatilities and examine their extreme ...

  9. Emissions of volatile organic compounds from wood

    OpenAIRE

    Granström, Karin

    2005-01-01

    The central aim of this thesis is to support the efforts to counteract certain environmental problems caused by emissions of volatile organic compounds. The purpose of this work was (1) to develop a method to establish the amount of emitted substances from dryers, (2) to determine the effect of drying medium temperature and end moisture content of the processed material on emissions of monoterpenes and other hydrocarbons, (3) to examine the emissions of monoterpenes during production of pelle...

  10. Volume, Volatility and Public News Announcements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Bollerslev, Tim; Li, Jia; Xue, Yuan

    We provide new empirical evidence for the way in which financial markets process information. Our results are based on high-frequency intraday data along with new econometric techniques for making inference on the relationship between trading intensity and spot volatility around public news...... with measures of disagreements in beliefs, economic uncertainty, and textual-based sentiment, further highlighting the key role played by differences-of-opinion....

  11. Intensification of volatile organic compounds mass transfer in a compact scrubber using the O3/H2O2 advanced oxidation process: kinetic study and hydroxyl radical tracking.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Biard, Pierre-François; Couvert, Annabelle; Renner, Christophe; Levasseur, Jean-Pierre

    2011-11-01

    This study assesses the potential of ozonation and advanced oxidation process O(3)/H(2)O(2) to enhance the dimethyldisulfide (DMDS) mass transfer in a compact chemical scrubber developed for air treatment applications. Theoretical calculations, through Hatta number and enhancement factor evaluations for two parallel irreversible reactions, were compared to experimental data and enabled the description of the mass transfer mechanisms. These calculations required the determination of the kinetic constant of the DMDS oxidation by molecular ozone ( [Formula: see text] ) and the measurement of the hydroxyl radical concentration within the scrubber. The competitive kinetic method using the 1,2-dihydroxybenzene (resorcinol) enabled to determine a value of the kinetic constant [Formula: see text] of 1.1×10(6)M(-1)s(-1) at 293K. Then, experiments using para-chlorobenzoic acid in solution allowed measuring the average hydroxyl concentration in the scrubber between the inlet and the outlet depending on the chemical conditions (pH and inlet O(3) and H(2)O(2) concentrations). High hydroxyl radical concentrations (10(-8)M) and ratio of the HO°-to-O(3) exposure (R(ct)≈10(-4)) were put in evidence.

  12. Shock compression of polyvinyl chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Neogi, Anupam; Mitra, Nilanjan

    2016-04-01

    This study presents shock compression simulation of atactic polyvinyl chloride (PVC) using ab-initio and classical molecular dynamics. The manuscript also identifies the limits of applicability of classical molecular dynamics based shock compression simulation for PVC. The mechanism of bond dissociation under shock loading and its progression is demonstrated in this manuscript using the density functional theory based molecular dynamics simulations. The rate of dissociation of different bonds at different shock velocities is also presented in this manuscript.

  13. A spectroscopic study of uranium species formed in chloride melts

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The chlorination of uranium metal or uranium oxides in chloride melts offers an acceptable process for the head-end of pyrochemical reprocessing of spent nuclear fuels. The reactions of uranium metal and ceramic uranium dioxide with chlorine and with hydrogen chloride were studied in the alkali metal chloride melts, NaCl-KCl at 973K, NaCl-CsCl between 873 and 923K and LiCl-KCl at 873K. The uranium species formed therein were characterized from their electronic absorption spectra measured in situ. The kinetic parameters of the reactions depend on melt composition, temperature and chlorinating agent used. The reaction of uranium dioxide with oxygen in the presence of alkali metal chlorides results in the formation of alkali metal uranates. A spectroscopic study, between 723 and 973K, on their formation and their solutions was undertaken in LiCl, LiCl-KCl eutectic and NaCl-CsCl eutectic melts. The dissolution of uranium dioxide in LiCl-KCl eutectic at 923K containing added aluminium trichloride in the presence of oxygen has also been investigated. In this case, the reaction leads to the formation of uranyl chloride species. (author)

  14. An Intelligent Analysis Model for Multisource Volatile Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaolu Zhang

    2013-09-01

    Full Text Available For the rapidly development of network and distributed computing environment, it make researchers harder to do analysis examines only from one or few pieces of data source in persistent data-oriented approaches, so as the volatile memory analysis either. Therefore, mass data automatically analysis and action modeling needs to be considered for reporting entire network attack process. To model multiple volatile data sources situation can help understand and describe both thinking process of investigator and possible action step for attacker. This paper presents a Game model for multisource volatile data and applies it to main memory images analysis with the definition of space-time feature for volatile element information. Abstract modeling allows the lessons gleaned in performing intelligent analysis, evidence filing and automating presentation. Finally, a test demo based on the model is also present to illustrate the whole procedure

  15. A preliminary assessment of salt and radionuclide volatilities in the molten salt processor

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We have applied thermodynamic methods to analyze the volatilities of plutonium (Pu), uranium (U), iodine (I), and salts from molten salt processor baths in bench-scale runs conducted by Rockwell International on oxidation of laboratory mixed waste. Good agreement is obtained between calculated and observed volatilities. The volatilizing species of Pu and U have been identified as gaseous PuO2(OH)2 and UO2(OH)2, both with volatilities that are strongly dependent upon temperature, chemical activity of condensed phase Pu and U, and steam pressure. Hence, for example, orders of magnitude reduction can be achieved in Pu and U volatilities by operating the bath at lower temperatures. Iodine is found to volatilize from the bath as gaseous sodium iodide (NaI) but a small portion of the NaI is converted to gaseous I2 during cooldown of the off-gas. Observations by Rockwell of trace amounts of sodium chloride (NaCl) particulates in the off-gas as a result of NaCl volatilization from the bath are confirmed by our calculations. 24 refs., 1 fig., 16 tabs

  16. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina;

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide......-170-degrees-C) depending on melt acidity and anode material. DMTC, being specifically adsorbed and reduced on the tungsten electrode surface, had an inhibiting effect on the aluminum reduction, but this effect was suppressed on the aluminum substrate. An electrochemical process with high current density (tens...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be used as active...

  17. Synthesis and structure characterization of diethyldiallylammonium chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    刘立华; 龚竹青; 郑雅杰

    2003-01-01

    The unsaturated quaternary ammonium salt diethyldiallylammonium chloride(DEDAAC) was synthesized in a two-step synthetic method. The influences of the adding method of raw materials and temperature on the yields of diethylallylamine (DEAA), and drying and temperature on the synthesis of DEDAAC were investigated. The content of in-process product DEAA was determined by non-aqueous titration. The structure of product DEDAAC was identified with IR, 1 H NMR and elemental analysis. The results show that adding allyl chloride and sodium hydroxide alternately can increase the yield of DEAA and decrease by-products. In further synthesizing of DEDAAC from DEAA, the step of drying DEAA is very necessary. When DEAA is dried by solid sodium hydroxide, good columnar crystals with a high purity(mp 199.5-201.0 ℃) are obtained; when DEAA is undried or the content of water in DEAA is above 20%, only platelets with bad quality are obtained even without crystals. The suitable synthesis conditions for DEAA and DEDAAC are 35 ℃, 6 h and 40 ℃, 36 h, respectively, and their yields are 69.7% and 67.3%, respectively.

  18. Feasibility of halogen determination in noncombustible inorganic matrices by ion chromatography after a novel volatilization method using microwave-induced combustion.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pereira, Rodrigo M; Costa, Vanize C; Hartwig, Carla A; Picoloto, Rochele S; Flores, Erico M M; Duarte, Fabio A; Mesko, Marcia F

    2016-01-15

    A microwave-induced combustion (MIC) system based on the volatilization process was applied for subsequent halogen determination from noncombustible inorganic matrices. Portland cement samples were selected to demonstrate the feasibility of the proposed method, allowing the subsequent determination of Cl and F by ion chromatography (IC). Samples were mixed with high-purity microcrystalline cellulose, wrapped with a polyethylene film and combusted in quartz closed vessels pressurized with oxygen (20bar). Water and NH4OH (10, 25 or 50m mol L(-1)) were evaluated for Cl and F absorption, but water was selected, using 5min of reflux after volatilization. Final solutions were also suitable for analysis by pontentiometry with ion-selective electrode (ISE) for both analytes, and no difference was found when comparing the results with IC. The accuracy of the proposed method for Cl was evaluated by analysis of certified reference materials (CRMs), and agreement with certified values ranged from 98% to 103%. Results were also compared to those using the procedure recommended by the American Society of Testing and Materials (ASTM) for the determination of total chlorides (C114-13), and no difference was found. Volatilization by MIC using a mixture of cement, cellulose and a biological CRM was carried out in order to evaluate the accuracy for F, and recovery was about 96%. The proposed method allowed suitable limits of detection for Cl and F by IC (99 and 18mg kg(-1), respectively) for routine analysis of cement. Using the proposed method, a relatively low standard deviation (<7%), high throughput (up to eight samples can be processed in less than 30min) and lower generation of laboratory effluents, when compared to the ASTM method, were obtained. Therefore, the method for volatilization of Cl and F by MIC and subsequent determination by IC can be proposed as a suitable alternative for cement analysis.

  19. Pricing of options on assets with level dependent stochastic volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skabelin, Alexander

    2005-05-01

    Many asset classes, such as interest rates, exchange rates, commodities, and equities, often exhibit a strong relationship between asset prices and asset volatilities. This paper examines an analytical model that takes into account this level dependence of volatility. We demonstrate how prices of European options under stochastic volatility can be calculated analytically via inverse Laplace transformations. We also examine a Hull-White stochastic volatility expansion. While a success of this expansion in approximate computation of option prices has already been established empirically, the question of convergence has been left unanswered. We demonstrate, in this paper, that this expansion diverges essentially for all possible stochastic volatility processes. In contrast to a majority of volatility expansion models reported in the literature, we construct expansions that explicitly show the contribution of all of the variance moments. Such complete expansions are very useful in analyzing properties of option prices, as we demonstrate by examining why empirical volatility surfaces plotted as a function of the rescaled strike can sometimes exhibit striking time invariance.

  20. Safe, Selective, and High-Yielding Synthesis of Acryloyl Chloride in a Continuous-Flow System.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Movsisyan, Marine; Heugebaert, Thomas S A; Dams, Rudy; Stevens, Christian V

    2016-08-01

    Acid chlorides are an important class of compounds and their high reactivity and instability has prompted us to develop a straightforward procedure for their synthesis with on-demand and on-site synthesis possibilities. The focus of this report is acryloyl chloride, mainly important for the acrylate and polymer industry. A continuous-flow methodology was developed for the fast and selective synthesis of the otherwise highly unstable acryloyl chloride. Three routes were investigated in a microreactor setup and all three can potentially be used for its production. The methodology was further expanded to the synthesis of other unstable acid chlorides by both the thionyl chloride and the oxalyl chloride mediated processes. The most sustainable method was the oxalyl chloride mediated procedure under solvent-free conditions, in which near-equimolar amounts of carboxylic acid and oxalyl chloride were used in the presence of catalytic amounts of DMF at room temperature. Within 1 to 3 min, nearly full conversions into the acid chlorides were achieved. PMID:27325562

  1. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan

    2016-01-01

    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and iron oxides, moreover, interactions between metallic oxides and sodium chloride are also a way for chlorination at high temperature (>802 °C); subsequently, the metal chloride would be reduced by reductant. In the absence of moisture, the magnetic separation results show that the recoveries of iron and nickel have a significant increase; moreover, olivine structure would be destroyed gradually with the increase of roasting temperature in the action of sodium chloride, and the sodium chloride existed in high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore could make the NiO isolate from NiO-bearing minerals. The NiO reacts with Fe2O3 at high temperature to form NiFe2O4, which is conductive to the formation of Ni-Fe alloy during the reduction process. PMID:27374991

  2. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan

    2016-07-01

    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and iron oxides, moreover, interactions between metallic oxides and sodium chloride are also a way for chlorination at high temperature (>802 °C) subsequently, the metal chloride would be reduced by reductant. In the absence of moisture, the magnetic separation results show that the recoveries of iron and nickel have a significant increase; moreover, olivine structure would be destroyed gradually with the increase of roasting temperature in the action of sodium chloride, and the sodium chloride existed in high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore could make the NiO isolate from NiO-bearing minerals. The NiO reacts with Fe2O3 at high temperature to form NiFe2O4, which is conductive to the formation of Ni-Fe alloy during the reduction process.

  3. Mechanism of sodium chloride in promoting reduction of high-magnesium low-nickel oxide ore.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhou, Shiwei; Wei, Yonggang; Li, Bo; Wang, Hua; Ma, Baozhong; Wang, Chengyan

    2016-01-01

    Sodium chloride has been proved that it is an effective promoter for the reduction of high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore. The aim of current work is to clarify the promotion behavior of sodium chloride in the roasting reduction process. The influence of moisture on the reduction of ore in the presence of sodium chloride is studied to get clear comprehension of promotion process. In the presence of moisture, the HCl is produced by pyrohydrolysis of sodium chloride for chlorinating nickel and iron oxides, moreover, interactions between metallic oxides and sodium chloride are also a way for chlorination at high temperature (>802 °C); subsequently, the metal chloride would be reduced by reductant. In the absence of moisture, the magnetic separation results show that the recoveries of iron and nickel have a significant increase; moreover, olivine structure would be destroyed gradually with the increase of roasting temperature in the action of sodium chloride, and the sodium chloride existed in high-magnesium, low-nickel oxide ore could make the NiO isolate from NiO-bearing minerals. The NiO reacts with Fe2O3 at high temperature to form NiFe2O4, which is conductive to the formation of Ni-Fe alloy during the reduction process.

  4. Analysis of volatile compounds from Iberian hams: a review

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Narváez-Rivas, M.

    2012-10-01

    Full Text Available This article provides information on the study of the volatile compounds in raw and dry-cured Iberian hams. Different volatile compounds are identified and studies carried out by different authors are presented. This article reviews the analytical methods that have been used to determine the different volatiles of these samples. Furthermore, all volatile compounds identified (a total of 411 volatiles have been collected in several tables according to different series of compounds: hydrocarbons, aldehydes, ketones, alcohols, esters and ethers, lactones, terpenes and chloride compounds, nitrogenous compounds, sulfur compounds and carboxylic acids. This review can be useful in subsequent research due to the complexity of the study.

    En este artículo se proporciona información sobre el estudio de los compuestos volátiles del jamón ibérico tanto fresco como curado. Se presentan los diferentes compuestos volátiles identificados por distintos autores. Además, se evalúan los métodos analíticos que han sido utilizados para determinar dichos compuestos volátiles en este tipo de muestras. Todos los compuestos identificados y descritos en esta revisión (un total de 411 compuestos volátiles han sido agrupados en diversas tablas de acuerdo a las diferentes familias a que pertenecen: hidrocarburos, aldehídos, cetonas, alcoholes, ésteres y éteres, lactonas, terpenos, compuestos halogenados, compuestos nitrogenados, compuestos de azufre y ácidos carboxílicos. Debido a la complejidad de este estudio, la presente revisión puede ser muy útil en investigaciones posteriores.

  5. The Limiting Phenomena at the Anode of the Electrowinning of Zinc from Zinc Chloride in a Molten Chloride Electrolyte

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lans, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the possibilities and technological viability for the electrowinning of zinc from zinc chloride. This research contributes to development of an alternative process, because it provides: ⢠A clear understanding and overview of the present zinc industr

  6. Thermodynamics of Volatile Species in the Silicon-Oxygen-Hydrogen System Studied

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Copland, Evan H.; Myers, Dwight

    2005-01-01

    The volatilization of silica (SiO2) to silicon hydroxides and oxyhydroxides because of reaction with water vapor is important in a variety of high-temperature corrosion processes. For example, the lifetimes of silicon carbide (SiC) and silicon nitride (Si3N4) - based components in combustion environments are limited by silica volatility. To understand and model this process, it is essential to have accurate thermodynamic data for the formation of volatile silicon hydroxides and oxyhydroxides.

  7. Nonparametric volatility density estimation for discrete time models.

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    A.J. van Es; P.J.C. Spreij; J.H. van Zanten

    2005-01-01

    Abstract: We consider discrete time models for asset prices with a stationary volatility process. We aim at estimating the multivariate density of this process at a set of consecutive time instants. A Fourier type deconvolution kernel density estimator based on the logarithm of the squared process i

  8. Thermogravimetric Investigation of the Lead Volatilization from Waste Cathode-Ray Tube Glass

    OpenAIRE

    Grause, Guido; Takahashi, Kenshi; Yoshioka, Toshiaki

    2016-01-01

    The treatment of lead-containing cathode-ray tube (CRT) glass is an important environmental issue. One approach is the removal of lead by chloride volatilization. In the present work, the reaction of CRT glass with PVC as the chlorinating agent and Ca(OH)2 as the chlorine absorber was investigated by thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) in air. Seven reaction steps occurring at different temperatures were identified as dehydrochlorination of PVC/HCl absorption, CO2 absorption, Ca(OH)2 dehydration...

  9. Chloride Ion Transport in Fly Ash Mortar under Action of Fatigue Loading

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Caihui; SUN Wei; JIANG Jinyang

    2012-01-01

    In order to study the chloride ion transport performance in fly ash addition mortar,a new method,in which the fatigue loading and chloride diffusion are undertaken simultaneously,was developed.This method realizes coupling the fatigue damage process and the process of chloride transporting of fly ash mortar.The transport performance of chloride in fly ash mortar specimens was studied under different stress levels.Moreover,the effect of fly ash content on transport performance of chloride ion in mortar was investigated.AE (Acoustic Emission) and SEM were used to acquire the damage distribution of mortar specimens under action of fatigue load.The results show that the diffusion coefficient of chloride in mortar specimens increases with stress level of fatigue loading.The addition of fly ash can mitigate the penetration of chloride ion.The results of microcrack 3D location acquired by AE,accompanied with crack characterizing from SEM,indicate that the damage degree of mortar specimen increases with stress level of fatigue loading.Furthermore,higher damage degree of mortar leads to more the chloride ion content in the sample.

  10. Dietary Impact of Adding Potassium Chloride to Foods as a Sodium Reduction Technique

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Leo van Buren

    2016-04-01

    Full Text Available Potassium chloride is a leading reformulation technology for reducing sodium in food products. As, globally, sodium intake exceeds guidelines, this technology is beneficial; however, its potential impact on potassium intake is unknown. Therefore, a modeling study was conducted using Dutch National Food Survey data to examine the dietary impact of reformulation (n = 2106. Product-specific sodium criteria, to enable a maximum daily sodium chloride intake of 5 grams/day, were applied to all foods consumed in the survey. The impact of replacing 20%, 50% and 100% of sodium chloride from each product with potassium chloride was modeled. At baseline median, potassium intake was 3334 mg/day. An increase in the median intake of potassium of 453 mg/day was seen when a 20% replacement was applied, 674 mg/day with a 50% replacement scenario and 733 mg/day with a 100% replacement scenario. Reformulation had the largest impact on: bread, processed fruit and vegetables, snacks and processed meat. Replacement of sodium chloride by potassium chloride, particularly in key contributing product groups, would result in better compliance to potassium intake guidelines (3510 mg/day. Moreover, it could be considered safe for the general adult population, as intake remains compliant with EFSA guidelines. Based on current modeling potassium chloride presents as a valuable, safe replacer for sodium chloride in food products.

  11. Water Vapor-Mediated Volatilization of High-Temperature Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Meschter, Peter J.; Opila, Elizabeth J.; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2013-07-01

    Volatilization in water vapor-containing atmospheres is an important and often unexpected mechanism of degradation of high-temperature materials during processing and in service. Thermodynamic properties data sets for key (oxy)hydroxide vapor product species that are responsible for material transport and damage are often uncertain or unavailable. Estimation, quantum chemistry calculation, and measurement methods for thermodynamic properties of these species are reviewed, and data judged to be reliable are tabulated and referenced. Applications of water vapor-mediated volatilization include component and coating recession in turbine engines, oxidation/volatilization of ferritic steels in steam boilers, chromium poisoning in solid-oxide fuel cells, vanadium transport in hot corrosion and degradation of hydrocracking catalysts, Na loss from Na β"-Al2O3 tubes, and environmental release of radioactive isotopes in a nuclear reactor accident or waste incineration. The significance of water vapor-mediated volatilization in these applications is described.

  12. Inflation Volatility and Forecast Accuracy

    OpenAIRE

    Jamie Hall; Jarkko Jääskelä

    2009-01-01

    This paper examines the statistical properties of inflation in a sample of inflation-targeting and non-inflation-targeting countries. First, it analyses the time-varying volatility of a measure of the persistent component of inflation. Based on this measure, inflation-targeting countries (Australia, Canada, New Zealand, Sweden and the United Kingdom) have experienced a relatively more pronounced fall in the volatility of inflation than non-inflation-targeting countries (Austria, France, Germa...

  13. Volatility Smile and Delta Hedging

    OpenAIRE

    Stolbov, Anatoly

    2014-01-01

    The thesis describes and applies two parametric option pricing models which partially ease the well-known discrepancy between real world and Black-Scholes model. Stochastic volatility and jumps encompassed by Heston and SVJ models explain implied volatility smile and its heterogeneous term-structure. Both models are calibrated to market data observed for EURUSD currency options on January 23, 2015. While SVJ model provided a better fit for the market, especially for mid-term expiry smile curv...

  14. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... in continuous application. This study looks at the development of a simple, inexpensive chloride electrode, and evaluates its performance under continuous use, both in the laboratory and in a field test in a monitoring well. The results from the study showed a consistent response to changing chloride...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  15. 薄荷、肉桂中挥发油提取及β-环糊精包合工艺研究%Extraction of volatile oil from Herba Menthae and Cortex Cinnamomi and its inclusion process with β-cyclodextrin

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    卫强; 杜会兰; 胡娟; 杨春燕

    2011-01-01

    目的:研究七味养心健脾胶囊中薄荷、肉桂挥发油的提取及包合工艺条件和参数。方法:以吸水率、浸泡时间、加水量、提取时间等为考察指标,分别比较薄荷、肉桂挥发油提取条件,选择优化条件;以β-环糊精-油比例、包合温度、包合时间等因素进行正交试验,优选挥发油包合工艺条件。结果:薄荷、肉桂浸泡4 h,加水10倍,提取3 h,挥发油含量较高;最佳包合条件为:β-环糊精-油比例为5∶1,包合温度为60℃,包合时间2 h。用薄层鉴别和紫外鉴别,包合前后挥发油质量不变。结论:薄荷、肉桂包合工艺可改善挥发油挥发性,提高制剂质量。%Objective: To study the optimum extraction process of volatile oil from Herba Menthae and Cortex Cinnamomi,and their inclusion process with β-cyclodextri in Qiwei Yangxinjianpi capsule.Methods: Effects of water absorption,soak time,water volume and extracting time on extraction of volatile oil were investigated,and the inclusion process with β-CD were optimized by orthogonal design.Results: Optimal extracting condition was as follows: adding 10 times distilled water,soaking for 4 hours,distilling three hours;The optimum conditions of inclusive compound were the proportion of 1∶5(volatile oil to β-CD),2 hours of inclusion at 60 ℃.Thin-layer chromatography and ultraviolet scanning analysis showed that the quality of volatile oil was stable before and after inclusion.Conclusion: This inclusion process can improve the volatility of volatile oil and preparation property.

  16. Management strategy impacts on ammonia volatilization from swine manure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Panetta, Diane M; Powers, Wendy J; Lorimor, Jeffery C

    2005-01-01

    Ammonia emitted from manure can have detrimental effects on health, environmental quality, and fertilizer value. The objective of this study was to measure the potential for reduction in ammonia volatilization from swine (Sus scrofa domestica) manure by temperature control, stirring, addition of nitrogen binder (Mohave yucca, Yucca schidigera Roezl ex Ortgies) or urease inhibitor [N-(n-butyl) thiophosphoric triamide (NBPT)], segregation of urine from feces, and pH modification. Swine manure [total solids (TS) = 7.6-11.2%, total Kjeldahl nitrogen (TKN) = 3.3-6.2 g/L, ammonium nitrogen NH(+)(4)-N = 1.0-3.3 g/L] was stored for 24, 48, 72, or 96 h in 2-L polyvinyl chloride vessels. The manure was analyzed to determine pre- and post-storage concentrations of TS and volatile solids (VS), TKN, and NH(+)(4)-N. The concentration of accumulated ammonia N in the vessel headspace (HSAN), post-storage, was measured using grab sample tubes. Headspace NH(3) concentrations were reduced 99.3% by segregation of urine from feces (P acidification to pH 5.3 (9.4%), and increased with stirring (4.8%) and increasing temperature (0.06 g/L per 1 degree C increase in temperature over 35 degrees C). Temperature control, urine-feces segregation, and acidification of swine manure are strategies with potential to reduce or slow NH(+)(4)-N formation and NH(3) volatilization. PMID:15888898

  17. Thermochemical reaction mechanism of lead oxide with poly(vinyl chloride) in waste thermal treatment.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Si-Jia; Zhang, Hua; Shao, Li-Ming; Liu, Shu-Meng; He, Pin-Jing

    2014-12-01

    Poly(vinyl chloride) (PVC) as a widely used plastic that can promote the volatilization of heavy metals during the thermal treatment of solid waste, thus leading to environmental problems of heavy metal contamination. In this study, thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) coupled with differential scanning calorimeter, TGA coupled with Fourier transform infrared spectroscopy and lab-scale tube furnace experiments were carried out with standard PVC and PbO to explicate the thermochemical reaction mechanism of PVC with semi-volatile lead. The results showed that PVC lost weight from 225 to 230°C under both air and nitrogen with an endothermic peak, and HCl and benzene release were also detected. When PbO was present, HCl that decomposed from PVC instantly reacted with PbO via an exothermal gas-solid reaction. The product was solid-state PbCl2 at 501°C, PbCl2 melted, volatilized and transferred into flue gas or condensed into fly ash. Almost all PbCl2 volatilized above 900°C, while PbO just started to volatilize slowly at this temperature. Therefore, the chlorination effect of PVC on lead was apt to lower-temperature and rapid. Without oxygen, Pb2O was generated due to the deoxidizing by carbon, with oxygen, the amount of residual Pb in the bottom ash was significantly decreased.

  18. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vinyl chloride (VC monomer is a wellknown carcinogenic and mutagenic substance causes liver damages, angiosarcoma of the liver, acro – osteolysis, sclerodermalike changes in workers chronically exposed to this gas. There are following VC emitors to the environment: VC production plants, polymerization facilities and planes where polyvinyl products are fabricated. Because of that, the general population is coming into VC contact through polluted air, food and water. VC concentration in all mentioned sites is very low, often not detectable. There was found any health risk for the general population. The VC air concentration in the vicinity to antropogenic emitors is always higher. Such a situation may causes undesirable health effect for residents living in the neighbourhood. Epidemiological studies are performed to detect the adverse VC effect in selected cohorts. Non of the study did not confirmed cases of angiosarcoma among residents living near a vinyl chloride sites. VC production is growing permanently, so VC emission will be higher. Because of that health monitoring of general population and especially of selected groups seems to be necessary in the future.

  19. Modeling Fate and Transport of Chloride from Deicers in Urban Floodplains: Implications for Urban Planning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ledford, S. H.; Lautz, L.

    2015-12-01

    Road salting in urban areas of the northeastern United States increases chloride concentrations in urban streams. Groundwater storage of saline road runoff results in increased surface water chloride concentrations through time, even in non-winter months. Stream-groundwater (SW-GW) interactions promote buffering of large seasonal swings in stream chloride concentrations, resulting in lower surface water chloride in winter and higher concentrations in summer, relative to streams hydrologically disconnected from riparian floodplains. However, the hydrogeologic processes controlling salt storage and transport in urban floodplain aquifers have not been fully investigated. We developed a 3D numerical groundwater flow and solute transport model of an urban floodplain in Syracuse, New York, using MODFLOW and MT3DMS. We ran the model for 1 year, calibrating to three conditions: water table elevations along a riparian transect, measurements of net groundwater flux to the stream along the 500-m reach, and chloride concentrations in groundwater through time in riparian wells. Chloride enters the riparian aquifer via three pathways: hillslope groundwater discharge, hyporheic exchange, and groundwater recharge during overbank flooding events. Winter overbank flooding events are the primary source of chloride to floodplain sediments. While hillslope groundwater discharge results in relatively uniform chloride through time in high conductivity units, surficial floodplain sediments with lower conductivity have high chloride concentrations from winter overbank flood events. When compared to road salt application rates (up to 20 tons of salt per lane kilometer per year), the 0.013 km2 floodplain holds only a tiny fraction of chloride applied in a watershed (>100 km of road in the watershed). To promote riparian aquifer storage of road salt and buffering of stream chloride concentrations, urban planners should design urban floodplains for frequent winter flooding events, and allow

  20. Selenium Uptake and Volatilization by Marine Algae

    Science.gov (United States)

    Luxem, Katja E.; Vriens, Bas; Wagner, Bettina; Behra, Renata; Winkel, Lenny H. E.

    2015-04-01

    Selenium (Se) is an essential trace nutrient for humans. An estimated one half to one billion people worldwide suffer from Se deficiency, which is due to low concentrations and bioavailability of Se in soils where crops are grown. It has been hypothesized that more than half of the atmospheric Se deposition to soils is derived from the marine system, where microorganisms methylate and volatilize Se. Based on model results from the late 1980s, the atmospheric flux of these biogenic volatile Se compounds is around 9 Gt/year, with two thirds coming from the marine biosphere. Algae, fungi, and bacteria are known to methylate Se. Although algal Se uptake, metabolism, and methylation influence the speciation and bioavailability of Se in the oceans, these processes have not been quantified under environmentally relevant conditions and are likely to differ among organisms. Therefore, we are investigating the uptake and methylation of the two main inorganic Se species (selenate and selenite) by three globally relevant microalgae: Phaeocystis globosa, the coccolithophorid Emiliania huxleyi, and the diatom Thalassiosira oceanica. Selenium uptake and methylation were quantified in a batch experiment, where parallel gas-tight microcosms in a climate chamber were coupled to a gas-trapping system. For E. huxleyi, selenite uptake was strongly dependent on aqueous phosphate concentrations, which agrees with prior evidence that selenite uptake by phosphate transporters is a significant Se source for marine algae. Selenate uptake was much lower than selenite uptake. The most important volatile Se compounds produced were dimethyl selenide, dimethyl diselenide, and dimethyl selenyl sulfide. Production rates of volatile Se species were larger with increasing intracellular Se concentration and in the decline phase of the alga. Similar experiments are being carried out with P. globosa and T. oceanica. Our results indicate that marine algae are important for the global cycling of Se

  1. Influence of Chloride-Ion Adsorption Agent on Chloride Ions in Concrete and Mortar

    OpenAIRE

    Gai-Fei Peng; Nai-Qian Feng; Qi-Ming Song

    2014-01-01

    The influence of a chloride-ion adsorption agent (Cl agent in short), composed of zeolite, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium nitrite, on the ingress of chloride ions into concrete and mortar has been experimentally studied. The permeability of concrete was measured, and the chloride ion content in mortar was tested. The experimental results reveal that the Cl agent could adsorb chloride ions effectively, which had penetrated into concrete and mortar. When the Cl agent was used at a dosage...

  2. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    OpenAIRE

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; Makhnin, O.; A. S. Kayaalp

    2010-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construc...

  3. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    OpenAIRE

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; Makhnin, O.; A. S. Kayaalp

    2010-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this st...

  4. Corrosion of reinforcement induced by environment containing chloride and carbon dioxide

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Vladimír Živica

    2003-10-01

    Reinforced concrete structures during their exploitation may be exposed to the common action of carbonation and chlorides causing corrosion of steel reinforcement. Therefore, the related data seem to be interesting and important when the evaluation of the service life of the structures is the object of interest. This fact was a motivation for the present experimental study on the sequence of action of chloride solutions and carbonation of the embedding concrete. The results obtained show that carbonation of concrete foregoing the action of chloride solutions may intensify the process of corrosion of steel reinforcement in comparison to the converse sequence of the action of mentioned media. At the same time the natrium chloride solution has been shown as a more aggressive medium opposite to the calcium and magnesium chloride solutions.

  5. The Limiting Phenomena at the Anode of the Electrowinning of Zinc from Zinc Chloride in a Molten Chloride Electrolyte

    OpenAIRE

    Lans, S.C.

    2004-01-01

    The objective of this research is to investigate the possibilities and technological viability for the electrowinning of zinc from zinc chloride. This research contributes to development of an alternative process, because it provides: ⢠A clear understanding and overview of the present zinc industry and future developments. ⢠A thorough literature investigation, leading to: o Understanding the reasons to abandon the proposed process route previously used (molten salt electrowinning in parti...

  6. Ammonia volatilization from surface application of organic residues and urea on Marandu palisadegrass

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Álisson Vanin

    2013-04-01

    Full Text Available The objective of this study was to measure ammonia volatilization from surface application of pig slurry, poultry litter, urea and no fertilization. An experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, in plots repeated over time, with four treatments and four replications. The fertilizers tested were: mineral fertilizer (70 kg ha-1 N, 100 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 30 kg ha-1 of K2O, as urea, triple superphosphate and potassium chloride, respectively, pig slurry (200 m³ ha-1 applied in November 2008 and 200 m³ ha-1 applied in April 2009 and poultry litter (10 t ha-1 applied in November 2008 and 10 t ha-1 applied in April 2009. Five evaluations were performed with 24-hour intervals. Foams were used with glycerin and sulfuric acid, internally fixed in PET bottles for collecting ammonia. After collected, the samples were sent to the laboratory to determine volatilized ammonia levels by the semi-micro Kjedahl distillation method. Fertilization with chicken litter had lower ammonia volatilization in relation to urea and pig slurry. Most of the ammonia volatilization from pig slurry occurred within 48 hours after application, totaling losses of 630 g kg-1 of a total of 8.25 kg ha-1 of volatilized ammonia. The biggest loss by ammonia volatilization was from fertilization with urea, totaling approximately 80 g kg-1 of N applied.

  7. Observations of Nitryl Chloride and Modeling its Source and Effect on Ozone in the Planetary Boundary Layer of Southern China

    Science.gov (United States)

    LI, Q.; Wang, T.; Tham, Y. J.; Xue, L.; Zha, Q.; Wang, Z.; Poon, S.; Brown, S. S.; Dube, W. P.; Louie, P. K. K.; Luk, C.; Blake, D. R.; Tsui, W.

    2015-12-01

    Nitryl chloride (ClNO2) is produced from heterogeneous reaction of N2O5 on chloride-containing aerosol. ClNO2 can impact the oxidative capacity of the atmosphere by production of highly reactive chlorine radical (Cl) and recycling NOx after its photolysis. Subsequent reactions between Cl and volatile organic compounds may enhance photochemical formation of ozone. Despite the potentially important roles of ClNO2 in atmospheric chemistry, its abundance and effect are not well understood in some parts of the world. In late autumn 2013, ClNO2 was measured with a chemical ionization mass spectrometer (CIMS) at a mountain top (957 m a.s.l) in Hong Kong. During 12 nights with continuous CIMS data, elevated concentrations of ClNO2 (>400 ppbv) or its precursor N2O5 (>1000 pptv) were observed on six nights, with the highest ever reported ClNO2 (4.7 ppbv) and N2O5 (7.7 ppbv) in one case. Backward particle dispersion calculations driven by winds simulated with a mesoscale meteorological model show that the ClNO2/N2O5-laden air at the high-elevation site was due to transport of urban/industrial pollution north of the site. The highest ClNO2/N2O5 case was observed in a later period of the night and was characterized with extensively processed air and with the presence of non-oceanic chloride. A chemical box model with detailed chlorine chemistry was used to assess the possible impact of the ClNO2 in the well-processed regional plume on next-day ozone as the air mass continued to downwind locations. The results show that the ClNO2 could enhance ozone up to 23 ppbv or a 22% increase at the ozone peak in the following day. This study demonstrates the importance of the ClNO2 chemistry in polluted environments and highlights the need to consider this process in photochemical models for prediction of ground-level ozone and haze.

  8. Resistance of Alkali-Activated Slag Concrete to Chloride-Induced Corrosion

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Joon Woo Park

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available The corrosion resistance of steel in alkali-activated slag (AAS mortar was evaluated by a monitoring of the galvanic current and half-cell potential with time against a chloride-contaminated environment. For chloride transport, rapid chloride penetration test was performed, and chloride binding capacity of AAS was evaluated at a given chloride. The mortar/paste specimens were manufactured with ground granulated blast-furnace slag, instead of Portland cement, and alkali activators were added in mixing water, including Ca(OH2, KOH and NaOH, to activate hydration process. As a result, it was found that the corrosion behavior was strongly dependent on the type of alkali activator: the AAS containing the Ca(OH2 activator was the most passive in monitoring of the galvanic corrosion and half-cell potential, while KOH, and NaOH activators indicated a similar level of corrosion to Portland cement mortar (control. Despite a lower binding of chloride ions in the paste, the AAS had quite a higher resistance to chloride transport in rapid chloride penetration, presumably due to the lower level of capillary pores, which was ensured by the pore distribution of AAS mortar in mercury intrusion porosimetry.

  9. 利用铝灰制备聚合氯化铝工艺参数的优化%Optimization on Process Parameters About Preparation of Polyaluminum Chloride from Aluminum Ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    石健; 邹开云

    2011-01-01

    以铝灰为原料,用一步酸溶法制备高效无机高分子的多价聚合电解质混凝剂聚合氯化铝.研究了铝灰、HCl、水三者配比,以及反应温度、反应时间、熟化温度、熟化时间、搅拌速度等参数对聚合氯化铝的性能影响,确定了制备聚合氯化铝的最佳工艺条件:初始加水量为15 mL,酸水比为1,投加量3 g,反应时间2 h,反应温度85℃,熟化时间48 h,熟化温度50℃.氯化铝的质量分数由原生产工艺的6%~8%提高到现在的12%~14%.%Polyaluminum chloride are prepared from aluminum ash by acid dissolution, parameters that influence the performance of PAC, such as reaction, temperature, reaction time, aging temperature, aging time, the ratio of aluminum ash, HCI and water, are investigated. The optimum conditions for the preparation of PAC are determined, namely the initial waterl5ml, ratio of water and acid is 1, dosing quantity is 3 g, react 2 h in 85℃, aging 48 h in 50℃ The precent of chloride is increased to 12%-14% from the past 6%-8%.

  10. Volatility Forecasting: Downside Risk, Jumps and Leverage Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Francesco Audrino

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available We provide empirical evidence of volatility forecasting in relation to asymmetries present in the dynamics of both return and volatility processes. Using recently-developed methodologies to detect jumps from high frequency price data, we estimate the size of positive and negative jumps and propose a methodology to estimate the size of jumps in the quadratic variation. The leverage effect is separated into continuous and discontinuous effects, and past volatility is separated into “good” and “bad”, as well as into continuous and discontinuous risks. Using a long history of the S & P500 price index, we find that the continuous leverage effect lasts about one week, while the discontinuous leverage effect disappears after one day. “Good” and “bad” continuous risks both characterize the volatility persistence, while “bad” jump risk is much more informative than “good” jump risk in forecasting future volatility. The volatility forecasting model proposed is able to capture many empirical stylized facts while still remaining parsimonious in terms of the number of parameters to be estimated.

  11. ANTI-INFLAMMATORY EFFECTS OF MAGNOLIAE FARGESII VOLATILE OIL

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    WANG Feng; CHEN Zhi-dong; XING Tao; WANG Nian-song

    2009-01-01

    Objective To explore the anti-inflammatory effects of magnoliae fargesii volatile oil.Methods Human umbilical vein endothelial cells (HUVECs) were stimulated by TNF-α to express the adhesion molecules. Then the anti-adhesion effects of magnoliae fargesii volatile oil between HUVECs and human peripheral neutrophils were observed. The ischemia-reperfusion animal models were established by 60min renal ischemia followed by 1, 3, 6 and 24h reperfusion. Rats were randomly divided into the following groups: the sham-operation controls, ischemic group only treated with normal saline, and treated group infused magnoliae fargesii volatile oil before reperfusion. Then the renal injury of rats was detected. Results High rate of cell adhesion between HUVECs and neutrophils was observed. Magnoliae fargesii volatile oil could inhibit the adhesion process at the concentration of 0.5μL/mL (191.6±8.6), 1.0μL/mL (158.2±9.0) and 2.0μL/mL (155.2±9.7) (P<0.05). The anti-adhesion effects were strengthened with the increase of volatile oil concentration. Blood urea nitrogen and creatinine levels of the animal models were significantly increased after 24h reperfusion while the increase was remarkably attenuated by the treatment with magnoliae fargesii volatile oil. The renal injury was severe after 1h reperfusion, which was significantly attenuated by the treatment of magnoliae fargesii volatile oil. Conclusion Magnoliae fargesii volatile oil has anti-inflammatory effects.

  12. Volatility of secondary organic aerosol during OH radical induced ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Salo

    2011-07-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate oxidation of SOA formed from ozonolysis of α-pinene and limonene by hydroxyl radicals. This paper focuses on changes of particle volatility, using a Volatility Tandem DMA (VTDMA set-up, in order to explain and elucidate the mechanism behind atmospheric ageing of the organic aerosol. The experiments were conducted at the AIDA chamber facility of KIT in Karlsruhe and at the SAPHIR chamber of FZJ in Jülich. A fresh SOA was produced from ozonolysis of α-pinene or limonene and then aged by enhanced OH exposure. As an OH-radical source in the AIDA-chamber the ozonolysis of tetramethylethylene (TME was used while in the SAPHIR-chamber the OH was produced by natural light photochemistry. A general feature is that SOA produced from ozonolysis of α-pinene and limonene initially were rather volatile and becomes less volatile with time in the ozonolysis part of the experiment. Inducing OH chemistry or adding a new portion of precursors made the SOA more volatile due to addition of new semi-volatile material to the aged aerosol. The effect of OH chemistry was less pronounced in high concentration and low temperature experiments when lower relative amounts of semi-volatile material were available in the gas phase. Conclusions drawn from the changes in volatility were confirmed by comparison with the measured and modelled chemical composition of the aerosol phase. Three quantified products from the α-pinene oxidation; pinonic acid, pinic acid and methylbutanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA were used to probe the processes influencing aerosol volatility. A major conclusion from the work is that the OH induced ageing can be attributed to gas phase oxidation of products produced in the primary SOA formation process and that there was no indication on significant bulk or surface reactions. The presented results, thus, strongly emphasise the importance of gas phase oxidation of semi- or intermediate-volatile organic compounds

  13. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM ACIDIC SOLUTIONS USING NO2

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Chloride (Cl-) salt processing in strong acids is used to recycle plutonium (Pu) from pyrochemical residues. The Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) is studying the potential application of nitrogen dioxide (NO2) gas to effectively convert dissolved pyrochemical salt solutions to chloride-free solutions and improve recovery operations. An NO2 sparge has been shown to effectively remove Cl- from solutions containing 6-8 M acid (H+) and up to 5 M Cl-. Chloride removal occurs as a result of the competition of at least two reactions, one which is acid-dependent. Below 4 M H+, NO2 reacts with Cl- to produce nitrosyl chloride (ClNO). Between 6 M and 8 M H+, the reaction of hydrochloric acid (HCl) with nitric acid (HNO3), facilitated by the presence of NO2, strongly affects the rate of Cl- removal. The effect of heating the acidic Cl- salt solution without pre-heating the NO2 gas has minimal effect on Cl- removal rates when the contact times between NO2 and the salt solution are on the order of seconds

  14. Solid phase microextraction for profiling volatile compounds in liquered white wines

    OpenAIRE

    Henryk H. Jeleń; Anna Szczurek

    2010-01-01

    Background. Profile of volatile compounds is a distinct feature of wine, which is dependent on the type of wine, grapes, fermentation and ageing processes. Profiling volatile compounds in wine using fast method provides information on major groups of compounds and can be used for classification/differentiation purposes. Solid phase microextraction (SPME) was used for the profiling of volatile compounds in liquered white wines in this study. Material and methods. Different fibers were tes...

  15. The hydrogen concentration as parameter to identify natural attenuation processes of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons in ground water; Die Wasserstoffkonzentration als Parameter zur Identifizierung des natuerlichen Abbaus von leichtfluechtigen Chlorkohlenwasserstoffen (LCKW) im Grundwasser

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Alter, M.D.

    2006-06-15

    In this study, the hydrogen concentration as parameter to identify natural attenuation processes of volatile chlorinated hydrocarbons was investigated. The currently accepted and recommended bubble strip method for hydrogen sampling was optimized, and a storage method for hydrogen samples was developed. Furthermore batch experiments with a dechlorinating mixed culture and pure cultures were carried out to study H{sub 2}-concentrations of competing redox processes. The extraction of hydrogen from ground water was optimized by a reduced inlet diameter of the usually applied gas sampling bulbs, allowing a maximal turbulent ow and gas transfer. With a gas volume of 10 ml and flow rates of 50 to 140 ml/min, the course of extraction almost followed the theoretical course of equilibration. At flow rates > 100 ml/min a equilibrium of 98% was achieved within 20 min. Until recently it was generally accepted that hydrogen samples can be stored only for 2 hours and therefore have to be analyzed immediately in the eld. Here, it was shown that eld samples can be stored for 1-3 days until analysis. For the dechlorination of tetrachloroethene (PCE), a hydrogen threshold concentration of 1-2 nM was found with the dechlorinating mixed culture as well as with a pure culture of Sulfurospirillum multivorans in combination with another pure culture Methanosarcina mazei. No dechlorination was detectable below this concentration. With the dechlorinating mixed culture, this finding is valid for all successive dechlorination steps until ethene. The hydrogen threshold concentration for denitrification were below the detection limit of 0,2 nM with the dechlorinating mixed culture. A threshold concentration of 3,1-3,5 nM was found for sulphate reduction and a threshold of 7-9 nM H{sub 2} for hydrogenotrophic methanogenesis. This implies that the natural dechlorination at contaminated sites is preferred to competing processes like sulphate reduction and methanogenesis. The threshold

  16. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.;

    1999-01-01

    modelled on Fick's law modified by a term for chloride binding. Inclusion of chloride binding significantly improves the profile shape of the modelled ingress profiles. The presence of fine aggregate and formation of interfacial transition zones at paste-aggregate boundaries does not significantly affect...

  17. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.;

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements...

  18. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... Commission found that the domestic interested party group response to its notice of institution (74 FR 31757... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Notice of... chloride from China. SUMMARY: The Commission hereby gives notice that it will proceed with a full...

  19. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei;

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs...

  20. Chronopotentiometric chloride sensing using transition time measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Y.; Graaf, de D.B.; Olthuis, W.; Berg, van den A.

    2013-01-01

    Detection of chloride ions is crucial to accurately access the concrete structure durability[1]. The existing electrochemical method of chloride ions detection in concrete, potentiometry[1], is not suitable for in-situ measurement due to the long term stability issue of conventional reference electr

  1. Chemische contaminanten in diervoeder additief Choline Chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Jong, de J.; Egmond, van H.J.; Dam, ten G.

    2010-01-01

    Dit briefrapport beschrijft de resultaten van een onderzoek naar chemische contaminanten in Choline Chloride. De doelstellingen waren: 1) Inzicht te verkrijgen in het voorkomen van (gebromeerde) vlamvertragers en broomdioxines in het diervoederadditief Choline Chloride en het, op basis van de result

  2. The price of fixed income market volatility

    CERN Document Server

    Mele, Antonio

    2015-01-01

    Fixed income volatility and equity volatility evolve heterogeneously over time, co-moving disproportionately during periods of global imbalances and each reacting to events of different nature. While the methodology for options-based "model-free" pricing of equity volatility has been known for some time, little is known about analogous methodologies for pricing various fixed income volatilities. This book fills this gap and provides a unified evaluation framework of fixed income volatility while dealing with disparate markets such as interest-rate swaps, government bonds, time-deposits and credit. It develops model-free, forward looking indexes of fixed-income volatility that match different quoting conventions across various markets, and uncovers subtle yet important pitfalls arising from naïve superimpositions of the standard equity volatility methodology when pricing various fixed income volatilities. The ultimate goal of the authors´ efforts is to make interest rate volatility standardization a valuable...

  3. Understanding volatility dynamics in the EU-ETS market

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    We study the short-term price behavior of Phase 2 EU emission allowances. We model returns and volatility dynamics, and we demonstrate that a standard ARMAX-GARCH framework is inadequate for this modeling and that the gaussianity assumption is rejected due to a number of outliers. To improve the fitness of the model, we combine the underlying price process with an additive stochastic jump process. We improve the model's performance by introducing a time-varying jump probability that is explained by two variables: the daily relative change in the volume of transactions and the European Commission's announcements regarding the supply of permits. We show that (i) sharp increases in volume have led to increased volatility during the April 2005–December 2007 period but not for the period beginning in January 2008, and (ii) announcements induce jumps in the process that tend to increase volatility across both periods. Thus, authorities face a trade off between disseminating information effectively and promoting market stability. -- Highlights: •Phase 2 EUA price fundamentals differ before and after January 2008. •Sharp rises in volume increased volatility during before January 2008 but not after. •EC announcements regarding supply of EUAs increase volatility before and after January 2008. •The previous effect is weaker from January 2008 on. •Trade off between providing information effectively and promoting market stability

  4. Regolith Volatile Characterization (RVC) in RESOLVE

    Science.gov (United States)

    Captain, Janine; Lueck, Dale; Gibson, Tracy; Levine, Lanfang

    2010-01-01

    Resource investigation in the lunar poles is of importance to the potential impact of in-situ resource utilization (ISRU). The RESOLVE project developed a payload to investigate the permanently shadowed areas of the lunar poles and demonstrate ISRU technology. As a part of the RESOLVE project, the regolith volatile characterization (RVC) subsystem was designed to examine the release of volatiles from sample cores. The test sample was heated in the reactor to release the volatiles where they were analyzed with gas chromatography. Subsequently, the volatile sample was introduced into the lunar water resource demonstration (LWRD) subsystem where the released hydrogen and water were selectively captured. The objective of the Regolith Volatile Characterization (RVC) subsystem was to heat the crushed core sample and determine the desorption of volatile species of interest. The RVC subsystem encompasses the reactor and the system for volatile analysis. The system was designed to analyze H2, He, CO, CO2, N2, 02, CH4, H2S and H2O. The GC chosen for this work is a Siemens MicroSAM process GC with 3 columns and 8 TCD detectors. Neon was chosen as the carrier gas to enhance the analysis of hydrogen and helium.The limit of detection for the gases is approx.1000ppm for H2, CO. CO2 , N2, O2 and H2 S. The limit of detection for CH4 is approx.4000ppm and the water limit of detection is -10000 ppm with a sample analysis time of 2-3 minutes. These values (with the exception of water and H2S) were determined by dilution of a six gas mixture from Scott Gas (5% CO2, CO, O2, N2, 4% CH4 and H2) using mass flow controllers (MFC5). Water was calibrated at low levels using an in house relative humidity (RH) generator. H 2S and high concentrations of H2 were calibrated by diluting a pure stream of gas with MFCs. Higher concentrations of N2 and 02 were calibrated using Air again diluting with MFCs. There were three modification goals for the GC in EBU2 that would allow this process GC to be

  5. Observability of market daily volatility

    Science.gov (United States)

    Petroni, Filippo; Serva, Maurizio

    2016-02-01

    We study the price dynamics of 65 stocks from the Dow Jones Composite Average from 1973 to 2014. We show that it is possible to define a Daily Market Volatility σ(t) which is directly observable from data. This quantity is usually indirectly defined by r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) where the r(t) are the daily returns of the market index and the ω(t) are i.i.d. random variables with vanishing average and unitary variance. The relation r(t) = σ(t) ω(t) alone is unable to give an operative definition of the index volatility, which remains unobservable. On the contrary, we show that using the whole information available in the market, the index volatility can be operatively defined and detected.

  6. Higher-order volatility: dynamics and sensitivities

    OpenAIRE

    Carey, Alexander

    2006-01-01

    In this addendum to Carey (2005), we draw several more analogies with the Black-Scholes model. We derive the characteristic function of the underlying log process as a function of the volatilities of all orders. Option prices are shown to satisfy an infinite-order version of the Black-Scholes partial differential equation. We find that in the same way that the option sensitivity to the cost of carry is related to delta and vega to gamma in the Black-Scholes model, the option sensitivity to j-...

  7. Stability and `volatility ` of element 104 oxychloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eichler, B.; Gaeggeler, H.W. [Paul Scherrer Inst. (PSI), Villigen (Switzerland)

    1997-09-01

    The formation enthalpies {Delta}H{sup *} of solid and gaseous oxychlorides of element 104 from free atoms were estimated by extrapolation. Stability and volatility of these compounds are compared to those of the homologous and neighbouring elements in the periodic system. It can be supposed that in a gas adsorption chromatographic process with oxygen containing chlorinating carrier gas the transport with the carrier gas flow occurs in the chemical state 104Cl{sub 4}. Only in the absorbed state the compound 104OCl{sub 2} is formed. (author) 1 fig., 3 refs.

  8. Automated Live Forensics Analysis for Volatile Data Acquisition

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bharath B,

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available The increase in sophisticated attack on computers needs the assistance of Live forensics to uncover the evidence since traditional forensics methods doesn’t collect volatile data. The volatile data can ease the difficulty towards investigation in fact it can provide investigator with rich information towards solving a case. Here we are trying to eliminate the complexity involved in normal process by automating the process of acquisition and analyzing at the same time providing integrity towards evidence data through python scripting.

  9. Rhenium volatilization in waste glasses

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Xu, Kai; Pierce, David A. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Hrma, Pavel, E-mail: pavel.hrma@pnnl.gov [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Schweiger, Michael J. [Pacific Northwest National Laboratory, Richland, WA 99352 (United States); Kruger, Albert A. [U.S. Department of Energy, Office of River Protection, Richland, WA 99352 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Highlights: • Re did not volatilize from a HLW feed until 1000 °C. • Re began to volatilize from LAW feeds at ∼600 °C. • The vigorous foaming and generation of gases from salts enhanced Re evaporation in LAW feeds. • The HLW glass with less foaming and salts is a promising medium for Tc immobilization. - Abstract: We investigated volatilization of rhenium (Re), sulfur, cesium, and iodine during the course of conversion of high-level waste melter feed to glass and compared the results for Re volatilization with those in low-activity waste borosilicate glasses. Whereas Re did not volatilize from high-level waste feed heated at 5 K min{sup −1} until 1000 °C, it began to volatilize from low-activity waste borosilicate glass feeds at ∼600 °C, a temperature ∼200 °C below the onset temperature of evaporation from pure KReO{sub 4}. Below 800 °C, perrhenate evaporation in low-activity waste melter feeds was enhanced by vigorous foaming and generation of gases from molten salts as they reacted with the glass-forming constituents. At high temperatures, when the glass-forming phase was consolidated, perrhenates were transported to the top surface of glass melt in bubbles, typically together with sulfates and halides. Based on the results of this study (to be considered preliminary at this stage), the high-level waste glass with less foaming and salts appears a promising medium for technetium immobilization.

  10. Volatility of secondary organic aerosol during OH radical induced ageing

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Salo

    2011-11-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study was to investigate oxidation of SOA formed from ozonolysis of α-pinene and limonene by hydroxyl radicals. This paper focuses on changes of particle volatility, using a Volatility Tandem DMA (VTDMA set-up, in order to explain and elucidate the mechanism behind atmospheric ageing of the organic aerosol. The experiments were conducted at the AIDA chamber facility of Karlsruhe Institute of Technology (KIT in Karlsruhe and at the SAPHIR chamber of Forchungzentrum Jülich (FZJ in Jülich. A fresh SOA was produced from ozonolysis of α-pinene or limonene and then aged by enhanced OH exposure. As an OH radical source in the AIDA-chamber the ozonolysis of tetramethylethylene (TME was used while in the SAPHIR-chamber the OH was produced by natural light photochemistry. A general feature is that SOA produced from ozonolysis of α-pinene and limonene initially was rather volatile and becomes less volatile with time in the ozonolysis part of the experiment. Inducing OH chemistry or adding a new portion of precursors made the SOA more volatile due to addition of new semi-volatile material to the aged aerosol. The effect of OH chemistry was less pronounced in high concentration and low temperature experiments when lower relative amounts of semi-volatile material were available in the gas phase. Conclusions drawn from the changes in volatility were confirmed by comparison with the measured and modelled chemical composition of the aerosol phase. Three quantified products from the α-pinene oxidation; pinonic acid, pinic acid and methylbutanetricarboxylic acid (MBTCA were used to probe the processes influencing aerosol volatility. A major conclusion from the work is that the OH induced ageing can be attributed to gas phase oxidation of products produced in the primary SOA formation process and that there was no indication on significant bulk or surface reactions. The presented results, thus, strongly emphasise

  11. Effects of minerals in ferric bauxite on sodium carbonate decomposition and volatilization

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    胡文韬; 王化军; 刘欣伟; 孙传尧

    2015-01-01

    Direct reduction is an emerging technology for ferric bauxite utilization. However, because of sodium volatilization, its sodium carbonate consumption is considerably higher than that in ordinary bauxite processing technology. TG-DSC and XRD were applied to detecting phase transformation and mass loss in direct reduction to reveal the mechanism on sodium volatilization. The results show that the most significant influence factor of ferric bauxite on sodium volatilization in direct reduction system is its iron content. Sodium volatilization is probably ascribed to the instability of amorphous substances structure. Amorphous substances are the intermediate-products of the reaction, and the volatilization rate of sodium increases with its generating rate. These amorphous substances are volatile, thus, more sodium is volatilized with its generation. A small amount of amorphous substances are generated in the reaction between Na2CO3and Al2O3; thus, only 3.15% of sodium is volatilized. Similarly, the volatilization rate is 1.87% in the reaction between Na2CO3and SiO2. However, the volatilization rate reaches 7.64% in the reaction between Na2CO3 and Fe2O3 because of the generation of a large amount of amorphous substances.

  12. Nitrate and chloride in Antarctic ice cores - postdepositional effects and the preservation of atmospheric signals (Invited)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pasteris, D.; McConnell, J. R.; Edwards, R.; Isaksson, E. D.; Albert, M. R.

    2013-12-01

    Continuous nitrate and chloride measurements have been made from an array of ice cores located in interior Dronning Maud Land that cover the last 2000 years. The average snow accumulation rates at the ice core sites range from 2.7 to 10 cm weq yr-1, which has enabled the study of how accumulation rate affects the preservation and diffusion of nitrate and chloride in the snow. High-resolution dating of the ice cores by tie-point matching with the WAIS Divide ice core has allowed the effects of temporal changes in accumulation rate to also be observed. Results show a strong linear dependence of nitrate concentration on site-average accumulation rate, suggesting that fresh snow concentrations and reemission rates of nitrate from the snowpack are homogenous across the study area. Bulk chloride to sodium ratios over scales greater than 1 m are close to bulk sea salt composition at all of the sites, suggesting that little net gain or loss of volatile chloride has occurred. However, the chloride signal is heavily diffused relative to sodium and the extent of diffusion does not increase with depth in the ice cores, suggesting that it is a near-surface phenomenon. Possible mechanisms behind the observed chloride diffusion pattern will be discussed. Lastly, a sustained decline in nitrate concentration occurred during the Little Ice Age (LIA, 1500-1900 C.E.), but the high-resolution snow accumulation records show that it is not caused by a decrease in accumulation rate during that time. The nitrate record is highly correlated with published methane isotope data from Antarctica (δ13CH4), suggesting that the decline during the LIA was caused by a decrease in a biomass burning nitrate source. Average nitrate concentration versus site-average inverse accumulation rate Composite time series of nitrate (thick black line), δ13CH4 (thin red line with diamonds), and black carbon (dashed black line).

  13. Aid Volatility and Poverty Traps

    OpenAIRE

    Pierre-Richard Agénor; Joshua Aizenman

    2007-01-01

    This paper studies the impact of aid volatility in a two-period model where production may occur with either a traditional or a modern technology. Public spending is productive and "time to build" requires expenditure in both periods for the modern technology to be used. The possibility of a poverty trap induced by high aid volatility is first examined in a benchmark case where taxation is absent. The analysis is then extended to account for self insurance (taking the form of a first-period c...

  14. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... return between the quintile of stocks with low exposure and high exposure to oil volatility is significant at 0.66% per month, and oil volatility risk carries a significant risk premium of -0.60% per month. In the post-financialization period, oil volatility risk is strongly related with various measures...

  15. Study on Extraction and Inclusion Process of Mixed Volatile Oil from Cinnamomi Ramulus, Zingibers Rhizoma, Cinnamomi Cortex and Magnoliae Flos%桂枝、干姜、肉桂、辛夷混合挥发油提取及包合工艺研究

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    薛丹; 倪健; 尹兴斌; 张鹏; 杨春静; 白颖; 付京; 李友林

    2016-01-01

    Objective To optimize the processes of extraction of mixed volatile oil from Cinnamomi Ramulus, Zingibers Rhizoma, Cinnamomi Cortex and Magnoliae Flos and inclusion of β-cyclodextrin (β-CD). Methods With yield ratio of volatile oil as evaluation index, single factor experiments were used to study the extraction process of volatile oil; saturated aqueous solution was used, with inclusion rate of volatile oil as index, and orthogonal design was adopted to examine effects of charge ratio of volatile oil and β-CD, inclusion temperature and inclusion time on the inclusion process; X-ray scattering technique and IR spectrum were used to characterize the inclusion complex. Results The optimum extraction process of volatile oil was extracted 10 hours with 8 folds the amount of water, and without soaking. The optimum conditions of inclusion process were as follows: mixed volatile oil-β-CD ratio was 1:8;inclusion temperature was 40 ℃; the inclusion time was 3 hour. X-ray scattering technique and IR spectrum preliminary proved the inclusion compound had been formed. Conclusion Optimal extraction and inclusion process was stable and feasible, which can provide certain references for preparation.%目的:优选桂枝、干姜、肉桂、辛夷混合油提取及β-环糊精(β-CD)包合的最佳工艺。方法以挥发油得率为指标,单因素试验考察混合油的提取工艺;采用饱和水溶液法,以挥发油包合率为评价指标,正交设计考察混合油与β-CD 投料比、包合温度、包合时间对包合工艺的影响;通过 X 射线衍射法、红外光谱法对包合物进行表征。结果挥发油提取最优工艺为饮片不浸泡,加8倍量水,提取10 h;最佳包合工艺为混合油与β-CD 的比例为1∶8,包合温度为40℃,包合3 h;X 射线衍射法、红外光谱法均表明混合油包合物已形成。结论优选的提取、包合工艺稳定可行,可为制剂提供一定依据。

  16. Analyzing Malware Based on Volatile Memory

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liang Hu

    2013-11-01

    Full Text Available To explain the necessity of comprehensive and automatically analysis process for volatile memory, this paper summarized ordinarily analyzing methods and their common points especially for concerned data source. Then, a memory analysis framework Volatiltiy-2.2 and statistical output file size are recommended. In addition, to address the limitation of plug-ins classification in analyzing procedure, a user perspective classify is necessary and proposed. Furthermore, according to target data source differences on the base of result data set volume and employed relational method is introduced for comprehensive analysis guideline procedure. Finally, a test demo including DLLs loading order list analyzing is recommend, in which DLL load list is regard as different kind of characteristics typical data source with process and convert into process behavior fingerprint. The clustering for the fingerprint is employed string similar degree algorithm model in the demo, which has a wide range applications in traditional malware behavior analysis, and it is proposed that these methods also can be applied for volatile memory

  17. Discoloration of Synthetic Dyeing Wastewater Using Polyaluminium Chloride

    OpenAIRE

    Bogoeva-Gaceva, Gordana; BUŽAROVSKA, Aleksandra; DIMZOSKI, Bojan

    2010-01-01

    The efficiency of polyaluminium chloride (PAC) in discoloration of synthetic dyeing wastewater composed of reactive or direct dye has been investigated, taking into account the proven advantages of PAC in water purification processes (compared to the conventional coagulants such as Al2(SO4)3, FeSO4, etc.). The efficiency of PAC was determined by UV/VIS spectroscopy, controlling the UV/VIS absorbance changes of the wastewater samples after their treatment with the appropriate amount of PAC. Co...

  18. Preparation of polymeric aluminium ferric chloride from bauxite tailings

    OpenAIRE

    Ma D; Guo M; Zhang M

    2013-01-01

    Bauxite tailings are the main solid wastes in the ore dressing process. The Al2O3 and Fe2O3 contents in bauxite tailings can reach 50% and 13% respectively. The present study proposed a feasible method to use bauxite tailings to prepare polymeric aluminium ferric chloride (PAFC), a new composite inorganic polymer for water purification. Bauxite tailings roasted reacting with hydrochloric acid under air, pickle liquor which mainly contains Fe3+, Al3+ was generated, then calcium aluminate...

  19. Factors affecting the volatilization of volatile organic compounds from wastewater

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Junya Intamanee

    2006-09-01

    Full Text Available This study aimed to understand the influence of the wind speed (U10cm, water depth (h and suspended solids (SS on mass transfer coefficient (KOLa of volatile organic compounds (VOCs volatilized from wastewater. The novelty of this work is not the method used to determine KOLa but rather the use of actual wastewater instead of pure water as previously reported. The influence of U10cm, h, and SS on KOLa was performed using a volatilization tank with the volume of 100-350 L. Methyl Ethyl Ketone (MEK was selected as a representative of VOCs investigated here in. The results revealed that the relationship between KOLa and the wind speeds falls into two regimes with a break at the wind speed of 2.4 m/s. At U10cm 2.4 m/s, KOLa increased more rapidly. The relationship between KOLa and U10cm was also linear but has a distinctly higher slope. For the KOLa dependency on water depth, the KOLa decreased significantly with increasing water depth up to a certain water depth after that the increase in water depth had small effect on KOLa. The suspended solids in wastewater also played an important role on KOLa. Increased SS resulted in a significant reduction of KOLa over the investigated range of SS. Finally, the comparison between KOLa obtained from wastewater and that of pure water revealed that KOLa from wastewater were much lower than that of pure water which was pronounced at high wind speed and at small water depth. This was due the presence of organic mass in wastewater which provided a barrier to mass transfer and reduced the degree of turbulence in the water body resulting in low volatilization rate and thus KOLa. From these results, the mass transfer model for predicting VOCs emission from wastewater should be developed based on the volatilization of VOCs from wastewater rather than that from pure water.

  20. Emission of Volatile OrganoHalogens by Southern African Solar Salt Works

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kotte, Karsten; Weissflog, Ludwig; Lange, Christian Albert; Huber, Stefan; Pienaar, Jacobus J.

    2010-05-01

    hyper-saline environments, rich in chloride, bromide and partly iodide. They can be seen as semi natural reactors for hypersaline microorganisms like bacteria, algae and archaea as they can be found in natural hypersaline environments as well. To assess possible VOX emission of solar salt works the Walfishbay Salt Refiners (PTY) LTD (Namibia) were investigated and sediments of several crystallizer pans where collected. Only affected by natural temperature and radiation regime the VOX production inside the tightly closed incubation vials were determined regularly for several months by using headspace GC combined with an electron capture detector. Besides a number of non halogenated volatile hydrocarbons, detected by a self modified purge and trap GC/MS system the following VOX have been identified: CHCl3, CH3J, CH3Br, CCl4, C2HCl3, C2Cl4. According to earlier experiments on natural salt sediments of Southern Russia a biosynthesis process involving halophilic archaea is highly probable. Although the metabolic routes entailed are not yet identified. Obtained long term emission data are presented by focussing on possible meteorological propulsion as solar and UV radiation as well as temperature. Discussing the incubation experiments Southern African solar salt works reveal to represent interesting sources of chemically active VOX.

  1. DOES ENERGY CONSUMPTION VOLATILITY AFFECT REAL GDP VOLATILITY? AN EMPIRICAL ANALYSIS FOR THE UK

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdul Rashid

    2013-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper empirically examines the relation between energy consumption volatility and unpredictable variations in real gross domestic product (GDP in the UK. Estimating the Markov switching ARCH model we find a significant regime switching in the behavior of both energy consumption and GDP volatility. The results from the Markov regime-switching model show that the variability of energy consumption has a significant role to play in determining the behavior of GDP volatilities. Moreover, the results suggest that the impacts of unpredictable variations in energy consumption on GDP volatility are asymmetric, depending on the intensity of volatility. In particular, we find that while there is no significant contemporaneous relationship between energy consumption volatility and GDP volatility in the first (low-volatility regime, GDP volatility is significantly positively related to the volatility of energy utilization in the second (high-volatility regime.

  2. Modeling the Implied Volatility Surface-: A Study for S&P 500 Index Option

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jin Zheng

    2013-02-01

    Full Text Available The aim of this study is to demonstrate a framework to model the implied volatilities of S&P 500 index options and estimate the implied volatilities of stock prices using stochastic processes. In this paper, three models are established to estimate whether the implied volatilities are constant during the whole life of options. We mainly concentrate on the Black-Scholes and Dumas’ option models and make the empirical comparisons. By observing the daily-recorded data of S&P 500 index, we study the volatility model and volatility surface. Results from numerical experiments show that the stochastic volatilities are determined by moneyness rather than constant. Our research is of vital importance, especially for forecasting stock market shocks and crises, as one of the applications.

  3. Studies on poly (vinyl chloride/silica dioxide composite hollow fiber membrane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mei Shuo

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Poly (vinyl chloride/silica dioxide composite hollow fiber membranes were prepared by using the method of immersion-precipitation process. The influences of stretching ratio on the formation of the interfacial microporous of poly (vinyl chloride/silica dioxide composite hollow fiber membranes were specifically investigated by scanning electron microscope, dynamic mechanical analysis, and finite element method. Results show that with the stretching ratio increasing, numerous IFM appear on the surface of membranes. Finite element method actually reflects the dynamic change of microporous structure of poly (vinyl chloride/silica dioxide composite hollow fiber membranes.

  4. Chloride Transport in Undersea Concrete Tunnel

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yuanzhu Zhang

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Based on water penetration in unsaturated concrete of underwater tunnel, a diffusion-advection theoretical model of chloride in undersea concrete tunnel was proposed. The basic parameters including porosity, saturated hydraulic conductivity, chloride diffusion coefficient, initial water saturation, and moisture retention function of concrete specimens with two water-binder ratios were determined through lab-scale experiments. The variation of chloride concentration with pressuring time, location, solution concentration, initial saturation, hydraulic pressure, and water-binder ratio was investigated through chloride transport tests under external water pressure. In addition, the change and distribution of chloride concentration of isothermal horizontal flow were numerically analyzed using TOUGH2 software. The results show that chloride transport in unsaturated concrete under external water pressure is a combined effect of diffusion and advection instead of diffusion. Chloride concentration increased with increasing solution concentration for diffusion and increased with an increase in water pressure and a decrease in initial saturation for advection. The dominant driving force converted with time and saturation. When predicting the service life of undersea concrete tunnel, it is suggested that advection is taken into consideration; otherwise the durability tends to be unsafe.

  5. Shelf life of unrefrigerated succinylcholine chloride injection.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Boehm, J J; Dutton, D M; Poust, R I

    1984-02-01

    The shelf life of succinylcholine chloride injection at several pH values when stored at room temperature was evaluated. Solutions containing 20 mg/ml of succinylcholine chloride were stored at 25 and 40 degrees C. The reaction was studied at pH values ranging from 3.0 to 4.5. At two-week intervals, the solutions were assayed by high-pressure liquid chromatography. The initial amount of succinylcholine chloride in all samples was 100.1 +/- 2.37% of label claim. Hydrolysis of succinylcholine chloride in unbuffered solutions followed apparent zero-order kinetics. The pH range of maximum stability was found to be from 3.75 to 4.50. Succinylcholine chloride decomposed at a considerably higher rate at 40 degrees C. Allowing for the effects of pH adjustment during manufacture and degradation during shipping, losses of 7.0% and 9.0% potency can be expected after storage at 25 degrees C for four and six weeks, respectively. Succinylcholine Chloride Injection, USP, should be stored in the refrigerator; if unbuffered succinylcholine chloride injection complying with USP pH limits must be stored at room temperature, it should not be kept for longer than four weeks. PMID:6702837

  6. Saturated vapor pressure over molten mixtures of GaCl3 and alkali metal chlorides

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Volatilities of GaCl3 and alkali metal chlorides over diluted (up to 3 mol %) solutions of GaCl3 in LiCl, NaCl, KCl, RbCl, and CsCl were measured at 1100 K by dynamic and indirect static methods. Chemical composition of saturated vapor over the mixed melts was determined. Partial pressures of the components were calculated. Their values depend essentially on specific alkali metal cation and on concentration of GaCl3; their variation permits altering parameters of GaCl3 distillation from the salt melt in a wide range

  7. Investigating Long-Range Dependence in American Treasury Bills Variations and Volatilities during Stable and Unstable Periods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lahmiri, Salim

    2016-05-01

    Detrended fluctuation analysis (DFA) is used to examine long-range dependence in variations and volatilities of American treasury bills (TB) during periods of low and high movements in TB rates. Volatility series are estimated by generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model under Gaussian, Student, and the generalized error distribution (GED) assumptions. The DFA-based Hurst exponents from 3-month, 6-month, and 1-year TB data indicates that in general the dynamics of the TB variations process is characterized by persistence during stable time period (before 2008 international financial crisis) and anti-persistence during unstable time period (post-2008 international financial crisis). For volatility series, it is found that; for stable period; 3-month volatility process is more likely random, 6-month volatility process is anti-persistent, and 1-year volatility process is persistent. For unstable period, estimation results show that the generating process is persistent for all maturities and for all distributional assumptions.

  8. Commercial Scale Cucumber Fermentations Brined with Calcium Chloride Instead of Sodium Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F; Moeller, L; Johanningsmeier, S D; Hayes, J; Fornea, D S; Rosenberg, L; Gilbert, C; Custis, N; Beene, K; Bass, D

    2015-12-01

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) instead of NaCl to commercial scale production. Although CaCl2 brined cucumber fermentations were stable in laboratory experiments, commercial scale trials using 6440 L open-top tanks rapidly underwent secondary cucumber fermentation. It was understood that a limited air purging routine, use of a starter culture and addition of preservatives to the cover brine aids in achieving the desired complete cucumber fermentation. The modified process was used for subsequent commercial trials using 12490 and 28400 L open-top tanks packed with variable size cucumbers and from multiple lots, and cover brines containing CaCl2 and potassium sorbate to equilibrated concentrations of 100 and 6 mM, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum LA0045 was inoculated to 10(6) CFU/mL, and air purging was applied for two 2-3 h periods per day for the first 10 d of fermentation and one 2-3 h period per day between days 11 and 14. All fermentations were completed, as evidenced by the full conversion of sugars to lactic acid, decrease in pH to 3.0, and presented microbiological stability for a minimum of 21 d. This CaCl2 process may be used to produce fermented cucumbers intended to be stored short term in a manner that reduces pollution and waste removal costs. PMID:26512798

  9. Commercial Scale Cucumber Fermentations Brined with Calcium Chloride Instead of Sodium Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pérez-Díaz, I M; McFeeters, R F; Moeller, L; Johanningsmeier, S D; Hayes, J; Fornea, D S; Rosenberg, L; Gilbert, C; Custis, N; Beene, K; Bass, D

    2015-12-01

    Development of low salt cucumber fermentation processes present opportunities to reduce the amount of sodium chloride (NaCl) that reaches fresh water streams from industrial activities. The objective of this research was to translate cucumber fermentation brined with calcium chloride (CaCl2 ) instead of NaCl to commercial scale production. Although CaCl2 brined cucumber fermentations were stable in laboratory experiments, commercial scale trials using 6440 L open-top tanks rapidly underwent secondary cucumber fermentation. It was understood that a limited air purging routine, use of a starter culture and addition of preservatives to the cover brine aids in achieving the desired complete cucumber fermentation. The modified process was used for subsequent commercial trials using 12490 and 28400 L open-top tanks packed with variable size cucumbers and from multiple lots, and cover brines containing CaCl2 and potassium sorbate to equilibrated concentrations of 100 and 6 mM, respectively. Lactobacillus plantarum LA0045 was inoculated to 10(6) CFU/mL, and air purging was applied for two 2-3 h periods per day for the first 10 d of fermentation and one 2-3 h period per day between days 11 and 14. All fermentations were completed, as evidenced by the full conversion of sugars to lactic acid, decrease in pH to 3.0, and presented microbiological stability for a minimum of 21 d. This CaCl2 process may be used to produce fermented cucumbers intended to be stored short term in a manner that reduces pollution and waste removal costs.

  10. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2010-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the method. A high-resolution bulk chloride deposition map in the coastal region is thus needed. The aim of this study is to construct a chloride deposition map in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia. We examined geographic (related to coastal distance, orographic, and atmospheric factors that may influence chloride deposition, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, elevation, as well as terrain aspect and slope, appear to be significant factors controlling chloride deposition in the study area. Coastal distance accounts for 70% of spatial variability in bulk chloride deposition, with elevation, terrain aspect and slope an additional 15%. The results are incorporated into a de-trended residual kriging model (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution bulk chloride deposition and concentration maps. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 20–30% in the western MLR, and 40–50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a useful basis for examining catchment chloride balance for the CMB application in the study area.

  11. The volatile compound BinBase mass spectral database

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Barupal Dinesh K

    2011-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Volatile compounds comprise diverse chemical groups with wide-ranging sources and functions. These compounds originate from major pathways of secondary metabolism in many organisms and play essential roles in chemical ecology in both plant and animal kingdoms. In past decades, sampling methods and instrumentation for the analysis of complex volatile mixtures have improved; however, design and implementation of database tools to process and store the complex datasets have lagged behind. Description The volatile compound BinBase (vocBinBase is an automated peak annotation and database system developed for the analysis of GC-TOF-MS data derived from complex volatile mixtures. The vocBinBase DB is an extension of the previously reported metabolite BinBase software developed to track and identify derivatized metabolites. The BinBase algorithm uses deconvoluted spectra and peak metadata (retention index, unique ion, spectral similarity, peak signal-to-noise ratio, and peak purity from the Leco ChromaTOF software, and annotates peaks using a multi-tiered filtering system with stringent thresholds. The vocBinBase algorithm assigns the identity of compounds existing in the database. Volatile compound assignments are supported by the Adams mass spectral-retention index library, which contains over 2,000 plant-derived volatile compounds. Novel molecules that are not found within vocBinBase are automatically added using strict mass spectral and experimental criteria. Users obtain fully annotated data sheets with quantitative information for all volatile compounds for studies that may consist of thousands of chromatograms. The vocBinBase database may also be queried across different studies, comprising currently 1,537 unique mass spectra generated from 1.7 million deconvoluted mass spectra of 3,435 samples (18 species. Mass spectra with retention indices and volatile profiles are available as free download under the CC-BY agreement (http

  12. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics are used......In reinforced concrete structures corrosion is initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. If corrosion starts then expensive repairs can be necessary. The estimation of the probability that corrosion has been initiated in a given structure is based...

  13. Modeling the Volatility in Global Fertilizer Prices

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    P-Y. Chen (Ping-Yu); C-L. Chang (Chia-Lin); C-C. Chen (Chi-Chung); M.J. McAleer (Michael)

    2010-01-01

    textabstractThe main purpose of this paper is to estimate the volatility in global fertilizer prices. The endogenous structural breakpoint unit root test and alternative volatility models, including the generalized autoregressive conditional heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model, Exponential GARCH (EGARC

  14. Fluctuation behaviors of financial return volatility duration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Niu, Hongli; Wang, Jun; Lu, Yunfan

    2016-04-01

    It is of significantly crucial to understand the return volatility of financial markets because it helps to quantify the investment risk, optimize the portfolio, and provide a key input of option pricing models. The characteristics of isolated high volatility events above certain threshold in price fluctuations and the distributions of return intervals between these events arouse great interest in financial research. In the present work, we introduce a new concept of daily return volatility duration, which is defined as the shortest passage time when the future volatility intensity is above or below the current volatility intensity (without predefining a threshold). The statistical properties of the daily return volatility durations for seven representative stock indices from the world financial markets are investigated. Some useful and interesting empirical results of these volatility duration series about the probability distributions, memory effects and multifractal properties are obtained. These results also show that the proposed stock volatility series analysis is a meaningful and beneficial trial.

  15. Chloride diffusivity in red mud-ordinary portland cement concrete determined by migration tests

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniel Véras Ribeiro

    2011-01-01

    Full Text Available Red mud, which is a solid waste produced in the alumina production process, is classified as dangerous due to its high pH. In this work, the concentration of chlorides was monitored by measuring the conductivity of the anolyte, which initially was distilled water. The steady and nonsteady-state chloride diffusion coefficients were estimated from the "time lag"� and "equivalent time" between diffusion and migration experiments. The capillary water absorption, apparent porosity and pore size distribution of concretes were also analyzed. The addition of red mud apparently ensured lower chloride diffusion in the tested mixtures due to its superfine particle-size distribution and its "filler"� effect. Red mud lengthened the service life of the concrete to 35 years (double that of the reference concrete. This finding is very positive since it indicates a delay in the onset of the rebar corrosion process caused by the migration of chloride ions.

  16. Pollution characteristics and health risk assessment of volatile organic compounds emitted from different plastic solid waste recycling workshops.

    Science.gov (United States)

    He, Zhigui; Li, Guiying; Chen, Jiangyao; Huang, Yong; An, Taicheng; Zhang, Chaosheng

    2015-04-01

    The pollution profiles of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) emitted from different recycling workshops processing different types of plastic solid waste (PSW) and their health risks were investigated. A total of 64 VOCs including alkanes, alkenes, monoaromatics, oxygenated VOCs (OVOCs), chlorinated VOCs (ClVOCs) and acrylonitrile during the melting extrusion procedure were identified and quantified. The highest concentration of total VOCs (TVOC) occurred in the poly(acrylonitrile-butadiene styrene) (ABS) recycling workshop, followed by the polystyrene (PS), polypropylene (PP), polyamide (PA), polyvinyl chloride (PVC), polyethylene (PE) and polycarbonate (PC) workshops. Monoaromatics were found as the major component emitted from the ABS and PS recycling workshops, while alkanes were mainly emitted from the PE and PP recycling processes, and OVOCs from the PVC and PA recycling workshops. According to the occupational exposure limits' (OEL) assessment, the workers suffered acute and chronic health risks in the ABS and PS recycling workshops. Meanwhile, it was found that most VOCs in the indoor microenvironments were originated from the melting extrusion process, while the highest TVOC concentration was observed in the PS rather than in the ABS recycling workshop. Non-cancer hazard indices (HIs) of all individual VOCs were recycling workshop was 1.9, posing an adverse chronic health threat. Lifetime cancer risk assessment suggested that the residents also suffered from definite cancer risk in the PS, PA, ABS and PVC recycling workshops.

  17. PTR-MS monitoring of volatiles fingerprint evolution during grape must cooking

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Dimitri, G.; Ruth, van S.M.; Sacchetti, G.; Piva, G.; Alewijn, M.; Arfelli, G.

    2013-01-01

    The main aim of this study was to investigate the effect of processing temperature on the evolution of volatiles during grape must concentration upon cooking. The evolution of the volatiles fingerprint of grape must heated at 80, 90, and 100 °C was studied by Proton Transfer Reaction Mass Spectromet

  18. Decomposing European bond and equity volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christiansen, Charlotte

    The paper investigates volatility spillover from US and aggregate European asset markets into European national asset markets. A main contribution is that bond and equity volatilities are analyzed simultaneously. A new model belonging to the "volatilityspillover" family is suggested: The conditio...... (stock) volatilities are mainly influenced by bond (stock) effects. Global, regional, and local volatility effects are all important. The introduction of the euro is associated with a structural break....

  19. Stock Market Volatility and Corporate Investment

    OpenAIRE

    Zuliu Hu

    1995-01-01

    Despite concerns are often voiced on the so called “excess volatility” of the stock market, little is known about the implications of market volatility for the real economy. This paper examines whether the stock market volatility affects real fixed investment. The empirical evidence obtained from the US data shows that market volatility has independent effects on investment over and above that of stock returns. Volatility and its changes are negatively related to investment growth. To the ext...

  20. Can risk aversion explain stock price volatility?

    OpenAIRE

    Stephen F. LeRoy

    2013-01-01

    Why are the prices of stocks and other assets so volatile? Efficient capital markets theory implies that stock prices should be much less volatile than actually observed, reflecting an unrealistic assumption that investors are risk neutral. If instead investors are assumed to be risk averse, predicted volatility is higher. However, models that incorporate investor avoidance of risk can explain real-world stock price volatility only under levels of risk aversion that are unrealistically high. ...

  1. Asymmetric Volatility Risk : Evidence from Option Markets

    OpenAIRE

    Jackwerth, Jens; Vilkov, Gregory

    2013-01-01

    Using non-parametric methods to model the dependencies between risk-neutral distributions of the market index (S&P 500) and its expected volatility (VIX), we show how to extract the expected risk-neutral correlation between the index and its future expected volatility. Comparing the implied correlation to its realized counterpart reveals a significant risk premium priced into the index-volatility correlation, which can be interpreted as the compensation for the fear of rising volatility durin...

  2. 复方金铃四逆四物失笑散颗粒挥发油提取及羟丙基-β-环糊精包合工艺研究%Study on Extraction Process of Volatile Oil and Inclusion Preparation of Hydroxypropyl-β- cyclodextrin from CompoundJinling Sini Siwu Shixiaosan Granules

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    白春霞; 谢萍; 冯俭; 蒋川; 宁海燕

    2015-01-01

    目的:优选复方金铃四逆四物失笑散颗粒中挥发油提取工艺及羟丙基-β-环糊精(HP-β-CD)包合工艺。方法采用L9(34)正交试验,以挥发油提取量为评价指标,确定最佳提取工艺。以挥发油包合率和包合物收得率综合评分为评价指标,优选最佳包合工艺。采用薄层层析法(TLC)对包合物进行表征分析。结果最佳提取工艺:药材粉碎度为20目,加8倍量水,蒸馏提取8 h。最优包合工艺:挥发油与HP-β-CD投料配比为1∶6,包合温度30℃,研磨2 h。TLC图谱显示挥发油已被包合并形成稳定包合物。结论优选的提取和包合工艺质量稳定、可行性强。%Objective To optimize the extraction process of volatile oil and inclusion preparation of hydroxypropyl-β-cyclodextrin from compoundJinling Sini Siwu Shixiaosan Granules.Methods The orthogonal approach of L9 (34) was applied to investigate the volume of volatile oil extraction by 3 factors to obtain the optimum extraction conditions. With inclusion rate of volatile oil and yield of inclusion compound as comprehensive evaluation indexes, the optimum preparation conditions were discussed. The characterization of this prepared inclusion was analyzed by TLC.Results The optimum extraction conditions were as follows:the crude medicine with medicinal powder was shattered into 20 meshes;8 times the amount of water was added and was extracted for 8 h. The best inclusion conditions were as follows:the proportion of volatile oil to HP-β-CD was 1∶6, with inclusion temperature of 30℃, grinding time of 2 h. Analysis results of TLC showed that stable inclusion compound was formed from volatile oil and HP-β-CD.Conclusion The optimized extraction process and inclusion preparation are with stable quality and high feasibility.

  3. Evaluating capacitive deionization for water desalination by direct determination of chloride ions

    OpenAIRE

    Díaz Baizán, Patricia; González Arias, Zoraida; Granda Ferreira, Marcos; Menéndez López, Rosa María; Santamaría Ramírez, Ricardo; Blanco Rodríguez, Clara

    2014-01-01

    Ionic conductivity and capacitance measurements are widely used methods for evaluating the desalination efficiency in capacity deionization processes. In this study, these methods are revised and several problems associated to them are identified and evaluated. Furthermore, a new method based on the determination of the chloride ion concentration by means of a chloride selective electrode is proposed as a more reliable alternative for evaluating the desalination performance in these systems. ...

  4. Oil Volatility Risk and Expected Stock Returns

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Pan, Xuhui (Nick)

    After the financialization of commodity futures markets in 2004-05 oil volatility has become a strong predictor of returns and volatility of the overall stock market. Furthermore, stocks' exposure to oil volatility risk now drives the cross-section of expected returns. The difference in average...... of funding liquidity constraints suggesting an economic channel for the effect....

  5. Occurrence and volatility of several trace elements in pulverized coal boiler

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    HUANG Ya-ji; JIN Bao-sheng; ZHONG Zhao-ping; XIAO Rui; TANG Zhi-yong; REN Hui-feng

    2004-01-01

    The contents of eight trace elements(Mn, Cr, Pb, As, Se, Zn, Cd, Hg) in raw coal, bottom ash and flyash were measured in a 220 t/h pulverized coal boiler. Factors affecting distribution of trace elements wereinvestigated, including fly ash diameter, furnace temperature, oxygen content and trace elements' characters. Onecoefficient of Meij was also improved to more directly show element enrichment in combustion products. Theseelements may be classified into three groups according to their distribution: Group 1: Hg, which is very volatile.Group 2: Pb, Zn, Cd, which are partially volatile. Group 3: Mn, which is hardly volatile. Se may be locatedbetween groups 1 and 2. Cr has properties of both group 1 and 3. In addition, the smaller diameter of fly ash, themore relative enrichment of trace elements( except Mn). The fly ash showed different adsorption mechanisms oftrace elements and the volatilization of trace elements rises with furnace temperature. Relative enrichments of traceelements(except Mn and Cr) in fly ash are larger than that in bottom ash. Low oxygen content can not alwaysimprove the volatilization of trace elements. Pb is easier to form chloride than Cd during coal combustion. Traceelements should be classified in accordance with factors.

  6. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Andreas L.; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata;

    2013-01-01

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammoni...

  7. Sodium chloride's effect on self-assembly of diphenylalanine bilayer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kwon, Junpyo; Lee, Myeongsang; Na, Sungsoo

    2016-07-15

    Understanding self-assembling peptides becomes essential in nanotechnology, thereby providing a bottom-up method for fabrication of nanostructures. Diphenylalanine constitutes an outstanding building block that can be assembled into various nanostructures, including two-dimensional bilayers or nanotubes, exhibiting superb mechanical properties. It is known that the effect of the ions is critical in conformational and chemical interactions of bilayers or membranes. In this study, we analyzed the effect of sodium chloride on diphenylalanine bilayer using coarse-grained molecular dynamics simulations, and calculated the bending Young's modulus and the torsional modulus by applying normal modal analysis using an elastic network model. The results showed that sodium chloride dramatically increases the assembling efficiency and stability, thereby promising to allow the precise design and control of the fabrication process and properties of bio-inspired materials. © 2016 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. PMID:27241039

  8. CPP-603 Chloride Removal System Decontamination and Decommissioning

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The CPP-603 (annex) Chloride Removal System (CRS) Decontamination and Decommissioning (D ampersand D) Project is described in this report. The CRS was used for removing Chloride ions and other contaminants that were suspended in the waters of the underwater fuel storage basins in the CPP-603 Fuel Receiving and Storage Facility (FRSF) from 1975 to 1981. The Environmental Checklist and related documents, facility characterization, decision analysis', and D ampersand D plans' were prepared in 1991. Physical D ampersand D activities were begun in mid summer of 1992 and were completed by the end of November 1992. All process equipment and electrical equipment were removed from the annex following accepted asbestos and radiological contamination removal practices. The D ampersand D activities were performed in a manner such that no radiological health or safety hazard to the public or to personnel at the Idaho National Engineering Laboratory (INEL) occurred

  9. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  10. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    OpenAIRE

    H. Guan; Love, A. J.; C. T. Simmons; A. S. Kayaalp

    2009-01-01

    Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB) method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many...

  11. A Hull and White Formula for a General Stochastic Volatility Jump-Diffusion Model with Applications to the Study of the Short-Time Behavior of the Implied Volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elisa Alòs

    2008-01-01

    Full Text Available We obtain a Hull and White type formula for a general jump-diffusion stochastic volatility model, where the involved stochastic volatility process is correlated not only with the Brownian motion driving the asset price but also with the asset price jumps. Towards this end, we establish an anticipative Itô's formula, using Malliavin calculus techniques for Lévy processes on the canonical space. As an application, we show that the dependence of the volatility process on the asset price jumps has no effect on the short-time behavior of the at-the-money implied volatility skew.

  12. 催化燃烧治理氯苯类挥发性有机化合物的最新进展%Recent process in the removal of chlorobenzenes volatile organic compounds by catalytic combustion

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    于旭霞; 冯俊小

    2016-01-01

    氯苯类(CBs)化合物的排放给环境带来严重的污染和危害。本文回顾和总结了近几年来的氯苯类挥发性有机污染物的处理方法,综述了所采用催化剂的国内外研究现状,并对不同种方法进行优缺点分析。结果表明:催化燃烧法是最具有应用前景的、最有效的处理 CBs 的技术之一,该法优势是能够在催化剂存在的条件下,高效地处理低浓度的污染物,操作温度低,避免了氮氧化物的产生。应用于催化燃烧的催化剂类型繁多,贵金属催化剂具有高活性但对高温敏感;过渡金属氧化物催化剂的抗氯中毒能力较强;钙钛矿类催化剂廉价易得,其A、B位原子具有良好的可调性,并可通过负载与改性弥补其反应温度高及易失活等缺点。与其他催化剂相对比,钙钛矿类催化剂具有更广泛的应用前景。%Emission of chlorobenzenes (CBs) substance has caused serious pollutions to our environment. This paper reviewed the approaches of treating chlorobenzene volatile organic compounds in recent years,and also summarized the research status of catalysts as well as the advantages and disadvantages of different types of methods. The results showed that catalytic combustion treatment method was one of the most promising and effective treatment techniques for CBs,because the contaminants of low concentrations could be disposed effectively with the help of catalysts at low operating temperature with no nitrogen oxides generated during the process. Many types of catalysts can be applied to the catalytic combustion. While the noble metal catalysts have high activity but sensitive to temperature,and the transition metal oxide catalysts have strong ability to resist chlorine poisoning,the perovskite-based catalysts have wider applications. Perovskite-based catalysts are inexpensive and easy to obtain,and the A and B atoms in the molecular have a good adjustability. By means of

  13. 微波超声协同萃取香草兰净油工艺优化及挥发性成分分析%Optimization of Microwave Ultrasonic Collaborative Extraction Vanilla Net Oil Process and Volatile Component Analysis

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    徐飞; 初众; 卢少芳; 谭乐和; 谷风林

    2013-01-01

    In order to optimize the technological conditions of the vanilla net oil by ultrasonic microwave collaborative extraction,the extraction efficiency were investigated of vanilla net oil using quadratic regression orthogonal rotary group legal,and gas chromatography-mass spectrum was used to identify the volatile components.The results showed that the best extraction conditions with an extraction yield 5.18% were time 6.91 min,extraction power 253 W,extraction solution petroleum ether:cyclohexane=2.8∶1 (V∶V).There were 25 components with matching degree more than 90,mainly fatty acids,alde hyde and aldehyde and esters,including linoleic acid(23.17%),lauric acid(0.07%),myristic acid(0.24%),pentadecane acid(0.28%),n-cetane acid(5.43%),9,12-octadecane diene acid ethyl ester(5.30%),palmitic acid methyl ester(0.09%)and vanillin(12.6%).The net oil had rich unique fragrance,and the optimized process could be used to improve the vanilla net oil extraction.%为优化香草兰净油超声微波协同萃取工艺条件,采用二次回归正交旋转组合设计对香草兰净油得率进行探讨,并进行气相色谱-质谱鉴定.结果表明:最佳萃取条件为萃取时间6.91 min,萃取功率253W,萃取溶液石油醚:正己烷=2.8:1(V:V),得率5.18%.匹配度达90以上的化合物有25种,其中脂肪酸、醛类及酯类含量较高,主要有亚油酸(23.17%)、月桂酸(0.07%)、肉豆蔻酸(0.24%)、十五烷酸(0.28%)、n-十六烷酸(5.43%)、9,12-十八烷二烯酸乙酯(5.30%)、棕榈酸甲酯(0.09%)、香兰素(12.6%)等.该净油具有浓郁独特的香味,优选得到的工艺可提高香草兰净油得率.

  14. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    OpenAIRE

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method prov...

  15. Microbial electrochemical monitoring of volatile fatty acids during anaerobic digestion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jin, Xiangdan; Angelidaki, Irini; Zhang, Yifeng

    2016-01-01

    Volatile fatty acid (VFA) concentration is known as an important indicator to control and optimize anaerobic digestion (AD) process. In this study, an innovative VFA biosensor was developed based on the principle of a microbial desalination cell. The correlation between current densities and VFA...

  16. Dissociation and Mass Transfer Coefficients for Ammonia Volatilization Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Process-based models are being used to predict ammonia emissions from manure sources, but their accuracy has not been fully evaluated for cattle manure. Laboratory trials were conducted to measure the dissociation and mass transfer coefficients for ammonia volatilization from media of buffered ammon...

  17. Improved fluoride volatility reprocessing for MOX fuel cycle

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Takahashi, M.; Fukasawa, T.; Sawa, T.; Yamashita, J.; Kamoshida, M.; Sasahira, A.; Kawamura, F. [Nuclear Systems Div., Hitachi, Ibaraki (Japan)

    2000-07-01

    Several countries had stopped developing fluoride volatility reprocessing method in the 1970's due to difficulties in recovering pure Pu. Although, nuclear societies recently favor dirty Pu (MOX). which has high proliferation resistance and needs remote fuel fabrication technologies. This situation reminded the authors to re-evaluate the fluoride volatility process. Preliminary investigation clarified that conventional fluoride volatility process could be simplified to recover dirty MOX and pure U from spent LWR fuels. Pure U is suitable to transfer it to re-enrichment (LWR cycle again), to storage certain period for future FBRs, and to dispose with relatively simple barrier. The improved process also enables to prepare directly the dirty MOX particles which are suitable for remote fuel fabrication (vibration packing). This paper describes the system of improved fluoride volatility reprocessing, and compatibility of each elemental process such as thermal decladding, two stage fluorination of U and U+Pu, U purification, direct conversion. of mixed fluoride into oxide particles and vibration packing fuel fabrication. (authors)

  18. Analysis of the Behavior of Volatility in Crude Oil Price

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fernando Antonio Lucena Aiube

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This article analyzes volatility in the spot price of crude oil. In recent years the price has also increased reaching more than US$ 140/barrel in the last decade. Moreover, the negotiated trading volume in the futures market in recent years higher than the trading volume of the earlier years. How these changes have affected the volatility in the oil prices? Does the presence of huge players, which leads to an increase in the volume under negotiation, increase volatility? Has the persistence been affected? To answer these questions, we first estimated spot prices using the two-factor model of Schwartz and Smith. With this filtering process we can capture the entire information from the future term-structure. We then analyzed the estimated spot-price series to identify the stylized facts and then adjusted conditional volatility models of GARCH family. Our findings show that the volatility in the high prices period is not different from that of low prices. The shocks behaved as transitory and the persistence in the high prices period decreased. This fact has pricing and hedging implications for short-term derivatives.

  19. Influence of Chloride-Ion Adsorption Agent on Chloride Ions in Concrete and Mortar

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gai-Fei Peng

    2014-04-01

    Full Text Available The influence of a chloride-ion adsorption agent (Cl agent in short, composed of zeolite, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium nitrite, on the ingress of chloride ions into concrete and mortar has been experimentally studied. The permeability of concrete was measured, and the chloride ion content in mortar was tested. The experimental results reveal that the Cl agent could adsorb chloride ions effectively, which had penetrated into concrete and mortar. When the Cl agent was used at a dosage of 6% by mass of cementitious materials in mortar, the resistance to the penetration of chloride ions could be improved greatly, which was more pronounced when a combination of the Cl agent and fly ash or slag was employed. Such an effect is not the result of the low permeability of the mortar, but might be a result of the interaction between the Cl agent and the chloride ions penetrated into the mortar. There are two possible mechanisms for the interaction between the Cl agent and chloride ion ingress. One is the reaction between calcium aluminate hydrate in the Cl agent and chloride ions to form Friedel’s salt, and the other one is that calcium aluminate hydrate reacts with calcium nitrite to form AFm during the early-age hydration of mortar and later the NO2− in AFm is replaced by chloride ions, which then penetrate into the mortar, also forming Friedel’s salt. More research is needed to confirm the mechanisms.

  20. Effect of Chloride Type on Penetration of Chloride Ions in Concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    2006-01-01

    The influence of chloride type on the diffusivity of chloride ions in concrete was studied by experiment. The result shows that the glectric resistance of concrete and the chloride diffusion coefficient are influenced by chloride type. For the same water/cement ratio (W/C), the diffusion coefficient D in KCl solution is larger than that in NaCl solution; however, the concrete resistance in KCl solution is smaller than that in NaCl solution. The experimental result is analyzed with theory of diffusion.

  1. Forecast performance of implied volatility and the impact of the volatility risk premium

    OpenAIRE

    Ralf Becker; Adam Clements; Christopher Coleman-Fenn

    2009-01-01

    Forecasting volatility has received a great deal of research attention, with the relative performance of econometric models based on time-series data and option implied volatility forecasts often being considered. While many studies find that implied volatility is the preferred approach, a number of issues remain unresolved. Implied volatilities are risk-neutral forecasts of spot volatility, whereas time-series models are estimated on risk-adjusted or real world data of the underlying. Recent...

  2. Can volatile organic compounds be markers of sea salt?

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Isabel; Coimbra, Manuel A; Barros, António S; Marriott, Philip J; Rocha, Sílvia M

    2015-02-15

    Sea salt is a handmade food product that is obtained by evaporation of seawater in saltpans. During the crystallisation process, organic compounds from surroundings can be incorporated into sea salt crystals. The aim of this study is to search for potential volatile markers of sea salt. Thus, sea salts from seven north-east Atlantic Ocean locations (France, Portugal, Continental Spain, Canary Islands, and Cape Verde) were analysed by headspace solid-phase microextraction combined with comprehensive two-dimensional gas chromatography-time-of-flight mass spectrometry. A total of 165 compounds were detected, ranging from 32 to 71 compounds per salt. The volatile composition revealed the variability and individuality of each salt, and a set of ten compounds were detected in all samples. From these, seven are carotenoid-derived compounds that can be associated with the typical natural surroundings of ocean hypersaline environment. These ten compounds are proposed as potential volatile markers of sea salt. PMID:25236204

  3. Estimating Stochastic Volatility Models using Prediction-based Estimating Functions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Lunde, Asger; Brix, Anne Floor

    In this paper prediction-based estimating functions (PBEFs), introduced in Sørensen (2000), are reviewed and PBEFs for the Heston (1993) stochastic volatility model are derived. The finite sample performance of the PBEF based estimator is investigated in a Monte Carlo study, and compared to the...... performance of the GMM estimator based on conditional moments of integrated volatility from Bollerslev and Zhou (2002). The case where the observed log-price process is contaminated by i.i.d. market microstructure (MMS) noise is also investigated. First, the impact of MMS noise on the parameter estimates from...... the two estimation methods without noise correction are studied. Second, a noise robust GMM estimator is constructed by approximating integrated volatility by a realized kernel instead of realized variance. The PBEFs are also recalculated in the noise setting, and the two estimation methods ability to...

  4. Landform Erosion and Volatile Redistribution on Ganymede and Callisto

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Jeffrey Morgan; Howard, Alan D.; McKinnon, William B.; Schenk, Paul M.; Wood, Stephen E.

    2009-01-01

    We have been modeling landscape evolution on the Galilean satellites driven by volatile transport. Our work directly addresses some of the most fundamental issues pertinent to deciphering icy Galilean satellite geologic histories by employing techniques currently at the forefront of terrestrial, martian, and icy satellite landscape evolution studies [e.g., 1-6], including modeling of surface and subsurface energy and volatile exchanges, and computer simulation of long-term landform evolution by a variety of processes. A quantitative understanding of the expression and rates of landform erosion, and of volatile redistribution on landforms, is especially essential in interpreting endogenic landforms that have, in many cases, been significantly modified by erosion [e.g., 7-9].

  5. Chloride stress triggers maturation and negatively affects the postharvest quality of persimmon fruit. Involvement of calyx ethylene production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besada, Cristina; Gil, Rebeca; Bonet, Luis; Quiñones, Ana; Intrigliolo, Diego; Salvador, Alejandra

    2016-03-01

    In recent years many hectares planted with persimmon trees in E Spain have been diagnosed with chloride toxicity. An effect of this abiotic stress on fruit quality has been reported in different crops. However, the impact of chloride stress on persimmon fruit quality is unknown. The harvest and postharvest quality of persimmons harvested from trees that manifest different intensities of chloride toxicity foliar symptoms was evaluated herein. Our results revealed that fruits from trees under chloride stress conditions underwent chloride accumulation in the calyx, which was more marked the greater the salt stress intensity trees were exposed to. Increased chloride concentrations in the calyx stimulated ethylene production in this tissue. In the fruits affected by slight and moderate chloride stress, calyx ethylene production accelerated the maturity process, as reflected by increased fruit colour and diminished fruit firmness. In the fruits under severe chloride stress, the high ethylene levels in the calyx triggered autocatalytic ethylene production in other fruit tissues, which led fruit maturity to drastically advance. In these fruits effectiveness of CO2 deastringency treatment was not complete and fruit softening enhanced during the postharvest period. Moreover, chloride stress conditions had a marked effect on reducing fruit weight, even in slightly stressed trees. PMID:26807935

  6. Chloride stress triggers maturation and negatively affects the postharvest quality of persimmon fruit. Involvement of calyx ethylene production.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Besada, Cristina; Gil, Rebeca; Bonet, Luis; Quiñones, Ana; Intrigliolo, Diego; Salvador, Alejandra

    2016-03-01

    In recent years many hectares planted with persimmon trees in E Spain have been diagnosed with chloride toxicity. An effect of this abiotic stress on fruit quality has been reported in different crops. However, the impact of chloride stress on persimmon fruit quality is unknown. The harvest and postharvest quality of persimmons harvested from trees that manifest different intensities of chloride toxicity foliar symptoms was evaluated herein. Our results revealed that fruits from trees under chloride stress conditions underwent chloride accumulation in the calyx, which was more marked the greater the salt stress intensity trees were exposed to. Increased chloride concentrations in the calyx stimulated ethylene production in this tissue. In the fruits affected by slight and moderate chloride stress, calyx ethylene production accelerated the maturity process, as reflected by increased fruit colour and diminished fruit firmness. In the fruits under severe chloride stress, the high ethylene levels in the calyx triggered autocatalytic ethylene production in other fruit tissues, which led fruit maturity to drastically advance. In these fruits effectiveness of CO2 deastringency treatment was not complete and fruit softening enhanced during the postharvest period. Moreover, chloride stress conditions had a marked effect on reducing fruit weight, even in slightly stressed trees.

  7. Dummies versus air puffs: efficient stimulus delivery for low-volatile odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstaetter, Andreas Simon; Rössler, Wolfgang; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes

    2010-05-01

    Aiming to unravel how animals perceive odors, a variety of neurophysiological techniques are used today. For olfactory stimulation, odors are commonly incorporated into a constant airstream that carries odor molecules to the receptor organ (air-delivered stimulation). Such odor delivery works well for odors of high volatility (naturally effective over long distances) but less or not at all for low-volatile odors (usually only received at short range). We developed a new odor stimulation technique especially suited for low-volatile odors and compared it with conventional air-delivered stimulation using 2 neurophysiological approaches. Odor-loaded dummies were moved into close vicinity of the receptor organs on the antenna of the Florida carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus (dummy-delivered stimulation). Neuronal activity was monitored either at receptor neuron level using electroantennography or in the first olfactory neuropile, the antennal lobes, using calcium imaging. We tested 3 odors of different volatility: C. floridanus' highly volatile alarm pheromone undecane, its low-volatile trail pheromone nerolic acid, and an even less volatile, behaviorally active C23 alkene, cis-9-tricosene. For low-volatile odors, dummy-delivered stimulation was particularly efficient. We conclude that dummy-delivered stimulation is advantageous compared to the commonly used air-delivered stimulation when studying an animal's detection and processing of low-volatile odors. PMID:20212009

  8. Dummies versus air puffs: efficient stimulus delivery for low-volatile odors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brandstaetter, Andreas Simon; Rössler, Wolfgang; Kleineidam, Christoph Johannes

    2010-05-01

    Aiming to unravel how animals perceive odors, a variety of neurophysiological techniques are used today. For olfactory stimulation, odors are commonly incorporated into a constant airstream that carries odor molecules to the receptor organ (air-delivered stimulation). Such odor delivery works well for odors of high volatility (naturally effective over long distances) but less or not at all for low-volatile odors (usually only received at short range). We developed a new odor stimulation technique especially suited for low-volatile odors and compared it with conventional air-delivered stimulation using 2 neurophysiological approaches. Odor-loaded dummies were moved into close vicinity of the receptor organs on the antenna of the Florida carpenter ant Camponotus floridanus (dummy-delivered stimulation). Neuronal activity was monitored either at receptor neuron level using electroantennography or in the first olfactory neuropile, the antennal lobes, using calcium imaging. We tested 3 odors of different volatility: C. floridanus' highly volatile alarm pheromone undecane, its low-volatile trail pheromone nerolic acid, and an even less volatile, behaviorally active C23 alkene, cis-9-tricosene. For low-volatile odors, dummy-delivered stimulation was particularly efficient. We conclude that dummy-delivered stimulation is advantageous compared to the commonly used air-delivered stimulation when studying an animal's detection and processing of low-volatile odors.

  9. Cellular Automata-based Chloride Ion Diffusion Simulation of Concrete Bridges under Multi-factor Coupling Actions

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    ZHU Jinsong; HE Likun

    2012-01-01

    Abstract In order to accurately simulate the diffusion of chloride ion in the existing concrete bridge and acquire the precise chloride ion concentration at given time,a cellular automata (CA)-based model is proposed.The process of chloride ion diffusion is analyzed by the CA-based method and a nonlinear solution of the Fick's second law is obtained.Considering the impact of various factors such as stress states,temporal and spatial variability of diffusion parameters and water-cement ratio on the process of chloride ion diffusion,the model of chloride ion diffusion under multi-factor coupling actions is presented.A chloride ion penetrating experiment reported in the literature is used to prove the effectiveness and reasonability of the present method,and a T-type beam is taken as an illustrative example to analyze the process of chloride ion diffusion in practical application.The results indicate that CA-based method can simulate the diffusion of chloride ion in the concrete structures with acceptable precision.

  10. The economic value of realized volatility

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Christoffersen, Peter; Feunou, Bruno; Jacobs, Kris;

    2014-01-01

    Many studies have documented that daily realized volatility estimates based on intraday returns provide volatility forecasts that are superior to forecasts constructed from daily returns only. We investigate whether these forecasting improvements translate into economic value added. To do so, we...... develop a new class of affine discrete-time option valuation models that use daily returns as well as realized volatility. We derive convenient closed-form option valuation formulas, and we assess the option valuation properties using Standard & Poor’s (S&P) 500 return and option data. We find...... that realized volatility reduces the pricing errors of the benchmark model significantly across moneyness, maturity, and volatility levels....

  11. Real options valuation with changing volatility

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Miroslav Čulík

    2016-03-01

    Full Text Available This paper aims at the valuation of real options with changing volatility. Volatility change is a typical feature of real investment projects, where the riskiness of cash flow generated by the project can change significantly during the project life span. In this paper, there is explained how the problem of changing volatility can be considered if binomial lattice and replication strategy is used for real option valuation. There are recombining and non-recombining lattice used and constant and increasing volatility are analysed and results compared. In situation when volatility is changing, two approaches overcoming this problem are employed and compared.

  12. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Tkachev, A V [N.N. Vorozhtsov Novosibirsk Institute of Organic Chemistry, Siberian Branch of the Russian Academy of Sciences, Novosibirsk (Russian Federation)

    2007-10-31

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  13. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tkachev, A. V.

    2007-10-01

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  14. Chirospecific analysis of plant volatiles

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    Characteristic features of the analysis of plant volatiles by enantioselective gas (gas-liquid) chromatography and gas chromatography/mass spectrometry are discussed. The most recent advances in the design of enantioselective stationary phases are surveyed. Examples of the preparation of the most efficient phases based on modified cyclodextrins are given. Current knowledge on the successful analytical resolution of different types of plant volatiles (aliphatic and aromatic compounds and mono-, sesqui- and diterpene derivatives) into optical antipodes is systematically described. Chiral stationary phases used for these purposes, temperature conditions and enantiomer separation factors are summarised. Examples of the enantiomeric resolution of fragrance compounds and components of plant extracts, wines and essential oils are given.

  15. 21 CFR 178.3290 - Chromic chloride complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Chromic chloride complexes. 178.3290 Section 178... SANITIZERS Certain Adjuvants and Production Aids § 178.3290 Chromic chloride complexes. Myristo chromic chloride complex and stearato chromic chloride complex may be safely used as release agents in the...

  16. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-17...) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride... on or after March 16, 2009 used for the transportation of hydrogen chloride, refrigerated...

  17. Forecasting volatility of crude oil markets

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kang, Sang Hoon [Department of Business Administration, Gyeongsang National University, Jinju, 660-701 (Korea); Kang, Sang-Mok; Yoon, Seong-Min [Department of Economics, Pusan National University, Busan, 609-735 (Korea)

    2009-01-15

    This article investigates the efficacy of a volatility model for three crude oil markets - Brent, Dubai, and West Texas Intermediate (WTI) - with regard to its ability to forecast and identify volatility stylized facts, in particular volatility persistence or long memory. In this context, we assess persistence in the volatility of the three crude oil prices using conditional volatility models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models are better equipped to capture persistence than are the GARCH and IGARCH models. The CGARCH and FIGARCH models also provide superior performance in out-of-sample volatility forecasts. We conclude that the CGARCH and FIGARCH models are useful for modeling and forecasting persistence in the volatility of crude oil prices. (author)

  18. Merger Information and Share Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Ramachandran, Remya

    2013-01-01

    The study undertakes to examine the effect of merger announcement in the market under different market conditions. Effect of Merger information release is analyzed by using share price reaction to information. Price and Volume reaction during specific periods when the markets sharply moved up and down were also considered to know whether the sharp movements in the market have any significant impact in price volatility.

  19. Stock Market Volatility under Sanctions

    OpenAIRE

    Hojatallah Goudarzi

    2014-01-01

    Since 1979, Iran has faced with unilateral and multilateral harsh sanctions due to its nuclear energy program. These sanctions have resulted in significant problem to both sanctioned and sanctioning parties. Given the fact that sanctions have had significant impacts on Iran’s economy and since Iran stock market is the barometer of its economy, it is assumed that sanctions affect the Iranian stock market as well. To test this hypothesis, this study studied the Iranian stock market volatility d...

  20. Forecasting volatility for options valuation

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    The petroleum sector plays a neuralgic role in the basement of world economies, and market actors (producers, intermediates, as well as consumers) are continuously subjected to the dynamics of unstable oil market. Huge amounts are being invested along the production chain to make one barrel of crude oil available to the end user. Adding to that are the effect of geopolitical dynamics as well as geological risks as expressed in terms of low chances of successful discoveries. In addition, fiscal regimes and regulations, technology and environmental concerns are also among some of the major factors that contribute to the substantial risk in the oil industry and render the market structure vulnerable to crises. The management of these vulnerabilities require modern tools to reduce risk to a certain level, which unfortunately is a non-zero value. The aim of this paper is, therefore, to provide a modern technique to capture the oil price stochastic volatility that can be implemented to value the exposure of an investor, a company, a corporate or a Government. The paper first analyses the regional dependence on oil prices, through a historical perspective and then looks at the evolution of pricing environment since the large price jumps of the 1970s. The main causes of oil prices volatility are treated in the third part of the paper. The rest of the article deals with volatility models and forecasts used in risk management, with an implication for pricing derivatives. (author)

  1. The Humidity Sensor Using the Polyacrylic Emulsion Containing Magnesium Chloride

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Ching-Han Yu; Jung-Chuan Chou; Tai-Ping Sun; Shen-Kan Hsiung

    2006-01-01

    An impedance type humidity sensor based on the polyacrylic emulsion containing magnesium chloride (MgCl2)without chemical modification was investigated. The impedances of the sensor were measured from various relative humidity in the frequency range between 0.1kHz and 100 kHz. The sensor has a good sensitivity from 60%RH to 90%RH. According to the experimental results, the response time is about 240 seconds in the adsorption process and 310 seconds in the desorption process.

  2. Method of effective evaluation for examination of chloride ion in concrete

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    SUNG Wen-pei; CHEN Kuen-suan; LIN Hsue-chun

    2005-01-01

    The chloride ion contained in reinforced concrete seriously corrodes the steel surface and damages concrete, resulting in inferior reinforced concrete that strength seriously compromises the entire structure's safety. Consequently, the examination of chloride ions contained in reinforced concrete becomes an important part of a complete quality control procedure. To effectively check the concentration of chloride ions in concrete, the evaluation process should be accurate and precise. Laboratory data obtained using existing evaluation methods for the examination of chloride ion are not sufficiently objective to yield reliable results with accuracy and consistency for each sample. An evaluation algorithm with capability to define indices of precision degree (Ep)and accuracy degree (Ea) is presented in this paper. The authors established a statistically reliable index of unbiased estimators and equations to critically examine the laboratory methods' precision, accuracy degrees and application value for measuring chlorine ion concentration in reinforced concrete.

  3. Factors influencing chloride deposition in a coastal hilly area and application to chloride deposition mapping

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    H. Guan

    2009-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride is commonly used as an environmental tracer for studying water flow and solute transport in the environment. It is especially useful for estimating groundwater recharge based on the commonly used chloride mass balance (CMB method. Strong spatial variability in chloride deposition in coastal areas is one difficulty encountered in appropriately applying the CMB approach. Furthermore, intensive vegetation clearance for agriculture, for example during the European settlement in many coastal areas of Australia, may have perturbed catchment chloride balance conditions for appropriate use in CMB applications. In order to deal with these issues, a high resolution chloride deposition map in the coastal region is needed. In this study, we examined geographic, orographic, and atmospheric factors influencing chloride deposition in the Mount Lofty Ranges (MLR, a coastal hilly area of approximately 9000 km2 spatial extent in South Australia, using partial correlation and regression analyses. The results indicate that coastal distance, and terrain aspect and slope are two most significant factors controlling chloride deposition. Coastal distance accounts for 65% spatial variability in chloride deposition, with terrain aspect and slope for 8%. The deposition gradient is about 0.08 gm-2 year-1 km-1 as one progresses inland. The results are incorporated into a published de-trended residual kriging approach (ASOADeK to produce a 1 km×1 km resolution annual chloride deposition map and a bulk precipitation chloride concentration map. The average uncertainty of the deposition map is about 30% in the western MLR, and over 50% in the eastern MLR. The maps will form a very useful basis for examining catchment chloride balances for use in the CMB application in the study area.

  4. Anoctamin Calcium-Activated Chloride Channels May Modulate Inhibitory Transmission in the Cerebellar Cortex.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Weiping Zhang

    Full Text Available Calcium-activated chloride channels of the anoctamin (alias TMEM16 protein family fulfill critical functions in epithelial fluid transport, smooth muscle contraction and sensory signal processing. Little is known, however, about their contribution to information processing in the central nervous system. Here we examined the recent finding that a calcium-dependent chloride conductance impacts on GABAergic synaptic inhibition in Purkinje cells of the cerebellum. We asked whether anoctamin channels may underlie this chloride conductance. We identified two anoctamin channel proteins, ANO1 and ANO2, in the cerebellar cortex. ANO1 was expressed in inhibitory interneurons of the molecular layer and the granule cell layer. Both channels were expressed in Purkinje cells but, while ANO1 appeared to be retained in the cell body, ANO2 was targeted to the dendritic tree. Functional studies confirmed that ANO2 was involved in a calcium-dependent mode of ionic plasticity that reduces the efficacy of GABAergic synapses. ANO2 channels attenuated GABAergic transmission by increasing the postsynaptic chloride concentration, hence reducing the driving force for chloride influx. Our data suggest that ANO2 channels are involved in a Ca2+-dependent regulation of synaptic weight in GABAergic inhibition. Thus, in balance with the chloride extrusion mechanism via the co-transporter KCC2, ANO2 appears to regulate ionic plasticity in the cerebellum.

  5. Solid phase microextraction for profiling volatile compounds in liquered white wines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryk H. Jeleń

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available Background. Profile of volatile compounds is a distinct feature of wine, which is dependent on the type of wine, grapes, fermentation and ageing processes. Profiling volatile compounds in wine using fast method provides information on major groups of compounds and can be used for classification/differentiation purposes. Solid phase microextraction (SPME was used for the profiling of volatile compounds in liquered white wines in this study. Material and methods. Different fibers were tested for this purpose: PDMS, Carboxene/ PDMS, Carboxene/DVB/PDMS, Polyacrylate, Divinylbenzene/PDMS. Different times were compared to optimize extraction process. Profile and amount of volatile compounds extracted by SPME fiber was compared for eight liquered white wines. Results. Carboxene/DVB/PDMS showed the highest efficiency in extracting higher alcohols, esters, carbonyls and terpenes. Of tested extraction times ranging from 5 to 30 min. 20 minutes was chosen providing sufficient peak responses. Using SPME total amount of volatile compounds in eight liquered wines was compared – Riversaltes, Offley Porto and Jutrzenka having the highest amount of adsorbed volatiles. Profiles of volatiles of analysed wines revealed that dominating compounds in 6 wines were esters, followed by higher alcohols, two analysed Muscat wines had high terpene contents compared to remaining wines. Conclusion. SPME can be used for relatively fast profiling of wine volatiles, that can be used for wines classification.  

  6. Chloride transport and its sensitivities to different boundary conditions in reclaimed soil solutions filled with fly ash

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    Xiao-Yang CHEN; Jia-Ping YAN; Shi-Wen ZHANG

    2013-01-01

    Chloride ion transport in reclaimed soil solutions filled with fly ash (FA) was investigated by measuring the hydraulic parameters (i.e.water retention curves and hydraulic conductivity) of three substrates,namely GSL,GFA,and CFA.Similar simulations were carried out under certain weather conditions.The different boundary conditions of chloride transport were also discussed from FA texture,cover soil thickness,groundwater table level,and initial chloride concentration.Furthcrmore,the sensitivities of chloride ions to these effect factors were analyzed.The results show that the different top soil thickness and initial chloride concentration have no effect on salinity of topsoil solution in the monitoring points,but they can clearly change the chloride concentration of FA layers.The sensibilities from top soil thickness and initial chloride content are exceedingly weak to the salinity balance based on two dimensions of the time and concentration.While the different FA texture and groundwater table not only affect the salinity equilibrium process of the whole reclaimed soil profile,but also change its balance state.Generally,coarse FA particles and high groundwater table can defer the salinity balance process of the reclaimed soil solution,and they also increase the chloride concentration of FA layer solutions,and even topsoil ones.

  7. Inhibition of nitrite-induced toxicity in channel catfish by calcium chloride and sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tommasso J.R., Wright; Simco, B.A.; Davis, K.B.

    1980-01-01

    Environmental chloride has been shown to inhibit methemoglobin formation in fish, thereby offering a protective effect against nitrite toxicity. Channel catfish (Ictalurus punctatus) were simultaneously exposed to various environmental nitrite and chloride levels (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) in dechlorinated tap water (40 mg/L total hardness, 47 mg/L alkalinity, 4 mg/L chloride, pH = 6.9-7.1, and temperature 21-24°C). Methemoglobin levels in fish simultaneously exposed to 2.5 mg/L nitrite and up to 30 mg/L chloride as either CaCl2 or NaCl were similar but significantly lower than in unprotected fish. Exposure to 10 mg/L nitrite and 60 mg/L chloride resulted in methemoglobin levels similar to those of the controls; most unprotected fish died. Fish exposed to 10 mg/L nitrite had significantly lower methemoglobin levels when protected with 15.0 mg/L chloride as CaCl2 than with NaCl. Fish exposed to nitrite in the presence of 60 mg/L chloride (as either CaCl2 or NaCl) had similar 24-h LC50 values that were significantly elevated above those obtained in the absence of chloride. Calcium had little effect on tolerance to nitrite toxicity in channel catfish in contrast to its large effect reported in steelhead trout (Salmo gairdneri).

  8. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gils

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl−/HCO3- exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old woman had an emergency caesarian due to pain and discomfort in gestational week 36 + 4. The newborn boy had abdominal distension and yellow fluid per rectum. Therapy with intravenous glucose and sodium chloride decreased his stool frequency and improved his clinical condition. A suspicion of congenital chloride diarrhea was strongly supported using blood gas analyzer to measure an increased chloride concentration in the feces; the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA testing. Discussion. Measurement of chloride in feces using an ordinary blood gas analyzer can serve as a preliminary analysis when congenital chloride diarrhea is suspected. This measurement can be easily performed with a watery feces composition. An easy-accessible chloride measurement available will facilitate the diagnostics and support the initial treatment if CCD is suspected.

  9. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  10. Efeito de diferentes concentrações de cloreto de cálcio na qualidade do abacaxi "Pérola" minimamente processado Evaluation of the effect of different concetrations of calcim chloride in the quality of pineapple "Pérola" minimally processed and refrigerated

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gleucia Carvalho Silva

    2003-08-01

    Full Text Available O objetivo deste trabalho foi avaliar o efeito do cloreto de cálcio (CaCl2 na qualidade do abacaxi "Pérola" minimamente processado e refrigerado. Os frutos foram lavados e sanifizados, sendo em seguida cortados na forma de trapézio e fatia, imersos em solução de CaCl2, embalados em polipropileno rígido e armazenado a 4ºC por 16 dias. As variáveis SST, perda de massa fresca, textura e pH foram influenciadas pelas concentrações de CaCl2. O tempo de armazenamento afetou a ATT (Acidez total titulável, SST (Sólidos solúveis totais, ART (Açúcares redutores totais, perda de massa fresca, textura, pH. Os resultados revelaram que, independente do tipo de corte, não houve diferença significativa entre os tratamentos com 1% e 2,5% , tendo ambos preservado as características de qualidade.The purpose of this work was to evaluate the effect of calcium chloride (CaCl2 in the quality of pineapple "pérola" minimally processed and refrigerated. The fruits were washed, sanitized, cutted and imbebed in a calcium chloride solution and packed in rigid polypropylene and stored at 4ºC for 16 days. The variables SS, loss of weight, texture and pH were influenced by the concentration of CaCl2. The storage time affected TTA (Total titrable acidity, SS (Soluble solids, TRS (Total reducing sugars, loss of weight, texture and pH. The results showed that independent of the type of cut there was not a significant difference between the treatments with 1% and 2.5% having both preserved the quality characteristics.

  11. The Brenner Moor - A saline bog as a source for halogenated and non-halogenated volatile compounds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krause, T.; Studenroth, S.; Furchner, M.; Hoffman, A.; Lippe, S.; Kotte, K.; Schöler, H. F.

    2012-04-01

    The Brenner Moor is a small bog in the catchment area of the river Trave located in Schleswig-Holstein, North Germany, between Baltic and North Sea. The bog is fed by several saline springs with chloride concentrations up to 15 g/L. The high chloride concentrations and the high organic content of the peat make the Brenner Moor an ideal source for the abiotic formation of volatile organic halogenated compounds (VOX). VOX play an important role in the photochemical processes of the lower atmosphere and information on the atmospheric input from saline soils like the Brenner Moor will help to understand the global fluxes of VOX. Soil samples were taken in spring 2011 from several locations and depths in the vicinity of the Brenner Moor. The samples were freeze-dried, ground and incubated in water emphasising an abiotic character for the formation of volatile organic compounds. 1,2-dichloroethane and trichloromethane are the main halogenated compounds emitted from soils of the Brenner Moor. The abiotic formation of trichloromethane as well as other trihalomethanes has been part of intensive studies. A well known source is the decarboxylation of trichloroacetic acid and trichloroacetyl-containing compounds to trichloromethane [1]. Huber et al. discovered another pathway in which catechol, as a model compound for organic substances, is oxidised under Fenton-like conditions with iron(III), hydrogen peroxide and halides to form trihalomethanes [2]. Besides the halogenated compounds, the formation of sulphur compounds such as dimethyl sulfide and dimethyl disulfide and several furan derivatives could be detected which also have an impact on atmospheric chemistry, especially particle formation of clouds. Furan, methylfuran and dimethylfuran are compounds that can be obtained under Fenton-like oxidation from catechol, methyl- and dimethylcatechol and are known to be produced in natural soils [3]. A novel class of furan derivatives that are formed under abiotic conditions from

  12. Volatile organic compound emissions from wastewater treatment plants in Taiwan: legal regulations and costs of control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheng, Wen-Hsi; Hsu, Shu-Kang; Chou, Ming-Shean

    2008-09-01

    This study assessed volatile organic compound (VOC) emission characteristics from wastewater treatment plants (WWTPs) in five Taiwanese industrial districts engaged in numerous manufacturing processes, including petrochemical, science-based industry (primarily semiconductors, photo-electronics, electronic products and biological technology), as well as multiple manufacturing processes (primarily pharmaceuticals and paint manufacturing). The most aqueous hydrocarbons dissolved in the wastewater of Taiwanese WWTPs were acetone, acrylonitrile, methylene chloride, and chloroform for the petrochemical districts; acetone, chloroform, and toluene for the science-based districts; and chlorinated and aromatic hydrocarbons for the multiple industrial districts. The aqueous pollutants in the united WWTPs were closely related to the characteristics of the manufacturing plants in the districts. To effectively prevent VOC emissions from the primary treatment section of petrochemical WWTPs, the updated regulations governing VOC emissions were issued by the Taiwanese Environmental Protection Administration in September 2005, legally mandating a seal cover system incorporating venting and air purification equipment. Cost analysis indicates that incinerators with regenerative heat recovery are optimal for treating high VOC concentrations, exceeding 10,000 ppm as CH(4), from the oil separation basins. However, the emission concentrations, ranging from 100 to 1,000 ppm as CH(4) from the other primary treatment facilities and bio-treatment stages, should be collected and then injected into the biological oxidation basins via existing or new blowers. The additional capital and operating costs required to treat the VOC emissions of 1,000 ppm as CH(4) from primary treatment facilities are less than USD 0.1 for per m(3) wastewater treatment capacity.

  13. Wet scrubber analysis of volatile organic compound removal in the rendering industry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kastner, James R; Das, K C

    2002-04-01

    The promulgation of odor control rules, increasing public concerns, and U.S. Environmental Protection Agency (EPA) air regulations in nonattainment zones necessitates the remediation of a wide range of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) generated by the rendering industry. Currently, wet scrubbers with oxidizing chemicals are used to treat VOCs; however, little information is available on scrubber efficiency for many of the VOCs generated within the rendering process. Portable gas chromatography/mass spectrometry (GC/MS) units were used to rapidly identify key VOCs on-site in process streams at two poultry byproduct rendering plants. On-site analysis was found to be important, given the significant reduction in peak areas if samples were held for 24 hr before analysis. Major compounds consistently identified in the emissions from the plant included dimethyl disulfide, methanethiol, octane, hexanal, 2-methylbutanal, and 3-methylbutanal. The two branched aldehydes, 2-methylbutanal and 3-methylbutanal, were by far the most consistent, appearing in every sample and typically the largest fraction of the VOC mixture. A chlorinated hydrocarbon, methanesulfonyl chloride, was identified in the outlet of a high-intensity wet scrubber, and several VOCs and chlorinated compounds were identified in the scrubbing solution, but not on a consistent basis. Total VOC concentrations in noncondensable gas streams ranged from 4 to 91 ppmv. At the two plants, the odor-causing compound methanethiol ranged from 25 to 33% and 9.6% of the total VOCs (v/v). In one plant, wet scrubber analysis using chlorine dioxide (ClO2) as the oxidizing agent indicated that close to 100% of the methanethiol was removed from the gas phase, but removal efficiencies ranged from 20 to 80% for the aldehydes and hydrocarbons and from 23 to 64% for total VOCs. In the second plant, conversion efficiencies were much lower in a packed-bed wet scrubber, with a measurable removal of only dimethyl sulfide (20-100%).

  14. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  15. Dynamic Electrochemical Measurement of Chloride Ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-02-05

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement, long-term and continuous monitoring is limited due to the inherent drift and the requirement of a stable reference electrode. We utilized the chronopotentiometric approach to minimize drift and avoid the use of a conventional reference electrode. A galvanostatic pulse is applied to an Ag/AgCl electrode which initiates a faradic reaction depleting the Cl- ions near the electrode surface. The transition time, which is the time to completely deplete the ions near the electrode surface, is a function of the ion concentration, given by the Nernst equation. The square root of the transition time is in linear relation to the chloride ion concentration. Drift of the response over two weeks is negligible (59 µM/day) when measuring 1 mM [Cl-]using a current pulse of 10 Am(-2). This is a dynamic measurement where the moment of transition time determines the response and thus is independent of the absolute potential. Any metal wire can be used as a pseudo-reference electrode, making this approach feasible for long-term measurement inside concrete structures.

  16. Neuropeptide alterations in the tree shrew hypothalamus during volatile anesthesia

    OpenAIRE

    Fouillen, Laetitia; Petruzziello, Filomena; Veit, Julia; Bhattacharyya, Anwesha; Kretz, Robert; Rainer, Gregor; Zhang, Xiaozhe

    2013-01-01

    Neuropeptides are critical signaling molecules, involved in the regulation of diverse physiological processes including energy metabolism, pain perception and brain cognitive state. Prolonged general anesthesia has an impact on many of these processes, but the regulation of peptides by general anesthetics is poorly understood. In this study, we present an in-depth characterization of the hypothalamic neuropeptides of the tree shrew during volatile isoflurane/nitrous oxide anesthesia administe...

  17. Origin of Volatiles in Earth: Indigenous Versus Exogenous Sources Based on Highly Siderophile, Volatile Siderophile, and Light Volatile Elements

    Science.gov (United States)

    Righter, K.; Danielson, L.; Pando, K. M.; Marin, N.; Nickodem, K.

    2015-01-01

    Origin of Earth's volatiles has traditionally been ascribed to late accretion of material after major differentiation events - chondrites, comets, ice or other exogenous sources. A competing theory is that the Earth accreted its volatiles as it was built, thus water and other building blocks were present early and during differentiation and core formation (indigenous). Here we discuss geochemical evidence from three groups of elements that suggests Earth's volatiles were acquired during accretion and did not require additional sources after differentiation.

  18. Headspace Solid-Phase Microextraction Coupled with Gas Chromatography-Mass Spectrometric Analysis of Volatile Composition Changes of Steamed Bread during Processing%顶空固相微萃取-气质联用分析小麦馒头制作过程中的挥发性成分变化

    Institute of Scientific and Technical Information of China (English)

    燕雯; 张正茂; 刘拉平

    2012-01-01

    To study the volatile composition changes of steamed bread during processing, the volatile components in wheat flours, fermented doughs and steamed breads from three representative wheat cultivars with different gluten strength, Pubing 143, Jinmai 47 and Xinong 9817, were extracted by headspace solid-phase microextraction (HSPME) and analyzed by GC-MS. A total 23 volatile compounds (mainly naphthalene, 1-methyl-naphthalene, (Z)-2-Butenedioic acid dimethyl ester, 1,7-dimethyl- naphthalene and 2-methyl-naphthalene) were found to be common to wheat flours from "all investigated cultivars, accounting for 84.01%, 77.82% and 82.28% of the total volatile compounds in Pubing 143, Jinmai 47 and Xinong 9817, respectively. Eighteen volatile compounds (mainly ethanol, naphthalene, 1-methyl-naphthalene, butanedioic acid ethyl methyl ester and phenylethyl alcohol) were common to fermented doughs made with wheat flours from all investigated cultivars, accounting for 80.99%, 71.65% and 70.44% of the total volatile compounds in Pubing 143, Jinmai 47 and Xinong 9817, respectively. Twenty-six volatile compounds (mainly naphthalene, 1-methyl-naphthalene, 2-pentyl-furan, ethanol and nonanal) were common to steamed breads made with wheat flours from all investigated cultivars, accounting for 80.26%, 75.99% and 80.43% of the total compounds in Pubing 143, Jinmai 47 and Xinong 9817, respectively. The results obtained demonstrate that wheat flour, fermented dough and steamed bread vary in volatile composition among wheat cultivars with different gluten strength despite no difference in most of the main volatile components. During the processing of steamed bread from wheat flour; the relative content of hydrocarbons significantly decreases, whereas both the kinds and relative contents of alcohols increase, suggesting a significant change in the volatile composition.%为研究小麦挥发成分在加工过程的形成变化,选用具有代表性的3种不同

  19. Where do herbivore-induced plant volatiles go?

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jarmo K. Holopainen

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Herbivore induced plant volatiles (HIPV are specific volatile organic compounds (VOC that a plant produces in response to herbivory. Some HIPVs are only produced after damage, while others are also produced by intact plants, but in lower quantities. Among the known functions of HIPVs are within plant volatile signalling to activate systemic plant defences, the priming and activation of defences in neighbouring plants and the attraction of natural enemies of herbivores. When released into the atmosphere a plant’s control over the produced compounds ends. However, many of the HIPVs are highly reactive with atmospheric oxidants and their atmospheric life times could be relatively short, often only a few minutes. We summarise the potential ecological and atmospheric processes that involve the reaction products of HIPVs in their gaseous, liquid and solid secondary organic aerosol (SOA forms, both in the atmosphere and after deposition on plant surfaces. A potential negative feedback loop, based on the reactions forming SOA from HIPV and the associated stimulation of sun screening cloud formation is presented. This hypothesis is based on recent field surveys in the geographical areas facing greatest degree of global warming and insect outbreaks. Furthermore, we discuss how these processes could benefit the individual plant or conspecifics that originally released the HIPVs into the atmosphere. Further ecological studies should aim to elucidate the possible reasons for biosynthesis of short-lived volatile compounds to have evolved as a response to external biotic damage to plants.

  20. Fluoride volatility technology for reprocessing of irradiated oxide fuel

    International Nuclear Information System (INIS)

    A review of the scientific research works in the VNIIKhT on the spent oxide fuel reprocessing by the fluoride volatility technology is presented. Refining feasibilities of the basic stages of the fluoride volatility technology were investigated. Possibility of the release of the basic part of fission products with cinders on the fluorination stage was supported by the experimental results. Application of the fluorine sorbents (NaF, BaF2) means for the summary coefficient of the UF6 purification from fission products at a level of 107. Possibility of the deep plutonium recovery from the oxide fuel was shown. Results of the investigations into pyrohydrolysis of UF6 and mixture of UF6 and PuF6 with the oxide granulates production of the needed density with the content of fluorine 0.005 mass. % and oxygen coefficient 2 - 2.1 are performed. Recommendations on the fluoride volatility process application for the spent oxide fuel reprocessing of fast and light water reactors and prediction on the closed fuel cycle using fluoride volatility process were given with regard to new demands on fission products nonproliferation

  1. Qualidade de kiwis minimamente processados e submetidos a tratamento com ácido ascórbico, ácido cítrico e cloreto de cálcio Quality of kiwis minimally processed and treated with ascorbic acid, citric acid and calcium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ana Vânia Carvalho

    2002-05-01

    Full Text Available Frutos e hortaliças minimamente processados devem apresentar atributos de conveniência e qualidade do produto fresco. O objetivo deste trabalho foi estudar o efeito do processamento mínimo de frutos tratados com soluções a 1% de ácido ascórbico, ácido cítrico e cloreto de cálcio, durante armazenamento refrigerado, na qualidade do kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward. A perda de massa foi mínima durante o período de armazenamento. O ácido ascórbico fornecido pelo tratamento foi eficientemente absorvido pelos tecidos, mantendo os níveis de vitamina C cerca de 25% mais elevados nesses frutos do que nos demais tratamentos. A análise microbiológica detectou presença de bolores e leveduras e psicrotróficos, somente no tratamento com ácido cítrico, aos 8 e 10 dias, respectivamente. Não se detectaram coliformes totais e fecais e mesófilos, o que indica que o processamento foi realizado em boas condições higiênicas. Os kiwis minimamente processados e tratados com cloreto de cálcio apresentaram uma vida útil de dez dias. Nos demais tratamentos e no controle, esse tempo foi de seis dias.Minimally processed fruits and vegetables might present the same convenience and quality of fresh products. In this work, the influence of minimal processing of fruits treated with 1% solutions of ascorbic acid, citric acid and calcium chloride on the quality of kiwi (Actinidia deliciosa cv. Hayward, during refrigerated storage were investigated. Mass loss was minimal over the storage period. Ascorbic acid furnished by the treatment was effectively absorbed by tissues, keeping the vitamin C levels 25% higher in those fruits, than in other treatments. Microbiological analysis detected the presence of the group molds and yeasts and psychrotrophic in citric acid treatment, at 8 and 10 days, respectively. Total and faecal coliforms and mesophyles were not found, indicating that processing was performed under good hygienic conditions. Minimally

  2. VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS REMOVAL METHODS: A REVIEW

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aydin Berenjian

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available Volatile Organic Compounds (VOCs are among the most toxic chemicals which are detrimental to humans and environment. There is a significant need of fully satisfactory method for removal of VOCs. There are several methods including physical, chemical and biological treatments available to remove VOCs by either recovery or destruction. The aim of the present study is to summarize the available methods for VOC removal; trying to find a promising method among the available techniques. A wide range of VOCs can be treated biologically in which it offers advantages over more traditional processes including lower operating and capital costs and a smaller carbon footprint. However, due to a complex nature and diversity of VOCs it is hard to find a simple and promising method. Treatment still requires more research to solve the associate problems with available VOC elimination techniques.

  3. HS-GC-MS Volatile compounds recovered in freshly pressed and commercial Wonderful pomegranate juices

    Science.gov (United States)

    Consumption and production of superfruits has been increasing. Highly colored fruits often have bitter and astringent components that may make them undesirable, especially when processed. Many pomegranate volatile reports involved commercial samples, complicated isolation methods, or blending and ...

  4. HENRY'S LAW CONSTANTS AND MICELLAR PARTITIONING OF VOLATILE ORGANIC COMPOUNDS IN SURFACTANT SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Partitioning of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) into surfactant micelles affects the apparent vapor-liquid equilibrium of VOCs in surfactant solutions. This partitioning will complicate removal of VOCs from surfactant solutions by standard separation processes. Headspace expe...

  5. Inflation Volatility and the Inflation-Growth Tradeoff in India

    OpenAIRE

    Raghbendra Jha; Varsha S. Kulkarni

    2012-01-01

    This paper amends the New Keynesian Phillips curve model to include inflation volatility and tests the determinants of such volatility for India. It provides results on the determinants of inflation volatility and expected inflation volatility for OLS and ARDL (1,1) models and for change in inflation volatility and change in expected inflation volatility using ECM models. Output gap affects change in expected inflation volatility along (in the ECM model) and not in the other models. Major det...

  6. Towards a volatility index for the Italian stock market

    OpenAIRE

    Silvia Muzzioli

    2010-01-01

    The aim of this paper is to analyse and empirically test how to unlock volatility information from option prices. The information content of three option based forecasts of volatility: Black-Scholes implied volatility, model-free implied volatility and corridor implied volatility is addressed, with the ultimate plan of proposing a new volatility index for the Italian stock market. As for model-free implied volatility, two different extrapolation techniques are implemented. As for corridor imp...

  7. Scientific Opinion on the safety assessment of the active substances, sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulphate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, for use as active system in food contact materials

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids (CEF

    2014-02-01

    Full Text Available This scientific opinion of EFSA Panel on Food Contact Materials, Enzymes, Flavourings and Processing Aids deals with the safety assessment of the active substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water, used in mixture which is packed into sachets for absorbing oxygen/carbon dioxide emitting from/into the headspace surrounding packed food. All substances of this formulation have been evaluated and approved for use as additives in plastic food contact materials or as food additives. No migration of calcium, iron and sodium ions was detected. No volatile organic compounds other than carbon dioxide were detected at the limit of detection of 0.5 μg/l. The CEF Panel concluded that the use of the substances sodium erythorbate, sodium carbonate, sodium bicarbonate, iron sulfate, activated carbon, cellulose, calcium hydroxide, calcium chloride and water does not raise a safety concern when used in oxygen absorber/carbon dioxide emitter systems, in sachets that prevent the physical release of their contents into the food. The sachets are to be placed in the headspace of the packaging and as such may come into occasional contact with the food, e.g. during handling. The sachet should not come into direct contact with liquid foods or foods that have and external aqueous liquid phase on the surface (liquid or exudates.

  8. Floral volatiles: from biosynthesis to function.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Muhlemann, Joëlle K; Klempien, Antje; Dudareva, Natalia

    2014-08-01

    Floral volatiles have attracted humans' attention since antiquity and have since then permeated many aspects of our lives. Indeed, they are heavily used in perfumes, cosmetics, flavourings and medicinal applications. However, their primary function is to mediate ecological interactions between flowers and a diverse array of visitors, including pollinators, florivores and pathogens. As such, they ultimately ensure the plants' reproductive and evolutionary success. To date, over 1700 floral volatile organic compounds (VOCs) have been identified. Interestingly, they are derived from only a few biochemical networks, which include the terpenoid, phenylpropanoid/benzenoid and fatty acid biosynthetic pathways. These pathways are intricately regulated by endogenous and external factors to enable spatially and temporally controlled emission of floral volatiles, thereby fine-tuning the ecological interactions facilitated by floral volatiles. In this review, we will focus on describing the biosynthetic pathways leading to floral VOCs, the regulation of floral volatile emission, as well as biological functions of emitted volatiles. PMID:24588567

  9. Volatile Constituents of Zhumaria Majdae

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yazdanparst

    1993-07-01

    Full Text Available Capillary gas chromatography mass spectrometry (GC- MS analyses of a sample of essential oil of zhumaria Linalool ned by simple water distillation of the pulverized air - dired leaves and flowers of the plant indicated that Linalool and comphor are the two major constituents of the volatile oil. Sylvestrene , y -terpinene, a- Pinene, b - carene, camphene, and Epiborneol constitute the other main components of the essential oil. The GC - MS chromatogram indicated the presence of more than fifty - components in the oil, most of them were present in trace amounts. In this study, the chemical structures of twenty of these consti tuents were elucidated using GC - MS analysis.

  10. A novel device for quantitative measurement of chloride concentration by fluorescence indicator

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wang, Junsheng; Wu, Xudong; Chon, Chanhee; Gonska, Tanja; Li, Dongqing

    2012-02-01

    Cystic fibrosis (CF) is a life-threatening genetic disease. At present, the common method for diagnosis of CF is to detect the chloride concentration in sweat using ion-selective electrodes. However, the current sweat testing methods require a relatively large quantity of sweat sample, at least 25 µL, which is very difficult to obtain, especially for newborns. This paper presents a new method and a new device for rapid detection of the chloride concentration from a small volume of solution. In this method, the chloride concentration is determined quantitatively by the fluorescence intensity of MQAE, a chloride ion fluorescent indicator. In this device, the sample is carried by a small piece of filter paper on a cover glass exposed to an UV LED light source. The resulting fluorescent signals are detected by a Si photodiode. Data acquisition and processing are accomplished by LabVIEW software in a PDA. Based on the Stern-Volmer relationship, the effects of different parameters on the fluorescence intensity were analyzed. The observed significant difference between 40 and 60 mM (the borderline of chloride concentration for CF) is discussed in this paper. The results show that detection can be completed within 10 s. The minimum detectable volume of the chloride solution is 1 μL. The novel method and the device are of great potential for CF diagnosis.

  11. [Emission characteristics and hazard assessment analysis of volatile organic compounds from chemical synthesis pharmaceutical industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Li, Yan; Wang, Zhe-Ming; Song, Shuang; Xu, Zhi-Rong; Xu, Ming-Zhu; Xu, Wei-Li

    2014-10-01

    In this study, volatile organic compounds (VOCs) released from chemical synthesis pharmaceutical industry in Taizhou, Zhejiang province were analyzed quantitatively and qualitatively. The total volatile organic compounds (TVOCs) was in the range of 14.9-308.6 mg · m(-3). Evaluation models of ozone formation potentials (OFP) and health risk assessment were adopted to preliminarily assess the environmental impact and health risk of VOCs. The results showed that the values of OFP of VOCs were in the range of 3.1-315.1 mg · m(-3), based on the maximum incremental reactivity, the main principal contribution was toluene, tetrahydrofuran (THF), acetic ether etc. The non-carcinogenic risk and the carcinogen risk fell in the ranges of 9.48 x 10(-7)-4.98 x 10(-4) a(-1) and 3.17 x 10(-5)- 6.33 x 10(-3). The principal contribution of VOCs was benzene, formaldehyde and methylene chloride.

  12. Ammonia volatilization from surface application of organic residues and urea on Marandu palisadegrass

    OpenAIRE

    Álisson Vanin; June Faria Scherrer Menezes; Vinicius de Melo Benites; Gustavo André Simon

    2013-01-01

    The objective of this study was to measure ammonia volatilization from surface application of pig slurry, poultry litter, urea and no fertilization. An experiment was conducted in a randomized block design, in plots repeated over time, with four treatments and four replications. The fertilizers tested were: mineral fertilizer (70 kg ha-1 N, 100 kg ha-1 P2O5 and 30 kg ha-1 of K2O, as urea, triple superphosphate and potassium chloride, respectively), pig slurry (200 m³ ha-1 applied in November ...

  13. Determination of volatile compounds of pine honeys

    OpenAIRE

    SİLİCİ, Sibel

    2011-01-01

    The volatile compounds of 13 Turkish pine (Pinus brutia Ten.) honey samples were characterized by solid phase microextraction (SPME) analysis, followed by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry (GC-MS) analysis. A total of 42 volatile compounds were identified, but volatile compounds such as nonana1, benzene, 4-hexen-3-ol, alpha-pinene, and 2-heptanone were recognized to be specific floral origin markers of the pine honey. The SPME extraction method was proposed as an alternative way to carry o...

  14. The Volatility of Thai Rice Price

    OpenAIRE

    A. H. Baharom; Radam, Alias; Habibullah, M.S.; Hirnissa, M.T

    2009-01-01

    This study was conducted to explore the varying volatility of world rice price for the period 1961 to 2008 using monthly data. The paper provides estimates of two GARCH models, namely, GARCH and EGARCH which were used to capture the stochastic variation and asymmetries in the world rice price. The results indicate that EGARCH model gives better estimate of the volatility of world rice price. Furthermore the EGARCH model was able to describe the asymmetric volatility in the world price of rice...

  15. Institutional Weakness and Stock Price Volatility

    OpenAIRE

    Galina B. Hale; Razin, Assaf; Tong, Hui

    2006-01-01

    We find an empirical regularity that stronger creditor protection reduces the volatility of stock market prices. We analyze two distinct mechanisms that characterize equity price volatility: government guarantees and creditor protection. Using a Tobin q model, we demonstrate that weak creditor protection that gives rise to government guarantees and tightens credit constraints, increases stock price volatility. Empirically, accounting for the probability of financial crises, we find that gover...

  16. Credit Derivative Pricing with Stochastic Volatility Models

    OpenAIRE

    Carl Chiarella; Samuel Chege Maina; Christina Nikitopoulos-Sklibosios

    2011-01-01

    This paper proposes a framework for pricing credit derivatives within the defaultable Markovian HJM framework featuring unspanned stochastic volatility. Motivated by empirical evidence, hump-shaped level dependent stochastic volatility specifications are proposed, such that the model admits finite dimensional Markovian structures. The model also accommodates a correlation structure between the stochastic volatility, default-free interest rates and credit spreads. Default free and defaultable ...

  17. Equity Volatility and Corporate Bond Yields

    OpenAIRE

    Campbell, John; Taksler, Glen

    2002-01-01

    This paper explores the effect of equity volatility on corporate bond yields. Panel data for the late 1990s show that idiosyncratic firm-level volatility can explain as much cross-sectional variation in yields as can credit ratings. This finding, together with the upward trend in idiosyncratic equity volatility documented by Campbell, Lettau, Malkiel, and Xu (2001), helps to explain recent increases in corporate bond yields. The definitive version is available at www.blackwell-synergy.com.

  18. ’North-East Volatility Wind’ Effect

    OpenAIRE

    Pučkovs, A; Matvejevs, A

    2014-01-01

    This paper describes volatility forecasting approach applicable for stock indexes, allowing to reveal the instability of financial time series initially. This approach is based on time series (signal) decomposition into components by using wavelet filtering with subsequent volatility evolution research of each signal component. According to research, a slight increase in volatility in the low-frequency components of the signal leads to significant disturbances in high-frequency components ...

  19. Volatility Spreads and Expected Stock Returns

    OpenAIRE

    Turan G. Bali; Armen Hovakimian

    2009-01-01

    This paper investigates whether realized and implied volatilities of individual stocks can predict the cross-sectional variation in expected returns. Although the levels of volatilities from the physical and risk-neutral distributions cannot predict future returns, there is a significant relation between volatility spreads and expected stock returns. Portfolio level analyses and firm-level cross-sectional regressions indicate a negative and significant relation between expected returns and th...

  20. B-spline techniques for volatility modeling

    OpenAIRE

    Corlay, Sylvain

    2013-01-01

    This paper is devoted to the application of B-splines to volatility modeling, specifically the calibration of the leverage function in stochastic local volatility models and the parameterization of an arbitrage-free implied volatility surface calibrated to sparse option data. We use an extension of classical B-splines obtained by including basis functions with infinite support. We first come back to the application of shape-constrained B-splines to the estimation of conditional expectations, ...