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Sample records for chloride vapor complexes

  1. Evaluation of liver enzyme levels in workers exposed to vinyl chloride vapors in a petrochemical complex: a cross-sectional study

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dolati Mandana

    2007-08-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background Polyvinyl chloride is used in production and manufacturing of many essential tools (e.g. plastic pipes, photography films, etc.. Its production is impossible without the use of vinyl chloride monomer (VCM, which can cause liver damage in long-term. In this study we intend to assess the effects of mild to moderate long term exposure to VCM on liver and to assess the importance of liver enzyme measurements as a screening tool. Methods In this study, liver enzyme levels of 52 workers were compared to 48 control workers using the T-test. The cases all worked in a PVC production unit in a petrochemical complex and the controls were randomly selected from office personnel of the same complex. A questionnaire was also filled in about information such as age, weight, work history, etc. in both groups. Results Mean comparisons for ALP and GGT using T-test showed statistically significant differences between the two groups. For AST, ALT and bilirubin (total, direct the mean was higher in the case group but this difference was not statistically significant. Discussion This study showed that mild exposure to VCM can cause mild liver cholestasis. So, using cholestasis assessment tests such as ALP and GGT should be considered in periodic assessment of liver function in PVC producing units.

  2. Water vapor permeation and dehumidification performance of poly(vinyl alcohol)/lithium chloride composite membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Bui, Duc Thuan

    2015-10-09

    Thin and robust composite membranes comprising stainless steel scaffold, fine and porous TiO2 and polyvinyl alcohol/lithium chloride were fabricated and studied for air dehumidification application. Higher hydrophilicity, sorption and permeation were observed for membranes with increased lithium chloride content up to 50%. The permeation and sorption properties of the membranes were investigated under different temperatures. The results provided a deeper insight into the membrane water vapor permeation process. It was specifically noted that lithium chloride significantly reduces water diffusion energy barrier, resulting in the change of permeation energy from positive to negative values. Higher water vapor permeance was observed for the membrane with higher LiCl content at lower temperature. The isothermal air dehumidification tests show that the membrane is suitable for dehumidifying air in high humid condition. Additionally, results also indicate a trade-off between the humidity ratio drop with the water vapor removal rate when varying air flowrate.

  3. Characterization and monitoring of total organic chloride vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, N.C. Jr.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Olsen, K.B.

    1992-07-01

    Chemical sensors are being developed intermediate highly selective and broadly selective methods. PNL is developing an optical-emission based TOCl (total organic chlorinated compounds) sensor (Halosnif) which is capable of measuring TOCl in real time on an extracted gas sample over a wide linear dynamic range. Halosnif employs an atomic emission sensor that is broadly selective for any moderately volatile organic hclorinated vapor but does not distinguish between classes of chlorinated compounds. A rf-induced He plasma is used to excite the chlorine atoms, causing light emission at 837.6 nm. The sensitivity ranges from 1-2 ppM up to at least 10,000 ppM. Field tests were conducted at Tinker AFB in areas of high TCE contamination, in two boreholes at Savannah River, and at Hanford CCl{sub 4} vapor extraction system. This sensor is briefly compared with acoustic wave sensors being developed by SNL (PAWS). 4 figs. (DLC)

  4. Characterization and monitoring of total organic chloride vapors. [Halosnif sensor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anheier, N.C. Jr.; Evans, J.C. Jr.; Olsen, K.B.

    1992-07-01

    Chemical sensors are being developed intermediate highly selective and broadly selective methods. PNL is developing an optical-emission based TOCl (total organic chlorinated compounds) sensor (Halosnif) which is capable of measuring TOCl in real time on an extracted gas sample over a wide linear dynamic range. Halosnif employs an atomic emission sensor that is broadly selective for any moderately volatile organic hclorinated vapor but does not distinguish between classes of chlorinated compounds. A rf-induced He plasma is used to excite the chlorine atoms, causing light emission at 837.6 nm. The sensitivity ranges from 1-2 ppM up to at least 10,000 ppM. Field tests were conducted at Tinker AFB in areas of high TCE contamination, in two boreholes at Savannah River, and at Hanford CCl{sub 4} vapor extraction system. This sensor is briefly compared with acoustic wave sensors being developed by SNL (PAWS). 4 figs. (DLC)

  5. Cu(II) chloride complexes in frozen ethanol solution

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Plyusnin, V.F.; Usov, O.M.

    1985-12-01

    This paper examines the photochemical properties of Cu(II) chloride complexes in frozen organic matrices. It was necessary to determine the spectroscopic parameters and conditions of the existence of individual complexes at 77 K. Ethanol was saturated with gaseous HC1, the solubility of which is appreciably greater than that of such salts as LiC1, NaC1, or KC1. The spectroscopic parameters of the complexes are determined and discussed.

  6. ANALYSIS OF VAPORS FROM METHYLENE CHLORIDE EXTRACTS OF NUCLEAR GRADE HEPA FILTER FIBERGLASS SAMPLES

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    FRYE JM; ANASTOS HL; GUTIERREZ FC

    2012-06-07

    While several organic compounds were detected in the vapor samples used in the reenactment of the preparation of mounts from the extracts of nuclear grade high-efficiency particulate air filter fiberglass samples, the most significant species present in the samples were methylene chloride, phenol, phenol-d6, and 2-fluorophenol. These species were all known to be present in the extracts, but were expected to have evaporated during the preparation of the mounts, as the mounts appeared to be dry before any vapor was collected. These species were present at the following percentages of their respective occupational exposure limits: methylene chloride, 2%; phenol, 0.4%; and phenol-d6, 0.6%. However, there is no established limit for 2-fluorophenol. Several other compounds were detected at low levels for which, as in the case of 2-fluorophenol, there are no established permissible exposure limits. These compounds include 2-chlorophenol; N-nitroso-1-propanamine; 2-fluoro-1,1{prime}-biphenyl; 1,2-dihydroacenaphthylene; 2,5-cyclohexadiene-1,4-dione,2,6-bis(1,1-dimethylethyl); trimethyl oxirane; n-propylpropanamine; 2-(Propylamino)ethanol; 4-methoxy-1-butene; 6-methyl-5-hepten-2-one; and 3,4-dimethylpyridine. Some of these were among those added as surrogates or spike standards as part ofthe Advanced Technologies and Laboratories International, Inc. preparation ofthe extract of the HEPA filter media and are indicated as such in the data tables in Section 2, Results; other compounds found were not previously known to be present. The main inorganic species detected (sulfate, sodium, and sulfur) are also consistent with species added in the preparation of the methylene chloride extract of the high-efficiency particulate air sample.

  7. Probing supramolecular complexation of cetylpyridinium chloride with crown ethers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Saha, Subhadeep; Roy, Mahendra Nath

    2017-11-01

    Supramolecular complexations of cetylpyridinium chloride with three comparable cavity dimension based crown ethers, namely, dibenzo-18-crown-6, 18-crown-6 and dicyclohexano-18-crown-6 have been explored and adequately compared in acetonitrile with the help of conductivity in a series of temperatures to reveal the stoichiometry of the three host-guest complexes. Programme based mathematical treatment of the conductivity data affords association constants for complexations from which the thermodynamic parameters were derived for better comprehension about the process. The interactions at molecular level have been explained and decisively discussed by means of FT-IR and 1H NMR spectroscopic studies that demonstrate H-bond type interactions as the primarily force of attraction for the investigated supramolecular complexations.

  8. Efficient copper vapor laser using metal (Cu, Ag) chlorides in thermal insulation and performance with new prism resonator configurations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Singh, Bijendra

    2012-12-01

    A copper vapor laser based on the use of copper chloride and silver chloride mixture embedded inside the laser head thermal insulation is successfully demonstrated. The use of external HCl generator cell containing zirconium chloride normally used for its kinetically enhanced mode of operation is completely eliminated. With this new configuration laser power of ~70 W was achieved from a wide aperture ~47-50 mm bore discharge tube with input power of ~5 kW and overall high efficiency of ~1.4% without external supply of HCl vapors to the laser head. In a typical operational cycle the laser initially operates as low temperature CuCl laser with startup time of few minutes and output power of ~10 W during low tube temperature range of ~300-500 °C. Thereafter, the laser transforms itself into efficient kinetically enhanced copper vapor laser (CVL) at high temperature range of ~1200-1600 °C with maximum laser output power of ~70 W. This dual mode of operation observed in a single CVL system is unique and has not been reported so far in any high temperature copper vapor laser. New resonator configurations, namely, the prism resonator in stable and unstable form are successfully demonstrated for the first time in a copper vapor laser to achieve low divergence beam with dramatic increase in misalignment tolerance to ~25 mrad, which is an improvement of about ~50 times compared to standard CVLs with conventional spherical or plane-plane resonators. With these new resonator configurations the CVL functions almost as an "alignment free laser" system with significantly reduced beam divergence of ~0.2 mrad and high optical extraction efficiency of ~70%-80%.

  9. Raman spectroscopic study of uranyl complex in alkali chloride melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fujii, Toshiyuki, E-mail: tosiyuki@rri.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Division of Nuclear Engineering Science, Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, 2-1010, Asashiro Nishi, Kumatori, Sennan, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Uda, Takeshi [Division of Nuclear Engineering Science, Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, 2-1010, Asashiro Nishi, Kumatori, Sennan, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan); Graduate School of Engineering, Kyoto University, Kyoto daigaku-Katsura, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8530 (Japan); Iwadate, Yasuhiko [Graduate School of Engineering, Chiba University, Yayoi 1-33, Inage, Chiba 263-8522 (Japan); Nagai, Takayuki [Nuclear Fuel Cycle Engineering Lab., Japan Atomic Energy Agency, 4-33, Muramatsu, Tokai, Ibaraki 319-1194 (Japan); Uehara, Akihiro; Yamana, Hajimu [Division of Nuclear Engineering Science, Research Reactor Institute, Kyoto University, 2-1010, Asashiro Nishi, Kumatori, Sennan, Osaka 590-0494 (Japan)

    2013-09-15

    Raman spectra of alkali chloride melts containing 3 mol% U(VI) were measured at 823 K. The complexation of UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}{sup 2-} in binary mixtures of LiCl-KCl, LiCl-RbCl, and LiCl-CsCl was investigated. The spectrum of UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}{sup 2-} obtained was characterized by Raman active vibration modes, that is, totally symmetric stretching vibrations A{sub 1g} (ν{sub 1}: OUO) and A{sub 1g} (ν{sub 2}: UCl{sub 4}), and bending vibration E{sub g} (ν{sub 8:} UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}). The dependence of polarizing power of solvent cations on the vibrational frequencies was clarified. The ν{sub 8} frequencies were insensitive to the change in the polarizing power. On the other hand, the ν{sub 1} and ν{sub 2} frequencies increased with the rise of polarizing power. The Raman shifts suggest that the square bipyramidal structure of UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}{sup 2-} is kept in various binary alkali chlorides, while O{sup 2−} and Cl{sup −} around U(VI) are clearly polarized by the increase of polarizing power.

  10. Antidepressants and seizure-interactions at the GABA-receptor chloride-ionophore complex

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Malatynska, E.; Knapp, R.J.; Ikeda, M.; Yamamura, H.I.

    1988-01-01

    Convulsive seizures are a potential side effect of antidepressant drug treatment and can be produced by all classes of antidepressants. It is also know that some convulsant and anticonvulsant drug actions are mediated by the GABA-receptor chloride-ionophore complex. Drugs acting at this complex appear to induce convulsions by inhibiting chloride conductance through the associated chloride channel. Using the method of GABA-stimulated /sup 36/Cl-uptake by rat cerebral cortical vesicles, we show that some antidepressant drugs can inhibit the GABA-receptor chloride uptake, and that the degree of chloride channel inhibition by these drugs correlates with the frequency of convulsive seizures induced by them.

  11. Hydrothermal fluoride and chloride complexation of indium: an EXAFS study

    Science.gov (United States)

    Loges, Anselm; Testemale, Denis; Huotari, Simo; Honkanen, Ari-Pekka; Potapkin, Vasily; Wagner, Thomas

    2017-04-01

    Indium (In) is one of the geochemically lesser studied ore metals, and the factors that control the hydrothermal transport and deposition are largely unknown. It has no ore deposits of its own and is commonly mined as a by-product of Zn ores, and there are very few minerals that contain In as an essential structural component. Recently, industrial application of In in touch screen devices has drastically increased demand, which is projected to exceed supply from the current sources in the near future. Since the most relevant In sources are hydrothermal sphalerite ores and to a lesser extent hydrothermal greisen-type deposits in evolved granitic plutons, the aqueous geochemistry of In is of particular interest for understanding its ore forming processes. As a first step towards a comprehensive model for hydrothermal In solubility and speciation, we have studied In speciation in fluoride and chloride bearing solutions at 30-400˚ C and 500 bar using X-Ray Absorption Spectroscopy (XAS) measurements. The experiments were conducted in a unique hydrothermal autoclave setup at beamline BM30B-FAME at the European Synchrotron Radiation Facility (ESRF) in Grenoble, France. Our results show that the complexation of In changes dramatically between 30 and 400˚ C. Below ca. 200˚ C, fluoride complexes are the most stable ones, but they break down at higher temperatures. Chloride complexes on the other hand become increasingly stable with increasing temperature. This behavior has interesting consequences for natural ore forming systems. In Cl-rich systems (e.g. massive sulfide ores formed in sea floor environments), cooling can be an effective precipitating mechanism. In F-rich systems, fluoride complexation can extend In mobility to low temperatures and In will only precipitate when F is effectively removed from the fluid, e.g. by mixing with a Ca-rich fluid and precipitation of fluorite (CaF2) as is commonly observed in skarn or greisen-type deposits. Due to In complexing with

  12. Effect of spray drying on the properties of amylose-hexadecylammonium chloride inclusion complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Water soluble amylose-hexadecyl ammonium chloride complexes were prepared from high amylose corn starch and hexadecyl ammonium chloride by excess steam jet cooking. Amylose inclusion complexes were spray dried to determine the viability of spray drying as a production method. The variables tested in...

  13. Synthesis of nano onion-like fullerenes by chemical vapor deposition using an iron catalyst supported on sodium chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yang Yongzhen; Liu Xuguang, E-mail: liuxuguang@tyut.edu.cn; Guo Xingmei; Wen Hairong; Xu Bingshe [Taiyuan University of Technology, Ministry of Education, Key Laboratory of Interface Science and Engineering in Advanced Materials (China)

    2011-05-15

    Nano-carbon materials were synthesized by the catalytic decomposition of acetylene at 420 Degree-Sign C using iron supported on sodium chloride as catalyst. The catalysts contain about 0.3, 1.6, 3.3, and 5.2 wt% iron. The samples were examined by scanning and transmission electron microscopy, energy dispersive spectroscopy, and X-ray diffraction. The results show that nano onion-like fullerenes (NOLFs) surrounding an Fe{sub 3}C core were obtained using the catalyst containing 0.3 wt% iron. These had a structure of stacked graphitic fragments, with diameters in the range 15-50 nm. When the product was further heat treated under vacuum at 1,100 Degree-Sign C, NOLFs with a clear concentric graphitic layer structure were obtained. The growth mechanism of NOLFs encapsulating metallic cores is suggested to be in accordance with a vapor-solid growth model.

  14. 1-Butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium chloride as an effective corrosion inhibitor for stainless steel current collectors in magnesium chloride complex electrolytes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ha, Jung Hoon; Cho, Jae-Hyun; Kim, Jong Hak; Cho, Byung Won; Oh, Si Hyoung

    2017-07-01

    Corrosion of current collectors is one of the most significant issues to tackle in rechargeable magnesium batteries where chloride-abundant electrolytes are commonly used since it can affect the electrochemical performance and the safety of battery system seriously. Here we investigate 1-butyl-1-methylpyrrolidinium chloride ionic liquid as an effective corrosion inhibitor of the current collector in an electrolyte containing magnesium chloride complex. We find that adding just 0.2 wt.% ionic liquid increases the anodic stability of common current collectors by 0.1-0.3 V while maintaining the coulombic efficiencies for Mg deposition and stripping at over 98%. In particular, analytical studies of the passive film formed on 316L stainless steel show that the inhibitor efficiently prevents the formation of corrosion pits and preserves the protective property of the passive film upon repeated anodic scans. Furthermore, the inhibitor enables almost 100% efficiencies in the full cell cycling with Mo6S8 cathode, reflecting higher anodic stability of the current collectors in the electrolyte containing the inhibitor. We propose that the formation of an adsorbed layer of the ionic liquid as a plausible corrosion inhibition mechanism.

  15. Densities and vapor pressures of mixed-solvent desiccant systems containing {l_brace}glycol (diethylene, or triethylene, or tetraethylene glycol) + salt (magnesium chloride) + water{r_brace}

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chen Shangyi [R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China); Soriano, Allan N. [R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China); School of Chemical Engineering and Chemistry, Mapua Institute of Technology, Manila 1002 (Philippines); Li Menghui, E-mail: mhli@cycu.edu.t [R and D Center for Membrane Technology, Department of Chemical Engineering, Chung Yuan Christian University, Chung Li 32023, Taiwan (China)

    2010-09-15

    In this present work, new experimental data for density and vapor pressure of the mixed-solvent desiccant systems containing {l_brace}(40.0 wt%) glycol + salt + water{r_brace} were reported for temperatures up to 343.15 K at normal atmospheric condition. The considered glycols were diethylene, triethylene, and tetraethylene glycol; and the salt is magnesium chloride (wt% = 4.0, 9.0, and 16.0). The density and vapor pressure were presented as functions of temperature and compositions. An empirical equation was used to correlate the temperature and compositional dependence of the present density data and a model based on the mean spherical approximation for aqueous electrolyte solutions incorporating the pseudo-solvent approach was used to represent the measured vapor pressure as functions of temperature and composition. Satisfactory results were obtained for both density and vapor pressure calculations.

  16. Infrared study on hydrogen chloride complexed with allene.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Michele; Broquier, Michel; Brenner, Valerie

    2010-04-28

    The first rotationally resolved observation of the infrared (IR) spectrum of the molecular complex C(3)H(4)-HCl in gas phase is reported. New IR spectra have been recorded at high resolution by means of a slit jet. Rotational constants and vibrational frequencies have been obtained from these spectra. These data are presented and compared with high level ab initio calculations (CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ). The results obtained in this study are compared with those on acetylene and ethene-HCl complexes. We observe a broadening of the lines interpreted as a decrease of the lifetime of the excited vibrational state with the size of the partner of complexation and also a correlation between the vibrational shift of the H-Cl stretching mode and the proton affinity of the acceptor molecule.

  17. Infrared study on hydrogen chloride complexed with allene

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chevalier, Michele; Broquier, Michel; Brenner, Valerie

    2010-04-01

    The first rotationally resolved observation of the infrared (IR) spectrum of the molecular complex C3H4-HCl in gas phase is reported. New IR spectra have been recorded at high resolution by means of a slit jet. Rotational constants and vibrational frequencies have been obtained from these spectra. These data are presented and compared with high level ab initio calculations (CCSD(T)/cc-pVTZ). The results obtained in this study are compared with those on acetylene and ethene-HCl complexes. We observe a broadening of the lines interpreted as a decrease of the lifetime of the excited vibrational state with the size of the partner of complexation and also a correlation between the vibrational shift of the H-Cl stretching mode and the proton affinity of the acceptor molecule.

  18. A novel pre-oxidation method for elemental mercury removal utilizing a complex vaporized absorbent

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhao, Yi, E-mail: zhaoyi9515@163.com; Hao, Runlong; Guo, Qing

    2014-09-15

    Graphical abstract: - Highlights: • An innovative liquid-phase complex absorbent (LCA) for Hg{sup 0} removal was prepared. • A novel integrative process for Hg{sup 0} removal was proposed. • The simultaneous removal efficiencies of SO{sub 2}, NO and Hg{sup 0} were 100%, 79.5% and 80.4%, respectively. • The reaction mechanism of simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2}, NO and Hg{sup 0} was proposed. - Abstract: A novel semi-dry integrative method for elemental mercury (Hg{sup 0}) removal has been proposed in this paper, in which Hg{sup 0} was initially pre-oxidized by a vaporized liquid-phase complex absorbent (LCA) composed of a Fenton reagent, peracetic acid (CH{sub 3}COOOH) and sodium chloride (NaCl), after which Hg{sup 2+} was absorbed by the resultant Ca(OH){sub 2}. The experimental results indicated that CH{sub 3}COOOH and NaCl were the best additives for Hg{sup 0} oxidation. Among the influencing factors, the pH of the LCA and the adding rate of the LCA significantly affected the Hg{sup 0} removal. The coexisting gases, SO{sub 2} and NO, were characterized as either increasing or inhibiting in the removal process, depending on their concentrations. Under optimal reaction conditions, the efficiency for the single removal of Hg{sup 0} was 91%. Under identical conditions, the efficiencies of the simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2}, NO and Hg{sup 0} were 100%, 79.5% and 80.4%, respectively. Finally, the reaction mechanism for the simultaneous removal of SO{sub 2}, NO and Hg{sup 0} was proposed based on the characteristics of the removal products as determined by X-ray diffraction (XRD), atomic fluorescence spectrometry (AFS), the analysis of the electrode potentials, and through data from related research references.

  19. Ion-exchange sorption of silver(I) chloride complexes from aqueous HCl solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kononova, O. N.; Duba, E. V.; Medovikov, D. V.; Efimova, A. S.; Ivanov, A. I.; Krylov, A. S.

    2017-12-01

    The ion-exchange sorption of silver(I) chloride complexes from 1-4 M aqueous solutions of HCl on a series of Purolite anionites with various functional groups was studied. The ion-exchange equilibria in the systems were found to be anomalous according to Raman spectroscopy, which does not significantly affect the sorption properties of the ionites.

  20. Speciation of copper(II) complexes in an ionic liquid based on choline chloride and in choline chloride/water mixtures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    De Vreese, Peter; Brooks, Neil R; Van Hecke, Kristof; Van Meervelt, Luc; Matthijs, Edward; Binnemans, Koen; Van Deun, Rik

    2012-05-07

    A deep-eutectic solvent with the properties of an ionic liquid is formed when choline chloride is mixed with copper(II) chloride dihydrate in a 1:2 molar ratio. EXAFS and UV-vis-near-IR optical absorption spectroscopy have been used to compare the coordination sphere of the cupric ion in this ionic liquid with that of the cupric ion in solutions of 0.1 M of CuCl(2)·2H(2)O in solvents with varying molar ratios of choline chloride and water. The EXAFS data show that species with three chloride ions and one water molecule coordinated to the cupric ion as well as species with two chloride molecules and two water molecules coordinated to the cupric ion are present in the ionic liquid. On the other hand, a fully hydrated copper(II) ion is formed in an aqueous solution free of choline chloride, and the tetrachlorocuprate(II) complex forms in aqueous choline chloride solutions with more than 50 wt % of choline chloride. In solutions with between 0 and 50 wt % of choline chloride, mixed chloro-aquo complexes occur. Upon standing at room temperature, crystals of CuCl(2)·2H(2)O and of Cu(choline)Cl(3) formed in the ionic liquid. Cu(choline)Cl(3) is the first example of a choline cation coordinating to a transition-metal ion. Crystals of [choline](3)[CuCl(4)][Cl] and of [choline](4)[Cu(4)Cl(10)O] were also synthesized from molecular or ionic liquid solvents, and their crystal structures were determined.

  1. Half-sandwich cobalt complexes in the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition process

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Georgi, Colin [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Faculty of Natural Science, Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Chemnitz 09107 (Germany); Hapke, Marko; Thiel, Indre [Leibniz-Institut für Katalyse e.V. an der Universität Rostock (LIKAT), Albert-Einstein-Straße 29a, Rostock 18059 (Germany); Hildebrandt, Alexander [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Faculty of Natural Science, Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Chemnitz 09107 (Germany); Waechtler, Thomas; Schulz, Stefan E. [Fraunhofer Institute of Electronic Nano Systems (ENAS), Technologie-Campus 3, Chemnitz 09126 (Germany); Technische Universität Chemnitz, Center for Microtechnologies (ZfM), Chemnitz 09107 (Germany); Lang, Heinrich, E-mail: heinrich.lang@chemie.tu-chemnitz.de [Technische Universität Chemnitz, Faculty of Natural Science, Institute of Chemistry, Inorganic Chemistry, Chemnitz 09107 (Germany)

    2015-03-02

    A series of cobalt half-sandwich complexes of type [Co(η{sup 5}-C{sub 5}H{sub 5})(L)(L′)] (1: L, L′ = 1,5-hexadiene; 2: L = P(OEt){sub 3}, L′ = H{sub 2}C=CHSiMe{sub 3}; 3: L = L′ = P(OEt){sub 3}) has been studied regarding their physical properties such as the vapor pressure, decomposition temperature and applicability within the metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) process, with a focus of the influence of the phosphite ligands. It could be shown that an increasing number of P(OEt){sub 3} ligands increases the vapor pressure and thermal stability of the respective organometallic compound. Complex 3 appeared to be a promising MOCVD precursor with a high vapor pressure and hence was deposited onto Si/SiO{sub 2} (100 nm) substrates. The resulting reflective layer is closed, dense and homogeneous, with a slightly granulated surface morphology. X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS) studies demonstrated the formation of metallic cobalt, cobalt phosphate, cobalt oxide and cobalt carbide. - Highlights: • Thermal studies and vapor pressure measurements of cobalt half-sandwich complexes was carried out. • Chemical vapor deposition with cobalt half-sandwich complexes is reported. • The use of Co-phosphites results in significant phosphorous-doped metallic layers.

  2. Stimulated emission of ultraviolet radiation by vapors of complex molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkova, L.A.; Gruzinskii, V.V.; Danilova, V.I.; Degtyarenko, K.M.; Kopylova, T.N.; Kuznetsov, A.L.

    1981-08-01

    Lasing was observed in vapors of new organic compounds: para-terphenyl, 2-phenylbenzoxazole, 2-(n-tolyl) benzoxazole, 2-(n-methoxyphenyl) benzoxazole, 2-(n-dimethylaminophenyl) benzoxazole, 2-biphenylbenzoxazole, 2-(..cap alpha..-naphthyl) benzoxazole, and also 1,4-di(n-phenylethynyl) benzole, and para-quaterphenyl pumped transversely by XeCl excimer laser radiation at lambda/sub p/ = 308 nm. The lasing bands without tuning covered the 330--370 nm range. The shortest-wavelength maximum (333.5 nm) was observed for 2-(n-methoxyphenyl) benzoxazole. An analysis was made of the lasing ability of the molecules.

  3. A semi-empirical model for the complete orientation dependence of the growth rate for vapor phase epitaxy - Chloride VPE of GaAs

    Science.gov (United States)

    Seidel-Salinas, L. K.; Jones, S. H.; Duva, J. M.

    1992-01-01

    A semi-empirical model has been developed to determine the complete crystallographic orientation dependence of the growth rate for vapor phase epitaxy (VPE). Previous researchers have been able to determine this dependence for a limited range of orientations; however, our model yields relative growth rate information for any orientation. This model for diamond and zincblende structure materials is based on experimental growth rate data, gas phase diffusion, and surface reactions. Data for GaAs chloride VPE is used to illustrate the model. The resulting growth rate polar diagrams are used in conjunction with Wulff constructions to simulate epitaxial layer shapes as grown on patterned substrates. In general, this model can be applied to a variety of materials and vapor phase epitaxy systems.

  4. A selective optical sensor based on [9]mercuracarborand-3, a new type of ionophore with a chloride complexing cavity

    Science.gov (United States)

    Badr, I. H.; Johnson, R. D.; Diaz, M.; Hawthorne, M. F.; Bachas, L. G.; Daunert, S. (Principal Investigator)

    2000-01-01

    A highly selective optical sensor for chloride, based on the multidentate Lewis acid ionophore [9]mercuracarborand-3, is described herein. This sensor is constructed by embedding the mercuracarborand ionophore, a suitable pH-sensitive lipophilic dye, and lipophilic cationic sites in a plasticized polymeric membrane. The multiple complementary interactions offered by the preorganized complexing cavity of [9]mercuracarborand-3 is shown to control the anion selectivity pattern of the optical film. The film exhibits a significantly enhanced selectivity for chloride over a variety of lipophilic anions such as perchlorate, nitrate, salicylate, and thiocyanate. Furthermore, the optical selectivity coefficients obtained for chloride over other biologically relevant anions are shown to meet the selectivity requirements for the determination of chloride in physiological fluids, unlike previously reported chloride optical sensors. In addition, the optical film responds to chloride reversibly over a wide dynamic range (16 microM-136 mM) with fast response and recovery times.

  5. Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite used as granular sorbents for the removal of sodium chloride vapor from hot flue gas

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Lee, S.H.D.; Swift, W.M.; Johnson, I.

    1980-01-01

    Diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were tested as granular sorbents for use as filter media in granular-bed filters for the removal of gaseous alkali metal compounds from the hot (800/sup 0/C) flue gas of PFBC. Tests were performed at atmospheric pressure, using NaCl vapor transported in relatively dry simulated flue gas of PFBC. Either a fixed-bed combustor or a high-temperature sorption test rig was used. The effects of sorbent bed temperature, superficial gas velocity, gas hourly space velocity, and NaCl-vapor concentration in flue gas on the sorption behavior of these two sorbents and their ultimate sorption capacities were determined. Both diatomaceous earth and activated bauxite were found to be very effective in removing NaCl vapor from flue gas. Preliminary cost evaluations showed that they are economically attractive as granular sorbents for cleaning alkali vapor from simulated flue gas.

  6. Synthesis, Characterization and Spectral Properties of Substituted Tetraphenylporphyrin Iron Chloride Complexes

    OpenAIRE

    Kai Li; Xu-Feng Song; Yuan-Bin She; Yang Zhou; Zhi-Cheng Sun

    2011-01-01

    A series of substituted tetraphenylporphyrin iron chloride complexes [RTPPFe(III)Cl, R=o/p-NO2, o/p-Cl, H, o/p-CH3, o/p-OCH3] were synthesized by a novel universal mixed-solvent method and the spectral properties of free base porphyrins and iron porphyrin compounds were compared with each other. The experimental results showed that the one-pot mixed solvent method was superior to the two-step method in the yields, reaction time and workup of reaction mixtures for the synthesis of iron porphyr...

  7. SANS study of surfactant ordering in kappa-carrageenan/cetylpyridinium chloride complexes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Evmenenko, G.; Theunissen, E.; Mortensen, K.

    2001-01-01

    Small-angle neutron scattering using contrast variation by H2O/D2O has been applied for the structural investigation of kappa -carrageenan/cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC) complexes. interaction of kappa -carrageenan with an ionic surfactant involves self-assembly of the surfactant molecules...... in conjunction with the carrageenan molecules and the formation of an ordered structure. Contrast matching conditions for the polysaccharide (70% H2O/30% D2O) allowed to obtain the small-angle scattering pattern from the surfactant part of the complexes. The SANS curves reveal that the observed scattering...... heterogeneities represent regions with sharp phase boundaries. From the Guinier part of the scattering curves, the size of these regions is determined. The obtained values are in good agreement with the structural characteristics of the kappa -carrageenan/CPC complexes determined independently by SAXS and SANS...

  8. Flash photolysis of chloride complexes of Cu(II) in organic solvents

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gritsan, N.P.; Plyusnin, V.F.; Bazhin, N.M.

    1986-07-01

    By means of flash photolysis and low-temperature spectrophotometry, the formation of a complex between a Cu(I) ion and a peroxy radical of the solvent has been detected in ethanol, isopropanol, and dimethylformamide. The peroxy radical is generated in a reaction of a solvent radical with a molecule of dissolved oxygen. The solvent radical appears as a result of photoreduction of chloride complexes of Cu(II). The radical complex has a band in the optical absorption spectrum with a maximum at 415-420 nm in ethanol and isopropanol. The rate of formation of this complex is determined mainly by the reaction of the radical of the matrix (R) with complexes of bivalent copper. The rate constant of this process in isopropanol at room temperature is (2-3) x 10/sup 8/ liters/mole x sec. Disappearance of the radical complex Cu(I)...RO/sub 2/ takes place in a reaction with complexes Cu/sup 2 +//sub solv/ and CuCl/sup +/ with a rate constant of 2.3 x 10/sup 7/ liters/mole x sec at room temperature.

  9. N-Heterocyclic carbene–palladium(II-1-methylimidazole complex catalyzed Mizoroki–Heck reaction of aryl chlorides with styrenes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ting-Ting Gao

    2012-11-01

    Full Text Available A well-defined N-heterocyclic carbene–palladium(II-1-methylimidazole [NHC-Pd(II-Im] complex 1 was found to be an effective catalyst for the Mizoroki–Heck reaction of a variety of aryl chlorides with styrenes. Both activated and deactivated aryl chlorides work well to give the corresponding coupling products in good to excellent yields by using tetrabutylammonium bromide (TBAB as the ionic liquid.

  10. Low levels of cadmium chloride after the immunoprecipitation of corneal cadherin-complex proteins

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Weidner, W.J.; Waddell, D.S.; Sillman, A.J. [California Univ., Davis, CA (United States). Div. of Biological Sciences

    2000-12-01

    The effect of cadmium chloride on the immunoprecipitation of cadherin and the associated adherens junctional proteins, {alpha}- and {beta}-catenin, was examined in isolated bullfrog (Rana catesbeiana) corneas utilizing Western blot and enhanced chemoluminescent techniques. Application of either 1.0 {mu}M or 75.0 {mu}M CdCl{sub 2} to the corneal endothelium for 2 h markedly decreased the immunoprecipitation of cadherins as compared to paired control corneas. Immunoprecipitation of {alpha}-catenin was increased in response to both doses of CdCl{sub 2}, while the immunoprecipitation of {beta}-catenin was little changed by either cadmium dose. There is accumulating evidence that cadmium may increase epithelial paracellular permeability by interfering with cadherin complex activity at intercellular junctions. The present study suggests that inorganic cadmium in low micromolar concentrations may decrease the integrity of the corneal endothelium, at least in part through a similar mechanism involving disruption of junctional cadherin complex function. (orig.)

  11. Crystal structures of three complexes of zinc chloride with tri-tert-butylphosphane

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Aaron D. Finke

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Under anhydrous conditions and in the absence of a Lewis-base solvent, a zinc chloride complex with tri-tert-butylphosphane as the μ-bridged dimer is formed, viz. di-μ-chlorido-bis[chloridobis(tri-tert-butylphosphanezinc], [ZnCl4(C12H27P2], (1, which features a nearly square-shaped (ZnCl2 cyclic core and whose Cl atoms interact weakly with C—H groups on the phosphane ligand. In the presence of THF, monomeric dichlorido(tetrahydrofuran-κO(tri-tert-butylphosphane-κPzinc, [ZnCl2(C4H8O(C12H27P] or [P(tBu3(THFZnCl2], (2, is formed. This slightly distorted tetrahedral Zn complex has weak C—H...Cl interactions between the Cl atoms and phosphane and THF C—H groups. Under ambient conditions, the hydrolysed complex tri-tert-butylphosphonium aquatrichloridozincate 1,2-dichloroethane monosolvate, (C12H28P[ZnCl3(H2O]·C2H4Cl2 or [HPtBu3]+ [(H2OZnCl3]−·C2H4Cl2, (3, is formed. This complex forms chains of [(H2OZnCl3]− anions from hydrogen-bonding interactions between the water H atoms and Cl atoms that propagate along the b axis.

  12. The Role of Chloride Complexation on Anaerobic and Aerobic Mercury Bioavailability

    Science.gov (United States)

    Stenzler, B.; Ruuskanen, M.; Hinz, A.; Poulain, A.

    2016-12-01

    In the absence of dissolved organic matter, chloride and sulphide are the dominant complexing agents affecting mercury (Hg) speciation in the environment. Bioreporters are good tools in evaluating bioavailable species of Hg. However, signal production for current Hg bioreporters requires oxygen, namely for lux and gfp gene encoded proteins, resulting in a paucity of data in anaerobic bioavailability of Hg species where it is methylated to toxic CH3Hg+. We developed and optimized a whole-cell Hg bioreporter using Escherichia coli 5α capable of functioning in aerobic and anaerobic conditions by transforming a vector containing the gene fusion between the regulatory circuitry of the mer-operon and a flavin mononucleotide-based fluorescent protein. The bioreporter exhibited no physiological limitations with respect to signal production over a chloride gradient ranging from 0 to 0.7 M. The bioreporter had a detection limit of 1 nM Hg(II) however we used 5nM Hg(II) as the optimal working concentration for Hg speciation assays. We report that HgCl42- is highly bioavailable under anoxic conditions in contrast to what was observed under oxic conditions where Hg was not bioavailable. HgCl3- was not bioavailable regardless of the presence of oxygen which we attributed to either coordination polymers consisting of [HgCl3-]x chains on the cell surface or molecular mimicry of HgCl42- onto anaerobically expressed periplasmic binding proteins specific for divalent polyatomic anions shuttling Hg to the inner membrane. In the presence of HgCl42- in saline media and Hg(OH)2 in non-saline media the addition of 2.5 and 5 μM Zn, respectively, completely inhibited uptake of neutral and negatively charged Hg species regardless of the presence of oxygen. The presence of S2- inhibited Hg uptake regardless of the presence or absence of chloride. Our experiments also suggest that ligand exchange occurred faster between S2- and Cl- than between S2- and OH-. The unexpected bioavailability of

  13. N-Heterocyclic carbene-palladium(II)-1-methylimidazole complex catalyzed Mizoroki-Heck reaction of aryl chlorides with styrenes

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Gao, Ting-Ting; Jin, Ai-Ping; Shao, Li-Xiong

    2012-01-01

    A well-defined N-heterocyclic carbene-palladium(II)-1-methylimidazole [NHC-Pd(II)-Im] complex 1 was found to be an effective catalyst for the Mizoroki-Heck reaction of a variety of aryl chlorides with styrenes...

  14. Indirect spectrophotometric determination of arbutin, whitening agent through oxidation by periodate and complexation with ferric chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Barsoom, B. N.; Abdelsamad, A. M. E.; Adib, N. M.

    2006-07-01

    A simple and accurate spectrophotometric method for the determination of arbutin (glycosylated hydroquinone) is described. It is based on the oxidation of arbutin by periodate in presence of iodate. Excess periodate causes liberation of iodine at pH 8.0. The unreacted periodate is determined by measurement of the liberated iodine spectrophotometrically in the wavelength range (300-500 nm). A calibration curve was constructed for more accurate results and the correlation coefficient of linear regression analysis was -0.9778. The precision of this method was better than 6.17% R.S.D. ( n = 3). Regression analysis of Bear-Lambert plot shows good correlation in the concentration range 25-125 ug/ml. The identification limit was determined to be 25 ug/ml a detailed study of the reaction conditions was carried out, including effect of changing pH, time, temperature and volume of periodate. Analyzing pure and authentic samples containing arbutin tested the validity of the proposed method which has an average percent recovery of 100.86%. An alternative method is also proposed which involves a complexation reaction between arbutin and ferric chloride solution. The produced complex which is yellowish-green in color was determined spectophotometrically.

  15. Catalytic chemical vapor deposition of large-area uniform two-dimensional molybdenum disulfide using sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Jeong-Gyu; Ryu, Gyeong Hee; Kim, Youngjun; Woo, Whang Je; Ko, Kyung Yong; Kim, Yongsung; Lee, Changseung; Oh, Il-Kwon; Park, Jusang; Lee, Zonghoon; Kim, Hyungjun

    2017-11-01

    The effective synthesis of atomically thin molybdenum disulfides (MoS2) of high quality and uniformity over a large area is essential for their use in electronic and optical devices. In this work, we synthesize MoS2 that exhibit a high quality and large area uniformity using chemical vapor deposition (CVD) with volatile S organic compound and NaCl catalysts. In the latter process, the NaCl enhances the growth rate (5 min for synthesis of monolayer MoS2) and purity of the synthesized MoS2. The optical microscopy, Raman spectroscopy, x-ray photoemission spectroscopy, photoluminescence, and transmission electron microscopy measurements indicate that the NaCl-CVD MoS2 has a large grain size, clear Raman shift, strong photoluminescence, good stoichiometry, and 6-fold coordination symmetry. Moreover, we demonstrate that the electron mobility (10.4 cm2 V‑1 s‑1) and on/off current ratio (3 × 107) of monolayer MoS2 measured using a field-effect transistor are comparable to those of previously reported MoS2 synthesized using CVD.

  16. Alkyne-Azide Cycloaddition Catalyzed by Silver Chloride and “Abnormal” Silver N-Heterocyclic Carbene Complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ortega-Arizmendi, Aldo I.; Aldeco-Pérez, Eugenia; Cuevas-Yañez, Erick

    2013-01-01

    A library of 1,2,3-triazoles was synthesized from diverse alkynes and azides using catalytic amounts of silver chloride instead of copper compounds. In addition, a novel “abnormal” silver N-heterocyclic carbene complex was tested as catalyst in this process. The results suggest that the reaction requires only 0.5% of silver complex, affording 1,2,3-triazoles in good yields. PMID:24307866

  17. Stability constants of the Europium complexes with the chloride ions; Constantes de estabilidad de los complejos del europio con los iones cloruro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jimenez R, M.; Solache R, M.; Rojas H, A. [Instituto Nacional de Investigaciones Nucleares, Departamento de Quimica, A.P. 18-1027, C.P. 11801 Mexico D.F. (Mexico)

    2000-07-01

    The stability constants of lanthanides complexes with chloride ions which were determined at the same ionic force but in different media, are significantly different. It does not exist a systematic study over these stability constants. The purpose of this work is to determine the stability constants of the europium complexes with chloride ions at 303 K, by the solvents extraction method. (Author)

  18. Synthesis, characterization and spectral properties of substituted tetraphenylporphyrin iron chloride complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sun, Zhi-Cheng; She, Yuan-Bin; Zhou, Yang; Song, Xu-Feng; Li, Kai

    2011-04-06

    A series of substituted tetraphenylporphyrin iron chloride complexes [RTPPFe(III)Cl, R=o/p-NO₂, o/p-Cl, H, o/p-CH₃, o/p-OCH₃] were synthesized by a novel universal mixed-solvent method and the spectral properties of free base porphyrins and iron porphyrin compounds were compared with each other. The experimental results showed that the one-pot mixed solvent method was superior to the two-step method in the yields, reaction time and workup of reaction mixtures for the synthesis of iron porphyrin compounds. The highest yields (28.7%-40.4%) of RTPPFe(III)Cl were obtained in the mixed solvents propionic acid, glacial acetic acid and m-nitrotoluene under reflux for 2 h. A detailed analysis of ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis), infrared (IR) and far-infrared (FIR) spectra suggested the transformation from free base porphyrins to iron porphyrins. The red shift of the Soret band in ultraviolet-visible spectra due to the presence of p-nitrophenyl substituents and the blue shift of Fe-Cl bond of TPPFeCl in far-infrared spectra were further explained by the electron transfer and molecular planarity in the porphyrin ring.

  19. Synthesis, Characterization and Spectral Properties of Substituted Tetraphenylporphyrin Iron Chloride Complexes

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kai Li

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available A series of substituted tetraphenylporphyrin iron chloride complexes [RTPPFe(IIICl, R=o/p-NO2, o/p-Cl, H, o/p-CH3, o/p-OCH3] were synthesized by a novel universal mixed-solvent method and the spectral properties of free base porphyrins and iron porphyrin compounds were compared with each other. The experimental results showed that the one-pot mixed solvent method was superior to the two-step method in the yields, reaction time and workup of reaction mixtures for the synthesis of iron porphyrin compounds. The highest yields (28.7%-40.4% of RTPPFe(IIICl were obtained in the mixed solvents propionic acid, glacial acetic acid and m-nitrotoluene under reflux for 2 h. A detailed analysis of ultraviolet-visible (UV-vis, infrared (IR and far-infrared (FIR spectra suggested the transformation from free base porphyrins to iron porphyrins. The red shift of the Soret band in ultraviolet-visible spectra due to the presence of p-nitrophenyl substituents and the blue shift of Fe-Cl bond of TPPFeCl in far-infrared spectra were further explained by the electron transfer and molecular planarity in the porphyrin ring.

  20. Structure, stability and geochemical role of palladium chloride complexes in hydrothermal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bazarkina, Elena F.; Pokrovski, Gleb S.; Hazemann, Jean-Louis

    2014-12-01

    In situ X-ray absorption spectroscopy (XANES and EXAFS) was applied to study palladium speciation in model (Na,Li)Cl-HCl-HNO3-HClO4-H2O solutions and to measure the solubility of PdO(s) and PdS(s) in NaCl-HCl-H2O solutions up to 450 °C and 600 bar. In HNO3 and HClO4 solutions, the square planar Pd(H2O)42+ cation with an average Pd-O distance of 2.00 ± 0.01 Å is the dominant form at 30-100 °C. At T > 100 °C, this cation undergoes hydrolysis resulting in Pd precipitation. In (Na,Li)Cl-HCl solutions Pd forms square planar PdCln(H2O)4-n2-n complexes with Pd-O and Pd-Cl distances of 2.00-2.10 and 2.26-2.31 Å, respectively. At 30-250 °C our data are consistent with a mixture of PdCl(H2O)3+, PdCl2(H2O)20(aq), PdCl3(H2O)-, and PdCl42-, but at T > 250 °C PdCl3(H2O)- and PdCl42- become dominant over a wide range of chloride concentration, from ∼0.03 to at least 9 mol/kg H2O. XANES and EXAFS analyses of these species distribution allowed derivation of the stability constant of the reaction PdCl3- + Cl- = PdCl42- from 300 to 450 °C and 600 bar. These results, coupled with in situ PdO(s) and PdS(s) solubility measurements of this study and a revision of thermodynamic data for these solid phases, allowed generation of a self-consistent thermodynamic data set of the system PdS(s)-PdO(s)-PdCl3--PdCl42-. Our data indicate that Pd can be significantly mobilized as chloride complexes only in sulfide-free oxidizing geological settings (e.g., Chudnoe deposits in Russia, Waterberg deposits in South Africa, Jacutinga-type deposits in Brazil). By contrast, at typical pH (4-8), chlorinity (<10-15 wt% NaCl) and H2S contents (0.001-0.1 wt%) of most hydrothermal fluids, the absolute concentration of Pd-Cl complexes is too low to explain Pd enrichment in volcanogenic massive sulfide, modern seafloor sulfide, and porphyry Cu-Au-Mo deposits. Complexes with S-bearing ligands, very likely other than H2S/HS-, such as S3- and other polysulfide anions, are required to account for Pd

  1. Ionic association and solvation of the ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride in molecular solvents revealed by vapor pressure osmometry, conductometry, volumetry, and acoustic measurements.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sadeghi, Rahmat; Ebrahimi, Nosaibah

    2011-11-17

    A systematic study of osmotic coefficient, conductivity, volumetric and acoustic properties of solutions of ionic liquid 1-hexyl-3-methylimidazolium chloride ([C(6)mim][Cl]) in various molecular solvents has been made at different temperatures in order to study of ionic association and solvation behavior of [C(6)mim][Cl] in different solutions. Precise measurements on electrical conductances of solutions of [C(6)mim][Cl] in water, methanol, ethanol, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, 1-butanol, and acetonitrile at 293.15, 298.15, and 303.15 K are reported and analyzed with Barthel's low-concentration chemical model (lcCM) to obtain the limiting molar conductivities and association constants of this ionic liquid in the investigated solvents. Strong ion pairing was found for the ionic liquid in 2-propanol, 1-butanol, and 1-propanol, whereas ion association in acetonitrile, methanol and ethanol is rather weak and in water the ionic liquid is fully dissociated. In the second part of this work, the apparent molar volumes and isentropic compressibilities of [C(6)mim][Cl] in water, methanol, ethanol, acetonitrile, 1-propanol, 2-propanol, and 1-butanol are obtained at the 288.15-313.15 K temperature range at 5 K intervals at atmospheric pressure from the precise measurements of density and sound velocity. The infinite dilution apparent molar volume and isentropic compressibility values of the free ions and ion pairs of [C(6)mim][Cl] in the investigated solvents as well as the excess molar volume of the investigated solutions are determined and their variations with temperature and type of solvents are also studied. Finally, the experimental measurements of osmotic coefficient at 318.15 K for binary solutions of [C(6)mim][Cl] in water, methanol, ethanol, 2-propanol, and acetonitrile are taken using the vapor pressure osmometry (VPO) method and from which the values of the solvent activity, vapor pressure, activity coefficients, and Gibbs free energies are calculated. The results are

  2. Hafnium(IV) chloride complexes with chelating β-ketiminate ligands: Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization and volatility study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Patil, Siddappa A; Medina, Phillip A; Antic, Aleks; Ziller, Joseph W; Vohs, Jason K; Fahlman, Bradley D

    2015-09-05

    The synthesis and characterization of four new β-ketiminate hafnium(IV) chloride complexes dichloro-bis[4-(phenylamido)pent-3-en-2-one]-hafnium (4a), dichloro-bis[4-(4-methylphenylamido)pent-3-en-2-one]-hafnium (4b), dichloro-bis[4-(4-methoxyphenylamido)pent-3-en-2-one]-hafnium (4c), and dichloro-bis[4-(4-chlorophenylamido)pent-3-en-2-one]-hafnium (4d) are reported. All the complexes (4a-d) were characterized by spectroscopic methods ((1)H NMR, (13)C NMR, IR), and elemental analysis while the compound 4c was further examined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction, revealing that the complex is monomer with the hafnium center in octahedral coordination environment and oxygens of the chelating N-O ligands are trans to each other and the chloride ligands are in a cis arrangement. Volatile trends are established for four new β-ketiminate hafnium(IV) chloride complexes (4a-d). Sublimation enthalpies (ΔHsub) were calculated from thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) data, which show that, the dependence of ΔHsub on the molecular weight (4a-c) and inductive effects from chlorine (4d). Copyright © 2015 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  3. Synthesis, spectroscopic and thermal studies of the copper(II) aspartame chloride complex

    Science.gov (United States)

    Çakır, S.; Coşkun, E.; Naumov, P.; Biçer, E.; Bulut, İ.; İçbudak, H.; Çakır, O.

    2002-08-01

    Aspartame adduct of copper(II) chloride Cu(Asp) 2Cl 2·2H 2O (Asp=aspartame) is synthesized and characterized by elemental analysis, FT IR, UV/vis, ESR spectroscopies, TG, DTG, DTA measurements and molecular mechanics calculations. Aqueous solution of the green solid absorbs strongly at 774 and 367 nm. According to the FT IR spectra, the aspartame moiety coordinates to the copper(II) ion via its carboxylate ends, whereas the ammonium terminal groups give rise to hydrogen bonding network with the water, the chloride ions or neighboring carboxylate groups. The results suggest tetragonally distorted octahedral environment of the copper ions.

  4. The Reaction Chemistry of Plutonyl(6) Chloride Complexes with Triphenyl Phosphineoxide and Triphenyl Phosphinimine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Cornet, St. M.; Petit, S.; Redmond, M. P. [Univ Manchester, Sch Chem, Ctr Radiochem Res, Manchester M13 9PL, Lancs (United Kingdom); Berthon, C.; Boubals, N.; Charushnikova, I. A.; Den Auwer, Ch. [CEA Marcoule, Nucl Energy Div, RadioChenm and Proc Dept, F-30207 Bagnols Sur Ceze (France); Gaunt, A. J.; May, Iain; Reilly, S. D. [Los Alamos Natl Lab, Div Chem, Los Alamos, NM 87545 (United States); Kaltsoyannis, N. [UCL, Dept Chem, London WC1H 0AJ (United Kingdom)

    2010-07-01

    The reaction between Ph{sub 3}PO dissolved in acetone and 'PuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}' in dilute HCl resulted in the formation of [PuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(Ph{sub 3}PO){sub 2}]. Crystallographic characterization of the acetone solvate revealed the expected axial trans plutonyl dioxo, with trans Cl and Ph{sub 3}PO in the equatorial plane. Spectroscopic analyses ({sup 31}P NMR, {sup 1}H NMR, and vis/nIR) indicate the presence of both cis and trans isomers in solution, with the trans isomer being more stable. Confirmation of the higher stability of the trans versus cis isomers for [AnO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(Ph{sub 3}PO){sub 2}] (An = U and Pu) was obtained through quantum chemical computational analysis, which also reveals the Pu-O{sub TPPO} bond to be more ionic than the U-O{sub TPPO} bond. Slight variation in reaction conditions led to the crystallization of two further minor products, [PuO{sub 2}(Ph{sub 3}PO){sub 4}][ClO{sub 4}]{sub 2} and cis-[PuCl{sub 2}(Ph{sub 3}PO){sub 4}], the latter complex revealing the potential for reduction to Pu(IV). In addition, the reaction of Ph{sub 3}PNH with [PuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(thf){sub 2}]{sub 2} in anhydrous conditions gave evidence for the formation of both cis- and trans-[PuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(Ph{sub 3}PNH){sub 2}] in solution (by {sup 31}P NMR). However, the major reaction pathway involved protonation of the ligand with the crystallographic characterization of [Ph{sub 3}PNH{sub 2}]{sub 2}[PuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}]. We believe that HCl/SiMe{sub 3}Cl carried through from the small scale preparation of [PuO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}(thf){sub 2}]{sub 2} was the source of both protons and chlorides. The fact that this chemistry was significantly different from previous uranium studies, where cis-/trans-[UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}L{sub 2}] (L Ph{sub 3}PO or Ph{sub 3}PNH) were the only products observed, provides further evidence of the unique challenges and opportunities associated with the chemistry of plutonium. (authors)

  5. Rhodium(I-Complexes Catalyzed 1,4-Conjugate Addition of Arylzinc Chlorides to N-Boc-4-pyridone

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fenghai Guo

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Rhodium(I-complexes catalyzed the 1,4-conjugate addition of arylzinc chlorides to N-Boc-4-pyridone in the presence of chlorotrimethylsilane (TMSCl. A combination of [RhCl(C2H42]2 and BINAP was determined to be the most effective catalyst to promote the 1,4-conjugate addition reactions of arylzinc chlorides to N-Boc-4-pyridone. A broad scope of arylzinc reagents with both electron-withdrawing and electron-donating substituents on the aromatic ring successfully underwent 1,4-conjugate addition to N-Boc-4-pyridone to afford versatile 1,4-adducts 2-substituted-2,3-dihydropyridones in good to excellent yields (up to 91% and excellent ee (up to 96% when (S-BINAP was used as chiral ligand.

  6. Photostabilizing Efficiency of Poly(vinyl chloride in the Presence of Organotin(IV Complexes as Photostabilizers

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mustafa M. Ali

    2016-08-01

    Full Text Available Three organotin complexes containing furosemide as a ligand (L, Ph3SnL, Me2SnL2 and Bu2SnL2, were synthesized and characterized. Octahedral geometry was proposed for the Me2SnL2 and Bu2SnL2, while the Ph3SnL complex has trigonal bipyramid geometry. The synthesized organotin complexes (0.5% by weight were used as additives to improve the photostability of poly(vinyl chloride, PVC, (40 μm thickness upon irradiation. The changes imposed on functional groups, weight loss and viscosity average molecular weight of PVC films were monitored. The experimental results show that the rate of photodegradation was reduced in the presence of the organotin additives. The quantum yield of the chain scission was found to be low (9.8 × 10−7 when Ph3SnL was used as a PVC photostabilizer compared to controlled PVC (5.18 × 10−6. In addition, the atomic force microscope images for the PVC films containing Ph3SnL2 after irradiation shows a smooth surface compared to the controlled films. The rate of PVC photostabilization was found to be highest for Ph3SnL followed by Bu2SnL2 and Me2SnL2. It has been suggested that the organotin complexes could act as hydrogen chloride scavengers, ultraviolet absorbers, peroxide decomposers and/or radical scavengers.

  7. Study of the degradation of the external quantum efficiency of UV LEDs based on AlGaN/GaN heterostructures grown by chloride-hydride vapor-phase epitaxy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shmidt, N. M.; Usikov, A. S.; Shabunina, E. I.; Chernyakov, A. E.; Sakharov, A. V.; Kurin, S. Yu.; Antipov, A. A.; Barash, I. S.; Roenkov, A. D.; Makarov, Yu. N.; Helava, H.

    2014-07-01

    Final stage of the degradation of the external quantum efficiency of AlGaN/GaN UV light-emitting diodes (LEDs), grown by chloride-hydride vapor-phase epitaxy, and high-power InGaN/GaN blue LEDs, produced by metal-organic vapor-phase epitaxy, has been comparatively studied. It is shown that one of these processes leading to a decrease in the quantum efficiency for both types of LEDs is the local defect formation involving the Gold-Weisberg mechanism in a system of extended defects. To prolong the service life of AlGaN/GaN UV LEDs to more than 2000 h, it is necessary to improve the nanostructural arrangement of the material of light-emitting structures and determine the contribution from the AlGaN composition disorder to the degradation of the external quantum efficiency.

  8. Synthesis, structure, and characterization of new mononuclear Mn(II) complexes. Electrochemical conversion into new oxo-bridged Mn(2)(III,IV) complexes. Role of chloride ions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hureau, Christelle; Blondin, Geneviève; Charlot, Marie-France; Philouze, Christian; Nierlich, Martine; Césario, Michèle; Anxolabéhère-Mallart, Elodie

    2005-05-16

    Two Mn(II) complexes are isolated and X-ray characterized, namely, cis-[(L(2))Mn(II)(Cl)(2)] (1) and [(L(3))Mn(II)Cl(OH(2))](ClO(4)) (2(ClO(4))), where L(2) and L(3) are the well-known tetradentate N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)ethane-1,2-diamine and N,N'-dimethyl-N,N'-bis(2-pyridylmethyl)propane-1,3-diamine ligands, respectively. The crystal structure reveals that whereas the ligand L(2) is in the cis-alpha conformation in complex 1, the ligand L(3) is in the more unusual cis-beta conformation in 2. EPR spectra are recorded on frozen solutions for both complexes and are characteristic of Mn(II) species. Electrochemical behaviors are investigated on acetonitrile solution for both complexes and show that cation 2 exists as closely related Mn(II) species in equilibrium. For both complexes exhaustive bulk electrolyses of acetonitrile solution are performed at oxidative potential in various experimental conditions. In the presence of 2,6-lutidine and after elimination of chloride ligands, the formation of the di-mu-oxo mixed-valent complexes [(L(2))Mn(III)(mu-O)(2)Mn(IV)(L(2))](3+) (3a) and [(L(3))Mn(III)(mu-O)(2)Mn(IV)(L(3))](3+) (4) is confirmed by UV-vis and EPR spectroscopies and cyclic voltammetry. In addition crystals of 4(ClO(4))(3) were isolated, and the X-ray structure reveals the cis-alphaconformation of L(3). In the absence of 2,6-lutidine and without elimination of the exogenous chloride ions, the electrochemical oxidation of 1 leads to the formation of the mononuclear Mn(III) complex, namely, [(L(2))Mn(III)(Cl)(2)](+) (5), as confirmed by UV-vis as well as parallel mode EPR spectroscopy and cyclic voltammetry. In the same conditions, the electrochemical oxidation of complex 2 is more intricate, and a thorough analysis of EPR spectra establishes the formation of the binuclear mono-mu-oxo mixed-valent [(L(3))ClMn(III)(mu-O)Mn(IV)Cl(L(3))](3+) (6) complexes. Electrochemical conversion of Mn(II) complexes into mixed-valent Mn(2)(III,IV) oxo

  9. Reactions of guanine with methyl chloride and methyl bromide: O6-methylation versus charge transfer complex formation

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shukla, P. K.; Mishra, P. C.; Suhai, S.

    Density functional theory (DFT) at the B3LYP/6-31+G* and B3LYP/AUG-cc-pVDZ levels was employed to study O6-methylation of guanine due to its reactions with methyl chloride and methyl bromide and to obtain explanation as to why the methyl halides cause genotoxicity and possess mutagenic and carcinogenic properties. Geometries of the various isolated species involved in the reactions, reactant complexes (RCs), and product complexes (PCs) were optimized in gas phase. Transition states connecting the reactant complexes with the product complexes were also optimized in gas phase at the same levels of theory. The reactant complexes, product complexes, and transition states were solvated in aqueous media using the polarizable continuum model (PCM) of the self-consistent reaction field theory. Zero-point energy (ZPE) correction to total energy and the corresponding thermal energy correction to enthalpy were made in each case. The reactant complexes of the keto form of guanine with methyl chloride and methyl bromide in water are appreciably more stable than the corresponding complexes involving the enol form of guanine. The nature of binding in the product complexes was found to be of the charge transfer type (O6mG+ · X-, X dbond Cl, Br). Binding of HCl, HBr, and H2O molecules to the PCs obtained with the keto form of guanine did not alter the positions of the halide anions in the PCs, and the charge transfer character of the PCs was also not modified due to this binding. Further, the complexes obtained due to the binding of HCl, HBr, and H2O molecules to the PCs had greater stability than the isolated PCs. The reaction barriers involved in the formation of PCs were found to be quite high (?50 kcal/mol). Mechanisms of genotoxicity, mutagenesis and carcinogenesis caused by the methyl halides appear to involve charge transfer-type complex formation. Thus the mechanisms of these processes involving the methyl halides appear to be quite different from those that involve the

  10. Thermal treatment effects imposed on solid DNA cationic lipid complex with hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride, observed by variable angle spectroscopic ellipsometry

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nizioł, Jacek, E-mail: niziol@agh.edu.pl [Faculty of Physics and Applied Computer Science, AGH University of Science and Technology, al. Mickiewicza 30, 30-059 Kraków (Poland)

    2014-12-21

    DNA cationic lipid complexes are materials of properties required for applications in organic electronics and optoelectronics. Often, their thermal stability demonstrated by thermogravimetry is cited in the literature as important issue. However, little is known about processes occurring in heated solid DNA cationic lipid complexes. In frame of this work, thin films of Deoxyribonucleic acid-hexadecyltrimethylammonium chloride (DNA-CTMA) were deposited on silicon wafers. Samples were thermally annealed, and simultaneously, their optical functions were measured by spectroscopic ellipsometry. At lower temperatures, thermal expansion coefficient of solid DNA-CTMA was negative, but at higher temperatures positive. Thermally induced modification of absorption spectrum in UV-vis was observed. It occurred at a range of temperatures higher than this of DNA denaturation in solution. The observed phenomenon was irreversible, at least in time scale of the experiment (one day)

  11. Speciation of indium(iii) chloro complexes in the solvent extraction process from chloride aqueous solutions to ionic liquids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Deferm, Clio; Onghena, Bieke; Vander Hoogerstraete, Tom; Banerjee, Dipanjan; Luyten, Jan; Oosterhof, Harald; Fransaer, Jan; Binnemans, Koen

    2017-03-27

    Most metal extraction studies focus on the kinetics, the maximum loading and the extraction equilibrium, while structural information on the extracted complexes has been limited. This paper concerns the nature of the indium(iii) chloride complexes, present in the organic and aqueous phase during the solvent extraction of indium(iii) from an aqueous HCl solution by undiluted ionic liquids Cyphos® IL 101 and Aliquat® 336. In an aqueous HCl solution (0-12 M), indium(iii) exists as octahedral mixed complexes, [In(H2O)6-nCln]3-n (0 ≤ n ≤ 6). EXAFS and 115In NMR were used to characterize these species. The stoichiometric composition of the extracted complexes, which is estimated from viscosity and maximum loading studies and confirmed by EXAFS, is unaffected by the HCl concentration in the aqueous phase. Indium(iii) is present in the ionic liquid phase as the tetrahedral [InCl4]- complex. Based on the speciation results an extraction mechanism is proposed.

  12. Highly microporous carbons derived from a complex of glutamic acid and zinc chloride for use in supercapacitors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dong, Xiao-Ling; Lu, An-Hui; He, Bin; Li, Wen-Cui

    2016-09-01

    The selection of carbon precursor is an important factor when designing carbon materials. In this study, a complex derived from L-glutamic acid and zinc chloride was used to prepare highly microporous carbons via facile pyrolysis. L-glutamic acid, a new carbon precursor with nitrogen functionality, coordinated with zinc chloride resulted in a homogeneous distribution of Zn2+ on the molecular level. During pyrolysis, the evaporation of the in situ formed zinc species creates an abundance of micropores together with the inert gases. The obtained carbons exhibit high specific surface area (SBET: 1203 m2 g-1) and a rich nitrogen content (4.52 wt%). In excess of 89% of the pore volume consists of micropores with pore size ranging from 0.5 to 1.2 nm. These carbons have been shown to be suitable for use as supercapacitor electrodes, and have been tested in 6 M KOH where a capacitance of 217 F g-1 was achieved at a current density of 0.5 A g-1. A long cycling life of 30 000 cycles was achieved at a current density of 1 A g-1, with only a 9% loss in capacity. The leakage current through a two-electrode device was measured as 2.3 μA per mg of electrode and the self-discharge characteristics were minimal.

  13. Spectrophotometric determination of etamsylate in pharmaceuticals using ferric chloride based on complex formation reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kanakapura Basavaiah Vinay

    2010-03-01

    Full Text Available The present study describes two simple and selective spectrophotometric methods for the rapid determination of etamsylate (ETM in bulk and in capsule formulations. The methods are based on the oxidation of ETM with ferric chloride in neutral medium and subsequent chelation of the resulting iron(II with 1,10-phenanthroline (Phen (method A and with 2,2’-bipyridyl (Bipy (method B. The resulting red colored chromogens are measured at 510 and 520 nm, in method A and B, respectively. In both methods, the absorbance is found to increase linearly with increasing ETM concentration. Beer’s law is obeyed over the ranges 0.5-10 and 0.8-16 µg/ml for method A and B, respectively. The calculated molar absorptivity values are 2.17x104 and 1.65x104 l mol-1 cm-1 for method A and B, respectively, and the corresponding sandell sensitivities are 0.012 and 0.016 µg/cm2. Intra-day and inter-day precision and accuracy of the methods were established according to ICH guidelines. The proposed methods were applied to determine ETM in dosage forms and the results were statistically compared with that of an official BP method

  14. Electrochemical Studies on Uranyl Chloride Complexes in 1-Butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium Based Ionic liquids

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Yasuhisa Ikeda; Katsuyuki Hiroe; Nobutaka Ohta; Masanobu Nogami; Atsushi Shirai [Research Laboratory for Nuclear Reactors, Tokyo Institute of Technology 2-12-1-N1-34 Ookayama, Meguro-ku, Tokyo 152-8550 (Japan); Noriko Asanuma [Department of Energy Science and Engineering, Tokai University 1117 Kitakaname, Hiratsuka-shi, Kanagawa 259-1292 (Japan)

    2008-07-01

    Sample solutions were prepared by dissolving UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 2}-nH{sub 2}O or Cs{sub 2}UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4} into 1-butyl-3-methyl-imidazolium chloride (BMICl). Their UV-visible absorption spectra showed that uranyl species in BMICl exist as [UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}]{sup 2-}. Cyclic voltammograms were measured using a glassy carbon working electrode, a platinum wire counter electrode, and an Ag/AgCl reference electrode with a liquid junction filled with BMIBF{sub 4} at 80 {+-} 1 deg. C in glove box under an Ar atmosphere. Peaks of one redox couple were observed at around -0.73 V and -0.65 V on both systems. Potential differences between two peaks ({delta}E{sub p}) at scan rates in the range of 10 to 50 mV/s are 70 - 80 mV, which are almost consistent with theoretical {delta}E{sub p} value (67 mV) for the reversible one electron transfer reaction at 80 deg. C. From these results, it is concluded that [UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}]{sup 2-} in BMICl is reduced quasi-reversibly to [UO{sub 2}Cl{sub 4}]{sup 3-}. (authors)

  15. A molecular dynamics study of the interaction of oleate and dodecylammonium chloride surfactants with complex aluminosilicate minerals.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rai, Beena; Sathish, P; Tanwar, Jyotsna; Pradip; Moon, K S; Fuerstenau, D W

    2011-10-15

    Surface characteristics of complex aluminosilicate minerals like spodumene [LiAl(SiO(3))(2)], jadeite [NaAl(SiO(3))(2)], feldspar [KAlSi(3)O(8)], and muscovite [K(2)Al(4)(Al(2)Si(6)O(20))(OH)(4)]) are modeled. Surface energies are computed for the cleavage planes of these minerals. Adsorption mechanisms of anionic chemisorbing type oleate and cationic physisorbing type dodecylammonium chloride molecules on two different crystal planes, that is (110) and (001), of spodumene and jadeite are studied in terms of the surface-surfactant interaction energies computed using molecular dynamics (MD) simulations. The conclusions drawn from purely theoretical computations match remarkably well with our experimental results. Copyright © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  16. Report: Vapor Intrusion Health Risks at Bannister Federal Complex Not a Concern for Buildings 50 and 52, Unknown for Other Buildings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Report #11-P-0048, January 5, 2011. Testing at Bannister Federal Complex in February 2010 revealed elevated levels of volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in the soil vapor beneath the foundations of buildings 50 and 52.

  17. The role of Te(IV) and Bi(III) chloride complexes in hydrothermal mass transfer: An X-ray absorption spectroscopic study

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Etschmann, Barbara E.; Liu, Weihua; Pring, Allan; Grundler, Pascal V.; Tooth, Blake; Borg, Stacey; Testemale, Denis; Brewe, Dale; Brugger, Joël

    2016-05-01

    Tellurium (Te) and bismuth (Bi) are two metal(loid)s often enriched together with gold (Au) in hydrothermal deposits; however the speciation and transport properties for these two metals in hydrothermal systems are poorly understood. We investigated the effect of chloride on the speciation of Te(IV) and Bi(III) in hydrothermal solutions using in-situ XAS spectroscopy. At ambient temperature, oxy-hydroxide complexes containing the [TeO3] moiety (e.g., H3TeO3+ under highly acidic conditions) predominate in salty solutions over a wide range in pH and salt concentrations. Te(IV)-Cl complexes only appear at pH(25 degrees C) <= 2 and high Cl- activity (>= 10). The highest order Te(IV) chloride complex detected is TeCl4(aq), and contains the [TeCl4] moiety. Upon heating to 199 degrees C, the Te(IV)-Cl complexes become more stable; however they still required highly acidic conditions which are likely to exist only in very limited environments in nature. At ambient temperature, Bi(III) is coordinated to 5.5(5) Cl atoms in high salinity, acidic (HCl >= 0.5 m) chloride solutions. This, combined with large EXAFS-derived structural disorder parameters, suggests that the Bi(III) complex is most likely present as both BiCl52- and BiCl63-. The number of Cl atoms coordinated to Bi(III) decreases with increasing temperature; at around 200 degrees C and above, Bi(III) is coordinated to three Cl atoms. Overall the data show that Te(IV) chloride complexes can be ignored in predicting Te mobility under oxidizing conditions in most geological environments, but that Bi(III) chloride complexes are expected to account for Bi mobility in acidic brines. New thermodynamic properties for Bi(III) chloride complexes are provided to improve reactive transport modeling of Bi up to 500 degrees C. Although higher order complexes such as BiCl52- and BiCl63- exist at ambient temperature, the BiCl3(aq) complex becomes the predominant chloride complex in saline solutions at T >= 200 degrees C.

  18. On the stability of the hydrogen chloride complexes with ethylene and acetylene. A high resolution gas phase and ab initio study.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mikulskiene, Birute; Gruodis, Alytis; Sablinskas, Valdas; Nelander, Bengt

    2003-03-01

    The temperature dependencies of the intensities of the HCl stretching bands of the hydrogen chloride complexes with acetylene and ethylene have been used to obtain estimates of the dissociation enthalpies of the two complexes. Quantum chemical calculations on the Hartree Fock and DFT/B3LYP levels of theory have been combined with experimental data to give estimates of the intensities of the HCl stretching vibration in the two complexes.

  19. Raman and DFT Study on N-H+…Cl- Hydrogen Bonding in 1,1,3,3-Tetra-Methylguanidinium Chloride forming an Ion-pair Molecule in the Vapor Phase

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Berg, Rolf W.; Riisager, Anders; Fehrmann, Rasmus

    that dimeric molecular ion pairs with four N-H+…Cl- hydrogen bonds seem to exist also in the solutions, and probably are responsible for the relatively high solubility of the “salt” in ethanol. The “salt” can be easily sublimed at about 200-230 oC. The Raman spectrum of the vapor at 225 ºC has a characteristic...... strong band at 2229 cm-1 that shows that the gas phase consists of monomeric ion pair “molecules” (Fig.2) held together by one N-H+…Cl- hydrogen bond, the stretching band of which is causing the band (Fig.3).......The chemistry of 1,1,3,3-tetramethylguanidinium ([TMGH]+) chloride, a low temperature (molten) ionic liquid, is discussed, based on its Raman spectra associated with ab initio molecular orbital DFT-type quantum mechanical calculations (with 6-311+G(d,p) basis sets) on “molecules” in isolated...

  20. A Three-Step Laboratory Sequence to Prepare a Carbene Complex of Silver(I) Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Canal, John P.; Ramnial, Taramatee; Langlois, Lisa D.; Abernethy, Colin D.; Clyburne, Jason A. C.

    2008-01-01

    We have developed a multistep inorganic synthesis experiment for our second-year undergraduate teaching laboratory that introduces students to modern organometallic chemistry. The ligands are prepared in two simple steps and the preparation of an air-stable silver carbene complex is accomplished in the third step. The students are introduced to…

  1. Synthesis, spectroscopic characterization, solid state d.c. electrical conductivity and biological studies of some lanthanide(III chloride complexes with a heterocyclic Schiff base ligand

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    K. Mohanan

    2016-07-01

    Full Text Available Condensation of 2-hydroxy-1-naphthaldehyde with 2-amino-3-carboxyethyl-4,5-dimethylthiophene in 1:1 molar ratio, yielded a potentially tridentate Schiff base viz. 2-[N-(2′-hydroxy-1-naphthylideneamino]-3-carboxyethyl-4,5-dimethylthiophene (HNAT. This ligand formed complexes with lanthanum(III, cerium(III, praseodymium(III, neodymium(III, samarium(III, europium(III and gadolinium(III chloride under well defined conditions. These complexes were characterized through elemental analysis, molar conductance, magnetic moment measurements, IR, UV–Vis, FAB mass and 1H NMR spectral studies. Analytical data showed that all the metal complexes exhibited 1:1 metal–ligand ratio. Molar conductance values adequately confirmed the non-electrolytic nature of the metal complexes. The proton NMR spectral observations supplement the IR spectral assignments. The spectral data revealed that the ligand acted as neutral tridentate, coordinating to the metal ion through azomethine nitrogen, ester carbonyl and naphtholate oxygen without deprotonation. The ligand and its lanthanum(III chloride complex were subjected to XRD studies. The lanthanum(III chloride complex has undergone a facile transesterification reaction. The solid state d.c. electrical conductivity of some selected complexes were measured as a function of temperature, indicating the semiconducting nature of the metal complexes. The antimicrobial activities were examined by disk diffusion method against some pathogenic bacterial and fungal species.

  2. Flexible Acyclic Polyol-Chloride Anion Complexes and Their Characterization by Photoelectron Spectroscopy and Variable Temperature Binding Constant Determinations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shokri, Alireza; Wang, Xue B.; Wang, Yangping; O' Doherty, George A.; Kass, Steven R.

    2016-03-17

    Flexible acyclic alcohols with 1–5 hydroxyl groups were bound to chloride anion and these complexes were interrogated by negative ion photoelectron spectroscopy and companion density functional theory computations. The resulting vertical detachment energies are reproduced on average to 0.10 eV by M06-2X/aug-cc-pVTZ predictions and range from 4.45 – 5.96 eV. These values are 0.84 – 2.35 eV larger than the adiabatic detachment energy of Cl– as a result of the larger hydrogen bond networks in the bigger polyols. Adiabatic detachment energies of the alcohol–Cl– clusters are more difficult to determine both experimentally and computationally. This is due to the large geometry changes that occur upon photodetachment and the large bond dissociation energy of H–Cl which enables the resulting chlorine atom to abstract a hydrogen from any of the methylene (CH2) or methine (CH) positions. Both ionic and non-ionic hydrogen bonds (i.e., OH•••Cl– and OH•••OH•••Cl–) form in the larger polyols complexes, and are found to be energetically comparable. Subtle structural differences, consequently can lead to the formation of different types of hydrogen bonds and maximizing the ionic ones is not always preferred. Solution equilibrium binding constants between the alcohols and tetrrabuylammonium chloride (TBACl) in acetonitrile at -24.2, 22.0, and 53.6 °C were also determined. The free energies of association are nearly identical for all of the substrates (i.e., ΔG° = -2.8 ± 0.7 kcal mol–1). Compensating enthalpy and entropy values reveal, contrary to expectation and the intrinsic gas-phase preferences, that the bigger systems with more hydroxyl groups are entropically favored and enthalpically disfavored relative to the smaller species. This suggests that more solvent molecules are released upon binding TBACl to alcohols with more hydroxyl groups and is consistent with the measured negative heat capacities. These quantities increase with

  3. Cadmium uptake by Caco-2 cells: effects of Cd complexation by chloride, glutathione, and phytochelatins.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jumarie, C; Fortin, C; Houde, M; Campbell, P G; Denizeau, F

    2001-01-01

    Short-term cadmium uptake by the highly differentiated TC7 clone of enterocytic-like Caco-2 cells was studied as a function of Cd speciation. For low metal concentrations and with a constant free [Cd(2+)] = 43 nM, initial uptake rates of (109)Cd increased linearly as a function of increasing concentration of chlorocomplexes (Sigma[(109)CdCl(2-n)(n)]) over the range from 0 to 250 nM. When normalized as a function of the metal concentration, the absorption rate for the chlorocomplexes was less than that estimated for uptake of the free Cd(2+) cation. Metal absorption decreased upon organic ligand addition in the exposure media, but much less than predicted from the assumption that only inorganic metal species would be transported. Under exposure conditions where the concentration of each of the inorganic species was kept constant, (109)Cd uptake increased with increasing concentrations of cadmium glutathione ((109)Cd-GSH) or phytochelatin ((109)Cd-hmPC(3)) complexes. A specific system of very high affinity but low capacity has been characterized for (109)Cd-GSH transport, whereas accumulation data increased linearly with (109)Cd-hmPC(3) up to 6 microM. Comparison among uptake data for 0.3 microM inorganic (109)Cd, (109)Cd-GSH, or (109)Cd-hmPC(3) yields the following accumulation ratios: Cd-GSH/Cd(inorg) = 0.2; Cd-hmPC(3)/Cd(inorg) = 0.5. These results clearly show that Cd(2+) is not the exclusive metal species participating in Cd absorption, though, for comparable Cd concentrations, its contribution to transport would be more important than that of other species. Cadmium bound to thiol-containing peptides may be absorbed via transport systems that differ from those involved in absorption of the inorganic metal species. Copyright 2001 Academic Press.

  4. FT-IR and DSC studies of poly(vinylidene chloride-co-acrylonitrile) complexed with LiBF4.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shanthi, M; Mathew, Chithra M; Ulaganathan, M; Rajendran, S

    2013-05-15

    Poly(vinylidene chloride-co-acrylonitrile) (PVdC-co-AN) based solvent free electrolytes were prepared for different compositions of PVdC-co-AN and LiBF4 using solution casting technique. The ionic conductivity, thermal behavior, complexation and structure of polymer electrolytes have been investigated as a function of LiBF4 content at different weight ratios. DSC studies revealed that the glass transition temperature Tg decreases with the increase of salt concentration up to an optimum level. The change in the glass transition temperature (Tg) with respect to the LiBF4 concentration is reflected in the bulk resistance of the electrolytes and the sample containing 6 wt.% of LiBF4 exhibited minimum bulk resistance compared to other samples. FT-IR studies confirm the interaction of polymer and salt which is mainly between Li-cation and nitrogen atom of C≡N group. The crystalline phase of polymer host is completely changed on the addition of Li salt. Copyright © 2013 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  5. Tris(phosphino)borato silver(I) complexes as precursors for metallic silver aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McCain, Matthew N; Schneider, Sven; Salata, Michael R; Marks, Tobin J

    2008-04-07

    A series of light- and air-stable tris(phosphino)borato silver(I) complexes has been synthesized, structurally and spectroscopically characterized, and implemented in the growth of low resistivity metallic silver thin films by aerosol-assisted chemical vapor deposition (AACVD). Of the four complexes in the series, [RB(CH2PR'2) 3]AgPEt3 (R = Ph (1, 3), (n)Bu (2, 4); R' = Ph (1, 2), (i)Pr (3, 4), complexes 1 and 2 have been characterized by single-crystal X-ray diffraction. Complex 2 represents a significant improvement over previously available nonfluorinated Ag precursors, owing to ease of handling and efficient film deposition characteristics. Thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) shows that the thermolytic properties of these complexes can be significantly modified by altering the ligand structure. Polycrystalline cubic-phase Ag thin films were grown on glass, MgO(100), and 52100 steel substrates. Ag films of thicknesses 3 microm, grown at rates of 14-18 nm/min, exhibit low levels of extraneous element contamination by X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy (XPS). Atomic force microscopy (AFM) and scanning electron microscopy (SEM) indicate that film growth proceeds primarily via an island growth (Volmer-Weber) mechanism.

  6. Effect of vapors of water and organic solvents on the luminescence of cation-exchange membranes immobilized with cyclometalated Pt(II) complexes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Khakhalina, M. S.; Tikhomirova, I. Yu.; Puzyk, M. V.

    2010-05-01

    The luminescence quenching of cation-exchange membranes immobilized with cyclometalated Pt(II) complexes by vapors of water and some organic solvents (methanol, ethanol, isopropanol, n-butanol, acetonitrile, and acetone) is studied. The mechanism of the luminescence quenching of complexes is discussed.

  7. Crystal growth of semiorganic complex- samarium chloride coordinated thiourea-L-tartaric acid and its studies on structure and optical characteristics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Slathia, Goldy; Singh, Harjinder; Ramya, E.; Rao, D. Narayana; Bamzai, K. K.

    2017-05-01

    The semi-organic complex of samarium chloride coordinated thiourea-L-tartaric acid (SCTLT) has been grown as a single crystal by slow evaporation technique at room temperature. For structural studies, the grown crystal was subjected to single crystal X-ray diffraction and Fourier transform infra-red (FTIR) spectroscopy. Low cut off wavelength and transparent characteristics were explored by UV-VIS optical characterization. Third-order nonlinear optical properties of grown crystal were investigated by Z-scan technique.

  8. Cobalt(I) Olefin Complexes: Precursors for Metal-Organic Chemical Vapor Deposition of High Purity Cobalt Metal Thin Films.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hamilton, Jeff A; Pugh, Thomas; Johnson, Andrew L; Kingsley, Andrew J; Richards, Stephen P

    2016-07-18

    We report the synthesis and characterization of a family of organometallic cobalt(I) metal precursors based around cyclopentadienyl and diene ligands. The molecular structures of the complexes cyclopentadienyl-cobalt(I) diolefin complexes are described, as determined by single-crystal X-ray diffraction analysis. Thermogravimetric analysis and thermal stability studies of the complexes highlighted the isoprene, dimethyl butadiene, and cyclohexadiene derivatives [(C5H5)Co(η(4)-CH2CHC(Me)CH2)] (1), [(C5H5)Co(η(4)-CH2C(Me)C(Me)CH2)] (2), and [(C5H5)Co(η(4)-C6H8)] (4) as possible cobalt metal organic chemical vapor deposition (MOCVD) precursors. Atmospheric pressure MOCVD was employed using precursor 1, to synthesize thin films of metallic cobalt on silicon substrates under an atmosphere (760 torr) of hydrogen (H2). Analysis of the thin films deposited at substrate temperatures of 325, 350, 375, and 400 °C, respectively, by scanning electron microscopy and atomic force microscopy reveal temperature-dependent growth features. Films grown at these temperatures are continuous, pinhole-free, and can be seen to be composed of hexagonal particles clearly visible in the electron micrograph. Powder X-ray diffraction and X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy all show the films to be highly crystalline, high-purity metallic cobalt. Raman spectroscopy was unable to detect the presence of cobalt silicides at the substrate/thin film interface.

  9. Novel platinum(II) complexes of long chain aliphatic diamine ligands with oxalato as the leaving group: Comparative cytotoxic activity relative to chloride precursors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Silva, Heveline; Barra, Carolina V.; Rocha, Fillipe V.; Fontes, Ana Paula S. [Universidade Federal de Juiz de Fora (UFJF), MG (Brazil). Dept. de Quimica; Lopes, Miriam T.P. [Universidade Federal deMinas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Farmacologia; Frezard, Frederic, E-mail: frezard@icb.ufmg.b [Universidade Federal de Minas Gerais (UFMG), Belo Horizonte, MG (Brazil). Dept. de Fisiologia e Biofisica

    2010-07-01

    Platinum complexes play an important role in the development of anticancer drugs. Their cytotoxicity can be influenced by the nature of the leaving ligands, due to the hydrolysis reaction that occurs prior to the binding of the platinum complex to DNA. Also, non-leaving groups such as lipophilic diamines may affect cellular uptake. In this work, we describe the synthesis of platinum(II) complexes having oxalato and long chain aliphatic N-alkyl ethylenediamines as ligands. The products were characterized by elemental analyses, infrared spectroscopy and {sup 1}H, {sup 13}C and {sup 195}Pt NMR spectroscopy. Biological activity was assessed against tumor cell lines (A{sub 549}, B16-F1, B16-F10, MDA-MB-231) and non-tumor cell lines (BHK-21 and CHO). The length of the carbon chain affects the cytotoxicity and the oxalato complexes were less cytotoxic than the respective chloride-containing analogues. (author)

  10. Chloride Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... and bicarbonate , to help regulate the amount of fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base balance . This test measures the level of chloride in ... and bicarbonate , to help regulate the amount of fluid in the body and maintain the acid-base (pH) balance . Chloride and electrolyte tests may also be ordered ...

  11. The aqueous geochemistry of the rare earth elements and yttrium: VI. Stability of neodymium chloride complexes from 25 to 300°C

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammons, C. H.; Wood, S. A.; Williams-Jones, A. E.

    1996-12-01

    The stability and stoichiometry of Nd (III) chloride complexes have been experimentally determined in the temperature range 40 to 300°C, P = Psat. The solubility of AgCl (s) was measured in solutions of fixed HC1 + NaC1 concentration (0.01 to 5.0 m) and varying ΣNd/ΣCl molar ratio (0.0 to 0.5), following the method of Gammons (1995). The results of over 250 individual solubility experiments were regressed to obtain the following smoothed values for the first and second cumulative association constants for the Nd(III) chloride complexes: Nd3+ + Cl- = NdC12+ (β1); Nd3+ + 2Cl- = NdCl2+ (β2):25°C50°C100°C150°C200°C250°C300°log β10.060.210.661.312.173.224.48±.50±.30±.20±.20±.15±.30±.50log β2--0.131.082.524.456.87±.50±.30±.15±.50c]±.50These are the first experimentally determined equilibrium constants for chloride complexes of any rare earth element (REE) at elevated temperature. At 25°C, neodymium exists mainly as Nd3+ in the absence of high concentrations of Cl- and other ligands (F-, CO3-, SO4-). However, complexation with chloride is greatly enhanced by increase in temperature, such that NdC12+, NdC12+, and possibly NdCl30 become the dominant species for NaClsbnd HClsbnd H2O brines at 300°C. The experimental data indicate a higher degree of complexation than predicted from earlier theoretical studies (Wood, 1990b; Haas et al., 1995), particularly in the case of log β2. Calculations of monazite solubility in seafloor hydrothermal systems (Wood and Williams-Jones, 1994) are re-evaluated in light of our new experimental data. Chloride complexes are shown to dominate the aqueous Nd socciation at 300°C, and lead to solubilities that are (1) much higher than previously estimated and (2) much closer to the maximum concentrations that have been reported from active black smokers. However, the large fluxes of REEs in altered rock beneath ancient massive sulfide deposits are still difficult to explain assuming that modern seafloor hydrothermal

  12. A conductivity study of unsymmetrical 2:1 type "complex ion" electrolyte: cadmium chloride in dilute aqueous solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Apelblat, Alexander; Esteso, Miguel A; Bešter-Rogač, Marija

    2013-05-02

    Systematic and precise measurements of electrical conductivities of aqueous solutions of cadmium chloride were performed in the 2 × 10(-5)-1 × 10(-2) mol·dm(-3) concentration range, from 278.15 to 313.15 K. Determined conductances were interpreted in terms of molecular model which includes a mixture of two 1:1 and 2:1 electrolytes. The molar limiting conductances of λ(0)(CdCl(+), T) and λ(0)(1/2Cd(2+), T), the equilibrium constants of CdCl(+) formation K(T) and the corresponding standard thermodynamic functions were evaluated using the Quint-Viallard conductivity equations, the Debye-Hückel equations for activity coefficients and the mass-action equation. An excellent agreement between calculated and experimental conductivities was reached.

  13. Comparison between pervaporation and vapor permeation for separation of water-alcohol mixtures using a polyion complex membrane; Polyion complex maku wo mochiita mizu/alcohol kongoeki bunri ni okeru shinto kikaho to joki tokaho no hikaku

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hamada, t. [Daicel Chemical Industries, Ltd., Osaka (Japan); Taya, M.; Tone, S. [Osaka University, Osaka (Japan). Faculty of Engineering Science

    1997-03-10

    A water-alcohol separation experiment based on the pervaporation (in which the membrane touches the feed solution side) and vapor permeation (in which it touches the vapor) methods of water-ethanol and water-2-propanol azeotropic mixtures was conducted using the polyion complex membrane that is a water permselective membrane. In both methods, the total permeation flux was higher in pervaporation than in vapor permeation in the range where the mole fraction of ethanol and 2-propanol in a feed solution is less than 0.9. The separation factor was higher in pervaporation than in vapor permeation in the range where the mole fraction in a feed solution is more than 0.9 in water-ethanol and more than 0.7 in water-2-propanol. The membrane separation efficiency based on a solution-diffusion theory was represented as a separation index that is the product of the total permeation flux and separation factor. The separation index was higher in pervaporation than in vapor permeation in the range where the mole fraction in a feed solution is more than 0.82 in water-ethanol and more than 0.43 in water-2-propanol. 8 refs., 3 figs., 1 tab.

  14. Characterization of the Unusual Product from the Reaction between Cobalt(II) Chloride, Ethane-1,2-diamine, and Hydrochloric Acid: An Undergraduate Project Involving an Unknown Metal Complex.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, Neil F.; And Others

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the need for student research-type chemistry projects based upon "unknown" metal complexes. Describes an experiment involving the product from the reaction between cobalt(II) chloride, ethane-1,2-diamine (en) and concentrated hydrochloric acid. Outlines the preparation of the cobalt complex, along with procedure, results and…

  15. Crystal structure of a mixed-ligand dinuclear Ba-Zn complex with 2-meth-oxy-ethanol having tri-phenyl-acetate and chloride bridges.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Utko, Józef; Sobocińska, Maria; Dobrzyńska, Danuta; Lis, Tadeusz

    2015-07-01

    The dinuclear barium-zinc complex, μ-chlorido-1:2κ(2) Cl:Cl-chlorido-2κCl-bis-(2-meth-oxy-ethanol-1κO)bis-(2-meth-oxy-ethanol-1κ(2) O,O')bis-(μ-tri-phenyl-acetato-1:2κ(2) O:O')bariumzinc, [BaZn(C20H15O2)2Cl2(C3H8O2)4], has been synthesized by the reaction of barium tri-phenyl-acetate, anhydrous zinc chloride and 2-meth-oxy-ethanol in the presence of toluene. The barium and zinc metal cations in the dinuclear complex are linked via one chloride anion and carboxyl-ate O atoms of the tri-phenyl-acetate ligands, giving a Ba⋯Zn separation of 3.9335 (11) Å. The irregular nine-coordinate BaO8Cl coordination centres comprise eight O-atom donors, six of them from 2-meth-oxy-ethanol ligands (four from two bidentate O,O'-chelate inter-actions and two from monodentate inter-actions), two from bridging tri-phenyl-acetate ligands and one from a bridging Cl donor. The distorted tetra-hedral coordination sphere of zinc comprises two O-atom donors from the tri-phenyl-acetate ligands and two Cl donors (one bridging and one terminal). In the crystal, O-H⋯Cl, O-H⋯O and C-H⋯Cl inter-molecular inter-actions form a layered structure, lying parallel to (001).

  16. Competitive solvation and complexation of Cu(I), Cu(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), and Ag(I) in aqueous ethanol, acetonitrile, and dimethylsulfoxide solutions containing chloride ion with applications to hydrometallurgy

    Science.gov (United States)

    Senanayake, G.; Muir, D. M.

    1990-06-01

    The changes in reduction potential and single ion activity of Cu(I), Cu(II), Pb(II), Zn(II), and Ag(I) have been measured in a range of aqueous ethanol (EtOH), acetonitrile (AN), and dimethylsulfoxide (DMSO) compositions containing excess chloride ion. The results are compared with changes in such solutions in the absence of chloride ion and with the changes in strong brines and rationalized in terms of the various competitive ion-solvent and ion-chloride interactions. Organic solvents are shown to generally enhance chloride ion activity and promote complex ion formation. But AN is a stronger ligand for Cu(I) and DMSO is a stronger ligand for Cu(II) and Zn(II) than is Cl- or the other solvents. The decrease in metal ion activity in mixed aqueous solvents containing Cl- is greater than that in concentrated aqueous chloride salt solutions, according to the strength of the chloro- or solvo-complex. These fundamental changes lead to applications in the extraction of metal ion complexes and promote the dissolution of AgCl, PbCl2, and CuCl in aqueous DMSO containing Cl-.

  17. Troponate/Aminotroponate Ruthenium-Arene Complexes: Synthesis, Structure, and Ligand-Tuned Mechanistic Pathway for Direct C-H Bond Arylation with Aryl Chlorides in Water.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Dwivedi, Ambikesh D; Binnani, Chinky; Tyagi, Deepika; Rawat, Kuber S; Li, Pei-Zhou; Zhao, Yanli; Mobin, Shaikh M; Pathak, Biswarup; Singh, Sanjay K

    2016-07-05

    A series of water-soluble troponate/aminotroponate ruthenium(II)-arene complexes were synthesized, where O,O and N,O chelating troponate/aminotroponate ligands stabilized the piano-stool mononuclear ruthenium-arene complexes. Structural identities for two of the representating complexes were also established by single-crystal X-ray diffraction studies. These newly synthesized troponate/aminotroponate ruthenium-arene complexes enable efficient C-H bond arylation of arylpyridine in water. The unique structure-activity relationship in these complexes is the key to achieve efficient direct C-H bond arylation of arylpyridine. Moreover, the steric bulkiness of the carboxylate additives systematically directs the selectivity toward mono- versus diarylation of arylpyridines. Detailed mechanistic studies were performed using mass-spectral studies including identification of several key cyclometalated intermediates. These studies provided strong support for an initial cycloruthenation driven by carbonate-assisted deprotonation of 2-phenylpyridine, where the relative strength of η(6)-arene and the troponate/aminotroponate ligand drives the formation of cyclometalated 2-phenylpyridine Ru-arene species, [(η(6)-arene)Ru(κ(2)-C,N-phenylpyridine) (OH2)](+) by elimination of troponate/aminotroponate ligands and retaining η(6)-arene, while cyclometalated 2-phenylpyridine Ru-troponate/aminotroponate species [(κ (2)-troponate/aminotroponate)Ru(κ(2)-C,N-phenylpyridine)(OH2)2] was generated by decoordination of η(6)-arene ring during initial C-H bond activation of 2-phenylpyridine. Along with the experimental mass-spectral evidence, density functional theory calculation also supports the formation of such species for these complexes. Subsequently, these cycloruthenated products activate aryl chloride by facile oxidative addition to generate C-H arylated products.

  18. A 2:2:2 Complex of Vanadium(V) with 4-(2-Thiazolylazo)orcinol and 2,3,5-Triphenyl-2H-Tetrazolium Chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gavazov, Kiril Blazhev; Delchev, Vassil Borisov; Mileva, Kremena Tomova; Stefanova, Teodora Stefcheva; Toncheva, Galya Kostadinova

    2016-01-01

    The complex formation in the vanadium(V)/4-(2-thiazolylazo)orcinol (TAO)/2,3,5-triphenyl-2H-tetrazolium chloride (TTC) liquid-liquid extraction-chromogenic system was studied. The chloroform-extracted complex has a composition of 2:2:2 under the optimum conditions (pH 4.8-5.2, extraction time 3 min, concentration of TAO 3.4 × 10(-4) mol dm(-3), and concentration of TTC 9.4 × 10(-4) mol dm(-3)) and could be regarded as a dimer (D) of two 1:1:1 species (S) presented by the formula (TT+)[VO2(TAO)]. The constant of extraction was calculated by two methods and some analytical characteristics were determined. The wavelength of maximum absorption (λmax), molar absorptivity (ελ) and fraction extracted (E) were found to be λ = 545 nm, ε545 = 1.97 × 10(4) dm(3) mol(-1) cm(-1), and E = 97.9%. The ground-state equilibrium geometries of the complexes S and D were optimized by quantum chemical Hartree-Fock calculations using 3-21G* basis functions. The bonding and interaction energies were calculated as well.

  19. Iron Pentapyridyl Complexes as Molecular Water Oxidation Catalysts: Strong Influence of a Chloride Ligand and pH in Altering the Mechanism.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Das, Biswanath; Orthaber, Andreas; Ott, Sascha; Thapper, Anders

    2016-05-23

    The development of molecular water oxidation catalysts based on earth-abundant, non-noble metals is essential for artificial photosynthesis research. Iron, which is the most abundant transition metal in the earth's crust, is a prospective candidate for this purpose. Herein, we report two iron complexes based on the polypyridyl ligand Py5OH (Py5OH=pyridine-2,6-diylbis [di(pyridin-2-yl)methanol]) that can catalyse water oxidation to produce O2 in Ru(III) -induced (at pH 8, highest turnover number (TON)=26.5; turnover frequency (TOF)=2.2 s(-1) ), Ce(IV) -induced (at pH≈1.5 highest TON=16; TOF=0.75 s(-1) ) and photo-induced (at pH 8, highest TON=43.5; TOF=0.6 s(-1) ) reactions. A chloride ligand in one of the iron complexes is shown to affect the activity strongly, improve stability and, thereby, the performance at pH 8 but it inhibits oxygen evolution at pH≈1.5. The observations are consistent with a change in mechanism for catalytic water oxidation with the Fe(Py5OH) complexes between acidic (Ce(IV) ) and near-neutral pH (Ru(III) ). © 2016 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  20. A DFT Study of Some Structural and Spectral Properties of 4-Methoxyacetophenone Thiosemicarbazone and Its Complexes with Some Transition Metal Chlorides: Potent Antimicrobial Agents

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Julius Numbonui Ghogomu

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Recent studies have shown that 4-methoxyacetophenone thiosemicarbazone (MAPTSC and its complexes with some transition metal chlorides are potent antimicrobial agents. To deepen the understanding of their structure-activity relationships necessary for rational drug design, their structural and spectral properties, along with thione-thiol tautomerism of MAPTSC, have been studied herein using the density functional theory (DFT. From our results, the thione tautomer of MAPTSC is more stable than the thiol counterpart in ethanolic solution, and thione-to-thiol tautomerization is highly precluded at ambient temperature (25°C by a high barrier height ≈46.41 kcal/mol. MAPTSC can therefore exist as a mixture of the thione (major and thiol (minor tautomers in ethanolic solution at room and higher temperatures. Conformational analysis has revealed five possible conformers of the thione tautomer, of which two are stable enough to be isolated at 25°C. Based on our computed values of MAPTSC-metal(II binding energies, enthalpies, and Gibbs free energies, the thione tautomer of MAPTSC exhibits a higher affinity for the d8 metal ions Ni(II, Pd(II, and Pt(II and can therefore efficiently chelate them in chemical and biological systems. Natural population analysis has revealed ligand-metal charge transfer in the MAPTSC complexes studied. A good agreement has been found between calculated and experimentally observed spectral properties (IR, UV-Vis, and NMR.

  1. Pyridine Vapors Detection by an Optical Fibre Sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Alberto Fernandez-Gutiérrez

    2008-02-01

    Full Text Available An optical fibre sensor has been implemented towards pyridine vapors detection;to achieve this, a novel vapochromic material has been used, which, in solid state, suffers achange in colour from blue to pink-white in presence of pyridine vapours. This complex isadded to a solution of PVC (Poly Vinyl Chloride, TBP (Tributylphosphate andtetrahydrofuran (THF, forming a plasticized matrix; by dip coating technique, the sensingmaterial is fixed onto a cleaved ended optical fibre. The fabrication process was optimizedin terms of number of dips and dipping speed, evaluating the final devices by dynamicrange. Employing a reflection set up, the absorbance spectra and changes in the reflectedoptical power of the sensors were registered to determine their response. A linear relationbetween optical power versus vapor concentration was obtained, with a detection limit of 1ppm (v/v.

  2. SYNTHESIS AND INFRARED STUDY OF SOME NEW MOLYBDATO AND HYDROGENOMOLYBDATO ADDUCTS AND COMPLEXES OF COBALT, ZINC, ANTIMONY AND CADMIUM CHLORIDES

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    SERIGNE FALLOU POUYE

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available Five new molybdato (four and hydrogenomolybdato (one adducts and complexes have been synthesized and studied by infrared spectroscopy. The suggested structures are all discrete, the molybdate anion behaving as a trichelating, a monochelating, a bridging, a tetrachelating and a bichelating ligand. The environment around Zn, Co, Cd is tetrahedral or trigonal bipyramidal also for Zn - while being octahedral for Sb. The Cd pentanuclear adduct has a two metallic components structure, a tetranuclear anionic one with a tetrachelating molybdate, the second being a neutral dehydrated adduct component. The suggested structure for the hydrogenomolybdato adduct is discrete, the hydrogenomolybdate being present as a hydrogen bonded dimer behaves as a bridging bidentate ligand. The water molecules can be considered as a coordinating ligand or lattice. When secondary interactions through hydrogen bonds involving the water molecules are considered supramolecular architectures are obtained.

  3. Uranium(IV) Chloride Complexes: UCl62-and an Unprecedented U(H2O)4Cl4Structural Unit.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wacker, Jennifer N; Vasiliu, Monica; Huang, Kevin; Baumbach, Ryan E; Bertke, Jeffery A; Dixon, David A; Knope, Karah E

    2017-08-21

    The room temperature synthesis and structural characterization of two U(IV) compounds isolated from acidic aqueous solution is reported. Evaporation of a U(IV)/HCl solution containing pyridinium (HPy) yielded (HPy) 2 UCl 6 (1), yet in the presence of an organic carboxylate U(H 2 O) 4 Cl 4 ·(HPy·Cl) 2 (2) is obtained. The structures have been determined by single crystal X-ray diffraction and characterized by Raman, IR, and optical spectroscopies. The magnetism of both compounds was also investigated. The structure of 1 is built from UCl 6 2- anionic units, pervasive in descriptions of the aqueous chemistry of tetravalent uranium, and is found to undergo a phase transition from C2/m to P1̅ upon cooling. By comparison, the structure of 2 contains a neutral U(IV)-aquo-chloro complex, U(H 2 O) 4 Cl 4 , for which there is no literature precedence. Density functional theory calculations were performed to predict the geometries, vibrational frequencies, and relative energetics of the UCl 6 2- and U(H 2 O) 4 Cl 4 units. The energetics of the reaction of U(H 2 O) 4 Cl 4 to form the dianion are predicted to be exothermic in the gas phase and in aqueous solution. The predicted energetics coupled with no previous solid state reports of a U(IV)-aquo-chloro complex may point toward the importance of hydrogen bonding and other supramolecular interactions, prevalent in the structures of 1 and 2, on the stabilization and/or crystallization of the U(H 2 O) 4 Cl 4 structural unit.

  4. Synthesis, structural characterization, Hirshfeld surface analysis and spectroscopic studies of cadmium (II) chloride complex with 4-hydroxy-1-methylpiperidine

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Soudani, S. [Université de Carthage, Laboratoire de Chimie des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, 7021 Zarzouna (Tunisia); Ferretti, V. [Department of Chemical and Pharmaceutical Sciences and Center for Structural Diffractometry, via Fossato di Mortara 17, I-44121 Ferrara (Italy); Jelsch, C. [CRM2, CNRS, Institut Jean Barriol, Université de Lorraine, Vandoeuvre les Nancy CEDEX (France); Lefebvre, F. [Laboratoire de Chimie Organométallique de Surface (LCOMS), Ecole Supérieure de Chimie Physique Electronique, 69626 Villeurbanne Cedex (France); Nasr, C. Ben, E-mail: cherif_bennasr@yahoo.fr [Université de Carthage, Laboratoire de Chimie des Matériaux, Faculté des Sciences de Bizerte, 7021 Zarzouna (Tunisia)

    2016-05-15

    The chemical preparation, crystal structure, Hirshfeld surface analysis and spectroscopic characterization of the novel cadmium (II) 4-hydroxy-1-methylpiperidine complex, Cd{sub 4}Cl{sub 10}(C{sub 6}H{sub 14}NO){sub 2}·2H{sub 2}O, have been reported. The atomic arrangement can be described as built up by an anionic framework, formed by edge sharing CdCl{sub 6} and CdCl{sub 5}O octahedral linear chains spreading along the a-axis. These chains are interconnected by water molecules via O–H⋯Cl and O–H⋯O hydrogen bonds to form layers parallel to (011) plane. The organic cations are inserted between layers through C–H⋯Cl hydrogen bonds. Investigation of intermolecular interactions and crystal packing via Hirshfeld surface analysis reveals that the H{sub C}⋯Cl and H{sub C}⋯H{sub C} intermolecular interactions are the most abundant contacts of the organic cation in the crystal packing. The statistical analysis of crystal contacts reveals the driving forces in the packing formation. The {sup 13}C and {sup 15}N CP-MAS NMR spectra are in agreement with the X-ray structure. The vibrational absorption bands were identified by infrared spectroscopy. DFT calculations allowed the attribution of the NMR peaks and of the IR bands.

  5. Tribenzylammonium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Waly Diallo

    2014-05-01

    Full Text Available Single crystals of the title salt, C21H21NH+·Cl−, were isolated as a side product from the reaction involving [(C6H5CH23NH]2[HPO4] and Sn(CH33Cl in ethanol. Both the cation and the anion are situated on a threefold rotation axis. The central N atom in the cation has a slightly distorted tetrahedral environment, with angles ranging from 107.7 to 111.16 (10°. In the crystal, the tribenzylammonium cations and chloride anions are linked through N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds, leading to the formation of infinite chains along [001]. The crystal studied was a merohedral twin.

  6. Chloride Blood Test

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... page: https://medlineplus.gov/labtests/chloridebloodtest.html Chloride Blood Test To use the sharing features on this page, please enable JavaScript. What is a Chloride Blood Test? A chloride blood test measures the amount of ...

  7. Synthesis and modeling of uniform complex metal oxides by close-proximity atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hoye, Robert L Z; Muñoz-Rojas, David; Musselman, Kevin P; Vaynzof, Yana; MacManus-Driscoll, Judith L

    2015-05-27

    A close-proximity atmospheric pressure chemical vapor deposition (AP-CVD) reactor is developed for synthesizing high quality multicomponent metal oxides for electronics. This combines the advantages of a mechanically controllable substrate-manifold spacing and vertical gas flows. As a result, our AP-CVD reactor can rapidly grow uniform crystalline films on a variety of substrate types at low temperatures without requiring plasma enhancements or low pressures. To demonstrate this, we take the zinc magnesium oxide (Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O) system as an example. By introducing the precursor gases vertically and uniformly to the substrate across the gas manifold, we show that films can be produced with only 3% variation in thickness over a 375 mm(2) deposition area. These thicknesses are significantly more uniform than for films from previous AP-CVD reactors. Our films are also compact, pinhole-free, and have a thickness that is linearly controllable by the number of oscillations of the substrate beneath the gas manifold. Using photoluminescence and X-ray diffraction measurements, we show that for Mg contents below 46 at. %, single phase Zn(1-x)Mg(x)O was produced. To further optimize the growth conditions, we developed a model relating the composition of a ternary oxide with the bubbling rates through the metal precursors. We fitted this model to the X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy measured compositions with an error of Δx = 0.0005. This model showed that the incorporation of Mg into ZnO can be maximized by using the maximum bubbling rate through the Mg precursor for each bubbling rate ratio. When applied to poly(3-hexylthiophene-2,5-diyl) hybrid solar cells, our films yielded an open-circuit voltage increase of over 100% by controlling the Mg content. Such films were deposited in short times (under 2 min over 4 cm(2)).

  8. Water vapor adsorption on goethite.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Song, Xiaowei; Boily, Jean-François

    2013-07-02

    Goethite (α-FeOOH) is an important mineral contributing to processes of atmospheric and terrestrial importance. Their interactions with water vapor are particularly relevant in these contexts. In this work, molecular details of water vapor (0.0-19.0 Torr; 0-96% relative humidity at 25 °C) adsorption at surfaces of synthetic goethite nanoparticles reacted with and without HCl and NaCl were resolved using vibrational spectroscopy. This technique probed interactions between surface (hydr)oxo groups and liquid water-like films. Molecular dynamics showed that structures and orientations adopted by these waters are comparable to those adopted at the interface with liquid water. Particle surfaces reacted with HCl accumulated less water than acid-free surfaces due to disruptions in hydrogen bond networks by chemisorbed waters and chloride. Particles reacted with NaCl had lower loadings below ∼10 Torr water vapor but greater loadings above this value than salt-free surfaces. Water adsorption reactions were here affected by competitive hydration of coexisting salt-free surface regions, adsorbed chloride and sodium, as well as precipitated NaCl. Collectively, the findings presented in this study add further insight into the initial mechanisms of thin water film formation at goethite surfaces subjected to variations in water vapor pressure that are relevant to natural systems.

  9. Vaporization and thermochemical properties of Li 8Zr0 6 and comparison with other lithium-containing complex oxides

    Science.gov (United States)

    Asano, Mitsuru; Kato, Yoshinari; Harada, Toshio; Mizutani, Yasuo

    1996-06-01

    A mass-spectrometric Knudsen effusion method is used for the determination of partial pressures of Li (g), LiO (g), Li 2O (g), Li 2O 2 (g), Li 3O (g) and O 2 (g) over Li 8ZrO 6 (s/1) in the temperature range 1181-1429 K. From the gas-solid equilibria, enthalpies of formation for Li 8ZrO 6 (s) are calculated to be ΔfH298o (Li 8ZrO 6, s) = -(3558.5 ± 16.5) kJ mol -1 from the elements and ΔfoxH298o (Li 8ZrO 6, (s)= - (66.1 ± 18.6) kJ mol -1 from the constituent oxides, Li 2O(s) and ZrO 2 (s). Over various lithium-containing complex oxides, the partial pressures of Li 2O (g) decrease in the following order: Li 2O (s) > Li 5AlO 4(1) ≈ Li 2PbO 6 (s) ≈ Li 8ZrO 6 (s/1) ≈ Li 4TiO 4 (s/1) > Li 6Zr 2O 7 (s) > Li 2SnO 3 (s) > Li 4SiO 4 (s/1) > Li 2Ti 3 (s) ≈ Li 2ZrO 3 (s) > LiAlO 2 (s) ≈ Li 2SiO 3 (1) > LiNbO 3 (1). Thermodynamic activities and activity coefficients of the pseudo Li 2O component in the complex oxides are evaluated from the partial pressures of Li 2O (g). The results show that the complex oxides with less Li 20 molar content have more ability to stabilize the pseudo Li 2O component in binary Li 2OMO x, system (M  Al, Si, Ti and Zr).

  10. Vapor Detector

    Science.gov (United States)

    Waddell, H. M.; Garrard, G. C.; Houston, D. W.

    1982-01-01

    Detector eliminates need for removing covers to take samples. Detector is canister consisting of screw-in base and clear plastic tube that contains two colors of silica gel. Monoethylhydrazine and nitrogen tetroxide vapors are visually monitored with canister containing color-changing gels.

  11. Functional modulation of cerebral gamma-aminobutyric acidA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex with ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate: Presence of independent binding site for ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Taguchi, J.; Kuriyama, K. (Kyoto Prefectural Univ. of Medicine (Japan))

    1990-05-01

    Effect of ethyl beta-carboline-3-carboxylate (beta-CCE) on the function of gamma-aminobutyric acid (GABA)A receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex was studied. Beta-CCE noncompetitively and competitively inhibited (3H)flunitrazepam binding to benzodiazepine receptor, but not (3H)muscimol binding to GABAA receptor as well as t-(3H)butylbicycloorthobenzoate (( 3H) TBOB) binding to chloride ion channel, in particulate fraction of the mouse brain. Ro15-1788 also inhibited competitively (3H) flunitrazepam binding. On the other hand, the binding of beta-(3H)CCE was inhibited noncompetitively and competitively by clonazepam and competitively by Ro15-1788. In agreement with these results, benzodiazepines-stimulated (3H)muscimol binding was antagonized by beta-CCE and Ro15-1788. Gel column chromatography for the solubilized fraction from cerebral particulate fraction by 0.2% sodium deoxycholate (DOC-Na) in the presence of 1 M KCl indicated that beta-(3H)CCE binding site was eluted in the same fraction (molecular weight, 250,000) as the binding sites for (3H)flunitrazepam, (3H)muscimol and (3H)TBOB. GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx into membrane vesicles prepared from the bovine cerebral cortex was stimulated and attenuated by flunitrazepam and beta-CCE, respectively. These effects of flunitrazepam and beta-CCE on the GABA-stimulated 36Cl- influx were antagonized by Ro15-1788. The present results suggest that the binding site for beta-CCE, which resides on GABAA receptor/benzodiazepine receptor/chloride ion channel complex, may be different from that for benzodiazepine. Possible roles of beta-CCE binding site in the allosteric inhibitions on benzodiazepine binding site as well as on the functional coupling between chloride ion channel and GABAA receptor are also suggested.

  12. Chloride in diet

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... vegetables. Foods with higher amounts of chloride include seaweed, rye, tomatoes, lettuce, celery, and olives. Chloride, combined ... RDA is an intake level based on scientific research evidence. Adequate Intake (AI): This level is established ...

  13. Systems and methods for solar cells with CIS and CIGS films made by reacting evaporated copper chlorides with selenium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albin, David S.; Noufi, Rommel

    2015-06-09

    Systems and methods for solar cells with CIS and CIGS films made by reacting evaporated copper chlorides with selenium are provided. In one embodiment, a method for fabricating a thin film device comprises: providing a semiconductor film comprising indium (In) and selenium (Se) upon a substrate; heating the substrate and the semiconductor film to a desired temperature; and performing a mass transport through vapor transport of a copper chloride vapor and se vapor to the semiconductor film within a reaction chamber.

  14. Combined time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy and extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy study on the complexation of trivalent actinides with chloride at T = 25-200 °C.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Skerencak-Frech, Andrej; Fröhlich, Daniel R; Rothe, Jörg; Dardenne, Kathy; Panak, Petra J

    2014-01-21

    The complexation of trivalent actinides (An(III)) with chloride is studied in the temperature range from 25 to 200 °C by spectroscopic methods. Time-resolved laser fluorescence spectroscopy (TRLFS) is applied to determine the thermodynamic data of Cm(III)-Cl(-) complexes, while extended X-ray absorption fine structure spectroscopy (EXAFS) is used to determine the structural data of the respective Am(III) complexes. The experiments are performed in a custom-built high-temperature cell which is modified for the respective spectroscopic technique. The TRLFS results show that at 25 °C the speciation is dominated mainly by the Cm(3+) aquo ion. Only a minor fraction of the CmCl(2+) complex is present in solution. As the temperature increases, the fraction of this species decreases further. Simultaneously, the fraction of the CmCl2(+) complex increases strongly with the temperature. Also, the CmCl3 complex is formed to a minor extent at T > 160 °C. The conditional stability constant log β'2 is determined as a function of the temperature and extrapolated to zero ionic strength with the specific ion interaction theory approach. The log β°2(T) values increase by more than 3 orders of magnitude in the studied temperature range. The temperature dependency of log β°2 is fitted by the extended van't Hoff equation to determine ΔrH°m, ΔrS°m, and ΔrC°p,m. The EXAFS results support these findings. The results confirm the absence of americium(III) chloride complexes at T = 25 and 90 °C ([Am(III)] = 10(-3) m, [Cl(-)] = 3.0 m), and the spectra are described by 9-10 oxygen atoms at a distance of 2.44-2.48 Å. At T = 200 °C two chloride ligands are present in the inner coordination sphere of Am(III) at a distance of 2.78 Å.

  15. Atomic vapor density monitor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sewall, N.; Harris, W.; Beeler, R.; Wooldridge, J.; Chen, H.L.

    1986-09-01

    This report presents information on the Atomic Vapor Density Monitor (AVDM) system that measures the density of a vapor by measuring the absorption of light from a swept-wavelength laser that passes through an atomic vapor stream.

  16. Petroleum Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    One type of vapor intrusion is PVI, in which vapors from petroleum hydrocarbons such as gasoline, diesel, or jet fuel enter a building. Intrusion of contaminant vapors into indoor spaces is of concern.

  17. 3D solid supported inter-polyelectrolyte complexes obtained by the alternate deposition of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Eduardo Guzmán

    2016-02-01

    Full Text Available This work addresses the formation and the internal morphology of polyelectrolyte layers obtained by the layer-by-layer method. A multimodal characterization showed the absence of stratification of the films formed by the alternate deposition of poly(diallyldimethylammonium chloride and poly(sodium 4-styrenesulfonate. Indeed the final organization might be regarded as three-dimensional solid-supported inter-polyelectrolyte films. The growth mechanism of the multilayers, followed using a quartz crystal microbalance, evidences two different growth trends, which show a dependency on the ionic strength due to its influence onto the polymer conformation. The hydration state does not modify the multilayer growth, but it contributes to the total adsorbed mass of the film. The water associated with the polyelectrolyte films leads to their swelling and plastification. The use of X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy has allowed for deeper insights on the internal structure and composition of the polyelectrolyte multilayers.

  18. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents the state-of-the art: an analytical model which describes chloride profiles in concrete as function of depth...... dependent surface chloride concentrations and the diffusion coefficients. Model parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash in marine atmospheric and submerged South Scandinavian environment are suggested in a companion paper based on 10 years field exposure data....... makes physical sense for the design engineer, i.e. the achieved chloride diffusion coefficients at 1 year and 100 years, D1 and D100 respectively, and the corresponding achieved chloride concentrations at the exposed concrete surface, C1 and C100. Data from field exposure supports the assumption of time...

  19. Chloride ingress prediction

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Frederiksen, Jens Mejer; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2008-01-01

    Prediction of chloride ingress into concrete is an important part of durability design of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride containing environment. This paper presents experimentally based design parameters for Portland cement concretes with and without silica fume and fly ash...... in marine atmospheric and submersed South Scandinavian environment. The design parameters are based on sequential measurements of 86 chloride profiles taken over ten years from 13 different types of concrete. The design parameters provide the input for an analytical model for chloride profiles as function...

  20. Determination of the stability constants of lanthanum, praseodymium, europium, erbium and lutetium complexes with chloride ions; Determinacion de las constantes de estabilidad de los complejos de lantano, praseodimio, europio, erbio y lutecio con iones cloruro

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fernandez R, E. [ININ, 52045 Ocoyoacac, Estado de Mexico (Mexico)

    2008-07-01

    The stability constants of La{sup 3+}, Pr{sup 3+}, Eu{sup 3+}, Er{sup 3+} and Lu{sup 3+} chloride complexes were determined in perchloric acid media using a liquid-liquid extraction method. The dinonyl napthalene sulfonic acid in n-heptane was used as extractant. The lanthanide (Ln) concentrations were measured by a radiochemical (Eu and Lu) and a spectrophotometric (La, Pr, and Er) methods. In the last method, xylenol orange was used for the determinations at ph 6. The stability constants of lanthanum, praseodymium, erbium and lutetium chloride complexes were determined in 2, 3 and 4 M ionic strength and europium in 1, 2 and 3 M, at 303 K. The fitting of experimental data to the equations for the calculation of the stability constants, was carry out considering both one chemical species (LnCl{sup 2+}) or two chemical species (LnCl{sup 2+} and LnCl{sub 2}{sup +}). The Specific Ion Interaction Theory was applied to the values of log {beta}{sup I}{sub Ln},{sub Cl} and the first stability constants at zero ionic strength were calculated by extrapolation. The same theory could not be applied to the log {beta}{sup I}{sub Ln},{sub 2Cl}, due to its low abundance and the values determined for the stability constants were similar. The distribution diagrams of the chemical species were obtained using the program MEDUSA and considering log {beta}{sup I}{sub Ln},{sub CI}, log {beta}{sup I}{sub Ln},{sub 2CI} values obtained in this work and the hydrolysis constants taken from the literature. The lanthanide chloride complexes are present in solution at specific conditions of ionic strength, concentration and in the absence of hydrolysis. The log {beta}{sup I}{sub Ln},{sub Cl} data were related to the charge density and the corresponding equations were obtained. These equations could be used to determine the stability constants along the lanthanide series. (Author)

  1. Vanadium(III chloride complexes of 1,2-bis-(5-H/methyl/chloro/nitro-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-1,2-ethanediols

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    AYDIN TAVMAN

    2006-05-01

    Full Text Available The complexes of 1,2-bis-(5-H/methyl/chloro/nitro-1H-benzimidazol-2-yl-1,2-ethanediols (L1-L4 with VCl3 were synthesized and characterized by elemental analyses, molar conductivity, FTIR and 1H-NMR spectroscopy. The ligands act as bidentate coordinating through both of the hydroxyl group oxygen atoms in the complexes. The ionic and diamagnetic complexes have the empirical formula [V(L2]Cl3. The [V(L42]Cl3 complex has two isomeric structures according to the 1H-NMR spectral data.

  2. EPA Method 245.1: Determination of Mercury in Water by Cold Vapor Atomic Absorption Spectrometry

    Science.gov (United States)

    SAM lists this method for preparation and analysis of aqueous liquid and drinking water samples. This method will determine mercuric chloride and methoxyethylmercuric acetate as total mercury using cold vapor atomic absorption spectrometry.

  3. Crystal structures of the 2:2 complex of 1,1′-(1,2-phenylenebis(3-m-tolylurea and tetrabutylammonium chloride or bromide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Chao Huang

    2017-09-01

    Full Text Available The title compounds, tetrabutylammonium chloride–1,1′-(1,2-phenylenebis(3-m-tolylurea (1/1, C16H36N+·Cl−·C22H22N4O2 or [(n-Bu4N+·Cl−(C22H22N4O2] (I and tetrabutylammonium bromide–1,1′-(1,2-phenylenebis(3-m-tolylurea (1/1, C16H36N+·Br−·C22H22N4O2 or [(n-Bu4N+·Br−(C22H22N4O2] (II, both comprise a tetrabutylammonium cation, a halide anion and an ortho-phenylene bis-urea molecule. Each halide ion shows four N—H...X (X = Cl or Br interactions with two urea receptor sites of different bis-urea moieties. A crystallographic inversion centre leads to the formation of a 2:2 arrangement of two halide anions and two bis-urea molecules. In the crystals, the dihedral angle between the two urea groups of the bis-urea molecule in (I [defined by the four N atoms, 165.4 (2°] is slightly smaller than that in (II [167.4 (2°], which is probably due to the smaller ionic radius of chloride compared to bromide.

  4. Simple Chemical Vapor Deposition Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pedersen, Henrik

    2014-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) is a process commonly used for the synthesis of thin films for several important technological applications, for example, microelectronics, hard coatings, and smart windows. Unfortunately, the complexity and prohibitive cost of CVD equipment makes it seldom available for undergraduate chemistry students. Here, a…

  5. Calibrated vapor generator source

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, J.P.; Larson, R.A.; Goodrich, L.D.; Hall, H.J.; Stoddard, B.D.; Davis, S.G.; Kaser, T.G.; Conrad, F.J.

    1995-09-26

    A portable vapor generator is disclosed that can provide a controlled source of chemical vapors, such as, narcotic or explosive vapors. This source can be used to test and calibrate various types of vapor detection systems by providing a known amount of vapors to the system. The vapor generator is calibrated using a reference ion mobility spectrometer. A method of providing this vapor is described, as follows: explosive or narcotic is deposited on quartz wool, placed in a chamber that can be heated or cooled (depending on the vapor pressure of the material) to control the concentration of vapors in the reservoir. A controlled flow of air is pulsed over the quartz wool releasing a preset quantity of vapors at the outlet. 10 figs.

  6. Synthesis, spectral characterization, catalytic and antibacterial studies of new Ru(III) Schiff base complexes containing chloride/bromide and triphenylphosphine/arsine as co-ligands

    Science.gov (United States)

    Arunachalam, S.; Padma Priya, N.; Jayabalakrishnan, C.; Chinnusamy, V.

    2009-10-01

    A new Ru(III) Schiff base complexes of the type [RuX(EPh 3)L] (X = Cl/Br; E = P/As; L = dianion of the Schiff bases were derived by the condensation of 1,4-diformylbenzene with o-aminobenzoic acid/ o-aminophenol/ o-aminothiophenol in the 1:2 stoichiometric ratio) have been synthesized from the reactions of [RuX 3(EPh 3) 3] with appropriate Schiff base ligands in benzene in the 2:1 stoichiometric ratio. The new complexes have been characterized by analytical, spectral (IR, electronic, 1H, 13C NMR and ESR), magnetic moment and electrochemical studies. An octahedral structure has been tentatively proposed for all these new complexes. All the new complexes have been found to be better catalyst for the oxidation of alcohols using molecular oxygen as co-oxidant at ambient temperature and aryl-aryl coupling reactions. These complexes were also subjected to antibacterial activity studies against Escherichia coli, Aeromonas hydrophilla and Salmonella typhi.

  7. Chemical Vapor Deposition of Bi-Te-Ni-Fe on Magnesium Oxide Substrate and Its Seebeck Effect

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Yong X. Gan

    2017-10-01

    Full Text Available In this work, a Bi-Te-Ni-Fe complex coating material was obtained on magnesium oxide substrate by a single step ambient pressure chemical vapor deposition (CVD. Nickel acetate, bismuth acetate, iron (III nitrate, and tellurium (IV chloride dissolved in N,N-dimethylformamide (DMF served as the metal sources for Ni, Bi, Fe, and Te, respectively. Hydrogen was used as the carrier gas. The substrate was kept at 500 °C in a quartz tube reaction chamber. The chemical vapor deposition time was two hours. Scanning electron microscopic observation revealed porous morphology of the deposited material with a needle-like submicron fine structure. These needle-like entities form networks with fairly uniform distribution on the substrate. Thermoelectric property test showed that the coating is p-type with a Seebeck coefficient of 179 µV/K. Time-dependent potential data were obtained to show the sensitivity of the Seebeck effect to temperature changes.

  8. Kinetics and mechanism for reversible chloride transfer between mercury(II) and square-planar platinum(II) chloro ammine, aqua, and sulfoxide complexes. Stabilities, spectra, and reactivities of transient metal-metal bonded platinum-mercury adducts.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gröning, O; Sargeson, A M; Deeth, R J; Elding, L I

    2000-09-18

    The Hg2+aq- and HgCl+aq-assisted aquations of [PtCl4]2- (1), [PtCl3(H2O)]- (2), cis-[PtCl2(H2O)2] (3), trans-[PtCl2(H2O)2] (4), [PtCl(H2O)3]+ (5), [PtCl3Me2SO]- (6), trans-[PtCl2(H2O)Me2SO] (7), cis-[PtCl(H2O)2Me2SO]+ (8), trans-[PtCl(H2O)2M32SO]+ (9), trans-[PtCl2(NH3)2] (10), and cis-[PtCl2(NH3)2] (11) have been studied at 25.0 degrees C in a 1.00 M HClO4 medium buffered with chloride, using stopped-flow and conventional spectrophotometry. Saturation kinetics and instantaneous, large UV/vis spectral changes on mixing solutions of platinum complex and mercury are ascribed to formation of transient adducts between Hg2+ and several of the platinum complexes. Depending on the limiting rate constants, these adducts are observed for a few milliseconds to a few minutes. Thermodynamic and kinetics data together with the UV/vis spectral changes and DFT calculations indicate that their structures are characterized by axial coordination of Hg to Pt with remarkably short metal-metal bonds. Stability constants for the Hg2+ adducts with complexes 1-6, 10, and 11 are (2.1 +/- 0.4) x 10(4), (8 +/- 1) x 10(2), 94 +/- 6, 13 +/- 2, 5 +/- 2, 60 +/- 6, 387 +/- 2, and 190 +/- 3 M-1, respectively, whereas adduct formation with the sulfoxide complexes 7-9 is too weak to be observed. For analogous platinum(II) complexes, the stabilities of the Pt-Hg adducts increase in the order sulfoxide < aqua < ammine complex, reflecting a sensitivity to the pi-acid strength of the Pt ligands. Rate constants for chloride transfer from HgCl+ and HgCl2 to complexes 1-11 have been determined. Second-order rate constants for activation by Hg2+ are practically the same as those for activation by HgCl+ for each of the platinum complexes studied, yet resolved contributions for Hg2+ and HgCl+ reveal that the latter does not form dinuclear adducts of any significant stability. The overall experimental evidence is consistent with a mechanism in which the accumulated Pt(II)-Hg2+ adducts are not reactive

  9. Vapor degreasing system

    Science.gov (United States)

    du Fresne, Eugene R. (Inventor)

    1984-01-01

    A vapor degreasing method and apparatus wherein a second cooling coil is used to prevent escape of solvent or solvent vapor from a degreaser. Gaseous refrigerant from the second coil can be released to the freeboard space above the solvent vapor zone to provide a barrier layer.

  10. Vapor Corrosion Response of Low Carbon Steel Exposed to Simulated High Level Radioactive Waste

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Wiersma, B

    2006-01-26

    A program to resolve the issues associated with potential vapor space corrosion and liquid/air interface corrosion in the Type III high level waste tanks is in place. The objective of the program is to develop understanding of vapor space (VSC) and liquid/air interface (LAIC) corrosion to ensure a defensible technical basis to provide accurate corrosion evaluations with regard to vapor space and liquid/air interface corrosion. The results of the FY05 experiments are presented here. The experiments are an extension of the previous research on the corrosion of tank steel exposed to simple solutions to corrosion of the steel when exposed to complex high level waste simulants. The testing suggested that decanting and the consequent residual species on the tank wall is the predominant source of surface chemistry on the tank wall. The laboratory testing has shown that at the boundary conditions of the chemistry control program for solutions greater than 1M NaNO{sub 3}{sup -}. Minor and isolated pitting is possible within crevices in the vapor space of the tanks that contain stagnant dilute solution for an extended period of time, specifically when residues are left on the tank wall during decanting. Liquid/air interfacial corrosion is possible in dilute stagnant solutions, particularly with high concentrations of chloride. The experimental results indicate that Tank 50 would be most susceptible to the potential for liquid/air interfacial corrosion or vapor space corrosion, with Tank 49 and 41 following, since these tanks are nearest to the chemistry control boundary conditions. The testing continues to show that the combination of well-inhibited solutions and mill-scale sufficiently protect against pitting in the Type III tanks.

  11. The solubility of AuAg alloy + AgCl in HCl/NaCl solutions at 300°C: New data on the stability of Au (1) chloride complexes in hydrothermal fluids

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gammons, C. H.; Williams-Tones, A. E.

    1995-09-01

    The solubility of AuAg alloy (electrum) + AgCl (chlorargyrite) was measured in aqueous HCl/NaCl solutions at 300°C. Equilibrium between the two solid phases provided a convenient and highly effective fO 2 sensor. By varying the initial electrum composition ( XAu = 0.3 to 1.0), total chloride concentration (0.1 to 5.0 molal), and pH (HCl/(NaCl + HCl) = 0.003 to 1.0), it was possible to survey a wide range in oxidation state (log fO 2 = -13.3 to -35.1). High metal solubilities were measured under these conditions (0.3 to >3000 ppm Au; 1280 to >40,000 ppm Ag). All evidence indicates that Au dissolved as an aurous ( + 1) chloride complex at 300°C. This species subsequently disproportionated to a mixture of auric (+III) species and metallic Au upon cooling to room temperature. The solubility data were used to determine equilibrium constants for the following reactions: reactionlogK300°, Psat Au(s) + 2Cl - + H + + 1/4O 2(g) = AuCl 2- + 1/2H 2O +3.86 ± 0.39 (A1) Ag(s) + 2C1 - + H + + 1/4O 2(g) = AgCl 2- + 1/2H 2O +9.23 ±0.15 (A2) Au(s) + AgCl 2- = Ag(s) + AuCl 2--5.35 ± 0.41 (A3) The value of log K for (A2) is in excellent agreement with previous studies (Seward, 1976; Zotov et al., 1986a,b), whereas the value for (Al) is consistent with the data of Nikolaeva et al. (1972), Helgeson (1969), and Zotov et al. (1991), but not with the results of Henley (1973) and Wood et al. (1987). The log K for (A3) is the first direct determination of a distribution coefficient for exchange of Au and Ag between solid solution and aqueous solution. The above data were combined with results from previous experimental studies to compile a complete set of log K values for reactions (A1), (A2), and (A3) in the temperature range 25 to 350°C. Silver is far more soluble than Au as a chloride complex throughout this temperature range. Nonetheless, AuCl 2- may be an important agent for Au transport at T > 300°C, or in highly oxidized (e.g., surface-derived) fluids. Because of the very

  12. Reaction between coal and ferric chloride (III)

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kochkanyan, R.O.; Khripunov, S.V.; Baranov, S.N.

    1988-05-01

    Investigates absorption of ferric chloride (III) with free and filled (hexahydrate) coordination spheres, and antimony chloride (V) by various rank coal (brown coal to anthracite). Determines magnitude of specific absorption due to dynamic pore formation. Confirms polyassociative structure of coal with donor-acceptor characteristics and its similarity with polyassociative frame matrix in clathrate forming compounds. Gives specifications of coal used and provides data on specific absorption, diffractograms and paramagnetic characteristics of coal and adduct, and others. States that coal exhibits properties of intermolecular donor-acceptor complex with charge transfer and with comparatively unstable bonds which determine their paramagnetism and high specific absorption. 9 refs.

  13. An automatic molecular dispenser of chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alibrandi, Giuseppe; Amendola, Valeria; Bergamaschi, Greta; Dollenz, Riccardo; Fabbrizzi, Luigi; Licchelli, Maurizio; Lo Vecchio, Carmelo

    2013-03-11

    The combined activity of the 1.1.1-cryptand and of a dicopper(II) bistren cryptate complex including chloride makes the Cl(-) ion be continuously and slowly delivered to the solution, without any external intervention. The 1.1.1-cryptand slowly releases OH(-) ions, according to a defined kinetics, and each OH(-) ion displaces a Cl(-) ion from the cryptate. Chloride displacement induces a sharp colour change from bright yellow to aquamarine and can be conveniently monitored spectrophotometrically, even in diluted solutions. The 1.1.1-cryptand is the motor of a molecular dispenser (the dicopper(II) cryptate) delivering chloride ion automatically, from the inside of the solution. Copyright © 2013 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.

  14. Moxifloxacinium chloride monohydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Su-Xiang Wu

    2011-10-01

    Full Text Available The title compound {systematic name: 7-[(1S,6S-8-aza-2-azoniabicyclo[4.3.0]non-8-yl]-1-cyclopropyl-6-fluoro-8-methoxy-4-oxo-1,4-dihydroquinoline-3-carboxylic acid chloride monohydrate}, C21H25FN3O4+·Cl−·H2O, crystallizes with two moxifloxacinium cations, two chloride ions and two uncoordinated water molecules in the unit cell. The crystal structure has a pseudo-inversion center except for the chloride ions. In both moxifloxacinium cations, the quinoline rings are approximately planar, the maximum atomic deviations being 0.107 (3 and 0.118 (3 Å. The piperidine rings adopt a chair conformation while the pyrrolidine rings display a half-chair conformation. In the crystal, the carboxyl groups, the protonated piperidyl groups, the uncoordinated water molecule and chloride anions participate in O—H...O, O—H...Cl and N—H...Cl hydrogen bonding; weak intermolecular C—H...O and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonding is also present in the crystal structure.

  15. Strontium-89 Chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    ... may harm the fetus.notify any health care professional (especially other doctors) giving you treatment that you will be taking strontium-89 chloride.do not have any vaccinations (e.g., measles or flu shots) without talking to your doctor.

  16. Congenital chloride diarrhea: late presentation

    OpenAIRE

    Al Bishi, Laila; Mustafa,

    2011-01-01

    Laila Al Bishi1, Mustafa Al Toonisi2Pediatric Department, North West Armed Forces Hospital, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: We report the case of a male infant who presented with diarrhea at 6 months of age. He was failing to thrive, and biochemical investigation revealed hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Diagnosis of congenital chloride diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by the stool chloride result. He was started on high-dose sodium chloride and potassium chloride to...

  17. Hydrochloric acid aerosol formation by the interaction of hydrogen chloride with humid air

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rhein, R. A.

    1973-01-01

    The conditions in which hydrochloric acid aerosol is predicted by the interaction of hydrogen chloride gas with the water vapor in humid air are analyzed. The liquid gas phase equilibrium for the HCL-H2O system is expressed in terms of relative humidity and hydrogen chloride concentration as parts per million, units commonly used in pollution studies. Presented are the concentration (wt %) of HC1 in the aerosol and the concentration of aerosol (ppm) predicted.

  18. Physical model for vaporization

    OpenAIRE

    Garai, Jozsef

    2006-01-01

    Based on two assumptions, the surface layer is flexible, and the internal energy of the latent heat of vaporization is completely utilized by the atoms for overcoming on the surface resistance of the liquid, the enthalpy of vaporization was calculated for 45 elements. The theoretical values were tested against experiments with positive result.

  19. Vaporizers for medical marijuana.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mirken, B

    1999-09-17

    A major concern about the medical use of marijuana is the harmful effects that come from smoking it. Vaporizers are designed to release the active ingredients in marijuana without burning it, and therefore do not release the harmful substances found in the marijuana smoke. The Institute of Medicine recommends against the long-term medical use of smoked marijuana because of carcinogens and other chemicals in the smoke. Several vaporizers are on the market, but they have not been tested in the laboratory yet. A review of two vaporizers is given. Contact information is provided.

  20. Complexity

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Rahul Pandit

    2008-10-31

    Oct 31, 2008 ... ”The more complex a thing is, the more you can talk about it.” - attributed to Giorgio Parisi. ▻ ”C'est magnifique, mais ce n'est pas de la science.” (It is magnificent, but not all of it is science.) - attributed ... Earliest examples: theoretical computer science, algorithmic complexity, etc. ▻ Rapid progress after the ...

  1. Second Vapor-Level Sensor For Vapor Degreaser

    Science.gov (United States)

    Painter, Nance M.; Burley, Richard K.

    1990-01-01

    Second vapor-level sensor installed at lower level in vapor degreaser makes possible to maintain top of vapor at that lower level. Evaporation reduced during idle periods. Provides substantial benefit, without major capital cost of building new vapor degreaser with greater freeboard height.

  2. Congenital chloride diarrhea: late presentation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Al Bishi L

    2011-04-01

    Full Text Available Laila Al Bishi1, Mustafa Al Toonisi2Pediatric Department, North West Armed Forces Hospital, Tabuk, Kingdom of Saudi ArabiaAbstract: We report the case of a male infant who presented with diarrhea at 6 months of age. He was failing to thrive, and biochemical investigation revealed hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis. Diagnosis of congenital chloride diarrhea was suspected and confirmed by the stool chloride result. He was started on high-dose sodium chloride and potassium chloride to control the electrolyte imbalance. The disease was difficult to control for a year after diagnosis. Late presentation is associated with severe chronic electrolyte disturbances and high-dose replacement therapy.Keywords: congenital chloride diarrhea, hypokalemic hypochloremic metabolic alkalosis, high stool chloride

  3. cis-Dichloridobis(1,10-phenanthrolinechromium(III chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiaoli Gao

    2011-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title complex, [CrCl2(C12H8N22]Cl, the CrIII ion is situated on a twofold rotation axis and displays a slightly distorted octahedral CrCl2N4 coordination geometry. The Cr environment is composed of a cis arrangement of two 1,10-phenanthroline and two chloride ligands. The chloride counter-anion exhibits half-occupation and is equally disordered over two positions.

  4. SOLVENT EXTRACTION PROCESS FOR URANIUM FROM CHLORIDE SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Blake, C.A. Jr.; Brown, K.B.; Horner, D.E.

    1960-05-24

    An improvement was made in a uranium extraction process wherein the organic extractant is a phosphine oxide. An aqueous solution containing phosphate ions or sulfate ions together with uranium is provided with a source of chloride ions during the extraction step. The presence of the chloride ions enables a phosphine oxide to extract uranium in the presence of strong uranium- complexing ions such as phosphate or sulfate ions.

  5. Vapor Control Layer Recommendations

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    None

    2009-09-08

    This information sheet describes the level of vapor control required on the interior side of framed walls with typical fibrous cavity insulation (fibreglass, rockwool, or cellulose, based on DOE climate zone of construction.

  6. Gasoline Reid Vapor Pressure

    Science.gov (United States)

    EPA regulates the vapor pressure of gasoline sold at retail stations during the summer ozone season to reduce evaporative emissions from gasoline that contribute to ground-level ozone and diminish the effects of ozone-related health problems.

  7. Microwave Assisted Synthesis of 2,2'-Arylene-substituted Bis(4H-3,1-Benzoxazin-4-one Derivatives Using the Complex Cyanuric Chloride/N,N-Dimethylformamide

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Mehdi Shariat

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available A new and efficient method has been designed to prepare 2,2'-arylene-substituted bis(4H-3,1-benzoxazin-4-one derivatives by using the mixture of cyanuric chloride and N,N-dimethylformamide in a microwave-assisted reaction. The method used and presented here has good rate enhancement and excellent yields.

  8. [Determination of Chloride Salt Solution by NIR Spectroscopy].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Bin; Chen, Jian-hong; Jiao, Ming-xing

    2015-07-01

    Determination of chloride salt solution by near infrared spectrum plays a very important role in Biomedicine. The near infrared spectrum analysis of Sodium chloride, potassium chloride, calcium chloride aqueous solution shows that the concentration change of chloride salt can affect hydrogen bond, resulting in the variation of near infrared spectrum of water. The temperature influence on NIR spectrum has been decreased by choosing reasonable wavelength range and the wavelength where the temperature effects are zero (isosbestic point). Chlorine salt prediction model was established based on partial least squares method and used for predicting the concentration of the chlorine ion. The impact on near infrared spectrum of the cation ionic radius, the number of ionic charge, the complex effect of ionic in water has also discussed in this article and the reason of every factor are analysed. Experimental results show that the temperature and concentration will affect the near-infrared spectrum of the solution, It is found that the effect of temperature plays the dominant role at low concentrations of chlorine salt; rather, the ionic dominates at high concentration. Chloride complexes are formed in aqueous solution, It has an effect on hydrogen bond of water combining with the cations in chlorine salt solution, Comparing different chloride solutions at the same concentration, the destruction effects of chloride complexes and catnions on the hydrogen bond of water increases in the sequences: CaCl2 >NaCl>KC. The modeling result shows that the determination coefficients (R2) = 99.97%, the root mean square error of cross validation (RM- SECV) = 4.51, and the residual prediction deviation (RPD) = 62.7, it meets the daily requirements of biochemical detection accuracy.

  9. Chloride on the Move

    KAUST Repository

    Li, Bo

    2017-01-09

    Chloride (Cl−) is an essential plant nutrient but under saline conditions it can accumulate to toxic levels in leaves; limiting this accumulation improves the salt tolerance of some crops. The rate-limiting step for this process – the transfer of Cl− from root symplast to xylem apoplast, which can antagonize delivery of the macronutrient nitrate (NO3−) to shoots – is regulated by abscisic acid (ABA) and is multigenic. Until recently the molecular mechanisms underpinning this salt-tolerance trait were poorly defined. We discuss here how recent advances highlight the role of newly identified transport proteins, some that directly transfer Cl− into the xylem, and others that act on endomembranes in ‘gatekeeper’ cell types in the root stele to control root-to-shoot delivery of Cl−.

  10. Measurement of atmospheric vinyl chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lande, S S

    1979-02-01

    Methods for atmospheric vinyl chloride measurement have been reviewed. The lowest detection limits and most specific measurement are achieved by scrubbing atmospheric samples with activated charcoal, desorbing the vinyl chloride, and assaying it by gas chromatography (GC). NIOSH currently recommends collecting samples using tubes packed with 150 mg of coconut shell charcoal, desorbing with carbon disulfide, and analyzing by GC equipped with flame-ionization detection (FID); the method is capable of detecting less than 1 ppm vinyl chloride and has an apparent recovery of abo the ppb level with no loss of accuracy or precision. Some field methods, such as infrared analysis and conductivity measurement, are capable of detecting 1 ppm or lower but are subject to interferences by other contaminants; th-y could be useful for evaluating sources of vinyl chloride leaks and for continuous monitoring. Permeation tubes are superior to gravimetric or volumetric methods for generating atmospheres of known vinyl chloride concentration.

  11. 40 CFR 61.65 - Emission standard for ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. 61.65 Section 61.65 Protection of Environment... dichloride, vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride plants. An owner or operator of an ethylene dichloride, vinyl chloride, and/or polyvinyl chloride plant shall comply with the requirements of this section. (a...

  12. Vapor pressures and enthalpies of vaporization of azides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Verevkin, Sergey P., E-mail: sergey.verevkin@uni-rostock.de [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Rostock, Dr-Lorenz-Weg 1, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Emel' yanenko, Vladimir N. [Department of Physical Chemistry, University of Rostock, Dr-Lorenz-Weg 1, D-18059 Rostock (Germany); Algarra, Manuel [Centro de Geologia do Porto, Faculdade de Ciencias, Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal); Manuel Lopez-Romero, J. [Department of Organic Chemistry, University of Malaga. Campus de Teatinos s/n, 29071 Malaga (Spain); Aguiar, Fabio; Enrique Rodriguez-Borges, J.; Esteves da Silva, Joaquim C.G. [Centro de Investigacao em Quimica (CIQ-UP), Faculdade de Ciencias da Universidade do Porto, Rua do Campo Alegre 687, 4169-007 Porto (Portugal)

    2011-11-15

    Highlights: > We prepared and measured vapor pressures and vaporization enthalpies of 7 azides. > We examined consistency of new and available in the literature data. > Data for geminal azides and azido-alkanes selected for thermochemical calculations. - Abstract: Vapor pressures of some azides have been determined by the transpiration method. The molar enthalpies of vaporization {Delta}{sub l}{sup g}H{sub m} of these compounds were derived from the temperature dependencies of vapor pressures. The measured data sets were successfully checked for internal consistency by comparison with vaporization enthalpies of similarly structured compounds.

  13. Fuel Vaporization Effects

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bosque, M. A.

    1983-01-01

    A study of the effects of fuel-air preparation characteristics on combustor performance and emissions at temperature and pressure ranges representative of actual gas turbine combustors is discussed. The effect of flameholding devices on the vaporization process and NOx formation is discussed. Flameholder blockage and geometry are some of the elements that affect the recirculation zone characteristics and subsequently alter combustion stability, emissions and performance. A water cooled combustor is used as the test rig. Preheated air and Jet A fuel are mixed at the entrance of the apparatus. A vaporization probe is used to determine percentage of vaporization and a gas sample probe to determine concentration of emissions in the exhaust gases. The experimental design is presented and experimental expected results are discussed.

  14. Vapor concentration monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bayly, John G.; Booth, Ronald J.

    1977-01-01

    An apparatus for monitoring the concentration of a vapor, such as heavy water, having at least one narrow bandwidth in its absorption spectrum, in a sample gas such as air. The air is drawn into a chamber in which the vapor content is measured by means of its radiation absorption spectrum. High sensitivity is obtained by modulating the wavelength at a relatively high frequency without changing its optical path, while high stability against zero drift is obtained by the low frequency interchange of the sample gas to be monitored and of a reference sample. The variable HDO background due to natural humidity is automatically corrected.

  15. Passive Vaporizing Heat Sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Knowles, TImothy R.; Ashford, Victor A.; Carpenter, Michael G.; Bier, Thomas M.

    2011-01-01

    A passive vaporizing heat sink has been developed as a relatively lightweight, compact alternative to related prior heat sinks based, variously, on evaporation of sprayed liquids or on sublimation of solids. This heat sink is designed for short-term dissipation of a large amount of heat and was originally intended for use in regulating the temperature of spacecraft equipment during launch or re-entry. It could also be useful in a terrestrial setting in which there is a requirement for a lightweight, compact means of short-term cooling. This heat sink includes a hermetic package closed with a pressure-relief valve and containing an expendable and rechargeable coolant liquid (e.g., water) and a conductive carbon-fiber wick. The vapor of the liquid escapes when the temperature exceeds the boiling point corresponding to the vapor pressure determined by the setting of the pressure-relief valve. The great advantage of this heat sink over a melting-paraffin or similar phase-change heat sink of equal capacity is that by virtue of the =10x greater latent heat of vaporization, a coolant-liquid volume equal to =1/10 of the paraffin volume can suffice.

  16. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    The greener, clean and efficient protocol for the synthesis of acridine diones derivatives has been achieved by reacting aromatic aldehyde, dimedone and amines using methyltrioctylammonium chloride (Aliquate 336) as a catalyst under ultrasonic irradiations.

  17. Interaction between vanadyl chloride solutions and aerosil

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Skopenko, V.V.; Golub, A.A. (Kievskij Gosudarstvennyj Univ. (Ukrainian SSR))

    1980-08-01

    Interaction of aqueous and methanol solutions of vanadyl chloride with aerosil in the presence of bases is studied. The complexes prepared are studied using the methods of electron-reflective, ESR- and IR spectroscopy. It is shown that in aqueous solutions the exchange of hydrogen ions of aerosil surface proceeds in a greater degree than in methanol. ''Highly acid'' protons are most easily substituted and their concentration equals 0.05 mgxion/g SiO/sub 2/. On the basis of electron spectra a supposition is made on distorted-octahedral surrounding of vanadium (4) ions on aerosil surface.

  18. Soil vapor extraction with dewatering

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Thomson, N.R. [Univ. of Waterloo, Ontario (Canada)

    1996-08-01

    The physical treatment technology of soil vapor extraction (SVE) is reliable, safe, robust, and able to remove significant amounts of mass at a relatively low cost. SVE combined with a pump-and-treat system to create a dewatered zone has the opportunity to remove more mass with the added cost of treating the extracted groundwater. Various limiting processes result in a significant reduction in the overall mass removal rates from a SVE system in porous media. Only pilot scale, limited duration SVE tests conducted in low permeability media have been reported in the literature. It is expected that the presence of a fracture network in low permeability media will add another complexity to the limiting conditions surrounding the SVE technology. 20 refs., 4 figs.

  19. Dynamic electrochemical measurement of chloride ions

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, Derk B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2016-01-01

    This protocol describes the dynamic measurement of chloride ions using the transition time of a silver silver chloride (Ag/AgCl) electrode. Silver silver chloride electrode is used extensively for potentiometric measurement of chloride ions concentration in electrolyte. In this measurement,

  20. 21 CFR 184.1426 - Magnesium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Magnesium chloride. 184.1426 Section 184.1426 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1426 Magnesium chloride. (a) Magnesium chloride (MgC12·6H2O, CAS... hydrochloric acid solution and crystallizing out magnesium chloride hexahydrate. (b) The ingredient meets the...

  1. Fatal exposure to methylene chloride among bathtub refinishers - United States, 2000-2011.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-02-24

    In 2010, the Michigan Fatality Assessment and Control Evaluation program conducted an investigation into the death of a bathtub refinisher who used a methylene chloride-based paint stripping product marketed for use in aircraft maintenance. The program identified two earlier, similar deaths in Michigan. Program staff members notified CDC's National Institute for Occupational Safety and Health (NIOSH), which in turn notified the Occupational Safety and Health Administration (OSHA). In addition to the three deaths, OSHA identified 10 other bathtub refinisher fatalities associated with methylene chloride stripping agents that had been investigated in nine states during 2000-2011. Each death occurred in a residential bathroom with inadequate ventilation. Protective equipment, including a respirator, either was not used or was inadequate to protect against methylene chloride vapor, which has been recognized as potentially fatal to furniture strippers and factory workers but has not been reported previously as a cause of death among bathtub refinishers. Worker safety agencies, public health agencies, methylene chloride-based stripper manufacturers, and trade organizations should communicate the extreme hazards of using methylene chloride-based stripping products in bathtub refinishing to employers, workers, and consumers. Employers should strongly consider alternative methods of bathtub stripping and always ensure worker safety protections that reduce the risk for health hazards to acceptable levels. Employers choosing to use methylene chloride-based stripping products must comply with OSHA's standard to limit methylene chloride exposures to safe levels.

  2. Chemical vapor deposition of WN{sub x}C{sub y} using the tungsten piperidylhydrazido complex Cl{sub 4}(CH{sub 3}CN)W(N-pip): Deposition, characterization, and diffusion barrier evaluation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kim, Dojun; Kim, Oh Hyun; Anderson, Tim; Koller, Juergen; McElwee-White, Lisa; Leu, Lii-Cherng; Tsai, Joseph M.; Norton, David P. [Department of Chemical Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6005 (United States); Department of Chemistry, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-7200 (United States); Department of Material Science and Engineering, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611-6400 (United States)

    2009-07-15

    The tungsten piperidylhydrazido complex Cl{sub 4}(CH{sub 3}CN)W(N-pip) (1) was used for film growth of tungsten carbonitride (WN{sub x}C{sub y}) by metal-organic chemical vapor deposition (CVD) in the absence and presence of ammonia (NH{sub 3}) in H{sub 2} carrier. The microstructure of films deposited with NH{sub 3} was x-ray amorphous between 300 and 450 deg. C. The chemical composition of films deposited with NH{sub 3} exhibited increased N levels and decreased C levels over the entire deposition temperature range (300-700 deg. C) as compared to films deposited without NH{sub 3}. As determined by x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy, W is primarily bonded to N and C for films deposited at 400 deg. C, but at lower deposition temperature the binding energy of the W-O bond becomes more evident. The growth rates of films deposited with NH{sub 3} varied from 0.6 A/min at 300 deg. C to 4.2 A/min at 600 deg. C. Over 600 deg. C, the growth rate decreased when using NH{sub 3} presumably due to parasitic gas phase reactions that deplete the precursor. Diffusion barrier properties were investigated using Cu/WN{sub x}C{sub y}/Si stacks consisting of 100 nm Cu deposited at room temperature by reactive sputtering on a 20 nm WN{sub x}C{sub y} film deposited at 400 deg. C by CVD. X-ray diffraction and cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy were used to determine the performance of the diffusion barrier. Cu/WN{sub x}C{sub y}/Si stacks annealed under N{sub 2} at 500 deg. C for 30 min maintained the integrity of both Cu/WN{sub x}C{sub y} and WN{sub x}C{sub y}/Si interfaces.

  3. CHLORIDE WASHER PERFORMACE TESTING

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Coughlin, J; David Best, D; Robert Pierce, R

    2007-11-30

    Testing was performed to determine the chloride (Cl-) removal capabilities of the Savannah River National Laboratory (SRNL) designed and built Cl- washing equipment intended for HB-Line installation. The equipment to be deployed was tested using a cerium oxide (CeO2) based simulant in place of the 3013 plutonium oxide (PuO2) material. Two different simulant mixtures were included in this testing -- one having higher Cl- content than the other. The higher Cl- simulant was based on K-Area Interim Surveillance Inspection Program (KIS) material with Cl- content approximately equal to 70,000 ppm. The lower Cl- level simulant was comparable to KIS material containing approximately 8,000-ppm Cl- content. The performance testing results indicate that the washer is capable of reducing the Cl- content of both surrogates to below 200 ppm with three 1/2-liter washes of 0.1M sodium hydroxide (NaOH) solution. Larger wash volumes were used with similar results - all of the prescribed test parameters consistently reduced the Cl- content of the surrogate to a value below 200 ppm Cl- in the final washed surrogate material. The washer uses a 20-micron filter to retain the surrogate solids. Tests showed that 0.16-0.41% of the insoluble fraction of the starting mass passed through the 20-micron filter. The solids retention performance indicates that the fissile masses passing through the 20-micron filter should not exceed the waste acceptance criteria for discard in grout to TRU waste. It is recommended that additional testing be pursued for further verification and optimization purposes. It is likely that wash volumes smaller than those tested could still reduce the Cl- values to acceptable levels. Along with reduced wash volumes, reuse of the third wash volume (in the next run processed) should be tested as a wash solution minimization plan. A 67% reduction in the number of grouted paint pails could be realized if wash solution minimization testing returned acceptable results.

  4. Study of Synthesis of N-Nitroborazine Compounds. I. Nitryl Chloride as Nitrating Agent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    dinitrogen tetroxide (N2O4) as the solid complexes of boron trifluoride (BF3). Nearly water-white nitryl chloride was obtained in this manner. A tinge of...yellow was attributed to the presence of chlorine . The reaction of nitryl chloride with a model compound, lithium dimethylamide, was found to yield

  5. Water vaporization on Ceres

    Science.gov (United States)

    A'Hearn, Michael F.; Feldman, Paul D.

    1992-01-01

    A search is presently conducted for OH generated by the photodissociation of atmospheric water vapor in long-exposure IUE spectra of the region around Ceres. A statistically significant detection of OH is noted in an exposure off the northern limb of Ceres after perihelion. The amount of OH is consistent with a polar cap that might be replenished during winter by subsurface percolation, but which dissipates in summer.

  6. VAPOR PRESSURES AND HEATS OF VAPORIZATION OF PRIMARY COAL TARS

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Eric M. Suuberg; Vahur Oja

    1997-07-01

    This project had as its main focus the determination of vapor pressures of coal pyrolysis tars. It involved performing measurements of these vapor pressures and from them, developing vapor pressure correlations suitable for use in advanced pyrolysis models (those models which explicitly account for mass transport limitations). This report is divided into five main chapters. Each chapter is a relatively stand-alone section. Chapter A reviews the general nature of coal tars and gives a summary of existing vapor pressure correlations for coal tars and model compounds. Chapter B summarizes the main experimental approaches for coal tar preparation and characterization which have been used throughout the project. Chapter C is concerned with the selection of the model compounds for coal pyrolysis tars and reviews the data available to us on the vapor pressures of high boiling point aromatic compounds. This chapter also deals with the question of identifying factors that govern the vapor pressures of coal tar model materials and their mixtures. Chapter D covers the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary cellulose tars. Chapter E discusses the results of the main focus of this study. In summary, this work provides improved understanding of the volatility of coal and cellulose pyrolysis tars. It has resulted in new experimentally verified vapor pressure correlations for use in pyrolysis models. Further research on this topic should aim at developing general vapor pressure correlations for all coal tars, based on their molecular weight together with certain specific chemical characteristics i.e. hydroxyl group content.

  7. Role of co-vapors in vapor deposition polymerization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lee, Ji Eun; Lee, Younghee; Ahn, Ki-Jin; Huh, Jinyoung; Shim, Hyeon Woo; Sampath, Gayathri; Im, Won Bin; Huh, Yang-Il; Yoon, Hyeonseok

    2015-02-12

    Polypyrrole (PPy)/cellulose (PPCL) composite papers were fabricated by vapor phase polymerization. Importantly, the vapor-phase deposition of PPy onto cellulose was assisted by employing different co-vapors namely methanol, ethanol, benzene, water, toluene and hexane, in addition to pyrrole. The resulting PPCL papers possessed high mechanical flexibility, large surface-to-volume ratio, and good redox properties. Their main properties were highly influenced by the nature of the co-vaporized solvent. The morphology and oxidation level of deposited PPy were tuned by employing co-vapors during the polymerization, which in turn led to change in the electrochemical properties of the PPCL papers. When methanol and ethanol were used as co-vapors, the conductivities of PPCL papers were found to have improved five times, which was likely due to the enhanced orientation of PPy chain by the polar co-vapors with high dipole moment. The specific capacitance of PPCL papers obtained using benzene, toluene, water and hexane co-vapors was higher than those of the others, which is attributed to the enlarged effective surface area of the electrode material. The results indicate that the judicious choice and combination of co-vapors in vapor-deposition polymerization (VDP) offers the possibility of tuning the morphological, electrical, and electrochemical properties of deposited conducting polymers.

  8. Incidence of cancer among vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Heldaas, S S; Langård, S L; Andersen, A

    1984-01-01

    The results of a follow up study of the incidence of cancer and the mortality in a cohort of 454 male workers producing vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride are presented. The study population was restricted to employees with more than one year's work experience in the study plant between 1950 and 1969 and the cohort was followed up from 1953 to the end of 1979. Twenty three new cases of cancer were observed compared with 20.2 expected; one case of liver angiosarcoma was found. Five cases of lung cancer were found (2.8 expected) and four cases of malignant melanoma of the skin were observed (0.8 expected). The possibility of a causal relationship between exposure to vinyl chloride and the development of malignant melanomas is discussed. PMID:6691932

  9. Water Repellence and Oxygen and Water Vapor Barrier of PVOH-Coated Substrates before and after Surface Esterification

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Markus Schmid

    2014-11-01

    Full Text Available This study investigates chemical grafting with fatty acid chlorides as a method for the surface modification of hydrophilic web materials. The resulting changes in the water repellence and barrier properties were studied. For this purpose, different grades of polyvinyl alcohol (PVOH were coated on regenerated cellulose films (“cellophane” and paper and then grafted with fatty acid chlorides. The PVOH grades varied in their degree of hydrolysis and average molecular weight. The surface was esterified with two fatty acid chlorides, palmitoyl (C16 and stearoyl chloride (C18, by chemical grafting. The chemical grafting resulted in water-repellent surfaces and reduced water vapor transmission rates by a factor of almost 19. The impact of the surface modification was greater for a higher degree of hydrolysis of the polyvinyl alcohol and for shorter fatty acid chains. Although the water vapor barrier for palmitoyl-grafted PVOH was higher than for stearoyl-grafted PVOH, the contact angle with water was lower. Additionally, it was shown that a higher degree of hydrolysis led to higher water vapor barrier improvement factors after grafting. Furthermore, the oxygen permeability decreased after grafting significantly, due to the fact that the grafting protects the PVOH against humidity when the humidity is applied on the grafted side. It can be concluded that the carbon chain length of the fatty acid chlorides is the limiting factor for water vapor adsorption, but the grafting density is the bottleneck for water diffusing in the polymer.

  10. Chloride coordination by oligoureas: from mononuclear crescents to dinuclear foldamers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Wu, Biao; Jia, Chuandong; Wang, Xiaolei; Li, Shaoguang; Huang, Xiaojuan; Yang, Xiao-Juan

    2012-02-03

    A series of acyclic oligourea receptors which closely resemble the scaffolds and coordination behavior of oligopyridines have been synthesized. Assembly of the receptors with chloride ions afforded mononuclear anion complexes or dinuclear foldamers depending on the number of the urea groups. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  11. Cholesterol-lowering drug, in combination with chromium chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Since the parasite synthesizesergosterol instead of cholesterol, using the same biochemical pathway and enzymes, an inhibitor of HMG-CoA-Reductase ... Lovastatin, being an inhibitor of HMG-CoA-Reductase, inhibitsinfection by cholesterol depletion, while chromium chloride complexes, at their higher concentrations, are ...

  12. A novel tandem differential mobility analyzer with organic vapor treatment of aerosol particles

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    J. Joutsensaari

    2001-01-01

    Full Text Available A novel method to characterize the organic composition of aerosol particles has been developed. The method is based on organic vapor interaction with aerosol particles and it has been named an Organic Tandem Differential Mobility Analyzer (OTDMA. The OTDMA method has been tested for inorganic (sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate and organic (citric acid and adipic acid particles. Growth curves of the particles have been measured in ethanol vapor and as a comparison in water vapor as a function of saturation ratio. Measurements in water vapor show that sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate as well as citric acid particles grow at water saturation ratios (S of 0.8 and above, whereas adipic acid particles do not grow at S S = 0.75 and S = 0.79, respectively. Citric acid particles grow monotonously with increasing saturation ratios already at low saturation ratios and no clear deliquescence point is found. For sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate particles, no growth can be seen in ethanol vapor at saturation ratios below 0.93. In contrast, for adipic acid particles, the deliquescence takes place at around S = 0.95 in the ethanol vapor. The recrystallization of adipic acid takes place at S The results show that the working principles of the OTDMA are operational for single-component aerosols. Furthermore, the results indicate that the OTDMA method may prove useful in determining whether aerosol particles contain organic substances, especially if the OTDMA is operated in parallel with a hygroscopicity TDMA, as the growth of many substances is different in ethanol and water vapors.

  13. Chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environment - A review

    OpenAIRE

    Yuan, Q; Shi, C.; Schutter, G. de; K. Audenaert; Deng, D.

    2009-01-01

    This paper reviews the chloride binding of cement-based materials subjected to external chloride environments. Chloride ion exist either in the pore solution, chemically bound to the hydration products, or physically held to the surface of the hydration products. Chloride binding of cement-based material is very complicated and influenced by many factors, such as chloride concentration, cement composition, hydroxyl concentration, cation of chloride salt, temperature, supplementary cementing m...

  14. Lubiprostone: a chloride channel activator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lacy, Brian E; Levy, L Campbell

    2007-04-01

    In January 2006 the Food and Drug Administration approved lubiprostone for the treatment of chronic constipation in men and women aged 18 and over. Lubiprostone is categorized as a prostone, a bicyclic fatty acid metabolite of prostaglandin E1. Lubiprostone activates a specific chloride channel (ClC-2) in the gastrointestinal (GI) tract to enhance intestinal fluid secretion, which increases GI transit and improves symptoms of constipation. This article reviews the role of chloride channels in the GI tract, describes the structure, function, and pharmacokinetics of lubiprostone, and discusses clinically important data on this new medication.

  15. Vapor spill pipe monitor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bianchini, G. M.; McRae, T. G.

    1983-06-01

    The invention is a method and apparatus for continually monitoring the composition of liquefied natural gas flowing from a spill pipe during a spill test by continually removing a sample of the LNG by means of a probe, gasifying the LNG in the probe, and sending the vaporized LNG to a remote IR gas detector for analysis. The probe comprises three spaced concentric tubes surrounded by a water jacket which communicates with a flow channel defined between the inner and middle, and middle and outer tubes. The inner tube is connected to a pump for providing suction, and the probe is positioned in the LNG flow below the spill pipe with the tip oriented partly downward so that LNG is continuously drawn into the inner tube through a small orifice. The probe is made of a high thermal conductivity metal. Hot water is flowed through the water jacket and through the flow channel between the three tubes to provide the necessary heat transfer to flash vaporize the LNG passing through the inner channel of the probe. The gasified LNG is transported through a connected hose or tubing extending from the probe to a remote IR sensor which measures the gas composition.

  16. Chloride : The queen of electrolytes?

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Berend, Kenrick; van Hulsteijn, Leonard Hendrik; Gans, Rijk O. B.

    Background: Channelopathies, defined as diseases that are caused by mutations in genes encoding ion channels, are associated with a wide variety of symptoms and have been documented extensively over the past decade. In contrast, despite the important role of chloride in serum, textbooks in general

  17. 1,5-Diaminotetrazolium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ling-Qiao Meng

    2010-04-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, CH5N6+·Cl−, crystallized with two indepedent 1,5-diaminotetrazolium cations and two independent chloride anions in the asymmetric unit. In the crystal, there are a number of N—H...Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions, which generate a three-dimensional network.

  18. [Headspace GC/MS analysis of residual vinyl chloride and vinylidene chloride in polyvinyl chloride and polyvinylidene chloride products].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ohno, Hiroyuki; Mutsuga, Motoh; Kawamura, Yoko; Suzuki, Masako; Aoyama, Taiki

    2005-02-01

    A headspace GC/MS analysis method for the simultaneous determination of residual vinyl chloride (VC) and vinylidene chloride (VDC) in polyvinyl chloride (PVC) and polyvinylidene chloride (PVDC) products was developed. A test sample was swelled overnight with N,N-dimethylacetamide in a sealed vial. The vial was incubated for 1 hour at 90 degrees C, then the headspace gas was analyzed by GC/MS using a PLOT capillary column. The recoveries from spiked PVC and PVDC samples were 90.0-112.3% for VC and 85.2-108.3% for VDC. The determination limits were 0.01 microg/g for VC and 0.06/microg/g for VDC, respectively. By this method, VC was detected in two PVC water supply pipes at the levels of 0.61 and 0.01 microg/g. On the other hand, VC and VDC were not detected in any of the food container-packages or toys tested.

  19. Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Methyltrioctylammonium chloride catalysed sonochemical synthesis of acridine diones. BHUPINDER KAUR and HARISH KUMAR. ∗. Department of Chemistry, Sant Longowal Institute of Engineering and Technology, Longowal 148 106, India e-mail: choprahk67@gmail.com. MS received 21 May 2012; revised 30 January ...

  20. Chemische contaminanten in diervoeder additief Choline Chloride

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Traag, W.A.; Hoogenboom, L.A.P.; Jong, de J.; Egmond, van H.J.; Dam, ten G.

    2010-01-01

    Dit briefrapport beschrijft de resultaten van een onderzoek naar chemische contaminanten in Choline Chloride. De doelstellingen waren: 1) Inzicht te verkrijgen in het voorkomen van (gebromeerde) vlamvertragers en broomdioxines in het diervoederadditief Choline Chloride en het, op basis van de

  1. Prediction of Chloride Penetration into Hardening Concrete

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Wei-Jie Fan

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available In marine and coastal environments, penetration of chloride ions is one of the main mechanisms causing concrete reinforcement corrosion. Currently, most of experimental investigations about submerged penetration of chloride ions are started after the four-week standard curing of concrete. The further hydration of cement and reduction of chloride diffusivity during submerged penetration period are ignored. To overcome this weak point, this paper presents a numerical procedure to analyze simultaneously cement hydration reaction and chloride ion penetration process. First, using a cement hydration model, degree of hydration and phase volume fractions of hardening concrete are determined. Second, the dependences of chloride diffusivity and chloride binding capacity on age of concrete are clarified. Third, chloride profiles in hardening concrete are calculated. The proposed numerical procedure is verified by using chloride submerged penetration test results of concrete with different mixing proportions.

  2. Bionanomaterials and Bioinspired Nanostructures for Selective Vapor Sensing

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potyrailo, Radislav; Naik, Rajesh R.

    2013-07-01

    At present, monitoring of air at the workplace, in urban environments, and on battlefields; exhaled air from medical patients; air in packaged food containers; and so forth can be accomplished with different types of analytical instruments. Vapor sensors have their niche in these measurements when an unobtrusive, low-power, and cost-sensitive technical solution is required. Unfortunately, existing vapor sensors often degrade their vapor-quantitation accuracy in the presence of high levels of interferences and cannot quantitate several components in complex gas mixtures. Thus, new sensing approaches with improved sensor selectivity are required. This technological task can be accomplished by the careful design of sensing materials with new performance properties and by coupling these materials with the suitable physical transducers. This review is focused on the assessment of the capabilities of bionanomaterials and bioinspired nanostructures for selective vapor sensing. We demonstrate that these sensing materials can operate with diverse transducers based on electrical, mechanical, and optical readout principles and can provide vapor-response selectivity previously unattainable by using other sensing materials. This ability for selective vapor sensing provides opportunities to significantly impact the major directions in development and application scenarios of vapor sensors.

  3. Molybdenum chloride catalysts for Z-selective olefin metathesis reactions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Koh, Ming Joo; Nguyen, Thach T.; Lam, Jonathan K.; Torker, Sebastian; Hyvl, Jakub; Schrock, Richard R.; Hoveyda, Amir H.

    2017-01-01

    The development of catalyst-controlled stereoselective olefin metathesis processes has been a pivotal recent advance in chemistry. The incorporation of appropriate ligands within complexes based on molybdenum, tungsten and ruthenium has led to reactivity and selectivity levels that were previously inaccessible. Here we show that molybdenum monoaryloxide chloride complexes furnish higher-energy (Z) isomers of trifluoromethyl-substituted alkenes through cross-metathesis reactions with the commercially available, inexpensive and typically inert Z-1,1,1,4,4,4-hexafluoro-2-butene. Furthermore, otherwise inefficient and non-stereoselective transformations with Z-1,2-dichloroethene and 1,2-dibromoethene can be effected with substantially improved efficiency and Z selectivity. The use of such molybdenum monoaryloxide chloride complexes enables the synthesis of representative biologically active molecules and trifluoromethyl analogues of medicinally relevant compounds. The origins of the activity and selectivity levels observed, which contradict previously proposed principles, are elucidated with the aid of density functional theory calculations.

  4. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Mannheim, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Angeles, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2014-02-11

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  5. Microbial reductive dehalogenation of vinyl chloride

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Spormann, Alfred M [Stanford, CA; Muller, Jochen A [Baltimore, MD; Rosner, Bettina M [Berlin, DE; Von Abendroth, Gregory [Nannhein, DE; Meshulam-Simon, Galit [Los Altos, CA; McCarty, Perry L [Stanford, CA

    2011-11-22

    Compositions and methods are provided that relate to the bioremediation of chlorinated ethenes, particularly the bioremediation of vinyl chloride by Dehalococcoides-like organisms. An isolated strain of bacteria, Dehalococcoides sp. strain VS, that metabolizes vinyl chloride is provided; the genetic sequence of the enzyme responsible for vinyl chloride dehalogenation; methods of assessing the capability of endogenous organisms at an environmental site to metabolize vinyl chloride; and a method of using the strains of the invention for bioremediation.

  6. REMOVAL OF CHLORIDE FROM AQUEOUS SOLUTIONS

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schulz, W.W.

    1959-08-01

    The removal of chlorides from aqueons solutions is described. The process involves contacting the aqueous chloride containing solution with a benzene solution about 0.005 M in phenyl mercuric acetate whereby the chloride anions are taken up by the organic phase and separating the organic phase from the aqueous solutions.

  7. 21 CFR 582.5446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Manganese chloride. 582.5446 Section 582.5446 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL... Supplements 1 § 582.5446 Manganese chloride. (a) Product. Manganese chloride. (b) Conditions of use. This...

  8. 75 FR 33824 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-06-15

    ... COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China Determination On the basis of the record\\1\\ developed in the subject... order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of material... Barium Chloride from China: Investigation No. 731-TA-149 (Third Review). By order of the Commission...

  9. Student Exposure to Mercury Vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weber, Joyce

    1986-01-01

    Discusses the problem of mercury vapors caused by spills in high school and college laboratories. Describes a study which compared the mercury vapor levels of laboratories in both an older and a newer building. Concludes that the mercurial contamination of chemistry laboratories presents minimal risks to the students. (TW)

  10. Metal vaporization from weld pools

    Science.gov (United States)

    Block-Bolten, A.; Eagar, T. W.

    1984-09-01

    Experimental studies of alloy vaporization from aluminum and stainless steel weld pools have been made in order to test a vaporization model based on thermodynamic data and the kinetic theory of gases. It is shown that the model can correctly predict the dominant metal vapors that form but that the absolute rate of vaporization is not known due to insufficient knowledge of the surface temperature distribution and subsequent condensation of the vapor in the cooler regions of the metal. Values of the net evaporation rates for different alloys have been measured and are found to vary by two orders of magnitude. Estimated maximum weld pool temperatures based upon the model are in good agreement with previous experimental measurements of electron beam welds.

  11. Vaporization of perfluorocarbon droplets using optical irradiation

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Strohm, Eric; Rui, Min; Gorelikov, Ivan; Matsuura, Naomi; Kolios, Michael

    2011-01-01

    .... Droplet vaporization has been previously demonstrated using acoustic methods. We propose using laser irradiation as a means to induce PFC droplet vaporization using a method we term optical droplet vaporization (ODV...

  12. A Citizen's Guide to Vapor Intrusion Mitigation

    Science.gov (United States)

    This guide describes how vapor intrusion is the movement of chemical vapors from contaminated soil and groundwater into nearby buildings.Vapors primarily enter through openings in the building foundation or basement walls.

  13. SEPARATION OF WATER VAPORS FROM AIR BY SORPTION ON SOME COMPOSITE MATERIALS

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    OANA HAUTĂ

    2014-01-01

    Full Text Available This work presents an experimental investigation of the kinetics of water vapor sorption on two composites synthesized by impregnating activated carbon and activated alumina respectively with lithium bromide (named as MCA2 and MCC2 respectively. The obtained results showed an increase in water amount adsorbed on both composite materials. Due to different chemical natures of the host matrices, the water sorption kinetics on MCC2 is faster compared to that of MCA2. The presence of calcium chloride instead of lithium bromide in alumina pores will determine a shorter breakthrough time and a higher adsorption rate of water vapors.

  14. Hydroxide ion versus chloride and methoxide as an exogenous ligand reveals the influence of hydrogen bonding with second-sphere coordination water molecules in the electron transfer kinetics of Mn complexes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    El Ghachtouli, Sanae; Guillot, Régis; Aukauloo, Ally; Dorlet, Pierre; Anxolabéhère-Mallart, Elodie; Costentin, Cyrille

    2012-03-19

    We recently reported on the synthesis of a new pentadentate N(4)O ligand, tBuL(-), together with the X-ray diffraction structure of the corresponding mononuclear manganese(III)-hydroxo complex namely [(tBuL)Mn(III)OH](ClO(4)), (1 (ClO(4))). [El Ghachtouli et al. Energy Environ. Sci. 2011, 4, 2041.] In the present work, we evidence through electrochemical analysis that complex 1(+), in the presence of water, shows a peculiar behavior toward electron-transfer kinetics. The synthesis, single-crystal X-ray diffraction, and EPR spectroscopic characterization of two other mononuclear manganese(III)-chlorido and methoxo complexes-namely, [(tBuL)Mn(III)Cl](PF(6)), (2(PF(6))) and [(tBuL)Mn(III)OMe](ClO(4)), (3(ClO(4)))-are also reported. 2(PF(6)) and 3(ClO(4)) compounds will serve as reference complexes for the electron-transfer kinetics investigation. The peculiar behavior of 1(ClO(4)) is attributed to the specificity of hydroxide anion as ligand presumably allowing intermolecular hydrogen-bonding interactions and thus affecting electron-transfer properties. © 2012 American Chemical Society

  15. Chloride-triggered disproportionation of a mononuclear Rh-II(nbd) species to Rh-I(nbd) and Rh-III(eta(1)-norbornenyl) complexes: Possibilities for Wacker type mono-oxygenation of norbornadiene to norbornenone

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hetterscheid, D.G.H.; Smits, J.M.M.; Bruin, B. de

    2004-01-01

    The reactivity of the N-3-ligand rhodium nbd complex [(fac-kappa(3)-Me-dpa)Rh-I(nbd)](+) (1111 toward H+ and the oxidants Ag+, FeCl3, and ferrocenium (Fc(+)) has been investigated in detail (Me-dpa = N-(2-pyridylmethyl)-N-(6-methyl-2-pyridylmethyl)amine); nbd = norborna-2,5-diene). The oxidation

  16. The Comparative Study on Vapor-Polymerization and Pressure-dependent Conductance Behavior in Polypyrrole-hybridized Membranes

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanif, Zahid; Lee, Seyeong; Arsalani, Nasir; Geckeler, Kurt E.; Hong, Sukwon; Yoon, Myung-Han [Gwangju Institute of Science and Technology, Gwangju (Korea, Republic of)

    2016-02-15

    In this study, commercially available cellulose membranes were hybridized with conjugated polymer via vapor-phase polymerization using pyrrole and iron chloride as a monomer and oxidant, respectively. The iron (III) chloride layer dip-coated on the hydrophilic cell ulose surface oxidized the vaporized pyrrole monomer leading to the polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane. The conductivity of hybrid membrane was optimized by varying the oxidant concentration and the monomer vapor exposure time. The various surface characterizations of polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane show that the conductive polypyrrole layer was uniformly deposited onto the surface of cellulose fibrous networks unlike the polypyrrole-nylonhybrid membrane prepared in the similar way. The polypyrrole-incorporated cellulose networks exhibits steeper electrical conductance increase over the vertical pressure than its nylon counterpart. Our result suggests that the polypyrrole-cellulose hybrid membrane can be applicable for a disposable high-load pressure sensor.

  17. Chemical vapor infiltration process modeling and optimization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Matlin, W.M. [Tennessee Univ., Knoxville, TN (United States). Dept. of Materials Science and Engineering

    1995-12-31

    Chemical vapor infiltration is a unique method for preparing continuous fiber ceramic composites that spares the strong but relatively fragile fibers from damaging thermal, mechanical, and chemical degradation. The process is relatively complex and modeling requires detailed phenomenological knowledge of the chemical kinetics and mass and heat transport. An overview of some of the current understanding and modeling of CVI and examples of efforts to optimize the processes is given. Finally, recent efforts to scale-up the process to produce tubular forms are described.

  18. Fluorinated tripodal receptors for potentiometric chloride detection in biological fluids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pankratova, Nadezda; Cuartero, Maria; Jowett, Laura A; Howe, Ethan N W; Gale, Philip A; Bakker, Eric; Crespo, Gastón A

    2018-01-15

    Fluorinated tripodal compounds were recently reported to be efficient transmembrane transporters for a series of inorganic anions. In particular, this class of receptors has been shown to be suitable for the effective complexation of chloride, nitrate, bicarbonate and sulfate anions via hydrogen bonding. The potentiometric properties of urea and thiourea-based fluorinated tripodal receptors are explored here for the first time, in light of the need for reliable sensors for chloride monitoring in undiluted biological fluids. The ion selective electrode (ISE) membranes with tren-based tris-urea bis(CF3) tripodal compound (ionophore I) were found to exhibit the best selectivity for chloride over major lipophilic anions such as salicylate ( [Formula: see text] ) and thiocyanate ( [Formula: see text] ). Ionophore I-based ISEs were successfully applied for chloride determination in undiluted human serum as well as artificial serum sample, the slope of the linear calibration at the relevant background of interfering ions being close to Nernstian (49.8±1.7mV). The results of potentiometric measurements were confirmed by argentometric titration. Moreover, the ionophore I-based ISE membrane was shown to exhibit a very good long-term stability of potentiometric performance over the period of 10 weeks. Nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) titrations, potentiometric sandwich membrane experiments and density functional theory (DFT) computational studies were performed to determine the binding constants and suggest 1:1 complexation stoichiometry for the ionophore I with chloride as well as salicylate. Copyright © 2017 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

  19. Catalytic oxidation of model soot by metal chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Mul, Guido; Kapteijn, Freek; Moulijn, Jacob A. [Delft University of Technology, Industrial Catalysis, Delft (Netherlands)

    1997-05-16

    Several metal chlorides were screened for their catalytic activity in the oxidation of model soot (Printex-U) in `loose contact` by means of TGA/DSC. HgCl{sub 2}, CaCl{sub 2}, BaCl{sub 2}, CoCl{sub 2}, and NiCl{sub 2} show little activity. Hydrated BiCl{sub 3} and FeCl{sub 3} are converted in air into BiOCl and FeOCl, which have a moderate soot oxidation activity. MoCl{sub 5} is converted into the corresponding metal oxide and also shows a moderate `loose contact` activity. PbCl{sub 2}, CuCl{sub 2} and CuCl are very active catalysts; the soot oxidation temperature is lowered by 200-275K. The activity of metal chlorides is thought to be induced by in situ formation of intimate contact between the soot and the metal chloride via `wetting` and/or gas phase transport. A correlation between the melting point and the catalytic activity was found. Furthermore, a catalytic cycle is proposed involving activation of oxygen on the surface of the (oxy)chloride, followed by transfer of activated oxygen to the soot surface. DRIFT analyses showed that this results in the formation of carbon surface oxygen complexes. Decomposition of those complexes yields CO and CO{sub 2}. Practical application of metal chlorides for the removal of soot from diesel exhaust is not recommended, because they suffer from instability or high vapour pressures

  20. Supercritical microgravity droplet vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hartfield, J.; Curtis, E.; Farrell, P.

    1990-01-01

    Supercritical droplet vaporization is an important issue in many combustion systems, such as liquid fueled rockets and compression-ignition (diesel) engines. In order to study the details of droplet behavior at these conditions, an experiment was designed to provide a gas phase environment which is above the critical pressure and critical temperature of a single liquid droplet. In general, the droplet begins as a cold droplet in the hot, high pressure environment. In order to eliminate disruptions to the droplet by convective motion in the gas, forced and natural convection gas motion are required to be small. Implementation of this requirement for forced convection is straightforward, while reduction of natural convection is achieved by reduction in the g-level for the experiment. The resulting experiment consists of a rig which can stably position a droplet without restraint in a high-pressure, high temperature gas field in microgravity. The microgravity field is currently achieved by dropping the device in the NASA Lewis 2.2 second drop tower. The performance of the experimental device and results to date are presented.

  1. Ultraviolet-Visible Spectroscopic Evaluation of Complexation ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Some complexes of crude methanol extract of Loranthus micranthus Linn parasitic on Kola acuminata were evaluated using ultraviolet-visible absorption spectrophotometry. The crude methanol extract was complexed with ferric chloride solution, borate mixture, methanolic aluminum nitrate and aluminum chloride solutions ...

  2. Understanding Latent Heat of Vaporization.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Linz, Ed

    1995-01-01

    Presents a simple exercise for students to do in the kitchen at home to determine the latent heat of vaporization of water using typical household materials. Designed to stress understanding by sacrificing precision for simplicity. (JRH)

  3. Microenvironmental exposure to mercury vapor

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Stopford, W.; Bundy, S.D.; Goldwater, L.J.; Bittikofer, J.A.

    1978-05-01

    Work area and breathing zone samples were collected in a factory utilizing metallic mercury and analyzed for mercury vapor content. Breathing zone samples averaged several fold higher in concentration than concurrent area samples, reflecting a ''microenvironmental'' exposure to mercury vapor, presumably from contaminated clothing and hands. Blood and corrected total urine mercury values correlated well with the average microenvironmental exposure level for each worker. Measurements of unbound mercury in urine samples were sensitive at picking up minimal exposures. Excessive amounts of unbound mercury were not found in the urine, even with wide day-to-day swings in microenvironmental mercury vapor levels, suggesting that the human body can adapt to a chronic, moderate exposure to mercury vapor.

  4. Molecular interpretation of nonclassical gas dynamics of dense vapors under the van der Waals model

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Colonna, P.; Guardone, A.

    2006-01-01

    The van der Waals polytropic gas model is used to investigate the role of attractive and repulsive intermolecular forces and the influence of molecular complexity on the possible nonclassical gas dynamic behavior of vapors near the liquid-vapor saturation curve. The decrease of the sound speed upon

  5. 4-(Methylsulfonylpiperazin-1-ium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hoong-Kun Fun

    2010-02-01

    Full Text Available In the title molecular salt, C5H13N2O2S+·Cl−, the complete cation is generated by crystallographic mirror symmetry, with both N atoms, the S atom and one C atom lying on the reflecting plane. The chloride ion also lies on the mirror plane. The piperazinium ring adopts a chair conformation and the N—S bond adopts an equatorial orientation. In the crystal structure, the component ions are linked into a three-dimensional framework by intermolecular N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  6. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Sonnenthal Eric

    2009-11-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Results Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150°C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. Conclusion The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual

  7. Modeling acid-gas generation from boiling chloride brines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhang, Guoxiang; Spycher, Nicolas; Sonnenthal, Eric; Steefel, Carl

    2009-11-16

    This study investigates the generation of HCl and other acid gases from boiling calcium chloride dominated waters at atmospheric pressure, primarily using numerical modeling. The main focus of this investigation relates to the long-term geologic disposal of nuclear waste at Yucca Mountain, Nevada, where pore waters around waste-emplacement tunnels are expected to undergo boiling and evaporative concentration as a result of the heat released by spent nuclear fuel. Processes that are modeled include boiling of highly concentrated solutions, gas transport, and gas condensation accompanied by the dissociation of acid gases, causing low-pH condensate. Simple calculations are first carried out to evaluate condensate pH as a function of HCl gas fugacity and condensed water fraction for a vapor equilibrated with saturated calcium chloride brine at 50-150 degrees C and 1 bar. The distillation of a calcium-chloride-dominated brine is then simulated with a reactive transport model using a brine composition representative of partially evaporated calcium-rich pore waters at Yucca Mountain. Results show a significant increase in boiling temperature from evaporative concentration, as well as low pH in condensates, particularly for dynamic systems where partial condensation takes place, which result in enrichment of HCl in condensates. These results are in qualitative agreement with experimental data from other studies. The combination of reactive transport with multicomponent brine chemistry to study evaporation, boiling, and the potential for acid gas generation at the proposed Yucca Mountain repository is seen as an improvement relative to previously applied simpler batch evaporation models. This approach allows the evaluation of thermal, hydrological, and chemical (THC) processes in a coupled manner, and modeling of settings much more relevant to actual field conditions than the distillation experiment considered. The actual and modeled distillation experiments do not

  8. 21 CFR 184.1446 - Manganese chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Manganese chloride. 184.1446 Section 184.1446 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1446 Manganese chloride. (a) Manganese chloride (MnCl2·4H2O, CAS Reg. No. 7773-01-5) is a pink, translucent, crystalline product. It is also known as manganese...

  9. 21 CFR 184.1138 - Ammonium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Ammonium chloride. 184.1138 Section 184.1138 Food... Specific Substances Affirmed as GRAS § 184.1138 Ammonium chloride. (a) Ammonium chloride (NH4Cl, CAS Reg..._locations.html. (c) In accordance with § 184.1(b)(1), the ingredient is used in food with no limitation...

  10. Prediction of Chloride Penetration into Hardening Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Wei-Jie Fan; Xiao-Yong Wang

    2015-01-01

    In marine and coastal environments, penetration of chloride ions is one of the main mechanisms causing concrete reinforcement corrosion. Currently, most of experimental investigations about submerged penetration of chloride ions are started after the four-week standard curing of concrete. The further hydration of cement and reduction of chloride diffusivity during submerged penetration period are ignored. To overcome this weak point, this paper presents a numerical procedure to analyze simult...

  11. Vaporization behavior of non-stoichiometric refractory carbide materials and direct observations of the vapor phase using laser diagnostics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Butt, D.P.; Wantuck, P.J.; Rehse, S.J.; Wallace, T.C. Sr.

    1993-09-01

    Transition metal and actinide carbides, such as ZrC or NbC and UC or ThC, exhibit a wide range of stoichiometry, and therefore vaporize incongruently. At long times, steady state vaporization can be achieved where relative concentrations of atomic species on solid surface equals that in the gas phase. The surface composition under these steady state conditions is termed the congruently vaporizing composition, (CVC). Modeling the vaporization or corrosion behavior of this dynamic process is complex and requires an understanding of how the surface composition changes with time and a knowledge of CVC, which is both temperature and atmosphere dependent. This paper describes vaporization and corrosion behavior of non-stoichiometric refractory carbide materials and, as an example, describes a thermokinetic model that characterizes the vaporization behavior of the complex carbide U{sub x}Zr{sub 1-x}C{sub y} in hydrogen at 2500 to 3200 K. This model demonstrates that steady state corrosion of U{sub x}Zr{sub l-x}C{sub y} is rate limited by gaseous transport of Zr where partial pressure of Zr is determined by CVC. This paper also briefly describes efforts to image and characterize the vapor phase above the surface of ZrC in static and flowing gas environments using planar laser induced fluorescence. We have developed the method for monitoring and controlling the corrosion behavior of nuclear fuels in nuclear thermal rockets. However, the techniques described can be used, to image boundary layers, and could be used verifying corrosion models.

  12. ENVIRONMENTAL EXPOSURE TO VINYL CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Henryka Langauer-Lewowicka

    2010-09-01

    Full Text Available Vinyl chloride (VC monomer is a wellknown carcinogenic and mutagenic substance causes liver damages, angiosarcoma of the liver, acro – osteolysis, sclerodermalike changes in workers chronically exposed to this gas. There are following VC emitors to the environment: VC production plants, polymerization facilities and planes where polyvinyl products are fabricated. Because of that, the general population is coming into VC contact through polluted air, food and water. VC concentration in all mentioned sites is very low, often not detectable. There was found any health risk for the general population. The VC air concentration in the vicinity to antropogenic emitors is always higher. Such a situation may causes undesirable health effect for residents living in the neighbourhood. Epidemiological studies are performed to detect the adverse VC effect in selected cohorts. Non of the study did not confirmed cases of angiosarcoma among residents living near a vinyl chloride sites. VC production is growing permanently, so VC emission will be higher. Because of that health monitoring of general population and especially of selected groups seems to be necessary in the future.

  13. [Medical prophylaxis of occupational intoxication in polyvinyl chloride industry].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Maniashin, Iu A; Potrokhov, O I; Belik, G A; Bol'shedvorskiĭ, V V; Lokhov, M G

    1995-01-01

    The study covered clinical and laboratory findings, immunity parameters in 103 workers of polymer compounds production. The individuals exposed to chlorine organic chemicals: mercuric vapors, gaseous chlorine demonstrate specific changes of metabolic parameters. The data on protein synthesis, monooxygenases activity, lipid metabolism, state of membranes (lipoprotein complex, peroxidases, ALa-AT, Asp-AT), immune activity enabled to design prophylactic measures. To accomplish the therapeutic measures, the department for prevention of occupational intoxication is organized in local industrial medical center.

  14. Sodium-metal chloride batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1992-02-01

    It was concluded that rapid development in the technology of sodium metal chloride batteries has been achieved in the last decade mainly due to the: expertise available with sodium sulfur system; safety; and flexibility in design and fabrication. Long cycle lives of over 1000 and high energy densities of approx. 100 Wh/kg have been demonstrated in both Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 cells. Optimization of porous cathode and solid electrolyte geometries are essential for further enhancing the battery performance. Fundamental studies confirm the capabilities of these systems. Nickel dichloride emerges as the candidate cathode material for high power density applications such as electric vehicle and space.

  15. Vapor complexation in the CsI-HoI 3 system up to 1300 K and the f ← f hypersensitive transition intensities of Ho(III) in different coordination geometries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Papatheodorou, G. N.; Chrissanthopoulos, A.

    2007-04-01

    Electronic absorption spectroscopy is used in the temperature range 850-1300 K, to study the vapor species over molten HoI 3-CsI (1:1), molten CsI and solid HoI 3. Quantitative absorbance measurements are used to calculate the following enthalpies of transition: Δ Hsubl(HoI 3) = 271 ± 3 kJ mol -1, Δ Hvap. (CsHoI 4) = 155 ± 2 kJ mol -1 and Δ Hvap. (CsI) = 151 ± 2 kJ mol -1. The ligand field components of the 5G 6 ← 5I 8 hypersensitive transition of Ho(III) for the three different, all iodide, coordination geometries of HoI 3(g), CsHoI 4(g) and HoI 63- (in molten CsI) have been examined in detail. The molar absorptivities ( ɛ) and oscillator strengths ( f) increase as the coordination decreases from the "octahedral" HoI 63- ( ɛ = 65 L mol -1 cm -1; f = 99 × 10 -6) to the distorted tetrahedral HoI 4- ( ɛ = 235 L mol -1 cm -1; f = 290 × 10 -6) to the trigonal HoI 3 ( ɛ = 390 L mol -1 cm -1; f = 500 × 10 -6). The main factors affecting the hypersensitive transition intensities are the coordination number and symmetry and the ligand polarizability as well as the Boltzmann population effects on the ground state levels which are responsible for the appearance of "hot" bands in the spectra. A C2v symmetry is anticipated for the CsHoI 4(g) with the HoI 4- "tetrahedra" distorted towards a square planar symmetry leading to a structure with a pseudo-like inversion center.

  16. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kantcheva, Adriana Krassimirova; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs ...

  17. Chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole Mejlhede; Hansen, Per Freiesleben; Coats, Alison M.

    1999-01-01

    In this paper chloride ingress in cement paste and mortar is followed by electron probe microanalysis. The influence of several paste and exposure parameters on chloride ingress are examined (e.g., water-cement ratio, silica fume addition, exposure time, and temperature), The measurements...

  18. 21 CFR 182.8985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Zinc chloride. 182.8985 Section 182.8985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8985 Zinc chloride. (a...

  19. Electrochemical Chloride extraction using external electrodes?

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ottosen, Lisbeth M.; Pedersen, Anne Juul

    2006-01-01

    Electrochemical methods for the removal of chloride from concrete have been developed and the methods are primarily designed for situations where corrosion has started due to an increased chloride concentration in the vicinity of the reinforcement. In these methods the reinforcement is used as th...

  20. Chronopotentiometric chloride sensing using transition time measurement

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; de Graaf, D.B.; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    Detection of chloride ions is crucial to accurately access the concrete structure durability[1]. The existing electrochemical method of chloride ions detection in concrete, potentiometry[1], is not suitable for in-situ measurement due to the long term stability issue of conventional reference

  1. Uptake of tridodecylmethylammonium chloride by PVC

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Froehling, P.E.; Koenhen, D.M.; Smolders, C.A.; Bantjes, A.

    1977-01-01

    The uptake of tridodecylmethylammonium chloride (TDMAC) by poly(vinyl chloride) has been investigated to provide a more quantitative basis for the preparation of blood-compatible surfaces based on TDMAC-heparin coatings. Sorption isotherms of TDMAC from toluene-cyclohexane and toluene-methanol

  2. Photoselective vaporization prostatectomy: experience with a novel 180 W 532 nm lithium triborate laser and fiber delivery system in living dogs.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Malek, Reza S; Kang, Hyun Wook; Peng, Yihlih Steven; Stinson, Douglas; Beck, Michael T; Koullick, Ed

    2011-02-01

    We studied vaporization parameters, and anatomical and histopathological outcomes of photoselective vaporization of the prostate with the novel GreenLight™ XPS™ 180 W, 532 nm lithium triborate laser and MoXy™ fiber in a survival model of living dogs. We compared these findings with those of the existing GreenLight HPS™ 120 W 532 nm lithium triborate laser photoselective vaporization of the prostate in living dogs. Eight dogs underwent antegrade photoselective vaporization of the prostate with the 180 W laser delivered through a new 750 μm (vs the existing 600 μm core diameter), 50% larger, spot sized, side firing fiber. Four dogs were sacrificed 3 hours and 8 weeks postoperatively, respectively. We recorded laser energy and time. Prostates were sectioned, measured and histologically analyzed after hematoxylin and eosin, triphenyltetrazolium chloride or Gomori trichrome staining and compared with a normal control. Photoselective vaporization of the prostate with the 180 W laser bloodlessly created a 76% larger cavity (mean 11.8 vs 6.7 cm(3), p = 0.014), vaporized tissue at a 77% higher rate (mean 2.3 vs 1.3 cm(3) per minute, p = 0.03) and did so in 37% less time per volume vaporized (0.5 vs 0.8 minutes per cm(3), p = 0.003). Hematoxylin and eosin, and triphenyltetrazolium chloride staining histologically revealed a 33% thicker mean coagulation zone vs that of 120 W laser photoselective vaporization of the prostate (2.0 ± 0.4 vs 1.5 ± 0.3 mm, p vaporization of the prostate with the MoXy fiber has a significantly higher vaporization rate and speed with a deeper hemostatic coagulation zone but favorable tissue interaction and healing equal to those of HPS 120 W laser photoselective vaporization of the prostate in dogs. Copyright © 2011 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  3. Simple chloride sensors for continuous groundwater monitoring

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Thorn, Paul; Mortensen, John

    2012-01-01

    The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used in continu......The development of chloride sensors which can be used for continuous, on-line monitoring of groundwater could be very valuable in the management of our coastal water resources. However, sensor stability, drift, and durability all need to be addressed in order for the sensors to be used...... sensor remained responsive even at low chloride concentrations, where the conductivity electrode was no longer responding to changing chloride levels. With the results, it is believed that the simple chloride sensor could be used for continuous monitoring of groundwater quality....

  4. Direct atomic absorption determination of cadmium and lead in strongly interfering matrices by double vaporization with a two-step electrothermal atomizer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grinshtein, Ilia L.; Vilpan, Yuri A.; Saraev, Alexei V.; Vasilieva, Lubov A.

    2001-03-01

    Thermal pretreatment of a sample using double vaporization in a two-step atomizer with a purged vaporizer makes possible the direct analysis of samples with strongly interfering matrices including solids. A porous-graphite capsule or a filter inserted into the vaporizer is used for solid sample analysis. The technique was used for the direct determination of Cd and Pb in human urine, potatoes, wheat, bovine liver, milk powder, grass-cereal mixtures, caprolactam, bituminous-shale and polyvinyl chloride plastic without chemical modification or any other sample pretreatment.

  5. Navier slip model of drag reduction by Leidenfrost vapor layers

    KAUST Repository

    Berry, Joseph D.

    2017-10-17

    Recent experiments found that a hot solid sphere that is able to sustain a stable Leidenfrost vapor layer in a liquid exhibits significant drag reduction during free fall. The variation of the drag coefficient with Reynolds number deviates substantially from the characteristic drag crisis behavior at high Reynolds numbers. Measurements based on liquids of different viscosities show that the onset of the drag crisis depends on the viscosity ratio of the vapor to the liquid. Here we attempt to characterize the complexity of the Leidenfrost vapor layer with respect to its variable thickness and possible vapor circulation within, in terms of the Navier slip model that is defined by a slip length. Such a model can facilitate tangential flow and thereby alter the behavior of the boundary layer. Direct numerical and large eddy simulations of flow past a sphere at moderate to high Reynolds numbers (102≤Re≤4×104) are employed to quantify comparisons with experimental results, including the drag coefficient and the form of the downstream wake on the sphere. This provides a simple one parameter characterization of the drag reduction phenomenon due to a stable vapor layer that envelops a solid body.

  6. Navier slip model of drag reduction by Leidenfrost vapor layers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Berry, Joseph D.; Vakarelski, Ivan U.; Chan, Derek Y. C.; Thoroddsen, Sigurdur T.

    2017-10-01

    Recent experiments found that a hot solid sphere that is able to sustain a stable Leidenfrost vapor layer in a liquid exhibits significant drag reduction during free fall. The variation of the drag coefficient with Reynolds number deviates substantially from the characteristic drag crisis behavior at high Reynolds numbers. Measurements based on liquids of different viscosities show that the onset of the drag crisis depends on the viscosity ratio of the vapor to the liquid. Here we attempt to characterize the complexity of the Leidenfrost vapor layer with respect to its variable thickness and possible vapor circulation within, in terms of the Navier slip model that is defined by a slip length. Such a model can facilitate tangential flow and thereby alter the behavior of the boundary layer. Direct numerical and large eddy simulations of flow past a sphere at moderate to high Reynolds numbers (1 02≤Re≤4 ×1 04) are employed to quantify comparisons with experimental results, including the drag coefficient and the form of the downstream wake on the sphere. This provides a simple one parameter characterization of the drag reduction phenomenon due to a stable vapor layer that envelops a solid body.

  7. Chloride-Anion-Templated Synthesis of a Strapped-Porphyrin-Containing Catenane Host System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brown, Asha; Langton, Matthew J; Kilah, Nathan L; Thompson, Amber L; Beer, Paul D

    2015-01-01

    The synthesis, structure and anion-recognition properties of a new strapped-porphyrin-containing [2]catenane anion host system are described. The assembly of the catenane is directed by discrete chloride anion templation acting in synergy with secondary aromatic donor–acceptor and coordinative pyridine–zinc interactions. The [2]catenane incorporates a three-dimensional, hydrogen-bond-donating anion-binding pocket; solid-state structural analysis of the catenane⋅chloride complex reveals that the chloride anion is encapsulated within the catenane’s interlocked binding cavity through six convergent CH⋅⋅⋅⋅Cl and NH⋅⋅⋅Cl hydrogen-bonding interactions and solution-phase 1H NMR titration experiments demonstrate that this complementary hydrogen-bonding arrangement facilitates the selective recognition of chloride over larger halide anions in DMSO solution. PMID:26508679

  8. Estimated vapor pressure for WTP process streams

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pike, J. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL); Poirier, M. [Savannah River Site (SRS), Aiken, SC (United States). Savannah River National Lab. (SRNL)

    2015-01-01

    Design assumptions during the vacuum refill phase of the Pulsed Jet Mixers (PJMs) in the Hanford Waste Treatment and Immobilization Plant (WTP) equate the vapor pressure of all process streams to that of water when calculating the temperature at which the vacuum refill is reduced or eliminated. WTP design authority asked the authors to assess this assumption by performing calculations on proposed feed slurries to calculate the vapor pressure as a function of temperature. The vapor pressure was estimated for each WTP waste group. The vapor pressure suppression caused by dissolved solids is much greater than the increase caused by organic components such that the vapor pressure for all of the waste group compositions is less than that of pure water. The vapor pressure for each group at 145°F ranges from 81% to 98% of the vapor pressure of water. If desired, the PJM could be operated at higher temperatures for waste groups with high dissolved solids that suppress vapor pressure. The SO4 group with the highest vapor pressure suppression could be operated up to 153°F before reaching the same vapor pressure of water at 145°F. However, most groups would reach equivalent vapor pressure at 147 to 148°F. If any of these waste streams are diluted, the vapor pressure can exceed the vapor pressure of water at mass dilution ratios greater than 10, but the overall effect is less than 0.5%.

  9. Material Solutions to Mitigate the Alkali Chloride-Induced High Temperature Corrosion

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kiamehr, Saeed

    in the course of corrosion as well as the role of potassium chloride vapor. Results showed that while the majority of the alloys formed protective slow-growing oxides in the absence of KCl, they all suffered from significant attack when KCl was present. Thereby the inability of Cr to form a protective oxide......High temperature corrosion induced by potassium chloride (KCl) is a major challenge for biomass-based power plants. The current study aims at identification or development of alloys or coatings that can yield a better performance at a target metal temperature of 600oC compared to austenitic...... of metals. This was aimed at identifying the constituent elements of a corrosion resistant alloy. Calculations suggested Al, Si, Cr, Ti, Y, Ce, Ta, Hf and Zr as suitable oxide-forming elements as well as Mo, Ni and Co as suitable matrix-forming elements. However, the presence of potassium in the environment...

  10. Chloride-Reinforced Carbon Nanofiber Host as Effective Polysulfide Traps in Lithium-Sulfur Batteries.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fan, Lei; Zhuang, Houlong L; Zhang, Kaihang; Cooper, Valentino R; Li, Qi; Lu, Yingying

    2016-12-01

    Lithium-sulfur (Li-S) battery is one of the most promising alternatives for the current state-of-the-art lithium-ion batteries due to its high theoretical energy density and low production cost from the use of sulfur. However, the commercialization of Li-S batteries has been so far limited to the cyclability and the retention of active sulfur materials. Using co-electrospinning and physical vapor deposition procedures, we created a class of chloride-carbon nanofiber composites, and studied their effectiveness on polysulfides sequestration. By trapping sulfur reduction products in the modified cathode through both chemical and physical confinements, these chloride-coated cathodes are shown to remarkably suppress the polysulfide dissolution and shuttling between lithium and sulfur electrodes. From adsorption experiments and theoretical calculations, it is shown that not only the sulfide-adsorption effect but also the diffusivity in the vicinity of these chlorides materials plays an important role on the reversibility of sulfur-based cathode upon repeated cycles. Balancing the adsorption and diffusion effects of these nonconductive materials could lead to the enhanced cycling performance of an Li-S cell. Electrochemical analyses over hundreds of cycles indicate that cells containing indium chloride-modified carbon nanofiber outperform cells with other halogenated salts, delivering an average specific capacity of above 1200 mAh g-1 at 0.2 C.

  11. Effects of platinic chloride on Tetrahymena pyrifromis GL

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nilsson, Jytte R.

    1992-01-01

    Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin......Cellebiologi, platinum(IV)chloride, endocytosis, detoxification, cell proliferation, fine structure, cisplatin...

  12. Hydrochloric acid aerosol and gaseous hydrogen chloride partitioning in a cloud contaminated by solid rocket exhaust

    Science.gov (United States)

    Sebacher, D. I.; Bendura, R. J.; Wornom, D. E.

    1980-01-01

    Partitioning of hydrogen chloride between hydrochloric acid aerosol and gaseous HCl in the lower atmosphere was experimentally investigated in a solid rocket exhaust cloud diluted with humid ambient air. Airborne measurements were obtained of gaseous HCl, total HCl, relative humidity and temperature to evaluate the conditions under which aerosol formation occurs in the troposphere in the presence of hygroscopic HCl vapor. Equilibrium predictions of HCl aerosol formation accurately predict the measured HCl partitioning over a range of total HCl concentrations from 0.6 to 16 ppm.

  13. Reliability-Based Planning of Chloride Measurements

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Engelund, S.

    1996-01-01

    In reinforced concrete structures corrosion is initiated when the chloride concentration around the reinforcement exceeds a threshold value. If corrosion starts then expensive repairs can be necessary. The estimation of the probability that corrosion has been initiated in a given structure is based...... on measurements of the chloride content obtained from the given structure. In the present paper optimal planning of measurements of the chloride content in reinforced concrete structures is considered. It is shown how optimal experimental plans can be obtained using FORM-analysis. Bayesian statistics are used...

  14. 78 FR 42595 - Marine Vapor Control Systems

    Science.gov (United States)

    2013-07-16

    ... clarified the location of the gas injection and mixing arrangement relative to the vapor processing unit or... Parts 35 and 39 Marine Vapor Control Systems; Final Rule #0;#0;Federal Register / Vol. 78 , No. 136... Parts 154, 155, and 156 46 CFR Parts 35 and 39 RIN 1625-AB37 Marine Vapor Control Systems AGENCY: Coast...

  15. Vaporization of heavy metals during thermal treatment of model solid waste in a fluidized bed incinerator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yu, Jie; Sun, Lushi; Xiang, Jun; Hu, Song; Su, Sheng; Qiu, Jianrong

    2012-03-01

    This paper investigated the volatilization behavior of heavy metals during thermal treatment of model solid waste in a fluidized bed reactor. Four metal chlorides (Cd, Pb, Cu and Zn) were chosen as metal sources. The influence of redox conditions, water and mineral matrice on heavy metal volatilization was investigated. In general, Cd shows significant vaporization especially when HCl was injected, while Cu and Pb vaporize moderately and Zn vaporization is negligible. Increasing oxygen concentration can lower heavy metal vaporization. Heavy metal interactions with the mineral matter can result in the formation of stable metallic species thus playing a negative effect on their behavior. However, HCl can promote the heavy metal release by preventing the formation of stable metallic species. The chemical sorption (either physical or chemical) inside the pores, coupled with the internal diffusion of gaseous metal species, may also control the vaporization process. With SO(2) injected, Cd and Pb show a higher volatility as a result of SO(2) reducing characteristics. From the analysis, the subsequent order of heavy metal volatility can be found: Cd>Cu≥Pb≫Zn. Copyright © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Recycling of PVC Waste via Environmental Friendly Vapor Treatment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cui, Xin; Jin, Fangming; Zhang, Guangyi; Duan, Xiaokun

    2010-11-01

    This paper focused on the dechlorination of polyvinyl chloride (PVC), a plastic which is widely used in the human life and thereby is leading to serious "white pollution", via vapor treatment process to recycle PVC wastes. In the process, HCl emitted was captured into water solution to avoid hazardous gas pollution and corruption, and remaining polymers free of chlorine could be thermally degraded for further energy recovery. Optimal conditions for the dechlorination of PVC using vapor treatment was investigated, and economic feasibility of this method was also analyzed based on the experimental data. The results showed that the efficiency of dechlorination increased as the temperature increased from 200° C to 250° C, and the rate of dechlorination up to 100% was obtained at the temperature near 250° C. Meanwhile, about 12% of total organic carbon was detected in water solution, which indicated that PVC was slightly degraded in this process. The main products in solution were identified to be acetone, benzene and toluene. In addition, the effects of alkali catalysis on dechlorination were also studied in this paper, and it showed that alkali could not improve the efficiency of the dechlorination of PVC.

  17. 75 FR 19657 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-15

    ... antidumping duty order on barium chloride from China would be likely to lead to continuation or recurrence of.... Persons with mobility impairments who will need special assistance in gaining access to the Commission...

  18. Microstructure of vapor deposited coatings on curved substrates

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Rodgers, Theron M.; Zhao, Hengbei; Wadley, Haydn N. G., E-mail: haydn@virginia.edu [Department of Materials Science and Engineering, University of Virginia, 395 McCormick Rd., P.O. Box 400745, Charlottesville, Virginia 22904 (United States)

    2015-09-15

    Thermal barrier coating systems consisting of a metallic bond coat and ceramic over layer are widely used to extend the life of gas turbine engine components. They are applied using either high-vacuum physical vapor deposition techniques in which vapor atoms rarely experience scattering collisions during propagation to a substrate, or by gas jet assisted (low-vacuum) vapor deposition techniques that utilize scattering from streamlines to enable non-line-of-sight deposition. Both approaches require substrate motion to coat a substrate of complex shape. Here, direct simulation Monte Carlo and kinetic Monte Carlo simulation methods are combined to simulate the deposition of a nickel coating over the concave and convex surfaces of a model airfoil, and the simulation results are compared with those from experimental depositions. The simulation method successfully predicted variations in coating thickness, columnar growth angle, and porosity during both stationary and substrate rotated deposition. It was then used to investigate a wide range of vapor deposition conditions spanning high-vacuum physical vapor deposition to low-vacuum gas jet assisted vapor deposition. The average coating thickness was found to increase initially with gas pressure reaching a maximum at a chamber pressure of 8–10 Pa, but the best coating thickness uniformity was achieved under high vacuum deposition conditions. However, high vacuum conditions increased the variation in the coatings pore volume fraction over the surface of the airfoil. The simulation approach was combined with an optimization algorithm and used to investigate novel deposition concepts to tailor the local coating thickness.

  19. Chlorination of (PheboxIr(mesityl(OAc by Thionyl Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Meng Zhou

    2015-06-01

    Full Text Available Pincer (PheboxIr(mesityl(OAc (2 (Phebox = 3,5-dimethylphenyl-2,6-bis(oxazolinyl complex, formed by benzylic C-H activation of mesitylene (1,3,5-trimethylbenzene using (PheboxIr(OAc2OH2 (1, was treated with thionyl chloride to rapidly form 1-(chloromethyl-3,5-dimethylbenzene in 50% yield at 23 °C. A green species was obtained at the end of reaction, which decomposed during flash column chromatography to form (PheboxIrCl2OH2 in 87% yield.

  20. Bicarbonate secretion and chloride absorption by rabbit cortical collecting ducts. Role of chloride/bicarbonate exchange.

    OpenAIRE

    Star, R A; Burg, M. B.; Knepper, M A

    1985-01-01

    Cortical collecting ducts (CCD) from rabbits treated with deoxycorticosterone (DOC) actively secrete bicarbonate at high rates. To investigate the mechanism of bicarbonate secretion, we measured bicarbonate and chloride transport in CCD from rabbits treated with DOC for 9-24 d. Removal of chloride (replaced with gluconate) from both perfusate and bath inhibited bicarbonate secretion without changing transepithelial voltage. Removal of chloride only from the bath increased bicarbonate secretio...

  1. Telomerization of Vinyl Chloride with Chloroform Initiated by Ferrous Chloride-Dimethylacetamide under Ultrasonic Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Hua Qian

    2015-01-01

    Full Text Available Telomerization of vinyl chloride with chloroform was investigated using ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide system, and 42.1% yield, more than four times the one reported before, was achieved. The addition of ultrasound further improved the reaction and yield was raised to 51.9% with trace byproducts at highly reduced reaction time and temperature. Ferrous chloride-dimethylacetamide under ultrasonic irradiation acts as a very efficient catalyst system for the 1 : 1 telomerization.

  2. Methyl chloride via oxhydrochlorination of methane

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jarvis, R.F. Jr.

    1997-12-31

    Dow Corning is developing a route from methane to methyl chloride via oxyhydrochlorination (OHC) chemistry with joint support from the Gas Research Institute and the Department of Energy Federal Energy Technology Center. Dow Corning is the world`s largest producer of methyl chloride and uses it as an intermediate in the production of silicone materials. Other uses include production of higher hydrocarbons, methyl cellulose, quaternary ammonium salts and herbicides. The objective of this project is to demonstrate and develop a route to methyl chloride with reduced variable cost by using methane instead of methanol raw materials. Methyl chloride is currently produced from methanol, but U.S. demand is typically higher than available domestic supply, resulting in fluctuating prices. OHC technology utilizes domestic natural gas as a feedstock, which allows a lower-cost source of methyl chloride which is independent of methanol. In addition to other uses of methyl chloride, OHC could be a key step in a gas-to-liquid fuels process. These uses could divert significant methanol demand to methane. A stable and selective catalyst has been developed in the laboratory and evaluated in a purpose-built demonstration unit. Materials of construction issues have been resolved and the unit has been run under a range of conditions to evaluate catalyst performance and stability. Many technological advances have been made, especially in the areas of catalyst development, online FTIR analysis of the product stream, and recovery of methyl chloride product via an absorber/stripper system. Significant technological hurdles still remain including heat transfer, catalysts scaleup, orthogonality in modeling, and scaleable absorption data. Economics of the oxyhydrochlorination process have been evaluated an found to be unfavorable due to high capital and utility costs. Future efforts will focus on improved methane conversion at high methyl chloride selectivity.

  3. The kinetics of the hydrogen chloride oxidation

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gonzalez Martinez Isai

    2013-01-01

    Full Text Available Hydrogen chloride (HCl oxidation has been investigated on technical membrane electrode assemblies in a cyclone flow cell. Influence of Nafion loading, temperature and hydrogen chloride mole fraction in the gas phase has been studied. The apparent kinetic parameters like reaction order with respect to HCl, Tafel slope and activation energy have been determined from polarization data. The apparent kinetic parameters suggest that the recombination of adsorbed Cl intermediate is the rate determining step.

  4. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    OpenAIRE

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-01-01

    A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method prov...

  5. High temperature vapors science and technology

    CERN Document Server

    Hastie, John

    2012-01-01

    High Temperature Vapors: Science and Technology focuses on the relationship of the basic science of high-temperature vapors to some areas of discernible practical importance in modern science and technology. The major high-temperature problem areas selected for discussion include chemical vapor transport and deposition; the vapor phase aspects of corrosion, combustion, and energy systems; and extraterrestrial high-temperature species. This book is comprised of seven chapters and begins with an introduction to the nature of the high-temperature vapor state, the scope and literature of high-temp

  6. Recent advances in vapor intrusion site investigations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    McHugh, Thomas; Loll, Per; Eklund, Bart

    2017-12-15

    Our understanding of vapor intrusion has evolved rapidly since the discovery of the first high profile vapor intrusion sites in the late 1990s and early 2000s. Research efforts and field investigations have improved our understanding of vapor intrusion processes including the role of preferential pathways and natural barriers to vapor intrusion. This review paper addresses recent developments in the regulatory framework and conceptual model for vapor intrusion. In addition, a number of innovative investigation methods are discussed. Copyright © 2017 The Authors. Published by Elsevier Ltd.. All rights reserved.

  7. Vaporization chambers and associated methods

    Science.gov (United States)

    Turner, Terry D.; Wilding, Bruce M.; McKellar, Michael G.; Shunn, Lee P.

    2017-02-21

    A vaporization chamber may include at least one conduit and a shell. The at least one conduit may have an inlet at a first end, an outlet at a second end and a flow path therebetween. The shell may surround a portion of each conduit and define a chamber surrounding the portion of each conduit. Additionally, a plurality of discrete apertures may be positioned at longitudinal intervals in a wall of each conduit, each discrete aperture of the plurality of discrete apertures sized and configured to direct a jet of fluid into each conduit from the chamber. A liquid may be vaporized by directing a first fluid comprising a liquid into the inlet at the first end of each conduit, directing jets of a second fluid into each conduit from the chamber through discrete apertures in a wall of each conduit and transferring heat from the second fluid to the first fluid.

  8. Influence of Chloride-Ion Adsorption Agent on Chloride Ions in Concrete and Mortar.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Peng, Gai-Fei; Feng, Nai-Qian; Song, Qi-Ming

    2014-04-30

    The influence of a chloride-ion adsorption agent (Cl agent in short), composed of zeolite, calcium aluminate hydrate and calcium nitrite, on the ingress of chloride ions into concrete and mortar has been experimentally studied. The permeability of concrete was measured, and the chloride ion content in mortar was tested. The experimental results reveal that the Cl agent could adsorb chloride ions effectively, which had penetrated into concrete and mortar. When the Cl agent was used at a dosage of 6% by mass of cementitious materials in mortar, the resistance to the penetration of chloride ions could be improved greatly, which was more pronounced when a combination of the Cl agent and fly ash or slag was employed. Such an effect is not the result of the low permeability of the mortar, but might be a result of the interaction between the Cl agent and the chloride ions penetrated into the mortar. There are two possible mechanisms for the interaction between the Cl agent and chloride ion ingress. One is the reaction between calcium aluminate hydrate in the Cl agent and chloride ions to form Friedel's salt, and the other one is that calcium aluminate hydrate reacts with calcium nitrite to form AFm during the early-age hydration of mortar and later the NO₂(-) in AFm is replaced by chloride ions, which then penetrate into the mortar, also forming Friedel's salt. More research is needed to confirm the mechanisms.

  9. High temperature alloy chloridation at 850 C

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Chevalier, S.; Bekaddour, A. [Laboratoire de Recherches sur la Reactivite des Solides, UMR 5613 CNRS, Universite de Bourgogne, 9 avenue Alain Savary, 21078 Dijon (France); Ched' Homme, S. [DTM/SRPU/LPPU, CEA Valduc, 21120 Is-sur-Tille (France); Amilain-Basset, K.; Buisson, L. [Interface Caracterisation des Materiaux, Universite de Bourgogne, 21078 Dijon (France)

    2007-05-15

    The resistance of eight alloys against chloridation was tested at 850 C in Ar/Cl{sub 2} (2.5% Cl{sub 2}) for 15 min. Pre-oxidation treatments were performed for 1 h and 8 h at 850 C in order to produce a thin, adherent and protective oxide scale able to improve the chloridation behaviour of the tested materials. The chloridised sample morphologies were compared to the morphologies observed on the non pre-oxidised samples. The alloys containing a large amount of iron did not exhibit any chloridation resistance, even after pre-oxidation, and were severely damaged. The nickel based alloys gave interesting results but were also attacked by chloride, probably by the ''active oxidation'' mechanism. The duration of the pre-oxidation treatment plays an important role, since the 8 h pre-oxidation appears more beneficial than the 1 h pre-oxidation, to delay the chloridation, probably because of the best quality of the oxide layer grown during 8 h. For the nickel based materials, the effects of chloride appear less severe than for the iron-based alloys, but are not stopped. The ''active oxidation'' mechanism is proposed to be responsible for the degradation of the tested materials. (Abstract Copyright [2007], Wiley Periodicals, Inc.)

  10. Chemical vapor deposition of sialon

    Science.gov (United States)

    Landingham, R.L.; Casey, A.W.

    A laminated composite and a method for forming the composite by chemical vapor deposition are described. The composite includes a layer of sialon and a material to which the layer is bonded. The method includes the steps of exposing a surface of the material to an ammonia containing atmosphere; heating the surface to at least about 1200/sup 0/C; and impinging a gas containing N/sub 2/, SiCl/sub 4/, and AlCl/sub 3/ on the surface.

  11. Importance Profiles for Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapes, Brian; Chandra, Arunchandra S.; Kuang, Zhiming; Zuidema, Paquita

    2017-10-01

    Motivated by the scientific desire to align observations with quantities of physical interest, we survey how scalar importance functions depend on vertically resolved water vapor. Definitions of importance begin from familiar examples of water mass I m and TOA clear-sky outgoing longwave flux I OLR, in order to establish notation and illustrate graphically how the sensitivity profile or "kernel" depends on whether specific humidity S, relative humidity R, or ln(R) are used as measures of vapor. Then, new results on the sensitivity of convective activity I con to vapor (with implied knock-on effects such as weather prediction skill) are presented. In radiative-convective equilibrium, organized (line-like) convection is much more sensitive to moisture than scattered isotropic convection, but it exists in a drier mean state. The lesson for natural convection may be that organized convection is less susceptible to dryness and can survive and propagate into regions unfavorable for disorganized convection. This counterintuitive interpretive conclusion, with respect to the narrow numerical result behind it, highlights the importance of clarity about what is held constant at what values in sensitivity or susceptibility kernels. Finally, the sensitivities of observable radiance signals I sig for passive remote sensing are considered. While the accuracy of R in the lower free troposphere is crucial for the physical importance scalars, this layer is unfortunately the most difficult to isolate with passive remote sensing: In high emissivity channels, water vapor signals come from too high in the atmosphere (for satellites) or too low (for surface radiometers), while low emissivity channels have poor altitude discrimination and (in the case of satellites) are contaminated by surface emissions. For these reasons, active ranging (LiDAR) is the preferred observing strategy.

  12. Vaporization Would Cool Primary Battery

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bhandari, Pradeep; Miyake, Robert N.

    1991-01-01

    Temperature of discharging high-power-density primary battery maintained below specified level by evaporation of suitable liquid from jacket surrounding battery, according to proposal. Pressure-relief valve regulates pressure and boiling temperature of liquid. Less material needed in cooling by vaporization than in cooling by melting. Technique used to cool batteries in situations in which engineering constraints on volume, mass, and location prevent attachment of cooling fins, heat pipes, or like.

  13. Importance Profiles for Water Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Mapes, Brian; Chandra, Arunchandra S.; Kuang, Zhiming; Zuidema, Paquita

    2017-11-01

    Motivated by the scientific desire to align observations with quantities of physical interest, we survey how scalar importance functions depend on vertically resolved water vapor. Definitions of importance begin from familiar examples of water mass I m and TOA clear-sky outgoing longwave flux I OLR, in order to establish notation and illustrate graphically how the sensitivity profile or "kernel" depends on whether specific humidity S, relative humidity R, or ln( R) are used as measures of vapor. Then, new results on the sensitivity of convective activity I con to vapor (with implied knock-on effects such as weather prediction skill) are presented. In radiative-convective equilibrium, organized (line-like) convection is much more sensitive to moisture than scattered isotropic convection, but it exists in a drier mean state. The lesson for natural convection may be that organized convection is less susceptible to dryness and can survive and propagate into regions unfavorable for disorganized convection. This counterintuitive interpretive conclusion, with respect to the narrow numerical result behind it, highlights the importance of clarity about what is held constant at what values in sensitivity or susceptibility kernels. Finally, the sensitivities of observable radiance signals I sig for passive remote sensing are considered. While the accuracy of R in the lower free troposphere is crucial for the physical importance scalars, this layer is unfortunately the most difficult to isolate with passive remote sensing: In high emissivity channels, water vapor signals come from too high in the atmosphere (for satellites) or too low (for surface radiometers), while low emissivity channels have poor altitude discrimination and (in the case of satellites) are contaminated by surface emissions. For these reasons, active ranging (LiDAR) is the preferred observing strategy.

  14. Potentiometric Determination of Free Chloride in Cement Paste – an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    selective electrode has been developed to analyze free chloride in the pore water extracted from cement paste.16 The accuracy and reliability of this ... Chloride analysis in fresh or hardened concrete and its raw materials is of great .... ular mass of chloride (35.45 g mol–1), Us = chloride ISE reading of each sample, Uå ...

  15. Method for Hot Real-Time Analysis of Pyrolysis Vapors at Pilot Scale

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, Marc D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-29

    Pyrolysis oils contain more than 400 compounds, up to 60% of which do not re-volatilize for subsequent chemical analysis. Vapor chemical composition is also complicated as additional condensation reactions occur during quenching and collection of the product. Due to the complexity of the pyrolysis oil, and a desire to catalytically upgrade the vapor composition before condensation, online real-time analytical techniques such as Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (MBMS) are of great use. However, in order to properly sample hot pyrolysis vapors at the pilot scale, many challenges must be overcome.

  16. Droplet Vaporization In A Levitating Acoustic Field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruff, G. A.; Liu, S.; Ciobanescu, I.

    2003-01-01

    Combustion experiments using arrays of droplets seek to provide a link between single droplet combustion phenomena and the behavior of complex spray combustion systems. Both single droplet and droplet array studies have been conducted in microgravity to better isolate the droplet interaction phenomena and eliminate or reduce the effects of buoyancy-induced convection. In most experiments involving droplet arrays, the droplets are supported on fibers to keep them stationary and close together before the combustion event. The presence of the fiber, however, disturbs the combustion process by introducing a source of heat transfer and asymmetry into the configuration. As the number of drops in a droplet array increases, supporting the drops on fibers becomes less practical because of the cumulative effect of the fibers on the combustion process. To eliminate the effect of the fiber, several researchers have conducted microgravity experiments using unsupported droplets. Jackson and Avedisian investigated single, unsupported drops while Nomura et al. studied droplet clouds formed by a condensation technique. The overall objective of this research is to extend the study of unsupported drops by investigating the combustion of well-characterized drop clusters in a microgravity environment. Direct experimental observations and measurements of the combustion of droplet clusters would provide unique experimental data for the verification and improvement of spray combustion models. In this work, the formation of drop clusters is precisely controlled using an acoustic levitation system so that dilute, as well as dense clusters can be created and stabilized before combustion in microgravity is begun. While the low-gravity test facility is being completed, tests have been conducted in 1-g to characterize the effect of the acoustic field on the vaporization of single and multiple droplets. This is important because in the combustion experiment, the droplets will be formed and

  17. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Gils

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl−/HCO3- exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90 mmol/L and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves when treated correctly. Case Presentation. A 27-year-old woman had an emergency caesarian due to pain and discomfort in gestational week 36 + 4. The newborn boy had abdominal distension and yellow fluid per rectum. Therapy with intravenous glucose and sodium chloride decreased his stool frequency and improved his clinical condition. A suspicion of congenital chloride diarrhea was strongly supported using blood gas analyzer to measure an increased chloride concentration in the feces; the diagnosis was confirmed by DNA testing. Discussion. Measurement of chloride in feces using an ordinary blood gas analyzer can serve as a preliminary analysis when congenital chloride diarrhea is suspected. This measurement can be easily performed with a watery feces composition. An easy-accessible chloride measurement available will facilitate the diagnostics and support the initial treatment if CCD is suspected.

  18. N, N′-Olefin functionalized Bis-Imidazolium Pd (II) chloride N ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    N, N′-Olefin functionalized Bis-Imidazolium Pd(II) chloride N-Heterocyclic carbene complex builds a supramolecular framework and shows catalytic efficacy for `C–C' coupling reactions. Gourisankar Roymahapatra Tapastaru Samanta Saikat Kumar Seth Ambikesh Mahapatra Shyamal Kumar Chattopadhyay Joydev Dinda.

  19. Amine and Titanium (IV Chloride, Boron (III Chloride or Zirconium (IV Chloride-Promoted Baylis-Hillman Reactions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shi-Cong Cui

    2001-10-01

    Full Text Available The Baylis-Hillman reactions of various aryl aldehydes with methyl vinyl ketone at temperatures below -20oC using Lewis acids such as titanium (IV chloride, boron (III chloride or zirconium (IV chloride in the presence of a catalytic amount of selected amines used as a Lewis bases afford the chlorinated compounds 1 as the major product in very high yields. Acrylonitrile can also undergo the same reaction to give the corresponding chlorinated product in moderate yield. A plausible reaction mechanism is proposed. However, if the reaction was carried out at room temperature (ca. 20oC, then the Z-configuration of the elimination product 3, derived from 1, was formed as the major product.

  20. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantcheva, Adriana K; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A; Nissen, Poul

    2013-05-21

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding.

  1. Chloride binding site of neurotransmitter sodium symporters

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kantcheva, Adriana K.; Quick, Matthias; Shi, Lei; Winther, Anne-Marie Lund; Stolzenberg, Sebastian; Weinstein, Harel; Javitch, Jonathan A.; Nissen, Poul

    2013-01-01

    Neurotransmitter:sodium symporters (NSSs) play a critical role in signaling by reuptake of neurotransmitters. Eukaryotic NSSs are chloride-dependent, whereas prokaryotic NSS homologs like LeuT are chloride-independent but contain an acidic residue (Glu290 in LeuT) at a site where eukaryotic NSSs have a serine. The LeuT-E290S mutant displays chloride-dependent activity. We show that, in LeuT-E290S cocrystallized with bromide or chloride, the anion is coordinated by side chain hydroxyls from Tyr47, Ser290, and Thr254 and the side chain amide of Gln250. The bound anion and the nearby sodium ion in the Na1 site organize a connection between their coordinating residues and the extracellular gate of LeuT through a continuous H-bond network. The specific insights from the structures, combined with results from substrate binding studies and molecular dynamics simulations, reveal an anion-dependent occlusion mechanism for NSS and shed light on the functional role of chloride binding. PMID:23641004

  2. Chloride equilibrium potential in salamander cones

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Bryson Eric J

    2004-12-01

    Full Text Available Abstract Background GABAergic inhibition and effects of intracellular chloride ions on calcium channel activity have been proposed to regulate neurotransmission from photoreceptors. To assess the impact of these and other chloride-dependent mechanisms on release from cones, the chloride equilibrium potential (ECl was determined in red-sensitive, large single cones from the tiger salamander retinal slice. Results Whole cell recordings were done using gramicidin perforated patch techniques to maintain endogenous Cl- levels. Membrane potentials were corrected for liquid junction potentials. Cone resting potentials were found to average -46 mV. To measure ECl, we applied long depolarizing steps to activate the calcium-activated chloride current (ICl(Ca and then determined the reversal potential for the current component that was inhibited by the Cl- channel blocker, niflumic acid. With this method, ECl was found to average -46 mV. In a complementary approach, we used a Cl-sensitive dye, MEQ, to measure the Cl- flux produced by depolarization with elevated concentrations of K+. The membrane potentials produced by the various high K+ solutions were measured in separate current clamp experiments. Consistent with electrophysiological experiments, MEQ fluorescence measurements indicated that ECl was below -36 mV. Conclusions The results of this study indicate that ECl is close to the dark resting potential. This will minimize the impact of chloride-dependent presynaptic mechanisms in cone terminals involving GABAa receptors, glutamate transporters and ICl(Ca.

  3. MEMS Lubrication by In-Situ Tribochemical Reactions From the Vapor Phase.

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Dugger, Michael Thomas; Asay, David B.; Kim, Seong H.

    2008-01-01

    Vapor Phase Lubrication (VPL) of silicon surfaces with pentanol has been demonstrated. Two potential show stoppers with respect to application of this approach to real MEMS devices have been investigated. Water vapor was found to reduce the effectiveness of VPL with alcohol for a given alcohol concentration, but the basic reaction mechanism observed in water-free environments is still active, and devices operated much longer in mixed alcohol and water vapor environments than with chemisorbed monolayer lubricants alone. Complex MEMS gear trains were successfully lubricated with alcohol vapors, resulting in a factor of 104 improvement in operating life without failure. Complex devices could be made to fail if operated at much higher frequencies than previously used, and there is some evidence that the observed failure is due to accumulation of reaction products at deeply buried interfaces. However, if hypothetical reaction mechanisms involving heated surfaces are valid, then the failures observed at high frequency may not be relevant to operation at normal frequencies. Therefore, this work demonstrates that VPL is a viable approach for complex MEMS devices in conventional packages. Further study of the VPL reaction mechanisms are recommended so that the vapor composition may be optimized for low friction and for different substrate materials with potential application to conventionally fabricated, metal alloy parts in weapons systems. Reaction kinetics should be studied to define effective lubrication regimes as a function of the partial pressure of the vapor phase constituent, interfacial shear rate, substrate composition, and temperature.

  4. Overview of chemical vapor infiltration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Stinton, D.P.; Lowden, R.A.

    1993-06-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) is developing into a commercially important method for the fabrication of continuous filament ceramic composites. Current efforts are focused on the development of an improved understanding of the various processes in CVI and its modeling. New approaches to CVI are being explored, including pressure pulse infiltration and microwave heating. Material development is also proceeding with emphasis on improving the oxidation resistance of the interfacial layer between the fiber and matrix. This paper briefly reviews these subjects, indicating the current state of the science and technology.

  5. Effect of hygroscopic materials on water vapor permeation and dehumidification performance of poly(vinyl alcohol) membranes

    KAUST Repository

    Bui, T. D.

    2017-01-16

    In this study, two hygroscopic materials, inorganic lithium chloride (LiCl) and organic triethylene glycol (TEG) were separately added to poly(vinyl alcohol) (PVA) to form blend membranes for air dehumidification. Water vapor permeation, dehumidification performance and long-term durability of the membranes were studied systematically. Membrane hydrophilicity and water vapor sorbability increased significantly with higher the hygroscopic material contents. Water vapor permeance of the membranes increased with both added hygroscopic material and absorbed water. Water permeation energy varied from positive to negative with higher hygroscopic content. This observation is attributed to a lower diffusion energy and a relatively constant sorption energy when hygroscopic content increases. Comparatively, PVA/TEG has less corrosive problems and is more environmentally friendly than PVA/LiCl. A membrane with PVA/TEG is observed to be highly durable and is suitable for dehumidification applications.

  6. A Lithium Vapor Box Divertor Similarity Experiment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cohen, Robert A.; Emdee, Eric D.; Goldston, Robert J.; Jaworski, Michael A.; Schwartz, Jacob A.

    2017-10-01

    A lithium vapor box divertor offers an alternate means of managing the extreme power density of divertor plasmas by leveraging gaseous lithium to volumetrically extract power. The vapor box divertor is a baffled slot with liquid lithium coated walls held at temperatures which increase toward the divertor floor. The resulting vapor pressure differential drives gaseous lithium from hotter chambers into cooler ones, where the lithium condenses and returns. A similarity experiment was devised to investigate the advantages offered by a vapor box divertor design. We discuss the design, construction, and early findings of the vapor box divertor experiment including vapor can construction, power transfer calculations, joint integrity tests, and thermocouple data logging. Heat redistribution of an incident plasma-based heat flux from a typical linear plasma device is also presented. This work supported by DOE Contract No. DE-AC02-09CH11466 and The Princeton Environmental Institute.

  7. Influence of alcohol on grain growth of tin oxide in chemical vapor deposition

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Matsui, Yuji [New Products Development Center, Technology Development Division, Japan/Asia Pacific General Division Automotive Glass Company, Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., 426-1 Sumida, Aikawa-machi, Aiko-gun, Kanagawa 243-0301 (Japan)]. E-mail: yuuji-matsui@agc.co.jp; Mitsuhashi, Michio [New Products Development Center, Technology Development Division, Japan/Asia Pacific General Division Automotive Glass Company, Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., 426-1 Sumida, Aikawa-machi, Aiko-gun, Kanagawa 243-0301 (Japan); Yamamoto, Yuichi [Research Center, Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-machi, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 221-8755 (Japan); Higashi, Seiji [Research Center, Asahi Glass Co. Ltd., 1150 Hazawa-machi, Kanagawa-ku, Yokohama, Kanagawa 221-8755 (Japan)

    2007-01-22

    Morphologies of tin oxide micro-grains in the early stage of film growth were analyzed for films deposited by chemical vapor deposition using tin chloride as a source material. Atomic force microscopy observations revealed increased micro-grain density and decreased size by adding methanol into the reaction system, but X-ray photoelectron spectroscopy analyses suggested that the total deposited volume was unchanged. The relative amount of chlorine contamination at the bottom of alcohol-added films increased in the order of isopropyl alcohol < ethanol < methanol. A model of chlorine desorption through reaction with alcohol, which occurred in the early stage of film growth, can explain the results.

  8. Temperature dependent electrical properties of polyaniline film grown on paper through aniline vapor polymerization

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Deb, K.; Bera, A.; Saha, B., E-mail: biswajit.physics@gmail.com [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania, West Tripura 799046 (India); Bhowmik, K. L. [Department of Physics, National Institute of Technology Agartala, Jirania, West Tripura 799046 (India); Department of Chemistry, Bir Bikram Memorial College, Agartala, West Tripura 799004 (India); Chattopadhyay, K. K. [Department of Physics, Jadavpur University, Kolkata 700 032 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Polyaniline thin film has been prepared on paper by aniline vapor deposition technique. Ferric chloride has been used as polymerizing agent in this approach. The prepared films were studied through electrical resistivity and optical properties measurements. The electrical resistivity of the polyaniline film shows significant temperature dependence. The resistance sharply falls with the increase in temperature. The optical absorbance measurements shows characteristics absorbance peak indicating the formation of conducting emeraldine salt form of polyaniline. The optical energy band gap of the film was calculated from the transmittance spectra. The optical energy band gap and electrical conductivity of the polyaniline film is well suited for their applications in electronic devices.

  9. Droplet Vaporization in a Supercritical Microgravity Environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, E. W.; Farrell, P. V.

    1987-01-01

    A model is presented which describes single liquid droplet vaporization at nearly critical liquid pressures and temperatures. A modified Redlich-Kwong equation of state is used to evaluate the fugacities and liquid and vapor mole fractions at the interface under the assumption of interface equilibrium. Results obtained for different droplet sizes and conditions indicate significant differences in behavior in comparison with low-pressure quasi-steady droplet vaporization.

  10. Vapor Pressure Data Analysis and Statistics

    Science.gov (United States)

    2016-12-01

    there were flaws in the original data prior to its publication. 3. FITTING METHODS Our process for correlating experimental vapor pressure ...2. Penski, E.C. Vapor Pressure Data Analysis Methodology, Statistics, and Applications; CRDEC-TR-386; U.S. Army Chemical Research, Development, and... Chemical Biological Center: Aberdeen Proving Ground, MD, 2006; UNCLASSIFIED Report (ADA447993). 11. Kemme, H.R.; Kreps, S.I. Vapor Pressure of

  11. Mars water vapor, near-surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ryan, J. A.; Sharman, R. D.; Lucich, R. D.

    1982-01-01

    In a previous paper we concluded that the temperature sensors aboard the Viking landers (VL-1 and VL-2) were detecting the water vapor frost point. Analysis of one Mars year of data at both lander sites substantiates this conclusion. At VL-1 it is found that the water vapor mixing ratio is constant with height through the bulk of the atmosphere, most of the time. Exceptions are during the onset phases of the two major dust storms when temporary enhancement of near-surface vapor occurs (the same phenomenon is observed at VL-2), and some depletion of near-surface vapor during the decay phase of the first storm, possibly the second storm as well. The former suggests near-surface, northward transport of water vapor with the storms. The latter suggests adsorption of vapor on dust particles followed by surface deposition. At VL-2, severe near-surface depletion of water vapor occurs during northern autumn and winter. The residual vapor is in equilibrium with the surface condensate observed at the site during this period, indicating that the source region for the condensate must be aloft with downward transport by dust fall-out. Since the near-surface water vapor mixing ratio and concentration at VL-1 generally parallels the column abundance over VL-1 obtained by the orbiters, this suggests that VL-1 can be used to give a measure of column abundance for as long as the temperature sensors remain operational.

  12. Experimental formation of Pb, Sn, Ge and Sb sulfides, selenides and chlorides in the presence of sal ammoniac: A contribution to the understanding of the mineral formation processes in coal wastes self-burning

    Science.gov (United States)

    Laufek, František; Veselovsky, František; Drábek, Milan; Kříbek, Bohdan; Klementová, Mariana

    2017-04-01

    The formation of sulfides, selenides and chlorides was experimentally studied at 800 or 900°C in the presence of sal ammoniac in a sealed silica glass tube. Synthetic PbS, PbSe, SnS, GeS, SnGeS2, PbSnS3, SnS and Sb2S3 or natural uraninite were used as a starting charge. Depending on the chemical composition of the sulfide/selenide charge, galena, unnamed SnGeS3 phase, herzenbergite, berndite, ottenmannite, stibnite and unnamed SnSb2S4 and Sn2Sb3S6 phases were identified in sublimates, together with cotunnite and an unnamed (NH4)2SnCl6 phase. When natural uraninite in a mixture with sal ammoniac was used as a charge, the reaction product comprised abundant cotunnite and minor challacolloite due to volatilization of radiogenic lead. When sulfur was introduced to the charge with uraninite and sal ammoniac, galena was found in reaction products. The results of our experiments revealed that if sulfide or selenide phases and NH4Cl are placed in a thermal gradient, it is possible to accelerate their mobility through a process of hydrogen chloride vapor transport. Within the transport process, new solid products are either isochemical or non-isochemical. The isochemical composition of resulting phases with charge probably represents simple sublimation of the original solid phase in form of self-vapor. The non-isochemical phases are probably formed due to combination of sublimation and condensation of various gas components including gaseous HCl. The valency change of metals (e.g. Sn2+ to Sn3+) in several reaction products indicates redox reactions in the gas mixture or during the solidification of resulting products. The role of ammoniac is not clear; however, formation of unnamed (NH4)2SnCl6 compound identified in one of our experiment, indicate possible formation of ammonium complexes. In contrast to experiments where sulfides or selenides were used as a part of charge, mobility of uraninite was not proved under experimental conditions employed. It is consistent with an

  13. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ammitzbøll, Andreas L.; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata

    2013-01-01

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammoni......J/mol. A simple kinetic model is proposed that accounts for the absorption of ammonia through the adsorbed state.......An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammonia...

  14. Surface adsorption in strontium chloride ammines.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ammitzbóll, Andreas L; Lysgaard, Steen; Klukowska, Agata; Vegge, Tejs; Quaade, Ulrich J

    2013-04-28

    An adsorbed state and its implications on the ab- and desorption kinetics of ammonia in strontium chloride ammine is identified using a combination of ammonia absorption measurements, thermogravimetric analysis, and density functional theory calculations. During thermogravimetric analysis, ammonia desorption originating from the adsorbed state is directly observed below the bulk desorption temperature, as confirmed by density functional theory calculations. The desorption enthalpy of the adsorbed state of strontium chloride octa-ammine is determined with both techniques to be around 37-39 kJ∕mol. A simple kinetic model is proposed that accounts for the absorption of ammonia through the adsorbed state.

  15. Alkali metal and ammonium chlorides in water and heavy water (binary systems)

    CERN Document Server

    Cohen-Adad, R

    1991-01-01

    This volume surveys the data available in the literature for solid-fluid solubility equilibria plus selected solid-liquid-vapour equilibria, for binary systems containing alkali and ammonium chlorides in water or heavy water. Solubilities covered are lithium chloride, sodium chloride, potassium chloride, rubidium chloride, caesium chloride and ammonium chloride in water and heavy water.

  16. Processing of extraterrestrial materials by high temperature vacuum vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Grimley, R. T.; Lipschutz, M. E.

    1983-01-01

    It is noted that problems associated with the extraction and concentration of elements and commpounds important for the construction and operation of space habitats have received little attention. High temperature vacuum vaporization is considered a promising approach; this is a technique for which the space environment offers advantages in the form of low ambient pressures and temperatures and the possibility of sustained high temperatures via solar thermal energy. To establish and refine this new technology, experimental determinations must be made of the material release profiles as a function of temperature, of the release kinetics and chemical forms of material being transported, and of the various means of altering release kinetics. Trace element data determined by neutron activation analysis of meteorites heated to 1400 C in vacuum is summarized. The principal tool, high temperature spectrometry, is used to examine the vaporization thermodynamics and kinetics of major and minor elements from complex multicomponent extraterrestrial materials.

  17. Risk-Based Evaluation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons in Vapor Intrusion Studies

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brewer, Roger; Nagashima, Josh; Kelley, Michael; Heskett, Marvin; Rigby, Mark

    2013-01-01

    This paper presents a quantitative method for the risk-based evaluation of Total Petroleum Hydrocarbons (TPH) in vapor intrusion investigations. Vapors from petroleum fuels are characterized by a complex mixture of aliphatic and, to a lesser extent, aromatic compounds. These compounds can be measured and described in terms of TPH carbon ranges. Toxicity factors published by USEPA and other parties allow development of risk-based, air and soil vapor screening levels for each carbon range in the same manner as done for individual compounds such as benzene. The relative, carbon range makeup of petroleum vapors can be used to develop weighted, site-specific or generic screening levels for TPH. At some critical ratio of TPH to a targeted, individual compound, the overwhelming proportion of TPH will drive vapor intrusion risk over the individual compound. This is particularly true for vapors associated with diesel and other middle distillate fuels, but can also be the case for low-benzene gasolines or even for high-benzene gasolines if an adequately conservative, target risk is not applied to individually targeted chemicals. This necessitates a re-evaluation of the reliance on benzene and other individual compounds as a stand-alone tool to evaluate vapor intrusion risk associated with petroleum. PMID:23765191

  18. Aqueous chloride stress corrosion cracking of titanium - A comparison with environmental hydrogen embrittlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, H. G.

    1974-01-01

    The physical characteristics of stress corrosion cracking of titanium in an aqueous chloride environment are compared with those of embrittlement of titanium by a gaseous hydrogen environment in an effort to help contribute to the understanding of the possible role of hydrogen in the complex stress corrosion cracking process. Based on previous studies, the two forms of embrittlement are shown to be similar at low hydrogen pressures (100 N/sq m) but dissimilar at higher hydrogen pressures. In an effort to quantify this comparison, tests were conducted in an aqueous chloride solution using the same material and test techniques as had previously been employed in a gaseous hydrogen environment. The results of these tests strongly support models based on hydrogen as the embrittling species in an aqueous chloride environment.

  19. Combined Quenching Mechanism of Anthracene Fluorescence by Cetylpyridinium Chloride in Sodium Dodecyl Sulfate Micelles.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Soemo, Angela R; Pemberton, Jeanne E

    2014-03-01

    The Stern-Volmer quenching constant (KSV) for quenching of anthracene fluorescence in sodium dodecyl sulfate (SDS) micelles by pyridinium chloride has been reported previously to be 520 M(-1) based on steady state fluorescence measurements. However, such measurements cannot distinguish static versus dynamic contributions to the overall quenching. In the work reported here, the quenching dynamics of anthracene in SDS micelles by cetylpyridinium chloride (CPC), an analogue of pyridinium chloride, were investigated using both steady state and time resolved fluorescence quenching. Concurrent measurement of the decrease in fluorescence intensity and lifetime of anthracene provide a quantitative evaluation of collision induced (i.e. dynamic) versus complex formation (i.e. static) quenching of the anthracene fluorophore. The results reveal that a combined quenching mechanism is operative with approximately equal constants of 249 ± 6 M(-1) and 225 ± 12 M(-1) for dynamic and static quenching, respectively.

  20. Optical Sensor for Diverse Organic Vapors at ppm Concentration Ranges

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Dora M. Paolucci

    2011-03-01

    Full Text Available A broadly responsive optical organic vapor sensor is described that responds to low concentrations of organic vapors without significant interference from water vapor. Responses to several classes of organic vapors are highlighted, and trends within classes are presented. The relationship between molecular properties (vapor pressure, boiling point, polarizability, and refractive index and sensor response are discussed.

  1. Investigation of thermodynamic properties of magnesium chloride amines by HPDSC and TG. For application in a high-lift high-temperature chemical heat pump

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Bevers, E.R.T.; Oonk, H.A.J.; Haije, W.G.; Ekeren, P.J. van

    2007-01-01

    The formation as well as the decomposition of magnesium chloride ammonia complexes was studied by high-pressure differential scanning calorimetry (HPDSC) and thermogravimetric analysis (TG). HPDSC runs were performed under constant ammonia pressure conditions to determine the transition temperatures

  2. Generation of UV radiation by vapors of complex molecules

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Barkova, L.A.; Gruzinskii, V.V.; Danilova, V.I.; Degtiarenko, K.M.; Kopylova, T.N.; Kuznetsov, A.L.

    1981-08-01

    Laser action has been obtained in the following organic compounds under pumping by XeCl excimer laser radiation at 308 nm: para-terphenyl, 2-phenylbenzoxazole, 2-(n-tolyl)-benzoxaxole, 2-(n-methoxyphenyl)-benzoxazole, 2-(n-dimethylaminophenyl)-benzoxazole, 2-biphenylbenzoxazole, (2-alpha-naphthyl)-benzoxazole, 1.4-di(n-phenylethynyl)-benzole, and paraquaterphenyl. The nontuning lasing bands covered the range of 330-370 nm, and the most short-wavelength maximum (333.5 nm) was found for 2(n-methoxyphenyl)-benzoxazole. The lasing capability of the molecules was analyzed.

  3. 21 CFR 582.5985 - Zinc chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Zinc chloride. 582.5985 Section 582.5985 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary Supplements...

  4. 21 CFR 582.5622 - Potassium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Potassium chloride. 582.5622 Section 582.5622 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  5. 21 CFR 582.5252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 6 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Choline chloride. 582.5252 Section 582.5252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) ANIMAL DRUGS, FEEDS, AND RELATED PRODUCTS SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients and/or Dietary...

  6. 21 CFR 182.8252 - Choline chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Choline chloride. 182.8252 Section 182.8252 Food and Drugs FOOD AND DRUG ADMINISTRATION, DEPARTMENT OF HEALTH AND HUMAN SERVICES (CONTINUED) FOOD FOR HUMAN CONSUMPTION (CONTINUED) SUBSTANCES GENERALLY RECOGNIZED AS SAFE Nutrients § 182.8252 Choline...

  7. Detection of chloride ion concentration using chronopotentiometry

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar; Olthuis, Wouter; van den Berg, Albert

    2013-01-01

    In this paper, a novel approach is reported for the electrochemical measurement of chloride ions using chronopotentiometry. A current pulse is applied at the Ag/AgCl working electrode and the potential change is measured with respect to another identical Ag/AgCl electrode in the bulk electrolyte.

  8. An improved calcium chloride method preparation and ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In this paper, we have reported a modified method for preparation and transformation of competent cells. This modified method, improved from a classical protocol, has made some modifications on the concentration of calcium chloride and competent bacteria solution, rotation speed in centrifugation and centrifugation time.

  9. Influence of compaction on chloride ingress

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Zlopasa, J.

    2012-01-01

    Experiences from practice show the need for more of an understanding and optimization of the compaction process in order to design a more durable concrete structure. Local variations in compaction are very often the reason for initiation of local damage and initiation of chloride induced corrosion.

  10. Electrical conduction mechanism of polyvinyl chloride (PVC ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Abstract. The electrical conduction mechanism in polyvinyl chloride (PVC)– polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA) blend film has been studied at various temperatures in the range 313 K to 353 K. The results are presented in the form of I–V characteristics. Analysis has been made in the light of Poole–Frenkel, Fowler–Nordheim, ...

  11. Influence of nutrition on trypanosome isometamidium chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Thirty six weaner wistar rats were used to study the effect of protein nutrition on trypanosome isometamidium chloride prophylaxis. Two groups of rats A and B (n = 18 per group) were maintained on 21% and 14.5% crude protein diet respectively for the twenty eight days. Thereafter, group A was sub-divided into groups A1, ...

  12. 75 FR 20625 - Barium Chloride From China

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-20

    ... From the Federal Register Online via the Government Publishing Office INTERNATIONAL TRADE COMMISSION Barium Chloride From China AGENCY: United States International Trade Commission. ACTION: Revised schedule for the subject review. DATES: Effective Date: April 9, 2010. FOR FURTHER INFORMATION CONTACT: Amy...

  13. Sodium chloride damage to porous building materials

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Lubelli, B.A.

    2006-01-01

    This research studied sodium chloride (NaCl) damage to porous building materials with the aim of: i) gaining a better understanding of the damage process and ii) developing an effective crystallization test. It has been definitely proven that NaCl modifies the hygric dilation of a material

  14. Liquid crystalline critical dynamics in decylammonium chloride

    CERN Document Server

    Lee, K W; Lee, C E; Kang, K H; Rhee, C; Kang, J K

    1999-01-01

    Collective chain dynamics and phase transitions in a model biomembrane, decylammonium chloride (C sub 1 sub 0 H sub 2 sub 1 NH sub 3 Cl), were studied by means of proton nuclear magnetic resonance. Our measurements sensitively reflect the critical dynamics associated with the smectic C to smectic A transition of the lipid bilayer.

  15. 1-Allyl-2,3-cyclopentenopyridinium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Gabriel Partl

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available The title compound, C11H14N+·Cl−, was obtained by reaction of 2,3-cyclopentenopyridine and allyl chloride. A network of weak C—H...Cl hydrogen bonds is observed in the crystal structure.

  16. Amperometric Sensor for Detection of Chloride Ions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Rene Kizek

    2008-09-01

    Full Text Available Chloride ion sensing is important in many fields such as clinical diagnosis, environmental monitoring and industrial applications. We have measured chloride ions at a carbon paste electrode (CPE and at a CPE modified with solid AgNO3, a solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles. Detection limits (3 S/N for chloride ions were 100 μM, 100 μM and 10 μM for solid AgNO3, solution of AgNO3 and/or solid silver particles, respectively. The CPE modified with silver particles is the most sensitive to the presence chloride ions. After that we approached to the miniaturization of the whole electrochemical instrument. Measurements were carried out on miniaturized instrument consisting of a potentiostat with dimensions 35 × 166 × 125 mm, screen printed electrodes, a peristaltic pump and a PC with control software. Under the most suitable experimental conditions (Britton-Robinson buffer, pH 1.8 and working electrode potential 550 mV we estimated the limit of detection (3 S/N as 500 nM.

  17. Chloride ion-aided self-assembly of pseudoclathrochelate metal tris-pyrazoloximates.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Varzatskii, Oleg A; Penkova, Larysa V; Kats, Svitlana V; Dolganov, Alexander V; Vologzhanina, Anna V; Pavlov, Alexander A; Novikov, Valentin V; Bogomyakov, Artem S; Nemykin, Victor N; Voloshin, Yan Z

    2014-03-17

    Chloride ion-aided one-pot template self-assembly of a mixed pyrazoloxime ligand with phenylboronic acid on a corresponding metal(II) ion as a matrix afforded the first boron-capped zinc, cobalt, iron, and manganese pseudoclathrochelate tris-pyrazoloximates. The presence of a pseudocross-linking hydrogen-bonded chloride ion is critical for their formation, as the same chloride-capped complexes were isolated even in the presence of large excesses of bromide and iodide ions. As revealed by X-ray diffraction, all complexes are capped with a chloride ion via three N-H···Cl hydrogen bonds that stabilize their pseudomacrobicyclic frameworks. The MN6 coordination polyhedra possess a distorted trigonal prismatic geometry, with the distortion angles φ between their nonequivalent N3 bases of approximately 0°. Temperature dependences of the effective magnetic moment for the paramagnetic complexes showed the encapsulated metal(II) ions to be in a high-spin state in the temperature range of 2-300 K. In the case of the iron(II) pseudoclathrochelate, density functional theory (DFT) and time-dependent DFT calculations were used to assess its spin state as well as the (57)Fe Mössbauer and UV-vis-NIR parameters. Cyclic voltammetry studies performed for these pseudomacrobicyclic complexes showed them to undergo irreversible or quasi-reversible metal-localized oxidations and reductions. As no changes are observed in the presence of a substantial excess of bromide ion, no anion-exchange reaction occurs, and thus the pseudoclathrochelates have a high affinity toward chloride anions in solution.

  18. LNG fire and vapor control system technologies

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Konzek, G.J.; Yasutake, K.M.; Franklin, A.L.

    1982-06-01

    This report provides a review of fire and vapor control practices used in the liquefied natural gas (LNG) industry. Specific objectives of this effort were to summarize the state-of-the-art of LNG fire and vapor control; define representative LNG facilities and their associated fire and vapor control systems; and develop an approach for a quantitative effectiveness evaluation of LNG fire and vapor control systems. In this report a brief summary of LNG physical properties is given. This is followed by a discussion of basic fire and vapor control design philosophy and detailed reviews of fire and vapor control practices. The operating characteristics and typical applications and application limitations of leak detectors, fire detectors, dikes, coatings, closed circuit television, communication systems, dry chemicals, water, high expansion foam, carbon dioxide and halogenated hydrocarbons are described. Summary descriptions of a representative LNG peakshaving facility and import terminal are included in this report together with typical fire and vapor control systems and their locations in these types of facilities. This state-of-the-art review identifies large differences in the application of fire and vapor control systems throughout the LNG industry.

  19. Mechanics of gas-vapor bubbles

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Hao, Yue; Zhang, Yuhang; Prosperetti, Andrea

    2017-01-01

    Most bubbles contain a mixture of vapor and incondensible gases. While the limit cases of pure vapor and pure gas bubbles are well studied, much less is known about the more realistic case of a mixture. The bubble contents continuously change due to the combined effects of evaporation and

  20. Condensation of vapor bubble in subcooled pool

    Science.gov (United States)

    Horiuchi, K.; Koiwa, Y.; Kaneko, T.; Ueno, I.

    2017-02-01

    We focus on condensation process of vapor bubble exposed to a pooled liquid of subcooled conditions. Two different geometries are employed in the present research; one is the evaporation on the heated surface, that is, subcooled pool boiling, and the other the injection of vapor into the subcooled pool. The test fluid is water, and all series of the experiments are conducted under the atmospheric pressure condition. The degree of subcooling is ranged from 10 to 40 K. Through the boiling experiment, unique phenomenon known as microbubble emission boiling (MEB) is introduced; this phenomenon realizes heat flux about 10 times higher than the critical heat flux. Condensation of the vapor bubble is the key phenomenon to supply ambient cold liquid to the heated surface. In order to understand the condensing process in the MEB, we prepare vapor in the vapor generator instead of the evaporation on the heated surface, and inject the vapor to expose the vapor bubble to the subcooled liquid. Special attention is paid to the dynamics of the vapor bubble detected by the high-speed video camera, and on the enhancement of the heat transfer due to the variation of interface area driven by the condensation.

  1. Vapor Pressures of Several Commercially Used Alkanolamines

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Klepacova, Katarina; Huttenhuis, Patrick J. G.; Derks, Peter W. J.; Versteeg, Geert F.; Klepáčová, Katarína

    For the design of acid gas treating processes, vapor-liquid equilibrium (VLE) data must be available of the solvents to be applied. In this study the vapor pressures of seven frequently industrially used alkanolamines (diethanolamine, N-methylethanolamine, N,N-dimethylethanolamine,

  2. Viscosity and density tables of sodium chloride solutions

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fair, J.A.; Ozbek, H. (comps.)

    1977-04-01

    A file is presented containing tabulated data extracted from the scientific literature on the density and viscosity of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. Also included is a bibliography of the properties of aqueous sodium chloride solutions. (MHR)

  3. Vapor-barrier Vacuum Isolation System

    Science.gov (United States)

    Weinstein, Leonard M. (Inventor); Taminger, Karen M. (Inventor)

    2014-01-01

    A system includes a collimated beam source within a vacuum chamber, a condensable barrier gas, cooling material, a pump, and isolation chambers cooled by the cooling material to condense the barrier gas. Pressure levels of each isolation chamber are substantially greater than in the vacuum chamber. Coaxially-aligned orifices connect a working chamber, the isolation chambers, and the vacuum chamber. The pump evacuates uncondensed barrier gas. The barrier gas blocks entry of atmospheric vapor from the working chamber into the isolation chambers, and undergoes supersonic flow expansion upon entering each isolation chamber. A method includes connecting the isolation chambers to the vacuum chamber, directing vapor to a boundary with the working chamber, and supersonically expanding the vapor as it enters the isolation chambers via the orifices. The vapor condenses in each isolation chamber using the cooling material, and uncondensed vapor is pumped out of the isolation chambers via the pump.

  4. Comparative Effects of Chloride Channel Inhibitors on LRRC8/VRAC-Mediated Chloride Conductance

    Science.gov (United States)

    Friard, Jonas; Tauc, Michel; Cougnon, Marc; Compan, Vincent; Duranton, Christophe; Rubera, Isabelle

    2017-01-01

    Chloride channels play an essential role in a variety of physiological functions and in human diseases. Historically, the field of chloride channels has long been neglected owing to the lack of powerful selective pharmacological agents that are needed to overcome the technical challenge of characterizing the molecular identities of these channels. Recently, members of the LRRC8 family have been shown to be essential for generating the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC) current, a chloride conductance that governs the regulatory volume decrease (RVD) process. The inhibitory effects of six commonly used chloride channel inhibitors on VRAC/LRRC8-mediated chloride transport were tested in wild-type HEK-293 cells expressing LRRC8 proteins and devoid of other types of chloride channels (CFTR and ANO1/2). We explored the effectiveness of the inhibitors using the patch-clamp whole-cell approach and fluorescence-based quantification of cellular volume changes during hypotonic challenge. Both DCPIB and NFA inhibited VRAC current in a whole-cell configuration, with IC50 values of 5 ± 1 μM and 55 ± 2 μM, respectively. Surprisingly, GlyH-101 and PPQ-102, two CFTR inhibitors, also inhibited VRAC conductance at concentrations in the range of their current use, with IC50 values of 10 ± 1 μM and 20 ± 1 μM, respectively. T16Ainh-A01, a so-called specific inhibitor of calcium-activated Cl- conductance, blocked the chloride current triggered by hypo-osmotic challenge, with an IC50 of 6 ± 1 μM. Moreover, RVD following hypotonic challenge was dramatically reduced by these inhibitors. CFTRinh-172 was the only inhibitor that had almost no effect on VRAC/LRRC8-mediated chloride conductance. All inhibitors tested except CFTRinh-172 inhibited VRAC/LRRC8-mediated chloride conductance and cellular volume changes during hypotonic challenge. These results shed light on the apparent lack of chloride channel inhibitors specificity and raise the question of how these inhibitors

  5. Comparative Effects of Chloride Channel Inhibitors on LRRC8/VRAC-Mediated Chloride Conductance

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jonas Friard

    2017-05-01

    Full Text Available Chloride channels play an essential role in a variety of physiological functions and in human diseases. Historically, the field of chloride channels has long been neglected owing to the lack of powerful selective pharmacological agents that are needed to overcome the technical challenge of characterizing the molecular identities of these channels. Recently, members of the LRRC8 family have been shown to be essential for generating the volume-regulated anion channel (VRAC current, a chloride conductance that governs the regulatory volume decrease (RVD process. The inhibitory effects of six commonly used chloride channel inhibitors on VRAC/LRRC8-mediated chloride transport were tested in wild-type HEK-293 cells expressing LRRC8 proteins and devoid of other types of chloride channels (CFTR and ANO1/2. We explored the effectiveness of the inhibitors using the patch-clamp whole-cell approach and fluorescence-based quantification of cellular volume changes during hypotonic challenge. Both DCPIB and NFA inhibited VRAC current in a whole-cell configuration, with IC50 values of 5 ± 1 μM and 55 ± 2 μM, respectively. Surprisingly, GlyH-101 and PPQ-102, two CFTR inhibitors, also inhibited VRAC conductance at concentrations in the range of their current use, with IC50 values of 10 ± 1 μM and 20 ± 1 μM, respectively. T16Ainh-A01, a so-called specific inhibitor of calcium-activated Cl- conductance, blocked the chloride current triggered by hypo-osmotic challenge, with an IC50 of 6 ± 1 μM. Moreover, RVD following hypotonic challenge was dramatically reduced by these inhibitors. CFTRinh-172 was the only inhibitor that had almost no effect on VRAC/LRRC8-mediated chloride conductance. All inhibitors tested except CFTRinh-172 inhibited VRAC/LRRC8-mediated chloride conductance and cellular volume changes during hypotonic challenge. These results shed light on the apparent lack of chloride channel inhibitors specificity and raise the question of how these

  6. Fault Diagnosis Method on Polyvinyl Chloride Polymerization Process Based on Dynamic Kernel Principal Component and Fisher Discriminant Analysis Method

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Shu-zhi Gao

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available In view of the fact that the production process of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC polymerization has more fault types and its type is complex, a fault diagnosis algorithm based on the hybrid Dynamic Kernel Principal Component Analysis-Fisher Discriminant Analysis (DKPCA-FDA method is proposed in this paper. Kernel principal component analysis and Dynamic Kernel Principal Component Analysis are used for fault diagnosis of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC polymerization process, while Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA method was adopted to make failure data for further separation. The simulation results show that the Dynamic Kernel Principal Component Analyses to fault diagnosis of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC polymerization process have better diagnostic accuracy, the Fisher Discriminant Analysis (FDA can further realize the fault isolation, and the actual fault in the process of Polyvinyl chloride (PVC polymerization production can be monitored by Dynamic Kernel Principal Component Analysis.

  7. Pathology of angiosarcoma of the liver among vinyl chloride-polyvinyl chloride workers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Thomas, L B; Popper, H

    1975-01-31

    We described the histologic features of 13 hepatic angiosarcomas which developed in workers engaged in the polymerization of vinyl chloride to polyvinyl chloride. Although the histologic features varied considerably in different portions of the angiosarcoma in the same liver and in the angiosarcomas of the liver from different patients, many features were similar such as sinusoidal, papillary, and cavernous growth patterns coincident with the precursor lesions of proliferation and atypia of sinusoidal lining cells.

  8. Congenital Chloride Diarrhea: Diagnosis by Easy-Accessible Chloride Measurement in Feces

    OpenAIRE

    van Gils, C.; M.-C. Eckhardt; Nielsen, P E; Nybo, M.

    2016-01-01

    Background. Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD) is an autosomal recessive disorder caused by mutations in the genes encoding the intestinal Cl?/HCO3 ? exchanger and is clinically characterized by watery, profound diarrhea, electrolyte disturbances, and metabolic alkalosis. The CCD diagnosis is based on the clinical symptoms and measurement of high chloride concentration in feces (>90?mmol/L) and is confirmed by DNA testing. Untreated CCD is lethal, while long-term clinical outcome improves whe...

  9. Studies on the electrodeposition of tin from acidic chloride-gluconate solutions

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rudnik, Ewa; Włoch, Grzegorz

    2013-01-01

    Electrodeposition of tin from acidic chloride-gluconate baths was investigated. Equilibrium distribution of tin(II) species showed domination of Sn(II)-gluconate complexes, but for Sn2+ concentrations 50 mM or higher increased percentage of Sn(II)-chloride complexes was found. Cyclic voltammetry, anodic stripping analysis and potentiostatic measurements indicated that rate of the cathodic process is determined by the release of metal cations from gluconate complexes in diluted bath (5 mM), but for more concentrated solutions reduction of Sn(II) ions run under diffusion control. Studies of anodic response showed that it depends on the Sn(II)/Glu ratio in the bath and deposition potential due to development of different planes of metal crystal. Average effective diffusion coefficients of metal species were determined. Morphology and structure tin deposits were also presented.

  10. Effect of Cyclic Carbonation on Chloride Ingression in GGBS Concrete

    OpenAIRE

    Backus, Jonathon; McPolin, Daniel

    2016-01-01

    Carbonation and chloride ingress are the two main causes of corrosion in reinforced concrete structures. An investigation to monitor the ingress of chlorides and the effect of carbonation on chloride ingression during an accelerated 12 month cyclic wetting and drying exposure regime that simulates conditions in which multiple mode transport mechanisms are active was conducted on ground granulated blast furnace slag (GGBS) concrete. The penetration of chloride and carbon dioxide was evaluated ...

  11. Concrete with Improved Chloride Binding and Chloride Resistivity by Blended Cements

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Katalin Kopecskó

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Durability and service life of concrete structures can be endangered by chloride ions. Two phenomena help to keep control of chloride effects. On one hand cements are able to bind chloride ions by their aluminate clinker phases or by the clinker substituting materials. On the other hand resistivity of concrete against chloride penetration can be improved by careful selection of concrete constituents and production. Detailed results of two series of extensive experimental studies are presented herein. Chloride ion binding capacity of tested cements in decreasing sequence was the following: (1 CEM III/B 32,5 N-S; (2 CEM III/A 32,5 N; (3 CEM II/B 32,5 R; (4 CEM II/B-M (V-L 32,5 R; (5 CEM I 42,5 N. Test results indicated that the increasing substitution of clinkers by GGBS improves the chloride resistivity in concrete made with the same water to cement ratio. The application of air entraining agent increases considerably the values of Dnssm. Based on the migration coefficients (Dnssm the following sequence of efficiency was found (from the best: CEM III/B 32,5 N > CEM V/A (S-V 32,5 N > CEM III/A 32,5 N > CEM II/B-S 42,5 R > CEM II/A-S 42,5 N > CEM I 42,5 N.

  12. 21 CFR 177.1980 - Vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers. 177.1980... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1980 Vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers. The vinyl chloride-propylene copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  13. Potentiometric Determination of Free Chloride in Cement Paste – an ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    NICO

    Corrosion of rebar in concrete is commonly associated with, and to a large degree influenced by, the free chloride concentration in the pore water. The amount of chloride in concrete is important because chloride can promote corrosion of steel reinforcement when moisture and oxygen are present. A potentiometric ...

  14. Accelerated testing for chloride threshold of reinforcing steel in concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Polder, R.B.; Put, M. van; Peelen, W.H.A.

    2017-01-01

    Testing for the chloride threshold (also called critical chloride content) for corrosion initiation of steel in concrete has been found difficult and, at best, time consuming. Nevertheless, the chloride threshold is an important parameter in service life design of new structures and for evaluation

  15. 21 CFR 177.1950 - Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 3 2010-04-01 2009-04-01 true Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. 177.1950... Basic Components of Single and Repeated Use Food Contact Surfaces § 177.1950 Vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers. The vinyl chloride-ethylene copolymers identified in paragraph (a) of this section may be safely...

  16. 49 CFR 179.102-17 - Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 49 Transportation 2 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. 179.102-17...) § 179.102-17 Hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid. Each tank car used to transport hydrogen chloride, refrigerated liquid must comply with the following special requirements: (a) The tank car must comply with...

  17. Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Steel in Concrete: An Overview on Chloride Diffusion and Prediction of Corrosion Initiation Time

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Muhammad Umar Khan; Shamsad Ahmad; Husain Jubran Al-Gahtani

    2017-01-01

    .... However, such models do not include the effects of various significant factors such as chloride binding by the cement, multidirectional ingress of chloride, and variation of [subscript] D c [/subscript...

  18. Study of an aqueous lithium chloride desiccant system Part II: Desiccant regeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumo, Nelson [Universidad Nacional Experimental del Tachira, San Cristobal (Venezuela); Goswami, Yogi [University of Florida, Gainesville (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Desiccant systems have been proposed as alternative to handle the latent load in vapor compression air conditioning for energy saving. The air dehumidification occurs because of the difference in vapor pressure which let the moisture diffuse from the air to the liquid desiccant. The diffused moisture cause a dilution of the desiccant which must be regenerated to return it to the original conditions. This paper presents the results from a study of the performance of a packed tower regenerator for an aqueous lithium chloride desiccant dehumidification system. The rate of water evaporation, as well as the effectiveness of the regeneration process were assessed under the effects of variables such as air and desiccant flow rates, air temperature and humidity, and desiccant temperature and concentration. A variation of the oeberg and Goswami mathematical model was used to predict the experimental findings given satisfactory results. [Spanish] Se han propuesto sistemas desecantes para hacerse cargo de la carga latente en acondicionamiento de aire por compresion de vapor para el ahorro de energia. La deshumidificacion del aire ocurre en razon de la diferencia de presion de vapor que deja la humedad difusa del aire en el desecante liquido. La humedad difusa del aire origina una dilucion del desecante el cual debe de ser regenerado para regresarlo a sus condiciones originales. Este documento presenta los resultados de un estudio sobre el comportamiento de un regenerador de torre empacada para un sistema de deshumidificacion de solucion desecante de cloruro de litio. El regimen de evaporacion de agua, asi como tambien la efectividad del proceso de regeneracion que se evaluo bajo los efectos de variables tales como los regimenes de flujo de aire y de desecante, temperatura del aire y humedad, y temperatura y concentracion del desecante. Una variacion del modelo matematico de Oberg y Goswami se uso para predecir los resultados experimentales que dieron resultados satisfactorios.

  19. Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Steel in Concrete: An Overview on Chloride Diffusion and Prediction of Corrosion Initiation Time

    OpenAIRE

    Muhammad Umar Khan; Shamsad Ahmad; Husain Jubran Al-Gahtani

    2017-01-01

    Initiation of corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete (RC) structures subjected to chloride exposures mainly depends on coefficient of chloride diffusion, Dc, of concrete. Therefore, Dc is one of the key parameters needed for prediction of initiation of reinforcement corrosion. Fick’s second law of diffusion has been used for long time to derive the models for chloride diffusion in concrete. However, such models do not include the effects of various significant factors such as chloride bind...

  20. Vaporization of perfluorocarbon droplets using optical irradiation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Strohm, Eric; Rui, Min; Gorelikov, Ivan; Matsuura, Naomi; Kolios, Michael

    2011-06-01

    Micron-sized liquid perfluorocarbon (PFC) droplets are currently being investigated as activatable agents for medical imaging and cancer therapy. After injection into the bloodstream, superheated PFC droplets can be vaporized to a gas phase for ultrasound imaging, or for cancer therapy via targeted drug delivery and vessel occlusion. Droplet vaporization has been previously demonstrated using acoustic methods. We propose using laser irradiation as a means to induce PFC droplet vaporization using a method we term optical droplet vaporization (ODV). In order to facilitate ODV of PFC droplets which have negligible absorption in the infrared spectrum, optical absorbing nanoparticles were incorporated into the droplet. In this study, micron-sized PFC droplets loaded with silica-coated lead sulfide (PbS) nanoparticles were evaluated using a 1064 nm laser and ultra-high frequency photoacoustic ultrasound (at 200 and 375 MHz). The photoacoustic response was proportional to nanoparticle loading and successful optical droplet vaporization of individual PFC droplets was confirmed using photoacoustic, acoustic, and optical measurements. A minimum laser fluence of 1.4 J/cm(2) was required to vaporize the droplets. The vaporization of PFC droplets via laser irradiation can lead to the activation of PFC agents in tissues previously not accessible using standard ultrasound-based techniques.

  1. On the iron chloride aerosol in the clouds of Venus

    Science.gov (United States)

    Krasnopolsky, Vladimir A.

    2017-04-01

    Iron chloride in the Venus clouds is under discussion for three decades, and the saturated vapor pressure of this species is of crucial importance for its modeling. There is a great scatter in the published data, and the preferable results are by Rustad and Gregory (1983, J. Chem. Eng. Data 28, 151-155) and those based on thermodynamic parameters by Chase (1998, J. Phys. Chem. Ref. Data Monograph 9). Using these data, loss by coagulation with sulfuric acid, transport by eddy diffusion, and the Stokes precipitation, the model confirms conclusions of our early study (Krasnopolsky 1985, Planet. Space Sci. 33, 109-117) that FeCl3 in the Venus clouds (1) agrees with the near UV and blue reflectivity of Venus (Zasova et al. 1981, Adv. Space Res. 1, #9, 13-16), (2) was observed by the direct X-ray fluorescent spectroscopy, (3) explains the altitude profiles of the mode 1 aerosol in the middle and lower cloud layers and (4) the decrease in the NUV absorption below 60 km. Here we add to these conclusions that (5) the delivery of FeCl3 into the upper cloud layer and the production of sulfuric acid are just in proportion of 1: 100 by mass that is required to fit the observed NUV albedo. Furthermore, (6) the mode 1 and 2 particle sizes fit this proportion as well. Finally, (7) the required Fe2Cl6 mixing ratio is 17 ppbv in the atmosphere and the FeCl3 mole fraction is 19 ppbv in the Venus surface rocks.

  2. Conformational changes in gastric mucoproteins induced by caesium chloride and guanidinium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Snary, David; Allen, Adrian; Pain, Roger H.

    1974-01-01

    1. Caesium chloride and guanidinium chloride were shown to cause conformational changes in the high-molecular-weight mucoprotein A of water-soluble gastric mucus with no change in molecular weight. 2. Increasing concentrations of CsCl decrease the viscosity of the mucoprotein bringing about a transition which is essentially complete in 0.1m-CsCl. The shear-dependence of viscosity of the mucoprotein is abolished by low concentrations of CsCl. The normally highly expanded molecule becomes contracted in CsCl to a molecule having the same symmetry but a smaller volume and decreased solvation, in keeping with an increased sedimentation coefficient (18.7S→33S). 3. This contracted form does not revert to the native conformation on removal of the CsCl. 4. A mechanism is discussed in terms of the effect of the Cs+ and Cl−ions on water structure and the water–mucoprotein interaction. 5. Guanidinium chloride causes the CsCl-treated material to expand, in keeping with a decrease in s025,w (33S→26S). This is analogous to the known unfolding effect of guanidinium chloride on proteins and suggests that guanidinium chloride solubilizes groups involved in stabilizing the contracted structure. Removal of the guanidinium chloride results in a limited aggregation of four mucoprotein molecules. 6. These results show that caution must be exercised before interpreting the physical properties of mucoproteins which have been treated with CsCl and/or guanidinium chloride. PMID:4463954

  3. Chloride migration in concrete with superabsorbent polymers

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hasholt, Marianne Tange; Jensen, Ole Mejlhede

    2015-01-01

    Superabsorbent polymers (SAP) can be used as a means for internal curing of concrete. In the present study, the development of transport properties of concrete with SAP is investigated. The chloride migration coefficient according to NT BUILD 492 is used as a measure of this. Twenty concrete...... mixtures are tested 7, 14, and 28 days after casting. The development of degree of hydration is followed for 20 corresponding paste mixtures. Both when SAP is added with extra water to compensate the SAP water absorption in fresh concrete and without extra water, the internal curing water held by SAP may...... contribute to increase the degree of hydration. No matter if SAP is added with or without extra water, it appears that the so-called gel space ratio can be used as a key parameter to link age and mixture proportions (water-to-cement ratio and SAP dosage) to the resulting chloride migration coefficient...

  4. STABILISATION OF SILTY CLAY SOIL USING CHLORIDE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    TAMADHER T. ABOOD

    2007-04-01

    Full Text Available The object of this paper is to investigate the effect of adding different chloride compounds including (NaCl, MgCl2, CaCl2 on the engineering properties of silty clay soil. Various amounts of salts (2%, 4%, and 8% were added to the soil to study the effect of salts on the compaction characteristics, consistency limits and compressive strength. The main findings of this study were that the increase in the percentage of each of the chloride compounds increased the maximum dry density and decrease the optimum moisture content. The liquid limit, plastic limit and plasticity index decreased with the increase in salt content. The unconfinedcompressive strength increased as the salt content increased.

  5. Synthesis and antimicrobial activities of new pyridinium and benzimidazolium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernak, J; Rogoza, J; Mirska, I

    2001-04-01

    A novel class of pyridinium and benzimidazolium chloride has been obtained in high yield. The antimicrobial activities of three homologous series of pyridinium and benzimidazolium chlorides against cocci, rods, fungi and bacillus have been measured. The antimicrobial activities of N,N'-bis[3-(1-alkoxymethyl)pyridinium chloride]methylenediamines, 1-undecyloxymethyl-3-(1-benzimidazolmethylamino)pyridinium, 1-undecyloxymethyl- and 1-dodecyloxymethyl-3-[1(benzotriazol-1-yl)methylamino]pyridinium chlorides exhibited strong activity and wide antibacterial spectra similar to the activity of benzalkonium chloride.

  6. Method for Hot Real-Time Sampling of Pyrolysis Vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pomeroy, Marc D [National Renewable Energy Laboratory (NREL), Golden, CO (United States)

    2017-09-29

    Biomass Pyrolysis has been an increasing topic of research, in particular as a replacement for crude oil. This process utilizes moderate temperatures to thermally deconstruct the biomass which is then condensed into a mixture of liquid oxygenates to be used as fuel precursors. Pyrolysis oils contain more than 400 compounds, up to 60 percent of which do not re-volatilize for subsequent chemical analysis. Vapor chemical composition is also complicated as additional condensation reactions occur during the condensation and collection of the product. Due to the complexity of the pyrolysis oil, and a desire to catalytically upgrade the vapor composition before condensation, online real-time analytical techniques such as Molecular Beam Mass Spectrometry (MBMS) are of great use. However, in order to properly sample hot pyrolysis vapors, many challenges must be overcome. Sampling must occur within a narrow range of temperatures to reduce product composition changes from overheating or partial condensation or plugging of lines from condensed products. Residence times must be kept at a minimum to reduce further reaction chemistries. Pyrolysis vapors also form aerosols that are carried far downstream and can pass through filters resulting in build-up in downstream locations. The co-produced bio-char and ash from the pyrolysis process can lead to plugging of the sample lines, and must be filtered out at temperature, even with the use of cyclonic separators. A practical approach for considerations and sampling system design, as well as lessons learned are integrated into the hot analytical sampling system of the National Renewable Energy Laboratory's (NREL) Thermochemical Process Development Unit (TCPDU) to provide industrially relevant demonstrations of thermochemical transformations of biomass feedstocks at the pilot scale.

  7. Water Vapor Permeation in Plastics

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Keller, Paul E. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States); Kouzes, Richard T. [Pacific Northwest National Lab. (PNNL), Richland, WA (United States)

    2017-01-01

    Polyvinyl toluene (PVT) and polystyrene (PS) (referred to as “plastic scintillator”) are used for gamma ray detectors. A significant decrease in radiation detection performance has been observed in some PVT-based gamma-ray detectors in systems in outdoor environments as they age. Recent studies have revealed that plastic scintillator can undergo an environmentally related material degradation that adversely affects gamma ray detection performance under certain conditions and histories. A significant decrease in sensitivity has been seen in some gamma-ray detectors in some systems as they age. The degradation of sensitivity of plastic scintillator over time is due to a variety of factors, and the term “aging” is used to encompass all factors. Some plastic scintillator samples show no aging effects (no significant change in sensitivity over more than 10 years), while others show severe aging (significant change in sensitivity in less than 5 years). Aging effects arise from weather (variations in heat and humidity), chemical exposure, mechanical stress, light exposure, and loss of volatile components. The damage produced by these various causes can be cumulative, causing observable damage to increase over time. Damage may be reversible up to some point, but becomes permanent under some conditions. The objective of this report is to document the phenomenon of permeability of plastic scintillator to water vapor and to derive the relationship between time, temperature, humidity and degree of water penetration in plastic. Several conclusions are documented about the properties of water permeability of plastic scintillator.

  8. Potassium chloride production by microcline chlorination

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Orosco, Pablo, E-mail: porosco@unsl.edu.ar [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Facultad de Química, Bioquímica y Farmacia, Universidad Nacional de San Luis, Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina); Ruiz, María del Carmen [Instituto de Investigaciones en Tecnología Química (INTEQUI), Chacabuco y Pedernera, San Luis (Argentina)

    2015-08-10

    Highlights: • Use of chlorination for the KCl production. • The reagents used were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. • Isothermal and non-isothermal assays were performed in Cl{sub 2}–N{sub 2} mixture. • The chlorination generated KCl at 700 °C. • The chlorination products promote KCl formation. - Abstract: The potassium chloride is one of the most important fertilizers used in agriculture. The current demand of this salt makes interesting the study of potassium chloride production from unconventional potassium resources. In this work the potassium chloride production by chlorination of microcline was investigated. The starting reagents were microcline, hydromagnesite and chlorine. Non-isothermal and isothermal chlorination assays were carried out in a thermogravimetric device adapted to work in corrosive atmospheres. The temperature effect on potassium extraction and the phase transformations produced during chlorination of microcline were studied. The reagents and reaction products were analyzed by X-ray fluorescence (XRF) and X-ray diffraction (XRD). The experimental results indicated that by chlorination of microcline an important extraction of potassium in the temperature range from 800 to 900 °C was produced. Moreover, at 800 °C the forsterite, enstatite and magnesium aluminate spinel phases were generated.

  9. Pharmacological actions of pure muscarine chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Fraser, P. J.

    1957-01-01

    The action of chromatographically pure crystalline muscarine chloride, prepared from Amanita muscaria, has been compared with acetylcholine chloride (ACh) on a number of different organs from a variety of species. Muscarine caused spasm in vivo and in vitro of muscles of the gut, uterus, urinary bladder, and bronchus. It also caused contraction of the horse ureter and carotid artery chain in vitro and slowed the isolated auricles of the guinea-pig and rabbit, and the frog heart. Muscarine caused a drop in blood pressure, although in vitro it produced either constriction or dilatation of the blood vessels of the rabbit ear. All these actions resembled those of acetylcholine, though muscarine was usually more potent. Muscarine effects were readily prevented by atropine sulphate. It had a slight action on the frog rectus abdominis muscle, causing a contracture at high concentrations. Muscarine was destroyed neither by pepsin nor by boiling at any pH. It was inactive by mouth in a monkey in a quantity many times that which would cause poisoning by ingestion of Amanita muscaria in the human being. Muscarine neither inhibited nor was hydrolysed by either true- or pseudo-cholinesterase. Muscarine chloride did not cause paralysis of the neuromuscular junctions of the rat diaphragm or of the cat gastrocnemius. PMID:13413151

  10. Chemical vapor infiltration of TiB{sub 2} composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Miller, J.H.; Cooley, K.C.; Lowden, R.A. [Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States); Starr, T.L. [Georgia Tech Research Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States)

    1993-01-01

    Efficiency of the Hall-Heroult electrolytic reduction of aluminum can be substantially improved by the use of a TiB{sub 2} cathode surface. The use of TiB{sub 2}, however, has been hampered by the brittle nature of the material and the grain-boundary attack of sintering-aid phases by molten aluminum. In the current work, TiB{sub 2} is toughened through the use of reinforcing fibers, with chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) used to produce pure TiB{sub 2}. It has been observed, however, that the formation of TiB{sub 2} from chloride precursors at fabrication temperatures below 900 to 1000{degrees}C alloys the retention of destructive levels of chlorine in the material. At higher fabrication temperatures and under appropriate infiltration conditions, as determined from the use of a process model, a TIB{sub 2}THORNEL P-25 fiber composite, 45 mm in diam and 6 mm thick, has been fabricated in 20 h. The material has been demonstrated to be stable in molten aluminum in short-duration tests.

  11. Chemical vapor infiltration of TiB[sub 2] composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Besmann, T.M.; Miller, J.H.; Cooley, K.C.; Lowden, R.A. (Oak Ridge National Lab., TN (United States)); Starr, T.L. (Georgia Tech Research Inst., Atlanta, GA (United States))

    1993-01-01

    Efficiency of the Hall-Heroult electrolytic reduction of aluminum can be substantially improved by the use of a TiB[sub 2] cathode surface. The use of TiB[sub 2], however, has been hampered by the brittle nature of the material and the grain-boundary attack of sintering-aid phases by molten aluminum. In the current work, TiB[sub 2] is toughened through the use of reinforcing fibers, with chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) used to produce pure TiB[sub 2]. It has been observed, however, that the formation of TiB[sub 2] from chloride precursors at fabrication temperatures below 900 to 1000[degrees]C alloys the retention of destructive levels of chlorine in the material. At higher fabrication temperatures and under appropriate infiltration conditions, as determined from the use of a process model, a TIB[sub 2]THORNEL P-25 fiber composite, 45 mm in diam and 6 mm thick, has been fabricated in 20 h. The material has been demonstrated to be stable in molten aluminum in short-duration tests.

  12. Vapor Cavitation in Dynamically Loaded Journal Bearings

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, B. O.; Hamrock, B. J.

    1983-01-01

    High speed motion camera experiments were performed on dynamically loaded journal bearings. The length to diameter ratio of the bearing, the speed of the roller and the tube, the surface material of the roller, and the static and dynamic eccentricity of the bearing were varied. One hundred and thirty-four cases were filmed. The occurrence of vapor cavitation was clearly evident in the films and figures presented. Vapor cavitation was found to occur when the tensile stress applied to the oil exceeded the tensile strength of the oil or the binding of the oil to the surface. The physical situation in which vapor cavitation occurs is during the squeezing and sliding motion within a bearing. Besides being able to accurately capture the vapor cavitation on film, an analysis of the formation and collapse of the cavitation bubbles and characteristics of the bubble content are presented.

  13. External fuel vaporization study, phase 1

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szetela, E. J.; Chiappetta, L.

    1980-01-01

    A conceptual design study was conducted to devise and evaluate techniques for the external vaporization of fuel for use in an aircraft gas turbine with characteristics similar to the Energy Efficient Engine (E(3)). Three vaporizer concepts were selected and they were analyzed from the standpoint of fuel thermal stability, integration of the vaporizer system into the aircraft engine, engine and vaporizer dynamic response, startup and altitude restart, engine performance, control requirements, safety, and maintenance. One of the concepts was found to improve the performance of the baseline E(3) engine without seriously compromising engine startup and power change response. Increased maintenance is required because of the need for frequent pyrolytic cleaning of the surfaces in contact with hot fuel.

  14. Impact vaporization: Late time phenomena from experiments

    Science.gov (United States)

    Schultz, P. H.; Gault, D. E.

    1987-01-01

    While simple airflow produced by the outward movement of the ejecta curtain can be scaled to large dimensions, the interaction between an impact-vaporized component and the ejecta curtain is more complicated. The goal of these experiments was to examine such interaction in a real system involving crater growth, ejection of material, two phased mixtures of gas and dust, and strong pressure gradients. The results will be complemented by theoretical studies at laboratory scales in order to separate the various parameters for planetary scale processes. These experiments prompt, however, the following conclusions that may have relevance at broader scales. First, under near vacuum or low atmospheric pressures, an expanding vapor cloud scours the surrounding surface in advance of arriving ejecta. Second, the effect of early-time vaporization is relatively unimportant at late-times. Third, the overpressure created within the crater cavity by significant vaporization results in increased cratering efficiency and larger aspect ratios.

  15. DMSP SSMT/2 - Atmospheric Water Vapor Profiler

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration, Department of Commerce — The SSM/T-2 sensor is a five channel, total power microwave radiometer with three channels situated symmetrically about the 183.31 GHz water vapor resonance line and...

  16. Water Vapor Corrosion in EBC Constituent Materials

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kowalski, Benjamin; Fox, Dennis; Jacobson, Nathan S.

    2017-01-01

    Environmental Barrier Coating (EBC) materials are sought after to protect ceramic matrix composites (CMC) in high temperature turbine engines. CMCs are particularly susceptible to degradation from oxidation, Ca-Al-Mg-Silicate (CMAS), and water vapor during high temperature operation which necessitates the use of EBCs. However, the work presented here focuses on water vapor induced recession in EBC constituent materials. For example, in the presence of water vapor, silica will react to form Si(OH)4 (g) which will eventually corrode the material away. To investigate the recession rate in EBC constituent materials under high temperature water vapor conditions, thermal gravimetric analysis (TGA) is employed. The degradation process can then be modeled through a simple boundary layer expression. Ultimately, comparisons are made between various single- and poly-crystalline materials (e.g. TiO2, SiO2) against those found in literature.

  17. Static Water Vapor Feed Electrolyzer Project

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — Development of a static vapor feed electrolyzer utilizing an advanced bipolar plate that produces sub-saturated H2 and O2 is proposed. This novel bipolar design can...

  18. GOES WATER VAPOR TRANSPORT V1

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — The GOES Water Vapor Transport CD contains nineteen months of geostationary satellite-derived products from the GOES-8 satellite spanning the 1987-1988 El Nino...

  19. Indoor Air Vapor Intrusion Mitigation Approaches

    Science.gov (United States)

    The National Risk Management Research Laboratory has developed a technology transfer document regarding management and treatment of vapor intrusion into building structures. This document describes the range of mitigation technologies available.

  20. Arctic Water Vapor Characteristics from Rawinsondes

    Data.gov (United States)

    National Aeronautics and Space Administration — A gridded climatological monthly-mean data base of Arctic water vapor characteristics has been assembled by combining fixed station data with data from soundings...

  1. Vapor phase transformer drying – Part II

    OpenAIRE

    Steeves, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    Vapor phase drying is the most effective method for drying transformer insulation in a manufacturing setting. The process does not lend itself well to transformer drying in the field for a variety of reasons, including the difficulty of removing residual kerosene which can cause a potential change in transformer oil flash point. Several techniques are available for transformer insulation drying in both the field and in manufacturing. Vapor phase drying as part of transformer manufacturing is ...

  2. Vapor phase transformer drying – Part I

    OpenAIRE

    Steeves, Gregory R.

    2016-01-01

    Vapor phase drying is the most effective method for drying transformer insulation in a manufacturing setting. The process does not lend itself well to transformer drying in the field for a variety of reasons, including the difficulty of removing residual kerosene which can cause a potential change in transformer oil flash point. Several techniques are available for transformer insulation drying in both the field and in manufacturing. Vapor phase drying as part of transformer manufacturing is ...

  3. Volatiles and Exsolved Vapor in Volcanic Systems

    OpenAIRE

    Edmonds, Marie; Wallace, PJ

    2017-01-01

    The role of volatiles in magma dynamics and eruption style is fundamental. Magmatic volatiles partition between melt, crystal, and vapor phases and, in so doing, change magma properties. This has consequences for magma buoyancy and phase equilibria. An exsolved vapor phase, which may be distributed unevenly through reservoirs, contains sulfur and metals that are either transported into the atmosphere or into ore deposits. This article reviews the controls on volatile solubility and the method...

  4. Vapor-Induced Phase Transformations in Docetaxel

    OpenAIRE

    Tatini, Lakshmi Kumar; Krishna Reddy, K. V. S. R.; Someswara Rao, N.

    2012-01-01

    Vapor-induced transformations of docetaxel anhydrous (form DA) under ambient conditions have been studied using methanol, ethanol, and water as the solvent media. The online vapor-induced transformations were monitored by powder X-ray diffractometry. New solid forms (solvates/hydrates/anhydrous) of docetaxel anhydrous were obtained in stoichiometric ratios which were characterized completely using powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimeter, thermogravimetric analysis, and spe...

  5. Vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of primary coal tars. Quarterly technical progress report, 1 January 1996--31 March 1996

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Suuberg, E.M.

    1996-09-01

    The vapor pressure correlations that exist at present for coal tars are very crude and they are not considered reliable to even an order of magnitude. Sophisticated general correlative approaches are slowly being developed, based upon group contribution methods, or based upon some key functional features of the molecules. These are as yet difficult to apply to coal tars. The detailed group contribution methods, in which fairly precise structural information is needed, do not lend themselves well for application to very complex, poorly characterized coal tars. The methods based upon more global types of characterizations have not yet dealt much with the question of oxygenated functional groups. In short, only very limited correlations exist, and these are not considered reliable to even an order of magnitude when applied to tars. The present project seeks to address this important gap in the near term by direct measurement of vapor pressures of coal tar fractions, by application of well- established techniques and modifications thereof. The principal objectives of the program are to: (1) obtain data on the vapor pressures and heats of vaporization of tars from a range of ranks of coal, (2) develop correlations based on a minimum set of conveniently measurable characteristics of the tars, (3) develop equipment that would allow performing such measurements in a reliable, straightforward fashion. A significant amount of time has been devoted during this quarter to developing techniques for measurements of vapor pressures of coal tar related compounds, and mixtures, in a ``continuous`` mode, using the effusion technique.

  6. Relation between chloride exchange diffusion and a conductive chloride pathway across the isolated skin of the toad (Bufo bufo)

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Kristensen, P; Larsen, Erik Hviid

    1978-01-01

    Substitution of chloride in the outside bathing medium of the toad skin with bromide, iodide, nitrate and sulphate leads to a reduction in the apparent exchange diffusion of chloride across this tissue, and also to a reduction of the chloride current recorded during hyperpolarization. A series...... of inhibitors (thiocyanate, furosemide, phloretin, and acetazolamide) also affects chloride exchange diffusion, hyperpolarization current as well as chloride influx during hyperpolarization. Although in some cases, effects on the short circuit current were also observed none of the effects on chloride transport....... On the basis of these findings, and the results reported in the previous paper (Hviid Larsen and Kristensen 1977) it is considered probable that the membrane molecules responsible to chloride exchange diffusion under short circuit conditions, are rearranged under the influence of a hyperpolarizing clamping...

  7. Towards an understanding of solvent extraction--electroanalytical characterization of chloride-leaching solutions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Paiva, A P; Abrantes, L M

    2001-08-01

    Solvent extraction has been employed to purify media simulating chloride-leaching solutions resulting from complex sulfide concentrate processing, and cyclic voltammetry (CV) has been chosen to characterize those hydrometallurgical aqueous phases. The possibilities of the CV technique were investigated by the evaluation of the adequacy of a specific organic extractant, triisobutylphosphine sulfide, aimed to efficiently and selectively extract silver from a complex chloride medium, additionally containing tenfold to 40-fold molar concentrations of iron, copper and lead. The influence of the oxidation state of the metallic ions present in the feed solution, namely Cu(II) and Cu(I), is considered. The possibilities of CV analysis for the characterization of stripping solutions are also illustrated.

  8. Optical monitor for water vapor concentration

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kebabian, Paul

    1998-01-01

    A system for measuring and monitoring water vapor concentration in a sample uses as a light source an argon discharge lamp, which inherently emits light with a spectral line that is close to a water vapor absorption line. In a preferred embodiment, the argon line is split by a magnetic field parallel to the direction of light propagation from the lamp into sets of components of downshifted and upshifted frequencies of approximately 1575 Gauss. The downshifted components are centered on a water vapor absorption line and are thus readily absorbed by water vapor in the sample; the upshifted components are moved away from that absorption line and are minimally absorbed. A polarization modulator alternately selects the upshifted components or downshifted components and passes the selected components to the sample. After transmission through the sample, the transmitted intensity of a component of the argon line varies as a result of absorption by the water vapor. The system then determines the concentration of water vapor in the sample based on differences in the transmitted intensity between the two sets of components. In alternative embodiments alternate selection of sets of components is achieved by selectively reversing the polarity of the magnetic field or by selectively supplying the magnetic field to the emitting plasma.

  9. Bioeffects due to acoustic droplet vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bull, Joseph

    2015-11-01

    Encapsulated micro- and nano-droplets can be vaporized via ultrasound, a process termed acoustic droplet vaporization. Our interest is primarily motivated by a developmental gas embolotherapy technique for cancer treatment. In this methodology, infarction of tumors is induced by selectively formed vascular gas bubbles that arise from the acoustic vaporization of vascular microdroplets. Additionally, the microdroplets may be used as vehicles for localized drug delivery, with or without flow occlusion. In this talk, we examine the dynamics of acoustic droplet vaporization through experiments and theoretical/computational fluid mechanics models, and investigate the bioeffects of acoustic droplet vaporization on endothelial cells and in vivo. Early timescale vaporization events, including phase change, are directly visualized using ultra-high speed imaging, and the influence of acoustic parameters on droplet/bubble dynamics is discussed. Acoustic and fluid mechanics parameters affecting the severity of endothelial cell bioeffects are explored. These findings suggest parameter spaces for which bioeffects may be reduced or enhanced, depending on the objective of the therapy. This work was supported by NIH grant R01EB006476.

  10. Vapor phase lubrication of high temperature alloys

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hanyaloglu, B.F.; Graham, E.E.; Oreskovic, T.; Hajj, C.G. [Cleveland State Univ., OH (United States)

    1995-06-01

    In a previous study, it was found that when a nickel-based superalloy IN750 was heated to high temperatures, a passive layer of aluminum oxide formed on the surface, preventing vapor phase lubrication. In this study, two nickel-chrome-iron alloys and a nickel-copper alloy were studied for high temperature lubrication to see if these alloys, which contained small amounts of aluminum, would exhibit similar behavior. It was found that under static conditions, all three alloys formed a lubricious nodular coating when exposed to a vapor of aryl phosphate. Under dynamic sliding conditions at 500{degrees}C, these alloys were successfully lubricated with a coefficient of friction of 0.1 and no detectable wear. In order to explain these results, a direct correlation between successful vapor phase lubrication and the composition of the alloys containing aluminum has been proposed. If the ratio of copper/aluminum or iron/aluminum is greater that 100 vapor phase, lubrication will be successful. If the ratio is less than 10, a passive aluminum oxide layer will prevent vapor phase lubrication. By selecting alloys with a high iron or copper content, vapor phase lubrication can provide excellent lubrication at high temperatures. 14 refs., 11 figs., 1 tab.

  11. Oligoether-strapped calix[4]pyrrole: an ion-pair receptor displaying cation-dependent chloride anion transport.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Park, In-Won; Yoo, Jaeduk; Kim, Bohyang; Adhikari, Suman; Kim, Sung Kuk; Yeon, Yerim; Haynes, Cally J E; Sutton, Jennifer L; Tong, Christine C; Lynch, Vincent M; Sessler, Jonathan L; Gale, Philip A; Lee, Chang-Hee

    2012-02-27

    A ditopic ion-pair receptor (1), which has tunable cation- and anion-binding sites, has been synthesized and characterized. Spectroscopic analyses provide support for the conclusion that receptor 1 binds fluoride and chloride anions strongly and forms stable 1:1 complexes ([1·F](-) and [1·Cl](-)) with appropriately chosen salts of these anions in acetonitrile. When the anion complexes of 1 were treated with alkali metal ions (Li(+), Na(+), K(+), Cs(+), as their perchlorate salts), ion-dependent interactions were observed that were found to depend on both the choice of added cation and the initially complexed anion. In the case of [1·F](-), no appreciable interaction with the K(+) ion was seen. On the other hand, when this complex was treated with Li(+) or Na(+) ions, decomplexation of the bound fluoride anion was observed. In contrast to what was seen with Li(+), Na(+), K(+), treating [1·F](-) with Cs(+) ions gave rise to a stable, host-separated ion-pair complex, [F·1·Cs], which contains the Cs(+) ion bound in the cup-like portion of the calix[4]pyrrole. Different complexation behavior was seen in the case of the chloride complex, [1·Cl](-). Here, no appreciable interaction was observed with Na(+) or K(+). In contrast, treating with Li(+) produces a tight ion-pair complex, [1·Li·Cl], in which the cation is bound to the crown moiety. In analogy to what was seen for [1·F](-), treatment of [1·Cl](-) with Cs(+) ions gives rise to a host-separated ion-pair complex, [Cl·1·Cs], in which the cation is bound to the cup of the calix[4]pyrrole. As inferred from liposomal model membrane transport studies, system 1 can act as an effective carrier for several chloride anion salts of Group 1 cations, operating through both symport (chloride+cation co-transport) and antiport (nitrate-for-chloride exchange) mechanisms. This transport behavior stands in contrast to what is seen for simple octamethylcalix[4]pyrrole, which acts as an effective carrier for cesium chloride

  12. Stability study of carboplatin infusion solutions in 0.9% sodium chloride in polyvinyl chloride bags.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Myers, Alan L; Zhang, Yang-Ping; Kawedia, Jitesh D; Trinh, Van A; Tran, Huyentran; Smith, Judith A; Kramer, Mark A

    2016-02-01

    Carboplatin is a platinum-containing compound with efficacy against various malignancies. The physico-chemical stability of carboplatin in dextrose 5% water (D5W) has been thoroughly studied; however, there is a paucity of stability data in clinically relevant 0.9% sodium chloride infusion solutions. The manufacturer's limited stability data in sodium chloride solutions hampers the flexibility of carboplatin usage in oncology patients. Hence, the purpose of this study is to determine the physical and chemical stability of carboplatin-sodium chloride intravenous solutions under different storage conditions. The physico-chemical stability of 0.5 mg/mL, 2.0 mg/mL, and 4.0 mg/mL carboplatin-sodium chloride solutions prepared in polyvinyl chloride bags was determined following storage at room temperature under ambient fluorescent light and under refrigeration in the dark. Concentrations of carboplatin were measured at predetermined time points up to seven days using a stability-indicating high-performance liquid chromatography method. All tested solutions were found physically stable for at least seven days. The greatest chemical stability was observed under refrigerated storage conditions. At 4℃, all tested solutions were found chemically stable for at least seven days, with nominal losses of ≤6%. Following storage at room temperature exposed to normal fluorescent light, the chemical stability of 0.5 mg/mL, 2.0 mg/mL, and 4.0 mg/mL solutions was three days, five days, and seven days, respectively. The extended physico-chemical stability of carboplatin prepared in sodium chloride reported herein permits advance preparation of these admixtures, facilitating pharmacy utility and operations. Since no antibacterial preservative is contained within these carboplatin solutions, we recommend storage, when prepared under specified aseptic conditions, no greater than 24 h at room temperature or three days under refrigeration. © The Author(s) 2014.

  13. Ambient femtosecond laser vaporization and nanosecond laser desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Flanigan, Paul; Levis, Robert

    2014-01-01

    Recent investigations of ambient laser-based transfer of molecules into the gas phase for subsequent mass spectral analysis have undergone a renaissance resulting from the separation of vaporization and ionization events. Here, we seek to provide a snapshot of recent femtosecond (fs) duration laser vaporization and nanosecond (ns) duration laser desorption electrospray ionization mass spectrometry experiments. The former employs pulse durations of vaporization with little or no fragmentation. When coupled to electrospray ionization, femtosecond laser vaporization provides a universal, rapid mass spectral analysis method requiring no sample workup. Remarkably, laser pulses with intensities exceeding 10(13) W cm(-2) desorb intact macromolecules, such as proteins, and even preserve the condensed phase of folded or unfolded protein structures according to the mass spectral charge state distribution, as demonstrated for cytochrome c and lysozyme. Because of the ability to vaporize and ionize multiple components from complex mixtures for subsequent analysis, near perfect classification of explosive formulations, plant tissue phenotypes, and even the identity of the manufacturer of smokeless powders can be determined by multivariate statistics. We also review the more mature field of nanosecond laser desorption for ambient mass spectrometry, covering the wide range of systems analyzed, the need for resonant absorption, and the spatial imaging of complex systems like tissue samples.

  14. Direct comparison of the hygroscopic properties of ammonium sulfate and sodium chloride aerosol at relative humidities approaching saturation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Walker, Jim S; Wills, Jon B; Reid, Jonathan P; Wang, Liangyu; Topping, David O; Butler, Jason R; Zhang, Yun-Hong

    2010-12-09

    Holographic optical tweezers are used to make comparative measurements of the hygroscopic properties of single component aqueous aerosol containing sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate over a range of relative humidity from 84% to 96%. The change in RH over the course of the experiment is monitored precisely using a sodium chloride probe droplet with accuracy better than ±0.09%. The measurements are used to assess the accuracy of thermodynamic treatments of the relationship between water activity and solute mass fraction with particular attention focused on the dilute solute limit approaching saturation vapor pressure. The consistency of the frequently used Clegg-Brimblecombe-Wexler (CBW) treatment for predicting the hygroscopic properties of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol is confirmed. Measurements of the equilibrium size of ammonium sulfate aerosol are found to agree with predictions to within an uncertainty of ±0.2%. Given the accuracy of treating equilibrium composition, the inconsistencies highlighted in recent calibration measurements of critical supersaturations of sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol cannot be attributed to uncertainties associated with the thermodynamic predictions and must have an alternative origin. It is concluded that the CBW treatment can allow the critical supersaturation to be estimated for sodium chloride and ammonium sulfate aerosol with an accuracy of better than ±0.002% in RH. This corresponds to an uncertainty of ≤1% in the critical supersaturation for typical supersaturations of 0.2% and above. This supports the view that these systems can be used to accurately calibrate instruments that measure cloud condensation nuclei concentrations at selected supersaturations. These measurements represent the first study in which the equilibrium properties of two particles of chemically distinct composition have been compared simultaneously and directly alongside each other in the same environment.

  15. Twenty years of fluorescence imaging of intracellular Chloride.

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Daniele eArosio

    2014-08-01

    Full Text Available Chloride homeostasis has a pivotal role in controlling neuronal excitability in the adult brain and during development. The intracellular concentration of chloride is regulated by the dynamic equilibrium between passive fluxes through membrane conductances and the active transport mediated by importers and exporters. In cortical neurons, chloride fluxes are coupled to network activity by the opening of the ionotropic GABAA receptors that provides a direct link between the activity of interneurons and chloride fluxes. These molecular mechanisms are not evenly distributed and regulated over the neuron surface and this fact can lead to a compartmentalized control of the intracellular concentration of chloride. The inhibitory drive provided by the activity of the GABAA receptors depends on the direction and strength of the associated currents, which are ultimately dictated by the gradient of chloride, the main charge carrier flowing through the GABAA channel. Thus, the intracellular distribution of chloride determines the local strength of ionotropic inhibition and influences the interaction between converging excitation and inhibition. The importance of chloride regulation is also underlined by its involvement in several brain pathologies, including epilepsy and disorders of the autistic spectra.The full comprehension of the physiological meaning of GABAergic activity on neurons requires the measure of the spatiotemporal dynamics of chloride fluxes across the membrane. Nowadays, there are several available tools for the task, and both synthetic and genetically encoded indicators have been successfully used for chloride imaging. Here, we will review the available sensors analyzing their properties and outlining desirable future developments.

  16. Vapor-Liquid-Solid Equilibria of Sulfur Dioxide in Aqueous Electrolyte Solutions

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Pereda, Selva; Thomsen, Kaj; Rasmussen, Peter

    2000-01-01

    The Extended UNIQUAC model for electrolyte systems, combined with the Soave-Redlich-Kwong equation of state is used to describe the complex vapor-liquid-solid equilibria of sulfur dioxide in electrolyte solutions. Model parameters based on 1500 experimental data points are presented. The parameters...

  17. Aqueous chloride stress corrosion cracking of titanium: A comparison with environmental hydrogen embrittlement

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nelson, H. G.

    1973-01-01

    The physical characteristics of stress corrosion cracking of titanium in an aqueous chloride environment are compared with those of embrittlement of titanium by a gaseous hydrogen environment in an effort to help contribute to the understanding of the possible role of hydrogen in the complex stress corrosion cracking process. Based on previous studies, the two forms of embrittlement are shown to be similar at low hydrogen pressures (100 N/sqm) but dissimilar at higher hydrogen pressures. In an effort to quantify this comparison, tests were conducted in an aqueous chloride solution using the same material and test techniques as had previously been employed in a gaseous hydrogen environment. The results of these tests strongly support models based on hydrogen as the embrittling species in an aqueous chloride environment. Further, it is shown that if hydrogen is the causal species, the effective hydrogen fugacity at the surface of titanium exposed to an aqueous chloride environment is equivalent to a molecular hydrogen pressure of approximately 10 N/sqm.

  18. MICROSTRUCTURE-BASED PREDICTION MODEL FOR CHLORIDE ION DIFFUSIVITY IN HYDRATED CEMENT PASTE

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Liguo Ma

    2017-03-01

    Full Text Available In cement hydration, various hydration products and pores are produced to form a complex microstructure. The quantity of the hydration products and pores heavily influences the macroscopic properties of hydrated cement paste. The chloride ion diffusivity of cement paste is considered to have a close relation to durability. We propose a prediction model of the chloride ion diffusivity of cement paste using homogenization theory to find the relationship between the microstructure and the macroscopic properties. This model considers the percolation phenomenon and the tortuosity of the transport path in the hydrated cement paste microstructure. The chloride ion diffusion coefficient of the cement paste was tested via electricity-accelerated diffusion experiments on cement pastes prepared using three water-cement ratios (0.23, 0.35 and 0.53, respectively. The Jennings-Tennis model was used to calculate the quantity of hydration products in the hydrated cement paste microstructure. With different homogenization theories, the predicted results of the chloride ion diffusion coefficients agree well with the experimental data, which shows the reliability of the presented model.

  19. Metal vapor condensation under high pressure (mercury vapor to 500 psia). [Heat transfer coefficients

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Hsieh, S.; Bonilla, C.F.

    1975-01-01

    Mercury vapor up to 500 psia was condensed outside a cylindrical tube in both horizontal and vertical positions. Results show consistently low heat transfer coefficients compared to Nusselt's theory. Two auxiliary mercury vapor condensers downstream of the boiler vent were used to control and safeguard the system. Constantan wires were spot welded on the surface inside the test condenser tube. The heat flux ranged from 20,000 to 45,000 Btu/h-ft/sup 2/ and the temperature differences between vapor and condensing wall from 6 to 50/sup 0/F. The condensation heat transfer coefficients, ranging from 850 to 3,500 Btu/h-/sup 0/F-ft/sup 2/, are only about 3 to 9 percent of those predicted by Nusselt's theory. Due to the positive pressure in the system for most test runs, the chance of any in-leakage of noncondensable gases into the boiler is extremely small. Since no substantial change of heat transfer rate resulted from wide variations in the heat load on the reflux condenser at some specific heat flux on the test condenser tube, the low heat transfer rate of mercury vapor condensation was not due to the presence of any non-condensable gas. The test data for high vapor pressure up to 500 psia reveal that the heat transfer coefficient is independent of the vapor pressure level. The condensation coefficients calculated based on kinetic theory are much smaller than unity and decreasewith vapor pressure. It is hypothesized that dimer content in the metal vapor phase might behave as non-condensable or semi-condensable gas and create a diffusional barrier at the vapor-liquid interface near the condensate film. This dimer vapor could be the main cause of interfacial resistance during metal vapor condensation process. 41 figures, 7 tables, 58 references. (DLC)

  20. Modification of graphene electronic properties via controllable gas-phase doping with copper chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rybin, Maxim G.; Islamova, Vera R.; Obraztsova, Ekaterina A.; Obraztsova, Elena D.

    2018-01-01

    Molecular doping is an efficient, non-destructive, and simple method for changing the electronic structure of materials. Here, we present a simple air ambient vapor deposition method for functionalization of pristine graphene with a strong electron acceptor: copper chloride. The doped graphene was characterized by Raman spectroscopy, UV-vis-NIR optical absorption spectroscopy, scanning electron microscopy, and electro-physical measurements performed using the 4-probe method. The effect of charge transfer from graphene to a dopant results in shifting the Fermi level in doped graphene. The change of the electronic structure of doped graphene was confirmed by the tangential Raman peak (G-peak) shift and by the appearance of the gap in the UV-vis-NIR spectrum after doping. Moreover, the charge transfer resulted in a substantial decrease in electrical sheet resistance depending on the doping level. At the highest concentration of copper chloride, a Fermi level shift into the valence band up to 0.64 eV and a decrease in the sheet resistance value by 2.36 times were observed (from 888 Ω/sq to 376 Ω/sq for a single graphene layer with 97% of transparency).

  1. Lubiprostone: chloride channel activator for chronic constipation.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rivkin, Anastasia; Chagan, Larisa

    2006-12-01

    Chronic constipation is a common and costly health problem occurring in approximately 4.5 million Americans. Current management of constipation is suboptimal and requires a stepwise approach using a combination of laxatives to decrease symptoms. The objective of this review was to describe the efficacy and safety of a new therapeutic entity, lubiprostone, recently approved by the US Food and Drug Administration for the treatment of chronic idiopathic constipation. Computerized searches of MEDLINE and International Pharmaceutical Abstracts were conducted (1966-July 10, 2006). Search terms utilized were lubiprostone, RU-0211, and chronic constipation. References of selected articles were searched for additional articles or abstracts. All relevant published literature regarding lubiprostone was included in this review. Pertinent abstracts presented at meetings of the American College of Gastroenterology and Digestive Diseases Week were also included. Lubiprostone activates a chloride channel (ie, subtype 2) and increases chloride and fluid secretion into the intestines, resulting in relief of constipation. It is poorly absorbed after oral administration, and its metabolism occurs primarily in the stomach and jejunum. Lubiprostone was evaluated in 6 placebo-controlled, double-blind, randomized Phase II or III clinical trials. Overall, in clinical trials, >1400 patients were exposed to 24 mug of lubiprostone BID for up to 48 weeks. It improved the number of bowel movements, stool consistency, bloating, and global assessment of constipation compared with placebo (P lubiprostone was given with food. Lubiprostone is the first in its class of chloride channel activators that results in improvement of symptoms of constipation. It has not been compared with other laxatives but, based on the available placebo-controlled studies, its efficacy is superior to placebo and its safety is acceptable. Considering the currently available laxatives, lubiprostone will become an

  2. Benzalkonium Chloride Intoxication Mimicking Herpes Zoster Encephalitis

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ekrem Güler

    2011-06-01

    Full Text Available Benzalkonium chloride (BAC is a frequently used disinfectant and its most well-known side effect is contact dermatitis. In this report, two children who had vesicular dermatitis, headache, lethargy, fever and encephalopathy mimicking Herpes zoster encephalitis were presented. Their consciousness level improved on the second day. From the medical history it was understood that the mother had applied 20% BAC solution to the scalps of two children. The aim of the presentation of this report is to draw attention to the fact that BAC application to the scalp for treating pediculosis capitis may resemble the herpes encephalitis clinical picture.

  3. Chloride diffusion in partially saturated cementitious material

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Nielsen, Erik Pram; Geiker, Mette Rica

    2003-01-01

    The paper proposes a combined application of composite theory and Powers' model for microstructural development for the estimation of the diffusion coefficient as a function of the moisture content of a defect-free cementitious material. Measurements of chloride diffusion in mortar samples (440 kg....../m(3) rapid-hardening Portland cement, w/c = 0.5, maturity minimum 6 months) stored at 65% and 85% RH, as well as in vacuum-saturated mortar samples, illustrate the applicability of the method. (C) 2003 Elsevier Science Ltd. All rights reserved....

  4. N-(2-Benzoylethylpropan-2-aminium chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Abdullah Aydın

    2012-09-01

    Full Text Available In the title salt, C12H18NO+·Cl−, N—H...Cl interactions between the free chloride anions and the organic cations connect the molecules into hydrogen-bond dimers, forming a R22(8 motif. The dimers are linked by C—H...O hydrogen bonds into chains extending along [301]. The carbonyl group is co-planar with the phenyl ring [C—C—C=O torsion angle = −3.3 (7°]. The side chain has an E conformation.

  5. Chloride-Induced Corrosion of Steel in Concrete: An Overview on Chloride Diffusion and Prediction of Corrosion Initiation Time

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Muhammad Umar Khan

    2017-01-01

    Full Text Available Initiation of corrosion of steel in reinforced concrete (RC structures subjected to chloride exposures mainly depends on coefficient of chloride diffusion, Dc, of concrete. Therefore, Dc is one of the key parameters needed for prediction of initiation of reinforcement corrosion. Fick’s second law of diffusion has been used for long time to derive the models for chloride diffusion in concrete. However, such models do not include the effects of various significant factors such as chloride binding by the cement, multidirectional ingress of chloride, and variation of Dc with time due to change in the microstructure of concrete during early period of cement hydration. In this paper, a review is presented on the development of chloride diffusion models by incorporating the effects of the key factors into basic Fick’s second law of diffusion. Determination of corrosion initiation time using chloride diffusion models is also explained. The information presented in this paper would be useful for accurate prediction of corrosion initiation time of RC structures subjected to chloride exposure, considering the effects of chloride binding, effect of time and space on Dc, and interaction effect of multidirectional chloride ingress.

  6. Chloride Ingress in Concrete Cracks under Cyclic Loading

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Küter, André; Geiker, Mette Rica; Olesen, John Forbes

    2005-01-01

    , there is increasing focus on the need for modeling the ingress of chloride into cracked concrete. Present models quantify chloride ingress in static cracks only, although several structural applications display dynamic loading conditions in an environment containing chlorides, e.g. marine structures and car parks....... Preliminary investigations have been undertaken to quantify the effect of dynamic load application on the chloride ingress into concrete cracks. Specimens were designed allowing ingress of a chloride solution into a single crack of a saturated unreinforced mortar beam. One set of specimens was subjected...... to a load frequency of ten applications per minute and a second set to one application per hour simulating static cracks, however limiting the ingress hampering effects of autogenous healing and a possible dense precipitation on the crack faces. The averaged chloride exposure interval of the crack faces...

  7. Chloride regulates afferent arteriolar contraction in response to depolarization

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, P B; Jensen, B L; Skott, O

    1998-01-01

    -Renal vascular reactivity is influenced by the level of dietary salt intake. Recent in vitro data suggest that afferent arteriolar contractility is modulated by extracellular chloride. In the present study, we assessed the influence of chloride on K+-induced contraction in isolated perfused rabbit...... afferent arterioles. In 70% of vessels examined, K+-induced contraction was abolished by acute substitution of bath chloride. Consecutive addition of Cl- (30, 60, 80, 100, 110, and 117 mmol/L) restored the sensitivity to K+, and half-maximal response was observed at 82 mmol/L chloride. The calcium channel....... The results show that K+-induced contraction of smooth muscle cells in the afferent arteriole is highly sensitive to chloride, whereas neurotransmitter release and ensuing contraction is not dependent on chloride. Thus, there are different activation pathways for depolarizing vasoconstrictors...

  8. Determination of Cannabinoid Vapor Pressures to Aid in Vapor Phase Detection of Intoxication.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Lovestead, Tara M; Bruno, Thomas J

    2017-09-01

    The quest for a reliable means to detect cannabis intoxication with a breathalyzer is ongoing. To design such a device, it is important to understand the fundamental thermodynamics of the compounds of interest. The vapor pressures of two important cannabinoids, cannabidiol (CBD) and Δ9-tetrahydrocannabinol (Δ9-THC), are presented, as well as the predicted normal boiling temperature (NBT) and the predicted critical constants (these predictions are dependent on the vapor pressure data). The critical constants are typically necessary to develop an equation of state (EOS). EOS-based models can provide estimations of thermophysical properties for compounds to aid in designing processes and devices. An ultra-sensitive, quantitative, trace dynamic headspace analysis sampling called porous layered open tubular-cryoadsorption (PLOT-cryo) was used to measure vapor pressures of these compounds. PLOT-cryo affords short experiment durations compared to more traditional techniques for vapor pressure determination (minutes versus days). Additionally, PLOT-cryo has the inherent ability to stabilize labile solutes because collection is done at reduced temperature. The measured vapor pressures are approximately 2 orders of magnitude lower than those measured for n-eicosane, which has a similar molecular mass. Thus, the difference in polarity of these molecules must be impacting the vapor pressure dramatically. The vapor pressure measurements are presented in the form of Clausius-Clapeyron (or van't Hoff) equation plots. The predicted vapor pressures that would be expected at near ambient conditions (25 °C) are also presented.

  9. Evidence of a sewer vapor transport pathway at the USEPA vapor intrusion research duplex

    Science.gov (United States)

    The role of sewer lines as preferential pathways for vapor intrusion is poorly understood. Although the importance of sewer lines for volatile organic compound (VOC) transport has been documented at a small number of sites with vapor intrusion, sewer lines are not routinely sampl...

  10. Chloride ingress profiles measured by electron probe micro analysis

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Jensen, Ole mejlhede; Coats, Alison M.; Glasser, Fred P.

    1996-01-01

    Traditional techniques for measuring chloride ingress profiles do not apply well to high performance cement paste systems; the geometric resolution of the traditional measuring techniques is too low. In this paper measurements by Electron Probe Micro Analysis (EPMA) are presented. EPMA...... is demonstated to determine chloride ingress in cement paste on a micrometer scale. Potential chloride ingress routes such as cracks or the paste-aggregate interface may also be characterized by EPMA. Copyright (C) 1996 Elsevier Science Ltd...

  11. Congenital chloride diarrhea: a review of twelve Arabian children

    OpenAIRE

    Elrefae, Fawaz; Elhassanien, Ahmed Farag; Alghiaty, Hesham Abdel-Aziz

    2013-01-01

    Fawaz Elrefae,1 Ahmed Farag Elhassanien,2 Hesham Abdel-Aziz Alghiaty3 1Pediatric Gastroenterology, Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait; 2Faculty of Medicine, Elmansoura University, El Mansoura, El Dakahleya, Egypt; 3Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt Background: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD), a rare autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by sustained watery diarrhea (due to defect of active Chloride/HCO3 exchange in the ileum and colon) with high fecal chloride. Objective: To spo...

  12. Influence of Soil Moisture on Soil Gas Vapor Concentration for Vapor Intrusion

    Science.gov (United States)

    Shen, Rui; Pennell, Kelly G.; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    Abstract Mathematical models have been widely used in analyzing the effects of various environmental factors in the vapor intrusion process. Soil moisture content is one of the key factors determining the subsurface vapor concentration profile. This manuscript considers the effects of soil moisture profiles on the soil gas vapor concentration away from any surface capping by buildings or pavement. The “open field” soil gas vapor concentration profile is observed to be sensitive to the soil moisture distribution. The van Genuchten relations can be used for describing the soil moisture retention curve, and give results consistent with the results from a previous experimental study. Other modeling methods that account for soil moisture are evaluated. These modeling results are also compared with the measured subsurface concentration profiles in the U.S. EPA vapor intrusion database. PMID:24170970

  13. Synthesis and spectral properties of Chromium(III) complex of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    ISSCH) with chromium(III) chloride. The complex was characterized by molar conductance, magnetic moment, infrared, far-infrared and electronic spectra and elemental analysis. The ligand exists in keto tantomeric form and it coordinates through ...

  14. Water Vapor Desorption Characteristics of Honeycomb Type Sorption Element Composed of Organic Sorbent

    Science.gov (United States)

    Inaba, Hideo; Kida, Takahisa; Horibe, Akihiko; Kaneda, Makoto; Okamoto, Tamio; Seo, Jeong-Kyun

    This paper describes the water vapor desorption characteristics of honeycomb shape type sorbent element containing new organic sorbent of the bridged complex of sodium polyacrylate. The transient experiments in which the dry air was passed into the honeycomb type sorbent element sorbed water vapor were carried out under various conditions of air velocity, temperature, relative humidity and honeycomb length. The obtained data for desorption process were compared with those for sorption process. Finally, Sherwood number of mass transfer of the organic sorbent for desorption process was derived in terms of Reynolds number, modified Stefan number and non-dimensional honeycomb length.

  15. Vapor scavenging by atmospheric aerosol particles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Andrews, E.

    1996-05-01

    Particle growth due to vapor scavenging was studied using both experimental and computational techniques. Vapor scavenging by particles is an important physical process in the atmosphere because it can result in changes to particle properties (e.g., size, shape, composition, and activity) and, thus, influence atmospheric phenomena in which particles play a role, such as cloud formation and long range transport. The influence of organic vapor on the evolution of a particle mass size distribution was investigated using a modified version of MAEROS (a multicomponent aerosol dynamics code). The modeling study attempted to identify the sources of organic aerosol observed by Novakov and Penner (1993) in a field study in Puerto Rico. Experimentally, vapor scavenging and particle growth were investigated using two techniques. The influence of the presence of organic vapor on the particle`s hydroscopicity was investigated using an electrodynamic balance. The charge on a particle was investigated theoretically and experimentally. A prototype apparatus--the refractive index thermal diffusion chamber (RITDC)--was developed to study multiple particles in the same environment at the same time.

  16. A Review of Vapor Intrusion Models

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yao, Yijun; Suuberg, Eric M.

    2013-01-01

    A complete vapor intrusion (VI) model, describing vapor entry of volatile organic chemicals (VOCs) into buildings located on contaminated sites, generally consists of two main parts-one describing vapor transport in the soil and the other its entry into the building. Modeling the soil vapor transport part involves either analytically or numerically solving the equations of vapor advection and diffusion in the subsurface. Contaminant biodegradation must often also be included in this simulation, and can increase the difficulty of obtaining a solution, especially when explicitly considering coupled oxygen transport and consumption. The models of contaminant building entry pathway are often coupled to calculations of indoor air contaminant concentration, and both are influenced by building construction and operational features. The description of entry pathway involves consideration of building foundation characteristics, while calculation of indoor air contaminant levels requires characterization of building enclosed space and air exchange within this. This review summarizes existing VI models, and discusses the limits of current screening tools commonly used in this field. PMID:23360069

  17. Thermodynamics and Kinetics of Silicate Vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jacobson, Nathan S.; Costa, Gustavo C. C.

    2015-01-01

    Silicates are a common class of materials that are often exposed to high temperatures. The behavior of these materials needs to be understood for applications as high temperature coatings in material science as well as the constituents of lava for geological considerations. The vaporization behavior of these materials is an important aspect of their high temperature behavior and it also provides fundamental thermodynamic data. The application of Knudsen effusion mass spectrometry (KEMS) to silicates is discussed. There are several special considerations for silicates. The first is selection of an appropriate cell material, which is either nearly inert or has well-understood interactions with the silicate. The second consideration is proper measurement of the low vapor pressures. This can be circumvented by using a reducing agent to boost the vapor pressure without changing the solid composition or by working at very high temperatures. The third consideration deals with kinetic barriers to vaporization. The measurement of these barriers, as encompassed in a vaporization coefficient, is discussed. Current measured data of rare earth silicates for high temperature coating applications are discussed. In addition, data on magnesium-iron-silicates (olivine) are presented and discussed.

  18. Fault locator of an allyl chloride plant

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Savković-Stevanović Jelenka B.

    2004-01-01

    Full Text Available Process safety analysis, which includes qualitative fault event identification, the relative frequency and event probability functions, as well as consequence analysis, was performed on an allye chloride plant. An event tree for fault diagnosis and cognitive reliability analysis, as well as a troubleshooting system, were developed. Fuzzy inductive reasoning illustrated the advantages compared to crisp inductive reasoning. A qualitative model forecast the future behavior of the system in the case of accident detection and then compared it with the actual measured data. A cognitive model including qualitative and quantitative information by fuzzy logic of the incident scenario was derived as a fault locator for an ally! chloride plant. The obtained results showed the successful application of cognitive dispersion modeling to process safety analysis. A fuzzy inductive reasoner illustrated good performance to discriminate between different types of malfunctions. This fault locator allowed risk analysis and the construction of a fault tolerant system. This study is the first report in the literature showing the cognitive reliability analysis method.

  19. N,N-Dimethyldehydroabietylammonium chloride ethanol monosolvate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Xiu-Zhi Huang

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available The title compound {systematic name: 1-[(1R,4aS,10aR-7-isopropyl-1,4a-dimethyl-1,2,3,4,4a,9,10,10a-octahydrophenanthren-1-yl]-N,N-dimethylmethanaminium chloride ethanol monosolvate}, C22H36N+·Cl−·C2H6O, was synthesized from dehydroabietylamine by N-methylation with formaldehyde/formic acid and transformation into the hydrochloride. The dehydroabietyl moiety exhibits the usual conformation with the two cyclohexane rings in chair and half-chair conformations and a trans-ring junction. The crystal structure is built up from columns of the dehydroabietyl moieties stacked along the a axis. These columns are held together by the chloride ions via N—H...Cl and C—H...Cl interactions, which establish a two-dimensional network parallel to (010. The ethanol solvent molecules are located between the columns and anchored via O—H...Cl hydrogen bonds.

  20. Purification of Food-grade Magnesium Chloride

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Ji Lianmin

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available The application of the varying weights of bischofite dissolved in the distilled water was investigated. The effects of the temperature on the rate of evaporation and the thermal precipitation time on the purity of the crystal products were fully investigated. Two validation tests including magnifying tests and recycling residue were also studied. Our results demonstrate that the contents of NaCl, KCl and CaSO4in the filtrate reached a minimum value after the pretreatment of 350 g bischofite dissolved in 100 mldistilled water. In the crystal products from the second evaporating stage of the validation tests, the contents of MgCl2·6H2O, SO4 and NaCl+KCl are 99%, ≤0.1±0.01%and ≤0.8±0.04%, respectively. The content of magnesium chloride in the solution was increased to a greater extent, and the impurities reduced correspondingly through thedissolution pretreatments of bischofite. This could decrease energy consumption for the impurity removing stage, evaporation and crystallization process, and thus reduce costs for the industrial production of food-grade magnesium chloride

  1. The sodium chloride primary pressure gauge

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ruoff, A. L.; Chhabildas, L. C.

    1976-01-01

    The failure of a central force model for sodium chloride is discussed. It is noted that it does not closely satisfy the Cauchy conditions at low temperatures, and that it fails the central force requirement of the Love condition. The available shock data for sodium chloride and its analysis is examined, and two reasons why the Hugoniot transformation pressure is likely to be less than 231 kbar are discussed. The important (but unjustified) theoretical assumptions made in converting Hugoniot to isothermal data is discussed; it is noted that serious error can enter for very large pressures for a given material and that at such high pressures the isothermal data should thus be considered only semiquantitative even if the Hugoniot data itself is accurate. An alternate method of estimating the isothermal transformation pressure from the Hugoniot transformation pressure is used. This method is based on the temperature derivative of the transformation pressure. On this basis it is concluded that an upper bound for the isothermal transformation of NaCl (to a CsCl-type structure) at room temperature is 257 kbar; it is noted that the actual value may be considerably less than this.

  2. Durability of cracked fibre reinforced concrete structures exposed to chlorides

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Hansen, Ernst Jan De Place; Ekman, Tom; Hansen, Kurt Kielsgaard

    1999-01-01

    Durability studies are carried out by subjecting FRC-beams to combined mechanical and environmental load. Mechanical load is obtained by exposing beams to 4-point bending until a predefined crack width is reached, using a newly developed test setup. Exposure to a concentrated chloride solution is...... as main reinforcement. The effect of the cracks, the fibres and the concrete quality on the chloride penetration is studied....... is used as environmental load. The chloride penetration is characterized both qualitatively (UV-test) and quantitatively (chloride profile) and by microscopy. The test programme involves three different concrete qualities. Both steel fibres and polypropylene fibres are used in the concrete beams as well...

  3. Surface Chloride Concentration of Concrete under Shallow Immersion Conditions

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Jun Liu

    2014-09-01

    Full Text Available Deposition of chloride ions in the surface layer of concrete is investigated in this study. In real concrete structure, chloride ions from the service environment can penetrate into concrete and deposit in the surface layer, to form the boundary condition for further diffusion towards the interior. The deposit amount of chloride ions in the surface layer is normally a function of time, rather than a constant. In the experimental investigation, concrete specimens with different mix proportions are immersed in NaCl solution with a mass concentration of 5%, to simulate the shallow immersion condition in sea water, and the surface chloride concentrations are measured at different ages. It is found that the surface chloride concentration increases following the increasing immersion durations, and varies from a weight percentage of 0.161%–0.781% in concretes with different mix proportions. The w/c (water-to-cement ratio influences the surface chloride concentration significantly, and the higher the w/c is, the higher the surface chloride concentration will be, at the same age. However, following the prolonging of immersion duration, the difference in surface chloride concentration induced by w/c becomes smaller and smaller. The incorporation of fly ash leads to higher surface chloride concentration. The phenomena are explained based on pore structure analyses.

  4. On barium oxide solubility in barium-containing chloride melts

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Nikolaeva, Elena V.; Zakiryanova, Irina D.; Bovet, Andrey L.; Korzun, Iraida V. [Ural Federal Univ., Yekaterinburg (Russian Federation). Inst. of High Temperature Electrochemistry

    2016-11-01

    Oxide solubility in chloride melts depends on temperature and composition of molten solvent. The solubility of barium oxide in the solvents with barium chloride content is essentially higher than that in molten alkali chlorides. Spectral data demonstrate the existence of oxychloride ionic groupings in such melts. This work presents the results of the BaO solubility in two molten BaCl{sub 2}-NaCl systems with different barium chloride content. The received data together with earlier published results revealed the main regularities of BaO solubility in molten BaO-BaCl{sub 2}-MCl systems.

  5. Interpretation of postmortem vitreous concentrations of sodium and chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zilg, B; Alkass, K; Berg, S; Druid, H

    2016-06-01

    Vitreous fluid can be used to analyze sodium and chloride levels in deceased persons, but it remains unclear to what extent such results can be used to diagnose antemortem sodium or chloride imbalances. In this study we present vitreous sodium and chloride levels from more than 3000 cases. We show that vitreous sodium and chloride levels both decrease with approximately 2.2mmol/L per day after death. Since potassium is a well-established marker for postmortem interval (PMI) and easily can be analyzed along with sodium and chloride, we have correlated sodium and chloride levels with the potassium levels and present postmortem reference ranges relative the potassium levels. We found that virtually all cases outside the reference range show signs of antemortem hypo- or hypernatremia. Vitreous sodium or chloride levels can be the only means to diagnose cases of water or salt intoxication, beer potomania or dehydration. We further show that postmortem vitreous sodium and chloride strongly correlate and in practice can be used interchangeably if analysis of one of the ions fails. It has been suggested that vitreous sodium and chloride levels can be used to diagnose drowning or to distinguish saltwater from freshwater drowning. Our results show that in cases of freshwater drowning, vitreous sodium levels are decreased, but that this mainly is an effect of postmortem diffusion between the eye and surrounding water rather than due to the drowning process, since the decrease in sodium levels correlates with immersion time. Copyright © 2016 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. All rights reserved.

  6. Catalytic Conversion of Cellulose to Levulinic Acid by Metal Chlorides

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Beixiao Zhang

    2010-08-01

    Full Text Available The catalytic performance of various metal chlorides in the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid in liquid water at high temperatures was investigated. The effects of reaction parameters on the yield of levulinic acid were also explored. The results showed that alkali and alkaline earth metal chlorides were not effective in conversion of cellulose, while transition metal chlorides, especially CrCl3, FeCl3 and CuCl2 and a group IIIA metal chloride (AlCl3, exhibited high catalytic activity. The catalytic performance was correlated with the acidity of the reaction system due to the addition of the metal chlorides, but more dependent on the type of metal chloride. Among those metal chlorides, chromium chloride was found to be exceptionally effective for the conversion of cellulose to levulinic acid, affording an optimum yield of 67 mol % after a reaction time of 180 min, at 200 °C, with a catalyst dosage of 0.02 M and substrate concentration of 50 wt %. Chromium metal, most of which was present in its oxide form in the solid sample and only a small part in solution as Cr3+ ion, can be easily separated from the resulting product mixture and recycled. Finally, a plausible reaction scheme for the chromium chloride catalyzed conversion of cellulose in water was proposed.

  7. Absorption of irrigation fluid occurs frequently during high power 532 nm laser vaporization of the prostate.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hermanns, Thomas; Grossmann, Nico C; Wettstein, Marian S; Fankhauser, Christian D; Capol, Janine C; Poyet, Cédric; Hefermehl, Lukas J; Zimmermann, Matthias; Sulser, Tullio; Müller, Alexander

    2015-01-01

    Absorption of irrigation fluid was not detected during GreenLight™ laser vaporization of the prostate using the first generation 80 W laser. However, data are lacking on intraoperative irrigation fluid absorption using the second generation 120 W high power laser. We assessed whether fluid absorption occurs during high power laser vaporization of the prostate. We performed this prospective investigation at a tertiary referral center in patients undergoing 120 W laser vaporization for prostatic bladder outlet obstruction. Normal saline containing 1% ethanol was used for intraoperative irrigation. The expired breath ethanol concentration was measured periodically during the operation using an alcometer. The volume of saline absorption was calculated from these concentrations. Intraoperative changes in hematological and biochemical blood parameters were also recorded. Of 50 investigated patients 22 (44%) had a positive breath ethanol test. Median absorption volume in the absorber group was 725 ml (range 138 to 3,452). Ten patients absorbed more than 1,000 ml. Absorbers had a smaller prostate, more capsular perforation, higher bleeding intensity and more laser energy applied during the operation. Three patients (13%) had symptoms potentially related to fluid absorption. Hemoglobin, hematocrit and serum chloride were the only blood parameters that changed significantly in the absorber group. The changes were significantly different than those in nonabsorbers. Fluid absorption occurs frequently during high power laser vaporization of the prostate. This should be considered in patients who present with cardiopulmonary or neurological symptoms during or after the procedure. Copyright © 2015 American Urological Association Education and Research, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  8. On-chip fabrication of alkali-metal vapor cells utilizing an alkali-metal source tablet

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tsujimoto, K.; Ban, K.; Hirai, Y.; Sugano, K.; Tsuchiya, T.; Mizutani, N.; Tabata, O.

    2013-11-01

    We describe a novel on-chip microfabrication technique for the alkali-metal vapor cell of an optically pumped atomic magnetometer (OPAM), utilizing an alkali-metal source tablet (AMST). The newly proposed AMST is a millimeter-sized piece of porous alumina whose considerable surface area holds deposited alkali-metal chloride (KCl) and barium azide (BaN6), source materials that effectively produce alkali-metal vapor at less than 400 °C. Our experiments indicated that the most effective pore size of the AMST is between 60 and 170 µm. The thickness of an insulating glass spacer holding the AMST was designed to confine generated alkali metal to the interior of the vapor cell during its production, and an integrated silicon heater was designed to seal the device using a glass frit, melted at an optimum temperature range of 460-490 °C that was determined by finite element method thermal simulation. The proposed design and AMST were used to successfully fabricate a K cell that was then operated as an OPAM with a measured sensitivity of 50 pT. These results demonstrate that the proposed concept for on-chip microfabrication of alkali-metal vapor cells may lead to effective replacement of conventional glassworking approaches.

  9. Recycling of aluminum scrap via chloride and chemical co-generation; Enkabutsu keiyu no aluminium scrap recycle to chemical cogeneration

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Shibata, K.; Kitamura, T.; Haibara, T.; Sakashita, M. [Nippon Steel Corp., Tokyo (Japan)

    1997-12-25

    Discussions were given on energy balance in recycling of aluminum scrap, and improvement on performance of separation and refining. Recycling of aluminum scrap largely reduces energy consumption over refining using bauxite material. One third of the base metal used in Japan is produced from the recycling. However, aluminum scrap contains a large quantity of impurities, hence it is unsuitable for use in expanded materials, but used in casts with large alloy addition or for diecasting. Improving the recycling rate requires efficient performance of regeneration at still higher purity. To do this, metal scraps are reacted with chlorine to obtain metallic chlorides, whereas the reaction energy therein is recovered electrochemically as electric power. The produced metallic chlorides have great vapor pressure difference by metal. Therefore, the metallic chlorides can be separated easily by using such a process as distillation according to kinds of metal elements, and high-purity metals can be regenerated by means of electrolytic reduction. Electrolytic chlorine is used in circulation. It was possible to separate selectively aluminum from aluminum scrap containing copper up to 20% by mass and iron up to 50% by mass, and recover electric energy having high density. 11 refs., 7 figs., 3 tabs.

  10. Evaluation of interfacial equilibrium constants from surface potential data: silver chloride aqueous interface.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Preocanin, Tajana; Supljika, Filip; Kallay, Nikola

    2009-09-15

    A single crystal silver chloride electrode (SCr-AgCl) was used to measure the inner surface potential (Psi(0)) at the silver chloride aqueous electrolyte interface as a function of activity of Cl(-) ions as determined by the Ag/AgCl electrode. Absolute values of the surface potential were calculated from electrode potentials of SCr-AgCl using the value of point of zero charge (pCl(pzc)=5.2) as the value of point of zero potential. Measurements were performed in potassium nitrate aqueous solutions, as well as in the presence of Li, Na, Cs, Mg, and La nitrates. The Psi(0) (pCl) function was found to be linear within the experimental error and practically the same for all the examined electrolytes and almost independent of ionic strength. The reduction of the slope with respect to the Nernst equation, expressed by the alpha coefficient, was (0.88+/-0.01) at I(c)=10(-1) mol dm(-3), (0.87+/-0.01) at I(c)=10(-2) mol dm(-3), and (0.84+/-0.01) at I(c)=10(-3) mol dm(-3). The results were successfully interpreted by employing the surface complexation model developed originally for metal oxides and adapted for silver chloride. The standard ("intrinsic") equilibrium constants for the binding of chloride (K(o)(n)) and silver ions (K(o)(p)) on the corresponding sites at the silver chloride surface were evaluated as lg K(o)(n)=2.67+/-0.05; lg K(o)(p)=2.07+/-0.05. Counterion surface association equilibrium constants were also obtained as lg K(o)(NO3(-))=lg K(o)(K+)=274+/-0.05.

  11. Acid Chlorides as Formal Carbon Dianion Linchpin Reagents in the Aluminum Chloride-Mediated Dieckmann Cyclization of Dicarboxylic Acids.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Armaly, Ahlam M; Bar, Sukanta; Schindler, Corinna S

    2017-08-04

    The development of acid chlorides as formal dianion linchpin reagents that enable access to cyclic 2-alkyl- and 2-acyl-1,3-alkanediones from dicarboxylic acids is described herein. Mechanistic experiments relying on (13)C-labeling studies confirm the role of acid chlorides as carbon dianion linchpin reagents and have led to a revised reaction mechanism for the aluminum(III)-mediated Dieckmann cyclization of dicarboxylic acids with acid chlorides.

  12. Vaporization of droplets in premixing chambers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Yule, A. J.; Chigier, N. A.

    1980-01-01

    Detailed measurements were made of the structures of turbulent fuel sprays vaporizing in heated airstreams. The measurements show the size dependent vaporization and dispersion of the droplets and the important influence of the large eddies in the turbulence. The measurements form a data base for the development of models of fuel spray vaporization. Two laser techniques were specially developed for the investigation. A laser tomography technique converts line-of-sight light scattering measurements into time averaged 'point' measurements of droplet size distribution and volume concentration. A laser anemometer particle sizing technique was further developed to permit accurate measurements of individual particle sizes and velocities, with backscatter collection of light. The experiments are combined with heat transfer models to analyze the performance of miniature thermocouples in liquid sprays.

  13. Tolman's length and limiting supersaturation of vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Alekseechkin, Nikolay V.

    2018-01-01

    The classical Kelvin formula for the equilibrium vapor pressure over a droplet of radius R is extended to small radii and vapor non-ideality, from where the limiting supersaturation condition is obtained by relating the point R = 0 to the value of limiting (spinodal) supersaturation of vapor. The analysis of different dependences of the Tolman length on radius, δ (R) , obeying this condition suggests that (i) the value of δ (0) is positive and the function δ (R) decreases with increasing radius; (ii) the curvature effect (the dependence of surface tension on radius) in the nucleation region is determined by the value of δ (0) . At the same time, this effect is weakly sensitive to the form of the function δ (R) and insensitive to its asymptotic value δ∞ .

  14. Dynamic water vapor and temperature calibration system.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Montague, F W; Primiano, F P; Saidel, G M

    1984-06-01

    The objective evaluation of thermal and humidification processes in the pulmonary system requires accurate dynamic measurements of temperature and water vapor concentration of a flowing gas mixture. The adequacy of instruments used for such measurements can only be determined by dynamic calibration techniques. We have developed a method of producing step changes in temperature and water vapor content of a gas mixture undergoing controlled steady flow. The system consists of two reservoirs and a slide valve that switches a test section between them. The inlet (usually a probe or catheter tip) of the device to be calibrated is positioned in the test section. The flow rate through the test section is minimally changed during the transition between gas from one reservoir to that of the other. The system has been used to analyze the response of a thermistor and a respiratory mass spectrometer to changes in gas temperature and water vapor.

  15. A microprocessor-controlled anaesthetic vaporizer.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Hahn, C E; Palayiwa, E; Sugg, B R; Lindsay-Scott, D

    1986-10-01

    A microprocessor-controlled anaesthetic vaporizer is described. Fresh gas is mixed in the correct proportions using two pulsed solenoid valves and a proportion of this passes through a third pulsed solenoid valve and is bubbled through liquid halothane. The temperature of the liquid agent is measured and the pulse frequency is modified to give the correct vapour concentration for the set flow rate and measured temperature. Initially, the vapour was produced by bubbling fresh gas through the agent in a conventional halothane bottle. However, because of the large liquid volume available, nitrous oxide was found to dissolve in large quantities in the halothane. A small volume vaporizer which was continually replenished from a reservoir was designed. Measurements of the vapour concentrations emerging from such a vaporizer were made and were found to agree with the set values +/- 0.1% v/v.

  16. An optical waveguide acid vapor sensor.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ballantine, D S; Callahan, D; Maclay, G J; Stetter, J R

    1992-12-01

    An optical waveguide sensor for the detection of acid vapors is described. The chemically sensitive reagent coating consists of bromothymol blue indicator suspended in a Nafion polymer film. The sensor uses a 562 nm LED source and a phototransistor detector. Response to hydrochloric acid and hydrogen sulphide vapours is both rapid and reversible, with an estimated detection limit for hydrogen sulphide of less than 15 ppm. The sensors exhibits generalized response to protonic acid vapours, but does not produce an indicator response to carbon dioxide, even at large concentrations (1100 mg/l.) in the presence of water vapor. The sensor exhibits a systematic interference from water vapor which may be corrected by a different approach, either using a reference sensor (Nafion/no indicator) or by monitoring sensor response at two wavelengths.

  17. Refraction of microwave signals by water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Goldfinger, A. D.

    1980-01-01

    Tropospheric water vapor causes a refractive path length effect which is typically 5-10% of the 'dry' tropospheric effect and as large as several meters at elevation angles below 5 deg. The vertical water vapor profile is quite variable, and measurements of intensive atmospheric parameters such as temperature and humidity limited to the surface do not adequately predict the refractive effect. It is suggested that a water vapor refraction model that is a function of the amount of precipitable water alone can be successful at low elevation angles. From an extensive study of numerical ray tracings through radiosonde balloon data, such a model has been constructed. The model predicts the effect at all latitudes and elevation angles between 2 and 10 deg to an accuracy of better than 4% (11 cm at 3 deg elevation angle).

  18. Secondhand Exposure to Vapors From Electronic Cigarettes

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czogala, Jan; Fidelus, Bartlomiej; Zielinska-Danch, Wioleta; Travers, Mark J.; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2014-01-01

    Introduction: Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are designed to generate inhalable nicotine aerosol (vapor). When an e-cigarette user takes a puff, the nicotine solution is heated and the vapor is taken into lungs. Although no sidestream vapor is generated between puffs, some of the mainstream vapor is exhaled by e-cigarette user. The aim of this study was to evaluate the secondhand exposure to nicotine and other tobacco-related toxicants from e-cigarettes. Materials and Methods: We measured selected airborne markers of secondhand exposure: nicotine, aerosol particles (PM2.5), carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an exposure chamber. We generated e-cigarette vapor from 3 various brands of e-cigarette using a smoking machine and controlled exposure conditions. We also compared secondhand exposure with e-cigarette vapor and tobacco smoke generated by 5 dual users. Results: The study showed that e-cigarettes are a source of secondhand exposure to nicotine but not to combustion toxicants. The air concentrations of nicotine emitted by various brands of e-cigarettes ranged from 0.82 to 6.23 µg/m3. The average concentration of nicotine resulting from smoking tobacco cigarettes was 10 times higher than from e-cigarettes (31.60±6.91 vs. 3.32±2.49 µg/m3, respectively; p = .0081). Conclusions: Using an e-cigarette in indoor environments may involuntarily expose nonusers to nicotine but not to toxic tobacco-specific combustion products. More research is needed to evaluate health consequences of secondhand exposure to nicotine, especially among vulnerable populations, including children, pregnant women, and people with cardiovascular conditions. PMID:24336346

  19. Secondhand exposure to vapors from electronic cigarettes.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Czogala, Jan; Goniewicz, Maciej L; Fidelus, Bartlomiej; Zielinska-Danch, Wioleta; Travers, Mark J; Sobczak, Andrzej

    2014-06-01

    Electronic cigarettes (e-cigarettes) are designed to generate inhalable nicotine aerosol (vapor). When an e-cigarette user takes a puff, the nicotine solution is heated and the vapor is taken into lungs. Although no sidestream vapor is generated between puffs, some of the mainstream vapor is exhaled by e-cigarette user. The aim of this study was to evaluate the secondhand exposure to nicotine and other tobacco-related toxicants from e-cigarettes. We measured selected airborne markers of secondhand exposure: nicotine, aerosol particles (PM(2.5)), carbon monoxide, and volatile organic compounds (VOCs) in an exposure chamber. We generated e-cigarette vapor from 3 various brands of e-cigarette using a smoking machine and controlled exposure conditions. We also compared secondhand exposure with e-cigarette vapor and tobacco smoke generated by 5 dual users. The study showed that e-cigarettes are a source of secondhand exposure to nicotine but not to combustion toxicants. The air concentrations of nicotine emitted by various brands of e-cigarettes ranged from 0.82 to 6.23 µg/m(3). The average concentration of nicotine resulting from smoking tobacco cigarettes was 10 times higher than from e-cigarettes (31.60±6.91 vs. 3.32±2.49 µg/m(3), respectively; p = .0081). Using an e-cigarette in indoor environments may involuntarily expose nonusers to nicotine but not to toxic tobacco-specific combustion products. More research is needed to evaluate health consequences of secondhand exposure to nicotine, especially among vulnerable populations, including children, pregnant women, and people with cardiovascular conditions.

  20. Bio-inspired vapor-responsive colloidal photonic crystal patterns by inkjet printing.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Bai, Ling; Xie, Zhuoying; Wang, Wei; Yuan, Chunwei; Zhao, Yuanjin; Mu, Zhongde; Zhong, Qifeng; Gu, Zhongze

    2014-11-25

    Facile, fast, and cost-effective technology for patterning of responsive colloidal photonic crystals (CPCs) is of great importance for their practical applications. In this report, we develop a kind of responsive CPC patterns with multicolor shifting properties by inkjet printing mesoporous colloidal nanoparticle ink on both rigid and soft substrates. By adjusting the size and mesopores' proportion of nanoparticles, we can precisely control the original color and vapor-responsive color shift extent of mesoporous CPC. As a consequence, multicolor mesoporous CPCs patterns with complex vapor responsive color shifts or vapor-revealed implicit images are subsequently achieved. The complicated and reversible multicolor shifts of mesoporous CPC patterns are favorable for immediate recognition by naked eyes but hard to copy. This approach is favorable for integration of responsive CPCs with controllable responsive optical properties. Therefore, it is of great promise for developing advanced responsive CPC devices such as anticounterfeiting devices, multifunctional microchips, sensor arrays, or dynamic displays.

  1. Chemical Vapor Deposition and Atomic Layer Deposition of Coatings for Mechanical Applications

    Science.gov (United States)

    Doll, G. L.; Mensah, B. A.; Mohseni, H.; Scharf, T. W.

    2010-01-01

    Chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of films and coatings involves the chemical reaction of gases on or near a substrate surface. This deposition method can produce coatings with tightly controlled dimensions and novel structures. Furthermore, the non-line-of-sight-deposition capability of CVD facilitates the coating of complex-shaped mechanical components. Atomic layer deposition (ALD) is also a chemical gas phase thin film deposition technique, but unlike CVD, it utilizes “self-limiting” surface adsorption reactions (chemisorption) to control the thickness of deposited films. This article provides an overview of CVD and ALD, discusses some of their fundamental and practical aspects, and examines their advantages and limitations versus other vapor processing techniques such as physical vapor deposition in regard to coatings for mechanical applications. Finally, site-specific cross-sectional transmission electron microscopy inside the wear track of an ALD ZnO/ZrO2 8 bilayers nanolaminate coating determined the mechanisms that control the friction and wear.

  2. Water vapor stable isotope observations from tropical Australia

    KAUST Repository

    Parkes, Stephen

    2015-04-01

    The response of the tropical hydrological cycle to anthropogenically induced changes in radiative forcing is one of the largest discrepancies between climate models. Paleoclimate archives of the stable isotopic composition of precipitation in the tropics indicate a relationship with precipitation amount that could be exploited to study past hydroclimate and improve our knowledge of how this region responds to changes in climate forcing. Recently modelling studies of convective parameterizations fitted with water isotopes and remote sensing of water vapor isotopes in the tropics have illustrated uncertainty in the assumed relationship with rainfall amount. Therefore there is a need to collect water isotope data in the tropics that can be used to evaluate these models and help identify the relationships between the isotopic composition of meteoric waters and rainfall intensity. However, data in this region is almost non-existent. Here we present in-situ water vapor isotopic measurements and the HDO retrievals from the co-located Total Column Carbon Observing Network (TCCON) site at Darwin in Tropical Australia. The Darwin site is interestingly placed within the tropical western pacific region and is impacted upon by a clear monsoonal climate, and key climate cycles including ENSO and Madden Julian Oscillations. The analysis of the data illustrated relationships between water vapor isotopes and humidity which demonstrated the role of precipitation processes in the wet season and air mass mixing during the dry season. Further the wet season observations show complex relationships between humidity and isotopes. A simple Rayleigh distillation model was not obeyed, instead the importance of rainfall re-evaporation in generating the highly depleted signatures was demonstrated. These data potentially provide a useful tool for evaluating model parameterizations in monsoonal regions as they demonstrate relationships with precipitation processes that cannot be observed with

  3. Flammability characteristics of combustible gases and vapors

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zabetakis, M. G. [Bureau of Mines, Pittsburgh, PA (United States)

    1964-05-01

    This is a summary of the available limit of flammability, autoignition and burning-rate data for more than 200 combustible gases and vapors in air and other oxidants, as well as of empirical rules and graphs that can be used to predict similar data for thousands of other combustibles under a variety of environmental conditions. Spec$c data are presented on the paraffinic, unsaturated, aromatic, and alicyclic hydrocarbons, alcohols, ethers, aldehydes, ketones, and sulfur compounds, and an assortment of fuels, fuel blends, hydraulic fluids, engine oils, and miscellaneous combustible gases and vapors.

  4. Low temperature vapor phase digestion of graphite

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Pierce, Robert A.

    2017-04-18

    A method for digestion and gasification of graphite for removal from an underlying surface is described. The method can be utilized to remove graphite remnants of a formation process from the formed metal piece in a cleaning process. The method can be particularly beneficial in cleaning castings formed with graphite molding materials. The method can utilize vaporous nitric acid (HNO.sub.3) or vaporous HNO.sub.3 with air/oxygen to digest the graphite at conditions that can avoid damage to the underlying surface.

  5. Drag Reduction by Leidenfrost Vapor Layers

    KAUST Repository

    Vakarelski, Ivan Uriev

    2011-05-23

    We demonstrate and quantify a highly effective drag reduction technique that exploits the Leidenfrost effect to create a continuous and robust lubricating vapor layer on the surface of a heated solid sphere moving in a liquid. Using high-speed video, we show that such vapor layers can reduce the hydrodynamic drag by over 85%. These results appear to approach the ultimate limit of drag reduction possible by different methods based on gas-layer lubrication and can stimulate the development of related energy saving technologies.

  6. The vertical distribution of Mars water vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Davies, D. W.

    1979-01-01

    Analysis of observations made from the Viking 1 Orbiter indicates that the water vapor over the Viking 1 landing site is uniformly mixed with the atmosphere and not concentrated near the surface. The analysis incorporates the effects of atmospheric scattering and explains why previous earth-based observations showed a strong diurnal variation in water content. It also explains the lack of an early morning fog and removes the necessity of daily exchange of large amounts of water between the surface and the atmosphere. A water vapor volume mixing ratio of 1.5 x 10 to the -4th is inferred for the Viking 1 site in late summer.

  7. Catalytic combustion with incompletely vaporized residual fuel

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rosfjord, T. J.

    1981-01-01

    Catalytic combustion of fuel lean mixtures of incompletely vaporized residual fuel and air was investigated. The 7.6 cm diameter, graded cell reactor was constructed from zirconia spinel substrate and catalyzed with a noble metal catalyst. Streams of luminous particles exited the rector as a result of fuel deposition and carbonization on the substrate. Similar results were obtained with blends of No. 6 and No. 2 oil. Blends of shale residual oil and No. 2 oil resulted in stable operation. In shale oil blends the combustor performance degraded with a reduced degree of fuel vaporization. In tests performed with No. 2 oil a similar effect was observed.

  8. Effects of the Addition of Sodium Alginate and the Concentration of Calcium Chloride on the Properties of Composite Nonwoven Fabrics

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Lou Ching-Wen

    2016-01-01

    Full Text Available Nonwoven fabrics have merits, and for example, they can be simply and quickly processed with a variety of materials and an easily changeable manufacturing process. This study aims to examine the influences of the addition of sodium alginate (SA and the concentration of calcium chloride (CaCl2 on the properties of the composite nonwoven fabrics. Chitosan (CS micro-particles and SA solution are cross-linked with CaCl2 with various concentrations, combined with farir heat preservative staples (FT/cotton (C nonwoven fabrics, and then freeze-dried to form CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics. Afterwards, physical property tests are performed on the resulting composite nonwoven fabrics to determine their properties as related to various concentrations of CaCl2. The addition of SA decreases the water vapor permeability of FT/C nonwoven fabrics by 15 %, but the concentrations of CaCl2 do not influence the water vapor permeability. Compared to FT/C nonwoven fabrics, CS/SA/FT/C composite nonwoven fabrics have significantly lower water absorbency and water vapor permeability, but a greater stiffness.

  9. Alkali chloride induced corrosion of superheaters under biomass firing conditions: Improved insights from laboratory scale studies

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Okoro, Sunday Chukwudi; Montgomery, Melanie; Jappe Frandsen, Flemming

    2015-01-01

    One of the major operational challenges experienced by power plants firing biomass is the high corrosion rate of superheaters. This limits the outlet steam temperature of the superheaters and consequently, the efficiency of the power plants. The high corrosion rates have been attributed...... to the formation of corrosive deposits (rich in alkali chlorides) on the surfaces of the superheaters. Accordingly, an extensive number of fundamental investigations have been undertaken to understand the basic mechanisms behind the alkali chloride induced high temperature corrosion of superheaters (for example......, [1–3]). However, complete understanding of the corrosion mechanism under biomass-firing conditions has not yet been achieved. This is attributed partly to the complex nature of the corrosion process since there are many species produced from fuel combustion which can interact with one another...

  10. Separation of hafnium from zirconium in their tetrachloride solution in molten alkali metal chlorides

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Salyulev, A.B.; Kudyakov, V.Ya.; Smirnov, M.V.; Moskalenko, N.I. (AN SSSR, Sverdlovsk. Inst. Ehlektrokhimii)

    1984-08-01

    The coefficient of HfCl/sub 4/ and ZrCl/sub 4/ separation in the process of vapour sublimation from their solutions in molten NaCl, KCl, CsCl, NaCl-KCl and NaCl-CsCl equimolar mixtures is found to vary in the series from approximately 1.10 to approximately 1.22 and practically not to depend on the temperature (in the 600-910 deg) range and concentration (2-25 mol.% ZrCl/sub 4/+HfCl/sub 4/). HfCl/sub 4/ and ZrCl/sub 4/ are shown to form almost perfect solutions with each other, which in their turn form imperfect solutions with molten alkali metal chlorides, with the strength of hafnium complex chloride anions increasing higher than that of zirconium in the series from NaCl to CsCl.

  11. Oral cadmium chloride intoxication in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, O; Nielsen, J B; Svendsen, P

    1988-01-01

    Diethyldithiocarbamate (DDC) is known to alleviate acute toxicity due to injection of cadmium salts. However, when cadmium chloride was administered by the oral route, DDC enhanced rather than alleviated the acute toxicity; both oral and intraperitoneal (i.p.) administration of DDC had this effect....... Thus, orally administered DDC enhanced cadmium-induced duodenal and ileal tissue damage and inhibition of peristalsis, as indicated by an increased intestinal transit time. At low cadmium doses, the whole-body retention of cadmium was increased by oral DDC administration. Intraperitoneally administered...... DDC increased cadmium-induced acute mortality and testicular necrosis, and it enhanced cadmium-induced reduction of intestinal motility and increased the whole-body retention of cadmium, indicating increased intestinal cadmium absorption. Also, DDC changed the organ distribution of absorbed cadmium...

  12. 33 Effects of Sodium Chloride Solutions on Compressive Strength ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Arc. Usman A. Jalam

    Keywords: Sodium chloride, concrete, compressive strength. Introduction. Sodium chloride or rock salt could be used as a deicing agent to melt ice at temperatures below 20oF; it has a characteristic sharp taste and is readily soluble in water. (encyclopedia.com, 2010). It has been known to be relatively benign on concrete.

  13. Biological denitrification of fertiliser wastewater at high chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Wastewater from the fertiliser industry is characterised by high chloride concentration, normally varying between 60 and 76 g/ℓ. Experiments with biological denitrification were performed in laboratory-scale \\'fill and draw\\' reactors with synthetic fertiliser wastewater, with chloride concentrations up to 96.7 g Cl/ℓ at 37oC; the ...

  14. Biological denitrification of fertiliser wastewater at high chloride ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    driniev

    2004-04-02

    Apr 2, 2004 ... Wastewater from the fertiliser industry is characterised by high chloride concentration, normally varying between 60 and 76 g/ l. Experiments with biological denitrification were performed in laboratory-scale 'fill and draw' reactors with synthetic fertiliser wastewater, with chloride concentrations up to 96.7 g ...

  15. System reliability of concrete structures subjected to chloride ingress

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Leira, B.J.; Thöns, Sebastian

    2017-01-01

    are obtained based on measurements from the Gimsøystraumen bridge in Norway. These probability distributions are subsequently employed as input to a prediction model for chloride concentration at the steel reinforcement for a single but arbitrary position along the reinforcement. In order to address chloride...

  16. Protective effect of methanol-methylene chloride extract of ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Erah

    The anti-hyperglycemic effect of the methanol-methylene chloride extract of the leaves of this plant was investigated in streptozotocin ... methanol/methylene chloride (1:1) for 7 days. (with occasional stirring) at room temperature. ..... muscle and promote hepatic production of glucose22,23, whereas reduction of plasma.

  17. An insight into the passivation of cupronickel alloys in chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Cupronickels offer enhanced corrosion protection in marine environments by the formation of passive films on the surface. Cyclic voltammetric studies were carried on cupronickels in chloride solutions at H 6.3 to understand the role of chloride ions in passive film formation. Increase in nickel content of the alloy and of ...

  18. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of new 1-benzylbenzimidazolium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Pernak, J; Arndt, A; Brycki, B

    1997-08-01

    1-Benzylbenzimidazole reacts with chloromethylalkyl ethers or sulfides or chloromethylcycloalkyl ethers to produce 3-alkoxymethyl-1-benzylbenzimidazolium or 3-alkylthiomethyl-1-benzylbenzimidazolium or 1-benzyl-3-cycloalkoxymethylbenzimidazolium chlorides in very good yields. All the 1-benzylbenimidazolium chlorides showed antimicrobial activity. The relationship between chemical structure and antimicrobial activity was analyzed by quantitative structure-activity relationships (QSAR).

  19. Synthesis and antimicrobial activity of new quaternary ammonium chlorides.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Brycki, B; Skrzypczak, A; Mirska, I; Pernak, J

    1996-06-01

    Decyldimethylamine reacts readily with chloromethylalkyl ethers of sulfides, chloromethylbenzyl ethers or sulfides and chloromethylcycloalkyl ethers to give quaternary ammonium chlorides in very good yields. All the chlorides studied showed antimicrobial activity. The relationship between the chemical structure and antimicrobial activity was analyzed by rough sets.

  20. determination of serum chloride ion concentration in pregnant ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Yusif

    Increased level of chloride indicates dehydration but can occur with other problems causing high blood sodium or hyperventilated. (Anderson and Scotti, 1980). Decreased levels of serum chloride also occur with disorders that result in low blood sodium, prolonged vomiting or gastric sunction, chronic diarrhea, with loss of ...

  1. Experimental and numerical investigation of chloride ingress in cracked concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Šavija, B.

    2014-01-01

    Chloride induced corrosion of reinforcing steel is recognized as the most common deterioration mechanism affecting reinforced concrete structures. As such, it has been in focus of research for more than thirty years. Numerous studies of chloride ingress, corrosion initiation, and corrosion

  2. In-situ measurement of chloride ion concentration in concrete

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Abbas, Yawar

    2015-01-01

    Chloride ions are one of the major contributors to degradation of reinforcement-concrete. The presence of these ions initiate pitting corrosion in the reinforcement steel and ultimately results in the failure of the construction. Thus, the chloride ion concentration inside concrete is a crucial

  3. Microwave Mapping Demonstration Using the Thermochromic Cobalt Chloride Equilibrium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Nguyen, Vu D.; Birdwhistell, Kurt R.

    2014-01-01

    An update to the thermochromic cobalt(II) chloride equilibrium demonstration is described. Filter paper that has been saturated with aqueous cobalt(II) chloride is heated for seconds in a microwave oven, producing a color change. The resulting pink and blue map is used to colorfully demonstrate Le Châtelier's principle and to illuminate the…

  4. 46 CFR 151.50-75 - Ferric chloride solution.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-10-01

    ... 46 Shipping 5 2010-10-01 2010-10-01 false Ferric chloride solution. 151.50-75 Section 151.50-75... CARRYING BULK LIQUID HAZARDOUS MATERIAL CARGOES Special Requirements § 151.50-75 Ferric chloride solution... solution must be lined with rubber, corrosion resistant plastic, or a material approved by the Commandant...

  5. Lattice dynamical calculations for bcc caesium chloride | Taura ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    In general, the obtained results agree reasonably well with the experimental data of the bcc Caesium Chloride. Keywords: Bcc caesium chloride; Lattice dynamics; Phonon dispersion; Density of state; Specific heat. Journal of the Nigerian Association of Mathematical Physics, Volume 20 (March, 2012), pp 261 – 266 ...

  6. Estimating the chloride transport in cement paste

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Princigallo, A.

    2012-06-01

    Full Text Available A method was developed to measure the diffusion coefficient of chloride ions in cement paste based on an analytical solution to Fick’s 2nd law in a cylindrical coordinate system. This natural method yielded diffusivity results within as little as a month. Testing time was reduced by exploiting the three-dimensional inward flux in the specimen. In an attempt to determine the saturation concentration, dense portland cement pastes were exposed to a concentrated chloride solution. The method proved to be useful for exploring cement hydration-induced changes in the diffusion coefficient of cement paste.

    Se ha desarrollado un método para medir el coeficiente de difusión de los iones cloruro en la pasta de cemento, partiendo de una aplicación analítica de la segunda ley de Fick en un sistema de coordinadas cilíndrico. Este método, que es natural, demostró ser capaz de producir resultados de difusividad en tan solo un mes. Se consiguió reducir el tiempo de ensayo mediante el aprovechamiento de la tridimensionalidad del flujo desde el exterior al interior de la probeta. A fin de determinar la concentración de saturación, se sometieron las pastas de cemento Portland a una disolución de cloruros concentrada. Este método resultó ser útil en el estudio de los cambios del coeficiente de difusión de la pasta de cemento provocados por las reacciones de hidratación que tienen lugar en esta.

  7. Vapor phase polymerization of PEDOT on silicone rubber as flexible large strain sensor

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Timothy Giffney

    2015-10-01

    Full Text Available This paper presents a flexible large strain sensor made from ethylenedioxythiophene deposited on silicone rubber (Ecoflex® 00-30 via vacuum assisted vapor phase polymerization (VPP process. EDOT was used due to its stability when exposed to the atmosphere. VPP is a very simple process requiring only a vacuum bell jar and a vacuum pump. Ferrite chloride (FeCl3 dissolved in tethrahydrofuran was used as the oxidant to make the resulting poly(3,4-ethylenedioxythiophene (PEDOT conductive. THF was used because it swells Ecoflex® for better infusion of oxidant and PEDOT adherence. The sensor performs reliably up to 80% strain with a gauge factor of ~2.4 and small hysteresis.

  8. Genetically encoded optical sensors for monitoring of intracellular chloride and chloride-selective channel activity

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Piotr Bregestovski

    2009-12-01

    Full Text Available This review briefly discusses the main approaches for monitoring chloride (Cl−, the most abundant physiological anion. Noninvasive monitoring of intracellular Cl− ([Cl−]i is a challenging task owing to two main difficulties: (i the low transmembrane ratio for Cl−, approximately 10:1; and (ii the small driving force for Cl−, as the Cl− reversal potential (ECl is usually close to the resting potential of the cells. Thus, for reliable monitoring of intracellular Cl−, one has to use highly sensitive probes. From several methods for intracellular Cl− analysis, genetically encoded chloride indicators represent the most promising tools. Recent achievements in the development of genetically encoded chloride probes are based on the fact that yellow fluorescent protein (YFP exhibits Cl−-sensitivity. YFP-based probes have been successfully used for quantitative analysis of Cl− transport in different cells and for high-throughput screening of modulators of Cl−-selective channels. Development of a ratiometric genetically encoded probe, Clomeleon, has provided a tool for noninvasive estimation of intracellular Cl− concentrations. While the sensitivity of this protein to Cl− is low (EC50 about 160 mM, it has been successfully used for monitoring intracellular Cl− in different cell types. Recently a CFP–YFP-based probe with a relatively high sensitivity to Cl− (EC50 about 30 mM has been developed. This construct, termed Cl-Sensor, allows ratiometric monitoring using the fluorescence excitation ratio. Of particular interest are genetically encoded probes for monitoring of ion channel distribution and activity. A new molecular probe has been constructed by introducing into the cytoplasmic domain of the Cl−-selective glycine receptor (GlyR channel the CFP–YFP-based Cl-Sensor. This construct, termed BioSensor-GlyR, has been successfully expressed in cell lines. The new genetically encoded chloride probes offer means of screening

  9. Determination of the heat capacities of Lithium/BCX (bromide chloride in thionyl chloride) batteries

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kubow, Stephen A.; Takeuchi, Kenneth J.; Takeuchi, Esther S.

    1989-01-01

    Heat capacities of twelve different Lithium/BCX (BrCl in thionyl chloride) batteries in sizes AA, C, D, and DD were determined. Procedures and measurement results are reported. The procedure allowed simple, reproducible, and precise determinations of heat capacities of industrially important Lithium/BCX cells, without interfering with performance of the cells. Use of aluminum standards allowed the accuracy of the measurements to be maintained. The measured heat capacities were within 5 percent of calculated heat capacity values.

  10. External fuel vaporization study, phase 2

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szetela, E. J.; Chiappetta, L.

    1981-01-01

    An analytical study was conducted to evaluate the effect of variations in fuel properties on the design of an external fuel vaporizaton system. The fuel properties that were considered included thermal stability, critical temperature, enthalpy a critical conditions, volatility, and viscosity. The design parameters that were evaluated included vaporizer weight and the impact on engine requirement such as maintenance, transient response, performance, and altitude relight. The baseline fuel properties were those of Jet A. The variation in thermal stability was taken as the thermal stability variation for Experimental Referee Broad Specification (ERBS) fuel. The results of the analysis indicate that a change in thermal stability equivalent to that of ERBS would increase the vaporization system weight by 20 percent, decrease oprating time between cleaning by 40 percent and make altitude relight more difficult. An increase in fuel critical temperature of 39 K would require a 40 percent increase in vaporization system weight. The assumed increase in enthalpy and volatility would also increase vaporizer weight by 40 percent and make altitude relight extremely difficult. The variation in fuel viscosity would have a negligible effect on the design parameters.

  11. Vapor Bubbles in Flow and Acoustic Fields

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    Prosperetti, Andrea; Hao, Yue; Sadhal, S.S

    2002-01-01

    A review of several aspects of the interaction of bubbles with acoustic and flow fields is presented. The focus of the paper is on bubbles in hot liquids, in which the bubble contains mostly vapor, with little or no permanent gas. The topics covered include the effect of translation on condensation

  12. Automated semiconductor vacuum chemical vapor deposition facility

    Science.gov (United States)

    1982-01-01

    A semiconductor vacuum chemical vapor deposition facility (totally automatic) was developed. Wafers arrived on an air track, automatically loaded into a furnace tube, processed, returned to the track, and sent on to the next operation. The entire process was controlled by a computer.

  13. Multilead, Vaporization-Cooled Soldering Heat Sink

    Science.gov (United States)

    Rice, John

    1995-01-01

    Vaporization-cooled heat sink proposed for use during soldering of multiple electrical leads of packaged electronic devices to circuit boards. Heat sink includes compliant wicks held in grooves on edges of metal fixture. Wicks saturated with water. Prevents excessive increases in temperature at entrances of leads into package.

  14. Vaporization of atherosclerotic plaques by spark erosion

    NARCIS (Netherlands)

    C.J. Slager (Cornelis); C.E. Essed; J.C.H. Schuurbiers (Johan); N. Bom (Klaas); P.W.J.C. Serruys (Patrick); G.T. Meester (Geert)

    1985-01-01

    textabstractAn alternative to the laser irradiation of atherosclerotic lesions has been developed. A pulsed electrocardiogram R wave-triggered electrical spark erosion technique is described. Controlled vaporization of fibrous and lipid plaques with minimal thermal side effects was achieved and

  15. New Medical Applications Of Metal Vapor Lasers

    Science.gov (United States)

    Anderson, Robert S.; McIntosh, Alexander I.

    1989-06-01

    The first medical application for metal vapor lasers has been granted marketing approval by the FDA. This represents a major milestone for this technology. Metalaser Technologies recently received this approval for its Vasculase unit in the treatment of vascular lesions such as port wine stains, facial telangiectasia and strawberry hemangiomas.

  16. Atomic lithium vapor laser isotope separation

    CERN Document Server

    Olivares, I E

    2002-01-01

    An atomic vapor laser isotope separation in lithium was performed using tunable diode lasers. The method permits also the separation of the isotopes between the sup 6 LiD sub 2 and the sup 7 LiD sub 1 lines using a self-made mass separator which includes a magnetic sector and an ion beam designed for lithium. (Author)

  17. Vaporization of synthetic fuels. Final report. [Thesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Sirignano, W.A.; Yao, S.C.; Tong, A.Y.; Talley, D.

    1983-01-01

    The problem of transient droplet vaporization in a hot convective environment is examined. The main objective of the present study is to develop an algorithm for the droplet vaporization which is simple enough to be feasibly incorporated into a complete spray combustion analysis and yet will also account for the important physics such as liquid-phase internal circulation, unsteady droplet heating and axisymmetric gas-phase convection. A simplified liquid-phase model has been obtained based on the assumption of the existence of a Hill's spherical vortex inside the droplet together with some approximations made in the governing diffusion equation. The use of the simplified model in a spray situation has also been examined. It has been found that droplet heating and vaporization are essentially unsteady and droplet temperature is nonuniform for a significant portion of its lifetime. It has also been found that the droplet vaporization characteristic can be quite sensitive to the particular liquid-phase and gas-phase models. The results of the various models are compared with the existing experimental data. Due to large scattering in the experimental measurements, particularly the droplet diameter, no definite conclusion can be drawn based on the experimental data. Finally, certain research problems which are related to the present study are suggested for future studies.

  18. Levels of CEA among vinyl chloride and polyvinyl chloride exposed workers

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Anderson, H.A. (City Univ. of New York, NY); Snyder, J.; Lewinson, T.; Woo, C.; Lilis, R.; Selikoff, I.J

    1978-09-01

    In 1974, vinyl chloride exposed workers were found to have an increased risk of malignant disease (hemangiosarcoma of the liver). We have examined 1,147 workers exposed to vinyl chloride monomer in three VC/PVC polymerization plants, and 269 workers from a PVC extrusion plant manufacturing PVC textile leather, exposed to much lower concentrations of vinyl chloride. Included among the comprehensive clinical and laboratory studies conducted was the CEA titer. We obtained, respectively, 1,115 and 248 CEA titers. Multiple factors were demonstrated which affected the distribution of CEA titers. Cigarette use had the greatest effect, followed by history of specific past illnesses and alcohol intake history. After removing these possible confounding effects, the distribution of CEA titers among the polymerization workers was significantly different from the extrusion plant group and from an unexposed comparison group. Of the six job categories analyzed, only production and maintenance workers had CEA titer distributions significantly different from the comparison group and the extrusion workers. The investigation demonstrates that occupational exposures in VC/PVC polymerization plants can cause elevations in the CEA titers of otherwise healthy individuals. Prospective follow-up is necessary before conclusions can be drawn concerning the usefulness of the CEA titer as a predictive indicator of possible increased risk.

  19. Sodium and chloride levels in rainfall, mist, streamwater and groundwater at the Plynlimon catchments, mid-Wales: inferences on hydrological and chemical controls

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    C. Neal

    2000-01-01

    salinity is high. This pattern of behaviour is again consistent with ion exchange buffering of sodium in the catchment soils. The core features of this study are two fold. Firstly, sodium and chloride concentrations are highly damped within the streams and groundwaters relative to the atmospheric input. Secondly, streamflow sodium and chloride respond in similar ways across the catchments, except for the added cation exchange damping of the sodium signal. These findings are remarkable given the heterogeneous nature of the catchments and the complexity of the chemical time series signals in the streams. Keywords: Sodium; chloride; rainfall; mist; stream water; groundwater; Plynlimon; Hafren; Hore; Tanllwyth; moorland; Sitka spruce; forest; cation exchange; fractal

  20. Vapor Intrusion Characterization Report (Revision 1.0)

    Science.gov (United States)

    Vapor Intrusion Characterization Report (Revision 1) - February 5, 2015: This report, which was approved by the EPA on February 18, 2015, documents the results from implementation of the Final Vapor Intrusion Characterization Work Plan.

  1. Water vapor movement in freezing aggregate base materials.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The objectives of this research were to 1) measure the extent to which water vapor movement results in : water accumulation in freezing base materials; 2) evaluate the effect of soil stabilization on water vapor movement : in freezing base materials;...

  2. Microwave Plasma Enhanced Chemical Vapor Deposition of Diamond in Vapor of Methanol-Based Liquid Solutions

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Tzeng, Yonhua

    2000-01-01

    .... An electrical discharge is generated by microwave power in a metal cavity in order to dissociate the vapor mixture from one of the liquid solutions, from which radicals such as OH, O, and H that etch...

  3. Vaporization of fault water during seismic slip

    Science.gov (United States)

    Chen, Jianye; Niemeijer, André R.; Fokker, Peter A.

    2017-06-01

    Laboratory and numerical studies, as well as field observations, indicate that phase transitions of pore water might be an important process in large earthquakes. We present a model of the thermo-hydro-chemo-mechanical processes, including a two-phase mixture model to incorporate the phase transitions of pore water, occurring during fast slip (i.e., a natural earthquake) in order to investigate the effects of vaporization on the coseismic slip. Using parameters from typical natural faults, our modeling shows that vaporization can indeed occur at the shallow depths of an earthquake, irrespective of the wide variability of the parameters involved (sliding velocity, friction coefficient, gouge permeability and porosity, and shear-induced dilatancy). Due to the fast kinetics, water vaporization can cause a rapid slip weakening even when the hydrological conditions of the fault zone are not favorable for thermal pressurization, e.g., when permeability is high. At the same time, the latent heat associated with the phase transition causes the temperature rise in the slip zone to be buffered. Our parametric analyses reveal that the amount of frictional work is the principal factor controlling the onset and activity of vaporization and that it can easily be achieved in earthquakes. Our study shows that coseismic pore fluid vaporization might have played important roles at shallow depths of large earthquakes by enhancing slip weakening and buffering the temperature rise. The combined effects may provide an alternative explanation for the fact that low-temperature anomalies were measured in the slip zones at shallow depths of large earthquakes.

  4. Vapor condensation behind the shock wave in vapor-liquid two-phase media

    Science.gov (United States)

    Syoji, Chiharu; Oshiro, Naoto

    Laser extinction, schlieren photography, and in situ pressure measurements are used to characterize vapor condensation behind a shock wave in a diaphragm shock tube with a low-pressure chamber filled with ethanol, water, or freon-11 vapor. The experimental setup is briefly described, and the results are presented graphically and discussed in detail. Condensation, lasting a few hundred microsec before reevaporation sets in, is found to decrease the intensity of the shock front and lower the pressure behind it.

  5. Adsorption of water, sulfates and chloride on arsenopyrite surface

    Science.gov (United States)

    Silva, Juliana C. M.; dos Santos, Egon C.; de Oliveira, Aline; Heine, Thomas; De Abreu, Heitor A.; Duarte, Hélio A.

    2018-03-01

    Arsenopyrite is one of the sulfide minerals responsible for acid rock drainage (ARD) and is one of the most hazardous in regions affected by mining activities. This phenomenon involves complex reaction mechanism. Although it is intensely investigated, there is a lack of consensus concerning the reaction mechanisms and more information is still necessary. In this work, the adsorption of water, hydrochloric acid, and sulfuric acid on arsenopyrite (001) surface was investigated by means of Density Functional calculations and the results compared to other sulfides aiming to understand the mineral/water interface. The interaction of the chemical species with the (001) FeAsS surface is the first step to understand the intricate oxidation mechanism of arsenopyrite. Molecular water adsorption on (001) FeAsS is more favored than the adsorption of sulfate favoring the dissolution of sulfates and enhancing its oxidation. The estimated adsorption energies of water, sulfates and chloride on other sulfide minerals are compared with the estimated values for arsenopyrite and the chemical reactivity differences discussed in detail.

  6. The Influence of Chemical Composition on LNG Pool Vaporization

    OpenAIRE

    Yu Zhidong

    2017-01-01

    A model is used to examine the influence of chemical composition on the vaporization rate of LNG during spreading. Calculations have been performed whereby the vaporization rate of the LNG mixtures has been compared to the vaporization of pure methane under the initial conditions. The detailed results indicate that the vaporization rate LNG mixture is different to that of pure methane. LNG as the liquid mixture gets rich in ethane and isobaric latent heat increases rapidly, leading to the rat...

  7. Convective vaporization of particles in an electromagnetic radiation field

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kuznetsov, P. V.; Kurochkin, V. I.

    1987-03-01

    The heating and vaporization of spherical particles in the case of the arbitrary relative concentration of vapor and gas are studied on the basis of the exact equations of multicomponent gas dynamics with allowance for the temperature dependence of the transport coefficients. The proposed method makes possible an easy computation of the vaporization rate and temperature in a wide range of particle sizes and radiation flux densities. The results obtained can be used to calculate laser-induced breakdown in metal vapors.

  8. Mössbauer study of a tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl porphyrin iron (III chloride in comparison with the fluorine unsubstituted analogue

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Kaczmarzyk Tomasz

    2015-03-01

    Full Text Available Mössbauer investigations, in association with density functional theory (DFT calculations, have been conducted for the molecular and electronic structures of iron (III [tetrakis (pentafluorophenyl] porphyrin chloride [(F20TPPFe:Cl], as a Fe(III-tetraphenylporphyrin complex containing chloride axial ligand and substituted hydrogen atoms by fluorine ones in the four phenyl rings, in comparison with its fluorine unsubstituted analogue [(TPPFe:Cl]. It was found that the parameters of Mössbauer spectra of both complexes are close to one another, and correspond to the high-spin state of Fe(III ions, but they show the different temperature dependence and the quadrupole doublets in Mössbauer spectra show different asymmetry at low temperatures. Results of DFT calculations are analyzed in the light of catalytic activity of the halogenated complex.

  9. Microstructure-based simulation of time-dependent chloride diffusivity in saturated cement paste

    OpenAIRE

    Zhang, Mingzhong; Ye, Guang; Van Breugel, K.

    2010-01-01

    For accurately predicting the service life and evaluating the durability of reinforced concrete structure exposed to chloride environments, it is highly desirable to determine the chloride diffusivity in cement paste. Because of continuous cement hydration and chloride binding during the process of chloride diffusion, chloride diffusivity varies with time. In this paper, a computational approacht for predicting the time-depending chloride diffusivity in cement paste is presented. HYMOSTRUC3D,...

  10. 21 CFR 888.4220 - Cement monomer vapor evacuator.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-04-01

    ... 21 Food and Drugs 8 2010-04-01 2010-04-01 false Cement monomer vapor evacuator. 888.4220 Section... (CONTINUED) MEDICAL DEVICES ORTHOPEDIC DEVICES Surgical Devices § 888.4220 Cement monomer vapor evacuator. (a) Identification. A cement monomer vapor evacuator is a device intended for use during surgery to contain or remove...

  11. 33 CFR 157.132 - Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 33 Navigation and Navigable Waters 2 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor... § 157.132 Cargo tanks: Hydrocarbon vapor emissions. Each tank vessel having a COW system under § 157.10a... must have— (a) A means to discharge hydrocarbon vapors from each cargo tank that is ballasted to a...

  12. 40 CFR 52.787 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.787... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS Indiana § 52.787 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) Gasoline means any petroleum distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or greater...

  13. 40 CFR 52.255 - Gasoline transfer vapor control.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ... 40 Protection of Environment 3 2010-07-01 2010-07-01 false Gasoline transfer vapor control. 52.255... (CONTINUED) APPROVAL AND PROMULGATION OF IMPLEMENTATION PLANS California § 52.255 Gasoline transfer vapor control. (a) “Gasoline” means any petroleum distillate having a Reid vapor pressure of 4 pounds or greater...

  14. 33 CFR 154.810 - Vapor line connections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2010-07-01

    ...) POLLUTION FACILITIES TRANSFERRING OIL OR HAZARDOUS MATERIAL IN BULK Vapor Control Systems § 154.810 Vapor... the OCIMF International Safety Guide for Oil Tankers and Terminals (incorporated by reference; see § 154.106). (h) A vapor collection system fitted with an enriching system that operates at a positive...

  15. Packed-bed catalytic cracking of oak derived pyrolytic vapors

    Science.gov (United States)

    Catalytic upgrading of pyrolysis vapors derived from oak was carried out using a fixed-bed catalytic column at 425 deg C. The vapors were drawn by splitting a fraction from the full stream of vapors produced at 500 deg C in a 5 kg/hr bench-scale fast pyrolysis reactor system downstream the cyclone s...

  16. The one year outcome after KTP laser vaporization of the prostate according to the calculated vaporized volume.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ku, Ja Hyeon; Cho, Jeong Yeon; Cho, Sung Yong; Kim, Soo Woong; Paick, Jae-Seung

    2009-12-01

    The aim of this study was to develop a new simple method for measuring the vaporized volume and to evaluate the outcome of high-power potassium-titanyl-phosphate (KTP) photoselective laser vaporization. A total of 65 patients, with a mean age of 67.7 yr (range 53 to 85), were included in the primary analysis. The vaporized volume was calculated as the pre-operative volume minus the immediate post-operative volume plus the volume of the defect. For all patients, the subjective and objective parameters improved significantly after surgery. Six and 12 months after surgery, the group with a smaller vaporized volume (vaporized volume (>or=15 g). There were no differences in the change of the maximum flow rate and post-void residual based on the vaporized volume. Our findings suggest that the subjective improvement, after a high-power KTP laser vaporization, may be dependent on the vaporized volume obtained after the procedure.

  17. Membrane-assisted vapor stripping: energy efficient hybrid distillation-vapor permeation process for alcohol-water separation

    Science.gov (United States)

    BACKGROUND: Energy efficient alternatives to distillation for alcohol recovery from dilute solution are needed to improve biofuel sustainability. A process integrating steam stripping with a vapor compression step and a vapor permeation membrane separation step is proposed. The...

  18. Effect of transition metal salts on the initiated chemical vapor deposition of polymer thin films

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Kwong, Philip; Seidel, Scott; Gupta, Malancha, E-mail: malanchg@usc.edu [Mork Family Department of Chemical Engineering and Materials Science, University of Southern California, 925 Bloom Walk, Los Angeles, California 90089 (United States)

    2015-05-15

    In this work, the effect of transition metal salts on the initiated chemical vapor deposition of polymer thin films was studied using x-ray photoelectron spectroscopy. The polymerizations of 4-vinyl pyridine and 1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate were studied using copper(II) chloride (CuCl{sub 2}) and iron(III) chloride (FeCl{sub 3}) as the transition metal salts. It was found that the surface coverages of both poly(4-vinyl pyridine) (P4VP) and poly(1H,1H,2H,2H-perfluorodecyl acrylate) were decreased on CuCl{sub 2}, while the surface coverage of only P4VP was decreased on FeCl{sub 3}. The decreased polymer surface coverage was found to be due to quenching of the propagating radicals by the salt, which led to a reduction of the oxidation state of the metal. The identification of this reaction mechanism allowed for tuning of the effectiveness of the salts to decrease the polymer surface coverage through the adjustment of processing parameters such as the filament temperature. Additionally, it was demonstrated that the ability of transition metal salts to decrease the polymer surface coverage could be extended to the fabrication of patterned cross-linked coatings, which is important for many practical applications such as sensors and microelectronics.

  19. Studies on the mercuric chloride resistance of Staphylococcus aureus

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Vaczi, L.; Fodor, M.; Milch, H.; Rethy, A.

    1962-01-01

    Among 409 pathogenic Staph. aureus strains 34% have been found to be sensitive, and 66% resistant, to mercuric chloride. The incidence of mercuric chloride resistant cultures among antibiotic sensitive staphylococci was 20%; among strains resistant to penicillin or to more than one antibiotic, 70%. Mercuric chloride resistant organisms occurred chiefly among phage group I and untypable strains; they were especially common among the so called epidemic strains of phage group I, and among cultures resistant to 4-6 antibiotics. In mercuric chloride sensitivity a thirtyfold, in merthiolate sensitivity only a two-fold difference has been revealed among the strains. The sulfydryl group content of mercuric chloride resistant organisms was only 1 1/2 times higher than that of sensitive bacteria. As to p-chlor mercuric benzoate binding capacity, a twofold difference was found between mercuric chloride sensitive and resistant staphylococci. The differences in the mercuric chloride resistance of various staphylococcal strains might be due to differences in the chemical structure of the cell surface. 9 references, 1 figure, 6 tables.

  20. Use and Effectiveness of Ethyl Chloride for Hand Injections.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Franko, Orrin I; Stern, Peter J

    2017-03-01

    Limited literature supports using ethyl chloride topical spray as an anesthetic for hand injections whereas documented risks include frostbite, skin irritation, and inhalation toxicity. We hypothesize that ethyl chloride spray imparts no benefit to patients' perception of pain or anxiety for routine hand injections. We first surveyed all members of the American Society for Surgery of the Hand to discern the prevalence of ethyl chloride use during routine injections. We then performed a prospective, randomized, study at 2 institutions evaluating the efficacy of ethyl chloride spray compared with "routine injection" (no topical spray) in patients indicated for a hand injection. All patients completed a pre- and postinjection 11-point questionnaire that inquired about various components of pain and anxiety. A total of 2,083 (73% response rate) American Society for Surgery of the Hand members responded to the survey and revealed that 59% of hand surgeons always or often use ethyl chloride, and 24% never use it. There were no differences for region or practice setting, but experienced surgeons were less likely to routinely use ethyl chloride (35%) compared with younger surgeons (66%). Among 151 patients participating in the clinical study (75 with ethyl chloride), there were no differences for any outcome measure assessed. Injection pain in the spray and no-spray groups, pain after 1 minute, and overall anxiety were equivalent. Subgroup analysis demonstrated no effect of sex, anticipated anxiety, or pain threshold. Ethyl chloride is widely used among hand surgeons but imparts no benefit for routine hand injections in the clinical setting. The potential risks and costs of ethyl chloride use may outweigh its benefits. Therapeutic II. Copyright © 2017 American Society for Surgery of the Hand. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

  1. Chemical agent simulant release from clothing following vapor exposure.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Feldman, Robert J

    2010-02-01

    Most ambulatory victims of a terrorist chemical attack will have exposure to vapor only. The study objective was to measure the duration of chemical vapor release from various types of clothing. A chemical agent was simulated using methyl salicylate (MeS), which has similar physical properties to sulfur mustard and was the agent used in the U.S. Army's Man-In-Simulant Test (MIST). Vapor concentration was measured with a Smiths Detection Advanced Portable Detector (APD)-2000 unit. The clothing items were exposed to vapor for 1 hour in a sealed cabinet; vapor concentration was measured at the start and end of each exposure. Clothing was then removed and assessed every 5 minutes with the APD-2000, using a uniform sweep pattern, until readings remained 0. Concentration and duration of vapor release from clothing varied with clothing composition and construction. Lightweight cotton shirts and jeans had the least trapped vapor; down outerwear, the most. Vapor concentration near the clothing often increased for several minutes after the clothing was removed from the contaminated environment. Compression of thick outerwear released additional vapor. Mean times to reach 0 ranged from 7 minutes for jeans to 42 minutes for down jackets. This simulation model of chemical vapor release demonstrates persistent presence of simulant vapor over time. This implies that chemical vapor may be released from the victims' clothing after they are evacuated from the site of exposure, resulting in additional exposure of victims and emergency responders. Insulated outerwear can release additional vapor when handled. If a patient has just moved to a vapor screening point, immediate assessment before additional vapor can be released from the clothing can lead to a false-negative assessment of contamination.

  2. Molten Triazolium Chloride Systems as New Aluminum Battery Electrolytes

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Vestergaard, B.; Bjerrum, Niels; Petrushina, Irina

    1993-01-01

    The possibility of using molten mixtures of 1,4-dimethyl-1,2,4-triazolium chloride (DMTC) and aluminum chloride (AlCl3) as secondary battery electrolytes was studied, in some cases extended by the copresence of sodium chloride. DMTC-AlCl, mixtures demonstrated high specific conductivity in a wide...... of milliamperes per square centimeter) was observed at 0.344 V on the acidic sodium tetrachloroaluminate background, involving a free triazolium radical mechanism. Molten DMTC-AlCl3 electrolytes are acceptable for battery performance and both the aluminum anode and the triazolium electrolyte can be used as active...

  3. A photochemical source of methyl chloride in saline waters.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Moore, Robert M

    2008-03-15

    It is shown experimentallythatthe methoxy group in simple lignin-like molecules can be the source of the methyl group in CH3Cl produced by a photochemical reaction in an aqueous solution of chloride. Terrestrially derived colored dissolved organic matter (CDOM) in river water also yields CH3Cl through a photochemical process in a chloride solution. CDOM extracted from subsurface ocean waters showed some ability to enhance photochemical production of CH3Cl while CDOM from surface water showed no effect. Reactions of the kind described in this paper may be contributors to the marine source of methyl chloride and possibly other alkyl halides.

  4. Denitrification of fertilizer wastewater at high chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Ucisik, Ahmed Süheyl; Henze, Mogens

    Wastewater from fertilizer industry is characterized by high contents of chloride concentration, which normally vary between 60 and 76 g/l. Experiments with bilogical denitrification were performed in lab-scale "fill and draw" reactors with synthetic wastewater with chloride concentrations up to 77.......4 g/l. The results of the experiments showed that biological denitrification was feasible at the extreme environmental conditions prevailing in fertilizer wastewater. Stable continuous biological denitrfication of the synthetic high chloride wastewater was performed up to 77.4 g Cl/l at 37 degree C...

  5. Chloride ion erosion experiment research in cracked concrete

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ting, Shu; Yang, Li

    2017-08-01

    For the study of chloride ion erosion in cracked concrete, this essay tries to take advantages of relevant trails to build up concrete chloride ion diffusion model based on the Fick’s second law. The parameter of this model is easy to be set, and many factors such as the effect of cracks are taken into consideration in this experiment. The concept of “chloride ion diffusion coefficient of equivalent apparent” is introduced to simplify the calculation. It can help simplify the calculation process, and get a more accurate test result, as well as facilitating the practical application of this parameter.

  6. Low temperature photoluminescence studies on semiorganic tris thiourea copper (I) chloride single crystal

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Ariponnammal, S.; Chandrasekaran, S. [Department of Physics, Gandhigram Rural Institute, Deemed University, Gandhigram, Tamilnadu (India); Sanjeeviraja, C. [Department of Physics, Alagappa University, Karaikudi, Tamilnadu (India)

    2012-02-15

    Semiorganic tris thiourea copper (I) chloride (TTCC) single crystals have been synthesized from copper (II) chloride via slow evaporation technique. The stoichiometry of the grown anhydrous complex crystal has been confirmed by elemental CHNS (C, H, N and S) and atomic absorption spectrophotometric (AAS) analysis. The crystal structure with space group has been confirmed by single crystal and powder X-ray diffraction (XRD) studies. The FTIR study assigned the presence of functional groups and confirmed the co-ordination of metal ions with thiourea. It also confirmed the transition from Cu{sup 2+} to Cu{sup +} when thiourea combined with Copper (II) chloride. The optical transparency of the crystal has been studied by UV-Vis spectrum and deduced the energy gap. The room temperature Photoluminescence (PL) spectrum reported maximum emission line at 410.92 nm and Stokes shift has been determined as 75 nm or 16.5 eV. Low temperature luminescence study from 300 K to 77 K exhibited three blue emission peaks and one green emission peak. The green emission band has been assigned to recombination of an electron in a shallow trap and Cu{sup 2+}. Blue emission has been attributed to S{sup 2-} vacancies. The interesting hysteresis loop has been exhibited by the variation of energy gap with low temperature. (copyright 2012 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH and Co. KGaA, Weinheim) (orig.)

  7. [Effect of pilocarpine chloride on pseudoplastic hydrogel].

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zatloukal, Z

    2003-05-01

    Colloidal aqueous dispersions of 2 to 5% (weight) of hydroxypropylmethylcellulose (HMPC 4000) yield pseudoplastic mucilages and gels. Rotational viscosimetry in the cone-plate arrangement enables rapid and reproducible evaluation of the transitional region between pseudoplastic and plastic deformation, characterized by Herschel-Bulkley equation. To the traditional Ostwald's two-parameter relationship it adds a third one, revealing a deviation from the beginning of the coordinates of the rheogram caused by the limiting yield stress. The obtained equations make it possible not only to estimate apparent and real viscosity, but also the area under the curve of the pseudoplastic rheogram. The actual precondition of integration, however, is the estimation of the limiting yield stress as the shear rate for the zero shear stress. Experimental estimation of the bottom margin for the integration of the area under the curve makes mutual comparability of rheograms possible. At a temperature of 32 degrees C, analysis of variance demonstrated a significant diminution of this area in the presence of about 2% of pilocarpinium chloride.

  8. Chloride, bromide and iodide scintillators with europium

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhuravleva, Mariya; Yang, Kan

    2016-09-27

    A halide scintillator material is disclosed where the halide may comprise chloride, bromide or iodide. The material is single-crystalline and has a composition of the general formula ABX.sub.3 where A is an alkali, B is an alkali earth and X is a halide which general composition was investigated. In particular, crystals of the formula ACa.sub.1-yEu.sub.yI.sub.3 where A=K, Rb and Cs were formed as well as crystals of the formula CsA.sub.1-yEu.sub.yX.sub.3 (where A=Ca, Sr, Ba, or a combination thereof and X=Cl, Br or I or a combination thereof) with divalent Europium doping where 0.ltoreq.y.ltoreq.1, and more particularly Eu doping has been studied at one to ten mol %. The disclosed scintillator materials are suitable for making scintillation detectors used in applications such as medical imaging and homeland security.

  9. Experimental study of external fuel vaporization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Szetela, E. J.; Tevelde, J. A.

    1982-01-01

    The fuel properties used in the design of a flash vaporization system for aircraft gas turbine engines were evaluated in experiments using a flowing system to determine critical temperature and pressure, boiling points, dew points, heat transfer coefficients, deposit formation rates, and deposit removal. Three fuels were included in the experiments: Jet-A, an experimental referree broad specification fuel, and a premium No. 2 diesel fuel. Engine conditions representing a NASA Energy Efficient Engine at sea-level take-off, cruise, and idle were simulated in the vaporization system and it was found that single phase flow was maintained in the heat exchanger and downstream of the throttle. Deposits encountered in the heat exchanger represented a thermal resistance as high as 1300 sq M K/watt and a deposit formation rate over 1000 gC/sq cm hr.

  10. Experimental vaporization of the Holbrook chondrite

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gooding, J. L.; Muenow, D. W.

    1977-01-01

    The vapor phase composition obtained by heating samples of the Holbrook L6 chondrite to 1300 C was determined quantitatively by Knudsen cell-quadrupole mass spectrometry. Maximum observed vapor pressures, produced at 1200 C, are reported for Na, K, Fe, and Ni, and the implications of the Na/K ratio are considered. The Fe and Ni data are discussed with attention to their migration in individual equilibrated chondrites. S2 (with minor SO2), H2O, and CO2 were also present in the high-temperature gas phase. Vesicles formed by the release of intrinsically derived volatiles are compared with vesicles in the Ibitira eucrite. Chondrite evolution is briefly discussed.

  11. Quenching Phase Separation by Vapor Deposition Polymerization

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tao, Ran; Anthamatten, Mitchell

    2015-03-01

    Initiated chemical vapor deposition (iCVD) is a solventless, free radical technique predominately used to deposit homogeneous films of linear and crosslinked polymers directly from gas phase feeds. We report a template-free method to fabricate continuous-phase porous polymer films by simultaneous phase separation during iCVD. Phase separation during film growth is achieved by condensing an inert porogen, along with initiator, monomer, and crosslinker. When the vapor mixture transports to the cooled substrate, phase separation occurs along with polymerization and crosslinking, which quench the state of phase separation. The kinetics of spontaneously phase separation can be qualitatively understood on the basis of Cahn-Hilliard theory. A series of films were grown by varying monomer and porogen's degree of saturation. Deposited films were studied by electron microscopy and spectroscopic techniques.

  12. The toxicity of inhaled methanol vapors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Kavet, R; Nauss, K M

    1990-01-01

    Methanol could become a major automotive fuel in the U.S., and its use may result in increased exposure of the public to methanol vapor. Nearly all of the available information on methanol toxicity in humans relates to the consequences of acute, rather than chronic, exposures. Acute methanol toxicity evolves in a well-understood pattern and consists of an uncompensated metabolic acidosis with superimposed toxicity to the visual system. The toxic properties of methanol are rooted in the factors that govern both the conversion of methanol to formic acid and the subsequent metabolism of formate to carbon dioxide in the folate pathway. In short, the toxic syndrome sets in if formate generation continues at a rate that exceeds its rate of metabolism. Current evidence indicates that formate accumulation will not challenge the metabolic capacity of the folate pathway at the anticipated levels of exposure to automotive methanol vapor.

  13. Gradient Solvent Vapor Annealing of Thin Films

    Science.gov (United States)

    Albert, Julie; Bogart, Timothy; Lewis, Ronald; Epps, Thomas

    2011-03-01

    The development of block copolymer materials for emerging nanotechnologies requires an understanding of how surface energy/chemistry and annealing conditions affect thin film self-assembly. Specifically, in solvent vapor annealing (SVA), the use of solvent mixtures and the manipulation of solvent vapor concentration are promising approaches for obtaining a desired morphology or nanostructure orientation. We designed and fabricated solvent-resistant devices to produce discrete SVA gradients in composition and/or concentration to efficiently explore SVA parameter space. We annealed copolymer films containing poly(styrene), poly(isoprene), and/or poly(methyl methacrylate) blocks, monitored film thicknesses during annealing, and characterized film morphologies with atomic force microscopy. Morphological changes across the gradients such as the transformation from parallel cylinders to spheres with increasing solvent selectivity provided insight into thin film self-assembly, and the gradient device has enabled us to determine transition compositions and/or concentrations.

  14. Vapor-induced phase transformations in docetaxel.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Tatini, Lakshmi Kumar; Krishna Reddy, K V S R; Someswara Rao, N

    2012-06-01

    Vapor-induced transformations of docetaxel anhydrous (form D(A)) under ambient conditions have been studied using methanol, ethanol, and water as the solvent media. The online vapor-induced transformations were monitored by powder X-ray diffractometry. New solid forms (solvates/hydrates/anhydrous) of docetaxel anhydrous were obtained in stoichiometric ratios which were characterized completely using powder X-ray diffraction, differential scanning calorimeter, thermogravimetric analysis, and spectroscopic ((13)C solid-state nuclear magnetic spectroscopy, solution (1)H NMR, and Fourier transform infrared) techniques. The new forms namely methanol solvate (D(M)), ethanol solvate (D(E)), monohydrate (D(MH)), trihydrate (D(TH)), and anhydrous (D(AN-I) and D(AN-II)) were identified through structural analysis.

  15. Glass fibers and vapor phase components of cigarette smoke as cofactors in experimental respiratory tract carcinogenesis

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Feron, V.J.; Kuper, C.F.; Spit, B.J.; Reuzel, P.G.; Woutersen, R.A.

    1985-01-01

    Syrian golden hamsters were given intratracheal instillations of glass fibers with or without BP suspended in saline, once a fortnight for 52 weeks; the experiment was terminated at week 85. No tumors of the respiratory tract were observed in hamsters treated with glass fibers alone. There was no indication that glass fibers enhanced the development of respiratory tract tumors induced by BP. In another study Syrian golden hamsters were exposed to fresh air or to a mixture of 4 major vapor phase components of cigarette smoke, viz. isoprene (800----700 ppm), methyl chloride (1000----900 ppm), methyl nitrite (200----190 ppm) and acetaldehyde (1400----1200 ppm) for a period of at most 23 months. Some of the animals were also given repeated intratracheal instillations of BP or norharman in saline. Laryngeal tumors were found in 7/31 male and 6/32 female hamsters exposed only to the vapor mixture, whereas no laryngeal tumors occurred in controls. The tumor response of the larynx most probably has to be ascribed entirely to the action of acetaldehyde. Simultaneous treatment with norharman or BP did not affect the tumor response of the larynx. Acetaldehyde may occur in the vapor phase of cigarette smoke at levels up to 2000 ppm. Chronic inhalation exposure of rats to acetaldehyde at levels of 0 (controls), 750, 1500 or 3000----1000 ppm resulted in a high incidence of nasal carcinomas, both squamous cell carcinomas of the respiratory epithelium and adenocarcinomas of the olfactory epithelium. It was discussed that acetaldehyde may significantly contribute to the induction of bronchogenic cancer by cigarette smoke in man.

  16. Detailed Field Investigation of Vapor Intrusion Processes

    Science.gov (United States)

    2008-09-01

    will be conducted and respiratory protective equipment used as needed, as described below. • Eating, drinking, smoking, gum chewing and oral tobacco use...FINAL REPORT Detailed Field Investigation of Vapor Intrusion Processes ESTCP Project ER-0423 September 2008 Thomas E. McHugh, Ph ...Thomas E. McHugh, Ph D. Tim N. Nickels 5d. PROJECT NUMBER ER-0423 5e. TASK NUMBER 5f. WORK UNIT NUMBER 7. PERFORMING ORGANIZATION NAME(S) AND

  17. Making Ceramic Fibers By Chemical Vapor

    Science.gov (United States)

    Revankar, Vithal V. S.; Hlavacek, Vladimir

    1994-01-01

    Research and development of fabrication techniques for chemical vapor deposition (CVD) of ceramic fibers presented in two reports. Fibers of SiC, TiB2, TiC, B4C, and CrB2 intended for use as reinforcements in metal-matrix composite materials. CVD offers important advantages over other processes: fibers purer and stronger and processed at temperatures below melting points of constituent materials.

  18. Chemical vapor infiltration in single fiber bundles

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Devlin, D.J.; Barbero, R.S.; Currier, R.P.

    1990-01-01

    Chemical vapor infiltration (CVI) in single fiber bundles is studied under isothermal conditions. Understanding infiltration dynamics in single bundles is essential to process design and modeling efforts. Deposition of pyrolytic carbon in carbon-fiber bundles is chosen as the experimental system, with densification data obtained from thermogravimetric analysis. Data are then compared to predictions from a recently proposed CVI model for fiber bundle densification. 10 refs., 5 figs., 1 tab.

  19. Quality and Control of Water Vapor Winds

    Science.gov (United States)

    Jedlovec, Gary J.; Atkinson, Robert J.

    1996-01-01

    Water vapor imagery from the geostationary satellites such as GOES, Meteosat, and GMS provides synoptic views of dynamical events on a continual basis. Because the imagery represents a non-linear combination of mid- and upper-tropospheric thermodynamic parameters (three-dimensional variations in temperature and humidity), video loops of these image products provide enlightening views of regional flow fields, the movement of tropical and extratropical storm systems, the transfer of moisture between hemispheres and from the tropics to the mid- latitudes, and the dominance of high pressure systems over particular regions of the Earth. Despite the obvious larger scale features, the water vapor imagery contains significant image variability down to the single 8 km GOES pixel. These features can be quantitatively identified and tracked from one time to the next using various image processing techniques. Merrill et al. (1991), Hayden and Schmidt (1992), and Laurent (1993) have documented the operational procedures and capabilities of NOAA and ESOC to produce cloud and water vapor winds. These techniques employ standard correlation and template matching approaches to wind tracking and use qualitative and quantitative procedures to eliminate bad wind vectors from the wind data set. Techniques have also been developed to improve the quality of the operational winds though robust editing procedures (Hayden and Veldon 1991). These quality and control approaches have limitations, are often subjective, and constrain wind variability to be consistent with model derived wind fields. This paper describes research focused on the refinement of objective quality and control parameters for water vapor wind vector data sets. New quality and control measures are developed and employed to provide a more robust wind data set for climate analysis, data assimilation studies, as well as operational weather forecasting. The parameters are applicable to cloud-tracked winds as well with minor

  20. Inhalation of Alcohol Vapor: Measurement and Implications.

    Science.gov (United States)

    MacLean, Robert Ross; Valentine, Gerald W; Jatlow, Peter I; Sofuoglu, Mehmet

    2017-02-01

    Decades of alcohol research have established the health risks and pharmacodynamic profile of oral alcohol consumption. Despite isolated periods of public health concern, comparatively less research has evaluated exposure to alcohol vapor. Inhaled alcohol initially bypasses first-pass metabolism and rapidly reaches the arterial circulation and the brain, suggesting that this route of administration may be associated with pharmacological effects that increase the risk of addiction. However, detailed reviews assessing the possible effects of inhaled alcohol in humans are lacking. A comprehensive, systematic literature review was conducted using Google Scholar and PubMed to examine manuscripts studying exposure to inhaled alcohol and measurement of biomarkers (biochemical or functional) associated with alcohol consumption in human participants. Twenty-one publications reported on alcohol inhalation. Fourteen studies examined inhalation of alcohol vapor associated with occupational exposure (e.g., hand sanitizer) in a variety of settings (e.g., naturalistic, laboratory). Six publications measured inhalation of alcohol in a controlled laboratory chamber, and 1 evaluated direct inhalation of an e-cigarette with ethanol-containing "e-liquid." Some studies have reported that inhalation of alcohol vapor results in measurable biomarkers of acute alcohol exposure, most notably ethyl glucuronide. Despite the lack of significantly elevated blood alcohol concentrations, the behavioral consequences and subjective effects associated with repeated use of devices capable of delivering alcohol vapor are yet to be determined. No studies have focused on vulnerable populations, such as adolescents or individuals with alcohol use disorder, who may be most at risk of problems associated with alcohol inhalation. Copyright © 2017 by the Research Society on Alcoholism.

  1. Vaporization of atherosclerotic plaques by spark erosion

    OpenAIRE

    Slager, Cornelis J.; Essed, Catharina E.; Schuurbiers, Johan C.H.; Bom, Nicolaas; Serruys, Patrick W.; Meester, Geert T.

    1985-01-01

    textabstractAn alternative to the laser irradiation of atherosclerotic lesions has been developed. A pulsed electrocardiogram R wave-triggered electrical spark erosion technique is described. Controlled vaporization of fibrous and lipid plaques with minimal thermal side effects was achieved and documented histologically in vitro from 30 atherosclerotic segments of six human aortic autopsy specimens. Craters with a constant area and a depth that varied according to the duration of application ...

  2. The Eye Drop Preservative Benzalkonium Chloride Potently Induces Mitochondrial Dysfunction and Preferentially Affects LHON Mutant Cells.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Datta, Sandipan; Baudouin, Christophe; Brignole-Baudouin, Francoise; Denoyer, Alexandre; Cortopassi, Gino A

    2017-04-01

    Benzalkonium chloride (BAK) is the most commonly used eye drop preservative. Benzalkonium chloride has been associated with toxic effects such as "dry eye" and trabecular meshwork degeneration, but the underlying biochemical mechanism of ocular toxicity by BAK is unclear. In this study, we propose a mechanistic basis for BAK's adverse effects. Mitochondrial O2 consumption rates of human corneal epithelial primary cells (HCEP), osteosarcoma cybrid cells carrying healthy (control) or Leber hereditary optic neuropathy (LHON) mutant mtDNA [11778(G>A)], were measured before and after acute treatment with BAK. Mitochondrial adenosine triphosphate (ATP) synthesis and cell viability were also measured in the BAK-treated control: LHON mutant and human-derived trabecular meshwork cells (HTM3). Benzalkonium chloride inhibited mitochondrial ATP (IC50, 5.3 μM) and O2 consumption (IC50, 10.9 μM) in a concentration-dependent manner, by directly targeting mitochondrial complex I. At its pharmaceutical concentrations (107-667 μM), BAK inhibited mitochondrial function >90%. In addition, BAK elicited concentration-dependent cytotoxicity to cybrid cells (IC50, 22.8 μM) and induced apoptosis in HTM3 cells at similar concentrations. Furthermore, we show that BAK directly inhibits mitochondrial O2 consumption in HCEP cells (IC50, 3.8 μM) at 50-fold lower concentrations than used in eye drops, and that cells bearing mitochondrial blindness (LHON) mutations are further sensitized to BAK's mitotoxic effect. Benzalkonium chloride inhibits mitochondria of human corneal epithelial cells and cells bearing LHON mutations at pharmacologically relevant concentrations, and we suggest this is the basis of BAK's ocular toxicity. Prescribing BAK-containing eye drops should be avoided in patients with mitochondrial deficiency, including LHON patients, LHON carriers, and possibly primary open-angle glaucoma patients.

  3. Water Vapor Effects on Silica-Forming Ceramics

    Science.gov (United States)

    Opila, E. J.; Greenbauer-Seng, L. (Technical Monitor)

    2000-01-01

    Silica-forming ceramics such as SiC and Si3N4 are proposed for applications in combustion environments. These environments contain water vapor as a product of combustion. Oxidation of silica-formers is more rapid in water vapor than in oxygen. Parabolic oxidation rates increase with the water vapor partial pressure with a power law exponent value close to one. Molecular water vapor is therefore the mobile species in silica. Rapid oxidation rates and large amounts of gases generated during the oxidation reaction in high water vapor pressures may result in bubble formation in the silica and nonprotective scale formation. It is also shown that silica reacts with water vapor to form Si(OH)4(g). Silica volatility has been modeled using a laminar flow boundary layer controlled reaction equation. Silica volatility depends on the partial pressure of water vapor, the total pressure, and the gas velocity. Simultaneous oxidation and volatilization reactions have been modeled with paralinear kinetics.

  4. Nuclear vapor thermal reactor propulsion technology

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Maya, I.; Diaz, N.J.; Dugan, E.T.; Watanabe, Y. (Innovative Nuclear Space Power and Propulsion Institute, University of Florida, Gainesville, Florida 32611 (United States)); McClanahan, J.A.; Wen-Hsiung Tu; Carman, R.L. (Rocketdyne Division/Rockwell International Corporation, P.O. Box 7922, Canoga Park, California 91309-7922 (United States))

    1993-01-20

    The conceptual design of a nuclear rocket based on the vapor core reactor is presented. The Nuclear Vapor Thermal Rocket (NVTR) offers the potential for a specific impulse of 1000 to 1200 s at thrust-to-weight ratios of 1 to 2. The design is based on NERVA geometry and systems with the solid fuel replaced by uranium tetrafluoride (UF[sub 4]) vapor. The closed-loop core does not rely on hydrodynamic confinement of the fuel. The hydrogen propellant is separated from the UF[sub 4] fuel gas by graphite structure. The hydrogen is maintained at high pressure ([similar to]100 atm), and exits the core at 3,100 K to 3,500 K. Zirconium carbide and hafnium carbide coatings are used to protect the hot graphite from the hydrogen. The core is surrounded by beryllium oxide reflector. The nuclear reactor core has been integrated into a 75 klb engine design using an expander cycle and dual turbopumps. The NVTR offers the potential for an incremental technology development pathway to high performance gas core reactors. Since the fuel is readily available, it also offers advantages in the initial cost of development, as it will not require major expenditures for fuel development.

  5. Steady State Vapor Bubble in Pool Boiling.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zou, An; Chanana, Ashish; Agrawal, Amit; Wayner, Peter C; Maroo, Shalabh C

    2016-02-03

    Boiling, a dynamic and multiscale process, has been studied for several decades; however, a comprehensive understanding of the process is still lacking. The bubble ebullition cycle, which occurs over millisecond time-span, makes it extremely challenging to study near-surface interfacial characteristics of a single bubble. Here, we create a steady-state vapor bubble that can remain stable for hours in a pool of sub-cooled water using a femtosecond laser source. The stability of the bubble allows us to measure the contact-angle and perform in-situ imaging of the contact-line region and the microlayer, on hydrophilic and hydrophobic surfaces and in both degassed and regular (with dissolved air) water. The early growth stage of vapor bubble in degassed water shows a completely wetted bubble base with the microlayer, and the bubble does not depart from the surface due to reduced liquid pressure in the microlayer. Using experimental data and numerical simulations, we obtain permissible range of maximum heat transfer coefficient possible in nucleate boiling and the width of the evaporating layer in the contact-line region. This technique of creating and measuring fundamental characteristics of a stable vapor bubble will facilitate rational design of nanostructures for boiling enhancement and advance thermal management in electronics.

  6. Released air during vapor and air cavitation

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Jablonská, Jana, E-mail: jana.jablonska@vsb.cz; Kozubková, Milada, E-mail: milada.kozubkova@vsb.cz [VŠB-Technical University of Ostrava, Faculty of Mechanical Engineering, Department of Hydromechanics and Hydraulic Equipment, 17. listopadu 15, 708 33 Ostrava-Poruba (Czech Republic)

    2016-06-30

    Cavitation today is a very important problem that is solved by means of experimental and mathematical methods. The article deals with the generation of cavitation in convergent divergent nozzle of rectangular cross section. Measurement of pressure, flow rate, temperature, amount of dissolved air in the liquid and visualization of cavitation area using high-speed camera was performed for different flow rates. The measurement results were generalized by dimensionless analysis, which allows easy detection of cavitation in the nozzle. For numerical simulation the multiphase mathematical model of cavitation consisting of water and vapor was created. During verification the disagreement with the measurements for higher flow rates was proved, therefore the model was extended to multiphase mathematical model (water, vapor and air), due to release of dissolved air. For the mathematical modeling the multiphase turbulence RNG k-ε model for low Reynolds number flow with vapor and air cavitation was used. Subsequently the sizes of the cavitation area were verified. In article the inlet pressure and loss coefficient depending on the amount of air added to the mathematical model are evaluated. On the basis of the approach it may be create a methodology to estimate the amount of released air added at the inlet to the modeled area.

  7. Droplet vaporization in a supercritical microgravity environment

    Science.gov (United States)

    Curtis, E. W.; Farrell, P. V.

    A model has been developed for non-convective vaporization of liquid fuel droplets in an environment above the liquid critical pressure and near or above the liquid critical temperature. The model employs conservation of mass, energy and chemical species, along with transport properties which vary with temperature and species concentration. The liquid interface is assumed to be in thermodynamic equilibrium. The interface problem is solved using the Gibbs-Duhem relationship, and evaluating mixture fugacities using a modified Redlich-Kwong equation of state for the mixture. Due to the limited range of this equation, a curve-fit equation of state suitable for conditions far from the liquid critical point was applied. Results are presented for an n-octane liquid drop in nitrogen gas. For two gas conditions, several droplet sizes are modeled. Results include droplet size histories, surface temperature histories, and liquid and gas phase temperature profiles. The liquid vaporization rate is increased significantly for supercritical conditions compared to subcritical conditions. Using the specified equation of state for the ambient conditions tested, the droplet is completely vaporized before the liquid surface is heated to the liquid critical temperature.

  8. Marketing practices of vapor store owners.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Cheney, Marshall; Gowin, Mary; Wann, Taylor Franklin

    2015-06-01

    We examined the marketing strategies for local vapor stores in a large metropolitan area in Oklahoma. Vapor store owners or managers (n = 33) participated in individual interviews regarding marketing practices in 2014. We asked owners about their marketing strategies and the groups they targeted. We transcribed the interviews and analyzed them for themes. Store owners used a variety of marketing strategies to bring new customers to their stores and keep current customers coming back. These marketing strategies showed many parallels to tobacco industry strategies. Most owners engaged in some form of traditional marketing practices (e.g., print media), but only a few used radio or television advertising because of budget constraints. Owners used social media and other forms of electronic communication, pricing discounts and specials, and loyalty programs. Owners also had booths at local events, sponsored community events, and hosted them in their stores. Owners attempted to target different groups of users, such as college students and long-term smokers. Local vapor store marketing practices closely resemble current and former tobacco industry marketing strategies. Surveillance of marketing practices should include local and Web-based strategies.

  9. Marketing Practices of Vapor Store Owners

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gowin, Mary; Wann, Taylor Franklin

    2015-01-01

    Objectives. We examined the marketing strategies for local vapor stores in a large metropolitan area in Oklahoma. Methods. Vapor store owners or managers (n = 33) participated in individual interviews regarding marketing practices in 2014. We asked owners about their marketing strategies and the groups they targeted. We transcribed the interviews and analyzed them for themes. Results. Store owners used a variety of marketing strategies to bring new customers to their stores and keep current customers coming back. These marketing strategies showed many parallels to tobacco industry strategies. Most owners engaged in some form of traditional marketing practices (e.g., print media), but only a few used radio or television advertising because of budget constraints. Owners used social media and other forms of electronic communication, pricing discounts and specials, and loyalty programs. Owners also had booths at local events, sponsored community events, and hosted them in their stores. Owners attempted to target different groups of users, such as college students and long-term smokers. Conclusions. Local vapor store marketing practices closely resemble current and former tobacco industry marketing strategies. Surveillance of marketing practices should include local and Web-based strategies. PMID:25880960

  10. Characterization of a Compact Water Vapor Radiometer

    Science.gov (United States)

    Gill, Ajay; Selina, Rob

    2018-01-01

    We report on laboratory test results of the Compact Water Vapor Radiometer (CWVR) prototype for the Karl G. Jansky Very Large Array (VLA), a five-channel design centered around the 22 GHz water vapor line. Fluctuations in perceptible water vapor cause fluctuations in atmospheric brightness emission, which are assumed to be proportional to phase fluctuations of the astronomical signal seen by an antenna. The design is intended to support empirical radiometric phase corrections for each baseline in the array.The dynamic range, channel isolation, and gain stability of the device were characterized. The device has a useful dynamic range of order 18 dB after calibration, and the CWVR channel isolation requirement of 102.6 sec. With temperature corrections, the single channel and channel difference gain stability per channel is < 2 x 10-4 over τ = 2.5 - 103 sec, which meets the < 2 x 10-4 requirement. The observable gain stability is < 2.5 x 10-4 over τ = 2.5 - 103 sec, which meets the < 2.5 x 10-4 requirement.Overall, the test results indicate that the CWVR meets required specifications for dynamic range, channel isolation, and gain stability in order to proceed with testing on a pair of VLA antennas.

  11. Doubly ionic hydrogen bond interactions within the choline chloride-urea deep eutectic solvent.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ashworth, Claire R; Matthews, Richard P; Welton, Tom; Hunt, Patricia A

    2016-07-21

    Deep eutectic solvents (DESs) are exemplars of systems with the ability to form neutral, ionic and doubly ionic H-bonds. Herein, the pairwise interactions of the constituent components of the choline chloride-urea DES are examined. Evidence is found for a tripodal CHCl doubly ionic H-bond motif. Moreover it is found that the covalency of doubly ionic H-bonds can be greater than, or comparable with, neutral and ionic examples. In contrast to many traditional solvents, an "alphabet soup" of many different types of H-bond (OHO[double bond, length as m-dash]C, NHO[double bond, length as m-dash]C, OHCl, NHCl, OHNH, CHCl, CHO[double bond, length as m-dash]C, NHOH and NHNH) can form. These H-bonds exhibit substantial flexibility in terms of number and strength. It is anticipated that H-bonding will have a significant impact on the entropy of the system and thus could play an important role in the formation of the eutectic. The 2 : 1 urea : choline-chloride eutectic point of this DES is often associated with the formation of a [Cl(urea)2](-) complexed anion. However, urea is found to form a H-bonded urea[choline](+) complexed cation that is energetically competitive with [Cl(urea)2](-). The negative charge on [Cl(urea)2](-) is found to remain localised on the chloride, moreover, the urea[choline](+) complexed cation forms the strongest H-bond studied here. Thus, there is potential to consider a urea[choline](+)·urea[Cl](-) interaction.

  12. Effect of chloride-based deicers on reinforced concrete structures.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2012-07-01

    We conducted an extensive literature review and performed laboratory tests to assess the effect of chloride-based deicers on the rebars and dowel bars in concrete and to determine whether or not deicer corrosion inhibitors help preserve the transport...

  13. Effect of cadmium chloride on hepatic lipid peroxidation in mice

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Andersen, H R; Andersen, O

    1988-01-01

    Intraperitoneal administration of cadmium chloride to 8-12 weeks old CBA-mice enhanced hepatic lipid peroxidation. A positive correlation between cadmium chloride dose and level of peroxidation was observed in both male and female mice. A sex-related difference in mortality was not observed...... but at a dose of 25 mumol CdCl2/kg the level of hepatic lipid peroxidation was higher in male mice than in female mice. The hepatic lipid peroxidation was not increased above the control level in 3 weeks old mice, while 6 weeks old mice responded with increased peroxidation as did 8-12 weeks old mice....... The mortality after an acute toxic dose of cadmium chloride was the same in the three age groups. Pretreatment of mice with several low intraperitoneal doses of cadmium chloride alleviated cadmium induced mortality and lipid peroxidation. The results demonstrate both age dependency and a protective effect...

  14. Stochastic modeling of reinforced concrete structures exposed to chloride attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frier, Christian

    2004-01-01

    For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in expensive maintenance and repair actions. Further, a significant reduction of the load-bearing capacity can occur. One mode of corrosion initiation is that the chloride content around...... the reinforcement exceeds a critical threshold value. In the present paper a stochastic model is described by which the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be estimated. The chloride ingress is modeled by a 2-dimensional diffusion process and the diffusion coefficient, surface chloride....... The distribution of the time to initiation of corrosion is estimated by simulation. As an example a bridge pier in a marine environment is considered....

  15. Stochastic Modeling of Reinforced Concrete Structures Exposed to Chloride Attack

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Sørensen, John Dalsgaard; Frier, Christian

    2003-01-01

    For many reinforced concrete structures corrosion of reinforcement is an important problem since it can result in expensive maintenance and repair actions. Further, a significant reduction of the load-bearing capacity can occur. One mode of corrosion initiation is that the chloride content around...... the reinforcement exceeds a critical threshold value. In the present paper a stochastic model is described by which the chloride content in a reinforced concrete structure can be estimated. The chloride ingress is modeled by a 2-dimensional diffusion process and the diffusion coefficient, surface chloride....... The distribution of the time to initiation of corrosion is estimated by simulation. As an example a bridge pier in a marine environment is considered....

  16. Prediction of chloride ingress and binding in cement paste

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Geiker, Mette Rica; Nielsen, Erik Pram; Herforth, Duncan

    2007-01-01

    This paper summarizes recent work on an analytical model for predicting the ingress rate of chlorides in cement-based materials. An integral part of this is a thermodynamic model for predicting the phase equilibria in hydrated Portland cement. The model’s ability to predict chloride binding...... in Portland cement pastes at any content of chloride, alkalis, sulfates and carbonate was verified experimentally and found to be equally valid when applied to other data in the literature. The thermodynamic model for predicting the phase equilibria in hydrated Portland cement was introduced into an existing...... Finite Difference Model for the ingress of chlorides into concrete which takes into account its multi-component nature. The “composite theory” was then used to predict the diffusivity of each ion based on the phase assemblage present in the hydrated Portland cement paste. Agreement was found between...

  17. Generation of nitryl chloride from chlorotrimethylsilane-acetyl nitrate ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Administrator

    amyl nitrate does not yield NO2Cl with silicon reagent. However, acetyl nitrate reacts successfully with chlorotrimethylsi- lane to give nitryl chloride, which is characterized by its UV spectrum. If it is generated in presence of ketoximes ...

  18. Evaluation of an alternative deicing chemical vs. conventional sodium chloride.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2004-07-01

    A research project was initiated to evaluate the performance and cost effectiveness of a proprietary, pre-blended, : roadway-deicing chemical on New Hampshire highways. The evaluated material is a patented blend of sodium chloride, liquid : magnesium...

  19. An insight into the passivation of cupronickel alloys in chloride ...

    Indian Academy of Sciences (India)

    Unknown

    state model; cyclic voltammetry; marine environment. 1. Introduction. Cupronickels are widely used in chloride environments due to their marked corrosion resistance. The corrosion resistance of these alloys is due to passivation, which occurs at.

  20. Lithium orotate, carbonate and chloride: pharmacokinetics, polyuria in rats.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Smith, D F

    1976-04-01

    1 The pharmacokinetics of the lithium ion administered as lithium orotate were studied in rats. Parallel studies were carried out with lithium carbonate and lithium chloride. 2 No differences in the uptake, distribution and excretion of the lithium ion were observed between lithium orotate, lithium carbonate and lithium chloride after single intraperitoneal, subcutaneous or intragastric injections (0.5-1.0 mEq lithium/kg) or after administration of the lithium salts for 20 days in the food. 3 The findings oppose the notion that the pharmacokinetics of the lithium ion given as lithium orotate differ from lithium chloride or lithium carbonate. 4 Polyuria and polydipsia developed more slowly in rats given lithium orotate than in those given lithium carbonate or lithium chloride, perhaps due to an effect of the orotate anion.

  1. Diffusion vs. concentration of chloride ions in concrete.

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    This investigation was performed to gain insight and assist in determining the long-term durability of : reinforced concrete structures where the external chloride concentrations are different than those typically : observed at the permanently immers...

  2. Diffusion vs. concentration of chloride ions in concrete : [summary].

    Science.gov (United States)

    2014-06-01

    The Florida Department of Transportation : (FDOT) maintains hundreds of bridges, and also : builds new ones, in marine environments. These : structures are built with reinforced steel, and : over time, chloride ions from sea salt can migrate : throug...

  3. SUBSTITUTION OF CADMIUM CYANIDE ELECTROPLATING WITH ZINC CHLORIDE ELECTROPLATING

    Science.gov (United States)

    The study evaluated the zinc chloride electroplating process as a substitute for cadmium cyanide electroplating in the manufacture of industrial connectors and fittings at Aeroquip Corporation. The process substitution eliminates certain wastes, specifically cadmium and cyanide, ...

  4. Combined uses of water-table fluctuation (WTF), chloride mass ...

    African Journals Online (AJOL)

    Agadaga

    unconfined aquifer of Thiaroye zone using both water table fluctuation (WTF), chloride ... Therefore, in the urban area, the CMB method cannot be .... contribution from other sources such as human activities ..... in India: What has been learned?

  5. Heterogeneous Reaction gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride

    Science.gov (United States)

    Timonen, Raimo S.; Chu, Liang T.; Leu, Ming-Taun

    1994-01-01

    The heterogeneous reaction of gaseous chlorine nitrate and solid sodium chloride was investigated over a temperature range of 220 - 300 K in a flow-tube reactor interfaced with a differentially pumped quadrupole mass spectrometer.

  6. Lead sulphate leaching by sodium chloride solution

    National Research Council Canada - National Science Library

    Conić Vesna T; Pešovski Branka D; Cvetkovski Vladimir B; Stanojević-Šimšić Zdenka S; Dragulović Suzana S; Simonović Danijela B; Dimitrijević Silvana B

    2013-01-01

    Bioleaching treatment of complex multi-metallic Cu-Zn-Pb-Ag-Au mineral concentrates leds to the formation, besides easily soluble zinc and cooper sulphates, of hardly soluble lead (II) sulfate (PbSO4) sludge...

  7. Evaluation of hexahydrated magnesium chloride (Bischofite performance as a chemical stabilizer of granular road surfaces

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Thenoux, G.

    2002-03-01

    Full Text Available Hexahydrated Magnesium Chloride or Bischofite is a salt. It has different properties that enable it to be useful as a chemical stabilizer of granular road surfaces: its capacity of absorbing and retaining humidity from its surrounding environment, increases water surface tension and decreases its vapor pressure. The objective of this research was to evaluate Bischofite performance as a chemical stabilizer of granular road surfaces. Research was based on laboratory tests and the evaluation of test road sections of granular road surfaces stabilized with Bischofite in arid and semi-arid zones of Chile. In general, the field trial results have been more conclusive than the laboratory tests. The use of Bischofite creates a stable granular road surface, reduces potholes, corrugations, erosion and dust emissions, and improves the riding quality.

    El Cloruro de Magnesio Hexahidratado o Bischofita es una sal. Ésta posee diversas propiedades que permiten su uso potencial como estabilizador químico de capas de rodadura granulares: capacidad de absorber y retener la humedad del ambiente circundante, incrementa la tensión superficial del agua y reduce la presión de vapor del agua. La investigación tuvo el propósito de evaluar la efectividad de la Bischofita como estabilizador químico de caminos no pavimentados, y se basa en resultados de ensayos de laboratorio y la evaluación de tramos de prueba de capas de rodadura estabilizadas con Bischofita en zonas áridas y semi-áridas de Chile. En general, los resultados de terreno han sido más significativos que los de laboratorio, observándose que la adición de Bischofita permite obtener una capa de rodadura estable, reduce la formación de baches, corrugaciones, pérdida de áridos y emisiones de polvo, y mejora la calidad de rodadura.

  8. Study of an aqueous lithium chloride desiccant system Part I: Air dehumidification

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Fumo, Nelson [Universidad Nacional Experimental del Tachira, San Cristobal (Venezuela); Goswami, Yogi [University of Florida, Gainesville (United States)

    2000-07-01

    Desiccant systems have been proposed as energy saving alternative to vapor compression air conditioning for handling the latent load. Use of liquid desiccants offers several design and performance advantages over solid desiccants, especially when solar energy is used for regeneration. For liquid-gas contact, packed towers with low pressure drop have offered good heat and mass transfer characteristics for compact designs. This paper presents the results from a study of the performance of a packed tower absorber for an aqueous lithium chloride desiccant dehumidification system. The rate of dehumidification, as well as the effectiveness of the dehumidification process were assessed under the effects of variables such as air and desiccant flow rates, air temperature and humidity, and desiccant temperature and concentration. A variation of the oeberg and Goswami mathematical model was used to predict the experimental findings given satisfactory results. [Spanish] Se han propuesto sistemas de desecacion como una alternativa de ahorro de energia para el acondicionamiento de aire mediante la compresion de vapor para manejar la carga latente. El uso de desecantes liquidos ofrece varias ventajas de diseno y de rendimiento sobre los desecantes solidos, especialmente cuando la energia solar se usa para la regeneracion. Para el contacto liquido-gas han dado buenas caracteristicas de transferencia de masa para disenos compactos las torres empacadas con baja caida de presion. Este documento presenta los resultados de un estudio del comportamiento de un absorbedor de torre empacada para una solucion acuosa de desecante de cloruro de litio como sistema de deshumidificacion. El regimen de deshumidificacion asi como tambien la eficiencia del proceso de deshumidificacion se evaluo bajo los efectos de variables tales como regimenes de flujo de aire y de desecante, temperatura del aire y humedad, y concentracion y temperatura del desecante. Se uso una variante de modelo matematico de

  9. Chlorides behavior in raw fly ash washing experiments

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Zhu Fenfen, E-mail: zhu@hse.gcoe.kyoto-u.ac.jp [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Takaoka, Masaki; Oshita, Kazuyuki [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan); Kitajima, Yoshinori; Inada, Yasuhiro [High Energy Accelerator Research Organization (KEK), Institute of Material Structure Science (IMSS), Oho 1-1, Tsukuba, Ibaraki 305-0801 (Japan); Morisawa, Shinsuke; Tsuno, Hiroshi [Department of Urban and Environmental Engineering, Graduate School of Engineering, Katsura Campus, Kyoto University, Nishikyo-ku, Kyoto 615-8540 (Japan)

    2010-06-15

    Chloride in fly ash from municipal solid waste incinerators (MSWIs) is one of the obstructive substances in recycling fly ash as building materials. As a result, we have to understand the behavior of chlorides in recycling process, such as washing. In this study, we used X-ray absorption near edge structure (XANES) and X-ray diffraction (XRD) to study the chloride behavior in washed residue of raw fly ash (RFA). We found that a combination of XRD and XANES, which is to use XRD to identify the situation of some compounds first and then process XANES data, was an effective way to explain the chlorides behavior in washing process. Approximately 15% of the chlorine in RFA was in the form of NaCl, 10% was in the form of KCl, 51% was CaCl{sub 2}, and the remainder was in the form of Friedel's salt. In washing experiments not only the mole percentage but also the amount of soluble chlorides including NaCl, KCl and CaCl{sub 2} decreases quickly with the increase of liquid to solid (L/S) ratio or washing frequency. However, those of insoluble chlorides decrease slower. Moreover, Friedel's salt and its related compound (11CaO.7Al{sub 2}O{sub 3}.CaCl{sub 2}) were reliable standards for the insoluble chlorides in RFA, which are strongly related to CaCl{sub 2}. Washing of RFA promoted the release of insoluble chlorides, most of which were in the form of CaCl{sub 2}.

  10. Synthesis and structural characterization of polyaniline/cobalt chloride composites

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Asha, E-mail: arana5752@gmail.com [Department of Basic and Applied Sciences, Bhagat Phool Singh Mahilla Vishwavidyalaya, Khanpur Kalan, Sonipat-131305 (India); Goyal, Sneh Lata; Kishore, Nawal [Department of Applied Physics, Guru Jambheshwar University of Science and Technology, Hisar-125001 (India)

    2016-05-23

    Polyaniline (PANI) and PANI /cobalt chloride composites were synthesized by in situ chemical oxidative polymerization of aniline with CoCl{sub 2}.6H{sub 2}O using ammonium peroxidisulphate as an oxidant. These composites were characterized by X-ray diffraction (XRD) and Scanning electron microscopy (SEM). The XRD study reveals that both PANI and composites are amorphous. The XRD and SEM results confirm the presence of cobalt chloride in the composites.

  11. Aqueous Chloride Operations Overview: Plutonium and Americium Purification/Recovery

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Gardner, Kyle Shelton [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Kimball, David Bryan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States); Skidmore, Bradley Evan [Los Alamos National Lab. (LANL), Los Alamos, NM (United States)

    2016-09-28

    These are a set of slides intended for an information session as part of recruiting activities at Brigham Young University. It gives an overview of aqueous chloride operations, specifically on plutonium and americium purification/recovery. This presentation details the steps taken perform these processes, from plutonium size reduction, dissolution, solvent extraction, oxalate precipitation, to calcination. For americium recovery, it details the CLEAR (chloride extraction and actinide recovery) Line, oxalate precipitation and calcination.

  12. Electromagnetic-induction logging to monitor changing chloride concentrations.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Metzger, Loren F; Izbicki, John A

    2013-01-01

    Water from the San Joaquin Delta, having chloride concentrations up to 3590 mg/L, has intruded fresh water aquifers underlying Stockton, California. Changes in chloride concentrations at depth within these aquifers were evaluated using sequential electromagnetic (EM) induction logs collected during 2004 through 2007 at seven multiple-well sites as deep as 268 m. Sequential EM logging is useful for identifying changes in groundwater quality through polyvinyl chloride-cased wells in intervals not screened by wells. These unscreened intervals represent more than 90% of the aquifer at the sites studied. Sequential EM logging suggested degrading groundwater quality in numerous thin intervals, typically between 1 and 7 m in thickness, especially in the northern part of the study area. Some of these intervals were unscreened by wells, and would not have been identified by traditional groundwater sample collection. Sequential logging also identified intervals with improving water quality-possibly due to groundwater management practices that have limited pumping and promoted artificial recharge. EM resistivity was correlated with chloride concentrations in sampled wells and in water from core material. Natural gamma log data were used to account for the effect of aquifer lithology on EM resistivity. Results of this study show that a sequential EM logging is useful for identifying and monitoring the movement of high-chloride water, having lower salinities and chloride concentrations than sea water, in aquifer intervals not screened by wells, and that increases in chloride in water from wells in the area are consistent with high-chloride water originating from the San Joaquin Delta rather than from the underlying saline aquifer. Published 2012. This article is a U.S. Government work and is in the public domain in the USA.

  13. Prediction of Chloride Diffusion in Concrete Structure Using Meshless Methods

    OpenAIRE

    Yao, Ling; Li, Xiaolu; Zhang, Ling; Zhang, Lingling

    2016-01-01

    Degradation of RC structures due to chloride penetration followed by reinforcement corrosion is a serious problem in civil engineering. The numerical simulation methods at present mainly involve finite element methods (FEM), which are based on mesh generation. In this study, element-free Galerkin (EFG) and meshless weighted least squares (MWLS) methods are used to solve the problem of simulation of chloride diffusion in concrete. The range of a scaling parameter is presented using numerical e...

  14. Local impermeant anions establish the neuronal chloride concentration

    DEFF Research Database (Denmark)

    Glykys, J; Dzhala, V; Egawa, K

    2014-01-01

    Neuronal intracellular chloride concentration [Cl(-)](i) is an important determinant of γ-aminobutyric acid type A (GABA(A)) receptor (GABA(A)R)-mediated inhibition and cytoplasmic volume regulation. Equilibrative cation-chloride cotransporters (CCCs) move Cl(-) across the membrane, but accumulat...... anions determine the homeostatic set point for [Cl(-)], and hence, neuronal volume and the polarity of local GABA(A)R signaling....

  15. Comparison of a novel polytitanium chloride coagulant with polyaluminium chloride: coagulation performance and floc characteristics.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Zhao, Y X; Phuntsho, S; Gao, B Y; Yang, Y Z; Kim, J-H; Shon, H K

    2015-01-01

    Polymerized inorganic coagulants are increasingly being used in the water supply and wastewater treatment process, yet there is limited research on the development of polytitanium coagulants. The aim of this study is to synthesize polytitanium chloride (PTC) coagulants and investigate their coagulation behavior and floc characteristics for humic acid removal in comparison to polyaluminum chloride (PAC). The PTC samples with different B (molar ratios of OH/Ti) values were prepared using an instantaneous base-feeding method, employing sodium carbonate as the basification agent. The coagulation efficiency was significantly influenced by different B values. The results suggest that the humic acid removal increased with the increasing B value for PAC, while the inverse trend was observed for PTC. The optimum B value was chosen at 1.0 and 2.0 for PTC and PAC, respectively. Under the optimum coagulant dose and initial solution pH conditions, the PTC coagulant performed better than the PAC coagulant and the floc properties were significantly improved in terms of floc growth rate and floc size. However, the PAC coagulants produced flocs with better floc recoverability than the PTC coagulants. Copyright © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

  16. Extractive process for preparing high purity magnesium chloride hexahydrate

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Fezei Radouanne

    2012-01-01

    Full Text Available This paper refers a method for the preparation of magnesium chloride hexahydrate (bischofite from Sebkha el Melah of Zarzis Tunisian natural brine. It is a five-stage process essentially based on crystallization by isothermal evaporation and chemical precipitation. The two first steps were dedicated to the crystallization of sodium chloride and potassiummagnesium double salts, respectively. Then, the resulting liquor was desulfated using calcium chloride solution. After that another isothermal evaporation stage was implemented in order to eliminate potassium ions in the form of carnallite, KCl.MgCl2.6H2O. At the end of this step, the recovered solution primarily composed of magnesium and chloride ions was treated by dioxan in order to precipitate magnesium chloride as MgCl2.6H2O.C4H8O2. This compound dried at constant temperature of 100°C gave good quality magnesium chloride hexahydrate. Besides this salt, the various by-products obtained from the different treatment stages are also useful.

  17. Sodium-metal chloride battery research at JPL

    Science.gov (United States)

    Ratnakumar, B. V.; Attia, A. I.; Halpert, G.

    1991-01-01

    Sodium metal chloride batteries have certain distinct advantages over sodium sulfur batteries such as increased safety, inherent overcharge capability and lower operation temperatures. Two systems, i.e., Na/FeCl2 and Na/NiCl2 were developed extensively elsewhere and evaluated for various applications including electric vehicles and space. Their performance has been very encouraging and prompted a detailed fundamental study of these cathodes here at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory. A brief review of our studies on these new cathode materials is presented here. The initial efforts focussed on the methods of fabrication of the electrodes and their electrochemical characterization. Subsequent studies were aimed at establishing the reaction mechanism, determining the kinetics and identifying the rate limiting processes in the reduction of metal chloride cathodes. Nickel chloride emerged from these studies as the most promising candidate material and was taken up for further detailed study on its passivation - a rate limiting process - under different experimental conditions. Also, the feasibility of using copper chloride, which is expected to have higher energy density, has been assessed. Based on the criteria established from the voltammetric response of FeCl2, NiCl2, and CuCl2, several other transition metal chlorides were screened. Of these, molybdenum and cobalt chlorides appear promising.

  18. Congenital chloride diarrhea: a review of twelve Arabian children

    Directory of Open Access Journals (Sweden)

    Elrefae F

    2013-06-01

    Full Text Available Fawaz Elrefae,1 Ahmed Farag Elhassanien,2 Hesham Abdel-Aziz Alghiaty3 1Pediatric Gastroenterology, Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait; 2Faculty of Medicine, Elmansoura University, El Mansoura, El Dakahleya, Egypt; 3Faculty of Medicine, Benha University, Egypt Background: Congenital chloride diarrhea (CCD, a rare autosomal recessive disorder, is characterized by sustained watery diarrhea (due to defect of active Chloride/HCO3 exchange in the ileum and colon with high fecal chloride. Objective: To spotlight the common presentation of CCD for early management and prevention of complications. Subjects and methods: This is a retrospective case series study of patients diagnosed as CCD who were followed up in the pediatric department of Al-Adan Hospital, Kuwait. Results: Twelve patients diagnosed with CCD were born to consanguineous parents; had antenatal history of intrauterine growth retardation (IUGR; polyhydramnios; and distended hypoechoic fetal bowel; and presented with abdominal distension, hypotonia and muscle wasting. 90% of patients had maternal hypertension and 75% of patients had absence of normal meconium at birth. Our patients showed a decrease in serum sodium, potassium, chloride and urine chloride. Conclusion: A high level of suspicion for an early diagnosis of CCD should be considered for any infant presenting with chronic diarrhea, especially in the presence of consanguineous marriage, and the characteristic features in antenatal ultrasound. Thus, allowing for early investigations and appropriate management. Keywords: congenital chloride diarrhea, children, chronic diarrhea, metabolic alkalosis, prenatal diagnosis

  19. Collapsing criteria for vapor film around solid spheres as a fundamental stage leading to vapor explosion

    Energy Technology Data Exchange (ETDEWEB)

    Freud, Roy [Nuclear Research Center - Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel)], E-mail: freud@bgu.ac.il; Harari, Ronen [Nuclear Research Center - Negev, Beer-Sheva (Israel); Sher, Eran [Pearlstone Center for Aeronautical Studies, Department of Mechanical Engineering, Ben-Gurion University, Beer-Sheva (Israel)

    2009-04-15

    Following a partial fuel-melting accident, a Fuel-Coolant Interaction (FCI) can result with the fragmentation of the melt into tiny droplets. A vapor film is then formed between the melt fragments and the coolant, while preventing a contact between them. Triggering, propagation and expansion typically follow the premixing stage. In the triggering stage, vapor film collapse around one or several of the fragments occurs. This collapse can be the result of fragments cooling, a sort of mechanical force, or by any other means. When the vapor film collapses and the coolant re-establishes contact with the dry surface of the hot melt, it may lead to a very rapid and rather violent boiling. In the propagation stage the shock wave front leads to stripping of the films surrounding adjacent droplets which enhance the fragmentation and the process escalates. During this process a large quantity of liquid vaporizes and its expansion can result in destructive mechanical damage to the surrounding structures. This multiphase thermal detonation in which high pressure shock wave is formed is regarded as 'vapor explosion'. The film boiling and its possible collapse is a fundamental stage leading to vapor explosion. If the interaction of the melt and the coolant does not result in a film boiling, no explosion occurs. Many studies have been devoted to determine the minimum temperature and heat flux that is required to maintain a film boiling. The present experimental study examines the minimum temperature that is required to maintain a film boiling around metal spheres immersed into a liquid (subcooled distilled water) reservoir. In order to simulate fuel fragments that are small in dimension and has mirror-like surface, small spheres coated with anti-oxidation layer were used. The heat flux from the spheres was calculated from the sphere's temperature profiles and the sphere's properties. The vapor film collapse was associated with a sharp rise of the heat flux

  20. Toward high value sensing: monolayer-protected metal nanoparticles in multivariable gas and vapor sensors.

    Science.gov (United States)

    Potyrailo, Radislav A

    2017-08-29

    For detection of gases and vapors in complex backgrounds, "classic" analytical instruments are an unavoidable alternative to existing sensors. Recently a new generation of sensors, known as multivariable sensors, emerged with a fundamentally different perspective for sensing to eliminate limitations of existing sensors. In multivariable sensors, a sensing material is designed to have diverse responses to different gases and vapors and is coupled to a multivariable transducer that provides independent outputs to recognize these diverse responses. Data analytics tools provide rejection of interferences and multi-analyte quantitation. This review critically analyses advances of multivariable sensors based on ligand-functionalized metal nanoparticles also known as monolayer-protected nanoparticles (MPNs). These MPN sensing materials distinctively stand out from other sensing materials for multivariable sensors due to their diversity of gas- and vapor-response mechanisms as provided by organic and biological ligands, applicability of these sensing materials for broad classes of gas-phase compounds such as condensable vapors and non-condensable gases, and for several principles of signal transduction in multivariable sensors that result in non-resonant and resonant electrical sensors as well as material- and structure-based photonic sensors. Such features should allow MPN multivariable sensors to be an attractive high value addition to existing analytical instrumentation.